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Sample records for chlorine iodine cesium

  1. Mechanisms of inactivation of poliovirus by chlorine dioxide and iodine.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, M E; O'Brien, R T

    1982-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide and iodine inactivated poliovirus more efficiently at pH 10.0 than at pH 6.0. Sedimentation analyses of viruses inactivated by chlorine dioxide and iodine at pH 10.9 showed that viral RNA separated from the capsids, resulting in the conversion of virions from 156S structures to 80S particles. The RNAs release from both chlorine dioxide- and iodine-inactivated viruses cosedimented with intact 35S viral RNA. Both chlorine dioxide and iodine reacted with the capsid proteins of poliovirus and changed the pI from pH 7.0 to pH 5.8. However, the mechanisms of inactivation of poliovirus by chlorine dioxide and iodine were found to differ. Iodine inactivated viruses by impairing their ability to adsorb to HeLa cells, whereas chlorine dioxide-inactivated viruses showed a reduced incorporation of [14C]uridine into new viral RNA. We concluded, then, that chlorine dioxide inactivated poliovirus by reacting with the viral RNA and impairing the ability of the viral genome to act as a template for RNA synthesis. PMID:6295277

  2. Addition of chlorine during water purification reduces iodine content of drinking water and contributes to iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Samson, L; Czegeny, I; Mezosi, E; Erdei, A; Bodor, M; Cseke, B; Burman, K D; Nagy, E V

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water is the major natural source of iodine in many European countries. In the present study, we examined possible sites of iodine loss during the usual water purification process.Water samples from 6 sites during the technological process were taken and analyzed for iodine content. Under laboratory circumstances, prepared iodine in water solution has been used as a model to test the effect of the presence of chlorine. Samples from the purification sites revealed that in the presence of chlorine there is a progressive loss of iodine from the water. In the chlorine concentrations employed in the purification process, 24-h chlorine exposure eliminated more than 50% of iodine when the initial iodine concentration was 250 μg/l or less. Iodine was completely eliminated if the starting concentration was 16 μg/l.We conclude that chlorine used during water purification may be a major contributor to iodine deficiency in European communities.

  3. Gamma-ray spectroscopic determination of iodine-131 and cesium-137 in foods: Two collaborative studies

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, E.J.; Easterly, D.G. )

    1989-07-01

    The AOAC method for iodine-131, cesium-137, and barium-140 in milk by gamma-ray spectroscopy (48.025-48.029) was extended to include other foods for the radionuclides iodine-131 and cesium-137. Two collaborative studies were performed to validate this extension. In the first study, a food sample containing 119 pCi {sup 131}I/kg and 53 pCi {sup 137}Cs/kg was sent to each of 45 laboratories for triplicate analyses. For 25 responses, the mean of the reported values was 123.8 pCi/kg for iodine-131, and for 27 responses, the mean was 53.4 pCi/kg for cesium-137. Repeatability (within-laboratory) standard deviations (Sr) for iodine-131 and cesium-137 were 4.6 and 3.7 pCi/kg, respectively. Reproducibility (among-laboratories) standard deviations (SR) for iodine-131 and cesium-137 were 12.1 and 6.0 pCi/kg, respectively. In the second study, a food sample containing 25 pCi {sup 131}I/kg and 27 pCi {sup 137}Cs/kg was sent to each of 54 laboratories for triplicate analyses. For 21 responses, the mean of the reported values was 25.0 pCi/kg for iodine-131, and for 19 responses, the mean was 28.9 pCi/kg for cesium-137. Sr Values were 4.0 and 1.6 pCi/kg for iodine-131 and cesium-137, respectively, and SR values were 5.0 and 2.8 pCi/kg, respectively. The method extension was adopted official first action.

  4. A comparison of the virucidal properties of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, bromine chloride and iodine.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, G. R.; Butler, M.

    1982-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide, bromine chloride and iodine were compared with chlorine as virucidal agents. Under optimal conditions all disinfectants were effective at low concentrations, but each disinfectant responded differently to acidity and alkalinity. Disinfection by chlorine was impaired by the presence of ammonia, but the other disinfectants retained much of their potency. Disinfection of poliovirus by iodine resulted in structural changes in the virions as seen by electron micrroscopy, but the other disinfectants were able to inactivate poliovirus without causing any apparent structural changes. Images Plate 1 PMID:6290566

  5. Detection, identification and formation of new iodinated disinfection byproducts in chlorinated saline wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tingting; Zhang, Xiangru

    2015-01-01

    The use of seawater for toilet flushing introduces high levels of inorganic ions, including iodide ions, into a city's wastewater treatment systems, resulting in saline wastewater effluents. Chlorination is widely used in disinfecting wastewater effluents owing to its low cost and high efficiency. During chlorination of saline wastewater effluents, iodide may be oxidized to hypoiodous acid, which may further react with effluent organic matter to form iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Iodinated DBPs show significantly higher toxicity than their brominated and chlorinated analogues and thus have been drawing increasing concerns. In this study, polar iodinated DBPs were detected in chlorinated saline wastewater effluents using a novel precursor ion scan method. The major polar iodinated DBPs were identified and quantified, and their organic precursors and formation pathways were investigated. The formation of iodinated DBPs under different chlorine doses and contact times was also studied. The results indicated that a few polar iodinated DBPs were generated in the chlorinated saline primary effluent, but few were generated in the chlorinated saline secondary effluent. Several major polar iodinated DBPs in the chlorinated saline primary effluent were proposed with structures, among which a new group of polar iodinated DBPs, iodo-trihydroxybenzenesulfonic acids, were identified and quantified. The organic precursors of this new group of DBPs were found to be 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid and 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene, and the formation pathways of these new DBPs were tentatively proposed. Both chlorine dose and contact time affected the formation of iodinated DBPs in the chlorinated saline wastewater effluents.

  6. Fabrication of single-walled carbon nanohorns containing iodine and cesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, J. H.; Lim, S. T.; Huh, S. R.; Kim, G. H.

    2012-02-01

    Iodine and cesium atoms were encapsulated in single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs). Atom encapsulation was carried out with sequential plasma aided procedures which consisted of opening SWCNH tips with an oxygen plasma, atom insertion in an iodine-mixed or cesium-mixed argon plasma, and closing the open tip in an argon plasma. Results reveal that oxidation plays a role in the tip opening procedure, and capillary forces are the driving force for the permeation of the atoms through the open tip of the SWCNHs. The open tip of the atom inserted SWCNH can be closed under the ion irradiation. It demonstrated the fabrication process of encapsulating atoms in SWCNH by using the sequential plasma assisted processes.

  7. Fabrication of single-walled carbon nanohorns containing iodine and cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, J. H.; Lim, S. T.; Huh, S. R.; Kim, G. H.

    2012-02-15

    Iodine and cesium atoms were encapsulated in single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs). Atom encapsulation was carried out with sequential plasma aided procedures which consisted of opening SWCNH tips with an oxygen plasma, atom insertion in an iodine-mixed or cesium-mixed argon plasma, and closing the open tip in an argon plasma. Results reveal that oxidation plays a role in the tip opening procedure, and capillary forces are the driving force for the permeation of the atoms through the open tip of the SWCNHs. The open tip of the atom inserted SWCNH can be closed under the ion irradiation. It demonstrated the fabrication process of encapsulating atoms in SWCNH by using the sequential plasma assisted processes.

  8. Comparison of Chlorine, Bromine, and Iodine as Disinfectants for Swimming Pool Water

    PubMed Central

    Koski, T. A.; Stuart, L. S.; Ortenzio, L. F.

    1966-01-01

    Studies on the germicidal activity of chlorine, bromine, and iodine were made by use of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists official first action method for determining effectiveness of swimming pool water disinfectants. In this procedure, 0.3 ppm of available chlorine as chlorine gas has activity equivalent to 0.6 ppm of available chlorine in the buffered sodium hypochlorite control when Escherichia coli is used as the test organism. With Streptococcus faecalis as the test organism, 0.45 ppm of available chlorine as gaseous chlorine gives activity equivalent to the control. Liquid bromine at 1.0 ppm is as effective as the 0.6 ppm of available chlorine hypochlorite control with E. coli as the test organism, but 2.0 ppm of liquid bromine is necessary to provide activity equivalent to the 0.6 ppm of available chlorine control when S. faecalis is employed. With iodine as metallic iodine, 2.0 ppm is necessary to provide a result equivalent to the 0.6 ppm of available chlorine control with both E. coli and S. faecalis. In the various systems tested, gaseous chlorine was the most active form of available chlorine; liquid bromine provided the most active form of bromine, and metallic iodine provided the most active form of iodine. PMID:4959984

  9. A comparison of iodinated trihalomethane formation from chlorine, chlorine dioxide and potassium permanganate oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-Yang; Xu, Bin; Hu, Chen-Yan; Lin, Yi-Li; Lin, Lin; Ye, Tao; Tian, Fu-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the formation of iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) from iodide-containing raw waters oxidized by chlorine, chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) and potassium permanganate (KMnO₄) at different oxidant concentrations, reaction times, pHs, initial iodide concentrations and bromide to iodide mass ratios. Among the six investigated I-THMs, iodoform was the major species formed during the oxidation using chlorine, ClO₂ and KMnO₄. When oxidant concentration increased from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/L, the formation of I-THMs increased and then decreased for chlorine and ClO₂, but kept increasing for KMnO₄. As the reaction time went by, I-THM concentration increased to a plateau within 10 h (ClO₂ within only 1 h, especially) for all the three oxidants. I-THM formation gradually increased from pH 3.0 to 9.0 and remained stable at pH values higher than 7.5 for chlorine; however, for ClO₂ and KMnO₄ the highest I-THM formation showed at pH 7.0 and 7.5, respectively. As initial iodide concentration increased from 20 to 800 μg/L, the total amount and species of I-THMs increased for the three oxidants. Iodide contributed to I-THM formation much more significantly than bromide.

  10. Contents of cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in selected human organs of adult asian population.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, G V; Kawamura, H; Dang, H S; Parr, R M; Wang, J W; Cho, S Y; Natera, E S

    2004-08-01

    Contents of cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in some selected human organs were estimated for adult Asian population using data obtained in four Asian countries: China, India, Philippines, and Republic of Korea, as part of a Coordinated Research Program of the International Atomic Energy Agency on "Ingestion and Organ contents of elements of importance in radiation protection." These countries together represent more than 40% of the world population. Highly sensitive analytical techniques were employed to measure cesium in skeletal muscle, iodine in thyroid, strontium in skeleton, thorium and uranium in skeleton, liver, kidneys, and lungs where, in comparison to other organs, these elements are present in higher concentrations. The organ contents for adult Asian population, when compared with the corresponding data proposed for Reference Man by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), showed about 40 times lower kidneys content and about 10 times lower skeleton content of uranium. The content of thorium in skeleton for Asian population was also half of the ICRP Reference Man value. Interestingly, organ contents for the other elements such as iodine in thyroid, cesium in skeletal muscle, and strontium in skeleton were comparable for Asian and the Caucasian population (represented by ICRP Reference Man). Organ contents for these elements were also calculated by applying the new ICRP models of these elements to their daily intakes. The comparison of the calculated and measured organ contents showed that despite uncertainties in the organ content values arising due to the inter-country variations in daily dietary intakes, the contents were within a factor of two to three. This observation is significant since human data both on organ contents and ingestion were obtained at environmental level of intakes. The study suggests that currently available ICRP models for these elements are quite realistic.

  11. Diamagnetic Raman Optical Activity of Chlorine, Bromine, and Iodine Gases.

    PubMed

    Šebestík, Jaroslav; Kapitán, Josef; Pačes, Ondřej; Bouř, Petr

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic Raman optical activity of gases provides unique information about their electric and magnetic properties. Magnetic Raman optical activity has recently been observed in a paramagnetic gas (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 11058; Angew. Chem. 2012, 124, 11220). In diamagnetic molecules, it has been considered too weak to be measurable. However, in chlorine, bromine and iodine vapors, we could detect a significant signal as well. Zeeman splitting of electronic ground-state energy levels cannot rationalize the observed circular intensity difference (CID) values of about 10(-4). These are explicable by participation of paramagnetic excited electronic states. Then a simple model including one electronic excited state provides reasonable spectral intensities. The results suggest that this kind of scattering by diamagnetic molecules is a general event observable under resonance conditions. The phenomenon sheds new light on the role of excited states in the Raman scattering, and may be used to probe molecular geometry and electronic structure.

  12. Transport of iodine and cesium via the grass-cow-milk pathway after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchner, G.

    1994-06-01

    More than 150 data sets giving time-dependent concentrations of {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs in feed and milk of cows after the Chernobyl accident are evaluated using a minimal compartmental modeling approach. Transfer of cesium via the grass-cow-milk pathway is adequately described by a three-compartmental model. No unique model results for {sup 131}I, as a compartment with slow secretion of {sup 131}I into milk, are identified for some datasets only. Frequency distributions of weathering half-lives on grass and of equilibrium feed-to-milk transfer coefficients are approximately lognormal. Mean values of weathering half-lives on plants are 9.1 {plus_minus} 0.6 d for iodine and 11.1 {plus_minus} 0.8 d for cesium, in good agreement with means established from experiments performed before 1986. Mean values of equilibrium feed-to-milk transfer coefficients are 3.4 {plus_minus} 0.4 10{sup {minus}3} d L{sup {minus}1} for {sup 131}I and 5.4 {plus_minus} 0.5 10{sup {minus}3} d L{sup {minus}1} for {sup 137}Cs. Both are lower than means calculated from the pre-Chernobyl data base. Plausible explanations of the differences include (1) reduced availability of fallout compared to soluble tracer; (2) underestimation of post-Chernobyl transfer coefficients by some experiments concluded too early to record slow transport processes; and (3) reduced transfer of {sup 131}I compared to long-lived iodine isotopes due to decay during fixation in the thyroid. Feed-to-milk transfer of {sup 131}I is related to milk yield, but no influence of milk yield and type of feed on transfer is apparent for cesium. 73 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Transport of the radioisotopes iodine-131, cesium-134, and cesium-137 from the fallout following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor into cheesemaking products

    SciTech Connect

    Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Ioannides, K.G.; Pak; Paradopoulou, C.V.

    1987-07-01

    The transport of radiation contamination from milk to products of the cheese making process has been studied. The concentration of radioactive iodine and cesium in samples of sheep milk and cheese (Gruyere) products was measured for 10 consecutive production d. Milk with concentration 100 Bq/L in each of the radionuclides /sup 131/I, /sup 134/Cs, and /sup 137/Cs cheese with concentration 82.2 +/- 3.9 Bq/kg in iodine and an average of 42.3 +/- 2.3 Bq/kg in the cesium isotopes is produced. The corresponding concentrations in cream extracted from the same milk are 26.7 +/- 2.8 Bq/kg (/sup 131/I) and 18.6 +/- 1.9 Bq/kg (/sup 134/Cs, /sup 137/Cs).

  14. Foliar uptake of cesium, iodine and strontium and their transfer to the edible parts of beans, potatoes and radishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestling, O.; Kopp, P.; Burkart, W.

    Considerable fractions of radionuclide solutions deposited on the surface of the leaves may be transferred to the edible parts of plants. In radishes we observed a transfer of more than 40% of the applied cesium radioisotope within a few days. A rather similar uptake was found for beans and potatoes when harvested a month after application of radioactivity. As much as 60% of the applied cesium-isotope remained in (or on) the potato leaves even 8 days after application. The major part could however be washed off the leaves a few hours after application. When radishes were showered with water within 7 h after the application of activity the uptake was greatly reduced. No competitive effect of potassium chloride for the foliar uptake of cesium was found. A 10 -2 M colloidal suspension of Prussian Blue, a chelating agent for monovalent alkali metals such as potassium, cesium, or other monovalent cations, applied as droplets to the leaves one day prior to application of active cesium was found to strongly inhibit the transfer of cesium to the radish. The transfer of iodine and strontium to the edible parts was found to be negligible (or slower) as compared to cesium. In most cases no detectable amounts of these two nuclides were transfered to the edible parts of the radish after 2-5 weeks.

  15. A convenient iodination method for alcohols using cesium iodide/methanesulfonic acid and its comparison using cesium iodide/p-toluenesulfonic acid or cesium iodide/aluminium chloride.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Zia-Ullah; Perveen, Shahnaz; Hayat, Safdar; Ali, Muhammad; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    In situ generation of hydrogen iodide from cesium iodide/methanesulfonic acid was found to be an attractive reagent combination for the conversion of alkyl, allyl, and benzyl alcohols to their corresponding iodides under mild conditions. The method is compared with that using cesium iodide/p-toluenesulfonic acid or cesium iodide/aluminium chloride.

  16. Formation of iodinated THMs during chlorination of water and wastewater in the presence of different iodine sources.

    PubMed

    Pantelaki, Ioanna; Voutsa, Dimitra

    2017-09-13

    The formation potential of iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) during chlorination of different organic precursors in the presence of various iodine sources was studied. Organic precursors included humic acid, natural organic matter from river water and wastewater effluent organic matter. Inorganic iodide and two iodinated X-ray contrast media compounds (iopamidol and diatrizoate) were used as iodine sources. The formation potential of I-THMs under different experimental conditions (chlorination contact time, iodide and bromide concentrations) was investigated. The formation of I-THM species upon chlorination of river water and humic acids rapidly increased up to 24h and then a decreasing trend was observed. Wastewater, showed a rapid formation of I-THMs within the first 6h, followed by a lower rate with extended time. Formation of I-THMs in the presence of iopamidol was more favorable regarding the other two iodine sources. CHBrClI was the dominant specie followed by CHCl2I and CHBr2I. Increasing iodide concentrations result in higher I-THMs formation. The presence of bromide enhanced the I-THMs yields and shifted towards bromine-containing species (CHBrClI and CHBr2I). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Iodine-129, Iodine-127 and Cesium-137 in seawater from the North Sea and the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Daraoui, A; Tosch, L; Gorny, M; Michel, R; Goroncy, I; Herrmann, J; Nies, H; Synal, H-A; Alfimov, V; Walther, C

    2016-10-01

    In this study, new data are presented for the iodine isotopes ((127)I, (129)I and their isotopic ratios) and Cesium ((137)Cs) in water samples of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea in 2005 and 2009. This study supplements and extends the study of Michel et al. (2012). Iodine isotopes were separated from their matrix by using an anion exchange method and were determined by applying ICP-MS and AMS. (137)Cs in seawater was determined after cesium ion exchange procedure enrichment by gamma-spectrometry. The concentrations of (127)I in seawater of the North and Baltic Sea are fairly constant in each Sea with averages of (44 ± 2) and (21 ± 1) ng g(-1), respectively, depending on the salinity. However, large variations of (129)I concentrations in these areas were detected, which decreased along the French, Belgian, Dutch, German, and Danish shores. (129)I/(127)I isotope ratios in the Baltic Sea are about 10 times lower than in the North Sea in 2009. The highest isotopic ratios (2.7 × 10(-6)) was detected in the English Channel east of the nuclear reprocessing plant at Cap de la Hague. The results confirm the result of our early study that the sources of (129)I in the North Sea are primarily the nuclear reprocessing facilities at Sellafield (UK) and La Hague (F), and that in the Baltic Sea the inflow of water from North Sea through the Danish Straits dominates the occurrence of (129)I. In 2009, the activity concentration of (137)Cs was at least 6 times higher in the Baltic Sea (37 Bq m(-3)) than in the North Sea (5.9 Bq m(-3)), due to release of (137)Cs from sediments in the Baltic Sea, which were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident and - to a minor degree - the atmospheric explosions of atomic bombs. The results are discussed by comparing the results of our previous work and the current study demonstrating the continuing disequilibrium of (129)I/(127)I atomic ratio in the environmental compartments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Removal efficiency of water purifier and adsorbent for iodine, cesium, strontium, barium and zirconium in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sato, Itaru; Kudo, Hiroaki; Tsuda, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    The severe incident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station has caused radioactive contamination of environment including drinking water. Radioactive iodine, cesium, strontium, barium and zirconium are hazardous fission products because of the high yield and/or relatively long half-life. In the present study, 4 pot-type water purifiers and several adsorbents were examined for the removal effects on these elements from drinking water. Iodide, iodate, cesium and barium were removed by all water purifiers with efficiencies about 85%, 40%, 75-90% and higher than 85%, respectively. These efficiencies lasted for 200 l, which is near the recommended limits for use of filter cartridges, without decay. Strontium was removed with initial efficiencies from 70% to 100%, but the efficiencies were slightly decreased by use. Zirconium was removed by two models, but hardly removed by the other models. Synthetic zeolite A4 efficiently removed cesium, strontium and barium, but had no effect on iodine and zirconium. Natural zeolite, mordenite, removed cesium with an efficiency as high as zeolite A4, but the removal efficiencies for strontium and barium were far less than those of zeolite A4. Activated carbon had little removal effects on these elements. In case of radioactive contamination of tap water, water purifiers may be available for convenient decontamination of drinking water in the home.

  19. Removal of radioactive iodine and cesium in water purification processes after an explosion at a nuclear power plant due to the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Koji; Asami, Mari; Kobashigawa, Naoya; Ohkubo, Keiko; Terada, Hiroshi; Kishida, Naohiro; Akiba, Michihiro

    2012-09-15

    The presence of radionuclides at five water purification plants was investigated after an explosion at a nuclear power plant hit by the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. Radioactive iodine (¹³¹I) and cesium (¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs) were detected in raw water in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures. ¹³¹I was not removed by coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation. ¹³¹I was removed by granular activated carbon (GAC) and powdered activated carbon (PAC) at a level of about 30%-40%, although ¹³¹I was not removed in some cases. This was also confirmed by laboratory-scale experiments using PAC. The removal percentages of ¹³¹I in river and pond waters by 25 mg dry/L of PAC increased from 36% to 59% and from 41% to 48%, respectively, with chlorine dosing before PAC. ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs were effectively removed by coagulation at both a water purification plant and in laboratory-scale experiments when turbidity was relatively high. In contrast, ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in pond water with low turbidity were not removed by coagulation. This was because ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in river water were present mainly in particulate form, while in pond water they were present mainly as cesium ions (¹³⁴Cs+ and ¹³⁷Cs+). However, the removal of ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in pond water by coagulation increased markedly when ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs were mixed with sediment 24 h before coagulation.

  20. Acquisition of improved reference values for cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in selected NIST reference materials.

    PubMed

    Parr, R M; Kawamura, H; Iyengar, G V

    1999-01-01

    As part of a study on the ingestion and organ content of some trace elements of importance in radiological protection, additional work has been undertaken to acquire improved reference values for cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in four selected reference materials provided by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology. The materials are SRM-1548 Total Diet, SRM-1548a Typical Diet, SRM-1486 Bone Meal, and RM-8414 Bovine Muscle. A coordinated study was undertaken with the help of seven selected laboratories in five countries. Instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry were the analytical main techniques used.

  1. Comparison of byproduct formation in waters treated with chlorine and iodine: relevance to point-of-use treatment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Emma Marie; Plewa, Michael J; Lindell, Crystal L; Richardson, Susan D; Mitch, William A

    2010-11-15

    Due to their efficacy in deactivating a range of microbial pathogens, particularly amoebic cysts, iodine-based disinfectants have been a popular option for point-of-use (POU) drinking water disinfection by campers, the military, and rural consumers in developing countries. Recently, concerns regarding the formation of cytotoxic and genotoxic iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs) have arisen during chloramine disinfection of iodide-containing waters in the developed world; similar concerns should pertain to iodine-based POU disinfection. Because there are alternative POU disinfection techniques, including chlorine-based disinfectants, this paper compared disinfection byproduct formation from a range of iodine-based disinfectants at their recommended dosages to chlorination and chloramination under overdosing conditions. Just as chloroform was the predominant trihalomethane (THM) forme during chlorination or chloramination, iodoform was the predominant THM formed during iodination. Conditions fostering THM formation were similar between these treatments, except that THM formation during chlorination increased with pH, while it was slightly elevated at circumneutral pH during iodination. Iodoform formation during treatment with iodine tincture was higher than during treatment with iodine tablets. On a molar basis, iodoform formation during treatment with iodine tincture was 20-60% of the formation of chloroform during chlorination, and total organic iodine (TOI) formation was twice that of total organic chlorine (TOCl), despite the 6-fold higher oxidant dose during chlorination. Based upon previous measurements of chronic mammalian cell cytotoxicity for the individual THMs, consumers of two waters treated with iodine tincture would receive the same THM-associated cytotoxic exposure in 4-19 days as a consumer of the same waters treated with a 6-fold higher dose of chlorine over 1 year. Iodoacetic acid, diiodoacetic acid, and other iodo-acids were also formed with

  2. Experimental Evidence of Localized Oscillations in the Photosensitive Chlorine Dioxide-Iodine-Malonic Acid Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Míguez, David G.; Alonso, Sergio; Muñuzuri, Alberto P.; Sagués, Francesc

    2006-10-01

    The interaction between Hopf and Turing modes has been the subject of active research in recent years. We present here experimental evidence of the existence of mixed Turing-Hopf modes in a two-dimensional system. Using the photosensitive chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction (CDIMA) and external constant background illumination as a control parameter, standing spots oscillating in amplitude and with hexagonal ordering were observed. Numerical simulations in the Lengyel-Epstein model for the CDIMA reaction confirmed the results.

  3. Alternative synthesis of 3-acetyl, 3-epoxy, and 3-formyl chlorins from a 3-vinyl chlorin, methyl pyropheophorbide-a, via iodination.

    PubMed

    Oba, Toru; Masuya, Takuto; Yasuda, Satoru; Ito, Satoshi

    2015-08-01

    We developed novel methods to convert the C3-vinyl group of a chlorophyll derivative, methyl pyropheophorbide-a, into an acetyl group, an epoxy group, and a formyl group via iodination with I2 and phenyliodine(III) bis(trifluoroacetate). Reaction of the iodinated intermediate with ethylene glycol and subsequent treatment with base led to formation of the C3-acetyl chlorin. Reaction of the iodinated intermediate with ethylenediamine afforded the C3-oxiranyl chlorin. The C3-formyl chlorin was readily derived from the epoxide without hazardous reagents such as OsO4. These reactions were facile and useful alternatives to the previous methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Aqueous iodine solutions as disinfectants: composition, stability, comparison with chlorine and bromine solution (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gottardi, W

    1978-09-01

    The equilibrium concentrations of aqueous iodine solutions in dependence of the total concentration and the pH-value have been calculated with and without regard of the iodate formation. The values obtained by the latter methode enabled by application of the known rate law to calculate the initial rate of the iodate formation and to draw from this conclusions concerning the stability of iodine solutions. On the grounds of these calculations to aqueous iodine solutions in the concentration and pH-range which is relevant for disinfection (greater than 10(-5) M/l, pH 6--9) one can attribute a stability sufficient for the use in practice and - unlike chlorine and bromine solutions - a content of bactericidal "free halogene" which is higher and independent of the pH-value. The disinfecting action of the iodine cation (H2O+J) which is supposed to be very powerful can be neglected because of its low concentration (10(-3)--10(-6%) of the total concentration). Hypoiodic acid which has already been converted into iodate by disproportionation is as good as lost for the disinfection because of the extremely slow reverse reaction.

  5. Breathing spiral waves in the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction-diffusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenstein, Igal; Muñuzuri, Alberto P.; Yang, Lingfa; Dolnik, Milos; Zhabotinsky, Anatol M.; Epstein, Irving R.

    2008-08-01

    Breathing spiral waves are observed in the oscillatory chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction-diffusion system. The breathing develops within established patterns of multiple spiral waves after the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol in the feeding chamber of a continuously fed, unstirred reactor is increased. The breathing period is determined by the period of bulk oscillations in the feeding chamber. Similar behavior is obtained in the Lengyel-Epstein model of this system, where small amplitude parametric forcing of spiral waves near the spiral wave frequency leads to the formation of breathing spiral waves in which the period of breathing is equal to the period of forcing.

  6. Natural solar photolysis of total organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in water.

    PubMed

    Abusallout, Ibrahim; Hua, Guanghui

    2016-04-01

    Municipal wastewater has been increasingly used to augment drinking water supplies due to the growing water scarcity. Wastewater-derived disinfection byproducts (DBPs) may negatively affect the aquatic ecosystems and human health of downstream communities during water reuse. The objective of this research was to determine the degradation kinetics of total organic chlorine (TOCl), bromine (TOBr) and iodine (TOI) in water by natural sunlight irradiation. Outdoor solar photolysis experiments were performed to investigate photolytic degradation of the total organic halogen (TOX) formed by fulvic acid and real water and wastewater samples. The results showed that TOX degradation by sunlight irradiation followed the first-order kinetics with half-lives in the range of 2.6-10.7 h for different TOX compounds produced by fulvic acid. The TOX degradation rates were generally in the order of TOI > TOBr ≅ TOCl(NH2Cl) > TOCl(Cl2). High molecular weight TOX was more susceptible to solar photolysis than corresponding low molecular weight halogenated compounds. The nitrate and sulfite induced indirect TOX photolysis rates were less than 50% of the direct photolysis rates under the conditions of this study. Fulvic acid and turbidity in water reduced TOX photodegradation. These results contribute to a better understanding of the fate of chlorinated, brominated and iodinated DBPs in surface waters.

  7. Volatility literature of chlorine, iodine, cesium, strontium, technetium, and rhenium; technetium and rhenium volatility testing

    SciTech Connect

    Langowski, M.H.; Darab, J.G.; Smith, P.A.

    1996-03-01

    A literature review pertaining to the volatilization of Sr, Cs, Tc (and its surrogate Re), Cl, I and other related species during the vitrification of Hanford Low Level Waste (LLW) streams has been performed and the relevant information summarized. For many of these species, the chemistry which occurs in solution prior to the waste stream entering the melter is important in dictating their loss at higher temperatures. In addition, the interactive effects between the species being lost was found to be important. A review of the chemistries of Tc and Re was also performed. It was suggested that Re would indeed act as an excellent surrogate for Tc in non-radioactive materials testing. Experimental results on Tc and Re loss from sodium aluminoborosilicate melts of temperatures ranging from 900--1350{degrees}C performed at PNL are reported and confirm that Re behaves in a nearly identical manner to that of technetium.

  8. Target Turing patterns and growth dynamics in the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction.

    PubMed

    Preska Steinberg, Asher; Epstein, Irving R; Dolnik, Milos

    2014-04-03

    We study the growth dynamics of Turing patterns in the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction-diffusion system in response to perturbations with visible light. We describe several mechanisms by which Turing patterns reappear after they are suppressed by illumination with a disc-shaped geometry. We observe that under specific conditions the patterns reorganize from a random configuration of spots and stripes to a set of ordered, concentric rings, which we refer to as target Turing patterns. These patterns closely resemble the unit cells of the Turing hexagonal superlattices known as black eye patterns. However, these target Turing patterns are not part of a larger superlattice structure, and they usually have a larger number of concentric rings. Numerical simulations support the experimental findings.

  9. Chlorine-36 and cesium-137 in ice-core samples from mid-latitude glacial sites in the Northern Hemisphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, J.R.; Cecil, L.D.; Synal, H.-A.; Kreutz, K.J.; Wake, C.P.; Naftz, D.L.; Frape, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    Chlorine-36 (36Cl) concentrations, 36Cl/Cl ratios, and 36Cl fluxes in ice-core samples collected from the Upper Fremont Glacier (UFG) in the Wind River Mountain Range, Wyoming, United States and the Nangpai Gosum Glacier (NGG) in the Himalayan Mountains, Nepal, were determined and compared with published results from the Dye-3 ice-core drilling site on the Greenland Ice Sheet. Cesium-137 (137Cs) concentrations in the NGG also were determined. The background fluxes for 36Cl for each glacial site were similar: (1.6??0.3)??10-2 atoms/cm2 s for the UFG samples, (0.7??0.1)??10-2 atoms/cm2 s for the NGG samples, and (0.4??0.1)??10-2 atoms/cm2 s for the Dye-3 samples. The 36Cl fluxes in ice that was deposited as snow during peak atmospheric nuclear weapon test (1957-1958) were (33??1)??10-2 atoms/cm2 s for the UFG site, (291??3)??10-2 atoms/cm2 s for the NGG site, and (124??5)??10-2 atoms/ cm2 s for the Dye-3 site. A weapon test period 137Cs concentration of 0.79??0.05 Bq/kg in the NGG ice core also was detected in the same section of ice that contained the largest 36Cl concentration. ?? 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Removal efficiency of radioactive cesium and iodine ions by a flow-type apparatus designed for electrochemically reduced water production.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Takeki; Nakamichi, Noboru; Teruya, Kiichiro; Shirahata, Sanetaka

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 attracted people's attention, with anxiety over possible radiation hazards. Immediate and long-term concerns are around protection from external and internal exposure by the liberated radionuclides. In particular, residents living in the affected regions are most concerned about ingesting contaminated foodstuffs, including drinking water. Efficient removal of radionuclides from rainwater and drinking water has been reported using several pot-type filtration devices. A currently used flow-type test apparatus is expected to simultaneously provide radionuclide elimination prior to ingestion and protection from internal exposure by accidental ingestion of radionuclides through the use of a micro-carbon carboxymethyl cartridge unit and an electrochemically reduced water production unit, respectively. However, the removability of radionuclides from contaminated tap water has not been tested to date. Thus, the current research was undertaken to assess the capability of the apparatus to remove radionuclides from artificially contaminated tap water. The results presented here demonstrate that the apparatus can reduce radioactivity levels to below the detection limit in applied tap water containing either 300 Bq/kg of 137Cs or 150 Bq/kg of 125I. The apparatus had a removal efficiency of over 90% for all concentration ranges of radio-cesium and -iodine tested. The results showing efficient radionuclide removability, together with previous studies on molecular hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles as reactive oxygen species scavengers, strongly suggest that the test apparatus has the potential to offer maximum safety against radionuclide-contaminated foodstuffs, including drinking water.

  11. Removal Efficiency of Radioactive Cesium and Iodine Ions by a Flow-Type Apparatus Designed for Electrochemically Reduced Water Production

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Takeki; Nakamichi, Noboru; Teruya, Kiichiro; Shirahata, Sanetaka

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 attracted people’s attention, with anxiety over possible radiation hazards. Immediate and long-term concerns are around protection from external and internal exposure by the liberated radionuclides. In particular, residents living in the affected regions are most concerned about ingesting contaminated foodstuffs, including drinking water. Efficient removal of radionuclides from rainwater and drinking water has been reported using several pot-type filtration devices. A currently used flow-type test apparatus is expected to simultaneously provide radionuclide elimination prior to ingestion and protection from internal exposure by accidental ingestion of radionuclides through the use of a micro-carbon carboxymethyl cartridge unit and an electrochemically reduced water production unit, respectively. However, the removability of radionuclides from contaminated tap water has not been tested to date. Thus, the current research was undertaken to assess the capability of the apparatus to remove radionuclides from artificially contaminated tap water. The results presented here demonstrate that the apparatus can reduce radioactivity levels to below the detection limit in applied tap water containing either 300 Bq/kg of 137Cs or 150 Bq/kg of 125I. The apparatus had a removal efficiency of over 90% for all concentration ranges of radio–cesium and –iodine tested. The results showing efficient radionuclide removability, together with previous studies on molecular hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles as reactive oxygen species scavengers, strongly suggest that the test apparatus has the potential to offer maximum safety against radionuclide-contaminated foodstuffs, including drinking water. PMID:25029447

  12. Numerical bifurcation diagram for the two-dimensional boundary-fed chlorine-dioxide-iodine-malonic-acid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setayeshgar, S.; Cross, M. C.

    1999-04-01

    We present a numerical solution of the chlorine-dioxide-iodine-malonic-acid reaction-diffusion system in two dimensions in a boundary-fed system using a realistic model. The bifurcation diagram for the transition from nonsymmetry-breaking structures along boundary feed gradients to transverse symmetry-breaking patterns in a single layer is numerically determined. We find this transition to be discontinuous. We make a connection with earlier results and discuss prospects for future work.

  13. Iodine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krukowski, S.T.

    2006-01-01

    In descending order, Chile, Japan and the United States have the largest iodine reserves. Chile produces iodine from iodate minerals while Japan and the United States produce it from sodium iodide solutions found in underground iodide solutions. Iodine is also produced from subterranean brines in Azerbaijan, Russia, Turkmenista, Indonesia and Uzbekistan. In 2005, iodine prices increased sharply to US$19 to US$23 then leveled off at US$23 to US$25.

  14. SU-E-I-49: Simulation Study for Removing Scatter Radiation in Cesium-Iodine Based Flat Panel Detector System

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Y; Park, M; Kim, H; Kim, K; Kim, J; Morishita, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study aims to identify the feasibility of a novel cesium-iodine (CsI)-based flat-panel detector (FPD) for removing scatter radiation in diagnostic radiology. Methods: The indirect FPD comprises three layers: a substrate, scintillation, and thin-film-transistor (TFT) layer. The TFT layer has a matrix structure with pixels. There are ineffective dimensions on the TFT layer, such as the voltage and data lines; therefore, we devised a new FPD system having net-like lead in the substrate layer, matching the ineffective area, to block the scatter radiation so that only primary X-rays could reach the effective dimension.To evaluate the performance of this new FPD system, we conducted a Monte Carlo simulation using MCNPX 2.6.0 software. Scatter fractions (SFs) were acquired using no grid, a parallel grid (8:1 grid ratio), and the new system, and the performances were compared.Two systems having different thicknesses of lead in the substrate layer—10 and 20μm—were simulated. Additionally, we examined the effects of different pixel sizes (153×153 and 163×163μm) on the image quality, while keeping the effective area of pixels constant (143×143μm). Results: In case of 10μm lead, the SFs of the new system (∼11%) were lower than those of the other system (∼27% with no grid, ∼16% with parallel grid) at 40kV. However, as the tube voltage increased, the SF of new system (∼19%) was higher than that of parallel grid (∼18%) at 120kV. In the case of 20μm lead, the SFs of the new system were lower than those of the other systems at all ranges of the tube voltage (40–120kV). Conclusion: The novel CsI-based FPD system for removing scatter radiation is feasible for improving the image contrast but must be optimized with respect to the lead thickness, considering the system’s purposes and the ranges of the tube voltage in diagnostic radiology. This study was supported by a grant(K1422651) from Institute of Health Science, Korea University.

  15. Multifold Increases in Turing Pattern Wavelength in the Chlorine Dioxide-Iodine-Malonic Acid Reaction-Diffusion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskins, Delora K.; Pruc, Emily E.; Epstein, Irving R.; Dolnik, Milos

    2016-07-01

    Turing patterns in the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction were modified through additions of sodium halide salt solutions. The range of wavelengths obtained is several times larger than in the previously reported literature. Pattern wavelength was observed to significantly increase with sodium bromide or sodium chloride. A transition to a uniform state was found at high halide concentrations. The observed experimental results are qualitatively well reproduced in numerical simulations with the Lengyel-Epstein model with an additional chemically realistic kinetic term to account for the added halide and an adjustment of the activator diffusion rate to allow for interhalogen formation.

  16. Galerkin analysis of light-induced patterns in the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction-diffusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Pushpita; Sen, Shrabani; Riaz, Syed Shahed; Ray, Deb Shankar

    2009-05-01

    The photosensitive chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction-diffusion system has been an experimental paradigm for the study of Turing pattern over the last several years. When subjected to illumination of varied intensity by visible light the patterns undergo changes from spots to stripes, vice versa, and their mixture. We carry out a nonlinear analysis of the underlying model in terms of a Galerkin scheme with finite number of modes to explore the nature of the stability and existence of various modes responsible for the type and crossover of the light-induced patterns.

  17. Multifold Increases in Turing Pattern Wavelength in the Chlorine Dioxide-Iodine-Malonic Acid Reaction-Diffusion System.

    PubMed

    Gaskins, Delora K; Pruc, Emily E; Epstein, Irving R; Dolnik, Milos

    2016-07-29

    Turing patterns in the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction were modified through additions of sodium halide salt solutions. The range of wavelengths obtained is several times larger than in the previously reported literature. Pattern wavelength was observed to significantly increase with sodium bromide or sodium chloride. A transition to a uniform state was found at high halide concentrations. The observed experimental results are qualitatively well reproduced in numerical simulations with the Lengyel-Epstein model with an additional chemically realistic kinetic term to account for the added halide and an adjustment of the activator diffusion rate to allow for interhalogen formation.

  18. Effect of temperature and pH on dehalogenation of total organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Abusallout, Ibrahim; Rahman, Shamimur; Hua, Guanghui

    2017-11-01

    Disinfection byproduct (DBP) concentrations in drinking water distribution systems and indoor water uses depend on competitive formation and degradation reactions. This study investigated the dehalogenation kinetics of total organic chlorine (TOCl), bromine (TOBr) and iodine (TOI) produced by fulvic acid under different pH and temperature conditions, and total organic halogen (TOX) variations in a treated drinking water under simulated distribution system and heating scenarios. TOX dehalogenation rates were generally in the order of TOI ≅ TOCl(NH2Cl) > TOBr > TOCl(Cl2). The half-lives of different groups of TOX compounds formed by fulvic acid varied between 27 and 139 days during incubation at 20 °C and 0.98-2.17 days during heating at 55 °C. Base-catalyzed reactions played a major role in TOX degradation as evidenced by enhanced dehalogenation under high pH conditions. The results of heating of a treated water in the presence of residuals showed that TOX concentrations of chlorinated samples increased rapidly when chlorine residuals were present and then gradually decreased after chlorine residuals were exhausted. The final TOX concentrations of chlorinated samples after heating showed moderate decreases with increasing ambient water ages. Chloraminated samples with different ambient water ages exhibited similar final TOX concentrations during simulated distribution system and heating experiments. This study reinforces the importance of understanding DBP variations in indoor water uses as wells as in distribution systems to provide more accurate DBP information for exposure assessment and regulatory determination. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Redox transformations and transport of cesium and iodine (-1, 0, +5) in oxidizing and reducing zones of a sand and gravel aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, P.M.; Kent, D.B.; Davis, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Tracer tests were performed in distinct biogeochemical zones of a sand and gravel aquifer in Cape Cod, MA, to study the redox chemistry (I) and transport (Cs, I) of cesium and iodine in a field setting. Injection of iodide (I -) into an oxic zone of the aquifer resulted in oxidation of I - to molecular iodine (I2) and iodate (IO3-) over transport distances of several meters. Oxidation is attributed to Mn-oxides present in the sediment. Transport of injected IO 3- and Cs+ was retarded in the mildly acidic oxic zone, with retardation factors of 1.6-1.8 for IO3- and 2.3-4.4for Cs. Cs retardation was likely due to cation exchange reactions. Injection of IO3- into a Fe-reducing zone of the aquifer resulted in rapid and complete reduction to I- within 3 m of transport. The nonconservative behavior of Cs and I observed during the tracer tests underscores the necessity of taking the redox chemistry of I as well as sorption properties of I species and Cs into account when predicting transport of radionuclides (e.g., 129I and 137Cs) in the environment.

  20. Redox transformations and transport of cesium and iodine (-1, 0, +5) in oxidizing and reducing zones of a sand and gravel aquifer.

    PubMed

    Fox, Patricia M; Kent, Douglas B; Davis, James A

    2010-03-15

    Tracer tests were performed in distinct biogeochemical zones of a sand and gravel aquifer in Cape Cod, MA, to study the redox chemistry (I) and transport (Cs, I) of cesium and iodine in a field setting. Injection of iodide (I(-)) into an oxic zone of the aquifer resulted in oxidation of I(-) to molecular iodine (I(2)) and iodate (10(3)(-)) over transport distances of several meters. Oxidation is attributed to Mn-oxides present in the sediment Transport of injected 10(3)(-) and Cs(+) was retarded in the mildly acidic oxic zone, with retardation factors of 1.6-1.8 for 10(3)(-) and 2.3-4.4 for Cs. Cs retardation was likely due to cation exchange reactions. Injection of 10(3)(-) into a Fe-reducing zone of the aquifer resulted in rapid and complete reduction to I(-) within 3 m of transport. Then on conservative behavior of Cs and I observed during the tracer tests underscores the necessity of taking the redox chemistry of I as well as sorption properties of I species and Cs into account when predicting transport of radionuclides (e.g., (129)I and (137)Cs) in the environment.

  1. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy of the quadrupolar halogens: chlorine-35/37, bromine-79/81, and iodine-127.

    PubMed

    Bryce, David L; Sward, Gregory D

    2006-04-01

    A thorough review of 35/37Cl, 79/81Br, and 127I solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) data is presented. Isotropic chemical shifts (CS), quadrupolar coupling constants, and other available information on the magnitude and orientation of the CS and electric field gradient (EFG) tensors for chlorine, bromine, and iodine in diverse chemical compounds is tabulated on the basis of over 200 references. Our coverage is through July 2005. Special emphasis is placed on the information available from the study of powdered diamagnetic solids in high magnetic fields. Our survey indicates a recent notable increase in the number of applications of solid-state quadrupolar halogen NMR, particularly 35Cl NMR, as high magnetic fields have become more widely available to solid-state NMR spectroscopists. We conclude with an assessment of possible future directions for research involving 35/37Cl, 79/81Br, and 127I solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

  2. Determination of bromine, chlorine and iodine in environmental aqueous samples by epithermal neutron activation analysis and Compton suppression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landsberger, S.; O'Kelly, D. J.; Braisted, J.; Panno, S.

    2006-01-01

    Halides, particularly Br- and Cl-, have been used as indicators of potential sources of Na+ and Cl- in surface water and groundwater with limited success. Contamination of groundwater and surface water by Na+ and Cl- is a common occurrence in growing urban areas and adversely affects municipal and private water supplies in Illinois and other states, as well as vegetation in environmentally sensitive areas. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) can be effectively used to determine these halogens, but often the elevated concentrations of sodium and chlorine in water samples can give rise to very high detection limits for bromine and iodine due to elevated backgrounds from the activation process. We present a detailed analytical scheme to determine Cl, Br and I in aqueous samples with widely varying Na and Cl concentrations using epithermal NAA in conjunction with Compton suppression. ?? 2006 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  3. Forcing of Turing patterns in the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction with strong visible light.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Raphael; Epstein, Irving R; Dolnik, Milos

    2013-09-26

    We investigate the sensitivity of Turing patterns in the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction to illumination by strong white light. Intense illumination results in an increase of [I(-)], in contrast to previous studies, which found only decreased [I(-)] for weak and intermediate intensities of illumination. We propose an expanded mechanism to explain the experimental observations. Both experimental and numerical results suggest that [ClO2] is the key parameter that determines whether the high iodide state is obtained under strong illumination. When strong illumination is applied through a spatially periodic mask with black and white stripes, a dark state with high [I(-)] is produced in the illuminated domain and a light state with low [I(-)] forms in the nonilluminated domain. Depending on the black:white ratio of the mask and its wavelength, Turing patterns can coexist with either the light or the dark state in the nonilluminated domain.

  4. Development of Facts Procedures for Bromine, Chlorine Dioxide, and Iodine in Aqueous Solutions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Rainbow Trout ," Water Waste Treat. J. 7:150- 151 (1958). 21. Collins, H.F. and D.G. Deaner, "Sewage Chlorination Versus Toxicity -- A Dilema?," . Environ...DOCUMAENTATION PAGE BKV? CM"AM o 1. REPORT NUMBER AdI. GOV ACCESSIO W S. RE1CIPIEM1T’S CATALOG NUMB R TECHNICAL REPORT 8003 0 /71- ______________ 14. TITLE

  5. Chlorine

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorine ; CASRN 7782 - 50 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  6. Chlorine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical chlorine, produced in small quantities in the laboratory, is presented. The profile summarizes physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  7. Chlorine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical chlorine, produced in small quantities in the laboratory, is presented. The profile summarizes physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  8. Inactivation of Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) by Chlorine and Iodine in Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    be relatively resistant to a 10 mg/l dose of monochloramine , with a time for 99.99% inactivation of 117 minutes. In the same study free chlorine... monochloramine , inactivation of MS-2 was slower than that of HAV while CB5 inactivation was similar to that of HAV. Overall, The results of Sobsey et al. (1988b... monochloramine in PBDFW (Sobsey et al., 1991). Cell-associated HAV, which can be taken as a model for clumped or solids- protected viruses in water, were

  9. Chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith

    2009-01-01

    Following a brief description of the use of chlorine as a chemical warfare agent in World War I, this chapter summarizes physical and chemical data and recent clinical and controlled laboratory studies on the irritant and lethal effects of chlorine. The mechanism of toxicity for both irritation and lethal effects is described. The mathematical relationship between concentration and exposure duration for a set endpoint is given for both an irritancy response and mortality. This information can be used to assist in time-scaling for the set endpoint to other exposure durations. Risk assessment addresses the potential for greater effects in sensitive populations such as asthmatics. A concentration of 0.5 ppm for up to 8 hours is a no-adverse-effect concentration in most sensitive subjects; whereas, a concentration of 1.0 ppm induces some sensory irritation and transient changes in respiratory tract airflow parameters. Treatment and intervention of exposed individuals is dependent upon symptoms

  10. Characterization of iodinated disinfection by-products in chlorinated and chloraminated waters using Orbitrap based gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Postigo, Cristina; Cojocariu, Cristian I; Richardson, Susan D; Silcock, Paul J; Barcelo, Damia

    2016-05-01

    Recent developments in gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) have opened up the possibility to use the high resolution-accurate mass (HRAM) Orbitrap mass analyzer to further characterize the volatile and semivolatile fractions of environmental samples. This work describes the utilization of GC Orbitrap MS technology to characterize iodine-containing disinfection by-products (iodo-DBPs) in chlorinated and chloraminated DBP mixture concentrates. These DBP mixtures were generated in lab-scale disinfection reactions using Llobregat river water and solutions containing Nordic Lake natural organic matter (NOM). The DBPs generated were concentrated using XAD resins, and extracts obtained were analyzed in full scan mode with the GC Orbitrap MS. Integration of high resolution accurate mass information and fragment rationalization allowed the characterization of up to 11 different iodo-DBPs in the water extracts analyzed, including one new iodo-DBP reported for the first time. Overall, formation of iodo-DBPs was enhanced during chloramination reactions. As expected, NOM characteristics and iodide and bromide content of the tested waters affected the amount and type of iodo-DBPs generated.

  11. Zebrafish Embryo Disinfection with Povidone-Iodine: Evaluating an Alternative to Chlorine Bleach.

    PubMed

    Chang, Carolyn T; Amack, Jeffrey D; Whipps, Christopher M

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacteriosis is a common bacterial infection in laboratory zebrafish caused by several different species and strains of Mycobacterium, including both rapid and slow growers. One control measure used to prevent mycobacterial spread within and between facilities is surface disinfection of eggs. Recent studies have highlighted the effectiveness of povidone-iodine (PVPI) on preventing propagation of Mycobacterium spp. found in zebrafish colonies. We evaluated the effect of disinfection using 12.5-50 ppm PVPI (unbuffered and buffered) on zebrafish exposed at 6 or 24 h postfertilization (hpf) to determine if this treatment is suitable for use in research zebrafish. Our results show that 6 hpf embryos are less sensitive to treatment as fewer effects on mortality, developmental delay, and deformity were observed. We also found that buffered PVPI treatment results in a greater knockdown of Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium marinum, as well as results in decreased harmful effects on embryos. Treatments of shorter (2 min vs. 5 min) duration were also more effective at killing mycobacteria in addition to resulting in fewer effects on embryo health. In addition, we compared the efficacy of a rinsing regimen to rinsing and disinfecting. Based on the findings of this study, we recommend disinfecting embryos for 2 min with buffered PVPI at 12.5-25 ppm.

  12. Turing pattern formation in the chlorine dioxide-iodine- malonic acid reaction-diffusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setayeshgar, Sima

    The formation of localized structures in the chlorine dioxide-idodine-malonic acid (CDIMA) reaction-diffusion system is investigated numerically using a realistic model of this system. We analyze the one-dimensional patterns formed along the gradients imposed by boundary feeds, and study their linear stability to symmetry- breaking perturbations (the Turing instability) in the plane transverse to these gradients. We establish that an often-invoked simple local linear analysis which neglects longitudinal diffusion is inappropriate for predicting the linear stability of these patterns. Using a fully nonuniform analysis, we investigate the structure of the patterns formed along the gradients and their stability to transverse Turing pattern formation as a function of the values of two control parameters: the malonic acid feed concentration and the size of the reactor in the dimension along the gradients. The results from this investigation are compared with existing experimental results. We also verify that the two-variable reduction of the chemical model employed in the linear stability analysis is justified. Finally, we present numerical solution of the CDIMA system in two dimensions which is in qualitative agreement with experiments. This result also confirms our linear stability analysis, while demonstrating the feasibility of numerical exploration of realistic chemical models.

