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Sample records for chloris gayana kunth

  1. Salinity induced anatomical and morphological changes in Chloris gayana Kunth roots.

    PubMed

    Céccoli, Gabriel; Ramos, Julio C; Ortega, Leandro I; Acosta, Juan M; Perreta, Mariel G

    2011-04-01

    Chloris gayana Kunth is a grass species valuable as forage which was introduced into Argentina to be used as pasture in saline soils of subtropical and warm-temperate zones, given its good adaptability to drought, salinity and mild freezing. However, its tolerance varies according to the cultivar. In tetraploid cultivars, important reductions in yield have been observed. Here, a study of the variations produced on the root and stem system by salinity at different NaCl concentrations (0, 150 and 250 mM) was performed in the Boma cultivar, with the aim of determining the anatomical and morphological alterations produced by the salt excess. Plants cultivated with the highest level of salinity showed, in the whole, significant differences in the measured variables. A diminution in absolute values of the variables and a major reduction in vascular tissue dimensions were observed, which suggests that the lack of tolerance to salt stress could be related to a deficient adaptation to absorb and transport water and nutrients from the roots. PMID:21667667

  2. Effects of fluoride emissions on two tropical grasses: Chloris gayana and Panicum maximum cv. Colonião.

    PubMed

    Divan Junior, Armando Molina; Oliva, Marco Antonio; Martinez, Carlos Alberto; Cambraia, José

    2007-06-01

    In order to detect early effects of plant contamination by fluoride emission on two tropical grasses, Chloris gayana and Panicum maximum, previously cultivated under greenhouse conditions, were exposed to a single source of fluoride emission at a station at 1.1 km from an aluminum smelter in Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil. Controls were placed at a reference station 78km from the fluoride source. During an 8-day period of exposure leaf injury, ionic permeability, photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a fluorescence and chlorophyll, soluble carbohydrates and fluoride contents were evaluated. Plants at the Ouro Preto station showed an increase in fluoride content, leaf injury and ionic permeability. Symptoms of injury by fluoride exposure were visible after 3-4 days in both species. High electrolyte leakage and correlation coefficients between the total ionic permeability and the fluoride content in leaves indicate a fluoride effect on the structural and/or functional integrity of the cellular membranes. Leaf fluoride injuries were quite different in the two species. In C. gayana necroses were limited to the leaf tips, while in P. maximum damages were observed in the whole leaf, suggesting a higher susceptibility of this latter species to fluoride. Nonetheless, neither grass showed statistical differences with respect to photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a fluorescence and chlorophyll content in leaves without any apparent fluoride injury. Plants at the Ouro Preto station showed a significant decrease in reducing sugar content between 3 and 5 days of exposure to fluoride, but thereafter reducing sugar content increased reaching the content of control plants. Fluoride exposed plants also showed a remarkable starch content reduction, remaining always much lower than those at the reference station.

  3. Effects of different forms of white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, growth performance and carcass characteristics of Washera sheep fed Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Gebru; Tegegne, Firew; Mekuriaw, Yeshambel; Melaku, Solomon; Tsunekawa, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    Protein is the major limiting nutrient in feeding ruminants especially in dryland areas. Thus, looking for locally available protein sources such as white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain is commendable. The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of supplementation of different forms of white lupin grain (WLG) on feed and nutrient intake, digestibility, growth and carcass characteristics. Twenty-five yearling male Washera sheep with initial body weight (BW) of 16.26 ± 1.41 kg (mean ± SD) were used. Animals were blocked into five based on their initial BW and were randomly assigned to one of the following five dietary treatments: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay (RGH) alone (T1) or supplemented with 300 g (on dry matter (DM) basis) raw WLG (T2) or raw soaked and dehulled WLG (T3) or roasted WLG (T4) or raw soaked WLG (T5). Supplementation with WLG significantly improved total DM and nutrient intake (P < 0.001), nutrient digestibility (P < 0.01), and average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) (P < 0.001). Carcass quality parameters were significantly (P < 0.001) higher for supplemented sheep. However, the difference in carcass quality parameters among supplemented groups was not significant (P > 0.05). It is concluded that roasting white lupin grain can lead to a better feed and nutrient intake and consequently better carcass quality. White lupin grain can be recommended not only for maintenance but also for optimum performance of ruminants.

  4. Papillomavirus infection in greenfinches (Carduelis chloris).

    PubMed

    Sironi, G; Gallazzi, D

    1992-08-01

    The present report describes transmissible papillomatous digital lesions observed in two greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) living in a private aviary. The disease appeared in the male bird and successively in the female but did not affect other passerine and psittacine species living with the sick birds. Negative contrast electron microscopy revealed the presence of 52.6 nm virus particles similar to papillomavirus. Immunoelectronmicroscopy confirmed the presence of Papillomavirus genus specific structural antigens in the virus observed.

  5. New sesquiterpene lactones from Ambrosia cumanensis Kunth.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Usuga, Nora Del Socorro; Malafronte, Nicola; Cotugno, Roberta; De Leo, Marinella; Osorio, Edison; De Tommasi, Nunziatina

    2016-09-01

    Eleven sesquiterpene lactones, including three new natural products (1-3), were isolated from the n-butanolic extract of Ambrosia cumanensis Kunth. aerial parts. The structure of all isolated compounds was elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR, and MS analyses. All compounds were tested for their antiproliferative activity on HeLa, Jurkat, and U937 cell lines. Compound 3, 2,3-dehydropsilostachyn C, showed cytotoxic activity with different potency in all cell lines. By means of flow cytometric studies, compound 3 was demonstrated to induce in Jurkat cells a G2/M cell cycle block, while in U937 elicited both cytostatic and cytotoxic responses. PMID:27491754

  6. Potential Distribution of the Australian Native Chloris truncata Based on Modelling Both the Successful and Failed Global Introductions

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Pippa J.; Yeoh, Paul B.; Scott, John K.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to model the current and future potential global distribution of Chloris truncata (windmill grass) based on the plant's biology, soil requirements and colonisation success. The growth response of C. truncata to constant temperatures and soil moisture levels were measured and estimated respectively, to develop parameters for a CLIMEX bioclimatic model of potential distribution. The native distribution in eastern Australia and naturalised distribution in Western Australia was also used to inform the model. Associations with soil types were assessed within the suitable bioclimatic region in Australia. The global projection of the model was tested against the distribution of soil types and the known successful and failed global introductions. The verified model was then projected to future conditions due to climate change. Optimal temperature for plant development was 28°C and the plant required 970 degree-days above a threshold of 10°C. Early collection records indicate that the species is native to Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. The plant has been introduced elsewhere in Australia and throughout the world as a wool contaminant and as a potential pasture species, but some of the recorded establishments have failed to persist. The CLIMEX model projected to the world reflected effectively both the successful and failed distributions. The inclusion of soil associations improved the explanation of the observed distribution in Australia, but did not improve the ability to determine the potential distribution elsewhere, due to lack of similarity of soil types between continents. The addition of a climate change projection showed decreased suitability for this species in Australia, but increased suitability for other parts of the world, including regions where the plant previously failed to establish. PMID:22848733

  7. Potential distribution of the Australian native Chloris truncata based on modelling both the successful and failed global introductions.

    PubMed

    Michael, Pippa J; Yeoh, Paul B; Scott, John K

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to model the current and future potential global distribution of Chloris truncata (windmill grass) based on the plant's biology, soil requirements and colonisation success. The growth response of C. truncata to constant temperatures and soil moisture levels were measured and estimated respectively, to develop parameters for a CLIMEX bioclimatic model of potential distribution. The native distribution in eastern Australia and naturalised distribution in Western Australia was also used to inform the model. Associations with soil types were assessed within the suitable bioclimatic region in Australia. The global projection of the model was tested against the distribution of soil types and the known successful and failed global introductions. The verified model was then projected to future conditions due to climate change. Optimal temperature for plant development was 28°C and the plant required 970 degree-days above a threshold of 10°C. Early collection records indicate that the species is native to Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. The plant has been introduced elsewhere in Australia and throughout the world as a wool contaminant and as a potential pasture species, but some of the recorded establishments have failed to persist. The CLIMEX model projected to the world reflected effectively both the successful and failed distributions. The inclusion of soil associations improved the explanation of the observed distribution in Australia, but did not improve the ability to determine the potential distribution elsewhere, due to lack of similarity of soil types between continents. The addition of a climate change projection showed decreased suitability for this species in Australia, but increased suitability for other parts of the world, including regions where the plant previously failed to establish.

  8. HPLC determination of caffeine and theophylline in Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Cola spp. samples.

    PubMed

    Belliardo, F; Martelli, A; Valle, M G

    1985-05-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid-chromatographic method for the determination of caffeine and theophylline in commercial guarana samples (drug obtained from the seeds of Paulinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae of the Amazon Region) and in Cola spp. samples is described and discussed. The methodology developed is simple and rapid with a minimum of samples preparation required. A comparison of five different techniques for the extraction of caffeine and theophylline is discussed. Furthermore the quantitative determination of caffeine and theophylline in five samples of Brasilian guarana, in two samples of dietetic products containing guarana, in two samples of Cola extract and in three of Cola seed powder are reported.

  9. Identification and elimination of bacterial contamination during in vitro propagation of Guadua angustifolia Kunth

    PubMed Central

    Nadha, Harleen Kaur; Salwan, Richa; Kasana, Ramesh Chand; Anand, Manju; Sood, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Background: Guadua angustifolia Kunth is a very important bamboo species with significant utility in pharmaceutical, paper, charcoal, and construction industries. Microbial contamination is a major problem encountered during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. Objective: This study has been designed to analyze the identity of contaminating bacteria and to develop the strategy to eliminate them during micropropagation of Guadua. Materials and Methods: We isolated and consequently analyzed partial sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene to identify two contaminating bacteria as (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis. In addition, we also- performed antibiotic sensitivity testing on these bacterial isolates. Results: We identified kanamycin and streptomycin sulfate as potentially useful antibiotics in eliminating the contaminating bacteria. We grew shoots on multiplication medium containing BAP (2 mg/l) and adenine sulfate (10 mg/l) supplemented with kanamycin (10 μg/ml) for 10 days and transferred them to fresh medium without antibiotics and found that bacterial growth was inhibited. Moreover, we observed intensive formation of high-quality shoots. Streptomycin sulfate also inhibited bacterial growth but at higher concentration. We also demonstrated that shoots grown in streptomycin sulfate tended to be shorter and had yellow leaves. Conclusion: Thus, we have developed a novel strategy to identify and inhibit intriguing microbial contaminations of (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. This would improve in vitro establishment of an important bamboo, Guadua angustifolia Kunth for large scale propagation. PMID:22701279

  10. Chemical studies on curuba (Passiflora mollissima (Kunth) L. H. Bailey) fruit flavour.

    PubMed

    Conde-Martínez, Natalia; Sinuco, Diana Cristina; Osorio, Coralia

    2014-08-15

    The odour-active volatiles of curuba fruit (Passiflora mollissima (Kunth) L. H. Bailey) were isolated by solvent assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE). GC-O and GC-MS analyses identified linalool, hexyl acetate, 1,8-cineole, and butyl acetate as key aroma compounds of this fruit. Other odorants relevant because of their contribution to the overall aroma were: 2-methylpropyl acetate, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate. Sulphur compounds, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate and methional, were reported here for first time as odour-active volatiles in curuba. By HPLC-ESI-MS analyses of glycosidic mixtures and GC-MS analyses of volatiles released enzymatically with a glucosidase, (Z)-3-hexenyl β-D-glucopyranoside and linalyl β-D-glucopyranoside were identified as aroma precursors in P. mollissima fruit. Thermal treatment of the glycosidic mixture at native pH of fruit gave furanoid cis- and trans-linalool oxides, as well as, α-terpineol, compounds that exhibit flowery odour notes. Biogenic relationships among odour-active volatiles and their glycosidic precursors were also proposed. PMID:24679791

  11. Cytotoxic mechanism of Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth essential oil and its major compound nerolidol.

    PubMed

    Sperotto, A R M; Moura, D J; Péres, V F; Damasceno, F C; Caramão, E B; Henriques, J A P; Saffi, J

    2013-07-01

    Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth is used in popular medicine as anti-inflamatory and against liver disorders. One of the most studied components of the plant is the essential oil for which chemical analysis revealed (E)-nerolidol as major compound. Recently, we have shown that P. gaudichaudianum essential oil possesses strong cytotoxic effects in mammalian V79 cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of P. gaudichaudianum essential oil and nerolidol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model study. Treatment of the XV185-14c and N123 strains with essential oil and nerolidol led to cytotoxicity but did not induce mutagenicity. Our results revealed an important role of base excision repair (BER) as the ntg1, ntg2, apn1 and apn2 mutants showed pronounced sensitivity to essential oil and nerolidol. In the absence of superoxide dismutase (in sod1Δ mutant strain) sensitivity to the essential oil and nerolidol increased indicating that this oil and nerolidol are generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS production was confirmed by DCF-DA probing assay in Sod-deficient strains. From this, we conclude that the observed cytotoxicity to P. gaudichaudianum essential oil and nerolidol is mainly related to ROS and DNA single strand breaks generated by the presence of oxidative lesions.

  12. Cytotoxic mechanism of Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth essential oil and its major compound nerolidol.

    PubMed

    Sperotto, A R M; Moura, D J; Péres, V F; Damasceno, F C; Caramão, E B; Henriques, J A P; Saffi, J

    2013-07-01

    Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth is used in popular medicine as anti-inflamatory and against liver disorders. One of the most studied components of the plant is the essential oil for which chemical analysis revealed (E)-nerolidol as major compound. Recently, we have shown that P. gaudichaudianum essential oil possesses strong cytotoxic effects in mammalian V79 cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of P. gaudichaudianum essential oil and nerolidol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model study. Treatment of the XV185-14c and N123 strains with essential oil and nerolidol led to cytotoxicity but did not induce mutagenicity. Our results revealed an important role of base excision repair (BER) as the ntg1, ntg2, apn1 and apn2 mutants showed pronounced sensitivity to essential oil and nerolidol. In the absence of superoxide dismutase (in sod1Δ mutant strain) sensitivity to the essential oil and nerolidol increased indicating that this oil and nerolidol are generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS production was confirmed by DCF-DA probing assay in Sod-deficient strains. From this, we conclude that the observed cytotoxicity to P. gaudichaudianum essential oil and nerolidol is mainly related to ROS and DNA single strand breaks generated by the presence of oxidative lesions. PMID:23523831

  13. Phytochemicals from Tradescantia albiflora Kunth Extracts Reduce Serum Uric Acid Levels in Oxonate-induced Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Dar; Chuang, Ya-Ling; Tseng, Han-Chun; Hwang, Tzann-Shun; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tradescantia albiflora (TA) Kunth (Commelinaceae) has been used for treating gout and hyperuricemia as folklore remedies in Taiwan. Therefore, it is worthwhile to study the effect of TA extracts on lowering uric acid activity. The hypouricemic effects of TA extracts on potassium oxonate (PO)-induced acute hyperuricemia were investigated for the first time. Materials and Methods: All treatments at the same volume (1 ml) were orally administered to the abdominal cavity of PO-induced hyperuricemic rats. One milliliter of TA extract in n-hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (BuOH), and water fractions has 0.28, 0.21, 0.28, and 1.03 mg TA, respectively; and the plasma uric acid (PUA) level was measured for a consecutive 4 h after administration. Results: All four fractions' extracts derived from TA were observed to significantly reduce PUA compared with the PO group. The EA-soluble fraction (TA-EA) exhibited the best xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity. Following column chromatography, 12 phytochemicals were isolated and identified from the EA fraction. The IC50 values of isolated phytochemicals indicated that bracteanolide A (AR11) showed the remarkable XO inhibitory effect (IC50 value of 76.4 μg/ml). These findings showed that the in vivo hypouricemic effect in hyperuricemic rats was consistent with in vitro XO inhibitory activity, indicating that TA extracts and derived phytochemicals could be potential candidates as hypouricemic agents. SUMMARY Tradescantia albiflora extracts possess in vivo hypouricemic action in hyperuricemic ratsT. albiflora extracts exhibited strong inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase (XO)Butenolide may play an important role in XO inhibitionThe extract bracteanolide A was demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. Abbreviations used: TA: Tradescantia albiflora, PO: potassium oxonate, HE: n-hexane, EA: ethyl acetate, BuOH: n-butanol, PUA: plasma uric acid, XO: xanthine oxidase, MeOH: methanol, IP

  14. Optimization of the bamboo guadua angustifolia kunth in the elaboration of glued laminated elements for constructive use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, G. A.; Cruz, R. A.; Chávez, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Bamboo is considered one of the best timber resources in the world because for its mechanical properties and high sustainability; this research aims to improve the mechanical properties of the laminated glued bamboo Guadua Angustifolia Kunth (GAK) for use as structural elements, starting from de very manufacture process; this is important because it is possible to observe variations in the flexural strength and the elastic modulus in GAK samples taken from different heights and thickness of the culm. In order to analyze the influence of these final mechanical properties variations in the laminated, the height of the culm where samples are extracted (cepa, basa and sobrebasa) it is taken as a variable from where different types of laminated were manufactured, seeking to make optimal the configuration based in the transversal section area and the material strength. Three assemblies were designed varying the overlap of the adhesion lines and it concluded that the highest strength average values were obtained in the laminated composites manufactured with samples taken from the bottom of the culm (basa), which is possible because in these elements there are less adhesion lines than the other ones (middle, top and mixed) or the better matching of themselves.

  15. LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PERESKIA BLEO (KUNTH) DC. (CACTACEAE) FRUIT ENDOCARP CRUDE AND FRACTIONATED EXTRACTS AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    PubMed

    Thongwat, Damrongpan; Ganranoo, Lucksagoon; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn

    2014-11-01

    The use of insecticides can cause adverse effects in vector control, a plant bio-insecticide is an advantageous substitute. Currently, the promising mosquito larvicidal activity from plant extracts has been reported worldwide, including Thailand. In this study, the endocarp of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. fruit was extracted with distilled water and ethanol. Crudes and fractionated groups of the extracts were evaluated for their larvicidal efficacy against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. At 48 hours of exposure, it was found that the activities of the extracts were higher than 24-hour's. The ethanolic extracts showed stronger activities than the aqueous ones, indicating the lower LC50 values of both crude and fractionated group extracts. The most toxic activity was found in a fractionated group of the ethanolic extract, E-Gr3, with significantly lowest LC50 values of 707.94 and 223.12 ppm for 24- and 48-hour detection times, respectively. The bioassay results indicated the larvicidal property against the Ae. aegypti mosquito of the P. bleo plant extracts. A safety for non-target organisms or an action on other mosquito vectors of this plant, should be further investigated. PMID:26466415

  16. LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PERESKIA BLEO (KUNTH) DC. (CACTACEAE) FRUIT ENDOCARP CRUDE AND FRACTIONATED EXTRACTS AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    PubMed

    Thongwat, Damrongpan; Ganranoo, Lucksagoon; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn

    2014-11-01

    The use of insecticides can cause adverse effects in vector control, a plant bio-insecticide is an advantageous substitute. Currently, the promising mosquito larvicidal activity from plant extracts has been reported worldwide, including Thailand. In this study, the endocarp of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. fruit was extracted with distilled water and ethanol. Crudes and fractionated groups of the extracts were evaluated for their larvicidal efficacy against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. At 48 hours of exposure, it was found that the activities of the extracts were higher than 24-hour's. The ethanolic extracts showed stronger activities than the aqueous ones, indicating the lower LC50 values of both crude and fractionated group extracts. The most toxic activity was found in a fractionated group of the ethanolic extract, E-Gr3, with significantly lowest LC50 values of 707.94 and 223.12 ppm for 24- and 48-hour detection times, respectively. The bioassay results indicated the larvicidal property against the Ae. aegypti mosquito of the P. bleo plant extracts. A safety for non-target organisms or an action on other mosquito vectors of this plant, should be further investigated.

  17. Central Antinociceptive and Mechanism of Action of Pereskia bleo Kunth Leaves Crude Extract, Fractions, and Isolated Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Guilhon, Carolina Carvalho; Abdul Wahab, Ikarastika Rahayu; Boylan, Fabio; Fernandes, Patricia Dias

    2015-01-01

    Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. (Cactaceae) is a plant commonly used in popular medicine in Malaysia. In this work, we evaluate the antinociceptive effect of P. bleo leaf extracts and isolated compounds in central antinociceptive model. Ethanol extract (E), hexane (H), ethyl acetate (EA), or butanol (B) fractions (30, 50, or 100 mg/kg, p.o.), sitosterol (from hexane) and vitexin (from ethyl acetate), were administered to mice. Antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate and capsaicin- or glutamate-induced licking models. Morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as reference drug. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p.), atropine (1 mg/kg, i.p.), and L-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 3 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered 30 min earlier (100 mg/kg, p.o.) in order to evaluate the mechanism of the antinociceptive action. Higher dose of B developed an effect significantly superior to morphine-treated group. Naloxone prevented the antinociceptive effect of all fractions. L-NAME demonstrated effect against E, EA, and B. In all fractions, sitosterol and vitexin reduced the licking time after capsaicin injection. Glutamate-induced licking response was blocked by H, EA, and B. Our results indicate that Pereskia bleo fractions, sitosterol and vitexin, possessed a central antinociceptive effect. Part of this effect is mediated by opioid receptors and nitrergic pathway. PMID:26273315

  18. Chemical characterization and antioxidant activity of Amazonian (Ecuador) Caryodendron orinocense Karst. and Bactris gasipaes Kunth seed oils.

    PubMed

    Radice, Matteo; Viafara, Derwin; Neill, David; Asanza, Mercedes; Sacchetti, Gianni; Guerrini, Alessandra; Maietti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, data concerning the composition of Caryodendron orinocense Karst. (Euphorbiaceae) and Bactris gasipaes Kunth (Arecaceae) seed oils are lacking. In light of this fact, in this paper fatty acids and unsaponifiable fraction composition have been determined using GC-MS, HPLC-DAD (Diode Array Detector), NMR approaches and possible future applications have been preliminary investigated through estimation of antioxidant activity, performed with DPPH test. For C. orinocense linoleic acid (85.59%) was the main component, lauric (33.29%) and myristic (27.76%) acids were instead the most abundant in B. gasipaes. C. orinocense unsaponifiable fraction (8.06%) evidenced a remarkable content of β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, squalene and vitamin E (816 ppm). B. gasipaes revealed instead β-sitosterol and squalene as main constituents of unsaponifiable matter (3.01%). Antioxidant capacity evidenced the best performance of C. orinocense seed oil. These preliminary results could be interesting to suggest the improvement of the population's incomes from Amazonian basin. In particular the knowledge of chemical composition of C. orinocense and B. gasipaes oils could be helpful to divulge and valorize these autochthones plants.

  19. Determination and evaluation of the metals and metalloids in the Chapeu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth) Micheli).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Uenderson Araujo; dos Santos, Ivanice Ferreira; dos Santos, Ana Maria Pinto; dos Santos, Debora Correia; da Costa, Grenivel Mota

    2013-09-01

    The Chapeu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth) Micheli) is a native plant from Brazil, which has been mainly used in medicinal application being a potent antirheumatic and diuretic, in the production of soft drinks, and also in the ornamentation of aquariums. In this paper, the metals and metalloids for the leaves of chapeu-de-couro collected in the Paraguacu River from the city Cachoeira, Bahia State, Brazil, was determined and evaluated using multivariate analysis. The samples were digested using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of a certified reference material of apple leaves, furnished by National Institute of Standard and Technology. The study involved 15 samples of the Paraguacu River. The results expressed as milligrams of element per kilogram of sample demonstrated that the concentration ranges varied: 1.39-5.27 for chromium, 44.85-165.39 for manganese, 0.55-0.84 for arsenic, 0.01-3.94 for antimony, and 0.18-0.31 for lead. The principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis evidenced that the concentrations of the metals and metalloids varied according with the variations in the water of the Paraguacu. PMID:23852813

  20. Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb Vaught from the Venezuelan Andes.

    PubMed

    Mora, Flor D; Araque, María; Rojas, Luis B; Ramirez, Rosslyn; Silva, Bladimiro; Usubillaga, Alfredo

    2009-07-01

    Chemical constituents of the essential oil from the leaves of Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb Vaught var. mollis collected in January 2008 at Tuñame, Trujillo State, Venezuela, were separated and identified by GC-MS analysis. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and thirteen components (98.5% of the sample) were identified by comparison with the Wiley GC-MS library data base. The two major components were pulegone (55.2%) and trans-menthone (31.5%). The essential oil showed a significant inhibitory effect against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, especially Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi (4 microg/mL).

  1. Kinetics of moisture loss and oil uptake during deep fat frying of Gethi (Dioscorea kamoonensis Kunth) strips.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, S S; Ravi, N; Negi, P S; Raju, P S; Bawa, A S

    2014-11-01

    Investigation was carried out to study kinetics of moisture loss, oil uptake and tristimulus colour during deep fat frying of Gethi (Dioscorea kamoonensis kunth) strips. Deep fat frying of Gethi strips of size 6 × 6 × 40 mm was carried out in a laboratory scale fryer at different temperatures ranging from 120 to 180 °C. The investigation showed that the moisture loss and oil uptake followed the first order kinetics equation (r > 0.95, p < 0.05). The kinetic coefficients for moisture loss and oil uptake increased significantly (p < 0.05) with temperature from 0.166 to 0.889 min(-1) and 0.139 to 0.430 min(-1) respectively. The temperature dependency of rate constants for moisture loss and oil uptake values was described using Arrhenius equation (r > 0.99, p < 0.01). The activation energies for moisture loss and oil uptake were found to be 41.53 KJ/mol and 27.12 KJ/mol respectively. The hunter colour parameters were significantly affected by frying temperature and frying time. The hunter lightness (L) value increased with respect to frying time initially, followed by decline and same trend was observed at higher temperatures of frying with elevated rate, whereas hunter redness (a) value increased significantly (p < 0.01) with time as well as temperature of frying and obeyed zero order rate equation. The temperature dependency kinetic coefficients of Hunter (a) value were described by Arrhenius equation and the energy of activation for change in hunter redness was found to be 42.41 KJ/mol (r > 0.99, p < 0.01). The other hunter colour parameters such as chroma, hue angle and total colour difference were markedly affected by frying temperature as well as frying time.

  2. Guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth) effects on LDL oxidation in elderly people: an in vitro and in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous experimental investigations have suggested that guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, supplied by EMBRAPA Oriental) consumption is associated with a lower prevalence of cardiovascular metabolic diseases and has positive effects on lipid metabolism, mainly related to low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. As LDL oxidation is an important initial event in the development of atherosclerosis, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies to observe the potential effects of guaraná on LDL and serum oxidation. Methods The in vivo protocol was performed using blood samples from 42 healthy elderly subjects who habitually ingested guaraná (GI) or never ingested guaraná (NG). The formation of conjugated dienes (CDs) was analyzed from serum samples. The in vitro protocols were performed using LDL obtained from 3 healthy, non-fasted, normolipidemic voluntary donors who did not habitually ingest guaraná in their diets. The LDL samples were exposed to 5 different guaraná concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 μg/mL). Results GI subjects demonstrated lower LDL oxidation than did NG subjects (reduction of 27%, p < 0.0014), independent of other variables. In the GI group the total polyphenols was positively associated with LDL levels. Also, guaraná demonstrated a high antioxidant activity in vitro, mainly at concentrations of 1 and 5 μg/mL, demonstrated by suppression of CDs and TBARS productions, tryptophan destruction and high TRAP activity. Conclusions Guaraná, similar to other foods rich in caffeine and catechins such as green tea, has some effect on LDL oxidation that could partially explain the protective effects of this food in cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:23391102

  3. Color, phenolics, and antioxidant activity of blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.), blueberry (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth.), and apple wines from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Jacqueline; Marín-Arroyo, María-Remedios; Noriega-Domínguez, María-José; Navarro, Montserrat; Arozarena, Iñigo

    2013-07-01

    Seventy wines were produced in Ecuador under different processing conditions with local fruits: Andean blackberries (Rubus glaucus Benth.) and blueberries (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth.) and Golden Reinette apples. Wines were evaluated for antioxidant activity (AA) using the radical scavenging capacity (DPPH) method, total phenolic content (TPC) using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, total monomeric anthocyanins (TMAs) using the pH differential test, and color parameters using VIS-spectrophotometry. For blackberry wines, ellagitannins and anthocyanins were also analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD). Apples wines (n = 40) had the lowest TPC (608 ± 86 mg/L) and AA (2.1 ± 0.3 mM Trolox). Blueberry wines (n = 12) had high TPC (1086 ± 194 mg/L) and moderate AA (5.4 ± 0.8 mM) but very low TMA (8 ± 3 mg/L), with a color evolved toward yellow and blue shades. Blackberry wines (n = 10) had the highest TPC (1265 ± 91 mg/L) and AA (12 ± 1 mM). Ellagitannins were the major phenolics (1172 ± 115 mg/L) and correlated well with AA (r = 0.88). Within anthocyanins (TMA 73 ± 16 mg/L), cyanidin-3-rutinoside (62%) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (15%) were predominant. Wines obtained by cofermentation of apples and blackberries (n = 8) showed intermediate characteristics (TPC 999 ± 83 mg/L, AA 6.2 ± 0.7 mM, TMA 35 ± 22 mg/L) between the blackberry and blueberry wines. The results suggest that the Andean berries, particularly R. glaucus, are suitable raw materials to produce wines with an in vitro antioxidant capacity that is comparable to red grape wines.

  4. Molecular characterization of the endophytic fungal community associated with Eichhornia azurea (Kunth) and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) (Pontederiaceae) native to the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, T T; Orlandelli, R C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2015-05-11

    Endophytic fungi live in the interior of healthy plants without causing them any damage. These fungi are of biotechnological interest; they may be used in the biological control of pests and plant diseases, and in the pharmaceutical industry. The aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia azurea (Kunth) and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) belong to the Pontederiaceae family. The first is a fixed-floating species and the second is a free-floating species that is known for its phytoremediation potential. The fungal endophytes associated with the leaves of E. azurea and E. crassipes, native to the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil, were isolated. The sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of ribosomal DNA was performed and the nucleotide sequences obtained were compared with those available in the GenBank database for the molecular identification of the isolates. The construction of phylogenetic trees was performed using the MEGA5 software. The results showed that high colonization frequencies were obtained from the 610 foliar fragments sampled from each plant: 87.86% for E. azurea and 88.85% for E. crassipes. At the genus level, it was possible to identify 19 fungal endophytes belonging to the genera Alternaria, Bipolaris, Cercospora, Diaporthe, Gibberella, Pestalotiopsis, Plectosphaerella, Phoma, and Saccharicola. Two other endophytes were identified at the species level (Microsphaeropsis arundinis). Genera Bipolaris, Cercospora, Microsphaeropsis, and Phoma were found as endophytes in the two macrophytes and the other genera were host-specific, being isolated from only one macrophyte, proving that there is a small difference in the endophytic diversity of the two Eichhornia species analyzed.

