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Sample records for chlorite matrix wf10

  1. Interaction of the chlorite-based drug WF10 and chlorite with hemoglobin, methemoglobin and ferryl hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Pichert, Annelie; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    The interaction of the chlorite-based drug solution WF10 with human oxyhemoglobin and oxidized hemoglobin forms was investigated monitoring the corresponding spectral changes in heme states. The chlorite component of WF10 converts oxyhemoglobin into methemoglobin with a rate of 35.4 M(-1)s(-1). Methemoglobin is also formed upon the interaction of ferryl hemoglobin and WF10/chlorite. The rate of this interconversion depends on the oxidation state of ferryl hemoglobin. This rate is 114 M(-1)s(-1), when ferryl hemoglobin was generated upon reaction of oxyhemoglobin and hydrogen peroxide. A considerable higher rate (6600 M(-1)s(-1)) is measured between the chlorite components of WF10 and ferryl hemoglobin after formation of the latter species from methemoglobin. WF10/chlorite inactivates also methemoglobin as evidenced by the continuous decrease of the Soret band and all other absorbances with a rate of 8.3 M(-1)s(-1). In all interconversions, the chlorite component of WF10 was the active principle as shown in experiments applying pure chlorite at the same concentration as in WF10. Thus, WF10 is able to diminish efficiently the yield of cytotoxic hemoglobin species that might appear after excessive hemolysis of red blood cells under pathologic situations. PMID:26391926

  2. The pro-oxidative drug WF-10 inhibits serial killing by primary human cytotoxic T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Wabnitz, G H; Balta, E; Schindler, S; Kirchgessner, H; Jahraus, B; Meuer, S; Samstag, Y

    2016-01-01

    Cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs) play an important role in many immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Targeting cytotoxicity of CTLs would allow to interfere with immune-mediated tissue destruction. Here we demonstrate that WF-10, a pro-oxidative compound, inhibits CTL-mediated cytotoxicity. WF-10 did not influence early steps of target-cell killing, but impaired the ability of CTLs to detach from the initial target cell and to move to a second target cell. This reduced serial killing was accompanied by stronger enrichment of the adhesion molecule LFA-1 in the cytolytic immune synapse. LFA-1 clustering requires activation of the actin-bundling protein L-plastin and was accordingly diminished in L-plastin knockdown cells. Interestingly, WF-10 likely acts through regulating L-plastin: (I) It induced L-plastin activation through phosphorylation leading to enhanced LFA-1-mediated cell adhesion, and, importantly, (II) WF-10 lost its influence on target-cell killing in L-plastin knockdown cells. Finally, we demonstrate that WF-10 can improve immunosuppression by conventional drugs. Thus, while cyclosporine A alone had no significant effect on cytotoxicity of CTLs, a combination of cyclosporine A and WF-10 blocked target-cell killing synergistically. Together, our findings suggest that WF-10 – either alone or in combination with conventional immunosuppressive drugs – may be efficient to control progression of diseases, in which CTLs are crucially involved. PMID:27551545

  3. The pro-oxidative drug WF-10 inhibits serial killing by primary human cytotoxic T-cells.

    PubMed

    Wabnitz, G H; Balta, E; Schindler, S; Kirchgessner, H; Jahraus, B; Meuer, S; Samstag, Y

    2016-01-01

    Cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs) play an important role in many immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Targeting cytotoxicity of CTLs would allow to interfere with immune-mediated tissue destruction. Here we demonstrate that WF-10, a pro-oxidative compound, inhibits CTL-mediated cytotoxicity. WF-10 did not influence early steps of target-cell killing, but impaired the ability of CTLs to detach from the initial target cell and to move to a second target cell. This reduced serial killing was accompanied by stronger enrichment of the adhesion molecule LFA-1 in the cytolytic immune synapse. LFA-1 clustering requires activation of the actin-bundling protein L-plastin and was accordingly diminished in L-plastin knockdown cells. Interestingly, WF-10 likely acts through regulating L-plastin: (I) It induced L-plastin activation through phosphorylation leading to enhanced LFA-1-mediated cell adhesion, and, importantly, (II) WF-10 lost its influence on target-cell killing in L-plastin knockdown cells. Finally, we demonstrate that WF-10 can improve immunosuppression by conventional drugs. Thus, while cyclosporine A alone had no significant effect on cytotoxicity of CTLs, a combination of cyclosporine A and WF-10 blocked target-cell killing synergistically. Together, our findings suggest that WF-10 - either alone or in combination with conventional immunosuppressive drugs - may be efficient to control progression of diseases, in which CTLs are crucially involved. PMID:27551545

  4. Simultaneous determination of bromate, chlorite and haloacetic acids by two-dimensional matrix elimination ion chromatography with coupled conventional and capillary columns.

    PubMed

    Teh, Hui Boon; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2015-02-27

    A new, highly sensitive and reliable two-dimensional matrix elimination ion chromatography (IC) method was developed for simultaneous detection of bromate, chlorite and five haloacetic acids. This method combined the conventional IC in first dimension with capillary IC in the second dimension coupled with suppressed conductivity detection. The first dimension utilizes a high capacity column to partially resolve matrix from target analytes. By optimizing the cut window, the target analytes were selectively cut and trapped in a trap column through the use of a six-port valve, while the separated matrix were diverted to waste. The trapped target analytes were delivered on to the capillary column for further separation and detection. Temperature programming was used to improve selectivity in second dimension column to obtain complete resolution of the target analytes. Compared to the performance of one-dimensional IC, the two-dimensional approach resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity for all target analytes with limit of detection ranging from 0.30 to 0.64μg/L and provided more reliable analysis due to second column confirmation. Good linearity was obtained for all the target analytes with correlation coefficients >0.998. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of oxyhalides and haloacetic acids in various matrices with recoveries ranging from 90 to 116% and RSD less than 6.1%. The method allows direct injection of samples and the use of columns with different selectivity, thus significantly reduces the level of false positive results. The method is fully automated and simple, making it practical for routine monitoring of water quality. The satisfactory results also demonstrated that the two-dimensional matrix elimination method coupled with capillary IC is a promising approach for detection of trace substances in complex matrices. PMID:25650354

  5. Chlorite (sodium salt)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorite ( sodium salt ) ; CASRN 7758 - 19 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  6. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient...

  7. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient...

  8. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient...

  9. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS Reg. No. 7758-19-2) exists as... solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from 125 to...

  10. Interlayer bonding in IIb chlorite

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D.L.; Giese, R.F. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The interlayer bond energy of a IIb-4 chlorite has been calculated as a function of layer charge, the site of the charge and the selective replacement of hydroxyl groups by fluoride ions. Long hydrogen bonds between the hydroxide sheet and the adjacent oxygens are strong and by themselves sufficient to create a stable structure. Coupled substitutions giving the 2:1 layer a negative charge and the hydroxide sheet a positive charge increase substantially the interlayer bond energy. 3 figures.

  11. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS Reg. No. 7758-19-2... into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels...

  12. Authigenic chlorites in sandstones as indicators of high-temperature diagenesis, Arkoma Foreland Basin, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Spoetl, C.; Houseknecht, D.W. ); Longstaffe, F.J. . Dept. of Earth Sciences)

    1994-07-01

    Abundant authigenic chamosite associated with higher-than-average porosities is present in a deep gas reservoir (Spiro sandstone) of the Arkoma Basin, east-central Oklahoma. Three types of chlorite can be distinguished petrographically, all of which appear texturally to have formed early: chlorite peloids, diffuse matrix, and grain coatings. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe studies show that most chlorites are composed of two distinct polytypes, Ib ([beta] = 90[degree]) and IIb. A third structure, Ia[prime] polytype, was identified in only one sample. The relative percentage of the high-temperature IIb structure increases gradually with increasing thermal maturity, from [le] 10% at 2.0% R[sub o] up to [le] 40% at 3.5% R[sub o]. IIb chlorite forms rather thick, blocky crystals distinct from the thin, pseudohexagonal plates typical of low-temperature Ib chlorite. Temperature estimates based on data on vitrinite reflectance and fluid inclusions suggest that IIb chlorite formed at burial temperatures [ge] 150--180 C. Higher contents of tetrahedral Al[sup 3+] and slightly higher Fe/[Fe+Mg] ratios in IIb chlorite are consistent with precipitation temperatures higher than those of the Ib structure. A higher-temperature origin for the IIb structure is also consistent with oxygen isotope data.

  13. Experimental determination of chlorite dissolution rates

    SciTech Connect

    Rochelle, C.A.; Bateman, K.; MacGregor, R.; Pearce, J.M.; Wetton, P.D.; Savage, D.

    1995-12-31

    Current concepts of the geological disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the UK envisage the construction of a mined facility (incorporating cementitious engineered barriers) in chlorite-bearing rocks. To model accurately the fluid-rock reactions within the disturbed zone surrounding a repository requires functions that describe mineral dissolution kinetics under pH conditions that vary from near neutral to highly alkaline. Therefore, an experimental study to determine the dissolution rates of Fe-rich chlorite has been undertaken as part of the Nirex Safety Assessment Research Program. Four experiments have been carried out at 25 C and four at 70 C, both sets using a range of NaCl/NaOH solutions of differing pH (of nominal pH 9.0, 10.3, 11.6 and 13.0 [at 25 C]). Dissolution rates have been calculated and were found to increase with increasing pH and temperature. However, increased pH resulted in non-stoichiometric dissolution possibly due to preferential dissolution of part of the chlorite structure relative to another, or reprecipitation of some elements as thin hydroxide or oxyhydroxide surface coatings on the chlorite. These results also show that chlorite dissolution is appreciably slower than that of albite and quartz at both 25 and 70 C, but slightly faster than that of muscovite at 70 C.

  14. TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHLORITE IN THE MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    When exposed to a maximum level of 100 ppm chlorine dioxide in their drinking water, neither A/J or C57L/J mice exhibited any hematologic changes. Chlorite exposure under similar conditions produced increases for red blood cells in osmotic fragility, mean corpuscular volume, and ...

  15. Mechanism of chlorite degradation to chloride and dioxygen by the enzyme chlorite dismutase.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, Irene; Hofbauer, Stefan; Krutzler, Michael; Pirker, Katharina F; Furtmüller, Paul G; Obinger, Christian

    2015-05-15

    Heme b containing chlorite dismutase (Cld) catalyses the conversion of chlorite to chloride and dioxygen which includes an unusual OO bond formation. This review summarizes our knowledge about the interaction of chlorite with heme enzymes and introduces the biological role, phylogeny and structure of functional chlorite dismutases with differences in overall structure and subunit architecture. The paper sums up the available experimental and computational studies on chlorite degradation by water soluble porphyrin complexes as well as a model based on the active site of Cld. Finally, it reports the available biochemical and biophysical data of Clds from different organisms which allow the presentation of a general reaction mechanism. It includes binding of chlorite to ferric Cld followed by subsequent heterolytic OCl bond cleavage leading to the formation of Compound I and hypochlorite, which finally recombine for production of chloride and O2. The role of the Cld-typical distal arginine in catalysis is discussed together with the pH dependence of the reaction and the role of transiently produced hypochlorite in irreversible inactivation of the enzyme. PMID:25748001

  16. The homopentameric chlorite dismutase from Magnetospirillum sp.

    PubMed

    Freire, Diana M; Rivas, Maria G; Dias, André M; Lopes, Ana T; Costa, Cristina; Santos-Silva, Teresa; Van Doorslaer, Sabine; González, Pablo J

    2015-10-01

    Chlorite dismutase (Cld) is a b-type heme containing enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of chlorite into chloride plus dioxygen. This enzyme has gained attention because it can be used in the development of bioremediation processes, biosensors, and controlled dioxygen production. In the present work, Cld was purified from Magnetospirillum sp. cells cultured anaerobically with acetate/perchlorate until stationary phase. Biochemical, spectroscopic and X-ray crystallography methods showed that Cld from Magnetospirillum sp. is a ~140 kDa homopentamer comprising ~27.8 kDa monomers. Preliminary X-ray crystallography studies confirmed the quaternary structure and the presence of one b-type heme per monomer. The EPR spectroscopic signature of the as-purified Cld samples is affected by the buffer composition used during the purification. Potassium phosphate buffer is the only buffer that affected neither the spectral nor the kinetic properties of Cld. Kinetic studies in solution revealed that Cld from Magnetospirillum sp. decomposes chlorite at high turnover rates with optimal pH6.0. A temperature below 10 °C is required to avoid enzyme inactivation due to cofactor bleaching during turnover, and to achieve full substrate consumption. Cld kinetic parameters were not affected when kinetic assays were performed in the presence of air or under argon atmosphere, but chloride is a weak mixed inhibitor that modifies the EPR signal of as-prepared samples. PMID:26218477

  17. Periodic and nonperiodic interstratification in the chlorite-biotite series

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Huifang; Zhang, Yiqiang; Veblen, D.R.

    1996-11-01

    A systematic TEM investigation of interstratified chlorite-biotite crystals showed that the crystals are composed of domains of periodically interstratified chlorite-biotite, non-periodically interstratified chlorite-biotite, biotite, and chlorite. The interstratified chlorite-biotite occurs as a vein filling and was apparently crystallized from a hydrothermal solution. The complex structure of the interstratified chlorite-biotite presumably results from a nonlinear growth phenomenon occurring under a nonequilibrium state. A simple nonlinear dynamics model derived from Duffing`s equation was constructed with an additional chemical potential that accounts for the variation of structural configuration of tetrahedral sheets or 2:1 layers in chlorite and biotite, a simple periodic fluctuation of hydrothermal fluid composition, and a simple damping force for two-dimensional lattice misfit on (001) resulting from the intergrowth of different types of layers with different structural configurations and other dissipation effects. Solutions to the equations of the model show that periodic interstratification, nonperiodic interstratification, and domains of the two end-member components (biotite, chlorite) can be formed during crystallization under various conditions. The nonperiodic sequences of biotite and chlorite layers along the c axis in the interstratified crystals produced by this model are chaotic rather than random. The calculations suggest that both periodic and nonperiodic interstratifications can result from periodic external force, e.g., compositional fluctuation of the fluid.

  18. Methane oxidation linked to chlorite dismutation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Laurence G.; Baesman, Shaun M.; Carlström, Charlotte I.; Coates, John D.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the potential for CH4 oxidation to be coupled with oxygen derived from the dissimilatory reduction of perchlorate, chlorate, or via chlorite (ClO−2) dismutation. Although dissimilatory reduction of ClO−4 and ClO−3 could be inferred from the accumulation of chloride ions either in spent media or in soil slurries prepared from exposed freshwater lake sediment, neither of these oxyanions evoked methane oxidation when added to either anaerobic mixed cultures or soil enriched in methanotrophs. In contrast, ClO−2 amendment elicited such activity. Methane (0.2 kPa) was completely removed within several days from the headspace of cell suspensions of Dechloromonas agitata CKB incubated with either Methylococcus capsulatus Bath or Methylomicrobium album BG8 in the presence of 5 mM ClO−2. We also observed complete removal of 0.2 kPa CH4 in bottles containing soil enriched in methanotrophs when co-incubated with D. agitata CKB and 10 mM ClO−2. However, to be effective these experiments required physical separation of soil from D. agitata CKB to allow for the partitioning of O2 liberated from chlorite dismutation into the shared headspace. Although a link between ClO−2 and CH4 consumption was established in soils and cultures, no upstream connection with either ClO−4 or ClO−3 was discerned. This result suggests that the release of O2 during enzymatic perchlorate reduction was negligible, and that the oxygen produced was unavailable to the aerobic methanotrophs. PMID:24987389

  19. Methane oxidation linked to chlorite dismutation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Laurence G.; Baesman, Shaun M.; Carlström, Charlotte I.; Coates, John D.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the potential for CH4 oxidation to be coupled with oxygen derived from the dissimilatory reduction of perchlorate, chlorate, or via chlorite (ClO−2) dismutation. Although dissimilatory reduction of ClO−4 and ClO−3 could be inferred from the accumulation of chloride ions either in spent media or in soil slurries prepared from exposed freshwater lake sediment, neither of these oxyanions evoked methane oxidation when added to either anaerobic mixed cultures or soil enriched in methanotrophs. In contrast, ClO−2 amendment elicited such activity. Methane (0.2 kPa) was completely removed within several days from the headspace of cell suspensions of Dechloromonas agitata CKB incubated with either Methylococcus capsulatus Bath or Methylomicrobium album BG8 in the presence of 5 mM ClO−2. We also observed complete removal of 0.2 kPa CH4 in bottles containing soil enriched in methanotrophs when co-incubated with D. agitata CKB and 10 mM ClO−2. However, to be effective these experiments required physical separation of soil from D. agitata CKB to allow for the partitioning of O2 liberated from chlorite dismutation into the shared headspace. Although a link between ClO−2 and CH4 consumption was established in soils and cultures, no upstream connection with either ClO−4 or ClO−3 was discerned. This result suggests that the release of O2 during enzymatic perchlorate reduction was negligible, and that the oxygen produced was unavailable to the aerobic methanotrophs.

  20. Methane oxidation linked to chlorite dismutation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laurence G; Baesman, Shaun M; Carlström, Charlotte I; Coates, John D; Oremland, Ronald S

    2014-01-01

    We examined the potential for CH4 oxidation to be coupled with oxygen derived from the dissimilatory reduction of perchlorate, chlorate, or via chlorite (ClO(-) 2) dismutation. Although dissimilatory reduction of ClO(-) 4 and ClO(-) 3 could be inferred from the accumulation of chloride ions either in spent media or in soil slurries prepared from exposed freshwater lake sediment, neither of these oxyanions evoked methane oxidation when added to either anaerobic mixed cultures or soil enriched in methanotrophs. In contrast, ClO(-) 2 amendment elicited such activity. Methane (0.2 kPa) was completely removed within several days from the headspace of cell suspensions of Dechloromonas agitata CKB incubated with either Methylococcus capsulatus Bath or Methylomicrobium album BG8 in the presence of 5 mM ClO(-) 2. We also observed complete removal of 0.2 kPa CH4 in bottles containing soil enriched in methanotrophs when co-incubated with D. agitata CKB and 10 mM ClO(-) 2. However, to be effective these experiments required physical separation of soil from D. agitata CKB to allow for the partitioning of O2 liberated from chlorite dismutation into the shared headspace. Although a link between ClO(-) 2 and CH4 consumption was established in soils and cultures, no upstream connection with either ClO(-) 4 or ClO(-) 3 was discerned. This result suggests that the release of O2 during enzymatic perchlorate reduction was negligible, and that the oxygen produced was unavailable to the aerobic methanotrophs. PMID:24987389

  1. Chlorite reactivity and contribution to flow path modifications under conditions relevant for CO2 sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckingham, L. E.; Yang, L.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Voltolini, M.; Banuelos, J. L.; Anovitz, L. M.; Bourg, I. C.; Steefel, C. I.

    2013-12-01

    Iron-bearing clay minerals, such as chlorite, have been identified as key reactants with CO2 in caprock and reservoir formations and have been frequently shown to coat pores and even govern connected microporosity in these formations. Some studies have linked the total amount of CO2 trapped as carbonate minerals to the abundance of chlorite, glauconite, and smectite. However, the reactivity of these minerals under the conditions and timescales relevant for geologic sequestration of CO2 is largely unknown. When these minerals occur along a fracture leakage pathway, dissolution and precipitation reactions may create self-sealing or self-enhancing leakage pathways. In this presentation, we describe experiments that probe the reactivity of chlorite and its potential to alter connected porosity and either enhance or seal fracture leakage pathways. Our experiments use a network of capillary tubes packed with chlorite to mimic the case where a CO2-acidified brine flows through a fracture and reacts with iron-bearing clays in the caprock matrix. Before and after reaction, the chlorite-filled capillaries are imaged using 3D X-ray synchrotron microtomography at three points along the column to track changes in the pore structure. During the experiment, effluent ion concentrations are tracked using ICP-MS to infer mineralogical changes. The packed capillaries are imaged periodically during the experiment using Raman Spectroscopy to interpret the evolution of minerals along the tube length. Alteration of nanoporosity is assessed through TEM imaging or SAXS. Our experiments reveal how the couplings between mass transport, weathering reactions, and pore structure alteration affect the geochemical evolution of fracture permeability.

  2. Sensitivity of antioxidant-deficient yeast to hypochlorite and chlorite.

    PubMed

    Kwolek-Mirek, Magdalena; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Spickett, Corinne M

    2011-08-01

    Sodium hypochlorite and sodium chlorite are commonly used as disinfectants, and understanding the mechanisms of microbial resistance to these compounds is of considerable importance. In this study, the role of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in the sensitivity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to hypochlorite and chlorite was studied. Yeast mutants lacking Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, but not mutants deficient in cytoplasmic and peroxisomal catalase, were hypersensitive to the action of both hypochlorite and chlorite. Both compounds depleted cellular glutathione, induced the production of reactive oxygen species and decreased the viability of the cells. The toxicity of hypochlorite and chlorite was abolished by hypoxic and anoxic conditions and ameliorated by thiol antioxidants and ascorbate. The results demonstrated that the action of hypochlorite and chlorite involves the formation of superoxide and peroxide and that SOD1 is protective, probably by limiting the formation of hydroxyl radicals and damage to proteins. PMID:21761455

  3. Redox kinetics and colloid formation during water-chlorite interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E. G.; Ahn, H.; Ryu, J. H.; Jo, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    For the isolation of high-level radioactive wastes from biosphere, the deep geological repository should be maintained reducing conditions. Surface groundwater can flow along fractures into the deep geological repository, which may cause oxic conditions. In the oxic conditions, uranium can be oxidized from U(Ⅳ) to U(Ⅵ) and U(Ⅵ) can easily migrate in groundwater due to its high mobility. Chlorite with Fe(Ⅱ), which is a phyllosilicate minerals generally occurred in fractures, can help maintenance of the reducing condition because chlorite can consume oxidizing agents by redox reactions. In this study, redox kinetics of chlorite were investigated by conducting redox batch kinetic tests at various conditions (i.e., concentration of oxidizing agent, pH, and presence of NaCl). Colloidal particle formation during redox reactions of chlorite was also investigated. Two types of chlorite samples: low iron content (CCa-2) and high iron content (Chlorite from Daejeon, South Korea) were used. Redox batch kinetic tests were conducted for 60 days. The solutions, reactants, and colloidal particles collected from the redox batch kinetic tests every 10 days were characterized. Results show that the concentration of oxidizing agent decreased more in the chlorite sample having higher Fe(Ⅱ) content than that having lower Fe(Ⅱ) content. After 10 days, both the chlorite samples tend to be reached steady-state conditions and then no changes in the concentration of oxidizing agent were observed. SEM analysis shows that surface and edge of the chlorite samples tend to be crispy and smoothy with increasing reaction time. SEM-EDS analysis on colloidal particles shows that colloidal particles consisted of Fe and O, which were identified as ferrihydrite.

  4. Mechanism of reaction of chlorite with mammalian heme peroxidases

    PubMed Central

    Jakopitsch, Christa; Pirker, Katharina F.; Flemmig, Jörg; Hofbauer, Stefan; Schlorke, Denise; Furtmüller, Paul G.; Arnhold, Jürgen; Obinger, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates that heme peroxidases from different superfamilies react differently with chlorite. In contrast to plant peroxidases, like horseradish peroxidase (HRP), the mammalian counterparts myeloperoxidase (MPO) and lactoperoxidase (LPO) are rapidly and irreversibly inactivated by chlorite in the micromolar concentration range. Chlorite acts as efficient one-electron donor for Compound I and Compound II of MPO and LPO and reacts with the corresponding ferric resting states in a biphasic manner. The first (rapid) phase is shown to correspond to the formation of a MPO-chlorite high-spin complex, whereas during the second (slower) phase degradation of the prosthetic group was observed. Cyanide, chloride and hydrogen peroxide can block or delay heme bleaching. In contrast to HRP, the MPO/chlorite system does not mediate chlorination of target molecules. Irreversible inactivation is shown to include heme degradation, iron release and decrease in thermal stability. Differences between mammalian peroxidases and HRP are discussed with respect to differences in active site architecture and heme modification. PMID:24632343

  5. Chlorites in reservoir sandstones of the Guadalupian Delaware Mountain Group

    SciTech Connect

    Walling, S.D. )

    1992-04-01

    Late-stage authigenic clay minerals are pervasive in the very fine-grained, subarkosic sandstones of the Guadalupian Delaware Mountain Group, comprising up to 10% of the bulk rock. Thus, reservoir rock properties are influenced by these minerals. Samples selected from cored intervals, ranging from 600 to 2500 m, were studied using optical and electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction methods to determine the distribution and nature of occurrence of the authigenic clay minerals. In thin sections, the clay minerals are recognizable as grain coatings, with thickness varying from a few micrometers to tens of micrometers. A correlation between the morphology and the amount of interstratification has been observed, with more interstratification corresponding to the formless chlorite variety. The structural and morphological evidence suggests that the chlorites represent different stages of development, possibly evolving from a smectite component through an interstratified intermediate, to a more well-ordered form. There appears to be no systematic trends vertically or laterally in clay mineralogy. The importance of understanding the clay mineralogy and chemistry in these sandstones is evident when considering enhanced recovery procedures. Different clay structures and chemistries may respond differently to production and stimulation techniques. The proposed chlorite diagenetic sequence suggests that drastic changes in borehole fluid chemistry may cause retrogression of chlorite to some expansive forms, which may be water sensitive or inclined to migration.

  6. A dimeric chlorite dismutase exhibits O2-generating activity and acts as a chlorite antioxidant in Klebsiella pneumoniae MGH 78578.

    PubMed

    Celis, Arianna I; Geeraerts, Zachary; Ngmenterebo, David; Machovina, Melodie M; Kurker, Richard C; Rajakumar, Kumar; Ivancich, Anabella; Rodgers, Kenton R; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S; DuBois, Jennifer L

    2015-01-20

    Chlorite dismutases (Clds) convert chlorite to O2 and Cl(-), stabilizing heme in the presence of strong oxidants and forming the O═O bond with high efficiency. The enzyme from the pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpCld) represents a subfamily of Clds that share most of their active site structure with efficient O2-producing Clds, even though they have a truncated monomeric structure, exist as a dimer rather than a pentamer, and come from Gram-negative bacteria without a known need to degrade chlorite. We hypothesized that KpCld, like others in its subfamily, should be able to make O2 and may serve an in vivo antioxidant function. Here, it is demonstrated that it degrades chlorite with limited turnovers relative to the respiratory Clds, in part because of the loss of hypochlorous acid from the active site and destruction of the heme. The observation of hypochlorous acid, the expected leaving group accompanying transfer of an oxygen atom to the ferric heme, is consistent with the more open, solvent-exposed heme environment predicted by spectroscopic measurements and inferred from the crystal structures of related proteins. KpCld is more susceptible to oxidative degradation under turnover conditions than the well-characterized Clds associated with perchlorate respiration. However, wild-type K. pneumoniae has a significant growth advantage in the presence of chlorate relative to a Δcld knockout strain, specifically under nitrate-respiring conditions. This suggests that a physiological function of KpCld may be detoxification of endogenously produced chlorite. PMID:25437493

  7. A Dimeric Chlorite Dismutase Exhibits O2-Generating Activity and Acts as a Chlorite Antioxidant in Klebsiella pneumoniae MGH 78578

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chlorite dismutases (Clds) convert chlorite to O2 and Cl–, stabilizing heme in the presence of strong oxidants and forming the O=O bond with high efficiency. The enzyme from the pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpCld) represents a subfamily of Clds that share most of their active site structure with efficient O2-producing Clds, even though they have a truncated monomeric structure, exist as a dimer rather than a pentamer, and come from Gram-negative bacteria without a known need to degrade chlorite. We hypothesized that KpCld, like others in its subfamily, should be able to make O2 and may serve an in vivo antioxidant function. Here, it is demonstrated that it degrades chlorite with limited turnovers relative to the respiratory Clds, in part because of the loss of hypochlorous acid from the active site and destruction of the heme. The observation of hypochlorous acid, the expected leaving group accompanying transfer of an oxygen atom to the ferric heme, is consistent with the more open, solvent-exposed heme environment predicted by spectroscopic measurements and inferred from the crystal structures of related proteins. KpCld is more susceptible to oxidative degradation under turnover conditions than the well-characterized Clds associated with perchlorate respiration. However, wild-type K. pneumoniae has a significant growth advantage in the presence of chlorate relative to a Δcld knockout strain, specifically under nitrate-respiring conditions. This suggests that a physiological function of KpCld may be detoxification of endogenously produced chlorite. PMID:25437493

  8. 40 CFR 180.1070 - Sodium chlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium chlorite; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1070 Sodium chlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Sodium chlorite is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues when used in accordance with...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1070 - Sodium chlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sodium chlorite; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1070 Sodium chlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Sodium chlorite is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues when used in accordance with...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1070 - Sodium chlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium chlorite; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1070 Sodium chlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Sodium chlorite is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues when used in accordance with...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1070 - Sodium chlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium chlorite; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1070 Sodium chlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Sodium chlorite is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues when used in accordance with...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1070 - Sodium chlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium chlorite; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1070 Sodium chlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Sodium chlorite is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues when used in accordance with...

  13. Variations of chlorites and illites and porosity in Mississippian sandstone reservoirs in the Illinois basin

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.M.; Hughes, R.E. )

    1991-03-01

    Shallow marine, Mississippian, siliclastics in the Illinois basin, although predominantly quartz, contain other minerals that directly influence the porosity and permeability of these reservoir rocks. These sandstones contain more chlorite and kaolinite, relative to illite, than the authors have observed for shales from other Chesterian and Valmeyeran strata. Clay mineral suites in reservoirs appear to be diagenetic. The Aux Vases Sandstone contains illite, illite/smectite, and chlorite; kaolinite is absent. The Cypress Sandstone contains illite, illite/smectite, chlorite, and kaolinite. Chlorite in the Aux Vases Sandstone varies from moderately Fe-rich to Mg-rich, whereas the chlorite in the Cypress Sandstone is uniformly Fe-rich. As the percentage of clay minerals in these rocks decreases, the proportion of chlorite to other clay minerals increases. In some chlorites, the width of the 003 and 005 peaks at half-height is greater than that of the 002 and 004 peaks. This suggests an interlayering of a 7{angstrom} mineral, probably berthierine- or serpentine-like. SEM photos show chlorite coating quartz grains. In some samples there are quartz overgrowths in spite of the presence of a coating of chlorite; in others, chlorite interlayered with the 7{angstrom} phase seems to have interfered with or suppressed overgrowths. Correspondingly, there is a correlation between the 7{angstrom} phase/chlorite and porosity. Therefore, identification of the type of chlorite in a potential reservoir may be an indicator of porosity, as well as a guide for selecting completion and stimulation treatments.

  14. Electrical conductivity of chlorite at high pressures and high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eymard, I.; Mibe, K.; Reynard, B.

    2012-12-01

    In the mantle wedge of subduction zones, high electrical-conductivity bodies have been observed. In order to understand the cause of high-conductivity body in subduction zones, we measured the electrical conductivity of polycrystalline chlorite, at pressures from 2 to 4 GPa and at high temperatures up to 850K using complex impedance spectroscopy in a multi-anvil high-pressure apparatus. The electrical conductivity increased slightly with increasing pressure. The obtained electrical conductivity values are higher than serpentine and talc (Reynard et al., 2011; Guo et al., 2011) and are slightly lower than brucite (Fujita et al., 2007). Although the obtained values are higher compared to serpentine, the presence of chlorite alone is not high enough to explain high-conductivity bodies in subduction-zones. Instead, the presence of some amount of saline fluids is inferred.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of oxygen isotopic exchange between chlorite and water

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Variations in the oxygen isotopic composition of biotites altering to chlorite have been monitored as a function of time from 16 hydrothermal granite-water experiments conducted at the following conditions: T = 170/sup 0/ - 300/sup 0/C; P = 100-300 bars; mNaCl = 0.1-1.0; water/biotite mass ratio = 1-60 for periods up to 900 hours. The magnitude of delta/sup 18/O depletion in biotite increased with increasing temperature and time. Detailed thin section, x-ray and SEM studies demonstrated that biotite is altered exclusively to chlorite in 11 of the 16 experiments. The amounts of chlorite formed in these experiments increased with increasing temperature as well as time. The isotopic compositions of chlorite were calculated from mass balance, and compared with the final measured delta/sup 18/O of the fluids. These fractionations (..delta..Ch1-w) average 0.26, 0.77, and 3.74 per thousand for T = 300/sup 0/, 250/sup 0/, and 200/sup 0/C, respectively. Several lines of evidence will be discussed that suggest these data may represent equilibrium values. A least-squares regression of the data yields the following preliminary equation: 1000 ln ..cap alpha../sub/ Chl-W/ = 08.38 (10/sup 3//T) + 4.81 (10/sup 6//T/sup 2/). The error about this curve is at least +/-0.5 per thousand at 250/sup 0/ and 300/sup 0/C, and +/- 1 per thousand at 200/sup 0/C. There is excellent agreement between this curve and the curve given by Wenner and Taylor (1971) for the temperature range of 250/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/C. However, below 250/sup 0/C, the new chloride-water results predict consistently higher temperatures compared to previous estimates.

  16. Thermodynamic properties of chlorite and berthierine derived from calorimetric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Philippe; Gailhanou, Hélène; Rogez, Jacques; Mikaelian, Georges; Kawaji, Hitoshi; Warmont, Fabienne; Gaboreau, Stéphane; Grangeon, Sylvain; Grenèche, Jean-Marc; Vieillard, Philippe; Fialips, Claire I.; Giffaut, Eric; Gaucher, Eric C.; Claret, F.

    2014-09-01

    In the context of the deep waste disposal, we have investigated the respective stabilities of two iron-bearing clay minerals: berthierine ISGS from Illinois [USA; (Al0.975FeIII0.182FeII1.422Mg0.157Li0.035Mn0.002)(Si1.332Al0.668)O5(OH)4] and chlorite CCa-2 from Flagstaff Hill, California [USA; (Si2.633Al1.367)(Al1.116FeIII0.215Mg2.952FeII1.712Mn0.012Ca0.011)O10(OH)8]. For berthierine, the complete thermodynamic dataset was determined at 1 bar and from 2 to 310 K, using calorimetric methods. The standard enthalpies of formation were obtained by solution-reaction calorimetry at 298.15 K, and the heat capacities were measured by heat-pulse calorimetry. For chlorite, the standard enthalpy of formation is measured by solution-reaction calorimetry at 298.15 K. This is completing the entropy and heat capacity obtained previously by Gailhanou et al. (Geochim Cosmochim Acta 73:4738-4749, 2009) between 2 and 520 K, by using low-temperature adiabatic calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. For both minerals, the standard entropies and the Gibbs free energies of formation at 298.15 K were then calculated. An assessment of the measured properties could be carried out with respect to literature data. Eventually, the thermodynamic dataset allowed realizing theoretical calculations concerning the berthierine to chlorite transition. The latter showed that, from a thermodynamic viewpoint, the main factor controlling this transition is probably the composition of the berthierine and chlorite minerals and the nature of the secondary minerals rather than temperature.

  17. Ligand Binding to Chlorite Dismutase from Magnetospirillum sp.

    PubMed

    De Schutter, Amy; Correia, Hugo D; Freire, Diana M; Rivas, María G; Rizzi, Alberto; Santos-Silva, Teresa; González, Pablo J; Van Doorslaer, Sabine

    2015-10-29

    Chlorite dismutase (Cld) catalyzes the reduction of chlorite to chloride and dioxygen. Here, the ligand binding to Cld of Magnetospirillum sp. (MaCld) is investigated with X-ray crystallography and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). EPR reveals a large heterogeneity in the structure of wild-type MaCld, showing a variety of low- and high-spin ferric heme forms. Addition of an axial ligand, such as azide or imidazole, removes this heterogeneity almost entirely. This is in line with the two high resolution crystal structures of MaCld obtained in the presence of azide and thiocyanate that show the coordination of the ligands to the heme iron. The crystal structure of the MaCld-azide complex reveals a single well-defined orientation of the azide molecule in the heme pocket. EPR shows, however, a pH-dependent heme structure, probably due to acid-base transitions of the surrounding amino-acid residues stabilizing azide. For the azide and imidazole complex of MaCld, the hyperfine and nuclear quadrupole interactions with the close-by (14)N and (1)H nuclei are determined using pulsed EPR. These values are compared to the corresponding data for the low-spin forms observed in the ferric wild-type MaCld and to existing EPR data on azide and imidazole complexes of other heme proteins. PMID:26287794

  18. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Methimazole by Chlorite in Slightly Acidic Media.

    PubMed

    Chipiso, Kudzanai; Simoyi, Reuben H

    2016-06-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of methimazole (1-methyl-3H-imidazole), MMI, by chlorite in mildly acidic environments were studied. It is a complex reaction that gives oligo-oscillations in chlorine dioxide concentrations in excess chlorite conditions. The stoichiometry is strictly 2:1, with the sulfur center being oxidized to sulfate and the organic moiety being hydrolyzed to several indeterminate species. In excess MMI conditions over chlorite, the sulfinic acid and sulfonic acid were observed as major intermediates. The sulfenic acid, which was observed in the electrochemical oxidation of MMI, was not observed with chlorite oxidations. Initial reduction of chlorite produced HOCl, an autocatalytic species in chlorite oxidations. HOCl rapidly reacts with chlorite to produce chlorine dioxide, which, in turn, reacts rapidly with MMI to produce more chlorite. The reaction of chlorine dioxide with MMI is competitive, in rate, with the chlorite-MMI and HOCl-ClO2(-) reactions. This explains the oligo-oscillations in ClO2 concentrations. PMID:27126471

  19. Structural features promoting dioxygen production by Dechloromonas aromatica chlorite dismutase

    SciTech Connect

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Streit, Bennett R.; DuBois, Jennifer L.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2010-08-12

    Chlorite dismutase (Cld) is a heme enzyme capable of rapidly and selectively decomposing chlorite (ClO{sub 2}{sup -}) to Cl{sup -} and O{sub 2}. The ability of Cld to promote O{sub 2} formation from ClO{sub 2}{sup -} is unusual. Heme enzymes generally utilize ClO{sub 2}{sup -} as an oxidant for reactions such as oxygen atom transfer to, or halogenation of, a second substrate. The X-ray crystal structure of Dechloromonas aromatica Cld co-crystallized with the substrate analogue nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) was determined to investigate features responsible for this novel reactivity. The enzyme active site contains a single b-type heme coordinated by a proximal histidine residue. Structural analysis identified a glutamate residue hydrogen-bonded to the heme proximal histidine that may stabilize reactive heme species. A solvent-exposed arginine residue likely gates substrate entry to a tightly confined distal pocket. On the basis of the proposed mechanism of Cld, initial reaction of ClO{sub 2}{sup -} within the distal pocket generates hypochlorite (ClO{sup -}) and a compound I intermediate. The sterically restrictive distal pocket probably facilitates the rapid rebound of ClO{sup -} with compound I forming the Cl{sup -} and O{sub 2} products. Common to other heme enzymes, Cld is inactivated after a finite number of turnovers, potentially via the observed formation of an off-pathway tryptophanyl radical species through electron migration to compound I. Three tryptophan residues of Cld have been identified as candidates for this off-pathway radical. Finally, a juxtaposition of hydrophobic residues between the distal pocket and the enzyme surface suggests O{sub 2} may have a preferential direction for exiting the active site.

  20. Water incorporation in NAMs after antigorite and chlorite dehydration reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; Hermann, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Subduction zones play a fundamental role in the deep water cycle making the Earth unique among other terrestrial planets. Water is incorporated into hydrous minerals during seafloor alteration of the oceanic lithosphere. During subduction of the oceanic lithosphere, dehydration of these hydrous minerals produces a fluid phase. A part of this fluid phase will be recycled back to the Earth's surface through hydrothermal aqueous fluids or through hydrous arc magmas, whereas another part of the water will be transported to the deep mantle by Nominally Anhydrous Minerals (NAMs) such as olivine, pyroxene and garnet. The partitioning of water between these two processes is crucial for our understanding of the mantle-scale water recycling in the Earth. This can be investigated experimentally under water-saturated conditions because this situation is met during dehydration reactions. However relatively low temperature conditions for such reactions make challenging these experiments. An alternative can be found in the natural record. The Alpine Betic-Rif orogen together with Central and Western Alps offer an invaluable diversity of ultramafic lenses that record a significant range of pressure-temperature and cooling rates. Hence these samples portray an excellent data set of 24 samples to survey the transfer of fluids from hydrous phases (brucite, antigorite and chlorite) to NAMs (olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and garnet). Well-studied samples from these localities have been selected for water measurement using FTIR spectroscopy. The selected suite comprises the following high-pressure peridotite outcrops: Malenco serpentinite, Cerro del Almirez (1.6-1.9 GPa and 680-710ºC), Alpe Arami (3.2 GPa and 840ºC), Cima di Gagnone (3.0 GPa and 750-800ºC) and Alpe Albion (0.6 GPa and 730ºC). The infrared signature of olivine in all localities contains water (hydroxyl groups) associated to intrinsic defects (mostly point defects related to Ti4+) and extrinsic submicroscopic

  1. Geochemistry of sericite and chlorite in well 14-2 Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal system and in mineralized hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ballantyne, J.M.

    1980-06-01

    Chemical compositions of chlorite and sericite from one production well in the Roosevelt geothermal system have been determined by electron probe methods and compared with compositions of chlorite and sericite from porphyry copper deposits. Modern system sericite and chlorite occur over a depth interval of 2 km and a temperature interval of 250/sup 0/C.

  2. Investigation of ion binding in chlorite dismutases by means of molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Sündermann, Axel; Reif, Maria M; Hofbauer, Stefan; Obinger, Christian; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2014-07-29

    Chlorite dismutases are prokaryotic heme b oxidoreductases that convert chlorite to chloride and dioxygen. It has been postulated that during turnover hypochlorite is formed transiently, which might be responsible for the observed irreversible inactivation of these iron proteins. The only charged distal residue in the heme cavity is a conserved and mobile arginine, but its role in catalysis and inactivation is not fully understood. In the present study, the pentameric chlorite dismutase (Cld) from the bacterium Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii was probed for binding of the low spin ligand cyanide, the substrate chlorite, and the intermediate hypochlorite. Simulations were performed with the enzyme in the ferrous, ferric, and compound I state. Additionally, the variant R173A was studied. We report the parametrization for the GROMOS force field of the anions ClO(-), ClO2(-), ClO3(-), and ClO4(-) and describe spontaneous binding, unbinding, and rebinding events of chlorite and hypochlorite, as well as the dynamics of the conformations of Arg173 during simulations. The findings suggest that (i) chlorite binding to ferric NdCld occurs spontaneously and (ii) that Arg173 is important for recognition and to impair hypochlorite leakage from the reaction sphere. The simulation data is discussed in comparison with experimental data on catalysis and inhibition of chlorite dismutase. PMID:24988286

  3. Investigation of Ion Binding in Chlorite Dismutases by Means of Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chlorite dismutases are prokaryotic heme b oxidoreductases that convert chlorite to chloride and dioxygen. It has been postulated that during turnover hypochlorite is formed transiently, which might be responsible for the observed irreversible inactivation of these iron proteins. The only charged distal residue in the heme cavity is a conserved and mobile arginine, but its role in catalysis and inactivation is not fully understood. In the present study, the pentameric chlorite dismutase (Cld) from the bacterium Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii was probed for binding of the low spin ligand cyanide, the substrate chlorite, and the intermediate hypochlorite. Simulations were performed with the enzyme in the ferrous, ferric, and compound I state. Additionally, the variant R173A was studied. We report the parametrization for the GROMOS force field of the anions ClO–, ClO2–, ClO3–, and ClO4– and describe spontaneous binding, unbinding, and rebinding events of chlorite and hypochlorite, as well as the dynamics of the conformations of Arg173 during simulations. The findings suggest that (i) chlorite binding to ferric NdCld occurs spontaneously and (ii) that Arg173 is important for recognition and to impair hypochlorite leakage from the reaction sphere. The simulation data is discussed in comparison with experimental data on catalysis and inhibition of chlorite dismutase. PMID:24988286

  4. Investigation of U(VI) Adsorption in Quartz-Chlorite Mineral Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zheming; Zachara, John M.; Shang, Jianying; Jeon, Choong; Liu, Juan; Liu, Chongxuan

    2014-08-25

    A batch and cryogenic laser-induced time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy investigation of U(VI) adsorbed on quartz-chlorite mixtures with variable mass ratios have been performed under field-relevant uranium concentrations (5x10-7 M and 5x10-6 M) in pH 8.1 synthetic groundwater. The U(VI) adsorption Kd values steadily increased as the mass fraction of chlorite increased, indicating preferential sorption to chlorite. For all mineral mixtures, U(VI) adsorption Kd values were lower than that calculated from the assumption of component additivity; The largest deviation occurred when the mass fractions of the two minerals were equal. U(VI) adsorbed on quartz and chlorite displayed characteristic individual fluorescence spectra that were not affected by mineral mixing. The spectra of U(VI) adsorbed within the mixtures could be simulated by one surface U(VI) species on quartz and two on chlorite. The fluorescence intensity decreased in a nonlinear manner as the adsorbed U(VI) concentration increased with increasing chlorite mass fraction – likely due to ill-defined fluorescence quenching by both structural Fe/Cr in chlorite, and trace amounts of solubilized and re-precipitated Fe/Cr in the aqueous phase. However, the fractional spectral intensities of U(VI) adsorbed on quartz and chlorite followed the same trend of fractional adsorbed U(VI) concentration in each mineral phase; approximate linear correlations in the quartz:chlorite mass ratio ranges of 0.0 - 0.2 and 0.2 - 1.0, offering a method to estimate of U(VI) concentration distribution between the mineral components.

  5. Inhibition of apple polyphenol oxidase activity by sodium chlorite.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shengmin; Luo, Yaguang; Feng, Hao

    2006-05-17

    Sodium chlorite (SC) was shown to have strong efficacy both as a sanitizer to reduce microbial growth on produce and as a browning inhibitor on fresh-cut apples in previous experiments. This study was undertaken to investigate the inhibitory effect of SC on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and the associated mechanisms. The experiment showed that SC had a strong inhibition of apple PPO. The extent of inhibition was influenced by SC concentration and pH. Inhibition was most prominent at pH 4.5, at which approximately 30% of enzyme activity was lost in the presence of 10 mM SC, followed closely by that at pH 4.0 with a 26% reduction in PPO activity. The inhibition mode was determined using Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk plots, which established SC to be a mixed inhibitor of apple PPO for the oxidation of catechol. Preincubation of PPO with 8 mM SC for 8 min caused a maximum of 46% activity reduction compared to noninhibited control. However, preincubation of SC with catechol for 8 min resulted in no additional loss of PPO activity. These findings provide further evidence that the inhibition of PPO activity by SC is due to the inhibition of the enzyme itself rather than removal of the substrate. PMID:19127746

  6. Determination of Chlorine Dioxide and Chlorite in Water Supply Systems by Verified Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkáčová, Jana; Božíková, Jarmila

    2014-07-01

    This work is dedicated to the development and optimization of appropriate analytical methods for the determination of chlorine dioxide and chlorite in drinking water in order to obtain accurate and correct results in the quality control of drinking water. The work deals with the development and optimization of a method for the determination of chlorine dioxide using chlorophenol red. Furthermore, a new spectrophotometric method for the determination of chlorite via bromometry using methyl orange was developed, optimized and validated. An electrochemical method for the determination of chlorite by flow coulometry was also developed, optimized and validated.

  7. The distribution of Fe and Mn between chlorite and fluid: Evidence from fluid inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Bottrell, S.H.; Yardley, B.W.D. )

    1991-01-01

    The Fe/Mn ratio of fluid inclusions from low-grade metamorphic quartz veins has been analyzed by an improved crush-leach method. When compared with Fe and Mn in coexisting vein chlorites, exchange between fluid and chlorite is shown to vary with the redox state of the wall rocks, but is independent of the salinity of the fluid. Agreement between our results and theoretical predictions of Fe/Mn partitioning between fluid and chlorite are good for veins from relatively oxidized rocks, but vein fluids from reduced hosts are enriched in Fe.

  8. Chloritization of Late Ordovician K-bentonites from the northern Baltic Palaeobasin influence from source material or diagenetic environment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hints, Rutt; Kirsimäe, Kalle; Somelar, Peeter; Kallaste, Toivo; Kiipli, Tarmo

    2006-09-01

    The Baltic Ordovician-Silurian sedimentary succession embodies numerous altered volcanic ash beds that are illite-smectite dominated. Only a few beds rich in chlorite-smectite are known from the Upper Ordovician Pirgu Stage of Estonia. Mixed-layer chlorite-smectite occurs commonly in low-grade metamorphic and hydrothermal environments. However, chloritic K-bentonites of the Pirgu Stage have never been buried deeply and lack signs of metamorphic overprinting. In order to understand the origin of chloritization, three distinct beds were sampled in 14 drillcores from Estonia and Latvia and analysed by means of XRD and SEM. The principal authigenic assemblage of the bulk samples consists of chlorite-smectite (corrensite) together with illite-smectite and K-feldspar. The actual mineral composition of K-bentonites though varies from sample to sample. The clay mineral assemblages range from virtually pure chlorite-smectite to illite-smectite dominated assemblages with minor or no chlorite-smectite. The proportion of chlorite-smectite in K-bentonites shows systematic lateral variations: the share of chloritic phases is highest in the shallower-water part of the palaeobasin and decreases towards the deeper part of the basin. Such regular lateral variations suggest a possible link between chloritization and the configuration of ancient palaeobasin. The present study suggests that the chloritization of primary felsic ashes occurred during early diagenesis and that it was caused by an influx of Mg-rich water probably from a marine sabkha-type environment.

  9. Unusually large shear wave anisotropy for chlorite in subduction zone settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mookherjee, Mainak; Mainprice, David

    2014-03-01

    Using first principle simulations we calculated the elasticity of chlorite. At a density ρ~ 2.60 g cm-3, the elastic constant tensor reveals significant elastic anisotropy: VP ~27%, VS1 ~56%, and VS2 ~43%. The shear anisotropy is exceptionally large for chlorite and enhances upon compression. Upon compression, the shear elastic constant component C44 and C55 decreases, whereas C66 shear component stiffens. The softening in C44 and C55 is reflected in shear modulus, G, and the shear wave velocity, VS. Our results on elastic anisotropy at conditions relevant to the mantle wedge indicates that a 10-20 km layer of hydrated peridotite with serpentine and chlorite could account for the observed shear polarization anisotropy and associated large delay times of 1-2 s observed in some subduction zone settings. In addition, chlorite could also explain the low VP/VS ratios that have been observed in recent high-resolution seismological studies.

  10. The effect of sodium chlorite solutions on zebra mussel mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Dion, J.; Richer, Y.; Messer, R.

    1995-06-01

    The effect of four dilutions, 8 ppm, 40 ppm, 120 ppm and 473 ppm of the stock solution of a first product, Z-8, on zebra mussel mortality was investigated in static continuous exposure systems and compared to controls. The entire size class spectrum of the mussel population present at the sampling site was tested by leaving mussels attached to their original rock substrata. Two size class grouping of mussels, 13 mm and less and more than 13 mm in length, were exposed in the same test chambers but were analyzed separately. No mortality occurred in the controls. Concentration 8 ppm had no effect after 166 hours on both size class groupings. Concentrations 40, 120 and 473 ppm had observable killing effect within the 331 hours of experiment for both size groupings. The smaller mussels died faster than the larger ones. Another product, Z-11, was similarly tested during fall 1994 with dilutions 8, 40, 80 and 120 ppm. At 8 ppm dilution, Z-11 had induced only little mortality on both size class groupings after 739 hours. At 40, 80 and 120 ppm dilutions, Z-11 had interesting killing effect for both mussel size groupings within the 739 hours of experiment considering the somehow intermittent treatment used. The results already appear to show that sodium chlorite solutions have the potential for eventually becoming a surrogate to the use of chlorine for the control of zebra mussels. That is because they already show a good killing efficiency without being involved in the formation of undesired by-products such as the use of chlorine is. On this purpose, the product is engaged in the process of homologation by Agriculture Canada for it use as treatment against zebra mussels.

  11. The reactivity of chlorite surfaces: Microscopic alteration processes and the transport behaviour of uranium(VI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosbach, D.; Brandt, F.; Arnold, T.; Krawczyk-Baersch, E.; Bernhard, G.

    2003-04-01

    The transport of U(VI) in phyllite rocks or on granitic fractures is significantly affected by the dissolution of chlorite and the re-precipitation of various secondary phases. However, in order to be able to predict the behaviour of radionuclides in these systems a sound understanding of the reaction kinetics of chlorite alteration/dissolution processes as well as the precipitation of secondary phases is required. We have studied the dissolution of chlorite with mixed-flow reactor experiments and in-situ AFM observations far from equilibrium over a broad pH range. Key parameters such as the reactive surface area as well as the stoichiometry and pH dependency of the dissolution reaction were determined. Speciation calculations indicate that no secondary phases have formed (except under neutral pH conditions). Under acidic conditions the brucite-like layer of the chlorite structure dissolves faster than the 2:1 TOT layer whereas above pH 8 a reverse dissolution behaviour was observed. Under acidic conditions (pH < 5) chlorite transforms to a vermiculite-like clay mineral, which has also been identified in field studies. In addition, static batch dissolution experiments with chlorite were performed in order to mimic more closely natural systems. In these experiments various secondary phases including hydrous ferrous oxides (HFO) were formed as coatings on chlorite surfaces and as colloids in solution. Batch adsorption experiments indicate that U(VI) has a strong affinity to HFO and that retardation of U(VI) occurs via adsorption to immobile HFO coatings on chlorite surfaces. Heterogeneous HFO formation seems to be favoured on {hk0} edge surfaces in the near neutral pH range. The formation mechanism of HFO coatings was studied systematically with titration experiments, in order to be able to quantify the homogeneous and heterogeneous formation of these secondary phases as a function of the geochemical conditions.

  12. The smectite to chlorite transition in the Chipilapa geothermal system, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.; Santana de Zamora, A.

    1999-04-01

    Clay mineralogical, X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe studies have been carried out on separated <2 {micro}m fractions from cutting and core material from three wells in the Chipilapa geothermal system in El Salvador. The data indicate that the smectite to chlorite transition is prevalent, but a secondary smectite to illite transition is also present. At depths approximately <750 m, smectite with very minor chlorite mixed-layers (approximately <15%) is dominant, and has a composition midway between a di- and tri-smectite. At {approximately}750 m there is a very clear distinction and sharp transition into discrete chlorite with very minor smectite mixed-layers (approximately <10%). Corrensite is recorded only as a rare and minor phase. Smectite occurs in abundance at temperatures up to {approximately}200 C, and the transition from a smectite-dominant to chlorite-dominant assemblage takes place over a narrow temperature range ({approximately}150 to 200 C). The stability range of smectite is very similar to that recorded in other geothermal systems, whereas the smectite to chlorite transition differs greatly from that recorded in other systems. The transition does not involve continuous chlorite/smectite mixed-layering but a marked step: It is the sharpest and most discontinuous stepped sequence of this mineralogical transition recorded.

  13. Chloritization and associated alteration at the Jabiluka unconformity-type uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nutt, Constance J.

    1989-01-01

    Jabiluka is the largest of four known uncomformity-type uranium deposits that are hosted by brecciated and altered metasedimentary rocks in the Pine Creek geosyncline, Northern Territory, Australia. The alteration zone at Jabiluka is dominated by chlorite, but also contains white mica, tourmaline and apatite; hematite is present, but only in minor amounts. Added quartz is mainly restricted to fractures and breccias. Chlorite, which formed during episodic fluid movement, partly to totally replaced all pre-existing minerals. Chloritized rocks are enriched in Mg, and depleted in K, Ca, Na and Si. Five types of chlorite are optically and chemically distinguishable in the rocks at Jabiluka. Chloritization is proposed as a mechanism that lowered the pH of the circulating fluid, and also caused significant loss of silica from the altered rocks. The proposed constraints on alteration, and presumably on at least part of the uranium mineralization, neither require nor preclude the existence of the unconformity as necessary for the formation of ore.

