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Sample records for chlorobium tepidum comparison

  1. The complete genome sequence of Chlorobium tepidum TLS, a photosynthetic, anaerobic, green-sulfur bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, Jonathan A.; Nelson, Karen E.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Heidelberg, John F.; Wu, Martin; Dodson, Robert J.; Deboy, Robert; Gwinn, Michelle L.; Nelson, William C.; Haft, Daniel H.; Hickey, Erin K.; Peterson, Jeremy D.; Durkin, A. Scott; Kolonay, James L.; Yang, Fan; Holt, Ingeborg; Umayam, Lowell A.; Mason, Tanya; Brenner, Michael; Shea, Terrance P.; Parksey, Debbie; Nierman, William C.; Feldblyum, Tamara V.; Hansen, Cheryl L.; Craven, M. Brook; Radune, Diana; Vamathevan, Jessica; Khouri, Hoda; White, Owen; Gruber, Tanja M.; Ketchum, Karen A.; Venter, J. Craig; Tettelin, Hervé; Bryant, Donald A.; Fraser, Claire M.

    2002-01-01

    The complete genome of the green-sulfur eubacterium Chlorobium tepidum TLS was determined to be a single circular chromosome of 2,154,946 bp. This represents the first genome sequence from the phylum Chlorobia, whose members perform anoxygenic photosynthesis by the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle. Genome comparisons have identified genes in C. tepidum that are highly conserved among photosynthetic species. Many of these have no assigned function and may play novel roles in photosynthesis or photobiology. Phylogenomic analysis reveals likely duplications of genes involved in biosynthetic pathways for photosynthesis and the metabolism of sulfur and nitrogen as well as strong similarities between metabolic processes in C. tepidum and many Archaeal species. PMID:12093901

  2. Malate dehydrogenase from the mesophile Chlorobium vibrioforme and from the mild thermophile Chlorobium tepidum: molecular cloning, construction of a hybrid, and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Naterstad, K; Lauvrak, V; Sirevåg, R

    1996-12-01

    The genes (mdh) encoding malate dehydrogenase (MDH) from the mesophile Chlorobium vibrioforme and the moderate thermophile C. tepidum were cloned and sequenced, and the complete amino acid sequences were deduced. When the region upstream of mdh was analyzed, a sequence with high homology to an operon encoding ribosomal proteins from Escherichia coli was found. Each mdh gene consists of a 930-bp open reading frame and encodes 310 amino acid residues, corresponding to a subunit weight of 33,200 Da for the dimeric enzyme. The amino acid sequence identity of the two MDHs is 86%. Homology searches using the primary structures of the two MDHs revealed significant sequence similarity to lactate dehydrogenases. A hybrid mdh was constructed from the 3' part of mdh from C. tepidum and the 5' part of mdh from C. vibrioforme. The thermostabilities of the hybrid enzyme and of MDH from C. vibrioforme and C. tepidum were compared.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of ferredoxin-NAD(P)+ reductase from Chlorobium tepidum.

    PubMed

    Muraki, Norifumi; Seo, Daisuke; Shiba, Tomoo; Sakurai, Takeshi; Kurisu, Genji

    2008-03-01

    Ferredoxin-NAD(P)(+) reductase (FNR) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the photoreduction of NAD(P)(+) to generate NAD(P)H during the final step of the photosynthetic electron-transport chain. FNR from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum is a homodimeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 90 kDa; it shares a high level of amino-acid sequence identity to thioredoxin reductase rather than to conventional plant-type FNRs. In order to understand the structural basis of the ferredoxin-dependency of this unique photosynthetic FNR, C. tepidum FNR has been heterologously expressed, purified and crystallized in two forms. Form I crystals belong to space group C222(1) and contain one dimer in the asymmetric unit, while form II crystals belong to space group P4(1)22 or P4(3)22. Diffraction data were collected from a form I crystal to 2.4 A resolution on the synchrotron-radiation beamline NW12 at the Photon Factory.

  4. Chromosomal Gene Inactivation in the Green Sulfur Bacterium Chlorobium tepidum by Natural Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Bryant, Donald A.