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Choisya ternata Kunth Essential Oil, Ternanthranin, and Its Two Synthetic Analogs (Methyl and Propyl N-Methylanthranilates)

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Miltojević, Ana B.; Radulović, Niko S.; Abdul-Wahab, Ikarastika Rahayu; Boylan, Fabio; Fernandes, Patrícia Dias

    2015-01-01

    Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae) is native to North America where it is popularly known as “Mexican orange”. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of C. ternata, one of its minor components (ternanthranin—ISOAN) and its two synthetic analogues (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilate – MAN and PAN) were evaluated. Mice pretreated with the EO (EO) obtained from C. ternata leaves (3–100 mg/kg, p.o.), ISOAN, MAN or PAN (1–30 mg/kg, p.o.) and the reference drugs, morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o.) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg/kg, p.o.), were evaluated in inflammation models such as formalin and subcutaneous air pouch models, with measurement of cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravasation, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The EO from C. ternata significantly inhibited the time that the animals spent licking the formalin-injected paw in the second phase of the model at their higher doses (30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively). An inhibition of the inflammatory reaction induced after subcutaneous carrageenan injection into air pouch was also observed. In this model, the EO significantly reduced cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravased, and the increase in levels of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β). ISOAN, MAN and PAN behaved in the same fashion at much smaller doses. Also, these molecules were able to show significant effects in the reduction of paw edema (at all tested doses) when the phlogistic agent was carrageenan, bradykinin, 5-HT, PGE2, C48/80 or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA). None of the tested doses had any effect in reducing histamine-induced edema. Our results indicate that the EO from C. ternata and anthranilate derivatives demonstrates an anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:25807367

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of Choisya ternata Kunth essential oil, ternanthranin, and its two synthetic analogs (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilates).

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Miltojević, Ana B; Radulović, Niko S; Abdul-Wahab, Ikarastika Rahayu; Boylan, Fabio; Fernandes, Patrícia Dias

    2015-01-01

    Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae) is native to North America where it is popularly known as "Mexican orange". In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of C. ternata, one of its minor components (ternanthranin-ISOAN) and its two synthetic analogues (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilate--MAN and PAN) were evaluated. Mice pretreated with the EO (EO) obtained from C. ternata leaves (3-100 mg/kg, p.o.), ISOAN, MAN or PAN (1-30 mg/kg, p.o.) and the reference drugs, morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o.) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg/kg, p.o.), were evaluated in inflammation models such as formalin and subcutaneous air pouch models, with measurement of cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravasation, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The EO from C. ternata significantly inhibited the time that the animals spent licking the formalin-injected paw in the second phase of the model at their higher doses (30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively). An inhibition of the inflammatory reaction induced after subcutaneous carrageenan injection into air pouch was also observed. In this model, the EO significantly reduced cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravased, and the increase in levels of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β). ISOAN, MAN and PAN behaved in the same fashion at much smaller doses. Also, these molecules were able to show significant effects in the reduction of paw edema (at all tested doses) when the phlogistic agent was carrageenan, bradykinin, 5-HT, PGE2, C48/80 or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA). None of the tested doses had any effect in reducing histamine-induced edema. Our results indicate that the EO from C. ternata and anthranilate derivatives demonstrates an anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:25807367

  7. Antidermatophytic Activity of Mikania micrantha Kunth: An Invasive Weed

    PubMed Central

    Jyothilakshmi, Madhavankutty; Jyothis, Mathew; Latha, Mukalel Sankunni

    2015-01-01

    Context: The incidence of dermatophytosis has risen dramatically in recent years. Limited availability of side-effect free drugs has led to a search for new antidermatophytic agents. Objective: The objective was to investigate antidermatophytic activity and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity (protease inhibition assay) of whole plant (aerial parts only) of Mikania micrantha. Materials and Methods: The dried and powdered aerial parts of M. micrantha were extracted separately with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antidermatophytic activity was determined by agar tube dilution method against Epidermophyton floccosum var. nigricans, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton rubrum. The activities of various parts of the plant – flowers, leaves and stem were separately analyzed using their ethyl acetate extract. Fungicidal efficacy and trypsin inhibiting activity of the whole plant, flowers and leaves were also analyzed using the ethyl acetate extracts. Statistical Analysis Used: For trypsin inhibition assay results are expressed as mean ± standard division. For antidermatophytic assay, the significance of the difference between control and test was analyzed statistically using Fisher's exact test. Results: Ethyl acetate extract of M. micrantha exhibited excellent antidermatophytic activity, followed by petroleum ether and methanolic extracts. Ethyl acetate extracts of whole plant, flowers, leaves and stem completely inhibited the growth of dermatophytes at the tested concentration of 2 mg/mL. Furthermore, ethyl acetate extracts of whole plant, leaves and flowers were fungicidal, and the percentages of trypsin inhibition exhibited were 33.73 ± 0.306, 39.0 ± 0.505 and 35.53 ± 0.503, respectively. Conclusions: Since M. micrantha possesses antidermatophytic as well as anti-inflammatory activities, the plant is an excellent candidate for the development of new medicaments against dermatophytoses in traditional as well as modern medicine. PMID:26109783

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Composition of Senecio salignus Kunth

    PubMed Central

    Pérez González, Cuauhtemoc; Serrano Vega, Roberto; González-Chávez, Marco; Zavala Sánchez, Miguel Angel; Pérez Gutiérrez, Salud

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Senecio salignus. This medicinal plant is often used in Mexico for the treatment of fever and rheumatism. Chloroform and methanol extracts of the plant were tested on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA-) induced edema in mice ears. The methanol extract of the plant inhibited edema by 36 ± 4.4% compared with the control, while the chloroform extract exhibited an even greater level of inhibition (64.1%). The chloroform extract was then fractionated, and the composition of the active fraction was determined by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of this fraction was then tested on TPA-induced ear edema in mice, and we found that the active fraction could inhibit edema by 46.9%. The anti-inflammatory effect of the fraction was also tested on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats at doses of 100 mg/kg; a 58.9 ± 2.8% reduction of the edema was observed 4 h after administration of carrageenan, and the effect was maintained for 5 h. PMID:23691512

  9. Allozyme variation in spineless Pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isozyme variation was studied in 161 accessions of pineapple including four species of Ananas and one of Pseudananas. Six enzyme systems (ADH, GPI, PGM, SKDH, TPI, UGPP) involving seven putative loci revealed 35 electromorphs . Considerable variation exists within and between species of Ananas. Sixt...

  10. Antifungal activity of Piper diospyrifolium Kunth (Piperaceae) essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Silvia Cristina Heredia; de Paulo, Luis Fernando; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; de Souza, Amanda; Young, Maria Cláudia Marx; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia

    2011-01-01

    In vitro activity of the essential oil from Piper diospyrifolium leaves was tested using disk diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay showed significant potencial antifungal activity: the oil was effective against several clinical fungal strains. The majority compounds in the essential oil were identified as sesquiterpenoids by GC-MS and GC-FID techniques. PMID:24031717

  11. Effect of air temperature and humidity on ingestive behaviour of sheep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranhos da Costa, Mateus J. R.; da Silva, Roberto Gomes; de Souza, Roberto Carlos

    1992-12-01

    Thirty-two Polwarth ewes, of ages up to 1 year, were observed in a climatic chamber (24 to 45° C) for eight periods of 5 h each. The observations were made through a window in the chamber wall. All animals were observed four times, then shorn and observed four times again. The animals were given weighed quantities of water and feed consisting of commercial concentrate plus Rhodes grass ( Chloris gayana) hay. The water and feed remaining after 5 h of observation were weighed. The following traits were analysed: time eating hay (TEH), time eating concentrate (TEC), time drinking water (TDW), weight of hay eaten (WHE), weight of concentrate eaten (WCE), volume of ingested water (VIW), ruminating time standing up (RTS), ruminating time lying down (RTL), idling time standing up (ITS), and idling time lying down (ITL). Shearing had a significant effect for all traits except ITS. Shearing resulted in higher values for all traits except for ITS and ITL. Ingestion of hay (TEH and WHE) decreased with increased air temperature and humidity, while the ingestion of concentrate (TEC) and WHE) and water (TDW and VIW) increased. Rumination decreased with increased air temperature and humidity, and was higher in shorn than in unshorn sheep.

  12. Plant morphological characteristics and resistance to simulated trampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dan; Liddle, Michael J.

    1993-07-01

    The relationship between responses of plants to trampling and their morphological characteristics was studied in a glasshouse experiment. Thirteen species with four different growth forms were used in this experiment. They were five tussock species. Chloris gayana, Eragrostis tenuifolia, Lolium perenne, Panicum maximum, and Sporobolus elongatus; three prostate grasses, Axonopus compressus, Cynodon dactylon, and Trifolium repens, two herbaceous species, Daucus glochidiatus and Hypochoeris radicata; and three woody species, Acacia macradenia, Acrotriche aggregata, and Sida rhombifolia. These species were subjected to three levels of simulated trampling. For each species, measurements were taken of aboveground biomass, root biomass, leaf length, leaf width, leaf thickness, leaf number, broken leaf number and plant height. Overall, these measurements were greatest in the control plants, moderate in the level of light trampling, and the lowest in the level of heavy trampling. Biomass was used as a basis of the assessment of plant resistance to trampling. Three tussock species, Eragrostis tenuifolia, Lolium perenne, and Sporobolus elongatus had a high resistance. Woody and erect herbaceous plants were more intolerant to trampling. There appear to be two processes involved in the reduction of the plant parameters: direct physical damage with portions of the plants detached, and physiological changes, which slow down vegetative growth rates. Plant height was found to be the most sensitive indicator of trampling damage.

  13. Chromosome identification and karyotype analysis of Podophyllum hexandrum Roxb. ex Kunth using FISH.

    PubMed

    Nag, Akshay; Rajkumar, Subramani

    2011-07-01

    Podophyllum hexandrum is an important high altitude medicinal plant from Himalaya. Somatic chromosomes of this species were studied to delineate and physical mapping of repetitive rDNA sites to provide landmarks in chromosome identification. The karyotype formula of this species was found to be 6m + 2sm + 2st + 2t with secondary constriction in the chromosome 1 and 7. The FISH analysis of rDNA sites showed 4 sites for 18S rDNA and 2 sites for 5S rDNA. The chromosome number 1, 2, 5 and 6 can be identified based on 18S rDNA sites in their short arm and chromosome 1 and 2 can be identified by 5S rDNA site in the centromere region. The estimated genome size of this plant is 16.07 pg (1C).

  14. Micropropagation, antinociceptive and antioxidant activities of extracts of Verbena litoralis Kunth (Verbenaceae).

    PubMed

    Braga, Virgínia F; Mendes, Giselle C; Oliveira, Raphael T R; Soares, Carla Q G; Resende, Cristiano F; Pinto, Leandro C; Santana, Reinaldo de; Viccini, Lyderson F; Raposo, Nádia R B; Peixoto, Paulo H P

    2012-03-01

    This work describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for Verbena litoralis and the study of the antinociceptive and antioxidant activities in extracts of this species. For the establishment in vitro, surface-sterilization procedures and PVPP showed high efficiency in fungal-bacterial contamination and phenol oxidation controls. Nodal segments cultivation in MS medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine (7.5 µM)/α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA; 0.005 µM) induced multiple shoots. Elongated shoots were rooted with IAA (0.2 µM). Acclimatization rates were elevated and the plants showed the typical features of this species. The hexanic fraction (HF) of powdered leaves presented a radical scavenging activity with IC(50) = 169.3 µg mL(-1). HF showed a non-dose dependent analgesic activity in the writhing test; its antinociceptive activity in the hot plate test was restricted to 500 mg kg(-1), which is the highest dose. The results of this study showed the potential of tissue culture on conservation and large scale multiplication and confirmed the traditional folk medicine use of V. litoralis.

  15. The effect of the size of particles on mineralization of Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp. & Kunth) Lye.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, I; Cunha-Santino, M B

    2006-05-01

    Assays were carried out to evaluate effects of detritus size on the mineralization of an aquatic macrophyte, the Oxycaryum cubense. Samples of plant and water were collected from an oxbow lake, the Infernão lagoon (21 degrees 35' S and 47 degrees 51' W) located at Mogi Guaçu river floodplain. The plants were taken to the laboratory, washed under tap water, dried (50 degrees C) and fractioned into six groups according to their size, viz. 100, 10, 1.13, 0.78, 0.61 and 0.25 mm. Decomposition chambers were prepared by adding 1.0 g of plant fragments to 4.1 L of water lagoon. In sequence, the incubations were aerated and the concentrations of dissolved oxygen, the pH, the electric conductivity and the temperature were monitored for 120 days. The occurrence of anaerobic processes was avoided by reoxygenating the solutions. The experimental results were fitted to a first order kinetic model and the consumption of dissolved oxygen from mineralization processes was obtained. The physical process of fragmentation of O. cubense detritus is unlikely to promote the consumption of higher quantities of dissolved oxygen in mineralization processes meaning that fragmentation should not interfere in the balance of DO in this aquatic system, however fragmentation processes favored the acidification and increased the liberation of dissolved ions from the Infernão lagoon. PMID:16906296

  16. The effect of particle size on the leaching of Scirpus cubensis Poepp & Kunth.

    PubMed

    Bianchini Júnior, I; Antonio, R M

    2003-05-01

    An investigation was made on the effects of detritus particle size on leaching rates in organic matter, and the associated environmental changes caused by detritus re-cycling in an oxbow lake (Lagoa do Infernão). Experiments were conducted during the decay of an aquatic macrophyte specie, S. cubensis, which in turn led to the formation of colored compounds. The S. cubensis were collected from the Lagoa do Infernão and taken to the laboratory where they were washed, dried, and fractionated using a sieve pedological set. The detritus was classified into six groups according to size, viz. 100, 10, 1.13, 0.78, 0.61, and 0.25 mm. Overall, the fragmentation process tended to increase the detritus fraction to be dissolved and to decrease the leaching rates owing to the possible dissolution of refracting matter. Fragmentation also caused the amount of colored compounds to increase and appeared to favor dissolved electrolyte release. Finally, in Lagoa do Infernão fragmentation is probably mediated by the metabolic action of benthic communities. PMID:14509841

  17. Antimicrobial and seasonal evaluation of the carvacrol-chemotype oil from Lippia origanoides kunth.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, Sandra Layse F; da Silva, Leomara Andrade; de Assunção, Ana Paula F; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Calao, Victor Y P; da Silva, Rodrigo; Stashenko, Elena E; Maia, José Guilherme S; Mourão, Rosa Helena V

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of seasonal variation on the yield and composition of essential oil of Lippia origanoides occurring in the Middle Rio Amazonas, Brazil, and the impact on its antimicrobial potential. The average oil yield was 1.7% ± 0.2% in the rainy season and 1.6% ± 0.3% in the dry season. Some correlations with climatic parameters were observed. The major components were carvacrol (rainy, 43.5% ± 1.9%; dry, 41.4% ± 2.04%), thymol (rainy, 10.7% ± 1.1%; dry, 10.6% ± 0.9%), p-cymene (rainy, 9.8% ± 0.7%; dry, 10.0% ± 1.4%) and p-methoxythymol (rainy, 9.6% ± 0.8%; dry, 10.4% ± 1.4%). It was found that the antibacterial activity of L. origanoides against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was little influenced by the changes in oil composition due to seasonal variation. Against S. aureus, the oil Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value was 1.25 μL/mL over ten months. Against E. coli, the oil MIC values ranged from 0.15 μL/mL to 0.31 μL/mL in different months of the year. The Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) value was 2.5 μL/mL against S. aureus and 1.25 μL/mL against E. coli. The results suggest that the antimicrobial activity identified in the oil remain unchanged for the full year, allowing its medicinal use without any risk of loss or absence of the active principles of the plant. PMID:25625681

  18. Acute toxicity, antiedematogenic activity, and chemical constituents of Palicourea rigida Kunth.

    PubMed

    Alves, Vanessa G; da Rosa, Elisa A; de Arruda, Laura L M; Rocha, Bruno A; Bersani Amado, Ciomar A; Santin, Silvana M O; Pomini, Armando M; da Silva, Cleuza C

    2016-03-01

    The phytochemical study of the leaves, roots, and flowers of Palicourea rigida led to the isolation of the triterpenes betulinic acid (1) and lupeol (2), the diterpene phytol (3), and the iridoid glycosides sweroside (4) and secoxyloganin (5). These compounds were identified using NMR 1H and 13C and comparing the spectra with published data. We studied the antiedematogenic activity of crude extracts from the organs, and of different fractions, in mice and found that the n-hexane fraction of the leaf extract significantly inhibited the ear edema resulting from croton oil administration. The crude extract from leaves was not acutely toxic to the mice. PMID:26927220

  19. Endophytic fungi community associated with the dicotyledonous plant Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. (Caryophyllaceae) in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Luiz Henrique; Almeida Vieira, Mariana de Lourdes; Santiago, Iara Furtado; Rosa, Carlos Augusto

    2010-07-01

    This work describes the distribution and diversity of fungal endophytes associated with leaves of Colobanthus quitensis, a dicotyledonous plant that lives in Antarctica. A total of 188 fungal isolates were obtained from six different sites located across a 25.5-km transect through Admiralty Bay, at King George Island. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear ribosomal gene was sequenced and the endophytic fungi were identified as species belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Cadophora, Davidiella, Entrophospora, Fusarium, Geomyces, Gyoerffyella, Microdochium, Mycocentrospora, and Phaeosphaeria. Davidiella tassiana was the prevalent species with 20.2% abundance. The endophytic fungal community showed low richness and high dominance indexes. Eleven endophytic taxa (58%) were fungi able to produce melanin in their hyphae, which may confer resistance against freezing temperatures and high rates of UV radiation and may increase their fitness in the extreme conditions of the Antarctic environment. In addition, phytopathogenic and decomposer species associated with healthy leaves of C. quitensis were found. The results obtained in this work show that C. quitensis is an interesting reservoir of saprobic and pathogenic fungal species, and could be a community model for further ecological and evolutionary studies, as well as studies of the adaptation mechanisms these microorganisms have to the extreme conditions in Antarctica. PMID:20455944

  20. Micropropagation, antinociceptive and antioxidant activities of extracts of Verbena litoralis Kunth (Verbenaceae).

    PubMed

    Braga, Virgínia F; Mendes, Giselle C; Oliveira, Raphael T R; Soares, Carla Q G; Resende, Cristiano F; Pinto, Leandro C; Santana, Reinaldo de; Viccini, Lyderson F; Raposo, Nádia R B; Peixoto, Paulo H P

    2012-03-01

    This work describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for Verbena litoralis and the study of the antinociceptive and antioxidant activities in extracts of this species. For the establishment in vitro, surface-sterilization procedures and PVPP showed high efficiency in fungal-bacterial contamination and phenol oxidation controls. Nodal segments cultivation in MS medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine (7.5 µM)/α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA; 0.005 µM) induced multiple shoots. Elongated shoots were rooted with IAA (0.2 µM). Acclimatization rates were elevated and the plants showed the typical features of this species. The hexanic fraction (HF) of powdered leaves presented a radical scavenging activity with IC(50) = 169.3 µg mL(-1). HF showed a non-dose dependent analgesic activity in the writhing test; its antinociceptive activity in the hot plate test was restricted to 500 mg kg(-1), which is the highest dose. The results of this study showed the potential of tissue culture on conservation and large scale multiplication and confirmed the traditional folk medicine use of V. litoralis. PMID:22441603

  1. [Microscopic examination of Guaraná powder--Paullinia cupana Kunth].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, A T

    1999-01-01

    Guaraná is a product from the seeds of the Amazonian liana Paullinia cupana that is also cultivated since a couple of years. It is rich in caffeine and serves in Brasil for the production of stimulants, soft drinks, and sweets. In the drug scene it is sometimes trafficked as natural stimulant or drug surrogate. Microscopic examination shows the presence of starch and tannins and provides a simple, quick and cheap method to distinguish guaraná from drugs of abuse.

  2. Photodynamic antimicrobial effects of bis-indole alkaloid indigo from Indigofera truxillensis Kunth (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Andreazza, Nathalia Luiza; de Lourenço, Caroline C; Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Atvars, Teresa Dib Zambon; Salvador, Marcos José

    2015-05-01

    Multidrug-resistant microbial infections represent an exponentially growing problem affecting communities worldwide. Photodynamic therapy is a promising treatment based on the combination of light, oxygen, and a photosensitizer that leads to reactive oxygen species production, such as superoxide (type I mechanism) and singlet oxygen (type II mechanism) that cause massive oxidative damage and consequently the host cell death. Indigofera genus has gained considerable interest due its mutagenic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic activity. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the effect of crude extracts, alkaloidal fraction, and isolated substance derived from Indigofera truxillensis in photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy on the viability of bacteria and yeast and evaluation of mechanisms involved. Our results showed that all samples resulted in microbial photoactivation in subinhibitory concentration, with indigo alkaloid presenting a predominant photodynamic action through type I mechanism. The use of CaCl2 and MgCl2 as cell permeabilizing additives also increased gram-negative bacteria susceptibility to indigo.

  3. The effect of pelleting on the voluntary intake and digestibility of leaf and stem fractions of three grasses.

    PubMed

    Laredo, M A; Minson, D J

    1975-03-01

    1. Leaf is eaten in greater quantities than stem of similar digestibility. To determine whether this difference is caused by physical or chemical factors, leaf and stem fractions from Digitaria decumbens, Chloris gayana and Setaria splendida were fed ad lib, to sheep in the chopped and pelleted forms. Pellets were made from leaf and stem which had been ground through a screen with 3 mm holes. All sheep received a protein and mineral supplement. 2. Voluntary intake of chopped leaf was 34 percent higher than that of the chopped stem fraction (40-3 and 30-0 g/kg body-weight 0-75 respectively, P smaller than 0.01) although dry matter digestibility ratios were similar (0-478 and 0-450 respectively, P greater than 0-05). The higher intake of leaf was associated with a larger surface area (13 400 and 5200 mm2/g for chopped leaf and stem respectively), lower bulk density (60 and 180 kg/m3 respectively) and lower neutral-detergent fibre (706 and 724 g/kg respectively), acid-detergent fibre (383 and 413 g/kg respectively) and lignin (42 and 59 g/kg respectively) contents. Chopped leaf was retained in the reticulo-rumen for a shorter time than the stem fraction (19.9 and 26.4 h respectively). 3. Grinding and pelleting increased the voluntary intake of the leaf fraction by 88 percent and the stem fraction by 60 percent. This increased voluntary intake caused by grinding and pelleting was not accompanied by any significant changes in the chemical composition of the diet. Grinding and pelleting reduced the time that the food was retained in the reticulo-rumen and this change appeared sufficient to account for the observed increases in voluntary intake. 4. It was concluded that the higher intake of the leaf fraction of grasses is caused by differences in retention time of food in the reticulo-rumen. These differences in retention time are caused by differences in physical properties and not chemical composition.

  4. Feed intake and utilization in sheep fed graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf as a supplement to Rhodes grass hay.

    PubMed

    Gebregiorgis, Feleke; Negesse, Tegene; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2012-03-01

    The effects of feeding graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf on intake, body weight gain (BWG), digestibility and nitrogen utilization were studied using male sheep (BW of 13.8 ± 0.12 kg). Six sheep were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay offered ad libitum (T1), hay + 150 g moringa leaf (T2), hay + 300 g moringa leaf (T3), hay + 450 g moringa leaf (T4) were offered daily. A 7-day digestibility trial and an 84-day growth experiments were conducted. Dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) intakes increased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of moringa leaf in the diets. Sheep fed T2, T3 and T4 diets gained (P < 0.05) 40.2, 79.1 and 110.1 g/head/day, respectively, while the control group (T1) lost weight (-13.3 g/head/day). The apparent digestibilities of DM, OM, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre were similar (P > 0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary CP increased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of moringa leaf, but there was no significant difference between T2 and T3 diets. The nitrogen (N) intake and urinary N excretion increased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of moringa leaf. The N retention was highest (P < 0.05) for 450 g moringa leaf supplementation. The control group was in a negative N balance. Supplementing a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay with dried moringa leaves improved DM intake, BWG and N retention. It is concluded that M. stenopetala can serve as a protein supplement to low-quality grass during the dry season under smallholder sheep production system.

  5. A Review of Botanical Characteristics, Traditional Usage, Chemical Components, Pharmacological Activities, and Safety of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC.

    PubMed

    Zareisedehizadeh, Sogand; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Pereskia bleo, a leafy cactus, is a medicinal plant native to West and South America and distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. It is traditionally used as a dietary vegetable, barrier hedge, water purifier, and insect repellant and for maintaining health, detoxification, prevention of cancer, and/or treatment of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, stomach ache, muscle pain, and inflammatory diseases such as dermatitis and rheumatism. The aim of this paper was to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the botanical characteristics, traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and safety of P. bleo. A literature search using MEDLINE (via PubMed), Science direct, Scopus and Google scholar and China Academic Journals Full-Text Database (CNKI) and available eBooks and books in the National University of Singapore libraries in English and Chinese was conducted. The following keywords were used: Pereskia bleo, Pereskia panamensis, Pereskia corrugata, Rhodocacus corrugatus, Rhodocacus bleo, Cactus panamensis, Cactus bleo, Spinach cactus, wax rose, Perescia, and Chinese rose. This review revealed the association between the traditional usage of P. bleo and reported pharmacological properties in the literature. Further investigation on the pharmacological properties and phytoconstituents of P. bleo is warranted to further exploit its potentials as a source of novel therapeutic agents or lead compounds. PMID:24987426

  6. Phytochemical diversity of the essential oils of Mexican Oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) populations along an Edapho-climatic gradient.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Irabién, Luz María; Parra-Tabla, Victor; Acosta-Arriola, Violeta; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; Díaz-Vera, Luciana; Dzib, Gabriel R; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis Manuel

    2014-07-01

    Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) is an important aromatic plant, mainly used as flavoring and usually harvested from non-cultivated populations. Mexican oregano essential oil showed important variation in the essential-oil yield and composition. The composition of the essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from 14 wild populations of L. graveolens growing along an edaphoclimatic gradient was evaluated. Characterization of the oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses allowed the identification of 70 components, which accounted for 89-99% of the total oil composition. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses divided the essential oils into three distinct groups with contrasting oil compositions, viz., two phenolic chemotypes, with either carvacrol (C) or thymol (T) as dominant compounds (contents >75% of the total oil composition), and a non-phenolic chemotype (S) dominated by oxygenated sesquiterpenes. While Chemotype C was associated with semi-arid climate and shallower and rockier soils, Chemotype T was found for plants growing under less arid conditions and in deeper soils. The plants showing Chemotype S were more abundant in subhumid climate. High-oil-yield individuals (>3%) were identified, which additionally presented high percentages of either carvacrol or thymol; these individuals are of interest, as they could be used as parental material for scientific and commercial breeding programs. PMID:25044587

  7. Phytochemical diversity of the essential oils of Mexican Oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) populations along an Edapho-climatic gradient.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Irabién, Luz María; Parra-Tabla, Victor; Acosta-Arriola, Violeta; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; Díaz-Vera, Luciana; Dzib, Gabriel R; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis Manuel

    2014-07-01

    Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) is an important aromatic plant, mainly used as flavoring and usually harvested from non-cultivated populations. Mexican oregano essential oil showed important variation in the essential-oil yield and composition. The composition of the essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from 14 wild populations of L. graveolens growing along an edaphoclimatic gradient was evaluated. Characterization of the oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses allowed the identification of 70 components, which accounted for 89-99% of the total oil composition. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses divided the essential oils into three distinct groups with contrasting oil compositions, viz., two phenolic chemotypes, with either carvacrol (C) or thymol (T) as dominant compounds (contents >75% of the total oil composition), and a non-phenolic chemotype (S) dominated by oxygenated sesquiterpenes. While Chemotype C was associated with semi-arid climate and shallower and rockier soils, Chemotype T was found for plants growing under less arid conditions and in deeper soils. The plants showing Chemotype S were more abundant in subhumid climate. High-oil-yield individuals (>3%) were identified, which additionally presented high percentages of either carvacrol or thymol; these individuals are of interest, as they could be used as parental material for scientific and commercial breeding programs.

  8. Survival and ultrastructural features of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes, Kunth) somatic embryos submitted to cryopreservation through vitrification.

    PubMed

    Heringer, Angelo Schuabb; Steinmacher, Douglas André; Schmidt, Éder Carlos; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Guerra, Miguel Pedro

    2013-10-01

    Bactris gasipaes (Arecaceae), also known as peach palm, was domesticated by Amazonian Indians and is cultivated for its fruit and heart-of-palm, a vegetable grown in the tree's inner core. Currently, the conservation of this species relies on in situ conditions and field gene banks. Complementary conservation strategies, such as those based on in vitro techniques, are indicated in such cases. To establish an appropriate cryopreservation protocol, this study aimed to evaluate the ultrastructural features of B. gasipaes embryogenic cultures submitted to vitrification and subsequent cryogenic temperatures. Accordingly, somatic embryo clusters were submitted to Plant Vitrification Solution 3 (PVS3). In general, cells submitted to PVS3 had viable cell characteristics associated with apparently many mitochondria, prominent nucleus, and preserved cell walls. Cells not incubated in PVS3 did not survive after the cryogenic process in liquid nitrogen. The best incubation time for the vitrification technique was 240 min, resulting in a survival rate of 37 %. In these cases, several features were indicative of quite active cell metabolism, including intact nuclei and preserved cell walls, an apparently many of mitochondria and lipid bodies, and the presence of many starch granules and condensed chromatin. Moreover, ultrastructure analysis revealed that overall cellular structures had been preserved after cryogenic treatment, thus validating the use of vitrification in conjunction with cryopreservation of peach palm elite genotypes, as well as wild genotypes, which carry a rich pool of genes that must be conserved. PMID:23636432

  9. A Review of Botanical Characteristics, Traditional Usage, Chemical Components, Pharmacological Activities, and Safety of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chay-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Pereskia bleo, a leafy cactus, is a medicinal plant native to West and South America and distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. It is traditionally used as a dietary vegetable, barrier hedge, water purifier, and insect repellant and for maintaining health, detoxification, prevention of cancer, and/or treatment of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, stomach ache, muscle pain, and inflammatory diseases such as dermatitis and rheumatism. The aim of this paper was to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the botanical characteristics, traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and safety of P. bleo. A literature search using MEDLINE (via PubMed), Science direct, Scopus and Google scholar and China Academic Journals Full-Text Database (CNKI) and available eBooks and books in the National University of Singapore libraries in English and Chinese was conducted. The following keywords were used: Pereskia bleo, Pereskia panamensis, Pereskia corrugata, Rhodocacus corrugatus, Rhodocacus bleo, Cactus panamensis, Cactus bleo, Spinach cactus, wax rose, Perescia, and Chinese rose. This review revealed the association between the traditional usage of P. bleo and reported pharmacological properties in the literature. Further investigation on the pharmacological properties and phytoconstituents of P. bleo is warranted to further exploit its potentials as a source of novel therapeutic agents or lead compounds. PMID:24987426

  10. A Review of Botanical Characteristics, Traditional Usage, Chemical Components, Pharmacological Activities, and Safety of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC.