  14. Vanadium chlorite from a sandstone-hosted vanadium-uranium deposit, Henry basin, Utah.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, G.; Northrop, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    This ore deposit formed by reduction and precipitation of U and V in the presence of organic matter at the interface between a stagnant brine and overlying circulating meteoric water. Some samples of the vanadium chlorite (heated before analysis) contain = or >10% V2O5; in fresh samples most of the V is in the V3+ state. XRD data suggest that Fe and V are concentrated preferentially in the interlayer hydroxide sheets of the chlorite. A d060 value of 1.52 A indicates that the chlorite probably has a dioctahedral structure distended by the presence of octahedral Fe and V; it is a IIb polytype. The V ore zone is flanked by peripheral zones with perfectly ordered chlorite/smectite containing much less V than the pure chlorite. Chemical analysis of a sample heated to 900oC before analysis gave SiO2 44.89, Al2O3 25.14, TiO2 0.35, Fe2O3 8.29, MgO 8.47, CaO 0.84, Na2O 0.27, K2O 2.18, Li2O 0.16, UO3 0.92, V2O5 9.14, = 100.65, together with Cr 10, Mn 200, Co 150, Ni 5.8, Cu 10, Zn 140 ppm; XRD, DTG, TG and IR curves are presented. -R.A.H.

  15. Unexpected Diversity of Chlorite Dismutases: a Catalytically Efficient Dimeric Enzyme from Nitrobacter winogradskyi ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Mlynek, Georg; Sjöblom, Björn; Kostan, Julius; Füreder, Stephanie; Maixner, Frank; Gysel, Kira; Furtmüller, Paul Georg; Obinger, Christian; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Chlorite dismutase (Cld) is a unique heme enzyme catalyzing the conversion of ClO2− to Cl− and O2. Cld is usually found in perchlorate- or chlorate-reducing bacteria but was also recently identified in a nitrite-oxidizing bacterium of the genus Nitrospira. Here we characterized a novel Cld-like protein from the chemolithoautotrophic nitrite oxidizer Nitrobacter winogradskyi which is significantly smaller than all previously known chlorite dismutases. Its three-dimensional (3D) crystal structure revealed a dimer of two identical subunits, which sharply contrasts with the penta- or hexameric structures of other chlorite dismutases. Despite a truncated N-terminal domain in each subunit, this novel enzyme turned out to be a highly efficient chlorite dismutase (Km = 90 μM; kcat = 190 s−1; kcat/Km = 2.1 × 106 M−1 s−1), demonstrating a greater structural and phylogenetic diversity of these enzymes than was previously known. Based on comparative analyses of Cld sequences and 3D structures, signature amino acid residues that can be employed to assess whether uncharacterized Cld-like proteins may have a high chlorite-dismutating activity were identified. Interestingly, proteins that contain all these signatures and are phylogenetically closely related to the novel-type Cld of N. winogradskyi exist in a large number of other microbes, including other nitrite oxidizers. PMID:21441524

  16. Transiently Produced Hypochlorite Is Responsible for the Irreversible Inhibition of Chlorite Dismutase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chlorite dismutases (Clds) are heme b-containing prokaryotic oxidoreductases that catalyze the reduction of chlorite to chloride with the concomitant release of molecular oxygen. Over time, they are irreversibly inactivated. To elucidate the mechanism of inactivation and investigate the role of the postulated intermediate hypochlorite, the pentameric chlorite dismutase of “Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii” (NdCld) and two variants (having the conserved distal arginine 173 exchanged with alanine and lysine) were recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli. Exchange of the distal arginine boosts the extent of irreversible inactivation. In the presence of the hypochlorite traps methionine, monochlorodimedone, and 2-[6-(4-aminophenoxy)-3-oxo-3H-xanthen-9-yl]benzoic acid, the extent of chlorite degradation and release of molecular oxygen is significantly increased, whereas heme bleaching and oxidative modifications of the protein are suppressed. Among other modifications, hypochlorite-mediated formation of chlorinated tyrosines is demonstrated by mass spectrometry. The data obtained were analyzed with respect to the proposed reaction mechanism for chlorite degradation and its dependence on pH. We discuss the role of distal Arg173 by keeping hypochlorite in the reaction sphere for O–O bond formation. PMID:24754261

  17. Compatible mechanism to characterize three independent but cross-coupled reactions of chlorite ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagypál, István; Horváth, Attila K.

    2015-06-01

    Individually proposed kinetic models of the key subsystems of the chlorite-thiosulfate reaction, such as the hypochlorous acid-chlorite, tetrathionate-chlorite, and tetrathionate-chlorine dioxide reactions, have been unified to be able to describe all the main characteristics of these systems simultaneously. A complex 38-step kinetic model is composed in which the subsystems are coupled by the necessary short-lived intermediates and such species that is products or reactants in one system but transients in the other. Such a cross-coupling between the individual systems as well as the sound agreement between the measured and calculated absorbance-time profiles in 367 experimental curves strongly validates the proposed kinetic model.

  18. Compatible mechanism to characterize three independent but cross-coupled reactions of chlorite ion.

    PubMed

    Nagypál, István; Horváth, Attila K

    2015-06-01

    Individually proposed kinetic models of the key subsystems of the chlorite-thiosulfate reaction, such as the hypochlorous acid-chlorite, tetrathionate-chlorite, and tetrathionate-chlorine dioxide reactions, have been unified to be able to describe all the main characteristics of these systems simultaneously. A complex 38-step kinetic model is composed in which the subsystems are coupled by the necessary short-lived intermediates and such species that is products or reactants in one system but transients in the other. Such a cross-coupling between the individual systems as well as the sound agreement between the measured and calculated absorbance-time profiles in 367 experimental curves strongly validates the proposed kinetic model. PMID:26117129

  19. Dehydration of chlorite explains anomalously high electrical conductivity in the mantle wedges.

    PubMed

    Manthilake, Geeth; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Novella, Davide; Mookherjee, Mainak; Andrault, Denis

    2016-05-01

    Mantle wedge regions in subduction zone settings show anomalously high electrical conductivity (~1 S/m) that has often been attributed to the presence of aqueous fluids released by slab dehydration. Laboratory-based measurements of the electrical conductivity of hydrous phases and aqueous fluids are significantly lower and cannot readily explain the geophysically observed anomalously high electrical conductivity. The released aqueous fluid also rehydrates the mantle wedge and stabilizes a suite of hydrous phases, including serpentine and chlorite. In this present study, we have measured the electrical conductivity of a natural chlorite at pressures and temperatures relevant for the subduction zone setting. In our experiment, we observe two distinct conductivity enhancements when chlorite is heated to temperatures beyond its thermodynamic stability field. The initial increase in electrical conductivity to ~3 × 10(-3) S/m can be attributed to chlorite dehydration and the release of aqueous fluids. This is followed by a unique, subsequent enhancement of electrical conductivity of up to 7 × 10(-1) S/m. This is related to the growth of an interconnected network of a highly conductive and chemically impure magnetite mineral phase. Thus, the dehydration of chlorite and associated processes are likely to be crucial in explaining the anomalously high electrical conductivity observed in mantle wedges. Chlorite dehydration in the mantle wedge provides an additional source of aqueous fluid above the slab and could also be responsible for the fixed depth (120 ± 40 km) of melting at the top of the subducting slab beneath the subduction-related volcanic arc front. PMID:27386526

  20. A chlorite solid solution geothermometer the Los Azufres (Mexico) geothermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathelineau, Michel; Nieva, David

    1985-11-01

    Chlorite constitutes a major hydrothermal alteration product of metamorphism of andesites, in the active geothermal system of Los Azufres (Mexico). Electron microprobe analyses performed on a set of crystals from each sample show wide variations in composition. Correlation coefficients among chemical constituents were calculated. It is shown that the tetrahedral charge is positively correlated with the octahedral vacancy and negatively with the iron content, and there is almost no correlation with the octahedral aluminium and magnesium content. A procedure is proposed to select end-members and substitution vectors, and to give a general formula for these chlorites. Their formation temperatures are estimated with great accuracy, combining results of microthermometric data on fluid inclusions from gangue minerals of chlorites (quartz, calcite), direct measurements in wells (Kuster equipment), and chemical geothermometers. Correlations between chlorite compositions, range and nature of site occupancy, and temperature are good. Formation temperatures of chlorites range from 130° C to 300° C. As no other thermodynamic parameter varies significantly in the studied field (composition of the host rocks, nature of the geothermal fluids, pressure, ...), these variations of site occupancy (mainly Al(IV) and the octahedral occupancy (6-Al(VI)-(Mg+Fe(2+)) = VAC) are considered mainly as temperature dependent. Molar fractions of each end-member show very different variations with increasing temperature: X-kaolinite decreases, and X-chamosite increases, while X-talc-3 brucite does not show significant change. From these data, activity coefficients and standard state chemical potential of major components, and molar free energy formation of chlorite have been calculated for each temperature of crystallisation.

  1. Dehydration of chlorite explains anomalously high electrical conductivity in the mantle wedges

    PubMed Central

    Manthilake, Geeth; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Novella, Davide; Mookherjee, Mainak; Andrault, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Mantle wedge regions in subduction zone settings show anomalously high electrical conductivity (~1 S/m) that has often been attributed to the presence of aqueous fluids released by slab dehydration. Laboratory-based measurements of the electrical conductivity of hydrous phases and aqueous fluids are significantly lower and cannot readily explain the geophysically observed anomalously high electrical conductivity. The released aqueous fluid also rehydrates the mantle wedge and stabilizes a suite of hydrous phases, including serpentine and chlorite. In this present study, we have measured the electrical conductivity of a natural chlorite at pressures and temperatures relevant for the subduction zone setting. In our experiment, we observe two distinct conductivity enhancements when chlorite is heated to temperatures beyond its thermodynamic stability field. The initial increase in electrical conductivity to ~3 × 10−3 S/m can be attributed to chlorite dehydration and the release of aqueous fluids. This is followed by a unique, subsequent enhancement of electrical conductivity of up to 7 × 10−1 S/m. This is related to the growth of an interconnected network of a highly conductive and chemically impure magnetite mineral phase. Thus, the dehydration of chlorite and associated processes are likely to be crucial in explaining the anomalously high electrical conductivity observed in mantle wedges. Chlorite dehydration in the mantle wedge provides an additional source of aqueous fluid above the slab and could also be responsible for the fixed depth (120 ± 40 km) of melting at the top of the subducting slab beneath the subduction-related volcanic arc front. PMID:27386526

  2. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease presenting after consumption of 'Miracle Mineral Solution' (sodium chlorite).

    PubMed

    Loh, John Ming Ren; Shafi, Humaira

    2014-01-01

    We present a case report of a 41-year-old woman of Malay ethnicity who presented with an 11-day history of fever and left-sided lymphadenopathy after consuming 'Miracle Mineral Solution' (sodium chlorite solution) for the first time. A diagnosis of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease was established via lymph node biopsy after other differentials were excluded. The aetiology of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease remains controversial, but viral, autoimmune and physicochemical causes have been suggested as possibilities. In this case, we hypothesise that oxidative injury from sodium chlorite initiated an inflammatory response, which triggered the onset of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease. PMID:25422331

  3. Structure and heme-binding properties of HemQ (chlorite dismutase-like protein) from Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Hofbauer, Stefan; Hagmüller, Andreas; Schaffner, Irene; Mlynek, Georg; Krutzler, Michael; Stadlmayr, Gerhard; Pirker, Katharina F.; Obinger, Christian; Daims, Holger; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina; Furtmüller, Paul G.

    2015-01-01

    Chlorite dismutase-like proteins are structurally closely related to functional chlorite dismutases which are heme b-dependent oxidoreductases capable of reducing chlorite to chloride with simultaneous production of dioxygen. Chlorite dismutase-like proteins are incapable of performing this reaction and their biological role is still under discussion. Recently, members of this large protein family were shown to be involved in heme biosynthesis in Gram-positive bacteria, and thus the protein was renamed HemQ in these organisms. In the present work the structural and heme binding properties of the chlorite dismutase-like protein from the Gram-positive pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (LmCld) were analyzed in order to evaluate its potential role as a regulatory heme sensing protein. The homopentameric crystal structure (2.0 Å) shows high similarity to chlorite-degrading chlorite dismutases with an important difference in the structure of the putative substrate and heme entrance channel. In solution LmCld is a stable hexamer able to bind the low-spin ligand cyanide. Heme binding is reversible with KD-values determined to be 7.2 μM (circular dichroism spectroscopy) and 16.8 μM (isothermal titration calorimetry) at pH 7.0. Both acidic and alkaline conditions promote heme release. Presented biochemical and structural data reveal that the chlorite dismutase-like protein from L. monocytogenes could act as a potential regulatory heme sensing and storage protein within heme biosynthesis. PMID:25602700

  4. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of chlorite dismutase: a detoxifying enzyme producing molecular oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Geus, Daniël C. de Thomassen, Ellen A. J.; Feltz, Clarisse L. van der; Abrahams, Jan Pieter

    2008-08-01

    Preliminary X-ray data collection and analysis for crystals of chlorite dismutase, a haem-based enzyme that very effectively reduces chlorite to chloride while producing molecular oxygen, is reported to 2.1 Å resolution. Chlorite dismutase, a homotetrameric haem-based protein, is one of the key enzymes of (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria. It is highly active (< 2 kU mg{sup −1}) in reducing the toxic compound chlorite to the innocuous chloride anion and molecular oxygen. Chlorite itself is produced as the intermediate product of (per)chlorate reduction. The chlorite dismutase gene in Azospira oryzae strain GR-1 employing degenerate primers has been identified and the active enzyme was subsequently overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Chlorite dismutase was purified, proven to be active and crystallized using sitting drops with PEG 2000 MME, KSCN and ammonium sulfate as precipitants. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 and were most likely to contain six subunits in the asymmetric unit. The refined unit-cell parameters were a = 164.46, b = 169.34, c = 60.79 Å. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.1 Å resolution on a synchrotron-radiation source and a three-wavelength MAD data set has been collected. Determination of the chlorite dismutase structure will provide insights into the active site of the enzyme, for which no structures are currently available.

  5. Structure and heme-binding properties of HemQ (chlorite dismutase-like protein) from Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Hofbauer, Stefan; Hagmüller, Andreas; Schaffner, Irene; Mlynek, Georg; Krutzler, Michael; Stadlmayr, Gerhard; Pirker, Katharina F; Obinger, Christian; Daims, Holger; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina; Furtmüller, Paul G

    2015-05-15

    Chlorite dismutase-like proteins are structurally closely related to functional chlorite dismutases which are heme b-dependent oxidoreductases capable of reducing chlorite to chloride with simultaneous production of dioxygen. Chlorite dismutase-like proteins are incapable of performing this reaction and their biological role is still under discussion. Recently, members of this large protein family were shown to be involved in heme biosynthesis in Gram-positive bacteria, and thus the protein was renamed HemQ in these organisms. In the present work the structural and heme binding properties of the chlorite dismutase-like protein from the Gram-positive pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (LmCld) were analyzed in order to evaluate its potential role as a regulatory heme sensing protein. The homopentameric crystal structure (2.0Å) shows high similarity to chlorite-degrading chlorite dismutases with an important difference in the structure of the putative substrate and heme entrance channel. In solution LmCld is a stable hexamer able to bind the low-spin ligand cyanide. Heme binding is reversible with KD-values determined to be 7.2μM (circular dichroism spectroscopy) and 16.8μM (isothermal titration calorimetry) at pH 7.0. Both acidic and alkaline conditions promote heme release. Presented biochemical and structural data reveal that the chlorite dismutase-like protein from L. monocytogenes could act as a potential regulatory heme sensing and storage protein within heme biosynthesis. PMID:25602700

  6. Acidified sodium chlorite as an alternative to chlorine for elimination of Salmonella on alfalfa seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disadvantage associated with the use of chlorine for food processing and water treatment had been documented previously. This study was conducted to determine if acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) could be used to replace calcium hypochlorite [Ca(OCl)2] for disinfection of alfalfa seeds. Seeds co...

  7. EFFICACY OF SODIUM CHLORITE AS AN INHIBITOR OF ENZYMATIC BROWNING IN APPLE SLICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium chlorite (SC) is an effective sanitizer for inhibiting microbial growth. This investigation was conducted to determine the efficacy of SC as a browning control agent for use on fresh-cut apple slices, applied alone, or in conjunction with organic acids. Additionally, the authors compared the ...

  8. Influence of drinking water treatments on chlorine dioxide consumption and chlorite/chlorate formation.

    PubMed

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Gialdini, Francesca; Biasibetti, Michela; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Disinfection is the last treatment stage of a Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) and is carried out to maintain a residual concentration of disinfectant in the water distribution system. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a widely used chemical employed for this purpose. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of several treatments on chlorine dioxide consumption and on chlorite and chlorate formation in the final oxidation/disinfection stage. A number of tests was performed at laboratory scale employing water samples collected from the DWTP of Cremona (Italy). The following processes were studied: oxidation with potassium permanganate, chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite, coagulation/flocculation with ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate, filtration and adsorption onto activated carbon. The results showed that the chlorine dioxide demand is high if sodium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate are employed in pre-oxidation. On the other hand, chlorine dioxide leads to the highest production of chlorite and chlorate. The coagulation/flocculation process after pre-oxidation shows that chlorine dioxide demand decreases if potassium permanganate is employed as an oxidant, both with ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate. Therefore, the combination of these processes leads to a lower production of chlorite and chlorate. Aluminum sulfate is preferable in terms of the chlorine dioxide demand reduction and minimization of the chlorite and chlorate formation. Activated carbon is the most effective solution as it reduced the chlorine dioxide consumption by about 50% and the DBP formation by about 20-40%. PMID:24534637

  9. Elucidation of the mechanism of enzymatic browning inhibition by sodium chlorite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium chlorite (SC) is a well known anti-microbial agent and its strong inhibitory effect on enzymatic browning of fresh-cut produce has recently been identified. We investigated the mechanisms of browning inhibition by SC using chlorogenic acid (CA) and PPO extracted from mushroom to emulate the b...

  10. Studies of carcinogenicity of sodium chlorite in B6C3F1 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Yokose, Y.; Uchida, K.; Nakae, D.; Shiraiwa, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Konishi, Y.

    1987-12-01

    The carcinogenic activities of sodium chlorite in B6C3F1 mice were examined. Sodium chlorite was given at concentration of 0 (control), 0.025% (low dose), or 0.05% (high dose) in the drinking water of 150 female and 150 male mice for 80 weeks, after which time the animals were returned to distilled water without sodium chlorite. All mice were sacrificed 85 weeks from the beginning of the experiment. The incidence of tumor-bearing animals was 32% (control), 34% (low dose), and 26% (high dose) in female mice, and 46% (control), 57% (low dose), and 53% (high dose) in male mice. The types and incidence of neoplasms that occurred frequently in each group of both sexes were similar to those observed spontaneously in B6C3F1 mice. The incidence of lymphomas/leukemias in the high dose group of females (2%), however, was lower than that in the control group (15%). Furthermore, the incidence of pulmonary adenomas in the high dose group of males (12%) was higher than that in the control group (0%), but neither dose-related increases in the adenoma incidences nor increased incidences of the adenocarcinomas were observed. These results indicated no clear evidence of a carcinogenic potential of sodium chlorite in B6C3F1 mice.

  11. SODIUM CHLORITE ADMINISTRATION IN LONG-EVANS RATS: REPRODUCTIVE AND ENDOCRINE EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-Evans rats, 4-6 weeks of age, were given access to 0, 1, 10, or 100 ppm sodium chlorite in deionized water ad libitum as drinking water. Males were evaluated for sperm parameters and reproductive tract histopathology following the breeding. Females were exposed throughout ge...

  12. REACTIONS OF CHLORITE WITH ACTIVATED CARBON AND WITH VANILLIC ACID AND INDAN ADSORBED ON ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reaction between chlorite (CO2(-1)) and vanillic acid, at pH 6.0 in the presence of granular activated carbon (GAC), yielded several reaction products identifiable by GC/MS; no products were found in the absence of GAC. Indan and ClO2 or ClO2(-1) reacted in aqueous solution a...

  13. Chlorite dismutases – a heme enzyme family for use in bioremediation and generation of molecular oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Hofbauer, Stefan; Schaffner, Irene; Furtmüller, Paul G; Obinger, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Chlorite is a serious environmental concern, as rising concentrations of this harmful anthropogenic compound have been detected in groundwater, drinking water, and soil. Chlorite dismutases (Clds) are therefore important molecules in bioremediation as Clds catalyze the degradation of chlorite to chloride and molecular oxygen. Clds are heme b-containing oxidoreductases present in numerous bacterial and archaeal phyla. This review presents the phylogeny of functional Clds and Cld-like proteins, and demonstrates the close relationship of this novel enzyme family to the recently discovered dye-decolorizing peroxidases. The available X-ray structures, biophysical and enzymatic properties, as well as a proposed reaction mechanism, are presented and critically discussed. Open questions about structure-function relationships are addressed, including the nature of the catalytically relevant redox and reaction intermediates and the mechanism of inactivation of Clds during turnover. Based on analysis of currently available data, chlorite dismutase from “Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii” is suggested as a model Cld for future application in biotechnology and bioremediation. Additionally, Clds can be used in various applications as local generators of molecular oxygen, a reactivity already exploited by microbes that must perform aerobic metabolic pathways in the absence of molecular oxygen. For biotechnologists in the field of chemical engineering and bioremediation, this review provides the biochemical and biophysical background of the Cld enzyme family as well as critically assesses Cld's technological potential. PMID:24519858

  14. Spectral characteristics of chlorites and Mg-serpentines using high- resolution reflectance spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, T.V.V.; Clark, R.N.

    1989-01-01

    The present laboratory study using high-resolution reflectance spectroscopy (0.25-2.7 ??m) focuses on two primary phyllosilicate groups, serpentines and chlorites. The results show that it is possible to spectrally distinguish between isochemical end-members of the Mg-rich serpentine group (chrysotile, antigorite, and lizardite) and to recognize spectral variations in chlorites as a function of Fe/Mg ratio (~8-38 wt% Fe). The position and relative strength of the 1.4-??m absorption feature in the trioctahedral chlorites appear to be correlated to the total iron content and/or the Mg/Si ratio and the loss on ignition values of the sample. Spectral differences in the 2.3-??m wavelength region can be attributed to differences in lattice environments and are characteristic for specific trioctahedral chlorites. The 1.4-??m feature in the isochemical Mg-rich serpentines (total iron content ~1.5-7.0 wt%) show marked spectral differences, apparently due to structural differences. -Authors

  15. ASSESSMENT OF MATERNAL TOXICITY, EMBRYOTOXICITY AND TERATOGENIC POTENTIAL OF SODIUM CHLORITE IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groups of up to 13 pregnant rats were individually caged. Body weight, food and water consumption were recorded at days 1, 8, 15 and 22 of gestation and the dams were treated on days 8-15 with sodium chlorite, 0.1%, 0.5% or 2% in drinking water or by injection of 10, 20, or 50 mg...

  16. IIb trioctahedral chlorite from the Barberton greenstone belt: crystal structure and rock composition constraints with implications to geothermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaogang; Byerly, Gary R.; Ferrell, Ray E., Jr.

    IIb trioctahedral chlorite in the Barberton greenstone belt (BGB) metavolcanic rocks was formed during pervasive greenschist metamorphism. The chem-ical composition of the chlorite is highly variable, with the Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratio ranging from 0.12 to 0.8 among 53 samples. The chemical variation of the chlorite results from the chemical diversity of the host rock, especially the MgO content of the rock, but major details of the variation pattern of the chlorite are due to the crystal structure of the chlorite. All major cation abundances in the chlorite are strongly correlated with each other. Sil-icon increases with Mg and decreases with Fe, while AlIV and AlVI decrease with Mg and increase with Fe2+. A complex exchange vector explains over 90% of the chlorite compositional variation: Mg4SiFe2+-3AlVI-1 AlIV-1, which has 3 parts Fe-Mg substitution coupled with one part tschermakite substitution. This ratio is required to maintain the charge and site balances and the dimensional fit between the tetrahedral and octahedral sheets. The subtle change in Al substitution in chlorite implies that AlVI is preferentially ordered in the M(4) site, and about 84% of the AlVI present is in the M(4) sites when they are nearly filled with AlVI. Based on 47 analyzed chlorite-bearing rock samples, chlorite (Chl) composition is strongly correlated with the MgO content of the host rock. Calculated correlation coefficients are +0.91 for SiO2Chl-MgORock, -0.87 for Al2O3Chl-MgORock, +0.89 for MgOChl-MgORock, and -0.85 for FeOChl-MgORock. Only weak correlations have been found between chlorite oxides and other oxides of rock (between same oxides in chlorite and rock: SiO2-0.67, Al2O3+0.59, FeO -0.41). However, MgOChl is saturated at about 36 wt% in rocks that have MgO above 22 wt%.The MgOChl is about 5 wt% when the host rock approaches 0 wt% of MgO. This implies that Mg substituting into the chlorite is approximately limited to 1.5-9.2 Mg atoms per formula unit and 1.0-3.2 AlIV. Chlorite

  17. Surface energy of talc and chlorite: Comparison between electronegativity calculation and immersion results.

    PubMed

    Douillard, Jean-Marc; Salles, Fabrice; Henry, Marc; Malandrini, Harold; Clauss, Frédéric

    2007-01-15

    The surface energies of talc and chlorite is computed using a simple model, which uses the calculation of the electrostatic energy of the crystal. It is necessary to calculate the atomic charges. We have chosen to follow Henry's model of determination of partial charges using scales of electronegativity and hardness. The results are in correct agreement with a determination of the surface energy obtained from an analysis of the heat of immersion data. Both results indicate that the surface energy of talc is lower than the surface energy of chlorite, in agreement with observed behavior of wettability. The influence of Al and Fe on this phenomenon is discussed. Surface energy of this type of solids seems to depend more strongly on the geometry of the crystal than on the type of atoms pointing out of the surface; i.e., the surface energy depends more on the physics of the system than on its chemistry. PMID:17081554

  18. Serpentines, talc, chlorites, and their high-pressure phase transitions: a Raman spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynard, Bruno; Bezacier, Lucile; Caracas, Razvan

    2015-09-01

    Raman spectra of magnesian phyllosilicates belonging to the serpentine, talc, and chlorite groups have been obtained at ambient conditions, and at high pressures and up to 200 °C in order to study high-pressure transformations in the 10 GPa range. The complex and distinct Raman spectra of these minerals allow straightforward identification, which may otherwise be difficult from optical microscopy. High-pressure measurements are in good agreement with DFT calculations for talc and lizardite. Pressure-induced displacive modifications are identified in lizardite and antigorite serpentines, and in chlorite at ~4, 7 and 8 GPa, respectively, while talc shows no transition up to ~11 GPa. At high temperature, the high-pressure distortions of serpentines shift to higher pressures. Given the stability limits of these minerals, and the natural range of P-T conditions, none of the high-pressure distortions observed at high pressure are likely to occur at depth in the Earth.

  19. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of nitrous acid by chlorite ion

    SciTech Connect

    Lengyel, I.; Gaspar, V.; Beck, M.T.

    1988-01-14

    Although the oxidation of nitrite by chlorite both stoichiometrically and kinetically is a fairly simple reaction when nitrite is in excess and the pH is above 4, it becomes exceedingly complex in acidic solution containing chlorite in excess. Cl/sub 2/O/sub 2/ appears to be a key intermediate, the transitory formation of which explains both the formation of ClO/sub 2/ and peculiar three-extrema E versus time curve. Assuming that the electrode process on the bright Pt electrode is HOCl + e/sup -/ + H/sup +/ = Cl/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/O, the reaction is an oligooscillatory one in which the concentration of HOCl exhibits three extrema at most.

  20. An AFM study of the chlorite-fluid interface. [Atomic Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Vrdoljak, G.A.; Henderson, G.S.; Fawcett, J.J. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Chlorite is a ubiquitous mineral in many geologic environments and plays an important role in elemental adsorption and retention in soils. Chlorite has a 2:1 layer structure consisting of two tetrahedral sheets with an octahedral sheet between them (talc-like layer). The 2:1 layer is charge balanced and hydrogen-bonded by an interlayer of MgOH[sub 6] octahedra (brucite-like layer). The nature of chlorite's structure, its ease of imaging, and perfect 001 cleavage, make this mineral an ideal substrate for use in elemental adsorption studies in solution, with the AFM. The 001 cleavage plane of a 2b polytype with composition (Mg[sub 4.4]Fe[sub 0.6]Al[sub 1.0])[(Si[sub 2.9]Al[sub 1.1])]O[sub 10](OH)[sub g] has been imaged in air, water, and oil by atomic force microscopy. Dissolution features are observed in water, showing sub-micron features dissolving in real-time. Atomic resolution of both the talc-like and brucite-like layers has been obtained in air. However, only the tetrahedral sheet of the talc-like layer has been imaged at atomic resolution in oil and water, which may indicate a structural instability of the brucite-like surface in solution. Measurements of the unit-cell dimensions (a and b) for the talc-like layer in the three different media indicate a structural expansion of the mineral surface in solution. The a unit cell dimension expands by 7.4 [+-] 0.1% when in water; conversely, the b dimension varies greatly when in oil ([minus]10% to +20%), relative to air. The effects of these solution media on the structure of chlorite are revealed by characterization with the AFM. This information should prove useful in future studies of adsorption onto layer silicates.

  1. Manipulating Conserved Heme Cavity Residues of Chlorite Dismutase: Effect on Structure, Redox Chemistry, and Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Chlorite dismutases (Clds) are heme b containing oxidoreductases that convert chlorite to chloride and molecular oxygen. In order to elucidate the role of conserved heme cavity residues in the catalysis of this reaction comprehensive mutational and biochemical analyses of Cld from “Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii” (NdCld) were performed. Particularly, point mutations of the cavity-forming residues R173, K141, W145, W146, and E210 were performed. The effect of manipulation in 12 single and double mutants was probed by UV–vis spectroscopy, spectroelectrochemistry, pre-steady-state and steady-state kinetics, and X-ray crystallography. Resulting biochemical data are discussed with respect to the known crystal structure of wild-type NdCld and the variants R173A and R173K as well as the structures of R173E, W145V, W145F, and the R173Q/W146Y solved in this work. The findings allow a critical analysis of the role of these heme cavity residues in the reaction mechanism of chlorite degradation that is proposed to involve hypohalous acid as transient intermediate and formation of an O=O bond. The distal R173 is shown to be important (but not fully essential) for the reaction with chlorite, and, upon addition of cyanide, it acts as a proton acceptor in the formation of the resulting low-spin complex. The proximal H-bonding network including K141-E210-H160 keeps the enzyme in its ferric (E°′ = −113 mV) and mainly five-coordinated high-spin state and is very susceptible to perturbation. PMID:24364531

  2. Convection-Induced Fingering Fronts in the Chlorite-Trithionate Reaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhou, Wenxiu; Zheng, Ting; Zhao, Yuemin; Gao, Qingyu; Pan, Changwei; Horváth, Attila K

    2016-04-28

    Based upon a former study, the chlorite-trithionate reaction can avoid the side reactions arising from the well-known alkaline decomposition of polythionates, making it a suitable candidate for investigating spatial front instabilities in a reaction-diffusion-convection system. In this work, the chlorite-trithionate reaction was investigated in a Hele-Shaw cell, in which fingering patterns were observed over a wide range of reactant concentrations. A significant density increment crossing the propagating front indicates that the fingering pattern is generated as a consequence of the buoyancy-driven instability due to the density changes of solute when the gap thickness is less than 4 mm. The velocity of the steepest descent in the propagating front depends almost linearly on the gap thickness but displays a saturation-like profile on the trithionate concentration as well as a maximum on the chlorite concentration. Numerical simulation using the Stokes-Brinkman Equation coupled to the reaction-diffusion processes, including hydrogen ion autocatalysis and consumption, reproduces the observed fingering fronts. PMID:27059304

  3. “Development of an Automated On-line Electrochemical Chlorite Ion Sensor”

    PubMed Central

    Myers, John N.; Steinecker, William H.; Sandlin, Zechariah D.; Cox, James A.; Gordon, Gilbert; Pacey, Gilbert E.

    2012-01-01

    A sensor system for the automatic, in-line, determination of chlorite ion is reported. Electroanalytical measurements were performed in electrolyte-free liquids by using an electrochemical probe (EC), which enables in-line detection in high-resistance media such as disinfected water. Cyclic voltammetry scan rate studies suggest that the current arising from the oxidation of chlorite ion at an EC probe is mass-transfer limited. By coupling FIA with an EC probe amperometric cell, automated analysis was achieved. This sensor is intended to fulfill the daily monitoring requirements of the EPA DBP regulations for chlorite ion. Detection limits of 0.02-0.13 mg/L were attained, which is about one order of magnitude below the MRDL. The sensor showed no faradaic signal for perchlorate, chlorate, or nitrate. The lifetime and stability of the sensor were investigated by measuring calibration curves over time under constant-flow conditions. Detection limits of <0.1 mg/L were repeatedly achieved over a period of three weeks. PMID:22608440

  4. Nanoscale channels on ectomycorrhizal-colonized chlorite: Evidence for plant-driven fungal dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzè, Salvatore A.; Saccone, Loredana; Vala Ragnarsdottir, K.; Smits, Mark M.; Duran, Adele L.; Leake, Jonathan R.; Banwart, Steven A.; McMaster, Terence J.

    2012-09-01

    The roots of many trees in temperate and boreal forests are sheathed with ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) that extend into the soil, forming intimate contact with soil minerals, from which they absorb nutrient elements required by the plants and, in return, are supported by the organic carbon photosynthesized by the trees. While EMF are strongly implicated in mineral weathering, their effects on mineral surfaces at the nanoscale are less documented. In the present study, we investigated the effects of symbiotic EMF on the topography of a chlorite mineral using atomic force microscopy. A cleaning protocol was successfully applied to remove fungal hyphae without altering the underlying mineral structure and topography. Examination of the exposed chlorite surface showed the presence of primary channels, of the order of a micron in width and up to 50 nm in depth, the morphology of which strongly indicates a fungal-induced origin. Smaller secondary channels were observed extending from the primary channels and would appear to be involved in their enlargement. The presence of channels is the first nanoscale demonstration of the effects of fungal interaction, fuelled by plant photosynthate, on the topography of a chlorite mineral, and it provides clear evidence of the ability of EMF to enhance mineral dissolution.

  5. How active site protonation state influences the reactivity and ligation of the heme in chlorite dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Streit, Bennett R.; Blanc, Béatrice; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S.; Rodgers, Kenton R.; DuBois, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Chlorite dismutase catalyzes O2 release from chlorite with exquisite efficiency and specificity. The spectroscopic properties, ligand binding affinities, and steady state kinetics of chlorite dismutase from Dechloromonas aromatica were examined over pH 3–11.5 to gain insight into how the protonation state of the heme environment influences dioxygen formation. An acid/base transition was observed by UV/visible and resonance Raman spectroscopy with a pKa of 8.7, 2–3 pH units below analogous transitions observed in typical His-ligated peroxidases. This transition marks the conversion of a five coordinate high spin Fe(III) to a mixed high/low spin ferric-hydroxide, as confirmed by resonance Raman (rR) spectroscopy. The two Fe–OH stretching frequencies are quite low, consistent with a weak Fe–OH bond, despite the nearly neutral imidazole side chain of the proximal histidine ligand. The hydroxide is proposed to interact strongly with a distal H-bond donor, thereby weakening the Fe–OH bond. The rR spectra of Cld-CO as a function of pH reveal two forms of the complex, one in which there is minimal interaction of distal residues with the carbonyl oxygen and another, acidic form in which the oxygen is under the influence of positive charge. Recent crystallographic data reveal arginine 183 as the lone H-bond donating residue in the distal pocket. It is likely that this Arg is the strong, positively charged H-bond donor implicated by vibrational data to interact with exogenous axial heme ligands. The same Arg in its neutral (pKa ~ 6.5) form also appears to act as the active site base in binding reactions of protonated ligands, such as HCN, to ferric Cld. The steady state profile for the rate of chlorite decomposition is characterized by these same pKas. The 5 coordinate high spin acidic Cld is more active than the alkaline hydroxide-bound form. The acid form decomposes chlorite most efficiently when the distal Arg is protonated/cationic (maximum kcat = 2.0 (±0.6)

  6. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of chlorite dismutase: a detoxifying enzyme producing molecular oxygen

    PubMed Central

    de Geus, Daniël C.; Thomassen, Ellen A. J.; van der Feltz, Clarisse L.; Abrahams, Jan Pieter

    2008-01-01

    Chlorite dismutase, a homotetrameric haem-based protein, is one of the key enzymes of (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria. It is highly active (>2 kU mg−1) in reducing the toxic compound chlorite to the innocuous chloride anion and molecular oxygen. Chlorite itself is produced as the intermediate product of (per)chlorate reduction. The chlorite dismutase gene in Azospira oryzae strain GR-1 employing degenerate primers has been identified and the active enzyme was subsequently overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Chlorite dismutase was purified, proven to be active and crystallized using sitting drops with PEG 2000 MME, KSCN and ammonium sulfate as precipitants. The crystals belonged to space group P21212 and were most likely to contain six subunits in the asymmetric unit. The refined unit-cell parameters were a = 164.46, b = 169.34, c = 60.79 Å. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.1 Å resolution on a synchrotron-radiation source and a three-wavelength MAD data set has been collected. Determination of the chlorite dismutase structure will provide insights into the active site of the enzyme, for which no structures are currently available. PMID:18678943

  7. Mineralogy and geochemistry of laterites developed on chlorite schists in Tchollire region, North Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banakeng, L. A.; Zame, P. Zo'o.; Tchameni, R.; Mamdem, L.; Bitom, D.

    2016-07-01

    Laterites developed from the weathering of chlorite schists have been studied in Tchollire region, North Cameroon. They include two profiles: a 5.5 m depth profile in Doudja site and a 12.3 m profile in Fimbe site. The chlorite schists have a lepidoblastic to lepidogranoblastic texture and are mainly composed of chlorite, muscovite, biotite, feldspars and quartz but that of Fimbe is marked by the presence of amphibole. It is felsic with a high SiO2 content (67%) and low Fe2O3 (5.8%) and MgO (2.4%) contents in Doudja site but has a lower content of SiO2 (46%) in the Fimbe site where it is mafic with higher contents in Fe2O3 (12.4%) and MgO (6.3%). The chlorite schists of Doudja show high contents in Zr, Sr, Ta, with moderate contents in Cr, V, U and Zn. That of Fimbe is particularly rich in Cr, V, Ni, Sr and Zn with a moderate Zr content. All chlorite schists have high barium contents (270-393 ppm) with LREE-enrichment. The soils are yellowish and, from bottom to top, are composed of a coarse saprolite, fine saprolite, loose clayey horizon and an organo mineral horizon. The main minerals are chlorite, muscovite, biotite, feldspars, quartz, smectites, vermiculite, kaolinite, hematite and goethite. In Doudja, SiO2 mainly decreases from the bottom to the top of the profile while, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 generally increase; in Fimbe, SiO2 and Al2O3 increase up the profile but Fe2O3 decreases; the general high Fe and corresponding decrease in Mg contents in the soils show that the smectite formed is nontronite. Chromium, V, Cu, Ba and Sr show high contents in the two studied profiles but Zr, U and Ta is higher in Doudja than in Fimbe. Copper generally has high contents in the loose clayey and organo mineral horizons. Nickel is higher in the Fimbe profile and probably issued from the Ni-rich mafic protolith. SiO2 has positive correlations with K2O, Zr, Li and Rb. Correlations of SiO2 with CaO, TiO2 and Cr are negative. Al2O3 and Fe2O3 have a positive correlation with Pb. Doudja

  8. S-oxygenation of thiocarbamides V: oxidation of tetramethylthiourea by chlorite in slightly acidic media.

    PubMed

    Chigwada, Tabitha; Mbiya, Wilbes; Chipiso, Kudzanai; Simoyi, Reuben H

    2014-08-01

    The reaction between tetramethylthiourea (TTTU) and slightly acidic chlorite has been studied. The reaction is much faster than comparable oxidations of the parent thiourea compound as well as other substituted thioureas. The stoichiometry of the reaction in excess oxidant showed a complete desulfurization of the thiocarbamide to yield the corresponding urea and sulfate: 2ClO2(-) + (Me2N)2C ═ S + H2O → (Me2N)2C ═ O + SO4(2-) + 2Cl(-) + 2H(+). The reaction mechanism is unique in that the most stable metabolite before formation of the corresponding urea is the S-oxide. This is one of the rare occasions in which a low-molecular-weight S-oxide has been stabilized without the aid of large steric groups. ESI-MS data show almost quantitative formation of the S-oxide and negligible formation of the sulfinic and sulfonic acids. TTTU, in contrast to other substituted thioureas, can only stabilize intermediate oxoacids, before formation of sulfate, in the form of zwitterions. With a stoichiometric excess of TTTU over oxidant, the TTTU dimer is the predominant product. Chlorine dioxide, which is formed from the reaction of excess chlorite and HOCl, is a very important reactant in the overall mechanism. It reacts rapidly with TTTU to reform ClO2(-). Oxidation of TTTU by chlorite has a complex dependence on acid as a result of chlorous acid dissociation and protonation of the thiol group on TTTU in high-acid conditions, which renders the thiol center a less effective nucleophile. PMID:24922053

  9. Redox interactions between Cr(VI) and Fe(II) in bioreduced biotite and chlorite.

    PubMed

    Brookshaw, Diana R; Coker, Victoria S; Lloyd, Jonathan R; Vaughan, David J; Pattrick, Richard A D

    2014-10-01

    Contamination of the environment with Cr as chromate (Cr(VI)) from industrial activities is of significant concern as Cr(VI) is a known carcinogen, and is mobile in the subsurface. The capacity of Fe(II)-containing phyllosilicates including biotite and chlorite to alter the speciation, and thus the mobility, of redox-sensitive contaminants including Cr(VI) is of great interest since these minerals are common in soils and sediments. Here, the capacity of bacteria, ubiquitous in the surface and near-surface environment, to reduce Fe(III) in phyllosilicate minerals and, thus, alter their redox reactivity was investigated in two-step anaerobic batch experiments. The model Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens was used to reduce Fe(III) in the minerals, leading to a significant transformation of structural Fe(III) to Fe(II) of 0.16 mmol/g (∼ 40%) in biotite and 0.15 mmol/g (∼ 20%) in chlorite. The unaltered minerals could not remove Cr(VI) from solution despite containing a larger excess of Fe(II) than would be required to reduce all the added Cr(VI), unless they were supplied in a very high concentration (a 1:10 solid to solution ratio). By contrast, even at very low concentrations, the addition of bioreduced biotite and chlorite caused removal of Cr(VI) from solution, and surface and near surface X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirmed that this immobilization was through reductive transformation to Cr(III). We provide empirical evidence that the amount of Fe(II) generated by microbial Fe(III) reduction is sufficient to reduce the Cr(VI) removed and, in the absence of reduction by the unaltered minerals, suggest that only the microbially reduced fraction of the iron in the minerals is redox-active against the Cr(VI). PMID:25196156

  10. Dimeric chlorite dismutase from the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. PCC7425.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, Irene; Hofbauer, Stefan; Krutzler, Michael; Pirker, Katharina F; Bellei, Marzia; Stadlmayr, Gerhard; Mlynek, Georg; Djinovic-Carugo, Kristina; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Furtmüller, Paul G; Daims, Holger; Obinger, Christian

    2015-06-01

    It is demonstrated that cyanobacteria (both azotrophic and non-azotrophic) contain heme b oxidoreductases that can convert chlorite to chloride and molecular oxygen (incorrectly denominated chlorite 'dismutase', Cld). Beside the water-splitting manganese complex of photosystem II, this metalloenzyme is the second known enzyme that catalyses the formation of a covalent oxygen-oxygen bond. All cyanobacterial Clds have a truncated N-terminus and are dimeric (i.e. clade 2) proteins. As model protein, Cld from Cyanothece sp. PCC7425 (CCld) was recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli and shown to efficiently degrade chlorite with an activity optimum at pH 5.0 [kcat 1144 ± 23.8 s(-1), KM 162 ± 10.0 μM, catalytic efficiency (7.1 ± 0.6) × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)]. The resting ferric high-spin axially symmetric heme enzyme has a standard reduction potential of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple of -126 ± 1.9 mV at pH 7.0. Cyanide mediates the formation of a low-spin complex with k(on)  = (1.6 ± 0.1) × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and k(off) = 1.4 ± 2.9 s(-1) (KD ∼ 8.6 μM). Both, thermal and chemical unfolding follows a non-two-state unfolding pathway with the first transition being related to the release of the prosthetic group. The obtained data are discussed with respect to known structure-function relationships of Clds. We ask for the physiological substrate and putative function of these O2 -producing proteins in (nitrogen-fixing) cyanobacteria. PMID:25732258

  11. Mechanism of and exquisite selectivity for O–O bond formation by the heme-dependent chlorite dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Amanda Q.; Streit, Bennett R.; Zdilla, Michael J.; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M.; DuBois, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Chlorite dismutase (Cld) is a heme b-dependent, O–O bond forming enzyme that transforms toxic chlorite (ClO2−) into innocuous chloride and molecular oxygen. The mechanism and specificity of the reaction with chlorite and alternate oxidants were investigated. Chlorite is the sole source of dioxygen as determined by oxygen-18 labeling studies. Based on ion chromatography and mass spectrometry results, Cld is highly specific for the dismutation of chlorite to chloride and dioxygen with no other side products. Cld does not use chlorite as an oxidant for oxygen atom transfer and halogenation reactions (using cosubstrates guaiacol, thioanisole, and monochlorodimedone, respectively). When peracetic acid or H2O2 was used as an alternative oxidant, oxidation and oxygen atom transfer but not halogenation reactions occurred. Monitoring the reaction of Cld with peracetic acid by rapid-mixing UV-visible spectroscopy, the formation of the high valent compound I intermediate, [(Por•+)FeIV = O], was observed [k1 = (1.28 ± 0.04) × 106 M−1 s−1]. Compound I readily decayed to form compound II in a manner that is independent of peracetic acid concentration (k2 = 170 ± 20 s−1). Both compound I and a compound II-associated tryptophanyl radical that resembles cytochrome c peroxidase (Ccp) compound I were observed by EPR under freeze-quench conditions. The data collectively suggest an O–O bond-forming mechanism involving generation of a compound I intermediate via oxygen atom transfer from chlorite, and subsequent recombination of the resulting hypochlorite and compound I. PMID:18840691

  12. Horizontally propagating three-dimensional chemo-hydrodynamic patterns in the chlorite-tetrathionate reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pópity-Tóth, Éva; Horváth, Dezső; Tóth, Ágota

    2012-09-01

    Planar reaction fronts resulting from the coupling of exothermic autocatalytic reactions and transport processes can be deformed by convection in the presence of gravity field. We have experimentally investigated how buoyancy affects the spatiotemporal pattern formation at various solution thicknesses in three-dimensional medium. In the chlorite-tetrathionate reaction, a stable structure propagating horizontally with constant velocity and geometry develops when appropriately thick solutions are studied. Both the horizontal and the vertical projections of the resulting three-dimensional structures are quantitatively characterized: the smooth leading edge of the front is independent of the solution thickness and the structured trailing edge ends in a center cusp with a constant angle.

  13. Three-dimensional convection-driven fronts of the exothermic chlorite-tetrathionate reaction.

    PubMed

    Schuszter, Gábor; Pótári, Gábor; Horváth, Dezső; Tóth, Ágota

    2015-06-01

    Horizontally propagating autocatalytic reaction fronts in fluids are often accompanied by convective motion in the presence of gravity. We experimentally and numerically investigate the stable complex three-dimensional pattern arising in the exothermic chlorite-tetrathionate reaction as a result of the antagonistic thermal and solutal contribution to the density change. By particle image velocimetry measurements, we construct the flow field that stabilizes the front structure. The calculations applied for incompressible fluids using the empirical rate-law model reproduce the experimental observations with good agreement. PMID:26117124

  14. Three-dimensional convection-driven fronts of the exothermic chlorite-tetrathionate reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuszter, Gábor; Pótári, Gábor; Horváth, Dezső; Tóth, Ágota

    2015-06-01

    Horizontally propagating autocatalytic reaction fronts in fluids are often accompanied by convective motion in the presence of gravity. We experimentally and numerically investigate the stable complex three-dimensional pattern arising in the exothermic chlorite-tetrathionate reaction as a result of the antagonistic thermal and solutal contribution to the density change. By particle image velocimetry measurements, we construct the flow field that stabilizes the front structure. The calculations applied for incompressible fluids using the empirical rate-law model reproduce the experimental observations with good agreement.

  15. Chlorite topography and dissolution of the interlayer studied with Atomic Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gazze, Salvatore; Stack, Andrew G; Ragnarsdottir, K. Vala; McMaster, Terence

    2014-01-01

    Chlorite has a structure composed of a combination of two distinct layers, the tetrahedral15 octahedral-tetrahedral (TOT) and the interlayer (i.e. the octahedral layer between TOT layers). In this study, the morphology and dissolution of chlorite in pure water has been visualized using Atomic Force Microscopy. Upon cleavage, the TOT layer shows atomically flat terraces and steps, while the interlayer presents strips and voids. In pure water, dissolution channels and equilateral, mono-oriented triangular etch pits form in the interlayer and lead to progressively increased solubilisation. Dissolution channels are proposed to originate from structural defects, while a conceptual model is discussed to explain the presence of triangular etch pits. In this model, their formation is driven by the different reactivity of the two octahedral configurations along the etch pits. It is not currently known which of these is the most stable configuration, however we propose arguments that point towards a specific orientation. The conceptual model is supported by experimental data and is potentially applicable to all mineral structures constituted by continuous octahedral layers.

  16. Evaluation of experimental teat dip containing sodium chlorite and lactic acid by excised teat assay.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A L; Oliver, S P; Fydenkevez, M E

    1984-12-01

    An experimental teat dip containing sodium chlorite and lactic acid, diluted in water, was evaluated by excised teat protocol. The teat dip was tested against 21 microorganisms. Included were: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Numerous strains were tested for strain differences. Environmental bacteria were included because of their increasing importance as a cause of bovine mastitis. All excised teats were dipped in a bacterial suspension containing about 1 X 10(8) cfu/ml. Negative control teats were not dipped in a germicidal compound. Positive controls were dipped in 1% iodophor. Effectiveness of the experimental teat dip was expressed as the percent reduction in mean log of bacteria recovered from dipped teats as compared to numbers recovered from control teats. The sodium chlorite - lactic acid dip caused a greater percent log reduction than iodophor for 14 of 21 strains tested. However, differences were generally slight. The experimental teat dip appeared effective against Gram-negative bacteria. Some differences in percent log reduction were observed between strains of the same species. Lowest effectiveness and greatest strain variation were observed with Staphylococcus aureus for both dips tested. PMID:6530497

  17. Dissimilatory perchlorate reduction linked to aerobic methane oxidation via chlorite dismutase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oremland, R. S.; Baesman, S. M.; Miller, L. G.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of methane (CH4) in the atmosphere of Mars is controversial yet the evidence has aroused scientific interest, as CH4 could be a harbinger of extant or extinct microbial life. There are various oxidized compounds present on the surface of Mars that could serve as electron acceptors for the anaerobic oxidation of CH4, including perchlorate (ClO4-). We examined the role of perchlorate, chlorate (ClO3-) and chlorite (ClO2-) as oxidants linked to CH4 oxidation. Dissimilatory perchlorate reduction begins with reduction of ClO4- to ClO2- and ends with dismutation of chlorite to yield chloride (Cl-) and molecular oxygen (O2). We explored the potential for aerobic CH4 oxidizing bacteria to couple with oxygen derived from chlorite dismutation during dissimilatory perchlorate reduction. Methane (0.2 kPa) was completely removed within several days from the N2-flushed headspace above cell suspensions of methanotrophs (Methylobacter albus strain BG8) and perchlorate reducing bacteria (Dechloromonas agitata strain CKB) in the presence of 5 mM ClO2-. Similar rates of CH4 consumption were observed for these mixed cultures whether they were co-mingled or segregated under a common headspace, indicating that direct contact of cells was not required for methane consumption to occur. We also observed complete removal of 0.2 kPa CH4 in bottles containing dried soil (enriched in methanotrophs by CH4 additions over several weeks) and D. agitata CKB and in the presence of 10 mM ClO2-. This soil (seasonally exposed sediment) collected from the shoreline of a freshwater lake (Searsville Lake, CA) demonstrated endogenous CH4 uptake as well as perchlorate, chlorate and chlorite reduction/dismutation. However, these experiments required physical separation of soil from the aqueous bacterial culture to allow for the partitioning of O2 liberated from chlorite dismutation into the shared headspace. Although dissimilatory reduction of ClO4- and ClO3- could be inferred from the

  18. Preservation of anomalously high porosity in deeply buried sandstones by grain-coating chlorite: Examples from the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrenberg, S.N. )

    1993-07-01

    Five Lower to Middle Jurassic sandstone reservoirs from the Norwegian sector provide examples of deep porosity preservation caused by grain-coating, authigenic chlorite. Wide porosity variations in clean sandstones correlate with an abundance of grain-coating chlorite and consequent inhibition of quarts cementation. Maximum porosities tend to decrease with increasing depth but generally are 10-15% higher than would be predicted from regional trends of mean porosity vs. depth. It is proposed in this paper that the high chlorite content of the porous zones reflects syndepositional concentration of Fe-rich marine clays analogous to minerals of the modern verdine facies. Fe-clay mineralization would have been localized where Fe-rich river water was discharged into the sea. The syndepositional clays were transformed during burial diagenesis into grain coatings of radially oriented chlorite crystals. Petrographic relationships indicate that these coatings grew mainly before the beginning of quartz cementation and feldspar grain dissolution (probably within the first 2 km of burial) but after grain contacts had become adjusted by mechanical compaction. The Norwegian examples demonstrate that a wide range of nearshore marine sand-body types is susceptible to chlorite mineralization. The distribution of anomalous porosity and the proportion of the net sand affected depend upon sedimentary facies architecture and the pattern of discharge of Fe-rich river water during sand deposition. This phenomenon can be critically important for hydrocarbon exploration because it can provide good reservoir quality at depths far below the [open quotes]economic basement[close quotes] originally defined on the basis of sandstones lacking chlorite coatings. 58 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Dimeric chlorite dismutase from the nitrogen‐fixing cyanobacterium C yanothece sp. PCC7425

    PubMed Central

    Schaffner, Irene; Hofbauer, Stefan; Krutzler, Michael; Pirker, Katharina F.; Bellei, Marzia; Stadlmayr, Gerhard; Mlynek, Georg; Djinovic‐Carugo, Kristina; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Furtmüller, Paul G.; Daims, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Summary It is demonstrated that cyanobacteria (both azotrophic and non‐azotrophic) contain heme b oxidoreductases that can convert chlorite to chloride and molecular oxygen (incorrectly denominated chlorite ‘dismutase’, Cld). Beside the water‐splitting manganese complex of photosystem II, this metalloenzyme is the second known enzyme that catalyses the formation of a covalent oxygen–oxygen bond. All cyanobacterial Clds have a truncated N‐terminus and are dimeric (i.e. clade 2) proteins. As model protein, Cld from C yanothece sp. PCC7425 (CCld) was recombinantly produced in E scherichia coli and shown to efficiently degrade chlorite with an activity optimum at pH 5.0 [k cat 1144 ± 23.8 s−1, KM 162 ± 10.0 μM, catalytic efficiency (7.1 ± 0.6) × 106 M−1 s−1]. The resting ferric high‐spin axially symmetric heme enzyme has a standard reduction potential of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple of −126 ± 1.9 mV at pH 7.0. Cyanide mediates the formation of a low‐spin complex with k on = (1.6 ± 0.1) × 105 M−1 s−1 and k off = 1.4 ± 2.9 s−1 (KD ∼ 8.6 μM). Both, thermal and chemical unfolding follows a non‐two‐state unfolding pathway with the first transition being related to the release of the prosthetic group. The obtained data are discussed with respect to known structure–function relationships of Clds. We ask for the physiological substrate and putative function of these O2‐producing proteins in (nitrogen‐fixing) cyanobacteria. PMID:25732258

  20. Chemical and Steady-State Kinetic Analyses of a Heterologously Expressed Heme Dependent Chlorite Dismutase†

    PubMed Central

    Streit, Bennett R.; DuBois, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Chlorite dismutase carries out the heme-catalyzed decomposition of ClO2– to Cl– and O2, an unusual transformation with biotechnological and bioremediative applications. The enzyme has been successfully overexpressed for the first time in highly functional form in Escherichia coli and its steady state kinetics studied. The purified enzyme is abundant (55 mg/L cell culture), highly active (~4.7 × 103 μmol of ClO2– min–1 mg–1 subunit) and nearly stoichiometric in heme; further, it shares spectroscopic and physicochemical features with chlorite dismutases previously isolated from three organisms. A careful study of the enzyme's steady state kinetics has been carried out. ClO2– consumption and O2 release rates were measured, yielding comparable values of kcat (4.5 × 105 min–1), Km (~215 μM), and kcat/Km (3.5 × 107 M–1 s–1) via either method (4 °C, pH 6.8; all values referenced per heme-containing subunit). ClO2–:O2 stoichiometry exhibited a 1:1 relationship under all conditions measured. Though the value of kcat/Km indicates near diffusion control of the reaction, viscosogens had no effect on kcat/Km or Vmax. The product O2 did not inhibit the reaction at saturating [O2], but Cl– is a mixed inhibitor with relatively high values of KI (225 mM for enzyme and 95.6 mM for the enzyme–substrate complex), indicating a relatively low affinity of the heme iron for halogen ions. Chlorite irreversibly inactivates the enzyme after ~1.7 × 104 turnovers (per heme) and with a half-life of 0.39 min, resulting in bleaching of the heme chromophore. The inactivation KI (Kinact) of 166 μM is similar in magnitude to Km, consistent with a common Michaelis complex on the pathway to both reaction and inactivation. The one-electron peroxidase substrate guaiacol offers incomplete protection of the enzyme from inactivation. Mechanisms in keeping with the available data and the properties of other well-described heme enzymes are proposed. PMID:18422344

  1. Chlorite Dissolution Rates From 25 to 275 degrees and pH 3 to 10

    DOE Data Explorer

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-09-27

    We have calculated a chlorite dissolution rate equation at far from equilibrium conditions by combining new data (20 experiments at high temperature) with previously published data Smith et al. 2013 and Lowson et al. 2007. All rate data (from the 127 experiments) are tabulated in this data submission. More information on the calculation of the rate data can be found in our FY13 Annual support (Carroll LLNL, 2013) which has been submitted to the GDR. The rate equation fills a data gap in geothemal kinetic data base and can be used directly to estimate the impact of chemical alteration on all geothermal processes. It is especially important for understanding the role of chemical alteration in the weakening for shear zones in EGS systems.