  13. Formation of iodinated disinfection by-products during oxidation of iodide-containing waters with chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ye, Tao; Xu, Bin; Lin, Yi-Li; Hu, Chen-Yan; Lin, Lin; Zhang, Tian-Yang; Gao, Nai-Yun

    2013-06-01

    This study was to explore the formation of iodinated disinfection by-products (I-DBPs), including iodoform (CHI3), iodoacetic acid (IAA) and triiodoacetic acid (TIAA), when iodide-containing artificial synthesized waters and raw waters are in contact with chlorine dioxide (ClO2). Among the investigated I-DBPs, CHI3 was the major species during ClO2 oxidation in artificial synthesized waters. Impact factors were evaluated, including the concentrations of ClO2, iodide (I(-)), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH. Formation of CHI3, IAA and TIAA followed an increasing and then decreasing pattern with increased ClO2 or DOC concentration. I-DBPs yield was significantly affected by solution pH. High concentrations of I-DBPs were generated under circumneutral conditions with the maximum formation at pH 8. The increase of I(-) concentration can increase I-DBPs yields, but the increment was suppressed when I(-) concentration was higher than 50 μM. When 100 μg/L I(-)and ClO2 (7.5-44.4 μM) were spiked to the raw water samples from Yangshupu and Minhang drinking water treatment plant, certain amounts of CHI3 and IAA were found under pH 7 and the concentrations were strongly correlated with ClO2 dosage and water qualities, however, no TIAA was detected. Finally, we investigated I-DBPs formation of 18 model compounds, including 4 carboxylic acids, 5 phenols and 8 amino acids, treating with ClO2 when I(-) was present. Results showed that most of these model compounds could form a considerable amount of I-DBPs, especially for propanoic acid, butanoic acid, resorcinol, hydroquinone, alanine, glutamic acid, phenylalanine and serine.

  14. Formation of iodo-trihalomethanes, iodo-haloacetic acids, and haloacetaldehydes during chlorination and chloramination of iodine containing waters in laboratory controlled reactions.

    PubMed

    Postigo, Cristina; Richardson, Susan D; Barceló, Damia

    2017-08-01

    Iodine containing disinfection by-products (I-DBPs) and haloacetaldehydes (HALs) are emerging disinfection by-product (DBP) classes of concern. The former due to its increased potential toxicity and the latter because it was found to be the third most relevant DBP class in mass in a U.S. nationwide drinking water study. These DBP classes have been scarcely investigated, and this work was performed to further explore their formation in drinking water under chlorination and chloramination scenarios. In order to do this, iodo-trihalomethanes (I-THMs), iodo-haloacetic acids (I-HAAs) and selected HALs (mono-HALs and di-HALs species, including iodoacetaldehyde) were investigated in DBP mixtures generated after chlorination and chloramination of different water matrices containing different levels of bromide and iodide in laboratory controlled reactions. Results confirmed the enhancement of I-DBP formation in the presence of monochloramine. While I-THMs and I-HAAs contributed almost equally to total I-DBP concentrations in chlorinated water, I-THMs contributed the most to total I-DBP levels in the case of chloraminated water. The most abundant and common I-THM species generated were bromochloroiodomethane, dichloroiodomethane, and chlorodiiodomethane. Iodoacetic acid and chloroiodoacetic acid contributed the most to the total I-HAA concentrations measured in the investigated disinfected water. As for the studied HALs, dihalogenated species were the compounds that predominantly formed under both investigated treatments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Estimation of errors in the inverse modeling of accidental release of atmospheric pollutant: Application to the reconstruction of the cesium-137 and iodine-131 source terms from the Fukushima Daiichi power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winiarek, Victor; Bocquet, Marc; Saunier, Olivier; Mathieu, Anne

    2012-03-01

    A major difficulty when inverting the source term of an atmospheric tracer dispersion problem is the estimation of the prior errors: those of the atmospheric transport model, those ascribed to the representativity of the measurements, those that are instrumental, and those attached to the prior knowledge on the variables one seeks to retrieve. In the case of an accidental release of pollutant, the reconstructed source is sensitive to these assumptions. This sensitivity makes the quality of the retrieval dependent on the methods used to model and estimate the prior errors of the inverse modeling scheme. We propose to use an estimation method for the errors' amplitude based on the maximum likelihood principle. Under semi-Gaussian assumptions, it takes into account, without approximation, the positivity assumption on the source. We apply the method to the estimation of the Fukushima Daiichi source term using activity concentrations in the air. The results are compared to an L-curve estimation technique and to Desroziers's scheme. The total reconstructed activities significantly depend on the chosen method. Because of the poor observability of the Fukushima Daiichi emissions, these methods provide lower bounds for cesium-137 and iodine-131 reconstructed activities. These lower bound estimates, 1.2 × 1016 Bq for cesium-137, with an estimated standard deviation range of 15%-20%, and 1.9 - 3.8 × 1017 Bq for iodine-131, with an estimated standard deviation range of 5%-10%, are of the same order of magnitude as those provided by the Japanese Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency and about 5 to 10 times less than the Chernobyl atmospheric releases.

  16. Regulation of Turing patterns in a spatially extended chlorine-iodine-malonic-acid system with a local concentration-dependent diffusivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Shen; Hu, Wen-Yong; Pang, Ya-Chun; Liu, Tai-Ran; Zhong, Wei-Rong; Shao, Yuan-Zhi

    2012-06-01

    A chlorine-iodine-malonic-acid Turing system involving a local concentration-dependent diffusivity (LCDD) has fundamental significance for physical, chemical, and biological systems with inhomogeneous medium. We investigated such a system by both numerical computation and mathematical analysis. Our research reveals that a variable local diffusivity has an evident effect on regulating the Turing patterns for different modes. An intrinsic square-root law is given by λ ∼ (c(1)+c(2)k)(1/2), which relates the pattern wavelength (λ) with the LCDD coefficient (k). This law indicates that the system pattern has the properties of an equivalent Turing pattern. The current study confirms that, for the Turing system with LCDD, the system pattern form retains the basic characteristics of a traditional Turing pattern in a wide range of LCDD coefficients.

  17. Comparison of Byproduct Formation in Waters Treated With Chlorine and Iodine: Relevance To Point-Of-Use Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to their efficacy in deactivating a range of microbial pathogens, particularly amoebic cysts, iodine-based disinfectants have been a popular option for point-of-use (POU) drinking water disinfection by campers, the military, and rural consumers in developing countries. Recent...

  18. Comparison of Byproduct Formation in Waters Treated With Chlorine and Iodine: Relevance To Point-Of-Use Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to their efficacy in deactivating a range of microbial pathogens, particularly amoebic cysts, iodine-based disinfectants have been a popular option for point-of-use (POU) drinking water disinfection by campers, the military, and rural consumers in developing countries. Recent...

  19. Oak Ridge Reservation Volume 3. Records relating to RaLa, iodine-131, and cesium-137 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Operations Office: A guide to record series of the Department of Energy and its contractors

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-21

    The purpose of this guide is to describe each of the documents and record series pertaining to the production, release, and disposal of radioactive barium-lanthanum (RaLa), iodine-131, and cesium-137 at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, which seeks to verify and conduct inventories of epidemiologic and health-related records at various DOE and DOE contractor sites. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role. It provides information on the history of the DOE-Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), particularly ORNL. Specific attention is given to the production of RaLa and the fission products iodine-131 and cesium-137. This introduction also describes the methodologies HAI used in the selection and inventorying of documents and record series pertaining to RaLa, iodine-131, and cesium-137, and in the production of this guide. Concluding paragraphs describe the arrangement of the record series, explain the information contained in the record series descriptions, and indicate restrictions on access to the records.

  20. A Model to Predict Total Chlorine Residue in the Cooling Seawater of a Power Plant Using Iodine Colorimetric Method

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jih-Terng; Chen, Ming-Hui; Lee, Hung-Jen; Chang, Wen-Been; Chen, Chung-Chi; Pai, Su-Cheng; Meng, Pei-Jie

    2008-01-01

    A model experiment monitoring the fate of total residue oxidant (TRO) in water at a constant temperature and salinity indicated that it decayed exponentially with time, and with TRO decaying faster in seawater than in distilled water. The reduction of TRO by temperature (°K) was found to fit a curvilinear relationship in distilled water (r2 = 0.997) and a linear relationship in seawater (r2 = 0.996). Based on the decay rate, flow rate, and the length of cooling water flowing through at a given temperature, the TRO level in the cooling water of a power plant could be estimated using the equation developed in this study. This predictive model would provide a benchmark for power plant operators to adjust the addition of chlorine to levels necessary to control bio-fouling of cooling water intake pipelines, but without irritating ambient marine organisms. PMID:19325768

  1. Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishiro, F.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Yamauchi, S.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ˜0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds.

  2. Brine history indicated by argon, krypton, chlorine, bromine, and iodine analyses of fluid inclusions from the Mississippi Valley type lead-fluorite-barite deposits at Hansonburg, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.; Irwin, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    Argon, krypton, chlorine, bromine, and iodine were measured in a homogeneous population of high-salinity hydrothermal fluid inclusions from the Tertiary-age Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) lead-fluorite-barite deposits at Hansonburg, New Mexico to establish new types of evidence for the history of both the fluid and the major dissolved salts. Noble gases and halogens in fluid inclusions containing 10−10–10−9 L of brine (Cl= 3 molal) were analyzed by laser microprobe noble-gas mass spectrometry (lmngms) on neutron-irradiated samples.The concentrations of36Ar (4.7 × 10−8 molal) and84Kr1.8 × 10−9 molal) in the fluid inclusions are equal to those of fresh surface waters in equilibrium with air at approximately20 ± 5°. The mole ratios ofBr/Cl (1.2 × 10−4) andI/Cl (1–2 × 10−6) are among the lowest measured in any natural waters, similar to those of modern brines formed by dissolution of Permian NaCl-bearing evaporites in southeast New Mexico.40Ar/36Ar ratios (600) are twice that of air, and indicate that the fluid inclusions had excess radiogenic40Ar (1.4 × 10−5 molal) when trapped. The amount of excess40Ar appears to be too large to have been acquired with Cl by congruent dissolution of halite-bearing evaporites, and possibly too small to have been acquired with Pb by congruent dissolution of granitic basement rocks with Proterozoic KAr ages.From thelmngms data, combined with published Pb and S isotope data, we infer the following sequence of events in the history of the Hansonburg MVT hydrothermal brine: (1) the brine originated as relatively dilute meteoric water, and it did not gain or lose atmospheric Ar or Kr after recharge; (2) the originally dilute fluid acquired the bulk of its Cl and sulfate in the subsurface after recharge by dissolving halite-bearing Permian? marine evaporites; (3) the high salinity brine then acquired most of its Pb and excess radiogenic40Ar from interactions with aquifer rocks other than evaporites, possibly clastic

  3. Radionuclide Basics: Cesium-137

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The most common radioactive form of cesium (chemical symbol Cs) is Cesium-137. Cesium-137 is produced by nuclear fission for use in medical devices and gauges and is one of the byproducts of nuclear fission in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons testing.

  4. Accurate determination of chlorine, bromine, and iodine in sedimentary rock reference samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis and a detailed comparison with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry literature data.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Shun; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2013-07-02

    Trace amounts of three halogens (chlorine, bromine, and iodine) were determined using radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) for nine sedimentary rocks and three rhyolite samples. To obtain high-quality analytical data, the radiochemical procedure of RNAA was improved by lowering the background in gamma-ray spectrometry and completing the chemical procedure more rapidly than in conventional procedures. A comparison of the RNAA data of Br and I with corresponding inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) literature data revealed that the values obtained by ICPMS coupled with pyrohydrolysis preconcentration were systematically lower than the RNAA data for some reference samples, suggesting that the quantitative collection of Br and I cannot always be achieved by the pyrohydrolysis for some solid samples. The RNAA data of three halogens can classify sedimentary rock reference samples into two groups (the samples from inland water and those from seawater), implying the geochemical significance of halogen data.

  5. Chemical thermodynamics of iodine species in the HTGR fuel particle

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemer, T.B.

    1982-09-01

    The iodine-containing species in an intact fuel particle in the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) have been calculated. Assumptions include: (1) attainment of chemical thermodynamic equilibrium among all species in the open porosity of the particle, primarily in the buffer layer; and (2) fission-product concentrations in proportion to their yields. The primary gaseous species is calculated to be cesium iodide; in carbide-containing fuels, gaseous barium iodide may exhibit equivalent pressures. The condensed iodine-containing phase is usually cesium iodide, but in carbide-containing fuels, barium iodide may be stable instead. Absorption of elemental iodine on the carbon in the particle appears to be less than or equal to 10/sup -4/ ..mu..g I/g C. The fission-product-spectra excess of cesium over iodine would generally be adsorbed on the carbon, but may form Cs/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/ under some circumstances.

  6. High-temperature sorption of cesium and strontium on dispersed kaolinite powders.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jong-Ik; Shinagawa, Takuya; Wood, Joseph P; Linak, William P; Santoianni, Dawn A; King, Charles J; Seo, Yong-Chil; Wendt, Jost O L

    2005-07-01

    Sorption of cesium and strontium on kaolinite powders was investigated as a means to minimize the emissions of these metals during certain high-temperature processes currently being developed to isolate and dispose of radiological and mixed wastes. In this work, nonradioactive aqueous cesium acetate or strontium acetate was atomized down the center of a natural gas flame supported on a variable-swirl burner in a refractory-lined laboratory-scale combustion facility. Kaolinite powder was injected at a postflame location in the combustor. Cesium readily vaporized in the high-temperature regions of the combustor, but was reactively scavenged onto dispersed kaolinite. Global sorption mechanisms of cesium vapor on kaolinite were quantified, and are related to those available in the literature for sodium and lead. Both metal adsorption and substrate deactivation steps are important, so there is an optimum temperature, between 1400 and 1500 K, at which maximum sorption occurs. The presence of chlorine inhibits cesium sorption. In contrast to cesium, and in the absence of chlorine, strontium was only partially vaporized and was, therefore, only partially scavengeable. The strontium data did not allow quantification of global kinetic mechanisms of interaction, although equilibrium arguments provided insight into the effects of chlorine on strontium sorption. These results have implications for the use of sorbents to control cesium and strontium emissions during high-temperature waste processing including incineration and vitrification.

  7. Cesium: a bibliography update

    SciTech Connect

    Messiha, F.S.

    1984-01-01

    A brief outline of both industrial and medicinal uses of cesium is given. This is followed by a survey of literature on cesium salts for the period between January 1981 to May 1984. The bibliography searched indicates an interesting pharmacological and behavioral effect for Cs-salts in addition to its well known physiological and itopic effects. A pattern of clinical trials suggests the potential of cesium salts in certain cancer therapies, affective disorders, tumor imaging, radiotherapy and certain cardiovascular usages. The need for continued probing into the biological activity of this alkalimetal is suggested.

  8. Cesium chloride: preventive medicine for radioactive cesium exposure?

    PubMed

    Braverman, E R; Sohler, A; Pfeiffer, C C

    1988-06-01

    Cesium is produced in high yield fission of uranium and plutonium. Radioactive cesium needles are a radiation hazard for radiotherapists. In this age of nuclear reactors, i.e. Chernobyl, radioactive cesium exposure may be a growing problem. Furthermore, there are numerous therapeutic potentials for cesium therapy, i.e. cancer, depression and schizophrenia. We explored the clearance of cesium in man and found that an oral dose of 50 mg maintains elevated blood cesium levels for 80 days. Cesium is accumulated mainly in the red blood cell fraction. Larger doses (6-9 grams) produce no observed harmful effects and maintain elevated blood levels of cesium for more than a year. Our data suggests there is a threshold of maximum cesium saturation in blood; if maintained, any additional cesium exposure, i.e. radioactive cesium, would be excreted at a more rapid rate. It is probable that large cesium doses can protect against radiation toxicity by blocking sites on red blood cells and thereby result in increased excretion and clearance of the radioactive forms of cesium. This hypothesis should be easily testable in laboratory animals.

  9. Vanadium-catalyzed chlorination under molecular oxygen.

    PubMed

    Moriuchi, Toshiyuki; Fukui, Yasuhiro; Kato, Satoshi; Kajikawa, Tomomi; Hirao, Toshikazu

    2015-06-01

    A catalytic chlorination of ketones was performed by using a vanadium catalyst in the presence of Bu4NI and AlCl3 under atmospheric molecular oxygen. This catalytic chlorination could be applied to the chlorination of alkenes to give the corresponding vic-dichlorides. AlCl3 was found to serve as both a Lewis acid and a chloride source to induce the facile chlorination. A combination of Bu4NI and AlI3 in the presence of a vanadium catalyst under atmospheric molecular oxygen induced the iodination of ketones.

  10. UV-vis spectroscopy of iodine adsorbed on alkali-metal-modified zeolite catalysts for addition of carbon dioxide to ethylene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Doskocil, E.J.; Bordawekar, S.V.; Kaye, B.G.; Davis, R.J.

    1999-07-29

    The basicity of alkali-metal-exchange (Na, K, Cs) zeolites X and Y was probed by UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of adsorbed iodine. The observed blue shift in the visible absorption spectrum of adsorbed iodine, compared to gaseous iodine, correlated well with the negative charge on the framework oxygen atoms calculated from the Sanderson electronegativity equalization principle. The blue shifts associated with iodine adsorbed on classical catalytic supports like silica, alumina, and magnesia suggest that the iodine adsorption technique for probing basicity is applicable to a wide variety of solids. Iodine was also adsorbed on X and Y zeolites containing occluded cesium oxide formed by decomposition of impregnated cesium acetate. However, the iodine appeared to irreversibly react on these strongly basic samples, possibly forming an adsorbed triiodide ions. As a complement to the adsorption studies, the activity of alkali-metal-containing zeolites for the base-catalyzed formation of ethylene carbonate from ethylene oxide and carbon dioxide was investigated. Among the ion-exchanged zeolites, the cesium form of zeolite X exhibited the highest activity for ethylene carbonate formation. The catalytic activity of a zeolite containing occluded cesium was even higher than that of a cesium-exchanged zeolite. The presence of water adsorbed in zeolite pores promoted the rate of ethylene carbonate formation for both cesium-exchanged and cesium-impregnated zeolite X.

  11. Iodine revisited.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Rose A

    2007-06-01

    Iodine is an antiseptic that has been used in wound care for more than 150 years. Traditional formulations of iodine had serious limitations that were reduced in later products. Much has been written about iodine and opinions on its clinical efficacy are divided. There have been reviews of the chemical properties of iodine, its antimicrobial activity, human physiology, cytotoxicity and its clinical effectiveness, but few have addressed all these aspects. With the recent development of iodine-containing wound care products and the continued publication of laboratory and clinical studies, it seems timely to reassess the evidence relating to the effectiveness of iodine for treating wounds. This literature review attempts to provide an appropriate chemical and physiological background of the characteristics of iodine in order to provide a sound basis for understanding the available microbiological and clinical data. It will show that understanding the factors that contribute to the activity and potential cytotoxicity of iodine are important in evaluating the clinical evidence. Although definitive studies are needed, the sustained delivery of low doses of free iodine offers the potential to inhibit a broad range of microbial species without selecting for resistant strains or inducing cytotoxic effects.

  12. NPB Cesium Space Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, George M., III

    1992-01-01

    Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) weapons systems are planned to perform the ballistic missile defense functions of nuclear weapon/decoy discrimination and warhead kill at appropriate energy levels and ion currents. Negatively charged ions are produced in a specialized ion source and focused into a high quality particle beam. NPB linear accelerators accelerate and steer the negatively charged ions using electric and magnetic fields. After acceleration and steering the neutralizer system strips away extra electrons from ions to form the electrically neutral particle beam. The neutral beam then travels through space to the target unaffected by the Earth's magnetic fields. Continuing technological advances have greatly reduced the size and weight of NPB accelerator systems. Ion current production has been enhanced by over 100 percent with the intermittent addition of cesium at the NPB ion source device. This increase in current is essential to attain the most light weight, compact NPB platforms and minimize expensive launch costs. Addition of cesium into the ion source has been identified by the NPB community as the highest priority risk reduction space experiment necessary prior to planned NPB accelerator experiments and later weapons systems. The NPB Cesium Space Experiment is planned to successfully demonstrate controlled cesium introduction and vaporization into a simulated ion source chamber. Microgravity effects on the cesium deposition will be studied as will the effects of small amounts of cesium on high voltage accelerator components that might be susceptible to electrical insulator break downs. The experiment design will simulate as closely as possible the environment, physical and operational characteristics of the actual NPB ion source.

  13. Methods of producing cesium-131

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H; Snyder, John R

    2012-09-18

    Methods of producing cesium-131. The method comprises dissolving at least one non-irradiated barium source in water or a nitric acid solution to produce a barium target solution. The barium target solution is irradiated with neutron radiation to produce cesium-131, which is removed from the barium target solution. The cesium-131 is complexed with a calixarene compound to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution. A liquid:liquid extraction device or extraction column is used to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution.

  14. Radioactive Iodine

    MedlinePlus

    ... No Comments IDD NEWSLETTER – February 2017 VOLUME 45 NUMBER 1 FEBRUARY 2017 IODINE GLOBAL NETWORK (formerly ICCIDD Global Network) is a ... 2015 (PDF File, 9.42 MB) VOLUME 44 NUMBER 4 NOVEMBER 2016 IODINE GLOBAL NETWORK (formerly ICCIDD Global Network) is a ...

  15. A picture of polar iodinated disinfection byproducts in drinking water by (UPLC/)ESI-tqMS.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guoyu; Zhang, Xiangru

    2009-12-15

    Iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are generally more toxic than their chlorinated and brominated analogues. Up to date, only a few iodinated DBPs in drinking water have been identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In this work, a method for fast selective detection of polar iodinated DBPs was developed using an electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (ESI-tqMS) by conducting precursor ion scan of iodide at m/z 126.9. With such a method, pictures of polar iodinated DBPs in chlorinated, chloraminated, and chlorine-ammonia treated water samples were achieved. By coupling state-of-the-art ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) to the ESI-tqMS, structures of 17 iodinated DBPs were tentatively proposed. The results fully demonstrate that, with respect to the DBP number/levels among the three disinfection processes, chloramination generally generated the most/highest iodinated DBPs, chlorination generally produced the fewest/lowest iodinated DBPs, and chlorine-ammonia sequential treatment formed iodinated DBPs lying in between; the numbers of iodinated DBPs in chloraminated Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA) and Humic Acid (SRHA) were nearly the same, but the levels of aliphatic iodinated DBPs were higher in the chloraminated SRFA while the levels of aromatic iodinated DBPs were higher in the chloraminated SRHA; a couple of nitrogenous iodinated DBPs were found in chloramination and chlorine-ammonia treatment. The ratio of total organic iodine levels in chlorine-ammonia sequential treatment and chloramination could be expressed as a function of the lag time of ammonia addition.

  16. Intracellular imaging of cesium distribution in Arabidopsis using Cesium Green.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Masaaki; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Mori, Taizo; Adams, Eri; Shin, Ryoung; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2014-06-11

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, which was one of the most serious adverse effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake, was accompanied by the release of a large quantity of radioactive materials including (137)Cs to the environment. In a previous report, we developed and proposed a cesium (Cs) fluorescent probe, "Cesium Green", that enables the detection of cesium carbonate particles by spraying an alcoholic solution of the Cesium Green probe. In this paper, the sensing activity of this probe was investigated for its selectivity (by using an optode method) and for its application to detect micrometer-sizes Cs particles. Cesium Green was also assessed for its use in plant cellular imaging of Cs localization in Arabidopsis. Cesium Green enabled high-resolution Cs imaging of Cs-containing particles and of Cs contained in plants.

  17. Iodine Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlargement of the thyroid (goiter – see Goiter brochure ), hypothyroidism (see Hypothyroidism brochure ) and to mental retardation in infants and ... when lying down, and difficulty swallowing and breathing. HYPOTHYROIDISM – As the body’s iodine levels fall, hypothyroidism may ...

  18. Tracing iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Resnati, Giuseppe

    2011-03-01

    Pierangelo Metrangolo and Giuseppe Resnati celebrate the bicentenary of the discovery of iodine - a good time to also bring to its conclusion an international project that aims to define and categorize halogen bonding.

  19. Cesium-137 Decorporation Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Decorporation Medical countermeasure Cesium 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER (of pages) 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...Development (RD) Enterprise of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). Contract HDTRA1-10-C- 0025 is titled Medical Countermeasures for CBR Agents...Accurate modeling of medical countermeasure efficacy against chemical, biological and radiological agents (CBR agents) is essential to understanding the

  20. Recovery of cesium

    DOEpatents

    Izatt, Reed M.; Christensen, James J.; Hawkins, Richard T.

    1984-01-01

    A process of recovering cesium ions from mixtures of ions containing them and other ions, e.g., a solution of nuclear waste materials, which comprises establishing a separate source phase containing such a mixture of ions, establishing a separate recipient phase, establishing a liquid membrane phase in interfacial contact with said source and recipient phases, said membrane phase containing a ligand, preferably a selected calixarene as depicted in the drawing, maintaining said interfacial contact for a period of time long enough to transport by said ligand a substantial portion of the cesium ion from the source phase to the recipient phase, and recovering the cesium ion from the recipient phase. The separation of the source and recipient phases may be by the membrane phase only, e.g., where these aqueous phases are emulsified as dispersed phases in a continuous membrane phase, or may include a physical barrier as well, e.g., an open-top outer container with an inner open-ended container of smaller cross-section mounted in the outer container with its open bottom end spaced from and above the closed bottom of the outer container so that the membrane phase may fill the outer container to a level above the bottom of the inner container and have floating on its upper surface a source phase and a recipient phase separated by the wall of the inner container as a physical barrier. A preferred solvent for the ligand is a mixture of methylene chloride and carbon tetrachloride.

  1. Iodine Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John; Kamhawi, Hani; Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    This project is a collaborative effort to mature an iodine propulsion system while reducing risk and increasing fidelity of a technology demonstration mission concept. 1 The FY 2014 tasks include investments leveraged throughout NASA, from multiple mission directorates, as a partnership with NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), a NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Technology Investment Project, and an Air Force partnership. Propulsion technology is often a critical enabling technology for space missions. NASA is investing in technologies to enable high value missions with very small and low-cost spacecraft, even CubeSats. However, these small spacecraft currently lack any appreciable propulsion capability. CubeSats are typically deployed and drift without any ability to transfer to higher value orbits, perform orbit maintenance, or deorbit. However, the iodine Hall system can allow the spacecraft to transfer into a higher value science orbit. The iodine satellite (iSAT) will be able to achieve a (Delta)V of >500 m/s with <1 kg of solid iodine propellant, which can be stored in an unpressurized benign state prior to launch. The iSAT propulsion system consists of the 200 W Hall thruster, solid iodine propellant tank, a power processing unit, and the necessary valves and tubing to route the iodine vapor. The propulsion system is led by GRC, with critical hardware provided by the Busek Co. The propellant tank begins with solid iodine unpressurized on the ground and in-flight before operations, which is then heated via tank heaters to a temperature at which solid iodine sublimates to iodine vapor. The vapor is then routed through tubing and custom valves to control mass flow to the thruster and cathode assembly. 2 The thruster then ionizes the vapor and accelerates it via magnetic and electrostatic fields, resulting in thrust with a specific impulse >1,300 s. The iSAT spacecraft, illustrated in figure 1, is currently a 12U CubeSat. The spacecraft chassis will be

  2. Iodine in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... products also contain iodine. Other good sources are plants grown in iodine-rich soil. ... goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, the thyroid ... intake of iodine can reduce the function of the thyroid gland.

  3. Measurement of the iodine partition coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Furrer, M.; Cripps, R.C.; Gubler, R.

    1985-08-01

    The hydrolysis of iodine is complicated because it involves a number of species that differ considerably in their individual volatilities. Large uncertainties exist in the thermodynamic data of some of the iodine species, especially at temperatures above 25C. Because of this, an experiment was undertaken to measure the partition coefficient under varying physical and chemical conditions. Measurements of P were made for a temperature range of 21 to 113C under well-defined conditions (liquid molar concentration, pH, and redox potential) for inorganic iodine. The experimental results are interpreted with the aid of an analytical model and published thermodynamic data. A good agreement between calculated and measured values was found. The experimental setup allows the determination of very high partition coefficients up to a value of 2.0 X 10W. This is demonstrated by adding cesium-iodide to the fuel pool water of a boiling water reactor.

  4. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    MedlinePlus

    ... body; as they pass through, they can cause damage to tissue and DNA. Iodine-131: 8.02 days Iodine-129: 15.7 million years On this page: Iodine in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the ...

  5. Comparison of disinfection byproduct formation from chlorine and alternative disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Hua, Guanghui; Reckhow, David A

    2007-04-01

    Seven diverse natural waters were collected and treated in the laboratory under five oxidation scenarios (chlorine, chloramine, both with and without preozonation, and chlorine dioxide). The impact of these disinfectants on the formation of disinfection byproducts was investigated. Results showed that preozonation decreased the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and total organic halogen (TOX) for most waters during postchlorination. A net increase in THMs, HAAs and TOX was observed for a water of low humic content. Either decreases or increases were observed in dihaloacetic acids and unknown TOX (UTOX) as a result of preozonation when used with chloramination. Chloramines and chlorine dioxide produced a higher percentage of UTOX than free chlorine. They also formed more iodoform and total organic iodine (TOI) than free chlorine in the presence of iodide. Free chlorine produced a much higher level of total organic chlorine (TOCl) and bromine (TOBr) than chloramines and chlorine dioxide in the presence of bromide.

  6. Metals fact sheet--cesium

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    Cesium, the most alkaline and electropositive metal, is used by several industries for a variety of applications, including chemical catalysis, biomedical, photoelectrical, and glass manufacturing. While the traditional market for cesium has remained small, potential growth areas exist in the chemical catalysis and the oil and gas industry.

  7. Clinical effects of cesium intake.

    PubMed

    Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Zélia

    2010-06-01

    The knowledge about cesium metabolism and toxicity is sparse. Oral intake of cesium chloride has been widely promoted on the basis of the hypothesis referred to as "high pH cancer therapy", a complimentary alternative medicine method for cancer treatment. However, no properly confirmed tumor regression was reported so far in all probability because of neither theoretical nor experimental grounds for this proposal. The aim of the present review was to resume and discuss the material currently available on cesium salts and their applications in medicine. The presence of cesium in the cell does not guarantee high pH of its content, and there is no clinical evidence to support the claims that cancer cells are vulnerable to cesium. Cesium is relatively safe; signs of its mild toxicity are gastrointestinal distress, hypotension, syncope, numbness, or tingling of the lips. Nevertheless, total cesium intakes of 6 g/day have been found to produce severe hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, prolonged QTc interval, episodes of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, with or without torsade de pointes, and even acute heart arrest. However, full information on its acute and chronic toxicity is not sufficiently known. Health care providers should be aware of the cardiac complications, as a result of careless cesium usage as alternative medicine.

  8. Chlorine poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Chlorine reacts with water in and out of the body to form hydrochloric acid and hypochlorous acid. Both are extremely poisonous. ... chlorine) Throat swelling (may also cause breathing difficulty) ... Severe change in acid level of the blood (pH balance), which leads ...

  9. Inorganic iodine speciation in tropical Atlantic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. R.

    2004-10-01

    The inorganic speciation of soluble iodine has been determined in size-fractionated aerosol samples collected from the tropical Atlantic Ocean in October/November 2002 during Meteor cruise 55, a pilot study of the German SOLAS programme. Iodide concentrations were appreciable (>0.4 pmol m-3) in the fine and coarse modes of all samples whereas iodate was occasionally below detection limit (~0.7 pmol m-3) in samples from northern hemisphere air and was undetectable in all samples from the southern hemisphere. Iodine was enriched, and chlorine and bromine depleted, relative to seasalt concentrations. The majority of Cl- loss was due to the seasalt displacement reaction. Halogen activation (I- + HOX + H+ = IX + H2O) may also have occurred, but did not result in net I- depletion in any aerosol fraction. The observed variations of iodine speciation cannot be reproduced by current models of aerosol iodine chemistry.

  10. Iodine Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  11. Mineral resource of the month: cesium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angulo, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    The article offers information on cesium, a golden alkali metal derived from the Latin word caesium which means bluish gray. It mentions that cesium is the first element discovered with the use of spectroscopy. It adds that the leading producer and supplier of cesium is Canada and there are 50,000 kilograms of cesium consumed of the world in a year. Moreover, it states that only 85% of the cesium formate can be retrieved and recycled.

  12. Cesium diffusion in graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.B. III; Davis, W. Jr.; Sutton, A.L. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments on diffusion of /sup 137/Cs in five types of graphite were performed. The document provides a completion of the report that was started and includes a presentation of all of the diffusion data, previously unpublished. Except for data on mass transfer of /sup 137/Cs in the Hawker-Siddeley graphite, analyses of experimental results were initiated but not completed. The mass transfer process of cesium in HS-1-1 graphite at 600 to 1000/sup 0/C in a helium atmosphere is essentially pure diffusion wherein values of (E/epsilon) and ..delta..E of the equation D/epsilon = (D/epsilon)/sub 0/ exp (-..delta..E/RT) are about 4 x 10/sup -2/ cm/sup 2//s and 30 kcal/mole, respectively.

  13. Determination of iodine values using 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DBH) without the employment of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Analytical methods of pharmacopoeias with DBH in respect to environmental and economical concern. Part 17.

    PubMed

    Hilp, M

    2002-08-01

    Low and medium iodine values of fixed oils and fats can be determined in glacial acetic acid within reduced waiting times of only 5 min. Highly unsaturated compounds such as those of linseed oil, cod-liver oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, wheat germ oil and the emulsifier sorbitan trioleate result too low values in comparison to PH. EUR. 2002 [2] and USP 2000 [3]. Cocoa butter with a low iodine number is insoluble in glacial acetic acid. The iodine values of nonionogenic emulsifiers such as ceteareth-30 (Macrogol cetostearyl ether PH. EUR. 2002), oleth-10 resp. 20 (Macrogol oleyl ether PH. EUR. 2002) and polysorbate-80 PH. EUR. 2002 are obtained in aqueous solutions. Oleth-2 (Macrogol oleyl ether PH. EUR. 2002), polyoxyl-40 castor oil (Macrolglycerol ricinoleate PH. EUR. 2002), polysorbate-60 PH. EUR. 2002 and sorbitan trioleate PH. EUR. 2002 need the addition of ethyl acetate. Fixed oils even with high iodine values can be determined in an o/w emulsion with a reaction time of 5 min in most cases, when nonionogenic emulsifiers such as ceteareth-30, polyoxyl-30 glycerol monolaurate or polyoxyl-60 hydrogenated castor oil (Macrolglycerol hydroxystearate PH. EUR. 2002) are used.

  14. Radiolysis of cesium iodide solutions in conditions prevailing in a pressurized water reactor severe accident

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, M. )

    1988-08-01

    Measurements were made of I/sub 2/ formed when aqueous cesium iodide (CsI) solutions were exposed to two temperatures, 43 and 95/sup 0/C, with irradiation. Iodine partition coefficients were obtained from the experiments. The parameters varied were dose, CsI concentration, and Cs/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ concentration, in the presence of air-carbon dioxide and air-carbon dioxide-hydrogen mixtures, to provide information to calculate the form in which iodine released from fuel as CsI in a reactor accident might reach the environment. In a series of experiments, a two-compartment cell was used to trap the gaseous iodine produced. In this case, it was found that the quantity of gaseous iodine produced increased approximately linearly with the dose (at the dose rate used).

  15. Mysterious iodine-overabundance in Antarctic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreibus, G.; Waenke, H.; Schultz, L.

    1986-01-01

    Halogen as well as other trace element concentrations in meteorite finds can be influenced by alteration processes on the Earth's surface. The discovery of Antarctic meteorites offered the opportunity to study meteorites which were kept in one of the most sterile environment of the Earth. Halogen determination in Antartic meteorites was compared with non-Antarctic meteorites. No correlation was found between iodine concentration and the weathering index, or terrestrial age. The halogen measurements indicate a contaminating phase rich in iodine and also containing chlorine. Possible sources for this contamination are discussed.

  16. METHOD OF PREPARING RADIOACTIVE CESIUM SOURCES

    DOEpatents

    Quinby, T.C.

    1963-12-17

    A method of preparing a cesium-containing radiation source with physical and chemical properties suitable for high-level use is presented. Finely divided silica is suspended in a solution containing cesium, normally the fission-product isotope cesium 137. Sodium tetraphenyl boron is then added to quantitatively precipitate the cesium. The cesium-containing precipitate is converted to borosilicate glass by heating to the melting point and cooling. Up to 60 weight percent cesium, with a resulting source activity of up to 21 curies per gram, is incorporated in the glass. (AEC)

  17. Cesium chloride-induced torsades de pointes.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Matthew; Gordon, Wendy; Baulcomb, Daisy; Mattman, Andre; Mock, Tom; Brown, Robert

    2009-09-01

    The chloride salt of cesium, a group 1A element, is gaining popularity as an alternative treatment of advanced cancers. Cesium chloride has primarily been used in cardiovascular research for arrhythmogenesis in animals because of its potassium-blocking effects. The present report describes a 45-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer who experienced repeated episodes of torsades de pointes polymorphic ventricular tachycardia after several months of oral cesium therapy. There was a clear temporal relationship between cesium ingestion and the arrhythmia, which later resolved following discontinuation of cesium therapy. Serial cesium plasma and whole blood levels were measured over the ensuing six months and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed.

  18. Hair Iodine for Human Iodine Status Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Prejac, Juraj; Višnjević, Vjeran; Skalnaya, Margarita G.; Mimica, Ninoslav; Drmić, Stipe; Skalny, Anatoly V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Today, human iodine deficiency is, after iron, the most common nutritional deficiency in developed European and underdeveloped third world countries. A current biological indicator of iodine status is urinary iodine, which reflects very recent iodine exposure; a long-term indicator of iodine status remains to be identified. Methods: We analyzed hair iodine in a prospective, observational, cross-sectional, and exploratory study involving 870 apparently healthy Croatians (270 men and 600 women). Hair iodine was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: The hair iodine median was 0.499 μg/g, and was 0.482 and 0.508 μg/g for men and women respectively, suggesting no sex-related difference. We studied hair iodine uptake by analyzing the logistic sigmoid saturation curve of the median derivatives to assess iodine deficiency, adequacy, and excess. We estimated overt iodine deficiency to occur when hair iodine concentration was below 0.1–0.15 μg/g. Then there was a saturation range interval of about 0.1–2.0 μg/g where the deposition of iodine in the hair was linearly increasing (R2=0.994). Eventually, the sigmoid curve became saturated at about 2.0 μg/g and upward, suggesting excessive iodine exposure. Conclusion: Hair appears to be a valuable and robust biological indicator tissue for assessing long-term iodine status. We propose that an adequate iodine status corresponds with hair iodine uptake saturation of 0.565–0.739 μg/g (55–65%). PMID:24446669

  19. Long-term migration of iodine in sedimentary rocks based on iodine speciation and 129I/127I ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togo, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Amano, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Muramatsu, Y.; Iwatsuki, T.

    2012-12-01

    [Introduction] 129I is one of the available indexes of long-term migration of groundwater solutes, because of its long half-life (15.7 million years) and low sorption characteristics. The Horonobe underground research center (Japan Atomic Energy Agency), at which are conducted research and development of fundamental techniques on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, is an appropriate site for natural analogue studies, because iodine concentration in groundwater is high in this area. To predict iodine behavior in natural systems, speciation of iodine is essential because of different mobility among each species. In this study, we determined iodine speciation and129I/127I isotope ratios of rock and groundwater samples to investigate long term migration of iodine. [Methods] All rock and groundwater samples were collected at Horonobe underground research center. The region is underlain mainly by Neogene to Quaternary marine sedimentary rocks, the Wakkanai Formation (Wk Fm, siliceous mudstones), and the overlying Koetoi Formation (Kt Fm, diatomaceous mudstones). Iodine species in rock samples were determined by iodine K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (SPring-8 BL01B1). Thin sections of rock samples were prepared, and iodine mapping were obtained by micro-XRF analysis (SPring-8 BL37XU). Iodine species (IO3-, I-, and organic I) in groundwater were separately detected by high performance liquid chromatography connected to ICP-MS. The 129I/127I ratios in groundwater and rock samples were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (MALT, Univ. of Tokyo). Iodine in rock samples were separated by pyrohydrolysis and water extraction. [Results and discussion] Concentration of iodine in groundwater varied widely and was much higher than that of seawater showing a high correlation with that of chlorine (R2 = 0.90). Species of iodine in groundwater was mainly I-. Iodine in rock samples decreased near the boundary between Wk and Kt Fms. Iodine K-edge XANES

  20. Efficacy of copper and silver ions with iodine in the inactivation of Pseudomonas cepacia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pyle, B. H.; Broadaway, S. C.; McFeters, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    Alternatives to chlorination of water have been sought for reasons which include trihalomethane formation, possible bacterial regrowth, the high concentrations of chlorine required in certain circumstances, and the taste, odour and bodily irritation in chlorine-treated water. Electrolytically generated Cu and Ag ions at low levels, in addition to very low chlorine concentrations, have been suggested as an alternative to routine chlorination. We have examined the combination of Cu and Ag ions with low levels of iodine. Pseudomonas cepacia was grown either in rich medium or under nutrient restriction prior to disinfection. Survival of the organism and its ability to regrow after treatment as well as the effects of varying buffers, metal ion and iodine concentrations were determined. Low concentrations of metal ions (100 ppb Cu and 11 ppb Ag) and iodine (200 ppb) were more effective than either metal ions or iodine alone against Ps. cepacia grown on rich agar or in low nutrient buffer. After iodination, buffer-grown suspensions recovered to their original cell concentrations within 7 d. When Cu and Ag ions were used with or without iodine, regrowth was prevented. The results show that low concentrations of Cu and Ag in combination with iodine permit effective disinfection of bacteria after cultivation on either rich media or under nutrient restriction. These results, along with published data, suggest that the combination of these metals with halogenation may have applications in the disinfection of both recreational and potable water.

  1. Efficacy of copper and silver ions with iodine in the inactivation of Pseudomonas cepacia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pyle, B. H.; Broadaway, S. C.; McFeters, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    Alternatives to chlorination of water have been sought for reasons which include trihalomethane formation, possible bacterial regrowth, the high concentrations of chlorine required in certain circumstances, and the taste, odour and bodily irritation in chlorine-treated water. Electrolytically generated Cu and Ag ions at low levels, in addition to very low chlorine concentrations, have been suggested as an alternative to routine chlorination. We have examined the combination of Cu and Ag ions with low levels of iodine. Pseudomonas cepacia was grown either in rich medium or under nutrient restriction prior to disinfection. Survival of the organism and its ability to regrow after treatment as well as the effects of varying buffers, metal ion and iodine concentrations were determined. Low concentrations of metal ions (100 ppb Cu and 11 ppb Ag) and iodine (200 ppb) were more effective than either metal ions or iodine alone against Ps. cepacia grown on rich agar or in low nutrient buffer. After iodination, buffer-grown suspensions recovered to their original cell concentrations within 7 d. When Cu and Ag ions were used with or without iodine, regrowth was prevented. The results show that low concentrations of Cu and Ag in combination with iodine permit effective disinfection of bacteria after cultivation on either rich media or under nutrient restriction. These results, along with published data, suggest that the combination of these metals with halogenation may have applications in the disinfection of both recreational and potable water.

  2. Cesium Concentration in MCU Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D

    2006-01-18

    During Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) operations, Cs-137 concentrations in product streams will vary depending on the location in the process and on the recent process conditions. Calculations of cesium concentrations under a variety of operating conditions reveal the following: (1) Under nominal operations with salt solution feed containing 1.1 Ci Cs-137 per gallon, the maximum Cs-137 concentration in the process will occur in the strip effluent (SE) and equal 15-16.5 Ci/gal. (2) Under these conditions, the majority of the solvent will contain 0.005 to 0.01 Ci/gal, with a limited portion of the solvent in the contactor stages containing {approx}4 Ci/gal. (3) When operating conditions yield product near 0.1 Ci Cs-137/gal in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS), the SE cesium concentration will be the same or lower than in nominal operations, but majority of the stripped solvent will increase to {approx}2-3 Ci/gal. (4) Deviations in strip and waste stream flow rates cause the largest variations in cesium content: (a) If strip flow rates deviate by -30% of nominal, the SE will contain {approx}23 Ci/gal, although the cesium content of the solvent will increase to only 0.03 Ci/gal; (b) If strip flow rate deviates by -77% (i.e., 23% of nominal), the SE will contain 54 Ci/gal and solvent will contain 1.65 Ci/gal. At this point, the product DSS will just reach the limit of 0.1 Ci/gal, causing the DSS gamma monitors to alarm; and (c) Moderate (+10 to +30%) deviations in waste flow rate cause approximately proportional increases in the SE and solvent cesium concentrations. Recovery from a process failure due to poor cesium stripping can achieve any low cesium concentration required. Passing the solvent back through the contactors while recycling DSS product will produce a {approx}70% reduction during one pass through the contactors (assuming the stripping D value is no worse than 0.36). If the solvent is returned to the solvent hold tank

  3. Chlorine dioxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 00 / 007 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE AND CHLORITE ( CAS Nos . 10049 - 04 - 4 and 7758 - 19 - 2 ) In Support of Summary Information on the ( IRIS ) Integrated Risk Information System September 2000 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This docu

  4. Chlorine cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorine cyanide ; CASRN 506 - 77 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  5. Neutron activation analysis of total diet food composites for iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Allegrini, M.; Boyer, K.W.; Tanner, J.T.

    1981-09-01

    The iodine content of Total Diet food composites was measured using neutron activation analysis. The interfering element chlorine was separated using a modified combustion and gas phase procedure. The average recovery was 94.8% (standard deviation 2.9) for the 10 matrices that were tested. In addition, iodine was measured in National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Materials, which have no certified values for this element. Preliminary findings of iodine content of adult Total Diet market baskets collected during Fiscal Year 1980 in different regions of the United States ranged from 292 to 901 ..mu..g/day for a 2900 kcal intake.

  6. Cesium control and diagnostics in surface plasma negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Chapovsky, Pavel; Dudnikov, Andrei

    2010-02-15

    For efficient and reliable negative ion generation it is very important to improve a cesium control and diagnostics. Laser beam attenuation and resonance fluorescence can be used for measurement of cesium distribution and cesium control. Resonant laser excitation and two-photon excitation can be used for improved cesium ionization and cesium trapping in the discharge chamber. Simple and inexpensive diode lasers can be used for cesium diagnostics and control. Cesium migration along the surface is an important mechanism of cesium escaping. It is important to develop a suppression of cesium migration and cesium accumulation on the extraction system.

  7. Cesium removal and kinetics equilibrium: Precipitation kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    1999-12-17

    This task consisted of both non-radioactive and radioactive (tracer) tests examining the influence of potentially significant variables on cesium tetraphenylborate precipitation kinetics. The work investigated the time required to reach cesium decontamination and the conditions that affect the cesium precipitation kinetics.

  8. Process for cesium decontamination and immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Komarneni, S.; Roy, R.

    1988-04-25

    Cesium can be selectively recovered from a nuclear waste solution containing cesium together with other metal ions by contact with a modified phlogopite which is a hydrated, sodium phlogopite mica. Once the cesium has entered the modified phlogopite it is fixed and can be safely stored for long periods of time. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Method of removing cesium from steam

    DOEpatents

    Carson, Jr., Neill J.; Noland, Robert A.; Ruther, Westly E.

    1991-01-01

    Method for removal of radioactive cesium from a hot vapor, such as high temperature steam, including the steps of passing input hot vapor containing radioactive cesium into a bed of silicate glass particles and chemically incorporating radioactive cesium in the silicate glass particles at a temperature of at least about 700.degree. F.

  10. Process for cesium decontamination and immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Komarneni, Sridhar; Roy, Rustum

    1989-01-01

    Cesium can be selectively recovered from a nuclear waste solution containing cesium together with other metal ions by contact with a modified phlogopite which is a hydrated, sodium phlogopite mica. Once the cesium has entered the modified phlogopite it is fixed and can be safely stored for long periods of time.

  11. Volcanic iodine monoxide observed from satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Theys, Nicolas; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Halogen species are injected into the atmosphere by volcanic eruptions. Previous studies have reported observations of chlorine and bromine oxides in volcanic plumes. These emissions have a significant impact on the chemistry within the plume as well as on upper troposphere and lower stratosphere composition, e.g. through ozone depletion. Volcanic halogen oxides have been observed from different platforms, from ground, aircraft and from satellite. The present study reports on satellite observations of iodine monoxide, IO, following the eruption of the Kasatochi volcano, Alaska, in August 2008. Satellite measurements from the SCIAMACHY sensor onboard ENVISAT are used. In addition, the volcanic IO plume is also retrieved from GOME-2 / MetOP-A measurements. Largest IO column amounts reach up to more than 4×1013 molec/cm2, the results from both instruments being consistent. The IO plume has a very similar shape as the BrO plume and is observed for several days following the eruption. The present observations are the first evidence that besides chlorine and bromine oxides also iodine oxides can be emitted by volcanic eruptions. This has important implications for atmospheric composition and background iodine levels. Together with the simultaneous observations of BrO and SO2, iodine monoxide columns can possibly provide insights into the composition of the magma.

  12. Effects of molybdenum and silver on iodine transport in primary circuit on severe nuclear accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kalilainen, J.; Rantanen, P.; Karkela, T.; Lipponen, M.; Auvinen, A.; Jokiniemi, J.

    2012-07-01

    This experimental study was a continuation of the study conducted at VTT to investigate the effects of reactions on primary circuit surfaces to transport of gaseous and aerosol phase iodine during the hypothetical severe nuclear accident. Cesium iodide was used as a precursor in every experiment. In the experiments it was observed that the hydrogen in the atmosphere decreased the fraction of released gaseous iodine. As the temperature was lowered, less iodine was released, but the fraction of gaseous iodine from the overall released iodine was increased. As molybdenum trioxide was introduced to the precursor, the fraction of gaseous iodine from the overall released iodine was increased significantly. Also, Mo decreased the transport of Cs and caused significant depositions to the reaction furnace. Addition of silver to the CsI precursor at 650 deg. C decreased the release of iodine as well as the fraction of gaseous iodine. At 400 deg. C, Ag + CsI as well as Ag + MoO{sub 3} + CsI precursor significantly increased the release of gaseous iodine, where almost no aerosol particles were released. With B{sub 2}O{sub 3} + CsI precursor it was observed that in the atmosphere without H{sub 2}O, the released iodine was mostly in gaseous form. (authors)

  13. Epidemiology of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vanderpump, Mark P

    2017-04-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency impairs thyroid hormone production and has adverse effects throughout life, particularly early in life as it impairs cognition and growth. Iodine deficiency remains a significant problem despite major national and international efforts to increase iodine intake, primarily through the voluntary or mandatory iodization of salt. Recent epidemiological data suggest that iodine deficiency is an emerging issue in industrialized countries, previously thought of as iodine-sufficient. International efforts to control iodine deficiency are slowing, and reaching the third of the worldwide population that remains deficient poses major challenges.

  14. Iodine volatility. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Shockley, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this program is to couple experimental aqueous iodine volatilities to a fission product release model. Iodine partition coefficients, for inorganic iodine, have been measured during hydrolysis and radiolysis. The hydrolysis experiments have illustrated the importance of reaction time on iodine volatility. However, radiolysis effects can override hydrolysis in determining iodine volatility. In addition, silver metal in radiolysis samples can react to form silver iodide accompanied by a decrease in iodine volatility. Experimental data are now being coupled to an iodine transport and release model that was developed in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  15. Iodine deficiency: Clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Niwattisaiwong, Soamsiri; Burman, Kenneth D; Li-Ng, Melissa

    2017-03-01

    Iodine is crucial for thyroid hormone synthesis and fetal neurodevelopment. Major dietary sources of iodine in the United States are dairy products and iodized salt. Potential consequences of iodine deficiency are goiter, hypothyroidism, cretinism, and impaired cognitive development. Although iodine status in the United States is considered sufficient at the population level, intake varies widely across the population, and the percentage of women of childbearing age with iodine deficiency is increasing. Physicians should be aware of the risks of iodine deficiency and the indications for iodine supplementation, especially in women who are pregnant or lactating.