    PubMed

    Zareisedehizadeh, Sogand; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Pereskia bleo, a leafy cactus, is a medicinal plant native to West and South America and distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. It is traditionally used as a dietary vegetable, barrier hedge, water purifier, and insect repellant and for maintaining health, detoxification, prevention of cancer, and/or treatment of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, stomach ache, muscle pain, and inflammatory diseases such as dermatitis and rheumatism. The aim of this paper was to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the botanical characteristics, traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and safety of P. bleo. A literature search using MEDLINE (via PubMed), Science direct, Scopus and Google scholar and China Academic Journals Full-Text Database (CNKI) and available eBooks and books in the National University of Singapore libraries in English and Chinese was conducted. The following keywords were used: Pereskia bleo, Pereskia panamensis, Pereskia corrugata, Rhodocacus corrugatus, Rhodocacus bleo, Cactus panamensis, Cactus bleo, Spinach cactus, wax rose, Perescia, and Chinese rose. This review revealed the association between the traditional usage of P. bleo and reported pharmacological properties in the literature. Further investigation on the pharmacological properties and phytoconstituents of P. bleo is warranted to further exploit its potentials as a source of novel therapeutic agents or lead compounds.

  11. Antifungal and phytotoxic activity of essential oil from root of Senecio amplexicaulis Kunth. (Asteraceae) growing wild in high altitude-Himalayan region.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajendra; Ahluwalia, Vivek; Singh, Pratap; Kumar, Naresh; Prakash Sati, Om; Sati, Nitin

    2016-08-01

    This work was aimed to evaluate the essential oil from root of medicinally important plant Senecio amplexicaulis for chemical composition, antifungal and phytotoxic activity. The chemical composition analysed by GC/GC-MS showed the presence of monoterpene hydrocarbons in high percentage with marker compounds as α-phellandrene (48.57%), o-cymene (16.80%) and β-ocimene (7.61%). The essential oil exhibited significant antifungal activity against five phytopathogenic fungi, Sclerotium rolfsii, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium debaryanum and Fusarium oxysporum. The oil demonstrated remarkable phytotoxic activity in tested concentration and significant reduction in seed germination percentage of Phalaris minor and Triticum aestivum at higher concentrations. The roots essential oil showed high yield for one of its marker compound (α-phellandrene) which makes it important natural source of this compound.

  12. THE CONSUMPTION OF RED PUPUNHA (BACTRIS GASIPAES KUNTH) INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND REDUCES WEIGHT GAIN OF LACTATING AND POST-LACTATING WISTAR RATS

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, R. Piccolotto; Lemos, J.R. Gonzaga; de Aquino Sales, R. Souza; Martins, M. Gassen; Nascimento, C.H.; Bayona, M.; Marcon, J.L.; Monteiro, J. Barros

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The lactating and post-lactating periods are marked by large metabolic change. Production of milk is 60% lipid dependent. We reported in a recent scientific meeting that Red pupunha palm tree fruit increases HDL cholesterol in lactating rats. This study evaluated if consumption of Red Pupunha by adult female rats has a beneficial impact on the lipid metabolism of lacting and post-lacting adult rats. Objective Evaluate if consumption of red pupunha has a beneficial effect in the lipid metabolism of lacting and post-lacting adult Wistar rats. Research Methods Four groups including two for control; (1) control adult lactating rats, (2) control adults post-lactating rats; and two experimental groups; (3) pupunha adults lactating rats and (4) pupunha adult post-lactating rats were evaluated and compared regarding: weight gain, food consumption, plasma total protein, glucose, total lipid, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean difference and its 95% confidence intervals were used for group comparisons. Group comparisons were evaluated by using analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA). The statistical significance of the pairwise differences among groups was assessed by using the two-sided Tukey test. Results There were no important differences in food consumption, plasma glucose, total lipids and triglycerides among groups. The red pupunha lactating group gain less weight showing lower body mass index (BMI) than controls (p < 0.05). Total cholesterol was lower in red pupunha lactating than in controls but not in the red pupunha post-lactating group as compared to controls. Triglycerides were lower in the post-lactating red pupunha group as compared to the control group (p = 0.039) but not for the lactating groups. Red pupunha lactating and post-lactating groups had higher HDL-cholesterol than their corresponding control groups (p ≤ 0.01). Conclusion Original findings include the beneficial effect of red pupunha in post-lactating rats increasing the HDL-cholesterol and lowering the BMI. Red pupunha was confirmed to increase HDL-cholesterol in lactating rats. These results suggest that red pupunha is a healthy fruit to be consumed during lactating and post-lactating periods as it is related to better lipid profile and less body weight gain. PMID:25580386

  13. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth and relationships with abiotic factors in marginal lentic ecosystems (São Paulo, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Silva, C V; Henry, R

    2013-02-01

    Marginal lakes are characterised by their having high biological diversity due to the presence of aquatic macrophytes in their coastal zones, providing habitats for refuge and food for animal community members. Among the fauna components associated with macrophytes, aquatic macroinvertebrates are important because they are an energy source for predators and fish. In six lakes and two different seasons (March and August 2009), the ecological attributes of aquatic macroinvertebrate community associated with Eichhornia azurea were compared and the controlling environmental factors were identified. Since the attributes of macroinvertebrate community are strictly associated with abiotic variables of each distinct habitat, our hypothesis was that each site associated with the same floating aquatic macrophyte (E. azurea) should have a typical composition and density of organisms. We identified 50 taxa of macroinvertebrates, with greater taxa richness for aquatic insects (37 taxa) divided into eight orders; the order Diptera being the most abundant in the two study periods. On the other hand, higher values of total taxa richness were recorded in August. Dissolved oxygen and pH presented the greatest number of significant positive correlations with the different taxa. The animals most frequently collected in the six lakes in March and August 2009 were Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Hydrachnidae, Conchostraca, Ostracoda, Noteridae, Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Caenidae, Pleidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae, Coenagrionidae and Nematoda. Only densities of Trichoptera, Ostracoda and Conchostraca presented the highest significant differences between lakes in both study periods and considering the composition of macroinvertebrates no significant differences were registered for macroinvertebrate composition. PMID:23644797

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Changes in Antioxidant Properties of Leaf and Stem Extracts from Vitex mollis Kunth during In Vitro Digestion.

    PubMed

    Morales-Del-Rio, Juan Alfredo; Gutiérrez-Lomelí, Melesio; Robles-García, Miguel Angel; Aguilar, Jose Antonio; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia; Guerrero-Medina, Pedro Javier; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco J; Wong-Corral, Francisco J; Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette

    2015-01-01

    Vitex mollis is used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of some ailments. However, there are no studies on what happens to the anti-inflammatory activity or antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of leaves and stem extracts of Vitex mollis during the digestion process; hence, this is the aim of this work. Methanolic, acetonic, and hexanic extracts were obtained from both parts of the plant. Extract yields and anti-inflammatory activity (elastase inhibition) were measured. Additionally, changes in antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS) and total phenols content of plant extracts before and after in vitro digestion were determined. The highest elastase inhibition to prevent inflammation was presented by hexanic extracts (leaf = 94.63% and stem = 98.30%). On the other hand, the major extract yield (16.14%), antioxidant properties (ABTS = 98.51% and DPPH = 94.47% of inhibition), and total phenols (33.70 mg GAE/g of dried sample) were showed by leaf methanolic extract. Finally, leaf and stem methanolic extracts presented an antioxidant activity increase of 35.25% and 27.22%, respectively, in comparison to their initial values after in vitro digestion process. All samples showed a decrease in total phenols at the end of the digestion. These results could be the basis to search for new therapeutic agents from Vitex mollis.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Changes in Antioxidant Properties of Leaf and Stem Extracts from Vitex mollis Kunth during In Vitro Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Del-Rio, Juan Alfredo; Gutiérrez-Lomelí, Melesio; Robles-García, Miguel Angel; Aguilar, Jose Antonio; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia; Guerrero-Medina, Pedro Javier; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco J.; Wong-Corral, Francisco J.; Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette

    2015-01-01

    Vitex mollis is used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of some ailments. However, there are no studies on what happens to the anti-inflammatory activity or antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of leaves and stem extracts of Vitex mollis during the digestion process; hence, this is the aim of this work. Methanolic, acetonic, and hexanic extracts were obtained from both parts of the plant. Extract yields and anti-inflammatory activity (elastase inhibition) were measured. Additionally, changes in antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS) and total phenols content of plant extracts before and after in vitro digestion were determined. The highest elastase inhibition to prevent inflammation was presented by hexanic extracts (leaf = 94.63% and stem = 98.30%). On the other hand, the major extract yield (16.14%), antioxidant properties (ABTS = 98.51% and DPPH = 94.47% of inhibition), and total phenols (33.70 mg GAE/g of dried sample) were showed by leaf methanolic extract. Finally, leaf and stem methanolic extracts presented an antioxidant activity increase of 35.25% and 27.22%, respectively, in comparison to their initial values after in vitro digestion process. All samples showed a decrease in total phenols at the end of the digestion. These results could be the basis to search for new therapeutic agents from Vitex mollis. PMID:26451153

  16. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth and relationships with abiotic factors in marginal lentic ecosystems (São Paulo, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Silva, C V; Henry, R

    2013-02-01

    Marginal lakes are characterised by their having high biological diversity due to the presence of aquatic macrophytes in their coastal zones, providing habitats for refuge and food for animal community members. Among the fauna components associated with macrophytes, aquatic macroinvertebrates are important because they are an energy source for predators and fish. In six lakes and two different seasons (March and August 2009), the ecological attributes of aquatic macroinvertebrate community associated with Eichhornia azurea were compared and the controlling environmental factors were identified. Since the attributes of macroinvertebrate community are strictly associated with abiotic variables of each distinct habitat, our hypothesis was that each site associated with the same floating aquatic macrophyte (E. azurea) should have a typical composition and density of organisms. We identified 50 taxa of macroinvertebrates, with greater taxa richness for aquatic insects (37 taxa) divided into eight orders; the order Diptera being the most abundant in the two study periods. On the other hand, higher values of total taxa richness were recorded in August. Dissolved oxygen and pH presented the greatest number of significant positive correlations with the different taxa. The animals most frequently collected in the six lakes in March and August 2009 were Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Hydrachnidae, Conchostraca, Ostracoda, Noteridae, Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Caenidae, Pleidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae, Coenagrionidae and Nematoda. Only densities of Trichoptera, Ostracoda and Conchostraca presented the highest significant differences between lakes in both study periods and considering the composition of macroinvertebrates no significant differences were registered for macroinvertebrate composition.

  17. Antifungal and phytotoxic activity of essential oil from root of Senecio amplexicaulis Kunth. (Asteraceae) growing wild in high altitude-Himalayan region.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajendra; Ahluwalia, Vivek; Singh, Pratap; Kumar, Naresh; Prakash Sati, Om; Sati, Nitin

    2016-08-01

    This work was aimed to evaluate the essential oil from root of medicinally important plant Senecio amplexicaulis for chemical composition, antifungal and phytotoxic activity. The chemical composition analysed by GC/GC-MS showed the presence of monoterpene hydrocarbons in high percentage with marker compounds as α-phellandrene (48.57%), o-cymene (16.80%) and β-ocimene (7.61%). The essential oil exhibited significant antifungal activity against five phytopathogenic fungi, Sclerotium rolfsii, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium debaryanum and Fusarium oxysporum. The oil demonstrated remarkable phytotoxic activity in tested concentration and significant reduction in seed germination percentage of Phalaris minor and Triticum aestivum at higher concentrations. The roots essential oil showed high yield for one of its marker compound (α-phellandrene) which makes it important natural source of this compound. PMID:27498832

  18. Pro-toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in the traditional Andean herbal medicine "asmachilca"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asmachilca is a Peruvian medicinal herb preparation ostensibly derived from Eupatorium gayanum Wedd. = Aristeguietia gayana (Wedd.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae). Decoctions of the plant have a reported bronchodilation effect that is purported to be useful in the treatment of respir...

  19. A KINETIC STUDY OF THE METHANOLYSIS OF THE SULFONYLUREAS BENSULFURON METHYL AND SULFOMETURON METHYL USING CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The instability of sulfonylureas in solution in methanol has led us to a kinetic study of methanolysis of two sulfonylureas using capillary electrophoresis. In a preliminary experiment solutions of the seven compounds, bensulfuron methyl, sulfometuron methyl, nicosulfuron, chlori...

  20. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytko...

  1. Determination of relative assay response factors for toxic chlorinated and bromiated dioxins/furans using an enyme immunoassay (EIA) and a chemically-activated luciferase gene expression cell bioassay (CALUX)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determination of dioxin-like activity requires knowledge of both the concentration and toxicity to evaluate the risk of adverse human health and environmental effects. The dioxin-like response of several polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDDs/Fs) and polybrominated/chlori...

  2. [The infradian rhythm in changes of thyroxine level and related periodicity of feather replacement during the molting in passerine birds].

    PubMed

    Diatroptov, M E

    2013-01-01

    In the course of 15 days, the thyroxine and corticosterone level was measured daily in blood serum of molting starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, by use of enzyme immunodetection method. Revealed are three-day rhythm in changes of thyroxine level and four-day one in changes of corticosterone level, both rhythms being synchronized in different birds. A beginning of growth of new oar feathers coincides with maximum thyroxine concentration in blood serum and also demonstrates a three-day period. In free-living passerine birds (Passer montamus, Parus major, Chloris chloris) a three-day rhythm is found in the dynamics of feather replacement. This rhythm is manifested synchronously in the studied species that differ in timing of post-nuptial molting. Established is the synchronous manifestation of three-day rhythm in changes of thyroxine level and feather replacement during molting in different passerine species and different birds of the same species.

  3. Preliminary screening of five ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Morales, C; Gomez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar, A M; Cáceres, A

    2001-01-01

    We performed the Irwin test on some different extracts of the aerial parts of Tridax procumbens L., of the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., of the bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. and of the root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At a dosage of 1.25 g extract/100 g dried plant, the aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and G. sepium Jacq. Walp. showed higher activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis. catalepsy and strong hypothermia.

  4. Rapid diversification and secondary sympatry in Australo-Pacific kingfishers (Aves: Alcedinidae: Todiramphus)

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Michael J.; Shult, Hannah T.; Cibois, Alice; Thibault, Jean-Claude; Filardi, Christopher E.; Moyle, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Todiramphus chloris is the most widely distributed of the Pacific's ‘great speciators’. Its 50 subspecies constitute a species complex that is distributed over 16 000 km from the Red Sea to Polynesia. We present, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of this enigmatic radiation of kingfishers. Ten Pacific Todiramphus species are embedded within the T. chloris complex, rendering it paraphyletic. Among these is a radiation of five species from the remote islands of Eastern Polynesian, as well as the widespread migratory taxon, Todiramphus sanctus. Our results offer strong support that Pacific Todiramphus, including T. chloris, underwent an extensive range expansion and diversification less than 1 Ma. Multiple instances of secondary sympatry have accumulated in this group, despite its recent origin, including on Australia and oceanic islands in Palau, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. Significant ecomorphological and behavioural differences exist between secondarily sympatric lineages, which suggest that pre-mating isolating mechanisms were achieved rapidly during diversification. We found evidence for complex biogeographic patterns, including a novel phylogeographic break in the eastern Solomon Islands that separates a Northern Melanesian clade from Polynesian taxa. In light of our results, we discuss systematic relationships of Todiramphus and propose an updated taxonomy. This paper contributes to our understanding of avian diversification and assembly on islands, and to the systematics of a classically polytypic species complex. PMID:26064600

  5. 75 FR 78932 - Federal Seed Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ...--Zea mays L. subsp. mays'', ``Crambe--Crambe abyssinica R.E. Fr.'', ``Crotalaria, slenderleaf...) Steud.'', ``Hardinggrass--Phalaris stenoptera Hack.'', ``Hemp--Cannabis sativa L.'', ``Kudzu--Pueraria... gracilis ] (Kunth) Griffiths'', ``Hardinggrass--Phalaris aquatica L.'', ``Hemp-- Cannabis sativa L....

  6. Volatile compounds from Tagetes pusilla (Asteraceae) collected from the Venezuela Andes.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Diolimar; Rojas, Luis B; Rojas, Janne; Morales, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    The essential oil from the leaves of Tagetes pusilla Kunth (Asteraceae) collected from Mérida, Venezuela, was analyzed by GC/MS. A yield of 0.38% oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. Only two components, trans-anethole and 4-allylanisole were identified by comparison of their mass spectra with those in the Wiley GC-MS Library data base.

  7. NATURAL ENEMIES OF MIKANIA MICRANTHA IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mikania micrantha Kunth is native to Central and South America, and is considered to be one of the most serious invasive plants in Asia. It was discovered for the first time in North America in October 2009 near Homestead. To understand the impact of native natural enemies on Mikania micrantha, we ...

  8. Clarifying the Dioscorea buchananii Benth. species complex: a new potentially extinct subspecies for South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wilkin, Paul; Muasya, A. Muthama

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Dioscorea buchananii complex is shown to comprise three species, one of which is divided into two subspecies, based on morphological data. Two species, Dioscorea rupicola Kunth and Dioscorea multiloba Kunth, are endemic or subendemic to South Africa and of widespread occurrence in KwaZulu Natal. They differ markedly from each other in inflorescence and floral morphology and appear to be ecologically differentiated. The third species, Dioscorea buchananii Benth., is primarily found in southeastern tropical Africa, but a small number of specimens collected in South Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries are placed in an endemic subspecies, Dioscorea buchananii subsp. undatiloba (Baker) Wilkin. The latter taxon is a high priority in terms of rediscovery and conservation. Keys, descriptions, supporting information and illustrations are provided and made available online through eMonocot biodiversity informatics tools. Three nomenclatural acts are undertaken: two names are placed in synonymy and a new combination made. PMID:25931973

  9. Neuropharmacological profile of ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Morales Cifuentes, C; Gómez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar del Fresno, A M; Morales, C; Paredes, M E; Cáceres, A

    2001-08-01

    We carried out the Irwin's test with some different extracts of the aerial parts of Thidax procumbens L., the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp., and root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At dosage of 1.25 g dried plant/kg weight aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. demonstrated the most activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis, catalepsy and strong hypothermia. These extracts of both plants were assayed for effects on CNS and they caused very significant reductions in spontaneous locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and rectal temperature and they increased the sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time.

  10. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro Alexander; Rodriguez, Erick J; Norrbom, Allen L; Arévalo, Emilio

    2016-05-16

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski from Colombia, and for Cryptodacus obliquus Hendel from Bolivia and Peru. The female abdomen and terminalia of C. obliquus is described for the first time. The Norrbom & Korytkowski (2008)`s key to species was modified to include C. bernardoi n. sp.

  11. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro Alexander; Rodriguez, Erick J; Norrbom, Allen L; Arévalo, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski from Colombia, and for Cryptodacus obliquus Hendel from Bolivia and Peru. The female abdomen and terminalia of C. obliquus is described for the first time. The Norrbom & Korytkowski (2008)`s key to species was modified to include C. bernardoi n. sp. PMID:27395090

  12. Essential oil composition of Vismia macrophylla leaves (Guttiferae).

    PubMed

    Rojas, Janne; Buitrago, Alexis; Rojas, Luis; Morales, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil from Vismia macrophylla Kunth (Guttiferae) leaves, extracted by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by GC/MS. The oil obtained (yield 0.11%) contained twenty-eight compounds, which were identified from their retention indices and by comparison of their mass spectra with those in the Wiley GC-MS Library data base. The major components were beta-caryophyllene (20.1%), germacrene D (11.6%) and beta-elemene (7.0%).

  13. Facilitative and Inhibitory Effect of Litter on Seedling Emergence and Early Growth of Six Herbaceous Species in an Early Successional Old Field Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Yu, Pujia; Chen, Xiaoying; Li, Guangdi; Zhou, Daowei; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, a field experiment was conducted to examine effects of litter on seedling emergence and early growth of four dominant weed species from the early successional stages of old field ecosystem and two perennial grassland species in late successional stages. Our results showed that increased litter cover decreased soil temperature and temperature variability over time and improved soil moisture status. Surface soil electrical conductivity increased as litter increased. The increased litter delayed seedling emergence time and rate. The emergence percentage of seedlings and establishment success rate firstly increased then decreased as litter cover increased. When litter biomass was below 600 g m−2, litter increased seedlings emergence and establishment success in all species. With litter increasing, the basal diameter of seedling decreased, but seedling height increased. Increasing amounts of litter tended to increase seedling dry weight and stem leaf ratio. Different species responded differently to the increase of litter. Puccinellia tenuiflora and Chloris virgata will acquire more emergence benefits under high litter amount. It is predicted that Chloris virgata will dominate further in this natural succession old field ecosystem with litter accumulation. Artificial P. tenuiflora seeds addition may be required to accelerate old field succession toward matured grassland. PMID:25110722

  14. Multi-locus sequence typing confirms the clonality of Trichomonas gallinae isolates circulating in European finches.

    PubMed

    Ganas, Petra; Jaskulska, Barbara; Lawson, Becki; Zadravec, Marko; Hess, Michael; Bilic, Ivana

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, Trichomonas gallinae emerged as the causative agent of an infectious disease of passerine birds in Europe leading to epidemic mortality of especially greenfinches Chloris chloris and chaffinches Fringilla coelebs. After the appearance of finch trichomonosis in the UK and Fennoscandia, the disease spread to Central Europe. Finch trichomonosis first reached Austria and Slovenia in 2012. In the present study the genetic heterogeneity of T. gallinae isolates from incidents in Austria and Slovenia were investigated and compared with British isolates. For this purpose comparative sequence analyses of the four genomic loci ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, 18S rRNA, rpb1 and Fe-hydrogenase were performed. The results corroborate that one clonal T. gallinae strain caused the emerging infectious disease within passerine birds and that the disease is continuing to spread in Europe. The same clonal strain was also found in a columbid bird from Austria. Additionally, the present study demonstrates clearly the importance of multi-locus sequence typing for discrimination of circulating T. gallinae strains. PMID:24476813

  15. Detection of the European epidemic strain of Trichomonas gallinae in finches, but not other non-columbiformes, in the absence of macroscopic disease.

    PubMed

    Zu Ermgassen, Erasmus K H J; Durrant, Chris; John, Shinto; Gardiner, Roxanne; Alrefaei, Abdulwahed F; Cunningham, Andrew A; Lawson, Becki

    2016-09-01

    Finch trichomonosis is an emerging infectious disease affecting European passerines caused by a clonal strain of Trichomonas gallinae. Migrating chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) were proposed as the likely vector of parasite spread from Great Britain to Fennoscandia. To test for such parasite carriage, we screened samples of oesophagus/crop from 275 Apodiform, Passeriform and Piciform birds (40 species) which had no macroscopic evidence of trichomonosis (i.e. necrotic ingluvitis). These birds were found dead following the emergence of trichomonosis in Great Britain, 2009-2012, and were examined post-mortem. Polymerase chain reactions were used to detect (ITS1/5·8S rRNA/ITS2 region and single subunit rRNA gene) and to subtype (Fe-hydrogenase gene) T. gallinae. Trichomonas gallinae was detected in six finches [three chaffinches, two greenfinches (Chloris chloris) and a bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula)]. Sequence data had 100% identity to the European finch epidemic A1 strain for each species. While these results are consistent with finches being vectors of T. gallinae, alternative explanations include the presence of incubating or resolved T. gallinae infections. The inclusion of histopathological examination would help elucidate the significance of T. gallinae infection in the absence of macroscopic lesions. PMID:27180976

  16. Relationships and genetic consequences of contrasting modes of speciation among endemic species of Robinsonia (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile, based on AFLPs and SSRs.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Koji; López-Sepúlveda, Patricio; Greimler, Josef; Crawford, Daniel J; Peñailillo, Patricio; Baeza, Marcelo; Ruiz, Eduardo; Kohl, Gudrun; Tremetsberger, Karin; Gatica, Alejandro; Letelier, Luis; Novoa, Patricio; Novak, Johannes; Stuessy, Tod F

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses and compares the genetic signatures of anagenetic and cladogenetic speciation in six species of the genus Robinsonia (Asteraceae, Senecioneae), endemic to the Juan Fernández Islands, Chile. Population genetic structure was analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and microsatellite (simple sequence repeat, SSR) markers from 286 and 320 individuals, respectively, in 28 populations. Each species is genetically distinct. Previous hypotheses of classification among these species into subgenera and sections, via morphological, phytochemical, isozymic and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) data, have been confirmed, except that R. saxatilis appears to be related to R. gayana rather than R. evenia. Analysis of phylogenetic results and biogeographic context suggests that five of these species have originated by cladogenesis and adaptive radiation on the older Robinson Crusoe Island. The sixth species, R. masafuerae, restricted to the younger Alejandro Selkirk Island, is closely related to and an anagenetic derivative of R. evenia from Robinson Crusoe. Microsatellite and AFLP data reveal considerable genetic variation among the cladogenetically derived species of Robinsonia, but within each the genetic variation is lower, highlighting presumptive genetic isolation and rapid radiation. The anagenetically derived R. masafuerae harbors a level of genetic variation similar to that of its progenitor, R. evenia. This is the first direct comparison of the genetic consequences of anagenetic and cladogenetic speciation in plants of an oceanic archipelago.

  17. Amelogenin evolution and tetrapod enamel structure.

    PubMed

    Diekwisch, Thomas G H; Jin, Tianquan; Wang, Xinping; Ito, Yoshihiro; Schmidt, Marcella; Druzinsky, Robert; Yamane, Akira; Luan, Xianghong

    2009-01-01

    Amelogenins are the major proteins involved in tooth enamel formation. In the present study, we have cloned and sequenced four novel amelogenins from three amphibian species in order to analyze similarities and differences between mammalian and non-mammalian amelogenins. The newly sequenced amphibian amelogenin sequences were from a red-eyed tree frog (Litoria chloris) and a Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). We identified two amelogenin isoforms in the Eastern red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus). Sequence comparisons confirmed that non-mammalian amelogenins are overall shorter than their mammalian counterparts, contain less proline and less glutamine, and feature shorter polyproline tripeptide repeat stretches than mammalian amelogenins. We propose that unique sequence parameters of mammalian amelogenins might be a pre-requisite for complex mammalian enamel prism architecture.

  18. Forest bird and fruit bat populations on Sarigan, Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fancy, Steven G.; Craig, Robert J.; Kessler, Curt T.

    1999-01-01

    We conducted the first quantitative surveys of forest bird and bat populations on the uninhabited island of Sarigan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Severe habitat degradation has occurred on Sarigan because of overgrazing by introduced goats and pigs. Planting of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) for copra production has also eliminated much of the island’s native forest. We recorded five species of forest birds on Sarigan: Micronesian Honeyeater (Myzomela rubratra), Micronesian Megapode (Megapodius laperouse laperouse), Micronesian Starling (Aplonis opaca), Collared Kingfisher (Halcyon chloris), and White-throated Ground Dove (Gallicolumba xanthonura). Estimated population sizes (95% confidence interval) in 1997 were 1,821 (1,617–2,026) for Micronesian Honeyeater, 677 (545–810) for Micronesian Megapode, 497 (319–675) for Micronesian Starling, 107 (82–131) for Collared Kingfisher, and 170 (101–238) for Mariana Fruit Bat (Pteropus mariannus).

  19. Amelogenin Evolution and Tetrapod Enamel Structure

    PubMed Central

    Diekwisch, Thomas G.H.; Jin, Tianquan; Wang, Xinping; Ito, Yoshihiro; Schmidt, Marcella; Druzinsky, Robert; Yamane, Akira; Luan, Xianghong

    2009-01-01

    Amelogenins are the major proteins involved in tooth enamel formation. In the present study we have cloned and sequenced four novel amelogenins from three amphibian species in order to analyze similarities and differences between mammalian and non-mammalian amelogenins. The newly sequenced amphibian amelogenin sequences were from a Red-eyed tree frog (Litoria chloris) and a Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). We identified two amelogenin isoforms in the Eastern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus). Sequence comparisons confirmed that non-mammalian amelogenins are overall shorter than their mammalian counterparts, contain less proline and less glutamine, and feature shorter polyproline tripeptide repeat stretches than mammalian amelogenins. We propose that unique sequence parameters of mammalian amelogenins might be a pre-requisite for complex mammalian enamel prism architecture. PMID:19828974

  20. Amelogenin evolution and tetrapod enamel structure.

    PubMed

    Diekwisch, Thomas G H; Jin, Tianquan; Wang, Xinping; Ito, Yoshihiro; Schmidt, Marcella; Druzinsky, Robert; Yamane, Akira; Luan, Xianghong

    2009-01-01

    Amelogenins are the major proteins involved in tooth enamel formation. In the present study, we have cloned and sequenced four novel amelogenins from three amphibian species in order to analyze similarities and differences between mammalian and non-mammalian amelogenins. The newly sequenced amphibian amelogenin sequences were from a red-eyed tree frog (Litoria chloris) and a Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). We identified two amelogenin isoforms in the Eastern red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus). Sequence comparisons confirmed that non-mammalian amelogenins are overall shorter than their mammalian counterparts, contain less proline and less glutamine, and feature shorter polyproline tripeptide repeat stretches than mammalian amelogenins. We propose that unique sequence parameters of mammalian amelogenins might be a pre-requisite for complex mammalian enamel prism architecture. PMID:19828974

  1. First description of the early stage biology of the genus Mygona: the natural history of the satyrine butterfly, Mygona irmina in eastern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Greeney, Harold F; Dyer, Lee A; Pyrcz, Tomasz W

    2011-01-01

    The immature stages and natural history of Mygona irmina Doubleday (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae: Pronophilina) from northeastern Ecuadorian cloud forests are described based on 17 rearings. The dwarf bamboo, Chusquea c.f. scandens Kunth (Poaceae, Bambusoidea) is the larval food plant. Eggs are laid singly on the bottom side of mature host plant leaves. Larvae take 102-109 days to mature from egg to adult. Adults are encountered most frequently on sunny days, flying rapidly over areas dominated by their food plant or feeding on the ground at mammal feces. Males are often encountered inside large forest gaps near patches of bamboo guarding perches in the mid-canopy. PMID:21521141

  2. First description of the early stage biology of the genus Mygona: the natural history of the satyrine butterfly, Mygona irmina in eastern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Greeney, Harold F; Dyer, Lee A; Pyrcz, Tomasz W

    2011-01-01

    The immature stages and natural history of Mygona irmina Doubleday (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae: Pronophilina) from northeastern Ecuadorian cloud forests are described based on 17 rearings. The dwarf bamboo, Chusquea c.f. scandens Kunth (Poaceae, Bambusoidea) is the larval food plant. Eggs are laid singly on the bottom side of mature host plant leaves. Larvae take 102-109 days to mature from egg to adult. Adults are encountered most frequently on sunny days, flying rapidly over areas dominated by their food plant or feeding on the ground at mammal feces. Males are often encountered inside large forest gaps near patches of bamboo guarding perches in the mid-canopy.