    2001-01-01

    Conditions for inactivating chromosomal genes of Chlorobium tepidum by natural transformation and homologous recombination were established. As a model, mutants unable to perform nitrogen fixation were constructed by interrupting nifD with various antibiotic resistance markers. Growth of wild-type C. tepidum at 40°C on agar plates could be completely inhibited by 100 μg of gentamicin ml−1, 2 μg of erythromycin ml−1, 30 μg of chloramphenicol ml−1, or 1 μg of tetracycline ml−1 or a combination of 300 μg of streptomycin ml−1 and 150 μg of spectinomycin ml−1. Transformation was performed by spotting cells and DNA on an agar plate for 10 to 20 h. Transformation frequencies on the order of 10−7 were observed with gentamicin and erythromycin markers, and transformation frequencies on the order of 10−3 were observed with a streptomycin-spectinomycin marker. The frequency of spontaneous mutants resistant to gentamicin, erythromycin, or spectinomycin-streptomycin was undetectable or significantly lower than the transformation frequency. Transformation with the gentamicin marker was observed when the transforming DNA contained 1 or 3 kb of total homologous flanking sequence but not when the transforming DNA contained only 0.3 kb of homologous sequence. Linearized plasmids transformed at least an order of magnitude better than circular plasmids. This work forms a foundation for the systematic targeted inactivation of genes in C. tepidum, whose 2.15-Mb genome has recently been completely sequenced. PMID:11375161

  5. Ultrafast energy transfer in light-harvesting chlorosomes from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum.

    PubMed

    Savikhin, S; van Noort, P I; Zhu, Y; Lin, S; Blankenship, R E; Struve, W S

    1995-05-15

    Two independent pump-probe techniques were used to study the antenna energy transfer kinetics of intact chlorosomes from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum with femtosecond resolution. The isotropic kinetics revealed by one-color experiments in the BChl c antenna were inhomogeneous with respect to wavelength. Multiexponential analyses of the photobleaching/stimulated emission (PB/SE) decay profiles typically yielded (apart from a approximately 10 fs component that may stem from the initial coherent oscillation) components with lifetimes 1-2 ps and several tens of ps. The largest amplitudes for the latter component occur at 810 nm, the longest wavelength studied. Analyses of most two-color pump-probe profiles with the probe wavelength red-shifted from the pump wavelength yielded no PB/SE rise components. PB/SE components with approximately 1 ps risetime were found in 790 --> 810 and 790 --> 820 nm profiles, in which the probe wavelength is situated well into the BChl a absorption region. A 760 --> 740 nm uphill two-color experiment yielded a PB/SE component with 4-6 ps risetime. Broadband absorption difference spectra of chlorosomes excited at 720 nm (in the blue edge of the 746 nm BChl c Qy band) exhibit approximately 15 nm red-shifting of the PB/SE peak wavelength during the first several hundred fs. Analogous spectra excited at 760 nm (at the red edge) show little dynamic spectral shifting. Our results suggest that inhomogeneous broadening and spectral equilibration play a larger role in the early BChl c antenna kinetics in chlorosomes from C. tepidum than in those from C. aurantiacus, a system studied previously. As in C. aurantiacus, the initial one-color anisotropies r(0) for most BChl c wavelengths are close to 0.4. The corresponding residual anisotropies r(infinity) are typically 0.19-0.25, which is much lower than found in C. aurantiacus (> or = 0.35); the transition moment organization is appreciably less collinear in the BChl c antenna of C