  16. Gaseous iodine monitoring in Europe after the Fukushima accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Olivier; de Vismes-Ott, Anne; Manificat, Guillaume; Gurriaran, Rodolfo; Debayle, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    After the Fukushima accident and following the worldwide dispersion of contaminated air masses, many monitoring networks have reported airborne levels of emitted radionuclides, namely and mainly cesium isotopes and iodine 131. Most of the values focused on the particulate fraction (i.e. radionuclide-labeled aerosols) and were dedicated to cesium 137, cesium 134 and iodine 131. Iodine-131 was also found under gaseous form that accounted for most part of the total (gaseous + particulate)I-131 throughout the world. This gaseous predominance was also noticed after the Chernobyl accident despite differences in the type of accident. This predominance is due to the high iodine volatility and also by a rather low transfer from the gaseous form to the particulate one by adsorption on ambient airborne particles. Paradoxically, the number of gaseous determinations was rather low compared to the magnitude of data related to the particulate form (around 10 percent). Routine monitoring of airborne radionuclides species have been extensively based on aerosol sampling for decades as this allows the long term characterization of trace levels of remnant anthropogenic radionuclides. Moreover the capability of gaseous sampler equipped with activated charcoal to allow the quantification of 131I gaseous at trace level is limited by the contact time required for the sorption of iodine on the sorbent and thus by the low acceptable flow rate (usually between 3 and 5 m3/h, exceptionally 12 m3/h). In this context and despite the fact that airborne level outside Japan were of no concern for public health, this contribute to the lack of information on the actual levels of gaseous iodine. Other incidents involving iodine determination in the air have been reported in Europe in 2011 and 2012 without any relation with the Fukushima accident. For the same reason as previously mentioned, mainly, if not only, the particulate form was reported whereas it can be supposed that the predominant form was

  17. Cesium oxide-cesium solution as a source of cesium and oxygen.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, B.; Rufeh, F.; Pigford, T. H.

    1972-01-01

    Examination of the feasibility of using the solution as a source of cesium and oxygen, with description of an experimental system designed for a systematic investigation. Preliminary data are presented. Thermionic performance of the converter was recorded before the injection of oxygen at emitter temperatures of 1600, 1700, 1800, and 1900 K. The power of this converter, which had a polycrystalline tungsten emitter and a polycrystalline molybdenum collector, is compared with other converters. Experimental results show that cesium oxide mole factors higher than 0.18 are needed to achieve oxygen effects. It appears not to be necessary to be concerned about avoiding oxygen impurities in the cesium reservoir, since mole fractions as high as 0.18 have failed to influence the performance.

  18. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS SEPARATION OF CESIUM AND STRONTIUM FROM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd; R. Scott Herbst; David H. Meikrantz; Dean R. Peterman; Catherine L. Riddle; Richard D. Tillotson

    2005-02-01

    Two new solvent extraction technologies have been recently developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel, following dissolution in nitric acid. The first process utilizes a solvent consisting of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide and polyethylene glycol extractants in a phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone diluent. Recent improvements to the process include development of a new, non-nitroaromatic diluent and development of new stripping reagents, including a regenerable strip reagent that can be recovered and recycled. This new strip reagent reduces product volume by a factor of 20, over the baseline process. Countercurrent flowsheet tests on simulated spent nuclear fuel feed streams have been performed with both cesium and strontium removal efficiencies of greater than 99 %. The second process developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel is based on two highly-specific extractants: 4',4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6). The DtBuCH18C6 extractant is selective for strontium and the BOBCalixC6 extractant is selective for cesium. A solvent composition has been developed that enables both elements to be removed together and, in fact, a synergistic effect was observed with strontium distributions in the combined solvent that are much higher that in the strontium extraction (SREX) process. Initial laboratory test results of the new combined cesium and strontium extraction process indicate good extraction and stripping performance.

  19. Effect of X-ray Contrast Media, Chlorination, and Chloramination on Zebrafish Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effect of X-ray Contrast Media, Chlorination, and Chloramination on Zebrafish Development Little is known about the vertebrate developmental toxicity of chlorinated or chloraminated drinking water (DW), iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM, a common contaminate of DW) or how the c...

  20. Effect of X-ray Contrast Media, Chlorination, and Chloramination on Zebrafish Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effect of X-ray Contrast Media, Chlorination, and Chloramination on Zebrafish Development Little is known about the vertebrate developmental toxicity of chlorinated or chloraminated drinking water (DW), iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM, a common contaminate of DW) or how the c...

  1. Chlorine Clues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This plot shows that levels of the element chlorine rise dramatically in the deeper rocks lining the walls of the crater dubbed 'Endurance.' The data shown here were taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer at Endurance and 'Eagle Crater,' the site where Opportunity first landed at Meridiani Planum.

    Opportunity has been inching down the walls of Endurance Crater, investigating distinct layers of rock as it goes for clues to Mars' buried past. The various Endurance layers have been informally labeled 'A' through 'F.' Targets within these layers are listed on the graph along with previous targets from Eagle Crater. All the rocks listed here were observed after they had been drilled by the rover's rock abrasion tool.

    The observations indicate that the elements making up the shallow rock layers of Endurance Crater resemble those of Eagle, while the deeper layers of Endurance possess increasingly higher concentrations of the element chlorine.

    Opportunity will continue to roll deeper into Endurance to see if this puzzling trend continues. Scientists hope the new data will help them figure out how the presence of chlorine fits into the history of water at Endurance Crater.

  2. Chlorine Clues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This plot shows that levels of the element chlorine rise dramatically in the deeper rocks lining the walls of the crater dubbed 'Endurance.' The data shown here were taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer at Endurance and 'Eagle Crater,' the site where Opportunity first landed at Meridiani Planum.

    Opportunity has been inching down the walls of Endurance Crater, investigating distinct layers of rock as it goes for clues to Mars' buried past. The various Endurance layers have been informally labeled 'A' through 'F.' Targets within these layers are listed on the graph along with previous targets from Eagle Crater. All the rocks listed here were observed after they had been drilled by the rover's rock abrasion tool.

    The observations indicate that the elements making up the shallow rock layers of Endurance Crater resemble those of Eagle, while the deeper layers of Endurance possess increasingly higher concentrations of the element chlorine.

    Opportunity will continue to roll deeper into Endurance to see if this puzzling trend continues. Scientists hope the new data will help them figure out how the presence of chlorine fits into the history of water at Endurance Crater.

  3. Cesium Eluate Physical Property Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Baich, M.A.

    2001-02-13

    Two bench-scale process simulations of the proposed cesium eluate evaporation process of concentrating eluate produced in the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant were conducted. The primary objective of these experiments was to determine the physical properties and the saturation concentration of the eluate evaporator bottoms while producing condensate approximately 0.50 molar HN03.

  4. CESIUM RECOVERY FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Goodall, C.A.

    1960-09-13

    A process is given for precipitating cesium on zinc ferricyanide (at least 0.0004 M) from aqueous solutions containing mineral acid in a concentration of from 0.2 N acidity to 0.61 N acid-deficiency and advantageously, but not necessarily, also aluminum nitrate in a concentration of from l to 2.5 M.

  5. Hypervalent Iodine with Linear Chain at High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shubo; Wang, Jianyun; Deng, Shiyu; Zhang, Shoutao; Li, Quan

    2015-09-01

    Iodine is an element of fascinating chemical complexity, and numerous hypervalent iodine compounds reveal vital value of applications in organic synthesis. Investigation of the synthesis and application of new type of hypervalent iodine compound has extremely significant meaning. Here, the formation of CsIn (n > 1) compounds is predicted up to 200 GPa using an effective algorithm. The current results show that CsI3 with space group of Pm-3n is thermodynamically stable under high pressure. Hypervalence phenomenon of iodine atoms in Pm-3n CsI3 with endless linear chain type structure appears under high pressure, which is in sharp contrast to the conventional understanding. Our study further reveals that Pm-3n CsI3 is a metallic phase with several energy bands crossing Fermi-surface, and the pressure creates a peculiar reverse electron donation from iodine to cesium. The electron-phonon coupling calculations have proposed superconductive potential of the metallic Pm-3n CsI3 at 10 GPa which is much lower than that of CsI (180 GPa). Our findings represent a significant step toward the understanding of the behavior of iodine compounds at extreme conditions.

  6. Hypervalent Iodine with Linear Chain at High Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shubo; Wang, Jianyun; Deng, Shiyu; Zhang, Shoutao; Li, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Iodine is an element of fascinating chemical complexity, and numerous hypervalent iodine compounds reveal vital value of applications in organic synthesis. Investigation of the synthesis and application of new type of hypervalent iodine compound has extremely significant meaning. Here, the formation of CsIn (n > 1) compounds is predicted up to 200 GPa using an effective algorithm. The current results show that CsI3 with space group of Pm-3n is thermodynamically stable under high pressure. Hypervalence phenomenon of iodine atoms in Pm-3n CsI3 with endless linear chain type structure appears under high pressure, which is in sharp contrast to the conventional understanding. Our study further reveals that Pm-3n CsI3 is a metallic phase with several energy bands crossing Fermi-surface, and the pressure creates a peculiar reverse electron donation from iodine to cesium. The electron-phonon coupling calculations have proposed superconductive potential of the metallic Pm-3n CsI3 at 10 GPa which is much lower than that of CsI (180 GPa). Our findings represent a significant step toward the understanding of the behavior of iodine compounds at extreme conditions. PMID:26399899

  7. Consequences of excess iodine

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient that is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. The primary source of iodine is the diet via consumption of foods that have been fortified with iodine, including salt, dairy products and bread, or that are naturally abundant in the micronutrient, such as seafood. Recommended daily iodine intake is 150 μg in adults who are not pregnant or lactating. Ingestion of iodine or exposure above this threshold is generally well-tolerated. However, in certain susceptible individuals, including those with pre-existing thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses and neonates, or patients with other risk factors, the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction might be increased. Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism as a result of supraphysiologic iodine exposure might be either subclinical or overt, and the source of the excess iodine might not be readily apparent. PMID:24342882

  8. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of [sup 137]Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of [sup 137]Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope [sup 137]Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

  9. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of {sup 137}Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of {sup 137}Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope {sup 137}Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

  10. Method for primary containment of cesium wastes

    DOEpatents

    Angelini, Peter; Lackey, Walter J.; Stinton, David P.; Blanco, Raymond E.; Bond, Walter D.; Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.

    1983-01-01

    A method for producing a cesium-retentive waste form, characterized by a high degree of compositional stability and mechanical integrity, is provided by subjecting a cesium-loaded zeolite to heat under conditions suitable for stabilizing the zeolite and immobilizing the cesium, and coating said zeolite for sufficient duration within a suitable environment with at least one dense layer of pyrolytic carbon to seal therein said cesium to produce a final, cesium-bearing waste form. Typically, the zeolite is stabilized and the cesium immobilized in less than four hours by confinement within an air environment maintained at about 600.degree. C. Coatings are thereafter applied by confining the calcined zeolite within a coating environment comprising inert fluidizing and carbon donor gases maintained at 1,000.degree. C. for a suitable duration.

  11. Iodinated humic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Jesper V.; Carlsen, Lars

    Humic acids are iodinated by elemental iodine and, if the iodine is present as iodide, by peroxidase-mediated reactions. It is demonstrated that iodination of humic acids leads to a product with a uniform distribution of iodine. It could not be unambiguously verified whether the enzymatically mediated iodination is a direct reaction between a peroxidase-iodine complex and the humic acid molecule or a two-step reaction in which the enzyme creates elemental iodine, which consecutively reacts with the humic acid. Based on a simple model of a reaction between sites in the humic acids available for iodination and the electrophilic iodinating species, it was concluded that the reaction should be described as an equilibrium with a logarithmic equilibrium constant of approximately 4. The number of sites available for iodination was, in the humic acids studied, determined to be approximately 4×10-4 per gram humic acid. The different parameters influencing the enzymatically controlled iodination of humic acids are discussed.

  12. Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin

    DOEpatents

    Bibler, J.P.; Wallace, R.M.

    1995-08-15

    A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio. 2 figs.

  13. Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin

    DOEpatents

    Bibler, Jane P.; Wallace, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio.

  14. Cesium standard for satellite application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloch, M. B.; Meirs, M.; Pascaru, I.; Weinstein, B.

    1983-01-01

    A Cesium frequency standard that was developed for satellite applications is discussed. It weighs 23 lbs. and uses 23.5 watts of power, achieves a stability of 1 x ten to the minus 13th power/100,000 seconds, and is radiation hardened. To achieve the weight and reliability requirements, both thick and thin film hybrid circuits were utilized. A crystal oscillator is used to improve short-term stability and performance on a moving platform.

  15. Cesium recovery from aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Goodhall, C. A.

    1960-09-13

    A process for recovering cesium from aqueous solutions is given in which precipitation on zinc ferricyanide is used. The precipitation is preferably carried out in solutions containing at least 0.0004M zinc ferricyanide, an acidity ranging from 0.2N mineral acid to 0.61N acid deficiency, and 1 to 2.5M aluminum nitrate. (D.L.C.)

  16. Cesium heat-pipe thermostat

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, F.; Song, D.; Sheng, K.; Wu, J.; Yi, X.; Yu, Z.

    2013-09-11

    In this paper the authors report a newly developed Cesium Heat-Pipe Thermostat (Cs HPT) with the operation range of 400 °C to 800 °C. The working medium is cesium (Cs) of 99.98% purity and contains no radioisotope. A Cs filing device is developed which can prevent Cs being in contact with air. The structural material is stainless steel. A 5000 h test has been made to confirm the compatibility between cesium and stainless steel. The Cs HPT has several thermometer wells of 220mm depth with different diameters for different sizes of thermometers. The temperature uniformity of the Cs HPT is 0.06 °C to 0.20 °C. A precise temperature controller is used to ensure the temperature fluctuation within ±0.03 °C. The size of Cs HPT is 380mm×320mm×280mm with foot wheels for easy moving. The thermostat has been successfully used for the calibration of industrial platinum resistance thermometers and thermocouples.

  17. THE VISCOSITY OF HELIUM-CESIUM MIXTURES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The viscosities of helium-cesium mixtures having mole fractions of cesium from zero to unity were evaluated using a Lennard - Jones 6-12 interaction potential for all encounters in the Enskog Chapman expressions for the viscosity of a binary mixture. (Author)

  18. Age and speciation of iodine in groundwater and mudstones of the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan: Implications for the origin and migration of iodine during basin evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togo, Yoko S.; Takahashi, Yoshio; Amano, Yuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yohey; Terada, Yasuko; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ito, Kazumasa; Iwatsuki, Teruki

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the concentration, speciation and isotope ratio (129I/127I) of iodine from both groundwater and host rocks in the Horonobe area, northern Hokkaido, Japan, to clarify the origin and migration of iodine in sedimentary rocks. Cretaceous to Quaternary sedimentary rocks deposited nearly horizontally in Tenpoku Basin and in the Horonobe area were uplifted above sea level during active tectonics to form folds and faults in the Quaternary. Samples were collected from the Pliocene Koetoi and late Miocene Wakkanai formations (Fms), which include diatomaceous and siliceous mudstones. The iodine concentration in groundwater, up to 270 μmol/L, is significantly higher than that of seawater, with the iodine enrichment factor relative to seawater reaching 800-1500. The iodine concentration in the rocks decreases from the Koetoi to Wakkanai Fms, suggesting that iodine was released into the water from the rocks of deeper formations. The iodine concentration in the rocks is sufficiently high for forming iodine-rich groundwater as found in this area. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis shows that iodine exists as organic iodine and iodide (I-) in host rocks, whereas it exists mainly as I- in groundwater. The isotope ratio is nearly constant for iodine in the groundwater, at [0.11-0.23] × 10-12, and it is higher for iodine in rocks, at [0.29-1.1] × 10-12, giving iodine ages of 42-60 Ma and 7-38 Ma, respectively. Some iodine in groundwater must have originated from Paleogene and even late Cretaceous Fms, which are also considered as possible sources of oil and gas, in view of the old iodine ages of the groundwater. The iodine ages of the rocks are older than the depositional ages, implying that the rocks adsorbed some iodine from groundwater, which was sourced from greater depths. The iodine concentration in groundwater decreases with decreasing chlorine concentration due to mixing of iodine-rich connate water and meteoric water. A likely scenario

  19. PIXE analyses of cesium in rice grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugai, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Keizo; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Terakawa, Atsuki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Ishizaki, Azusa; Fujishiro, Fumito; Arai, Hirotsugu; Osada, Naoyuki; Karahashi, Masahiro; Nozawa, Yuichiro; Yamauchi, Shosei; Kikuchi, Kosuke; Koshio, Shigeki; Watanabe, Koji

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident released vast amounts of radioactive material into the environment. For instance, 134Cs and 137Cs have half-lives of about 2 and 30 years, respectively, and emit many harmful gamma rays. In 2012, rice with radioactivity >100 Bq/kg was occasionally reported in Fukushima prefecture. To determine where and how cesium accumulates in rice, we grew rice in soil containing stable cesium and investigated the distribution of cesium in rice using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This study found that cesium is accumulated in bran and germ at high concentrations, and white rice contains 40% of the cesium found in brown rice.

  20. CESIUM RECOVERY FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, R.A.

    1961-06-20

    Cesium may be precipitated from an aqueous solution whose acidity ranges between a pH of 1.5 and a molarity of 5 on cobaltous, zinc, cadmium, nickel, or ferrous cobalticyanide. This precipitation brings about a separation from most fission products. Ruthenium which coprecipitates to a great degree can be removed by dissolving in sulfuric acid and boiling the solution in the presence of periodic acid for volatilization; other coprecipitated fission products can then be precipitated from the sulfuric acid solution with a ferric hydroxide carrier.

  1. Surficial redistribution of fallout 131iodine in a small temperate catchment

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Joshua D.; Hamm, Nathan T.; Renshaw, Carl E.; Dade, W. Brian; Magilligan, Francis J.; Gartner, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Isotopes of iodine play significant environmental roles, including a limiting micronutrient (127I), an acute radiotoxin (131I), and a geochemical tracer (129I). But the cycling of iodine through terrestrial ecosystems is poorly understood, due to its complex environmental chemistry and low natural abundance. To better understand iodine transport and fate in a terrestrial ecosystem, we traced fallout 131iodine throughout a small temperate catchment following contamination by the 11 March 2011 failure of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power facility. We find that radioiodine fallout is actively and efficiently scavenged by the soil system, where it is continuously focused to surface soils over a period of weeks following deposition. Mobilization of historic (pre-Fukushima) 137cesium observed concurrently in these soils suggests that the focusing of iodine to surface soils may be biologically mediated. Atmospherically deposited iodine is subsequently redistributed from the soil system via fluvial processes in a manner analogous to that of the particle-reactive tracer 7beryllium, a consequence of the radionuclides’ shared sorption affinity for fine, particulate organic matter. These processes of surficial redistribution create iodine hotspots in the terrestrial environment where fine, particulate organic matter accumulates, and in this manner regulate the delivery of iodine nutrients and toxins alike from small catchments to larger river systems, lakes and estuaries. PMID:22378648

  2. Surficial redistribution of fallout ¹³¹iodine in a small temperate catchment.

    PubMed

    Landis, Joshua D; Hamm, Nathan T; Renshaw, Carl E; Dade, W Brian; Magilligan, Francis J; Gartner, John D

    2012-03-13

    Isotopes of iodine play significant environmental roles, including a limiting micronutrient ((127)I), an acute radiotoxin ((131)I), and a geochemical tracer ((129)I). But the cycling of iodine through terrestrial ecosystems is poorly understood, due to its complex environmental chemistry and low natural abundance. To better understand iodine transport and fate in a terrestrial ecosystem, we traced fallout (131)iodine throughout a small temperate catchment following contamination by the 11 March 2011 failure of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power facility. We find that radioiodine fallout is actively and efficiently scavenged by the soil system, where it is continuously focused to surface soils over a period of weeks following deposition. Mobilization of historic (pre-Fukushima) (137)cesium observed concurrently in these soils suggests that the focusing of iodine to surface soils may be biologically mediated. Atmospherically deposited iodine is subsequently redistributed from the soil system via fluvial processes in a manner analogous to that of the particle-reactive tracer (7)beryllium, a consequence of the radionuclides' shared sorption affinity for fine, particulate organic matter. These processes of surficial redistribution create iodine hotspots in the terrestrial environment where fine, particulate organic matter accumulates, and in this manner regulate the delivery of iodine nutrients and toxins alike from small catchments to larger river systems, lakes and estuaries.

  3. Surficial redistribution of fallout 131iodine in a small temperate catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landis, Joshua D.; Hamm, Nathan T.; Renshaw, Carl E.; Dade, W. Brian; Magilligan, Francis J.; Gartner, John D.

    2012-03-01

    Isotopes of iodine play significant environmental roles, including a limiting micronutrient (127I), an acute radiotoxin (131I), and a geochemical tracer (129I). But the cycling of iodine through terrestrial ecosystems is poorly understood, due to its complex environmental chemistry and low natural abundance. To better understand iodine transport and fate in a terrestrial ecosystem, we traced fallout 131iodine throughout a small temperate catchment following contamination by the 11 March 2011 failure of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power facility. We find that radioiodine fallout is actively and efficiently scavenged by the soil system, where it is continuously focused to surface soils over a period of weeks following deposition. Mobilization of historic (pre-Fukushima) 137cesium observed concurrently in these soils suggests that the focusing of iodine to surface soils may be biologically mediated. Atmospherically deposited iodine is subsequently redistributed from the soil system via fluvial processes in a manner analogous to that of the particle-reactive tracer 7beryllium, a consequence of the radionuclides' shared sorption affinity for fine, particulate organic matter. These processes of surficial redistribution create iodine hotspots in the terrestrial environment where fine, particulate organic matter accumulates, and in this manner regulate the delivery of iodine nutrients and toxins alike from small catchments to larger river systems, lakes and estuaries.

  4. Iodine deficiency in children.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is an essential trace mineral, required for the production of thyroid hormone. Iodine deficiency may result in goiter, hypothyroidism, miscarriage, stillbirth, congenital anomalies, infant and neonatal mortality, and impaired growth. Adequate thyroid hormone is critically important for normal growth and neurodevelopment in fetal life, infancy and childhood. The population iodine status is most commonly assessed using median urinary iodine concentration values, but goiter prevalence (determined by palpation or by ultrasound), serum thyroglobulin levels, and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone values can also be used. Universal salt iodization programs have been the mainstay of public health efforts to eliminate iodine deficiency worldwide. However, in some regions targeted fortification of foods such as bread has been used to combat iodine deficiency. Iodine supplementation may be required in areas where dietary fortification is not feasible or where it is not sufficient for vulnerable groups such as pregnant women. Although international public health efforts over the past several decades have been highly effective, nearly one third of children worldwide remain at risk for iodine deficiency, and iodine deficiency is considered the leading preventable cause of preventable intellectual deficits.

  5. [Characteristics of hypothyroidism correction and lipid metabolism disorder in iodine deficiency].

    PubMed

    Voronych-Semchenko, N M

    2007-01-01

    The serum biochemical indexes (level of triiodthyronine, thyroxin, thyrothropic hormone of adenohypophysis, level of cholesterol, triglycerides) and the level of iodine excretion with urine in rats with hypothyrosis corrected by "Iodid-100" and along with excessive intake of chlorine and fluorine ions into the organism had been studied. It has been revealed that hypothyrosis has negative influence on lipid metabolism indexes. "Iodid- 100" usage stabilized hormonal and lipid status. Excessive intake of chlorine and fluorine ions by the organism decreased the effectiveness of iodine containing drugs.

  6. The Chlorination Quandary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Julian

    1978-01-01

    Current use of chlorination technology to disinfect water supplies can cause the production of undesirable products, among them chloroform and chlorobenzene. Alternatives to this methodology include the use of ozone, chlorine dioxide, and bromine chloride in place of chlorine. Presently, the methods are feasible in developed countries only. (MA)

  7. The Chlorination Quandary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Julian

    1978-01-01

    Current use of chlorination technology to disinfect water supplies can cause the production of undesirable products, among them chloroform and chlorobenzene. Alternatives to this methodology include the use of ozone, chlorine dioxide, and bromine chloride in place of chlorine. Presently, the methods are feasible in developed countries only. (MA)

  8. Biodegration of chlorinated ethenes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Chapelle, Francis H.

    2010-01-01

    Biodegradation of chlorinated ethenes by naturally occurring or artificially enhanced processes is an important component of current site remediation strategies. At this writing, several microbial mechanisms for chlorinated ethene transformation and degradation have been identified. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly summarize the current understanding of those processes that lead to the biodegradation of chlorinated ethenes.

  9. Water chlorination Vol. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Bull, R.J.; Davis, W.P.; Katz, S.; Roberts, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book describes the significant original contributions in the field of water chlorination of the last three years. It includes chlorination research, developments and alternatives. Issues covered include: water chlorination; risk; epidemiology; carcinogenic and mutagenic effects; toxicology of disinfectants; aquatic models and tumor induction; environmental effects; disinfection; reaction dynamics; chemical methods; drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment.

  10. Earth's Volatiles History and Cycles: the Case of Iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, H.; Marocchi, M.; Munsch, P.; Auzende, A.; Raepsaet, C.; Mezouar, M.; Testemale, D.; Kubsky, S.; Carriere, M.; Ricolleau, A.; Fiquet, G.

    2011-12-01

    Among the volatile elements present in our solar system, iodine is involved in mechanisms of primary importance during planet's evolution. The different isotopic signatures of 129Xe/132Xe for mantle and atmosphere between the Earth and Mars may reflect an early fractionation of xenon with respect to iodine. The role of fluids and more especially water is seriously envisaged to generate such a fractionation because whereas iodine is hydrophilic, xenon is not. Therefore iodine's early degassing with a water-rich fluid from a magma ocean is a good hypothesis to explain iodine, but also chlorine and bromine losses during early differentiation stages of the Earth. It was also shown that iodine is involved in natural ozone destruction in the Earth's atmosphere. Today we are able to detect iodine in volcanic emissions. The intensive subduction-zones volcanic degassing may explain the presence of iodine in the atmosphere if degassed together with water. The combination of synchrotron X-Ray characterization with diamond anvil cells, applied as magmatic and mantelic reactors to simulate pressure and temperature conditions of the planet interiors allows: (1) the characterization of fluids (aqueous, melt, supercritic) existing in the Earth; (2) element transfers via such fluids from depths to planets surfaces. Here, we have experimentally monitored iodine degassing from high pressure hydrous melts in situ in diamond anvil cells DAC by measuring iodine partitioning between aqueous fluids and hydrous melts during decompression. DAC experiments have been combined with high energy Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence at the beam lines Id27 and FAME from ESRF. Partition coefficients (D(I)fluid/melt = (I)fluid/(I)melt ) have been measured in situ from 500 to 900 °C and from 0.1 to 1.8 GPa. First results show that they are ranging from 1.9 (1.4 GPa) to 60 (0.1 GPa) and seem to tend to unity close to total miscibility between melts and aqueous fluids. At low pressure conditions (lower than

  11. Iodine generator for reclaimed water purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The system disclosed is for controlling the iodine level in a water supply in a spacecraft. It includes an iodine accumulator which stores crystalline iodine, an electrochemical valve to control the input of iodine to the drinking water and an iodine dispenser. A pump dispenses fluid through the iodine dispenser and an iodine sensor to a potable water tank storage. The iodine sensor electronically detects the iodine level in the water, and through electronic means, produces a correction current control. The correction current control operates the electro-chemical iodine valve to release iodine from the iodine accumulator into the iodine dispenser.

  12. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    DOEpatents

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  13. Environmental Tests Of Cesium Frequency Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, Richard L.; Tucker, Thomas K.; Greenhall, Charles A.; Diener, William A.; Maleki, Lutfollah

    1992-01-01

    Report describes environmental tests of cesium-beam frequency standards of United States Naval Observatory. Purpose of tests to determine effects of atmospheric temperature, relative humidity, and pressure on frequencies.

  14. Primary cesium time and frequency standards

    SciTech Connect

    Abashev, Yu.G.; Elkin, G.A.; Pushkin, S.B.

    1984-05-01

    Cesium frequency standards are used to determine the atomic second in SI units and to provide a national atomic-time scale at the leading meteorological laboratories of the world. In this paper, the state of cesium and atomic frequency standards are examined and methods of increasing their accuracy are analyzed. High-purity polycrystals of platinum-iridium alloy or high-purity and structurally perfect single crystals of tungsten and molybdenum are used as ionizers in beam detection. Relative frequency instabilities that have been obtained at the various laboratories are presented. The main sources of error in reproducing the unperturbed-transition frequency of cesium atoms are discussed, including the second-order Doppler effect and the Majorana effect. Accuracy estimates for cesium frequency standards of the world's leading meteorological laboratories are shown.

  15. RECOVERY OF CESIUM FROM WASTE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Burgus, W.H.

    1959-06-30

    This patent covers the precipitation of fission products including cesium on nickel or ferric ferrocyanide and subsequent selective dissolution from the carrier with a solution of ammonia or mercurlc nitrate.

  16. Merging Maser and Cesium Clocks in Timescales

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    OCT 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Merging Maser And Cesium Clocks In Timescales 5a...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Merging Maser and Cesium Clocks In Timescales Demetrios...recent maser data relatively higher than older maser data. A Kalman Filter could assign different phase, frequency, and frequency drift process

  17. Cesium and strontium ion specific exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, S.

    1996-10-01

    This work is one of two parallel projects that are part of an ESP task to develop high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. In this subtask, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is collaborating with AlliedSignal, Inc. (Des Plaines, Illinois) to develop inorganic ion exchangers that are selective for strontium and cesium from alkaline high-level waste and groundwater streams.

  18. Statistical properties of high performance cesium standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Percival, D. B.

    1973-01-01

    The intermediate term frequency stability of a group of new high-performance cesium beam tubes at the U.S. Naval Observatory were analyzed from two viewpoints: (1) by comparison of the high-performance standards to the MEAN(USNO) time scale and (2) by intercomparisons among the standards themselves. For sampling times up to 5 days, the frequency stability of the high-performance units shows significant improvement over older commercial cesium beam standards.

  19. Gas-Phase Reactivity of Cesium-Containing Species by Quantum Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Šulková, Katarína; Cantrel, Laurent; Louis, Florent

    2015-09-03

    Thermodynamics and kinetics of cesium species reactions have been studied by using high-level quantum chemical tools. A systematic theoretical study has been done to find suitable methodology for calculation of reliable thermodynamic properties, allowing us to determine bimolecular rate constants with appropriate kinetic theories of gas-phase reactions. Four different reactions have been studied in this work: CsO + H2 = CsOH + H (R1), Cs + HI = CsI + H (R2), CsI + H2O = CsOH + HI (R3), and CsI + OH = CsOH + I (R4). All reactions involve steam, hydrogen, and iodine in addition of cesium. Most of the reactions are fast and (R3) and (R4) proceed even without energetic barrier. In terms of chemical reactivity in the reactor coolant system (RCS) in the case of severe accident, it can be expected that there will be no kinetic limitations for main cesium species (CsOH and CsI) transported along the RCS. Cs chemical speciation inside the RCS should be governed by the thermodynamics.

  20. Physical properties of a new flat panel detector with cesium-iodide technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Andreas; Penchev, Petar; Fiebich, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Flat panel detectors have become the standard technology in projection radiography. Further progress in detector technology will result in an improvement of MTF and DQE. The new detector (DX-D45C; Agfa; Mortsel/Belgium) is based on cesium-iodine crystals and has a change in the detector material and the readout electronics. The detector has a size of 30 cm x 24 cm and a pixel matrix of 2560 x 2048 with a pixel pitch of 124 μm. The system includes an automatic exposure detector, which enables the use of the detector without a connection to the x-ray generator. The physical properties of the detector were determined following IEC 62220-1-1 in a laboratory setting. The MTF showed an improvement compared to the previous version of cesium-iodine based flat-panel detectors. Thereby the DQE is also improved especially for the higher frequencies. The new detector showed an improvement in the physical properties compared to the previous versions. This enables a potential for further dose reductions in clinical imaging.

  1. Comparative Toxicity of Chlorinated Saline and Freshwater Wastewater Effluents to Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mengting; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhang, Xiangru; Richardson, Susan D

    2015-12-15

    Toilet flushing with seawater results in saline wastewater, which may contain approximately 33-50% seawater. Halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), especially brominated and iodinated DBPs, have recently been found in chlorinated saline wastewater effluents. With the occurrence of brominated and iodinated DBPs, the adverse effects of chlorinated saline wastewater effluents to marine ecology have been uncertain. By evaluating the developmental effects in the marine polychaete Platynereis dumerilii directly exposed to chlorinated saline/freshwater wastewater effluents, we found surprisingly that chlorinated saline wastewater effluents were less toxic than a chlorinated freshwater wastewater effluent. This was also witnessed by the marine alga Tetraselmis marina. The toxicity of a chlorinated wastewater effluent to the marine species was dominated by its relatively low salinity compared to the salinity in seawater. The organic matter content in a chlorinated wastewater effluent might be partially responsible for the toxicity. The adverse effects of halogenated DBPs on the marine species were observed pronouncedly only in the "concentrated" chlorinated wastewater effluents. pH and ammonia content in a wastewater effluent caused no adverse effects on the marine species. The results suggest that using seawater to replace freshwater for toilet flushing might mitigate the "direct" acute detrimental effect of wastewater to the marine organisms.

  2. Radioactive iodine uptake

    MedlinePlus

    ... too much thyroid hormone medicine or supplements) Iodine overload Subacute thyroiditis (swelling or inflammation of the thyroid ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  3. Iodine Clock Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a combination of solutions that can be used in the study of kinetics using the iodine clock reaction. The combination slows down degradation of the prepared solutions and can be used successfully for several weeks. (JRH)

  4. Iodine Clock Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a combination of solutions that can be used in the study of kinetics using the iodine clock reaction. The combination slows down degradation of the prepared solutions and can be used successfully for several weeks. (JRH)

  5. Iodine Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  6. Iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Boelaert, Kristien

    2015-04-01

    Iodine deficiency early in life impairs cognition and growth, but iodine status is also a key determinant of thyroid disorders in adults. Severe iodine deficiency causes goitre and hypothyroidism because, despite an increase in thyroid activity to maximise iodine uptake and recycling in this setting, iodine concentrations are still too low to enable production of thyroid hormone. In mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, increased thyroid activity can compensate for low iodine intake and maintain euthyroidism in most individuals, but at a price: chronic thyroid stimulation results in an increase in the prevalence of toxic nodular goitre and hyperthyroidism in populations. This high prevalence of nodular autonomy usually results in a further increase in the prevalence of hyperthyroidism if iodine intake is subsequently increased by salt iodisation. However, this increase is transient because iodine sufficiency normalises thyroid activity which, in the long term, reduces nodular autonomy. Increased iodine intake in an iodine-deficient population is associated with a small increase in the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity; whether these increases are also transient is unclear. Variations in population iodine intake do not affect risk for Graves' disease or thyroid cancer, but correction of iodine deficiency might shift thyroid cancer subtypes toward less malignant forms. Thus, optimisation of population iodine intake is an important component of preventive health care to reduce the prevalence of thyroid disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of culture conditions and biofilm formation on the iodine susceptibility of Legionella pneumophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cargill, K. L.; Pyle, B. H.; Sauer, R. L.; McFeters, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    The susceptibility of Legionella pneumophila to iodination was studied with cultures grown in well water, on rich agar media, and attached to stainless-steel surfaces. Legionella pneumophila grown in water cultures in association with other microorganisms were less sensitive to disinfection by chlorine and iodine than were agar-passaged cultures. Differences in sensitivity to disinfection between water-cultured and agar-grown legionellae were determined by comparing C x T values (concentration in milligrams per litre multiplied by time in minutes to achieve 99% decrease in viability) and CM x T values (concentration in molarity). Iodine (1500x) gave a greater difference in CM x T values than did chlorine (68x). Iodine was 50 times more effective than chlorine when used with agar-grown cultures but was only twice as effective when tested against water-grown Legionella cultures. C x T x S values (C x T multiplied by percent survivors), which take into consideration the percent surviving bacteria, were used to compare sensitivities in very resistant populations, such as those in biofilms. Water cultures of legionellae associated with stainless-steel surfaces were 135 times more resistant to iodination than were unattached legionellae, and they were 210,000 times more resistant than were agar-grown cultures. These results indicate that the conditions under which legionellae are grown can dramatically affect their susceptibility to some disinfectants and must be considered when evaluating the efficacy of a disinfecting agent.

  8. Effects of culture conditions and biofilm formation on the iodine susceptibility of Legionella pneumophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cargill, K. L.; Pyle, B. H.; Sauer, R. L.; McFeters, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    The susceptibility of Legionella pneumophila to iodination was studied with cultures grown in well water, on rich agar media, and attached to stainless-steel surfaces. Legionella pneumophila grown in water cultures in association with other microorganisms were less sensitive to disinfection by chlorine and iodine than were agar-passaged cultures. Differences in sensitivity to disinfection between water-cultured and agar-grown legionellae were determined by comparing C x T values (concentration in milligrams per litre multiplied by time in minutes to achieve 99% decrease in viability) and CM x T values (concentration in molarity). Iodine (1500x) gave a greater difference in CM x T values than did chlorine (68x). Iodine was 50 times more effective than chlorine when used with agar-grown cultures but was only twice as effective when tested against water-grown Legionella cultures. C x T x S values (C x T multiplied by percent survivors), which take into consideration the percent surviving bacteria, were used to compare sensitivities in very resistant populations, such as those in biofilms. Water cultures of legionellae associated with stainless-steel surfaces were 135 times more resistant to iodination than were unattached legionellae, and they were 210,000 times more resistant than were agar-grown cultures. These results indicate that the conditions under which legionellae are grown can dramatically affect their susceptibility to some disinfectants and must be considered when evaluating the efficacy of a disinfecting agent.

  9. Detailed analysis of isotopic ratio of radioactive iodine in surface soil around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Yasuto; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Saito, Takumi; Yamagata, Takeyasu; Honda, Maki

    2013-04-01

    In March 2011, there was an accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) and a lot of radionuclides were discharged into the environment, resulting from a powerful earthquake and tsunami. Considering the impact on human health, the radiation dosimetry is the most important for Iodine-131 among radionuclides in the initial stage immediately following the release of radionuclides. However, Iodine-131 cannot be detected after several months owing to its short half-life (8 days). Cesium-137 was also leaked out from the FDNPP and this can be detected now. But this did not identically act with Iodine-131 and be suitable for the reconstruction of Iodine-131 distribution at the initial stage. Since Iodine-129 (half-life: 1.57E7 yrs) can be detected in the future and it act chemically identically with Iodine-131, the reconstruction by Iodine-129 analysis is important. For this reconstruction, it is necessary to know the isotopic ratio of radioactive iodine (129I/131I) released from the FDNPP. In this study, the Iodine-129 concentration was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in several surface soil samples collected around the FDNPP for which the Iodine-131level had already been determined. Soil samples were put into a U8 standard vessel after being roughly homogenized and dried. Then, samples were homogenized again more completely and several grams were taken for Iodine-129 measurement. Each sample was combusted in a quartz tube and outgas was trapped in alkali solution. An aliquot was taken from the trap solution for the determination of the Iodine-127 concentration by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The iodine carrier was added to the trap solution, from which the iodine fraction was purified by solvent extraction and back extraction. Finally, silver iodide precipitation was obtained by adding silver nitrate solution. After dried, the precipitation was mixed with niobium powder and pressed into a cathode for the target

  10. Bentonite-Clay Waste Form for the Immobilization of Cesium and Strontium from Fuel Processing Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, Michael D.; Mertz, Carol J.

    2016-01-01

    The physical properties of a surrogate waste form containing cesium, strontium, rubidium, and barium sintered into bentonite clay were evaluated for several simulant feed streams: chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide/polyethylene glycol (CCD-PEG) strip solution, nitrate salt, and chloride salt feeds. We sintered bentonite clay samples with a loading of 30 mass% of cesium, strontium, rubidium, and barium to a density of approximately 3 g/cm3. Sintering temperatures of up to 1000°C did not result in volatility of cesium. Instead, there was an increase in crystallinity of the waste form upon sintering to 1000ºC for chloride- and nitrate-salt loaded clays. The nitrate salt feed produced various cesium pollucite phases, while the chloride salt feed did not produce these familiar phases. In fact, many of the x-ray diffraction peaks could not be matched to known phases. Assemblages of silicates were formed that incorporated the Sr, Rb, and Ba ions. Gas evolution during sintering to 1000°C was significant (35% weight loss for the CCD-PEG waste-loaded clay), with significant water being evolved at approximately 600°C.

  11. The formation of halogen-specific TOX from chlorination and chloramination of natural organic matter isolates.

    PubMed

    Kristiana, Ina; Gallard, Hervé; Joll, Cynthia; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2009-09-01

    The formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) is a public health concern. An important way to evaluate the presence of DBPs is in terms of the total organic halogen (TOX), which can be further specified into total organic chlorine (TOCl), bromine (TOBr), and iodine (TOI). The formation and distribution of halogen-specific TOX during chlorination and chloramination of natural organic matter (NOM) isolates in the presence of bromide and iodide ions were studied. As expected, chloramination produced significantly less TOX than chlorination. TOCl was the dominant species formed in both chlorination and chloramination. TOI was always produced in chloramination, but not in chlorination when high chlorine dose was used, due to the limited presence of HOI in chlorination as a result of the oxidation of iodide to iodate in the presence of excess chlorine. The formation of TOI during chloramination increased as the initial iodide ion concentration increased, with a maximum of approximately 60% of the initial iodide ion becoming incorporated into NOM. Iodine incorporation in NOM was consistently higher than bromine incorporation, demonstrating that the competitive reactions between bromine and iodine species in chloramination favoured the formation of HOI and thus TOI, rather than TOBr. Correlations between the aromatic character of the NOM isolates (SUVA(254) and % aromatic C) and the concentrations of overall TOX and halogen-specific TOX in chloramination were observed. This indicates that the aromatic moieties in NOM, as indicated by SUVA(254) and % aromatic C, play an important role in the formation of overall TOX and halogen-specific TOX in chloramination. THMs comprised only a fraction of TOX, up to 7% in chloramination and up to 47% in chlorination. Although chloramine produces less TOX than chlorine, it formed proportionally more non-THM DBPs than chlorine. These non-THM DBPs are mostly unknown, corresponding to unknown health risks. Considering the higher

  12. Iodine Supplementation in the Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Ghirri, Paolo; Lunardi, Sara; Boldrini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Iodine deficiency can be defined as the world’s greatest single cause of preventable brain damage. Fetal and neonatal hypothyroidism, caused by iodine deficiency can be prevented prior to conception and then during pregnancy and lactation when an adequate iodine supplementation is ensured. Extremely low birth weight preterm babies risk having a negative iodine balance status in the first weeks of life, exacerbating the hypothyroxinaemia of the prematurity. It is important to ensure that these babies are provided with an adequate iodine intake from the first days of life. Mothers and newborns should avoid environmental iodine excess during pregnancy or lactation. PMID:24448111

  13. High Chloride Doping Levels Stabilize the Perovskite Phase of Cesium Lead Iodide.

    PubMed

    Dastidar, Subham; Egger, David A; Tan, Liang Z; Cromer, Samuel B; Dillon, Andrew D; Liu, Shi; Kronik, Leeor; Rappe, Andrew M; Fafarman, Aaron T

    2016-06-08

    Cesium lead iodide possesses an excellent combination of band gap and absorption coefficient for photovoltaic applications in its perovskite phase. However, this is not its equilibrium structure under ambient conditions. In air, at ambient temperature it rapidly transforms to a nonfunctional, so-called yellow phase. Here we show that chloride doping, particularly at levels near the solubility limit for chloride in a cesium lead iodide host, provides a new approach to stabilizing the functional perovskite phase. In order to achieve high doping levels, we first co-deposit colloidal nanocrystals of pure cesium lead chloride and cesium lead iodide, thereby ensuring nanometer-scale mixing even at compositions that potentially exceed the bulk miscibility of the two phases. The resulting nanocrystal solid is subsequently fused into a polycrystalline thin film by chemically induced, room-temperature sintering. Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction indicate that the chloride is further dispersed during sintering and a polycrystalline mixed phase is formed. Using density functional theory (DFT) methods in conjunction with nudged elastic band techniques, low-energy pathways for interstitial chlorine diffusion into a majority-iodide lattice were identified, consistent with the facile diffusion and fast halide exchange reactions observed. By comparison to DFT-calculated values (with the PBE exchange-correlation functional), the relative change in band gap and the lattice contraction are shown to be consistent with a Cl/I ratio of a few percent in the mixed phase. At these incorporation levels, the half-life of the functional perovskite phase in a humid atmosphere increases by more than an order of magnitude.

  14. 40 CFR 721.10168 - Cesium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cesium tungsten oxide. 721.10168... Substances § 721.10168 Cesium tungsten oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cesium tungsten oxide (PMN P-08-275; CAS No....

  15. 40 CFR 721.10168 - Cesium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cesium tungsten oxide. 721.10168... Substances § 721.10168 Cesium tungsten oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cesium tungsten oxide (PMN P-08-275; CAS No....

  16. 40 CFR 721.10168 - Cesium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cesium tungsten oxide. 721.10168... Substances § 721.10168 Cesium tungsten oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cesium tungsten oxide (PMN P-08-275; CAS No....

  17. 40 CFR 721.10168 - Cesium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cesium tungsten oxide. 721.10168... Substances § 721.10168 Cesium tungsten oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cesium tungsten oxide (PMN P-08-275; CAS No....

  18. 40 CFR 721.10168 - Cesium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cesium tungsten oxide. 721.10168... Substances § 721.10168 Cesium tungsten oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cesium tungsten oxide (PMN P-08-275; CAS No....

  19. REMOVAL OF CESIUM BY SORPTION FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Ames, L.L.

    1962-01-16

    ABS>A process is given for selectively removing cesium from acid aqueous solutions containing cesium in microquantities and other cations in macroquantities by absorption on clinoptilolite. The cesium can be eluted from the clinoptilolite with a solution of ammonia, potassium hydroxide, or rubidium hydroxide. (AEC)

  20. Iodine nutrition in pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Angela M; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E

    2011-12-01

    Adequate iodine intake is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones that are important for normal fetal and infant neurodevelopment. In this review, we discuss iodine physiology during pregnancy and lactation, methods to assess iodine sufficiency, the importance of adequate iodine nutrition, studies of iodine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation, the consequences of hypothyroidism during pregnancy, the current status of iodine nutrition in the United States, the global efforts toward achieving universal iodine sufficiency, and substances that may interfere with iodine use.

  1. Iodine deficiency in Europe.

    PubMed

    Delange, F

    1995-01-18

    Iodine is a trace element present in the human body in minute amounts (15-20 mg in adults, i.e. 0.0285 x 10(-3)% of body weight). The only confirmed function of iodine is to constitute an essential substrate for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, tetraiodothyronine, thyroxine or T4 and triiodothyronine, T3 (1). In thyroxine, iodine is 60% by weight. Thyroid hormones, in turn, play a decisive role in the metabolism of all cells of the organism (2) and in the process of early growth and development of most organs, especially of the brain (3). Brain development in humans occurs from fetal life up to the third postnatal year (4). Consequently, a deficit in iodine and/or in thyroid hormones occurring during this critical period of life will result not only in the slowing down of the metabolic activities of all the cells of the organism but also in irreversible alterations in the development of the brain. The clinical consequence will be mental retardation (5). When the physiological requirements of iodine are not met in a given population, a series of functional and developmental abnormalities occur (Table 1), including thyroid function abnormalities and, when iodine deficiency is severe, endemic goiter and cretinism, endemic mental retardation, decreased fertility rate, increased perinatal death, and infant mortality. These complications, which constitute an hindrance to the development of the affected population, are grouped under the general heading of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, IDD (6). Broad geographic areas exist in which the population is affected by IDD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Cesium injection system for negative ion duoplasmatrons

    DOEpatents

    Kobayashi, Maasaki; Prelec, Krsto; Sluyters, Theodorus J

    1978-01-01

    Longitudinally extending, foraminous cartridge means having a cylindrical side wall forming one flat, circular, tip end surface and an opposite end; an open-ended cavity, and uniformly spaced orifices for venting the cavity through the side wall in the annulus of a plasma ring for uniformly ejecting cesium for coating the flat, circular, surface. To this end, the cavity is filled with a cesium containing substance and attached to a heater in a hollow-discharge duoplasmatron. By coating the flat circular surface with a uniform monolayer of cesium and locating it in an electrical potential well at the end of a hollow-discharge, ion duoplasmatron source of an annular hydrogen plasma ring, the negative hydrogen production from the duoplasmatron is increased. The negative hydrogen is produced on the flat surface of the cartridge and extracted by the electrical potential well along a trajectory coaxial with the axis of the plasma ring.

  3. METHOD FOR THE RECOVERY OF CESIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Rimshaw, S.J.

    1960-02-16

    A method is given for recovering Cs/sup 137/ from radioactive waste solutions together with extraneous impurities. Ammonium alum is precipitated in the waste solution. The alum, which carries the cesium, is separated from the supernatant liquid and then dissolved in water. The resulting aqueous solution is then provided with a source of hydroxyl ions, which precipitates aluminum as the hydroxide, and the aluminum hydroxide is separated from the resulting liquid. This liquid, which contains anionic impurities together with ammonium and cesium, is passed through an anion exchange resin bed which removes the anionic impurities. The ammonium in the effluent is removed by destructive distiilation, leaving a substantiaily pure cesium salt in the effluent.

  4. Plasma etching of cesium iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Hopwood, J.; Tipnis, S.; Nagarkar, V.; Gaysinskiy, V.

    2002-01-01

    Thick films of cesium iodide (CsI) are often used to convert x-ray images into visible light. Spreading of the visible light within CsI, however, reduces the resolution of the resulting image. Anisotropic etching of the CsI film into an array of micropixels can improve the image resolution by confining light within each pixel. The etching process uses a high-density inductively coupled plasma to pattern CsI samples held by a heated, rf-biased chuck. Fluorine-containing gases such as CF4 are found to enhance the etch rate by an order of magnitude compared to Ar+ sputtering alone. Without inert-gas ion bombardment, however, the CF4 etch becomes self-limited within a few microns of depth due to the blanket deposition of a passivation layer. Using CF4+Ar continuously removes this layer from the lateral surfaces, but the formation of a thick passivation layer on the unbombarded sidewalls of etched features is observed by scanning electron microscopy. At a substrate temperature of 220 °C, the minimum ion-bombardment energy for etching is Ei~50 eV, and the rate depends on Ei1/2 above 65 eV. In dilute mixtures of CF4 and Ar, the etch rate is proportional to the gas-phase density of atomic fluorine. Above 50% CF4, however, the rate decreases, indicating the onset of net surface polymer deposition. These observations suggest that anisotropy is obtained through the ion-enhanced inhibitor etching mechanism. Etching exhibits an Arrhenius-type behavior in which the etch rate increases from ~40 nm/min at 40 °C to 380 nm/min at 330 °C. The temperature dependence corresponds to an activation energy of 0.13+/-0.01 eV. This activation energy is consistent with the electronic sputtering mechanism for alkali halides.

  5. Inhalation of chlorine gas.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J. G.

    1997-01-01

    The clinical features of acute chlorine gas inhalation, and its management are reviewed. Current medical views on the chronic effects of an acute overwhelming exposure on lung function (reactive airways dysfunction syndrome), and the more controversial field of lung disease secondary to repeated inhalations of lower concentrations of chlorine gas are discussed. Images Figure PMID:9519180

  6. Aqueous chlorination of resorcinol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heasley, V.L.; Burns, M.D.; Kemalyan, N.A.; Mckee, T.C.; Schroeter, H.; Teegarden, B.R.; Whitney, S.E.; Wershaw, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of the aqueous chlorination (NaOCl) of resorcinol is reported. The following intermediates were detected in moderate to high yield at different pH values and varying percentages of chlorination: 2-chloro-, 4-chloro-, 2,4-dichloro-, 4,6-dichloro- and 2,4,6-trichlororesorcinol. Only trace amounts of the intermediates were detected when the chlorination was conducted in the presence of phosphate buffer. This result has significant implications since resorcinol in phosphate buffer has been used as a model compound in several recent studies on the formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons during chlorination of drinking water. Relative rates of chlorination were determined for resorcinol and several of the chlorinated resorcinols. Resorcinol was found to chlorinate only three times faster than 2,4,6-trichlororesorcinol. The structure 2,4,6-trichlororesorcinol was established as a monohydrate even after sublimation. A tetrachloro or pentachloro intermediate was not detected, suggesting that the ring-opening step of such an intermediate must be rapid. ?? 1989.