  3. Prairie grass establishment on calcareous reclaimed mine soil.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Mark; Cardina, John

    2011-01-01

    Reclaimed Appalachian surface mined lands have difficulty in sustaining native deciduous forest communities. Establishing prairie communities could increase ecosystem function; however, a native model system does not exist. We evaluated establishment of 15 North American prairie grasses as monocultures on reclaimed mine soil in southeast Ohio in four randomized complete blocks planted May 2005 and 2006. Population density was assessed 30 d after planting (30 DAP) and in October of the planting year (YR1) and second year following planting (YR2) and expressed as percentage of viable seeds sown (PVSS). Canopy cover of nonnative species reestablishing in the plots was measured in 2007. Eastern gamagrass ( L.) population was >50 PVSS in all censuses. Western wheatgrass [ (Rydb.) A. Löve] was initially 7 PVSS at 30 DAP, but increased to 154 PVSS by YR2 from rhizomes spreading into gaps. Big bluestem ( Vitman) was 7 PVSS at 30 DAP and 4 PVSS at YR2. Blue grama [ (Willd. ex Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths] and sideoats grama [ (Michx.) Torr.] did not survive past YR1. Gaps left from poor stand establishment were primarily recolonized by nonnative Kentucky bluegrass ( L.) in the 2005 planting and birdsfoot trefoil ( L.) in the 2006 planting, but was least in eastern gamagrass and tall dropseed [ (P. Beauv.) Kunth]. This research demonstrates the potential for increasing diversity and species richness on mine soil habitats with regionally native grasses that could increase functional quality through ecological resilience.

  4. Experimental evaluation and simulation of volumetric shrinkage and warpage on polymeric composite reinforced with short natural fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Jonnathan D.; Fajardo, Jorge I.; Cuji, Alvaro R.; García, Jaime A.; Garzón, Luis E.; López, Luis M.

    2015-09-01

    A polymeric natural fiber-reinforced composite is developed by extrusion and injection molding process. The shrinkage and warpage of high-density polyethylene reinforced with short natural fibers of Guadua angustifolia Kunth are analyzed by experimental measurements and computer simulations. Autodesk Moldflow® and Solid Works® are employed to simulate both volumetric shrinkage and warpage of injected parts at different configurations: 0 wt.%, 20 wt.%, 30 wt.% and 40 wt.% reinforcing on shrinkage and warpage behavior of polymer composite. Become evident the restrictive effect of reinforcing on the volumetric shrinkage and warpage of injected parts. The results indicate that volumetric shrinkage of natural composite is reduced up to 58% with fiber increasing, whereas the warpage shows a reduction form 79% to 86% with major fiber content. These results suggest that it is a highly beneficial use of natural fibers to improve the assembly properties of polymeric natural fiber-reinforced composites.

  5. TDZ pulsing evaluation on the in vitro morphogenesis of peach palm.

    PubMed

    Graner, Erika Mendes; Oberschelp, Gustavo Pedro Javier; Brondani, Gilvano Ebling; Batagin-Piotto, Katherine Derlene; de Almeida, Cristina Vieira; de Almeida, Marcílio

    2013-04-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth.) cropping is an excellent alternative to native species exploitation; nevertheless, the problems with seed germination and conventional propagation justify the use of in vitro culturing. Aiming to asses TDZ pulsing effect on B. gasipaes morphogenesis, explants obtained from unarmed microplants were maintained in two treatments, half of them in MS free medium (without growth regulator) and the other half in MS with TDZ (0.36 μM). Both groups were transferred to growth regulator-free MS medium following 14 days of culture. After 84 days of culture, TDZ pulsing increased the growth and development of the shoots, restricted the growth and development of the roots, with no influence on adventitious bud induction or somatic embryogenesis. Furthermore, development of prickles, thickening of roots and chlorotic leaves were noted under TDZ pulsing. Leaf sheath histological analysis showed an epidermal origin and no vascularization of these prickles.

  6. Chemical composition of the essential oil of leaves and roots of Ottoa oenanthoides (Apiaceae) from Mérida, venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Janne; Buitrago, Alexis; Rojas, Luis B; Morales, Antonio; Baldovino, Shirley

    2010-07-01

    Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from leaves and roots of Ottoa oenanthoides Kunth (Apiaceae) were analyzed by GC/MS. The oils, obtained in yields of 0.10% and 0.66%, respectively, each contained four compounds, which were identified from their mass spectra and retention indices (RI). The major compound identified was 2-methoxy-8-methyl-1,4-naphthalindione (59.9% leaves, and 62.8%, roots), followed by 7-methoxy-1-naphthol (18.3% leaves and 17.3% roots), 2-naphthalenol (18.6% leaves and 15.0% roots), and 3-methoxy-2-naphthalenol (3.1% leaves and 2.1% roots). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that naphthalene derivatives have been reported for any species of the Apiaceae family.

  7. Ectomycorrhizas of Cortinarius helodes and Gyrodon monticola with Alnus acuminata from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Alejandra; Nouhra, Eduardo; Daniele, Graciela; Domínguez, Laura; McKay, Donaraye

    2005-01-01

    Field ectomycorrhizas of Cortinarius helodes Moser, Matheny & Daniele (sp. nov) and Gyrodon monticola Sing. on Alnus acuminata Kunth (Andean alder, aliso del cerro) are described based on morphological and anatomical features. Ectomycorrhizal roots were sampled beneath fruitbodies of C. helodes and G. monticola from two homogeneous A. acuminata forest sites located in Tucuman and Catamarca Provinces in Argentina. C. helodes ectomycorrhizas showed a thick white to beige mantle exuding a milky juice when injured, were bluish toward the apex, and had hyphal strands in the mantle. G. monticola ectomycorrhizas showed some conspicuous features like highly differentiated rhizomorphs, inflated brown cells on the mantle surface, and hyaline and brown emanating hyphae with dolipores. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer provided a distinctive profile for each of the collections of fruitbodies and the mycorrhizal morphotypes. PMID:14648309

  8. TDZ pulsing evaluation on the in vitro morphogenesis of peach palm.

    PubMed

    Graner, Erika Mendes; Oberschelp, Gustavo Pedro Javier; Brondani, Gilvano Ebling; Batagin-Piotto, Katherine Derlene; de Almeida, Cristina Vieira; de Almeida, Marcílio

    2013-04-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth.) cropping is an excellent alternative to native species exploitation; nevertheless, the problems with seed germination and conventional propagation justify the use of in vitro culturing. Aiming to asses TDZ pulsing effect on B. gasipaes morphogenesis, explants obtained from unarmed microplants were maintained in two treatments, half of them in MS free medium (without growth regulator) and the other half in MS with TDZ (0.36 μM). Both groups were transferred to growth regulator-free MS medium following 14 days of culture. After 84 days of culture, TDZ pulsing increased the growth and development of the shoots, restricted the growth and development of the roots, with no influence on adventitious bud induction or somatic embryogenesis. Furthermore, development of prickles, thickening of roots and chlorotic leaves were noted under TDZ pulsing. Leaf sheath histological analysis showed an epidermal origin and no vascularization of these prickles. PMID:24431497

  9. Anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extracts of spent Pleurotus ostreatus substrates in mouse ears treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate

    PubMed Central

    Rivero-Pérez, Nallely; Ayala-Martínez, Maricela; Zepeda-Bastida, Armando; Meneses-Mayo, Marcos; Ojeda-Ramírez, Deyanira

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the application of spent Pleurotus ostreatus substrates, enriched or not with medicinal herbs, as a source of anti-inflammatory compounds. Subjects and Methods: P. ostreatus was cultivated on five different substrates: Barley straw (BS) and BS combined 80:20 with medicinal herbs (Chenopodium ambrosioides L. [BS/CA], Rosmarinus officinalis L. [BS/RO], Litsea glaucescens Kunth [BS/LG], and Tagetes lucida Cav. [BS/TL]). The anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts of spent mushroom substrates (SMSs) (4 mg/ear) was studied using an acute inflammation model in the mouse ear induced with 2.5 μg/ear 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol13-acetate (TPA). Results: Groups treated with BS/CA, BS/RO, and BS/LG aqueous extracts exhibited the best anti-inflammatory activity (94.0% ± 5.5%, 92.9% ± 0.6%, and 90.4% ± 5.0% inhibition of auricular edema [IAO], respectively), and these effects were significantly different (P < 0.05) from that of the positive control indomethacin (0.5 mg/ear). BS/TL and BS were also able to reduce TPA-induced inflammation but to a lesser extent (70.0% ± 6.7% and 43.5% ± 6.6% IAO, respectively). Conclusions: Spent P. ostreatus substrate of BS possesses a slight anti-inflammatory effect. The addition of CA L. to mushroom substrate showed a slightly synergistic effect while RO L. had an additive effect. In addition, LG Kunth and TL Cav. enhanced the anti-inflammatory effect of SMS. However, to determine whether there is a synergistic or additive effect, it is necessary to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of each medicinal herb. PMID:27127316

  10. Immunoglobulin E-binding reactivities of natural pollen grain extracts from selected grass species in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Cabauatan, Clarissa R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Pollen grains have been reported to be present in the Philippine atmosphere but studies regarding their allergenicity are limited. Objective The present study aimed to profile the sensitization of allergic individuals to selected grass pollen species and to characterize the pollen proteins that may be responsible for this allergenic response. Methods The protein profile of the grass pollen extracts from Cynodon dactylon, Saccharum spontaneum, Sporobulus indicus, Chloris barbata, Oryza sativa, Imperata cylindrica, and Zea mays was analyzed by Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. The specific-IgE profile of the allergic individuals and the allergenic potential of the pollen extracts were evaluated through Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay and IgE immunoblotting. Results Sensitization of the allergic individuals to the pollen extracts was detected with I. cylindrica and O. sativa to be the most frequently recognized with more that 92% reactivity, whereas for C. dactylon and Z. mays, were found to have less than 25% reactivity. Conclusion Multiple IgE-binding proteins from S. indicus, S. spontaneum and C. barbata that were detected may be responsible for the allergic reactions among Filipino subjects. PMID:22701864

  11. Ancient mitochondrial genomes clarify the evolutionary history of New Zealand's enigmatic acanthisittid wrens.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kieren J; Wood, Jamie R; Llamas, Bastien; McLenachan, Patricia A; Kardailsky, Olga; Scofield, R Paul; Worthy, Trevor H; Cooper, Alan

    2016-09-01

    The New Zealand acanthisittid wrens are the sister-taxon to all other "perching birds" (Passeriformes) and - including recently extinct species - represent the most diverse endemic passerine family in New Zealand. Consequently, they are important for understanding both the early evolution of Passeriformes and the New Zealand biota. However, five of the seven species have become extinct since the arrival of humans in New Zealand, complicating evolutionary analyses. The results of morphological analyses have been largely equivocal, and no comprehensive genetic analysis of Acanthisittidae has been undertaken. We present novel mitochondrial genome sequences from four acanthisittid species (three extinct, one extant), allowing us to resolve the phylogeny and revise the taxonomy of acanthisittids. Reanalysis of morphological data in light of our genetic results confirms a close relationship between the extant rifleman (Acanthisitta chloris) and an extinct Miocene wren (Kuiornis indicator), making Kuiornis a useful calibration point for molecular dating of passerines. Our molecular dating analyses reveal that the stout-legged wrens (Pachyplichas) diverged relatively recently from a more gracile (Xenicus-like) ancestor. Further, our results suggest a possible Early Oligocene origin of the basal Lyall's wren (Traversia) lineage, which would imply that Acanthisittidae survived the Oligocene marine inundation of New Zealand and therefore that the inundation was not complete. PMID:27261250

  12. High feather corticosterone indicates better coccidian infection resistance in greenfinches.

    PubMed

    Sild, Elin; Meitern, Richard; Männiste, Marju; Karu, Ulvi; Hõrak, Peeter

    2014-08-01

    Differential exposure or sensitivity to stressors can have substantial effects on the variation in immune responsiveness of animals. However, the questions about the causes and consequences of these processes have remained largely unclear, particularly as regards wild animals and their natural pathogens. Here we ask how a potential marker of stress responses, the feather corticosterone (CORT) content, reflects the resistance to an experimental infection with natural coccidian parasites in wild-caught captive greenfinches (Carduelis chloris). CORT content of tail feathers grown in captivity correlated positively with a behavioural measure of captivity-intolerance, i.e., the amount of damage accrued to tail feathers in captivity that results from flapping against cage bars. This finding is consistent with an idea that feather CORT reflects the amount of stress experienced during feather growth. Experimental infection with heterologous coccidian strains increased feather CORT levels. Birds with highest feather CORT levels appeared most resistant to new infection, assessed on the basis of parasite oocyst shedding at the peak phase of infection. Birds with highest feather CORT levels also cleared the infection faster than the birds with lower feather CORT levels. These findings provide the first evidence about positive covariation between feather CORT and resistance to a natural pathogen in a wild bird species. Assuming that feather CORT levels reflect circulating hormone titres, these findings suggest that parasite-mediated selection may contribute to maintenance of phenotypes with high corticosterone responsiveness to stress, despite potential negative behavioural consequences.

  13. Evaluation of the ASTRA 4 new microprocessor-controlled electrolyte analyzer.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, A E; Fillbach, J R

    1980-09-01

    A new programmable microprocessor-controlled multichannel chemistry analyzer, the Bechman ASTRA 4, was evaluated in an electrolyte configuration including sodium, potassium, chloride, and CO2. Sodium and potassium are analyzed with ion-selective electrodes, CO2 by differential rate pH measurement, and chloride by proportional coulometric titration, Day-to-day reproducibility studies yielded coefficients of variation of 0.8% for Na+, 1.2% for K+, 0.9% for Cl-, and 5.9% for CO2. Linearity was 100-200 mmol/l for Na+, 1.0-10.0 mmol/l for K+, 50-150 mmol/l for Cl+, and 5-50 mmol/l for CO2. There was excellent correlation between the ASTRA 4 and the comparison laboratory methodologies consisting of flame photometry, coulometry, and Beckman Chlorie/CO2 titrator. Performance of the ASTRA 4 was judged acceptable relative to requirements of medical usefulness. The instrument can be used as a routine electrolyte analyzer with a throughput of 60 samples an hour or as a stat analyzer with results obtained within 8.5 minutes. Each sample can be programmed for any combination of tests, and reagent is only consumed on those tests selected. Sample size is approximately 130 microliter for all four tests or reduced accordingly if fewer tests are selected. PMID:6774608

  14. Microbial transformation of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.

    1980-06-01

    Microorganisms play a significant role in the transformation of the radioactive waste and waste forms disposed of at shallow-land burial sites. Microbial degradation products of organic wastes may influence the transport of buried radionuclides by leaching, solubilization, and formation of organoradionuclide complexes. The ability of indigenous microflora of the radioactive waste to degrade the organic compounds under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was examined. Leachate samples were extracted with methylene chloried and analyzed for organic compounds by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In general, several of the organic compounds in the leachates were degraded under aerobic conditions. Under anaerobic conditions, the degradation of the organics was very slow, and changes in concentrations of several acidic compounds were observed. Several low-molecular-weight organic acids are formed by breakdown of complex organic materials and are further metabolized by microorganisms; hence these compounds are in a dynamic state, being both synthesized and destroyed. Tributyl phosphate, a compound used in the extraction of metal ions from solutions of reactor products, was not degraded under anaerobic conditions.

  15. [Soil respiration dynamics and its controlling factors of typical vegetation communities on meadow steppes in the western Songnen Plain].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Liu, Xing-Tu; Li, Xiu-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Tao; Wang, Guo-Dong; Lu, Xin-Rui; Li, Xiao-Yu

    2014-01-01

    In order to accurately explore the soil respiration dynamics and its controlling factors of typical vegetation types in the western Songnen Plain, soil respiration rates of Chloris virgata, Puccinellia distans, Phragmites australis and Leymus chinensis communities were measured. The results showed that the diurnal curves of soil respiration rates of the four vegetation communities had simple peak values, which appeared at 11:00-15:00, and the valley values occurred at 21:00-1:00 or 3:00-5:00. The seasonal dynamic patterns of their soil respiration rates were similar, with the maximum (3.21-4.84 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1)) occurring in July and August and the minimum (0.46-1.51 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1)) in October. The soil respiration rates of the four vegetation communities had significant exponential correlations with ambient air temperature and soil temperature. Soil moisture, however, only played an important role in affecting the soil respiration rate of C. virgata community while air humidity near the soil surface was significantly correlated with the soil respiration rates of P. australis and L. chinensis communities. The soil salt contents seriously constrained the CO2 dioxide emission, and the soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) could explain 87%-91% spatial variations of the soil respiration rate.

  16. Oxidative profile varies with personality in European greenfinches.

    PubMed

    Herborn, Katherine A; Coffey, Jo; Larcombe, Stephen D; Alexander, Lucille; Arnold, Kathryn E

    2011-05-15

    Where behavioural responses differ consistently between individuals, this is termed 'personality'. There is the suggestion, but with little supporting data, that personality traits reflect underlying variation in physiology. Here, we tested whether greenfinches Carduelis chloris differing in personality traits differed in various plasma indices of oxidative profile: antioxidant capacity (OXY), pro-oxidant status (reactive oxygen metabolites, ROMs), oxidative stress (OS) and an end-product of oxidative damage: malondialdehyde (MDA). We measured two personality traits: neophobia (latency to approach food near novel objects) and object exploration (latency to approach novel objects). These traits were uncorrelated. ROMs, OXY, OS and MDA were also uncorrelated with each other. Highly neophobic birds had lower OXY, higher ROMs and higher OS than less neophobic birds. Fast exploring birds had higher OXY than slow explorers, but did not differ in ROMs or OS. Variation in MDA was described by a quadratic relationship with neophobia: birds with extremely high or low neophobia had lower MDA than birds with intermediate neophobia, despite highly neophobic birds exhibiting lower OS than intermediately neophobic birds. Additively in that model, fast explorers had lower MDA than slower explorers. To conclude: first, personality types can differ in oxidative profile. Second, although physiological differences (e.g. hormonal stress responsiveness) between personality types generally range along a linear continuum, physiological costs may not. Finally, relationships with oxidative profile differed between neophobia and object exploration. Understanding how oxidative profile and thus physiological costs vary within and between personality traits may explain how differences in personality traits can predict fitness.

  17. Emerging disease of amphibians cured by elevated body temperature.

    PubMed

    Woodhams, Douglas C; Alford, Ross A; Marantelli, Gerry

    2003-06-20

    The emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis is thought to have contributed to many of the recent alarming declines in amphibian populations. Mortalities associated with these declines have often occurred during cooler seasons and at high elevations, suggesting that environmental temperature may be an important factor in disease emergence. We found that thermal environment affects the progress of the disease, and that housing frogs Litoria chloris at an environmental temperature of 37 degrees C for less than 16 h can clear them of the chytrid pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Our experiment demonstrated that elevated body temperatures similar to those experienced in behavioral fever and during normal thermoregulation can clear frogs of chytrid infection; therefore, variation in thermoregulatory opportunities and behaviors are likely to contribute to the differences in disease incidence observed among host species, populations, and regions. Although further refinement of the technique is needed to encompass various host species, appropriately applied thermal manipulations of amphibians and their enclosures may prove to be a safe and effective way of eliminating the fungal pathogen from captive amphibian populations and: preventing accidental spread of the pathogen when animals are translocated or released from captivity. PMID:12887256

  18. Ecohydrological effects of management on subalpine grasslands: From local to catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatichi, Simone; Zeeman, Matthias J.; Fuhrer, Jürg; Burlando, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Grassland and pastures are important land uses in subalpine and alpine environments. They are typically subjected to management practices that can change the biophysical structure of the canopy through defoliation and can alter soil hydraulic properties. These modifications have the potential to impact hydrological and energy fluxes as well as the primary productivity of grasslands. We investigate how a series of management practices, such as grass cut, grazing, and the consequent soil compaction due to treading by animals are affecting water resources, flood generation, and grassland productivity in a subalpine region. Results are obtained using a mechanistic ecohydrological model, Tethys-Chloris. The model is first confirmed using energy, water, and carbon fluxes measured at three eddy covariance stations over grasslands in Switzerland and discharge measured in a small experimental catchment. A series of virtual experiments are then designed to elucidate the importance of various management scenarios at the plot and catchment scales. Results show that only severe management actions such as low grass cuts or heavy grazing are able to influence considerably the long-term hydrological behavior. Moderate management practices are typically unable to modify the system response in terms of energy and water fluxes. An important short-term effect is represented by animal-induced soil compaction that can reduce infiltration capacity leading to peak flow considerably higher than in undisturbed conditions. The productivity of vegetation in absence of nutrient limitation is considerably affected by the different management scenarios with tolerable disturbances that lead to higher aboveground net primary production.

  19. Viability selection affects black but not yellow plumage colour in greenfinches.

    PubMed

    Hõrak, Peeter; Männiste, Marju

    2016-01-01

    Much of the debate surrounding the selective forces responsible for the expression of conspicuous plumage colouration is centred on the question of precisely which individual qualities are signalled by carotenoid- and melanin-based pigments. To examine this and other related issues, we performed viability selection analyses in wild-caught captive male greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) in Estonia during winters between 2003 and 2014. Based on our measurements, birds with a darker black eumelanin-based colouration of tail feathers survived better than those whose tail feathers had a paler black colouration. The carotenoid-based yellow colouration of the same feathers was not associated with mortality in captivity and showed much less between-year variation in the field than the black colouration. Between year-variation in the black (but not yellow) colouration of feathers was parallel in wild-grown feathers (on birds in the wild) and laboratory-grown ones (on birds held temporarily in captivity). Taken together, these findings imply that eumelanotic colouration in greenfinches is currently under selection and suggest the presence of sufficient genetic variation for a rapid response to selection. In particular, tail feathers have become darker black since the emergence of avian trichomonosis, which is known to selectively kill paler individuals. PMID:26386701

  20. Abiotic and biotic controls of soil moisture spatiotemporal variability and the occurrence of hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatichi, Simone; Katul, Gabriel G.; Ivanov, Valeriy Y.; Pappas, Christoforos; Paschalis, Athanasios; Consolo, Ada; Kim, Jongho; Burlando, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    An expression that separates biotic and abiotic controls on the temporal dynamics of the soil moisture spatial coefficient of variation Cv(θ) was explored via numerical simulations using a mechanistic ecohydrological model, Tethys-Chloris. Continuous soil moisture spatiotemporal dynamics at an exemplary hillslope domain were computed for six case studies characterized by different climate and vegetation cover and for three configurations of soil properties. It was shown that abiotic controls largely exceed their biotic counterparts in wet climates. Biotic controls on Cv(θ) were found to be more pronounced in Mediterranean climates. The relation between Cv(θ) and spatial mean soil moisture θ¯ was found to be unique in wet locations, regardless of the soil properties. For the case of homogeneous soil texture, hysteretic cycles between Cv(θ) and θ¯ were observed in all Mediterranean climate locations considered here and to a lesser extent in a deciduous temperate forest. Heterogeneity in soil properties increased Cv(θ) to values commensurate with field observations and weakened signatures of hysteresis at all of the studied locations. This finding highlights the role of site-specific heterogeneities in hiding or even eliminating the signature of climatic and biotic controls on Cv(θ), thereby offering a new perspective on causes of confounding results reported across field experiments.

  1. Tissue-specific and cation/anion-specific DNA methylation variations occurred in C. virgata in response to salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Cao, Donghui; Liu, Jie; Wang, Xiaoping; Geng, Shujuan; Liu, Bao; Shi, Decheng

    2013-01-01

    Salinity is a widespread environmental problem limiting productivity and growth of plants. Halophytes which can adapt and resist certain salt stress have various mechanisms to defend the higher salinity and alkalinity, and epigenetic mechanisms especially DNA methylation may play important roles in plant adaptability and plasticity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the different influences of various single salts (NaCl, Na2SO4, NaHCO3, Na2CO3) and their mixed salts on halophyte Chloris. virgata from the DNA methylation prospective, and discover the underlying relationships between specific DNA methylation variations and specific cations/anions through the methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analysis. The results showed that the effects on DNA methylation variations of single salts were ranked as follows: Na2CO3> NaHCO3> Na2SO4> NaCl, and their mixed salts exerted tissue-specific effects on C. virgata seedlings. Eight types of DNA methylation variations were detected and defined in C. virgata according to the specific cations/anions existed in stressful solutions; in addition, mix-specific and higher pH-specific bands were the main type in leaves and roots independently. These findings suggested that mixed salts were not the simple combination of single salts. Furthermore, not only single salts but also mixed salts showed tissue-specific and cations/anions-specific DNA methylation variations. PMID:24223802

  2. [Succession pattern of artificial vegetation community and its ecological mechanism in an arid desert region].

    PubMed

    Xu, Cailin; Li, Zizhen

    2003-09-01

    Focusing on the artificial vegetation protection system of the Shapotou section of Baotou-Lanzhou railway in the arid desert region of China, this paper examined the dynamics of dominant plant species and the succession pattern of artificial plant community in the process of establishing and developing regional artificial vegetation. It also studied the driving force and the ecologically intrinsic mechanism of the community succession. The results demonstrated that the species composition of the artificial vegetation dramatically changed after 40 years of succession, from original artificial plant community of shrub and semi-shrub to artificial-natural desert plant community with annual herb dominated. During the process of succession, the importance values of artificial shrubs, such as Caragana korshinskii and Hedysarum scoparius, decreased and gradually retreated from the artificial plant community, while the naturally multiplied annual herb, such as Eragrostis poaeoides, Bassia dasyphylla, Salsola ruthenica, Chloris virgata and etc., were presented one after another and gradually became dominant. Besides, Artemisia ordosica always played a key role in the community due to its ability of naturally sowing and self-replacement. This type of succession pattern was closely related to the shortage of precipitation resource in this region and the formation of soil crust which inhibited the reproduction of shrub and perennial herb with deep root systems. This study provided a theoretical ground for realizing persistent development of artificial plant community.

  3. Pro-toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in the traditional Andean herbal medicine “asmachilca”

    PubMed Central

    Colegate, Steven M.; Boppré, Michael; Monzón, Julio; Betz, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Asmachilca is a Peruvian medicinal herb preparation ostensibly derived from Eupatorium gayanum Wedd. = Aristeguietia gayana (Wedd.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae). Decoctions of the plant have a reported bronchodilation effect that is purported to be useful in the treatment of respiratory allergies, common cold and bronchial asthma. However, its attractiveness to pyrrolizidine alkaloid-pharmacophagous insects indicated a potential for toxicity for human consumers. Aim of the study To determine if commercial asmachilca samples, including fully processed herbal teas, contain potentially toxic 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids. Materials and methods Two brands of “Asmachilca” herbal tea bags and four other commercial samples of botanical materials for preparing asmachilca medicine were extracted and analyzed using HPLC-esi(+)MS and MS/MS for the characteristic retention times and mass spectra of known dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids. Other suspected dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids were tentatively identified based on MS/MS profiles and high resolution molecular weight determinations. Further structure elucidation of isolated alkaloids was based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Results Asmachilca attracted many species of moths which are known to pharmacophagously gather dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids. Analysis of 5 of the asmachilca samples revealed the major presence of the dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid monoesters rinderine and supinine, and their N-oxides. The 6th sample was very similar but did not contain supinine or its N-oxide. Small quantities of other dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid monoesters, including echinatine and intermedine, were also detected. In addition, two major metabolites, previously undescribed, were isolated and identified as dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid monoesters with two “head-to-tail” linked viridifloric and/or trachelanthic acids. Estimates of total pyrrolizidine alkaloid and N

  4. Non-target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T.; Alcantara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E.; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M.; Travlos, Ilias; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha−1 for exposed (E) and un-exposed (UE) glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of 14C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE), while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica, and Lolium rigidum. PMID:27570531

  5. Dexamethasone inhibits corticosterone deposition in feathers of greenfinches.

    PubMed

    Hõrak, Peeter; Männiste, Marju; Meitern, Richard; Sild, Elin; Saks, Lauri; Sepp, Tuul

    2013-09-15

    Corticosterone (CORT) content of feathers is a potent source of information about activation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during feather growth, which is used for assessment of well-being and stress history of individuals and populations in avian studies. However, little is known about factors affecting deposition of CORT into feathers and how feather CORT covaries with other markers of stress imposed upon individuals during feather growth. We addressed these questions by measuring CORT levels in feathers of wild-caught greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) brought into captivity. One tail feather was removed from all the birds upon arrival to the laboratory and the CORT levels of replacement feathers, grown in captivity were recorded. The birds were subjected to treatments of immune activation (by injection of phytohaemagglutinin) and synthetic glucocorticoid (dexamethasone, DEX) administration. Only DEX injection affected feather CORT levels. DEX-injected birds deposited on average 37% less of CORT in their feathers than saline-injected birds. Despite significant effects of DEX and immune activation treatments on differential leukocyte counts, we did not find any correlations between CORT and leukocyte hemoconcentrations or heterophil/lymphocyte ratios (a haematological index of stress), measured at three stages of feather growth. Our findings provide novel evidence that feather CORT levels are sensitive to manipulation of hormonal balance of birds, thereby supporting the diagnostic value of feather CORT measurements. However, we did not find any evidence about covariation between feather CORT and other markers of stress perceived during the period of feather growth. This calls for further research on information content of feather CORT, preferably in experiments manipulating more diverse array of psychological, immunological and abiotic stressors.