  2. Bioavailability of 2,4-D sorbed to a chlorite-like complex.

    PubMed

    McGhee, I; Sannino, F; Gianfreda, L; Burns, R G

    1999-07-01

    An Al(OH)x-montmorillonite (chlorite) complex (AM18) was prepared and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) sorbed to saturation. After several washing cycles the 'strongly sorbed' 2,4-D was 507 micrograms g-1 AM18. The bioavailability of sorbed 2,4-D was assessed in a minimal salts medium with the AM18-2,4-D as the sole C and energy source. Over a 28-day period a Pseudomonas sp. degraded 23% more of the sorbed 2,4-D than could be accounted for by desorption from AM18 in the non-inoculated controls. Possible explanations for the increase in bioavailability are presented. PMID:10399845

  3. Fe-SAPONITE and Chlorite Growth on Stainless Steel in Hydrothermal Engineered Barrier Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheshire, M. C.; Caporuscio, F. A.; McCarney, M.

    2012-12-01

    The United States recently has initiated the Used Fuel Disposition campaign to evaluate various generic geological repositories for the disposal of high-level, spent nuclear fuel within environments ranging from hard-rock, salt/clay, to deep borehole settings. Previous work describing Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) for repositories focused on low temperature and pressure conditions. The focus of this experimental work is to characterize the stability and alteration of a bentonite-based EBS with different waste container materials in brine at higher heat loads and pressures. All experiments were run at ~150 bar and 125 to 300 C for ~1 month. Unprocessed bentonite from Colony, Wyoming was used in the experiments as the clay buffer material. The redox conditions for each system were buffered along the magnetite-iron oxygen fugacity univariant curve using Fe3O4 and Feo filings. A K-Na-Ca-Cl-based salt solution was chosen to replicate deep groundwater compositions. The experimental mixtures were 1) salt solution-clay; 2) salt solution -clay-304 stainless steel; and 3) salt solution -clay-316 stainless steel with a water/bentonite ratio of ~9. Mineralogy and aqueous geochemistry of each experiment was evaluated to monitor the reactions that took place. No smectite illitization was observed in these reactions. However, it appears that K-smectite was produced, possibly providing a precursor to illitization. It is unclear whether reaction times were sufficient for bentonite illitization at 212 and 300 C or whether conditions conducive to illite formation were obtained. The more notable clay mineral reactions occurred at the stainless steel surfaces. Authigenic chlorite and Fe-saponite grew with their basal planes near perpendicular to the steel plate, forming a 10 - 40 μm thick 'corrosion' layer. Partial dissolution of the steel plates was the likely iron source for chlorite/saponite formation; however, dissolution of the Feo/Fe3O4 may also have acted as an iron source

  4. Enhancement of the nanofibrillation of wood cellulose through sequential periodate-chlorite oxidation.

    PubMed

    Liimatainen, Henrikki; Visanko, Miikka; Sirviö, Juho Antti; Hormi, Osmo E O; Niinimaki, Jouko

    2012-05-14

    Sequential regioselective periodate-chlorite oxidation was employed as a new and efficient pretreatment to enhance the nanofibrillation of hardwood cellulose pulp through homogenization. The oxidized celluloses with carboxyl contents ranging from 0.38 to 1.75 mmol/g could nanofibrillate to highly viscous and transparent gels with yields of 100-85% without clogging the homogenizer (one to four passes). On the basis of field-emission scanning electron microscopy images, the nanofibrils obtained were of typical widths of approximately 25 ± 6 nm. All of the nanofibrillar samples maintained their cellulose I crystalline structure according to wide-angle X-ray diffraction results, and the crystallinity index was approximately 40% for all samples. PMID:22512713

  5. Controlled clinical evaluations of chlorine dioxide, chlorite and chlorate in man.

    PubMed Central

    Lubbers, J R; Chauan, S; Bianchine, J R

    1982-01-01

    To assess the relative safety of chronically administered chlorine water disinfectants in man, a controlled study was undertaken. The clinical evaluation was conducted in the three phases common to investigational drug studies. Phase I, a rising dose tolerance investigation, examined the acute effects of progressively increasing single doses of chlorine disinfectants to normal healthy adult male volunteers. Phase II considered the impact on normal subjects of daily ingestion of the disinfectants at a concentration of 5 mg/l. for twelve consecutive weeks. Persons with a low level of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase may be expected to be especially susceptible to oxidative stress; therefore, in Phase III, chlorite at a concentration of 5 mg/l. was administered daily for twelve consecutive weeks to a small group of potentially at-risk glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient subjects. Physiological impact was assessed by evaluation of a battery of qualitative and quantitative tests. The three phases of this controlled double-blind clinical evaluation of chlorine dioxide and its potential metabolites in human male volunteer subjects were completed uneventfully. There were no obvious undesirable clinical sequellae noted by any of the participating subjects or by the observing medical team. In several cases, statistically significant trends in certain biochemical or physiological parameters were associated with treatment; however, none of these trends was judged to have physiological consequence. One cannot rule out the possibility that, over a longer treatment period, these trends might indeed achieve proportions of clinical importance. However, by the absence of detrimental physiological responses within the limits of the study, the relative safety of oral ingestion of chlorine dioxide and its metabolites, chlorite and chlorate, was demonstrated. PMID:6961033

  6. Deformation microstructure of the chlorite dunite from the Åheim, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Ando, J. I.; Jung, H.

    2015-12-01

    The microstructure of the chlorite dunite samples from the Åheim, Norway was analyzed to understand the evolution of the microstructure through the Scandian Orogeny and the subsequent exhumation process. The lattice preferred orientation (LPO) of olivine and the slip systems of the dislocations in olivine are analyzed and compared to understand the relationship of the olivine fabrics and dislocation microstructures of olivine and their evolution during the orogenic event. To determine the LPO of olivine, an electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) system was used. For the olivine crystals with the subgrain boundaries, EBSD mapping along the olivine subgrain boundaries were performed to determine the dominant slip system of dislocations in subgrain walls. In addition, the thickness-fringe method was applied to weak-beam dark-field (WBDF) images of TEM to identify the Burgers vector and the slip system of dislocations in olivine. The Åheim chlorite dunites show porphyroclastic texture with subgrain boundaries. The sample with a large grain size showed A-type olivine LPO, which corresponds to the initial stage of deformation. On the other hand, the other sample with mostly recrystallized olivine grains showed the B-type of olivine LPO and it represents the secondary stage deformation in the water-rich condition during exhumation process. The EBSD mapping and TEM observation revealed that most olivine subgrain boundaries consist of the dislocations with (001)[100] slip systems. These subgrain boundaries might be resulted from the later stage deformation with a moderate water content in olivine or low strain deformation. TEM observation with the thickness-fringe method revealed that the free dislocations with (010)[100] slip system of olivine were dominant for both samples. Our data suggest that the subgrain boundaries and free dislocations in the olivines represent the later stage deformation associated with the exhumation process.

  7. Identification of spectrally similar materials using the USGS Tetracorder algorithm: The calcite-epidote-chlorite problem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalton, J.B.; Bove, D.J.; Mladinich, C.S.; Rockwell, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    A scheme to discriminate and identify materials having overlapping spectral absorption features has been developed and tested based on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Tetracorder system. The scheme has been applied to remotely sensed imaging spectroscopy data acquired by the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) instrument. This approach was used to identify the minerals calcite, epidote, and chlorite in the upper Animas River watershed, Colorado. The study was motivated by the need to characterize the distribution of calcite in the watershed and assess its acid-neutralizing potential with regard to acidic mine drainage. Identification of these three minerals is difficult because their diagnostic spectral features are all centered at 2.3 ??m, and have similar shapes and widths. Previous studies overestimated calcite abundance as a result of these spectral overlaps. The use of a reference library containing synthetic mixtures of the three minerals in varying proportions was found to simplify the task of identifying these minerals when used in conjunction with a rule-based expert system. Some inaccuracies in the mineral distribution maps remain, however, due to the influence of a fourth spectral component, sericite, which exhibits spectral absorption features at 2.2 and 2.4 ??m that overlap the 2.3-??m absorption features of the other three minerals. Whereas the endmember minerals calcite, epidote, chlorite, and sericite can be identified by the method presented here, discrepancies occur in areas where all four occur together as intimate mixtures. It is expected that future work will be able to reduce these discrepancies by including reference mixtures containing sericite. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dual effectiveness of sodium chlorite for enzymatic browning inhibition and Escherichia coli inactivation on fresh-cut apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the dual effectiveness of sodium chlorite (SC) for browning inhibition and microbial inactivation on fresh-cut apples. The SC treatment exhibited a strong inhibition on browning reaction of fresh-cut Red Delicious apples during cold storage. Test results from examination of t...

  9. Effects of various pH conditions on authigenic chlorite and kaolinite surface characteristics using SEM and x-ray microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, A.U.; Leung, W.K.

    1987-05-01

    Authigenic chlorite and kaolinite are major diagenetic minerals in petroleum-bearing sandstone units. Authigenic chlorite in marine sandstone units of the Upper Cretaceous Parkman formation of Wyoming occurs as grain coatings which line pores. Chlorite plates developed on grain surfaces perpendicular to grain margins, with individual crystals being about 3 to 5 microns in diameter and 0.1 micron thick. Authigenic kaolinite occurs as stacked pseudohexagonal booklets that fill pores. Its crystal diameter is about 10 microns. Well-developed chlorite and kaolinite crystals coexist in many sandstone units. Some workers claim that chlorite is extremely sensitive to acid, and some claim that acidic conditions are required to form kaolinite, although fresh water need not be the only source of acidity. In the Parkman formation, chlorite is well preserved in pores. Therefore, it appears that the chlorite-bearing units may not have been subjected to acidic conditions after chlorite was formed. However, kaolinite in these units appears to have precipitated after chlorite formation. If this is so, then acidic conditions required to form kaolinite would have destroyed earlier formed chlorite. To test this problem, a laboratory experiment was designed to show effects of varying pH conditions on these crystals. Experiments were done under atmospheric conditions. Solutions were maintained with pH of 4, 6, 7, 8, and 10. Physical chemical changes on crystal surfaces were studied using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray microanalysis, and Shape Analyzer. Details of the precipitation mechanism and kinetics of equilibrium of these minerals will be discussed.

  10. Scales of equilibrium and disequilibrium during cleavage formation in chlorite and biotite-grade phyllites, SE Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McWilliams, C.K.; Wintsch, R.P.; Kunk, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Detailed electron microprobe analyses of phyllosilicates in crenulated phyllites from south-eastern Vermont show that grain-scale zoning is common, and sympathetic zoning in adjacent minerals is nearly universal. We interpret this to reflect a pressure-solution mechanism for cleavage development, where precipitation from a very small fluid reservoir fractionated that fluid. Multiple analyses along single muscovite, biotite and chlorite grains (30-200 ??m in length) show zoning patterns indicating Tschermakitic substitutions in muscovite and both Tschermakitic and di/trioctahedral substitutions in biotite and chlorite. Using cross-cutting relationships and mineral chemistry it is shown that these patterns persist in cleavages produced at metamorphic conditions of chlorite-grade, chlorite-grade overprinted by biotite-grade and biotite-grade. Zoning patterns are comparable in all three settings, requiring a similar cleavage-forming mechanism independent of metamorphic grade. Moreover, the use of 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology demonstrates this is true regardless of age. Furthermore, samples with chlorite-grade cleavages overprinted by biotite porphyroblasts suggest the closure temperatures for the diffusion of Al, Si, Mg and Fe ions are greater than the temperature of the biotite isograd (>???400 ??C). Parallel and smoothly fanning tie lines produced by coexisting muscovite-chlorite, and muscovite-biotite pairs on compositional diagrams demonstrate effectively instantaneous chemical equilibrium and probably indicate simultaneous crystallization. These results do not support theories suggesting cleavages form in fluid-dominated systems. If crenulation cleavages formed in systems in which the chemical potentials of all major components are fixed by an external reservoir, then the compositions of individual grains defining these cleavages would be uniform. On the contrary, the fine-scale chemical zoning observed probably reflects a grain-scale process consistent with a

  11. Evidence for multi-stage metasomatism of chlorite-amphibole peridotites (Ulten Zone, Italy): Constraints from trace element compositions of hydrous phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marocchi, Marta; Hermann, Jörg; Morten, Lauro

    2007-11-01

    Peridotites from the Ulten Zone (Upper Austroalpine Domain, Central-Eastern Alps, Italy) derive from a mantle wedge environment and record a complex metamorphic history. This study focuses on amphibole-spinel peridotites and chlorite-tremolite peridotites. Chlorite is generally closely intergrown with Cr-spinel, indicating that it grew at the expense of former Al-spinel. No garnet relics or chlorite pseudomorphs after garnet have been found. Moreover, amphibole and chlorite trace element patterns display no fractionation in HREE, suggesting that these chlorite peridotites never equilibrated in the garnet stability field. On the basis of textures, bulk rock and mineral major and trace element compositions three stages of metasomatism are documented in the mantle rocks. We propose that the earliest stage represents melt impregnation at plagioclase peridotite conditions and is unrelated to subduction. The metasomatism leading to spinel- and chlorite-amphibole peridotites is related to the progressive influx of a fluid with crustal signature, derived from neighbouring subducted continental crust as the mantle wedge peridotites approach the slab. The observation that garnet peridotites and chlorite peridotites, which never equilibrated in the garnet stability field, are hosted within the same gneisses, suggests that slices of mantle wedge peridotite with different P-T trajectories can be sampled by subducted and exhumed crust.

  12. Zn-Al-rich chlorite in interleaved phyllosilicate grains from the low-temperature metamorphic Ordovician terrane of Iglesiente, south-west Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruciani, Gabriele; Franceschelli, Marcello; Battaglia, Stefano; Pasci, Sandro; Puxeddu, Mariano

    2015-12-01

    Zn-Al chlorite with a ZnO content of 2-3 wt% has been found in the Monte Argentu Formation that belongs to the external zone of the Variscan Sardinian Belt in SW Sardinia. This chlorite occurs in metasiltite rocks characterized by the alternation of dark-coloured layers rich in Fe- and Ti-oxides and light-coloured layers rich in quartz and phyllosilicates. The Zn-Al chlorite is associated with K-white mica, pyrophyllite, and quartz. The most common interleavings consist of K-white mica + Zn-Al chlorite, K-white mica + pyrophyllite, K-white mica + Zn-Al chlorite + pyrophyllite, and Zn-Al chlorite + pyrophyllite. The X-ray patterns of the <2 μm fraction of the investigated samples are characterized by peaks for illite, pyrophyllite, chlorite and quartz. Metamorphic temperatures of 300°-400°C have been estimated on the basis of the pyrophyllite occurrence. Pressure estimated on the basis of K-white mica composition is in the 0.3-0.6 GPa range.

  13. A saponite and chlorite-rich clay assemblage in permian evaporite and red-bed strata, Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    In this Department of Energy-funded project, the author describes lithology of core samples from two Department of Energy wells in Randall and Swisher Counties and determines clay mineralogy and X-ray diffraction response using 73 samples from the Randall County well and 40 samples from the Swisher County well. On the basis of his analyses, the author identifies the clay assemblage in the Palo Duro Basin evaporites as consisting of saponite, a magnesium-rich smectite; mixed-layer chlorite/smectite; chlorite/vermiculite; chlorite/swelling chlorite; vermiculite/swelling chlorite; chlorite, and illite. Chemical analyses reveal that the chemical composition of the mixed-layer clays is intermediate between normal aluminum-rich detrital clays and normal vermiculite and chlorite, magnesium clays of hydrothermal or metamorphic origin. The author postulates that rates and amounts of clay alteration are probably controlled by magnesium ion activity, brine salinity, brine pH, and sediment and clay residence time in the marine evaporite environment.

  14. EXAFS Study of Sr sorption to Illite, Goethite, Chlorite, and Mixed Sediment under Hyperalkaline Conditions.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Adam J; Shaw, Samuel; Peacock, Caroline L; Trivedi, Divyesh; Burke, Ian T

    2016-03-29

    Strontium is an important contaminant radionuclide at many former nuclear sites. This paper investigates the effect of changing pH and ionic strength on the sorption of Sr to a range of common soil minerals. Specifically it focuses on the sorption of Sr onto illite, chlorite, goethite, and a mixed sediment. The interplay between ionic strength and pH was determined by varying the background ionic strength of the system using both NaCl (for a constant pH) and NaOH (to also vary pH). Under conditions of moderate pH, Sr sorption decreased with increasing ionic strength, due to competition between the Na and Sr atoms for the outer-sphere complexes. However, where increasing ionic strength was accompanied by increasing pH, Sr sorption remained high. This suggested that Sr was sorbed to the minerals without competition from background Na ions. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra confirmed that at highly alkaline pH (>12.5) Sr was forming inner-sphere complexes on the surfaces of all minerals. This specific adsorption of the Sr (as SrOH(+)) explains why it was still adsorbed to the minerals under very high ionic strength conditions and was not out-competed by Na. PMID:26938867

  15. Long-lived oscillations in the chlorite-iodide-malonic acid reaction in batch

    SciTech Connect

    Noszticzius, Z.; Ouyang, Qi; McCormick, W.D.; Swinney, H.L.

    1992-05-20

    The title reaction is the subject of current interest because the first experimental Turing patterns were observed recently in this system. Here, the authors report the first observation of oscillations that are long lived (over 1 h) in this system in a batch reactor; even after cessation the oscillations can be restarted several times by adding ClO{sub 2} to the exhausted system. These low-frequency low-amplitude (LL) oscillations were detected with both platinum and iodide-selective electrodes in the chlorite-iodide-malonic acid (original CIMA) reaction and in the closely related chlorine dioxide-iodide-malonic acid (minimal CIMA) system. The LL oscillations follow after the already known high frequency oscillations, sometimes separated by a second induction period. LL oscillations can appear without any induction period if appropriate concentrations of chlorine dioxide, iodomalonic acid, and chloride (CIMA-Cl system) are established in a dilute sulfuric acid medium. In this case neither iodine, iodide, nor malonic acid is needed. Some suggestions are made regarding the mechanism of these newly discovered oscillations. 33 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Temperature micro-mapping and redox conditions of a chlorite zoning pattern in green-schist facies fault zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trincal, Vincent; Lanari, Pierre; Lacroix, Brice; Buatier, Martine D.; Charpentier, Delphine; Labaume, Pierre; Muñoz, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Faults are major discontinuities driving fluid flows and playing a major role in precipitation of ore deposits. Mineral paragenesis and crystal chemistry depend on Temperature (T) condition, fluid composition but also on the redox environment of precipitation. The studied samples come from the Pic de Port Vieux thrust sheet, a minor thrust sheet associated to Gavarnie thrust fault zone (Central Pyrenees). The Pic de Port Vieux Thrust sheet comprises a 1-20 meter thick layer of Triassic red beds and mylonitized Cretaceous limestone. The thrust sheet is affected by faults and cleavage; the other important deformation product is a set of veins filled by quartz and chlorite. Microstructural and mineralogical investigations were performed based on the previous work of Grant (1992). The crystallization of chlorite is syn-tectonic and strongly controlled by the fluid circulation during the Gavarnie thrust sheet emplacement. Chlorite precipitated in extension veins, crack-seal shear veins or in open cavities. The chlorite filling the open cavities occurs as pseudo-uniaxial plates arranged in rosette-shaped aggregates. These aggregates appear to have developed as a result of radial growth of the chlorite platelets. According to point and microprobe X-ray images, these chlorites display oscillatory chemical zoning patterns with alternating iron rich and magnesium rich bands. The chlorite composition ranges from Fe rich pole (Si2.62Al1.38O10(Al1.47Fe1.87Mg2.61)6(OH)8) to Mg rich pole (Si2.68Al1.31O10(Al1.45Fe1.41Mg3.06)6(OH)8). In metamorphic rocks, zoning pattern or rimmed minerals results for varying P or T conditions and can be used to unravel the P-T history of the sample. In the present study, temperature maps are derived from standardized microprobe X-ray images using the program XMapTools (Lanari et al 2014). The (Fe3+/Fetot) value in chlorite was directly measured using μXANES spot analyses collected at the Fe-K edge. The results indicate a homogeneous temperature of

  17. Redox Interactions of Tc(VII), U(VI), and Np(V) with Microbially Reduced Biotite and Chlorite.

    PubMed

    Brookshaw, Diana R; Pattrick, Richard A D; Bots, Pieter; Law, Gareth T W; Lloyd, Jonathan R; Mosselmans, J Fredrick W; Vaughan, David J; Dardenne, Kathy; Morris, Katherine

    2015-11-17

    Technetium, uranium, and neptunium are contaminants that cause concern at nuclear facilities due to their long half-life, environmental mobility, and radiotoxicity. Here we investigate the impact of microbial reduction of Fe(III) in biotite and chlorite and the role that this has in enhancing mineral reactivity toward soluble TcO4(-), UO2(2+), and NpO2(+). When reacted with unaltered biotite and chlorite, significant sorption of U(VI) occurred in low carbonate (0.2 mM) buffer, while U(VI), Tc(VII), and Np(V) showed low reactivity in high carbonate (30 mM) buffer. On reaction with the microbially reduced minerals, all radionuclides were removed from solution with U(VI) reactivity influenced by carbonate. Analysis by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) confirmed reductive precipitation to poorly soluble U(IV) in low carbonate conditions and both Tc(VII) and Np(V) in high carbonate buffer were also fully reduced to poorly soluble Tc(IV) and Np(IV) phases. U(VI) reduction was inhibited under high carbonate conditions. Furthermore, EXAFS analysis suggested that in the reaction products, Tc(IV) was associated with Fe, Np(IV) formed nanoparticulate NpO2, and U(IV) formed nanoparticulate UO2 in chlorite and was associated with silica in biotite. Overall, microbial reduction of the Fe(III) associated with biotite and chlorite primed the minerals for reductive scavenging of radionuclides: this has clear implications for the fate of radionuclides in the environment. PMID:26488884

  18. EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS GLUTATHIONE, GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE, CHLORINE DIOXIDE, AND CHLORITE ON OSMOTIC FRAGILITY OF RAT BLOOD IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2), chlorite (ClO2(-1)), and chlorate (ClO3(-1)) in drinking water decreased blood glutathione and RBC osmotic fragility in vivo. The osmotic fragility and glutathione content were also studied in rat blood treated with ClO2, ClO2(-1), ClO3(-1) in vitro. RBC ...

  19. Timing and origin of zircon-bearing chlorite schists in the Ronda peridotites (Betic Cordilleras, Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, J. J.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.; Liati, A.; Seward, D.; Gebauer, D.

    2007-11-01

    This paper reports the finding of zircon-bearing chlorite schists in the south-western part of the Sierra Bermeja, the largest massif of the Ronda peridotites (Alpujarride Complex, Betic Cordilleras, Spain). The chlorite schists contain unusually high amounts of zircon and monazite, never previously recorded in the granite dykes intruded into the peridotites nor in their country rocks. Structural, petrographic, geochemical and geochronological data suggest that late high temperature fluids/melts emanating from the crustally derived granite dykes locally altered the peridotites. The large, euhedral and U-rich zircons are very different to those of the granite dykes but probably formed from late high temperature fluids/melts. U-Pb SHRIMP data of these zircons yielded an age of 21.8 ± 0.5 Ma, leading to a precise age estimation for the emplacement of the granite dykes. In the course of later serpentinization processes chlorite schist formation took place during cooling at lower temperatures (289-322 °C). Fission-track zircon ages at 19.2 ± 1.1 Ma date this episode of cooling during exhumation of the peridotites.

  20. Redox Thermodynamics of High-Spin and Low-Spin Forms of Chlorite Dismutases with Diverse Subunit and Oligomeric Structures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Chlorite dismutases (Clds) are heme b-containing oxidoreductases that convert chlorite to chloride and dioxygen. In this work, the thermodynamics of the one-electron reduction of the ferric high-spin forms and of the six-coordinate low-spin cyanide adducts of the enzymes from Nitrobacter winogradskyi (NwCld) and Candidatus “Nitrospira defluvii” (NdCld) were determined through spectroelectrochemical experiments. These proteins belong to two phylogenetically separated lineages that differ in subunit (21.5 and 26 kDa, respectively) and oligomeric (dimeric and pentameric, respectively) structure but exhibit similar chlorite degradation activity. The E°′ values for free and cyanide-bound proteins were determined to be −119 and −397 mV for NwCld and −113 and −404 mV for NdCld, respectively (pH 7.0, 25 °C). Variable-temperature spectroelectrochemical experiments revealed that the oxidized state of both proteins is enthalpically stabilized. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that changes in the protein structure are negligible, whereas solvent reorganization is mainly responsible for the increase in entropy during the redox reaction. Obtained data are discussed with respect to the known structures of the two Clds and the proposed reaction mechanism. PMID:23126649

  1. O2-evolving Chlorite Dismutase as a Tool to Study O2-Utilizing Enzymes†

    PubMed Central

    Dassama, Laura M. K.; Yosca, Timothy H.; Conner, Denise A.; Lee, Michael H.; Blanc, Béatrice; Streit, Bennett R.; Green, Michael T.; DuBois, Jennifer L.; Krebs, Carsten; Bollinger, J. Martin

    2012-01-01

    The direct interrogation of fleeting intermediates by rapid-mixing kinetic methods has significantly advanced our understanding of enzymes that utilize dioxygen. The gas’s modest aqueous solubility (< 2 mM at 1 atm) presents a technical challenge to this approach, because it limits the rate of formation and extent of accumulation of intermediates. This challenge can be overcome by use of the heme enzyme chlorite dismutase (Cld1) for the rapid, in situ generation of O2 at concentrations far exceeding 2 mM. This method was used to define the [O2] dependence of the reaction of the class Ic ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) from Chlamydia trachomatis, in which the enzyme’s MnIV/FeIII cofactor forms from a MnII/FeII complex and O2 via a MnIV/FeIV intermediate, at effective O2 concentrations as high as ~10 mM. With a more soluble receptor, myoglobin, an O2 adduct was accumulated to > 6 mM in < 15 ms. Finally, the C–H-bond-cleaving FeIV-oxo complex, J, in taurine:α-ketoglutarate dioxygenase and superoxo-Fe2III/III complex, G, in myo-inositol oxygenase, and the tyrosyl-radical-generating Fe2III/IV intermediate, X, in Escherichia coli RNR were all accumulated to yields more than twice those previously attained. This means of in situ O2 evolution permits a > 5 mM “pulse” of O2 to be generated in < 1 ms at the easily accessible [Cld] of 50 μM. It should therefore significantly extend the range of kinetic and spectroscopic experiments that can routinely be undertaken in the study of these enzymes and could also facilitate resolution of mechanistic pathways in cases of either sluggish or thermodynamically unfavorable O2-addition steps. PMID:22304240

  2. The effects of oil on As(V) adsorption on illite, kaolinite, montmorillonite and chlorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainipee, Wimolporn; Cuadros, Javier; Sephton, Mark A.; Unsworth, Catherine; Gill, Martin G.; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Weiss, Dominik J.

    2013-11-01

    The effect of oil on As(V) adsorption on clay minerals has been investigated using batch experiments at low and high pH, NaCl concentration and oil contents. Four clay minerals were chosen because of their abundance in sediments and their different crystal chemistry: illite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and chlorite. The values for pH were 4 and 8 and salt concentrations were 0.001 and 0.7 M NaCl to appreciate the effects of changing salinity, e.g. from fresh water to seawater conditions. For the coating experiments, a well-characterised oil was used to survey the main effects of complex organic mixtures on adsorption and oil to clay mineral (w/w) ratios were 0.0325 and 0.3250. As(V) adsorption increased with increasing NaCl concentration, suggesting that the mechanisms of As(V) adsorption are related to the formation of surface complexes in which Na+ ions act as bridges between the clay surface and the As(V) anions. Cation bridging is also indicated by zeta potential measurements which show that higher NaCl concentrations along with the presence of As(V) can cause the clay particles and adsorbed ions to have a more negative overall charge. Adsorption is lower at higher pH due to the reduced number of positively charged sites on the edge of clay mineral layers. Oil coating reduces As(V) adsorption by decreasing the available surface area of clay minerals, except in the case of oil-coated montmorillonite, where surface area following dispersion in water is increased. The main variables controlling As(V) adsorption are surface area and surface charge density, as confirmed by a simplified quantitative model. These findings advance our ability to predict the effects of complex pollution events in various freshwater and marine settings.

  3. Preventing bovine mastitis by a postmilking teat disinfectant containing acidified sodium chlorite.

    PubMed

    Hillerton, J E; Cooper, J; Morelli, J

    2007-03-01

    A split-herd study was performed to determine if an acidified, sodium chlorite teat disinfectant, UDDERgold Platinum Germicidal Barrier Teat Dip (UG Pt, Ecolab Inc., Redmond, WA), was effective in preventing new intramammary infections (IMI) in lactating dairy cows compared with a licensed, iodophor teat disinfectant (Iosan, Novartis Animal Health, Ltd., Whittlesford, UK), and to show that the test product was tolerated equally well by teat skin. The study lasted 114 d and covered all weather conditions. The teats of 176 cows were dipped after each milking in UG Pt and the teats of 172 cows were dipped in Iosan, the positive-control product. Routine milk samples were taken from each quarter of every cow every 4 wk. Additional samples were taken from newly calved cows joining the trial and from cows with clinical signs of mastitis. Milk samples were cultured for the presence of bacteria and the cause of clinical mastitis. Each quarter was eligible for only 1 infection during the trial. The number of clinical cases was identical in each group (n = 13) and the number of subclinical infections was slightly lower in the UG Pt group than in the Iosan group (n = 27 and 31, respectively). These rates of infection suggest that the products did not differ in their ability to prevent a new IMI. At least 203 cows were assessed for skin integrity before the start of the trial and every 28 d throughout. The UG Pt teat dip had no adverse effects on teat condition. The prevalence of hyperkeratosis did not change with time for both groups (0.90 +/- 1.08 and 0.95 +/- 1.06 at wk 0 vs. 0.65 +/- 0.87 and 0.49 +/- 0.74 at wk 16 for fore and hind teats, respectively, for UG Pt and 1.02 +/- 1.25 and 1.16 +/- 1.11 at wk 0 vs. 0.51 +/- 0.71 and 0.45 +/- 0.65 at wk 16, respectively, for Iosan); no redness of the skin was observed in either group. Application of recommended statistical methods to demonstrate noninferiority was problematic. PMID:17297095

  4. Understanding the roles of strictly conserved tryptophan residues in O2 producing chlorite dismutases

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Beatrice; Rodgers, Kenton R.

    2013-01-01

    The chlorite dismutases (Clds) degrade ClO2− to O2 and Cl− in perchlorate respiring bacteria, and they serve still poorly defined cellular roles in other diverse microbes. These proteins share 3 highly conserved Trp residues, W155, W156, and W227, on the proximal side of the heme. The Cld from Dechloromonas aromatica (DaCld) has been shown to form protein-based radicals in its reactions with ClO2− and peracetic acid. The roles of the conserved Trp residues in radical generation and in enzymatic function were assessed via spectroscopic and kinetic analysis of their Phe mutants. The W155F mutant was the most dramatically affected, appearing to lose the characteristic pentameric oligomerization state, secondary structure, and heme binding properties of the WT protein. The W156F mutant initially retains many features of the WT protein but over time acquires many of the features of W155F. Conversion to an inactive, heme-free form is accelerated by dilution, suggesting loss of the protein’s pentameric state. Hence, both W155 and W156 are important for heme binding and maintenance of the protein’s reactive pentameric structure. W227F by contrast retains many properties of the WT protein. Important differences are noted in the transient kinetic reactions with peracetic acid (PAA), where W227F appears to form an [Fe(IV)=O]-containing intermediate, which subsequently converts to an uncoupled [Fe(IV)=O + AA+.] system in a [PAA]-dependent manner. This is in contrast to the peroxidase-like formation of [Fe(IV)=O] coupled to a porphyrin π-cation radical in the WT protein, which decays in a [PAA]-independent manner. These observations and the lack of redox protection for the heme in any of the Trp mutants suggests a tendency for protein radical formation in DaCld that is independent of any of these conserved active site residues. PMID:23241559

  5. Chlorite dissolution rates under CO2 saturated conditions from 50 to 120 °C and 120 to 200 bar CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Jay R.; Haese, Ralf R.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorite dissolution rates were measured in a series of batch reactor experiments testing the effect of pCO2, pH, chloride and bicarbonate concentrations and temperature. Chlorite is an important diagenetic mineral in sedimentary basins, often found cementing mineral grains and filling pore space in formations that may serve as reservoirs for storing carbon dioxide. Conflicting reports of whether chlorite acts as a barrier to reservoir rock reactivity or leads to enhanced porosity due to dissolution, after the injection of supercritical CO2 into a reservoir, makes studying the reactivity of chlorite in contact with CO2 saturated waters pertinent. Measured dissolution rates were initially rapid and decreased over time as the saturation state of solution relative to chlorite increased. Temperature had the strongest effect on dissolution rate, with an apparent activation energy of 16 ± 0.5 kJ mol-1 and rate constant of log k0 = -9.56 ± 0.07 mol m-2 s-1 assuming a rate law of the form: rate = k0exp(-EA/RT). The apparent activation energy is lower than previously accepted values, but is consistent with a study of chlorite dissolution using flow through techniques (Smith et al., 2013). Mineral dissolution rates are typically proton enhanced, but the lack of a significant pH effect or pCO2 effect on chlorite dissolution rate in this study suggests that the use of NaHCO3 to buffer the pH of CO2 saturated solutions led to an inhibition of mineral dissolution in competition with the expected pH effect. This is supported by the observed dissolution rate increasing dramatically (half a log unit) with the use of an organic acid buffer (KHpthalate) under CO2 free conditions. The effect of chloride (NaCl ∼5 to 50 g/L) was found not to affect the dissolution rate of chlorite. Various empirical rate laws are proposed and fit to the data and lead to the development of a surface complex model describing proton promoted dissolution and bicarbonate inhibition of chlorite

  6. Understanding How the Distal Environment Directs Reactivity in Chlorite Dismutase: Spectroscopy and Reactivity of Arg183 Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Béatrice; Mayfield, Jeffery A.; McDonald, Claudia A.; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S.; Rodgers, Kenton R.; DuBois, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The chlorite dismutase from Dechloromonas aromatica (DaCld) catalyzes the highly efficient decomposition of chlorite to O2 and chloride. Spectroscopic, equilibrium thermodynamic, and kinetic measurements have indicated that Cld has two pH sensitive moieties; one is the heme, and Arg183 in the distal heme pocket has been hypothesized to be the second. This active site residue has been examined by site-directed mutagenesis to understand the roles of positive charge and hydrogen bonding in O–O bond formation. Three Cld mutants, Arg183 to Lys (R183K), Arg183 to Gln (R183Q), and Arg183 to Ala (R183A), were investigated to determine their respective contributions to the decomposition of chlorite ion, the spin state and coordination states of their ferric and ferrous forms, their cyanide and imidazole binding affinities, and their reduction potentials. UV–visible and resonance Raman spectroscopies showed that DaCld(R183A) contains five-coordinate high-spin (5cHS) heme, the DaCld(R183Q) heme is a mixture of five-coordinate and six-coordinate high spin (5c/6cHS) heme, and DaCld(R183K) contains six-coordinate low-spin (6cLS) heme. In contrast to wild-type (WT) Cld, which exhibits pKa values of 6.5 and 8.7, all three ferric mutants exhibited pH-independent spectroscopic signatures and kinetic behaviors. Steady state kinetic parameters of the chlorite decomposition reaction catalyzed by the mutants suggest that in WT DaCld the pKa of 6.5 corresponds to a change in the availability of positive charge from the guanidinium group of Arg183 to the heme site. This could be due to either direct acid–base chemistry at the Arg183 side chain or a flexible Arg183 side chain that can access various orientations. Current evidence is most consistent with a conformational adjustment of Arg183. A properly oriented Arg183 is critical for the stabilization of anions in the distal pocket and for efficient catalysis. PMID:22313119

  7. Germicidal activity of a chlorous acid-chlorine dioxide teat dip and a sodium chlorite teat dip during experimental challenge with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Boddie, R L; Nickerson, S C; Adkinson, R W

    1998-08-01

    Three postmilking teat dips were tested for efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in two separate studies using experimental challenge procedures that were recommended by the National Mastitis Council. The first study evaluated a barrier teat dip product containing chlorous acid-chlorine dioxide as the germicidal agent, and the second study evaluated a sodium chlorite product with a barrier component as well as a sodium chlorite product without a barrier component. The chlorous acid-chlorine dioxide teat dip reduced new intramammary infections (IMI) caused by Staph. aureus by 91.5% and reduced new IMI caused by Strep. agalactiae by 71.7%. The barrier dip containing sodium chlorite reduced new IMI caused by Staph. aureus and Strep. agalactiae by 41.0 and 0%, respectively. The nonbarrier dip containing sodium chlorite reduced new IMI caused by Staph. aureus by 65.6% and reduced new IMI caused by Strep. agalactiae by 39.1%. Teat skin and teat end conditions were evaluated before and after the second study; no deleterious effects among dipped quarters compared with control quarters were noted for the two sodium chlorite products. PMID:9749396

  8. The dissolution of biotite and chlorite at 25°C in the near-neutral pH region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmström, Maria; Banwart, Steven; Lewenhagen, Jeanette; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi

    1996-02-01

    We studied the dissolution of biotite and chlorite in laboratory systems with flow-through and batch reactors. The initial dissolution of biotite in the near-neutral pH region, under N 2(g) atmosphere is highly non-stoichiometric. A slow linear release of iron during a period of weeks indicates a surface-chemical-reaction-controlled mechanism of release for iron. The release of potassium is much faster than that of iron. A parabolic dependence of accumulated release with time suggests a diffusion-controlled mechanism of potassium release. The rates of magnesium, aluminium and silicon release are between those for potassium and iron and approach that of iron with time. There is no significant influence of (bi)carbonate or pH on biotite dissolution rate or stoichiometry in the pH region 7 < pH < 8.5. The release rates of elements from chlorite are close to stoichiometric and similar to the iron release rate from biotite. In closed batch reactors at near-basic pH the composition of test solutions in contact with biotite is apparently controlled by gibbsite (Al), kaolinite (Si) and Fe(III)-(hydr)oxide. We estimated a turn-over time (10 1-10 2 yr) for molecular oxygen and a time scale (10 months) to develop characteristic Fe(II) concentrations for a granitic groundwater.

  9. Single Molecule Investigation of Glycine-Chlorite Interaction by Cross-Correlated Scanning Probe Microscopy and Quantum Mechanics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Moro, Daniele; Ulian, Gianfranco; Valdrè, Giovanni

    2015-04-21

    In this work, we studied the interaction of glycine with the (001) surface of chlorite mineral at a single molecule level by cross-correlating scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and ab initio quantum mechanics (QM) investigations. Chlorite mineral is particularly interesting and peculiar for the interaction with organic molecules because it presents an alternated stacking of brucite-like (hydrophobic) and talc-like (hydrophilic) layers of different polarities. Brucite-like is positive, whereas talc-like is negative. The experimental atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations show that glycine is stably and selectively adsorbed on the brucite-like layer, organized in monolayers with different patterns. The sizes of single molecules of glycine measured by AFM are in agreement with those calculated by QM. Glycine molecules were found to align both at the edges and on the terraces of the brucitic surface. QM simulations confirmed the AFM observations that glycine molecule is adsorbed with high adsorption energy preferentially with its plane parallel to the (001) brucite-like surface. QM also provided the geometry conformation of the molecule and the bonding scheme between glycine and brucite surface. This kind of data can be very helpful both to biotechnological applications of this substrate and to depict some important processes that might have been occurred in prebiotic environments. PMID:25830864

  10. DC conductivity, cationic exchange capacity, and specific surface area related to chemical composition of pore lining chlorites.

    PubMed

    Henn, François; Durand, Claudine; Cerepi, Adrian; Brosse, Etienne; Giuntini, J C

    2007-07-15

    Low resistivity in argillaceous sandstone reservoirs may be attributed either to the effect of microporosity, or to specific effects due to intrinsic clays' conducting properties or to other conducting minerals. In order to distinguish these effects, cation exchange capacity, specific surface areas, and dc conductivity of various pore lining chlorite-bearing sandstones from different hydrocarbon reservoir measurements are investigated. Cation exchange capacity and specific surface area are measured on whole rocks as well as on size-separated fractions. Both sets of values are low, in agreement with the structural and textural observations. The conductivity of these chlorites, measured in air conditions and after dehydration, is investigated by means of complex impedance spectroscopy on size-separated fractions as a function of temperature and compared to that of reference clays. The results show a large influence of moisture, applied electric field frequency, and temperature on the electrical properties. The magnitude of the dehydrated clays' conductivity is such that its influence on the conductivity of argillaceous sandstone is lower than that related to the presence of water or brine by several orders of magnitude. The dc conductivity and the related activation energy of the dehydrated samples appear to be related to the chemical composition of the clays. More specifically, a clear correlation occurs with the electrical charges of the clay network, that is to say with the location, i.e., tetrahedral or octahedral sites, of the substituting trivalent elements. PMID:17433348

  11. Succession of Permian and Mesozoic metasomatic events in the eastern Pyrenees with emphasis on the Trimouns talc-chlorite deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutin, Alexandre; de Saint Blanquat, Michel; Poujol, Marc; Boulvais, Philippe; de Parseval, Philippe; Rouleau, Caroline; Robert, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies proposing pre-orogenic mantle exhumation models have helped renew the interest of the geosciences community in the Pyrenees, which should be now interpreted as a hyper-extended passive margin before the convergence between Iberia and Eurasia occurred. Unresolved questions of the Pyrenean geology, as well as the understanding of the formation of hyper-extended passive margins, are how the crust was thinned, and when, where and how the crustal breakoff occurred. The study of the Variscan and pre-Variscan Pyrenean basement is thus critical to document and understand this Cretaceous crustal thinning. In order to specify the timing of Mesozoic metasomatism and the associated deformation in the pre-Mesozoic basement of the Pyrenees, we carried out a U-Th-Pb laser ablation ICP-MS study on a large panel of REE and titanium-rich minerals (titanite and rutile) from talc-chlorite ores from the eastern Pyrenees, with a special emphasis on the Trimouns deposit, the world's largest talc quarry. Our results suggest that the Trimouns talc formation was restricted to the upper Aptian-Cenomanian time, while the talc and chlorite formation in the eastern Pyrenees occurred during several distinct Permian, Jurassic and Cretaceous episodes. These results give strong constraints on the tectonic setting of the Pyrenean domain during the transition between the Variscan and Alpine orogenic cycles, and particularly on when and how the upper crust was thinned before the crustal breakoff and the final mantle exhumation.

  12. Effectiveness of acidified sodium chlorite and other sanitizers to control Escherichia coli O157:H7 on tomato surfaces.

    PubMed

    Inatsu, Yasuhiro; Kitagawa, Tomoko; Bari, Md Latiful; Nei, Daisuke; Juneja, Vijay; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2010-06-01

    The use of a suitable sanitizer can reduce the risk of produce-related foodborne illnesses. We evaluated the effectiveness of several sanitizers to reduce inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 on the surface of cherry tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiform). Depending on the method of inoculation (dipping/spotting), each of 80 g (eight tomatoes) of inoculated cherry tomatoes was washed in 400 mL of sanitizer solutions or 400 mL distilled water for 5 minutes. The effectiveness of sanitizers on spot-inoculated E. coli O157:H7 on tomato surfaces was found higher than on dip-inoculated tomatoes. Washing with water or chlorine water (0.1 g/L as free chlorine) could reduce 1.3 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 in dip-inoculated (6.8 log CFU/g) tomatoes. Washing with lactic acid (LA) solution (1.0 g/L), phytic acid solution (1.0 g/L), calcinated seashells (oyster/sakhalin surf clam), and 1.0 g/L chitosan in 0.5 g/L LA (Chito) did not exhibit a significant higher effectiveness than that of water wash alone (1.0 log CFU/g). Acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) solution prepared from 0.5 g/L of sodium chlorite and 1.0 g/L LA or phytic acid reduced 3.5 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 in dip-inoculated tomato surfaces. ASC (0.5 g/L of sodium chlorite and 1.0 g/L of LA) wash followed by a second wash with LA exhibited an additional sanitary effectiveness compared to a single wash with ASC. However, washing with ASC followed by a second wash with Chito exhibited an additional 1.0 log CFU/g reduction compared to a secondary wash with water. No significant difference of color, taste, and texture was observed among the washed cherry tomatoes. PMID:20113205

  13. Chlorite dismutases, DyPs, and EfeB: 3 microbial heme enzyme families comprise the CDE structural superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Goblirsch, Brandon; Kurker, Richard C.; Streit, Bennett R.; Wilmot, Carrie M.; DuBois, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Heme proteins are extremely diverse, widespread, and versatile biocatalysts, sensors, and molecular transporters. The chlorite dismutase family of hemoproteins received its name due to the ability of the first-isolated members to detoxify anthropogenic ClO2−, a function believed to have evolved only in the last few decades. Family members have since been found in fifteen bacterial and archaeal genera, suggesting ancient roots. A structure- and sequence-based examination of the family is presented, in which key sequence and structural motifs are identified and possible functions for family proteins are proposed. Newly identified structural homologies moreover demonstrate clear connections to two other large, ancient, and functionally mysterious protein families. We propose calling them collectively the CDE superfamily of heme proteins. PMID:21354424

  14. Reverse osmosis membrane composition, structure and performance modification by bisulphite, iron(III), bromide and chlorite exposure.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, O; Gibert, O; Cortina, J L

    2016-10-15

    Reverse osmosis (RO) membrane exposure to bisulphite, chlorite, bromide and iron(III) was assessed in terms of membrane composition, structure and performance. Membrane composition was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and membrane performance was assessed by water and chloride permeation, using a modified version of the solution-diffusion model. Iron(III) dosage in presence of bisulphite led to an autooxidation of the latter, probably generating free radicals which damaged the membrane. It comprised a significant raise in chloride passage (chloride permeation coefficient increased 5.3-5.1 fold compared to the virgin membrane under the conditions studied) rapidly. No major differences in terms of water permeability and membrane composition were observed. Nevertheless, an increase in the size of the network pores, and a raise in the fraction of aggregate pores of the polyamide (PA) layer were identified, but no amide bond cleavage was observed. These structural changes were therefore, in accordance with the transport properties observed. PMID:27470468

  15. Authigenic chlorite as a controlling factor in the exploration of Turonian/Coniacian turbidites in the Santos Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Porsche, E.; Lopes de Freitas, E.

    1996-08-01

    Upper Turonian/Coniacian and Campanian turbidites are major targets for petroleum exploration in the Santos Basin, southeastern Brazil. They occur between 140 and 1000 m of present water depth, are buried at about 4500 m, and reach thickness of up to 60 m. The main reservoir facies is composed of unstratified, fine to very fine grained, poorly sorted sandstones, which framework is compositionally immature, including a high proportion of feldspars and volcanic rock fragments. Early coating of grains by authigenic chlorite inhibited pressure solution and quartz cementation in the reservoir. This diagenetic characteristic allowed important preservation of primary porosity (>20%) in the reservoir; nevertheless its permeability never exceeds 30 ml. The study of sedimentary facies and related depositional processes has been conducted to predict the distribution of petroleum-bearing turbidites throughout the Santos Basin; this comprises a major challenge for the petroleum exploration in this important Brazilian exploration frontier.

  16. Multiple hydrothermal and metamorphic events in the Kidd Creek volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit, Timmins, Ontario: evidence from tourmalines and chlorites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Coad, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The tourmalines and chlorites record a series of multiple hydrothermal and metamorphic events. Paragenetic studies suggest that tourmaline was deposited during several discrete stages of mineralization, as evidence by brecciation and cross-cutting relationships. Most of the tourmalines have two concentric growth zones defined by different colours (green, brown, blue, yellow). Some tourmalines also display pale discordant rims that cross-cut and embay the inner growth zones and polycrystalline, multiple-extinction domains. Late sulphide veinlets (chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite) transect the inner growth zones and pale discordant rims of many crystals. The concentric growth zones are interpreted as primary features developed by the main ore-forming hydrothermal system, whereas the discordant rims, polycrystalline domains, and cross-cutting sulphide veinlets reflect post-ore metamorphic processes. Variations in mineral proportions and mineral chemistry within the deposit mainly depend on fluctuations in temperature, pH, water/rock ratios, and amounts of entrained seawater. -from Authors

  17. From chlorite dismutase towards HemQ–the role of the proximal H-bonding network in haeme binding

    PubMed Central

    Hofbauer, Stefan; Howes, Barry D.; Flego, Nicola; Pirker, Katharina F.; Schaffner, Irene; Mlynek, Georg; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina; Furtmüller, Paul G.; Smulevich, Giulietta; Obinger, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Chlorite dismutase (Cld) and HemQ are structurally and phylogenetically closely related haeme enzymes differing fundamentally in their enzymatic properties. Clds are able to convert chlorite into chloride and dioxygen, whereas HemQ is proposed to be involved in the haeme b synthesis of Gram-positive bacteria. A striking difference between these protein families concerns the proximal haeme cavity architecture. The pronounced H-bonding network in Cld, which includes the proximal ligand histidine and fully conserved glutamate and lysine residues, is missing in HemQ. In order to understand the functional consequences of this clearly evident difference, specific hydrogen bonds in Cld from ‘Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii’ (NdCld) were disrupted by mutagenesis. The resulting variants (E210A and K141E) were analysed by a broad set of spectroscopic (UV–vis, EPR and resonance Raman), calorimetric and kinetic methods. It is demonstrated that the haeme cavity architecture in these protein families is very susceptible to modification at the proximal site. The observed consequences of such structural variations include a significant decrease in thermal stability and also affinity between haeme b and the protein, a partial collapse of the distal cavity accompanied by an increased percentage of low-spin state for the E210A variant, lowered enzymatic activity concomitant with higher susceptibility to self-inactivation. The high-spin (HS) ligand fluoride is shown to exhibit a stabilizing effect and partially restore wild-type Cld structure and function. The data are discussed with respect to known structure–function relationships of Clds and the proposed function of HemQ as a coprohaeme decarboxylase in the last step of haeme biosynthesis in Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. PMID:26858461

  18. From chlorite dismutase towards HemQ - the role of the proximal H-bonding network in haeme binding.

    PubMed

    Hofbauer, Stefan; Howes, Barry D; Flego, Nicola; Pirker, Katharina F; Schaffner, Irene; Mlynek, Georg; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina; Furtmüller, Paul G; Smulevich, Giulietta; Obinger, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Chlorite dismutase (Cld) and HemQ are structurally and phylogenetically closely related haeme enzymes differing fundamentally in their enzymatic properties. Clds are able to convert chlorite into chloride and dioxygen, whereas HemQ is proposed to be involved in the haeme b synthesis of Gram-positive bacteria. A striking difference between these protein families concerns the proximal haeme cavity architecture. The pronounced H-bonding network in Cld, which includes the proximal ligand histidine and fully conserved glutamate and lysine residues, is missing in HemQ. In order to understand the functional consequences of this clearly evident difference, specific hydrogen bonds in Cld from 'Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii' (NdCld) were disrupted by mutagenesis. The resulting variants (E210A and K141E) were analysed by a broad set of spectroscopic (UV-vis, EPR and resonance Raman), calorimetric and kinetic methods. It is demonstrated that the haeme cavity architecture in these protein families is very susceptible to modification at the proximal site. The observed consequences of such structural variations include a significant decrease in thermal stability and also affinity between haeme b and the protein, a partial collapse of the distal cavity accompanied by an increased percentage of low-spin state for the E210A variant, lowered enzymatic activity concomitant with higher susceptibility to self-inactivation. The high-spin (HS) ligand fluoride is shown to exhibit a stabilizing effect and partially restore wild-type Cld structure and function. The data are discussed with respect to known structure-function relationships of Clds and the proposed function of HemQ as a coprohaeme decarboxylase in the last step of haeme biosynthesis in Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. PMID:26858461

  19. Phyllosilicate weathering pathways in chlorite-talc bearing soil parent materials, D.R. Congo: early findings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumon, Mathijs; Oostermeyer, Fran; Timmermans, Els; De Meulemeester, Aschwin; Mees, Florias; Van Driessche, Isabel; Erens, Hans; Bazirake Mujinya, Basile; Van Ranst, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The study of the formation and transformation of clay minerals is of the upmost importance to understand soil formation and to adjust land-use management to the land surface conditions. These clay minerals determine to a large extent the soil physical and chemical properties. It is commonly observed that over time the mineralogy of any parent material is transformed to a simple assemblage composed mostly of Al and Fe oxides and low-activity clays, e.g. kaolinite. This is especially obvious in the humid tropics, which have been protected from glacial erosion, allowing deep, highly weathered soils to form. Despite the abundant presence of kaolinite in these soils, its formation pathways are still under debate: either neoformation by dissolution-crystallisation reactions or solid-state transformation of 2:1 phyllosilicates. To elucidate this, weathering sequences in a unique 40 m core taken below a termite mound, reaching a talc-chlorite bearing substrate in the Lubumbashi area, Katanga, DR Congo are being investigated in detail using a.o. quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis, chemical characterization, micromorphology and µXRF-scanning with the main objective to improve the understanding of the formation pathways of kaolinite subgroup minerals in humid tropical environments. Based on an initial characterization of the core, two zones of interest were selected for more detailed analysis, for which the early findings will be presented. The first zone extends from ca. 9 m to 11 m below the surface is dominated by kaolinite but shows early traces of primary talc and micas. The second zone extends from 34 to 36 m below the surface and contains large amounts of chlorite, with smaller amounts of talc, micas and kaolinite.