  6. Exciton dynamics in the chlorosomal antennae of the green bacteria Chloroflexus aurantiacus and Chlorobium tepidum.

    PubMed Central

    Prokhorenko, V I; Steensgaard, D B; Holzwarth, A R

    2000-01-01

    The energy transfer processes in isolated chlorosomes from green bacteria Chlorobium tepidum and Chloroflexus aurantiacus have been studied at low temperatures (1.27 K) by two-pulse photon echo and one-color transient absorption techniques with approximately 100 fs resolution. The decay of the coherence in both types of chlorosomes is characterized by four different dephasing times stretching from approximately 100 fs up to 300 ps. The fastest component reflects dephasing that is due to interaction of bacteriochlorophylls with the phonon bath, whereas the other components correspond to dephasing due to different energy transfer processes such as distribution of excitation along the rod-like aggregates, energy exchange between different rods in the chlorosome, and energy transfer to the base plate. As a basis for the interpretation of the excitation dephasing and energy transfer pathways, a superlattice-like structural model is proposed based on recent experimental data and computer modeling of the Bchl c aggregates (1994. Photosynth. Res. 41:225-233.) This model predicts a fine structure of the Q(y) absorption band that is fully supported by the present photon echo data. PMID:11023914

  7. High-pressure and stark hole-burning studies of chlorosome antennas from Chlorobium tepidum.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, H M; Rätsep, M; Young, C S; Jankowiak, R; Blankenship, R E; Small, G J

    2000-01-01

    Results from high-pressure and Stark hole-burning experiments on isolated chlorosomes from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum are presented, as well as Stark hole-burning data for bacteriochlorophyll c (BChl c) monomers in a poly(vinyl butyral) copolymer film. Large linear pressure shift rates of -0.44 and -0.54 cm(-1)/MPa were observed for the chlorosome BChl c Q(y)-band at 100 K and the lowest Q(y)-exciton level at 12 K, respectively. It is argued that approximately half of the latter shift rate is due to electron exchange coupling between BChl c molecules. The similarity between the above shift rates and those observed for the B875 and B850 BChl a rings of the light-harvesting complexes of purple bacteria is emphasized. For BChl c monomer, fDeltamu++ = 0.35 D, where Deltamu+ is the dipole moment change for the Q(y) transition and f is the local field correction factor. The data establish that Deltamu+ is dominated by the matrix-induced contribution. The change in polarizability (Deltaalpha) for the Q(y) transition of the BChl c monomer is estimated at 19 A(3), which is essentially identical to that of the Chl a monomer. Interestingly, no Stark effects were observed for the lowest exciton level of the chlorosomes (maximum Stark field of 10(5) V/cm). Possible explanations for this are given, and these include consideration of structural models for the chlorosome BChl c aggregates. PMID:10969017

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of ferredoxin-NAD(P){sup +} reductase from Chlorobium tepidum

    SciTech Connect

    Muraki, Norifumi; Seo, Daisuke; Shiba, Tomoo; Sakurai, Takeshi; Kurisu, Genji

    2008-03-01

    Ferredoxin-NAD(P){sup +} reductase from C. tepidum has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution. Ferredoxin-NAD(P){sup +} reductase (FNR) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the photoreduction of NAD(P){sup +} to generate NAD(P)H during the final step of the photosynthetic electron-transport chain. FNR from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum is a homodimeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 90 kDa; it shares a high level of amino-acid sequence identity to thioredoxin reductase rather than to conventional plant-type FNRs. In order to understand the structural basis of the ferredoxin-dependency of this unique photosynthetic FNR, C. tepidum FNR has been heterologously expressed, purified and crystallized in two forms. Form I crystals belong to space group C222{sub 1} and contain one dimer in the asymmetric unit, while form II crystals belong to space group P4{sub 1}22 or P4{sub 3}22. Diffraction data were collected from a form I crystal to 2.4 Å resolution on the synchrotron-radiation beamline NW12 at the Photon Factory.

  9. Two exopolyphosphatases with distinct molecular architectures and substrate specificities from the thermophilic green-sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum TLS.