  6. Quantifying Direct and Indirect Effects of Elevated CO2 on Ecosystem Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatichi, S.; Leuzinger, S.; Paschalis, A.; Donnellan-Barraclough, A.; Hovenden, M. J.; Langley, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide are expected to affect carbon assimilation, evapotranspiration (ET) and ultimately plant growth. Direct leaf biochemical effects have been widely investigated, while indirect effects, although documented, are very difficult to quantify in experiments. We hypothesize that the interaction of direct and indirect effects is a possible reason for conflicting results concerning the magnitude of CO2 fertilization effects across different climates and ecosystems. A mechanistic ecohydrological model (Tethys-Chloris) is used to investigate the relative contribution of direct (through plant physiology) and indirect (via stomatal closure and thus soil moisture, and changes in Leaf Area Index, LAI) effects of elevated CO2 across a number of ecosystems. We specifically ask in which ecosystems and climate indirect effects are expected to be largest. Data and boundary conditions from flux-towers and free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments are used to force the model and evaluate its performance. Numerical results suggest that indirect effects of elevated CO2, through water savings and increased LAI, are very significant and sometimes larger than direct effects. Indirect effects tend to be considerably larger in water-limited ecosystems, while direct effects correlate positively with mean air temperature. Increasing CO2 from 375 to 550 ppm causes a total effect on Net Primary Production in the order of 15 to 40% and on ET from 0 to -8%, depending on climate and ecosystem type. The total CO2 effect has a significant negative correlation with the wetness index and positive correlation with vapor pressure deficit. These results provide a more general mechanistic understanding of relatively short-term (less than 20 years) implications of elevated CO2 on ecosystem response and suggest plausible magnitudes for the expected changes.

  7. Emerging Infectious Disease Leads to Rapid Population Declines of Common British Birds

    PubMed Central

    Toms, Mike P.; Peck, Kirsi M.; Kirkwood, James K.; Chantrey, Julian; Clatworthy, Innes R.; Evans, Andy D.; Hughes, Laura A.; Hutchinson, Oliver C.; John, Shinto K.; Pennycott, Tom W.; Perkins, Matthew W.; Rowley, Peter S.; Simpson, Vic R.; Tyler, Kevin M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly cited as threats to wildlife, livestock and humans alike. They can threaten geographically isolated or critically endangered wildlife populations; however, relatively few studies have clearly demonstrated the extent to which emerging diseases can impact populations of common wildlife species. Here, we report the impact of an emerging protozoal disease on British populations of greenfinch Carduelis chloris and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, two of the most common birds in Britain. Morphological and molecular analyses showed this to be due to Trichomonas gallinae. Trichomonosis emerged as a novel fatal disease of finches in Britain in 2005 and rapidly became epidemic within greenfinch, and to a lesser extent chaffinch, populations in 2006. By 2007, breeding populations of greenfinches and chaffinches in the geographic region of highest disease incidence had decreased by 35% and 21% respectively, representing mortality in excess of half a million birds. In contrast, declines were less pronounced or absent in these species in regions where the disease was found in intermediate or low incidence. Also, populations of dunnock Prunella modularis, which similarly feeds in gardens, but in which T. gallinae was rarely recorded, did not decline. This is the first trichomonosis epidemic reported in the scientific literature to negatively impact populations of free-ranging non-columbiform species, and such levels of mortality and decline due to an emerging infectious disease are unprecedented in British wild bird populations. This disease emergence event demonstrates the potential for a protozoan parasite to jump avian host taxonomic groups with dramatic effect over a short time period. PMID:20805869

  8. The seroprevalence of avipoxvirus and its association with avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) infection in introduced passerine birds in the southern regions of the North Island of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ha, H J; Banda, M; Alley, M R; Howe, L; Gartrell, B D

    2013-03-01

    Blood samples were collected from 65 free-ranging birds from six species in the southern North Island of New Zealand. Sera from the birds were tested for the presence of avipoxvirus (APV) antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and blood cells from 55 birds were also tested for Plasmodium spp. by PCR. Forty-five birds (69.2%) tested seropositive to APV. Song thrushes (Turdus philomelos) presented the highest seroprevalence at 100% (4/4), followed by Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula) (96.86%, 31/32), chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) (54.55%, 6/11), starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) (25%, 3/12), greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) (25%, 1/4), and European goldfinches (Carduelis carduelis) (0%, 0/2). Plasmodium spp. DNA was detected in 15/55 birds (27.3%), including 11 Eurasian blackbirds, one song thrush, and three starlings. Eight Eurasian blackbird isolates (73%) grouped within the subgenus Novyella. Two Eurasian blackbird isolates and the song thrush isolate clustered within a different group with previously reported lineages LINN1 and AFTRU5. In addition, all three starling isolates clustered within the well-characterized lineage Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum GRW06. All Plasmodium-positive Eurasian blackbirds and the song thrush were seropositive to APV, whereas only 67% of Plasmodium-positive starlings showed evidence of previous exposure to APV. A significant relationship between birds seropositive to APV and birds infected by Plasmodium spp. was observed (chi2 = 5.69, df = 1, P = 0.0086). To the authors' knowledge this is the first report describing the seroprevalence of APV and its association with Plasmodium spp. infection in introduced bird species in New Zealand.

  9. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  10. Does plasticity in plant physiological traits explain the rapid increase in water use efficiency? An ecohydrological modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrotheodoros, Theodoros; Fatichi, Simone; Pappas, Christoforos; Molnar, Peter; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The rise of atmospheric CO2 concentration is expected to stimulate plant productivity by enhancing photosynthesis and reducing stomatal conductance and thus increasing plant water use efficiency (WUE) worldwide. An analysis of eddy covariance flux tower data from 21 forested ecosystems across the north hemisphere detected an unexpectedly large increase in WUE (Keenan et al, 2013), which was six times larger than the increase found by most previous studies based on controlled experiments (e.g., FACE), leaf-scale analyses, and numerical modelling. This increase could be solely attributed to the increase in atmospheric CO2 since other confounding factors were ruled out. Here, we investigate the potential contribution of plant plasticity, reflected in the temporal adjustment of major plant physiological traits, on changes in WUE using the ecohydrological model Tethys and Chloris (T&C). We hypothesize that the increase in WUE can be attributed to small variations in plant physiological traits, undetectable through observations, eventually triggered by the atmospheric CO2 increase. Data from the 21 sites in the above mentioned study are used to force the model. Simulation results with and without plasticity in the physiological traits (i.e., model parameters in our numerical experiments) are compared with the observed trends in WUE. We test several plant adaptation strategies in being effective in explaining the observed increase in WUE using a multifactorial numerical experiment in which we perturb in a systematic way selected plant parameters. Keenan, T. F., Hollinger, D. Y., Bohrer, G., Dragoni, D., Munger, J. W., Schmid, H. P., and Richardson, A. D. (2013). Increase in forest water-use efficiency as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise. Nature, 499(7458), 324-7.

  11. Non-target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T; Alcantara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M; Travlos, Ilias; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha(-1) for exposed (E) and un-exposed (UE) glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of (14)C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE), while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica, and Lolium rigidum.

  12. The carotenoid-continuum: carotenoid-based plumage ranges from conspicuous to cryptic and back again

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Carotenoids are frequently used by birds to colour their plumage with green, yellow, orange or red hues, and carotenoid-based colours are considered honest signals of quality, although they may have other functions, such as crypsis. It is usually assumed that red through yellow colours have a signalling function while green is cryptic. Here we challenge this notion using the yellow and green colouration of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), great tits (Parus major) and greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) as a model. Results The relationship between colouration (chroma, computed using visual sensitivities of conspecifics) and detectability (contrast against natural backgrounds as perceived by conspecifics and avian predators) followed a similar curvilinear pattern for yellow and green plumage with minimum detectability at intermediate levels of carotenoid deposition. Thus, for yellow and green plumage, colours at or close to the point of minimum detectability may aid in crypsis. This may be the case for blue and great tit green and yellow plumage, and greenfinch green plumage, all of which had comparably low levels of detectability, while greenfinch yellow plumage was more chromatic and detectable. As yellow and green blue tit colouration are strongly affected by carotenoid availability during moult, variation in pigment availability between habitats may affect the degree of background-matching or the costliness of producing cryptic plumage. Conclusions Increasing carotenoid-deposition in the integument does not always lead to more conspicuous colours. In some cases, such as in blue or great tits, carotenoid deposition may be selected through enhanced background-matching, which in turn suggests that producing cryptic plumage may entail costs. We stress however, that our data do not rule out a signalling function of carotenoid-based plumage in tits. Rather, it shows that alternative functions are plausible and that assuming a signalling function based solely on

  13. The seroprevalence of avipoxvirus and its association with avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) infection in introduced passerine birds in the southern regions of the North Island of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ha, H J; Banda, M; Alley, M R; Howe, L; Gartrell, B D

    2013-03-01

    Blood samples were collected from 65 free-ranging birds from six species in the southern North Island of New Zealand. Sera from the birds were tested for the presence of avipoxvirus (APV) antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and blood cells from 55 birds were also tested for Plasmodium spp. by PCR. Forty-five birds (69.2%) tested seropositive to APV. Song thrushes (Turdus philomelos) presented the highest seroprevalence at 100% (4/4), followed by Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula) (96.86%, 31/32), chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) (54.55%, 6/11), starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) (25%, 3/12), greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) (25%, 1/4), and European goldfinches (Carduelis carduelis) (0%, 0/2). Plasmodium spp. DNA was detected in 15/55 birds (27.3%), including 11 Eurasian blackbirds, one song thrush, and three starlings. Eight Eurasian blackbird isolates (73%) grouped within the subgenus Novyella. Two Eurasian blackbird isolates and the song thrush isolate clustered within a different group with previously reported lineages LINN1 and AFTRU5. In addition, all three starling isolates clustered within the well-characterized lineage Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum GRW06. All Plasmodium-positive Eurasian blackbirds and the song thrush were seropositive to APV, whereas only 67% of Plasmodium-positive starlings showed evidence of previous exposure to APV. A significant relationship between birds seropositive to APV and birds infected by Plasmodium spp. was observed (chi2 = 5.69, df = 1, P = 0.0086). To the authors' knowledge this is the first report describing the seroprevalence of APV and its association with Plasmodium spp. infection in introduced bird species in New Zealand. PMID:23678738

  14. Comparing a FACE experiment with mechanistic ecohydrological modeling: which processes are reliably simulated under elevated CO2?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatichi, S.; Leuzinger, S.

    2013-12-01

    Scenarios for the future terrestrial carbon and water cycle rely on numerical tools that simulate the dynamics of vegetation from assimilation of carbon through stomata to long-term forest development at the global scale. However, these tools are rarely tested to perform well in conditions different from the historical climate and comparisons are mostly limited to carbon and energy fluxes. A combination of numerical modeling and observations is used here to investigate the capability of a mechanistic approach to simulate the hydrology and the vegetation behavior of a forest exposed to elevated CO2 concentrations. Specifically, we thoroughly compare data from a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment in a mature deciduous forest in Switzerland with realizations from a state-of-the-art ecohydrological model (Tethys-Chloris). Model realizations compare favorably with field observations of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, sap flow, leaf and fruit litter, as well as qualitative changes in soil moisture. The simulated differences between CO2 scenarios for both the carbon and water balance are generally very small (less than 10%) and fall within the uncertainty of experimental observations. More problematic is the simulation of stem growth which is significantly higher in the modeled scenario with elevated CO2 but not in the observations even though current accuracy of field measurements precludes robust conclusions. These results demonstrate that while ecohydrological models can be used to reliably simulate multi-year energy, water, and carbon fluxes, evaluating the modeled carbon allocation remains critical. However, experimental evidence suggests that the structure of current vegetation models which use the photosynthesized carbon to directly drive plant growth should be revised because plant tissue growth is very sensitive to direct controls of environmental variables, independently of the amount of assimilated carbon.

  15. A mechanistic ecohydrological model to investigate complex interactions in cold and warm water-controlled environments: 2. Spatiotemporal analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatichi, S.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Caporali, E.

    2012-05-01

    An ecohydrological model Tethys-Chloris (T&C) described in the companion paper is applied to two semiarid systems characterized by different climate and vegetation cover conditions. The Lucky Hills watershed in Arizona represents a typical small, “unit-source” catchment of a desert shrub system of the U.S. southwest. Two nested basins of the Reynolds Creek Experimental watershed (Idaho, U.S.A.), the Reynolds Creek Mountain East and Tollgate catchments, are representative of a semiarid cold climate with seasonal snow cover. Both exhibit a highly non-uniform vegetation cover. A range of ecohydrological metrics of the long-term model performance is presented to highlight the model capabilities in reproducing hydrological and vegetation dynamics both at the plot and the watershed scales. A diverse set of observations is used to confirm the simulated dynamics. Highly satisfactory results are obtained without significant (or any) calibration efforts despite the large phase-space dimensionality of the model, the uncertainty of imposed boundary conditions, and limited data availability. It is argued that a significant investment into the model design based on the description of physical, biophysical, and ecological processes leads to such a consistent simulation skill. The simulated patterns mimic the outcome of hydrological and vegetation dynamics with high realism, as confirmed from spatially distributed remote sensing data. Further community efforts are warranted to address the issue of thorough quantitative assessment. The current lack of appropriate data hampers the development and testing of process-based ecohydrological models. It is further argued that the mechanistic nature of the T&C model can be valuable for designing virtual experiments and developing questions of scientific inquiry at a range of spatiotemporal scales.

  16. Non-target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T; Alcantara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M; Travlos, Ilias; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha(-1) for exposed (E) and un-exposed (UE) glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of (14)C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE), while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica, and Lolium rigidum. PMID:27570531

  17. Use and valuation of native and introduced medicinal plant species in Campo Hermoso and Zetaquira, Boyacá, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medicinal plant species contribute significantly to folk medicine in Colombia. However, few local studies have investigated whether species used are introduced or native and whether there is a difference in importance of native and introduced medicinal plant species. The aim of the present study was to describe the use of medicinal plants within two municipalities, Campo Hermoso and Zetaquira, both in the department of Boyacá, Colombia and to assess the importance of native and introduced plants to healers, amateur healers and local people. As local healers including amateur healers have no history of introduced species our working hypotheses (H1-2) were that H1: native and introduced medicinal plant species are of equal importance and H2: healers and amateur healers do not differentiate in their preferences between native and introduced medicinal plant species. Methods Ten villages were included in the study. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used including questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, in- depth interviews, and open talks. Voucher specimens were collected in home gardens and during field walks. For data analysis, we calculated use value indices and Jaccard index and tested for the above hypothesis using Spearman rank-correlation coefficients and Wilcoxon-Mann–Whitney tests. Results Eighty medicinal plant species were described by locals as the most frequently used. Of these, 78 species were taxonomically identified, distributed within 41 families and 74 genera, which included 35 native species and 43 introduced. The highest valued families were: Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae. The species ranked highest according to their Use Values, in both municipalities, were Mentha suaveolens Ehrh., Ambrosia cumanensis Kunth, and Verbena littoralis Kunth. Introduced species were more important than native ones in Zetaquira, while there was no difference in importance in Campo Hermoso. While healers

  18. Morphometry and retention time as forcing functions to establishment and maintenance of aquatic macrophytes in a tropical reservoir.

    PubMed

    Cunha-Santino, M B; Fushita, A T; Peret, A C; Bianchini-Junior, I

    2016-05-01

    Macrophytes may constitute an important resource for several chemical, physical and biological processes within aquatic ecosystems. This study considers that in tropical reservoirs with low retention time and with low values of shoreline development (DL), the expansion and persistence of aquatic macrophytes are mainly reported to local conditions (e.g., hydrodynamic and wind exposure) rather than trophic status and depth of the euphotic zone. In this context, this study aimed at describing and comparing the incidence of aquatic macrophytes in a throughflowing, non-dendritic tropical reservoir. During February 2006 to November 2007, eight limnological surveys were performed quarterly within the Ourinhos Reservoir, and in the mouth areas of its tributaries. At the six sampling stations 30 variables were measured. The number of sites with plants varied between 21 and 38 and at the end of the 1st year the total richness was found. The sampling survey outcome the recognition of 18 species of aquatic macrophytes; Cyperaceae (2 genera and 1 species), Pontederiaceae (3 species) and Onarograceae (3 genera) were the families with higher diversity. Seven species (Typha domingensis Pers., Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdec, Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth, Eleocharis sp1, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp. & Kunth) Lye) always were present and were more frequent in the sites. The occurrence of emergent species predominated (45.9%), followed by submersed rooted (24.5%), free floating (19.5%), floating rooted (9.7%) and free submersed (0.3%). Although limnological variables and the distribution of macrophytes have discriminated the same sampling points, the stepwise multiple linear regressions did not pointed out strong correspondences (or coherence) among the most constant and distributed macrophyte species and the selected limnological variables, as well the trophic statuses. Seeing the low relationship among limnological

  19. A contribution to the knowledge of New World Bruchinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae): taxonomic revision of Ctenocolum Kingsolver & Whitehead, with description of five new species.

    PubMed

    De Albuquerque, Felícia Pereira; Manfio, Daiara; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele Stramare

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this contribution was to review the species of Ctenocolum which are mainly distributed in the Neotropical region. The larvae of this genus have a high degree of specificity with the tribe Millettieae feeding mainly on seeds of Lonchocarpus Kunth (Fabaceae, Papilionoideae) and until now we do not know other bruchine consuming seeds of this genus. Here 13 valid species were studied, five new, divided in two groups, as previosly proposed in literature, group podagricus with Ctenocolum aquilus Albuquerque & Ribeiro-Costa sp. nov., C. biolleyi Kingsolver & Whitehead, C. colburni Kingsolver & Whitehead, C. martiale Kingsolver & Whitehead, C. milelo Albuquerque & Ribeiro-Costa sp. nov., C. podagricus (Fabricius), C. punctinotatus Albuquerque & Ribeiro-Costa sp. nov., C. pygospilotos Albuquerque & Ribeiro-Costa sp. nov. and C. triangulatus Albuquerque & Ribeiro-Costa sp. nov.; group tuberculatum with C. acapulcensis Kingsolver & Whitehead, C. janzeni Kingsolver & Whitehead, C. salvini (Sharp) and C. tuberculatum (Motschulsky). A lectotype is designated for Bruchus salvini and Bruchus pictifemur. Moreover, descriptions, redescriptions, diagnoses, key, geographic distribution and host plant records are also included. PMID:25081757

  20. Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity.

    PubMed

    Tognolini, M; Barocelli, E; Ballabeni, V; Bruni, R; Bianchi, A; Chiavarini, M; Impicciatore, M

    2006-02-23

    Essential oils extracted from different plants (Anthemis nobilis L., Artemisia dracunculus L., Cannabis sativa L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., Curcuma longa L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Hypericum perforatum L., Hyssopus officinalis L., Mentha spicata L., Monarda didyma L., Ocimum basilicum L., Ocotea quixos Kosterm., Origanum vulgare L., Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus silvestris L., Piper crassinervium Kunth., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Salvia sclarea L., Santolina chamaecyparissus L., Thymus vulgaris L., Zingiber officinaie L.) were screened in guinea pig and rat plasma in order to assess antiplatelet activity and inhibition of clot retraction. The oils were chemically analysed and a relationship between components and ability to affect hemostasis was evidenced. O. quixos, F. vulgaris, and A. dracunculus showed the highest antiplatelet activity against ADP, Arachidonic Acid and the Thromboxane A2 agonist U46619 (IC50, 4-132 microg ml(-1)), and a good ability to destabilize clot retraction (IC50, 19-180 microg ml(-1)). For these oils a significant correlation between antiplatelet potency and phenylpropanoids content (54-86%) was evidenced thus suggesting a key role for this moiety in the prevention of clot formation. These findings provide the rationale to take in account the antiplatelet activity in the pharmacological screening of natural products containing phenylpropanoids.

  1. Studies on the Biology of Hypogeococcus pungens (sensu stricto) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Argentina to Aid the Identification of the Mealybug Pest of Cactaceae in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, M. B.; Diaz-Soltero, H.; Claps, L. E.; Saracho Bottero, A.; Triapitsyn, S.; Hasson, E.; Logarzo, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypogeococcus pungens Granara de Willink, sensu stricto, is a serious pest of cacti in Puerto Rico threating many Caribbean islands. A classical biological control program for H. pungens was initiated for Puerto Rico in 2010 with a survey for natural enemies of H. pungens in its native range of Argentina. Biological differences were observed between populations of H. pungens sampled on Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae. Molecular studies suggested that H. pungens populations from different host plant families are likely a complex of species. Our objective was to study the biology of H. pungens sensu stricto on specimens collected in the same locality and host plant as the holotype [Tucumán Province, Argentina; Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae)]. We were interested in the reproductive biology of females, longevity and survival of adults, the effect of temperature on the development, and nymph performance (survival and development) on five Cactaceae species. We found that H. pungens s.s. showed marked biological differences from the populations collected on Cactaceae and exported to Australia for the biological control of the cactus Harrisia spp. The main differences were the presence of deuterotoky parthenogenesis and the fact that H. pungens did not attack Cactaceae in the laboratory. Our results provide biological evidence that H. pungens is a species complex. We propose that the population introduced to Australia is neither Hypogeococcus festerianus Lizer y Trelles nor H. pungens, but an undescribed species with three circuli, and that the Hypogeococcus pest of cacti in Puerto Rico is not H. pungens. PMID:27324585

  2. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

  3. Studies on the Biology of Hypogeococcus pungens (sensu stricto) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Argentina to Aid the Identification of the Mealybug Pest of Cactaceae in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, M B; Diaz-Soltero, H; Claps, L E; Saracho Bottero, A; Triapitsyn, S; Hasson, E; Logarzo, G A

    2016-01-01

    Hypogeococcus pungens Granara de Willink, sensu stricto, is a serious pest of cacti in Puerto Rico threating many Caribbean islands. A classical biological control program for H. pungens was initiated for Puerto Rico in 2010 with a survey for natural enemies of H. pungens in its native range of Argentina. Biological differences were observed between populations of H. pungens sampled on Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae. Molecular studies suggested that H. pungens populations from different host plant families are likely a complex of species. Our objective was to study the biology of H. pungens sensu stricto on specimens collected in the same locality and host plant as the holotype [Tucumán Province, Argentina; Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae)]. We were interested in the reproductive biology of females, longevity and survival of adults, the effect of temperature on the development, and nymph performance (survival and development) on five Cactaceae species. We found that H. pungens s.s showed marked biological differences from the populations collected on Cactaceae and exported to Australia for the biological control of the cactus Harrisia spp. The main differences were the presence of deuterotoky parthenogenesis and the fact that H. pungens did not attack Cactaceae in the laboratory. Our results provide biological evidence that H. pungens is a species complex. We propose that the population introduced to Australia is neither Hypogeococcus festerianus Lizer y Trelles nor H. pungens, but an undescribed species with three circuli, and that the Hypogeococcus pest of cacti in Puerto Rico is not H. pungens.

  4. Coleopterans associated with plants that form phytotelmata in subtropical and temperate Argentina, South America.

    PubMed

    Campos, Raúl E; Fernández, Liliana A

    2011-01-01

    A list of the most common plants that form phytotelmata and their associated coleopterans (aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial) from the northeastern subtropical and temperate area of Argentina, South America with biological and behavioral observations is presented in this study. Species of Poaceae (n = 3), Bromeliaceae (5), Apiaceae (6), Araceae (2), Urticaceae (1), Marantaceae (1), Arecaceae (1), Dipsacaceae (1) and Cyperaceae (1) were identified as phytotelmata. Aquatic species of Scirtidae (2), Dytiscidae (2), and Hydrophilidae (4), semi-aquatic Chelonariidae (2), and terrestrial species of Carabidae (3), Staphylinidae (5), Histeridae (1), Elateridae (1), Cantharidae (1), Cleridae (1), Tenebrionidae (1), Meloidae (1), Anthicidae (1), Chrysomelidae (3), Curculionidae (7) and Apionidae (1) were identified from six species of Eryngium L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), two species of Guadua Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), Aechmea distichantha Lemaire (Poales: Bromeliaceae), and from fallen leaves of Euterpe edulis Martius (Arecales: Arecaceae) from the temperate and subtropical area. The highest species richness was recorded in Eryngium phytotelmata. Fifteen species of beetles inhabit Eryngium cabrerae Pontiroli, 11 in E. horridum Malme, 7 in E. stenophyllum Urban, 4 in E. aff. serra Chamisso and Schlechtendal., 3 in E. elegans Chamisso and Schlechtendal, 2 in E. eburneum Decne and E. pandanifolium Chamisso and Schlechtendal. From bamboo, 6 species of coleopterans were collected from Guadua trinii (Nees) Nees ex Ruprecht and 4 from G. chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño and Peterson. Three species of aquatic coleopterans were recorded from A. distichantha and only one from E. edulis.

  5. Coleopterans Associated with Plants that form Phytotelmata in Subtropical and Temperate Argentina, South America

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Raúl E.; Fernández, Liliana A.

    2011-01-01

    A list of the most common plants that form phytotelmata and their associated coleopterans (aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial) from the northeastern subtropical and temperate area of Argentina, South America with biological and behavioral observations is presented in this study. Species of Poaceae (n = 3), Bromeliaceae (5), Apiaceae (6), Araceae (2), Urticaceae (1), Marantaceae (1), Arecaceae (1), Dipsacaceae (1) and Cyperaceae (1) were identified as phytotelmata. Aquatic species of Scirtidae (2), Dytiscidae (2), and Hydrophilidae (4), semi-aquatic Chelonariidae (2), and terrestrial species of Carabidae (3), Staphylinidae (5), Histeridae (1), Elateridae (1), Cantharidae (1), Cleridae (1), Tenebrionidae (1), Meloidae (1), Anthicidae (1), Chrysomelidae (3), Curculionidae (7) and Apionidae (1) were identified from six species of Eryngium L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), two species of Guadua Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), Aechmea distichantha Lemaire (Poales: Bromeliaceae), and from fallen leaves of Euterpe edulis Martius (Arecales: Arecaceae) from the temperate and subtropical area. The highest species richness was recorded in Eryngium phytotelmata. Fifteen species of beetles inhabit Eryngium cabrerae Pontiroli, 11 in E. horridum Malme, 7 in E. stenophyllum Urban, 4 in E. aff. serra Chamisso and Schlechtendal., 3 in E. elegans Chamisso and Schlechtendal, 2 in E. eburneum Decne and E. pandanifolium Chamisso and Schlechtendal. From bamboo, 6 species of coleopterans were collected from Guadua trinii (Nees) Nees ex Ruprecht and 4 from G. chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño and Peterson. Three species of aquatic coleopterans were recorded from A. distichantha and only one from E. edulis. PMID:22236084

  6. Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity.

    PubMed

    Tognolini, M; Barocelli, E; Ballabeni, V; Bruni, R; Bianchi, A; Chiavarini, M; Impicciatore, M

    2006-02-23

    Essential oils extracted from different plants (Anthemis nobilis L., Artemisia dracunculus L., Cannabis sativa L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., Curcuma longa L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Hypericum perforatum L., Hyssopus officinalis L., Mentha spicata L., Monarda didyma L., Ocimum basilicum L., Ocotea quixos Kosterm., Origanum vulgare L., Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus silvestris L., Piper crassinervium Kunth., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Salvia sclarea L., Santolina chamaecyparissus L., Thymus vulgaris L., Zingiber officinaie L.) were screened in guinea pig and rat plasma in order to assess antiplatelet activity and inhibition of clot retraction. The oils were chemically analysed and a relationship between components and ability to affect hemostasis was evidenced. O. quixos, F. vulgaris, and A. dracunculus showed the highest antiplatelet activity against ADP, Arachidonic Acid and the Thromboxane A2 agonist U46619 (IC50, 4-132 microg ml(-1)), and a good ability to destabilize clot retraction (IC50, 19-180 microg ml(-1)). For these oils a significant correlation between antiplatelet potency and phenylpropanoids content (54-86%) was evidenced thus suggesting a key role for this moiety in the prevention of clot formation. These findings provide the rationale to take in account the antiplatelet activity in the pharmacological screening of natural products containing phenylpropanoids. PMID:16274702

  7. Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of Vismia macrophylla leaves and fruits collected in Táchira-Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Alexis; Rojas, Janne; Rojas, Luis; Velasco, Judith; Morales, Antonio; Peñaloza, Yonel; Díaz, Clara

    2015-02-01

    Hydrodistillation of Vismia macrophylla Kunth (Hypericaceae) leaves (L) and fruits (F) yielded 1.3%, v/w, and 5.6%, v/w, of essential oil, respectively. GC and GC-MS analyses showed the presence of twenty-four (96.4%, L) and thirty-one (96.6%, F) components, respectively. Major compounds identified in the leaf oil were γ-bisabolene (44.4%) and β-bisabolol (14.9%), while those in the fruit oil were germacrene-D (12.1%), 6-cadinene (10.7%) and γ-bisabolene (22.3 %). Oil obtained from the fruits of V. macrophylla showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (S. aureus ATCC 25923 and E. faecalis ATCC 29212) as well as Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli ATCC 25922), with MIC values ranging from 150 μL/mL to 740 μL/mL. Oil obtained from leaves were active only on the Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus (100 μL/mL) and E. faecalis (500 μL/mL), but also showed antiyeast activity against Candida albicans CDC-B385 and C. krusei ATCC 6258 (600 μL/mL, each).