  7. Water Treatment Technology - Chlorination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chlorination provides instructional materials for nine competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of chlorination, chlorine…

  8. Water Treatment Technology - Chlorination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chlorination provides instructional materials for nine competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of chlorination, chlorine…

  9. Selection and applicability of quenching agents for the analysis of polar iodinated disinfection byproducts.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tingting; Tao, Yuxian; Xian, Qiming

    2016-11-01

    Iodide is widely present in drinking water sources as well as wastewater effluents. Chlorination and chloramination are the most commonly used disinfection methods. During chlorination or chloramination of drinking water/wastewater effluents, iodide may be oxidized to hypoiodous acid, which may further react with organic matter to form iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Recently, several new polar iodinated DBPs have been identified in drinking water as well as chlorinated wastewater effluents, and they have drawn increasing concerns due to their high toxicity. In DBPs studies, the selection of an appropriate quenching agent is critical to prevent further formation or any decomposition of DBPs during the holding time between sample collection and analysis. A previous study reported the applicability of different quenching agents for the analysis of various categories of chlorinated and brominated DBPs. But the applicability of quenching agents for the analysis of polar iodinated DBPs has not been reported. In this study, four different quenching agents (sodium sulfite, sodium thiosulfate, ascorbic acid and sodium borohydride) were tested for their suitability for the analysis of polar iodinated DBPs, and ascorbic acid was selected as the suitable quenching agent. Furthermore, it was found that ascorbic acid was applicable for the analysis of polar iodinated DBPs under the quenching agent doses of 0-0.42 mmol/L (stoichiometric amounts equivalent to 0-30 mg/L Cl2), contact times within 24 h, and pHs in the range of 6-8. Therefore, ascorbic acid was a widely applicable quenching agent for the analysis of polar iodinated DBPs under various conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. ICP-MS measurement of iodine diffusion in IG-110 graphite for HTGR/VHTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, L. M.; Brockman, J. D.; Robertson, J. D.; Loyalka, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    Graphite functions as a structural material and as a barrier to fission product release in HTGR/VHTR designs, and elucidation of transport parameters for fission products in reactor-grade graphite is thus required for reactor source terms calculations. We measured iodine diffusion in spheres of IG-110 graphite using a release method based on Fickain diffusion kinetics. Two sources of iodine were loaded into the graphite spheres; molecular iodine (I2) and cesium iodide (CsI). Measurements of the diffusion coefficient were made over a temperature range of 873-1293 K. We have obtained the following Arrhenius expressions for iodine diffusion:DI , CsI infused =(6 ×10-12 2/s) exp(30,000 J/mol RT) And,DI , I2 infused =(4 ×10-10 m2/s) exp(-11,000 J/mol RT ) The results indicate that iodine diffusion in IG-110 graphite is not well-described by Fickan diffusion kinetics. To our knowledge, these are the first measurements of iodine diffusion in IG-110 graphite.

  11. Crystalline silicotitanates for cesium/strontium removal

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.; Miller, J.; Sherman, J.

    1996-10-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CST) has been developed that exhibits very high selectivity for cesium and strontium in the highly alkaline radioactive wastes at the Hanford Site and other DOE sites. Tests have also shown that CSTs have high selectivity for cesium in acidic and neutral solutions. The ESP is supporting an effort at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A & M University to further develop and characterize the important chemical and physical properties that will determine the applicability of CST to radioactive waste treatment at Hanford and other DOE facilities.

  12. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; North, S.E.

    1981-05-01

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested.

  13. Adsorption of iodine from COIL waste gas on soaked coal-based activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Junbo; Hao, Shan; Gao, Liping

    2014-04-01

    The chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) has wide application prospects in military, industrial and medical treatment fields as a second generation gas chemical laser to follow the first HF/DF chemical laser. However, a COIL releases large amounts of gas, such as helium, oxygen, chlorine and iodine. Chlorides have a serious corrosive effect on the system, especially iodine vapor crystallization, which seriously endangers the normal use of vacuum systems, and radioactive methyl iodide, which is hazardous to operators and pollutes the environment. The use of soaked coal-based activated carbon as an adsorbent for removing methyl iodine is proposed, while it is proposed that coal-based activated carbon is an effective adsorbent for removing stable iodine. The research conducted in this work shows that iodine residues are less than 0.5 μg ml-1 after the adsorption treatment and the decontamination factor of the coal-based activated carbon for removing stable iodine is more than 1000. Using this method can achieve the purpose of removing harmful iodine, satisfy the requirements for engineering applications, and also be applied to other nuclear power plant flue gas treatments.

  14. Effects of combined chlorine on physicochemical properties and structure of shellac.

    PubMed

    Yalong, Liao; Juan, Zhou; Feirong, Huang; Bingjie, Li

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was studying the effects of combined chlorine on the physicochemical properties and the structure of shellac. Bleached shellacs with different chlorine content were prepared by means of elimination reaction which sodium ethoxide was used as nucleophilic reagent. Then polymerization time and iodine value characterizing the quality of shellac were tested for investigating the relationship between the physicochemical properties and chlorine. The mechanism of dechlorination of shellac was analyzed, and the structures of products were characterized with the aid of ultraviolet spectrophotometer. It was demonstrated that the polymerization time become long and the value of double bond become large with the decrease of chlorine combined in shellac molecule, and that the properties of shellac with low chlorine content had been improved. The structure of shellac obtained by means of dechlorination was different from that of product without dechlorination.

  15. [Iodinated contrast media and iodine allergy: myth or reality?].

    PubMed

    Meunier, B; Joskin, J; Damas, F; Meunier, P

    2013-09-01

    The term "iodine allergy" is an old phrase that refers to a reaction to iodinated contrast media. After a brief review of definitions, pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors of this clinical entity, management is urged immediate and delayed according to the most recent recommendations from the literature. We underline that iodine allergy, as such, does not really exist.

  16. Volatilization of iodine from vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiro, B. D.; Johnston, F. L.

    Gaseous emissions of iodine were measured from bean plant foliage. A gamma-emitting iodine tracer, Na 125I, was taken up by the plants from a hydroponic growth medium and released to a cuvette atmosphere. The dynamics of the flux were studied using a flow-through gamma detector. The relationship between leaf radioactive tracer activity and growth-medium activity was linear, as was the relationship between the iodine flux and both leaf and growth-medium activity. Iodine flux and leaf conductance to water responded similarly to changes in light levels, suggesting that the stomata may partially control the flux. The flux was inhibited by aeration of the hydroponic growth medium, and we postulate that methylation causes the iodine flux. Iodine emissions from living vegetation probably contribute <0.1 % to the stable iodine concentration in the atmosphere above terrestrial areas. However, this pathway may be a direct route for radioactive iodine transport from contaminated soils to the atmosphere.

  17. [Is iodine deficiency still relevant?].

    PubMed

    Gärtner, R

    2007-02-22

    In Germany, iodine deficiency and its consequences is still a problem, although it is of less importance than it was twenty years ago. In accordance with the WHO definition, Germany still belongs among those countries with mild iodine deficiency and too low an intake of iodine. As a result groups at particular risk, such as pregnant and nursing women, must still receive iodine supplementation, since, in the absence of supplemental iodine,the amount of iodine in the mother's milk continues to be below average throughout Germany. Both in private households and in the food industry, the aim is to increase the use of iodized salt to more than go%. This entails no risk of an iodine overdose. The current average daily uptake of iodine of approximately 120 micrograms is responsible neither for the development or progression of an autoimmune disease nor a functional disorder of the thyroid gland.

  18. Iodine deficiency disorders in Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Delange, F.; Bürgi, H.

    1989-01-01

    Recent data on iodine excretion in the urine of adults, adolescents and newborns and on the iodine content of breast milk indicate a high prevalence of iodine deficiency (moderate in many cases and severe in a few) in many European countries. These cases may manifest as subclinical hypothyroidism in neonates and as goitre in adolescents and adults. Lack of iodine causes not only goitre, but also mental deficiency, hearing loss and other neurological impairments, and short stature due to thyroid insufficiency during fetal development and childhood. Although iodinated salt is available theoretically in most countries where it is needed, its quality and share of the market are often unsatisfactory. In many countries where only household salt is iodinated the iodine content has been set too low owing to an overestimation of household salt consumption. Governments are therefore urged to pass legislation and provide means for efficient iodination of salt wherever this is necessary. PMID:2670299

  19. Removal of Radioactive Cesium Using Prussian Blue Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung-Chan; Hong, Sang-Bum; Yang, Hee-Man; Lee, Kune-Woo; Moon, Jei-Kwon; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Huh, Yun Suk; Roh, Changhyun

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive cesium (137Cs) has inevitably become a human concern due to exposure from nuclear power plants and nuclear accident releases. Many efforts have been focused on removing cesium and the remediation of the contaminated environment. In this study, we elucidated the ability of Prussian blue-coated magnetic nanoparticles to eliminate cesium from radioactive contaminated waste. Thus, the obtained Prussian blue-coated magnetic nanoparticles were then characterized and examined for their physical and radioactive cesium adsorption properties. This Prussian blue-coated magnetic nanoparticle-based cesium magnetic sorbent can offer great potential for use in in situ remediation. PMID:28344255

  20. Development of Technologies for the Simultaneous Separation of Cesium and Strontium from Spent Nuclear Fuel as Part of an Advanced Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; R. Scott HErbst; David H. Meikrantz; Dean R. Peterman; Catherine L. Riddle; Richard D. Tillotson; Terry A. Todd

    2005-04-01

    As part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, two solvent extraction technologies are being developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel. The first process utilizes a solvent consisting of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide and polyethylene glycol extractants in a phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone diluent. Recent improvements to the process include development of a new, non-nitroaromatic diluent and development of new stripping reagents, including a regenerable strip reagent that can be recovered and recycled. Countercurrent flowsheets have been designed and tested on simulated and actual spent nuclear fuel feed streams with both cesium and strontium removal efficiencies of greater than 99 %. The second process developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel is based on two highly-specific extractants: 4,4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6). The DtBuCH18C6 extractant is selective for strontium and the BOBCalixC6 extractant is selective for cesium. A solvent composition has been developed that enables both elements to be removed together and, in fact, a synergistic effect was observed with strontium distributions in the combined solvent that are much higher that in the strontium extraction (SREX) process. Initial laboratory test results of the new combined cesium and strontium extraction process indicate good extraction and stripping performance. A flowsheet for treatment of spent nuclear fuel is currently being developed.

  1. Aqueous chemistry of iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, L.M.; Pannell, K.D.; Kirkland, O.L.

    1984-01-01

    The chemistry of iodine has been examined in aqueous solutions of pH 6 to 10 containing 2500 ppM boron as H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ at temperatures up to 150/sup 0/C using absorption spectrophotometry to identify and monitor the iodine species present. Kinetic rate constants for the disproportionation of the HOI intermediate, 3HOI= IO/sub 3//sup -/ + 2I/sup -/ + 3H/sup +/, have been measured as a function of pH even though no direct spectral evidence for HOI itself has been observed. An HOI partition coefficient >10/sup 4/ has been estimated; results of ionic strength tests are consistent with HOI being present as an uncharged triatomic species in solution. Redox and radiation effects on the aqueous iodine chemistry have also been described. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Cesium vapor thermionic converter anomalies arising from negative ion emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasor, Ned S.

    2016-08-01

    Compelling experimental evidence is given that a longstanding limit encountered on cesium vapor thermionic energy converter performance improvement and other anomalies arise from thermionic emission of cesium negative ions. It is shown that the energy that characterizes thermionic emission of cesium negative ions is 1.38 eV and, understandably, is not the electron affinity 0.47 eV determined for the photodetachment threshold of the cesium negative ion. The experimental evidence includes measurements of collector work functions and volt-ampere characteristics in quasi-vacuum cesium vapor thermionic diodes, along with reinterpretation of the classic Taylor-Langmuir S-curve data on electron emission in cesium vapor. The quantitative effects of negative ion emission on performance in the ignited, unignited, and quasi-vacuum modes of cesium vapor thermionic converter operation are estimated.

  3. Cesium promotion in styrene epoxidation on silver catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ling; Gorin, Craig F; Madix, Robert J

    2010-01-20

    The adsorption of a small amount of cesium on Ag(110) redirects the partial oxidation products of styrene from phenylacetaldehyde and phenylketene to styrene oxide. The cesium stabilizes the oxametallacycle intermediate and hinders its transformation to the intermediate that leads to the other products. Cesium does not appear to create any electronic effects on the bonding of the intermediates. Low coverages of cesium induce a (1 x 2) missing-row reconstruction of the entire clean Ag(110) surface and a (3 x 5) surface oxide structure on the cesium-reconstructed Ag(110) surface. This (3 x 5)-ordered surface oxide is superimposed on the Ag(111) microfacets produced by the cesium-induced reconstruction, which leads to selectivity and reactivity very similar to those of the extended (111) surface. These studies provide insight into the microscopic origins of the structural effects of cesium in styrene epoxidation on silver catalysts.

  4. Effect of dietary iodine on production of iodine enriched eggs

    PubMed Central

    Sumaiya, Shaikh; Nayak, Sunil; Baghel, R. P. S.; Nayak, Anju; Malapure, C. D.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of iodine supplementation on iodine content of eggs in laying hens. Materials and Methods: In the experiment, 135 laying hens (White Leghorn) of 55 weeks age were randomly distributed to 5 dietary treatments; each group contained 27 laying hens distributed in three replicates of 9 birds each. Diet T1 was control basal layer diet without iodine enrichment in which iodine content (I2) was as per NRC recommendation. Basal diets were supplemented with calcium iodate (Ca (IO3)2) at 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/kg in T2, T3, T4 and T5 groups, respectively. The iodine content in the calcium iodate is 65.21%, therefore, the diets T2, T3, T4 and T5 contained 3.25, 6.50, 9.75 and 13.0 ppm iodine, respectively. The laying hens were fed the respective experimental diets ad libitum during the experimental period of 10-week. The iodine content of egg yolk and albumen was analyzed at the end of 5th and 10th week of the experiment. Economics of feeding for the production of iodine enriched egg was calculated at the end of the experiment. Results: Increasing iodine levels in diet of hens from 0.45 to 13.0 ppm significantly increased egg iodine concentration, the highest concentration of egg iodine was observed in the group fed diet supplemented with 13.0 ppm iodine followed by those fed 9.75, 6.50, 3.25 and 0.45 ppm iodine in diet. There was no significant difference in the iodine levels of unboiled versus boiled eggs. Therefore, the consumers are ensured to receive the optimal levels of iodine from boiled iodine-enriched eggs. Among different diets, minimum and significantly lower feeding cost (Rs. per dozen or per kg eggs) was noticed in hens allotted T3 diet (6.50 ppm I2). However, feeding cost of hens receiving 3.25 and 9.25 ppm I2 was statistically (p<0.05) similar to control group (T1). Further, it was noticed that feeding cost (Rs. per dozen or per kg eggs) was significantly increased due to the inclusion

  5. Comparison of iodinated trihalomethanes formation during aqueous chlor(am)ination of different iodinated X-ray contrast media compounds in the presence of natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Ye, Tao; Xu, Bin; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Tian-Yang; Hu, Chen-Yan; Lin, Lin; Xia, Sheng-Ji; Gao, Nai-Yun

    2014-12-01

    Iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) formation during chlorination and chloramination of five iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) compounds (iopamidol, iopromide, iodixanol, histodenz, and diatrizoate) in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) was evaluated and compared. Chlorination and chloramination of ICM in the absence of NOM yielded only a trace amount of I-THMs, while levels of I-THMs were enhanced substantially in raw water samples. With the presence of NOM, the order with respect to the maximum yield of I-THMs observed during chlorination was iopamidol > histodenz > iodixanol > diatrizoate > iopromide. During chloramination, I-THM formation was enhanced for hisodenz, iodixanol, diatrizoate, and iopromide. The order with respect to the maximum yield of I-THMs observed during chloramination was iopamidol > diatrizoate > iodixanol > histodenz > iopromide. With the exception of iopamidol, I-THM formation was favored at relatively low chlorine doses (≤100 μM) during ICM chlorination, and significant suppression was observed with high chlorine doses applied (>100 μM). However, during chloramination, increasing monochloramine dose monotonously increased the yield of I-THMs for the five ICM. During chlorination of iodixanol, histodenz, and diatrizoate, the yields of I-THMs exhibited three distinct trends as the pH increased from 5 to 9, while peak I-THM formation was found at circumneutral pH for chloramination. Increasing bromide concentration not only considerably enhanced the yield of I-THMs but also shifted the I-THMs towards bromine-containing ones and increased the formation of higher bromine-incorporated species (e.g., CHBrClI and CHBr2I), especially in chloramination. These results are of particular interest to understand I-THM formation mechanisms during chlorination and chloramination of waters containing ICM.

  6. Scintillator handbook with emphasis on cesium iodide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tidd, J. L.; Dabbs, J. R.; Levine, N.

    1973-01-01

    This report provides a background of reasonable depth and reference material on scintillators in general. Particular attention is paid to the cesium iodide scintillators as used in the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) experiments. It is intended especially for use by persons such as laboratory test personnel who need to obtain a working knowledge of these materials and their characteristics in a short time.

  7. Cesium and Strontium Separation Technologies Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    T. A. Todd; T. A. Todd; J. D. Law; R. S. Herbst

    2004-03-01

    Integral to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program’s proposed closed nuclear fuel cycle, the fission products cesium and strontium in the dissolved spent nuclear fuel stream are to be separated and managed separately. A comprehensive literature survey is presented to identify cesium and strontium separation technologies that have the highest potential and to focus research and development efforts on these technologies. Removal of these high-heat-emitting fission products reduces the radiation fields in subsequent fuel cycle reprocessing streams and provides a significant short-term (100 yr) heat source reduction in the repository. This, along with separation of actinides, may provide a substantial future improvement in the amount of fuel that could be stored in a geologic repository. The survey and review of the candidate cesium and strontium separation technologies are presented herein. Because the AFCI program intends to manage cesium and strontium together, technologies that simultaneously separate both elements are of the greatest interest, relative to technologies that separate only one of the two elements.

  8. Distribution of radioactive cesium and stable cesium in cattle kept on a highly contaminated area of Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Sato, Itaru; Okada, Keiji; Sasaki, Jun; Chida, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Hiroshi; Miura, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Kaoru; Otani, Kumiko; Sato, Shusuke

    2015-07-01

    Radioactivity inspection of slaughtered cattle is generally conducted using a portion of the neck muscle; however, there is limited information about the distribution of radioactive cesium in cattle. In this study, therefore, we measured not only radioactive cesium but also stable cesium in various tissues of 19 cattle that had been kept in the area highly contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident. Skeletal muscles showed approximately 1.5-3.0 times higher concentration of radioactive cesium than internal organs. Radioactive cesium concentration in the tenderloin and top round was about 1.2 times as high as that in the neck muscle. The kidney showed the highest concentration of radioactive cesium among internal organs, whereas the liver was lowest. Radioactive cesium concentration in the blood was about 8% of that in the neck muscle. Characteristics of stable cesium distribution were almost the same as those of radioactive cesium. Correlation coefficient between radioactive cesium and stable cesium in tissues of individual cattle was 0.981 ± 0.012. When a suspicious level near 100 Bq/kg is detected in the neck of slaughtered cattle, re-inspection should be conducted using a different region of muscle, for example top round, to prevent marketing of beef that violates the Food Sanitation Act. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bartsch, R.A.; Barrans, R.E. Jr.; Rausch, D.

    1999-03-30

    A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution. 4 figs.

  10. Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark L.; Horwitz, E. Philip; Bartsch, Richard A.; Barrans, Jr., Richard E.; Rausch, David

    1999-01-01

    A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution.

  11. Iodine: deficiency and therapeutic considerations.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Lyn

    2008-06-01

    Iodine deficiency is generally recognized as the most commonly preventable cause of mental retardation and the most common cause of endocrinopathy (goiter and primary hypothyroidism). Iodine deficiency becomes particularly critical in pregnancy due to the consequences for neurological damage during fetal development as well as during lactation. The safety of therapeutic doses of iodine above the established safe upper limit of 1 mg is evident in the lack of toxicity in the Japanese population that consumes 25 times the median intake of iodine consumption in the United States. Japan's population suffers no demonstrable increased incidence of autoimmune thyroiditis or hypothyroidism. Studies using 3.0- to 6.0-mg doses to effectively treat fibrocystic breast disease may reveal an important role for iodine in maintaining normal breast tissue architecture and function. Iodine may also have important antioxidant functions in breast tissue and other tissues that concentrate iodine via the sodium iodide symporter.

  12. CHLORINATED SOLVENT PLUME CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This lecture will cover recent success in controlling and assessing the treatment of shallow ground water plumes of chlorinated solvents, other halogenated organic compounds, and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE).

  13. CHLORINATED SOLVENT PLUME CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This lecture will cover recent success in controlling and assessing the treatment of shallow ground water plumes of chlorinated solvents, other halogenated organic compounds, and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE).

  14. Inactivation of Ichthyophonus spores using sodium hypochlorite and polyvinyl pyrrolidone iodine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Pacheco, C.A.; Gregg, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Chlorine and iodine solutions were effective at inactivating Ichthyophonus spores in vitro. Inactivation in sea water increased directly with halogen concentration and exposure duration, with significant differences (P < 0.05) from controls occurring at all chlorine concentrations and exposure durations tested (1.5-13.3 ppm for 1-60 min) and at most iodine concentrations and exposure durations tested (1.2 ppm for 60 min and 5.9-10.7 ppm for 1-60 min). However, 10-fold reductions in spore viability occurred only after exposure to halogen solutions at higher concentrations and/or longer durations (13 ppm total chlorine for 1-60 min, 5.9 ppm total iodine for 60 min, and 10.7 ppm total iodine for 1-60 min). Inactivation efficacy was greater when halogen solutions were prepared in fresh water, presumably because of combined effects of halogen-induced inactivation and general spore instability in fresh water. The results have practical implications for disinfection and biocontainment in research laboratories and other facilities that handle live Ichthyophonus cultures and/or infected fish.

  15. Bugs digest chlorinated organics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This article describes a new bioreactor that uses a consortium of aerobic bacteria to biodegrade chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. Methanotrophic bacteria are cultivated for their MMO enzyme. After the MMO enzyme breaks down the chlorinated organics by oxidation, non-methanotrophic bacteria consume the byproducts. Pilot-scale testing has demonstrated successful treatment of groundwater containing coal-tar constituents, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chlorides, chlorobenzene, and methyl methacrylate from three Superfund sites.

  16. Epidemiology of iodine deficiency: Salt iodisation and iodine status.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Maria; de Benoist, Bruno; Rogers, Lisa

    2010-02-01

    Universal salt iodisation (USI) and iodine supplementation are highly effective strategies for preventing and controlling iodine deficiency. USI is now implemented in nearly all countries worldwide, and two-thirds of the world's population is covered by iodised salt. The number of countries with iodine deficiency as a national public health problem has decreased from 110 in 1993 to 47 in 2007. Still one-third of households lack access to adequately iodised salt. Iodine deficiency remains a major threat to the health and development of populations around the world, particularly in children and pregnant women in low-income countries. Data on iodine status are available from 130 countries and approximately one-third of the global population is estimated to have a low iodine intake based on urinary iodine (UI) concentrations. Insufficient control of iodine fortification levels has led to excessive iodine intakes in 34 countries. The challenges ahead lie in ensuring higher coverage of adequately iodised salt, strengthening regular monitoring of salt iodisation and iodine status in the population, together with targeted interventions for vulnerable population groups. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chlorine-36 and chlorine concentrations within several compartments of a deciduous forest ecosystem in Meuse/Haute-Marne (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pupier, Julie; Benedetti, Lucilla; Bourles, Didier; Leclerc, Elisabeth; Thiry, Yves

    2013-04-01

    ., 2004 have also observed a similar pattern in southern Spain. This increase might be due to a tropopause break, a natural process which occurs in spring and in fall. This break implies an increase of the air masses exchange between the tropopause and the stratosphere and therefore could cause high chlorine-36 inflow. All together, those results allow to draw a profile of the evolution of chlorine-36 concentrations in the various pools of the biogeochemical cycle (from the upper rainfall through stemflow and throughfall to the lower soil). Both 36Cl and Cl concentrations in stemflow samples are 25-50% higher than in the rainfall and throughfall samples. In water solutions collected from the soil, chlorine-36 concentrations vary between 3 to 8 10 3 at/ml, with an increase in the concentration at 30 cm depth. To understand the chlorine-36 recycling in soil, the next step will be to isolate and measure the 36Cl concentrations in the inorganic and organic fractions of chlorine in a soil profile. * : OPE : Observatoire Pérenne de l'Environnement (SOERE), French national long-term monitoring and experimental system for research in environment, www.andra-ope.fr Ashworth, D. J. and Shaw, G. (2006). A comparison of the soil migration and plant uptake of radioactive chlorine and iodine from contaminated groundwater. Journal of environmental radioactivity, 89(1) :61-80. Redon, P.-O., Jolivet, C., Saby, N. P. a., Abdelouas, A., and Thiry, Y. (2012). Occurrence of natural organic chlorine in soils for different land uses. Biogeochemistry (In press), doi : 10.1007/s10533- 012-9771-7. Santos, F., Lopez-Gutierrez, J., Garcia-Leon, M., Schnabel, C., Synal, H., and Suter, M. (2004). Analysis of 36Cl in atmospheric samples from Seville (Spain) by AMS. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B : Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 223-224 :501-506.

  18. Iodine supplementation improves cognition in mildly iodine-deficient children.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Rosie C; Rose, Meredith C; Skeaff, Sheila A; Gray, Andrew R; Morgan, Kirstie M D; Ruffman, Ted

    2009-11-01

    The effects of severe iodine deficiency during critical periods of brain development are well documented. There is little known about the consequences of milder forms of iodine deficiency on neurodevelopment. The objective was to determine whether supplementing mildly iodine-deficient children with iodine improves cognition. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in 184 children aged 10-13 y in Dunedin, New Zealand. Children were randomly assigned to receive a daily tablet containing either 150 microg I or placebo for 28 wk. Biochemical, anthropometric, and dietary data were collected from each child at baseline and after 28 wk. Cognitive performance was assessed through 4 subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. At baseline, children were mildly iodine deficient [median urinary iodine concentration (UIC): 63 microg/L; thyroglobulin concentration: 16.4 microg/L]. After 28 wk, iodine status improved in the supplemented group (UIC: 145 microg/L; thyroglobulin: 8.5 microg/L), whereas the placebo group remained iodine deficient (UIC: 81 microg/L; thyroglobulin: 11.6 microg/L). Iodine supplementation significantly improved scores for 2 of the 4 cognitive subtests [picture concepts (P = 0.023) and matrix reasoning (P = 0.040)] but not for letter-number sequencing (P = 0.480) or symbol search (P = 0.608). The overall cognitive score of the iodine-supplemented group was 0.19 SDs higher than that of the placebo group (P = 0.011). Iodine supplementation improved perceptual reasoning in mildly iodine-deficient children and suggests that mild iodine deficiency could prevent children from attaining their full intellectual potential. The trial was registered with the Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Register as ACTRN12608000222347.

  19. Ultraviolet photodissociation of iodine monochloride (ICl) at 235, 250, and 265 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Diamantopoulou, N.; Kitsopoulos, Theofanis N.; Kartakoulis, A.; Glodic, P.; Samartzis, Peter C.

    2011-05-21

    ICl photolysis in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum (235-265 nm) is studied using the Slice Imaging technique. The Cl*({sup 2}P{sub 1/2})/Cl({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) and the I*({sup 2}P{sub 1/2})/I({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) branching ratio between the I({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) + Cl({sup 2}P{sub 3/2})/Cl*({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) and I*({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) + Cl({sup 2}P{sub 3/2})/Cl*({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) channels is extracted from the respective iodine and chlorine photofragment images. We find that ground state chlorine atoms (Cl({sup 2}P{sub 3/2})) are formed nearly exclusively with excited state iodine atoms (I*({sup 2}P{sub 1/2})), while excited spin-orbit chlorine atoms (Cl*({sup 2}P{sub 1/2})) are concurrently produced only with ground state iodine atoms (I({sup 2}P{sub 3/2})). We conclude that photolysis of ICl in this UV region is a relatively ''clean'' source of spin-orbit excited chlorine atoms that can be used in crossed molecular beam experiments.

  20. Iodine valence and local environments in borosilicate waste glasses using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, David A.; Muller, Isabelle S.; Pegg, Ian L.

    2015-01-01

    The radioisotope 129I, a fission product in spent nuclear fuel, has a long half-life, and can be highly mobile in the environment. Iodine K-edge X-ray absorption spectra were collected to characterize the iodine valence and coordination environment in simulated Hanford low activity waste glasses. Both iodine XANES and EXAFS data for eleven borosilicate glasses indicate iodide-like environments within the glass structure, where I- has Na or Li nearest-neighbors, and where the nearest-neighbor cation-type correlates to the most common network-modifying cation in the glass. This is further supported by the systematic increase of iodine incorporation with the combined Na2O + Li2O content in the glass. EXAFS analyses determined I-Na distances near 3.04 Å with coordination numbers near 4.0 and I-Li distances near 2.80 Å with coordination numbers near 3.0. I-Na environments determined for the glasses are similar to the tetrahedral INa4 coordination found in NaI-sodalite. These weakly bound iodine-alkali configurations may be the only pathways for iodine to be retained in the glass. These environments may be precursors to NaI-sodalite crystallization in Na-rich glass. Iodine also shows distinct differences from chlorine in terms of the preferred sites in the glass structure.

  1. Chlorine Substituted Acetic Acids and Salts. Effect of Salification on Chlorine-35 NQR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Serge; Gourdji, Michel; Guibé, Lucien; Péneau, Alain

    1996-06-01

    The NQR of a quadrupolar probe nucleus is often used to investigate the effect of substituent in molecules. The inductive effect, based on a partial charge migration along the molecular skeleton is the only one present in saturated aliphatics, the conjugative effect appearing in conjugated molecules, especially aromatics. As the stepwise charge migration mechanism, formerly used to explain the inductive effect, is now believed obsolete, we have wanted to reexamined the case of chlorine substituted acetic acids and salts. The data in literature was extended by observing reso-nances and determining NQR frequencies in several acids and salts. The present analysis of the salification of mono-, di-and tri-chloroacetic acids, which is equivalent to a deprotonation or the substitution of the acid hydrogen by a negative unit charge, shows that a model based on the polarization of the chlorine atom(s) by the carboxyle group is consistent with experimental results: the polarization energy appears to be proportional to the NQR frequency shifts; experimental data show a correlation between the NQR frequency shifts accompanying salification and the variations of the intrinsic acidity measured in the gas phase; this, in turn shows that there is a proportionality between the polarization energy and the variations in the acid free enthalpy of dissociation. From the comparison between fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine, it also appears that an alternative mechanism, the polarization of the carboxyl group by the halogen, would be important only in the case of the fluoroacetic acid.

  2. Breakpoint chlorination curves of greywater.

    PubMed

    March, J G; Gual, M

    2007-08-01

    A study on chlorination of raw greywater with hypochlorite is reported in this paper. Samples were chlorinated in a variety of conditions, and residual chlorine (Cl2) was measured spectrophotometrically. For each sample, the chlorination curve (chlorine residuals versus chlorine dose) was obtained. Curves showed the typical hump-and-dip profile attributable to the formation and destruction of chloramines. It was observed that, after reactions with strong reductants and chloramines-forming compounds, the remaining organic matter exerted a certain demand of chlorine. The evolution of chlorination curves with addition of ammonia and dodecylbencene sulfonate sodium salt and with dilution of the greywater sample were studied. In addition, chlorination curves at several contact times have been obtained, resulting in slower chlorine decay in the hump zone than in the dip zone. In addition, the decay of coliforms in chlorinated samples was also investigated. It was found that, for a chlorination dosage corresponding to the maximum of the hump zone (average 8.9 mg Cl2/ L), samples were negative in coliforms after 10 to 30 minutes of contact time. After-growth was not observed within 3 days after chlorination. Implications in chlorination treatments of raw greywater can be derived from these results.

  3. Update on iodine status worldwide.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Andersson, Maria

    2012-10-01

    Salt iodization has been introduced in many countries to control iodine deficiency. The two most commonly used approaches to assessing iodine nutrition on the population level are estimation of the household penetration of adequately iodized salt (HHIS) and measurement of urinary iodine concentrations (UICs). The aim of this review is to assess global and regional iodine status in 2012 by using each of these indicators. The most recent national data on HHIS were obtained from UNICEF. The most recent data on UICs, primarily national data in school-age children, were obtained from a systematic literature search, the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and the WHO Micronutrients Database. The median UIC was used to classify national iodine status and the UIC distribution to estimate the number of individuals with low iodine intakes. Thirty-two countries are iodine deficient based on the national median UIC. Globally, 29.8% of school-age children (246 million) are estimated to have insufficient iodine intake. Out of 128 countries with HHIS data, 37 countries have salt iodization coverage that meets the international goal of at least 90% of households consuming adequately iodized salt and 39 countries have coverage rates of less than 50%. Overall, ≈70% of households worldwide have access to iodized salt. Iodized salt programs need to be strengthened and extended to reach nearly one-third of the global population that still has inadequate iodine intakes.

  4. Nano-Cesium for Anti-Cancer Properties: An Investigation into Cesium Induced Metabolic Interference.

    PubMed

    Daza, Enrique A; Misra, Santosh K; Schwartz-Duval, Aaron S; Ohoka, Ayako; Miller, Callie; Pan, Dipanjan

    2016-10-03

    The use of cesium chloride (CsCl) for cancer therapy ("high pH therapy") has been theorized to produce anticancer properties by raising intracellular pH to induce apoptosis. Although considered as "alternative medicine", little scientific evidence supports this theory. Alternatively, cells have no cesium ion (Cs(+)) mediated channels for clearance. Thus, such unstable electrochemical distributions have the severe potential to disrupt electrochemical dependent cellular processes, such as glucose cotransporters. Hence, a detailed investigation of pH changing effects and glucose uptake inhibition are warranted as a possible cesium-induced anticancer therapy. We developed and characterized cesium nanoparticles (38 ± 6 nm), termed NanoCs, for nanoparticle-mediated internalization of the ion, and compared its treatment to free CsCl. Our investigations suggest that neither NanoCs nor CsCl drastically changed the intracellular pH, negating the theory. Alternatively, NanoCs lead to a significant decrease in glucose uptake when compared to free CsCl, suggesting cesium inhibited glucose uptake. An apoptosis assay of observed cell death affirms that NanoCs leads tumor cells to initiate apoptosis rather than follow necrotic behavior. Furthermore, NanoCs lead to in vivo tumor regression, where H&E analysis confirmed apoptotic cell populations. Thus, NanoCs performed pH-independent anticancer therapy by inducing metabolic stasis.

  5. Cesium titanium silicate and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, Mari L.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is the new material, a ternary compound of cesium, silica, and titania, together with a method of making the ternary compound, cesium titanium silicate pollucite. More specifically, the invention is Cs.sub.2 Ti.sub.2 Si.sub.4 O.sub.13 pollucite which is a new crystalline phase representing a novel class of Ti-containing zeolites. Compositions contain relatively high Cs.sub.2 O and TiO.sub.2 loadings and are durable glass and ceramic materials. The amount of TiO.sub.2 and Cs.sub.2 that can be incorporated into these glasses and crystalline ceramics far exceeds the limits set for the borosilicate high level waste glass.

  6. Cesium titanium silicate and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, M.L.

    1997-01-07

    The invention is the new material, a ternary compound of cesium, silica, and titania, together with a method of making the ternary compound, cesium titanium silicate pollucite. More specifically, the invention is Cs{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}Si{sub 4}O{sub 13} pollucite which is a new crystalline phase representing a novel class of Ti-containing zeolites. Compositions contain relatively high Cs{sub 2}O and TiO{sub 2} loadings and are durable glass and ceramic materials. The amount of TiO{sub 2} and Cs{sub 2} that can be incorporated into these glasses and crystalline ceramics far exceeds the limits set for the borosilicate high level waste glass. 10 figs.

  7. The status of cesium beam frequency standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    There has been a lot of progress in cesium beam frequency standards in the last few years some of which will be reported here. Optical pumping is being pursued actively in a number of laboratories. Optically slowed and cooled beams have been demonstrated as well as traps for cold neutral atoms. The microwave cavity performance with regard to local phase shift at the beam holes was improved by use of carefully designed and built ring structures for the cavity ends. Work is being done on improvements in electronics with some emphasis on use of digital circuitry and microprocessors. The frequency pulling due to microwave Delta M = +/- 1 transitions (Ramsey pulling) was analyzed and shown to be important. Status of cesium beam frequency standards in some of the laboratories as well as some of the commercial work is discussed. Optical pumping and detection are discussed.

  8. Iodine deficiency disorders in the iodine-replete environment.

    PubMed

    Nyenwe, Ebenezer A; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute significant public health problems in parts of the world with poor iodine nutrition, but have been eradicated in North America and other regions. We herein report 3 cases of IDD, which occurred in women living in iodine-replete environments. The clinical presentation, biochemical findings, and radiological features of the patients were analyzed and presented in 3 case reports. The radiological features are illustrated in sonographic and scintigraphic images. A literature review and discussion, which highlight the risk factors, pathogenesis, ancillary investigations, and rational treatment of iodine deficiency goiter and hypothyroidism are provided. All 3 patients were young women, aged 24 to 38 years, who had goiter. Two of them presented with goitrous hypothyroidism. Radioactive iodine scintigraphy showed a characteristic finding of diffusely increased uptake (in the absence of clinical and biochemical evidence of hyperthyroidism). This scintigraphic pattern was found to be pathognomonic. Dietary iodine supplementation alone resulted in complete remission of IDD in the subjects, including the 2 patients with hypothyroidism. IDD can occur in iodine-replete environments. A high index of suspicion is needed to recognize these cases. It is pertinent that the correct diagnosis be made to avoid unwarranted life-long thyroxine therapy in patients presenting with goiter and hypothyroidism, which is easily treatable with iodized salt. These cases underscore the need for considering iodine deficiency in the etiologic diagnosis of goiter and hypothyroidism, even in iodine-sufficient regions.

  9. Murine immunization by cesium-137 irradiation attenuated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    SciTech Connect

    Stek, M. Jr.; Minard, P.; Cruess, D.F.

    1984-06-01

    Cesium-137, becoming a more readily available ionizing gamma radiation source for laboratory use, was shown to effectively attenuate Schistosoma mansoni cercariae for vaccine production. In parallel comparison studies with the murine model, cesium-137 attenuated cercariae consistently afforded better protection than did the cobalt-60 prepared vaccine. Dose-response data indicated that the optimal total irradiation with cesium-137 was between 45 and 50 Krad.

  10. Molecular Iodine Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jun; Ma, Long Sheng; Hall, John L.

    2001-12-01

    We demonstrate a simple optical clock based on an optical transition of iodine molecules, providing a frequency stability superior to most rf sources. Combined with a femtosecond-laser-based optical comb to provide the phase coherent clock mechanism linking the optical and microwave spectra, we derive an rf clock signal of comparable stability over an extended period. Measurements suggest the stability ( 5×10-14 at 1 s) of the cw laser locked on the iodine transition is transferred to every comb component throughout the optical octave bandwidth (from 532 to 1064 nm) with a precision of 3.5×10-15. Characterization of the performance of the optical clock shows (in-)stability below 3×10-13 at 1 s (currently limited by the microwave sources), and 4.6×10-13 over one year.

  11. Molecular iodine clock.

    PubMed

    Ye, J; Ma, L S; Hall, J L

    2001-12-31

    We demonstrate a simple optical clock based on an optical transition of iodine molecules, providing a frequency stability superior to most rf sources. Combined with a femtosecond-laser-based optical comb to provide the phase coherent clock mechanism linking the optical and microwave spectra, we derive an rf clock signal of comparable stability over an extended period. Measurements suggest the stability ( 5x10(-14) at 1 s) of the cw laser locked on the iodine transition is transferred to every comb component throughout the optical octave bandwidth (from 532 to 1064 nm) with a precision of 3.5x10(-15). Characterization of the performance of the optical clock shows (in-)stability below 3x10(-13) at 1 s (currently limited by the microwave sources), and 4.6x10(-13) over one year.

  12. Cesium legacy safety project management work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, J.S.

    1998-04-21

    This Management Work Plan (MWP) describes the process flow, quality assurance controls, and the Environment, Safety, and Health requirements of the Cesium Legacy Safety Project. This MWP provides an overview of the project goals and methods for repackaging the non-conforming Type W overpacks and packaging the CsCl powder and pellets. This MWP is not intended to apply to other activities associated with the CsCl Legacy Safety Program (i.e., clean out of South Cell).

  13. Cesium Atomic Fountain Clocks at NMIJ

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Wynands and S. Weyers, 2005, “Atomic fountain clocks,” Metrologia , 42, S64-S79. [2] M. Takamoto, F. L. Hong, R. Higashi, et al., 2005, “An optical...beam of laser-cooled cesium atoms,” Physical Review, A 60, R4241-R4244. [13] V. Gerginov, N. Nemitz, S. Weyers, et al., 2010, “Uncertainty evaluation of the caesium fountain clock PTB-CSF2,” Metrologia , 47, 65-79.

  14. Iodine addition using triiodide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Muckle, Susan V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    The study develops: a triiodide solution for use in preparing ground service equipment (GSE) water for Shuttle support, an iodine dissolution method that is reliable and requires minimal time and effort to prepare, and an iodine dissolution agent with a minimal concentration of sodium salt. Sodium iodide and hydriodic acid were both found to dissolve iodine to attain the desired GSE iodine concentrations of 7.5 +/- 2.5 mg/L and 25 +/- 5 mg/L. The 1.75:1 and 2:1 sodium iodide solutions produced higher iodine recoveries than the 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution. A two-hour preparation time is required for the three sodium iodide solutions. The 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution can be prepared in less than 5 min. Two sodium iodide stock solutions (2.5:1 and 2:1) were found to dissolve iodine without undergoing precipitation.

  15. Iodine addition using triiodide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Muckle, Susan V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    The study develops: a triiodide solution for use in preparing ground service equipment (GSE) water for Shuttle support, an iodine dissolution method that is reliable and requires minimal time and effort to prepare, and an iodine dissolution agent with a minimal concentration of sodium salt. Sodium iodide and hydriodic acid were both found to dissolve iodine to attain the desired GSE iodine concentrations of 7.5 +/- 2.5 mg/L and 25 +/- 5 mg/L. The 1.75:1 and 2:1 sodium iodide solutions produced higher iodine recoveries than the 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution. A two-hour preparation time is required for the three sodium iodide solutions. The 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution can be prepared in less than 5 min. Two sodium iodide stock solutions (2.5:1 and 2:1) were found to dissolve iodine without undergoing precipitation.

  16. Hydrogen masers and cesium fountains at NRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulanger, J.-S.; Morris, D.; Douglas, R. J.; Gagne, M.-C.

    1994-01-01

    The NRC masers H-3 and H-4 have been operating since June 1993 with cavity servo control. These low-flux active H masers are showing stabilities of about 10(exp -15) from 1 hour to several days. Stability results are presented, and the current and planned uses of the masers are discussed. A cesium fountain primary frequency standard project has been started at NRC. Trapping and launching experiments with the goal of 7 m/s launches are beginning. We discuss our plans for a local oscillator and servo that exploit the pulsed aspect of cesium fountain standards, and meet the challenge of 10(exp -14) tau(exp -1/2) stability without requiring masers. At best, we expect to run this frequency standard initially for periods of hours each working day rather than continuously for years, and so frequency transfer to outside laboratories has been carefully considered. We conclude that masers (or other even better secondary clocks) are required to exploit this potential accuracy of the cesium fountain. We present and discuss our conclusion that it is feasible to transfer frequency in this way with a transfer-induced uncertainty of less than 10(exp -15), even in the presence of maser frequency drift and random walk noise.

  17. Polyvinyl alcohol as a useful indicator on iodometry. (II): Temperature dependence of iodine recovery and the correction method of iodine concentration in the lower detection limit region.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Tetsutaro; Tsuchida, Makoto; Toyose, Yasushi; Hiratsuka, Hiroshi; Yamaye, Makoto

    2004-03-01

    In an iodometric titration method for iodine (or chlorine) analysis, the percent recovery of iodine (or chlorine) decreases in the low concentration region and at the relatively higher temperature range. We have shown that the percent recovery vs. concentration curve can be expressed by a simple empirical formula. The empirical formula contains parameters that depend on temperature and those parameters were obtained as a function of temperature. The empirical formula can be used as a correction function for experimental iodine (or chlorine) concentrations. By applying the correction function with the parameters to the experimentally obtained concentrations, we can estimate the reliable concentration in the low concentration region. Estimated concentrations were within 10% (as RSD) of the exact values after the correction in the range of 0.4 mg I2 L(-1) ([triple bond] ca. 0.1 mg as Cl2 L9-1)) - 4.4 mg I2 L(-1) ([triple bond] ca. 1.2 mg as Cl2 L(-1)) in the temperature range of 0 to 30 degrees C.

  18. Direct Grout Stabilization of High Cesium Salt Waste: Cesium Leaching Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    1999-09-19

    'The direct grout alternative is a viable option for treatment/stabilization and disposal of salt waste containing Cs-137 concentrations of 1-3 Ci/gal. The significant difference between these waste solutions is that the high cesium salt solution will contain between 1 and 3 Curies of Cs-137 per gallon compared to a negligible amount in the current salt solution. This difference will require special engineering and shielding for a direct grout processing facility and disposal units to achieve acceptable radiation exposure conditions. The higher cesium concentrations in the direct grout also require that the cesium leaching be evaluated as a function of curing temperature. ANS 16.1 leaching results and distribution ratios (approximations of distribution coefficients) as a function of temperature are presented in this report.'

  19. A Cesium Beam Frequency Standard with Microprocessor Control,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Frequency, *Control, *Symposia, *Electron beams, *Cesium, *Microprocessors, Laboratory tests, Frequency standards, Performance(Engineering), Reliability, Time , State of the art, Computers, Data acquisition

  20. Surface interactions of cesium and boric acid with stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman-Canfield, N.

    1995-08-01

    In this report, the effects of cesium hydroxide and boric acid on oxidized stainless steel surfaces at high temperatures and near one atmosphere of pressure are investigated. This is the first experimental investigation of this chemical system. The experimental investigations were performed using a mass spectrometer and a mass electrobalance. Surfaces from the different experiments were examined using a scanning electron microscope to identify the presence of deposited species, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis to identify the species deposited on the surface. A better understanding of the equilibrium thermodynamics, the kinetics of the steam-accelerated volatilizations, and the release kinetics are gained by these experiments. The release rate is characterized by bulk vaporization/gas-phase mass transfer data. The analysis couples vaporization, deposition, and desorption of the compounds formed by cesium hydroxide and boric acid under conditions similar to what is expected during certain nuclear reactor accidents. This study shows that cesium deposits on an oxidized stainless steel surface at temperatures between 1000 and 1200 Kelvin. Cesium also deposits on stainless steel surfaces coated with boric oxide in the same temperature ranges. The mechanism for cesium deposition onto the oxide layer was found to involve the chemical reaction between cesium and chromate. Some revaporization in the cesium hydroxide-boric acid system was observed. It has been found that under the conditions given, boric acid will react with cesium hydroxide to form cesium metaborate. A model is proposed for this chemical reaction.

  1. Lanthanide doped strontium-barium cesium halide scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Bizarri, Gregory; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Borade, Ramesh B.; Gundiah, Gautam; Yan, Zewu; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Chaudhry, Anurag; Canning, Andrew

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an optionally lanthanide-doped strontium-barium, optionally cesium, halide, useful for detecting nuclear material.

  2. Thermodynamics of Cesium Extraction from Acidic Media by HCCD and PEG

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, R. S.; Peterman, D. R.; Zalupski, Peter R.; Nash, Ken L; Tillotson, R. D.; Delmau, Laetitia Helene

    2010-01-01

    In this study, details of cesium extraction from nitrate media using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (HCCD) dissolved in the polar phenyl trifluoromethyl sulfone (FS-13) diluent have been examined. It has been verified that Cs{sup +} phase transfer is based solely on cation exchange (H{sup +} for Cs{sup +}) that is, that a previously reported nitrate dependency arises from nonideal behavior of solute species. The enthalpy and entropy of the system calculated using appropriate corrections to the van't Hoff analysis are found to be in good agreement with independently measured calorimetry results. Finally, it is demonstrated that synergistic extraction of Cs{sup +} by HCCD and PEG does not occur. Although there is a definite interaction between HCCD and PEG (and it is well established that this interaction is responsible for the extraction of Sr{sup 2+}), this association is actually antagonistic to the extraction of Cs{sup +}.

  3. Review of chlorinated phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Exon, J.H.

    1984-12-01

    The chlorinated phenols are a group of 19 isomers composed of phenol with substituted chlorines. These chemicals are readily soluble in organic solvents but only slightly soluble in water, except for the chlorophenate salts. Chlorophenols with less than 3 chlorines are not used extensively except in the production of higher chlorophenols and chlorophenyloxyacetic acid herbicides. Pentachlorophenol and some tetrachlorophenols are used worldwide, primarily as wood preservatives or fungicides. Residues of chlorophenols have been found worldwide in soil, water and air samples, in food products, and in human and animal tissues and body fluids. Environmental contamination with these chemicals occurs from industrial effluents, agricultural runoff, breakdown of chlorophenyloxyacetic acid herbicides and hexachlorobenzene, and from spontaneous formation following chlorination of water for disinfection and deodorization. The acute toxicity of these chemicals is relatively low and little is known concerning their chronic effects. Chlorophenols have not been shown conclusively to be mutagens, teratogens or carcinogens. However, these compounds may act as promotors or cocarcinogens and the immune system is particularly sensitive to their toxic effects. Transplacental exposure to chlorophenols may result in embryotoxicity and abortion. The major mode of toxic action is as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. The toxicity of chlorophenols decreases with decreasing chlorination. These chemicals are mild hepatotoxins and are stored mainly in hepatic and renal tissues.

  4. Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Hyperthyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Radioiodine therapy is a nuclear ... thyroid cancer. When a small dose of radioactive iodine I-131 (an isotope of iodine that emits ...

  5. Iodine dynamics in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetaya, W. H.; Young, S. D.; Watts, M. J.; Ander, E. L.; Bailey, E. H.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated changes in iodine (129I) solubility and speciation in nine soils with contrasting properties (pH, Fe/Mn oxides, organic carbon and iodine contents), incubated for nine months at 10 and 20 °C. The rate of 129I sorption was greater in soils with large organic carbon contents (%SOC), low pH and at higher temperatures. Loss of iodide (I-) from solution was extremely rapid, apparently reaching completion over minutes-hours; iodate (IO3-) loss from solution was slower, typically occurring over hours-days. In all soils an apparently instantaneous sorption reaction was followed by a slower sorption process for IO3-. For iodide a faster overall reaction meant that discrimination between the two processes was less clear. Instantaneous sorption of IO3- was greater in soils with high Fe/Mn oxide content, low pH and low SOC content, whereas the rate of time-dependent sorption was greatest in soils with higher SOC contents. Phosphate extraction (0.15 M KH2PO4) of soils, ∼100 h after 129I spike addition, indicated that concentrations of sorbed inorganic iodine (129I) were very low in all soils suggesting that inorganic iodine adsorption onto oxide phases has little impact on the rate of iodine assimilation into humus. Transformation of dissolved inorganic 129IO3- and 129I- to sorbed organic forms was modelled using a range of reaction- and diffusion-based approaches. Irreversible and reversible first order kinetic models, and a spherical diffusion model, adequately described the kinetics of both IO3- and I- loss from the soil solution but required inclusion of a distribution coefficient (kd) to allow for instantaneous adsorption. A spherical diffusion model was also collectively parameterised for all the soils studied by using pH, soil organic carbon concentration and combined Fe + Mn oxide content as determinants of the model parameters (kd and D/r2). The kinetic model parameters were not directly related to a single soil parameter; inclusion of pH, SOC, oxide

  6. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  7. Laser excited fluorescence in the cesium-xenon excimer and the cesium dimer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Exton, R. J.; Snow, W. L.; Hillard, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    Argon ion laser lines are used to excite fluorescence in a mixture of cesium and xenon. Excimer band fluorescence is observed at higher pressures (about 1 atm) while at lower pressures (several torr) a diffuse fluorescence due to the cesium dimer is observed whose character changes with exciting wavelength. The excimer fluorescence is shown to be directly related to the location of the exciting wavelength within previously measured Cs/Xe line shapes. This fact suggests that the excimer systems may be efficiently pumped through these line shapes. Qualitative energy-level schemes are proposed to explain the observations in both the excimer and dimer systems.