    PubMed

    Albi, Tomás; Serrano, Aurelio

    2014-09-01

    The genome of the thermophilic green-sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum TLS possesses two genes encoding putative exopolyphosphatases (PPX; EC 3.6.1.11), namely CT0099 (ppx1, 993 bp) and CT1713 (ppx2, 1557 bp). The predicted polypeptides of 330 and 518 aa residues are Ppx-GppA phosphatases of different domain architectures - the largest one has an extra C-terminal HD domain - which may represent ancient paralogues. Both ppx genes were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). While CtPPX1 was validated as a monomeric enzyme, CtPPX2 was found to be a homodimer. Both PPX homologues were functional, K(+)-stimulated phosphohydrolases, with an absolute requirement for divalent metal cations and a marked preference for Mg(2+). Nevertheless, they exhibited remarkably different catalytic specificities with regard to substrate classes and chain lengths. Even though both enzymes were able to hydrolyse the medium-size polyphosphate (polyP) P13-18 (polyP mix with mean chain length of 13-18 phosphate residues), CtPPX1 clearly reached its highest catalytic efficiency with tripolyphosphate and showed substantial nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) activity, while CtPPX2 preferred long-chain polyPs (>300 Pi residues) and did not show any detectable NTPase activity. These catalytic features, taken together with the distinct domain architectures and molecular phylogenies, indicate that the two PPX homologues of Chl. tepidum belong to different Ppx-GppA phosphatase subfamilies that should play specific biochemical roles in nucleotide and polyP metabolisms. In addition, these results provide an example of the remarkable functional plasticity of the Ppx-GppA phosphatases, a family of proteins with relatively simple structures that are widely distributed in the microbial world.

  10. Selective protein extraction from Chlorobium tepidum chlorosomes using detergents. Evidence that CsmA forms multimers and binds bacteriochlorophyll a.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Donald A; Vassilieva, Elena V; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Li, Hui

    2002-12-03

    Chlorosomes of the photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum consist of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) c aggregates that are surrounded by a lipid-protein monolayer envelope that contains ten different proteins. Chlorosomes also contain a small amount of BChl a, but the organization and location of this BChl a are not yet clearly understood. Chlorosomes were treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Lubrol PX, or Triton X-100, separately or in combination with 1-hexanol, and the extracted components were separated from the residual chlorosomes by ultrafiltration on centrifugal filters. When chlorosomes were treated with low concentrations of SDS, all proteins except CsmA were extracted. However, this treatment did not significantly alter the size and shape of the chlorosomes, did not extract the BChl a, and caused only minor changes in the absorption spectrum of the chlorosomes. Cross-linking studies with SDS-treated chlorosomes revealed the presence of multimers of the major chlorosome protein, CsmA, up to homooctamers. Extraction of chlorosomes with SDS and 1-hexanol solubilized all ten chlorosome envelope proteins as well as BChl a. Although the size and shape of these extracted chlorosomes did not initially differ significantly from untreated chlorosomes, the extracted chlorosomes gradually disintegrated, and rod-shaped BChl c aggregates were sometimes observed. These results strongly suggest that CsmA binds the BChl a in Chlorobium-type chlorosomes and further indicate that none of the nine other chlorosome envelope proteins are absolutely required for maintaining the shape and integrity of chlorosomes. Quantitative estimates suggest that chlorosomes contain approximately equimolar amounts of CsmA and BChl a and that roughly one-third of the surface of the chlorosome is covered by CsmA.

  11. Spectroscopic and functional properties of novel 2[4Fe-4S] cluster-containing ferredoxins from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum.

    PubMed

    Yoon, K S; Bobst, C; Hemann, C F; Hille, R; Tabita, F R

    2001-11-23

    Two distinct ferredoxins, Fd I and Fd II, were isolated and purified to homogeneity from photoautotrophically grown Chlorobium tepidum, a moderately thermophilic green sulfur bacterium that assimilates carbon dioxide by the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle. Both ferredoxins serve a crucial role as electron donors for reductive carboxylation, catalyzed by a key enzyme of this pathway, pyruvate synthase/pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase. The reduction potentials of Fd I and Fd II were determined by cyclic voltammetry to be -514 and -584 mV, respectively, which are more electronegative than any previously studied Fds in which two [4Fe-4S] clusters display a single transition. Further spectroscopic studies indicated that the CD spectrum of oxidized Fd I closely resembled that of Fd II; however, both spectra appeared to be unique relative to ferredoxins studied previously. Double integration of the EPR signal of the two Fds yielded approximately approximately 2.0 spins per molecule, compatible with the idea that C. tepidum Fd I and Fd II accept 2 electrons upon reduction. These results suggest that the C. tepidum Fd I and Fd II polypeptides each contain two bound [4Fe-4S] clusters. C. tepidum Fd I and Fd II are novel 2[4Fe-4S] Fds, which were shown previously to function as biological electron donors or acceptors for C. tepidum pyruvate synthase/pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (Yoon, K.-S., Hille, R., Hemann, C. F., and Tabita, F. R. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 29772-29778). Kinetic measurements indicated that Fd I had approximately 2.3-fold higher affinity than Fd II. The results of amino acid sequence alignments, molecular modeling, oxidation-reduction potentials, and spectral properties strongly indicate that the C. tepidum Fds are chimeras of both clostridial-type and chromatium-type Fds, suggesting that the two Fds are likely intermediates in the evolutional development of 2[4Fe-4S] clusters compared with the well described clostridial and chromatium types.