  8. An Integrated Hypothesis on the Domestication of Bactris gasipaes

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Dominique; van Zonneveld, Maarten; Escobar Salamanca, Andrés Felipe; Giraldo Toro, Andrés; Rivera, Andrés; Salazar Duque, Hector; Suárez Baron, Harold; Gallego, Gerardo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Gonzalez Mejia, Alonso

    2015-01-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) has had a central place in the livelihoods of people in the Americas since pre-Columbian times, notably for its edible fruits and multi-purpose wood. The botanical taxon includes both domesticated and wild varieties. Domesticated var gasipaes is believed to derive from one or more of the three wild types of var. chichagui identified today, although the exact dynamics and location of the domestication are still uncertain. Drawing on a combination of molecular and phenotypic diversity data, modeling of past climate suitability and existing literature, we present an integrated hypothesis about peach palm’s domestication. We support a single initial domestication event in south western Amazonia, giving rise to var. chichagui type 3, the putative incipient domesticate. We argue that subsequent dispersal by humans across western Amazonia, and possibly into Central America allowed for secondary domestication events through hybridization with resident wild populations, and differential human selection pressures, resulting in the diversity of present-day landraces. The high phenotypic diversity in the Ecuadorian and northern Peruvian Amazon suggest that human selection of different traits was particularly intense there. While acknowledging the need for further data collection, we believe that our results contribute new insights and tools to understand domestication and dispersal patterns of this important native staple, as well as to plan for its conservation. PMID:26658881

  9. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Pouteria campechiana on acetaminophen-induced hepatic toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Aseervatham, G Smilin Bell; Sivasudha, T; Sasikumar, J M; Christabel, P Hephzibah; Jeyadevi, R; Ananth, D Arul

    2014-03-01

    Pouteria campechiana (Kunth) Baehni. is used as a remedy for coronary trouble, liver disorders, epilepsy, skin disease, and ulcer. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of polyphenolic-rich P. campechiana fruit extract against acetaminophen-intoxicated rats. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of egg fruit were estimated followed by the determination of antioxidant activities. Treatment with P. campechiana fruit extract effectively scavenged the free radicals in a concentration-dependent manner within the range of the given concentrations in all antioxidant models. The presence of polyphenolic compounds were confirmed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). The animals were treated with acetaminophen (250 mg/kg body weight; p.o.) thrice at the interval of every 5 days after the administration of P. campechiana aqueous extract and silymarin (50 mg/kg). Acetaminophen treatment was found to trigger an oxidative stress in liver, leading to an increase of serum marker enzymes. However, treatment with P. campechiana fruit extract significantly reduced the elevated liver marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase) and increased the antioxidant enzymes (viz., superoxide dismutase and catalase) and glutathione indicating the effect of the extract in restoring the normal functional ability of hepatocytes. These results strongly suggest that P. campechiana fruit extract has strong antioxidant and significant hepatoprotective effect against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity.

  10. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of Piper auritum and Porophyllum ruderale.

    PubMed

    Conde-Hernández, Lilia A; Guerrero-Beltrán, José Á

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from fresh and dried samples of Mexican pepperleaf (Piper auritum Kunth) and "papalo" (Porophyllum ruderale) were obtained using a stirring or an ultrasound extraction system with five types of solvents (water, 50:50% v/v ethanol:water, 70:30% v/v ethanol:water, 85:15% v/v ethanol:1.5N HCl, and ethanol). Total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were evaluated with the phenol Folin Ciocalteu reagent and the ABTS method, respectively. Total phenolic compounds (PC), trolox (T), and ascorbic acid (AA), in the two herbs, were in the range of 6.79-68.03mg of galic acid (GA)/g dry solids (d.s.), 4.88-64.99mg of T/gd.s., and 5.31-49.84mgAA/gd.s., respectively. Extracts from fresh "papalo", using ultrasound as the extraction system, had the highest amount of total phenolic compounds. The fresh pepperleaf extract, obtained using ultrasound as the extraction method contained the highest amount of antioxidant activity.

  11. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) seed oil toxicity effect and Linamarin compound analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The lipid fraction of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis (kunth. Muell)) seed was extracted and analyzed for toxicological effect. The toxicological compound such as linamarin in rubber seed oil (RSO) extracted using different solvents, such as hexane (RSOh), mixture of chloroform + methanol (RSOchl+mth) and ethanol (RSOeth) were also studied. Various methods analysis such as Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and colorimetric methods were carried out to determine the present of such compounds. Results FTIR spectrum of RSO did not show any presence of cyanide peak. The determination of cyanide by using colorimetric method was demonstrated no response of the cyanide in RSO and didn’t show any colored comparing with commercial cyanide which observed blue color. The results showed that no functional groups such as cyanide (C ≡ N) associated with linamarin were observed. Toxicological test using rats was also conducted to further confirm the absence of such compounds. RSO did not show any toxic potential to the rats. Bioassay experiments using shrimps had been used as test organisms to evaluate the toxicity of linamarin extract from RSOh, RSOchl+mth and RSOeth and LC50 were found to be (211.70 %, 139.40 %, and 117.41 %, respectively). Conclusions This can be attributed no hazardous linamarin were found in RSO. PMID:22694753

  12. An Integrated Hypothesis on the Domestication of Bactris gasipaes.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Gea; Dufour, Dominique; Thomas, Evert; van Zonneveld, Maarten; Escobar Salamanca, Andrés Felipe; Giraldo Toro, Andrés; Rivera, Andrés; Salazar Duque, Hector; Suárez Baron, Harold; Gallego, Gerardo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Gonzalez Mejia, Alonso

    2015-01-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) has had a central place in the livelihoods of people in the Americas since pre-Columbian times, notably for its edible fruits and multi-purpose wood. The botanical taxon includes both domesticated and wild varieties. Domesticated var gasipaes is believed to derive from one or more of the three wild types of var. chichagui identified today, although the exact dynamics and location of the domestication are still uncertain. Drawing on a combination of molecular and phenotypic diversity data, modeling of past climate suitability and existing literature, we present an integrated hypothesis about peach palm's domestication. We support a single initial domestication event in south western Amazonia, giving rise to var. chichagui type 3, the putative incipient domesticate. We argue that subsequent dispersal by humans across western Amazonia, and possibly into Central America allowed for secondary domestication events through hybridization with resident wild populations, and differential human selection pressures, resulting in the diversity of present-day landraces. The high phenotypic diversity in the Ecuadorian and northern Peruvian Amazon suggest that human selection of different traits was particularly intense there. While acknowledging the need for further data collection, we believe that our results contribute new insights and tools to understand domestication and dispersal patterns of this important native staple, as well as to plan for its conservation. PMID:26658881

  13. Coleopterans associated with plants that form phytotelmata in subtropical and temperate Argentina, South America.

    PubMed

    Campos, Raúl E; Fernández, Liliana A

    2011-01-01

    A list of the most common plants that form phytotelmata and their associated coleopterans (aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial) from the northeastern subtropical and temperate area of Argentina, South America with biological and behavioral observations is presented in this study. Species of Poaceae (n = 3), Bromeliaceae (5), Apiaceae (6), Araceae (2), Urticaceae (1), Marantaceae (1), Arecaceae (1), Dipsacaceae (1) and Cyperaceae (1) were identified as phytotelmata. Aquatic species of Scirtidae (2), Dytiscidae (2), and Hydrophilidae (4), semi-aquatic Chelonariidae (2), and terrestrial species of Carabidae (3), Staphylinidae (5), Histeridae (1), Elateridae (1), Cantharidae (1), Cleridae (1), Tenebrionidae (1), Meloidae (1), Anthicidae (1), Chrysomelidae (3), Curculionidae (7) and Apionidae (1) were identified from six species of Eryngium L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), two species of Guadua Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), Aechmea distichantha Lemaire (Poales: Bromeliaceae), and from fallen leaves of Euterpe edulis Martius (Arecales: Arecaceae) from the temperate and subtropical area. The highest species richness was recorded in Eryngium phytotelmata. Fifteen species of beetles inhabit Eryngium cabrerae Pontiroli, 11 in E. horridum Malme, 7 in E. stenophyllum Urban, 4 in E. aff. serra Chamisso and Schlechtendal., 3 in E. elegans Chamisso and Schlechtendal, 2 in E. eburneum Decne and E. pandanifolium Chamisso and Schlechtendal. From bamboo, 6 species of coleopterans were collected from Guadua trinii (Nees) Nees ex Ruprecht and 4 from G. chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño and Peterson. Three species of aquatic coleopterans were recorded from A. distichantha and only one from E. edulis. PMID:22236084

  14. Antiprotozoal activity against Entamoeba histolytica of plants used in northeast Mexican traditional medicine. Bioactive compounds from Lippia graveolens and Ruta chalepensis.

    PubMed

    Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, Aldo Fabio; Kavimngeles-Hernández, Isvar; Garza-González, Jesús Norberto; Hernández-García, Magda Elizabeth

    2014-12-15

    Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is associated with high morbidity and mortality is becoming a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We collected 32 plants used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal activity against E. histolytica trophozoites using in vitro tests. Only 18 extracts showed a significant inhibiting activity and among them six plant extracts showed more than 80% growth inhibition against E. histolytica at a concentration of 150 µg/mL and the IC50 values of these extracts were determined. Lippia graveolens Kunth and Ruta chalepensis Pers. showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91.54% and 90.50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with IC50 values of 59.14 and 60.07 µg/mL, respectively). Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts from these two plants afforded carvacrol (1) and chalepensin (2), respectively, as bioactive compounds with antiprotozoal activity.

  15. Genetic divergence among populations and accessions of the spineless peach palm from Pampa Hermosa landrace used in the heart-of-palm agribusiness in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Clement, Charles R; Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane

    2012-04-01

    Although originally domesticated for its fruit, exploitation of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the production of gourmet heart-of-palm has also become an important activity, hence the need for improved material for large-scale production, on employing the Pampa Hermosa landrace as the seed source. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic divergence among 96 elite plants representing four populations of spineless peach palm from the above cited source. Genetic variability was high (H(T) = 0.82). The low levels of divergence [F(ST) (0.023), G(ST)' (0.005)] and the high number of migrants (Nm - 3.8 to 52.2) indicated significant interpopulation gene flow. Some of the plants presented high levels of genetic divergence, but the plants were grouped independently of their geographic origins. When combined with morpho-agronomic evaluation, the results found could substantially contribute towards mounting an efficient tool for obtaining superior genotypes with wide genetic variability for improvement programs. PMID:22888298

  16. Genetic divergence among populations and accessions of the spineless peach palm from Pampa Hermosa landrace used in the heart-of-palm agribusiness in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Clement, Charles R.; Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane

    2012-01-01

    Although originally domesticated for its fruit, exploitation of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the production of gourmet heart-of-palm has also become an important activity, hence the need for improved material for large-scale production, on employing the Pampa Hermosa landrace as the seed source. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic divergence among 96 elite plants representing four populations of spineless peach palm from the above cited source. Genetic variability was high (HT = 0.82). The low levels of divergence [FST (0.023), GST’ (0.005)] and the high number of migrants (Nm - 3.8 to 52.2) indicated significant interpopulation gene flow. Some of the plants presented high levels of genetic divergence, but the plants were grouped independently of their geographic origins. When combined with morpho-agronomic evaluation, the results found could substantially contribute towards mounting an efficient tool for obtaining superior genotypes with wide genetic variability for improvement programs. PMID:22888298

  17. Somatic Embryogenesis in Peach-Palm (Bactris gasipaes) Using Different Explant Sources.

    PubMed

    Steinmacher, Douglas A; Heringer, Angelo Schuabb; Jiménez, Víctor M; Quoirin, Marguerite G G; Guerra, Miguel P

    2016-01-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is a member of the family Arecaceae and is a multipurpose but underutilized species. Nowadays, fruit production for subsistence and local markets, and heart-of-palm production for local, national, and international markets are the most important uses of this plant. Conventional breeding programs in peach palm are long-term efforts due to the prolonged generation time, large plant size, difficulties with controlled pollination and other factors. Although it is a caespitose palm, its propagation is currently based on seeds, as off-shoots are difficult to root. Hence, tissue culture techniques are considered to be the most likely strategy for efficient clonal plantlet regeneration of this species. Among various techniques, somatic embryogenesis offers the advantages of potential automated large-scale production and putative genetic stability of the regenerated plantlets. The induction of somatic embryogenesis in peach palm can be achieved by using different explant sources including zygotic embryos, immature inflorescences and thin cell layers from the young leaves and shoot meristems. The choice of a particular explant depends on whether clonal propagation is desired or not, as well as on the plant conditions and availability of explants. Protocols to induce and express somatic embryogenesis from different peach palm explants, up to acclimatization of plantlets, are described in this chapter. PMID:26619867

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Lippia Species from the Brazilian Semiarid Region Traditionally Used as Antiseptic and Anti-Infective Agents

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Cristiana da Purificação; Rodrigues, Velize Dias; Pinto, Fernanda da Purificação; Pinto, Renata da Purificação; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Pinheiro, Carla Santos Ribeiro; Gadea, Suzana Ferreira Magalhães; Silva, Tânia Regina dos Santos; Lucchese, Angélica Maria

    2013-01-01

    Lippia origanoides Kunth, Lippia alnifolia Schauer, and Lippia thymoides Martius and Schauer are shrubs used in the traditional Brazilian medicine as antiseptics, as well as in the treatment of infectious diseases. This study was designed to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the methanolic extracts of these species, as new potential sources of antimicrobial drugs. The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts was investigated against resistant yeasts and bacteria by agar disk diffusion. Then, the MIC determination of the most active species and its fractions in hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and water was performed. By the agar diffusion assay, all species were active against at least two microorganisms, giving evidence to support their use in the popular medicine. L. origanoides leaves exhibited the widest antimicrobial action, inhibiting the growth of two Gram-positive bacteria and two yeasts; this activity was also confirmed by the MIC evaluation. The fractionation of L. origanoides crude extracts improved the activity in spectrum and intensity. The results obtained in this study indicate that L. origanoides may be a promising alternative in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections and in the seeking of new antimicrobial drugs. PMID:24109492

  19. Anticonvulsant Effects of Lippia citriodora (Verbenaceae) Leaves Ethanolic Extract in Mice: Role of GABAergic System

    PubMed Central

    Rashidian, Amir; Farhang, Forogh; Vahedi, Habib; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Ejtemai Mehr, Shahram; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lippia citriodora Kunth is one of the Iranian traditional medicines for the treatment of convulsive disorders. The goal of this study is to investigate the anticonvulsant activity of the plant's leave ethanolic extract against electro- and chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in mice. Methods: The anticonvulsant activity of the extract (200, 400, 800 mg/kg, per os, p.o.) was investigated in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures in mice. Diazepam (1 mg/kg) and phenytoin (25 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) were used as reference drugs. In addition, for investigating the role of GABAergic system, flumazenil (2 mg/kg, i.p.) was also injected before L. citriodora. Results: The extract had not any toxicity and significantly decreased the duration and increased the latency of the seizures induced by PTZ (90 mg/kg). In the MES test, L. citriodora displayed statistically significant reduction in hind limb tonic extension duration in a nondose-dependent manner. Flumazenil reversed the anticonvulsant activity of the plant's extract in the PTZ model. Conclusions: The results propose that L. citriodora leave ethanolic extract has anticonvulsant activity against convulsive disorders. It seems that this plant's extract generates its antiseizure effect through GABAergic system potentiation. Further studies will be needed in order to investigate the exact mechanisms of it. Moreover, one may conclude that the present results are in accordance with the positive effect of L. citriodora extract to treat convulsion mentioned in old Iranian literature. PMID:27563433

  20. A study of the larvicidal activity of two Croton species from northeastern Brazil against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Dória, Grace A A; Silva, Wellington J; Carvalho, Gilcia A; Alves, Péricles B; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C H

    2010-06-01

    The essential oils of Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth (Euphorbiaceae) and Croton pulegiodorus Baill. were selected for larvicidal evaluation against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) and studied qualitatively and quantitatively by GC and GC-MS. Sixty-one compounds representing 92.03% (C. heliotropiifolius) and 85.68% (C. pulegiodorus) of the essential oils, respectively, have been identified. The major components of C. heliotropiifolius essential oil were identified as beta-caryophyllene (35.82%), bicyclogermacrene (19.98%), and germacrene-D (11.85%). The major components in C. pulegiodorus essential oil were identified as beta-caryophyllene (20.96%), bicyclogermacrene (16.89%), germacrene-D (10.55%), tau-cadinol (4.56%), and beta-copaen-4-alpha-ol (4.35%). The essential oil of C. pulegiodorus (LC50 159 ppm) was more effective against Ae. aegypti than that of C. heliotropiifolius (LC50 544 ppm). In order to verify whether the major compound of both essential oils is the active principle responsible for the larvicidal activity, beta-caryophyllene was purchased and its larvicidal potential was further evaluated. However, beta-caryophyllene (LC50 1038 ppm) showed weak larvicidal potency. Results of larvicidal evaluation suggest the existence of a synergistic effect of minor components in the essential oils. PMID:20645733

  1. Studies on the Biology of Hypogeococcus pungens (sensu stricto) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Argentina to Aid the Identification of the Mealybug Pest of Cactaceae in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, M B; Diaz-Soltero, H; Claps, L E; Saracho Bottero, A; Triapitsyn, S; Hasson, E; Logarzo, G A

    2016-01-01

    Hypogeococcus pungens Granara de Willink, sensu stricto, is a serious pest of cacti in Puerto Rico threating many Caribbean islands. A classical biological control program for H. pungens was initiated for Puerto Rico in 2010 with a survey for natural enemies of H. pungens in its native range of Argentina. Biological differences were observed between populations of H. pungens sampled on Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae. Molecular studies suggested that H. pungens populations from different host plant families are likely a complex of species. Our objective was to study the biology of H. pungens sensu stricto on specimens collected in the same locality and host plant as the holotype [Tucumán Province, Argentina; Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae)]. We were interested in the reproductive biology of females, longevity and survival of adults, the effect of temperature on the development, and nymph performance (survival and development) on five Cactaceae species. We found that H. pungens s.s showed marked biological differences from the populations collected on Cactaceae and exported to Australia for the biological control of the cactus Harrisia spp. The main differences were the presence of deuterotoky parthenogenesis and the fact that H. pungens did not attack Cactaceae in the laboratory. Our results provide biological evidence that H. pungens is a species complex. We propose that the population introduced to Australia is neither Hypogeococcus festerianus Lizer y Trelles nor H. pungens, but an undescribed species with three circuli, and that the Hypogeococcus pest of cacti in Puerto Rico is not H. pungens. PMID:27324585

  2. Age-stage, two-sex life table of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Hispidae) feeding on four palm plant varieties.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tao; Lin, Yu-Ying; Jin, Qi-An; Wen, Hai-Bo; Peng, Zheng-Qiang

    2012-10-01

    The life history of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Hispidae), reared under laboratory conditions on leaves of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), royal palm [Roystonea regia (Kunth) O.F.Cook], bottle palm [Hyophorbe lagenicaulis (L. Bailey) H.E.Moore], and fishtail palm (Caryota ochlandra Hance) was analyzed using age-stage, two-sex life table. Means and standard errors of population growth parameters were calculated using the jackknife method. Moreover, survival rate and fecundity data were applied to project the population for revealing the different stage structure. The mean intrinsic rates of population growth when reared on each respective leaf type were 0.032, 0.031, 0.019, and 0.044. Individuals reared on C. nucifera achieved the highest net reproduction rate at 114.5 offspring per female. The mean generation times of B. longissima ranged from 93.2 d (reared on C. ochlandrai) to 161.5 d (reared on H. lagenicaulis). Projections from survival rate and fecundity data indicated that B. longissima populations can row considerably faster on C. ochlandra than on the other three host plants. The results validate the two-stage life history approach taken, providing an essential tool for developing and testing future control strategies. PMID:23068179

  3. An Integrated Hypothesis on the Domestication of Bactris gasipaes.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Gea; Dufour, Dominique; Thomas, Evert; van Zonneveld, Maarten; Escobar Salamanca, Andrés Felipe; Giraldo Toro, Andrés; Rivera, Andrés; Salazar Duque, Hector; Suárez Baron, Harold; Gallego, Gerardo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Gonzalez Mejia, Alonso

    2015-01-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) has had a central place in the livelihoods of people in the Americas since pre-Columbian times, notably for its edible fruits and multi-purpose wood. The botanical taxon includes both domesticated and wild varieties. Domesticated var gasipaes is believed to derive from one or more of the three wild types of var. chichagui identified today, although the exact dynamics and location of the domestication are still uncertain. Drawing on a combination of molecular and phenotypic diversity data, modeling of past climate suitability and existing literature, we present an integrated hypothesis about peach palm's domestication. We support a single initial domestication event in south western Amazonia, giving rise to var. chichagui type 3, the putative incipient domesticate. We argue that subsequent dispersal by humans across western Amazonia, and possibly into Central America allowed for secondary domestication events through hybridization with resident wild populations, and differential human selection pressures, resulting in the diversity of present-day landraces. The high phenotypic diversity in the Ecuadorian and northern Peruvian Amazon suggest that human selection of different traits was particularly intense there. While acknowledging the need for further data collection, we believe that our results contribute new insights and tools to understand domestication and dispersal patterns of this important native staple, as well as to plan for its conservation.

  4. An apple plus a Brazil nut a day keeps the doctors away: antioxidant capacity of foods and their health benefits.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Carlos Kusano Bucalen; Percário, Sandro; Silva, José Carlos Costa Baptista; da Silva Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant-rich foods scavenge free radicals and other reactive species, decreasing the risk of different non-communicable chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to review the content of total antioxidant capacity of commonly foods comparing with experimental data and to explore the health benefits due to foods with moderate to high TAC. The TAC was analytically measured using the "Total Antioxidant Capacity" (NX2332) test from Randox® (UK) by spectrometry at 600 nm. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), "guaraná" (Paullinia cupana Kunth) powder, ready to drink boiled coffee (Coffea arabica L.), and milk chocolate (made from seeds of Theobroma cacao) had the highest TAC values, followed by collard greens (Brassica oleracea L.), beets (Beta vulgaris L.), apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), bananas (Musa paradisiaca), common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), onions (Allium cepa L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Other foods also showed antioxidant capacity. The binomial antioxidant capacity of foods and health was extensively discussed according to science literature. Based on the high TAC content of Brazil nuts, guaraná, coffee, chocolate, collard greens, apples, beets, beans, oranges, onions and other foods, their regular dietary intake is strongly recommended to reduce the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases.

  5. Environmental changes of the Mazovian (Holsteinian /~MIS 11) palaeolake near Szymanowo (eastern Poland) in the light of malacological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanek, Marcin

    2014-06-01

    The malacofauna of the palaeolake deposits at Szymanowo (eastern Poland) was investigated. It represents the younger part of the climatic optimum of the Mazovian (Holsteinian) Interglacial (~MIS 11) and possibly the postoptimal period. The mollusc assemblage is composed of both standing and running water species, mostly connected with temperate climate. The presence of biostratigraphical indicators of the Mazovian, Viviparus diluvianus (Kunth, 1865), Lithoglyphus jahni Urbański, 1975 and Pisidium clessini Neumayr, 1875, is noteworthy. Variability in the structure and composition of the assemblage enables palaeoecological reconstruction. Changes in the water-level, vegetation and energy conditions are inferred from the malacological succession. Three stages of the lake development were distinguished. The first one is connected with deeper conditions and predominance of V. diluvianus and L. jahni. The second one, dominated by Bithynia tentaculata (Linnaeus, 1758), records a fall of the water-level and the growth of aquatic plants, evidenced by high frequencies of Valvata cristata Muller, 1774 and Acroloxus lacustris (Linnaeus, 1758). The third stage corresponds to another rise of the water-level and an increase in V. diluvianus, L. jahni, Valvata piscinalis Muller, 1774 and Pisidium henslowanum (Sheppard, 1823), which evidence some higher energy conditions.

  6. Eichhornia azurea decomposition and the bacterial dynamic: an experimental research.

    PubMed

    Dahroug, Zaryf; Santana, Natália Fernanda; Pagioro, Thomaz Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    Organic decomposition is a complex interaction between chemical, physical and biological processes, where the variety of aquatic vascular plants is essential for the trophic dynamics of freshwater ecosystems. The goal of this study was to determine the aquatic macrophyte Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth decomposition rate, the time relation with the limnological parameters, and whether this relationship is a result of decomposition processes. To that end, we collected water and leaves of E. azurea in Surf Leopoldo, PR. The experiment consisted of two treatments: 25 containers with 450mL of water and 0.8g of biomass dry weight were used with or without the addition of macrophytes. Samples were collected in triplicate at times 0, 3h, 6h, 12h, 24h, 72h, 120h, 168h and 240h. When the container was removed, the plant material was dried in an oven. After 48h, the material was measured to obtain the final dry weight. Analyses of pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus N-ammonia (NH4), soluble reactive phosphorus (PO4) and dissolved organic carbon were performed, and the decomposition rate was calculated. The results showed significant temporal variation of limnological parameters in the study. Additionally, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon and total phosphorus were correlated with the dry weight of the biomass, suggesting that E. azurea decomposition significantly interferes with the dynamics of these variables. PMID:26991303

  7. Genetic divergence among populations and accessions of the spineless peach palm from Pampa Hermosa landrace used in the heart-of-palm agribusiness in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Clement, Charles R; Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane

    2012-04-01

    Although originally domesticated for its fruit, exploitation of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the production of gourmet heart-of-palm has also become an important activity, hence the need for improved material for large-scale production, on employing the Pampa Hermosa landrace as the seed source. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic divergence among 96 elite plants representing four populations of spineless peach palm from the above cited source. Genetic variability was high (H(T) = 0.82). The low levels of divergence [F(ST) (0.023), G(ST)' (0.005)] and the high number of migrants (Nm - 3.8 to 52.2) indicated significant interpopulation gene flow. Some of the plants presented high levels of genetic divergence, but the plants were grouped independently of their geographic origins. When combined with morpho-agronomic evaluation, the results found could substantially contribute towards mounting an efficient tool for obtaining superior genotypes with wide genetic variability for improvement programs.

  8. Karyotype with 210 chromosomes in guaraná (Paullinia cupana 'Sorbilis').

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Danival Vieira; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Filho, Firmino José do Nascimento; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco

    2007-05-01

    The genus Paullinia includes the economically important P. cupana, known as guaraná in Brazil and more recently in the world market. Native Americans of the Maué and Andirá tribes cultivated P. cupana 'Sorbilis' in central Amazon, and the Barés cultivated the 'Typica' variety in the upper Negro River (Brazil). Cytological studies in the Sapindaceae family have concentrated on the diversity in number (from 2n = 14 to 96) and size of the chromosomes. In Paullinia, seven species have been karyotyped and all show 2n = 24. Meristem maceration, cellular dissociation and air-drying techniques were used for cytogenetic preparations and DNA content was determined by flow cytometry. Chromosome characterization and DNA content of Paullinia cupana Kunth 'Sorbilis' (Mart.) Ducke (Sapindaceae) were studied. The high chromosome number (2n = 210) fall into two cytomorphological groups: (a) a metacentric and submetacentric group showing 25 sets of three pairs of chromosomes (2-76); (b) a group containing only acrocentric showing 12 sets of two pairs of chromosomes (82-105), a homologous submetacentric pair (1) and an acrocentric pair (81). Mean nuclear DNA content of guaraná was 2C = 22.8 pg. A karyogram was set up showing a high chromosome number complement.

  9. A New Alkamide with an Endoperoxide Structure from Acmella ciliata (Asteraceae) and Its in Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Narjara; Saar, Julia; Santos, Alan Diego C; Barison, Andersson; Sandjo, Louis P; Kaiser, Marcel; Schmidt, Thomas J; Biavatti, Maique W

    2016-01-01

    From the aerial parts of Acmella ciliata (H.B.K.) Cassini (basionym Spilanthes ciliata Kunth; Asteraceae), three alkamides were isolated and identified by mass- and NMR spectroscopic methods as (2E,6E,8E)-N-isobutyl-2,6,8-decatrienamide (spilanthol, (1)), N-(2-phenethyl)-2E-en-6,8-nonadiynamide (2) and (2E,7Z)-6,9-endoperoxy-N-isobutyl-2,7-decadienamide (3). While 1 and 2 are known alkamides, compound 3 has not been described until now. It was found that the unusual cyclic peroxide 3 exists as a racemate of both enantiomers of each alkamide; the 6,9-cis- as well as the 6,9-trans-configured diastereomers, the former represents the major, the latter the minor constituent of the mixture. In vitro tests for activity against the human pathogenic parasites Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Plasmodium falciparum revealed that 1 and 3 possess activity against the NF54 strain of the latter (IC50 values of 4.5 and 5.1 µM, respectively) while 2 was almost inactive. Compound 3 was also tested against multiresistant P. falciparum K1 and was found to be even more active against this parasite strain (IC50 = 2.1 µM) with considerable selectivity (IC50 against L6 rat skeletal myoblasts = 168 µM). PMID:27294907

  10. Accumulation of arsenic, lead, copper, and zinc, and synthesis of phytochelatins by indigenous plants of a mining impacted area.

    PubMed

    Machado-Estrada, Blenda; Calderón, Jaqueline; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S

    2013-06-01

    Several native plants, able to grow in an unconfined mining impacted area that is now in close vicinity with urban areas, were evaluated for their ability to accumulate heavy metals. The main soil contaminants were As, Pb, Cu, and Zn. Sampling of the rhizospheric metal polluted soil showed that Euphorbia prostrata Aiton, Parthenium incanum Kunth, and Zinnia acerosa (DC.) A. Gray were able to grow in the presence of high amounts of mixtures of these elements. The plants accumulated the metals in the above ground parts and increased the synthesis of thiol molecules. E. prostrata showed the highest capacity for accumulation of the mixture of elements (588 μg g DW(-1)). Analysis of the thiol-molecules profile showed that these plants synthesized high amounts of long-chain phytochelatins, accompanied by low amounts of monothiol molecules, which may be related to their higher resistance to As and heavy metals. The three plants showed translocation factors from roots to leaves >1 for As, Pb, Cu, and Zn. Thus, by periodically removing aerial parts, these plants could be useful for the phytoremediation of semi-arid and arid mining impacted areas, in which metal hyper-accumulator plants are not able to grow.

  11. RAPD and microsatellite transferability studies in selected species of Prosopis (section Algarobia) with emphasis on Prosopis juliflora and P. pallida.

    PubMed

    Sherry, Minu; Smith, Steve; Patel, Ashok; Harris, Phil; Hand, Paul; Trenchard, Liz; Henderson, Janey

    2011-08-01

    The genus Prosopis (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae), comprises 44 species widely distributed in arid and semi-arid zones. Prosopis pallida (Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd.) Kunth and P. juliflora (Sw.) DC. are the two species that are truly tropical apart from P. africana, which is native to tropical Africa (Pasiecznik et al. 2004), and they have been introduced widely beyond their native ranges. However, taxonomic confusion within the genus has hampered exploitation and better management of the species. The present study focusses primarily on evaluating the genetic relationship between Prosopis species from the section Algarobia, containing most species of economic importance, though P. tamarugo from section Strombocarpa is also included for comparison. In total, 12 Prosopis species and a putative P. pallida x P. chilensis hybrid were assessed for their genetic relationships based on RAPD markers and microsatellite transferability. The results show that P. pallida and P. juliflora are not closely related despite some morphological similarity. Evidence also agrees with previous studies which suggest that the grouping of series in section Algarobia is artificial.