  8. Laser excited fluorescence in the cesium-xenon excimer and the cesium dimer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Exton, R. J.; Snow, W. L.; Hillard, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    Argon ion laser lines are used to excite fluorescence in a mixture of cesium and xenon. Excimer band fluorescence is observed at higher pressures (about 1 atm) while at lower pressures (several torr) a diffuse fluorescence due to the cesium dimer is observed whose character changes with exciting wavelength. The excimer fluorescence is shown to be directly related to the location of the exciting wavelength within previously measured Cs/Xe line shapes. This fact suggests that the excimer systems may be efficiently pumped through these line shapes. Qualitative energy-level schemes are proposed to explain the observations in both the excimer and dimer systems.

  9. Hydrodesulfurization of chlorinized coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Rohatgi, N. K. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method of desulfurization is described in which high sulfur coals are desulfurized by low temperature chlorinolysis of coal in liquid media, preferably water, followed by hydrodesulfurization at a temperature above 500 C. The coals are desulfurized to an extent of up to 90% by weight and simultaneously dechlorinated to a chlorine content below 0.1% by weight. The product coals have lower volatiles loss, lower oxygen and nitrogen content and higher fixed carbon than raw coals treated with hydrogen under the same conditions. Heating the chlorinated coal to a temperature above 500 C. in inert gas such as nitrogen results in significantly less desulfurization.

  10. Reaction products of chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, A A

    1982-01-01

    Inspection of the available literature reveals that a detailed investigation of the aqueous organic chemistry of chlorine dioxide and systematic identification of products formed during water disinfection has not been considered. This must be done before an informed assessment can be made of the relative safety of using chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant alternative to chlorine. Although trihalomethanes are generally not formed by the action of chlorine dioxide, the products of chlorine dioxide treatment of organic materials are oxidized species, some of which also contain chlorine. The relative amounts of species types may depend on the amount of chlorine dioxide residual maintained and the concentration and nature of the organic material present in the source water. The trend toward lower concentrations of chlorinated by-products with increasing ClO2 concentration, which was observed with phenols, has not been observed with natural humic materials as measured by the organic halogen parameter. Organic halogen concentrations have been shown to increase with increasing chlorine dioxide dose, but are much lower than those observed when chlorine is applied. Aldehydes have been detected as apparent by-products of chlorine dioxide oxidation reactions in a surface water that is a drinking water source. Some other nonchlorinated products of chlorine dioxide treatment may be quinones and epoxides. The extent of formation of these moieties within the macromolecular humic structure is also still unknown. PMID:7151750

  11. Variation in available cesium concentration with parameters during temperature induced extraction of cesium from soil.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Durga; Takahashi, Akira; Tanaka, Hisashi; Sato, Mutsuto; Fukuda, Shigeharu; Kamimura, Ryuichi; Kawamoto, Tohru

    2015-02-01

    Cesium extraction behavior of brown forest type soil collected from paddy fields in Fukushima nuclear accident affected areas was studied. In nitric acid or sulfuric acid solutions at elevated temperature, the concentration of Cs in soil available for extraction, m0, has been estimated on the basis of modified canonical equation and the equations derived from assumed equilibria. With the variation in temperature, mixing time, and soil to solvent ratio, the observed m0 values in 0.5 M acid solution ranged between 1.5 and 2.9 mg cesium per kilogram of soil. By increasing the acid concentration to 3 M, the value of m0 could be sharply increased to 5.1 mg/kg even at 95 °C. This variation in the extractable concentration of cesium with the parameters signifies the existence of different binding sites in the soil matrix. The results observed for uncontaminated sample could be reproduced with the radioactive cesium contaminated sample belonging to the same soil group.

  12. Iodine-Catalyzed Polysaccharide Esterification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A review is provided of the recent reports to use iodine-catalyzed esterification reaction to produce esters from polysaccharides. The process entails reaction of the polysaccharide with an acid anhydride in the presence of a catalytic level of iodine, and in the absence of additional solvents. T...

  13. Hypothyroidism following iodine-131 therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, M.T.

    1982-02-01

    A teaching editorial dealing with the hypothyroidism side effect of Iodine-131 radiotherapy is presented. The author reviews two articles in this issue of the Journal of Nuclear Medicine on the subject, discusses Graves' disease, Iodine 125 radiotherapy, and the patient-physician relationship when dealing with the problem. (JMT)

  14. Distillation device supplies cesium vapor at constant pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basiulis, A.; Shefsiek, P. K.

    1968-01-01

    Distillation apparatus in the form of a U tube supplies small amounts of pure cesium vapor at constant pressure to a thermionic converter. The upstream leg of the U tube is connected to a vacuum pump to withdraw noncondensable impurities, the bottom portion serves as a reservoir for the liquid cesium.

  15. Coherent 455 nm beam production in a cesium vapor.

    PubMed

    Schultz, J T; Abend, S; Döring, D; Debs, J E; Altin, P A; White, J D; Robins, N P; Close, J D

    2009-08-01

    We observe coherent, cw, 455 nm blue-beam production via frequency upconversion in cesium vapor. Two IR lasers induce strong double excitation in a heated cesium vapor cell, allowing the atoms to undergo a double cascade and produce a coherent, collimated, blue beam copropagating with the two IR pump lasers.

  16. Cesium-associated hypokalemia successfully treated with amiloride.

    PubMed

    Horn, Sarah; Naidus, Elliot; Alper, Seth L; Danziger, John

    2015-06-01

    Self-treatment of cancer with cesium chloride, despite proven lack of efficacy, continues to produce serious adverse effects. Among these is hypokalemia predisposing to life-threatening arrhythmia. The mechanism of cesium-associated hypokalemia (CAH) has not been described. We report urinary potassium wasting responsive to amiloride therapy in a cancer patient with CAH, and discuss possible mechanisms.

  17. [Concentrations of radioactive cesium in different cuts of beef].

    PubMed

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident, high levels of radioactive cesium were detected in beef. Many prefectural governments decided to conduct blanket tests on meat from local beef cattle to prevent distribution of beef contaminated with radioactive cesium exceeding the provisional regulation value. In some cases, different concentrations of radioactive cesium were found in different cuts of beef from the same cows. These results raised questions about the reliability of the test results. Here, we investigated the reason for the differences in radioactive cesium concentration in different cuts of beef from the same cows. The concentrations of radioactive cesium in five different parts cuts of beef from three cows were negatively correlated with fat content, suggesting that the difference in radioactive cesium concentration is due to differences in fat content in the meat. In addition, our results showed that the concentration of radioactive cesium in muscle was more than 7-fold higher than that in fat in the same cow. These results suggested that it is necessary to use muscle for testing of radioactive cesium in cows.

  18. Hanford single shell tank saltcake cesium removal test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, J.B., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-11

    This document provides the test preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test using Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake from tanks 241-BY-110, 241-U-108, 241 U 109, 241-A-101, and 241-S-102 in a benchscale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline silicotitanate

  19. Hanford tank waste supernatant cesium removal test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, D.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-31

    This document provides the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test using Hanford DSSF supernatant liquor from tank 241-AW-101 in a bench-scale column. Cesium sorbents to be tested include resorcinol-formaldehyde resin and crystalline silicotitanate.

  20. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 distribution in Baltic Sea waters

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, L.N.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1988-09-01

    The strontium-90 and cesium-137 concentrations determined in 1983 in the Baltic Sea proper and the Gulf of Finland and in the Soviet Baltic rivers are furnished. The cesium-137 content has been found to be directly proportional to the salinity of the water. Significant influx of technogenic radioactive contaminants from the North to the Baltic Sea was noted in 1983.

  1. Chlorine dioxide and hemodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.P. . Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology)

    1989-05-01

    Because it has little or no tendency to generate carcinogenic trihalomethanes such as chloroform, chlorine dioxide is an attractive alternative to chlorine for drinking water disinfection. There are, however, concerns about its acute toxicity, and the toxic effects of its by-products, chlorite and chlorate. The human experience with chlorine dioxide in both controlled, prospective studies and in actual use situations in community water supplies have as yet failed to reveal adverse health effects. The EPA has recommended standards of 0.06 mg/L for chlorine dioxide and standards of 0.007 mg/L for chlorite and chlorate in drinking water. Among groups who may be at special risk from oxychlorines in drinking water are patients who must undergro chronic extracorporeal hemodialysis. Although even units for home hemodialysis are supposed to be equipped with devices which effectively remove oxychlorines, there is a always a possibility of operator error or equipment failure. When the equipment is adequately maintained, it is likely that dialysis patients will have more intensive exposures from drinking water than from dialysis fluids despite the much larger volumes of water that are involved in dialysis. This paper discusses a hemodialysis and the standards and effects of oxychlorines. 90 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Chlorine Dioxide (Gas)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas is registered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a sterilant for use in manufacturing, laboratory equipment, medical devices, environmental surfaces, tools and clean rooms. Aqueous ClO2 is registered by the EPA as a surface disinfectant and sanitizer fo...

  3. Impacts of Water Chlorination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1976

    1976-01-01

    To learn the consequences of one aspect of technology on man and his surroundings, scientists meeting at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discussed what is known about the impacts of water chlorination. The conference produced state-of-the-art information about the technology and attempted to summarize all the information on the subject. (BT)

  4. Chlorination of lanthanum oxide.

    PubMed

    Gaviría, Juan P; Navarro, Lucas G; Bohé, Ana E

    2012-03-08

    The reactive system La(2)O(3)(s)-Cl(2)(g) was studied in the temperature range 260-950 °C. The reaction course was followed by thermogravimetry, and the solids involved were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results showed that the reaction leads to the formation of solid LaOCl, and for temperatures above 850 °C, the lanthanum oxychloride is chlorinated, producing LaCl(3)(l). The formation of the oxychloride progresses through a nucleation and growth mechanism, and the kinetic analysis showed that at temperatures below 325 °C the system is under chemical control. The influence of diffusive processes on the kinetics of production of LaOCl was evaluated by studying the effect of the reactive gas flow rate, the mass of the sample, and the chlorine diffusion through the boundary layer surrounding the solid sample. The conversion curves were analyzed and fitted according to the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami description, and the reaction order with respect to the chlorine partial pressure was obtained by varying this partial pressure between 10 and 70 kPa. The rate equation was obtained, which includes the influence of the temperature, chlorine partial pressure, and reaction degree.

  5. Impacts of Water Chlorination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1976

    1976-01-01

    To learn the consequences of one aspect of technology on man and his surroundings, scientists meeting at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discussed what is known about the impacts of water chlorination. The conference produced state-of-the-art information about the technology and attempted to summarize all the information on the subject. (BT)

  6. Effect of chlorination condition and permeability of chlorine species on the chlorination of a polyamide membrane.

    PubMed

    Gu, Joung-Eun; Jun, Byung-Moon; Kwon, Young-Nam

    2012-10-15

    Most studies on membrane chlorination have been investigated in an unpressurized chlorination mode, even if the polyamide membrane was continuously exposed to chlorine under high operating pressure in real water/wastewater treatment plants. In this study, performance changes due to polyamide membrane chlorination were investigated in both pressurized and unpressurized chlorination modes. Chlorination in an unpressurized mode showed a flux increase at high pH and a flux decline at low pH due to the compaction and swelling of the polyamide chains, respectively. On the other hand, chlorination performed in a pressurized mode decreased the water flux in both acidic and alkaline conditions, showing that compaction is overwhelming compared to swelling. The permeability of HOCl, a dominant species at low pH, through the polyamide membrane was pH independent and almost similar to the system recovery, but the permeability of OCl(-), which is dominant at high pH, was maxima at a neutral pH. The different performance behaviors of membranes chlorinated at various pH conditions in the presence or absence of applied pressure could be explained by the permeability of chlorine species and compaction/swelling of polymer chains after chlorination. The effect of membrane chlorination on the chemical property changes at the two different modes was confirmed using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared analysis, and a conceptual model of performance change was proposed to explain the performance discrepancy between the two chlorination modes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Surface photochemistry of phosgene on clean and iodine-covered Ag(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X.L.; White, J.M. )

    1990-03-22

    The photochemistry of phosgene (Cl{sub 2}CO) on clean and partially iodine covered Ag(111) has been studied. Cl{sub 2}CO adsorbed on Ag(111) at 100 K desorbs molecularly with no detectable thermal decomposition. On clean Ag(111) K, UV photolysis occurs readily for both submonolayer and multilayer coverages. The photolysis products are chlorine, which remains on the surface, and CO, which desorbs during irradiation. There is no detectable photodesorption of molecular Cl{sub 2}CO.

  8. Chlorine in Lunar Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Franchi, I. A.

    2017-01-01

    In the context of the lunar magma ocean (LMO) model, it is anticipated that chlorine (and other volatiles) should have been concentrated in the late-stage LMO residual melts (i.e., the dregs enriched in incompatible elements such as K, REEs, and P, collectively called KREEP, and in its primitive form - urKREEP, [1]), given its incompatibility in mafic minerals like olivine and pyroxene, which were the dominant phases that crystallized early in the cumulate pile of the LMO (e.g., [2]). When compared to chondritic meteorites and terrestrial rocks (e.g., [3-4]), lunar samples often display heavy chlorine isotope compositions [5-9]. Boyce et al. [8] found a correlation between delta Cl-37 (sub Ap) and bulk-rock incompatible trace elements (ITEs) in lunar basalts, and used this to propose that early degassing of Cl (likely as metal chlorides) from the LMO led to progressive enrichment in remaining LMO melt in Cl-37over Cl-35- the early degassing model. Barnes et al. [9] suggested that relatively late degassing of chlorine from urKREEP (to yield delta Cl-37 (sub urKREEP greater than +25 per mille) followed by variable mixing between KREEPy melts and mantle cumulates (characterized by delta Cl-370 per mille) could explain the majority of Cl isotope data from igneous lunar samples. In order to better understand the processes involved in giving rise to the heavy chlorine isotope compositions of lunar samples, we have performed an in situ study of chlorine isotopes and abundances of volatiles in lunar apatite from a diverse suite of lunar basalts spanning a range of geochemical types.

  9. [Biochemical changes in rats under the influence of cesium chloride].

    PubMed

    Mel'nykova, N M; Iermishev, O V

    2013-01-01

    Cesium is lately accumulated actively in the environment, but its influence on human and animal organism is the least studied among heavy metals. It is shown that the action of cesium chloride in rats caused significant changes in blood chemistry, which are characterized by a decrease of total protein content, pH, an increase in the level of urea, creatinine, glucose and total hemoglobin. The results showed that potassium content in all the studied organs and tissues of poisoned rats decreases under the action of cesium chloride. Histological examination of the heart tissue in rats poisoned with cesium chloride indicates the onset of pathology of cardiovascular system. It was found out that use of the drug "Asparkam" reduces the negative effect of cesium chloride on the body of rats.

  10. Investigations of negative and positive cesium ion species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chanin, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    A direct test is provided of the hypothesis of negative ion creation at the anode or collector of a diode operating under conditions simulating a cesium thermionic converter. The experimental technique involves using direct ion sampling through the collector electrode with mass analysis using a quadrupole mass analyzer. Similar measurements are undertaken on positive ions extracted through the emitter electrode. Measurements were made on a variety of gases including pure cesium, helium-cesium mixtures and cesium-hydrogen as well as cesium-xenon mixtures. The gas additive was used primarily to aid in understanding the negative ion formation processes. Measurements were conducted using emitter (cathode) temperatures up to about 1000 F. The major negative ion identified through the collector was Cs(-) with minor negative ion peaks tentatively identified as H(-), H2(-), H3(-), He(-) and a mass 66. Positive ions detected were believed to be Cs(+), Cs2(+) and Cs3(+).

  11. A combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Jensen, M.P.

    1996-03-01

    A new solvent extraction process for the simultaneous extraction of cesium and strontium from acidic nitrate media is described. This process uses a solvent formulation comprised of 0.05 M di-t-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), 0.1 M Crown 100{prime} (a proprietary, cesium-selective derivative of dibenzo-18-crown-6), 1.2 M tributyl phosphate (TBP), and 5% (v/v) lauryl nitrile in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. Distribution ratios for cesium and strontium from 4 M nitric acid are 4.13 and 3.46, respectively. A benchtop batch countercurrent extraction experiment indicates that >98% of the cesium and strontium initially present in the feed solution can be removed in only four extraction stages. Through proper choice of extraction and strip conditions, extracted cesium and strontium can be recovered either together or individually.

  12. Evaluation of electrochemical ion exchange for cesium elution

    SciTech Connect

    Bontha, J.D.; Kurath, D.E.; Surma, J.E.; Buehler, M.F.

    1996-04-01

    Electrochemical elution was investigated as an alternative method to acid elution for the desorption of cesium from loaded ion exchange resins. The approach was found to have several potential advantages over existing technologies, in particular, electrochemical elution eliminates the need for addition of chemicals to elute cesium from the ion exchange resin. Also, since, in the electrochemical elution process the eluting solution is not in direct contact with the ion exchange material, very small volumes of the eluting solution can be used in a complete recycle mode in order to minimize the total volume of the cesium elute. In addition, the cesium is eluted as an alkaline solution that does not require neutralization with caustic to meet the tank farm specifications. Other advantages include easy incorporation of the electrochemical elution process into the present cesium recovery schemes.

  13. Method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride

    DOEpatents

    Pereira, Candido

    1999-01-01

    A method for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700.degree. C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite.

  14. Method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride

    DOEpatents

    Pereira, C.

    1999-02-23

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700 C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite. 3 figs.

  15. Breast Milk Iodine Concentration Is a More Accurate Biomarker of Iodine Status Than Urinary Iodine Concentration in Exclusively Breastfeeding Women.

    PubMed

    Dold, Susanne; Zimmermann, Michael B; Aboussad, Abdelmounaim; Cherkaoui, Mohamed; Jia, Qingzhen; Jukic, Tomislav; Kusic, Zvonko; Quirino, Antonio; Sang, Zhongna; San Luis, Teofilo Ol; Vandea, Elena; Andersson, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Background: Iodine status in populations is usually assessed by the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC). However, iodine is also excreted in breast milk during lactation; thus, breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) may be a promising biomarker of iodine nutrition in lactating women. Whether the mammary gland can vary fractional uptake of circulating iodine in response to changes in dietary intake is unclear.Objective: We evaluated UIC and BMIC as biomarkers for iodine status in lactating women with a wide range of iodine intakes.Methods: We recruited 866 pairs of lactating mothers and exclusively breastfed infants from 3 iodine-sufficient study sites: Linfen, China (n = 386); Tuguegarao, Philippines (n = 371); and Zagreb, Croatia (n = 109). We also recruited iodine-deficient lactating women from Amizmiz, Morocco (n = 117). We collected urine and breast milk samples and measured UIC and BMIC.Results: In the 3 iodine-sufficient sites, a pooled regression analysis of the estimated iodine excretion revealed higher fractional iodine excretion in breast milk than in urine at borderline low iodine intakes. In contrast, in the iodine-deficient site in Morocco, a constant proportion (∼33%) of total iodine was excreted into breast milk.Conclusions: In iodine-sufficient populations, when iodine intake in lactating women is low, there is increased partitioning of iodine into breast milk. For this reason, maternal UIC alone may not reflect iodine status, and BMIC should also be measured to assess iodine status in lactating women. Our data suggest a BMIC reference range (2.5th and 97.5th percentiles) of 60-465 μg/kg in exclusively breastfeeding women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02196337. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Negative and positive cesium ion studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehn, D. G.; Sutliff, D. E.; Chanin, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    Mass spectrometric analyses have been performed on the positive and negative species from discharges in Cs, He-Cs, and He-H2-Cs mixtures. Sampling was conducted through the electrodes of normal glow discharges and from close-spaced heated-cathode conditions, which approximate a cesium thermionic converter. No negative Cs ions were observed for Cs pressures less than .01 torr. Identified species included Cs(+), Cs2(+), Cs(-), and what appeared to be multiply charged ions. Low-mass negative and positive ions attributed to H2 were observed when an He-H2 mixture was also present in the discharge region.

  17. [Surveillance of radioactive cesium in foods].

    PubMed

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Ikarashi, Atsuko; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    We surveyed foods on the market from areas that had been exposed to radioactive materials contamination following the Fukushima accident. We used a NaI (Tl) scintillation spectrometer for the screening tests and a germanium semiconductor detector for the final tests. Test results from 1,427 samples showed that 6 samples (0.4%) exceeded the regulatory limit of 500 Bq/kg. Considering the detection rate of radioactive cesium in each food category, we suggest that it is necessary to continue monitoring fruits such as chestnuts and ginkgo nuts, mushrooms (especially raw wood-shiitake), mountain vegetables, and sea fish.

  18. Plutonium and Cesium Colloid Mediated Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhalfa, H.; Dittrich, T.; Reimus, P. W.; Ware, D.; Erdmann, B.; Wasserman, N. L.; Abdel-Fattah, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    Plutonium and cesium have been released to the environment at many different locations worldwide and are present in spent fuel at significant levels. Accurate understanding of the mechanisms that control their fate and transport in the environment is important for the management of contaminated sites, for forensic applications, and for the development of robust repositories for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. Plutonium, which can be present in the environment in multiple oxidations states and various chemical forms including amorphous oxy(hydr)oxide phases, adsorbs/adheres very strongly to geological materials and is usually immobile in all its chemical forms. However, when associated with natural colloids, it has the potential to migrate significant distances from its point of release. Like plutonium, cesium is not very mobile and tends to remain adhered to geological materials near its release point, although its transport can be enhanced by natural colloids. However, the reactivity of plutonium and cesium are very different, so their colloid-mediated transport might be significantly different in subsurface environments. In this study, we performed controlled experiments in two identically-prepared columns; one dedicated to Pu and natural colloid transport experiments, and the other to Cs and colloid experiments. Multiple flow-through experiments were conducted in each column, with the effluent solutions being collected and re-injected into the same column two times to examine the persistence and scaling behavior of the natural colloids, Pu and Cs. The data show that that a significant fraction of colloids were retained in the first elution through each column, but the eluted colloids collected from the first run transported almost conservatively in subsequent runs. Plutonium transport tracked natural colloids in the first run but deviated from the transport of natural colloids in the second and third runs. Cesium transport tracked natural

  19. Cleaning Cesium Radionuclides from BN-350 Primary Sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Romanenko, O.G.; Allen, K.J.; Wachs, D.M.; Planchon, H.P.; Wells, P.B.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Nazarenko, P.; Dumchev, I.; Maev, V.; Zemtzev, B.; Tikhomirov, L.; Yakovlev, V.; Synkov, A

    2005-04-15

    This paper reports the successful design and operation of a system to remove highly radioactive cesium from the sodium coolant of the BN-350 reactor in Aktau, Kazakhstan. As an international effort between the United States and the Republic of Kazakhstan, a cesium-trapping system was jointly designed, fabricated, installed, and successfully operated. The results are significant for a number of reasons, including (a) a significant reduction of radioactivity levels of the BN-350 coolant and reactor surfaces, thereby reducing exposure to workers during shutdown operations; (b) demonstration of scientific ideas; and (c) the engineering application of effective cesium trap deployment for commercial-sized liquid-metal reactors. About 255 300 GBq (6900 Ci) of cesium was trapped, and the {sup 137}Cs specific activity in BN-350 primary sodium was decreased from 296 MBq/kg (8000 {mu}Ci/kg) to 0.37 MBq/kg (10 {mu}Ci/kg) by using seven cesium traps containing reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) as the cesium adsorbent. Cesium trapping was accomplished by pumping sodium from the primary circuit, passing it through a block of RVC within each trap, and returning the cleaned sodium to the primary circuit. Both to predict and to analyze the behavior of the cesium traps in the BN-350 reactor primary circuit, a model was developed that satisfactorily describes the observed results of the cesium trapping. By using this model, thermodynamic parameters, such as the heat of adsorption of cesium atoms on RVC and on internal piping surfaces of the BN-350 reactor primary circuit, -22.7 and -5.0 kJ/mole, respectively, were extracted from the experimental data.

  20. Iodine-123 generator/iodination kit: a preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, P; Prach, T; Srivastava, S C; Meinken, G E

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary results are described of a xenon-123 filled device to serve as a combination iodine-123 generator/iodination kit. Xenon-123 is produced in the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) by the reaction /sup 127/I(p, 5n)/sup 123/Xe. The device consists of a small glass ampoule containing an internal glass breakseal and a flanged neck on which is crimped a multi-injection type septum. The ampoule contains a hydrogen sulfide atmosphere to assure that the iodine generated from the decay of the xenon is in the form of iodide. Following an adequate period for xenon-123 to decay (this period can be used for shipment), a needle is forced through the septum breaking the seal and residual gases are pumped off. The iodine-123 in the form of iodide can then be rinsed from the ampoule with any desired solvent or reagent added directly to the device to carry out an iodination in an enclosed environment. Preliminary results of both iodine recovery and iodinations have been promising.

  1. The Universal Solvent Extraction (UNEX) Process I: Development of the UNEX Process Solvent for the Separation of Cesium, Strontium, and the Actinides from Acidic Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Jack Douglas; Todd, Terry Allen; Herbst, Ronald Scott; Brewer, Ken Neal; Romanovskiy, V. N.; Smirnov, I. V.; Babain, V. A.

    2001-01-01

    A synergistic extraction mixture containing chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD), carbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been investigated for the simultaneous recovery of cesium, strontium, lanthanides, and actinides from highly acidic media. The extraction properties of this mixture depend on the concentration ratio of the components. For recovery of all major radionuclides, the optimal ratio of [CCD]:[PEG]: [CMPO] = 5:1:1 should be used. The use of diphenyl-N,N-dibutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide and PEG-400 provides the most efficient recovery of cesium, strontium, lanthanides, and actinides. The possibility of using polyfluorinated ethers, esters, ketones, and sulfones as diluents was examined. Phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone was the most suitable diluent tested. The use of this diluent allows good extraction properties, chemical and radiation stability, excellent explosion/fire-safety properties, and favorable hydrodynamic characteristics. The extraction of radionuclides from HNO3 media by mixtures of CCD:PEG:CMPO in phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone and the subsequent stripping behavior were evaluated.

  2. On-Line Nuclear Orientation Studies of Neutron Deficient Tellurium, Iodine and Cesium Isotopes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Timothy Lee

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. On-line nuclear orientation at low temperature has become an important technique for the study of nuclei far from stability, through measurements of nuclear moments and other quantities of spectroscopic interest. The theory of low temperature nuclear orientation and its application to the study of nuclear structure are reviewed. Of particular importance to the on-line measurement, in which a wide range of short-lived nuclei are available for study, is the question of how fast these nuclei can be cooled to the lattice temperature, and thus oriented. To address this, the theory of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation, relevant to the on-line technique, is outlined. In particular, quantitative methods to deal with cases in which the spin -lattice relaxation time is comparable with the isotope half-life have been developed and applied. One of the major current interests in nuclear structure physics is to investigate how the neutron-proton interaction influences the structure of nuclei that are transitional, between well established regions of spherical and deformed nuclei. In such nuclei, intruder excitations, which signal the onset of deformation, are observed low in energy. Using the Daresbury on-line isotope separator, an extensive study of the decay of ^{118 }I to ^{118}Te has been performed using nuclear orientation techniques, combined with gamma - gamma and conversion electron spectroscopy measurements. Interpretation of the results obtained for ^{118}Te within the framework of IBM-2, gives strong evidence for the existence of such an intruder configuration in this nucleus. On-line experiments have also been performed in which a range of neutron-deficient Cs nuclei has been oriented for the first time. In these measurements the hyperfine field of CsFe has been determined as (+)40.8(7) T, and also the Korringa constant for the system ^ {121}Cs^{m}Fe has been measured (using a new technique) to be C_{k} = 0.059(16)sK. These results have been applied to the case of ^ {118}Cs^{m}, for which the magnetic moment has been measured to be 5.4(1.1)nm. This large value clearly indicates the presence of the (404) 9/2 orbital, which provides further evidence for the existence of intruder states in this region.

  3. Diffusion of cesium and iodine in compressed IG-110 graphite compacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, L. M.; Brockman, J. D.; Robertson, J. D.; Loyalka, S. K.

    2016-08-01

    Nuclear graphite grade IG-110 is currently used in the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) in Japan for certain permanent and replaceable core components, and is a material of interest in general. Therefore, transport parameters for fission products in this material are needed. Measurement of diffusion through pressed compacts of IG-110 graphite is experimentally attractive because they are easy to prepare with homogeneous distributions of fission product surrogates. In this work, we measured diffusion coefficients for Cs and I in pressed compacts made from IG-110 powder in the 1079-1290 K temperature range, and compared them to those obtained in as-received IG-110.

  4. Water temperature significantly impacts the formation of iodinated haloacetamides during persulfate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wenhai; Hu, Jianglin; Bond, Tom; Gao, Naiyun; Xu, Bin; Yin, Daqiang

    2016-07-01

    The use of persulfate oxidation processes is receiving increasing interest for the removal of aquatic contaminants. However, it is unknown whether its application in the presence of iodide has the potential to directly form iodinated DBPs. This study investigated formation of six chlorinated, brominated and iodinated di-haloacetamides (DHAcAms) during persulfate oxidation in the presence of bromide and iodide. Formation of the same DHAcAms during chlorination was monitored for comparison. Persulfate oxidation of natural water formed diiodoacetamide (DIAcAm), and heat-activated persulfate, at 45 °C and 55 °C, generated bromoiodoacetamide (BIAcAm) and dibromoacetamide (DBAcAm), besides DIAcAm. At an ambient iodide concentration of 0.3 μM, total DHAcAms increased slightly from 0.43 to 0.57 nM as the water temperature increased from 4 °C to 35 °C, respectively (only DIAcAm detected), then significantly increased to 1.6 nM at 55 °C (DIAcAm, BIAcAm and DBAcAm detected). Equivalent total DHAcAm concentrations in the presence of 3.0 μM iodide were 0.5, 0.91 and 2.1 nM, respectively. Total DHAcAms formed during chlorination, predominantly dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm) and bromochloroacetamide (BCAcAm), were always significantly higher than that during persulfate oxidation. However, an integrated risk assessment showed the toxicity resulting from the DHAcAms was higher during persulfate oxidation than chlorination. An increase in water temperature from 25 °C to 55 °C significantly increased the integrated toxic risk values for both persulfate oxidation and chlorination. Use of persulfate oxidation should be weighed against the formation of high-toxicity iodinated HAcAms in waters with high ambient iodide concentrations.

  5. Development of an iodine generator for reclaimed water purification in manned spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.

    1973-01-01

    A successful 30-day test is described of a prototype Iodine Generating and Dispensing System (IGDS). The IGDS was sized to iodinate the drinking water nominally consumed by six men, 4.5 to 13.6 kg (10 to 30 lb) water per man-day with a + or - 10 to 20% variation with iodine (I2) levels of 0.5 to 20 parts per million (ppm). The I2 treats reclaimed water to prevent or eliminate microorganism contamination. Treatment is maintained with a residual of I2 within the manned spacecraft water supply. A simplified version of the chlorogen water disinfection concept, developed by life systems for on-site generation of chlorine (Cl2), was used as a basis for IGDS development. Potable water contaminated with abundant E. Coliform Group organisms was treated by electrolytically generated I2 at levels of 5 to 10 ppm. In all instances, the E. coli were eliminated.

  6. Iodine content of infant formulas and iodine intake of premature babies: high risk of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ares, S; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1994-11-01

    As part of a study of thyroid function in premature babies, the iodine content of their mothers' breast milk, that of 32 formulas from different brands used in Spain, and that of 127 formulas used in other countries was determined. Breast milk contained more iodine--mean (SEM) 10 (1) microgram/dl--than most of the formulas, especially those for premature babies. Iodine intakes were therefore below the recommended daily amount (RDA) for newborns: babies of 27-30 weeks' gestational age took 3.1 (1.1) micrograms/day at 5 days of age and 29.8 (2.7) micrograms by 2 months of age. This problem is not exclusive to Spanish premature babies as the iodine content of many of the formulas on sale in other countries was also inadequate. It is concluded that preterm infants who are formula fed are at high risk of iodine deficiency.

  7. Iodine content of infant formulas and iodine intake of premature babies: high risk of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Ares, S; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1994-01-01

    As part of a study of thyroid function in premature babies, the iodine content of their mothers' breast milk, that of 32 formulas from different brands used in Spain, and that of 127 formulas used in other countries was determined. Breast milk contained more iodine--mean (SEM) 10 (1) microgram/dl--than most of the formulas, especially those for premature babies. Iodine intakes were therefore below the recommended daily amount (RDA) for newborns: babies of 27-30 weeks' gestational age took 3.1 (1.1) micrograms/day at 5 days of age and 29.8 (2.7) micrograms by 2 months of age. This problem is not exclusive to Spanish premature babies as the iodine content of many of the formulas on sale in other countries was also inadequate. It is concluded that preterm infants who are formula fed are at high risk of iodine deficiency. PMID:7820714

  8. Light induced suppression of sulfur in a cesium sputter ion source.

    PubMed

    Martschini, Martin; Rohlén, Johan; Andersson, Pontus; Golser, Robin; Hanstorp, Dag; Lindahl, Anton O; Priller, Alfred; Steier, Peter; Forstner, Oliver

    2012-04-01

    New techniques for suppression of atomic isobars in negative ion beams are of great interest for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Especially small and medium-sized facilities can significantly extend their measurement capabilities to new interesting isotopes with a technique independent of terminal voltage. In a new approach, the effect of continuous wave laser light directed towards the cathode surface in a cesium sputter ion source of the Middleton type was studied. The laser light induced a significant change in oxygen, sulfur and chlorine negative ion production from a AgCl target. Approximately 100 mW of laser light reduced the sulfur to chlorine ratio by one order of magnitude. The effect was found to depend on laser power and ion source parameters but not on the laser wavelength. The time constant of the effect varied from a few seconds up to several minutes. Experiments were first performed at the ion beam facility GUNILLA at University of Gothenburg with macroscopic amounts of sulfur. The results were then reproduced at the VERA AMS facility with chemically cleaned AgCl targets containing ∼1 ppm sulfur. The physical explanation behind the effect is still unclear. Nevertheless, the technique has been successfully applied during a regular AMS measurement of (36)Cl.

  9. Light induced suppression of sulfur in a cesium sputter ion source

    PubMed Central

    Martschini, Martin; Rohlén, Johan; Andersson, Pontus; Golser, Robin; Hanstorp, Dag; Lindahl, Anton O.; Priller, Alfred; Steier, Peter; Forstner, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    New techniques for suppression of atomic isobars in negative ion beams are of great interest for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Especially small and medium-sized facilities can significantly extend their measurement capabilities to new interesting isotopes with a technique independent of terminal voltage. In a new approach, the effect of continuous wave laser light directed towards the cathode surface in a cesium sputter ion source of the Middleton type was studied. The laser light induced a significant change in oxygen, sulfur and chlorine negative ion production from a AgCl target. Approximately 100 mW of laser light reduced the sulfur to chlorine ratio by one order of magnitude. The effect was found to depend on laser power and ion source parameters but not on the laser wavelength. The time constant of the effect varied from a few seconds up to several minutes. Experiments were first performed at the ion beam facility GUNILLA at University of Gothenburg with macroscopic amounts of sulfur. The results were then reproduced at the VERA AMS facility with chemically cleaned AgCl targets containing ∼1 ppm sulfur. The physical explanation behind the effect is still unclear. Nevertheless, the technique has been successfully applied during a regular AMS measurement of 36Cl. PMID:23576897

  10. Cesium accumulation of Rhodococcus erythropolis CS98 strain immobilized in hydrogel matrices.

    PubMed

    Takei, Takayuki; Yamasaki, Mika; Yoshida, Masahiro

    2014-04-01

    Agarose gels were superior to calcium-alginate gels for immobilizing Rhodococcus erythropolis CS98 strain to remove cesium from water. Suitable incubation time of the immobilized cells in cesium solutions, cell number in the gels and volume ratio of the cesium solution to the gels for efficient cesium removal were identified.

  11. Characterization of Quantum Efficiency and Robustness of Cesium-Based Photocathodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    deposited onto a porous sintered tungsten substrate, beneath which is a reservoir of elemental cesium. Under controlled heating cesium diffuses from the...efficiently photoemissive, cesium-based coating deposited onto a porous sintered tungsten substrate, beneath which is a reservoir of elemental cesium. Under...9.1.3 Sintered Tungsten 245

  12. Iodine deficiency and nutrition in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Manousou, Sofia; Dahl, Lisbeth; Heinsbaek Thuesen, Betina; Hulthén, Lena; Nyström Filipsson, Helena

    2017-04-01

    Iodine nutrition is a result of geological conditions, iodine fortification and monitoring strategies within a country together with the dietary habits of the population. This review summarizes the basis for the current iodine situation in the Scandinavian countries in order to identify gaps in knowledge, determine necessary future steps, highlight landmarks in Scandinavian iodine research and consider ongoing studies in Scandinavian countries with high international impact. Historically, iodine deficiency disorders such as goiter were common in Norway and Sweden, but not in Denmark. Different strategies have been used in Scandinavia to improve iodine nutrition. The major source of iodine is iodized salt in Sweden and from milk and dairy products in Norway. In Denmark, drinking water, milk, dairy products and iodized salt used in commercial production of bread are the important sources of iodine. The current iodine status in Scandinavia is not optimal and action is ongoing to increase iodination in Denmark, where there is mild iodine deficiency in the general population. Data from all three countries indicate insufficient iodine nutrition during pregnancy and there is a need for data from children, adolescents and young women. Monitoring a population's iodine status and dietary iodine sources is necessary to secure iodine nutrition in Scandinavia. Ongoing studies in Scandinavia will contribute significantly to the knowledge about the effects of mild to moderate iodine deficiency.

  13. Chlorine Gas Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    White, Carl W.; Martin, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Humans can come into contact with chlorine gas during short-term, high-level exposures due to traffic or rail accidents, spills, or other disasters. By contrast, workplace and public (swimming pools, etc.) exposures are more frequently long-term, low-level exposures, occasionally punctuated by unintentional transient increases. Acute exposures can result in symptoms of acute airway obstruction including wheezing, cough, chest tightness, and/or dyspnea. These findings are fairly nonspecific, and might be present after exposures to a number of inhaled chemical irritants. Clinical signs, including hypoxemia, wheezes, rales, and/or abnormal chest radiographs may be present. More severely affected individuals may suffer acute lung injury (ALI) and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Up to 1% of exposed individuals die. Humidified oxygen and inhaled β-adrenergic agents are appropriate therapies for victims with respiratory symptoms while assessments are underway. Inhaled bicarbonate and systemic or inhaled glucocorticoids also have been reported anecdotally to be beneficial. Chronic sequelae may include increased airways reactivity, which tends to diminish over time. Airways hyperreactivity may be more of a problem among those survivors that are older, have smoked, and/or have pre-existing chronic lung disease. Individuals suffering from irritant-induced asthma (IIA) due to workplace exposures to chlorine also tend to have similar characteristics, such as airways hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, and to be older and to have smoked. Other workplace studies, however, have indicated that workers exposed to chlorine dioxide/sulfur dioxide have tended to have increased risk for chronic bronchitis and/or recurrent wheezing attacks (one or more episodes) but not asthma, while those exposed to ozone have a greater incidence of asthma. Specific biomarkers for acute and chronic exposures to chlorine gas are currently lacking. Animal models for chlorine gas

  14. Marking cabbage looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, J.I.; Van Steenwyk, R.A.

    1984-04-01

    Cabbage loopers (CL), Trichoplusia ni (Huebner), adults reared on artificial diet containing 1 x 10/sup -2/ M and 1 x 10/sup -3/ M CsCl were marked with cesium (Cs) which could be detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The cesium marks from the 10/sup -2/ M CsCl diet were sufficient to last the expected lifetime of the insects. CL reared on diet containing 1 x 10/sup -1/ M CsCl did not survive. Unmarked females mated to males reared on artificial diet containing 1 x 10/sup -2/ M and 1 x 10/sup -3/ M CsCl were marked. CL reared on cotton plants sprayed with Cs solutions of 1000, 5000, and 10,000 ..mu..g/ml were marked sufficiently to last the expected lifetime of the insect. CL adults exposed for 72 h to cotton plants sprayed with Cs solutions of 1000, 5000, and 10,000 ..mu..g/ml were marked sufficiently to last the expected lifetime of the insect. CL adults reared from field cotton plants sprayed with CsCl solutions at rates of 1.24, 2.47, and 4.94 kg of CsCl per ha were marked. 12 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  15. Microbial uptake of uranium, cesium, and radium

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; McWhirter, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of diverse microbial species to concentrate uranium, cesium, and radium was examined. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria accumulated uranium to 10 to 15% of the dry cell weight. Only a fraction of the cells in a given population had visible uranium deposits in electron micrographs. While metabolism was not required for uranium uptake, mechanistic differences in the metal uptake process were indicated. Uranium accumulated slowly (hours) on the surface of S. cerevisiae and was subject to environmental factors (i.e., temperature, pH, interfering cations and anions). In contrast, P. aeruginosa and the mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense, apparently random, intracellular deposits. This very rapid accumulation has prevented us from determining whether the uptake rate during the transient between the initial and equilibrium distribution of uranium is affected by environmental conditions. However, the final equilibrium distributions are not affected by those conditions which affect uptake by S. cerevisiae. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several microbial species tested. The potential utility of microorganisms for the removal and concentration of these metals from nuclear processing wastes and several bioreactor designs for contacting microorganisms with contaminated waste streams will be discussed.

  16. Intense non-relativistic cesium ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Lampel, M.C.

    1984-02-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has constructed the One Ampere Cesium Injector as a proof of principle source to supply an induction linac with a high charge density and high brightness ion beam. This is studied here. An electron beam probe was developed as the major diagnostic tool for characterizing ion beam space charge. Electron beam probe data inversion is accomplished with the EBEAM code and a parametrically adjusted model radial charge distribution. The longitudinal charge distribution was not derived, although it is possible to do so. The radial charge distribution that is derived reveals an unexpected halo of trapped electrons surrounding the ion beam. A charge fluid theory of the effect of finite electron temperature on the focusing of neutralized ion beams (Nucl. Fus. 21, 529 (1981)) is applied to the problem of the Cesium beam final focus at the end of the injector. It is shown that the theory's predictions and assumptions are consistent with the experimental data, and that it accounts for the observed ion beam radius of approx. 5 cm, and the electron halo, including the determination of an electron Debye length of approx. 10 cm.

  17. [Comparison of the quality and toxicity of wastewater after chlorine and chlorine dioxide disinfections].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-sha; Zhang, Tong; Hu, Hong-ying

    2005-11-01

    The effects of chlorine and chlorine dioxide disinfections on quality and toxicity of wastewater were compared. The experiment results showed that chlorine disinfection had no obvious effect on wastewater color, while chlorine dioxide disinfection decreased wastewater color observably. The DOC of wastewater did not change much after chlorine and chlorine dioxide disinfections. Chlorine disinfection significantly increased UV230 of wastewater and chlorine dioxide disinfection slightly decreased UV230 of wastewater. When the disinfectants dosage was 30 mg/L, UV230 increased about 0.7 cm(-1) after chlorine disinfection and decreased about 0.05 cm(-1) after chlorine dioxide disinfection. The acute toxicity of wastewater increased with increasing disinfectants dosage for both chlorine and chlorine dioxide disinfections and the acute toxicity after chlorine disinfection is much stronger than that after chlorine dioxide disinfection. The genotoxicity of wastewater increased slightly after chlorine disinfection and decreased slightly after chlorine dioxide disinfection.

  18. Formation of toxic iodinated disinfection by-products from compounds used in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Duirk, Stephen E; Lindell, Cristal; Cornelison, Christopher C; Kormos, Jennifer; Ternes, Thomas A; Attene-Ramos, Matias; Osiol, Jennifer; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Plewa, Michael J; Richardson, Susan D

    2011-08-15

    Iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) were investigated as a source of iodine in the formation of iodo-trihalomethane (iodo-THM) and iodo-acid disinfection byproducts (DBPs), both of which are highly genotoxic and/or cytotoxic in mammalian cells. ICM are widely used at medical centers to enable imaging of soft tissues (e.g., organs, veins, blood vessels) and are designed to be inert substances, with 95% eliminated in urine and feces unmetabolized within 24 h. ICM are not well removed in wastewater treatment plants, such that they have been found at elevated concentrations in rivers and streams (up to 100 μg/L). Naturally occurring iodide in source waters is believed to be a primary source of iodine in the formation of iodo-DBPs, but a previous 23-city iodo-DBP occurrence study also revealed appreciable levels of iodo-DBPs in some drinking waters that had very low or no detectable iodide in their source waters. When 10 of the original 23 cities' source waters were resampled, four ICM were found--iopamidol, iopromide, iohexol, and diatrizoate--with iopamidol most frequently detected, in 6 of the 10 plants sampled, with concentrations up to 2700 ng/L. Subsequent controlled laboratory reactions of iopamidol with aqueous chlorine and monochloramine in the absence of natural organic matter (NOM) produced only trace levels of iodo-DBPs; however, when reacted in real source waters (containing NOM), chlorine and monochloramine produced significant levels of iodo-THMs and iodo-acids, up to 212 nM for dichloroiodomethane and 3.0 nM for iodoacetic acid, respectively, for chlorination. The pH behavior was different for chlorine and monochloramine, such that iodo-DBP concentrations maximized at higher pH (8.5) for chlorine, but at lower pH (6.5) for monochloramine. Extracts from chloraminated source waters with and without iopamidol, as well as from chlorinated source waters with iopamidol, were the most cytotoxic samples in mammalian cells. Source waters with iopamidol but no

  19. Adsorption of cesium on cement mortar from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Volchek, Konstantin; Miah, Muhammed Yusuf; Kuang, Wenxing; DeMaleki, Zack; Tezel, F Handan

    2011-10-30

    The adsorption of cesium on cement mortar from aqueous solutions was studied in series of bench-scale tests. The effects of cesium concentration, temperature and contact time on process kinetics and equilibrium were evaluated. Experiments were carried out in a range of initial cesium concentrations from 0.0103 to 10.88 mg L(-1) and temperatures from 278 to 313 K using coupons of cement mortar immersed in the solutions. Non-radioactive cesium chloride was used as a surrogate of the radioactive (137)Cs. Solution samples were taken after set periods of time and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Depending on the initial cesium concentration, its equilibrium concentration in solution ranged from 0.0069 to 8.837 mg L(-1) while the respective surface concentration on coupons varied from 0.0395 to 22.34 μg cm(-2). Equilibrium test results correlated well with the Freundlich isotherm model for the entire test duration. Test results revealed that an increase in temperature resulted in an increase in adsorption rate and a decrease in equilibrium cesium surface concentration. Among several kinetic models considered, the pseudo-second order reaction model was found to be the best to describe the kinetic test results in the studied range of concentrations. The adsorption activation energy determined from Arrhenius equation was found to be approximately 55.9 kJ mol(-1) suggesting that chemisorption was the prevalent mechanism of interaction between cesium ions and cement mortar.

  20. Thermionic converter with differentially heated cesium-oxygen source and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Rasor, Ned S.; Riley, David R.; Murray, Christopher S.; Geller, Clint B.

    2000-01-01

    A thermionic converter having an emitter, a collector, and a source of cesium vapor is provided wherein the source of cesium vapor is differentially heated so that said source has a hotter end and a cooler end, with cesium vapor evaporating from said hotter end into the space between the emitter and the collector and with cesium vapor condensing at said cooler end. The condensed cesium vapor migrates through a porous element from the cooler end to the hotter end.

  1. Research needs for assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ershow, Abby G; Goodman, Gay; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    The Office of Dietary Supplements of the NIH convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in Rockville, Maryland, in 2014. The purpose of the current article is to summarize and briefly discuss a list of research and resource needs developed with the input of workshop participants. This list is composed of the basic, clinical, translational, and population studies required for characterizing the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation, along with related data, analyses, evaluations, methods development, and supporting activities. Ancillary studies designed to use the participant, biological sample, and data resources of ongoing and completed studies (including those not originally concerned with iodine) may provide an efficient, cost-effective means to address some of these research and resource needs. In the United States, the foremost question is whether neurobehavioral development in the offspring of mildly to moderately iodine-deficient women is improved by maternal iodine supplementation during pregnancy. It is important to identify the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation in all population subgroups so that supplementation can be targeted, if necessary, to avoid increasing the risk of thyroid dysfunction and related adverse health effects in those with high iodine intakes. Ultimately, there will be a need for well-designed trials and other studies to assess the impact of maternal supplementation on neurodevelopmental outcomes in the offspring. However, 2 basic information gaps loom ahead of such a study: the development of robust, valid, and convenient biomarkers of individual iodine status and the identification of infant and toddler neurobehavioral development endpoints that are sensitive to mild maternal iodine deficiency during pregnancy and its reversal by supplementation. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Method for removing cesium from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Colburn, Richard P.

    1986-01-01

    A method of and system for removing cesium from a liquid metal reactor coolant including a carbon packing trap in the primary coolant system for absorbing a major portion of the radioactive cesium from the coolant flowing therethrough at a reduced temperature. A regeneration subloop system having a secondary carbon packing trap is selectively connected to the primary system for isolating the main trap therefrom and connecting it to the regeneration system. Increasing the temperature of the sodium flowing through the primary trap diffuses a portion of the cesium

  3. Immobilization of cesium in alkaline activated fly ash matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Jimenez, A.; Macphee, D. E.; Lachowski, E. E.; Palomo, A.

    2005-11-01

    The immobilization potential of alkaline activated fly ash (AAFA) matrices for cesium has been investigated. The presence of Cs in the AAFA pastes, prepared using 8M NaOH solution as activator, showed no significant adverse effects on mechanical strength or microstructure, nor were significant quantities of Cs leached following application of the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 leaching protocols. Microstructural analysis shows Cs associated with the main reaction product in the AAFA suggesting that cesium is chemically bound rather than physically encapsulated. It is proposed that cesium is incorporated into the alkaline aluminosilicate gel, a precursor for zeolite formation.

  4. Cesium in mammals: acute toxicity, organ changes and tissue accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsky C.; Bose, R.; Taylor, J.R.; McKee, J.S.C.; Lapointe, C.; Birchall, J.

    1981-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cesium given intraperitoneally (IP) as CsCl in mice is characterized by autonomic upset and by a multiphasic excitant-depressant action on the central nervous system. The predominantly depressant action can progress to respiratory embarrassment, cyanosis, spinal convulsions and death. Light microscopy of mice treated with 2.0 mEq Cs/sup +/ kg/sup -1/ IP for 14 days showed lymphoid hyperplasia in small intestine. Measurement of tissue cesium by the proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique is convenient and reproducible. Cesium displays a generalized bioactivity that merits further study.

  5. Diode-pumped 10 W continuous wave cesium laser.

    PubMed

    Zhdanov, Boris; Knize, R J

    2007-08-01

    An efficient cesium vapor laser pumped with a continuous wave laser diode array has been demonstrated. The linewidth of the pump source was narrowed using the external cavity to match it to the cesium absorption line. The output power of the continuous wave cesium laser was 10 W, which exceeds previous results by more than a factor of 10, and the slope efficiency was 68%. The overall optical efficiency was 62%, which is a factor of 6 higher than previous pulsed laser results for alkali lasers with diode laser array pumping.

  6. Fundamental study of cesium decontamination from soil by superconducting magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Susumu; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2013-11-01

    The radioactive substances have been spread out all over the surrounding area of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the accident in March 2011. Decontamination and volume reduction of radioactive substances, especially cesium ion, are desired issue. This study proposed a decontamination method of the soil by the magnetic separation using superconducting magnet. Cesium ion was adsorbed by Prussian blue in the potassium iodide solution. We succeeded in separating selectively the cesium ion-adsorbed Prussian blue out of the liquid phase by high gradient magnetic separation. High recovery ratio of the Prussian blue was achieved by this method.