  20. Assessment of sodium hypochlorite and acidified sodium chlorite as antimicrobial agents to inhibit growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and natural microflora on shredded carrots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of cold tap water, sodium hypochlorite (200 ppm) and acidified sodium chlorite (100, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm) washes on survival and growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated onto shredded carrots was determined after treatment and 7 and 14 days of storage. Growth of total mesophilic...

  1. EVALUATION OF THE IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECTS OF THE DISINFECTION BYPRODUCT, SODIUM CHLORITE, IN FEMALE B6C3F1 MICE: A DRINKING WATER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of the Immunomodulatory Effects of the Disinfection By-product, Sodium chlorite, in Female B6C3f1 mice: A Drinking Water Study.

    Niel A. Karrow, Tal, L. Guo, J. Ann McCay, Greg W. Johnson, Ronnetta D. Brown, Debrorah L. Musgrove, Dori R. Germolec, Robert W. Lueb...

  2. Combination of sodium chlorite and calcium propionate reduces enzymatic browning and microbial population of fresh-cut ‘Granny Smith’ apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tissue browning and microbial growth are the main concerns associated with fresh-cut apples. In this study, effects of sodium chlorite (SC) and calcium propionate (CP), individually and combined, on quality and microbial population of apple slices were investigated. ‘Granny Smith’ apple slices, dipp...

  3. Combined effects of sodium chlorite dip treatment and chitosan coatings on the quality of fresh-cut d’Anjou pears

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effects of sodium chlorite (SC) alone and its sequential treatment with edible coatings on browning inhibition and quality maintenance of fresh-cut d’Anjou pears. Edible coatings were prepared from chitosan (CH) and its water soluble derivative: carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCH...

  4. Oxygen isotope fractionation between chlorite and water from 170 to 350 C: A preliminary assessment based on partial exchange and fluid/rock experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, D.R.; Ripley, E.M.

    1999-02-01

    Oxygen isotope fractionations in laboratory systems have been determined between chlorite and water at 170--350 C. In one series of experiments, the Northrop-Clayton partial exchange method was used where three (sometimes four) isotopically different waters were reacted with chlorite. The percents of exchange determined for the four times from shortest to longest are 4.4, 6.5, 8.0, and 11.9. The fractionations calculated from the Northrop and Clayton method are in modest agreement for the four run durations: 0.13, 0.26, {minus}0.46, and {minus}0.55 per mil. Errors associated with each of these fractionations are quite large (e.g. {+-}1.2 per mil for the longest run). The value determined for the longest run of {approximately}20 weeks is the most reliable of the group and compares very closely with a value of {approximately}{minus}0.7 per mil estimated by Wenner and Taylor based on natural chlorides. Good agreement is also observed with the estimates, {minus}1.2 and {minus}1.3% calculated at 350 C for chlorite compositions with [({Sigma}Fe)/{Sigma}Fe + Mg] = 0.313 and 0.444, respectively, from equations given by Savin and Lee based on their empirical bond-type method. Additional fractionation data have been estimated from hydrothermal granite-fluid experiments where chlorite formed from biotite. Detailed thin section, scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron microprobe analyses demonstrate that biotite is altered exclusively to chlorite in 13 granite-fluid experiments conducted at the following conditions: T = 170--300 C, P = vapor saturation - 200 b, salinity = H{sub 2}O, 0.1 and 1 m NaCl, fluid/biotite mass ratios = 3--44, run durations = 122--772 h. The amount of chlorite, quantified through point counting and XRD, increased with increasing temperature, salinity, and time. The isotope compositions of chlorite were calculated from mass balance and compared to the final measured {delta}{sup 18}O of the fluids. The 10{sup 3}ln {alpha

  5. A thermodynamic model for di-trioctahedral chlorite from experimental and natural data in the system MgO-FeO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O: applications to P- T sections and geothermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanari, Pierre; Wagner, Thomas; Vidal, Olivier

    2014-02-01

    We present a new thermodynamic activity-composition model for di-trioctahedral chlorite in the system FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O that is based on the Holland-Powell internally consistent thermodynamic data set. The model is formulated in terms of four linearly independent end-members, which are amesite, clinochlore, daphnite and sudoite. These account for the most important crystal-chemical substitutions in chlorite, the Fe-Mg, Tschermak and di-trioctahedral substitution. The ideal part of end-member activities is modeled with a mixing-on-site formalism, and non-ideality is described by a macroscopic symmetric (regular) formalism. The symmetric interaction parameters were calibrated using a set of 271 published chlorite analyses for which robust independent temperature estimates are available. In addition, adjustment of the standard state thermodynamic properties of sudoite was required to accurately reproduce experimental brackets involving sudoite. This new model was tested by calculating representative P- T sections for metasediments at low temperatures (<400 °C), in particular sudoite and chlorite bearing metapelites from Crete. Comparison between the calculated mineral assemblages and field data shows that the new model is able to predict the coexistence of chlorite and sudoite at low metamorphic temperatures. The predicted lower limit of the chloritoid stability field is also in better agreement with petrological observations. For practical applications to metamorphic and hydrothermal environments, two new semi-empirical chlorite geothermometers named Chl(1) and Chl(2) were calibrated based on the chlorite + quartz + water equilibrium (2 clinochlore + 3 sudoite = 4 amesite + 4 H2O + 7 quartz). The Chl(1) thermometer requires knowledge of the (Fe3+/ΣFe) ratio in chlorite and predicts correct temperatures for a range of redox conditions. The Chl(2) geothermometer which assumes that all iron in chlorite is ferrous has been applied to partially recrystallized

  6. Matrix superpotentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, Anatoly G.; Karadzhov, Yuri

    2011-07-01

    We present a collection of matrix-valued shape invariant potentials which give rise to new exactly solvable problems of SUSY quantum mechanics. It includes all irreducible matrix superpotentials of the generic form W=kQ+\\frac{1}{k} R+P, where k is a variable parameter, Q is the unit matrix multiplied by a real-valued function of independent variable x, and P and R are the Hermitian matrices depending on x. In particular, we recover the Pron'ko-Stroganov 'matrix Coulomb potential' and all known scalar shape invariant potentials of SUSY quantum mechanics. In addition, five new shape invariant potentials are presented. Three of them admit a dual shape invariance, i.e. the related Hamiltonians can be factorized using two non-equivalent superpotentials. We find discrete spectrum and eigenvectors for the corresponding Schrödinger equations and prove that these eigenvectors are normalizable.

  7. Combination of sodium chlorite and calcium propionate reduces enzymatic browning and microbial population of fresh-cut "Granny Smith" apples.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wenqiang; Fan, Xuetong

    2010-03-01

    Tissue browning and microbial growth are the main concerns associated with fresh-cut apples. In this study, effects of sodium chlorite (SC) and calcium propionate (CP), individually and combined, on quality and microbial population of apple slices were investigated. "Granny Smith" apple slices, dipped for 5 min in CP solutions at 0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% (w/v) either alone or in combination with 0.05% (w/v) SC, were stored at 3 and 10 degrees C for up to 14 d. Color, firmness, and microflora population were measured at 1, 7, and 14 d of storage. Results showed that CP alone had no significant effect on the browning of cut apples. Even though SC significantly inhibited tissue browning initially, the apple slices turned brown during storage at 10 degrees C. The combination of CP and SC was able to inhibit apple browning during storage. Samples treated with the combination of SC with CP did not show any detectable yeast and mold growth during the entire storage period at 3 degrees C. At 10 degrees C, yeast and mold count increased on apple slices during storage while CP reduced the increase. However, high concentrations of CP reduced the efficacy of SC in inactivating E. coli inoculated on apples. Overall, our results suggested that combination of SC with 0.5% and 1% CP could be used to inhibit tissue browning and maintain firmness while reducing microbial population. Practical Application: Apple slices, which contain antioxidants and other nutrient components, have emerged as popular snacks in food service establishments, school lunch programs, and for family consumption. However, the further growth of the industry is limited by product quality deterioration caused by tissue browning, short shelf-life due to microbial growth, and possible contamination with human pathogens during processing. Therefore, this study was conducted to develop treatments to reduce microbial population and tissue browning of "Granny Smith" apple slices. Results showed that an antimicrobial

  8. Linking deformation structures and low-temperature metamorphic recrystallization: chlorite-illite equilibria in the Nevado-Filabrides complex (Betic Cordillera, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jentzer, Michael; Verlaguet, Anne; Dubacq, Benoit; Agard, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Ductile deformation is partly accommodated by mineral recrystallization. Mineral growth is controlled by both thermodynamics and reaction kinetics, where fluid availability and deformation also play a key role, in particular at temperatures below about 400°C. In these temperature conditions, phyllosilicates are ubiquitous and reactive, and often replace the peak metamorphic minerals along the retrograde path. Phyllosilicate assemblages are thus of potential to estimate the pressure-temperature conditions of deformation and provide information on the dynamics of shear zone development. This study focuses on a cross-section in the Nevado-Filabrides complex (Betic cordillera, Spain), which was exhumed along a ductile detachment. We present four outcrops located at different distances from the detachment, for which both the deformation structure densification with detachment proximity and the metamorphic P-T conditions have already been well constrained. The studied unit contains abundant chlorite and illite, often observed seemingly at textural equilibrium. In order to highlight the link between phyllosilicate crystallization and deformation, electron microprobe chemical maps were performed on deformation microstructures (schistosity, shear bands, pressure shadows) where chlorite and illite are present. Using a multi-equilibrium approach with a thermodynamic model for clay minerals, we estimated P-T conditions of crystallization for the successive chlorite-white mica and chlorite-illite assemblages. Obtained P-T paths span the range 250°C - 550°C. These results are in good agreement with calculated pseudo-sections but are inconsistent with parts of the previously published retrograde paths, whose low-pressure high-temperature results are likely offset. Interestingly, chlorite and illite seemingly at textural equilibrium were very rarely computed as such. This might be explained by 1) inadequacy of the thermodynamic models at the latest conditions of re

  9. Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and acidified sodium chlorite in preventing browning and microbial growth on fresh-cut produce.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shih Hui; Kim, Su Jin; Kwak, Soo Jin; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2012-09-01

    The use of suitable sanitizers can increase the quality of fresh-cut produce and reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses. The objective of this study was to compare the washing effects of 100 mg/L sodium hypochlorite (SH) and 500 mg/L acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) on the prevention of enzymatic browning and the growth of microbial populations, including aerobic plate counts, E. coli, and coliforms, throughout storage at 4°C and 10°C. Fresh-cut zucchini, cucumbers, green bell peppers, and root vegetables such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, carrots, and radishes were used. Compared to SH washing, ASC washing significantly (p<0.05) reduced microbial contamination on the fresh-cut produce and prevented browning of fresh-cut potatoes and sweet potatoes during storage. More effective inhibition of aerobic plate counts and coliforms growth was observed on fresh-cut produce treated with ASC during storage at 10°C. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of fresh-cut potatoes and sweet potatoes was more effectively inhibited after washing with ASC. The use of 500 mg/L ASC can provide effective antimicrobial and anti-browning treatments of fresh-cut produce, including processed root vegetables. PMID:24471086

  10. Efficacy of Sodium Hypochlorite and Acidified Sodium Chlorite in Preventing Browning and Microbial Growth on Fresh-Cut Produce

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shih Hui; Kim, Su Jin; Kwak, Soo Jin; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2012-01-01

    The use of suitable sanitizers can increase the quality of fresh-cut produce and reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses. The objective of this study was to compare the washing effects of 100 mg/L sodium hypochlorite (SH) and 500 mg/L acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) on the prevention of enzymatic browning and the growth of microbial populations, including aerobic plate counts, E. coli, and coliforms, throughout storage at 4°C and 10°C. Fresh-cut zucchini, cucumbers, green bell peppers, and root vegetables such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, carrots, and radishes were used. Compared to SH washing, ASC washing significantly (p<0.05) reduced microbial contamination on the fresh-cut produce and prevented browning of fresh-cut potatoes and sweet potatoes during storage. More effective inhibition of aerobic plate counts and coliforms growth was observed on fresh-cut produce treated with ASC during storage at 10°C. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of fresh-cut potatoes and sweet potatoes was more effectively inhibited after washing with ASC. The use of 500 mg/L ASC can provide effective antimicrobial and anti-browning treatments of fresh-cut produce, including processed root vegetables. PMID:24471086

  11. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis on chicken skin previously exposed to acidified Sodium chlorite or tri-sodium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Karuppasamy, K; Yadav, Ajit S; Saxena, Gaurav K

    2015-12-01

    Thermal inactivation of normal and starved cells of Salmonella Enteritidis on chicken skin previously exposed to different concentrations of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) or tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) was investigated. Inoculated skin was pretreated with different concentration of ASC or TSP, packaged in bags, and then immersed in a circulating water bath at 60 to 68 °C. The recovery medium was Hektoen enteric agar. D-values, determined by linear regression, for normal cells on chicken skin, were 2.79, 1.17 and 0.53 min whereas D-values for starved cells were 4.15, 1.83 and 0.66 at 60, 64 and 68 °C, respectively. z-values for normal cells were 3.54 and for starved cells were 2.29. Pretreatment of Salmonella Enteritidis cells with 0 to 200 ppm of ASC or 0 to 1.0 % TSP resulted in lower D-values at all temperatures. Sensory results indicated no significance differences for control and treatments. Thus, results of this study indicated that pretreatment of chicken skin with ASC or TSP increased sensitivity of Salmonella Enteritidis to heat without affecting organoleptic quality of chicken meat. PMID:26604399

  12. Sync Matrix

    2004-12-31

    Sync Matrix provides a graphic display of the relationships among all of the response activities of each jurisdiction. This is accomplished through software that organizes and displays the activities by jurisdiction, function, and time for easy review and analysis. The software can also integrate the displays of multiple jurisdictions to allow examination of the total response.

  13. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Chlorite-Periodate System: Formation of a Short-Lived Key Intermediate OClOIO3 and Its Subsequent Reactions.

    PubMed

    Baranyi, Nóra; Csekő, György; Valkai, László; Xu, Li; Horváth, Attila K

    2016-03-01

    The chlorite-periodate reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically in acidic medium at 25.0 ± 0.1 °C, monitoring the absorbance at 400 nm in acetate/acetic acid buffer at constant ionic strength (I = 0.5 M). We have shown that periodate was exclusively reduced to iodate, but chlorite ion was oxidized to chlorate and chlorine dioxide via branching pathways. The stoichiometry of the reaction can be described as a linear combination of two limiting stoichiometries under our experimental conditions. Detailed initial rate studies have clearly revealed that the formal kinetic orders of hydrogen ion, chlorite ion, and periodate ion are all strictly one, establishing an empirical rate law to be d[ClO2]/dt = kobs[ClO2(-)][IO4(-)][H(+)], where the apparent rate coefficient (kobs) was found to be 70 ± 13 M(-2) s(-1). On the basis of the experiments, a simple four-step kinetic model with three fitted kinetic parameters is proposed by nonlinear parameter estimation. The reaction was found to proceed via a parallel oxygen transfer reaction leading to the exclusive formation of chlorate and iodate as well as via the formation of a short-lived key intermediate OClOIO3 followed by its further transformations by a sequence of branching pathways. PMID:26849795

  14. A Case of Severe Chlorite Poisoning Successfully Treated With Early Administration of Methylene Blue, Renal Replacement Therapy, and Red Blood Cell Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardtova, Andrea; Vavrinec, Peter; Vavrincova-Yaghi, Diana; Seelen, Mark; Dobisova, Anna; Flassikova, Zora; Cikova, Andrea; Henning, Robert H.; Yaghi, Aktham

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The case of a 55-year-old man who attempted suicide by ingesting <100 mL of 28% sodium chlorite solution is presented. On arrival in the intensive care unit, the patient appeared cyanotic with lowered consciousness and displayed anuria and chocolate brown serum. Initial laboratory tests revealed 40% of methemoglobin. The formation of methemoglobin was effectively treated with methylene blue (10% after 29 hours). To remove the toxin, and because of the anuric acute renal failure, the patient received renal replacement therapy. Despite these therapeutic measures, the patient developed hemolytic anemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which were treated with red blood cell transfusion and intermittent hemodialysis. These interventions led to the improvement of his condition and the patient eventually fully recovered. Patient gave written informed consent. This is the third known case of chlorite poisoning that has been reported. Based upon this case, we suggest the management of sodium chlorite poisoning to comprise the early administration of methylene blue, in addition to renal replacement therapy and transfusion of red blood cells. PMID:25144325

  15. Chlorite grain coats and preservation of primary porosity in deeply buried Springer Formation and lower Morrowan sandstones, southeastern Anadarko basin, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, M.H.; Franks, P.C.; Larese, R.E.

    1987-08-01

    Petrographic studies of Upper Mississippian Springer and Lower Pennsylvanian (Morrowan) sandstones in six cores from the southeastern Anadarko basin, Caddo and Grady Counties, Oklahoma, reveal a complex diagenetic history that led to the destruction of much primary intergranular porosity. The Springer and lower Morrowan sandstones form prolific oil and gas reservoirs, despite the fine-grained nature of the rocks, the growth of authigenic clays, extensive cementation by quartz overgrowths and carbonate minerals, and burial depths of 11,500-14,800 ft. More than any other factors, the diagenetic creation and preservation of porosity are the major geologic controls on hydrocarbon production from these sandstones. Thin-section petrography and scanning electron microscopy show that porous intervals were formed mainly by extensive dissolution and leaching of detrital grains and authigenic cements. Locally, however, appreciable primary porosity was preserved in Cunningham (Springer Formation) and Primrose (Morrowan) sandstones (as much as 20% in one sample of Primrose sandstone) by the formation of chlorite grain coats on detrital quartz during the early stages of burial and diagenesis. The chlorite grain coats inhibited the occlusion of pore space by preventing pervasive cementation of the rocks by quartz overgrowths. Cross-plots of porosity versus the abundance of authigenic quartz and grain-coating chlorite document the relationship in two of the cores.

  16. Long-term in vivo carcinogenicity test of potassium bromate, sodium hypochlorite, and sodium chlorite conducted in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Kurokawa, Y.; Takayama, S.; Konishi, Y.; Hiasa, Y.; Asahina, S.; Takahashi, M.; Maekawa, A.; Hayashi, Y.

    1986-11-01

    Long-term in vivo carcinogenicity tests of potassium bromate (KBrO/sub 3/), sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and sodium chlorite (NaClO/sub 2/) have been conducted in Japan from 1977 to 1985. In these investigations, groups of approximately 50 male and 50 female F344 rats or B6C3F1 mice were given solutions of the compounds as their drinking water ad libitum at two dose levels determined on the basis of preliminary 13-weeks tests. The carcinogenic potential of KBrO/sub 3/ was tested by administering doses of 500 or 250 ppm to rats for 110 weeks. Significantly elevated incidences of renal cell tumors in males and females and mesotheliomas of the peritoneum in males as compared to controls were observed. When female mice were given KBrO/sub 3/ at doses of 1000 or 500 ppm for 78 weeks, no significant differences in tumor incidences between experimental and control groups were apparent. The incidences of tumors in NaClO-treated and control animals of both sexes were not significantly different in both rat and mouse studies. No statistically significant differences were observed in the incidences of tumor formation between NaClO/sub 2/-treated and control groups of rats male mice, the combined incidences of hyperplastic nodules and hepatocellular carcinomas of the liver in a low-dose group, and adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the lung in a high-dose group, were marginally increased compared to controls. The authors concluded that KBrO/sub 2/ was carcinogenic in rats of both sexes. NaClO was not carcinogenic in either rats and or mice under the conditions of the present studies. Although NaClO/sub 2/ was shown to be noncarcinogenic in rats, the results for mice were evaluated as inconclusive. Also the results of two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis using KBrO/sub 3/, NaClO, and NaClO/sub 2/ are presented.

  17. Coupled Petrological and Geodynamic Models of Mantle Flow in Subduction Zones; the Importance of Chlorite in the Emergence of a Low-Viscosity Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. M.; Baker, L. J.; Asimow, P. D.; Gurnis, M. C.

    2007-12-01

    Seismic velocity and attenuation studies have shown that 5-20 km thick low velocity layers exist above seismically fast slabs and are associated with broad zones of high attenuation in many subduction zones. These observations are generally interpreted as formation of hydrous phases by dehydration of the slab, although the impact of water in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) on seismic wave propagation is largely unknown. Recent petrological experiments on hydrous peridotite at subduction zone conditions suggest that chlorite will be stable adjacent to the subducting slab in sufficient quantities to be a significant water sink. We use a scheme that couples a petrological model (pHMELTS) with a 2-D thermal and variable viscosity flow model (ConMan) to model energy and mass transfer within a subduction zone. By varying input parameters including the convergence rate and slab dip we have developed models for cases in the Costa-Rica and Izu- Bonin-Marianas arc systems and are able to predict major and trace element compositions of primary melts, as well as geophysical observables, such as the topography and geoid. We find that the emergence of a slab- adjacent low-viscosity channel (LVC) is a natural consequence of the thermal and chemical controls on mantle dynamics and feedback between them. In our earlier models, as the LVC is dragged downwards by the subducting slab, hornblende breaks down at about 2.5 GPa and other hydrous phases such as serpentine are secondary in importance to the NAM water reservoir. The spatial limit of the LVC is the water-saturated solidus of the hydrated peridotite; the LVC thickens as the peridotite is progressively depleted by melting and the solidus migrates into the warmer wedge, despite water replenishment at depth. pHMELTS is a hybrid of the pMELTS model of Ghiorso and co-workers and includes amphiboles, serpentines and micas. Chlorite was lacking but we have recently rectified this omission. Following De Capitani and co- workers, we

  18. Precipitation of uraninite in chlorite-bearing veins of the hydrothermal alteration zone (argile de pile) of the natural nuclear reactor at Bangombe, Republic of Gabon

    SciTech Connect

    Eberly, P.; Ewing, R.; Janeczek, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the mineralogy of a phyllosilicate/uraninite/galena-bearing vein located within the hydrothermal alteration halo associated with the Bangombe reactor. Phyllosilicates within the vein include a trioctahedral Al-Mg-Fe chlorite (ripidolite), Al-rich clay (kaolinite and/or donbassite) and illite. Textural relations obtained by backscattered-electron imaging suggest that ripidolite crystallized first among the sheet silicates. Uraninite is spatially associated with ripidolite and probably precipitated at a later time. While energy-dispersive X-ray analyses suggest that the uranium phase is predominantly uraninite, coffinite or other phases may also be present.

  19. Long-term in vivo carcinogenicity tests of potassium bromate, sodium hypochlorite, and sodium chlorite conducted in Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Kurokawa, Y; Takayama, S; Konishi, Y; Hiasa, Y; Asahina, S; Takahashi, M; Maekawa, A; Hayashi, Y

    1986-01-01

    Long-term in vivo carcinogenicity tests of potassium bromate (KBrO3), sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), and sodium chlorite (NaClO2) have been conducted in Japan from 1977 to 1985. In these investigations, groups of approximately 50 male and 50 female F344 rats or B6C3F1 mice were given solutions of the compounds as their drinking water ad libitum at two dose levels determined on the basis of preliminary 13-week tests. Control animals were given distilled water. The carcinogenic potential of KBrO3 was tested by administering doses of 500 or 250 ppm to rats for 110 weeks. Significantly elevated incidences of renal cell tumors in males and females and mesotheliomas of the peritoneum in males as compared to controls were observed. When female mice were given KBrO3 at doses of 1000 or 500 ppm for 78 weeks, no significant differences in tumor incidences between experimental and control groups were apparent. NaClO was administered to male and female rats, respectively, at doses of 1000 or 500 ppm and 2000 or 1000 ppm for 104 weeks. In mice, NaClO was given at doses of 1000 or 500 ppm to either sex for 103 weeks. The incidences of tumors in NaClO-treated and control animals of both sexes were not significantly different in both rat and mouse studies. NaClO2 was given to rats of both sexes at a dose of 600 or 300 ppm for 85 weeks. No statistically significant differences were observed in the incidences of tumor formation between NaClO2-treated and control groups of both sexes. NaClO2 was administered to mice at a concentration of 500 or 250 ppm for 85 weeks. In males, the combined incidences of hyperplastic nodules and hepatocellular carcinomas of the liver in a low-dose group, and adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the lung in a high-dose group, were marginally increased compared to controls (p less than 0.05). However, these incidences in treated males were within the range of values of historical control data in our program. We concluded that KBrO3 was carcinogenic in rats of

  20. Ultramafic-hosted Hydrothermal Systems at Mid-Ocean Ridges: Serpentinization, Chloritization and Geochemical Controls on Mass-Transfer Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfried, W. E.; Pester, N. J.; Ding, K.

    2012-12-01

    concentrations and calculated subseafloor pH and temperature. The Rainbow hydrothermal system is also associated with a dome-like massif and morphology typical of Ocean Core Complexes. In sharp contrast with the LCHF, however, the Rainbow hydrothermal system is characterized by vent fluid temperatures in excess of 365°C, high dissolved Fe, Cu and Zn, and low pH (pH25°C=3.25). In-situ pH for Rainbow vent fluid (369°C) was determined to be 5.0±0.03. Trace alkali element concentrations indicate relatively low fluid/rock ratios, while dissolved B concentrations are depleted relative to seawater, but to a lesser degree than measured for Lost City vent fluid. Moderate concentrations of dissolved silica suggest fluid chemistry buffered by chlorite-fluid equilibria. Fluid flow in close proximity to gabbroic intrusions likely drives hydrothermal convection and mass transfer, although it is still unclear whether gabbroic intrusions alone can account for the enormous heat flux and the long duration of continuous hydrothermal activity observed for the Rainbow hydrothermal system.

  1. Efficacy of two acidified chlorite postmilking teat disinfectants with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid on prevention of contagious mastitis using an experimental challenge protocol.

    PubMed

    Oura, L Y; Fox, L K; Warf, C C; Kempt, G K

    2002-01-01

    Two acidified sodium chlorite postmilking teat disinfectants were evaluated for efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae by using National Mastitis Council experimental challenge procedures. The effect of these teat dips on teat skin and teat end condition was also determined. Both dips contained 0.32% sodium chlorite, 1.32% lactic, and 2.5% glycerin. Dips differed in the amount of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (0.53 or 0.27%) added as a surfactant. Both dips significantly reduced new intramammary infection (IMI) rates compared with undipped controls. The dip containing 0.53% dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid reduced new IMI by Staph. aureus by 72% and Strep. agalactiae by 75%. The dip containing 0.27% dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid reduced new IMI by Staph. aureus by 100% and by Strep. agalactiae by 88%. Changes in teat skin and teat end condition for treatment and control groups varied in parallel over time. Teats treated with either teat dip had higher mean teat skin and teat end scores than control teats at some weeks. However, teat skin and teat end condition did not tend to change from the start to the completion of the trial. Application of the two new postmilking teat dips was effective in reducing new IMI from contagious mastitis pathogens. (Key words: teat dip, contagious mastitis, chlorous acid) PMID:11860118

  2. Peroxidase-type reactions suggest a heterolytic/nucleophilic O-O joining mechanism in the heme-dependent chlorite dismutase.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, Jeffrey A; Blanc, Béatrice; Rodgers, Kenton R; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S; DuBois, Jennifer L

    2013-10-01

    Heme-containing chlorite dismutases (Clds) catalyze a highly unusual O-O bond-forming reaction. The O-O cleaving reactions of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid (PAA) with the Cld from Dechloromonas aromatica (DaCld) were studied to better understand the Cl-O cleavage of the natural substrate and subsequent O-O bond formation. While reactions with H2O2 result in slow destruction of the heme, at acidic pH heterolytic cleavage of the O-O bond of PAA cleanly yields the ferryl porphyrin cation radical (compound I). At alkaline pH, the reaction proceeds more rapidly, and the first observed intermediate is a ferryl heme. Freeze-quench EPR confirmed that the latter has an uncoupled protein-based radical, indicating that compound I is the first intermediate formed at all pH values and that radical migration is faster at alkaline pH. These results suggest by analogy that two-electron Cl-O bond cleavage to yield a ferryl-porphyrin cation radical is the most likely initial step in O-O bond formation from chlorite. PMID:24001266

  3. Implications for early hydrothermal environments on Mars through the spectral evidence for carbonation and chloritization reactions in the Nili Fossae region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viviano, Christina E.; Moersch, Jeffrey E.; McSween, Harry Y.

    2013-09-01

    identification of serpentine and magnesium carbonate in the eastern Nili Fossae region of Mars indicates hydrothermal alteration of an olivine-rich protolith. Here we characterize Fe/Mg phyllosilicates associated with these units and present spectral evidence for the presence of a talc component, distinguishable from saponite. Locations with magnesium carbonate are exclusively associated with talc-related phyllosilicates. In the westernmost portions of the Nili Fossae region, where a mafic protolith dominates, Fe/Mg phyllosilicates display spectral evidence for a wide degree of chloritization. We propose that Noachian Fe/Mg smectites were uniformly buried by Hesperian lava flows that initiated hydrothermal alteration in the eastern Nili Fossae region. The chloritization of smectites may have produced silica-rich fluids necessary for the serpentinization of olivine; temperature and depth constraints indicated by their distribution also suggest a hydrothermal system was present. The subsequent carbonation of serpentine and/or olivine in eastern Nili Fossae, while requiring an additional CO2 source, provides an explanation for the limited occurrence of serpentine and the colocation of carbonate and talc-bearing material throughout this area. The consequence of the hypothesized carbonation reaction and the presence of serpentine provides geochemical constraints for the proportion of CO2 present in the fluids that interacted with the protolith. If this carbonation reaction was a widespread phenomenon, it may have been an important process in the ancient Martian carbon cycle and could have provided a sink for CO2 in the past.

  4. Peroxidase-type reactions suggest a heterolytic/nucleophilic O–O joining mechanism in the heme-dependent chlorite dismutase†

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, Jeffrey A.; Blanc, Béatrice; Rodgers, Kenton R.; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S.; DuBois, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Heme-containing chlorite dismutases (Clds) catalyze a highly unusual O–O bond forming reaction. The O–O cleaving reactions of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid (PAA) with the Cld from Dechloromonas aromatica (DaCld) were studied to better understand the Cl–O cleavage of the natural substrate and subsequent O–O bond formation. While reactions with H2O2 resulted in slow destruction of the heme, at acidic pH, heterolytic cleavage of the O–O bond of PAA cleanly yielded the ferryl porphyrin cation radical (Compound I). At alkaline pH, the reaction proceeds more rapidly and the first observed intermediate is a ferryl heme. Freezequench EPR confirmed that the latter has an uncoupled protein-based radical, indicating that Compound I is the first intermediate formed at all pH values and that radical migration is faster at alkaline pH. These results suggest by analogy that two-electron Cl–O bond cleavage to yield a ferryl-porphyrin cation radical is the most likely initial step in O–O bond formation from chlorite. PMID:24001266

  5. Hybrid matrix fiber composites

    DOEpatents

    Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.

    2003-07-15

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites include two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  6. Kinetics and mechanism of formation of chlorate ion from the hypochlorous acid/chlorite ion reaction at pH 6-10

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, G.; Tachiyashiki, Satoshi )

    1991-03-01

    The reaction between free chlorine (HOCl/OCl{sup {minus}}) and chlorite ion (ClO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) has been studied in the pH 6.4-10.0 region. The reaction proceeds through the Cl{sub 2}O{sub 2} intermediate followed by a direct reaction of the intermediate with hypochlorous acid to form chlorate ion. Time-concentration profiles were measured for each chlorine species, resulting in both total chlorine and redox balance. Negligibly small amounts of chlorine dioxide are formed above pH 7. Indirect evidence suggests that, in this pH region, the formation of any chlorine dioxide is primarily due to the presence of concentration gradients or because of the adventitious presence of catalytic metal ion impurities. Details of the overall reaction mechanism for the formation of chlorate ion are presented.

  7. A matrix lower bound

    SciTech Connect

    Grcar, Joseph F.

    2002-02-04

    A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a restricted case. Applications for the matrix lower bound are demonstrated in several areas. In linear algebra, the matrix lower bound of a full rank matrix equals the distance to the set of rank-deficient matrices. In numerical analysis, the ratio of the matrix norm to the matrix lower bound is a condition number for all consistent systems of linear equations. In optimization theory, the matrix lower bound suggests an identity for a class of min-max problems. In real analysis, a recursive construction that depends on the matrix lower bound shows that the level sets of continuously differential functions lie asymptotically near those of their tangents.

  8. Carbonate fuel cell matrix

    DOEpatents

    Farooque, M.; Yuh, C.Y.

    1996-12-03

    A carbonate fuel cell matrix is described comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles. 8 figs.

  9. Carbonate fuel cell matrix

    DOEpatents

    Farooque, Mohammad; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    1996-01-01

    A carbonate fuel cell matrix comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles.

  10. Matrix differentiation formulas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usikov, D. A.; Tkhabisimov, D. K.

    1983-01-01

    A compact differentiation technique (without using indexes) is developed for scalar functions that depend on complex matrix arguments which are combined by operations of complex conjugation, transposition, addition, multiplication, matrix inversion and taking the direct product. The differentiation apparatus is developed in order to simplify the solution of extremum problems of scalar functions of matrix arguments.

  11. Matrix with Prescribed Eigenvectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Faiz

    2011-01-01

    It is a routine matter for undergraduates to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a given matrix. But the converse problem of finding a matrix with prescribed eigenvalues and eigenvectors is rarely discussed in elementary texts on linear algebra. This problem is related to the "spectral" decomposition of a matrix and has important technical…

  12. Synergistic Effect of Sodium Chlorite and Edible Coating on Quality Maintenance of Minimally Processed Citrus grandis under Passive and Active MAP.

    PubMed

    Ban, Zhaojun; Feng, Jianhua; Wei, Wenwen; Yang, Xiangzheng; Li, Jilan; Guan, Junfeng; Li, Jiang

    2015-08-01

    Edible coating has been an innovation within the bioactive packaging concept. The comparative analysis upon the effect of edible coating, sodium chlorite (SC) and their combined application on quality maintenance of minimally processed pomelo (Citrus grandis) fruits during storage at 4 °C was conducted. Results showed that the combination of edible coating and SC dipping delayed the microbial development whereas the sole coating or dipping treatment was less efficient. The synergetic application of edible coating and SC treatment under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 10% O2 , 10% CO2 ) was able to maintain the total soluble solids level and ascorbic acid content, while reduce the weight loss as well as development of mesophiles and psychrotrophs. Nonetheless, the N, O-carboxymethyl chitosan solely coated samples showed significantly higher level of weight loss during storage with comparison to the untreated sample. Furthermore, the combined application of edible coating and SC dipping under active MAP best maintained the sensory quality of minimally processed pomelo fruit during storage. PMID:26147928

  13. Composition, diagenesis, and morphology of chlorite and illite/smectite mixed-layer clays in the Cherry Canyon Formation, Delaware Mountain Group, Screwbean field, Reeves County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Thomerson, M.D.; Henderson, S.K. )

    1993-09-01

    Oil and gas production in the Screwbean field of Reeves County, Texas, is predominantly from the subarkosic Bell Canyon (Ramsey sand member) and upper Cherry Canyon sandstones of the Permian (Guadalupian) Delaware Mountain Group. Authigenic clays compromise up to 10% of the bulk rock and can seriously degrade the production potential and performance of reservoir rock. The chlorite and illite/smectite mixed-layer clays can have several effects on the reservoir: loss of permeability as a result of swelling, formation damage because of acid sensitivity, and high irreducible water saturations (bound water) caused by microporosity. Twenty-five powdered samples from whole core taken in the Cherry Canyon Formation from a well in Reeves County were analyzed by x-ray diffraction. The actual x-ray diffraction patterns from the powdered samples were compared to simulated x-ray diffraction patterns generated by a microcomputer. Once matched, the computer models give the fractional clay composition of that particular sample. The prominent morphology of the authigenic clays is also very important. Photomicrographs taken with a scanning electron microscope were employed to delineate the clay morphologies and illustrate the intergranular habits of these clay minerals. The failure to recognize the aforementioned problems can lead to prematurely abandoning and bypassing possible productive zones. The data generated by this study will allow us to better use these reservoirs and more effectively explore future zones.

  14. Characteristics and alteration origins of matrix minerals in volcaniclastic kimberlite of the Muskox pipe (Nunavut, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayman, P. C.; Cas, R. A. F.; Johnson, M.

    2009-11-01

    The matrix of volcaniclastic kimberlite (VK) from the Muskox pipe (Northern Slave Province, Nunavut, Canada) is interpreted to represent an overprint of an original clastic matrix. Muskox VK is subdivided into three different matrix mineral assemblages that reflect differences in the proportions of original primary matrix constituents, temperature of formation and nature of the altering fluids. Using whole rock X-ray fluorescence (XRF), whole rock X-ray diffraction (XRD), microprobe analyses, back-scatter electron (BSE) imaging, petrography and core logging, we find that most matrix minerals (serpentine, phlogopite, chlorite, saponite, monticellite, Fe-Ti oxides and calcite) lack either primary igneous or primary clastic textures. The mineralogy and textures are most consistent with formation through alteration overprinting of an original clastic matrix that form by retrograde reactions as the deposit cools, or, in the case of calcite, by precipitation from Ca-bearing fluids into a secondary porosity. The first mineral assemblage consists largely of serpentine, phlogopite, calcite, Fe-Ti oxides and monticellite and occurs in VK with relatively fresh framework clasts. Alteration reactions, driven by deuteric fluids derived from the juvenile constituents, promote the crystallisation of minerals that indicate relatively high temperatures of formation (> 400 °C). Lower-temperature minerals are not present because permeability was occluded before the deposit cooled to low temperatures, thus shielding the facies from further interaction with fluids. The other two matrix mineral assemblages consist largely of serpentine, phlogopite, calcite, +/- diopside, and +/- chlorite. They form in VK that contains more country rock, which may have caused the deposit to be cooler upon emplacement. Most framework components are completely altered, suggesting that larger volumes of fluids drove the alteration reactions. These fluids were likely of meteoric provenance and became heated

  15. Nanocrystal doped matrixes

    DOEpatents

    Parce, J. Wallace; Bernatis, Paul; Dubrow, Robert; Freeman, William P.; Gamoras, Joel; Kan, Shihai; Meisel, Andreas; Qian, Baixin; Whiteford, Jeffery A.; Ziebarth, Jonathan

    2010-01-12

    Matrixes doped with semiconductor nanocrystals are provided. In certain embodiments, the semiconductor nanocrystals have a size and composition such that they absorb or emit light at particular wavelengths. The nanocrystals can comprise ligands that allow for mixing with various matrix materials, including polymers, such that a minimal portion of light is scattered by the matrixes. The matrixes of the present invention can also be utilized in refractive index matching applications. In other embodiments, semiconductor nanocrystals are embedded within matrixes to form a nanocrystal density gradient, thereby creating an effective refractive index gradient. The matrixes of the present invention can also be used as filters and antireflective coatings on optical devices and as down-converting layers. Processes for producing matrixes comprising semiconductor nanocrystals are also provided. Nanostructures having high quantum efficiency, small size, and/or a narrow size distribution are also described, as are methods of producing indium phosphide nanostructures and core-shell nanostructures with Group II-VI shells.

  16. Biofilm Matrix Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Jiunn N. C.; Yildiz, Fitnat H.

    2015-01-01

    Proteinaceous components of the biofilm matrix include secreted extracellular proteins, cell surface adhesins and protein subunits of cell appendages such as flagella and pili. Biofilm matrix proteins play diverse roles in biofilm formation and dissolution. They are involved in attaching cells to surfaces, stabilizing the biofilm matrix via interactions with exopolysaccharide and nucleic acid components, developing three-dimensional biofilm architectures, and dissolving biofilm matrix via enzymatic degradation of polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids. In this chapter, we will review functions of matrix proteins in a selected set of microorganisms, studies of the matrix proteomes of Vibrio cholerae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and roles of outer membrane vesicles and of nucleoid-binding proteins in biofilm formation. PMID:26104709

  17. The efficacy and safety of add-on 0.1% brimonidine tartrate preserved with sodium chlorite in on-treatment Japanese normal-tension glaucoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Tsumura, Toyoaki; Yoshikawa, Keiji; Kimura, Tairo; Suzumura, Hirotaka; Kawashima, Miwako; Nanno, Mami; Ishijima, Kiyotaka; Takeda, Ryuji

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the efficacy and safety of newly formulated brimonidine (0.1% brimonidine tartrate preserved with sodium chlorite: brimonidine) as add-on therapy in on-treatment Japanese normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients. Methods Brimonidine was added to on-treatment NTG patients with intraocular pressures (IOP) of between 13 mmHg and 16 mmHg after three consecutive IOP measurements. The time courses of IOP, conjunctival hyperemia, superficial punctate keratitis, and adverse events were examined at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after brimonidine instillation. Results Though 75 of 83 patients (31 males and 52 females; mean age: 63.4±11.6 years) completed the study, six patients discontinued because of side effects and two patients withdrew. The mean IOP after brimonidine addition at week 4 (12.6±1.8 mmHg, P<0.001), week 8 (12.4±1.7 mmHg, P<0.001), and week 12 (12.6±1.8 mmHg, P<0.001) was significantly decreased compared with that before the addition of brimonidine (13.9±1.2 mmHg). No significant changes in superficial punctate keratitis or conjunctival hyperemia scores were observed throughout the study. Dizziness, sleepiness, eye pain, and itching (mild to moderate) were noted in five, four, three, and three patients, respectively. Conclusions The addition of newly formulated brimonidine to on-treatment Japanese NTG patients with IOP of 13–16 mmHg further reduced the levels of IOP with minimal side effects and adverse events. PMID:25214761

  18. Automatic switching matrix

    DOEpatents

    Schlecht, Martin F.; Kassakian, John G.; Caloggero, Anthony J.; Rhodes, Bruce; Otten, David; Rasmussen, Neil

    1982-01-01

    An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.

  19. Matrix cracking in ceramic-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Danchaivijit, S.; Shetty, D.K. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    Matrix cracking in ceramic-matrix composites with unbonded frictional interface has been studied using fracture mechanics theory. The critical stress for extension of a fiber-bridged crack has been analyzed using the stress-intensity approach. The analysis uses a new shear-lag formulation of the crack-closure traction applied by the bridging fibers based on the assumption of a constant sliding friction stress over the sliding length of the fiber-matrix interface. The new formulation satisfies two required limiting conditions: (a) when the stress in the bridging fiber approaches the far-field applied stress, the crack-opening displacement approaches a steady-state upper limit that is in agreement with the previous formulations; and (b) in the limit of zero crack opening, the stress in the bridging fiber approaches the far-field fiber stress. This lower limit of the bridging stress is distinctly different from the previous formulations. For all other conditions, the closure traction is a function of the far-field applied stress in addition to the local crack-opening displacement, the interfacial sliding friction stress, and the material properties. Numerical calculations using the stress-intensity approach indicate that the critical stress for crack extension decreases with increasing crack length and approaches a constant steady-state value for large cracks. The steady-state matrix-cracking stress agrees with a steady-state energy balance analysis applied to the continuum model, but it is slightly less than the matrix-cracking stress predicted by such theories of steady-state cracking as that of Aveston, Cooper, and Kelly. The origin of this difference and a method for reconciliation of the two theoretical approaches are discussed.

  20. MATRIX AND VECTOR SERVICES

    2001-10-18

    PETRA V2 provides matrix and vector services and the ability construct, query, and use matrix and vector objects that are used and computed by TRILINOS solvers. It provides all basic matr5ix and vector operations for solvers in TRILINOS.

  1. Matrix metalloproteinases and epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy

    2014-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases are vital drivers of synaptic remodeling in health and disease. It is suggested that at early stages of epileptogenesis, inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases may help ameliorate cell death, aberrant network rewiring, and neuroinflammation and prevent development of epilepsy. PMID:26567100

  2. Transfer function matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    Given a multivariable system, it is proved that the numerator matrix N(s) of the transfer function evaluated at any system pole either has unity rank or is a null matrix. It is also shown that N(s) evaluated at any transmission zero of the system has rank deficiency. Examples are given for illustration.

  3. Time rate collision matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Stoenescu, M.L.; Smith, T.M.

    1980-02-01

    The collision integral terms in Boltzmann equation are reformulated numerically leading to the substitution of the multiple integrals with a multiplicative matrix of the two colliding species velocity distribution functions which varies with the differential collision cross section. A matrix of lower rank may be constructed when one of the distribution functions is specified, in which case the matrix elements represent kinetic transition probabilities in the velocity space and the multiplication of the time rate collision matrix with the unknown velocity distribution function expresses the time rate of change of the distribution. The collision matrix may be used to describe the time evolution of systems in nonequilibrium conditions, to evaluate the rate of momentum and energy transfer between given species, or to generate validity criteria for linearized kinetic equations.

  4. Grassmann matrix quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Denef, Frederik; Monten, Ruben

    2016-04-01

    We explore quantum mechanical theories whose fundamental degrees of freedom are rectangular matrices with Grassmann valued matrix elements. We study particular models where the low energy sector can be described in terms of a bosonic Hermitian matrix quantum mechanics. We describe the classical curved phase space that emerges in the low energy sector. The phase space lives on a compact Kähler manifold parameterized by a complex matrix, of the type discovered some time ago by Berezin. The emergence of a semiclassical bosonic matrix quantum mechanics at low energies requires that the original Grassmann matrices be in the long rectangular limit. We discuss possible holographic interpretations of such matrix models which, by construction, are endowed with a finite dimensional Hilbert space.

  5. Hybrid matrix amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Plut, T.A.

    1995-01-03

    The present invention comprises a novel matrix amplifier. The matrix amplifier includes an active superconducting power divider (ASPD) having N output ports; N distributed amplifiers each operatively connected to one of the N output ports of the ASPD; and a power combiner having N input ports each operatively connected to one of the N distributed amplifiers. The distributed amplifier can included M stages of amplification by cascading superconducting active devices. The power combiner can include N active elements. The resulting (N[times]M) matrix amplifier can produce signals of high output power, large bandwidth, and low noise. 6 figures.

  6. Hybrid matrix amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Plut, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention comprises a novel matrix amplifier. The matrix amplifier includes an active superconducting power divider (ASPD) having N output ports; N distributed amplifiers each operatively connected to one of the N output ports of the ASPD; and a power combiner having N input ports each operatively connected to one of the N distributed amplifiers. The distributed amplifier can included M stages of amplification by cascading superconducting active devices. The power combiner can include N active elements. The resulting (N.times.M) matrix amplifier can produce signals of high output power, large bandwidth, and low noise.

  7. Measurement matrix optimization method based on matrix orthogonal similarity transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jinfeng

    2016-05-01

    Optimization of the measurement matrix is one of the important research aspects of compressive sensing theory. A measurement matrix optimization method is presented based on the orthogonal similarity transformation of the information operator's Gram matrix. In terms of the fact that the information operator's Gram matrix is a singular symmetric matrix, a simplified orthogonal similarity transformation is deduced, and thus the simplified diagonal matrix that is orthogonally similar to it is obtained. Then an approximation of the Gram matrix is obtained by letting all the nonzero diagonal entries of the simplified diagonal matrix equal their average value. Thus an optimized measurement matrix can be acquired according to its relationship with the information operator. Results of experiments show that the optimized measurement matrix compared to the random measurement matrix is less coherent with dictionaries. The relative signal recovery error also declines when the proposed measurement matrix is utilized.

  8. Metal Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Warren; Herling, Darrell R.

    2004-02-01

    Metal matrix composites have found selected application in areas that can cost-effectively capitalize on improvements in specific stiffness, specific strength, fatigue resistance, wear resistance, and coefficient of thermal expansion. Metal matrix composites comprise a relatively wide range of materials defined by the metal matrix, reinforcement type, and reinforcement geometry. In the area of the matrix, most metallic systems have been explored, including aluminum, beryllium, magnesium, titanium, iron, nickel, cobalt, and silver. However, aluminum is by far the most preferred. For reinforcements, the materials are typically ceramics, which provide a very beneficial combination of stiffness, strength, and relatively low density. Candidate reinforcement materials include SiC, Al2O3, B4C, TiC, TiB2, graphite, and a number of other ceramics. In addition, metallic materials such as tungsten and steel fibers have been considered.

  9. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Cancer.gov

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  10. The Hill Interaction Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, William Fawcett

    1971-01-01

    Leadership style, group composition, and group development are simultaneously quantified through the use of the matrix. It represents an attempt to objectify the art of group therapy. Comment by Richard C. Rank follows. (Author)

  11. Matrix computations in MACSYMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. S.

    1977-01-01

    Facilities built into MACSYMA for manipulating matrices with numeric or symbolic entries are described. Computations will be done exactly, keeping symbols as symbols. Topics discussed include how to form a matrix and create other matrices by transforming existing matrices within MACSYMA; arithmetic and other computation with matrices; and user control of computational processes through the use of optional variables. Two algorithms designed for sparse matrices are given. The computing times of several different ways to compute the determinant of a matrix are compared.

  12. Optical coherency matrix tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kagalwala, Kumel H.; Kondakci, H. Esat; Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.

    2015-01-01

    The coherence of an optical beam having multiple degrees of freedom (DoFs) is described by a coherency matrix G spanning these DoFs. This optical coherency matrix has not been measured in its entirety to date—even in the simplest case of two binary DoFs where G is a 4 × 4 matrix. We establish a methodical yet versatile approach—optical coherency matrix tomography—for reconstructing G that exploits the analogy between this problem in classical optics and that of tomographically reconstructing the density matrix associated with multipartite quantum states in quantum information science. Here G is reconstructed from a minimal set of linearly independent measurements, each a cascade of projective measurements for each DoF. We report the first experimental measurements of the 4 × 4 coherency matrix G associated with an electromagnetic beam in which polarization and a spatial DoF are relevant, ranging from the traditional two-point Young’s double slit to spatial parity and orbital angular momentum modes. PMID:26478452

  13. Garnet peridotites and chlorite harzburgites from Cima di Gagnone (Central Alps, Switzerland): remnants of dehydrated serpentinites from the slab-mantle interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scambelluri, M.; Rampone, E.; Pettke, T.; Reusser, E.

    2012-04-01

    Serpentinites are key lithologies for subduction dynamics. Much debate concerns their role in volatile and fluid-mobile elements transfer to depth, the formation environments (slab vs mantle wedge) and influence on subduction tectonics. Still uncertain is their fate after antigorite breakdown because this reaction causes large density increase that hampers exhumation of rocks enabling direct investigation of de-serpentinization processes. We present a study of eclogite-facies garnet (grt) peridotite and chlorite (chl) harzburgite bodies from Cima di Gagnone (Adula Nappe), attributed to serpentinite protoliths and now teconically coupled with pelitic schists. This mix of crust and mantle is similar to what is envisaged for tectonic mèlanges at the plate interface (1-2). Using trace element data we test an origin of the Gagnone peridotites from serpentinites, to discuss the formation environment and characterize the dehydration fluids released. The Grt peridotites contain foliated olivine (ol), ortho and clinopyroxene (opx, cpx) and Ca-amphibole (amph) equilibated with poikiloblastic grt; olivine + ilmenite derive from Ti-clinohumite (Ticl). Grt hosts many solid monophase inclusions (prograde amph, chl, opx) aside of fluid-derived polyphase inclusions. Chl harzburgites display foliated and massive textures, showing coexistence of ol, opx, chl, minor F-bearing Ticl- and carbonate. Clinohumite preserves relict antigorite inclusions. Grt peridotites have flat HREE to MREE patterns (absolute concentrations = 0.31-1.39 x PM for MREE and HREE) and moderate LREE depletion (CeN/YbN 0.36-0.75). Chl peridotites have much lower absolute REE abundances (<1 x PM) and patterns showing depletion from HREE to MREE and LREE enrichment. Both peridotite varieties have positive spikes in As, Li, Cs, Pb and U. The REE compositions of cpx are heterogenous and record variable degrees of equilibration with garnet. Amphibole has variable HREE contents > 1 chondrite, pointing to

  14. Influence of Biogenic Fe(II) on the Extent of Microbial Reduction of Fe(III) in Clay Minerals Nontronite, Illite, and Chlorite

    SciTech Connect

    Jaisi, Deb P.; Dong, Hailiang; Liu, Chongxuan

    2007-03-01

    (II) was also observed in AH2DS reduction of clay Fe(III). The reduction extent consistently decreased with an increasing concentration of presorbed Fe(II) (onto clay surfaces) at the start of reduction experiments. The relative reduction extent (i.e., reduction extent after normalization to the reduction extent when spiked Fe(II) was zero) was similar for all clay minerals studied and showed a systematic decrease with increasing clay-sorbed Fe(II) concentration. These results suggest a similar inhibitory effect of clay-sorbed Fe(II) on the reduction extent for different clay minerals. An equilibrium thermodynamic model was established with independently estimated parameters to evaluate whether the cessation of Fe(III) reduction by AH2DS was due to the exhaustion of reaction free energy. Model-calculated reduction extents were, however, over 50% higher than experimentally measured, indicating that other factors, such as blockage of the electron transfer chain and mineralogy, restricted the reduction extent. This study also revealed that the relative reducibility of Fe(III) in different clay was as follows: nontronite > chlorite > illite. This order is qualitatively consistent with the differences in crystal chemistry of these minerals.

  15. Tendon Functional Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Screen, H.R.C.; Birk, D.E.; Kadler, K.E.; Ramirez, F; Young, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    This article is one of a series, summarising views expressed at the Orthopaedic Research Society New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference. This particular article reviews the three workshops held under the “Functional Extracellular Matrix” stream. The workshops focused on the roles of the tendon extracellular matrix, such as performing the mechanical functions of tendon, creating the local cell environment and providing cellular cues. Tendon is a complex network of matrix and cells, and its biological functions are influenced by widely-varying extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as age, nutrition, exercise levels and biomechanics. Consequently, tendon adapts dynamically during development, ageing and injury. The workshop discussions identified research directions associated with understanding cell-matrix interactions to be of prime importance for developing novel strategies to target tendon healing or repair. PMID:25640030

  16. Matrix interdiction problem

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Feng; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.

  17. Complex matrix model duality

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T. W.

    2011-04-15

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 noncritical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of operators which preserve half the supersymmetry in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich-Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces.

  18. Matrixed business support comparison study.

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, Josh D.

    2004-11-01

    The Matrixed Business Support Comparison Study reviewed the current matrixed Chief Financial Officer (CFO) division staff models at Sandia National Laboratories. There were two primary drivers of this analysis: (1) the increasing number of financial staff matrixed to mission customers and (2) the desire to further understand the matrix process and the opportunities and challenges it creates.

  19. Matrix Synthesis and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The role of NASA in the area of composite material synthesis; evaluation techniques; prediction analysis techniques; solvent-resistant tough composite matrix; resistance to paint strippers; acceptable processing temperature and pressure for thermoplastics; and the role of computer modeling and fiber interface improvement were discussed.