  12. Vasoactive and antioxidant activities of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Alvarado, C; Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Bah, M; Gutiérrez, D M; Hernández-Sandoval, L; Martínez, M

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of plants employed in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are able to modify the tone of arterial smooth muscle. Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Labiatae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Chirantodendron pentadactylon Larreat (Sterculiaceae), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Labiatae), Psittacanthus calyculatus G. Don (Loranthaceae), Prunus serotina ssp. capuli (Cav. ex Spreng) McVaugh (Rosaceae), and Sechium edule Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) contain secondary metabolites that promote vascular relaxation and display antioxidant activities. As expected, their antioxidant effects showed a significant correlation with the polyphenolics content. However, a lower correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the maximum vasodilatory effect, suggesting that the vasodilatation elicited by the plant extracts could be only partly attributed to their antioxidant properties. The extract of P. calyculatus, which displayed a maximum vasorelaxant effect that was higher than that of acetylcholine, induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Futhermore, the vasorelaxant response to the P. calyculatus extract was reduced after adding an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase activity, providing evidence that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved. On the other hand, the extracts of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae), Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae), and Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae) induced concentration-dependent contraction of rat aortic rings, suggesting that these plants have potential health benefits for the treatment of ailments such as venous insufficiency. The pharmacological activities of the extracts studied provide scientific support for their ethnomedical use. PMID:20645769

  13. Vasoactive and antioxidant activities of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Alvarado, C; Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Bah, M; Gutiérrez, D M; Hernández-Sandoval, L; Martínez, M

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of plants employed in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are able to modify the tone of arterial smooth muscle. Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Labiatae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Chirantodendron pentadactylon Larreat (Sterculiaceae), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Labiatae), Psittacanthus calyculatus G. Don (Loranthaceae), Prunus serotina ssp. capuli (Cav. ex Spreng) McVaugh (Rosaceae), and Sechium edule Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) contain secondary metabolites that promote vascular relaxation and display antioxidant activities. As expected, their antioxidant effects showed a significant correlation with the polyphenolics content. However, a lower correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the maximum vasodilatory effect, suggesting that the vasodilatation elicited by the plant extracts could be only partly attributed to their antioxidant properties. The extract of P. calyculatus, which displayed a maximum vasorelaxant effect that was higher than that of acetylcholine, induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Futhermore, the vasorelaxant response to the P. calyculatus extract was reduced after adding an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase activity, providing evidence that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved. On the other hand, the extracts of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae), Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae), and Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae) induced concentration-dependent contraction of rat aortic rings, suggesting that these plants have potential health benefits for the treatment of ailments such as venous insufficiency. The pharmacological activities of the extracts studied provide scientific support for their ethnomedical use.

  14. Eichhornia azurea decomposition and the bacterial dynamic: an experimental research.

    PubMed

    Dahroug, Zaryf; Santana, Natália Fernanda; Pagioro, Thomaz Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    Organic decomposition is a complex interaction between chemical, physical and biological processes, where the variety of aquatic vascular plants is essential for the trophic dynamics of freshwater ecosystems. The goal of this study was to determine the aquatic macrophyte Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth decomposition rate, the time relation with the limnological parameters, and whether this relationship is a result of decomposition processes. To that end, we collected water and leaves of E. azurea in Surf Leopoldo, PR. The experiment consisted of two treatments: 25 containers with 450mL of water and 0.8g of biomass dry weight were used with or without the addition of macrophytes. Samples were collected in triplicate at times 0, 3h, 6h, 12h, 24h, 72h, 120h, 168h and 240h. When the container was removed, the plant material was dried in an oven. After 48h, the material was measured to obtain the final dry weight. Analyses of pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus N-ammonia (NH4), soluble reactive phosphorus (PO4) and dissolved organic carbon were performed, and the decomposition rate was calculated. The results showed significant temporal variation of limnological parameters in the study. Additionally, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon and total phosphorus were correlated with the dry weight of the biomass, suggesting that E. azurea decomposition significantly interferes with the dynamics of these variables.

  15. An apple plus a Brazil nut a day keeps the doctors away: antioxidant capacity of foods and their health benefits.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Carlos Kusano Bucalen; Percário, Sandro; Silva, José Carlos Costa Baptista; da Silva Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant-rich foods scavenge free radicals and other reactive species, decreasing the risk of different non-communicable chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to review the content of total antioxidant capacity of commonly foods comparing with experimental data and to explore the health benefits due to foods with moderate to high TAC. The TAC was analytically measured using the "Total Antioxidant Capacity" (NX2332) test from Randox® (UK) by spectrometry at 600 nm. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), "guaraná" (Paullinia cupana Kunth) powder, ready to drink boiled coffee (Coffea arabica L.), and milk chocolate (made from seeds of Theobroma cacao) had the highest TAC values, followed by collard greens (Brassica oleracea L.), beets (Beta vulgaris L.), apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), bananas (Musa paradisiaca), common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), onions (Allium cepa L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Other foods also showed antioxidant capacity. The binomial antioxidant capacity of foods and health was extensively discussed according to science literature. Based on the high TAC content of Brazil nuts, guaraná, coffee, chocolate, collard greens, apples, beets, beans, oranges, onions and other foods, their regular dietary intake is strongly recommended to reduce the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases. PMID:26572874

  16. Determination of the threshold odor concentration of main odorants in essential oils using gas chromatography-olfactometry incremental dilution technique.

    PubMed

    Benzo, Maurizio; Gilardoni, Gianluca; Gandini, Carlo; Caccialanza, Gabriele; Vita Finzi, Paola; Vidari, Giovanni; Abdo, Susana; Layedra, Patricia

    2007-05-25

    An essential oil, obtained by steam distillation of Clinopodium tomentosum (Kunth) Govaerts (Lamiaceae), collected in Ecuador, was analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-MS techniques. To our knowledge, the composition of this essential oil is described here for the first time, both from the chemical and olfactometric viewpoints. A preliminary analysis by GC-MS and using Kovats' retention indexes, lead to characterize and quantify the oil constituents, while GC-O was then applied for the identification of the main odorants. By the incremental dilution method (AEDA, CHARM Analysis), applied to the GC-O technique, the flavor dilution (FD) chromatogram was obtained. In order to calculate the TOC values of the main odorants, the relationship between the odorant concentration at the sniffing port and that one in the injected solution was established. This relationship was calculated by comparing the injected amount with the TOC value of a reference compound (limonene), obtained by dynamic dilution olfactometry. A good agreement was found between calculated and measured TOC values of few odorants.

  17. Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae) on the great curve of the Xingu River, Pará state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carneiro-Silva, M Q; Koch, A K; Viana, P L; Ilkiu-Borges, A L

    2015-08-01

    Among the studies on Orchidaceae in the Amazon, none comprised the region of the Great Curve of the Xingu River, located in the lower Xingu river. The aim of this study was to inventory and taxonomically study the species of Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae) in the Great Curve of the Xingu River, Pará state. The floristic survey was performed in the area of the Belo Monte hydroelectric plant, in the Vitória do Xingu municipality, centrally inserted in the called Great Curve of the Xingu River. Botanical collections were accomplished between June 2011 and December 2013. A total of 27 species of Oncidiinae, distributed in 15 genera, was inventoried in the study area. Notylia Lindl. and Trichocentrum Poepp. & Endl. were the richest genera, with five and four species, respectively, followed by Erycina Lindl., Ionopsis Kunth, Lockhartia Hook., Macradenia R.Br., and Ornithocephalus Hook., with two species each. The remaining eight genera are represented by a single species each in the study area. Morphological descriptions, a key for taxonomic identification, illustrations, and comments on distribution, ecology, phenology and morphology are provided for all inventoried species. PMID:26691096

  18. Water level effect on herbaceous plant assemblages at an artificial reservoir-Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, D C; Ferreira, J D; Bueno, P A A; Iwakura, L; Bueno, R O; Campiolo, J B

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the effect of water level variation on the assemblages of herbaceous species in Mourão I Reservoir, Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil. The structure and distribution of populations was examined in February (dry period) and April (rainy period), 2011, in two transects. These transects started at the forest edge towards the center of the lake. The end of the transect coincided with the end of the plants within the lake. On every two meters along of the transects we sampled a wooden square of 0.25 m(2) for species biomass analysis.The macrophyte stand was composed entirely of emergent species. Considering the periods, most species were less frequent in the rainy period (April), but Ipomea ramosissima (Poir.) Choisy, Commelina nudiflora L., Eleocharis acuntagula (Roxb.) Schult. and Verbena litorales (Kunth.) had their frequency increased during this period, probably due to their resistance. The influence of flood as measured by the NMDS point out that both before and after the flood, there are plots with distinct compositions and biomass. The water level variation affects the dynamics of plant composition and structure in marginal areas of the Reservoir.

  19. Water level effect on herbaceous plant assemblages at an artificial reservoir-Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, D C; Ferreira, J D; Bueno, P A A; Iwakura, L; Bueno, R O; Campiolo, J B

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the effect of water level variation on the assemblages of herbaceous species in Mourão I Reservoir, Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil. The structure and distribution of populations was examined in February (dry period) and April (rainy period), 2011, in two transects. These transects started at the forest edge towards the center of the lake. The end of the transect coincided with the end of the plants within the lake. On every two meters along of the transects we sampled a wooden square of 0.25 m(2) for species biomass analysis.The macrophyte stand was composed entirely of emergent species. Considering the periods, most species were less frequent in the rainy period (April), but Ipomea ramosissima (Poir.) Choisy, Commelina nudiflora L., Eleocharis acuntagula (Roxb.) Schult. and Verbena litorales (Kunth.) had their frequency increased during this period, probably due to their resistance. The influence of flood as measured by the NMDS point out that both before and after the flood, there are plots with distinct compositions and biomass. The water level variation affects the dynamics of plant composition and structure in marginal areas of the Reservoir. PMID:26628226

  20. Composition and anti-insect activity of essential oils from Tagetes L. species (Asteraceae, Helenieae) on Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann and Triatoma infestans Klug.

    PubMed

    López, Sandra B; López, María L; Aragón, Liliana M; Tereschuk, María L; Slanis, Alberto C; Feresin, Gabriela E; Zygadlo, Julio A; Tapia, Alejandro A

    2011-05-25

    Essential oils from four species of the genus Tagetes L. (Asteraceae, Helenieae) collected in Tucumán province, Argentina, were evaluated for their chemical composition, toxicity, and olfactory activity on Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann adults and for repellent properties on Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Chagas disease vector). Yields of essential oils range from 0.2 to 0.8% (v/w). The same main constituents among Tagetes minuta L., Tagestes rupestris Cabrera, and Tagetes terniflora Kunth, (cis-trans)-ocimenes, (cis-trans)-tagetones, and (cis-trans)-ocimenones showed important differences in their relative compositions. Tagetes filifolia Lag. was characterized by the recognized phenylpropanoids methylchavicol and trans-anethole as the main components. LD(50) was ≤20 μg/insect in topical bioassays. T. rupestris was the most toxic to C. capitata females, whereas the other oils presented similar toxicities against males and females. Tagetes rupestris oil attracted both sexes of C. capitata at 5 μg, whereas T. minuta showed opposite activities between males (attractant) and females (repellent). Oils from T. minuta and T. filifolia were the most repellent to T. infestans. The results suggest that compositions of essential oils influence their insecticidal and olfactory properties. The essential oils from Tagetes species show an important potential as infochemical agents on insects' behaviors. This study highlights the chemical variability of essential oils as a source of variation of anti-insect properties. PMID:21469658

  1. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts.

  2. Evolutionary history of chloridoid grasses estimated from 122 nuclear loci.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Amanda E; Hasenstab, Kristen M; Bell, Hester L; Blaine, Ellen; Ingram, Amanda L; Columbus, J Travis

    2016-12-01

    Chloridoideae (chloridoid grasses) are a subfamily of ca. 1700 species with high diversity in arid habitats. Until now, their evolutionary relationships have primarily been studied with DNA sequences from the chloroplast, a maternally inherited organelle. Next-generation sequencing is able to efficiently recover large numbers of nuclear loci that can then be used to estimate the species phylogeny based upon bi-parentally inherited data. We sought to test our chloroplast-based hypotheses of relationships among chloridoid species with 122 nuclear loci generated through targeted-enrichment next-generation sequencing, sometimes referred to as hyb-seq. We targeted putative single-copy housekeeping genes, as well as genes that have been implicated in traits characteristic of, or particularly labile in, chloridoids: e.g., drought and salt tolerance. We recovered ca. 70% of the targeted loci (122 of 177 loci) in all 47 species sequenced using hyb-seq. We then analyzed the nuclear loci with Bayesian and coalescent methods and the resulting phylogeny resolves relationships between the four chloridoid tribes. Several novel findings with this data were: the sister lineage to Chloridoideae is unresolved; Centropodia+Ellisochloa are excluded from Chloridoideae in phylogenetic estimates using a coalescent model; Sporobolus subtilis is more closely related to Eragrostis than to other species of Sporobolus; and Tragus is more closely related to Chloris and relatives than to a lineage of mainly New World species. Relationships in Cynodonteae in the nuclear phylogeny are quite different from chloroplast estimates, but were not robust to changes in the method of phylogenetic analysis. We tested the data signal with several partition schemes, a concatenation analysis, and tests of alternative hypotheses to assess our confidence in this new, nuclear estimate of evolutionary relationships. Our work provides markers and a framework for additional phylogenetic studies that sample more

  3. Status of forest birds on Rota, Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Amidon, Fred A.; Radley, Paul M.; Berkowitz, S. Paul; Banko, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    The western Pacific island of Rota is the third largest human inhabited island in the Mariana archipelago, and is designated an Endemic Bird Area. Between 1982 and 2012, 12 point-transect distance sampling surveys were conducted to assess population status. Surveys did not consistently sample the entire island; thus, we used a ratio estimator to estimate bird abundances in strata not sampled during every survey. Occupancy models of the 2012 survey revealed general patterns of habitat use and detectability among 11 species that could be reliably modeled. The endangered Mariana crow (Corvus kubaryi) was dispersed around the periphery of the island in steep forested habitats. In contrast, the endangered Rota white-eye (Zosterops rotensis) was restricted to the high-elevation mesa. Precision of detection probabilities and occupancy estimates and effects of habitat types, sampling conditions, and specific observers varied considerably among species, indicating that more narrowly defined classifications and additional observer training may improve the accuracy of predictive modeling. Population estimates of five out of ten native bird species, including collared kingfisher (Todiramphus chloris orii), Mariana crow, Mariana fruit-dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla), Micronesian myzomela (Myzomela rubrata), and white-throated ground-dove (Gallicolumba xanthonura) declined over the 30-year time series. The crow declined sharply to fewer than 200 individuals (upper 95% confidence interval). Trends increased for Micronesian starling (Aplonis opaca), rufous fantail (Rhipidura rufifrons mariae), and white tern (Gygis alba). Rota white-eye numbers declined from 1982 to the late 1990s, but returned to 1980s levels by 2012. The trend for the yellow bittern (Ixobrychus sinensis) was inconclusive. The alien Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) apparently increased in number despite an unreliable trend assessment. Declines were noted in the other two alien birds, black drongo (Dicrurus

  4. Evolutionary history of chloridoid grasses estimated from 122 nuclear loci.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Amanda E; Hasenstab, Kristen M; Bell, Hester L; Blaine, Ellen; Ingram, Amanda L; Columbus, J Travis

    2016-12-01

    Chloridoideae (chloridoid grasses) are a subfamily of ca. 1700 species with high diversity in arid habitats. Until now, their evolutionary relationships have primarily been studied with DNA sequences from the chloroplast, a maternally inherited organelle. Next-generation sequencing is able to efficiently recover large numbers of nuclear loci that can then be used to estimate the species phylogeny based upon bi-parentally inherited data. We sought to test our chloroplast-based hypotheses of relationships among chloridoid species with 122 nuclear loci generated through targeted-enrichment next-generation sequencing, sometimes referred to as hyb-seq. We targeted putative single-copy housekeeping genes, as well as genes that have been implicated in traits characteristic of, or particularly labile in, chloridoids: e.g., drought and salt tolerance. We recovered ca. 70% of the targeted loci (122 of 177 loci) in all 47 species sequenced using hyb-seq. We then analyzed the nuclear loci with Bayesian and coalescent methods and the resulting phylogeny resolves relationships between the four chloridoid tribes. Several novel findings with this data were: the sister lineage to Chloridoideae is unresolved; Centropodia+Ellisochloa are excluded from Chloridoideae in phylogenetic estimates using a coalescent model; Sporobolus subtilis is more closely related to Eragrostis than to other species of Sporobolus; and Tragus is more closely related to Chloris and relatives than to a lineage of mainly New World species. Relationships in Cynodonteae in the nuclear phylogeny are quite different from chloroplast estimates, but were not robust to changes in the method of phylogenetic analysis. We tested the data signal with several partition schemes, a concatenation analysis, and tests of alternative hypotheses to assess our confidence in this new, nuclear estimate of evolutionary relationships. Our work provides markers and a framework for additional phylogenetic studies that sample more

  5. Status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Tinian and Aguiguan, Mariana Islands.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.; Amidon, Fred; Marshall, Ann P.; Kremer, Shelly; Laut, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Avian surveys were conducted on the islands of Tinian and Aguiguan, Marianas Islands, in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to provide current baseline densities and abundances and assess population trends using data collected from previous surveys. On Tinian, during the three surveys (1982, 1996, and 2008), 18 species were detected, and abundances and trends were assessed for 12 species. Half of the 10 native species—Yellow Bittern (Ixobrychus sinensis), White-throated Ground-Dove (Gallicolumba xanthonura), Collared Kingfisher (Todiramphus chloris), Rufous Fantail (Rhipidura rufifrons), and Micronesian Starling (Aplonis opaca)—and one alien bird—Island Collared-Dove (Streptopelia bitorquata)—have increased since 1982. Three native birds—Mariana Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla), Micronesian Honeyeater (Myzomela rubratra), and Tinian Monarch (Monarcha takatsukasae)—have decreased since 1982. Trends for the remaining two native birds—White Tern (Gygis alba) and Bridled White-eye (Zosterops saypani)—and one alien bird—Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus)—were considered relatively stable. Only five birds—White-throated Ground-Dove, Mariana Fruit-Dove, Tinian Monarch, Rufous Fantail, and Bridled White-eye—showed significant differences among regions of Tinian by year. Tinian Monarch was found in all habitat types, with the greatest monarch densities observed in limestone forest, secondary forest, and tangantangan (Leucaena leucocephala) thicket and the smallest densities found in open fields and urban/residential habitats. On Aguiguan, 19 species were detected on one or both of the surveys (1982 and 2008), and abundance estimates were produced for nine native and one alien species. Densities for seven of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-Dove, Mariana Fruit-Dove, Collared Kingfisher, Rufous Fantail, Bridled White-eye, Golden White-eye (Cleptornis marchei), and Micronesian Starling—and the alien bird— Island

  6. Colonization by Chironomidae larvae in decomposition leaves of Eichhornia azurea in a lentic system in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Lidimara Souza; Martins, Renato Tavares; da Silveira, Guilherme Augusto; Grazul, Richard Michael; Lobo, Danielle Pinheiro; Alves, Roberto da Gama

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the colonization of Chironomidae (Diptera) larvae during the decomposition of Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth (Commelinales: Pontederiaceae) leaves in a lake in southeastern Brazil in two seasons of the year. The experiment was conducted from September to November 2007 and February to April 2008. In each period, 21 litter bags were used, each containing 10 g of dried leaves. Three bags were removed after 2, 5, 8, 12, 25, 45, and 65 days of colonization. The decomposition rate of the E. azurea leaves was rapid in both seasons, with no significant difference between them. The Chironomidae showed higher density than the other invertebrates. Goeldichironomus, Tonytarsus, and Corynoneura were the most abundant genera of Chironomidae. The invertebrate density increased during the experiment, differing within days but not between seasons. The faunal composition differed between the decomposition phases (initial and final), but did not differ between the seasons (dry and wet). The taxa Ablabesmyia, Caladomyia, Chironomus, Goeldichironomus, and Parachironomus were the most closely related to the final days of the experiment. Litter was the main food item found in the gut contents of the organisms of all the genera analyzed, both at the beginning and end of the decomposition. We believe that the feeding activity combined with the high larval density is an important factor contributing to the rapid decomposition of the E. azurea leaves. In conclusion, the succession process along the detritus chain of E. azurea was more important in structuring the assemblage of Chironomidae larvae than seasonal variations. PMID:23886040

  7. Acaricidal effect of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Lamiales: Verbenaceae), Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and Allium sativum (Liliales: Liliaceae) against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Martinez-Velazquez, M; Rosario-Cruz, R; Castillo-Herrera, G; Flores-Fernandez, J M; Alvarez, A H; Lugo-Cervantes, E

    2011-07-01

    Acaricidal effects of three essential oils extracted from Mexican oregano leaves (Lippia graveolens Kunth), rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) on 10-d-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) tick larvae were evaluated by using the larval packet test bioassay. Serial dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting concentration of 20 to 1.25%. Results showed that both Mexican oregano and garlic essential oils had very similar activity, producing high mortality (90-100%) in all tested concentrations on 10-d-old R. microplus tick larvae. Rosemary essential oil produced >85% larval mortality at the higher concentrations (10 and 20%), but the effect decreased noticeably to 40% at an oil concentration of 5%, and mortality was absent at 2.5 and 1.25% of the essential oil concentration. Chemical composition of the essential oils was elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Mexican oregano essential oil included thymol (24.59%), carvacrol (24.54%), p-cymene (13.6%), and y-terpinene (7.43%) as its main compounds, whereas rosemary essential oil was rich in a-pinene (31.07%), verbenone (15.26%), and 1,8-cineol (14.2%), and garlic essential oil was rich in diallyl trisulfide (33.57%), diallyl disulfide (30.93%), and methyl allyl trisulfide (11.28%). These results suggest that Mexican oregano and garlic essential oils merit further investigation as components of alternative approaches for R. microplus tick control. PMID:21845941

  8. Deciphering Staphylococcus sciuri SAT-17 Mediated Anti-oxidative Defense Mechanisms and Growth Modulations in Salt Stressed Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Akram, Muhammad S.; Shahid, Muhammad; Tariq, Mohsin; Azeem, Muhammad; Javed, Muhammad T.; Saleem, Seemab; Riaz, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity severely affects plant nutrient use efficiency and is a worldwide constraint for sustainable crop production. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, with inherent salinity tolerance, are able to enhance plant growth and productivity by inducing modulations in various metabolic pathways. In the present study, we reported the isolation and characterization of a salt-tolerant rhizobacterium from Kallar grass [Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth]. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed its lineage to Staphylococcus sciuri and it was named as SAT-17. The strain exhibited substantial potential of phosphate solubilization as well as indole-3-acetic acid production (up to 2 M NaCl) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity (up to 1.5 M NaCl). Inoculation of a rifampicin-resistant derivative of the SAT-17 with maize, in the absence of salt stress, induced a significant increase in plant biomass together with decreased reactive oxygen species and increased activity of cellular antioxidant enzymes. The derivative strain also significantly accumulated nutrients in roots and shoots, and enhanced chlorophyll and protein contents in comparison with non-inoculated plants. Similar positive effects were observed in the presence of salt stress, although the effect was more prominent at 75 mM in comparison to higher NaCl level (150 mM). The strain survived in the rhizosphere up to 30 days at an optimal population density (ca. 1 × 106 CFU mL-1). It was concluded that S. sciuri strain SAT-17 alleviated maize plants from salt-induced cellular oxidative damage and enhanced growth. Further field experiments should be conducted, considering SAT-17 as a potential bio-fertilizer, to draw parallels between PGPR inoculation, elemental mobility patterns, crop growth and productivity in salt-stressed semi-arid and arid regions. PMID:27375588

  9. Insect Herbivores Associated With Ludwigia Species, Oligospermum Section, in Their Argentine Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, M. Cristina; Cabrera Walsh, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    The South American water primroses, Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet, L. grandiflora subsp. hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) G.L. Nesom & Kartesz, Ludwigia peploides (Kunth) P.H. Raven, and L. p. subsp. montevidensis (Spreng.) P.H. Raven (Onagraceae, Section Oligospermum), have become invasive in several watersheds of the United States and Europe. Surveys were carried out in center-east of Argentina to find insect species that might serve as biological control agents for L. g. subsp. hexapetala in California and elsewhere. Stems (0.5–0.6 m) of Ludwigia species, Sect. Oligospermum, were collected in 41 sites and analyzed in the laboratory; immature insects were reared to adults. The plant species found in the area were L. grandiflora (2 sites), L. g. subsp. hexapetala (33 sites), and L. p. subsp. montevidensis (4 sites). There was a variety of insect guilds feeding on L. g. subsp. hexapetala, including six species with stem-borer larvae, one species with fruit-feeding larvae, four species with defoliating larvae, two species with defoliating larvae on young leaves and axil meristems, one species of cell content feeder, and three species of sap feeders. Nine of these species also have defoliating adults. Biological information on most of them is provided. Of these insect herbivores, only two species were also found on L. grandiflora, and one on L. peploides. Several of the species found on L. g. hexapetala, such as the cell-content feeder Liothrips ludwigi (Thysanoptera), the stem-borers Merocnemus binotatus (Boheman) and Tyloderma spp. (Coleoptera), are promising candidates for biocontrol agents. PMID:25502037

  10. Effect of Solar Ultraviolet-B Radiation during Springtime Ozone Depletion on Photosynthesis and Biomass Production of Antarctic Vascular Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Fusheng S.; Day, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    We assessed the influence of springtime solar UV-B radiation that was naturally enhanced during several days due to ozone depletion on biomass production and photosynthesis of vascular plants along the Antarctic Peninsula. Naturally growing plants of Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. and Deschampsia antarctica Desv. were potted and grown under filters that absorbed or transmitted most solar UV-B. Plants exposed to solar UV-B from mid-October to early January produced 11% to 22% less total, as well as above ground biomass, and 24% to 31% less total leaf area. These growth reductions did not appear to be associated with reductions in photosynthesis per se: Although rates of photosynthetic O2 evolution were reduced on a chlorophyll and a dry-mass basis, on a leaf area basis they were not affected by UV-B exposure. Leaves on plants exposed to UV-B were denser, probably thicker, and had higher concentrations of photosynthetic and UV-B absorbing pigments. We suspect that the development of thicker leaves containing more photosynthetic and screening pigments allowed these plants to maintain their photosynthetic rates per unit leaf area. Exposure to UV-B led to reductions in quantum yield of photosystem II, based on fluorescence measurements of adaxial leaf surfaces, and we suspect that UV-B impaired photosynthesis in the upper mesophyll of leaves. Because the ratio of variable to maximal fluorescence, as well as the initial slope of the photosynthetic light response, were unaffected by UV-B exposure, we suggest that impairments in photosynthesis in the upper mesophyll were associated with light-independent enzymatic, rather than photosystem II, limitations. PMID:11161031

  11. Interspecific variation in xylem vulnerability to cavitation among tropical tree and shrub species.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Omar R; Kursar, Thomas A; Cochard, Hervé; Tyree, Melvin T

    2005-12-01

    In tropical moist forests, seasonal drought limits plant survival, productivity and diversity. Drought-tolerance mechanisms of tropical species should reflect the maximum seasonal water deficits experienced in a particular habitat. We investigated stem xylem vulnerability to cavitation in nine tropical species with different life histories and habitat associations. Stem xylem vulnerability was scored as the xylem water potential causing 50 and 75% loss of hydraulic conductivity (P50 and P75, respectively). Four shade-tolerant shrubs ranged from moderately resistant (P50=-1.9 MPa for Ouratea lucens Kunth. Engl.) to highly resistant to cavitation (P50=-4.1 MPa for Psychotria horizontalis Sw.), with shallow-rooted species being the most resistant. Among the tree species, those characteristic of waterlogged soils, Carapa guianensis Aubl., Prioria copaifera Griseb. and Ficus citrifolia Mill., were the most vulnerable to cavitation (P50=-0.8 to -1.6 MPa). The wet-season, deciduous tree, Cordia alliodora (Ruiz and Pav.) Oken., had resistant xylem (P50=-3.2 MPa), whereas the dry-season, deciduous tree, Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. was among the most vulnerable to cavitation (P50=-0.8 MPa) of the species studied. For eight out of the nine study species, previously reported minimum seasonal leaf water potentials measured in the field during periods of drought correlated with our P50 and P75 values. Rooting depth, deciduousness, soil type and growth habit might also contribute to desiccation tolerance. Our results support the functional dependence of drought tolerance on xylem resistance to cavitation.

  12. Colonization by Chironomidae Larvae in Decomposition Leaves of Eichhornia azurea in a Lentic System in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Lidimara Souza; Martins, Renato Tavares; da Silveira, Guilherme Augusto; Grazul, Richard Michael; Lobo, Danielle Pinheiro; da Gama Alves, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the colonization of Chironomidae (Diptera) larvae during the decomposition of Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth (Commelinales: Pontederiaceae) leaves in a lake in southeastern Brazil in two seasons of the year. The experiment was conducted from September to November 2007 and February to April 2008. In each period, 21 litter bags were used, each containing 10 g of dried leaves. Three bags were removed after 2, 5, 8, 12, 25, 45, and 65 days of colonization. The decomposition rate of the E. azurea leaves was rapid in both seasons, with no significant difference between them. The Chironomidae showed higher density than the other invertebrates. Goeldichironomus, Tonytarsus, and Corynoneura were the most abundant genera of Chironomidae. The invertebrate density increased during the experiment, differing within days but not between seasons. The faunal composition differed between the decomposition phases (initial and final), but did not differ between the seasons (dry and wet). The taxa Ablabesmyia, Caladomyia, Chironomus, Goeldichironomus, and Parachironomus were the most closely related to the final days of the experiment. Litter was the main food item found in the gut contents of the organisms of all the genera analyzed, both at the beginning and end of the decomposition. We believe that the feeding activity combined with the high larval density is an important factor contributing to the rapid decomposition of the E. azurea leaves. In conclusion, the succession process along the detritus chain of E. azurea was more important in structuring the assemblage of Chironomidae larvae than seasonal variations. PMID:23886040

  13. Water quality and communities associated with macrophytes in a shallow water-supply reservoir on an aquaculture farm.