  7. Electron Temperature Measurements in an Argon/Cesium Plasma Diode.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    MEASUREMENTS IN AN ARGON /CESIUM PLASMA DIODE 5, THESIS Michael J. Ward Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT/GEP/ENP/87D-9 DTIC ELECTE FEB 1 01988 * DEPARTMENT OF...ENP/87D-9 S ELECTRON TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN AN ARGON /CESIUM PLASMA DIODE THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air...GEP/ENP/87D-9 * Abstract Line intensity measurements in an argon /cesium plasma *Q diode were made at various locations within the discharge, yielding a

  8. Structural Studies of Cesium, Lithium/Cesium, and Sodium/Cesium Bis(trimethylsilyl)amide (HMDS) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Ojeda-Amador, Ana I; Martínez-Martínez, Antonio J; Kennedy, Alan R; O'Hara, Charles T

    2016-06-06

    Reacting cesium fluoride with an equimolar n-hexane solution of lithium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide (LiHMDS) allows the isolation of CsHMDS (1) in 80% yield (after sublimation). This preparative route to 1 negates the need for pyrophoric Cs metal or organocesium reagents in its synthesis. If a 2:1 LiHMDS:CsF ratio is employed, the heterobimetallic polymer [LiCs(HMDS)2]∞ 2 was isolated (57% yield). By combining equimolar quantities of NaHMDS and CsHMDS in hexane/toluene [toluene·NaCs(HMDS)]∞ 3 was isolated (62% yield). Attempts to prepare the corresponding potassium-cesium amide failed and instead yielded the known monometallic polymer [toluene·Cs(HMDS)]∞ 4. With the aim of expanding the structural diversity of Cs(HMDS) species, 1 was reacted with several different Lewis basic donor molecules of varying denticity, namely, (R,R)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethylcyclohexane-1,2-diamine [(R,R)-TMCDA] and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA), N,N,N',N″,N″-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA), tris[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]amine (Me6-TREN) and tris[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl]amine (TMEEA). These reactions yielded dimeric [donor·NaCs(HMDS)2]2 5-7 [where donor is (R,R)-TMCDA, TMEDA and PMDETA respectively], the tetranuclear "open"-dimer [{Me6-TREN·Cs(HMDS)}2{Cs(HMDS)}2] 8 and the monomeric [TMEEA·Cs(HMDS)] 9. Complexes 2, 3, and 5-9 were characterized by X-ray crystallography and in solution by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy.

  9. Recent developments in enzymatic chlorination.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Cormac D

    2006-04-01

    While the existence of chlorinated natural products has been known for over 100 years, our understanding of the enzymology of biological chlorination reactions has been limited to chloroperoxidases, which are now known not to play a significant role in chlorometabolite biosynthesis. The discoveries of new classes of halogenases, described in this Highlight, have shed new light on the mechanisms of enzymatic chlorination of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

  10. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Walter E.; Thompson, Clarence T.

    1977-04-12

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3-20 wt. % iodine as Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of, or under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. It relates in general to reactor waste solidification and more specifically to the immobilization of fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel for underground storage.

  11. Thyroidectomy: is Lugol's iodine necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, P J; Mitchell, J E

    1982-01-01

    In a randomised controlled clinical trial of Lugol's iodine against placebo in 44 patients undergoing thyroidectomy we have failed to show any benefit in terms of reduced bleeding or operative facility after using iodide solution. PMID:7051944

  12. Facilities for radio-iodination.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, N W; Bhattacharyya, A K; Dunn, M J

    1980-02-01

    A fume cabinet with a sloping front, fitted with a chemical absorbing filter and extractor fan, but without exhaust ducting, appears to possess considerable advantages for radio-iodination work compared with standard fume cupboards.

  13. Thyroidectomy: is Lugol's iodine necessary?

    PubMed

    Coyle, P J; Mitchell, J E

    1982-09-01

    In a randomised controlled clinical trial of Lugol's iodine against placebo in 44 patients undergoing thyroidectomy we have failed to show any benefit in terms of reduced bleeding or operative facility after using iodide solution.

  14. Lithium-iodine pacemaker cell

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.A.; Snyder, S.E.; DeVan, T.; Harney, M.J.; Harney, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The lithium-iodine pacemaker cell is described as supplied by several manufacturers. The features of each design are discussed along with their effect on energy density, self-discharge and shape of the discharge curve. Differences in performance characteristics are related to morphology of the lithium iodine electrolyte and to the form of the cathode. A new, high-drain cell is mentioned which can supply 60 /mu/a/cm/sup 2/. 10 refs.

  15. 21 CFR 177.1610 - Polyethylene, chlorinated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... chlorinated polyethylene contains a maximum of 60 percent by weight of total chlorine, as determined by ASTM 1method D1303-55 (Reapproved 1979), “Standard Test Method for Total Chlorine in Vinyl Chloride...

  16. Biokinetics of cesium in Perna viridis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, P.K.N.; Lam, P.K.S.; Ng, B.K.P.; Li, A.M.Y.

    2000-02-01

    The biokinetics of Cs in four compartments in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis, namely, gill, viscera, adductor muscle, and foot, were studied. First-order linear differential equations were set up for these four compartments, and their solutions were used to fit the experimental data. The parameters governing the biokinetics, which depend on the elimination rate from each compartment and the transfer coefficient between compartments, were found. These are useful in understanding the physiology of Perna viridis, in predicting the activity of cesium in each compartment of Perna viridis from a contamination history, or in using Perna viridis as a sentinel organism for surveying and monitoring radioactive contamination. The results showed that the viscera should be represented by more than one compartment. Concentration factors for the four compartments and for Perna viridis were also determined, and these agreed well with reported values in the literature.

  17. Biosorption of uranium, radium, and cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    Some fundamental aspects of the biosorption of metals by microbial cells were investigated. These studies were carried out in conjunction with efforts to develop a process to utilize microbial cells as biosorbents for the removal of radionuclides from waste streams generated by the nuclear fuel cycle. It was felt that an understanding of the mechanism(s) of metal uptake would potentially enable the enhancement of the metal uptake phenomenon through environmental or genetic manipulation of the microorganisms. Also presented are the results of a preliminary investigation of the applicability of microorganisms for the removal of /sup 137/cesium and /sup 226/radium from existing waste solutions. The studies were directed primarily at a characterization of uranium uptake by the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  18. Automatic determination of chlorine without standard solutions using a biamperometric flow-batch analysis system.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Valberes B; Selva, Thiago M G; Coelho, Elaine C S; Santos, Francyana P; Antônio, Jadielson L S; Silva, José R; Gaião, Edvaldo N; Araújo, Mário C U

    2010-04-15

    This study presents an automatic analysis system that does not require the use of standard solutions. The system uses an electrochemical flow cell for in line generation of the standards, and operates under the standard addition technique. The versatility of this system was demonstrated by the development of a one key touch fully automatic method for the determination of total available chlorine in real samples. The extremely simple, accurate and inexpensive method was based simply on the biamperometric monitoring of the well known redox reaction of chlorine with iodide ions in a flow-batch system, where the produced iodine (triiodide ions) generates an electrical current proportional to the chlorine concentration in the sample. The flow-batch parameters were optimized to maximize the sensitivity without losses on the precision of the analysis. An excellent linear dependence between the biamperometric signal and the chlorine concentration for the standard additions and a good agreement between the proposed approach and a reference method were obtained. The method was successfully applied to determine chlorine in several different bleach and chlorinated water samples (r=0.9995, LOD=8.261 x 10(-7) mol L(-1)) and could be easily extended to other oxidants and samples. Comparison to a reference method and recoveries close to 100% demonstrated the reliability of the proposed method. In addition, low residue disposal and reagent consumption, allied with high accuracy and precision, make it very promising for routine applications.

  19. A comparison of chlorinated organic material produced by chlorine and chlorine dioxide bleaching

    SciTech Connect

    McKaque, A.B.; Reeve, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    Chlorine and chlorine dioxide react differently with pulp during bleaching and produce different types of organic by-products. The main differences are the large reduction in the amount of AOX (adsorbable organic halogen) in the effluent and EOX (extractable organic halogen) in the pulp. This talk reviews the differences in the amounts and types of chlorinated organic by-products produced by the two different bleaching agents.

  20. Iodine deficiency in Danish pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Sørensen, Louise Kolding; Krejbjerg, Anne; Møller, Margrethe; Laurberg, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Maternal iodine requirements increase during pregnancy. Studies performed before the introduction of mandatory iodine fortification of salt in Denmark in 2000 showed that pregnant women with no intake of iodine-containing supplements were moderately iodine-deficient and showed signs of thyroidal stress. We investigated the intake of iodine-containing supplements and urinary iodine excretion in Danish pregnant women after the introduction of iodine fortification of salt. We conducted a cross-sectional study between June and August 2012 in an area of Denmark where iodine deficiency had previously been moderate. Pregnant women coming to Aalborg University Hospital for obstetric ultrasound were recruited consecutively. Participants filled in a questionnaire and handed in a spot urine sample for measurement of iodine and creatinine. Among the pregnant women included (n = 245) 84.1% reported an intake of iodine-containing supplements, and compared with those not taking iodine supplements the median urinary iodine concentration was significantly higher in this group: 109 g/l (25th-75th percentile: 66-191 µg/l). On the other hand, the median urinary iodine concentration was considerably below the recommended level, even for the non-pregnant state in pregnant women with no iodine supplement intake: 68 µg/l (35-93 µg/l), p < 0.001. The majority of pregnant women took iodine-containing supplements, but the subgroup of non-users was still iodine-deficient after the introduction of iodine fortification of salt. Iodine supplement intake during pregnancy in Denmark should be officially recommended. The study was supported by a grant from Musikforlæggerne Agnes og Knut Mørks Fond and from Speciallæge Heinrich Kopps Legat. not relevant.

  1. Low-energy vibrational dynamics of cesium borate glasses.

    PubMed

    Crupi, C; D'Angelo, G; Vasi, C

    2012-06-07

    Low-temperature specific heat and inelastic light scattering experiments have been performed on a series of cesium borate glasses and on a cesium borate crystal. Raman measurements on the crystalline sample have revealed the existence of cesium rattling modes in the same frequency region where glasses exhibit the boson peak (BP). These localized modes are supposed to overlap with the BP in cesium borate glasses affecting its magnitude. Their influence on the low frequency vibrational dynamics in glassy samples has been considered, and their contribution to the specific heat has been estimated. Evidence for a relation between the changes of the BP induced by the increased amount of metallic oxide and the variations of the elastic medium has been provided.

  2. Low-work-function surfaces produced by cesium carbonate decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briere, T. R.; Sommer, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) was heated to the decomposition temperature of approximately 600 C. The nonvolatile decomposition products were condensed on a nickel substrate while the carbon dioxide was removed by pumping. The deposited material is characterized by an effective work function of between 1.05 and 1.15 eV at 450 K and by photoemission in the visible and near-infrared region of the spectrum. It is suggested that the deposited material consists of Cs2O, possibly Cs2O2, and adsorbed cesium. Silver, evaporated from a heated silver bead, produced the typical photoemissive and thermionic properties of a silver-oxygen-cesium (S-1) photocathode. The material may be of interest for thermionic energy converters and for the formation of silver-oxygen-cesium photocathodes.

  3. [Reduction of radioactive cesium content in pond smelt by cooking].

    PubMed

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, seafood may be eaten raw or after having been cooked in diverse ways. Therefore, it is important to understand the effect of cooking on the extent of contamination with radioactive materials in order to avoid internal exposure to radioactive materials via seafood. In this study, we investigated the changes in radioactive cesium content in pond smelt cooked in four different ways: grilled, stewed (kanroni), fried and soaked (nanbanzuke). The radioactive cesium content in grilled, kanroni and fried pond smelt was almost unchanged compared with the uncooked state. In contrast, radioactive cesium content in nanbanzuke pond smelt was decreased by about 30%. Our result suggests that soaking cooked pond smelt in seasoning is an effective method of reducing the burden radioactive cesium.

  4. Chlorine, Chloramine, Chlorine Dioxide, and Ozone Susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Robert H.; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Norton, Cheryl D.; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental and patient isolates of Mycobacterium avium were resistant to chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone. For chlorine, the product of the disinfectant concentration (in parts per million) and the time (in minutes) to 99.9% inactivation for five M. avium strains ranged from 51 to 204. Chlorine susceptibility of cells was the same in washed cultures containing aggregates and in reduced aggregate fractions lacking aggregates. Cells of the more slowly growing strains were more resistant to chlorine than were cells of the more rapidly growing strains. Water-grown cells were 10-fold more resistant than medium-grown cells. Disinfectant resistance may be one factor promoting the persistence of M. avium in drinking water. PMID:10742264

  5. Chlorine transfer hose failure.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Giby

    2004-11-11

    On the morning of 14 August 2002, a 1 in. transfer hose used in a rail tank car unloading operation at DPC Enterprises, near Festus, Missouri, catastrophically ruptured and initiated a sequence of events that led to the release of 48,000 pounds of chlorine--a toxic gas--into neighboring areas. The facility repackages bulk dry liquid chlorine into 1 ton containers and 150 pound cylinders for commercial, industrial, and municipal use in the St. Louis metropolitan area. Fortunately, the wind direction on the day of the release limited the effects of the chlorine plume on the surrounding community. However, 63 people sought hospital treatment due to exposure, and hundreds of others were affected by the release (the community was advised to shelter-in-place for 4 h, and traffic was halted on Interstate 55 for 1.5 h). The US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) investigated this incident for the following reasons: This paper presents the lesson-learned from this incident to help prevent similar occurrences. This paper is based on US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board Report Number 2002-04-I-MO, which was approved by the Board on 1 May 2003. This paper has not been independently approved by the Board and is published for general informational purposes only. Every effort has been made to accurately present the contents of the Board-approved report in this paper. Any material in the paper that did not originate in the Board-approved report is solely the responsibility of the author and does not represent an official finding, conclusion, or position of the Board. A complete copy of the Board investigation report upon which this paper is based is available on the CSB website at "Completed Investigations."

  6. Cesium dynamics in long pulse operation of negative hydrogen ion sources for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fantz, U.; Wimmer, C.

    2012-02-15

    Large scale negative hydrogen ion sources operating stable for 1 h (cw mode) are required for the neutral beam heating system of the fusion experiment ITER. The formation of negative hydrogen ions relies on the surface effect for which cesium is evaporated into the source. In order to monitor the cesium dynamics the laser absorption spectroscopy technique is applied to the long pulse test facility MANITU. In the vacuum phase, without plasma operation the evaporation of cesium and the built-up of the cesium in the source are measured. Typical neutral cesium densities are 10{sup 15} m{sup -3}. During plasma operation and after the plasma phase a high cesium dynamics is observed, showing also depletion of cesium during long pulses with low cesium amount. The co-extracted electron current decreases with the cesium amount to a certain level whereas the ion current indicates an optimum density range.

  7. Cesium dynamics in long pulse operation of negative hydrogen ion sources for fusion.

    PubMed

    Fantz, U; Wimmer, C

    2012-02-01

    Large scale negative hydrogen ion sources operating stable for 1 h (cw mode) are required for the neutral beam heating system of the fusion experiment ITER. The formation of negative hydrogen ions relies on the surface effect for which cesium is evaporated into the source. In order to monitor the cesium dynamics the laser absorption spectroscopy technique is applied to the long pulse test facility MANITU. In the vacuum phase, without plasma operation the evaporation of cesium and the built-up of the cesium in the source are measured. Typical neutral cesium densities are 10(15) m(-3). During plasma operation and after the plasma phase a high cesium dynamics is observed, showing also depletion of cesium during long pulses with low cesium amount. The co-extracted electron current decreases with the cesium amount to a certain level whereas the ion current indicates an optimum density range.

  8. Cesium powder and pellets inner container decontamination method determination

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, P.C.

    1998-07-09

    The cesium powder and pellets inner container is to be performance tested per the criteria specified in Section 4.0 of HNF-2399, ``Design, Fabrication, and Assembly Criteria for Cesium Powder and Pellet Inner Container.`` The test criteria specifies that the inner container be water tight during decontamination of the exterior surface. Three prototypes will be immersed into a pool of water to simulate a water decontamination process.

  9. Timescale algorithms combining cesium clocks and hydrogen masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breakiron, Lee A.

    1992-01-01

    The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) atomic timescale, formerly based on an ensemble of cesium clocks, is now produced by an ensemble of cesium clocks and hydrogen masers. In order to optimize stability and reliability, equal clock weighting has been replaced by a procedure reflecting the relative, time-varying noise characteristics of the two different types of clocks. Correlation of frequency drift is required, and residual drift is avoided by the eventual complete deweighting of the masers.

  10. High-Performance Water-Iodinating Cartridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard; Gibbons, Randall E.; Flanagan, David T.

    1993-01-01

    High-performance cartridge contains bed of crystalline iodine iodinates water to near saturation in single pass. Cartridge includes stainless-steel housing equipped with inlet and outlet for water. Bed of iodine crystals divided into layers by polytetrafluoroethylene baffles. Holes made in baffles and positioned to maximize length of flow path through layers of iodine crystals. Resulting concentration of iodine biocidal; suppresses growth of microbes in stored water or disinfects contaminated equipment. Cartridge resists corrosion and can be stored wet. Reused several times before necessary to refill with fresh iodine crystals.

  11. High-Performance Water-Iodinating Cartridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard; Gibbons, Randall E.; Flanagan, David T.

    1993-01-01

    High-performance cartridge contains bed of crystalline iodine iodinates water to near saturation in single pass. Cartridge includes stainless-steel housing equipped with inlet and outlet for water. Bed of iodine crystals divided into layers by polytetrafluoroethylene baffles. Holes made in baffles and positioned to maximize length of flow path through layers of iodine crystals. Resulting concentration of iodine biocidal; suppresses growth of microbes in stored water or disinfects contaminated equipment. Cartridge resists corrosion and can be stored wet. Reused several times before necessary to refill with fresh iodine crystals.

  12. Negative chlorine ions from multicusp radio frequency ion source for heavy ion fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Kwan, J. W.; Leung, K. N.; Grisham, L. R.

    2003-06-01

    Use of high mass atomic neutral beams produced from negative ions as drivers for inertial confinement fusion has been suggested recently. Best candidates for the negative ions would be bromine and iodine with sufficiently high mass and electron affinity. These materials require a heated vapor ion source. Chlorine was selected for initial testing because it has similar electron affinity to those of bromine and iodine, and is available in gaseous form. An experiment was set up by the Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group in Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to measure achievable current densities and other beam parameters by using a rf driven multicusp ion source [K. N. Leung, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1165 (1994); Q. Ji et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 822 (2002)]. Current density of 45 mA/cm2 was achieved with 99.5% of the beam as atomic negative chlorine at 2.2 kW of rf power. An electron to negative ion ratio as low as 7 to 1 was observed, while the ratio of positive and negative chlorine ion currents was 1.3. This in addition to the fact that the front plate biasing had almost no effect to the negative chlorine ion and electron currents indicates that a very high percentage of the negative charge in the extraction area of the ion source was in form of Cl- ions. A comparison of positive and negative chlorine ion temperatures was conducted with the pepper pot emittance measurement technique and very similar transverse temperature values were obtained for positive and negative chlorine ions.

  13. Engineering considerations for the recovery of cesium from geologic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, C.

    1993-05-18

    Sorption coefficients for cesium in a variety of media have been compiled from a search of the open literature. The sorption coefficient, or K{sub d}, is a description of a dissolved substance`s tendency to attach to a solid substrate. The compilation of K{sub d}S reported here for cesium demonstrate that this element readily sorbs onto-geological material. As a result of this sorption, the mass transport of cesium in the environment will be retarded. This retarded mass transport, characterized by the retardation factor, can be expected to be significant when compared to water velocities through porous-sorbing medium, such as geologic materials. K{sub d}S for cesium are in the range of 100 m{ell}/g up to 10,000 m{ell}/g. K{sub d}S are also an important parameter in the design of engineered systems for the purpose of recovering cesium from soils. The engineering design is based on a material-balance description of the extraction process. The information presented in this report provides a basis to predict the movement of cesium through geologic materials and also to design and predict the performance of extraction processes such as soil washing.

  14. Engineering considerations for the recovery of cesium from geologic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, C.

    1993-05-18

    Sorption coefficients for cesium in a variety of media have been compiled from a search of the open literature. The sorption coefficient, or K[sub d], is a description of a dissolved substance's tendency to attach to a solid substrate. The compilation of K[sub d]S reported here for cesium demonstrate that this element readily sorbs onto-geological material. As a result of this sorption, the mass transport of cesium in the environment will be retarded. This retarded mass transport, characterized by the retardation factor, can be expected to be significant when compared to water velocities through porous-sorbing medium, such as geologic materials. K[sub d]S for cesium are in the range of 100 m[ell]/g up to 10,000 m[ell]/g. K[sub d]S are also an important parameter in the design of engineered systems for the purpose of recovering cesium from soils. The engineering design is based on a material-balance description of the extraction process. The information presented in this report provides a basis to predict the movement of cesium through geologic materials and also to design and predict the performance of extraction processes such as soil washing.

  15. Radioactive Cesium Isotope Ratios as a Tool for determining Dispersal and Re-dispersal Mechanisms Downwind from the Nevada Nuclear Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Darin C. Snyder; James E. Delmore; Troy J. Tranter; Nick R. Mann; Michael L. Abbott; John E. Olson

    2012-08-01

    Fractionation of the two longer lived radioactive cesium isotopes (135 and 137) produced by above ground nuclear tests have been measured and used to clarify the dispersal mechanisms of cesium deposited in the area between the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) and Lake Mead in the southwestern United States. Fractionation of these isotopes is due to the 135 decay chain requiring several days to completely decay to Cs and the 137 decay chain less than one hour. Since the Cs precursors are gases, iodine and xenon, the 135Cs plume was deposited farther downwind than the 137Cs plume. Samples were obtained from the Las Vegas arm of Lake Mead, separated into segments, gamma counted to identify layers of activity and analyzed for 135Cs/137Cs ratios. The layers proved to have nearly identical highly fractionated isotope ratios. This information is consistent with a model where the cesium was initially deposited onto the land area draining into Lake Mead and the composite from all the above ground shots subsequently washed onto the Lake by high intensity rain and windstorms producing a layering of Cs activity where each layer is a portion of the composite.

  16. Radioactive cesium isotope ratios as a tool for determining dispersal and re-dispersal mechanisms downwind from the Nevada Nuclear Security Site.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Darin C; Delmore, James E; Tranter, Troy; Mann, Nick R; Abbott, Michael L; Olson, John E

    2012-08-01

    Fractionation of the two longer-lived radioactive cesium isotopes ((135)Cs and (137)Cs) produced by above ground nuclear tests have been measured and used to clarify the dispersal mechanisms of cesium deposited in the area between the Nevada Nuclear Security Site and Lake Mead in the southwestern United States. Fractionation of these isotopes is due to the 135-decay chain requiring several days to completely decay to (135)Cs, and the 137-decay chain less than one hour decay to (137)Cs. Since the Cs precursors are gases, iodine and xenon, the (135)Cs plume was deposited farther downwind than the (137)Cs plume. Sediment core samples were obtained from the Las Vegas arm of Lake Mead, sub-sampled and analyzed for (135)Cs/(137)Cs ratios by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The layers proved to have nearly identical highly fractionated isotope ratios. This information is consistent with a model where the cesium was initially deposited onto the land area draining into Lake Mead and the composite from all of the above ground shots subsequently washed onto Lake Mead by high intensity rain and wind storms producing a layering of Cs activity, where each layer is a portion of the composite.

  17. Ecological and physiological parameters of mercury and cesium-137 accumulation in the raccoon

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    Raccoons from 4 regions in the southeastern Coastal Plain were evaluated for mercury content. Mercury content of hair when used as an indicator of total body mercury content was significantly different among 3 of the 4 areas: Okefenokee Swamp, Eglin Air Force Base, and Sapelo Island on the Georgia Coast. Raccoons from Echols County Georgia were not significantly different from those of the Okefenokee. Mercury in the liver and kidney was significantly different between Okefenokee and Sapelo. There was a strong correlation between the age of the raccoon and the mercury in hair, with older animals having higher concentrations. This relationship was also valid for most other tissues. There was evidence that mercury content in some tissues was correlated with the season and the body condition of the raccoon. Mercury was not transferred through the placenta to the fetal raccoons. There was a strong relationship of mercury content to raccoon behavioral characteristics. Raccoon body weight was slightly different between the areas studied. Cesium-137 values in raccoons were significantly different between the Okefenokee and Sapelo Island. Cesium-137 content was correlated with raccoon age, body weight, and mercury content. Generally non-detectable levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons and PCB were found in Okefenokee raccoons. Mercury concentrations in crayfish were generally low but probably of importance in the raccoon food chain. The biological half life of mercury in brain, gonad, pancreas, spleen, heart, and lung was approximately 52 days. The half-life of mercury in muscle was 35 days. Mercury content of hair, liver, and kidney decreased at very slow rates, with biological half lives of 229, 108, and 138 days. This was probably due to the role of these tissues in clearance of mercury from the body, and to the molting pattern of raccoon hair.

  18. PRODUCTION OF RADIOACTIVE IODINE.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHLYER,D.J.

    2001-08-08

    Probably the most widely used cyclotron produced radiohalogen is I-123. It has gradually replaced I-131 as the isotope of choice for diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals containing radioiodine. It gives a much lower radiation dose to the patient and the gamma ray energy of 159 keV is ideally suited for use in a gamma camera. The gamma ray will penetrate tissue very effectively without excessive radiation dose. For this reason, it has in many instances replaced the reactor produced iodine-131 (Lambrecht and Wolf 1973). A great number of radiopharmaceuticals have been labeled using I-123 and the number is increasing. One of the most promising uses of I-123 is in the imaging of monoclonal antibodies to localize and visualize tumors. However, preclinical and clinical experiences with radiolabeled antibodies have not realized the expectations regarding specificity and sensitivity of tumor localization with these agents. It appears that much of the administered activity is not associated with the tumor site and only a small fraction actually accumulates there. Work continues in this area and tumor-associated antigens can be targets for specific antibody reagents.

  19. Basic Gas Chlorination Workshop Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce treatment plant operators to the safe operation and maintenance of gas chlorination systems employing the variable vacuum gas chlorinator. Each of the lessons in this document has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing…

  20. Effects of cesium ions and cesium vapor on selected ATS-F samples. [thermal control coating degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, R. F.; Beynon, J. C.; Hall, D. F.; Luedke, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Thermal control coating samples were subjected to cesium ion beam and vapor exposures. Degradation of solar absorptance and infrared emittance were measured. Solar cells and samples selected from surfaces on the ATS-F spacecraft likely to experience ion or vapor impingement were bombarded by 10-volt cesium ions. Other samples were subjected to high levels of cesium vapor. Aluminum and white paint were backsputtered by 550-volt cesium ions onto selected samples. For direct bombardment, the threshold for ion-induced property changes was above five-thousand trillion ions/sq cm. With material sputtered from a 450-sq cm target onto samples 36 cm distant, the threshold for noticeable effects was above 5 times 10 to the 17-th power ions/sq cm.

  1. The changing epidemiology of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Mu; Eastman, Creswell J

    2012-04-03

    Globally, about 2 thousand million people are affected by iodine deficiency. Although endemic goitre is the most visible sign of iodine deficiency, its most devastating consequence is brain damage causing mental retardation in children. The relationship between iodine deficiency and brain damage was not clearly established until the 1980s when the term iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs), which encompass a spectrum of conditions caused by iodine deficiency, was introduced. This paradigm shift in the understanding of the clinical consequences of iodine deficiency led to a change in iodine deficiency assessment. The median urinary iodine excretion level has been recommended as the preferred indicator for monitoring population iodine deficiency status since 2001. The 2007 WHO urinary iodine data in schoolchildren from 130 countries revealed that iodine intake is still insufficient in 47 countries. Furthermore, about one-third of countries lack national estimates of the prevalence of iodine deficiency. The picture that has emerged from available data worldwide over the past two decades is that IDDs are not confined to remote, mountainous areas in developing countries, but are a global public health problem that affects most countries, including developed countries and island nations. The recognition of the universality of iodine deficiency highlights the need to develop and apply new strategies to establish and maintain sustainable IDD elimination and strengthen regular monitoring programmes.

  2. Disinfection kinetics of murine norovirus using chlorine and chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed

    Lim, Mi Young; Kim, Ju-Mi; Ko, Gwangpyo

    2010-05-01

    We determined the disinfection efficiency of chlorine and chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) using murine norovirus (MNV) and coliphage MS2 as surrogates for human norovirus. Experiments were performed in oxidant demand-free buffer (pH 7.2) at 5 degrees C and 20 degrees C. The extent of virus inactivation by a disinfectant was quantified using three different analytical methods: plaque, short template real-time TaqMan reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and long template RT-PCR assays. Rapid inactivation of MNV by both chlorine and chlorine dioxide was observed by the plaque assay. According to the efficiency factor Hom model, Ct values of 0.314mg/Lmin and 0.247mg/Lmin were required for a 4-log reduction of MNV at 5 degrees C by chlorine and chlorine dioxide, respectively. Lower Ct values were required at 20 degrees C. Both long template and short template RT-PCR assays significantly underestimated the virus inactivation compared to the plaque assay. Our study demonstrates that adequate treatment of water with either chlorine or ClO(2) is likely to effectively control the waterborne transmission of human norovirus.

  3. Development of a chemical oxygen - iodine laser with production of atomic iodine in a chemical reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Censky, M; Spalek, O; Jirasek, V; Kodymova, J; Jakubec, I

    2009-11-30

    The alternative method of atomic iodine generation for a chemical oxygen - iodine laser (COIL) in chemical reactions with gaseous reactants is investigated experimentally. The influence of the configuration of iodine atom injection into the laser cavity on the efficiency of the atomic iodine generation and small-signal gain is studied. (lasers)

  4. Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Hyperthyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your treatment team. top of page What equipment is used? There is no equipment used during ... iodine therapy. top of page Who operates the equipment? There is no equipment used during radioactive iodine ...

  5. Iodine deficiency in vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Bucková, K; Klimes, I; Seboková, E

    2003-01-01

    Iodine content in food of plant origin is lower in comparison with that of animal origin due to a low iodine concentration in soil. Urinary iodine excretion was assessed in 15 vegans, 31 lacto- and lacto-ovovegetarians and 35 adults on a mixed diet. Iodine excretion was significantly lower in alternative nutrition groups - 172 microg/l in vegetarians and 78 microg/l in vegans compared to 216 microg/l in subjects on a mixed diet. One fourth of the vegetarians and 80% of the vegans suffer from iodine deficiency (iodine excretion value below 100 microg/l) compared to 9% in the persons on a mixed nutrition. The results show that under conditions of alternative nutrition, there is a higher prevalence of iodine deficiency, which might be a consequence of exclusive or prevailing consumption of food of plant origin, no intake of fish and other sea products, as well as reduced iodine intake in the form of sea salt.

  6. The Absorption Spectrum of Iodine Vapour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetlow, K. S.

    1972-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described which presents some molecular parameters of iodine molecule by studying iodine spectrum. Points out this experiment can be conducted by sixth form students in high school laboratories. (PS)

  7. The Absorption Spectrum of Iodine Vapour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetlow, K. S.

    1972-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described which presents some molecular parameters of iodine molecule by studying iodine spectrum. Points out this experiment can be conducted by sixth form students in high school laboratories. (PS)

  8. Extraction processes and solvents for recovery of cesium, strontium, rare earth elements, technetium and actinides from liquid radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Zaitsev, Boris N.; Esimantovskiy, Vyacheslav M.; Lazarev, Leonard N.; Dzekun, Evgeniy G.; Romanovskiy, Valeriy N.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.; Herbst, Ronald S.; Law, Jack D.

    2001-01-01

    Cesium and strontium are extracted from aqueous acidic radioactive waste containing rare earth elements, technetium and actinides, by contacting the waste with a composition of a complex organoboron compound and polyethylene glycol in an organofluorine diluent mixture. In a preferred embodiment the complex organoboron compound is chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, the polyethylene glycol has the formula RC.sub.6 H.sub.4 (OCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.n OH, and the organofluorine diluent is a mixture of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of diethylene glycol with at least one of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of ethylene glycol and bis-tetrafluoropropyl formal. The rare earths, technetium and the actinides (especially uranium, plutonium and americium), are extracted from the aqueous phase using a phosphine oxide in a hydrocarbon diluent, and reextracted from the resulting organic phase into an aqueous phase by using a suitable strip reagent.

  9. Mineral resource of the month: iodine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Polyak, Désirée E.

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses on iodine, its benefits and adverse effects, and its production and consumption. It states that iodine is essential to humans for it produces thyroid hormones to nourish thyroid glands but excessive intake could cause goiter, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. U.S. laws require salt iodization to help prevent diseases. Chile and Japan are the world's leading iodine producer while in the U.S. iodine is mined from deep well brines in northern Oklahoma.

  10. Dietary restriction causing iodine-deficient goitre.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Tim; Plumb, Emma; Callaghan, James; Jackson, Michael; Michaelis, Louise

    2015-08-01

    Iodine-deficient goitre was common in some parts of the UK prior to the introduction of salt iodisation. Many contemporary salt preparations do not contain much iodine, and there are renewed concerns about the iodine status of the population. We present a boy with severe allergy who developed goitre and significant thyroid dysfunction in association with an iodine-deficient 'food-restricted' diet. The case highlights the importance of a comprehensive nutritional assessment in all children on multiple food restrictions.

  11. Perchlorate, iodine and the thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    In pharmacologic doses, perchlorate inhibits thyroidal iodine uptake and subsequently decreases thyroid hormone production. Although pharmacologic doses may be used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, recent literature has focussed on the detection of low levels of perchlorate in the environment, groundwater and foodstuffs and their potential adverse effects on human thyroid function. This is of particular concern to the developing foetus and infant, whose normal neurodevelopment depends on adequate iodine intake for the production of thyroid hormones. Further research is needed to clarify the potential health effects of low-level chronic environmental perchlorate exposure. The health impact of environmental perchlorate may be dependent upon adequate iodine intake and should be interpreted in combination with other environmental exposures that are also potential thyroidal endocrine disruptors. PMID:20172477

  12. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing.

    PubMed

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Philippe, Charles; Pham, Tuan Minh; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, Ouali; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-06

    This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions' spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches).

  13. Development of Cesium and Strontium Separation and Immobilization Technologies in Support of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; Troy G. Garn; R. Scott Herbst; David H. Meikrantz; Dean R. Peterman; Catherine L. Riddle; Terry A. Todd; Julie L. Tripp

    2006-02-01

    As part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, two solvent extraction technologies are being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel. The chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide/polyethylene glycol (CCD/PEG) process utilizes a solvent consisting of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide for the extraction of Cs and polyethylene glycol for the synergistic extraction of Sr in a phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone diluent. Countercurrent flowsheets have been designed and tested on simulated and actual spent nuclear fuel feed streams with both cesium and strontium removal efficiencies of greater than 99%. The Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is based on two highly-specific extractants: 4,4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) for the extraction of Sr and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) for the extraction of Cs. Laboratory test results of the FPEX process, using simulated feed solution spiked with radiotracers, indicate good Cs and Sr extraction and stripping performance. A preliminary solvent extraction flowsheet for the treatment of spent nuclear fuel with the FPEX process has been developed, and testing of the flowsheet with simulated spent nuclear fuel solutions is planned in the near future. Steam reforming is currently being developed for stabilization of the Cs/Sr product stream because it can produce a solid waste form while retaining the Cs and Sr in the solid, destroy the nitrates and organics present in these aqueous solutions, and convert the Cs and Sr into leach resistant aluminosilicate minerals. A bench-scale steam reforming pilot plant has been operated with several potential feed compositions and steam reformed product has been generated and analyzed.

  14. Capture of Aerosols by Iodinated Fiber Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ingestion is thyroid disorders, primarily hypothyroidism (Backer and Hollowell , 2000). The use of activated carbon downstream of the iodinated resins...Division of Toxicology TOX FAQs. September 2001. Backer, H., Hollowell , J. "Use of Iodine for Water Disinfection: Iodine Toxicity and Maximum Recommended

  15. Sublimation of Iodine at Various Pressures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenson, Ilya A.

    2005-01-01

    Various phenomena that are observed in the process of heating solid iodine in closed vessels at different pressures and temperatures are described. When solid iodine is heated in an evacuated ampoule where the pressure is less than 10(super -3), no noticeable color appears and immediate condensation of tiny iodine crystals is visible higher up on…

  16. MARGINAL IODINE DEFICIENCY EXACERBATES PERCHLORATE THYROID TOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental contaminant perchlorate disrupts thyroid homeostasis via inhibition of iodine uptake into the thyroid. This work tested whether iodine deficiency exacerbates the effects of perchlorate. Female 27 day-old LE rats were fed a custom iodine deficient diet with 0, 50...

  17. Sublimation of Iodine at Various Pressures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenson, Ilya A.

    2005-01-01

    Various phenomena that are observed in the process of heating solid iodine in closed vessels at different pressures and temperatures are described. When solid iodine is heated in an evacuated ampoule where the pressure is less than 10(super -3), no noticeable color appears and immediate condensation of tiny iodine crystals is visible higher up on…

  18. MARGINAL IODINE DEFICIENCY EXACERBATES PERCHLORATE THYROID TOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental contaminant perchlorate disrupts thyroid homeostasis via inhibition of iodine uptake into the thyroid. This work tested whether iodine deficiency exacerbates the effects of perchlorate. Female 27 day-old LE rats were fed a custom iodine deficient diet with 0, 50...

  19. Water chlorination and birth defects.

    PubMed

    Magnus, P; Jaakkola, J J; Skrondal, A; Alexander, J; Becher, G; Krogh, T; Dybing, E

    1999-09-01

    Chlorination of drinking water that contains organic compounds leads to the formation of by-products, some of which have been shown to have mutagenic or carcinogenic effects. As yet, too little is known about the possible teratogenic effects on the human fetus. We linked the Norwegian waterwork registry, containing 1994 data on chlorination practice and color (an indicator for natural organic matter), with the Medical Birth Registry for 1993-1995. The proportion of the population exposed to chlorination and a weighted mean color number in drinking water was computed for each municipality. Among 141,077 births, 2,608 (1.8%) had birth defects. In a comparison between exposed (high color; chlorination) and reference groups (low color; no chlorination), the adjusted odds ratio was 1.14 (0.99-1.31) for any malformation, 1.26 (0.61-2.62) for neural tube defects, and 1.99 (1.10-3.57) for urinary tract defects. This study provides further evidence of the role of chlorination of humic water as a potential cause of birth defects, in a country with relatively low levels of chlorination byproducts.

  20. Free Chlorine and Cyanuric Acid Simulator Application ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A web-based application designed to simulate the free chlorine in systems adding free chlorine and cyanuric acid, including the application of Dichlor and Trichlor. A web-based application designed to simulate the free chlorine in systems adding free chlorine and cyanuric acid, including the application of Dichlor and Trichlor.

  1. 46 CFR 151.50-31 - Chlorine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chlorine. 151.50-31 Section 151.50-31 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-31 Chlorine. (a) Chlorine barges. Subparts 98.03 and 98.20 of Part 98 of this chapter have been revoked. However, chlorine barges that...

  2. 46 CFR 151.50-31 - Chlorine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chlorine. 151.50-31 Section 151.50-31 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-31 Chlorine. (a) Chlorine barges. Subparts 98.03 and 98.20 of Part 98 of this chapter have been revoked. However, chlorine barges that...

  3. 46 CFR 151.50-31 - Chlorine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chlorine. 151.50-31 Section 151.50-31 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-31 Chlorine. (a) Chlorine barges. Subparts 98.03 and 98.20 of Part 98 of this chapter have been revoked. However, chlorine barges that...

  4. 21 CFR 173.300 - Chlorine dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chlorine dioxide. 173.300 Section 173.300 Food and... Additives § 173.300 Chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide (CAS Reg. No. 10049-04-4) may be safely used in food... the following methods: (i) Treating an aqueous solution of sodium chlorite with either chlorine gas...

  5. 21 CFR 173.300 - Chlorine dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chlorine dioxide. 173.300 Section 173.300 Food and... Additives § 173.300 Chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide (CAS Reg. No. 10049-04-4) may be safely used in food... the following methods: (i) Treating an aqueous solution of sodium chlorite with either chlorine gas...

  6. 46 CFR 151.50-31 - Chlorine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chlorine. 151.50-31 Section 151.50-31 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-31 Chlorine. (a) Chlorine barges. Subparts 98.03 and 98.20 of Part 98 of this chapter have been revoked. However, chlorine barges that...

  7. 46 CFR 151.50-31 - Chlorine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chlorine. 151.50-31 Section 151.50-31 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-31 Chlorine. (a) Chlorine barges. Subparts 98.03 and 98.20 of Part 98 of this chapter have been revoked. However, chlorine barges that...

  8. 21 CFR 173.300 - Chlorine dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chlorine dioxide. 173.300 Section 173.300 Food and... Additives § 173.300 Chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide (CAS Reg. No. 10049-04-4) may be safely used in food... the following methods: (i) Treating an aqueous solution of sodium chlorite with either chlorine gas...

  9. 21 CFR 173.300 - Chlorine dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chlorine dioxide. 173.300 Section 173.300 Food and... Additives § 173.300 Chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide (CAS Reg. No. 10049-04-4) may be safely used in food... the following methods: (i) Treating an aqueous solution of sodium chlorite with either chlorine gas...

  10. 40 CFR 704.43 - Chlorinated naphthalenes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chlorinated naphthalenes. 704.43... § 704.43 Chlorinated naphthalenes. (a) Definitions—(1) Extent of chlorination means the percent by... means the relative amounts of each isomeric chlorinated naphthalene that composes the chemical substance...

  11. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in peat

    SciTech Connect

    Rapaport, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Concentrations (ng/g), accumulation rates (ug/m/sup 2/=yr) and burdens were determined for DDT (1,1,1-trichlorophenyl2-2'bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane), polychlorinated biphenyls. Toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and a,b,g-hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in peat cores taken across the mid-latitudes of North America. Because peat bogs are ombrotrophic, thereby receiving all contaminant inputs from the atmosphere and because peat cores were dated, atmospheric input functions were constructed for all of the compounds listed above excepting the HCHs. Compound inventories (burdens) in peat cores of PCBs, HCB, HCHs, Toxaphene, DDT, Pb and Zn were compared, indicating a strong influence from areas proximate to industrial sources and the atmospheric transport from source regions. Untransformed parent DDT (p,p' and o,p'-DDT) in surface peat and in precipitation provides evidence for the long range transport of DDT from neighboring countries where use has increased over the past 10-15 years. Present accumulation rates of DDT in peat are about 10-20% of maximum levels associated with peak use in the US around 1960. The DDT input function that was developed can be used to date peat cores. Transformations of DDT and PCBs were also examined in peat cores. First order transformation rates of DDT (p,p' and o,p') to DDD in anaerobic peat core environments ranged from 0.03 to 0.09 yr/sup -1/ with differences related to temperature. Aerobic transformation of PCB congeners in peat cores and microcosms was rapid for 2,3 and several 4 chlorinated congeners (T/sub 1/2 less than or equal to 0.2 to 3 years) and declined with increasing chlorine number.

  12. Zebra mussel mortality with chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benschoten, J.E.; Jensen, J.N.; Harrington, D.; DeGirolamo, D.J.

    1995-05-01

    The rate of mortality of the zebra mussel in response to chlorine is described by a kinetic model that combines a statistical characterization of mussel mortality with a disinfection-type modeling approach. Parameter estimates were made with nine sets of data from experiments conducted in Niagara River water. From the kinetic model, an operational diagram was constructed that describes the time to 95% mortality as a function of chlorine concentration and temperature. Either the model or the diagram can be used to assist utilities in planning chlorination treatments for controlling zebra mussels.

  13. Cesium-137 levels detected in Georgia otters

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.S.; Jenkins, J.H.

    1988-11-01

    Beginning in the 1940's and continuing through the 50's and early 60's, nuclear devices were tested by aerial detonation in the United States and other countries around the world. Cesium-137 (/sup 137/Cs) is one of the most important radionuclide by-products due to its abundance and slow decay (30-year half-life). The uptake of /sup 137/Cs in animal tissue is the result of its similarity to potassium. The somatic and genetic effects of /sup 137/Cs, along with its effect on reproductive cells, can pose great hazards to wildlife species. A reported buildup of /sup 137/Cs in white-tailed deer in the lower coastal plain of Georgia during the 1960's was followed by a gradual decline during the 1970's. Although numerous studies have involved terrestrial mammals of Georgia, few have involved aquatic mammals such as the river otter. With continued atmospheric testing by some foreign countries and the increased use of nuclear power as an energy source, there is a need for continued monitoring of radionuclides in wildlife to ascertain the quality of the environment. This study was initiated as part of an overall study of environmental pollutants in the river otter of Georgia and deals with analysis of the /sup 137/Cs accumulations in this species.

  14. Exotic stable cesium polynitrides at high pressure

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Feng; Han, Yunxia; Liu, Hanyu; Yao, Yansun

    2015-01-01

    New polynitrides containing metastable forms of nitrogen are actively investigated as potential high-energy-density materials. Using a structure search method based on the CALYPSO methodology, we investigated the stable stoichiometries and structures of cesium polynitrides at high pressures. Along with the CsN3, we identified five new stoichiometric compounds (Cs3N, Cs2N, CsN, CsN2, and CsN5) with interesting structures that may be experimentally synthesizable at modest pressures (i.e., less than 50 GPa). Nitrogen species in the predicted structures have various structural forms ranging from single atom (N) to highly endothermic molecules (N2, N3, N4, N5, N6) and chains (N∞). Polymeric chains of nitrogen were found in the high-pressure C2/c phase of CsN2. This structure contains a substantially high content of single N-N bonds that exceeds the previously known nitrogen chains in pure forms, and also exhibit metastability at ambient conditions. We also identified a very interesting CsN crystal that contains novel N44− anion. To our best knowledge, this is the first time a charged N4 species being reported. Results of the present study suggest that it is possible to obtain energetic polynitrogens in main-group nitrides under high pressure. PMID:26581175

  15. Exotic stable cesium polynitrides at high pressure

    DOE PAGES

    Peng, Feng; Han, Yunxia; Liu, Hanyu; ...

    2015-11-19

    New polynitrides containing metastable forms of nitrogen are actively investigated as potential high energy-density materials. Using a structure search method based on the CALYPSO methodology, we investigated the stable stoichiometries and structures of cesium polynitrides at high pressures. Along with the CsN3, we identified five new stoichiometric compounds (Cs3N, Cs2N, CsN, CsN2, and CsN5) with interesting structures that may be experimentally synthesizable at modest pressures (i.e., less than 50 GPa). Nitrogen species in the predicted structures have various structural forms ranging from single atom (N) to highly endothermic molecules (N2, N3 , N4, N5, N6) and chains (N∞). Polymeric chainsmore » of nitrogen were found in the high-pressure C2/c phase of CsN2. This structure contains a substantially high content of single N-N bonds that exceeds the previously known nitrogen chains in pure forms, and also exhibit metastability at ambient conditions. We also identified a very interesting CsN crystal that contains novel N44- anion. In conclusion, to our best knowledge, this is the first time a charged N4 species being reported. Results of the present study suggest that it is possible to obtain energetic polynitrogens in main-group nitrides under high pressure.« less

  16. The influence of mandatory iodine fortification on the iodine status of Australian school children residing in an iodine sufficient region.

    PubMed

    Samidurai, Anna J; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter Sw

    To counter emerging iodine deficiency mandatory iodine fortification of bread was introduced throughout Australia in 2009. This study investigated the impact of iodine fortification on the iodine status of school aged children living in the iodine replete state of Queensland, and investigated which foods had greatest influence on overall iodine status. A convenience sample of 30 children aged 8.0-10.9 years living in south east Queensland, Australia, provided spot morning and afternoon urine samples on two consecutive days. Iodine status was categorised by the World Health Organization criterion. Semiquantitative food questionnaires (FFQ) completed by carers were used to investigate which foods were having the greatest influence on UIC. Analysis of variance was used to reduce the within person variation observed in urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) and the data were log transformed before statistical analysis. Adjusted median UIC was 144 ug/L (IQR 120-210 ug/L) indicating iodine sufficient status. No samples were above the cut off for excessive UIC. Bread was the only statistically significant contributor to UIC (standardized β=0.37, p=0.04) with 14% of variation in UIC explained by bread consumption. UIC increased by 8.7% for each additional serve of bread. Iodine fortification of bread has increased the iodine status of school aged children in this Queensland cohort. Despite the small sample size in this study, improvements in methodology allowed its findings to be comparable to other, larger surveys.

  17. A novel role for methyl cysteinate, a cysteine derivative, in cesium accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Eri; Miyazaki, Takae; Hayaishi-Satoh, Aya; Han, Minwoo; Kusano, Miyako; Khandelia, Himanshu; Saito, Kazuki; Shin, Ryoung

    2017-02-01

    Phytoaccumulation is a technique to extract metals from soil utilising ability of plants. Cesium is a valuable metal while radioactive isotopes of cesium can be hazardous. In order to establish a more efficient phytoaccumulation system, small molecules which promote plants to accumulate cesium were investigated. Through chemical library screening, 14 chemicals were isolated as ‘cesium accumulators’ in Arabidopsis thaliana. Of those, methyl cysteinate, a derivative of cysteine, was found to function within the plant to accumulate externally supplemented cesium. Moreover, metabolite profiling demonstrated that cesium treatment increased cysteine levels in Arabidopsis. The cesium accumulation effect was not observed for other cysteine derivatives or amino acids on the cysteine metabolic pathway tested. Our results suggest that methyl cysteinate, potentially metabolised from cysteine, binds with cesium on the surface of the roots or inside plant cells and improve phytoaccumulation.

  18. Cesium Accumulation and Growth Characteristics of Rhodococcus erythropolis CS98 and Rhodococcus sp. Strain CS402

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Noriko; Uchiyama, Hiroo; Yagi, Osami

    1994-01-01

    Growth and cesium accumulation characteristics of two cesium-accumulating bacteria isolated from soils were investigated. Rhodococcus erythropolis CS98 and Rhodococcus sp. strain CS402 accumulated high levels of cesium (approximately 690 and 380 μmol/g [dry weight] of cells or 92 and 52 mg/g [dry weight] of cells, respectively) after 24 h of incubation in the presence of 0.5 mM cesium. The optimum pH for cesium uptake by both Rhodococcus strains was 8.5. Rubidium and cesium assumed part of the role of potassium in the growth of both Rhodococcus strains. Potassium and rubidium inhibited cesium accumulation by these Rhodococcus strains. It is likely that both Rhodococcus strains accumulated cesium through a potassium transport system. PMID:16349312

  19. Cesium toxicity: a case of self-treatment by alternate therapy gone awry.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Andrew W; Mayhew, William J

    2003-02-01

    Cesium salts have been used in animal models to induce cardiac arrhythmias for several decades, but the sequelae of human cesium toxicity have seldom been described. The authors describe a case of cesium toxicity manifested by syncope, polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, hypokalemia, and a QT interval prolonged to 650 milliseconds that resolved over 4 days following withdrawal of cesium. The patient had a 2-year history of colon cancer and had self-treated with cesium chloride, 3 g/d, for several weeks, using cesium as a form of alternate therapy for cancer. The authors describe the pathophysiologic correlates and risks of cesium consumption and conclude that cesium toxicity should be considered among the differential diagnoses of prolonged QT interval.

  20. A novel role for methyl cysteinate, a cysteine derivative, in cesium accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Eri; Miyazaki, Takae; Hayaishi-Satoh, Aya; Han, Minwoo; Kusano, Miyako; Khandelia, Himanshu; Saito, Kazuki; Shin, Ryoung

    2017-01-01

    Phytoaccumulation is a technique to extract metals from soil utilising ability of plants. Cesium is a valuable metal while radioactive isotopes of cesium can be hazardous. In order to establish a more efficient phytoaccumulation system, small molecules which promote plants to accumulate cesium were investigated. Through chemical library screening, 14 chemicals were isolated as ‘cesium accumulators’ in Arabidopsis thaliana. Of those, methyl cysteinate, a derivative of cysteine, was found to function within the plant to accumulate externally supplemented cesium. Moreover, metabolite profiling demonstrated that cesium treatment increased cysteine levels in Arabidopsis. The cesium accumulation effect was not observed for other cysteine derivatives or amino acids on the cysteine metabolic pathway tested. Our results suggest that methyl cysteinate, potentially metabolised from cysteine, binds with cesium on the surface of the roots or inside plant cells and improve phytoaccumulation. PMID:28230101

  1. Gaseous, chlorine-free chlorine dioxide for drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, G.; Rosenblatt, A.