  20. The Acrosomal Matrix.

    PubMed

    Foster, James A; Gerton, George L

    2016-01-01

    The acrosome, a single exocytotic vesicle on the head of sperm, has an essential role in fertilization, but the exact mechanisms by which it facilitates sperm-egg interactions remain unresolved. The acrosome contains dozens of secretory proteins that are packaged into the forming structure during spermatogenesis; many of these proteins are localized into specific topographical areas of the acrosome, while others are more diffusely distributed. Acrosomal proteins can also be biochemically classified as components of the acrosomal matrix, a large, relatively insoluble complex, or as soluble proteins. This review focuses on recent findings using genetically modified mice (gene knockouts and transgenic "green acrosome" mice) to study the effects of eliminating acrosomal matrix-associated proteins on sperm structure and function. Some gene knockouts produce infertile phenotypes with obviously missing, specific activities that affect acrosome biogenesis during spermatogenesis or interfere with acrosome function in mature sperm. Mutations that delete some components produce fertile phenotypes with subtler effects that provide useful insights into acrosomal matrix function in fertilization. In general, these studies enable the reassessment of paradigms to explain acrosome formation and function and provide novel, objective insights into the roles of acrosomal matrix proteins in fertilization. The use of genetically engineered mouse models has yielded new mechanistic information that complements recent, important in vivo imaging studies. PMID:27194348

  1. Matrix Embedded Organic Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamakolanu, U. G.; Freund, F. T.

    2016-05-01

    In the matrix of minerals such as olivine, a redox reaction of the low-z elements occurs. Oxygen is oxidized to the peroxy state while the low-Z-elements become chemically reduced. We assign them a formula [CxHyOzNiSj]n– and call them proto-organics.

  2. Constructing the matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, John

    2012-09-01

    As part of our 'toolkit' for analysing an extraterrestrial signal, the facility for calculating structural affinity to known phenomena must be part of our core capabilities. Without such a resource, we risk compromising our potential for detection and decipherment or at least causing significant delay in the process. To create such a repository for assessing structural affinity, all known systems (language parameters) need to be structurally analysed to 'place' their 'system' within a relational communication matrix. This will need to include all known variants of language structure, whether 'living' (in current use) or ancient; this must also include endeavours to incorporate yet undeciphered scripts and non-human communication, to provide as complete a picture as possible. In creating such a relational matrix, post-detection decipherment will be assisted by a structural 'map' that will have the potential for 'placing' an alien communication with its nearest known 'neighbour', to assist subsequent categorisation of basic parameters as a precursor to decipherment. 'Universal' attributes and behavioural characteristics of known communication structure will form a range of templates (Elliott, 2001 [1] and Elliott et al., 2002 [2]), to support and optimise our attempt at categorising and deciphering the content of an extraterrestrial signal. Detection of the hierarchical layers, which comprise intelligent, complex communication, will then form a matrix of calculations that will ultimately score affinity through a relational matrix of structural comparison. In this paper we develop the rationales and demonstrate functionality with initial test results.

  3. Paths correlation matrix.

    PubMed

    Qian, Weixian; Zhou, Xiaojun; Lu, Yingcheng; Xu, Jiang

    2015-09-15

    Both the Jones and Mueller matrices encounter difficulties when physically modeling mixed materials or rough surfaces due to the complexity of light-matter interactions. To address these issues, we derived a matrix called the paths correlation matrix (PCM), which is a probabilistic mixture of Jones matrices of every light propagation path. Because PCM is related to actual light propagation paths, it is well suited for physical modeling. Experiments were performed, and the reflection PCM of a mixture of polypropylene and graphite was measured. The PCM of the mixed sample was accurately decomposed into pure polypropylene's single reflection, pure graphite's single reflection, and depolarization caused by multiple reflections, which is consistent with the theoretical derivation. Reflection parameters of rough surface can be calculated from PCM decomposition, and the results fit well with the theoretical calculations provided by the Fresnel equations. These theoretical and experimental analyses verify that PCM is an efficient way to physically model light-matter interactions. PMID:26371930

  4. Hypercube matrix computation task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calalo, Ruel H.; Imbriale, William A.; Jacobi, Nathan; Liewer, Paulett C.; Lockhart, Thomas G.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Lyons, James R.; Manshadi, Farzin; Patterson, Jean E.

    1988-01-01

    A major objective of the Hypercube Matrix Computation effort at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is to investigate the applicability of a parallel computing architecture to the solution of large-scale electromagnetic scattering problems. Three scattering analysis codes are being implemented and assessed on a JPL/California Institute of Technology (Caltech) Mark 3 Hypercube. The codes, which utilize different underlying algorithms, give a means of evaluating the general applicability of this parallel architecture. The three analysis codes being implemented are a frequency domain method of moments code, a time domain finite difference code, and a frequency domain finite elements code. These analysis capabilities are being integrated into an electromagnetics interactive analysis workstation which can serve as a design tool for the construction of antennas and other radiating or scattering structures. The first two years of work on the Hypercube Matrix Computation effort is summarized. It includes both new developments and results as well as work previously reported in the Hypercube Matrix Computation Task: Final Report for 1986 to 1987 (JPL Publication 87-18).

  5. Standard Errors for Matrix Correlations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogasawara, Haruhiko

    1999-01-01

    Derives the asymptotic standard errors and intercorrelations for several matrix correlations assuming multivariate normality for manifest variables and derives the asymptotic standard errors of the matrix correlations for two factor-loading matrices. (SLD)

  6. On the Matrix Exponential Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Shui-Hung; Hou, Edwin; Pang, Wan-Kai

    2006-01-01

    A novel and simple formula for computing the matrix exponential function is presented. Specifically, it can be used to derive explicit formulas for the matrix exponential of a general matrix A satisfying p(A) = 0 for a polynomial p(s). It is ready for use in a classroom and suitable for both hand as well as symbolic computation.

  7. The cellulose resource matrix.

    PubMed

    Keijsers, Edwin R P; Yılmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G

    2013-03-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the

  8. Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites: A comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1987-01-01

    The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.

  9. Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites - A comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1987-01-01

    The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.

  10. Light cone matrix product

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, Matthew B

    2009-01-01

    We show how to combine the light-cone and matrix product algorithms to simulate quantum systems far from equilibrium for long times. For the case of the XXZ spin chain at {Delta} = 0.5, we simulate to a time of {approx} 22.5. While part of the long simulation time is due to the use of the light-cone method, we also describe a modification of the infinite time-evolving bond decimation algorithm with improved numerical stability, and we describe how to incorporate symmetry into this algorithm. While statistical sampling error means that we are not yet able to make a definite statement, the behavior of the simulation at long times indicates the appearance of either 'revivals' in the order parameter as predicted by Hastings and Levitov (e-print arXiv:0806.4283) or of a distinct shoulder in the decay of the order parameter.

  11. Google matrix of Twitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frahm, K. M.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2012-10-01

    We construct the Google matrix of the entire Twitter network, dated by July 2009, and analyze its spectrum and eigenstate properties including the PageRank and CheiRank vectors and 2DRanking of all nodes. Our studies show much stronger inter-connectivity between top PageRank nodes for the Twitter network compared to the networks of Wikipedia and British Universities studied previously. Our analysis allows to locate the top Twitter users which control the information flow on the network. We argue that this small fraction of the whole number of users, which can be viewed as the social network elite, plays the dominant role in the process of opinion formation on the network.

  12. Hyaluronan: A Matrix Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rügheimer, Louise

    2008-09-01

    The glucosaminoglycan hyaluronan is a key component of the extracellular matrix. It is a large, negatively charged molecule that can act as an ion exchange reservoir for positive ions. Hyaluronan is involved in renomedullary water handling through its water-binding capacity. In the renal medulla, the main source for hyaluronan production is the renomedullary interstitial cells. Hyaluronan synthases are found in the inner part of the plasma membrane and polymerize hyaluronan chains which are extruded into the extracellular space. Hyaluronidases are a family of enzymes involved in the degradation of hyaluronan. They have a wide range of properties, including differences in size, inhibitor sensitivities, catalytic mechanisms, substrate specificities and pH optima.

  13. Mixed Mode Matrix Multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    Meng-Shiou Wu; Srinivas Aluru; Ricky A. Kendall

    2004-09-30

    In modern clustering environments where the memory hierarchy has many layers (distributed memory, shared memory layer, cache,...), an important question is how to fully utilize all available resources and identify the most dominant layer in certain computations. When combining algorithms on all layers together, what would be the best method to get the best performance out of all the resources we have? Mixed mode programming model that uses thread programming on the shared memory layer and message passing programming on the distributed memory layer is a method that many researchers are using to utilize the memory resources. In this paper, they take an algorithmic approach that uses matrix multiplication as a tool to show how cache algorithms affect the performance of both shared memory and distributed memory algorithms. They show that with good underlying cache algorithm, overall performance is stable. When underlying cache algorithm is bad, superlinear speedup may occur, and an increasing number of threads may also improve performance.

  14. Matrix membranes and integrability

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C.; Fairlie, D.; Curtright, T.

    1997-06-01

    This is a pedagogical digest of results reported in Curtright, Fairlie, {ampersand} Zachos 1997, and an explicit implementation of Euler`s construction for the solution of the Poisson Bracket dual Nahm equation. But it does not cover 9 and 10-dimensional systems, and subsequent progress on them Fairlie 1997. Cubic interactions are considered in 3 and 7 space dimensions, respectively, for bosonic membranes in Poisson Bracket form. Their symmetries and vacuum configurations are explored. Their associated first order equations are transformed to Nahm`s equations, and are hence seen to be integrable, for the 3-dimensional case, by virtue of the explicit Lax pair provided. Most constructions introduced also apply to matrix commutator or Moyal Bracket analogs.

  15. A matrix model for WZW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorey, Nick; Tong, David; Turner, Carl

    2016-08-01

    We study a U( N) gauged matrix quantum mechanics which, in the large N limit, is closely related to the chiral WZW conformal field theory. This manifests itself in two ways. First, we construct the left-moving Kac-Moody algebra from matrix degrees of freedom. Secondly, we compute the partition function of the matrix model in terms of Schur and Kostka polynomials and show that, in the large N limit, it coincides with the partition function of the WZW model. This same matrix model was recently shown to describe non-Abelian quantum Hall states and the relationship to the WZW model can be understood in this framework.

  16. Clinical analysis of vitamin B(6): determination of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and 4-pyridoxic acid in human serum by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with chlorite postcolumn derivatization.

    PubMed

    Rybak, Michael E; Pfeiffer, Christine M

    2004-10-15

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with fluorometric detection was developed for the routine determination of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA) in serum. Chlorite postcolumn derivatization was used to oxidize PLP to a more fluorescent carboxylic acid form. Sensitivity improved fourfold for PLP using chlorite postcolumn derivatization over traditional bisulfite postcolumn derivatization. The HPLC injection cycle was 15 min, facilitating a throughput of 60 patient samples (72 injections that included standards and quality control (QC) samples) in 18.5h. Method precision was evaluated using three serum QC pools with PLP and 4-PA concentrations of 11.5-34.8 nmol/L and 10.4-21.0 nmol/L, respectively. Within-run (n=7) repeatabilities were 0.6-1.2% for PLP and 0.9-1.8% for 4-PA. Run-to-run (n=23) reproducibilities were 3.6-6.7% for PLP and 3.7-5.6% for 4-PA. Relative detection (3sigma(0)) and quantitation (10sigma(0)) limits were 0.3 and 0.9 nmol/L, respectively, for both PLP and 4-PA using a 10-microl sample injection volume. Analytical recoveries ranged from 97 to 102%. Patient-matched serum and plasma specimens (n=25) were analyzed to evaluate specimen-type bias. Of the plasma types evaluated, heparinized plasma introduced the lowest relative bias for PLP (-5.3%) and minimal bias for 4-PA (-2.3%) compared with serum. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plasma showed the lowest bias for 4-PA (0.7%) but a relatively high bias for PLP (13.0%) due to a chromatographic interference. Human serum samples from a non-representative population subset (n=303) were commensurate with values published for other vitamin B(6) HPLC methods. These values gave geometric means of 42.4 nmol/L for PLP and 27.3 nmol/L for 4-PA. Medians for PLP and 4-PA were 40.1 and 21.8 nmol/L, respectively. The high sensitivity, precision, and throughput of this method, combined with its minimal serum specimen (150 microl) and sample injection

  17. Matrix market: a web resource for test matrix collection

    SciTech Connect

    Boisvert, R.F.; Pozo, R.; Remington, K.; Barrett, R.F.; Dongarra, J.J. /

    1996-05-30

    We describe a repository of data for the testing of numerical algorithms and mathematical software for matrix computations. The repository is designed to accommodate both dense and sparse matrices, as well as software to generate matrices. It has been seeded with the well known Harwell-Boeing sparse matrix collection. The raw data files have been augmented with an integrated World Wide Web interface which describes the matrices in the collection quantitatively and visually, For example, each matrix has a Web page which details its attributes, graphically depicts its sparsity pattern, and provides access to the matrix itself in several formats. In addition, a search mechanism is included which allows retrieval of matrices based on a variety of attributes, such as type and size, as well as through free-text search in abstracts. The URL is http://math.nist.gov/MatrixMarket.

  18. Glass matrix armor

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, Noel C.

    1991-01-01

    An armor system which utilizes glass. A plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material consisting of glass and a ceramic material and, in certain embodiments, a polymeric material. The glass may be in monolithic form or particles of ceramic may be dispersed in a glass matrix. The ceramic material may be in monolithic form or may be in the form of particles dispersed in glass or dispersed in said polymer.

  19. Hypercube matrix computation task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calalo, R.; Imbriale, W.; Liewer, P.; Lyons, J.; Manshadi, F.; Patterson, J.

    1987-01-01

    The Hypercube Matrix Computation (Year 1986-1987) task investigated the applicability of a parallel computing architecture to the solution of large scale electromagnetic scattering problems. Two existing electromagnetic scattering codes were selected for conversion to the Mark III Hypercube concurrent computing environment. They were selected so that the underlying numerical algorithms utilized would be different thereby providing a more thorough evaluation of the appropriateness of the parallel environment for these types of problems. The first code was a frequency domain method of moments solution, NEC-2, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The second code was a time domain finite difference solution of Maxwell's equations to solve for the scattered fields. Once the codes were implemented on the hypercube and verified to obtain correct solutions by comparing the results with those from sequential runs, several measures were used to evaluate the performance of the two codes. First, a comparison was provided of the problem size possible on the hypercube with 128 megabytes of memory for a 32-node configuration with that available in a typical sequential user environment of 4 to 8 megabytes. Then, the performance of the codes was anlyzed for the computational speedup attained by the parallel architecture.

  20. Hybridized polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, E. E.; Hoggatt, J. T.; Symonds, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    The extent to which graphite fibers are released from resin matrix composites that are exposed to fire and impact conditions was determined. Laboratory simulations of those conditions that could exist in the event of an aircraft crash and burn situation were evaluated. The effectiveness of various hybridizing concepts in preventing this release of graphite fibers were also evaluated. The baseline (i.e., unhybridized) laminates examined were prepared from commercially available graphite/epoxy, graphite/polyimide, and graphite/phenolic materials. Hybridizing concepts investigated included resin fillers, laminate coatings, resin blending, and mechanical interlocking of the graphite reinforcement. The baseline and hybridized laminates' mechanical properties, before and after isothermal and humidity aging, were also compared. It was found that a small amount of graphite fiber was released from the graphite/epoxy laminates during the burn and impact conditions used in this program. However, the extent to which the fibers were released is not considered a severe enough problem to preclude the use of graphite reinforced composites in civil aircraft structure. It also was found that several hybrid concepts eliminated this fiber release. Isothermal and humidity aging did not appear to alter the fiber release tendencies.

  1. Emergency Response Synchronization Matrix

    1999-06-01

    An emergency response to a disaster is complex, requiring the rapid integration, coordination, and synchronization of multiple levels of governmental and non-governmental organizations from numerous jurisdictions into a unified community response. For example, a community’s response actions to a fixed site hazardous materials incident could occur in an area extending from an on-site storage location to points 25 or more miles away. Response actions are directed and controlled by local governments and agencies situated withinmore » the response area, as well as by state and federal operaticns centers quite removed from the area of impact. Time is critical and the protective action decision-making process is greatly compressed. The response community must carefully plan and coordinate response operations in order to have confidence that they will be effectively implemented when faced with the potentially catastrophic nature of such releases. A graphical depiction of the entire response process via an emergency response synchronization matrix is an effective tool in optimizing the planning, exercising, and implementation of emergency plans. This system—based approach to emergency planning depicts how a community organizes its response tasks across space and time in relation to hazard actions. It provides the opportunity to make real—time adjustments as necessary for maximizing the often limited resources in protecting area residents. A response must involve the entire community and must not be limited by individual jurisdictions and organizations acting on their own without coordination, integration, and synchronization.« less

  2. Ceramic matrix composite article and process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite article

    DOEpatents

    Cairo, Ronald Robert; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Parolini, Jason Robert

    2016-01-12

    A ceramic matrix composite article and a process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite are disclosed. The ceramic matrix composite article includes a matrix distribution pattern formed by a manifold and ceramic matrix composite plies laid up on the matrix distribution pattern, includes the manifold, or a combination thereof. The manifold includes one or more matrix distribution channels operably connected to a delivery interface, the delivery interface configured for providing matrix material to one or more of the ceramic matrix composite plies. The process includes providing the manifold, forming the matrix distribution pattern by transporting the matrix material through the manifold, and contacting the ceramic matrix composite plies with the matrix material.

  3. Synthetic Division and Matrix Factorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabe, Samuel; Dubeau, Franc

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic division is viewed as a change of basis for polynomials written under the Newton form. Then, the transition matrices obtained from a sequence of changes of basis are used to factorize the inverse of a bidiagonal matrix or a block bidiagonal matrix.

  4. How to Study a Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jairam, Dharmananda; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Kauffman, Douglas F.; Zhao, Ruomeng

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how best to study a matrix. Fifty-three participants studied a matrix topically (1 column at a time), categorically (1 row at a time), or in a unified way (all at once). Results revealed that categorical and unified study produced higher: (a) performance on relationship and fact tests, (b) study material satisfaction, and…

  5. Direct injection ion chromatography for the control of chlorinated drinking water: simultaneous estimation of nine haloacetic acids and quantitation of bromate, chlorite and chlorate along with the major inorganic anions.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Villanova, Rafael J; Raposo Funcia, César; Oliveira Dantas Leite, M Vilani; Toruño Fonseca, Ivania M; Espinosa Nieto, Miguel; Espuelas India, Javier

    2014-09-01

    Most methods for the analysis of haloacetic acids published in recent years are based on ion chromatography with direct injection, employing a gradient elution with potassium hydroxide (KOH). This work reports the exploration of an alternative eluent, a buffer of sodium carbonate/sodium hydrogen carbonate, aimed at the simultaneous analysis of nine haloacetic acids along with bromate, chlorite and chlorate. The alternative of both a less alkaline eluent and a lower temperature of operation may prevent the partial decomposition of some of the haloacetic acids during the analytical process, especially the more vulnerable brominated ones. Gradient elution at temperature of 7 °C yielded the best results, with an acceptable separation of 17 analytes (which includes the major natural inorganic anions) and a good linearity. Precision ranges from 0.3 to 23.4 (% V.C.), and detection limits are within units of μg L⁻¹, except for tribromoacetic acid - somewhat high in comparison with those of the official methods. Nonetheless, with the basic instrumentation setup herein described, this method may be suitable for monitoring when the drinking water treatments are to be optimized. This is especially interesting for small communities or for developing/developed countries in which regulations on disinfection by-products others than trihalomethanes are being addressed. PMID:25252348

  6. The matrix of inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehlmann, Dietmar; Ohlmann, Odile M.; Danzebrink, Hans U.

    2005-04-01

    perform this exchange, as a matrix, understood as source, of new ideas.

  7. Matrix cracking in brittle-matrix composites with tailored interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Danchaivijit, S.; Chao, L.Y.; Shetty, D.K.

    1995-10-01

    Matrix cracking from controlled through cracks with bridging filaments was studied in a model unidirectional composite of SiC filaments in an epoxy-bonded alumina matrix. An unbonded, frictional interface was produced by moderating the curing shrinkage of the epoxy with the alumina filler and coating the filaments with a releasing agent. Uniaxial tension test specimens (2.5 x 25 x 125 mm) with filament-bridged through cracks were fabricated by a novel two-step casting technique involving casting, precracking and joining of cracked and uncracked sections. Distinct matrix-cracking stresses, corresponding to the extension of the filament-bridged cracks, were measured in uniaxial tension tests using a high-sensitivity extensometer. The crack-length dependence of the matrix-cracking stress was found to be in good agreement with the prediction of a fracture-mechanics analysis that employed a new crack-closure force-crack-opening displacement relation in the calculation of the stress intensity for fiber-bridged cracks. The prediction was based on independent experimental measurements of the matrix fracture toughness (K{sub cm}), the interfacial sliding friction stress ({tau}) and the residual stress in the matrix ({sigma}{sub m}{sup I}). The matrix-cracking stress for crack lengths (2a) greater than 3 mm was independent of the crack length and agreed with the prediction of the steady-state theory of Budiansky, Hutchinson and Evans. Tests on specimens without the deliberately introduced cracks indicated a matrix-cracking stress significantly higher than the steady-state stress.

  8. Genotype imputation via matrix completion.

    PubMed

    Chi, Eric C; Zhou, Hua; Chen, Gary K; Del Vecchyo, Diego Ortega; Lange, Kenneth

    2013-03-01

    Most current genotype imputation methods are model-based and computationally intensive, taking days to impute one chromosome pair on 1000 people. We describe an efficient genotype imputation method based on matrix completion. Our matrix completion method is implemented in MATLAB and tested on real data from HapMap 3, simulated pedigree data, and simulated low-coverage sequencing data derived from the 1000 Genomes Project. Compared with leading imputation programs, the matrix completion algorithm embodied in our program MENDEL-IMPUTE achieves comparable imputation accuracy while reducing run times significantly. Implementation in a lower-level language such as Fortran or C is apt to further improve computational efficiency. PMID:23233546

  9. High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites Conference held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on March 16 to 18, 1983. The purpose of the conference is to provide scientists and engineers working in the field of high temperature polymer matrix composites an opportunity to review, exchange, and assess the latest developments in this rapidly expanding area of materials technology. Technical papers are presented in the following areas: (1) matrix development; (2) adhesive development; (3) characterization; (4) environmental effects; and (5) applications.

  10. Canonical density matrix perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Niklasson, Anders M N; Cawkwell, M J; Rubensson, Emanuel H; Rudberg, Elias

    2015-12-01

    Density matrix perturbation theory [Niklasson and Challacombe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 193001 (2004)] is generalized to canonical (NVT) free-energy ensembles in tight-binding, Hartree-Fock, or Kohn-Sham density-functional theory. The canonical density matrix perturbation theory can be used to calculate temperature-dependent response properties from the coupled perturbed self-consistent field equations as in density-functional perturbation theory. The method is well suited to take advantage of sparse matrix algebra to achieve linear scaling complexity in the computational cost as a function of system size for sufficiently large nonmetallic materials and metals at high temperatures. PMID:26764847

  11. Mechanotransduction and extracellular matrix homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Jay D.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Schwartz, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    Preface Soft connective tissues at steady state are yet dynamic; resident cells continually read environmental cues and respond to promote homeostasis, including maintenance of the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix that are fundamental to cellular and tissue health. The mechanosensing process involves assessment of the mechanics of the matrix by the cells through integrins and the actomyosin cytoskeleton, and is followed by a mechano-regulation process that includes the deposition, rearrangement, or removal of matrix to maintain overall form and function. Progress toward understanding the molecular, cellular, and tissue scale effects that promote mechanical homeostasis has helped identify key questions for future research. PMID:25355505

  12. Matrix Elements for Hylleraas CI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Frank E.

    The limitation to at most a single interelectron distance in individual configurations of a Hylleraas-type multiconfiguration wave function restricts significantly the types of integrals occurring in matrix elements for energy calculations, but even then if the formulation is not handled efficiently the angular parts of these integrals escalate to create expressions of great complexity. This presentation reviews ways in which the angular-momentum calculus can be employed to systematize and simplify the matrix element formulas, particularly those for the kinetic-energy matrix elements.

  13. Matrix product operators, matrix product states, and ab initio density matrix renormalization group algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Keselman, Anna; Nakatani, Naoki; Li, Zhendong; White, Steven R.

    2016-07-01

    Current descriptions of the ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm use two superficially different languages: an older language of the renormalization group and renormalized operators, and a more recent language of matrix product states and matrix product operators. The same algorithm can appear dramatically different when written in the two different vocabularies. In this work, we carefully describe the translation between the two languages in several contexts. First, we describe how to efficiently implement the ab initio DMRG sweep using a matrix product operator based code, and the equivalence to the original renormalized operator implementation. Next we describe how to implement the general matrix product operator/matrix product state algebra within a pure renormalized operator-based DMRG code. Finally, we discuss two improvements of the ab initio DMRG sweep algorithm motivated by matrix product operator language: Hamiltonian compression, and a sum over operators representation that allows for perfect computational parallelism. The connections and correspondences described here serve to link the future developments with the past and are important in the efficient implementation of continuing advances in ab initio DMRG and related algorithms.

  14. Matrix product operators, matrix product states, and ab initio density matrix renormalization group algorithms.

    PubMed

    Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Keselman, Anna; Nakatani, Naoki; Li, Zhendong; White, Steven R

    2016-07-01

    Current descriptions of the ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm use two superficially different languages: an older language of the renormalization group and renormalized operators, and a more recent language of matrix product states and matrix product operators. The same algorithm can appear dramatically different when written in the two different vocabularies. In this work, we carefully describe the translation between the two languages in several contexts. First, we describe how to efficiently implement the ab initio DMRG sweep using a matrix product operator based code, and the equivalence to the original renormalized operator implementation. Next we describe how to implement the general matrix product operator/matrix product state algebra within a pure renormalized operator-based DMRG code. Finally, we discuss two improvements of the ab initio DMRG sweep algorithm motivated by matrix product operator language: Hamiltonian compression, and a sum over operators representation that allows for perfect computational parallelism. The connections and correspondences described here serve to link the future developments with the past and are important in the efficient implementation of continuing advances in ab initio DMRG and related algorithms. PMID:27394094

  15. Stochastic determination of matrix determinants.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Sebastian; Ensslin, Torsten A

    2015-07-01

    Matrix determinants play an important role in data analysis, in particular when Gaussian processes are involved. Due to currently exploding data volumes, linear operations-matrices-acting on the data are often not accessible directly but are only represented indirectly in form of a computer routine. Such a routine implements the transformation a data vector undergoes under matrix multiplication. While efficient probing routines to estimate a matrix's diagonal or trace, based solely on such computationally affordable matrix-vector multiplications, are well known and frequently used in signal inference, there is no stochastic estimate for its determinant. We introduce a probing method for the logarithm of a determinant of a linear operator. Our method rests upon a reformulation of the log-determinant by an integral representation and the transformation of the involved terms into stochastic expressions. This stochastic determinant determination enables large-size applications in Bayesian inference, in particular evidence calculations, model comparison, and posterior determination. PMID:26274302

  16. Stochastic determination of matrix determinants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Sebastian; Enßlin, Torsten A.

    2015-07-01

    Matrix determinants play an important role in data analysis, in particular when Gaussian processes are involved. Due to currently exploding data volumes, linear operations—matrices—acting on the data are often not accessible directly but are only represented indirectly in form of a computer routine. Such a routine implements the transformation a data vector undergoes under matrix multiplication. While efficient probing routines to estimate a matrix's diagonal or trace, based solely on such computationally affordable matrix-vector multiplications, are well known and frequently used in signal inference, there is no stochastic estimate for its determinant. We introduce a probing method for the logarithm of a determinant of a linear operator. Our method rests upon a reformulation of the log-determinant by an integral representation and the transformation of the involved terms into stochastic expressions. This stochastic determinant determination enables large-size applications in Bayesian inference, in particular evidence calculations, model comparison, and posterior determination.

  17. Performance Appraisal for Matrix Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, M. R.; Sproull, J. Ruth

    1985-01-01

    A matrix management system designed for use by a highly technical nuclear weapons research and development facility to improve productivity and flexibility by the use of multiple authority, responsibility, and accountability relationships is described. (MSE)

  18. Extracellular matrix and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Maquart, F X; Monboisse, J C

    2014-04-01

    Extracellular matrix has been known for a long time as an architectural support for the tissues. Many recent data, however, have shown that extracellular matrix macromolecules (collagens, elastin, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans and connective tissue glycoproteins) are able to regulate many important cell functions, such as proliferation, migration, protein synthesis or degradation, apoptosis, etc., making them able to play an important role in the wound repair process. Not only the intact macromolecules but some of their specific domains, that we called "Matrikines", are also able to regulate many cell activities. In this article, we will summarize main findings showing the effects of extracellular matrix macromolecules and matrikines on connective tissue and epithelial cells, particularly in skin, and their potential implication in the wound healing process. These examples show that extracellular matrix macromolecules or some of their specific domains may play a major role in wound healing. Better knowledge of these interactions may suggest new therapeutic targets in wound healing defects. PMID:24650524

  19. Molybdenum disilicide alloy matrix composite

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.; Honnell, Richard E.; Gibbs, W. Scott

    1991-01-01

    Compositions of matter consisting of matrix materials having silicon carbide dispersed throughout them and methods of making the compositions. A matrix material is an alloy of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, and at least one secondary component which is a refractory silicide. The silicon carbide dispersant may be in the form of VLS whiskers, VS whiskers, or submicron powder or a mixture of these forms.

  20. Molybdenum disilicide alloy matrix composite

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, J.J.; Honnell, R.E.; Gibbs, W.S.

    1991-12-03

    Compositions of matter consisting of matrix materials having silicon carbide dispersed throughout them and methods of making the compositions are disclosed. A matrix material is an alloy of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, and at least one secondary component which is a refractory silicide. The silicon carbide dispersant may be in the form of VLS whiskers, VS whiskers, or submicron powder or a mixture of these forms. 3 figures.

  1. Universal Keplerian state transition matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepperd, S. W.

    1985-01-01

    A completely general method for computing the Keplerian state transition matrix in terms of Goodyear's universal variables is presented. This includes a new scheme for solving Kepler's problem which is a necessary first step to computing the transition matrix. The Kepler problem is solved in terms of a new independent variable requiring the evaluation of only one transcendental function. Furthermore, this transcendental function may be conveniently evaluated by means of a Gaussian continued fraction.

  2. Molybdenum disilicide alloy matrix composite

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.; Honnell, Richard E.; Gibbs, W. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Compositions of matter consisting of matrix matrials having silicon carbide dispersed throughout them and methods of making the compositions. A matrix material is an alloy of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, and at least one secondary component which is a refractory silicide. The silicon carbide dispersant may be in the form of VLS whiskers, VS whiskers, or submicron powder or a mixture of these forms.

  3. Form development sample test matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B B

    1999-10-15

    This document summarizes the status of sample fabrication and analysis in the Form Development Sample Test Matrix. Since its publication in the ''Baseline Formulation'' report (UCRL-ID- 133089, PIP-99-O 12) and in the ''Complete Single-Phase Sample Fabrications that Support the Licensing Application and Complete Process and Compositional Extreme Sample Fabrications that Support the Licensing Application'' report (PIP-99-078), the Sample Test Matrix has been updated and expanded. This version is current though September 30, 1999.

  4. Validation of lactic acid bacteria, lactic acid, and acidified sodium chlorite as decontaminating interventions to control Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 in mechanically tenderized and brine-enhanced (nonintact) beef at the purveyor.

    PubMed

    Echeverry, Alejandro; Brooks, J Chance; Miller, Markus F; Collins, Jesse A; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2010-12-01

    After three different outbreaks were linked to the consumption of nonintact meat products contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service published notice requiring establishments producing mechanically tenderized and moisture-enhanced beef products to reassess their respective hazard analysis and critical control point systems, due to potential risk to the consumers. The objective of this study was to validate the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), and lactic acid (LA) sprays when applied under a simulated purveyor setting as effective interventions to control and reduce E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 in inoculated U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Choice strip loins (longissimus lumborum muscles) pieces intended for either mechanical blade tenderization or injection enhancement with a brine solution after an aging period of 14 or 21 days at 4.4°C under vacuum. After the mechanical process, translocation of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 from the surface into the internal muscles occurred at levels between 1.00 and 5.72 log CFU/g, compared with controls. LAB and LA reduced internal E. coli O157:H7 loads up to 3.0 log, while ASC reduced the pathogen 1.4 to 2.3 log more than the control (P < 0.05), respectively. Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 was also reduced internally 1.3 to 2.8, 1.0 to 2.3, and 1.4 to 1.8 log after application of LAB, LA, and ASC, respectively. The application of antimicrobials by purveyors prior to mechanical tenderization or enhancement of steaks should increase the safety of these types of products. PMID:21219733

  5. The Astrobiology Matrix and the "Drake Matrix" in Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizser, A.; Kereszturi, A.

    2003-01-01

    We organized astrobiology lectures in the Eotvos Lorand University of Sciences and the Polaris Observatory in 2002. We present here the "Drake matrix" for the comparison of the astrobiological potential of different bodies [1], and astrobiology matrix for the visualization of the interdisciplinary connections between different fields of astrobiology. Conclusion: In Hungary it is difficult to integrate astrobiology in the education system but the great advantage is that it can connect different scientific fields and improve the view of students. We would like to get in contact with persons and organizations who already have experience in the education of astrobiology.

  6. Matrix factorizations and elliptic fibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omer, Harun

    2016-09-01

    I use matrix factorizations to describe branes at simple singularities of elliptic fibrations. Each node of the corresponding Dynkin diagrams of the ADE-type singularities is associated with one indecomposable matrix factorization which can be deformed into one or more factorizations of lower rank. Branes with internal fluxes arise naturally as bound states of the indecomposable factorizations. Describing branes in such a way avoids the need to resolve singularities. This paper looks at gauge group breaking from E8 fibers down to SU (5) fibers due to the relevance of such fibrations for local F-theory GUT models. A purpose of this paper is to understand how the deformations of the singularity are understood in terms of its matrix factorizations. By systematically factorizing the elliptic fiber equation, this paper discusses geometries which are relevant for building semi-realistic local models. In the process it becomes evident that breaking patterns which are identical at the level of the Kodaira type of the fibers can be inequivalent at the level of matrix factorizations. Therefore the matrix factorization picture supplements information which the conventional less detailed descriptions lack.

  7. Relativistic Dipole Matrix Element Zeros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajohn, L. A.; Pratt, R. H.

    2002-05-01

    There is a special class of relativistic high energy dipole matrix element zeros (RZ), whose positions with respect to photon energy ω , only depend on the bound state l quantum number according to ω^0=mc^2/(l_b+1) (independent of primary quantum number n, nuclear charge Z, central potential V and dipole retardation). These RZ only occur in (n,l_b,j_b)arrow (ɛ , l_b+1,j_b) transitions such as ns_1/2arrow ɛ p_1/2; np_3/2arrow ɛ d_3/2: nd_5/2arrow ɛ f_5/2 etc. The nonrelativistic limit of these matrix elements can be established explicitly in the Coulomb case. Within the general matrix element formalism (such as that in [1]); when |κ | is substituted for γ in analytic expressions for matrix elements, the zeros remain, but ω^0 now becomes dependent on n and Z. When the reduction to nonrelativistic form is completed by application of the low energy approximation ω mc^2 mc^2, the zeros disappear. This nonzero behavior was noted in nonrelativistic dipole Coulomb matrix elements by Fano and Cooper [2] and later proven by Oh and Pratt[3]. (J. H. Scofield, Phys. Rev. A 40), 3054 (1989 (U. Fano and J. W. Cooper, Rev. Mod. Phys. 40), 441 (1968). (D. Oh and R. H. Pratt, Phys. Rev. A 34), 2486 (1986); 37, 1524 (1988); 45, 1583 (1992).

  8. Extracellular matrix in ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, R J; Irving-Rodgers, H F; van Wezel, I L

    2000-05-25

    A lot is known about the control of the development of ovarian follicles by growth factors and hormones, but less is known about the roles of extracellular matrix in the control of follicular growth and development. In this review we focus on the specialized extracellular matrix of the basal laminas that are present in ovarian follicles. These include the follicular basal lamina itself, the Call-Exner bodies of the membrana granulosa, the subendothelial and arteriole smooth muscle basal laminas in the theca, and the basal lamina-like material of the thecal matrix. We discuss the evidence that during follicle development the follicular basal lamina changes in composition, that many of its components are produced by the granulosa cells, and that the follicular basal laminas of different follicles have different ultrastructural appearances, linked to the shape of the aligning granulosa cells. All these studies suggest that the follicular basal lamina is extremely dynamic during follicular development. PMID:10963877

  9. The noncommutative S-Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Suvrat

    2009-06-01

    As a simple example of how recently developed on-shell techniques apply to nonlocal theories, we study the S-matrix of noncommutative gauge theories. In the complex plane, this S-matrix has essential singularities that signal the nonlocal behavior of the theory. In spite of this, we show that tree-level amplitudes may be obtained by BCFW type recursion relations. At one loop we find a complete basis of master integrals (this basis is larger than the corresponding basis in the ordinary theory). Any one-loop noncommutative amplitude may be written as a linear combination of these integrals with coefficients that we relate to products of tree amplitudes. We show that the noncommutative Script N = 4 SYM theory has a structurally simple S-matrix, just like the ordinary Script N = 4 SYM theory.

  10. Matrix model approach to cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaney, A.; Lu, Lei; Stern, A.

    2016-03-01

    We perform a systematic search for rotationally invariant cosmological solutions to toy matrix models. These models correspond to the bosonic sector of Lorentzian Ishibashi, Kawai, Kitazawa and Tsuchiya (IKKT)-type matrix models in dimensions d less than ten, specifically d =3 and d =5 . After taking a continuum (or commutative) limit they yield d -1 dimensional Poisson manifolds. The manifolds have a Lorentzian induced metric which can be associated with closed, open, or static space-times. For d =3 , we obtain recursion relations from which it is possible to generate rotationally invariant matrix solutions which yield open universes in the continuum limit. Specific examples of matrix solutions have also been found which are associated with closed and static two-dimensional space-times in the continuum limit. The solutions provide for a resolution of cosmological singularities, at least within the context of the toy matrix models. The commutative limit reveals other desirable features, such as a solution describing a smooth transition from an initial inflation to a noninflationary era. Many of the d =3 solutions have analogues in higher dimensions. The case of d =5 , in particular, has the potential for yielding realistic four-dimensional cosmologies in the continuum limit. We find four-dimensional de Sitter d S4 or anti-de Sitter AdS4 solutions when a totally antisymmetric term is included in the matrix action. A nontrivial Poisson structure is attached to these manifolds which represents the lowest order effect of noncommutativity. For the case of AdS4 , we find one particular limit where the lowest order noncommutativity vanishes at the boundary, but not in the interior.

  11. Shrinkage estimation of the realized relationship matrix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The additive relationship matrix plays an important role in mixed model prediction of breeding values. For genotype matrix X (loci in columns), the product XX' is widely used as a realized relationship matrix, but the scaling of this matrix is ambiguous. Our first objective was to derive a proper ...

  12. Integrability and generalized monodromy matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Lhallabi, T.; Moujib, A.

    2007-09-15

    We construct the generalized monodromy matrix M-circumflex({omega}) of two-dimensional string effective action by introducing the T-duality group properties. The integrability conditions with general solutions depending on spectral parameter are given. This construction is investigated for the exactly solvable Wess, Zumino, Novikov, and Witten model in pp-wave limit when B=0.

  13. The Lucas p-matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhapatanakul, Kantaphon

    2015-11-01

    In this note, we study the Fibonacci and Lucas p-numbers. We introduce the Lucas p-matrix and companion matrices for the sums of the Fibonacci and Lucas p-numbers to derive some interesting identities of the Fibonacci and Lucas p-numbers.

  14. [Matrix Support: a bibliographical study].

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Alexandra; Avellar, Luziane Zacché

    2014-09-01

    This article presents a bibliographical review of matrix support in mental health. A search was conducted in the Virtual Health Library and the LILACS, SciELO and Google Scholar databases using the key words: "matrix support in mental health." Fourteen articles were located with the desired characteristics, which indicates that only a restricted number of publications are in circulation. The articles were analyzed with respect to their structural and methodological aspects, which revealed the absolute predominance of the use of qualitative methods and health professionals as the target research population. The same articles were then analyzed for their theoretical discussions. Among other issues, the importance of matrix support to enhance the primary health care teams provided to people suffering from psychic distress is highlighted. However, there is still considerable confusion regarding the proposal of the matrix support and shared responsibilities between teams of reference and mental health professionals, which emphasizes the need for training of these professionals, as well as better coordination and organization of the mental health care network. PMID:25184584

  15. Matrix Treatment of Ray Optics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quon, W. Steve

    1996-01-01

    Describes a method to combine two learning experiences--optical physics and matrix mathematics--in a straightforward laboratory experiment that allows engineering/physics students to integrate a variety of learning insights and technical skills, including using lasers, studying refraction through thin lenses, applying concepts of matrix…

  16. Information & Technology Literacy Standards Matrix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Calvin J.; Lohr, Neah J.; Klein, Jim; Sorensen, Richard J.

    Intended to help library media specialists, technology educators, and curriculum planning teams identify where specific information and technology competencies might best fit into the assessed content areas of the curriculum, this document presents a matrix that identifies the correlation between Wisconsin's Information and Technology Literacy…

  17. The Enrollment Analysis Matrix Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Mark

    The underlying assumptions and the structure of the enrollment analysis matrix (EAM) concept are discussed. EAM is a component of the Strategic Planning Project of the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems. EAM relates changes in the population of potential students external to the institution to the impacts that might result…

  18. Scrambling with matrix black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Lucas; Sahakian, Vatche

    2013-08-01

    If black holes are not to be dreaded sinks of information but rather fully described by unitary evolution, they must scramble in-falling data and eventually leak it through Hawking radiation. Sekino and Susskind have conjectured that black holes are fast scramblers; they generate entanglement at a remarkably efficient rate, with the characteristic time scaling logarithmically with the entropy. In this work, we focus on Matrix theory—M-theory in the light-cone frame—and directly probe the conjecture. We develop a concrete test bed for quantum gravity using the fermionic variables of Matrix theory and show that the problem becomes that of chains of qubits with an intricate network of interactions. We demonstrate that the black hole system evolves much like a Brownian quantum circuit, with strong indications that it is indeed a fast scrambler. We also analyze the Berenstein-Maldacena-Nastase model and reach the same tentative conclusion.

  19. Corrosion of Titanium Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, B.S., Jr.; Alman, D.E.

    2002-09-22

    The corrosion behavior of unalloyed Ti and titanium matrix composites containing up to 20 vol% of TiC or TiB{sub 2} was determined in deaerated 2 wt% HCl at 50, 70, and 90 degrees C. Corrosion rates were calculated from corrosion currents determined by extrapolation of the tafel slopes. All curves exhibited active-passive behavior but no transpassive region. Corrosion rates for Ti + TiC composites were similar to those for unalloyed Ti except at 90 degrees C where the composites were slightly higher. Corrosion rates for Ti + TiB{sub 2} composites were generally higher than those for unalloyed Ti and increased with higher concentrations of TiB{sub 2}. XRD and SEM-EDS analyses showed that the TiC reinforcement did not react with the Ti matrix during fabrication while the TiB{sub 2} reacted to form a TiB phase.

  20. Sapphire reinforced alumina matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Setlock, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Unidirectionally reinforced A1203 matrix composites have been fabricated by hot pressing. Approximately 30 volume % of either coated or uncoated sapphire fiber was used as reinforcement. Unstabilized ZrO2 was applied as the fiber coating. Composite mechanical behavior was analyzed both after fabrication and after additional heat treatment. The results of composite tensile tests were correlated with fiber-matrix interfacial shear strengths determined from fiber push-out tests. Substantially higher strength and greater fiber pull-out were observed for the coated fiber composites for all processing conditions studied. The coated fiber composites retained up to 95% and 87% of their as-fabricated strength when heat treated at 14000C for 8 or 24 hours, respectively. Electron microscopy analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed extensive fiber pull-out both before and after heat treatment.

  1. Tough high performance composite matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H. (Inventor); Johnston, Norman J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention is a semi-interpentrating polymer network which includes a high performance thermosetting polyimide having a nadic end group acting as a crosslinking site and a high performance linear thermoplastic polyimide. Provided is an improved high temperature matrix resin which is capable of performing in the 200 to 300 C range. This resin has significantly improved toughness and microcracking resistance, excellent processability, mechanical performance, and moisture and solvent resistances.

  2. SnapShot: Mechanosensing Matrix.

    PubMed

    Irianto, Jerome; Pfeifer, Charlotte R; Xia, Yuntao; Discher, Dennis E

    2016-06-16

    Cells sense and respond to properties of their microenvironment that can affect cell morphology, protein levels and localization, gene expression, and even nuclear integrity. Tissue micro-stiffness, largely influenced by extracellular matrix, varies dramatically within an organism and can be a useful parameter to both clarify and organize a wide range of cell and molecular processes, such as genomic changes in cancer. PMID:27315485

  3. MALDI Matrix Research for Biopolymers

    PubMed Central

    Fukuyama, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Matrices are necessary materials for ionizing analytes in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The choice of a matrix appropriate for each analyte controls the analyses. Thus, in some cases, development or improvement of matrices can become a tool for solving problems. This paper reviews MALDI matrix research that the author has conducted in the recent decade. It describes glycopeptide, carbohydrate, or phosphopeptide analyses using 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHB), 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium (TMG) salts of p-coumaric acid (CA) (G3CA), 3-aminoquinoline (3-AQ)/α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) (3-AQ/CHCA) or 3-AQ/CA and gengeral peptide, peptide containing disulfide bonds or hydrophobic peptide analyses using butylamine salt of CHCA (CHCAB), 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (1,5-DAN), octyl 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate (alkylated dihydroxybenzoate, ADHB), or 1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)octan-1-one (alkylated trihydroxyacetophenone, ATHAP). PMID:26819908

  4. Metal-matrix composites: Status and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Applications of metal matrix composites for air frames and jet engine components are discussed. The current state of the art in primary and secondary fabrication is presented. The present and projected costs were analyzed to determine the cost effectiveness of metal matrix composites. The various types of metal matrix composites and their characteristics are described.

  5. A fuel-oil matrix heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulin, E. I.; Shevich, Iu. A.; Potapov, V. N.; Veselov, V. A.; Saltais, E. A.; Glukhovskii, G. I.

    A novel design of a welded matrix heat exchanger capable of handling high-pressure liquid and gas coolants is described. Results of tests conducted on matrix heat exchangers and their models are presented, and formulas are recommended for calculating the heat transfer and hydraulic resistance characteristics. A comparison of the characteristics of matrix and tube heat exchangers demonstrates the advantages of the former.

  6. Random Matrix Theory and Econophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenow, Bernd

    2000-03-01

    Random Matrix Theory (RMT) [1] is used in many branches of physics as a ``zero information hypothesis''. It describes generic behavior of different classes of systems, while deviations from its universal predictions allow to identify system specific properties. We use methods of RMT to analyze the cross-correlation matrix C of stock price changes [2] of the largest 1000 US companies. In addition to its scientific interest, the study of correlations between the returns of different stocks is also of practical relevance in quantifying the risk of a given stock portfolio. We find [3,4] that the statistics of most of the eigenvalues of the spectrum of C agree with the predictions of RMT, while there are deviations for some of the largest eigenvalues. We interpret these deviations as a system specific property, e.g. containing genuine information about correlations in the stock market. We demonstrate that C shares universal properties with the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble of random matrices. Furthermore, we analyze the eigenvectors of C through their inverse participation ratio and find eigenvectors with large ratios at both edges of the eigenvalue spectrum - a situation reminiscent of localization theory results. This work was done in collaboration with V. Plerou, P. Gopikrishnan, T. Guhr, L.A.N. Amaral, and H.E Stanley and is related to recent work of Laloux et al.. 1. T. Guhr, A. Müller Groeling, and H.A. Weidenmüller, ``Random Matrix Theories in Quantum Physics: Common Concepts'', Phys. Rep. 299, 190 (1998). 2. See, e.g. R.N. Mantegna and H.E. Stanley, Econophysics: Correlations and Complexity in Finance (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1999). 3. V. Plerou, P. Gopikrishnan, B. Rosenow, L.A.N. Amaral, and H.E. Stanley, ``Universal and Nonuniversal Properties of Cross Correlations in Financial Time Series'', Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1471 (1999). 4. V. Plerou, P. Gopikrishnan, T. Guhr, B. Rosenow, L.A.N. Amaral, and H.E. Stanley, ``Random Matrix Theory

  7. Regenerator matrix physical property data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fucinari, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Among several cellular ceramic structures manufactured by various suppliers for regenerator application in a gas turbine engine, three have the best potential for achieving durability and performance objectives for use in gas turbines, Stirling engines, and waste heat recovery systems: (1) an aluminum-silicate sinusoidal flow passage made from a corrugated wate paper process; (2) an extruded isosceles triangle flow passage; and (3) a second generation matrix incorporating a square flow passage formed by an embossing process. Key physical and thermal property data for these configurations presented include: heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics, compressive strength, tensile strength and elasticity, thermal expansion characteristics, chanical attack, and thermal stability.

  8. Matrix management for aerospace 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The martix management approach to program management is an organized effort for attaining program objectives by defining and structuring all elements so as to form a single system whose parts are united by interaction. The objective of the systems approach is uncompromisingly complete coverage of the program management endeavor. Starting with an analysis of the functions necessary to carry out a given program, a model must be defined; a matrix of responsibility assignment must be prepared; and each operational process must be examined to establish how it is to be carried out and how it relates to all other processes.

  9. Brain Extracellular Matrix in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bonneh-Barkay, Dafna; Wiley, Clayton A.

    2009-01-01

    The role of extracellular matrix (ECM) in neurological development, function and degeneration has evolved from a simplistic physical adhesion to a system of intricate cellular signaling. While most cells require ECM adhesion to survive, it is now clear that differentiated function is intimately dependent upon cellular interaction with the ECM. Therefore, it is not surprising that the ECM is increasingly found to be involved in the enigmatic process of neurodegeneration. Descriptive studies of human neurodegenerative disorders and experimental studies of animal models of neurodegeneration have begun to define potential mechanisms of ECM disruption that can lead to synaptic and neuronal loss. PMID:18662234

  10. Teaching Tip: When a Matrix and Its Inverse Are Stochastic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, J.; Rhee, N. H.

    2013-01-01

    A stochastic matrix is a square matrix with nonnegative entries and row sums 1. The simplest example is a permutation matrix, whose rows permute the rows of an identity matrix. A permutation matrix and its inverse are both stochastic. We prove the converse, that is, if a matrix and its inverse are both stochastic, then it is a permutation matrix.

  11. The Theory of Quaternion Matrix Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dongpo; Mandic, Danilo P.

    2015-03-01

    A systematic theory is introduced for calculating the derivatives of quaternion matrix function with respect to quaternion matrix variables. The proposed methodology is equipped with the matrix product rule and chain rule and it is able to handle both analytic and nonanalytic functions. This corrects a flaw in the existing methods, that is, the incorrect use of the traditional product rule. In the framework introduced, the derivatives of quaternion matrix functions can be calculated directly without the differential of this function. Key results are summarized in tables. Several examples show how the quaternion matrix derivatives can be used as an important tool for solving problems related to signal processing.

  12. The q-Laguerre matrix polynomials.

    PubMed

    Salem, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The Laguerre polynomials have been extended to Laguerre matrix polynomials by means of studying certain second-order matrix differential equation. In this paper, certain second-order matrix q-difference equation is investigated and solved. Its solution gives a generalized of the q-Laguerre polynomials in matrix variable. Four generating functions of this matrix polynomials are investigated. Two slightly different explicit forms are introduced. Three-term recurrence relation, Rodrigues-type formula and the q-orthogonality property are given. PMID:27190749

  13. Uniform-burning matrix burner

    DOEpatents

    Bohn, Mark S.; Anselmo, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

  14. Characterization of Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, I. M.; Chun, H. J.; Karalekas, D.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental methods were developed, adapted, and applied to the characterization of a metal matrix composite system, namely, silicon carbide/aluminim (SCS-2/6061 Al), and its constituents. The silicon carbide fiber was characterized by determining its modulus, strength, and coefficient of thermal expansion. The aluminum matrix was characterized thermomechanically up to 399 C (750 F) at two strain rates. The unidirectional SiC/Al composite was characterized mechanically under longitudinal, transverse, and in-plane shear loading up to 399 C (750 F). Isothermal and non-isothermal creep behavior was also measured. The applicability of a proposed set of multifactor thermoviscoplastic nonlinear constitutive relations and a computer code was investigated. Agreement between predictions and experimental results was shown in a few cases. The elastoplastic thermomechanical behavior of the composite was also described by a number of new analytical models developed or adapted for the material system studied. These models include the rule of mixtures, composite cylinder model with various thermoelastoplastic analyses and a model based on average field theory. In most cases satisfactory agreement was demonstrated between analytical predictions and experimental results for the cases of stress-strain behavior and thermal deformation behavior at different temperatures. In addition, some models yielded detailed three-dimensional stress distributions in the constituents within the composite.

  15. On matrix Painlevé hierarchies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordoa, P. R.; Pickering, A.; Zhu, Z. N.

    2016-07-01

    We define a matrix first Painlevé hierarchy and a matrix second Painlevé (PII) hierarchy. For our matrix PII hierarchy we also give auto-Bäcklund transformations and consider the iteration of solutions. This is the first paper to define matrix Painlevé hierarchies and to give auto-Bäcklund transformations for a matrix Painlevé hierarchy. We also consider, amongst other results, the derivation of sequences of special integrals and autonomous limits. Until now it has been unknown how to connect the known matrix PII equation to the obvious candidates for related completely integrable matrix partial differential equations. Our matrix PII hierarchy is placed firmly within the context of a matrix modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) hierarchy. In deriving our matrix PII hierarchy we make use of the Hamiltonian structure of this matrix mKdV hierarchy. We thus see once again the importance for Painlevé hierarchies of the integrability structures of related completely integrable equations.

  16. Stabilized matrix for molten carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Nirasawa, Hitoshi; Kawachi, Takanori; Ogawa, Takashi; Hori, Michio; Tomimatsu, Norihiro; Nakagawa, Kazuaki; Ohzu, Hideyuki; Yamazaki, Yohtaro

    1996-12-31

    For commercialization of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plants, the most important factors are MCFC performance and life. The performance and life of an MCFC depend on the electrolyte loss and gas crossover due to the matrix degradation, such as LiAlO{sub 2} particle growth during cell operation and the matrix cracking at the initial heat-up stage. In order to suppress the matrix degradation, the authors fabricated a stabilized matrix with {alpha}-LiAlO{sub 2} as the electrolyte support material and with long {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} fibers as the reinforcement. They assembled the cell with the stabilized matrix. The performance of the cell is stable for 7,000 hours. They consider that the matrix degradation, such as the particle growth during cell operation and matrix cracking, has not occurred in this cell.

  17. Radial matrix cracking in unidirectional brittle matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, G.P.; Pagano, N.J.

    1994-12-31

    This work presents a mathematical study of radial cracking in the transverse direction of a unidirectional composite under the influence of thermal and mechanical loads. The formulation is based on the use of Reissner`s variational theorem in conjunction with an equilibrium stress field in which the r-dependence is assumed. In this study, this newly developed model is employed to evaluate the effect of the extent of radial matrix cracking on the elastic response of a unidirectional composite. Parametric studies are also conducted to examine the effect of varying the elastic properties of the constituents on the energy release rate of a radial crack. The computed values are shown to be in good agreement with the reported exact solution.

  18. Petrology and structure of greenstone blocks encased in mud-matrix melange of the Franciscan complex near San Simeon, California

    SciTech Connect

    Davidsen, R.K.; Cloos, M.