    PubMed

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Dias, S G

    2014-05-01

    Plankton communities and macrofauna associated to aquatic macrophyte stands in a shallow water-supply reservoir (21°14'09″S; 48°18'38″W) on an aquaculture farm were compared to evaluate the relationship between organism densities and some abiotic features of the reservoir. Water and communities associated were sampled at two sites, one in an area with the predominance of Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth and the other with the predominance of Salvinia auriculata Aublet. Communities associated with macrophytes were sampled with floating quadrants (0.5 m2); the macrophytes were washed and plankton and macrofauna were fixated with 4% formalin and 1% lugol iodine; the specimens were then identified and counted. Plankton and macrofauna communities associated with S. auriculata and E. azurea had a similar diversity of species but different (p<0.05) in the abundance of associated organisms. Eichhornia azurea had the highest contents in dry and wet weight, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and organic matter. Planktonic algae were directly correlated with biomass of E. azurea. The taxa with highest densities were Rotifera and Zygnematophyceae. Results showed that the environmental variables associated with macrophytes presence in the shallow reservoir is a strong predictor of favourable conditions to maintain great diversity plankton community and macrofauna associated with plants. The role of macrophytes is important for not only stabilising the clear-water state and maintaining high diversity of organisms associated, but also it seems to be a good alternative to maintaining desirable water-supply quality for aquaculture farms.

  14. Bacterial diversity in rhizosphere soil from Antarctic vascular plants of Admiralty Bay, maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Lia C R S; Peixoto, Raquel S; Cury, Juliano C; Sul, Woo Jun; Pellizari, Vivian H; Tiedje, James; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2010-08-01

    The Antarctic is a pristine environment that contributes to the maintenance of the global climate equilibrium. The harsh conditions of this habitat are fundamental to selecting those organisms able to survive in such an extreme habitat and able to support the relatively simple ecosystems. The DNA of the microbial community associated with the rhizospheres of Deschampsia antarctica Desv (Poaceae) and Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) BartI (Caryophyllaceae), the only two native vascular plants that are found in Antarctic ecosystems, was evaluated using a 16S rRNA multiplex 454 pyrosequencing approach. This analysis revealed similar patterns of bacterial diversity between the two plant species from different locations, arguing against the hypothesis that there would be differences between the rhizosphere communities of different plants. Furthermore, the phylum distribution presented a peculiar pattern, with a bacterial community structure different from those reported of many other soils. Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum in almost all the analyzed samples, and there were high levels of anaerobic representatives. Also, some phyla that are dominant in most temperate and tropical soils, such as Acidobacteria, were rarely found in the analyzed samples. Analyzing all the sample libraries together, the predominant genera found were Bifidobacterium (phylum Actinobacteria), Arcobacter (phylum Proteobacteria) and Faecalibacterium (phylum Firmicutes). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first major bacterial sequencing effort of this kind of soil, and it revealed more than expected diversity within these rhizospheres of both maritime Antarctica vascular plants in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, which is part of the South Shetlands archipelago.

  15. Mortality gradients within and among dominant plant populations as barometers of ecosystem change during extreme drought.

    PubMed

    Gitlin, Alicyn R; Sthultz, Christopher M; Bowker, Matthew A; Stumpf, Stacy; Paxton, Kristina L; Kennedy, Karla; Muñoz, Axhel; Bailey, Joseph K; Whitham, Thomas G

    2006-10-01

    Understanding patterns of plant population mortality during extreme weather events is important to conservation planners because the frequency of such events is expected to increase, creating the need to integrate climatic uncertainty into management. Dominant plants provide habitat and ecosystem structure, so changes in their distribution can be expected to have cascading effects on entire communities. Observing areas that respond quickly to climate fluctuations provides foresight into future ecological changes and will help prioritize conservation efforts. We investigated patterns of mortality in six dominant plant species during a drought in the southwestern United States. We quantified population mortality for each species across its regional distribution and tested hypotheses to identify ecological stress gradients for each species. Our results revealed three major patterns: (1) dominant species from diverse habitat types (i.e., riparian, chaparral, and low- to high-elevation forests) exhibited significant mortality, indicating that the effects of drought were widespread; (2) average mortality differed among dominant species (one-seed juniper[Juniperus monosperma (Engelm.) Sarg.] 3.3%; manzanita[Arctostaphylos pungens Kunth], 14.6%; quaking aspen[Populus tremuloides Michx.], 15.4%; ponderosa pine[Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson], 15.9%; Fremont cottonwood[Populus fremontii S. Wats.], 20.7%; and pinyon pine[Pinus edulis Engelm.], 41.4%); (3) all dominant species showed localized patterns of very high mortality (24-100%) consistent with water stress gradients. Land managers should plan for climatic uncertainty by promoting tree recruitment in rare habitat types, alleviating unnatural levels of competition on dominant plants, and conserving sites across water stress gradients. High-stress sites, such as those we examined, have conservation value as barometers of change and because they may harbor genotypes that are adapted to climatic extremes.

  16. Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Methods Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Results Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl) were Crescentia cujete L. (flu), Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough), Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation), Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq.) Kunth (pruritic ailments), Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites) Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation), Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic) Mentha sativa L. (nervousness), Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites), Origanum vulgare L. (earache), Plantago major L. (inflammation) and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation). The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. Conclusions This study presents new

  17. Water quality and communities associated with macrophytes in a shallow water-supply reservoir on an aquaculture farm.

    PubMed

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Dias, S G

    2014-05-01

    Plankton communities and macrofauna associated to aquatic macrophyte stands in a shallow water-supply reservoir (21°14'09″S; 48°18'38″W) on an aquaculture farm were compared to evaluate the relationship between organism densities and some abiotic features of the reservoir. Water and communities associated were sampled at two sites, one in an area with the predominance of Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth and the other with the predominance of Salvinia auriculata Aublet. Communities associated with macrophytes were sampled with floating quadrants (0.5 m2); the macrophytes were washed and plankton and macrofauna were fixated with 4% formalin and 1% lugol iodine; the specimens were then identified and counted. Plankton and macrofauna communities associated with S. auriculata and E. azurea had a similar diversity of species but different (p<0.05) in the abundance of associated organisms. Eichhornia azurea had the highest contents in dry and wet weight, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and organic matter. Planktonic algae were directly correlated with biomass of E. azurea. The taxa with highest densities were Rotifera and Zygnematophyceae. Results showed that the environmental variables associated with macrophytes presence in the shallow reservoir is a strong predictor of favourable conditions to maintain great diversity plankton community and macrofauna associated with plants. The role of macrophytes is important for not only stabilising the clear-water state and maintaining high diversity of organisms associated, but also it seems to be a good alternative to maintaining desirable water-supply quality for aquaculture farms. PMID:25166326

  18. The Evolution of Photoperiod-Insensitive Flowering in Sorghum, A Genomic Model for Panicoid Grasses.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Hugo E; Zhou, Chengbo; Tang, Haibao; Khadke, Prashant P; Das, Sayan; Lin, Yann-Rong; Ge, Zhengxiang; Clemente, Thomas; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Hash, C Thomas; Paterson, Andrew H

    2016-09-01

    Of central importance in adapting plants of tropical origin to temperate cultivation has been selection of daylength-neutral genotypes that flower early in the temperate summer and take full advantage of its long days. A cross between tropical and temperate sorghums [Sorghum propinquum (Kunth) Hitchc.×S. bicolor (L.) Moench], revealed a quantitative trait locus (QTL), FlrAvgD1, accounting for 85.7% of variation in flowering time under long days. Fine-scale genetic mapping placed FlrAvgD1 on chromosome 6 within the physically largest centiMorgan in the genome. Forward genetic data from "converted" sorghums validated the QTL. Association genetic evidence from a diversity panel delineated the QTL to a 10-kb interval containing only one annotated gene, Sb06g012260, that was shown by reverse genetics to complement a recessive allele. Sb06g012260 (SbFT12) contains a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding (PEBP) protein domain characteristic of members of the "FT" family of flowering genes acting as a floral suppressor. Sb06g012260 appears to have evolved ∼40 Ma in a panicoid ancestor after divergence from oryzoid and pooid lineages. A species-specific Sb06g012260 mutation may have contributed to spread to temperate regions by S. halepense ("Johnsongrass"), one of the world's most widespread invasives. Alternative alleles for another family member, Sb02g029725 (SbFT6), mapping near another flowering QTL, also showed highly significant association with photoperiod response index (P = 1.53×10 (-)  (6)). The evolution of Sb06g012260 adds to evidence that single gene duplicates play large roles in important environmental adaptations. Increased knowledge of Sb06g012260 opens new doors to improvement of sorghum and other grain and cellulosic biomass crops.

  19. Sorghum expressed sequence tags identify signature genes for drought, pathogenesis, and skotomorphogenesis from a milestone set of 16,801 unique transcripts.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Lee H; Liang, Chun; Shah, Manish; Sun, Feng; Wang, Haiming; Reid, St Patrick; Gingle, Alan R; Paterson, Andrew H; Wing, Rod; Dean, Ralph; Klein, Robert; Nguyen, Henry T; Ma, Hong-Mei; Zhao, Xin; Morishige, Daryl T; Mullet, John E; Cordonnier-Pratt, Marie-Michèle

    2005-10-01

    Improved knowledge of the sorghum transcriptome will enhance basic understanding of how plants respond to stresses and serve as a source of genes of value to agriculture. Toward this goal, Sorghum bicolor L. Moench cDNA libraries were prepared from light- and dark-grown seedlings, drought-stressed plants, Colletotrichum-infected seedlings and plants, ovaries, embryos, and immature panicles. Other libraries were prepared with meristems from Sorghum propinquum (Kunth) Hitchc. that had been photoperiodically induced to flower, and with rhizomes from S. propinquum and johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense L. Pers.). A total of 117,682 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained representing both 3' and 5' sequences from about half that number of cDNA clones. A total of 16,801 unique transcripts, representing tentative UniScripts (TUs), were identified from 55,783 3' ESTs. Of these TUs, 9,032 are represented by two or more ESTs. Collectively, these libraries were predicted to contain a total of approximately 31,000 TUs. Individual libraries, however, were predicted to contain no more than about 6,000 to 9,000, with the exception of light-grown seedlings, which yielded an estimate of close to 13,000. In addition, each library exhibits about the same level of complexity with respect to both the number of TUs preferentially expressed in that library and the frequency with which two or more ESTs is found in only that library. These results indicate that the sorghum genome is expressed in highly selective fashion in the individual organs and in response to the environmental conditions surveyed here. Close to 2,000 differentially expressed TUs were identified among the cDNA libraries examined, of which 775 were differentially expressed at a confidence level of 98%. From these 775 TUs, signature genes were identified defining drought, Colletotrichum infection, skotomorphogenesis (etiolation), ovary, immature panicle, and embryo.

  20. The Evolution of Photoperiod-Insensitive Flowering in Sorghum, A Genomic Model for Panicoid Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Hugo E.; Zhou, Chengbo; Tang, Haibao; Khadke, Prashant P.; Das, Sayan; Lin, Yann-Rong; Ge, Zhengxiang; Clemente, Thomas; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Hash, C. Thomas; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    Of central importance in adapting plants of tropical origin to temperate cultivation has been selection of daylength-neutral genotypes that flower early in the temperate summer and take full advantage of its long days. A cross between tropical and temperate sorghums [Sorghum propinquum (Kunth) Hitchc.×S. bicolor (L.) Moench], revealed a quantitative trait locus (QTL), FlrAvgD1, accounting for 85.7% of variation in flowering time under long days. Fine-scale genetic mapping placed FlrAvgD1 on chromosome 6 within the physically largest centiMorgan in the genome. Forward genetic data from “converted” sorghums validated the QTL. Association genetic evidence from a diversity panel delineated the QTL to a 10-kb interval containing only one annotated gene, Sb06g012260, that was shown by reverse genetics to complement a recessive allele. Sb06g012260 (SbFT12) contains a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding (PEBP) protein domain characteristic of members of the “FT” family of flowering genes acting as a floral suppressor. Sb06g012260 appears to have evolved ∼40 Ma in a panicoid ancestor after divergence from oryzoid and pooid lineages. A species-specific Sb06g012260 mutation may have contributed to spread to temperate regions by S. halepense (“Johnsongrass”), one of the world’s most widespread invasives. Alternative alleles for another family member, Sb02g029725 (SbFT6), mapping near another flowering QTL, also showed highly significant association with photoperiod response index (P = 1.53×10 − 6). The evolution of Sb06g012260 adds to evidence that single gene duplicates play large roles in important environmental adaptations. Increased knowledge of Sb06g012260 opens new doors to improvement of sorghum and other grain and cellulosic biomass crops. PMID:27335143

  1. Monoterpene and isoprene emissions from typical tree species in forests around Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez-Taylor, P.; Ruiz-Suarez, L. G.; Rosas-Perez, I.; Hernández-Solis, J. M.; Steinbrecher, R.

    The isoprenoid emission of sacred fir ( Abies religiosa (Kunth) Schltdl. & Cham.), patula pine ( Pinus patula Schiede, Schltdl. & Cham.) and net-leaf oak ( Quercus rugosa Née) was investigated in Mexico City during the years 2002 and 2003. Chemical compound specific emission factors were obtained for different months of the year. Net-leaf oak is an isoprene emitter whereas the other tree species emit monoterpenes. α-Pinene and linalool are the main compounds emitted from sacred fir and patula pine, respectively. In general, the emission of monoterpenes is temperature dependent, whereas α-pinene emission of sacred fir is controlled by light and temperature like the isoprene emission of net-leaf oak. All isoprenoids show a strong seasonality which is plant species specific. Emission factors for the conifers were high in October and low in April (sacred fir: 6.07μgCg-1dwh-1 in October and 0.02μgCg-1dwh-1 in April; patula pine: 4.22μgCg-1dwh-1 in October and 1.13μgCg-1dwh-1 in June). Isoprene emission potential of net-leaf oak was very variable in the different seasons with low source strengths in July (rainy season: 1.19μgCg-1dwh-1) and November (cold/dry season: 18.50μgCg-1dwh-1) but high in May (warm/dry season: 66.27μgCg-1dwh-1). The results indicate that present biogenic emission inventories of the Mexico City area have to be revised by using the new emission factors of native tree species including the seasonal impact.

  2. Priming effects on seed germination in Tecoma stans (Bignoniaceae) and Cordia megalantha (Boraginaceae), two tropical deciduous tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado-López, Sandra; Soriano, Diana; Velázquez, Noé; Orozco-Segovia, Alma; Gamboa-deBuen, Alicia

    2014-11-01

    Successful revegetation necessarily requires the establishment of a vegetation cover and one of the challenges for this is the scarce knowledge about germination and seedling establishment of wild tree species. Priming treatments (seed hydration during a specific time followed by seed dehydration) could be an alternative germination pre-treatment to improve plant establishment. Natural priming (via seed burial) promotes rapid and synchronous germination as well as the mobilisation of storage reserves; consequently, it increases seedling vigour. These metabolic and physiological responses are similar to those occurring as a result of the laboratory seed priming treatments (osmopriming and matrix priming) applied successfully to agricultural species. In order to know if natural priming had a positive effect on germination of tropical species we tested the effects of natural priming on imbibition kinetics, germination parameters (mean germination time, lag time and germination rate and percentage) and reserve mobilisation in the seeds of two tree species from a tropical deciduous forest in south-eastern México: Tecoma stans (L Juss. Ex Kunth) and Cordia megalantha (S.F Blake). The wood of both trees are useful for furniture and T. stans is a pioneer tree that promotes soil retention in disturbed areas. We also compared the effect of natural priming with that of laboratory matrix priming (both in soil). Matrix priming improved germination of both studied species. Natural priming promoted the mobilisation of proteins and increased the amount of free amino acids and of lipid degradation in T. stans but not in C. megalantha. Our results suggest that the application of priming via the burial of seeds is an easy and inexpensive technique that can improve seed germination and seedling establishment of tropical trees with potential use in reforestation and restoration practices.

  3. Host range of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America: results of multiple-choice field experiments.

    PubMed

    Anulewicz, Andrea C; McCullough, Deborah G; Cappaert, David L; Poland, Therese M

    2008-02-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding pest, was identified as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus) mortality in southeast Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, Canada, in 2002. A. planipennis reportedly colonizes other genera in its native range in Asia, including Ulmus L., Juglans L., and Pterocarya Kunth. Attacks on nonash species have not been observed in North America to date, but there is concern that other genera could be colonized. From 2003 to 2005, we assessed adult A. planipennis landing rates, oviposition, and larval development on North American ash species and congeners of its reported hosts in Asia in multiple-choice field studies conducted at several southeast Michigan sites. Nonash species evaluated included American elm (U. americana L.), hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L.), black walnut (J. nigra L.), shagbark hickory [Carya ovata (Mill.) K.Koch], and Japanese tree lilac (Syringa reticulata Bl.). In studies with freshly cut logs, adult beetles occasionally landed on nonash logs but generally laid fewer eggs than on ash logs. Larvae fed and developed normally on ash logs, which were often heavily infested. No larvae were able to survive, grow, or develop on any nonash logs, although failed first-instar galleries occurred on some walnut logs. High densities of larvae developed on live green ash and white ash nursery trees, but there was no evidence of larval survival or development on Japanese tree lilac and black walnut trees in the same plantation. We felled, debarked, and intensively examined >28 m2 of phloem area on nine American elm trees growing in contact with or adjacent to heavily infested ash trees. We found no sign of A. planipennis feeding on any elm.

  4. Deciphering Staphylococcus sciuri SAT-17 Mediated Anti-oxidative Defense Mechanisms and Growth Modulations in Salt Stressed Maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad S; Shahid, Muhammad; Tariq, Mohsin; Azeem, Muhammad; Javed, Muhammad T; Saleem, Seemab; Riaz, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity severely affects plant nutrient use efficiency and is a worldwide constraint for sustainable crop production. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, with inherent salinity tolerance, are able to enhance plant growth and productivity by inducing modulations in various metabolic pathways. In the present study, we reported the isolation and characterization of a salt-tolerant rhizobacterium from Kallar grass [Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth]. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed its lineage to Staphylococcus sciuri and it was named as SAT-17. The strain exhibited substantial potential of phosphate solubilization as well as indole-3-acetic acid production (up to 2 M NaCl) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity (up to 1.5 M NaCl). Inoculation of a rifampicin-resistant derivative of the SAT-17 with maize, in the absence of salt stress, induced a significant increase in plant biomass together with decreased reactive oxygen species and increased activity of cellular antioxidant enzymes. The derivative strain also significantly accumulated nutrients in roots and shoots, and enhanced chlorophyll and protein contents in comparison with non-inoculated plants. Similar positive effects were observed in the presence of salt stress, although the effect was more prominent at 75 mM in comparison to higher NaCl level (150 mM). The strain survived in the rhizosphere up to 30 days at an optimal population density (ca. 1 × 10(6) CFU mL(-1)). It was concluded that S. sciuri strain SAT-17 alleviated maize plants from salt-induced cellular oxidative damage and enhanced growth. Further field experiments should be conducted, considering SAT-17 as a potential bio-fertilizer, to draw parallels between PGPR inoculation, elemental mobility patterns, crop growth and productivity in salt-stressed semi-arid and arid regions. PMID:27375588

  5. Mortality gradients within and among dominant plant populations as barometers of ecosystem change during extreme drought.

    PubMed

    Gitlin, Alicyn R; Sthultz, Christopher M; Bowker, Matthew A; Stumpf, Stacy; Paxton, Kristina L; Kennedy, Karla; Muñoz, Axhel; Bailey, Joseph K; Whitham, Thomas G

    2006-10-01

    Understanding patterns of plant population mortality during extreme weather events is important to conservation planners because the frequency of such events is expected to increase, creating the need to integrate climatic uncertainty into management. Dominant plants provide habitat and ecosystem structure, so changes in their distribution can be expected to have cascading effects on entire communities. Observing areas that respond quickly to climate fluctuations provides foresight into future ecological changes and will help prioritize conservation efforts. We investigated patterns of mortality in six dominant plant species during a drought in the southwestern United States. We quantified population mortality for each species across its regional distribution and tested hypotheses to identify ecological stress gradients for each species. Our results revealed three major patterns: (1) dominant species from diverse habitat types (i.e., riparian, chaparral, and low- to high-elevation forests) exhibited significant mortality, indicating that the effects of drought were widespread; (2) average mortality differed among dominant species (one-seed juniper[Juniperus monosperma (Engelm.) Sarg.] 3.3%; manzanita[Arctostaphylos pungens Kunth], 14.6%; quaking aspen[Populus tremuloides Michx.], 15.4%; ponderosa pine[Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson], 15.9%; Fremont cottonwood[Populus fremontii S. Wats.], 20.7%; and pinyon pine[Pinus edulis Engelm.], 41.4%); (3) all dominant species showed localized patterns of very high mortality (24-100%) consistent with water stress gradients. Land managers should plan for climatic uncertainty by promoting tree recruitment in rare habitat types, alleviating unnatural levels of competition on dominant plants, and conserving sites across water stress gradients. High-stress sites, such as those we examined, have conservation value as barometers of change and because they may harbor genotypes that are adapted to climatic extremes. PMID:17002765

  6. Current land bird distribution and trends in population abundance between 1982 and 2012 on Rota, Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Amidon, Fred A.; Radley, Paul M.; Berkowitz, S. Paul; Banko, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    The western Pacific island of Rota is the fourth largest human-inhabited island in the Mariana archipelago and designated an Endemic Bird Area. Between 1982 and 2012, 12 point-transect distance-sampling surveys were conducted to assess bird population status. Surveys did not consistently sample the entire island; thus, we used a ratio estimator to estimate bird abundances in strata not sampled during every survey. Trends in population size were reliably estimated for 11 of 13 bird species, and 7 species declined over the 30-y time series, including the island collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata, white-throated ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Mariana fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, collared kingfisher Todiramphus chloris orii, Micronesian myzomela Myzomela rubratra, black drongo Dicrurus macrocercus, and Mariana crow Corvus kubaryi. The endangered Mariana crow (x̄  =  81 birds, 95% CI 30–202) declined sharply to fewer than 200 individuals in 2012, down from 1,491 birds in 1982 (95% CI  =  815–3,115). Trends increased for white tern Gygis alba, rufous fantail Rhipidura rufifrons mariae, and Micronesian starling Aplonis opaca. Numbers of the endangered Rota white-eye Zosterops rotensis declined from 1982 to the late 1990s but returned to 1980s levels by 2012, resulting in an overall stable trend. Trends for the yellow bittern Ixobrychus sinensis were inconclusive. Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus trends were not assessed; however, their numbers in 1982 and 2012 were similar. Occupancy models of the 2012 survey data revealed general patterns of land cover use and detectability among 12 species that could be reliably modeled. Occupancy was not assessed for the Eurasian tree sparrow because of insufficient detections. Based on the 2012 survey, bird distribution and abundance across Rota revealed three general patterns: 1) range restriction, including Mariana crow, Rota white-eye, and Eurasian tree sparrow; 2) widespread distribution, low

  7. Anoxic Corrosion of Steel and Lead in Na - Cl ± Mg-Dominated Brines in Atmospheres Containing CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roselle, G. T.; Johnsen, S.; Allen, C.; Roselle, R.

    2009-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep geologic repository developed by the U.S. Department of Energy for the disposal of transuranic radioactive waste in bedded salt (Permian Salado Fm.). In order to minimize radionuclide release from the repository it is desirable to maintain these species in their least-soluble form (i.e., low oxidation states). Post-closure conditions in the WIPP will control the speciation and solubility of radionuclides in the waste. Microbially-produced CO2 from cellulosic, plastic and rubber materials in the waste may acidify any brine present and increase the actinide solubilities. Thus, the DOE emplaces MgO in the repository to buffer fCO2 and pH within ranges favoring lower actinide solubilities. Large quantities of low-C steel and Pb present in the WIPP may also consume CO2. We present initial results from a series of multiyear experiments investigating the corrosion of steel and Pb alloys under WIPP-relevant conditions. The objective is to determine the extent to which these alloys consume CO2 via the formation of carbonates or other phases, potentially supporting MgO in CO2 sequestration. In these experiments steel and Pb coupons are immersed in brines under WIPP-relevant conditions using a continuous gas flow-through system. The experimental apparatus maintains the following conditions: pO2 < 5 ppm; temperature of 26 °C; relative humidity at 78%±10%; and a range of pCO2 values (0, 350, 1500 and 3500 ppm, balance N2). Four high-ionic-strength-brines are used: Generic Weep Brine (GWB), a Na-Mg-Cl dominated brine associated with the Salado Fm.; Energy Research and Development Administration WIPP Well 6 (ERDA-6), a predominately Na-Cl brine; GWB with organic ligands (EDTA, acetate, citrate, and oxalate); and ERDA-6 with the same organic ligands. Steel coupons removed after 6 months show formation of several phases dependent on the pCO2. SEM analysis with EDS shows the presence of a green Fe (±Mg)-chlori-hydroxide phase at p

  8. Anti-proliferative effect of RCE-4 from Reineckia carnea on human cervical cancer HeLa cells by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Caihong; Yang, Xiaojiao; Zou, Kun; He, Haibo; Wang, Junzhi; Qin, Huilin; Yu, Xiaoqin; Liu, Chengxiong; Zheng, Juyan; Cheng, Fan; Chen, Jianfeng

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. In recent years, the studies find that inflammation is a critical component of tumor progression, and the ideal therapeutic methods should be aimed at the inflammation reaction triggers. (1β,3β,5β,25S)-spirostan-1,3-diol1-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-xylopyranoside] (RCE-4) was the main active composition of Reineckia carnea (Andr.) Kunth. It significantly induced apoptosis in cervical cancer Caski cells through the mitochondrial pathway in our previous studies; however, its underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. This study aimed to further evaluate the effect of RCE-4 on human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Based on this observation, we investigated the anti-cervical cancer effect of RCE-4 by modulating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase-B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) signaling pathway, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation, and inflammation-related key factors in HeLa cells. The results indicated that the HeLa cell was the most sensitive with an IC50 of 7.01 μM; RCE-4 significantly promoted the release of cellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); increased DNA fragmentation and apoptosis; reduced PI3K, Akt, mTOR, and NF-κBp65 phosphorylation levels; increased the Bax and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein levels; suppressed Bcl-2 protein expression; elevated the Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio; and decreased the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expressions in HeLa cells in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings suggest that RCE-4 exerted beneficially anti-cervical cancer effect on HeLa cells, mainly inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway phosphorylation and NF-κB activation, promoting HeLa cell apoptosis. Graphical abstract Anti-tumor effect of RCE-4 on HeLa cells.

  9. Phytotoxic action of naphthoquinone juglone demonstrated on lettuce seedling roots.

    PubMed

    Babula, Petr; Vaverkova, Veronika; Poborilova, Zuzana; Ballova, Ludmila; Masarik, Michal; Provaznik, Ivo

    2014-11-01

    Juglone, 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, is the plant secondary metabolite with allelopathic properties, which was isolated especially from the plant species belonging to family Juglandaceae A. Rich. ex Kunth (walnut family). The mechanism of phytotoxic action of juglone was investigated on lettuce seedlings Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata L. cv. Merkurion by determining its effect at different levels. We have found that juglone inhibits mitosis (mitotic index 8.5 ± 0.6% for control versus 2.2 ± 0.9% for 250 μM juglone), changes mitotic phase index with accumulation of the cells in prophase (56.5 ± 2.6% for control versus 85.3 ± 5.0% for 250 μM juglone), and decreases meristematic activity in lettuce root tips (51.07 ± 3.62% for control versus 5.27 ± 2.29% for 250 μM juglone). In addition, juglone induced creation of reactive oxygen species and changed levels of reactive nitrogen species. Amount of malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation, increased from 24.0 ± 4.0 ng g(-1) FW for control to 55.5 ± 5.4 ng g(-1) FW for 250 μM juglone. We observed also changes in cellular structure, especially changes in the morphology of endoplasmic reticulum. Reactive oxygen species induced damage of plasma membrane. All these changes resulted in the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, increase in free intracellular calcium ions, and DNA fragmentation and programmed cell death that was revealed by two methods, TUNEL test and DNA electrophoresis. The portion of TUNEL-positive cells increase from 0.96 ± 0.5% for control to 7.66 ± 1.5% for 250 μM juglone. Results of the study indicate complex mechanism of phytotoxic effect of juglone in lettuce root tips and may indicate mechanism of allelopathic activity of this compound. PMID:25240266

  10. Root distribution and potential interactions between allelopathic rice, sprangletop (Leptochloa spp.), and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) based on ¹³C isotope discrimination analysis.

    PubMed

    Gealy, David; Moldenhauer, Karen; Duke, Sara

    2013-02-01

    Weed-suppressive rice cultivars hold promise for improved and more economical weed management in rice. Interactions between roots of rice and weeds are thought to be modulated by the weed-suppressive activity of some rice cultivars, but these phenomena are difficult to measure and not well understood. Thus, above-ground productivity, weed suppression, and root distribution of 11 rice cultivars and two weed species were evaluated in a drill-seeded, flood-irrigated system at Stuttgart, Arkansas, USA in a two-year study. The allelopathic cultivars, PI 312777 and Taichung Native 1 (TN-1), three other weed-suppressive cultivars, three indica-derived breeding selections, and three non-suppressive commercial cultivars were evaluated in field plots infested with barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.) or bearded sprangletop (sprangletop, Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth var. fascicularis (Lam.) N. Snow). The allelopathic cultivars produced more tillers and suppressed both weed species to a greater extent than did the breeding selections or the non-suppressive cultivars. (13)C isotope discrimination analysis of mixed root samples to a depth of 15 cm revealed that the allelopathic cultivars typically produced a greater fraction of their total root mass in the surface 0-5 cm of soil depth compared to the breeding selections or the non-suppressive cultivars, which tended to distribute their roots more evenly throughout the soil profile. These trends in root mass distribution were apparent at both early (pre-flood) and late-season stages in weed-free and weed-infested plots. Cultivar productivity and root distribution generally responded similarly to competition with the two weed species, but barnyardgrass reduced rice yield and root mass more than did sprangletop. These findings demonstrate for the first time that roots of the allelopathic cultivars PI 312777 and TN-1 explore the upper soil profile more thoroughly than do non-suppressive cultivars under weed

  11. Explained: Why many surveys of distant galaxies miss 90% of their targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-03-01

    ève, Switzerland), Göran Östlin and Jens Melinder (Stockholm University, Sweden), J. Miguel Mas-Hesse (CSIC-INTA, Madrid, Spain), Claus Leitherer (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, USA), Hakim Atek and Daniel Kunth (Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, France), and Anne Verhamme (Oxford Astrophysics, U.K.). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".