    1996-11-01

    The benefits of applying chlorine dioxide (ClO{sub 2}) for the oxidative treatment of drinking water are well established. Chlorine dioxide treated finished water typically has substantially lower trihalomethane (THM) levels because ClO{sub 2} will not form chlorinated organic species as a by-product of disinfection. The THMs that are formed are probably due to chlorine from the generator or chlorine used to maintain a post-disinfection residual. An emerging regulatory issue concerning the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) is causing the water industry to set standards for the generation and delivery of ClO{sub 2}. The Federal Register (11 February 1994) contains language developed to limit the production of the unwanted inorganic by-products chlorite (ClO{sub 2}{sup -}), chlorate (ClO{sub 3}{sup -}), and bromate (BrO{sub 3}{sup -}) ions by requiring utilities to maintain high (95%) generation efficiencies and by limiting the amount of excess Cl{sub 2} that can be used during the generation process. The efficiency and excess Cl{sub 2} regulations may be problematic for utilities that over-chlorinate to attain chlorine dioxide high yields. Many utilities will have to decide either to reduce the amount of Cl{sub 2} used to react with sodium chlorite (NaClO{sub 2}), thereby increasing the ClO{sub 2}{sup -} residual in finished water, or over-chlorinate to increase yields and surpass the excess Cl{sub 2} limits.

  2. Time-resolved polaron dynamics in molten solutions of cesium-doped cesium iodide.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, N; Unterreiner, A-N

    2007-11-14

    Temperature-dependent investigations of excess electrons in molten solutions of cesium-doped cesium iodide (Cs-CsI) (mole fraction of Cs approximately 0.003) were performed applying femtosecond pump-probe absorption spectroscopy. The pulse-limited induced bleach observed at probe wavelengths from 600 to 1240 nm was attributed to the excitation of equilibrated excess electrons which were initially formed by melting a Cs-CsI mixture. The interpretation of the relaxation process is based on strongly localized polarons that constitute the majority of defect states in this melt. As expected, the bipolaron contribution was insignificant. The time constants (tau1) were found to be temperature dependent confirming our earlier findings in Na-NaI melts that ionic diffusion almost exclusively controls the dynamics of excess electrons in high temperature ionic liquids. Apart from this temperature dependence, the relaxation dynamics of excess electrons do not differ irrespective of the excitation regime (blue or red part of the respective stationary spectra).

  3. The role of stable cesium on plant uptake of cesium-137

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.; Wood, R.A.

    1982-07-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the role of stable cesium on plant uptake of cesium-137. Stable Cs applied to soil simultaneously with the /sup 137/Cs increased the uptake of /sup 137/Cs by bush bean plants by an order of magnitude. Stable Cs applied just after /sup 137/Cs had been applied was only half as effective in increasing uptake as was Cs mixed with the /sup 137/Cs before application. When bush beans were grown in pots of various sizes, plants in small pots contained much more manganese and less potassium in primary leaves and less /sup 137/Cs in all plant parts than did plants grown in large pots. Most Mn was in primary leaves. Three consecutive barley cuttings from the same pots resulted in less /sup 137/Cs and Cs in plants from small pots per unit of dry weight than from large pots and in less K, more Ca, and more /sup 137/Cs in the third crop. The first crop, besides being lowest in /sup 137/Cs, was also lowest in Ca, Mg, P, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Sr relative to the second and third crops. The correlation coefficient between /sup 137/Cs and Cs was +0.64, and it was -0.31 between /sup 137/Cs and K.

  4. Uptake of cesium ions by human erythrocytes and perfused rat heart: a cesium-133 NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.G.; Murphy, E.; London, R.E.

    1988-05-17

    Cesium-133 NMR studies have been carried out on suspended human erythrocytes and on perfused rat hearts in media containing CsCl. The resulting spectra exhibit two sharp resonances, arising from intra-and extracellular Cs/sup +/, separated in chemical shift by 1.0-1.4 ppm. Thus, intra- and extracellular resonances are easily resolved without the addition of paramagnetic shift reagents required to resolve resonance of the other alkali metal ions. Spin-lattice relaxation times in all cases are monoexponential and significantly shorter (3-4 times) for the intracellular component. When corrections are made for the pulse repetition rate, the total intensity of the intracellular and extracellular Cs/sup +/ resonances in erythrocytes is conserve, implying total observability of the intracellular pool. The uptake of Cs/sup +/ by erythrocytes occurs at approximately one-third the reported rate for K/sup +/ and was reduced by a factor of 2 upon addition of ouabain to the sample. These results indicate that /sup 133/Cs NMR is a promising tool for studying the distribution and transport of cesium ions in biological systems and, in some cases such as uptake by cellular Na,K-ATPase, for analysis of K/sup +/ ion metabolism.

  5. Iodine Storage and Metabolism of Mild to Moderate Iodine-Deficient Pregnant Rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Lu, Li; Shan, Ling; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2017-06-01

    Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy results in neurodevelopmental disorders in children, while the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency (MMID) are uncertain. The concentration of iodine in the thyroid is the most accurate indicator of iodine nutrition. This study aimed to evaluate whether the iodine stores in the thyroid cover the needs of the mother and the fetus in iodine-sufficient and MMID conditions by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. One hundred four-week-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into MMID (low iodine intake [L]) and normal (normal iodine intake [N]) groups. The rats were fed for the next three months, and after pregnancy they were further divided into two subgroups, respectively: low iodine pregnancy (LP) and low iodine pregnancy with iodine supplement (LP+), and normal iodine intake pregnancy (NP) and normal iodine intake pregnancy with iodine supplement (NP+). The iodine intake of pregnant rats in the NP+ and LP+ groups was twice as much as in the NP and LP groups. The rats were sacrificed on gestational day 15 and postnatal day 7. The iodine concentration in the thyroid of the maternal and newborn rats, maternal serum, placenta, and amniotic fluid were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The concentration of iodine in the thyroid of the N group was significantly higher than that in the L group before pregnancy. The concentration of iodine in the maternal thyroids of the LP group decreased during pregnancy, whereas that of the NP group did not change significantly. There was no significant difference in the iodine concentration in the thyroid of mothers and offspring between the NP and NP+ groups, but it was significant between LP and LP+ groups. The concentration of iodine in amniotic fluid was significantly different between the four groups. There is sufficient iodine storage in the thyroid of maternal rats with normal iodine intake during pregnancy, and there is no need for

  6. Space-based observation of volcanic iodine monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Theys, Nicolas; Burrows, John P.

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions inject substantial amounts of halogens into the atmosphere. Chlorine and bromine oxides have frequently been observed in volcanic plumes from different instrumental platforms such as from ground, aircraft and satellites. The present study is the first observational evidence that iodine oxides are also emitted into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions. Large column amounts of iodine monoxide, IO, are observed in satellite measurements following the major eruption of the Kasatochi volcano, Alaska, in 2008. The IO signal is detected in measurements made both by SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY) on ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) and GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2) on MetOp-A (Meteorological Operational Satellite A). Following the eruption on 7 August 2008, strongly elevated levels of IO slant columns of more than 4 × 1013 molec cm-2 are retrieved along the volcanic plume trajectories for several days. The retrieved IO columns from the different instruments are consistent, and the spatial distribution of the IO plume is similar to that of bromine monoxide, BrO. Details in the spatial distribution, however, differ between IO, BrO and sulfur dioxide, SO2. The column amounts of IO are approximately 1 order of magnitude smaller than those of BrO. Using the GOME-2A observations, the total mass of IO in the volcanic plume injected into the atmosphere from the eruption of Kasatochi on 7 August 2008, is determined to be on the order of 10 Mg.

  7. 20-Kw nitrogen diluent chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tientsai T.; Bhowmik, Anup; Burde, David H.; Clark, Roy; Carroll, S.; Dickerson, Robert A.; Eblen, J.; Gylys, Vytas T.; Hsia, Y. C.; Humphreys, Richard H., Jr.; Moon, L. F.; Hurlock, Steve C.; Tomassian, A.

    2002-09-01

    A new Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL) has been developed and demonstrated at chlorine flow rates up to 1 gmol/s. The laser employs a cross flow jet oxygen generator operating with no diluent. The generator product flow enters the laser cavity at Mach 1 and is accelerated by mixing with 5 gmol/s, Mach 5 nitrogen diluent in an ejector nozzle array. The nitrogen also serves as the carrier for iodine. Vortex mixing is achieved through the use of mixing tabs at the nitrogen nozzle exit. Mixing approach design and analysis, including CFD analysis, led to the preferred nozzle configuration. The selected mixing enhancement design was tested in cold flow and the results are in good agreement with the CFD predictions. Good mixing was achieved within the desired cavity flow length of 20 cm and pressure recovery about 90 Torr was measured at the cavity exit. Finally, the design was incorporated into the laser and power extraction as high as 20 kw was measured at the best operating condition of 0.9 gmol/s. Stable resonator mode footprints showed desieable intensity profiles, which none of the sugar scoop profiles characteristic of the conventional COIL designs.

  8. Process for Photochemical Chlorination of Hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Beanblossom, W S

    1951-08-28

    A process for chlorination of a major portion of the hydrogen atoms of paraffinic hydrocarbons of five or more carbon atoms may be replaced by subjecting the hydrocarbon to the action of chlorine under active light. The initial chlorination is begun at 25 to 30 deg C with the chlorine diluted with HCl. The later stages may be carried out with undiluted chlorine and the temperature gradually raised to about 129 deg C.

  9. Adsorption of Radioactive Cesium to Illite-Sericite Mixed Clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J. H.; Choung, S.; Park, C. S.; Jeon, S.; Han, J. H.; Han, W. S.

    2016-12-01

    Once radioactive cesium is released into aquatic environments through nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, it is harmful to human and ecological system for a long time (t1/2 = 30.2 years) because of its chemical toxicity and γ-radiation. Sorption mechanism is mainly applied to remove the cesium from aquatic environments. Illite is one of effective sorbent, considering economical cost for remediation. Although natural illite is typically produced as a mixture with sericite formed by phyllic alteration in hydrothermal ore deposits, the effects of illite-sericite mixed clays on cesium sorption was rarely studied. This study evaluated the sorption properties of cesium to natural illite collected at Yeongdong in Korea as the world-largest illite producing areas (termed "Yeongdong illite"). The illite samples were analyzed by XRF, XRD, FT-IR and SEM-EDX to determine mineralogy, chemical composition, and morphological characteristics, and used for batch sorption experiments. Most of "Yeongdong illite" samples predominantly consist of sericite, quartz, albite, plagioclase feldspar and with minor illite. Cesium sorption distribution coefficients (Kd,Cs) of various "Yeongdong illite" samples ranged from 500 to 4000 L/kg at low aqueous concentration (Cw 10-7 M). Considering Kd,Cs values were 400 and 6000 using reference sericite and illite materials, respectively, in this study, these results suggested that high contents of sericite significantly affect the decrease of sorption capabilities for radiocesium by natural illite (i.e., illite-sericite mixed clay).

  10. The diffusion of cesium, strontium, and europium in silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwaraknath, S. S.; Was, G. S.

    2016-08-01

    A novel multi-layer diffusion couple was used to isolate the diffusion of strontium, europium and cesium in SiC without introducing radiation damage to SiC and at concentrations below the solubility limit for the fission products in SiC. Diffusion occurred by both bulk and grain boundary pathways for all three fission products between 900∘ C and 1 ,300∘ C. Cesium was the fastest diffuser below 1 ,100∘ C and the slowest above this temperature. Strontium and europium diffusion tracked very closely as a function of temperature for both bulk and grain boundary diffusion. Migration energies ranged from 1.0 eV to 5.7 eV for bulk diffusion and between 2.2 eV and 4.7 eV for grain boundary diffusion. These constitute the first measurements of diffusion of cesium, europium, and strontium in silicon carbide, and the magnitude of the cesium diffusion coefficient supports the premise that high quality TRISO fuel should have minimal cesium release.

  11. Evaluation of Elution Parameters for Cesium Ion Exchange Resins

    SciTech Connect

    Burgeson, Ingrid E.; Deschane, Jaquetta R.; Cook, Bryan J.; Blanchard, David L.; Weier, Dennis R.

    2006-08-28

    Cesium ion exchange is one of the planned processes for treating and disposing of waste at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. Radioactive supernatant liquids from the waste tanks will undergo ultrafiltration, followed by cesium ion exchange using a regenerable organic ion exchange resin. Two resins, SuperLig?644 and a Resorcinol-formaldehyde resin are being evaluated for cesium removal and cesium elution characteristics. The main purpose of this study is to optimize the cesium elution to provide a resin which after undergoing elution would meet the U.S. Department of Energy/Office of River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant processing and resin disposal criteria. Columns of each resin type were loaded to greater or equal to 90% breakthrough with a Hanford waste stimulant and eluted with nitric acid. The temperature, flow rate and nitric acid concentration were varied to determine the optimal elution conditions. Temperature and eluant flow rate were the most important elution parameters. As would be predicted based upon kinetic consideration alone, decreasing the eluant flow rate and increasing the temperature provided the optimal elution conditions. Varying the nitric acid concentration did not have a significant effect on the elution; however, elutions performed using both high acid concentration (1M) and elevated temperature (45 C) resulted in resin degradation, causing gas generation and resin bed disruption.

  12. Isolation and characterization of cesium-accumulating bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, N; Uchiyama, H; Yagi, O

    1992-01-01

    Cesium-accumulating bacteria, strains CS98 and CS402, were isolated from soil by a radioactive autoradiographic method using 137Cs. These strains displayed the rod-coccus growth cycle and contained mesodiaminopimelic acid, mycolic acids, and tuberculostearic acids. The major menaquinone of CS98 was MK-8(H2). On the basis of these characteristics, strain CS98 was identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis and strain CS402 was classified in the genus Rhodococcus. The maximum values of cesium removal efficiencies in the liquid culture containing 10 mumol of cesium per liter for strains CS98 and CS402 were 90 and 47%, respectively. The maximum cesium contents in strains CS98 and CS402 were 52.0 and 18.8 mumol/g (dry weight) of cells, respectively. Maximum values of cesium concentration factors for strains CS98 and CS402 were 3.5 x 10(4) and 3.6 x 10(3), respectively. Images PMID:1575473

  13. Compact optical system for cesium atomic fountain clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiang; Ruan, Jun; Shi, Junru; Yu, Fengxiang; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xinliang; Zhang, Shougang

    2016-09-01

    The optical system plays a significant role to cesium atomic fountain clocks, which manipulates and detects population of cesium atoms. This paper presents a compact optical system for cesium atomic fountain clocks. The optical system provides two beams with 32mW separately for cooling atoms and six beams of 12mW respectively for trapping atoms with the frequency tuning from 80MHz to 220MHz. The relative intensity noise of the detect laser beam reduces from 1.33×10-6 Hz to 1.52×10-10 Hz at 1Hz by the laser power stabilization system. The optical system operates continuously for 30 days with the fluctuation of optical power less than 3% approximately. And the frequency stability is 3×10-15 at 1000s. The results show the optical system satisfies with the needs of our cesium atomic fountain clock developed and establishes the foundation for cesium atomic fountain continuous operation.

  14. Advanced prototype automated iodine monitor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The technique of detecting and measuring parts-per-million concentrations of aqueous iodine by direct spectrophotometric means is discussed, and development of a prototype Automated Iodine Monitoring/Controller System (AIMS) is elaborated. The present effort is directed primarily toward reducing the power requirement and the weight of the AIMS. Other objectives include determining the maximum concentration of iodine that can be dissolved in an alcohol solution, and in an aqueous potassium iodide solution. Also discussed are the effects of a no flow condition on iodine measurements and the effect of pH on spectrophotometric iodine determinations.

  15. Cesium Sorption/Desorption Experiments with IONSIV(R) IE-911 in Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    2001-02-13

    This report describes cesium desorption from IONSIV IE-911 during ambient temperature storage and following temperature increases to 35 and 55 degrees C. This report also describes cesium sorption following return to ambient temperature. The IONSIV IE-911 used in these tests was loaded with cesium from Tank 44F radioactive waste in an ion exchange column test in 1999. Cesium desorbed and resorbed in the presence of Tank 44F waste and simulated waste solutions.

  16. CHLORINE INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ENDOSPORES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The possibility of a bioterrorism event resulting in the release of Bacillus anthracis endospores into a drinking water distribution system necessitates research into means by which these endospores can be inactivated. This study was designed to determine the chlorine resistance...

  17. CHLORINE INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ENDOSPORES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The possibility of a bioterrorism event resulting in the release of Bacillus anthracis endospores into a drinking water distribution system necessitates research into means by which these endospores can be inactivated. This study was designed to determine the chlorine resistance...

  18. EFFECTS OF OZONE, CHLORINE DIOXIDE, CHLORINE, AND MONOCHLORAMINE ON CRYTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYST VIABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purified Cryptosporiodium parvum oocysts were exposed to ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and monochloramine. Excystation and mouse infectivity were compareatively evaluated to assess oocyst viability. Ozone and chlorine dioxide more effectively inactivated oocysts than chlor...

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF NEW DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS FROM OZONE, CHLORINE DIOXIDE, CHLORAMINE, AND CHLORINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to concern over the potential adverse health effects of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated by-products in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfection methods are being explored. Ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine are currently popular alternatives to ...

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF NEW DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS FROM OZONE, CHLORINE DIOXIDE, CHLORAMINE, AND CHLORINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to concern over the potential adverse health effects of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated by-products in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfection methods are being explored. Ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine are currently popular alternatives to ...

  1. Nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Plane, John M. C.; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Lamarque, Jean-François; Kinnison, Douglas E.

    2017-04-01

    Little attention has so far been paid to the nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine species. Atmospheric models predict a buildup of HOI and I2 during the night that leads to a spike of IO at sunrise, which is not observed by measurements. In this work, electronic structure calculations are used to survey possible reactions that HOI and I2 could undergo at night in the lower troposphere, and hence reduce their nighttime accumulation. The new reaction NO3 + HOI → IO + HNO3 is proposed and included in two atmospheric models, along with the known reaction between I2 and NO3, to explore a new nocturnal iodine radical activation mechanism. Our results show that this iodine scheme leads to a considerable reduction of nighttime HOI and I2, which results in the enhancement of more than 25% of nighttime ocean emissions of HOI + I2 and the removal of the anomalous spike of IO at sunrise. That active nighttime iodine could also have a considerable, so far unrecognized, impact on the reduction of the NO3 radical levels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and hence upon the nocturnal oxidizing capacity of the marine atmosphere. The effect of this is exemplified by the indirect effect on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation.

  2. [Anaphylactic shock to iodinated povidone].

    PubMed

    Palobart, C; Cros, J; Orsel, I; Nathan, N

    2009-02-01

    Anaphylaxis during anaesthesia is a rare event which is mainly related to neuromuscular blocking agents. Latex and antibiotics are less frequently incriminated. However, allergy may be triggered by other less frequent and hidden allergen. Among these, povidone is largely used in numerous therapeutics and cosmetics. We report here an exceptional case of grade 3 anaphylactic shock with iodinated povidone administered via a rectal route.

  3. Iodine deficiency, more than cretinism and goiter.

    PubMed

    Verheesen, R H; Schweitzer, C M

    2008-11-01

    Recent reports of the World Health Organization show iodine deficiency to be a worldwide occurring health problem. As iodine status is based on median urinary iodine excretion, even in countries regarded as iodine sufficient, a considerable part of the population may be iodine deficient. Iodine is a key element in the synthesis of thyroid hormones and as a consequence, severe iodine deficiency results in hypothyroidism, goiter, and cretinism with the well known biochemical alterations. However, it is also known that iodine deficiency may give rise to clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism without abnormality of thyroid hormone values. This led us to the hypothesis that iodine deficiency may give rise to subtle impairment of thyroid function leading to clinical syndromes resembling hypothyroidism or diseases that have been associated with the occurrence of hypothyroidism. We describe several clinical conditions possibly linked to iodine deficiency, a connection that has not been made thus far. In this paper we will focus on the relationship between iodine deficiency and obesity, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), psychiatric disorders, fibromyalgia, and malignancies.

  4. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M; Hreidarsson, A B; Andersen, S; Bülow Pedersen, I; Knudsen, N; Perrild, H; Jørgensen, T; Ovesen, L

    2000-11-01

    Comparative epidemiologic studies in areas with low and high iodine intake and controlled studies of iodine supplementation have demonstrated that the major consequence of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency for the health of the population is an extraordinarily high occurrence of hyperthyroidism in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency should be corrected. However, there is evidence that a high iodine intake may be associated with more autoimmune hypothyroidism, and that Graves' disease may manifest at a younger age and be more difficult to treat. Hence, the iodine intake should be brought to a level at which iodine deficiency disorders are avoided but not higher. Iodine supplementation programs should aim at relatively uniform iodine intake, avoiding deficient or excessive iodine intake in subpopulations. To adopt such a strategy, surveillance programs are needed.

  5. 40 CFR 721.10292 - Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1:2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10292 Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1:2). (a) Chemical substance...-) hexafluoro-cesium (1:2) (PMN P-11-546; CAS No. 16923-87-8) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10292 - Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1:2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10292 Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1:2). (a) Chemical substance...-) hexafluoro-cesium (1:2) (PMN P-11-546; CAS No. 16923-87-8) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10292 - Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1:2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10292 Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1:2). (a) Chemical substance...-) hexafluoro-cesium (1:2) (PMN P-11-546; CAS No. 16923-87-8) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  8. Iodine requirements and the risks and benefits of correcting iodine deficiency in populations.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B

    2008-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production that are termed the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). IDD remains the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. IDD assessment methods include urinary iodine concentration, goiter, thyroglobulin and newborn thyrotropin. In nearly all iodine-deficient countries, the best strategy to control IDD is salt iodization, one of the most cost-effective ways to contribute to economic and social development. When salt iodization is not possible, iodine supplements can be targeted to vulnerable groups. Introduction of iodized salt to regions of chronic IDD may transiently increase the incidence of thyroid disorders, and programs should include monitoring for both iodine deficiency and excess. Although more data on the epidemiology of thyroid disorders caused by differences in iodine intake are needed, overall, the relatively small risks of iodine excess are far outweighed by the substantial risks of iodine deficiency.

  9. Iodine biofortification of crops: agronomic biofortification, metabolic engineering and iodine bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Gonzali, Silvia; Kiferle, Claudia; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2017-04-01

    Iodine deficiency is a widespread micronutrient malnutrition problem, and the addition of iodine to table salt represents the most common prophylaxis tool. The biofortification of crops with iodine is a recent strategy to further enrich the human diet with a potentially cost-effective, well accepted and bioavailable iodine source. Understanding how iodine functions in higher plants is key to establishing suitable biofortification approaches. This review describes the current knowledge regarding iodine physiology in higher plants, and provides updates on recent agronomic and metabolic engineering strategies of biofortification. Whereas the direct administration of iodine is effective to increase the iodine content in many plant species, a more sophisticated genetic engineering approach seems to be necessary for the iodine biofortification of some important staple crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Resonance Raman Studies Of Lactoperoxidase And Sulflactoperoxidase: Drug-Induced Chlorin Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Laura A.

    1989-07-01

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is a membrane-bound heme enzyme that catalyzes iodination and coupling of thyroglobulin tyrosine residues in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. The soluble heme enzyme lactoperoxidase (LPO) also iodinates tyrosine efficiently and serves as a functional model for TPO. Whereas horseradish peroxidase oxidizes sulfur-containing compounds, e.g., cysteine and glutathione, these compounds interact with LPO and TPO without oxidation. Indeed, clinical treatment of thyroid disease involves the use of sulfur-containing drugs (goitrogens) to inactivate TPO. Reactions of TPO and LPO with goitrogens result in enzyme inhibition, in a process similar to the conversion of myoglobin to sulf-myoglobin (sulf-Mb). We have examined the electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectral properties of LPO treated with the potent antithyroid drug methylmercaptoimidazole (MMi). Interaction of LPO with MMi yields a stable, emerald green complex (SLPO (MNi]). The electronic absorption spectra of SLPO [MMi] are similar to those of sulf-Mb (which has a sulfur-modified iron chlorin macrocycle), and to those of the naturally occurring Escherichia coli and Neurospora crassa chlorin catalases. The Soret excitation RR spectrum of the SLPO [DIM] complex is distinct from that of native LPO, but is consistent with the spectral pattern for metallochlorins established by our laboratory. The SLPO [NW RR pattern is also analogous to that of chlorin-containing proteins such as the isomeric sulf-Mb's, myeloperoxidase, and the E. coli and N. crassa catalases. These data strongly suggest that MMi treatment of LPO results in conversion of the porphyrin prosthetic moiety to an iron chlorin. We infer that clinical treatment of thyroid disorders with the goitrogen drug MMi similarly converts the porphyrin prosthetic moiety of thyroid peroxidase to an iron chlorin. Spectral differences between sulf-Mb and SLPO [MMI] are particularly intriguing and suggest structural differences

  11. Mechanistic aspects of ingested chlorine dioxide on thyroid function: impact of oxidants on iodide metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Bercz, J.P.; Jones, L.L.; Harrington, R.M.; Bawa, R.; Condie, L.

    1986-11-01

    Toxicological studies dealing with recent findings of health effects of drinking water disinfectants are reviewed. Experiments with monkeys and rodents indicate that the biological activity of ingested disinfectants is expressed via their chemical interaction with the mucosal epithelia, secretory products, and nutritional contents of the alimentary tract. Evidence exists that a principal partner of this redox interaction is the iodide of nutritional origin that is ubiquitous in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus the observation that subchronic exposure to chlorine dioxide (ClO/sub 2/) in drinking water decreases serum thyroxine levels in mammalian species can be best explained with changes produced in the chemical form of the bioavailable iodide. Ongoing and previously reported mechanistic studies indicate that oxidizing agents such as chlorine-based disinfectants oxidize the basal iodide content of the gastrointestinal tract. The resulting reactive iodine species readily attaches to organic matter by covalent bonding. Evidence suggests that the extent to which such iodinated organics are formed is proportional to the magnitude of the electromotive force and stoichiometry of the redox couple between iodide and the disinfectant. Because the extent of thyroid uptake of the bioavailable iodide does not decrease during ClO/sub 2/ ingestion, it seems that ClO/sub 2/ does not cause iodide deficiency of sufficient magnitude to account for the decease in hormonogenesis. Absorption of one or more of iodinated molecules, e.g., nutrient, hormones, or cellular constituents of the alimentary tract having thyromimetic or thyroid inhibitory properties, is a better hypothesis for the effects seen.

  12. Apparent insufficiency of iodine supplementation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pessah-Pollack, Rachel; Eschler, Deirdre Cocks; Pozharny, Zhenya; Davies, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant woman are at increased risk for iodine deficiency, which may induce thyroid insufficiency and have damaging effects not only on the mother but also the fetus. We hypothesize that iodine supplementation during pregnancy reduces the risk for iodine deficiency. Cross-sectional study to assess iodine levels in random urine specimens during pregnancy in New York City. One hundred eighty-two women visited a clinic where free iodine supplementation was offered (150 μg of potassium iodide daily; Group A), and 183 women were seen at a practice at which no supplementation was offered (Group B). Overall, more than one out of two pregnant women in New York City were at risk for iodine deficiency with a spot urinary iodine (UI) level less than 150 μg/L and could be defined as at risk for iodine deficiency. The median urine iodine concentration for the entire group was 152.5 μg/L, but there was considerable variation from 10.9 to 1210 μg/L. The median UI level of the supplemented Group A (169.8 μg/L) was significantly greater than that of Group B (128.4 μg/L; p<0.01). Based on World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, 38.9% of Group B women were at risk for mild, moderate, or severe iodine deficiency, compared with 22.8% of Group A women. New York City pregnant women were significantly less prone to iodine deficiency when provided with iodine supplementation. Nevertheless, when spot UI levels were used to estimate iodine sufficiency, more than 20% of supplemented women were still at risk for iodine deficiency according to WHO guidelines, suggesting that current supplementation practices remain insufficient.

  13. Controllable evaporation of cesium from a dispenser oven.

    PubMed

    Fantz, U; Friedl, R; Fröschle, M

    2012-12-01

    This instrument allows controlled evaporation of the alkali metal cesium over a wide range of evaporation rates. The oven has three unique features. The first is an alkali metal reservoir that uses a dispenser as a cesium source. The heating current of the dispenser controls the evaporation rate allowing generation of an adjustable and stable flow of pure cesium. The second is a blocking valve, which is fully metallic as is the body of the oven. This construction both reduces contamination of the dispenser and enables the oven to be operated up to 300 °C, with only small temperature variations (<5 °C). By minimizing the temperature variation, the built up of the alkali metal at a cold spot is significantly hindered. The last feature is an integral surface ionization detector for measuring and controlling the evaporation rate. The dispenser oven can be easily transferred to the other alkali-metals.

  14. Removal of cesium ions from clays by cationic surfactant intercalation.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Bo Hyun; Yang, Hee-Man; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Moon, Jei-Kwon; Lee, Kune-Woo

    2017-02-01

    We propose a new approach to remediate cesium-contaminated clays based on intercalation of the cationic surfactant dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) into clay interlayers. Intercalation of DTAB was found to occur very rapidly and involved exchanging interlayer cations. The reaction yielded efficient cesium desorption (∼97%), including of a large amount of otherwise non-desorbable cesium ions by cation exchange with ammonium ions. In addition, the intercalation of DTAB afforded an expansion of the interlayers, and an enhanced desorption of Cs by cation exchange with ammonium ions even at low concentrations of DTAB. Finally, the residual intercalated surfactants were easily removed by a decomposition reaction with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of Cu(2+)/Fe(2+) catalysts.

  15. Study of radiatively sustained cesium plasmas for solar energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, A. J.; Dunning, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a study aimed at developing a high temperature solar electric converter are reported. The converter concept is based on the use of an alkali plasma to serve as both an efficient high temperature collector of solar radiation as well as the working fluid for a high temperature working cycle. The working cycle is a simple magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Rankine cycle employing a solid electrode Faraday MHD channel. Research milestones include the construction of a theoretical model for coupling sunlight in a cesium plasma and the experimental demonstration of cesium plasma heating with a solar simulator in excellent agreement with the theory. Analysis of a solar MHD working cycle in which excimer laser power rather than electric power is extracted is also presented. The analysis predicts a positive gain coefficient on the cesium-xenon excimer laser transition.

  16. Method for removing cesium from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Colburn, R.P.

    1983-08-10

    A method of and system for removing cesium from a liquid metal reactor coolant including a carbon packing trap in the primary coolant system for absorbing a major portion of the radioactive cesium from the coolant flowing therethrough at a reduced temperature. A regeneration subloop system having a secondary carbon packing trap is selectively connected to the primary system for isolating the main trap therefrom and connecting it to the regeneration system. Increasing the temperature of the sodium flowing through the primary trap diffuses a portion of the cesium inventory thereof further into the carbon matrix while simultaneously redispersing a portion into the regeneration system for absorption at a reduced temperature by the secondary trap.

  17. The adsorption of cesium on lanthanum hexaboride surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, P. R.; Swanson, L. W.; Chambers, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    The adsorption/desorption characteristics of cesium on clean and oxygen-covered LaB6 (100) surfaces were studied using various surface analysis techniques. On the initially clean surface (phi = 2.77 eV), adsorption produces a minimum work function of 1.96 eV and a saturation work function of 2.07 eV. For the oxygen-saturated surface, the cesium adsorption curve shows no minimum, the lowest work function (1.35 eV) occurring at cesium saturation. The utility of LaB6 (100) as an emitter or collector in thermionic converter applications (particularly for space nuclear electric propulsion) is evaluated.

  18. Applications of cesium in the perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Fengjun; Yang, Wenqiang; Luo, Deying; Zhu, Rui; Gong, Qihuang

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells have experienced an unprecedented rapid development in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) during the past 7 years, and the record PCE has been already comparable to the traditional polycrystalline silicon solar cells. Presently, it is more urgent to address the challenge on device stability for the future commercial application. Recently, the inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite has been intensively studied as one of the alternative candidates to improve device stability through controlling the phase transition. The cesium (Cs)-doped perovskites show more superior stability comparing with organic methylammonium (MA) lead halide perovskite or formamidinium (FA) lead halide perovskite. Here, recent progress of the inorganic cesium application in organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is highlighted from the viewpoints of the device efficiency and the device stability. Project supported by the 973 Program of China (No. 2015CB932203), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61377025, 91433203), and the Young 1000 Talents Global Recruitment Program of China.

  19. The BaBar cesium iodide electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, C.R.

    1994-12-01

    The BABAR Cesium Iodide Electromagnetic Calorimeter is currently in the technical design stage. The calorimeter consists of approximately 10,000 individual thallium-doped cesium iodide crystals arranged in a near-hermetic barrel and endcap structure. Taking previous cesium iodide calorimeters as a benchmark, we hope to build a system with roughly two times better energy resolution. This will be achieved by a combination of high quality crystal growing, precision mechanical processing of crystals and support structure, highly efficient light collection and low noise readout electronics. The calorimeter described here represents the current state of the design and we are undertaking an active period of optimization before this design is finalized. We discuss here the physics motivation, the current design and options for optimization.

  20. Environmental application of cesium-137 irradiation technology: Sludges and foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivinski, Jacek S.

    Several activities have been undertaken to investigate and implement the use of the military byproduct cesium-137 in ways which benefit mankind. Gamma radiation from cesium-137 has been shown to be effective in reducing pathogens in sewage sludge to levels where reuse of the material in public areas meets current regulatory criteria for protection of public health. Food irradiation at doses of 10 kGy or less have been found by international expert committees to be wholesome and safe for human consumption. Cesium-137 can be used as a means of enhancing particular properties of various food commodities by means of sterilization, insect disinfestation, delayed senescence and ripening, and sprout inhibition. This paper discusses the U.S. Department of Energy Beneficial Uses Program research and engineering history, as well as current activities and future plans, relating to both sewage sludge and food irradiation.

  1. Chlorination of Pyridinium Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Daumer, Kathleen M.; Khan, Ahsan U.; Steinbeck, Marla J.

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species produced by activated neutrophils and monocytes are thought to be involved in mediating the loss of collagen and other matrix proteins at sites of inflammation. To evaluate their potential to oxidize the pyridinoline (Pyd) cross-links found in collagen types I and II, we reacted hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hypochlorous acid/hypochlorite (HOCl/OCl−), and singlet oxygen (O2(1Δg)) with the Pyd substitutes, pyridoxamine dihydrochloride and vitamin B6, which share the same chemical structure and spectral properties of Pyd cross-links. Neither H2O2 (125–500 µm) nor O2(1Δg) (10–25 µm) significantly changed the spectral properties of pyridoxamine or vitamin B6. Reaction of HOCl/OCl− (12.5–50 µm) with pyridoxamine at pH 7.2 resulted in a concentration-dependent appearance of two new absorbance peaks and a decrease in fluorescence at 400 nm (excitation 325 nm). The new absorbance peaks correlated with the formation of an N-chloramine and the product of its subsequent reaction with pyridoxamine. In contrast, the extent to which HOCl reacted with vitamin B6, which lacks a primary amine group, was variable at this pH. At lysosomal pH 5.5, Cl2/HOCl/OCl− reacted with both pyridoxamine and vitamin B6. Four of the chlorinated products of this reaction were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and included 3-chloropyridinium, an aldehyde, and several chlorinated products with disrupted rings. To evaluate the effects of Cl2/HOCl/OCl− on Pyd cross-links in collagen, we exposed bone collagen type I and articular cartilage type II to HOCl. Treatment of either collagen type with HOCl at pH 5.0 or 7.2 resulted in the oxidation of amine groups and, for collagen type II, the specific decrease in Pyd cross-link fluorescence, suggesting that during inflammation both oxidations may be used by neutrophils and monocytes to promote the loss of matrix integrity. PMID:10940296

  2. Exotic stable cesium polynitrides at high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Feng; Han, Yunxia; Liu, Hanyu; Yao, Yansun

    2015-11-19

    New polynitrides containing metastable forms of nitrogen are actively investigated as potential high energy-density materials. Using a structure search method based on the CALYPSO methodology, we investigated the stable stoichiometries and structures of cesium polynitrides at high pressures. Along with the CsN3, we identified five new stoichiometric compounds (Cs3N, Cs2N, CsN, CsN2, and CsN5) with interesting structures that may be experimentally synthesizable at modest pressures (i.e., less than 50 GPa). Nitrogen species in the predicted structures have various structural forms ranging from single atom (N) to highly endothermic molecules (N2, N3 , N4, N5, N6) and chains (N). Polymeric chains of nitrogen were found in the high-pressure C2/c phase of CsN2. This structure contains a substantially high content of single N-N bonds that exceeds the previously known nitrogen chains in pure forms, and also exhibit metastability at ambient conditions. We also identified a very interesting CsN crystal that contains novel N44- anion. In conclusion, to our best knowledge, this is the first time a charged N4 species being reported. Results of the present study suggest that it is possible to obtain energetic polynitrogens in main-group nitrides under high pressure.

  3. THERMODYNAMICS OF CESIUM EXTRACTION FROM ACIDIC MEDIA BY HCCD and PEG

    SciTech Connect

    R. Scott Herbst; Dean R. Peterman; Peter R. Zalupski; Ken L. Nash; Richard D. Tillotson; Laetitia H. Delmau

    2010-09-01

    This is a companion study to previous publications which expands the understanding of cesium extraction from nitrate media using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (HCCD) dissolved in the polar phenyl trifluoromethyl sulfone (FS-13) diluent. First, it is verified that the system is based solely on cation exchange between H+ and Cs+ and that NO3- does not intervene, i.e., that the apparent nitrate dependency is merely an artifact of solution non-idealities. Next, the enthalpy and entropy of the system were determined using appropriate corrections in the van’t Hoff analysis and are in excellent agreement with independently published calorimetry results. Finally, the extraction of Cs by the system containing both HCCD and polyethylene glycol (PEG) in FS-13 was characterized by the determination the species produced in the organic and aqueous phases and it is further demonstrated that synergistic extraction of Cs by HCCD and PEG does not occur. Although there is a definite interaction between HCCD and PEG, and it is well established that this interaction is responsible for the extraction of Sr, this association is actually antagonist with respect to the extraction of Cs.

  4. Urinary iodine as an iodine deficiency test in lung transplant recipients in order to prevent iodine deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Stanjek-Cichoracka, Anita; Żegleń, Sławomir; Woźniak-Grygiel, Elżbieta; Laszewska, Anna; Sindera, Piotr; Wojarski, Jacek; Ochman, Marek; Karolak, Wojtek; Zembala, Marian

    2014-10-07

    In Poland, lung transplantation (LTx) as a routine method began in 2004, and since then, the Silesian Center for Heart Disease in Zabrze 85 LTx has performed (54 single-lung transplantations, 30 double-lung transplantations, and 1 heart-lung) transplantation. The recommendation to take vitamin supplements (without specific indication of the iodine content) does not apply to another iodine prophylaxis in patients after lung transplantation, excluding patients with known thyroid disease. The aim of this study was to assess thyroid gland function based on hormones and urinary iodine (UI) concentration in patients after LTx. UI analysis was performed in 19 lung recipients (12 men and 7 women; mean age: 46.2 ± 12.47 years, BMI: 21 ± 2.25) and compared to TSH, free T3, and free T4. Sufficient UI was observed only in 2 (9%) samples. In 12 samples (54.5%), mild iodine deficiency was recorded, in 4 samples (18.2%) moderate iodine deficiency was noted, and in 3 (13.6%) severe iodine deficiency was found. No correlation between BMI and UI, as well as hormones concentration, was observed. No correlation was revealed when analyzed samples were divided by patient sex. Although thyroid gland hormones were in the normal range, we found moderate, mild, and severe iodine deficiency in the majority of analyzed samples. Measurements of urinary iodine in lung transplant recipients should accompany thyroid hormone measurements as an iodine deficiency test and in order to prevent iodine deficiency disorders.

  5. Toxic impact of bromide and iodide on drinking water disinfected with chlorine or chloramines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Komaki, Yukako; Kimura, Susana Y; Hu, Hong-Ying; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Mariñas, Benito J; Plewa, Michael J

    2014-10-21

    Disinfectants inactivate pathogens in source water; however, they also react with organic matter and bromide/iodide to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Although only a few DBP classes have been systematically analyzed for toxicity, iodinated and brominated DBPs tend to be the most toxic. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine if monochloramine (NH2Cl) disinfection generated drinking water with less toxicity than water disinfected with free chlorine (HOCl) and (2) to determine the impact of added bromide and iodide in conjunction with HOCl or NH2Cl disinfection on mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genomic DNA damage induction. Water disinfected with chlorine was less cytotoxic but more genotoxic than water disinfected with chloramine. For both disinfectants, the addition of Br(-) and I(-) increased cytotoxicity and genotoxicity with a greater response observed with NH2Cl disinfection. Both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were highly correlated with TOBr and TOI. However, toxicity was weakly and inversely correlated with TOCl. Thus, the forcing agents for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were the generation of brominated and iodinated DBPs rather than the formation of chlorinated DBPs. Disinfection practices need careful consideration especially when using source waters containing elevated bromide and iodide.

  6. Transformation of iodide and formation of iodinated by-products in heat activated persulfate oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Kong, Deyang; Ji, Yuefei; Lu, Junhe; Yin, Xiaoming; Zhou, Quansuo

    2017-08-01

    Formation of halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs) in sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes (SR-AOPs) have attracted considerable concerns recently. Previous studies have focused on the formation of chlorinated and brominated DBPs. This research examined the transformation of I(-) in heat activated PS oxidation process. Phenol was employed as a model compound to mimic the reactivity of dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) toward halogenation. It was found that I(-) was transformed to free iodine which attacked phenol subsequently leading to iodinated DBPs such as iodoform and iodoacetic acids. Iodophenols were detected as the intermediates during the formation of the iodoform and triiodoacetic acid (TIAA). However, diiodoacetic acid (DIAA) was formed almost concomitantly with iodophenols. In addition, the yield of DIAA was significantly higher than that of TIAA, which is distinct from conventional halogenation process. Both the facts suggest that different pathway might be involved during DIAA formation in SR-AOPs. Temperature and persulfate dose were the key factors governing the transformation process. The iodinated by-products can be further degraded by excessive SO4(-) and transformed to iodate. This study elucidated the transformation pathway of I(-) in SR-AOPs, which should be taken into consideration when persulfate was applied in environmental matrices containing iodine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CAFS: A Cesium Atomic Frequency Standard for GPS block IIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisnia, Jeffry A.

    1993-01-01

    Kernco, Inc. was selected to design the Cesium Atomic Frequency Standards (CAFS) for the GPS Block IIR NAVSTAR satellites. These spacecraft are scheduled to be launched in the mid-1990's to replenish and upgrade the existing constellation of Global Positioning System satellites. The Block IIR CAFS output frequency is 13.4003378 MHz, the 686th submultiple of the cesium atomic resonance frequency. Using an integer submultiple simplifies the design of the atomic frequency standard's rf multiplier circuits, eliminating the secondary frequency synthesizer needed in previous designs. The GPS Block IIR CAFS design, particularly the improvements made on our earlier Block II design is described. Test results are included.

  8. Operational frequency stability of rubidium and cesium frequency standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The frequency stabilities under operational conditions of several commercially available rubidium and cesium frequency standards were determined from experimental data for frequency averaging times from 10 to the 7th power s and are presented in table and graph form. For frequency averaging times between 10 to the 5th power and 10 to the 7th power s, the rubidium standards tested have a stability of between 10 to the minus 12th power and 5 x 10 to the minus 12th power, while the cesium standards have a stability of between 2 x 10 to the minus 13th power and 5 x 10 to the minus 13th power.

  9. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, L. M.; Simandl, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92 percent. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting, and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes, and swelling of epoxies.

  10. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  11. Iodine status of pregnant women in South Australia after mandatory iodine fortification of bread and the recommendation for iodine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Condo, Dominique; Huyhn, Dao; Anderson, Amanda J; Skeaff, Sheila; Ryan, Philip; Makrides, Maria; Mühlhaüsler, Beverly S; Zhou, Shao J

    2017-10-01

    Mandatory iodine fortification of bread was introduced in 2009 in Australia in response to the reemergence of iodine deficiency. The aim of this study was to assess iodine intake, urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and their correlation in pregnant women (n = 783) recruited from South Australia 2 years following mandatory iodine fortification. Total iodine intake (food and supplements) and UIC were assessed at study entry (<20 weeks') and at 28 weeks' gestation. Mean (±SD) total iodine intake at study entry and 28 weeks' gestation was 307 ± 128 μg/day and 300 ± 127 μg/day, respectively. Overall, 85.9% of women met the estimated average intake (≥160 μg/day) for iodine in pregnancy, but only 44.5% met the estimated average intake from food alone. The main food sources of iodine were dairy foods and iodine-fortified bread. Median (interquartile range) UIC at study entry and 28 weeks' gestation was 189 μg/L and 172 μg/L, respectively. At study entry, median UIC was higher in women taking supplements containing iodine ≥150 μg/day compared with those containing iodine <150 μg/day (221 μg/L vs. 163 μg/L, p = .003) and those not taking supplements containing iodine (221 μg/L vs. 159 μg/L, p < .001). At 28 weeks' gestation, the median UIC for the groups was 187, 152 and 141 μg/L, respectively (each of the two comparisons yielded p < .001). Total iodine intake (food and supplements) from all women was positively, though weakly, correlated with UIC (r = .23, p < .001). In conclusion, pregnant women in South Australia are iodine sufficient postmandatory iodine fortification of bread. However, without iodine supplementation, it may be difficult to achieve a UIC >150 μg/L. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Selective chemical binding enhances cesium tolerance in plants through inhibition of cesium uptake.

    PubMed

    Adams, Eri; Chaban, Vitaly; Khandelia, Himanshu; Shin, Ryoung

    2015-03-05

    High concentrations of cesium (Cs(+)) inhibit plant growth but the detailed mechanisms of Cs(+) uptake, transport and response in plants are not well known. In order to identify small molecules with a capacity to enhance plant tolerance to Cs(+), chemical library screening was performed using Arabidopsis. Of 10,000 chemicals tested, five compounds were confirmed as Cs(+) tolerance enhancers. Further investigation and quantum mechanical modelling revealed that one of these compounds reduced Cs(+) concentrations in plants and that the imidazole moiety of this compound bound specifically to Cs(+). Analysis of the analogous compounds indicated that the structure of the identified compound is important for the effect to be conferred. Taken together, Cs(+) tolerance enhancer isolated here renders plants tolerant to Cs(+) by inhibiting Cs(+) entry into roots via specific binding to the ion thus, for instance, providing a basis for phytostabilisation of radiocesium-contaminated farmland.

  13. Selective chemical binding enhances cesium tolerance in plants through inhibition of cesium uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Eri; Chaban, Vitaly; Khandelia, Himanshu; Shin, Ryoung

    2015-03-01

    High concentrations of cesium (Cs+) inhibit plant growth but the detailed mechanisms of Cs+ uptake, transport and response in plants are not well known. In order to identify small molecules with a capacity to enhance plant tolerance to Cs+, chemical library screening was performed using Arabidopsis. Of 10,000 chemicals tested, five compounds were confirmed as Cs+ tolerance enhancers. Further investigation and quantum mechanical modelling revealed that one of these compounds reduced Cs+ concentrations in plants and that the imidazole moiety of this compound bound specifically to Cs+. Analysis of the analogous compounds indicated that the structure of the identified compound is important for the effect to be conferred. Taken together, Cs+ tolerance enhancer isolated here renders plants tolerant to Cs+ by inhibiting Cs+ entry into roots via specific binding to the ion thus, for instance, providing a basis for phytostabilisation of radiocesium-contaminated farmland.

  14. Occurrence and variability of iodinated trihalomethanes concentrations within two drinking-water distribution networks.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Panagiotis; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2016-02-01

    Non-iodo-containing trihalomethanes (TTHM) are frequently detected in chlorinated tap water and currently regulated against their carcinogenic potential. Iodinated THM (ITHM) may also form in disinfected with chlorine waters that are high in iodine content, but little is known about their magnitude and variability within the drinking-water pipe distribution network of urban areas. The main objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and variability of ITHM and TTHM levels and their corresponding daily intake estimates within the drinking water distribution systems of Limassol and Nicosia cities of Cyprus, using tap samples collected from individual households (n=37). In Limassol, mean household tap water ITHM and TTHM levels was 0.58 and 38 μg L(-1), respectively. Dichloroiodomethane (DCIM) was the dominant species of the two measured ITHM compounds accounting for 77% of total ITHM and in the range of 0.032 and 1.65 μg L(-1). The range of DCIM concentrations in Nicosia tap water samples was narrower (0.032 - 0.848 μg L(-1)). Mean total iodine concentration in tap water samples from the seaside city of Limassol was 15 μg L(-1) and approximately twice to those observed in samples from the mainland Nicosia city. However, iodine concentrations did not correlate with the ITHM levels. The calculated chronic daily intake rates of ITHM were low when compared with those of TTHM, but because of their widespread occurrence in tap water and their enhanced mammalian cell toxicity, additional research is warranted to assess the magnitude and variability of human ITHM exposures.

  15. Biologically available iodine in goitrogenic diets

    SciTech Connect

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1985-01-01

    Eight different sources of low-iodine diet (LID) were tested in mice over 14 years. The available iodine in each diet was measured by isotopic equilibration. Commercially prepared Remington diets contained 6.8 to 69.3 ng available iodine/g, and the results were usually different from shipment to shipment. Some samples produced greatly enlarged thyroids. The Remington diets from two sources were occasionally low in iodine but produced little thyroid enlargement. Between 1977 and 1980 only one shipment of Remington diet was found to contain less than 10 ng available I/g, and it resulted in large goiters. Since 1980 other compositions of LID have been used, but they caused additional abnormalities during breeding or chronic feeding. A low-iodine wheat diet produced goiter in mice more readily than in rats. In the course of testing for unavailable forms of dietary iodine, it was found that only 34.2% of thyroxine iodine was available to the thyroid iodine pool of mice. It is concluded that unidentified nutritional deficiency or dietary contaminants can alter the goitrogenic response to restricted iodine intake. Furthermore, at least one natural form of potential dietary iodine is incompletely available to mice.

  16. Chemistry of combined residual chlorination

    SciTech Connect

    Leao, S.F.; Selleck, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The decay of the combined chlorine residual was investigated in this work. Recent concerns about the formation of undesirable compounds such as chloroform with free residual chlorination have focused attention on the alternative use of combined residual chlorination. This work investigates the applicability of reactions proposed to describe the transformations and decay of the combined residual with time. Sodium hypochlorite was added to buffered solutions of ammonia with the chlorine residual being monitored over periods extending up to 10 days. The reaction was studied at four initial concentrations of hypochlorite of 100, 50, 25 and 10 mg/L as Cl/sub 2/ with molar application ratios of chlorine to ammonia, defined herein as M ratios, of 0.90, 0.50, 0.25 and 0.05 at each hypochlorite dose. Sixty-eight experiments were conducted at the pH of 6.6 and 7.2. The conclusions are: (1) in the absence of free chlorine, the concentration of NH/sub 3/ does not seem to affect the rate of disappearance of the residual other than through the formation of NHCl/sub 2/ by NH/sub 2/Cl hydrolysis; (2) the reaction between NHCl/sub 2/ and NH/sub 4//sup +/ to form NH/sub 2/Cl is either much slower than reported by Gray et. al. or the mechanism is different with a rate limiting step not involving NH/sub 3/ or NH/sub 4//sup +/; (3) a redox reaction in addition to the first-order decomposition of NHCl/sub 2/ appears necessary. Model simulation results indicated that a reaction of the type NH/sub 2/Cl + NHCl/sub 2/ ..-->.. P added to the first-order NHCl/sub 2/ decomposition can explain the results observed except at the higher chlorine doses.

  17. Geochemical Cycling of Iodine Species in Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Moran, J E; Blackwood, V

    2007-08-23

    Iodine is an important element in studies of environmental protection and human health, global-scale hydrologic processes and nuclear nonproliferation. Biogeochemical cycling of iodine in soils is complex, because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states and as inorganic and organic species that may be hydrophilic, atmophilic, and biophilic. In this study, we applied new analytical techniques to study the content and speciation of stable iodine in representative surface soils, and sorption and transport behavior of iodine species (iodide, iodate, and 4-iodoaniline) in sediments collected at numerous nuclear facilities in the United States, where anthropogenic {sup 129}I from prior nuclear fuel processing activities poses an environmental risk. The surface soil samples were chosen for their geographic locations (e.g., near the ocean or nuclear facilities) and for their differing physico-chemical characteristics (organic matter, texture, etc). Extracted solutions were analyzed by IC and ICP-MS methods to determine iodine concentrations and to examine iodine speciation (iodide, iodate, and organic iodine). In natural soils, iodine is mostly (nearly 90% of total iodine) present as organic species, while inorganic iodine becomes important (up to 50%) only in sediments with low organic matter. Results from laboratory column studies, aimed at examining transport of different iodine species, showed much greater retardation of 4-iodoaniline than iodide or iodate. Careful attention must be given to potential interconversion among species when interpreting the biogeochemical behavior of iodine in the environment. In addition to speciation, input concentration and residence time effects will influence the biogeochemical cycling of anthropogenic 129I deposited on surface soils.