    1985-01-01

    Greenstones comprise about 20% of all mappable (>1 m) blocks encased in blueschist-block-bearing mud-matrix melange exposed in a 10 km-length of sea cliffs near San Simeon. Field and petrographic analysis of 25 blocks show they vary from finely crystalline (<1 mm) locally porphyritic or amygdaloidal, volcanics to coarsely crystalline (1 to 5 mm) diabase. Some are in contact with bedded chert and two have relict pillows. However, most blocks are intensely deformed. Pinch-and-swell and boundinage are recognized on scales from cm to about 10 m. Distortion was accommodated by cataclasis to an aggregate of pieces from mm to m across. Generally, m-sized blocks are pervasively cataclastic whereas larger blocks are crosscut by cataclastic zones that emanate from pervasively cataclastic margins or necked regions of boudins. Discontinuous, cm-thick veins and cavities that are lined by quartz and clacite and rarely, laumontite, prehnite and aragonite locally crosscut all other structures. Relict igneous textures show the primary minerals are plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Abundant secondary minerals, particularly in cataclastic zones, are albite, chlorite, pumpellyite (some have high Al), and calcite. The metamorphic parageneses indicate relatively minor greenschist-facies, sea-floor-type alterations under static conditions followed by lower-temperature alterations synchronous with cataclasis and the development of boudinage. If the blocks are fragments of disrupted ophiolites, only the uppermost section of the suite are present within the mud-matrix melange near San Simeon. The simplest explanation for their crystallization, metamorphism and incorporation into the melange is that they are fragments of seamounts dismembered during subduction.

  19. Crystal structures of two partially dehydrated chlorites: The ``modified`` chlorite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Guggenheim, S.; Zhan, W.

    1999-09-01

    Chromian clinochlore-IIb-4 (triclinic) and IIb-2 (monoclinic) polytypes from the Day Book Body, North Carolina, were heated to 650 C for 5 hours and air quenched. Single-crystal X-ray refinements of the (metastable) product phases resulted in R = wR = 0.056 and R = wR = 0.061 for the triclinic and monoclinic forms, respectively. The product structures are topotactic with the parent phases, with the 2:1 layer of the product nearly identical to that of the parent. Dehydroxylation of the interlayer of the parent produces two quasi-planar sets of atoms between adjacent 2:1 layers. Although, based on the refinement of the average structure, the cations and anions are apparently disordered in these planes, cations (Mg, Al, Cr) must have three oxygen atom nearest neighbors and oxygen atoms must be coordinated to three cations. Apparent disorder is related to lateral displacements of the interlayer planes within the (001) plane. Interlayer-site to interlayer-site distances are near 1.8 {angstrom}. Second nearest-neighbor distances for most of the interlayer sites are short, near 2.3 {angstrom}. A model is proposed where, at high temperatures, the interlayer planes become more extended and planar, but the planes crumple upon cooling to more closely approach higher-order nearest-neighbor atoms. These changes upon cooling might be a significant driving force for additional cation and anion ordering in the interlayer, since the interlayer sites have very different second nearest-neighbor environments. Thus, with appropriate cooling rates, cation ordering possibly may be obtained. However, the development of an ordered pattern of cations and anions may also be dependent on kinetics; decomposition is favored over time because of the instability of threefold-coordinated interlayer ions.

  20. Crystal structures of two partially dehydrated chlorites: The modified'' chlorite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Guggenheim, S.; Zhan, W. . Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences)

    1999-09-01

    Chromian clinochlore-IIb-4 (triclinic) and IIb-2 (monoclinic) polytypes from the Day Book Body, North Carolina, were heated to 650 C for 5 hours and air quenched. Single-crystal X-ray refinements of the (metastable) product phases resulted in R = wR = 0.056 and R = wR = 0.061 for the triclinic and monoclinic forms, respectively. The product structures are topotactic with the parent phases, with the 2:1 layer of the product nearly identical to that of the parent. Dehydroxylation of the interlayer of the parent produces two quasi-planar sets of atoms between adjacent 2:1 layers. Although, based on the refinement of the average structure, the cations and anions are apparently disordered in these planes, cations (Mg, Al, Cr) must have three oxygen atom nearest neighbors and oxygen atoms must be coordinated to three cations. Apparent disorder is related to lateral displacements of the interlayer planes within the (001) plane. Interlayer-site to interlayer-site distances are near 1.8 [angstrom]. Second nearest-neighbor distances for most of the interlayer sites are short, near 2.3 [angstrom]. A model is proposed where, at high temperatures, the interlayer planes become more extended and planar, but the planes crumple upon cooling to more closely approach higher-order nearest-neighbor atoms. These changes upon cooling might be a significant driving force for additional cation and anion ordering in the interlayer, since the interlayer sites have very different second nearest-neighbor environments. Thus, with appropriate cooling rates, cation ordering possibly may be obtained. However, the development of an ordered pattern of cations and anions may also be dependent on kinetics; decomposition is favored over time because of the instability of threefold-coordinated interlayer ions.

  1. Crosslinked Matrix-free Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dach, Benjamin; Rengifo, Hernan; Turro, Nicholas; Koberstein, Jeffrey

    2010-03-01

    Matrix-free polymer-silica nanocomposites are formed by crosslinking polymer coated nanoparticles via the `click' reaction. The `click' reaction is also known as H"uisgen 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition of terminal alkyne and azide functional groups to give 1, 2, 3-triazoles. Silica nanoparticles are functionalized with alkyne and azide moieties. Heterobifunctional α,φ-trimethylsilane-alkyne,azide-poly(styrene) (TMS-PS-N3) and α,φ-trimethylsilane-alkyne,azide--poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (TMS-PtBA-N3) are then covalently bound to the surfaces of the nanoparticles via the `click' reaction. The bare and modified nanoparticles are analyzed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The thermal, morphological, and mechanical properties of the systems are investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic rheology, respectively. .

  2. Thermoplastic matrix composite processing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dara, P. H.; Loos, A. C.

    1985-01-01

    The effects the processing parameters pressure, temperature, and time have on the quality of continuous graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites were quantitatively accessed by defining the extent to which intimate contact and bond formation has occurred at successive ply interfaces. Two models are presented predicting the extents to which the ply interfaces have achieved intimate contact and cohesive strength. The models are based on experimental observation of compression molded laminates and neat resin conditions, respectively. Identified as the mechanism explaining the phenomenon by which the plies bond to themselves is the theory of autohesion (or self diffusion). Theoretical predictions from the Reptation Theory between autohesive strength and contact time are used to explain the effects of the processing parameters on the observed experimental strengths. The application of a time-temperature relationship for autohesive strength predictions is evaluated. A viscoelastic compression molding model of a tow was developed to explain the phenomenon by which the prepreg ply interfaces develop intimate contact.

  3. Evaluation of metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okelly, K. P.

    1971-01-01

    The results of an evaluation of candidate metal-matrix composite materials for shuttle space radiators mounted to external structure are presented. The evaluation was specifically applicable to considerations of the manufacturing and properties of a potential space radiator. Two candidates, boron/aluminum and graphite/aluminum were obtained or made in various forms and tested in sufficient depth to allow selection of one of the two for future scale-up programs. The effort accomplished on this program verified that aluminum reinforced with boron was within the state-of-the-art in industry and possessed properties usable in the external skin areas available for shuttle radiators where re-entry temperatures will not exceed 800 F. It further demonstrated that graphite/aluminum has an apparently attractive future for space applications but requires extension development prior to scale-up.

  4. Light-cone matrix product

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, M. B.

    2009-09-15

    We show how to combine the light-cone and matrix product algorithms to simulate quantum systems far from equilibrium for long times. For the case of the XXZ spin chain at {delta}=0.5, we simulate to a time of {approx_equal}22.5. While part of the long simulation time is due to the use of the light-cone method, we also describe a modification of the infinite time-evolving bond decimation algorithm with improved numerical stability, and we describe how to incorporate symmetry into this algorithm. While statistical sampling error means that we are not yet able to make a definite statement, the behavior of the simulation at long times indicates the appearance of either 'revivals' in the order parameter as predicted by Hastings and Levitov (e-print arXiv:0806.4283) or of a distinct shoulder in the decay of the order parameter.

  5. Applications of matrix inversion tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warp, Richard J.; Godfrey, Devon J.; Dobbins, James T., III

    2000-04-01

    The improved image quality and characteristics of new flat- panel x-ray detectors have renewed interest in advanced algorithms such as tomosynthesis. Digital tomosynthesis is a method of acquiring and reconstructing a three-dimensional data set with limited-angle tube movement. Historically, conventional tomosynthesis reconstruction has suffered contamination of the planes of interest by blurred out-of- plane structures. This paper focuses on a Matrix Inversion Tomosynthesis (MITS) algorithm to remove unwanted blur from adjacent planes. The algorithm uses a set of coupled equations to solve for the blurring function in each reconstructed plane. This paper demonstrates the use of the MITS algorithm in three imaging applications: small animal microscopy, chest radiography, and orthopedics. The results of the MITS reconstruction process demonstrate an improved reduction of blur from out-of-plane structures when compared to conventional tomosynthesis. We conclude that the MITS algorithm holds potential in a variety of applications to improve three-dimensional image reconstruction.

  6. Intermetallic bonded ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Plucknett, K.P.; Tiegs, T.N.; Alexander, K.B.; Becher, P.F.; Schneibel, J.H.; Waters, S.B.; Menchhofer, P.A.

    1995-07-01

    A range of carbide and oxide-based cermets have been developed utilizing ductile nickel aluminide (Ni{sub 3}Al) alloy binder phases. Some of these, notably materials based upon tungsten and titanium carbides (WC and TiC respectively), offer potential as alternatives to the cermets which use cobalt binders (i.e. WC/Co). Samples have been prepared by blending commercially available Ni{sub 3}Al alloy powders with the desired ceramic phases, followed by hot-pressing. Alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) matrix materials have also been prepared by pressurized molten alloy infiltration. The microstructure, flexure strength and fracture toughness of selected materials are discussed.

  7. Extracellular matrix component signaling in cancer.

    PubMed

    Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Leitinger, Birgit; Gullberg, Donald; Couchman, John R

    2016-02-01

    Cell responses to the extracellular matrix depend on specific signaling events. These are important from early development, through differentiation and tissue homeostasis, immune surveillance, and disease pathogenesis. Signaling not only regulates cell adhesion cytoskeletal organization and motility but also provides survival and proliferation cues. The major classes of cell surface receptors for matrix macromolecules are the integrins, discoidin domain receptors, and transmembrane proteoglycans such as syndecans and CD44. Cells respond not only to specific ligands, such as collagen, fibronectin, or basement membrane glycoproteins, but also in terms of matrix rigidity. This can regulate the release and subsequent biological activity of matrix-bound growth factors, for example, transforming growth factor-β. In the environment of tumors, there may be changes in cell populations and their receptor profiles as well as matrix constitution and protein cross-linking. Here we summarize roles of the three major matrix receptor types, with emphasis on how they function in tumor progression. PMID:26519775

  8. Convex nonnegative matrix factorization with manifold regularization.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenjun; Choi, Kup-Sze; Wang, Peiliang; Jiang, Yunliang; Wang, Shitong

    2015-03-01

    Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has been extensively applied in many areas, including computer vision, pattern recognition, text mining, and signal processing. However, nonnegative entries are usually required for the data matrix in NMF, which limits its application. Besides, while the basis and encoding vectors obtained by NMF can represent the original data in low dimension, the representations do not always reflect the intrinsic geometric structure embedded in the data. Motivated by manifold learning and Convex NMF (CNMF), we propose a novel matrix factorization method called Graph Regularized and Convex Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (GCNMF) by introducing a graph regularized term into CNMF. The proposed matrix factorization technique not only inherits the intrinsic low-dimensional manifold structure, but also allows the processing of mixed-sign data matrix. Clustering experiments on nonnegative and mixed-sign real-world data sets are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25523040

  9. Recent developments on the CKM matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei

    2014-07-01

    In Standard Model, CP violation arises from an irreducible complex phase in the quark mixing matrix, now under the name Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. This description has shown remarkable overall agreement with various experimental measurements. In this review, we discuss recent experimental data and theoretical developments on three quantities of CKM matrix that are most uncertain: the Vub, including its magnitude and the phase γ in standard parametrization, and the Bs-\\bar Bs mixing phase βs.

  10. The symmetries of the system matrix and propagator matrix for anisotropic media and of the system matrix forperiodically layered media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guo-Ming; Ni, Si-Dao

    1998-11-01

    The `auxiliary' symmetry properties of the system matrix (symmetry with respect to the trailing diagonal) for a general anisotropic dissipative medium and the special form for a monoclinic medium are revealed by rearranging the motion-stress vector. The propagator matrix of a single-layer general anisotropic dissipative medium is also shown to have auxiliary symmetry. For the multilayered case, a relatively simple matrix method is utilized to obtain the inverse of the propagator matrix. Further, Woodhouse's inverse of the propagator matrix for a transversely isotropic medium is extended in a clearer form to handle the monoclinic symmetric medium. The properties of a periodic layer system are studied through its system matrix Aly , which is computed from the propagator matrix P. The matrix Aly is then compared with Aeq , the system matrix for the long-wavelength equivalent medium of the periodic isotropic layers. Then we can find how the periodic layered medium departs from its long-wavelength equivalent medium when the wavelength decreases. In our numerical example, the results show that, when λ/D decreases to 6-8, the components of the two matrices will depart from each other. The component ratio of these two matrices increases to its maximum (more than 15 in our numerical test) when λ/D is reduced to 2.3, and then oscillates with λ/D when it is further reduced. The eigenvalues of the system matrix Aly show that the velocities of P and S waves decrease when λ/D is reduced from 6-8 and reach their minimum values when λ/D is reduced to 2.3 and then oscillate afterwards. We compute the time shifts between the peaks of the transmitted waves and the incident waves. The resulting velocity curves show a similar variation to those computed from the eigenvalues of the system matrix Aly , but on a smaller scale. This can be explained by the spectrum width of the incident waves.

  11. Multiscale Modeling of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Mital, Subodh K.; Pineda, Evan J.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Results of multiscale modeling simulations of the nonlinear response of SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites are reported, wherein the microstructure of the ceramic matrix is captured. This micro scale architecture, which contains free Si material as well as the SiC ceramic, is responsible for residual stresses that play an important role in the subsequent thermo-mechanical behavior of the SiC/SiC composite. Using the novel Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells recursive micromechanics theory, the microstructure of the matrix, as well as the microstructure of the composite (fiber and matrix) can be captured.

  12. Finding Nonoverlapping Substructures of a Sparse Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, Ali; Vassilevska, Virginia

    2005-08-11

    Many applications of scientific computing rely on computations on sparse matrices. The design of efficient implementations of sparse matrix kernels is crucial for the overall efficiency of these applications. Due to the high compute-to-memory ratio and irregular memory access patterns, the performance of sparse matrix kernels is often far away from the peak performance on a modern processor. Alternative data structures have been proposed, which split the original matrix A into A{sub d} and A{sub s}, so that A{sub d} contains all dense blocks of a specified size in the matrix, and A{sub s} contains the remaining entries. This enables the use of dense matrix kernels on the entries of A{sub d} producing better memory performance. In this work, we study the problem of finding a maximum number of nonoverlapping dense blocks in a sparse matrix, which is previously not studied in the sparse matrix community. We show that the maximum nonoverlapping dense blocks problem is NP-complete by using a reduction from the maximum independent set problem on cubic planar graphs. We also propose a 2/3-approximation algorithm that runs in linear time in the number of nonzeros in the matrix. This extended abstract focuses on our results for 2x2 dense blocks. However we show that our results can be generalized to arbitrary sized dense blocks, and many other oriented substructures, which can be exploited to improve the memory performance of sparse matrix operations.

  13. Third Intermetallic Matrix Composites Symposium, volume 350

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, J.A.; Bowman, R.R.; Lewandowski, J.J.

    1994-04-01

    Partial contents include: issues in potential IMC application for aerospace structures; powder metallurgy processing of intermetallic matrix composites; microstructure and properties of intermetallic matrix composites produced by reaction synthesis; combustion synthesis of niobium aluminide matrix composites; ambient temperature synthesis of bulk intermetallics; wear behavior of SHS intermetallic matrix composites; fracture characteristics of metal-intermetallic laminates produced by SHS reactions; and vapor phase synthesis of Ti aluminides and the interfacial bonding effect on the mechanical property of micro-composites reinforced by pyrolized SiC fibers.

  14. Reconstituted asbestos matrix for fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbryar, H.

    1975-01-01

    Method is described for reprocessing commercially available asbestos matrix stock to yield greater porosity and bubble pressure (due to increased surface tension), improved homogeneity, and greater uniformity.

  15. The Evolution of Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Özbek, Suat; Balasubramanian, Prakash G.; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth; Tucker, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    We present a perspective on the molecular evolution of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in metazoa that draws on research publications and data from sequenced genomes and expressed sequence tag libraries. ECM components do not function in isolation, and the biological ECM system or “adhesome” also depends on posttranslational processing enzymes, cell surface receptors, and extracellular proteases. We focus principally on the adhesome of internal tissues and discuss its origins at the dawn of the metazoa and the expansion of complexity that occurred in the chordate lineage. The analyses demonstrate very high conservation of a core adhesome that apparently evolved in a major wave of innovation in conjunction with the origin of metazoa. Integrin, CD36, and certain domains predate the metazoa, and some ECM-related proteins are identified in choanoflagellates as predicted sequences. Modern deuterostomes and vertebrates have many novelties and elaborations of ECM as a result of domain shuffling, domain innovations and gene family expansions. Knowledge of the evolution of metazoan ECM is important for understanding how it is built as a system, its roles in normal tissues and disease processes, and has relevance for tissue engineering, the development of artificial organs, and the goals of synthetic biology. PMID:21160071

  16. Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Sabina

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence points to the involvement of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Abnormalities affecting several ECM components, including Reelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), have been described in subjects with this disease. Solid evidence supports the involvement of Reelin, an ECM glycoprotein involved in corticogenesis, synaptic functions and glutamate NMDA receptor regulation, expressed prevalently in distinct populations of GABAergic neurons, which secrete it into the ECM. Marked changes of Reelin expression in SZ have typically been reported in association with GABA-related abnormalities in subjects with SZ and bipolar disorder. Recent findings from our group point to substantial abnormalities affecting CSPGs, a main ECM component, in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder. Striking increases of glial cells expressing CSPGs were accompanied by reductions of perineuronal nets, CSPG- and Reelin-enriched ECM aggregates enveloping distinct neuronal populations. CSPGs developmental and adult functions, including neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic and neurotransmission regulation are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. Together with reports of anomalies affecting several other ECM components, these findings point to the ECM as a key component of the pathology of SZ. We propose that ECM abnormalities may contribute to several aspects of the pathophysiology of this disease, including disrupted connectivity and neuronal migration, synaptic anomalies and altered GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:21856318

  17. The influence of matrix microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyletel, G. M.; Allison, J. E.; Aken, D. C.

    1993-11-01

    The low-cycle and high-cycle fatigue behavior and cyclic response of naturally aged and artificially aged 2219/TiC/15p and unreinforced 2219 Al were investigated utilizing plastic strain-controlled and stress-controlled testing. The cyclic response of both the reinforced and un-reinforced materials was similar for all plastic strain amplitudes tested except that the saturation stress level for the composite was always greater than that of the unreinforced material. The cyclic response of the naturally aged materials exhibited cyclic hardening and, in some cases, cyclic softening, while the cyclic response for the artificially aged materials showed no evidence of either cyclic hardening or softening. The higher ductility of the unreinforced material made it more resistant to fatigue failure at high strains, and thus, at a given plastic strain, it had longer fatigue life. It should be noted that the tensile ductilities of the 2219/TiC/15p were significantly higher than those previously reported for 2XXX-series composites. During stress-controlled test-ing at stresses below 220 MPa, the presence of TiC particles lead to an improvement in fatigue life. Above 220 MPa, no influence of TiC reinforcement on fatigue life could be detected. In both the composite and unreinforced materials, the low-cycle and high-cycle fatigue lives were found to be virtually independent of matrix microstructure.

  18. Channeled partial Mueller matrix polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alenin, Andrey S.; Tyo, J. S.

    2015-09-01

    In prior work,1,2 we introduced methods to treat channeled systems in a way that is similar to Data Reduction Method (DRM), by focusing attention on the Fourier content of the measurement conditions. Introduction of Q enabled us to more readily extract the performance of the system and thereby optimize it to obtain reconstruction with the least noise. The analysis tools developed for that exercise can be expanded to be applicable to partial Mueller Matrix Polarimeters (pMMPs), which were a topic of prior discussion as well. In this treatment, we combine the principles involved in both of those research trajectories and identify a set of channeled pMMP families. As a result, the measurement structure of such systems is completely known and the design of a channeled pMMP intended for any given task becomes a search over a finite set of possibilities, with the additional channel rotation allowing for a more desirable Mueller element mixing.

  19. Advanced Integration Matrix Education Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul Heather L.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) will design a ground-based test facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions in order to study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This paper describes development plans for educational outreach activities related to technological and operational integration scenarios similar to the challenges that will be encountered through this project. The education outreach activities will provide hands-on, interactive exercises to allow students of all levels to experience design and operational challenges similar to what NASA deals with everyday in performing the integration of complex missions. These experiences will relate to and impact students everyday lives by demonstrating how their interests in science and engineering can develop into future careers, and reinforcing the concepts of teamwork and conflict resolution. Allowing students to experience and contribute to real-world development, research, and scientific studies of ground-based simulations for complex exploration missions will stimulate interest in the space program, and bring NASA's challenges to the student level. By enhancing existing educational programs and developing innovative activities and presentations, AIM will support NASA s endeavor to "inspire the next generation of explorers.. .as only NASA can."

  20. Effectiveness of metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites as orbital debris shield materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgill, Preston B.; Mount, Angela R.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of two metal matrix composites and one ceramic matrix material in defeating hypervelocity impacts at about 3.8 km/s are evaluated to determine the potential of these composites as spacecraft shield materials. The metal matrix composites investigated consist of SiC particles (70 percent by volume) in an aluminum matrix and Al2O3 particles (50 percent by volume) in an Al matrix. The ceramic composite consists of ZrB2 platelets in a ZrC matrix. Both the metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites are found to perform as well or better than 6061-T6 aluminum, which is presently used in the Whipple type bumper shield of Space Station Freedom. Test results indicate that the composites tested may have applications as micrometeoroid/orbital debris shield materials.

  1. Weak matrix elements for CP violation.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.; Gupta, R.; Christ, N.; Fleming, G. T.; Kilcup, G.; Liu, G.; Mawhinney, R.; Sharpe, S.; Wu, L.; Bhattacharya, T.

    2001-01-01

    We present preliminary results of matrix elements of four fermion operators relevant to the determination of e and E ' / E using staggered fermions. To calculate the matrix elements relevant to CP violation in Kaon decays it is important to use a lattice formulation which preserves (some) chiral symmetry.

  2. Transfer matrix of a spherical scatterer

    SciTech Connect

    Podolsky, V.S.; Lisyansky, A.A.

    1996-11-01

    We derive the off-shell scattering matrix for a spherical scatterer. The result obtained generalizes the off-on-shell matrix commonly used in the theory of scalar waves propagation in random media. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  3. Optimum interface properties for metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    1989-01-01

    Due to the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch (CTE) between the fiber and the matrix, high residual sresses exist in metal matrix composite systems upon cool down from processing temperature to room temperature. An interface material can be placed between the fiber and the matrix to reduce the high tensile residual stresses in the matrix. A computer program was written to minimize the residual stress in the matrix subject to the interface material properties. The decision variables are the interface modulus, thickness and thermal expansion coefficient. The properties of the interface material are optimized such that the average distortion energy in the matrix and the interface is minimized. As a result, the only active variable is the thermal expansion coefficient. The optimum modulus of the interface is always the minimum allowable value and the interface thickness is always the maximum allowable value, independent of the fiber/matrix system. The optimum interface thermal expansion coefficient is always between the values of the fiber and the matrix. Using this analysis, a survey of materials was conducted for use as fiber coatings in some specific composite systems.

  4. Improvements in sparse matrix operations of NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harano, S.

    1980-01-01

    A "nontransmit" packing routine was added to NASTRAN to allow matrix data to be refered to directly from the input/output buffer. Use of the packing routine permits various routines for matrix handling to perform a direct reference to the input/output buffer if data addresses have once been received. The packing routine offers a buffer by buffer backspace feature for efficient backspacing in sequential access. Unlike a conventional backspacing that needs twice back record for a single read of one record (one column), this feature omits overlapping of READ operation and back record. It eliminates the necessity of writing, in decomposition of a symmetric matrix, of a portion of the matrix to its upper triangular matrix from the last to the first columns of the symmetric matrix, thus saving time for generating the upper triangular matrix. Only a lower triangular matrix must be written onto the secondary storage device, bringing 10 to 30% reduction in use of the disk space of the storage device.

  5. Finding nonoverlapping substructures of a sparse matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, Ali; Vassilevska, Virginia

    2004-08-09

    Many applications of scientific computing rely on computations on sparse matrices, thus the design of efficient implementations of sparse matrix kernels is crucial for the overall efficiency of these applications. Due to the high compute-to-memory ratio and irregular memory access patterns, the performance of sparse matrix kernels is often far away from the peak performance on a modern processor. Alternative data structures have been proposed, which split the original matrix A into A{sub d} and A{sub s}, so that A{sub d} contains all dense blocks of a specified size in the matrix, and A{sub s} contains the remaining entries. This enables the use of dense matrix kernels on the entries of A{sub d} producing better memory performance. In this work, we study the problem of finding a maximum number of non overlapping rectangular dense blocks in a sparse matrix, which has not been studied in the sparse matrix community. We show that the maximum non overlapping dense blocks problem is NP-complete by using a reduction from the maximum independent set problem on cubic planar graphs. We also propose a 2/3-approximation algorithm for 2 times 2 blocks that runs in linear time in the number of nonzeros in the matrix. We discuss alternatives to rectangular blocks such as diagonal blocks and cross blocks and present complexity analysis and approximation algorithms.

  6. Risk Management using Dependency Stucture Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petković, Ivan

    2011-09-01

    An efficient method based on dependency structure matrix (DSM) analysis is given for ranking risks in a complex system or process whose entities are mutually dependent. This rank is determined according to the element's values of the unique positive eigenvector which corresponds to the matrix spectral radius modeling the considered engineering system. For demonstration, the risk problem of NASA's robotic spacecraft is analyzed.

  7. 7 CFR 1770.17 - Expense matrix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expense matrix. 1770.17 Section 1770.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS FOR RUS TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Uniform System of Accounts § 1770.17 Expense matrix. The...

  8. Metal matrix composites microfracture: Computational simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Caruso, John J.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1990-01-01

    Fiber/matrix fracture and fiber-matrix interface debonding in a metal matrix composite (MMC) are computationally simulated. These simulations are part of a research activity to develop computational methods for microfracture, microfracture propagation and fracture toughness of the metal matrix composites. The three-dimensional finite element model used in the simulation consists of a group of nine unidirectional fibers in three by three unit cell array of SiC/Ti15 metal matrix composite with a fiber volume ration of 0.35. This computational procedure is used to predict the fracture process and establish the hierarchy of fracture modes based on strain energy release rate. It is also used to predict stress redistribution to surrounding matrix-fibers due to initial and progressive fracture of fiber/matrix and due to debonding of fiber-matrix interface. Microfracture results for various loading cases such as longitudinal, transverse, shear and bending are presented and discussed. Step-by-step procedures are outlined to evaluate composite microfracture for a given composite system.

  9. The Molecules of the Cell Matrix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Klaus; Osborn, Mary

    1985-01-01

    Cytoplasmic proteins form a highly structured yet changeable matrix that affects cell shape, division, motion, and transport of vesicles and organelles. Types of microfilaments, research techniques, actin and myosin, tumor cells, and other topics are addressed. Evidence indicates that the cell matrix might have a bearing on metabolism. (DH)

  10. Induced Course Load Matrix: Conception and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suslow, Sidney

    1976-01-01

    The origins and range of applications of the academic matrix, or ICLM (Induced Course Load Matrix), are described by its originator. Its identification of interrelations among student majors and their course preferences makes it useful for academic planning and curriculum reviews, particularly in simulation models for exploring costs, personnel,…

  11. Counseling Uses of the Hill Interaction Matrix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Robert E.

    While the Hill Interaction Matrix was developed as a research instrument to assess interview process, it is also generally useful in any undertaking requiring the evaluation of verbal interaction and, hence, can be used as an aid in modifying communication in order to increase its therapeutic effect. The Hill Interaction Matrix with accompanying…

  12. Application of the matrix exponential kernel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohach, A. F.

    1972-01-01

    A point matrix kernel for radiation transport, developed by the transmission matrix method, has been used to develop buildup factors and energy spectra through slab layers of different materials for a point isotropic source. Combinations of lead-water slabs were chosen for examples because of the extreme differences in shielding properties of these two materials.

  13. Matrix model description of baryonic deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Bena, Iosif; Murayama, Hitoshi; Roiban, Radu; Tatar, Radu

    2003-03-13

    We investigate supersymmetric QCD with N{sub c} + 1 flavors using an extension of the recently proposed relation between gauge theories and matrix models.The impressive agreement between the two sides provides a beautiful confirmation of the extension of the gauge theory-matrix model relation to this case.

  14. Adiabatic approximation for the density matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, Yehuda B.

    1992-05-01

    An adiabatic approximation for the Liouville density-matrix equation which includes decay terms is developed. The adiabatic approximation employs the eigenvectors of the non-normal Liouville operator. The approximation is valid when there exists a complete set of eigenvectors of the non-normal Liouville operator (i.e., the eigenvectors span the density-matrix space), the time rate of change of the Liouville operator is small, and an auxiliary matrix is nonsingular. Numerical examples are presented involving efficient population transfer in a molecule by stimulated Raman scattering, with the intermediate level of the molecule decaying on a time scale that is fast compared with the pulse durations of the pump and Stokes fields. The adiabatic density-matrix approximation can be simply used to determine the density matrix for atomic or molecular systems interacting with cw electromagnetic fields when spontaneous emission or other decay mechanisms prevail.

  15. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering. PMID:26805790

  16. The matrix exponential in transient structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon

    1987-01-01

    The primary usefulness of the presented theory is in the ability to represent the effects of high frequency linear response with accuracy, without requiring very small time steps in the analysis of dynamic response. The matrix exponential contains a series approximation to the dynamic model. However, unlike the usual analysis procedure which truncates the high frequency response, the approximation in the exponential matrix solution is in the time domain. By truncating the series solution to the matrix exponential short, the solution is made inaccurate after a certain time. Yet, up to that time the solution is extremely accurate, including all high frequency effects. By taking finite time increments, the exponential matrix solution can compute the response very accurately. Use of the exponential matrix in structural dynamics is demonstrated by simulating the free vibration response of multi degree of freedom models of cantilever beams.

  17. Adaptive wavelet methods - Matrix-vector multiplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Černá, Dana; Finěk, Václav

    2012-12-01

    The design of most adaptive wavelet methods for elliptic partial differential equations follows a general concept proposed by A. Cohen, W. Dahmen and R. DeVore in [3, 4]. The essential steps are: transformation of the variational formulation into the well-conditioned infinite-dimensional l2 problem, finding of the convergent iteration process for the l2 problem and finally derivation of its finite dimensional version which works with an inexact right hand side and approximate matrix-vector multiplications. In our contribution, we shortly review all these parts and wemainly pay attention to approximate matrix-vector multiplications. Effective approximation of matrix-vector multiplications is enabled by an off-diagonal decay of entries of the wavelet stiffness matrix. We propose here a new approach which better utilize actual decay of matrix entries.

  18. A matrix analysis of conjugate gradient algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, S.F.; Gutknecht, M.H.

    1993-04-01

    This paper explores the relationships between the conjugate gradient algorithms Orthodir, Orthomin, and Orthores. To facilitate this exploration, a matrix formulation for each algorithm is given. It is shown that Orthodir directly computes a Hessenberg matrix H{sub k} at step k. Orthores also computes a Hessenberg matrix, G{sub k}, which is similar to a Hessenberg matrix obtained from H{sub k} by perturbing its last column. (This perturbation vanishes at convergence.) Orthomin, on the other hand, computes a UL and LU factorization of the perturbed H{sub k} and G{sub k}, respectively. The breakdown of Orthomin and Orthores are interpreted in terms of these underlying matrix factorizations. A connection with Lanczos algorithms is also examined, as is the special case of B-normal(1) matrices (for which efficient three-term CG algorithms exist).

  19. Graphical evaluation of relativistic matrix elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, K. N.

    1978-01-01

    A graphical representation of angular momentum was used to evaluate relativistic matrix elements between antisymmetrized states of many particle configurations having any number of open shells. The antisymmetrized matrix element was expanded as a sum of semisymmetrized matrix elements. The diagram representing a semisymmetrized matrix element was composed of four diagram blocks; the bra block, the ket block, the spectator block, and the interaction block. The first three blocks indicate the couplings of the two interacting configurations while the last depends on the interaction and is the replaceable component. Interaction blocks for relativistic operators and commonly used potentials were summarized in ready to use forms. A simple step by step procedure was prescribed generally for calculating antisymmetrized matrix elements of one and two particle operators.

  20. Active Matrix OLED Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salazar, George

    2013-01-01

    This report focuses on the limited environmental testing of the AMOLED display performed as an engineering evaluation by The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC)-specifically. EMI. Thermal Vac, and radiation tests. The AMOLED display is an active-matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) technology. The testing provided an initial understanding of the technology and its suitability for space applications. Relative to light emitting diode (LED) displays or liquid crystal displays (LCDs), AMOLED displays provide a superior viewing experience even though they are much lighter and smaller, produce higher contrast ratio and richer colors, and require less power to operate than LCDs. However, AMOLED technology has not been demonstrated in a space environment. Therefore, some risks with the technology must be addressed before they can be seriously considered for human spaceflight. The environmental tests provided preliminary performance data on the ability of the display technology to handle some of the simulated induced space/spacecraft environments that an AMOLED display will see during a spacecraft certification test program. This engineering evaluation is part of a Space Act Agreement (SM) between The NASA/JSC and Honeywell International (HI) as a collaborative effort to evaluate the potential use of AMOLED technology for future human spaceflight missions- both government-led and commercial. Under this SM, HI is responsible for doing optical performance evaluation, as well as temperature and touch screen studies. The NASA/JSC is responsible for performing environmental testing comprised of EMI, Thermal Vac, and radiation tests. Additionally, as part of the testing, limited optical data was acquired to assess performance as the display was subjected to the induced environments. The NASA will benefit from this engineering evaluation by understanding AMOLED suitability for future use in space as well as becoming a smarter buyer (or developer) of the technology. HI benefits

  1. Contact guidance induced organization of extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Manwaring, Michael E; Walsh, Jennifer F; Tresco, Patrick A

    2004-08-01

    The scarring response following injury to the central nervous system disrupts the anatomical organization of nervous tissue posing a barrier to the regeneration of axons. In the present study, using materials with nanometer level surface features we examined whether matrix organization could be controlled by engineering meningeal cell asymmetry. Following 5 days in culture, the organization of meningeal cells along with their cytoskeletal elements and extracellular matrix proteins was evaluated. Meningeal cell morphology was markedly affected by nanometer level substrate topography. Cell alignment increased with increasing surface roughness. In addition, linear arrays of extracellular matrix were expressed that appeared related to cellular orientation. When cultured on substrates with topographical features of less than 10 nm neither cells nor their extracellular matrix showed organizational asymmetry. However, as oriented surface roughness increased, cellular and matrix asymmetrical organization became more pronounced reaching a threshold at 345 nm. These results suggest that biomaterial surface topography or other methods of altering the orientation of cells may be used to engineer orientation into the secreted extracellular matrix and as such may be a potential strategy for developing organized cell-derived matrix as a bridging material for nerve repair or other regenerative applications. PMID:15020137

  2. Bone Matrix Turnover And Balance In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Barry; Nichols, George

    1969-01-01

    Labeled proline from incubation media has been shown to be incorporated into living bone matrix collagen in vitro. Hydroxyproline is released from fresh bone slices in similar systems in a characteristic curve against time. This hydroxyproline is derived from three distinct sources, each of which may be separately quantitated. Part of the total represents passive solubilization of matrix collagen, part is derived from new synthesis of soluble collagen occurring in vitro, and the remainder is released by cell-mediated resorptive action. The latter two processes are linear with time up to 8 hr; the former decays to zero at about 2 hr. Consequently, rates of collagen synthesis and of new collagen deposition and resorption can be quantitated simultaneously in the same system. The ability to measure these parameters of bone collagen metabolism provides methods both for the accurate evaluation of organic matrix resorption in vitro and for the accurate measurement of rates of collagen synthesis and collagen deposition. The application of the method is illustrated using parathyroid hormone and thyrocalcitonin. Parathyroid hormone diminishes collagen synthesis and stimulates collagen resorption. It reduces slightly the deposition of newly formed collagen in stable matrix. The net effect of these changes is to produce a marked negative balance. It does not significantly affect the solubility of matrix collagen. Thyrocalcitonin does not affect collagen synthesis or its deposition. It causes a marked fall in resorption rate. It has no effect on matrix collagen solubility. The net effect is to produce a marked positive balance of matrix collagen. Images PMID:5774102

  3. A transilient matrix for moist convection

    SciTech Connect

    Romps, D.; Kuang, Z.

    2011-08-15

    A method is introduced for diagnosing a transilient matrix for moist convection. This transilient matrix quantifies the nonlocal transport of air by convective eddies: for every height z, it gives the distribution of starting heights z{prime} for the eddies that arrive at z. In a cloud-resolving simulation of deep convection, the transilient matrix shows that two-thirds of the subcloud air convecting into the free troposphere originates from within 100 m of the surface. This finding clarifies which initial height to use when calculating convective available potential energy from soundings of the tropical troposphere.

  4. High-temperature polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    Polymers research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has produced high-temperature, easily processable resin systems, such as PMR-15. In addition, the Polymers Branch has investigated ways to improve the mechanical properties of polymers and the microcracking resistance of polymer matrix composites in response to industry need for new and improved aeropropulsion materials. Current and future research in the Polymers Branch is aimed at advancing the upper use temperature of polymer matrix composites to 700 F and beyond by developing new resins, by examining the use of fiber reinforcements other than graphite, and by developing coatings for polymer matrix composites to increase their oxidation resistance.

  5. Anderson transition for Google matrix eigenstates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2015-10-01

    We introduce a number of random matrix models describing the Google matrix G of directed networks. The properties of their spectra and eigenstates are analyzed by numerical matrix diagonalization. We show that for certain models it is possible to have an algebraic decay of PageRank vector with the exponent similar to real directed networks. At the same time the spectrum has no spectral gap and a broad distribution of eigenvalues in the complex plain. The eigenstates of G are characterized by the Anderson transition from localized to delocalized states and a mobility edge curve in the complex plane of eigenvalues.

  6. Visual Matrix Clustering of Social Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Foote, Harlan P.; May, Richard A.

    2013-07-01

    The prevailing choices to graphically represent a social network in today’s literature are a node-link graph layout and an adjacency matrix. Both visualization techniques have unique strengths and weaknesses when applied to different domain applications. In this article, we focus our discussion on adjacency matrix and how to turn the matrix-based visualization technique from merely showing pairwise associations among network actors (or graph nodes) to depicting clusters of a social network. We also use node-link layouts to supplement the discussion.

  7. Earthquake prediction decision and risk matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Qi-Jia

    1993-08-01

    The issuance of an earthquake prediction must cause widespread social responses. It is suggested and discussed in this paper that the comprehensive decision issue for earthquake prediction considering the factors of the social and economic cost. The method of matrix decision for earthquake prediction (MDEP) is proposed in this paper and it is based on the risk matrix. The goal of decision is that search the best manner issuing earthquake prediction so that minimize the total losses of economy. The establishment and calculation of the risk matrix is discussed, and the decision results taking account of economic factors and not considering the economic factors are compared by examples in this paper.

  8. Random matrix approach to shareholding networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souma, Wataru; Fujiwara, Yoshi; Aoyama, Hideaki

    2004-12-01

    A shareholding network is represented by a symmetrical adjacency matrix. The random matrix theoretical approach to this matrix shows that the spectrum follows a power law distribution, ρ(λ)∼|λ|, in the tail part. It is also shown that the degree distribution of this network follows a power law distribution, p(k)∼k, in the large degree range. The scaling law δ=2γ-1 is found in this network. The reason why this relation holds is attributed to the local tree-like structure of the shareholding network.

  9. 48 CFR 2152.370 - Use of the matrix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of the matrix. 2152... CONTRACT CLAUSES Provision and Clause Matrix 2152.370 Use of the matrix. (a) The matrix in this section... clause is to be used only when the applicable conditions are met. FEGLI Program Clause Matrix Clause...

  10. 48 CFR 2152.370 - Use of the matrix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of the matrix. 2152... CONTRACT CLAUSES Provision and Clause Matrix 2152.370 Use of the matrix. (a) The matrix in this section... clause is to be used only when the applicable conditions are met. FEGLI Program Clause Matrix Clause...

  11. 48 CFR 2152.370 - Use of the matrix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of the matrix. 2152... CONTRACT CLAUSES Provision and Clause Matrix 2152.370 Use of the matrix. (a) The matrix in this section... clause is to be used only when the applicable conditions are met. FEGLI Program Clause Matrix Clause...

  12. 48 CFR 2152.370 - Use of the matrix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of the matrix. 2152... CONTRACT CLAUSES Provision and Clause Matrix 2152.370 Use of the matrix. (a) The matrix in this section... clause is to be used only when the applicable conditions are met. FEGLI Program Clause Matrix Clause...

  13. Fabrication method, structure, mechanical, and biological properties of decellularized extracellular matrix for replacement of wide bone tissue defects.

    PubMed

    Anisimova, N Y; Kiselevsky, M V; Sukhorukova, I V; Shvindina, N V; Shtansky, D V

    2015-09-01

    The present paper was focused on the development of a new method of decellularized extracellular matrix (DECM) fabrication via a chemical treatment of a native bone tissue. Particular attention was paid to the influence of chemical treatment on the mechanical properties of native bones, sterility, and biological performance in vivo using the syngeneic heterotopic and orthotopic implantation models. The obtained data indicated that after a chemical decellularization treatment in 4% aqueous sodium chlorite, no noticeable signs of the erosion of compact cortical bone surface or destruction of trabeculae of spongy bone in spinal channel were observed. The histological studies showed that the chemical treatment resulted in the decellularization of both bone and cartilage tissues. The DECM samples demonstrated no signs of chemical and biological degradation in vivo. Thorough structural characterization revealed that after decellularization, the mineral frame retained its integrity with the organic phase; however clotting and destruction of organic molecules and fibers were observed. FTIR studies revealed several structural changes associated with the destruction of organic molecules, although all organic components typical of intact bone were preserved. The decellularization-induced structural changes in the collagen constituent resulted changed the deformation under compression mechanism: from the major fracture by crack propagation throughout the sample to the predominantly brittle fracture. Although the mechanical properties of radius bones subjected to decellularization were observed to degrade, the mechanical properties of ulna bones in compression and humerus bones in bending remained unchanged. The compressive strength of both the intact and decellularized ulna bones was 125-130 MPa and the flexural strength of humerus bones was 156 and 145 MPa for the intact and decellularized samples, respectively. These results open new avenues for the use of DECM samples as

  14. Integrated optic vector-matrix multiplier

    DOEpatents

    Watts, Michael R.

    2011-09-27

    A vector-matrix multiplier is disclosed which uses N different wavelengths of light that are modulated with amplitudes representing elements of an N.times.1 vector and combined to form an input wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) light stream. The input WDM light stream is split into N streamlets from which each wavelength of the light is individually coupled out and modulated for a second time using an input signal representing elements of an M.times.N matrix, and is then coupled into an output waveguide for each streamlet to form an output WDM light stream which is detected to generate a product of the vector and matrix. The vector-matrix multiplier can be formed as an integrated optical circuit using either waveguide amplitude modulators or ring resonator amplitude modulators.

  15. Matrix Models, Emergent Spacetime and Symmetry Breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Grosse, Harald; Steinacker, Harold; Lizzi, Fedele

    2009-12-15

    We discuss how a matrix model recently shown to describe emergent gravity may contain extra degrees of freedom which reproduce some characteristics of the standard model, in particular the breaking of symmetries and the correct quantum numbers of fermions.

  16. Nuclear waste storage container with metal matrix

    DOEpatents

    Sump, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a storage container for high-level waste having a metal matrix for the high-level waste, thereby providing greater impact strength for the waste container and increasing heat transfer properties.

  17. Enter the matrix: shape, signal and superhighway.

    PubMed

    Lund, Dane K; Cornelison, D D W

    2013-09-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscle is notable for both its highly ordered biophysical structure and its regenerative capacity following trauma. Critical to both of these features is the specialized muscle extracellular matrix, comprising both the multiple concentric sheaths of connective tissue surrounding structural units from single myofibers to whole muscles and the dense interstitial matrix that occupies the space between them. Extracellular matrix-dependent interactions affect all activities of the resident muscle stem cell population (the satellite cells), from maintenance of quiescence and stem cell potential to the regulation of proliferation and differentiation. This review focuses on the role of the extracellular matrix in muscle regeneration, with a particular emphasis on regulation of satellite-cell activity. PMID:23374506

  18. Optimal matrix approximants in structural identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, C. A.; Smith, S. W.

    1992-01-01

    Problems of model correlation and system identification are central in the design, analysis, and control of large space structures. Of the numerous methods that have been proposed, many are based on finding minimal adjustments to a model matrix sufficient to introduce some desirable quality into that matrix. In this work, several of these methods are reviewed, placed in a modern framework, and linked to other previously known ideas in computational linear algebra and optimization. This new framework provides a point of departure for a number of new methods which are introduced here. Significant among these is a method for stiffness matrix adjustment which preserves the sparsity pattern of an original matrix, requires comparatively modest computational resources, and allows robust handling of noisy modal data. Numerical examples are included to illustrate the methods presented herein.

  19. Enzymatic activation of a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor†

    PubMed Central

    Major Jourden, Jody L.; Cohen, Seth M.

    2010-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (MMPi) possessing a glucose protecting group on the zinc-binding group (ZBG) show a dramatic increase in inhibitory activity upon cleavage by β-glucosidase. PMID:20449263

  20. Matrix Gla protein in tumoral pathology.

    PubMed

    Gheorghe, Simona Roxana; Crăciun, Alexandra Mărioara

    2016-01-01

    Matrix Gla protein is a vitamin K-dependent protein secreted by chondrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. The presence of matrix Gla protein was reported in arterial and venous walls, lungs, kidney, uterus, heart, tooth cementum and eyes. Several studies identified matrix Gla protein in tumoral pathology. Until recently, it was thought to only have an inhibitory role of physiological and ectopic calcification. New studies demonstrated that it also has a role in physiological and pathological angiogenesis, as well as in tumorigenesis. The aim of this review is to report the latest findings related to the expression and clinical implications of matrix Gla protein in different types of cancer with an emphasis on cerebral tumors. PMID:27547048

  1. Matrix Gla protein in tumoral pathology

    PubMed Central

    GHEORGHE, SIMONA ROXANA; CRĂCIUN, ALEXANDRA MĂRIOARA

    2016-01-01

    Matrix Gla protein is a vitamin K-dependent protein secreted by chondrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. The presence of matrix Gla protein was reported in arterial and venous walls, lungs, kidney, uterus, heart, tooth cementum and eyes. Several studies identified matrix Gla protein in tumoral pathology. Until recently, it was thought to only have an inhibitory role of physiological and ectopic calcification. New studies demonstrated that it also has a role in physiological and pathological angiogenesis, as well as in tumorigenesis. The aim of this review is to report the latest findings related to the expression and clinical implications of matrix Gla protein in different types of cancer with an emphasis on cerebral tumors. PMID:27547048

  2. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-01-01

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  3. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-12-31

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  4. Fiber coatings for ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, H.W.; Bohlen, J.W.

    1992-08-01

    Two fiber coating concepts for ceramic matrix composites were successfully demonstrated in a preliminary study. These coatings were designed to promote toughness in composites and resist oxidation. The concepts were: (1) thin, multiple unbonded layers, and (2) a single porous layer that provided low interfacial strengths between the fiber and matrix. Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) SiC and sol-gel derived oxides were used to produce the fiber coatings. Specimens consisted of a single coated monofilament fiber and a sheath of CVD SiC to represent the matrix. Results from flexure tests showed that matrix cracks were deflected and that fibers debonded the same as in specimens made using carbon-coated fibers. Crack deflection and fiber debonding were also evident after exposure in air at elevated temperatures. 5 refs.

  5. Sensitivity analysis of periodic matrix population models.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Hal; Shyu, Esther

    2012-12-01

    Periodic matrix models are frequently used to describe cyclic temporal variation (seasonal or interannual) and to account for the operation of multiple processes (e.g., demography and dispersal) within a single projection interval. In either case, the models take the form of periodic matrix products. The perturbation analysis of periodic models must trace the effects of parameter changes, at each phase of the cycle, on output variables that are calculated over the entire cycle. Here, we apply matrix calculus to obtain the sensitivity and elasticity of scalar-, vector-, or matrix-valued output variables. We apply the method to linear models for periodic environments (including seasonal harvest models), to vec-permutation models in which individuals are classified by multiple criteria, and to nonlinear models including both immediate and delayed density dependence. The results can be used to evaluate management strategies and to study selection gradients in periodic environments. PMID:23316494

  6. Matrix Models, Emergent Spacetime and Symmetry Breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, Harald; Lizzi, Fedele; Steinacker, Harold

    2009-12-01

    We discuss how a matrix model recently shown to describe emergent gravity may contain extra degrees of freedom which reproduce some characteristics of the standard model, in particular the breaking of symmetries and the correct quantum numbers of fermions.

  7. Celsian Glass-Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Dicarlo, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Glass-ceramic matrix reinforced fiber composite materials developed for use in low dielectric applications, such as radomes. Materials strong and tough, exhibit low dielectric properties, and endure high temperatures.

  8. Amyloid Structures as Biofilm Matrix Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Taglialegna, Agustina; Lasa, Iñigo; Valle, Jaione

    2016-10-01

    Recent insights into bacterial biofilm matrix structures have induced a paradigm shift toward the recognition of amyloid fibers as common building block structures that confer stability to the exopolysaccharide matrix. Here we describe the functional amyloid systems related to biofilm matrix formation in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and recent knowledge regarding the interaction of amyloids with other biofilm matrix components such as extracellular DNA (eDNA) and the host immune system. In addition, we summarize the efforts to identify compounds that target amyloid fibers for therapeutic purposes and recent developments that take advantage of the amyloid structure to engineer amyloid fibers of bacterial biofilm matrices for biotechnological applications. PMID:27185827

  9. Axial grading of inert matrix fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Recktenwald, G. D.; Deinert, M. R.

    2012-07-01

    Burning actinides in an inert matrix fuel to 750 MWd/kg IHM results in a significant reduction in transuranic isotopes. However, achieving this level of burnup in a standard light water reactor would require residence times that are twice that of uranium dioxide fuels. The reactivity of an inert matrix assembly at the end of life is less than 1/3 of its beginning of life reactivity leading to undesirable radial and axial power peaking in the reactor core. Here we show that axial grading of the inert matrix fuel rods can reduce peaking significantly. Monte Carlo simulations are used to model the assembly level power distributions in both ungraded and graded fuel rods. The results show that an axial grading of uranium dioxide and inert matrix fuels with erbium can reduces power peaking by more than 50% in the axial direction. The reduction in power peaking enables the core to operate at significantly higher power. (authors)

  10. Fibre-Matrix Interaction in Soft Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Zaoyang

    2010-05-21

    Although the mechanical behaviour of soft tissue has been extensively studied, the interaction between the collagen fibres and the ground matrix has not been well understood and is therefore ignored by most constitutive models of soft tissue. In this paper, the human annulus fibrosus is used as an example and the potential fibre-matrix interaction is identified by careful investigation of the experimental results of biaxial and uniaxial testing of the human annulus fibrosus. First, the uniaxial testing result of the HAF along the axial direction is analysed and it is shown that the mechanical behaviour of the ground matrix can be well simulated by the incompressible neo-Hookean model when the collagen fibres are all under contraction. If the collagen fibres are stretched, the response of the ground matrix can still be described by the incompressible neo-Hookean model, but the effective stiffness of the matrix depends on the fibre stretch ratio. This stiffness can be more than 10 times larger than the one obtained with collagen fibres under contraction. This phenomenon can only be explained by the fibre-matrix interaction. Furthermore, we find that the physical interpretation of this interaction includes the inhomogeneity of the soft tissue and the fibre orientation dispersion. The dependence of the tangent stiffness of the matrix on the first invariant of the deformation tensor can also be explained by the fibre orientation dispersion. The significant effect of the fibre-matrix interaction strain energy on mechanical behaviour of the soft tissue is also illustrated by comparing some simulation results.

  11. Polymer Matrix Composite Material Oxygen Compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Tom

    2001-01-01

    Carbon fiber/polymer matrix composite materials look promising as a material to construct liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks. Based on mechanical impact tests the risk will be greater than aluminum, however, the risk can probably be managed to an acceptable level. Proper tank design and operation can minimize risk. A risk assessment (hazard analysis) will be used to determine the overall acceptability for using polymer matrix composite materials.

  12. Micromechanical Modeling of Woven Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of an extensive micromechanical modeling effort for woven metal matrix composites. The model is employed to predict the mechanical response of 8-harness (8H) satin weave carbon/copper (C/Cu) composites. Experimental mechanical results for this novel high thermal conductivity material were recently reported by Bednarcyk et al. along with preliminary model results. The micromechanics model developed herein is based on an embedded approach. A micromechanics model for the local (micro-scale) behavior of the woven composite, the original method of cells (Aboudi), is embedded in a global (macro-scale) micromechanics model (the three-dimensional generalized method of cells (GMC-3D) (Aboudi). This approach allows representation of true repeating unit cells for woven metal matrix composites via GMC-3D, and representation of local effects, such as matrix plasticity, yarn porosity, and imperfect fiber-matrix bonding. In addition, the equations of GMC-3D were reformulated to significantly reduce the number of unknown quantities that characterize the deformation fields at the microlevel in order to make possible the analysis of actual microstructures of woven composites. The resulting micromechanical model (WCGMC) provides an intermediate level of geometric representation, versatility, and computational efficiency with respect to previous analytical and numerical models for woven composites, but surpasses all previous modeling work by allowing the mechanical response of a woven metal matrix composite, with an elastoplastic matrix, to be examined for the first time. WCGMC is employed to examine the effects of composite microstructure, porosity, residual stresses, and imperfect fiber-matrix bonding on the predicted mechanical response of 8H satin C/Cu. The previously reported experimental results are summarized, and the model predictions are compared to monotonic and cyclic tensile and shear test data. By considering appropriate levels of porosity

  13. Cryogenic regenerator including sarancarbon heat conduction matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Petrick, S. Walter (Inventor); Britcliffe, Michael J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A saran carbon matrix is employed to conduct heat through the heat storing volume of a cryogenic regenerator. When helium is adsorbed into the saran carbon matrix, the combination exhibits a volumetric specific heat much higher than previously used lead balls. A helium adsorbed saran regenerator should allow much lower refrigerator temperatures than those practically obtainable with lead based regenerators for regenerator type refrigeration systems.

  14. Fuel cell with electrolyte matrix assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, Arthur; Pudick, Sheldon; Wang, Chiu L.

    1988-01-01

    This invention is directed to a fuel cell employing a substantially immobilized electrolyte imbedded therein and having a laminated matrix assembly disposed between the electrodes of the cell for holding and distributing the electrolyte. The matrix assembly comprises a non-conducting fibrous material such as silicon carbide whiskers having a relatively large void-fraction and a layer of material having a relatively small void-fraction.

  15. Application of Fuzzy Logic to Matrix FMECA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, N. Ravi; Prabhu, B. S.

    2001-04-01

    A methodology combining the benefits of Fuzzy Logic and Matrix FMEA is presented in this paper. The presented methodology extends the risk prioritization beyond the conventional Risk Priority Number (RPN) method. Fuzzy logic is used to calculate the criticality rank. Also the matrix approach is improved further to develop a pictorial representation retaining all relevant qualitative and quantitative information of several FMEA elements relationships. The methodology presented is demonstrated by application to an illustrative example.

  16. Nanophosphor composite scintillator with a liquid matrix

    DOEpatents

    McKigney, Edward Allen; Burrell, Anthony Keiran; Bennett, Bryan L.; Cooke, David Wayne; Ott, Kevin Curtis; Bacrania, Minesh Kantilal; Del Sesto, Rico Emilio; Gilbertson, Robert David; Muenchausen, Ross Edward; McCleskey, Thomas Mark

    2010-03-16

    An improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid comprises nanophosphor particles in a liquid matrix. The nanophosphor particles are optionally surface modified with an organic ligand. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially surface charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during dispersion in a liquid scintillator matrix. The improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid may be used in any conventional liquid scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  17. [Research on pericellular matrix properties for chondrcytes].

    PubMed

    Han, Jun-liang; Duan, Wang-ping; Shi, Guang-hua; Yuan, Wei; Wei, Xiao-chun

    2015-06-01

    Pericellular matrix (PCM) is a narrow tissue region surrounding chondrocytes, which "chondron" with its enclosed cells. A number of studies suggested that PCM is rich in proteoglycans, collagen and fibronectin, and plays an important role in regulating microenvironment of chondrocytes. Direct measures of PCM properties through micropipette aspiration technique showed that PCM was different from mechanical property of chondrocytes and nature extracellular matrix. However, the function of PCM is not clear, and need further study. PMID:26255489

  18. Whitby Mudstone, flow from matrix to fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houben, Maartje; Hardebol, Nico; Barnhoorn, Auke; Boersma, Quinten; Peach, Colin; Bertotti, Giovanni; Drury, Martyn

    2016-04-01

    Fluid flow from matrix to well in shales would be faster if we account for the duality of the permeable medium considering a high permeable fracture network together with a tight matrix. To investigate how long and how far a gas molecule would have to travel through the matrix until it reaches an open connected fracture we investigated the permeability of the Whitby Mudstone (UK) matrix in combination with mapping the fracture network present in the current outcrops of the Whitby Mudstone at the Yorkshire coast. Matrix permeability was measured perpendicular to the bedding using a pressure step decay method on core samples and permeability values are in the microdarcy range. The natural fracture network present in the pavement shows a connected network with dominant NS and EW strikes, where the NS fractures are the main fracture set with an orthogonal fracture set EW. Fracture spacing relations in the pavements show that the average distance to the nearest fracture varies between 7 cm (EW) and 14 cm (NS), where 90% of the matrix is 30 cm away from the nearest fracture. By making some assumptions like; fracture network at depth is similar to what is exposed in the current pavements and open to flow, fracture network is at hydrostatic pressure at 3 km depth, overpressure between matrix and fractures is 10% and a matrix permeability perpendicular to the bedding of 0.1 microdarcy, we have calculated the time it takes for a gas molecule to travel to the nearest fracture. These input values give travel times up to 8 days for a distance of 14 cm. If the permeability is changed to 1 nanodarcy or 10 microdarcy travel times change to 2.2 years or 2 hours respectively.

  19. Mechanisms balancing skeletal matrix synthesis and degradation.

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Harry C; Zaidi, Mone; Schlesinger, Paul H

    2002-01-01

    Bone is regulated by evolutionarily conserved signals that balance continuous differentiation of bone matrix-producing cells against apoptosis and matrix removal. This is continued from embryogenesis, where the skeleton differentiates as a solid mass and is shaped into separate bones by cell death and proteolysis. The two major tissues of the skeleton are avascular cartilage, with an extracellular matrix based on type II collagen and hydrophilic proteoglycans, and bone, a stronger and lighter material based on oriented type I collagen and hydroxyapatite. Both differentiate from the same mesenchymal stem cells. This differentiation is regulated by a family of related signals centred on bone morphogenic proteins. Fibroblast growth factors, Indian hedgehog and parathyroid hormone-related protein are important in determining the type of matrix and the relation of skeletal and non-skeletal structures. Removal of mineralized matrix involves apoptosis of matrix cells and differentiation of acid-secreting cells (osteoclasts) from macrophage precursors. Key regulators of matrix removal are signals in the tumour-necrosis-factor family. Osteoclasts dissolve bone by isolating a region of the matrix and secreting HCl and proteinases at that site. Successive cycles of removal and replacement allow growth, repair and remodelling. The signals for bone turnover are predominantly cell-membrane-associated, allowing very specific spatial regulation. In addition to its support function, bone is a reservoir of Ca2+, PO3-(4) and OH-. Secondary modulation of mineral secretion and bone degradation are mediated by humoral signals, including parathyroid hormone and vitamin D, as well as the cytokines that also regulate the underlying cell differentiation. PMID:12023876

  20. Ubiquitination of specific mitochondrial matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Gilad; Ziv, Tamar; Braten, Ori; Admon, Arie; Udasin, Ronald G; Ciechanover, Aaron

    2016-06-17

    Several protein quality control systems in bacteria and/or mitochondrial matrix from lower eukaryotes are absent in higher eukaryotes. These are transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), The N-end rule ATP-dependent protease ClpAP, and two more ATP-dependent proteases, HslUV and ClpXP (in yeast). The lost proteases resemble the 26S proteasome and the role of tmRNA and the N-end rule in eukaryotic cytosol is performed by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Therefore, we hypothesized that the UPS might have substituted these systems - at least partially - in the mitochondrial matrix of higher eukaryotes. Using three independent experimental approaches, we demonstrated the presence of ubiquitinated proteins in the matrix of isolated yeast mitochondria. First, we show that isolated mitochondria contain ubiquitin (Ub) conjugates, which remained intact after trypsin digestion. Second, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial soluble fraction contains Ub-conjugates, several of which were identified by mass spectrometry and are localized to the matrix. Third, using immunoaffinity enrichment by specific antibodies recognizing digested ubiquitinated peptides, we identified a group of Ub-modified matrix proteins. The modification was further substantiated by separation on SDS-PAGE and immunoblots. Last, we attempted to identify the ubiquitin ligase(s) involved, and identified Dma1p as a trypsin-resistant protein in our mitochondrial preparations. Taken together, these data suggest a yet undefined role for the UPS in regulation of the mitochondrial matrix proteins. PMID:27157140

  1. Pseudomonas biofilm matrix composition and niche biology

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Ethan E.; Wozniak, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms are a predominant form of growth for bacteria in the environment and in the clinic. Critical for biofilm development are adherence, proliferation, and dispersion phases. Each of these stages includes reinforcement by, or modulation of, the extracellular matrix. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been a model organism for the study of biofilm formation. Additionally, other Pseudomonas species utilize biofilm formation during plant colonization and environmental persistence. Pseudomonads produce several biofilm matrix molecules, including polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins. Accessory matrix components shown to aid biofilm formation and adaptability under varying conditions are also produced by pseudomonads. Adaptation facilitated by biofilm formation allows for selection of genetic variants with unique and distinguishable colony morphology. Examples include rugose small-colony variants and wrinkly spreaders (WS), which over produce Psl/Pel or cellulose, respectively, and mucoid bacteria that over produce alginate. The well-documented emergence of these variants suggests that pseudomonads take advantage of matrix-building subpopulations conferring specific benefits for the entire population. This review will focus on various polysaccharides as well as additional Pseudomonas biofilm matrix components. Discussions will center on structure–function relationships, regulation, and the role of individual matrix molecules in niche biology. PMID:22212072

  2. Instructive Roles of Extracellular Matrix on Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Neill, Thomas; Schaefer, Liliana; Iozzo, Renato V.

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy plays an essential role in maintaining an intricate balance between nutrient demands and energetic requirements during normal homeostasis. Autophagy recycles metabolic substrates from nonspecific bulk degradation of proteins and excess or damaged organelles. Recent work posits an active and dynamic signaling role for extracellular matrix-evoked autophagic regulation, that is, allosteric and independent of prevailing nutrient conditions. Several candidates, representing a diverse repertoire of matrix constituents (decorin, collagen VI, laminin α2, endostatin, endorepellin, and kringle V), can modulate autophagic signaling pathways. Importantly, a novel principle indicates that matrix constituents can differentially modulate autophagic induction and repression via interaction with specific receptors. Most of the matrix-derived factors described here appear to control autophagy in a canonical manner but independent of nutrient deprivation. Because the molecular composition and structure of the extracellular matrix are dynamically remodeled during various physiological and pathological conditions, we propose that matrix-regulated autophagy is key for maintaining proper tissue homeostasis and disease prevention, such as cancer progression and muscular dystrophies. PMID:24976620

  3. On the Instanton R-matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Andrey

    2016-08-01

    A torus action on a symplectic variety allows one to construct solutions to the quantum Yang-Baxter equations ( R-matrices). For a torus action on cotangent bundles over flag varieties the resulting R-matrices are the standard rational solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation, well known in the theory of quantum integrable systems. The torus action on the instanton moduli space leads to more complicated R-matrices, depending additionally on two equivariant parameters t 1 and t 2. In this paper we derive an explicit expression for the R-matrix associated with the instanton moduli space. We study its matrix elements and its Taylor expansion in the powers of the spectral parameter. Certain matrix elements of this R-matrix give a generating function for the characteristic classes of tautological bundles over the Hilbert schemes in terms of the bosonic cut-and-join operators. In particular we rederive from the R-matrix the well known Lehn's formula for the first Chern class. We explicitly compute the first several coefficients for the power series expansion of the R-matrix in the spectral parameter. These coefficients are represented by simple contour integrals of some symmetrized bosonic fields.

  4. Temperature dependent nonlinear metal matrix laminae behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, D. J.; Buesking, K. W.

    1986-01-01

    An analytical method is described for computing the nonlinear thermal and mechanical response of laminated plates. The material model focuses upon the behavior of metal matrix materials by relating the nonlinear composite response to plasticity effects in the matrix. The foundation of the analysis is the unidirectional material model which is used to compute the instantaneous properties of the lamina based upon the properties of the fibers and matrix. The unidirectional model assumes that the fibers properties are constant with temperature and assumes that the matrix can be modelled as a temperature dependent, bilinear, kinematically hardening material. An incremental approach is used to compute average stresses in the fibers and matrix caused by arbitrary mechanical and thermal loads. The layer model is incorporated in an incremental laminated plate theory to compute the nonlinear response of laminated metal matrix composites of general orientation and stacking sequence. The report includes comparisons of the method with other analytical approaches and compares theoretical calculations with measured experimental material behavior. A section is included which describes the limitations of the material model.

  5. Genetic Relationships Between Chondrules, Rims and Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huss, G. R.; Alexander, C. M. OD.; Palme, H.; Bland, P. A.; Wasson, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    The most primitive chondrites are composed of chondrules and chondrule fragments, various types of inclusions, discrete mineral grains, metal, sulfides, and fine-grained materials that occur as interchondrule matrix and as chondrule/inclusion rims. Understanding how these components are related is essential for understanding how chondrites and their constituents formed and were processed in the solar nebula. For example, were the first generations of chondrules formed by melting of matrix or matrix precursors? Did chondrule formation result in appreciable transfer of chondrule material into the matrix? Here, we consider three types of data: 1) compositional data for bulk chondrites and matrix, 2) mineralogical and textural information, and 3) the abundances and characteristics of presolar materials that reside in the matrix and rims. We use these data to evaluate the roles of evaporation and condensation, chondrule formation, mixing of different nebular components, and secondary processing both in the nebula and on the parent bodies. Our goal is to identify the things that are reasonably well established and to point out the areas that need additional work.

  6. Matrix method for acoustic levitation simulation.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Marco A B; Perez, Nicolas; Buiochi, Flavio; Adamowski, Julio C

    2011-08-01

    A matrix method is presented for simulating acoustic levitators. A typical acoustic levitator consists of an ultrasonic transducer and a reflector. The matrix method is used to determine the potential for acoustic radiation force that acts on a small sphere in the standing wave field produced by the levitator. The method is based on the Rayleigh integral and it takes into account the multiple reflections that occur between the transducer and the reflector. The potential for acoustic radiation force obtained by the matrix method is validated by comparing the matrix method results with those obtained by the finite element method when using an axisymmetric model of a single-axis acoustic levitator. After validation, the method is applied in the simulation of a noncontact manipulation system consisting of two 37.9-kHz Langevin-type transducers and a plane reflector. The manipulation system allows control of the horizontal position of a small levitated sphere from -6 mm to 6 mm, which is done by changing the phase difference between the two transducers. The horizontal position of the sphere predicted by the matrix method agrees with the horizontal positions measured experimentally with a charge-coupled device camera. The main advantage of the matrix method is that it allows simulation of non-symmetric acoustic levitators without requiring much computational effort. PMID:21859587

  7. Optical matrix-matrix multiplication method demonstrated by the use of a multifocus hololens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. K.; Liang, Y.-Z.

    1984-01-01

    A method of optical matrix-matrix multiplication is presented. The feasibility of the method is also experimentally demonstrated by the use of a dichromated-gelatin multifocus holographic lens (hololens). With the specific values of matrices chosen, the average percentage error between the theoretical and experimental data of the elements of the output matrix of the multiplication of some specific pairs of 3 x 3 matrices is 0.4 percent, which corresponds to an 8-bit accuracy.

  8. Inhibition of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase at cell-matrix adhesions.

    PubMed

    Takino, Takahisa; Saeki, Hiromi; Miyamori, Hisashi; Kudo, Tomoya; Sato, Hiroshi

    2007-12-15

    Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) has been implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis. We previously reported that extracellular matrix degradation by MT1-MMP regulates cell migration via modulating sustained integrin-mediated signals. In this study, MT1-MMP-expressing cells were plated onto fibronectin-coated plates and monitored for cell-matrix adhesion formation and fibronectin degradation. The fibronectin was degraded and removed in line with the cell migration track. The migrating cells showed a polarized morphology and were in contact with the edge of fibronectin through the leading edge, in which cell-matrix adhesions are concentrated. Expression of MT1-MMP targeted to cell-matrix adhesions by fusing with the focal adhesion targeting (FAT) domain of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) promoted the initial fibronectin lysis at the cell periphery immediately after adhesion. These results suggest that fibronectin is degraded by MT1-MMP located at cell-matrix adhesions, which are concentrated at the leading edge of the migrating cells. To inhibit MT1-MMP at cell-matrix adhesion, the dominant negative form of MT1-MMP (MT1-Pex) was targeted to the cell-matrix adhesion by fusing with the FAT domain (MT1-Pex-FAT). MT1-Pex-FAT accumulated at cell-matrix adhesions and inhibited fibronectin degradation as well as FAK phosphorylation more effectively than parental MT1-Pex. MT1-Pex-FAT was also shown to suppress the invasion of tumor cells into three-dimensional collagen gel more strongly than MT1-Pex. These results suggest that MT1-MMP-mediated extracellular matrix lysis at cell-matrix adhesions induces the establishment of cell polarity, which facilitates cell-matrix adhesion turnover and subsequent cell migration. This model highlights the role of MT1-MMP at the leading edge of migrating cells. PMID:18089791

  9. Fatigue damage criteria - Matrix, fibers and interfaces of continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1988-01-01

    Continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC) are projected for use in high temperature, stiffness critical parts that will be subjected to cyclic loadings. Depending on the relative fatigue behavior of the fiber and matrix, and the interface properties, the failure modes of MMC can be grouped into four catagories: (1) matrix dominated, (2) fiber dominated, (3) self-similar damage growth, and (4) fiber/matrix interfacial failures. These four types of damage are discussed and illustrated by examples. The emphasis is on the fatigue of unnotched laminates.

  10. Auger analysis of a fiber/matrix interface in a ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honecy, Frank S.; Pepper, Stephen V.

    1988-01-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profiling was used to characterize the fiber/matrix interface of an SiC fiber, reaction bonded Si3N4 matrix composite. Depth profiles of the as received double coated fiber revealed concentration oscillations which disappeared after annealing the fiber in the environment used to fabricate the composite. After the composite was fractured, the Auger depth profiles showed that failure occurred in neither the Beta-SiC fiber body nor in the Si3N4 matrix but, concurrently, at the fiber coating/matrix interface and within the fiber coating itself.

  11. Experimental study on mechanical behavior of fiber/matrix interface in metal matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Chiang, F.P.

    1994-12-31

    The technique SIEM(Speckle Interferometry with Electron Microscopy) was employed to quantitatively measure the deformation on the fiber/matrix interface in SCS-6/Ti-6-4 composite at a microscale level. The displacement field within the fiber/matrix interphase zone was determined by in-situ observation with sensitivity of 0.003({micro}m). The macro-mechanical properties were compared with micro-mechanical behavior. It is shown that the strength in the interphase zone is weaker than the matrix tensile strength. The deformation process can be characterized by the uniform deformation, interface strain concentration and debond, and matrix plastic deformation.

  12. Method of producing a hybrid matrix fiber composite

    DOEpatents

    Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.

    2006-03-28

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites comprised of two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  13. INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 16 (FOAM CORE) / CARBON REINFORCED CYANOESTER (CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITE - CMC) HOT STRUCTURE, PANEL 884-1: SAMPLE 3

  14. INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 16 (FOAM CORE) / CARBON REINFORCED CYANOESTER (CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITE - CMC) HOT STRUCTURE, PANEL 884-1: SAMPLE 1

  15. METCAN-PC - METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE ANALYZER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    High temperature metal matrix composites offer great potential for use in advanced aerospace structural applications. The realization of this potential however, requires concurrent developments in (1) a technology base for fabricating high temperature metal matrix composite structural components, (2) experimental techniques for measuring their thermal and mechanical characteristics, and (3) computational methods to predict their behavior. METCAN (METal matrix Composite ANalyzer) is a computer program developed to predict this behavior. METCAN can be used to computationally simulate the non-linear behavior of high temperature metal matrix composites (HT-MMC), thus allowing the potential payoff for the specific application to be assessed. It provides a comprehensive analysis of composite thermal and mechanical performance. METCAN treats material nonlinearity at the constituent (fiber, matrix, and interphase) level, where the behavior of each constituent is modeled accounting for time-temperature-stress dependence. The composite properties are synthesized from the constituent instantaneous properties by making use of composite micromechanics and macromechanics. Factors which affect the behavior of the composite properties include the fabrication process variables, the fiber and matrix properties, the bonding between the fiber and matrix and/or the properties of the interphase between the fiber and matrix. The METCAN simulation is performed as point-wise analysis and produces composite properties which are readily incorporated into a finite element code to perform a global structural analysis. After the global structural analysis is performed, METCAN decomposes the composite properties back into the localized response at the various levels of the simulation. At this point the constituent properties are updated and the next iteration in the analysis is initiated. This cyclic procedure is referred to as the integrated approach to metal matrix composite analysis. METCAN

  16. Inelastic deformation of metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissenden, C. J.; Herakovich, C. T.; Pindera, M-J.

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical model capable of predicting the thermomechanical response of continuously reinforced metal matrix composite laminates subjected to multiaxial loading was developed. A micromechanical model is used in conjunction with nonlinear lamination theory to determine inelastic laminae response. Matrix viscoplasticity, residual stresses, and damage to the fiber/matrix interfacial zone are explicitly included in the model. The representative cell of the micromechanical model is considered to be in a state of generalized plane strain, enabling a quasi two-dimensional analysis to be performed. Constant strain finite elements are formulated with elastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations. Interfacial debonding is incorporated into the model through interface elements based on the interfacial debonding theory originally presented by Needleman, and modified by Tvergaard. Nonlinear interfacial constitutive equations relate interfacial tractions to displacement discontinuities at the interface. Theoretical predictions are compared with the results of an experimental program conducted on silicon carbide/titanium (SiC/Ti) unidirectional, (O4), and angle-ply, (+34)(sub s), tubular specimens. Multiaxial loading included increments of axial tension, compression, torque, and internal pressure. Loadings were chosen in an effort to distinguish inelastic deformation due to damage from matrix plasticity and separate time-dependent effects from time-independent effects. Results show that fiber/matrix debonding is nonuniform throughout the composite and is a major factor in the effective response. Also, significant creep behavior occurs at relatively low applied stress levels at room temperature.

  17. Spark plasma sintering of aluminum matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Vineet

    2011-12-01

    Aluminum matrix composites make a distinct category of advanced engineering materials having superior properties over conventional aluminum alloys. Aluminum matrix composites exhibit high hardness, yield strength, and excellent wear and corrosion resistance. Due to these attractive properties, aluminum matrix composites materials have many structural applications in the automotive and the aerospace industries. In this thesis, efforts are made to process high strength aluminum matrix composites which can be useful in the applications of light weight and strong materials. Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) is a relatively novel process where powder mixture is consolidated under the simultaneous influence of uniaxial pressure and pulsed direct current. In this work, SPS was used to process aluminum matrix composites having three different reinforcements: multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), silicon carbide (SiC), and iron-based metallic glass (MG). In Al-CNT composites, significant improvement in micro-hardness, nano-hardness, and compressive yield strength was observed. The Al-CNT composites further exhibited improved wear resistance and lower friction coefficient due to strengthening and self-lubricating effects of CNTs. In Al-SiC and Al-MG composites, microstructure, densification, and tribological behaviors were also studied. Reinforcing MG and SiC also resulted in increase in micro-hardness and wear resistance.

  18. Thermal stress effects in intermetallic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, P. K.; Sensmeier, M. D.; Kupperman, D. S.; Wadley, H. N. G.

    1993-01-01

    Intermetallic matrix composites develop residual stresses from the large thermal expansion mismatch (delta-alpha) between the fibers and matrix. This work was undertaken to: establish improved techniques to measure these thermal stresses in IMC's; determine residual stresses in a variety of IMC systems by experiments and modeling; and, determine the effect of residual stresses on selected mechanical properties of an IMC. X ray diffraction (XRD), neutron diffraction (ND), synchrotron XRD (SXRD), and ultrasonics (US) techniques for measuring thermal stresses in IMC were examined and ND was selected as the most promising technique. ND was demonstrated on a variety of IMC systems encompassing Ti- and Ni-base matrices, SiC, W, and Al2O3 fibers, and different fiber fractions (Vf). Experimental results on these systems agreed with predictions of a concentric cylinder model. In SiC/Ti-base systems, little yielding was found and stresses were controlled primarily by delta-alpha and Vf. In Ni-base matrix systems, yield strength of the matrix and Vf controlled stress levels. The longitudinal residual stresses in SCS-6/Ti-24Al-llNb composite were modified by thermomechanical processing. Increasing residual stress decreased ultimate tensile strength in agreement with model predictions. Fiber pushout strength showed an unexpected inverse correlation with residual stress. In-plane shear yield strength showed no dependence on residual stress. Higher levels of residual tension led to higher fatigue crack growth rates, as suggested by matrix mean stress effects.

  19. Thermal shock resistance of ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carper, D. M.; Nied, H. F.

    1993-01-01

    The experimental and analytical investigation of the thermal shock phenomena in ceramic matrix composites is detailed. The composite systems examined were oxide-based, consisting of an aluminosilicate matrix with either polycrystalline aluminosilicate or single crystal alumina fiber reinforcement. The program was divided into three technical tasks; baseline mechanical properties, thermal shock modeling, and thermal shock testing. The analytical investigation focused on the development of simple expressions for transient thermal stresses induced during thermal shock. The effect of various material parameters, including thermal conductivity, elastic modulus, and thermal expansion, were examined analytically for their effect on thermal shock performance. Using a simple maximum stress criteria for each constituent, it was observed that fiber fracture would occur only at the most extreme thermal shock conditions and that matrix fracture, splitting parallel to the reinforcing fiber, was to be expected for most practical cases. Thermal shock resistance for the two material systems was determined experimentally by subjecting plates to sudden changes in temperature on one surface while maintaining the opposite surface at a constant temperature. This temperature change was varied in severity (magnitude) and in number of shocks applied to a given sample. The results showed that for the most severe conditions examined that only surface matrix fracture was present with no observable fiber fracture. The impact of this damage on material performance was limited to the matrix dominated properties only. Specifically, compression strength was observed to decrease by as much as 50 percent from the measured baseline.

  20. Transfer matrix representation for periodic planar media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrinello, A.; Ghiringhelli, G. L.

    2016-06-01

    Sound transmission through infinite planar media characterized by in-plane periodicity is faced by exploiting the free wave propagation on the related unit cells. An appropriate through-thickness transfer matrix, relating a proper set of variables describing the acoustic field at the two external surfaces of the medium, is derived by manipulating the dynamic stiffness matrix related to a finite element model of the unit cell. The adoption of finite element models avoids analytical modeling or the simplification on geometry or materials. The obtained matrix is then used in a transfer matrix method context, making it possible to combine the periodic medium with layers of different nature and to treat both hard-wall and semi-infinite fluid termination conditions. A finite sequence of identical sub-layers through the thickness of the medium can be handled within the transfer matrix method, significantly decreasing the computational burden. Transfer matrices obtained by means of the proposed method are compared with analytical or equivalent models, in terms of sound transmission through barriers of different nature.

  1. Estimating the Inertia Matrix of a Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acikmese, Behcet; Keim, Jason; Shields, Joel

    2007-01-01

    A paper presents a method of utilizing some flight data, aboard a spacecraft that includes reaction wheels for attitude control, to estimate the inertia matrix of the spacecraft. The required data are digitized samples of (1) the spacecraft attitude in an inertial reference frame as measured, for example, by use of a star tracker and (2) speeds of rotation of the reaction wheels, the moments of inertia of which are deemed to be known. Starting from the classical equations for conservation of angular momentum of a rigid body, the inertia-matrix-estimation problem is formulated as a constrained least-squares minimization problem with explicit bounds on the inertia matrix incorporated as linear matrix inequalities. The explicit bounds reflect physical bounds on the inertia matrix and reduce the volume of data that must be processed to obtain a solution. The resulting minimization problem is a semidefinite optimization problem that can be solved efficiently, with guaranteed convergence to the global optimum, by use of readily available algorithms. In a test case involving a model attitude platform rotating on an air bearing, it is shown that, relative to a prior method, the present method produces better estimates from few data.

  2. Calculus of continuous matrix product states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haegeman, Jutho; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Osborne, Tobias J.; Verstraete, Frank

    2013-08-01

    We discuss various properties of the variational class of continuous matrix product states, a class of Ansatz states for one-dimensional quantum fields that was recently introduced as the direct continuum limit of the highly successful class of matrix product states. We discuss both attributes of the physical states, e.g., by showing in detail how to compute expectation values, as well as properties intrinsic to the representation itself, such as the gauge freedom. We consider general translation noninvariant systems made of several particle species and derive certain regularity properties that need to be satisfied by the variational parameters. We also devote a section to the translation invariant setting in the thermodynamic limit and show how continuous matrix product states possess an intrinsic ultraviolet cutoff. Finally, we introduce a new set of states, which are tangent to the original set of continuous matrix product states. For the case of matrix product states, this construction has recently proven relevant in the development of new algorithms for studying time evolution and elementary excitations of quantum spin chains. We thus lay the foundation for similar developments for one-dimensional quantum fields.

  3. Phylogenetic Stochastic Mapping Without Matrix Exponentiation

    PubMed Central

    Irvahn, Jan; Minin, Vladimir N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Phylogenetic stochastic mapping is a method for reconstructing the history of trait changes on a phylogenetic tree relating species/organism carrying the trait. State-of-the-art methods assume that the trait evolves according to a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) and works well for small state spaces. The computations slow down considerably for larger state spaces (e.g., space of codons), because current methodology relies on exponentiating CTMC infinitesimal rate matrices—an operation whose computational complexity grows as the size of the CTMC state space cubed. In this work, we introduce a new approach, based on a CTMC technique called uniformization, which does not use matrix exponentiation for phylogenetic stochastic mapping. Our method is based on a new Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm that targets the distribution of trait histories conditional on the trait data observed at the tips of the tree. The computational complexity of our MCMC method grows as the size of the CTMC state space squared. Moreover, in contrast to competing matrix exponentiation methods, if the rate matrix is sparse, we can leverage this sparsity and increase the computational efficiency of our algorithm further. Using simulated data, we illustrate advantages of our MCMC algorithm and investigate how large the state space needs to be for our method to outperform matrix exponentiation approaches. We show that even on the moderately large state space of codons our MCMC method can be significantly faster than currently used matrix exponentiation methods. PMID:24918812

  4. D-MATRIX: A web tool for constructing weight matrix of conserved DNA motifs

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Naresh; Mishra, Manoj; Khan, Feroz; Meena, Abha; Sharma, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    Despite considerable efforts to date, DNA motif prediction in whole genome remains a challenge for researchers. Currently the genome wide motif prediction tools required either direct pattern sequence (for single motif) or weight matrix (for multiple motifs). Although there are known motif pattern databases and tools for genome level prediction but no tool for weight matrix construction. Considering this, we developed a D-MATRIX tool which predicts the different types of weight matrix based on user defined aligned motif sequence set and motif width. For retrieval of known motif sequences user can access the commonly used databases such as TFD, RegulonDB, DBTBS, Transfac. D­MATRIX program uses a simple statistical approach for weight matrix construction, which can be converted into different file formats according to user requirement. It provides the possibility to identify the conserved motifs in the co­regulated genes or whole genome. As example, we successfully constructed the weight matrix of LexA transcription factor binding site with the help of known sos­box cis­regulatory elements in Deinococcus radiodurans genome. The algorithm is implemented in C-Sharp and wrapped in ASP.Net to maintain a user friendly web interface. D­MATRIX tool is accessible through the CIMAP domain network. Availability http://203.190.147.116/dmatrix/ PMID:19759861

  5. Quaternion from rotation matrix. [four-parameter representation of coordinate transformation matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepperd, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    A quaternion is regarded as a four-parameter representation of a coordinate transformation matrix, where the four components of the quaternion are treated on an equal basis. This leads to a unified, compact, and singularity-free approach to determining the quaternion when the matrix is given.

  6. Cache oblivious storage and access heuristics for blocked matrix-matrix multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    Bock, Nicolas; Rubensson, Emanuel H; Niklasson, Anders M N; Challacombe, Matt; Salek, Pawel

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigate effects of ordering in blocked matrix-matrix multiplication. They find that submatrices do not have to be stored contiguously in memory in order to achieve near optimal performance. They also find a good choice of execution order of submatrix operations can lead to a speedup of up to four times for small block sizes.

  7. Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Huang, C.M.; Yuh, C.Y.

    1999-02-09

    A matrix is described for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 {micro}m to 20 {micro}m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling. 5 figs.

  8. Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Chao M.; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    1999-01-01

    A matrix for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 .mu.m to 20 .mu.m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling.

  9. Snapshot retinal imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yifan; Kudenov, Michael; Kashani, Amir; Schwiegerling, Jim; Escuti, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Early diagnosis of glaucoma, which is a leading cause for visual impairment, is critical for successful treatment. It has been shown that Imaging polarimetry has advantages in early detection of structural changes in the retina. Here, we theoretically and experimentally present a snapshot Mueller Matrix Polarimeter fundus camera, which has the potential to record the polarization-altering characteristics of retina with a single snapshot. It is made by incorporating polarization gratings into a fundus camera design. Complete Mueller Matrix data sets can be obtained by analyzing the polarization fringes projected onto the image plane. In this paper, we describe the experimental implementation of the snapshot retinal imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter (SRIMMP), highlight issues related to calibration, and provide preliminary images acquired from the camera.

  10. Ethynylated aromatics as high temperature matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, F. I.

    1987-01-01

    Difunctional and trifunctional arylacetylenes were used as monomers to form thermoset matrix resin composites. Composites can be hot-pressed at 180 C to react 80 percent of the acetylene groups. Crosslinking is completed by postcuring at 350 C. The postcured resins are thermally stable to nominally 460 C in air. As a result of their high crosslink density, the matrix exhibits brittle failure when uniaxial composites are tested in tension. Failure of both uniaixial tensile and flexural specimens occurs in shear at the fiber-matrix interface. Tensile fracture stresses for 0-deg composites fabricated with 60 v/o Celion 6K graphite fiber were 827 MPa. The strain to failure was 0.5 percent. Composites fabricated with 8 harness satin Celion cloth (Fiberite 1133) and tested in tension also failed in shear at tensile stresses of 413 MPa.

  11. Achondrogenesis type II, abnormalities of extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Horton, W A; Machado, M A; Chou, J W; Campbell, D

    1987-09-01

    Immune and lectin histochemical and microchemical methods were employed to study growth cartilage from seven cases of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino). The normal architecture of the epiphyseal and growth plate cartilage was replaced by a morphologically heterogeneous tissue. Some areas were comprised of vascular canals surrounded by extensive fibrous tissue and enlarged cells that had the appearance and histochemical characteristics of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Other areas contained a mixture of cells ranging from small to the enlarged chondrocytes. The extracellular matrix in the latter areas was more abundant and had characteristics of both precartilage mesenchymal matrix and typical cartilage matrix; it contained types I and II collagen, cartilage proteoglycan, fibronectin, and peanut agglutinin binding glycoconjugate(s). Peptide mapping of cyanogen bromide cartilage collagen peptides revealed the presence of types I and II collagen. These observations could be explained by a defect in the biosynthesis of type II collagen or in chondrocyte differentiation. PMID:3309860

  12. t matrix of metallic wire structures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, T. R. Chui, S. T.

    2014-04-14

    To study the electromagnetic resonance and scattering properties of complex structures of which metallic wire structures are constituents within multiple scattering theory, the t matrix of individual structures is needed. We have recently developed a rigorous and numerically efficient equivalent circuit theory in which retardation effects are taken into account for metallic wire structures. Here, we show how the t matrix can be calculated analytically within this theory. We illustrate our method with the example of split ring resonators. The density of states and cross sections for scattering and absorption are calculated, which are shown to be remarkably enhanced at resonant frequencies. The t matrix serves as the basic building block to evaluate the interaction of wire structures within the framework of multiple scattering theory. This will open the door to efficient design and optimization of assembly of wire structures.

  13. Google matrix analysis of directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermann, Leonardo; Frahm, Klaus M.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2015-10-01

    In the past decade modern societies have developed enormous communication and social networks. Their classification and information retrieval processing has become a formidable task for the society. Because of the rapid growth of the World Wide Web, and social and communication networks, new mathematical methods have been invented to characterize the properties of these networks in a more detailed and precise way. Various search engines extensively use such methods. It is highly important to develop new tools to classify and rank a massive amount of network information in a way that is adapted to internal network structures and characteristics. This review describes the Google matrix analysis of directed complex networks demonstrating its efficiency using various examples including the World Wide Web, Wikipedia, software architectures, world trade, social and citation networks, brain neural networks, DNA sequences, and Ulam networks. The analytical and numerical matrix methods used in this analysis originate from the fields of Markov chains, quantum chaos, and random matrix theory.

  14. Iterative electro-optic matrix processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlotto, M. J.

    An electro-optic vector matrix processor with electronic feedback is described. The iterative optical processor (IOP) is designed for the rapid solution of linear algebraic equations. The IOP and the iterative algorithm it realizes are analyzed and simulated. A version of the system was fabricated using advanced solid state light sources and detectors plus fiber optic technology, and its performance is evaluated. An extension of the system using wavelength multiplexing is developed and the basic system concepts demonstrated. Its use in the restoration of degraded images or signals (deconvolution) and the computation of matrix eigenvectors and eigenvalues and matrix inversion are demonstrated. The two major case studies pursued are: adaptive phased array radar processing and optimal control. In the former case, the system is used to compute the adaptive antenna weights for a radar system. In the latter case, the IOP solves the linear quadratic regular and algebraic Ricatti equations of modern control theory.

  15. Radiative transfer model: matrix operator method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; Ruprecht, E

    1996-07-20

    A radiative transfer model, the matrix operator method, is discussed here. The matrix operator method is applied to a plane-parallel atmosphere within three spectral ranges: the visible, the infrared, and the microwave. For a homogeneous layer with spherical scattering, the radiative transfer equation can be solved analytically. The vertically inhomogeneous atmosphere can be subdivided into a set of homogeneous layers. The solution of the radiative transfer equation for the vertically inhomogeneous atmosphere is obtained recurrently from the analytical solutions for the subdivided layers. As an example for the application of the matrix operator method, the effects of the cirrus and the stratocumulus clouds on the net radiation at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere are investigated. The relationship between the polarization in the microwave range and the rain rates is also studied. Copies of the FORTRAN program and the documentation of the FORTRAN program on a diskette are available. PMID:21102832

  16. Propulsive matrix of a helical flagellum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He-Peng; Liu, Bin; Bruce, Rodenborn; Harry, L. Swinney

    2014-11-01

    We study the propulsion matrix of bacterial flagella numerically using slender body theory and the regularized Stokeslet method in a biologically relevant parameter regime. All three independent elements of the matrix are measured by computing propulsive force and torque generated by a rotating flagellum, and the drag force on a translating flagellum. Numerical results are compared with the predictions of resistive force theory, which is often used to interpret micro-organism propulsion. Neglecting hydrodynamic interactions between different parts of a flagellum in resistive force theory leads to both qualitative and quantitative discrepancies between the theoretical prediction of resistive force theory and the numerical results. We improve the original theory by empirically incorporating the effects of hydrodynamic interactions and propose new expressions for propulsive matrix elements that are accurate over the parameter regime explored.

  17. Enter the Matrix: Shape, Signal, and Superhighway

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Dane K.; Cornelison, DDW

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscle is notable for both its highly ordered biophysical structure and its regenerative capacity following trauma. Critical to both of these features is the specialized muscle extracellular matrix (ECM), comprising both the multiple concentric sheaths of connective tissue surrounding structural units from single myofibers to whole muscles and the dense interstitial matrix that occupies the space between them. ECM-dependent interactions affect all activities of the resident muscle stem cell population, the satellite cell, from the maintenance of quiescence and stem cell potential to the regulation of proliferation and differentiation. This review will focus on the role of the extracellular matrix in muscle regeneration, with a particular emphasis on regulation of satellite cell activity. PMID:23374506

  18. Dentin Matrix Proteins in Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, Sriram

    2016-01-01

    Dentin and bone are mineralized tissue matrices comprised of collagen fibrils and reinforced with oriented crystalline hydroxyapatite. Although both tissues perform different functionalities, they are assembled and orchestrated by mesenchymal cells that synthesize both collagenous and noncollagenous proteins albeit in different proportions. The dentin matrix proteins (DMPs) have been studied in great detail in recent years due to its inherent calcium binding properties in the extracellular matrix resulting in tissue calcification. Recent studies have shown that these proteins can serve both as intracellular signaling proteins leading to induction of stem cell differentiation and also function as nucleating proteins in the extracellular matrix. These properties make the DMPs attractive candidates for bone and dentin tissue regeneration. This chapter will provide an overview of the DMPs, their functionality and their proven and possible applications with respect to bone tissue engineering. PMID:26545748

  19. Improved high temperature resistant matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, G. E.; Powell, S. H.; Jones, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The objective was to develop organic matrix resins suitable for service at temperatures up to 644 K (700 F) and at air pressures up to 0.4 MPa (60 psia) for time durations of a minimum of 100 hours. Matrix resins capable of withstanding these extreme oxidative environmental conditions would lead to increased use of polymer matrix composites in aircraft engines and provide significant weight and cost savings. Six linear condensation, aromatic/heterocyclic polymers containing fluorinated and/or diphenyl linkages were synthesized. The thermo-oxidative stability of the resins was determined at 644 K and compressed air pressures up to 0.4 MPa. Two formulations, both containing perfluoroisopropylidene linkages in the polymer backbone structure, exhibited potential for 644 K service to meet the program objectives. Two other formulations could not be fabricated into compression molded zero defect specimens.

  20. Phosphorylated silk fibroin matrix for methotrexate release.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Vadim; Sárria, Marisa P; Gomes, Andreia C; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Silk-based matrix was produced for delivery of a model anticancer drug, methotrexate (MTX). The calculation of net charge of silk fibroin and MTX was performed to better understand the electrostatic interactions during matrix formation upon casting. Silk fibroin films were cast at pH 7.2 and pH 3.5. Protein kinase A was used to prepare phosphorylated silk fibroin. The phosphorylation content of matrix was controlled by mixing at specific ratios the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated solutions. In vitro release profiling data suggest that the observed interactions are mainly structural and not electrostatical. The release of MTX is facilitated by use of proteolytic enzymes and higher pHs. The elevated β-sheet content and crystallinity of the acidified-cast fibroin solution seem not to favor drug retention. All the acquired data underline the prevalence of structural interactions over electrostatical interactions between methotrexate and silk fibroin. PMID:25435334

  1. Nanomechanics of the Cartilage Extracellular Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lin; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Ortiz, Christine

    2011-08-01

    Cartilage is a hydrated biomacromolecular fiber composite located at the ends of long bones that enables proper joint lubrication, articulation, loading, and energy dissipation. Degradation of extracellular matrix molecular components and changes in their nanoscale structure greatly influence the macroscale behavior of the tissue and result in dysfunction with age, injury, and diseases such as osteoarthritis. Here, the application of the field of nanomechanics to cartilage is reviewed. Nanomechanics involves the measurement and prediction of nanoscale forces and displacements, intra- and intermolecular interactions, spatially varying mechanical properties, and other mechanical phenomena existing at small length scales. Experimental nanomechanics and theoretical nanomechanics have been applied to cartilage at varying levels of material complexity, e.g., nanoscale properties of intact tissue, the matrix associated with single cells, biomimetic molecular assemblies, and individual extracellular matrix biomolecules (such as aggrecan, collagen, and hyaluronan). These studies have contributed to establishing a fundamental mechanism-based understanding of native and engineered cartilage tissue function, quality, and pathology.

  2. Nonsmooth nonnegative matrix factorization (nsNMF).

    PubMed

    Pascual-Montano, Alberto; Carazo, J M; Kochi, Kieko; Lehmann, Dietrich; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D

    2006-03-01

    We propose a novel nonnegative matrix factorization model that aims at finding localized, part-based, representations of nonnegative multivariate data items. Unlike the classical nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) technique, this new model, denoted "nonsmooth nonnegative matrix factorization" (nsNMF), corresponds to the optimization of an unambiguous cost function designed to explicitly represent sparseness, in the form of nonsmoothness, which is controlled by a single parameter. In general, this method produces a set of basis and encoding vectors that are not only capable of representing the original data, but they also extract highly localized patterns, which generally lend themselves to improved interpretability. The properties of this new method are illustrated with several data sets. Comparisons to previously published methods show that the new nsNMF method has some advantages in keeping faithfulness to the data in the achieving a high degree of sparseness for both the estimated basis and the encoding vectors and in better interpretability of the factors. PMID:16526426

  3. Ethynylated aromatics as high temperature matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1986-01-01

    Difunctional and trifunctional arylacetylenes were used as monomers to form thermoset matrix resin composites. Composites can be hot pressed at 180 C to react 80 percent of the acetylene groups. Crosslinking is completed by postcuring at 350 C. The postcured resins are thermally stable to nominally 460 C in air. As a result of their high crosslink density, the matrix exhibits brittle failure when unaxial composites are tested in tension. Failure of both uniaxial tensile and flexural specimens occurs in shear at the fiber matrix interface. Tensile fracture stresses for 0 deg composites fabricated with 60 v/o Celion 6K graphite fiber were 827 MPa. The strain to failure was 0.5 percent. Composites fabricated with 8 harness satin Celion cloth (Fiberite 1133) and tested in tension also failed in shear at tensile stresses of 413 MPa.

  4. Decorin modulates matrix mineralization in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Duarte, Wagner R.; Tanzawa, Hideki; Paschalis, Eleftherios P.; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    Decorin (DCN), a member of small leucine-rich proteoglycans, is known to modulate collagen fibrillogenesis. In order to investigate the potential roles of DCN in collagen matrix mineralization, several stable osteoblastic cell clones expressing higher (sense-DCN, S-DCN) and lower (antisense-DCN, As-DCN) levels of DCN were generated and the mineralized nodules formed by these clones were characterized. In comparison with control cells, the onset of mineralization by S-DCN clones was significantly delayed; whereas it was markedly accelerated and the number of mineralized nodules was significantly increased in As-DCN clones. The timing of mineralization was inversely correlated with the level of DCN synthesis. In these clones, the patterns of cell proliferation and differentiation appeared unaffected. These results suggest that DCN may act as an inhibitor of collagen matrix mineralization, thus modulating the timing of matrix mineralization.

  5. Brief announcement: Hypergraph parititioning for parallel sparse matrix-matrix multiplication

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ballard, Grey; Druinsky, Alex; Knight, Nicholas; Schwartz, Oded

    2016-05-01

    The performance of parallel algorithms for sparse matrix-matrix multiplication is typically determined by the amount of interprocessor communication performed, which in turn depends on the nonzero structure of the input matrices. In this paper, we characterize the communication cost of a sparse matrix-matrix multiplication algorithm in terms of the size of a cut of an associated hypergraph that encodes the computation for a given input nonzero structure. Obtaining an optimal algorithm corresponds to solving a hypergraph partitioning problem. Furthermore, our hypergraph model generalizes several existing models for sparse matrix-vector multiplication, and we can leverage hypergraph partitioners developed for that computationmore » to improve application-specific algorithms for multiplying sparse matrices.« less

  6. Thermal and mechanical behavior of metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, John M. (Editor); Moeller, Helen H. (Editor); Johnson, W. S. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference discusses local stresses in metal-matrix composites (MMCs) subjected to thermal and mechanical loads, the computational simulation of high-temperature MMCs' cyclic behavior, an analysis of a ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) flexure specimen, and a plasticity analysis of fibrous composite laminates under thermomechanical loads. Also discussed are a comparison of methods for determining the fiber-matrix interface frictional stresses of CMCs, the monotonic and cyclic behavior of an SiC/calcium aluminosilicate CMC, the mechanical and thermal properties of an SiC particle-reinforced Al alloy MMC, the temperature-dependent tensile and shear response of a graphite-reinforced 6061 Al-alloy MMC, the fiber/matrix interface bonding strength of MMCs, and fatigue crack growth in an Al2O3 short fiber-reinforced Al-2Mg matrix MMC.

  7. Polymeric matrix materials for infrared metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Dirk, Shawn M; Rasberry, Roger D; Rahimian, Kamyar

    2014-04-22

    A polymeric matrix material exhibits low loss at optical frequencies and facilitates the fabrication of all-dielectric metamaterials. The low-loss polymeric matrix material can be synthesized by providing an unsaturated polymer, comprising double or triple bonds; partially hydrogenating the unsaturated polymer; depositing a film of the partially hydrogenated polymer and a crosslinker on a substrate; and photopatterning the film by exposing the film to ultraviolet light through a patterning mask, thereby cross-linking at least some of the remaining unsaturated groups of the partially hydrogenated polymer in the exposed portions.

  8. Fermi matrix element with isospin breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guichon, P. A. M.; Thomas, A. W.; Saito, K.

    2011-02-01

    Prompted by the level of accuracy now being achieved in tests of the unitarity of the CKM matrix, we consider the possible modification of the Fermi matrix element for the β-decay of a neutron, including possible in-medium and isospin violating corrections. While the nuclear modifications lead to very small corrections once the Behrends-Sirlin-Ademollo-Gatto theorem is respected, the effect of the u-d mass difference on the conclusion concerning Vud is no longer insignificant. Indeed, we suggest that the correction to the value of |+|+| is at the level of 10.

  9. Reaction kinetics between fiber and matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopp, M. W.; Tien, J. K.; Petrasek, D. W.

    1988-01-01

    Interdiffusion and interdiffusion controlled intermediate phase formation in metal matrix composites can be of interest for the prolonged application of these systems at high temperatures. Methods are discussed that address the kinetics of interdiffusion in systems that exhibit solid solution intermixing or the formation of a third intermediate phase at the fiber/matrix interface, or both. The tungsten fiber reinforced niobium and tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy systems are employed as model systems for experimentation and discussion. In an effort to impede interdiffusion, the concept of ion implanted diffusion barriers have been examined. Preliminary results on the feasibility and effectiveness of ion implanted diffusion barriers are presented.

  10. Some remarks on unilateral matrix equations

    SciTech Connect

    Cerchiai, Bianca L.; Zumino, Bruno

    2001-02-01

    We briefly review the results of our paper LBNL-46775: We study certain solutions of left-unilateral matrix equations. These are algebraic equations where the coefficients and the unknown are square matrices of the same order, or, more abstractly, elements of an associative, but possibly noncommutative algebra, and all coefficients are on the left. Recently such equations have appeared in a discussion of generalized Born-Infeld theories. In particular, two equations, their perturbative solutions and the relation between them are studied, applying a unified approach based on the generalized Bezout theorem for matrix polynomials.

  11. Postglacial matrix diffusion in a boulder sample

    SciTech Connect

    Rasilainen, K.; Suksi, J.; Kulmala, S.; Hellmuth, K.H.; Lindberg, A.

    1996-08-01

    A boulder sample was studied for its unusual U content. Analyses of U-series nuclides within the rock matrix perpendicular to an assumed fracture face show abrupt pulse-like concentration distributions with very low concentrations of U daughters. Both Th-230/U-234 and Pa-231/U-235 activity ratios are low, indicating recent U accumulation into the rock. Matrix diffusion is tested as a possible cause for the experimental observations. The authors assume that the diffusion process was triggered and controlled by rock expansion, strong mixing of different water types and rapid land uplift at the end phase of the last glaciation.

  12. Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Materials Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calomino, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Under the former NASA EPM Program, much initial progress was made in identifying constituent materials and processes for SiC/SiC ceramic composite hot-section components. This presentation discusses the performance benefits of these approaches and elaborates on further constituent and property improvements made under NASA UEET. These include specific treatments at NASA that significantly improve the creep and environmental resistance of the Sylramic(TM) SiC fiber as well as the thermal conductivity and creep resistance of the CVI Sic matrix. Also discussed are recent findings concerning the beneficial effects of certain 2D-fabric architectures and carbon between the BN interphase coating and Sic matrix.

  13. Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Materials Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James

    2001-01-01

    Under the former NASA EPM Program, much initial progress was made in identifying constituent materials and processes for SiC/SiC ceramic composite hot-section components. This presentation discusses the performance benefits of these approaches and elaborates on further constituent and property improvements made under NASA UEET. These include specific treatments at NASA that significantly improve the creep and environmental resistance of the Sylramic(TM) Sic fiber as well as the thermal conductivity and creep resistance of the CVI Sic matrix. Also discussed are recent findings concerning the beneficial effects of certain 2D-fabric architectures and carbon between the BN interphase coating and Sic matrix.

  14. Novel formulations of CKM matrix renormalization

    SciTech Connect

    Kniehl, Bernd A.; Sirlin, Alberto

    2009-12-17

    We review two recently proposed on-shell schemes for the renormalization of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) quark mixing matrix in the Standard Model. One first constructs gauge-independent mass counterterm matrices for the up- and down-type quarks complying with the hermiticity of the complete mass matrices. Diagonalization of the latter then leads to explicit expressions for the CKM counterterm matrix, which are gauge independent, preserve unitarity, and lead to renormalized amplitudes that are non-singular in the limit in which any two quarks become mass degenerate. One of the schemes also automatically satisfies flavor democracy.

  15. NbTi superconductors with aluminium matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Buryak, V.P.; Dugadko, A.B.; Mironova, O.N.; Petrusenko, A.I. ); Bliznyuk, V.A.; Dolbinov, J.D.; Lykhin, V.A. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the authors designed, produced and studied NbTi composite superconductors with Al, or Al-alloy, or combined Al and Cu matrix, which have reduced weight. Wires of different design with 0.5-2.0 mm diameter were manufactured using hydrostatic extrusion. The weight reduction in comparison with the same filling factor copper matrix superconductor achieves 20-40%. The overall critical current density at 5 T magnetic field is (1.6-2.8) {center dot} 10{sup 9} A/cm{sup 2}.

  16. HXeOBr in a xenon matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Khriachtchev, Leonid; Tapio, Salla; Domanskaya, Alexandra V.; Raesaenen, Markku; Isokoski, Karoliina; Lundell, Jan

    2011-03-28

    We report on a new noble-gas molecule HXeOBr prepared in a low-temperature xenon matrix from the HBr and N{sub 2}O precursors by UV photolysis and thermal annealing. This molecule is assigned with the help of deuteration experiments and ab initio calculations including anharmonic methods. The H-Xe stretching frequency of HXeOBr is observed at 1634 cm{sup -1}, which is larger by 56 cm{sup -1} than the frequency of HXeOH identified previously. The experiments show a higher thermal stability of HXeOBr molecules in a xenon matrix compared to HXeOH.

  17. Matrix Metalloproteinases: Regulators of the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Kessenbrock, Kai; Plaks, Vicki; Werb, Zena

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular proteolysis mediates tissue homeostasis. In cancer, altered proteolysis leads to unregulated tumor growth, tissue remodeling, inflammation, tissue invasion, and metastasis. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) represent the most prominent family of proteinases associated with tumorigenesis. Recent technological developments have markedly advanced our understanding of MMPs as modulators of the tumor microenvironment. In addition to their role in extracellular matrix turnover and cancer cell migration, MMPs regulate signaling pathways that control cell growth, inflammation, or angiogenesis and may even work in a nonproteolytic manner. These aspects of MMP function are reorienting our approaches to cancer therapy. PMID:20371345

  18. Interaction picture density matrix quantum Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Fionn D. Lee, D. K. K.; Foulkes, W. M. C.; Blunt, N. S.; Shepherd, James J.; Spencer, J. S.

    2015-07-28

    The recently developed density matrix quantum Monte Carlo (DMQMC) algorithm stochastically samples the N-body thermal density matrix and hence provides access to exact properties of many-particle quantum systems at arbitrary temperatures. We demonstrate that moving to the interaction picture provides substantial benefits when applying DMQMC to interacting fermions. In this first study, we focus on a system of much recent interest: the uniform electron gas in the warm dense regime. The basis set incompleteness error at finite temperature is investigated and extrapolated via a simple Monte Carlo sampling procedure. Finally, we provide benchmark calculations for a four-electron system, comparing our results to previous work where possible.

  19. Physical quantities involved in a Mueller matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, José J.

    2016-05-01

    The polarimetric properties of a material medium are summarized in the sixteen elements of its associated Mueller matrix. The quantities carrying specific information on the significant polarimetric features have to be defined on the basis of the analysis of the mathematical structure of Mueller matrices. It is found that any Mueller matrix can be parameterized through two retardance vectors and ten quantities that are invariant under dual retarder transformations. This parameterization leads to proper definitions of the retardance and depolarization properties, which together with the diattenuation and polarizance properties provide complete polarimetric characterization of the sample under consideration.

  20. Invariant quantities of a nondepolarizing Mueller matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, José J.; José, Ignacio San

    2016-07-01

    Orthogonal Mueller matrices can be considered either as corresponding to retarders or to generalized transformations of the polarization basis for the representation of Stokes vectors, so that they constitute the only type of Mueller matrices that preserve the degree of polarization and the intensity of any partially-polarized input Stokes vector. The physical quantities which remain invariant when a nondepolarizing Mueller matrix is transformed through its product by different types of orthogonal Mueller matrices are identified and interpreted, providing a better knowledge of the information contained in a nondepolarizing Mueller matrix.

  1. Chaos in the BMN matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Yuhma; Kawai, Daisuke; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2015-06-01

    We study classical chaotic motions in the Berenstein-Maldacena-Nastase (BMN) matrix model. For this purpose, it is convenient to focus upon a reduced system composed of two-coupled anharmonic oscillators by supposing an ansatz. We examine three ansätze: 1) two pulsating fuzzy spheres, 2) a single Coulomb-type potential, and 3) integrable fuzzy spheres. For the first two cases, we show the existence of chaos by computing Poincaré sections and a Lyapunov spectrum. The third case leads to an integrable system. As a result, the BMN matrix model is not integrable in the sense of Liouville, though there may be some integrable subsectors.