  18. Effects of iodine intake and teat-dipping practices on milk iodine concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castro, S I Borucki; Berthiaume, R; Robichaud, A; Lacasse, P

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of dietary iodine and teat-dipping practices on iodine concentrations in milk. In the first study, 63 cows in mid lactation were assigned to a 3×3 factorial design in which the main effects were dietary iodine levels (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mg of dietary I/kg of dry matter) and 3 different postdip managements (chlorhexidine with dip cup, 1% iodine dip cup, and 1% iodine by manual spray). During the 13-d pre-experimental period and the 15-d experimental period, noniodized sanitizers were used in premilking management. During the pre-experimental period, the levels of milk iodine averaged 241.2±5.8 μg/kg, and no relationship was found with lactation number, days in milk, or milk production. Milk iodine concentrations increased linearly with iodine intake. Although teat dipping with 1% iodine had no effect on milk iodine concentration, the same solution applied by spraying greatly increased milk iodine levels. The second study was conducted to determine the effects of udder preparation before milking on milk iodine concentrations. Thirty-two lactating cows were assigned to 4 treatments: no predip (Con); predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+complete cleaning (Comp); predip with a postdip solution containing 1% iodine+complete cleaning (Post); and predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+incomplete cleaning (Inc). During the 14-d pre-experimental period and the 19-d experimental period, cows were fed the same diet, and noniodized sanitizers were used for postmilking dipping. During the last week of treatment, milk iodine averaged 164, 189, 218, and 252±9.8 μg/kg for Con, Comp, Post, and Inc, respectively. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts indicated that predipping with a 0.5% iodine predip solution completely wiped off (Comp) tended to increase milk iodine content above that of the control and that the iodine content of Post and Inc were higher than that of the Comp treatment. The results of

  19. Polyvinyl alcohol as a useful indicator on iodometry: volumetric and spectrophotometric studies on iodine-PVA and iodine-starch complexes.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, T; Shirakata, T; Dohtsu, H; Hiratsuka, H; Hasegawa, M; Kobayashi, M; Hoshi, T

    2001-02-01

    Iodometry is one of the easiest, most rapid and accurate methods for the determination of a relatively small amount of oxidizing agent, such as residual chlorine. Starch has long been used as a useful color indicator in iodometry. However, we found that PVA (polyvinyl alcohol with partially saponificated; e.g., saponification degree of 88%) is a more useful color indicator than starch. For example, at 20 degrees C, the PVA indicator gave similar profiles of iodine concentration vs. titration efficiencies (percent recoveries) to those of starch at 0 degrees C. At 0 degrees C, the PVA indicator detected 1.1 mg I2/L (11 microg I2: with 10 mL sample volume) with a high percentage of recovery (=95%). Furthermore, at 20 degrees C an iodine concentration of 0.36 mg/L (which corresponds to a residual chlorine concentration of 0.1 mg Cl2/L) could be detected using PVA color indicator assuming an appropriate correction.

  20. Alkaline pretreatment for chlorine removal from high-chlorine rhodochrosite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xing-ran; Liu, Zuo-hua; Li, Wen-sheng; Cheng, Ya-ya; Du, Jun; Tao, Chang-yuan

    2016-11-01

    Chloride in manganese ore adversely affects mineral extraction. The mechanisms and the factors that influence an alkali pretreatment to removal chlorine from manganese ore were explored to eliminate hazards posed by chlorine during the electrolysis of manganese. The results showed that sodium carbonate, when used as an alkaline additive, promoted the dissolution of insoluble chloride, enhanced the migration of chloride ions, and effectively stabilized Mn2+. The optimal conditions were a sodium carbonate concentration of 0.45 mol·L-1, a liquid-solid ratio of 5:1 mL·g-1, a reaction time of 1 h, and a temperature of 25°C. The chlorine removal efficiency was greater than 95%, and the ore grade (Mn) was increased by 2.7%.

  1. Overview of iodine generation for oxygen-iodine lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirásek, Vít.

    2012-01-01

    A review of the methods for generation of iodine for oxygen-iodine lasers (OIL) is presented. The chemical and physical methods for production of both atomic (AI) and molecular (MI) iodine have been searched in order to improve the efficiency and/or technology of OILs. These trials were motivated by the estimations that a substantial part of singlet oxygen (SO) could be saved with these methods and the onset of the laser active medium will be accelerated. Vapour of MI can be generated by the evaporation of solid or pressurized liquid I2, or synthesized in situ by the reaction of Cl2 with either HI or CuI2. The chemical methods of generation of AI are based on the substitution of I atom in a molecule of HI or ICl by another halogen atom produced usually chemically. The discharge methods include the dissociation of various iodine compounds (organic iodides, I2, HI) in the RF, MW, DC-pulsed or DC-vortex stabilized discharge. Combined methods use discharge dissociation of molecules (H2, F2) to gain atoms which subsequently react to replace AI from the iodine compound. The chemical methods were quite successful in producing AI (up to the 100% yield), but the enhancement of the laser performance was not reported. The discharge methods had been subsequently improving and are today able to produce up to 0.4 mmol/s of AI at the RF power of 500 W. A substantial enhancement of the discharge- OIL performance (up to 40%) was reported. In the case of Chemical-OIL, the enhancement was reported only under the conditions of a low I2/O2 ratio, where the "standard" I2 dissociation by SO is slow. The small-signal gain up to 0.3 %/cm was achieved on the supersonic COIL using the HI dissociated in the RF discharge. Due to the complicated kinetics of the RI-I-I2-SO system and a strong coupling with the gas flow and mixing, the theoretical description of the problem is difficult. It, however, seems that we can expect the major improvement of the OIL performance for those systems, where

  2. Debate over phaseout of chlorine, chlorinated organics continues

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B. )

    1993-12-06

    During the past two months, the debate over whether to phase out the use and production of chlorine and chlorinated organics as a broad class of chemicals has continued on a number of fronts. This question was the major focus of discussion at the recent biennial meeting in Windsor Ontario, of the International Joint Commission (IJC)--a binational group that oversees implementation of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. Just prior to the meeting, the governments of the US and Canada presented their views on this issue, and it was the topic most of the speakers discussed during the organized sessions and public hearings. IJC is working on its seventh Biennial Report, which will be completed shortly after the first of the year. The very large comprehensive study on the health and environmental effects of chlorinated organics being prepared by CanTox, a consulting group in Mississauga, Ontario, for CCC and the Chlorine Institute was originally scheduled to be published in June. It is now slated for release sometime in early 1994, and the conference on the health and environmental effects of chlorinated organics that was to be sponsored by CCC and held in September of this year was canceled and has not been rescheduled. The movement to phase out chlorine also may be gathering momentum in Europe. On Oct 15, the 21 nations party to the Barcelona Convention on pollution of the Mediterranean recommended that their governments phase out toxic, persistent, and bioaccumulative substances, especially organohalogens (which include organochlorine), by 2005. This action is similar to proposals made in September 1992 by the Paris Commission, which oversees discharges of pollutants in the northeast Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Effect of iodine disinfectant source and water quality parameters on soluble iodine speciation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Joann; Hurst, Charles; Barkley, Robert; Dunham, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    Investigations of iodine species distribution of various aqueous solutions of iodine disinfectants and water from equilibrated suspensions of triodide and pentaiodide resins were done at the University of Colorado for the Center for Space Environmental Health during 1992 and 1993. Direct measurements of three individual iodine species: I(-), I2 and I3(-), were made. In addition three measures of total titratable iodine species were used. It has been found that I2 and I3(-) solutions produce a significant fraction of the non-disinfecting species iodine I(-), ranging from 50 to 80% of added iodine, respectively, at pH values of approximately 5. Correspondingly, I2 solutions produce more than twice the concentration of disinfecting iodine species per mass iodine dose than I3(-) solutions. Both I(-) and I2 species were found in aqeuous extracts of pentaiodide resin, although no soluble species were detected with triiodide resin.

  4. Effect of iodine disinfectant source and water quality parameters on soluble iodine speciation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Joann; Hurst, Charles; Barkley, Robert; Dunham, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    Investigations of iodine species distribution of various aqueous solutions of iodine disinfectants and water from equilibrated suspensions of triodide and pentaiodide resins were done at the University of Colorado for the Center for Space Environmental Health during 1992 and 1993. Direct measurements of three individual iodine species: I(-), I2 and I3(-), were made. In addition three measures of total titratable iodine species were used. It has been found that I2 and I3(-) solutions produce a significant fraction of the non-disinfecting species iodine I(-), ranging from 50 to 80% of added iodine, respectively, at pH values of approximately 5. Correspondingly, I2 solutions produce more than twice the concentration of disinfecting iodine species per mass iodine dose than I3(-) solutions. Both I(-) and I2 species were found in aqeuous extracts of pentaiodide resin, although no soluble species were detected with triiodide resin.

  5. Photolytic effects in alumina chlorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleiman, M. K.; Rao, Y. K.

    1987-06-01

    The temperature dependence of the rate of chlorination of α-alumina with CO/Cl2 gas mixtures exhibits an anomaly, a departure from the normal Arrhenius behavior, in the range 650 to 850°C; it is manifested as a local maximum in the Arrhenius plot at 670°C followed by a local minimum in the range 770 to 850°C. By carefully studying the effect of irradiation of the CO/Cl2 gas mixtures on the rate of chlorination of α-alumina, it is shown that such an anomaly, which has been observed in the chlorination of various metallic oxides, is most likely due to the photochemical formation of phosgene (COCl2) by ambient light incident on the reactant gas mixture during its transport to the main reactor. Phosgene is a better chlorinating agent than a CO/Cl2 mixture. The mechanism of chlorination of α-Al2O3 by CO/Cl2 mixtures subjected to the light emitted by a high-pressure Hg-vapor lamp is elucidated.

  6. Nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine

    DOE PAGES

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Plane, John M. C.; Cuevas, Carlos A.; ...

    2016-12-19

    Little attention has so far been paid to the nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine species. Current atmospheric models predict a buildup of HOI and I2 during the night that leads to a spike of IO at sunrise, which is not observed by measurements. In this work, electronic structure calculations are used to survey possible reactions that HOI and I2 could undergo at night in the lower troposphere, and hence reduce their nighttime accumulation. The new reaction NO3+ HOI → IO + HNO3 is proposed, with a rate coefficient calculated from statistical rate theory over the temperature range 260–300 K andmore » at a pressure of 1000 hPa to be k(T) = 2.7 × 10-12 (300 K/T)2.66 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. This reaction is included in two atmospheric models, along with the known reaction between I2 and NO3, to explore a new nocturnal iodine radical activation mechanism. The results show that this iodine scheme leads to a considerable reduction of nighttime HOI and I2, which results in the enhancement of more than 25 % of nighttime ocean emissions of HOI + I2 and the removal of the anomalous spike of IO at sunrise. We suggest that active nighttime iodine can also have a considerable, so far unrecognized, impact on the reduction of the NO3 radical levels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and hence upon the nocturnal oxidizing capacity of the marine atmosphere. In conclusion, the effect of this is exemplified by the indirect effect on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation.« less

  7. Nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Plane, John M. C.; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Lamarque, Jean-François; Kinnison, Douglas E.

    2016-12-01

    Little attention has so far been paid to the nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine species. Current atmospheric models predict a buildup of HOI and I2 during the night that leads to a spike of IO at sunrise, which is not observed by measurements. In this work, electronic structure calculations are used to survey possible reactions that HOI and I2 could undergo at night in the lower troposphere, and hence reduce their nighttime accumulation. The new reaction NO3+ HOI → IO + HNO3 is proposed, with a rate coefficient calculated from statistical rate theory over the temperature range 260-300 K and at a pressure of 1000 hPa to be k(T) = 2.7 × 10-12 (300 K/T)2.66 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. This reaction is included in two atmospheric models, along with the known reaction between I2 and NO3, to explore a new nocturnal iodine radical activation mechanism. The results show that this iodine scheme leads to a considerable reduction of nighttime HOI and I2, which results in the enhancement of more than 25 % of nighttime ocean emissions of HOI + I2 and the removal of the anomalous spike of IO at sunrise. We suggest that active nighttime iodine can also have a considerable, so far unrecognized, impact on the reduction of the NO3 radical levels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and hence upon the nocturnal oxidizing capacity of the marine atmosphere. The effect of this is exemplified by the indirect effect on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation.

  8. Nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Plane, John M. C.; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Lamarque, Jean -Francois; Kinnison, Douglas E.

    2016-12-19

    Little attention has so far been paid to the nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine species. Current atmospheric models predict a buildup of HOI and I2 during the night that leads to a spike of IO at sunrise, which is not observed by measurements. In this work, electronic structure calculations are used to survey possible reactions that HOI and I2 could undergo at night in the lower troposphere, and hence reduce their nighttime accumulation. The new reaction NO3+ HOI → IO + HNO3 is proposed, with a rate coefficient calculated from statistical rate theory over the temperature range 260–300 K and at a pressure of 1000 hPa to be k(T) = 2.7 × 10-12 (300 K/T)2.66 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. This reaction is included in two atmospheric models, along with the known reaction between I2 and NO3, to explore a new nocturnal iodine radical activation mechanism. The results show that this iodine scheme leads to a considerable reduction of nighttime HOI and I2, which results in the enhancement of more than 25 % of nighttime ocean emissions of HOI + I2 and the removal of the anomalous spike of IO at sunrise. We suggest that active nighttime iodine can also have a considerable, so far unrecognized, impact on the reduction of the NO3 radical levels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and hence upon the nocturnal oxidizing capacity of the marine atmosphere. In conclusion, the effect of this is exemplified by the indirect effect on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation.

  9. Injection of iodine to the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Baidar, S.; Cuevas, C. A.; Koenig, T. K.; Fernandez, R. P.; Dix, B.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Rodriguez-Lloveras, X.; Campos, T. L.; Volkamer, R.

    2015-08-01

    We report a new estimation of the injection of iodine into the stratosphere based on novel daytime (solar zenith angle < 45°) aircraft observations in the tropical tropopause layer and a global atmospheric model with the most recent knowledge about iodine photochemistry. The results indicate that significant levels of total reactive iodine (0.25-0.7 parts per trillion by volume), between 2 and 5 times larger than the accepted upper limits, can be injected into the stratosphere via tropical convective outflow. At these iodine levels, modeled iodine catalytic cycles account for up to 30% of the contemporary ozone loss in the tropical lower stratosphere and can exert a stratospheric ozone depletion potential equivalent to, or even larger than, that of very short-lived bromocarbons. Therefore, we suggest that iodine sources and chemistry need to be considered in assessments of the historical and future evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer.

  10. Radioactive Iodine Therapy and Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Roghaieh; Shafiei, Babak; Azizi, Fereidoun; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive iodine therapy is commonly used as an adjuvant therapy in follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and in the treatment of Graves’ disease (GD). The basis of this therapy is the accumulation of radioactive iodine by the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) in the thyroid gland. Expression of NIS by extrathyroidal tissues such as islets of pancreas has been reported. Radioactive iodine uptake by pancreatic beta-cells can potentially damage these cells. In this study, we discuss the possible associations between radioactive iodine and glucose intolerance. Overall, radioactive iodine uptake by the pancreas may damage beta-cells and predispose patients to glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes, particularly in patients exposed to radioactive iodine therapy following total thyroidectomy. Further studies are needed to clarify and confirm this association. PMID:28670511

  11. Experimental investigation of the iodine partition coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.L.; Babad, C.J.; Mulder, R.U.

    1985-11-01

    Short-term values of the iodine partition coefficient (IPC) were evaluated experimentally by an air/water system over the following ranges of conditions: temperature = 25 to 70/sup 0/C, pH = 5 to 9, and iodine concentration = 10/sup -9/ to 10/sup -2/ kg iodine/m/sup 3/ H/sub 2/O. The experimental IPC values are relatively independent of temperature over the indicated range, but show a significant dependence on pH and iodine concentration. In basic solutions the short-term values are several orders of magnitude less than the true equilibrium values; in acid solutions, the differences are much less. These results are useful for predicting the disposition of iodine shortly (i.e., 1 to 10 h) after iodine has been released into an air/water environment.

  12. Atmospheric science: marine aerosols and iodine emissions.

    PubMed

    McFiggans, Gordon

    2005-02-10

    O'Dowd et al. describe the formation of marine aerosols from biogenic iodine and the growth of these aerosols into cloud-condensation nuclei (CCN). Based on chamber and modelling results, the authors suggest that biogenic organic iodine compounds emitted from macroalgae may be responsible for coastal particle bursts and that production of these compounds in the open ocean could increase CCN there too. It has since been shown that coastal particles are more likely to be produced from the photooxidation of molecular iodine. Moreover, I contend that open-ocean particle production and cloud enhancement do not result from emissions of organic iodine at atmospheric levels. For iodine particles to affect cloud properties over the remote ocean, an additional source of iodine is necessary as organic precursors cannot be responsible.

  13. Thyroidectomy in iodine induced thyrotoxic storm.

    PubMed

    Weber, C; Scholz, G H; Lamesch, P; Paschke, R

    1999-01-01

    Between January 1996 and September 1997 we treated 4 patients with iodine-induced thyrotoxic storm (2 females, 2 men; age 54-77 years). Iodine contamination was due to iodine-containing contrast media in 3 patients and iodine-containing disinfectant in 1 patient. Thyroid storm with tachycardia, hypertension, sweating, tremor, weight loss and coma occured 3-10 weeks after iodine contamination. These symptoms were accompanied by raised fT4- and fT3-values. All 4 patients were initially treated with antithyroid drugs for 7 days, whereas 2 patients with coronary artery disease, demonstrated by coronary angio-graphy, were treated with antithyroid drugs for 2 weeks. Because of unsuccessful antithyroid drug treatment, all 4 patients underwent subtotal thyroidectomy. There were no perioperative complications. We conclude that early thyroidectomy is the appropriate treatment for iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis even in patients with severe accompanying diseases.

  14. Discovery and Early Uses of Iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2000-08-01

    The ancient Chinese recognized goiter and the therapeutic effects of burnt sponge and seaweed in reducing its size or causing its disappearance. The modern use of iodine in the prevention of goiter dates from 1830, when it was proposed that goiter is an iodine deficiency disease due to lack of iodine in the water supply. But unfavorable symptoms of iodism were frequent owing to overenthusiastic use and overdose of iodine. Consequently, iodide prophylaxis was discredited and abandoned. The presence of iodine in organic combination as a normal constituent of the thyroid was established in 1896 and the use of iodine in treatment and prevention of goiter was revived. In 1917 the general use of iodized salt in goitrous areas was shown to be effective in preventing simple endemic goiter.

  15. Distribution of radioactive cesium in edible parts of cattle.

    PubMed

    Okada, Keiji; Sato, Itaru; Deguchi, Yoshitaka; Morita, Shigeru; Yasue, Takeshi; Yayota, Masato; Takeda, Ken-Ichi; Sato, Shusuke

    2013-12-01

    After the disastrous incident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, various agricultural, livestock and fishery products have been inspected for radioactive contamination with cesium in Japan. In this study, radioactive cesium was measured in various edible parts of cattle to verify the current inspection method for cattle, in which the neck tissues are generally used as samples. Radioactive cesium concentration in the short plate, diaphragm, liver, lung, omasum, abomasum and small intestine were lower and sirloin, tenderloin, top round meat and tongue were higher than that in the neck. There was no significant difference between the other organs (heart, kidney, lumen and reticulum) and the neck. Ninety-five percent upper tolerance limits of the relative concentration to the neck were 1.88 for sirloin, 1.74 for tenderloin, 1.87 for top round and 1.45 for tongue. These results suggest that a safety factor of 2 is recommended for the radioactivity inspection of cattle to prevent a marketing of meat with higher cesium than the legal limit. Re-inspection should be conducted using another part of muscle, for example, top round, when suspicious levels of 50-100 Bq/kg are detected in the neck. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Physical property measurements of doped cesium iodide crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synder, R. S.; Clotfelter, W. N.

    1974-01-01

    Mechanical and thermal property values are reported for crystalline cesium iodide doped with sodium and thallium. Young's modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio were obtained from ultrasonic measurements. Young's modulus and the samples' elastic and plastic behavior were also measured under tension and compression. Thermal expansion and thermal conductivity were the temperature dependent measurements that were made.

  17. Sediment source determination using fallout Cesium-137 in arid rangelands.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sediment source identification in arid rangelands is necessary to understanding rangeland conditions and developing management practices to improve rangeland health and reduce sediment load to streams. The purpose of this research was to use Cesium-137 to identify sources of sediments in an arid ran...

  18. REMOVAL OF CESIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY ADSORPTION

    DOEpatents

    Knoll, K.C.

    1963-07-16

    A process of removing microquantities of cesium from aqueous solutions also containing macroquantities of other ions by adsorption on clinoptilolite is described. The invention resides in the pretreatment of the clinoptilolite by heating at 400 deg C and cooling prior to use. (AEC)

  19. Preparation of cesium targets for gamma-spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Basu, S. K.; Chanda, S.; Deb, P.; Eqbal, Md; Kundu, S.; Joseph, D.

    2000-11-01

    A procedure to prepare monoisotopic cesium compound targets for gamma-spectroscopic experiments is described. Using this procedure, uniform targets up to thicknesses of 0.6-1.2 mg/cm 2 were prepared and used for in-beam spectroscopic studies. The purity of the target was tested by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) measurements.

  20. Hot demonstration of proposed commercial cesium removal technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.D.; Travis, J.R.; Gibson, M.R.

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the work done in support of the development of technology for the continuous removal and concentration of radioactive cesium in supernatant from Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) at the ORNL site. The primary objective was to test candidate absorbers and ion exchangers under continuous-flow conditions using actual supernatant from the MVSTs. An experimental system contained in a hot-cell facility was constructed to test the materials in columns or modules using the same batch of supernatant to allow comparison on an equal basis. Resorcinol/formaldehyde (RF) resin was evaluated at three flow rates with 50% breakthrough ranges of 35 to 50 column volumes (CV) and also through a series of five loading/elution/regeneration cycles. The results reported here include the cesium loading breakthrough curves, elution curves (when applicable), and operational problems and observations for each material. The comparative evaluations should provide critical data for the selection of the sorbent for the ORNL Cesium Removal Demonstration project. These results will be used to help determine the design parameters for demonstration-scale systems. Such parameters include rates of cesium removal, quantity of resin or sorbent to be used, and elution and regeneration requirements, if applicable.

  1. Membrane-based separation technologies for cesium, strontium, and technetium

    SciTech Connect

    Kafka, T.

    1996-10-01

    This work is one of two parallel projects that are part of an ESP task to develop high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. In this subtask, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is collaborating with 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota, working in cooperation with IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah.

  2. Cesium Ion Exchange Using Tank 241-AN-104 Supernate

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2003-12-22

    The River Protection Project is to design and build a high level nuclear waste treatment facility. The waste treatment plant is to process millions of gallons of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Hanford Site. The high level nuclear waste treatment process includes various unit operations, such as ultrafiltration, precipitation, evaporation, ion exchange, and vitrification. Ion exchange is identified as the optimal treatment method for removal of cesium-137 and Tc-99 from the waste. Extensive ion exchange testing was performed using small-scale columns with actual waste samples. The objectives of this study were to: demonstrate SuperLig 644 ion exchange performance and process steps for the removal of cesium from actual AN-104 tank waste; pretreat actual AN-104 tank waste to reduce the concentration of cesium-137 in the waste below LAW vitrification limit; produce and characterize cesium eluate solutions for use in eluate evaporation tests. The experiments consisted of batch contact and small-scale column tests. The batch contact tests measured sorption partition coefficients Kds. The Kds were used to predict the effective resin capacity. The small-scale column tests, which closely mimic plant conditions, generated loading and elution profile data used to determine whether removal targets and design requirements were met.

  3. Validation and Application of Concentrated Cesium Eluate Physical Property Models

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.S.

    2004-03-18

    This work contained two objectives. To verify the mathematical equations developed for the physical properties of concentrated cesium eluate solutions against experimental test results obtained with simulated feeds. To estimate the physical properties of the radioactive AW-101 cesium eluate at saturation using the validated models. The Hanford River Protection Project (RPP) Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently being built to extract radioisotopes from the vast inventory of Hanford tank wastes and immobilize them in a silicate glass matrix for eventual disposal at a geological repository. The baseline flowsheet for the pretreatment of supernatant liquid wastes includes removal of cesium using regenerative ion-exchange resins. The loaded cesium ion-exchange columns will be eluted with nitric acid nominally at 0.5 molar, and the resulting eluate solution will be concentrated in a forced-convection evaporator to reduce the storage volume and to recover the acid for reuse. The reboiler pot is initially charged with a concentrated nitric acid solution and kept under a controlled vacuum during feeding so the pot contents would boil at 50 degrees Celsius. The liquid level in the pot is maintained constant by controlling both the feed and boilup rates. The feeding will continue with no bottom removal until the solution in the pot reaches the target endpoint of 80 per cent saturation with respect to any one of the major salt species present.

  4. Infrared generation and wave-mixing studies in cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, W.; Stockdale, J.A.D.; Dodhy, A.; Compton, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    A Nd-YAG pumped dye laser and heat pipe has been used to investigate stimulated infrared production, wave mixing, and ionization in cesium vapor near the one-photon resonant 7P/sub 1/2,3/2/ fine structure states.

  5. Cesium-137 accumulation in higher plants before and after Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Sawidis, T.; Drossos, E.; Papastefanou, C. ); Heinrick, G. )

    1990-01-01

    Cesium-137 concentrations in plant species of three biotypes of northern Greece, differing in location as well as in vegetation, are reported following the Chernobyl reactor accident. The cesium uptake by plants was due to the foliar deposition rather than the root uptake. The highest level of cesium in plants was found in Ranunculus sardous, a pubescent plant. The {sup 137}Cs concentration was about 22kBq kg{sup {minus}1}d.w. A high level of cesium was also found in Salix alba ({sup 137}Cs: 19.6 kBq kg{sup {minus}1} d.w.), a deciduous tree showing that hairy leaves or leaves having rough and large surfaces can absorb greater amounts of radioactivity (surface effect). A comparison is also made between the results of measurements of the present study and the results of measurements of some herbarium plants collected one year before the accident as well as the results of measurements of some new plants grown and collected one year after the accident resulting in a natural removal rate of {sup 137}Cs in plants varying from 14 to 130 days.

  6. Discovery of cesium, lanthanum, praseodymium and promethium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    May, E.; Thoennessen, M.

    2012-09-15

    Currently, forty-one cesium, thirty-five lanthanum, thirty-two praseodymium, and thirty-one promethium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  7. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Philippe, Charles; Pham, Tuan Minh; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, Ouali; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions’ spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches). PMID:28067834

  8. Iodine frequency references for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Döringshoff, Klaus; Oswald, Markus; Johann, Ulrich; Peters, Achim; Braxmaier, Claus

    2017-05-01

    Optical frequency references are a key element for the realization of future space missions. They are needed for missions related to tests of fundamental physics, gravitational wave detection, Earth observation and navigation and ranging. In missions such as GRACE follow-on or LISA the optical frequency reference is used as light source for high-sensitivity inter-satellite distance metrology. While cavity-based systems are current baseline e.g. for LISA, frequency stabilization on a hyperfine transition in molecular iodine near 532 nm is a promising alternative. Due to its absolute frequency, iodine standards crucially simplify the initial spacecraft acquisition procedures. Current setups fulfill the GRACE-FO and LISA frequency stability requirements and are realized near Engineering Model level. We present the current status of our developments on Elegant Breadboard (EBB) and Engineering Model (EM) level taking into account specific design criteria for space compatibility such as compactness (size iodine spectroscopy EM: 38 × 18 × 10 cm3) and robustness. Both setups achieved similar frequency stabilities of ˜ 1 · 10-14 at an integration time of 1 s and below 5 · 10-15 at integration times between 10 s and 1000 s. Furthermore, we present an even more compact design currently developed for a sounding rocket mission with launch in 2017.

  9. Iodine chemistry in the water column of the Chesapeake Bay: Evidence for organic iodine forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, George W.; Ferdelman, Timothy; Culberson, Charles H.; Kostka, Joel; Wu, Jingfeng

    1991-03-01

    During the summer of 1987, we collected and analysed Chesapeake Bay water samples for the inorganic iodine species: iodide (by cathodic-stripping squarewave voltammetry) and iodate (by differential pulse polarography); and total iodine (by hypochlorite oxidation of the seawater sample to iodate). The difference between the sum of the inorganic iodine species and the total iodine was significant for about one-third of the samples collected from the Bay. Thus, in these samples, a third (or more) 'new' form(s) of iodine was present. These samples were primarily from oxygen-saturated surface waters of high biological activity (primary productivity and bacterial processes). This 'new' form can make up as much as 70% of the total iodine. Waters containing low oxygen concentrations showed less of this 'new' form of iodine whereas anoxic and sulphidic bottom waters contained only iodide. This 'new' form of iodine is organic in nature and probably non-volatile. It may reside in the peptide and humic fractions. Only reduced iodine (iodide and organic iodine) was detected in waters from the northern section of the Bay, whereas only iodide and iodate were detected in the southern section of the Bay. In only two samples were iodide, iodate and the 'new' form of iodine found to coexist. Iodide and organic iodine are probably cycled in the surface waters of the northern section of the Bay via a combination of biogeochemical and photochemical processes which produce the reactive intermediates, molecular iodine and hypoiodous acid. These react quickly with reduced inorganic and organic compounds to maintain the reduced forms of iodine in the water column. Only total iodine is conservative throughout the estuary. The inorganic iodine forms can be used as geochemical tracers.

  10. Determining median urinary iodine concentration that indicates adequate iodine intake at population level.

    PubMed Central

    Delange, François; de Benoist, Bruno; Burgi, Hans

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Urinary iodine concentration is the prime indicator of nutritional iodine status and is used to evaluate population-based iodine supplementation. In 1994, WHO, UNICEF and ICCIDD recommended median urinary iodine concentrations for populations of 100- 200 micro g/l, assuming the 100 micro g/l threshold would limit concentrations <50 micro g/l to iodine in iodine-replete populations (schoolchildren and adults) and the proportion of concentrations <50 micro g/l. METHOD: A questionnaire on frequency distribution of urinary iodine in iodine-replete populations was circulated to 29 scientific groups. FINDINGS: Nineteen groups reported data from 48 populations with median urinary iodine concentrations >100 micro g/l. The total population was 55 892, including 35 661 (64%) schoolchildren. Median urinary iodine concentrations were 111-540 (median 201) micro g/l for all populations, 100-199 micro g/l in 23 (48%) populations and >/=200 micro g/l in 25 (52%). The frequencies of values <50 micro g/l were 0-20.8 (mean 4.8%) overall and 7.2% and 2.5% in populations with medians of 100-199 micro g/l and >200 micro g/l, respectively. The frequency reached 20% only in two places where iodine had been supplemented for <2 years. CONCLUSION: The frequency of urinary iodine concentrations <50 micro g/l in populations with median urinary iodine concentrations >/=100 micro g/l has been overestimated. The threshold of 100 micro g/l does not need to be increased. In populations, median urinary iodine concentrations of 100-200 micro g/l indicate adequate iodine intake and optimal iodine nutrition. PMID:12219154

  11. INACTIVATION OF PEPSIN BY IODINE AND THE ISOLATION OF DIIODO-TYROSINE FROM IODINATED PEPSIN

    PubMed Central

    Herriott, Roger M.

    1937-01-01

    In the presence of iodine at pH 5.0–6.0 a solution of pepsin absorbs iodine and the specific proteolytic activity of the solution decreases. The activity is less than 1 per cent of the original activity when the number of iodine atoms per mol of pepsin is 35–40. If the pH is 4.5 or less, iodine reacts very slowly and there is a correspondingly slower loss in activity. Glycyl tyrosine reacts with iodine in a manner similar to pepsin. Experiments were performed to determine the extent to which oxidation of pepsin by iodine occurs during iodination, and if such oxidation were responsible for the loss in enzymatic activity. Although the results were not absolutely decisive, there seems to be no appreciable oxidation taking place during iodination and no relationship between the slight oxidation and loss in peptic activity. From a dialyzed preparation of completely iodinated pepsin which was inactive and contained 13.4 per cent bound iodine, 82 per cent of the iodine was obtained in a solution which analyzed as a solution of diiodo-tyrosine. Because of the presence of a material which contained no iodine and prevented quantitative crystallization, only 53 per cent of the iodine containing substance could be crystallized. This 53 per cent was, however, identified as diiodo-tyrosine. The part of the titration curve which in pepsin and most proteins represents the phenolic group of tyrosine was, in the curve for iodinated pepsin, shifted toward the acid region as expected. From these results, it appears that the loss in proteolytic activity of pepsin, when treated with iodine under the specified conditions, is due to the reaction of the iodine with the tyrosine in pepsin. PMID:19872995

  12. Quantitative determination of cesium binding to ferric hexacyanoferrate: Prussian blue.

    PubMed

    Faustino, Patrick J; Yang, Yongsheng; Progar, Joseph J; Brownell, Charles R; Sadrieh, Nakissa; May, Joan C; Leutzinger, Eldon; Place, David A; Duffy, Eric P; Houn, Florence; Loewke, Sally A; Mecozzi, Vincent J; Ellison, Christopher D; Khan, Mansoor A; Hussain, Ajaz S; Lyon, Robbe C

    2008-05-12

    Ferric hexacyanoferrate (Fe4III[FeII(CN)6]3), also known as insoluble Prussian blue (PB) is the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of the drug product, Radiogardase. Radiogardase is the first FDA approved medical countermeasure for the treatment of internal contamination with radioactive cesium (Cs) or thallium in the event of a major radiological incident such as a "dirty bomb". A number of pre-clinical and clinical studies have evaluated the use of PB as an investigational decorporation agent to enhance the excretion of metal cations. There are few sources of published in vitro data that detail the binding capacity of cesium to insoluble PB under various chemical and physical conditions. The study objective was to determine the in vitro binding capacity of PB APIs and drug products by evaluating certain chemical and physical factors such as medium pH, particle size, and storage conditions (temperature). In vitro experimental conditions ranged from pH 1 to 9, to cover the range of pH levels that PB may encounter in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in humans. Measurements of cesium binding were made between 1 and 24h, to cover gastric and intestinal tract residence time using a validated atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) method. The results indicated that pH, exposure time, storage temperature (affecting moisture content) and particle size play significant roles in the cesium binding to both the PB API and the drug product. The lowest cesium binding was observed at gastric pH of 1 and 2, whereas the highest cesium binding was observed at physiological pH of 7.5. It was observed that dry storage conditions resulted in a loss of moisture from PB, which had a significant negative effect on the PB cesium binding capacity at time intervals consistent with gastric residence. Differences were also observed in the binding capacity of PB with different particle sizes. Significant batch to batch differences were also observed in the binding capacity of some PB API and

  13. Cesium-induced QT-interval prolongation in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Catherine E; Harik, Nada; James, Laura P; Seib, Paul M; Stowe, Cindy D

    2008-08-01

    Alternative medicine is becoming increasingly popular, especially with terminally ill patients. Most alternative remedies have not been adequately studied or proven effective for the diseases for which they are promoted. In the worst cases, these therapies are harmful. We describe a 16-year-old girl with metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma who experienced cesium-induced QT-interval prolongation after the start of a cesium chloride-based alternative treatment regimen. She had received seven courses of chemotherapy, with a cumulative doxorubicin dose of 500 mg/m(2) over 5 months, resulting in minimal tumor regression. Against the advice of her oncologist, she abandoned traditional therapy and started an alternative regimen that included cesium chloride supplements. Two weeks later, the patient went to a local emergency department after experiencing two brief syncopal episodes. An electrocardiogram revealed occasional premature ventricular contractions, a QTc interval of 683 msec (normal range for females 450-460 msec), and R on T phenomenon. She was admitted to the hospital and later experienced monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which resolved spontaneously. Lidocaine therapy was started, and the patient was transferred to a cardiac intensive care unit at our hospital. Her plasma cesium level was 2400 microg/dl (normal < 1 microg/dl), and her family was told to stop her alternative treatment regimen. On hospital day 5, as no additional arrhythmias had occurred, lidocaine was discontinued. Two days later, the patient's QTc interval had decreased to 546 msec, and she was discharged home. Two months later, at a follow-up visit, her serum cesium level was 1800 microg/dl, and her QTc interval was 494 msec. According to the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale, cesium was the probable cause of the patient's arrhythmia. In animal models, cesium chloride has induced cardiac arrhythmias, including torsade de pointes. It inhibits delayed rectifier potassium

  14. Salivary gland dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesenfeld, D.; Webster, G.; Cameron, F.; Ferguson, M.M.; MacFadyen, E.E.; MacFarlane, T.W.

    1983-02-01

    Radioactive iodine is used extensively for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine is actively taken up by the salivary glands and, following its use, salivary dysfunction may result as a consequence of radiation damage. The literature is reviewed and a case is reported in which a patient presented with a significant increase in caries rate attributed to salivary dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy for a thyroid carcinoma.

  15. [Iodine intake in Portuguese school children].

    PubMed

    Limbert, Edward; Prazeres, Susana; São Pedro, Márcia; Madureira, Deolinda; Miranda, Ana; Ribeiro, Manuel; Carrilho, Francisco; Jácome de Castro, J; Lopes, Maria Santana; Cardoso, João; Carvalho, Andre; Oliveira, Maria João; Reguengo, Henrique; Borges, Fátima

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate iodine intake in portuguese school children in order to inform health authorities of eventual measures to be implemented. Iodine is the key element for thyroid hormone synthesis and its deficiency even mild, as found in other European countries, may have deleterious effects in pregnancy resulting in cognitive problems of offsprings. In Portugal there are no recent data on iodine intake in schoolchildren. 3680 children aged 6-12 years of both sexes, from 78 different schools were studied. Iodine intake was evaluated trough urine iodine (UI) determinations using a colorimetic method. The global median UI value was 105.5 µg/L; the percentage of children with UI <100 µg/L was 47.1%, corresponding to 41% of the studied schools. The percentage of values <50 µg/L was 11.8%. The male gender, the south region of the country and the distribution of milk in school were significantly linked with a higher iodine elimination. Our global results point to a borderline/ mildly insufficient iodine intake in the portuguese school population. However 47% of the children had UI under 100 µg /L. The comparison of our results with the available data from 30 years ago, point to a considerable improvement, due to silent prophylaxis. Male gender, geographical area and milk distribution influenced positively iodine intake.The importance of milk has been referred in numerous papers. The study of UI in the Portuguese school population points to a borderline iodine intake. However, in 47% of children iodine intake was inadequate. Compared with data from the eighties, a considerable increase in iodine elimination was found. Taking into account the potencial deleterious effects of inadequate iodine intake, a global prophylaxis with salt iodization has to be considered.

  16. Disposal of radioactive iodine in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.; Defield, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of space disposal of iodine waste from nuclear power reactors is investigated. The space transportation system utilized relies upon the space shuttle, a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen orbit transfer vehicle, and a solid propellant final stage. The iodine is assumed to be in the form of either an iodide or an iodate, and calculations assume that the final destination is either solar orbit or solar system escape. It is concluded that space disposal of iodine is feasible.

  17. Laser Induced Fluorescence of the Iodine Ion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Fluorescence of the Iodine Ion 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER William A. Hargus, Jr. 5e. TASK NUMBER...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Briefing Charts presented at Gaseous Electronics Conference; Raleigh, NC; 5 November 2014. PA#14517 14. ABSTRACT Iodine (I2) has been...discussed seriously as a propellant for Hall effect and other electrostatic thrusters as early as 2000. Atomic iodine has a mass of 126.9 amu, but as

  18. Reactions of aqueous chlorine and chlorine dioxide with model food compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Fukayama, M Y; Tan, H; Wheeler, W B; Wei, C I

    1986-01-01

    Chlorine and chlorine dioxide (ClO2), common disinfecting and bleaching chemicals used in the food industry, are potent oxidizing and chlorinating agents. Unfortunately, little is known about the nature of the reactions of chlorine with organic food constituents. This presentation reviews published information concerning the reactions of chlorine gas (Cl2[g]), aqueous chlorine, and ClO2 with model food compounds, the fate of chlorine during the chlorination of specific food products, and the potential toxicity of the reaction products. Fatty acids and their methyl esters react with chlorine with the degree of incorporation corresponding to their degree of unsaturation. Aqueous chlorine oxidizes and chlorinates lipids and amino acids much more readily than ClO2. Several amino acids are highly susceptible to oxidation and chlorination by chlorine compounds. Reactions of chlorine and ClO2 with several food products, including flour and shrimp, have also been characterized. In one model system, 99% of Cl2(g) either reacted with components of flour or was consumed by oxidation/chlorination reactions. The lipids extracted from the chlorinated flour contained significant amounts of chlorine. Exposure of shrimp to hypochlorous acid (HOCl) solution resulted in significant incorporation of chlorine into the edible portion. Although significant quantities of chlorine can be incorporated into specific model compounds and food products, the health risks associated with exposure to chlorinated organic products are unknown. Preliminary studies using the Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay indicate that the reaction products from mixtures of aqueous chlorine and various lipids or tryptophan are nonmutagenic. Nevertheless, additional studies are warranted, so that the toxicological significance of these reaction products can be understood more fully. PMID:3545804

  19. Chlorinous flavor perception in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Piriou, P; Mackey, E D; Suffet, I H; Bruchet, A

    2004-01-01

    Chlorinous flavors at the tap are the leading cause of customers' complaints and dissatisfaction with drinking water. To characterize consumer perception and acceptance to chlorinous tastes, extensive taste testing was performed with both trained panelists and average consumers. Taste testing with trained panelists showed that chlorine perception is underestimated by disinfectant flavor thresholds reported in the literature. However, trained panelists significantly overestimate the average consumer's ability to perceive chlorine. In addition, consumer perception seems to be influenced by the chlorination practices of the country they live in. Among water quality characteristics that may influence chlorine perception, temperature was not found to induce any significant change. The influence of total dissolved solids (TDS) on chlorine perception remains unclear and, as reported elsewhere, background tastes such as musty, may significantly impact chlorine threshold.

  20. Chlorine chemistry relevant to urban air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Zhang, D.; Lei, W.

    2002-05-01

    Reactive chlorine is present in the atmosphere as a consequence of direct emissions and multiphase chemical processes, i.e., from oceanic and terrestrial biogenic emissions, sea-salt production and de-chlorination, biomass burning, and anthropogenic emissions. Recent studies have indicated the importance of anthropogenic sources of chlorine molecules and the related ozone formation in the urban atmosphere. Chlorine radicals react efficiently with atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hence the presence of chlorine radicals significantly enhances the ozone production rate in the urban environments. The talk presents laboratory and theoretical studies of Cl-initiated reactions of VOCs. Implications of related chlorine chemistry and the use of chlorine markers to obtain the atmospheric concentrations of reactive chlorine will be discussed.

  1. 40 CFR 704.43 - Chlorinated naphthalenes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... weight of chlorine. (2) Import means to import in bulk form or as part of a mixture. (3) Isomeric ratio... the chlorine atom(s) on the naphthalene. (4) Polychlorinated biphenyl means any chemical...

  2. THE ROLE OF CHLORINE IN DIOXIN FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is poor correlation between total chlorine in waste streams and formation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) during waste combustion. This is because the active chlorine (Cl) species are strongly dependent upon combustion conditions. ...

  3. THE ROLE OF CHLORINE IN DIOXIN FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is poor correlation between total chlorine in waste streams and formation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) during waste combustion. This is because the active chlorine (Cl) species are strongly dependent upon combustion conditions. ...

  4. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-02-06

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chlorinated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method are disclosed. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis. 5 figs.

  5. [Relevance of an iodine allergy to commercial polyvidone-iodine preparations].

    PubMed

    Kunze, J; Kaiser, H J; Petres, J

    1983-02-15

    Patch testing with Iodine/potassium-iodide (3%) and commercialized povidone (PVP)-iodine preparations (Betaisodona-ointment and solution, Polyvidon-Jod-ointment "Braun", Braunol-solution "Braun", Traumasept-ointment, and Traumasept solution--not marketed--, were carried out in 104 patients of the Department of Dermatology of the Municipal Hospital Kassel. In addition, the according ointment and solution-bases were tested. 22 tests were patients with ulcera crurum, 82 patients with infectious skin diseases or skin tumors. 35 out of the 104 patients showed positive reactions to iodine/potassium-iodide. Hyperreactivity to one or more PVP-iodine-ointments was found in 12 patients, to one or more PVP-iodine solutions in 29 patients. If there was no positive reaction to iodine/potassium-iodide, PVP-iodine ointments were always tolerated, while PVP-iodine-solutions produced positive reactions in 9 cases even then. Our results show that allergic skin reactions must be expected in 2-9% of all patients using PVP-iodine ointments, and in 12-20% of all patients using PVP-iodine-solutions. If iodine-allergy is known the rate of positive reactions to PVP-iodine ointments is 6-25% to the solutions 34-60%.

  6. Chalcogenide aerogels as sorbents for radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Subrahmanyam, Kota S.; Sarma, Debajit; Malliakas, Christos; Polychronopoulou, Kyriaki; Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2015-04-14

    Iodine (129I) is one of the radionuclides released in nuclear fuel reprocessing and poses risk to public safety due to its involvement in human metabolic processes. In order to prevent the leaching of hazardous radioactive iodine into the environment, its effective capture and sequestration is pivotal. In the context of finding a suitable matrix for capturing radioactive iodine the chalcogels, NiMoS4, CoMoS4, Sb4Sn4S12, Zn2Sn2S6, and CoSx (x = 4-5) were explored as iodine sorbents. All the chalcogels showed high uptake, reaching up to 225 mass% (2.25 g/g) of the final mass owing to strong chemical and physical iodine-chalcogen interactions. Analysis of the iodine-loaded specimens revealed that the iodine chemically reacted with Sb4Sn4S12, Zn2Sn2S6, and CoSx to form metal complexes SbI3, SnI4, and, KI respectively. The NiMoS4 and CoMoS4 chalcogels did not appear to undergo a chemical reaction with iodine since iodide complexes were not observed with these samples. Once heated, the iodine-loaded chalcogels released iodine in the temperature range of 75 °C to 220 °C, depending on the nature of iodine speciation. In the case of Sb4Sn4S12 and Zn2Sn2S6 iodine release was observed around 150 °C in the form of SnI4 and SbI3, respectively. The NiMoS4, CoMoS4, and CoSx released iodine at ~75 °C, which is consistent with physisorbed iodine. Preliminary investigations on consolidation of iodine-loaded Zn2Sn2S6 with Sb2S3 as a glass forming additive showed the content of iodine in consolidated glass ingots at around 25 mass%.

  7. Automated iodine monitor system. [for aqueous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of a direct spectrophotometric measurement of iodine in water was established. An iodine colorimeter, was built to demonstrate the practicality of this technique. The specificity of this method was verified when applied to an on-line system where a reference solution cannot be used, and a preliminary design is presented for an automated iodine measuring and controlling system meeting the desired specifications. An Automated iodine monitor/controller system based on this preliminary design was built, tested, and delivered to the Johnson Space Center.

  8. Injection of iodine to the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Baidar, Sunil; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Koening, Theodore; Fernandez, Rafael P.; Dix, Barbara; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Campos, Teresa L.; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    There are still many uncertainties about the influence of iodine chemistry in the stratosphere, as the real amount of reactive iodine injected to this layer the troposphere and the partitioning of iodine species are still unknown. In this work we report a new estimation of the injection of iodine into the stratosphere based on novel daytime (SZA < 45°) aircraft observations in the tropical tropopause layer (TORERO campaign) and a 3D global chemistry-climate model (CAM-Chem) with the most recent knowledge about iodine photochemistry. The results indicate that significant levels of total reactive iodine (0.25-0.7 pptv), between 2 and 5 times larger than the accepted upper limits, could be injected into the stratosphere via tropical convective outflow. At these iodine levels, modelled iodine catalytic cycles account for up to 30% of the contemporary ozone loss in the tropical lower stratosphere and can exert a stratospheric ozone depletion potential equivalent or even larger than that of very short-lived bromocarbons. Therefore, we suggest that iodine sources and chemistry need to be considered in assessments of the historical and future evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer.

  9. Colorectal cancers and chlorinated water.

    PubMed

    El-Tawil, Ahmed Mahmoud

    2016-04-15

    Published reports have revealed increased risk of colorectal cancers in people exposed to chlorinated drinking water or chemical derivatives of chlorination. Oestrogen plays a dual positive functions for diminishing the possibilities of such risk by reducing the entrance, and increasing the excretion, of these chemicals. In addition, there are supplementary measures that could be employed in order to reduce this risk further, such as boiling the drinking water, revising the standard concentrations of calcium, magnesium and iron in the public drinking water and prescribing oestrogen in susceptible individuals. Hypo-methylation of genomic DNA could be used as a biological marker for screening for the potential development of colorectal cancers.

  10. Colorectal cancers and chlorinated water

    PubMed Central

    El-Tawil, Ahmed Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Published reports have revealed increased risk of colorectal cancers in people exposed to chlorinated drinking water or chemical derivatives of chlorination. Oestrogen plays a dual positive functions for diminishing the possibilities of such risk by reducing the entrance, and increasing the excretion, of these chemicals. In addition, there are supplementary measures that could be employed in order to reduce this risk further, such as boiling the drinking water, revising the standard concentrations of calcium, magnesium and iron in the public drinking water and prescribing oestrogen in susceptible individuals. Hypo-methylation of genomic DNA could be used as a biological marker for screening for the potential development of colorectal cancers. PMID:27096035

  11. The chlorine solar neutrino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowley, J. K.; Cleveland, B. T.; Davis, R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The present consideration of the fourteen years' (1970-1984) results from the Homestake Gold Mine chlorine solar neutrino experiment gives attention to background processes generating Ar-37, as well as the constancy of the Ar-37 production rate. The counter background rates derived from a maximum likelihood treatment are noted to have been variable. The results of the chlorine experiment are clearly different from those of Monte Carlo simulations, with a production rate 3-4 times higher. Solar cycle variations and solar flare effects are also discussed.

  12. Radiolytic dechlorination of chlorinated organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghipour, Fariborz; Evans, Greg J.

    1997-02-01

    The radiolytic dechlorination of 12 low molecular weight chlorinated organic compounds present in pulp mill effluent was investigated. For most of these chloro-organic compounds more than 90% dechlorination was obtained for gamma doses up to 20 kGy. Parameters such as the number of chlorine atoms and aqueous solution concentration were found to affect the dechlorination rate. A reaction set was also created to model the behavior of irradiated 0.49-49 mol m -3 chloroform solutions, giving good agreement with experimental results.

  13. STABLE CHLORINE ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF CHLORINATED ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biogeochemical cycling of chlorinated organic contaminants in the environment is often difficult to understand because of the complex distributions of these compounds and variability of sources. To address these issues from an isotopic perspective, we have measured the, 37Cl...

  14. 49 CFR 179.102-2 - Chlorine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chlorine. 179.102-2 Section 179.102-2... Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102-2 Chlorine. (a) Each tank car used to transport chlorine must comply with all of the following: (1) Tanks must be fabricated from carbon...

  15. 49 CFR 179.102-2 - Chlorine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chlorine. 179.102-2 Section 179.102-2... Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102-2 Chlorine. (a) Each tank car used to transport chlorine must comply with all of the following: (1) Tanks must...

  16. 21 CFR 173.300 - Chlorine dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chlorine dioxide. 173.300 Section 173.300 Food and... FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.300 Chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide (CAS Reg. No. 10049-04-4) may be safely used in food in accordance with...

  17. 49 CFR 179.102-2 - Chlorine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chlorine. 179.102-2 Section 179.102-2... Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102-2 Chlorine. (a) Each tank car used to transport chlorine must comply with all of the following: (1) Tanks must be fabricated from carbon...

  18. 49 CFR 179.102-2 - Chlorine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chlorine. 179.102-2 Section 179.102-2... Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102-2 Chlorine. (a) Each tank car used to transport chlorine must comply with all of the following: (1) Tanks must be fabricated from carbon...

  19. 49 CFR 179.102-2 - Chlorine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chlorine. 179.102-2 Section 179.102-2... Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102-2 Chlorine. (a) Each tank car used to transport chlorine must comply with all of the following: (1) Tanks must be fabricated from carbon...

  20. 40 CFR 704.45 - Chlorinated terphenyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... No. 61788-33-6, comprised of chlorinated ortho-, meta-, and paraterphenyl. (2) Extent of chlorination means the percent by weight of chlorine for each isomer (ortho, meta, and para). (3) Isomeric ratio means the ratios of ortho-, meta-, and parachlorinated terphenyls. (4) Polychlorinated biphenyl means...