  2. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, J. F.; Prewo, K. M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of research for the origination of graphite-fiber reinforced glass matrix composites are presented. The method selected to form the composites consisted of pulling the graphite fiber through a slurry containing powdered glass, winding up the graphite fiber and the glass it picks up on a drum, drying, cutting into segments, loading the tape segment into a graphite die, and hot pressing. During the course of the work, composites were made with a variety of graphite fibers in a glass matrix.

  3. On Matrix Representations of Participation Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Sven; Leck, Uwe; Link, Sebastian

    We discuss the existence of matrix representations for generalised and minimum participation constraints which are frequently used in database design and conceptual modelling. Matrix representations, also known as Armstrong relations, have been studied in literature e.g. for functional dependencies and play an important role in example-based design and for the implication problem of database constraints. The major tool to achieve the results in this paper is a theorem of Hajnal and Szemerédi on the occurrence of clique graphs in a given graph.

  4. Solidification processing of metal-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mortensen, A.; Cornie, J.A.; Flemings, M.C.

    1988-02-01

    Infiltration of fibers with molten metal and metal/reinforcement slurry casting have been developed for the net-shape solidification processing of MMCs, the largest portion of whose production costs are associated with processing. The low viscosity of liquid metals renders the fabrication of MMCs by casting much easier than that of polymer matrix composites. Attention is given to the methods developed to date to deal with problems that arise from fiber/matrix reactivity and porosity due to poor infiltration. 219 references.

  5. More on rotations as spin matrix polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Curtright, Thomas L.

    2015-09-15

    Any nonsingular function of spin j matrices always reduces to a matrix polynomial of order 2j. The challenge is to find a convenient form for the coefficients of the matrix polynomial. The theory of biorthogonal systems is a useful framework to meet this challenge. Central factorial numbers play a key role in the theoretical development. Explicit polynomial coefficients for rotations expressed either as exponentials or as rational Cayley transforms are considered here. Structural features of the results are discussed and compared, and large j limits of the coefficients are examined.

  6. Corporate bond liquidity and matrix pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagraoka, Yusho

    2005-09-01

    Matrix priced bond price data are investigated to model the liquidity of a corporate bond. Preliminary study shows that the yield spread is wide when a yield history records jumps. As well as respecting the way how matrix prices are generated, this finding leads us to a conjecture that time series of yield is represented by a jump-diffusion process. Then the kurtosis of a yield distribution can be regarded as a proxy variable for the liquidity. The conjecture is empirically validiated by regression analysis of yield spreads.

  7. Analytical solutions to matrix diffusion problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kekäläinen, Pekka

    2014-10-06

    We report an analytical method to solve in a few cases of practical interest the equations which have traditionally been proposed for the matrix diffusion problem. In matrix diffusion, elements dissolved in ground water can penetrate the porous rock surronuding the advective flow paths. In the context of radioactive waste repositories this phenomenon provides a mechanism by which the area of rock surface in contact with advecting elements is greatly enhanced, and can thus be an important delay mechanism. The cases solved are relevant for laboratory as well for in situ experiments. Solutions are given as integral representations well suited for easy numerical solution.

  8. A personal journey with matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Nagase, Hideaki

    2016-09-01

    I was given the honor of delivering the 2015 Lifetime Membership Award lecture at the International Proteolysis Society's annual meeting held in Penang, Malaysia in October 2015. It gave me an opportunity to look back on how I started my research on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and how I continued to work on these proteinases for the next 42 years. This is a series of sketches from the personal journey that I took with MMPs, starting from the purification of metalloproteinases, cloning, structural studies, then to a more recent encounter, endocytic regulation of matrix-degrading metalloproteinases. PMID:27341559

  9. Generating Nice Linear Systems for Matrix Gaussian Elimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homewood, L. James

    2004-01-01

    In this article an augmented matrix that represents a system of linear equations is called nice if a sequence of elementary row operations that reduces the matrix to row-echelon form, through matrix Gaussian elimination, does so by restricting all entries to integers in every step. Many instructors wish to use the example of matrix Gaussian…

  10. 48 CFR 1652.370 - Use of the matrix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of the matrix. 1652... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS CONTRACT CLAUSES FEHBP Clause Matrix 1652.370 Use of the matrix. (a) The matrix in this section lists the FAR and FEHBAR clauses to be used...

  11. 48 CFR 1652.370 - Use of the matrix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of the matrix. 1652... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS CONTRACT CLAUSES FEHBP Clause Matrix 1652.370 Use of the matrix. (a) The matrix in this section lists the FAR and FEHBAR clauses to be used...

  12. 48 CFR 1652.370 - Use of the matrix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of the matrix. 1652.370 Section 1652.370 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS CONTRACT CLAUSES FEHBP Clause Matrix 1652.370 Use of the matrix. (a) The matrix...

  13. 48 CFR 1652.370 - Use of the matrix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of the matrix. 1652... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS CONTRACT CLAUSES FEHBP Clause Matrix 1652.370 Use of the matrix. (a) The matrix in this section lists the FAR and FEHBAR clauses to be used...

  14. Factor Analysis of the Image Correlation Matrix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Henry F.; Cerny, Barbara A.

    1979-01-01

    Whether to factor the image correlation matrix or to use a new model with an alpha factor analysis of it is mentioned, with particular reference to the determinacy problem. It is pointed out that the distribution of the images is sensibly multivariate normal, making for "better" factor analyses. (Author/CTM)

  15. Proving Program Termination With Matrix Weighted Digraphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutle, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Program termination analysis is an important task in logic and computer science. While determining if a program terminates is known to be undecidable in general, there has been a significant amount of attention given to finding sufficient and computationally practical conditions to prove termination. One such method takes a program and builds from it a matrix weighted digraph. These are directed graphs whose edges are labeled by square matrices with entries in {-1,0,1}, equipped with a nonstandard matrix multiplication. Certain properties of this digraph are known to imply the termination of the related program. In particular, termination of the program can be determined from the weights of the circuits in the digraph. In this talk, the motivation for addressing termination and how matrix weighted digraphs arise will be briefly discussed. The remainder of the talk will describe an efficient method for bounding the weights of a finite set of the circuits in a matrix weighted digraph, which allows termination of the related program to be deduced.

  16. Polymer matrix electroluminescent materials and devices

    DOEpatents

    Marrocco, III, Matthew L.; Motamedi, Farshad J.; Abdelrazzaq, Feras Bashir; Abdelrazzaq, legal representative, Bashir Twfiq

    2012-06-26

    Photoluminescent and electroluminescent compositions are provided which comprise a matrix comprising aromatic repeat units covalently coordinated to a phosphorescent or luminescent metal ion or metal ion complexes. Methods for producing such compositions, and the electroluminescent devices formed therefrom, are also disclosed.

  17. Emerging Educational Institutional Decision-Making Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford-Rowe, Kevin H.; Holt, Marnie

    2011-01-01

    The "emerging educational institutional decision-making matrix" is developed to allow educational institutions to adopt a rigorous and consistent methodology of determining which of the myriad of emerging educational technologies will be the most compelling for the institution, particularly ensuring that it is the educational or pedagogical but…

  18. Simulating Microfracture In Metal-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Chamis, Christos C.; Gotsis, Pascal K.

    1994-01-01

    Computational procedures developed for simulating microfracture in metal-matrix/fiber composite materials under mechanical and/or thermal loads at ambient and high temperatures. Procedures evaluate microfracture behavior of composites, establish hierarchies and sequences of fracture modes, and examine influences of compliant layers and partial debonding on properties of composites and on initiation of microfractures in them.

  19. Inverter Matrix for the Clementine Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Blaes, B. R.; Tardio, G.; Soli, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    An inverter matrix test circuit was designed for the Clementine space mission and is built into the RRELAX (Radiation and Reliability Assurance Experiment). The objective is to develop a circuit that will allow the evaluation of the CMOS FETs using a lean data set in the noisy spacecraft environment.

  20. ["Archaic matrix of the oedipus complex"].

    PubMed

    Vogt, R

    1990-10-01

    The clinical implication of Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel's concept of the "archaic matrix of the Oedipus complex" is examined, the resulting deeper understanding of the Oedipus myth is considered. A discussion follows of Chasseguet-Smirgel's way of using this concept in her historical evaluation of German Romantism with regard to the Nazi times and nowadays politics of the Westgerman Green Party. PMID:2251392

  1. Light weight polymer matrix composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Lowell, Carl E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix is layed up, cured, and thermally aged at about 750 F in the presence of an inert gas. The heat treatment improves the structural integrity and alters the electrical conductivity of the materials. In the preferred embodiment PMR-15 polyimides and Celion-6000 graphite fibers are used.

  2. Light weight polymer matrix composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Lowell, Carl E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix is layed up, cured, and thermally aged at about 750.degree. F. in the presence of an inert gas. The heat treatment improves the structural integrity and alters the electrical conductivity of the materials. In the preferred embodiment PMR-15 polyimides and Celion-6000 graphite fibers are used.

  3. Science Unlimited: Grades K-6 Competency Matrix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Div. of Arts and Sciences.

    This competency matrix matches the primary and intermediate Science Unlimited lessons with the established competencies which appear in the Science Unlimited competency continuum. Primary lessons deal with: investigating dripping faucets; classification/sorting; smell; eyes; color; air; weather; observation and description; mystery boxes; change;…

  4. Hypercontractivity in finite-dimensional matrix algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Junge, Marius; Palazuelos, Carlos

    2015-02-15

    We obtain hypercontractivity estimates for a large class of semigroups defined on finite-dimensional matrix algebras M{sub n}. These semigroups arise from Poisson-like length functions ψ on ℤ{sub n} × ℤ{sub n} and provide new hypercontractive families of quantum channels when ψ is conditionally negative. We also study the optimality of our estimates.

  5. Proteases decode the extracellular matrix cryptome.

    PubMed

    Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Vallet, Sylvain D

    2016-03-01

    The extracellular matrix is comprised of 1100 core-matrisome and matrisome-associated proteins and of glycosaminoglycans. This structural scaffold contributes to the organization and mechanical properties of tissues and modulates cell behavior. The extracellular matrix is dynamic and undergoes constant remodeling, which leads to diseases if uncontrolled. Bioactive fragments, called matricryptins, are released from the extracellular proteins by limited proteolysis and have biological activities on their own. They regulate numerous physiological and pathological processes such as angiogenesis, cancer, diabetes, wound healing, fibrosis and infectious diseases and either improve or worsen the course of diseases depending on the matricryptins and on the molecular and biological contexts. Several protease families release matricryptins from core-matrisome and matrisome-associated proteins both in vitro and in vivo. The major proteases, which decrypt the extracellular matrix, are zinc metalloproteinases of the metzincin superfamily (matrixins, adamalysins and astacins), cysteine proteinases and serine proteases. Some matricryptins act as enzyme inhibitors, further connecting protease and matricryptin fates and providing intricate regulation of major physiopathological processes such as angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. They strengthen the role of the extracellular matrix as a key player in tissue failure and core-matrisome and matrisome-associated proteins as important therapeutic targets. PMID:26382969

  6. A matrix approach for assessing biosolids stability

    SciTech Connect

    Switzenbaum, M.S.; Moss, L.H.; Epstein, E.; Pincince, A.B.; Donovan, J.F.

    1998-07-01

    Stability assessment of biosolids must be made on the basis of the stabilization process used and the intended use of the manufactured biosolids. In this manner, a matrix based on technology and use was developed as an approach for assessing biosolids stability. Specific tests were recommended as to the most useful methods of stability assessment for each of the stabilization technologies examined.

  7. Matrix--mineral relationships in enamel tissues.

    PubMed

    Fearnhead, R W

    1979-03-01

    A personal view of vertebrate enamels and their matrix-mineral relationships is given by first considering enamel types and speculating on the nature, distribution, formation and role of enamel protein. Not all the work consulted is mentioned in the text. The additional works are, however, included in the list of references. PMID:283133

  8. Evaluation of the Matrix Project. Interchange 77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIvor, Gill; Moodie, Kristina

    The Matrix Project is a program that has been established in central Scotland with the aim of reducing the risk of offending and anti-social behavior among vulnerable children. The project provides a range of services to children between eight and 11 years of age who are at risk in the local authority areas of Clackmannanshire, Falkirk and…

  9. Improving the precision matrix for precision cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz, Dante J.; Sánchez, Ariel G.

    2015-12-01

    The estimation of cosmological constraints from observations of the large-scale structure of the Universe, such as the power spectrum or the correlation function, requires the knowledge of the inverse of the associated covariance matrix, namely the precision matrix, Ψ . In most analyses, Ψ is estimated from a limited set of mock catalogues. Depending on how many mocks are used, this estimation has an associated error which must be propagated into the final cosmological constraints. For future surveys such as Euclid and Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, the control of this additional uncertainty requires a prohibitively large number of mock catalogues. In this work, we test a novel technique for the estimation of the precision matrix, the covariance tapering method, in the context of baryon acoustic oscillation measurements. Even though this technique was originally devised as a way to speed up maximum likelihood estimations, our results show that it also reduces the impact of noisy precision matrix estimates on the derived confidence intervals, without introducing biases on the target parameters. The application of this technique can help future surveys to reach their true constraining power using a significantly smaller number of mock catalogues.

  10. Computer program performs stiffness matrix structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, R.; Batchelder, R.; Schmele, L.; Wada, B. K.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program generates the stiffness matrix for a particular type of structure from geometrical data, and performs static and normal mode analyses. It requires the structure to be modeled as a stable framework of uniform, weightless members, and joints at which loads are applied and weights are lumped.

  11. ABCD matrix for apertured spherical waves.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Bernabeu, E; Alda, J

    1991-05-01

    An ABCD matrix for describing the hard aperture under a large Fresnel number is defined in this Technical Note based on Li and Wolf's formula. It is useful for analyzing focal shifts of complicated optical systems with hard apertures. PMID:20700324

  12. Fracture toughness testing of polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental techniques and associated data analysis methods used to measure the resistance to interlaminar fracture, or 'fracture toughness', of polymer matrix composite materials are described. A review in the use of energy techniques to characterize fracture behavior in elastic solids is given. An overview is presented of the types of approaches employed in the design of delamination-resistant composite materials.

  13. The algebras of large N matrix mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, M.B.; Schwartz, C.

    1999-09-16

    Extending early work, we formulate the large N matrix mechanics of general bosonic, fermionic and supersymmetric matrix models, including Matrix theory: The Hamiltonian framework of large N matrix mechanics provides a natural setting in which to study the algebras of the large N limit, including (reduced) Lie algebras, (reduced) supersymmetry algebras and free algebras. We find in particular a broad array of new free algebras which we call symmetric Cuntz algebras, interacting symmetric Cuntz algebras, symmetric Bose/Fermi/Cuntz algebras and symmetric Cuntz superalgebras, and we discuss the role of these algebras in solving the large N theory. Most important, the interacting Cuntz algebras are associated to a set of new (hidden!) local quantities which are generically conserved only at large N. A number of other new large N phenomena are also observed, including the intrinsic nonlocality of the (reduced) trace class operators of the theory and a closely related large N field identification phenomenon which is associated to another set (this time nonlocal) of new conserved quantities at large N.

  14. On solving for the density matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, F. W.

    1985-11-01

    A “generating matrix” formalism is presented which is useful in the solution of a class of time-dependent quantum density matrix problems. Three examples of its use are sketched, giving a unified approach to the solution of the problem of the spontaneous emission of electromagnetic radiation from a single atom in various environments.

  15. Decision Matrix. NCEDL Spotlights, No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Early Development & Learning, Chapel Hill, NC.

    This report focuses on a decision-making model developed at the National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL) and designed to help decisionmakers and policy analysts weigh various policy options for a public issue such as childcare quality. The matrix allows users to compare strategies in terms of desirability and feasibility factors…

  16. Illinois Early Childhood Program Expanded Matrix, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Human Services, East St. Louis. Head Start State Collaboration Office.

    This matrix provides information on eight early childhood programs offered in Illinois. Presented in grid form, the information can be compared across programs. The programs described are: (1) Head Start and Early Head Start; (2) Illinois Department of Children and Family Services child care; (3) Illinois Department of Human Services child care;…

  17. The Bushido Matrix for Couple Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chi-Sing; Lin, Yu-Fen; Ginsburg, Phil; Eckstein, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The concept of Japanese Bushido and its seven virtues were introduced by the authors in this article for the practice and application of couple communication. The Bushido Matrix Worksheet (BMW) was created for enhancing couple's awareness and understanding of each other's values and experiences. An activity and a case study to demonstrate the use…

  18. Preschool Test Matrix: Individual Test Descriptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coordinating Office for Regional Resource Centers, Lexington, KY.

    Provided via a text matrix and individual test descriptor sheets is information on 127 tests intended for evaluation of and educational prescription for preschool handicapped children. Brief sections explain the procedures used for selection of assessment devices and define each of the descriptor dimensions--type of assessment device,…

  19. Matrix product states for quantum metrology.

    PubMed

    Jarzyna, Marcin; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafał

    2013-06-14

    We demonstrate that the optimal states in lossy quantum interferometry may be efficiently simulated using low rank matrix product states. We argue that this should be expected in all realistic quantum metrological protocols with uncorrelated noise and is related to the elusive nature of the Heisenberg precision scaling in the asymptotic limit of a large number of probes. PMID:25165900

  20. Modification of natural matrix lac-bagasse for matrix composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhayati, Nanik Dwi; Widjaya, Karna; Triyono

    2016-02-01

    Material technology continues to be developed in order to a material that is more efficient with composite technology is a combination of two or more materials to obtain the desired material properties. The objective of this research was to modification and characterize the natural matrix lac-bagasse as composite films. The first step, natural matrix lac was changed from solid to liquid using an ethanol as a solvent so the matrix homogenly. Natural matrix lac was modified by adding citric acid with concentration variation. Secondly, the bagasse delignification using acid hydrolysis method. The composite films natural matrix lac-bagasse were prepared with optimum modified the addition citric acid 5% (v/v) and delignification bagasse optimum at 1,5% (v/v) in hot press at 80°C 6 Kg/cm-1. Thirdly, composite films without and with modification were characterized functional group analysis using FTIR spectrophotometer and mechanical properties using Universal Testing Machine. The result of research showed natural matrix lac can be modified by reaction with citric acid. FTIR spectra showed without and with modification had functional groups wide absorption 3448 cm-1 group -OH, C=O ester strong on 1712 cm-1 and the methylene group -CH2 on absorption 1465 cm-1. The mechanical properties showed tensile strength 0,55 MPa and elongation at break of 0,95 %. So that composite films natural matrix lac can be made with reinforcement bagasse for material application.

  1. Extracellular matrix of the developing ovarian follicle.

    PubMed

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2006-09-01

    There are many different types of extracellular matrices in the different follicle compartments. These have different roles in follicle development and atresia, and they change in composition during these processes. This review focuses on basal lamina matrix in particular, and considers follicular fluid, the newly identified focimatrix, and thecal matrices. When follicles commence growing, the follicular basal lamina changes in its composition from containing all six alpha chains of type IV collagen to only alpha1 and alpha2. Perlecan and nidogen-1 and -2 subsequently become components of the follicular basal lamina, and there is an increase in the amount of laminin chains alpha1, beta2, and gamma1, in the bovine at least. Late in follicular development and on atresia some follicles contain laminin alpha2. On atresia the follicular basal lamina is not degraded, as occurs in ovulation, but can be breached by cells from the thecal layer when it is not aligned by granulosa cells. A novel type of basal lamina-like matrix, called focimatrix (abbreviated from focal intraepithelial matrix), develops between the cells of the membrana granulosa as aggregates of basal lamina material. It does not envelop cells and so cannot perform functions of basal lamina as currently understood. It is hypothesized that focimatrix assists or initiates depolarization of the membrana granulosa necessary for the transformation into luteal cells. The largest osmotically active molecules in follicular fluid are hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, including versican and inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor. It has been suggested that these might be responsible for the formation of follicular fluid by creating an osmotic gradient across the follicular wall. The formation, development, and then either ovulation or regression of follicles requires considerable tissue remodeling, cellular replication, and specialization. The expectation of researchers is that extracellular matrix will be

  2. Matrix diffusion coefficients in volcanic rocks at the Nevada test site: influence of matrix porosity, matrix permeability, and fracture coating minerals.

    PubMed

    Reimus, Paul W; Callahan, Timothy J; Ware, S Doug; Haga, Marc J; Counce, Dale A

    2007-08-15

    Diffusion cell experiments were conducted to measure nonsorbing solute matrix diffusion coefficients in forty-seven different volcanic rock matrix samples from eight different locations (with multiple depth intervals represented at several locations) at the Nevada Test Site. The solutes used in the experiments included bromide, iodide, pentafluorobenzoate (PFBA), and tritiated water ((3)HHO). The porosity and saturated permeability of most of the diffusion cell samples were measured to evaluate the correlation of these two variables with tracer matrix diffusion coefficients divided by the free-water diffusion coefficient (D(m)/D*). To investigate the influence of fracture coating minerals on matrix diffusion, ten of the diffusion cells represented paired samples from the same depth interval in which one sample contained a fracture surface with mineral coatings and the other sample consisted of only pure matrix. The log of (D(m)/D*) was found to be positively correlated with both the matrix porosity and the log of matrix permeability. A multiple linear regression analysis indicated that both parameters contributed significantly to the regression at the 95% confidence level. However, the log of the matrix diffusion coefficient was more highly-correlated with the log of matrix permeability than with matrix porosity, which suggests that matrix diffusion coefficients, like matrix permeabilities, have a greater dependence on the interconnectedness of matrix porosity than on the matrix porosity itself. The regression equation for the volcanic rocks was found to provide satisfactory predictions of log(D(m)/D*) for other types of rocks with similar ranges of matrix porosity and permeability as the volcanic rocks, but it did a poorer job predicting log(D(m)/D*) for rocks with lower porosities and/or permeabilities. The presence of mineral coatings on fracture walls did not appear to have a significant effect on matrix diffusion in the ten paired diffusion cell experiments

  3. Matrix diffusion coefficients in volcanic rocks at the Nevada test site: Influence of matrix porosity, matrix permeability, and fracture coating minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimus, Paul W.; Callahan, Timothy J.; Ware, S. Doug; Haga, Marc J.; Counce, Dale A.

    2007-08-01

    Diffusion cell experiments were conducted to measure nonsorbing solute matrix diffusion coefficients in forty-seven different volcanic rock matrix samples from eight different locations (with multiple depth intervals represented at several locations) at the Nevada Test Site. The solutes used in the experiments included bromide, iodide, pentafluorobenzoate (PFBA), and tritiated water ( 3HHO). The porosity and saturated permeability of most of the diffusion cell samples were measured to evaluate the correlation of these two variables with tracer matrix diffusion coefficients divided by the free-water diffusion coefficient ( Dm/ D*). To investigate the influence of fracture coating minerals on matrix diffusion, ten of the diffusion cells represented paired samples from the same depth interval in which one sample contained a fracture surface with mineral coatings and the other sample consisted of only pure matrix. The log of ( Dm/ D*) was found to be positively correlated with both the matrix porosity and the log of matrix permeability. A multiple linear regression analysis indicated that both parameters contributed significantly to the regression at the 95% confidence level. However, the log of the matrix diffusion coefficient was more highly-correlated with the log of matrix permeability than with matrix porosity, which suggests that matrix diffusion coefficients, like matrix permeabilities, have a greater dependence on the interconnectedness of matrix porosity than on the matrix porosity itself. The regression equation for the volcanic rocks was found to provide satisfactory predictions of log( Dm/ D*) for other types of rocks with similar ranges of matrix porosity and permeability as the volcanic rocks, but it did a poorer job predicting log( Dm/ D*) for rocks with lower porosities and/or permeabilities. The presence of mineral coatings on fracture walls did not appear to have a significant effect on matrix diffusion in the ten paired diffusion cell experiments.

  4. Determination of Matrix Diffusion Properties of Granite

    SciTech Connect

    Holtta, Pirkko; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Huittinen, Nina; Poteri, Antti

    2007-07-01

    Rock-core column experiments were introduced to estimate the diffusion and sorption properties of Kuru Grey granite used in block-scale experiments. The objective was to examine the processes causing retention in solute transport through rock fractures, especially matrix diffusion. The objective was also to estimate the importance of retention processes during transport in different scales and flow conditions. Rock-core columns were constructed from cores drilled into the fracture and were placed inside tubes to form flow channels in the 0.5 mm gap between the cores and the tube walls. Tracer experiments were performed using uranin, HTO, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 131}I, {sup 22}Na and {sup 85}Sr at flow rates of 1-50 {mu}L.min{sup -1}. Rock matrix was characterized using {sup 14}C-PMMA method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray micro analysis (EDX) and the B.E.T. method. Solute mass flux through a column was modelled by applying the assumption of a linear velocity profile and molecular diffusion. Coupling of the advection and diffusion processes was based on the model of generalised Taylor dispersion in the linear velocity profile. Experiments could be modelled applying a consistent parameterization and transport processes. The results provide evidence that it is possible to investigate matrix diffusion at the laboratory scale. The effects of matrix diffusion were demonstrated on the slightly-sorbing tracer breakthrough curves. Based on scoping calculations matrix diffusion begins to be clearly observable for non-sorbing tracer when the flow rate is 0.1 {mu}L.min{sup -1}. The experimental results presented here cannot be transferred directly to the spatial and temporal scales that prevail in an underground repository. However, the knowledge and understanding of transport and retention processes gained from this study is transferable to different scales from laboratory to in-situ conditions. (authors)

  5. Generalized Rayleigh scattering. II. Matrix source functions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Kasaurov, A. M.; Loskutov, V. M.; Viik, T.

    1995-11-01

    Numerical and analytical data are presented on the matrix source functions S(τ) of the standard problem of multiple generalized Rayleigh scattering (GRS) in homogeneous semi-infinite atmospheres with uniformly distributed embedded primary sources of partially polarized radiation. The source matrices S(τ) are found by the discrete-ordinate solution of the relevant 2x2 matrix transfer equation and by albedo shifting technique, which is a version of the accelerated {LAMBDA}-iteration approach. The dependence of the solution of the matrix transfer equation on the parameters of the problem of multiple molecular scattering, albedo of single scattering λ_I_ and depolarization factor W, is carefully considered. (The value W=1 corresponds to Rayleigh scattering, while for scalar isotropic scattering W=0). From the pair of the parameters (λ_I_, W) we switch to (λ_I_, λ_Q_), with λ_Q_=0.7Wλ_I_, and instead of the physically natural domain of the parameter values, λ_Iin[0,1], λ_ Qin[0,0.7λ_I_], in GRS we consider a wider one, λ_ I_, λ_Qin[0,1]. On the plane with the axes (λ_I_, λ_Q_), or the λ-plane, there is a one-parameter family of curves, the isopols, along which S(0) remains constant. The λ-plane and the isopols are the basic instruments in our analysis. Along with presenting the numerical data we discuss the asymptotic behavior of S(τ) for τ->{infinity}. It is shown that the matrix counterpart of the usual scalar conservative isotropic scattering is not the ordinary conservative Rayleigh scattering (λ_I_=1, λ_ Q_=0.7), but the biconservative scattering, i.e., scattering with λ_I_=λ_Q_=1. The analysis of the remarkable properties of biconservative scattering naturally leads to matrix generalizations of the Hopf-Bronstein relation, the Hopf constant etc.

  6. Probabilistic Modeling of Ceramic Matrix Composite Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, Ashwin R.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Mital, Subodh K.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1998-01-01

    Uncertainties associated with the primitive random variables such as manufacturing process (processing temperature, fiber volume ratio, void volume ratio), constituent properties (fiber, matrix and interface), and geometric parameters (ply thickness, interphase thickness) have been simulated to quantify the scatter in the first matrix cracking strength (FMCS) and the ultimate tensile strength of SCS-6/RBSN (SiC fiber (SCS-6) reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride composite) ceramic matrix composite laminate at room temperature. Cumulative probability distribution function for the FMCS and ultimate tensile strength at room temperature (RT) of (0)(sub 8), (0(sub 2)/90(sub 2), and (+/-45(sub 2))(sub S) laminates have been simulated and the sensitivity of primitive variables to the respective strengths have been quantified. Computationally predicted scatter of the strengths for a uniaxial laminate have been compared with those from limited experimental data. Also the experimental procedure used in the tests has been described briefly. Results show a very good agreement between the computational simulation and the experimental data. Dominating failure modes in (0)(sub 8), (0/90)(sub s) and (+/-45)(sub S) laminates have been identified. Results indicate that the first matrix cracking strength for the (0)(sub S), and (0/90)(sub S) laminates is sensitive to the thermal properties, modulus and strengths of both the fiber and matrix whereas the ultimate tensile strength is sensitive to the fiber strength and the fiber volume ratio. In the case of a (+/-45)(sub S), laminate, both the FMCS and the ultimate tensile strengths have a small scatter range and are sensitive to the fiber tensile strength as well as the fiber volume ratio.

  7. Regulation of Corneal Stroma Extracellular Matrix Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shoujun; Mienaltowski, Michael J.; Birk, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The transparent cornea is the major refractive element of the eye. A finely controlled assembly of the stromal extracellular matrix is critical to corneal function, as well as in establishing the appropriate mechanical stability required to maintain corneal shape and curvature. In the stroma, homogeneous, small diameter collagen fibrils, regularly packed with a highly ordered hierarchical organization, are essential for function. This review focuses on corneal stroma assembly and the regulation of collagen fibrillogenesis. Corneal collagen fibrillogenesis involves multiple molecules interacting in sequential steps, as well as interactions between keratocytes and stroma matrix components. The stroma has the highest collagen V:I ratio in the body. Collagen V regulates the nucleation of protofibril assembly, thus controlling the number of fibrils and assembly of smaller diameter fibrils in the stroma. The corneal stroma is also enriched in small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) that cooperate in a temporal and spatial manner to regulate linear and lateral collagen fibril growth. In addition, the fibril-associated collagens (FACITs) such as collagen XII and collagen XIV have roles in the regulation of fibril packing and inter-lamellar interactions. A communicating keratocyte network contributes to the overall and long-range regulation of stromal extracellular matrix assembly, by creating micro-domains where the sequential steps in stromal matrix assembly are controlled. Keratocytes control the synthesis of extracellular matrix components, which interact with the keratocytes dynamically to coordinate the regulatory steps into a cohesive process. Mutations or deficiencies in stromal regulatory molecules result in altered interactions and deficiencies in both transparency and refraction, leading to corneal stroma pathobiology such as stromal dystrophies, cornea plana and keratoconus. PMID:25819456

  8. Dentin matrix degradation by host matrix metalloproteinases: inhibition and clinical perspectives toward regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chaussain, Catherine; Boukpessi, Tchilalo; Khaddam, Mayssam; Tjaderhane, Leo; George, Anne; Menashi, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial enzymes have long been considered solely accountable for the degradation of the dentin matrix during the carious process. However, the emerging literature suggests that host-derived enzymes, and in particular the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contained in dentin and saliva can play a major role in this process by their ability to degrade the dentin matrix from within. These findings are important since they open new therapeutic options for caries prevention and treatment. The possibility of using MMP inhibitors to interfere with dentin caries progression is discussed. Furthermore, the potential release of bioactive peptides by the enzymatic cleavage of dentin matrix proteins by MMPs during the carious process is discussed. These peptides, once identified, may constitute promising therapeutical tools for tooth and bone regeneration. PMID:24198787

  9. Bäcklund transformation of matrix equations and a discrete matrix first Painlevé equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordoa, P. R.; Pickering, A.; Zhu, Z. N.

    2013-08-01

    We show that the known auto-Bäcklund transformation for the matrix second Painlevé equation can be generalized to a much wider class of equations. This auto-Bäcklund transformation is an involution and so cannot be used on its own to generate an infinite sequence of different solutions, although for particular equations a second auto-Bäcklund transformation allows this to be done. We also give a Bäcklund transformation for this general class of matrix equations. For the matrix second Painlevé equation we also give a coalescence limit, and a construction of special integrals and of a discrete matrix first Painlevé equation.

  10. High-frequency matrix converter with square wave input

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Joseph Alexander; Balda, Juan Carlos

    2015-03-31

    A device for producing an alternating current output voltage from a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage comprising, high-frequency, square-wave input a matrix converter and a control system. The matrix converter comprises a plurality of electrical switches. The high-frequency input and the matrix converter are electrically connected to each other. The control system is connected to each switch of the matrix converter. The control system is electrically connected to the input of the matrix converter. The control system is configured to operate each electrical switch of the matrix converter converting a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage across the first input port of the matrix converter and the second input port of the matrix converter to an alternating current output voltage at the output of the matrix converter.

  11. Matrix Pade-type approximant and directional matrix Pade approximant in the inner product space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Chuanqing

    2004-03-01

    A new matrix Pade-type approximant (MPTA) is defined in the paper by introducing a generalized linear functional in the inner product space. The expressions of MPTA are provided with the generating function form and the determinant form. Moreover, a directional matrix Pade approximant is also established by giving a set of linearly independent matrices. In the end, it is shown that the method of MPTA can be applied to the reduction problems of the high degree multivariable linear system.

  12. Optimizing Tpetra%3CU%2B2019%3Es sparse matrix-matrix multiplication routine.

    SciTech Connect

    Nusbaum, Kurtis Lee

    2011-08-01

    Over the course of the last year, a sparse matrix-matrix multiplication routine has been developed for the Tpetra package. This routine is based on the same algorithm that is used in EpetraExt with heavy modifications. Since it achieved a working state, several major optimizations have been made in an effort to speed up the routine. This report will discuss the optimizations made to the routine, its current state, and where future work needs to be done.

  13. Matrix metalloproteinases and other matrix proteinases in relation to cariology: the era of 'dentin degradomics'.

    PubMed

    Tjäderhane, Leo; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Carrilho, Marcela; Chaussain, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Dentin organic matrix, with type I collagen as the main component, is exposed after demineralization in dentinal caries, erosion or acidic conditioning during adhesive composite restorative treatment. This exposed matrix is prone to slow hydrolytic degradation by host collagenolytic enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins. Here we review the recent findings demonstrating that inhibition of salivary or dentin endogenous collagenolytic enzymes may provide preventive means against progression of caries or erosion, just as they have been shown to retain the integrity and improve the longevity of resin composite filling bonding to dentin. This paper also presents the case that the organic matrix in caries-affected dentin may not be preserved as intact as previously considered. In partially demineralized dentin, MMPs and cysteine cathepsins with the ability to cleave off the terminal non-helical ends of collagen molecules (telopeptides) may lead to the gradual loss of intramolecular gap areas. This would seriously compromise the matrix ability for intrafibrillar remineralization, which is considered essential in restoring the dentin's mechanical properties. More detailed data of the enzymes responsible and their detailed function in dentin-destructive conditions may not only help to find new and better preventive means, but better preservation of demineralized dentin collagenous matrix may also facilitate true biological remineralization for the better restoration of tooth structural and mechanical integrity and mechanical properties. PMID:25661522

  14. Small intestinal submucosa extracellular matrix (CorMatrix®) in cardiovascular surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mosala Nezhad, Zahra; Poncelet, Alain; de Kerchove, Laurent; Gianello, Pierre; Fervaille, Caroline; El Khoury, Gebrine

    2016-06-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) derived from small intestinal submucosa (SIS) is widely used in clinical applications as a scaffold for tissue repair. Recently, CorMatrix® porcine SIS-ECM (CorMatrix Cardiovascular, Inc., Roswell, GA, USA) has gained popularity for 'next-generation' cardiovascular tissue engineering due to its ease of use, remodelling properties, lack of immunogenicity, absorbability and potential to promote native tissue growth. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of porcine SIS-ECM and systematically review the preclinical and clinical literature on its use in cardiovascular surgery. CorMatrix® has been used in a variety of cardiovascular surgical applications, and since it is the most widely used SIS-ECM, this material is the focus of this review. Since CorMatrix® is a relatively new product for cardiovascular surgery, some clinical and preclinical studies published lack systematic reporting of functional and pathological findings in sufficient numbers of subjects. There are also emerging reports to suggest that, contrary to expectations, an undesirable inflammatory response may occur in CorMatrix® implants in humans and longer-term outcomes at particular sites, such as the heart valves, may be suboptimal. Large-scale clinical studies are needed driven by robust protocols that aim to quantify the pathological process of tissue repair. PMID:26912574

  15. Pendulum impact resistance of tungsten fiber/metal matrix composites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winsa, E. A.; Petrasek, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    The impact properties of copper, copper-10 nickel, and a superalloy matrix reinforced with tungsten fibers were studied. In most cases the following increased composite impact strength: increased fiber or matrix toughness, decreased fiber-matrix reaction, increased test temperature, hot working and heat treatment. Notch sensitivity was reduced by increasing fiber or matrix toughness. The effect of fiber content depended on the relative toughness of the fibers and matrix. Above 530 K a 60 volume per cent superalloy matrix composite had a greater impact strength than a turbine blade superalloy, whereas below 530 K a hot worked 56 volume per cent composite had a greater impact strength than the superalloy.

  16. Onychomatricoma: A Rare Tumor of Nail Matrix.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hong Jin; Kim, Mi Ri; Cho, Baik Kee; Yoo, Gyeol; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2016-04-01

    Onychomatricoma is a rare tumor of the nail matrix. Until now, few cases of onychomatricoma have been reported in the literature. Immunohistochemically, CD10, a marker of the onychodermis, is expressed in the stroma of the onychomatricoma. In the present case, a 27-year-old woman presented with an 8-year history of a yellowish, thickened, and overcurved nail plate of the right index finger, mimicking onychomycosis. She had been treated for 4 years with antifungal agents by general physicians, without improvement. The nail was surgically removed, and the tumor at the nail matrix was excised. The nail plate continued to grow in the 2 months after the excision. This is a case of onychomatricoma in South Korea, which was initially misdiagnosed as onychomycosis. In addition, we present a review of the literature regarding clinical, sonographic, and histological features, differential diagnoses, and treatment of onychomatricoma. PMID:27081273

  17. Solidification processing of monotectic alloy matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frier, Nancy L.; Shiohara, Yuh; Russell, Kenneth C.

    1989-01-01

    Directionally solidified aluminum-indium alloys of the monotectic composition were found to form an in situ rod composite which obeys a lambda exp 2 R = constant relation. The experimental data shows good agreement with previously reported results. A theoretical boundary between cellular and dendritic growth conditions was derived and compared with experiments. The unique wetting characteristics of the monotectic alloys can be utilized to tailor the interface structure in metal matrix composites. Metal matrix composites with monotectic and hypermonotectic Al-In matrices were made by pressure infiltration, remelted and directionally solidified to observe the wetting characteristics of the alloys as well as the effect on structure of solidification in the constrained field of the fiber interstices. Models for monotectic growth are modified to take into account solidification in these constrained fields.

  18. Quantitative matrix assisted plasma desorption mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungclas, Hartmut; Schmidt, Lothar; Köhl, Peter; Fritsch, Hans-Walter

    1993-07-01

    The development of optimized sample preparation methods accompanied the history of successful applications of 252Cf-PDMS. Studying the pharmacokinetics of the antineoplastic agent etoposide serum samples from cancer patients were labelled with the homologeous compounds teniposide as internal standard for the quantitative PDMS analysis. Sample purification by chloroform extraction and by thin layer chromatography turned out to be insufficient to guarantee a satisfying final PDMS result. Embedding the purified sample into a matrix of suitable substances on the target reduced the negative influence of impurities, raised the signal-to-noise ratio of molecular ions and improved the reproducibility of calibration. This preparation method was again successfully employed for the quantitative analysis of the cytostatic drug doxorubicin. The application of a different matrix optimized for the preparation of this anthracycline and its homologeous compound daunorubicin, improved the sensitivity, linearity and detection limit.

  19. OVARIAN CANCER: INVOLVEMENT OF THE MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alem, Linah; Curry, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies. Reasons for the high mortality rate associated with ovarian cancer include a late diagnosis at which time the cancer has metastasized throughout the peritoneal cavity. Cancer metastasis is facilitated by the remodeling of the extracellular tumor matrix by a family of proteolytic enzymes known as the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). There are 23 members in the MMP family, many of which have been reported to be associated with ovarian cancer. In the current paradigm, ovarian tumor cells and the surrounding stromal cells stimulate the synthesis and/or activation of various MMPs to aid in tumor growth, invasion, and eventual metastasis. This review sheds light on the different MMPs in the various types of ovarian cancer and their impact on the progression of this gynecologic malignancy. PMID:25918438

  20. Rolling Element Bearing Stiffness Matrix Determination (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; Parker, R.

    2014-01-01

    Current theoretical bearing models differ in their stiffness estimates because of different model assumptions. In this study, a finite element/contact mechanics model is developed for rolling element bearings with the focus of obtaining accurate bearing stiffness for a wide range of bearing types and parameters. A combined surface integral and finite element method is used to solve for the contact mechanics between the rolling elements and races. This model captures the time-dependent characteristics of the bearing contact due to the orbital motion of the rolling elements. A numerical method is developed to determine the full bearing stiffness matrix corresponding to two radial, one axial, and two angular coordinates; the rotation about the shaft axis is free by design. This proposed stiffness determination method is validated against experiments in the literature and compared to existing analytical models and widely used advanced computational methods. The fully-populated stiffness matrix demonstrates the coupling between bearing radial, axial, and tilting bearing deflections.

  1. Ceramic-matrix composites fatigue and fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, David L.

    1995-10-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) have been shown to exhibit excellent high-temperature properties. There are some published data on the mechanical properties of Nicalon fiber-reinforced composites with various matrices, but much of the work was performed in bending, and there is little information on the failure modes in textile-reinforced CMCs, especially under cyclic-loading conditions. This article is an interim report on research that examines the tensile deformation, fracture, smoothbar fatigue, and fatigue crack-growth behavior of several CMCs. Unidirectional, two-dimensional eight-harness satin weave, and three-dimensional angle-interlock weave Nicalon fiber architectures infiltrated with polymers and then pyrolized were investigated and are compared with similar experiments on Nicalon-reinforced calcium-silicate glass-ceramic-matrix composites.

  2. System Matrix Analysis for Computed Tomography Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Liubov; Vidal, Vicent; Verdú, Gumersindo

    2015-01-01

    In practical applications of computed tomography imaging (CT), it is often the case that the set of projection data is incomplete owing to the physical conditions of the data acquisition process. On the other hand, the high radiation dose imposed on patients is also undesired. These issues demand that high quality CT images can be reconstructed from limited projection data. For this reason, iterative methods of image reconstruction have become a topic of increased research interest. Several algorithms have been proposed for few-view CT. We consider that the accurate solution of the reconstruction problem also depends on the system matrix that simulates the scanning process. In this work, we analyze the application of the Siddon method to generate elements of the matrix and we present results based on real projection data. PMID:26575482

  3. System Matrix Analysis for Computed Tomography Imaging.

    PubMed

    Flores, Liubov; Vidal, Vicent; Verdú, Gumersindo

    2015-01-01

    In practical applications of computed tomography imaging (CT), it is often the case that the set of projection data is incomplete owing to the physical conditions of the data acquisition process. On the other hand, the high radiation dose imposed on patients is also undesired. These issues demand that high quality CT images can be reconstructed from limited projection data. For this reason, iterative methods of image reconstruction have become a topic of increased research interest. Several algorithms have been proposed for few-view CT. We consider that the accurate solution of the reconstruction problem also depends on the system matrix that simulates the scanning process. In this work, we analyze the application of the Siddon method to generate elements of the matrix and we present results based on real projection data. PMID:26575482

  4. Matrix Remodeling in Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Tejaswini; O'Reilly, Philip; Antony, Veena B; Gaggar, Amit; Thannickal, Victor J

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema are chronic lung diseases characterized by a progressive decline in lung function, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. A hallmark of these diseases is recurrent or persistent alveolar epithelial injury, typically caused by common environmental exposures such as cigarette smoke. We propose that critical determinants of the outcome of the injury-repair processes that result in fibrosis versus emphysema are mesenchymal cell fate and associated extracellular matrix dynamics. In this review, we explore the concept that regulation of mesenchymal cells under the influence of soluble factors, in particular transforming growth factor-β1, and the extracellular matrix determine the divergent tissue remodeling responses seen in pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. PMID:26741177

  5. Influence of Binder in Iron Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin, S.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Hussain, Z.; Ahmad, Z. A.

    2010-03-11

    The ability to use iron and its alloys as the matrix material in composite systems is of great importance because it is the most widely used metallic material with a variety of commercially available steel grades [1]. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of binder in particulate iron based metal matrix composites. There are four types of binder that were used in this study; Stearic Acid, Gummi Arabisch, Polyvinyl alcohol 15000 MW and Polyvinyl alcohol 22000 MW. Six different weight percentage of each binder was prepared to produce the composite materials using powder metallurgy (P/M) route; consists of dry mixing, uniaxially compacting at 750 MPa and vacuum sintering at 1100 deg. C for two hours. Their characterization included a study of density, porosity, hardness and microstructure. Results indicate that MMC was affected by the binder and stearic acid as a binder produced better properties of the composite.

  6. Random matrix approach to categorical data analysis.

    PubMed

    Patil, Aashay; Santhanam, M S

    2015-09-01

    Correlation and similarity measures are widely used in all the areas of sciences and social sciences. Often the variables are not numbers but are instead qualitative descriptors called categorical data. We define and study similarity matrix, as a measure of similarity, for the case of categorical data. This is of interest due to a deluge of categorical data, such as movie ratings, top-10 rankings, and data from social media, in the public domain that require analysis. We show that the statistical properties of the spectra of similarity matrices, constructed from categorical data, follow random matrix predictions with the dominant eigenvalue being an exception. We demonstrate this approach by applying it to the data for Indian general elections and sea level pressures in the North Atlantic ocean. PMID:26465449

  7. Ceramic fiber ceramic matrix filter development

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Stinton, D.P.; Smith, R.G.; Fischer, E.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objectives of this project were to develop a novel type of candle filter based on a ceramic fiber-ceramic matrix composite material, and to extend the development to full-size, 60-mm OD by 1-meter-long candle filters. The goal is to develop a ceramic filter suitable for use in a variety of fossil energy system environments such as integrated coal gasification combined cycles (IGCC), pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), and other advanced coal combustion environments. Further, the ceramic fiber ceramic matrix composite filter, hereinafter referred to as the ceramic composite filter, was to be inherently crack resistant, a property not found in conventional monolithic ceramic candle filters, such as those fabricated from clay-bonded silicon carbide. Finally, the adequacy of the filters in the fossil energy system environments is to be proven through simulated and in-plant tests.

  8. Onychomatricoma: A Rare Tumor of Nail Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Hong Jin; Kim, Mi Ri; Cho, Baik Kee; Yoo, Gyeol

    2016-01-01

    Onychomatricoma is a rare tumor of the nail matrix. Until now, few cases of onychomatricoma have been reported in the literature. Immunohistochemically, CD10, a marker of the onychodermis, is expressed in the stroma of the onychomatricoma. In the present case, a 27-year-old woman presented with an 8-year history of a yellowish, thickened, and overcurved nail plate of the right index finger, mimicking onychomycosis. She had been treated for 4 years with antifungal agents by general physicians, without improvement. The nail was surgically removed, and the tumor at the nail matrix was excised. The nail plate continued to grow in the 2 months after the excision. This is a case of onychomatricoma in South Korea, which was initially misdiagnosed as onychomycosis. In addition, we present a review of the literature regarding clinical, sonographic, and histological features, differential diagnoses, and treatment of onychomatricoma. PMID:27081273

  9. Extracellular Matrix Roles During Cardiac Repair

    PubMed Central

    Jourdan-LeSaux, Claude; Zhang, Jianhua; Lindsey, Merry L.

    2010-01-01

    The cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) provides a platform for cells to maintain structure and function, which in turn maintains tissue function. In response to injury, the ECM undergoes remodeling that involves synthesis, incorporation, and degradation of matrix proteins, with the net outcome determined by the balance of these processes. The major goals of this review are a) to serve as an initial resource for students and investigators new to the cardiac ECM remodeling field, and b) to highlight a few of the key exciting avenues and methodologies that have recently been explored. While we focus on cardiac injury and responses of the left ventricle (LV), the mechanisms reviewed here have pathways in common with other wound healing models. PMID:20670633

  10. Numerical matrix method for quantum periodic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Vot, Felipe; Meléndez, Juan J.; Yuste, Santos B.

    2016-06-01

    A numerical matrix methodology is applied to quantum problems with periodic potentials. The procedure consists essentially in replacing the true potential by an alternative one, restricted by an infinite square well, and in expressing the wave functions as finite superpositions of eigenfunctions of the infinite well. A matrix eigenvalue equation then yields the energy levels of the periodic potential within an acceptable accuracy. The methodology has been successfully used to deal with problems based on the well-known Kronig-Penney (KP) model. Besides the original model, these problems are a dimerized KP solid, a KP solid containing a surface, and a KP solid under an external field. A short list of additional problems that can be solved with this procedure is presented.

  11. Interaction picture density matrix quantum Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Malone, Fionn D; Blunt, N S; Shepherd, James J; Lee, D K K; Spencer, J S; Foulkes, W M C

    2015-07-28

    The recently developed density matrix quantum Monte Carlo (DMQMC) algorithm stochastically samples the N-body thermal density matrix and hence provides access to exact properties of many-particle quantum systems at arbitrary temperatures. We demonstrate that moving to the interaction picture provides substantial benefits when applying DMQMC to interacting fermions. In this first study, we focus on a system of much recent interest: the uniform electron gas in the warm dense regime. The basis set incompleteness error at finite temperature is investigated and extrapolated via a simple Monte Carlo sampling procedure. Finally, we provide benchmark calculations for a four-electron system, comparing our results to previous work where possible. PMID:26233116

  12. Diffusion at the Random Matrix Hard Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, José A.; Rider, Brian

    2009-06-01

    We show that the limiting minimal eigenvalue distributions for a natural generalization of Gaussian sample-covariance structures (beta ensembles) are described by the spectrum of a random diffusion generator. This generator may be mapped onto the “Stochastic Bessel Operator,” introduced and studied by A. Edelman and B. Sutton in [6] where the corresponding convergence was first conjectured. Here, by a Riccati transformation, we also obtain a second diffusion description of the limiting eigenvalues in terms of hitting laws. All this pertains to the so-called hard edge of random matrix theory and sits in complement to the recent work [15] of the authors and B. Virág on the general beta random matrix soft edge. In fact, the diffusion descriptions found on both sides are used below to prove there exists a transition between the soft and hard edge laws at all values of beta.

  13. Reliability analysis of ceramic matrix composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, David J.; Wetherhold, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    At a macroscopic level, a composite lamina may be considered as a homogeneous orthotropic solid whose directional strengths are random variables. Incorporation of these random variable strengths into failure models, either interactive or non-interactive, allows for the evaluation of the lamina reliability under a given stress state. Using a non-interactive criterion for demonstration purposes, laminate reliabilities are calculated assuming previously established load sharing rules for the redistribution of load as the failure of laminae occur. The matrix cracking predicted by ACK theory is modeled to allow a loss of stiffness in the fiber direction. The subsequent failure in the fiber direction is controlled by a modified bundle theory. Results using this modified bundle model are compared with previous models which did not permit separate consideration of matrix cracking, as well as to results obtained from experimental data.

  14. Social patterns revealed through random matrix theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Camellia; Jalan, Sarika

    2014-11-01

    Despite the tremendous advancements in the field of network theory, very few studies have taken weights in the interactions into consideration that emerge naturally in all real-world systems. Using random matrix analysis of a weighted social network, we demonstrate the profound impact of weights in interactions on emerging structural properties. The analysis reveals that randomness existing in particular time frame affects the decisions of individuals rendering them more freedom of choice in situations of financial security. While the structural organization of networks remains the same throughout all datasets, random matrix theory provides insight into the interaction pattern of individuals of the society in situations of crisis. It has also been contemplated that individual accountability in terms of weighted interactions remains as a key to success unless segregation of tasks comes into play.

  15. Prediction of thermal cycling induced matrix cracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, Hugh L.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal fatigue has been observed to cause matrix cracking in laminated composite materials. A method is presented to predict transverse matrix cracks in composite laminates subjected to cyclic thermal load. Shear lag stress approximations and a simple energy-based fracture criteria are used to predict crack densities as a function of temperature. Prediction of crack densities as a function of thermal cycling is accomplished by assuming that fatigue degrades the material's inherent resistance to cracking. The method is implemented as a computer program. A simple experiment provides data on progressive cracking of a laminate with decreasing temperature. Existing data on thermal fatigue is also used. Correlations of the analytical predictions to the data are very good. A parametric study using the analytical method is presented which provides insight into material behavior under cyclical thermal loads.

  16. Parallel matrix multiplication on the Connection Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tichy, Walter F.

    1988-01-01

    Matrix multiplication is a computation and communication intensive problem. Six parallel algorithms for matrix multiplication on the Connection Machine are presented and compared with respect to their performance and processor usage. For n by n matrices, the algorithms have theoretical running times of O(n to the 2nd power log n), O(n log n), O(n), and O(log n), and require n, n to the 2nd power, n to the 2nd power, and n to the 3rd power processors, respectively. With careful attention to communication patterns, the theoretically predicted runtimes can indeed be achieved in practice. The parallel algorithms illustrate the tradeoffs between performance, communication cost, and processor usage.

  17. Extracellular matrix as target for antitumor therapy

    PubMed Central

    Harisi, Revekka; Jeney, Andras

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to survey the accumulated knowledge on the extracellular matrix (ECM) of tumors referring to its putative utility as therapeutic target. Following the traditional observation on the extensive morphological alteration in the tumor-affected tissue, the well-documented aberrant cellular regulation indicated that ECM components have an active role in tumor progression. However, due to the diverse functions and variable expression of proteoglycans, matrix proteins, and integrins, it is rather difficult to identify a comprehensive therapeutic target among ECM components. At present, the elevated level of heparanase and the prominent expression of αvβ5 integrin are considered as promising therapeutic targets. The inhibition of glycosaminoglycan offers another promising approach in the treatment of those tumors which are stimulated by proteoglycans. It can be ascertained that a selective ECM inhibitor would be a great asset to control metastasis driven by ECM-mediated signaling. PMID:26089687

  18. Form Invariance of the Neutrino Mass Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ernest

    2003-06-01

    Consider the most general 3×3 Majorana neutrino mass matrix M. Motivated by present neutrino-oscillation data, much theoretical effort is directed at reducing it to a specific texture in terms of a small number of parameters. This procedure is often adhoc. I propose instead that for any M one may choose, it should satisfy the condition UMUT=M, where U≠1 is a specific unitary matrix such that UN represents a well-defined discrete symmetry in the νe,μ,τ basis, N being a particular integer not necessarily equal to 1. I illustrate this idea with a number of examples, including the realistic case of an inverted hierarchy of neutrino masses.

  19. Matrix reformulation of the Gabor transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balart, Rogelio

    1992-06-01

    We have observed that if one restricts the von Neumann lattice to N points on the time axis and M points in the frequency axis there are, by definition, only MN independent Gabor coefficients. If the data is sampled such that there are exactly MN samples, then the forward and inverse Gabor transforms should be representable as linear transformations in CMN, the MN-dimensional vector space over the complex numbers, and the relationships that hold become matrix equations. These matrix equations are formulated, and some conclusions are drawn about the relative merits of using some methods as opposed to others, i.e., speed versus accuracy as well as whether or not the coefficients that are obtained via some methods are true Gabor coefficients.

  20. Matrix reformulation of the Gabor transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balart, Rogelio

    1991-12-01

    We have observed that if one restricts the von Neumann lattice to N points on the time axis and M points in the frequency axis there are, by definition, only MN independent Gabor coefficients. If the data is sampled such that there are exactly MN samples, then the forward and inverse Gabor transforms should be representable as linear transformations in CMN, the MN-dimensional vector space over the complex numbers, and the relationships that hold become matrix equations. These matrix equations are formulated, and some conclusions are drawn about the relative merits of using some methods as opposed to others, i.e., speed versus accuracy, as well as whether or not the coefficients that are obtained via some methods are true Gabor coefficients.