  12. Electron transfer kinetics in purified reaction centers from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum studied by multiple-flash excitation.

    PubMed

    Kusumoto, N; Sétif, P; Brettel, K; Seo, D; Sakurai, H

    1999-09-14

    Reaction center preparations from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum, which contain monoheme cytochrome c, were studied by flash-absorption spectroscopy in the near-UV, visible, and near-infrared regions. The decay kinetics of the photooxidized primary donor P840(+), together with the amount of photooxidized cytochrome c, were analyzed along a series of four flashes spaced by 1 ms: 95% of the P840(+) was reduced by cytochrome c with a t(1/2) of approximately 65 micros after the first flash, 80% with a t(1/2) of approximately 100 micros after the second flash, and 23% with a t(1/2) of approximately 100 micros after the third flash; after the fourth flash, almost no cytochrome c oxidation occurred. The observed rates, the establishment of redox equilibrium after each flash, and the total amount of photooxidizable cytochrome c are consistent with the presence of two equivalent cytochrome c molecules per photooxidizable P840. The data are well fitted assuming a standard free energy change DeltaG degrees of -53 meV for electron transfer from one cytochrome c to P840(+), DeltaG degrees being independent of the oxidation state of the other cytochrome c. These observations support a model with two monoheme cytochromes c which are symmetrically arranged around the reaction center core. From the ratio of menaquinone-7 to the bacteriochlorophyll pigment absorbing at 663 nm, it was estimated that our preparations contain 0.6-1.2 menaquinone-7 molecules per reaction center. However, no transient signal due to menaquinone could be observed between 360 and 450 nm in the time window from 10 ns to 4 micros. No recombination reaction between the primary partners P840(+) and A(0)(-) could be detected under normal conditions. Such a recombination was observed (t(1/2) approximately 19 ns) under highly reducing conditions or after accumulation of three electrons on the acceptor side during a series of flashes, showing that the secondary acceptors can stabilize three electrons

  13. Parallel electron donation pathways to cytochrome c(z) in the type I homodimeric photosynthetic reaction center complex of Chlorobium tepidum.

    PubMed

    Tsukatani, Yusuke; Azai, Chihiro; Kondo, Toru; Itoh, Shigeru; Oh-Oka, Hirozo

    2008-09-01

    We studied the regulation mechanism of electron donations from menaquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase and cytochrome c-554 to the type I homodimeric photosynthetic reaction center complex of the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. We measured flash-induced absorption changes of multiple cytochromes in the membranes prepared from a mutant devoid of cytochrome c-554 or in the reconstituted membranes by exogenously adding cytochrome c-555 purified from Chlorobium limicola. The results indicated that the photo-oxidized cytochrome c(z) bound to the reaction center was rereduced rapidly by cytochrome c-555 as well as by the menaquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase and that cytochrome c-555 did not function as a shuttle-like electron carrier between the menaquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase and cytochrome c(z). It was also shown that the rereduction rate of cytochrome c(z) by cytochrome c-555 was as high as that by the menaquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase. The two electron-transfer pathways linked to sulfur metabolisms seem to function independently to donate electrons to the reaction center.

  14. A ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO)-like protein from Chlorobium tepidum that is involved with sulfur metabolism and the response to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Hanson, T E; Tabita, F R

    2001-04-10

    A gene encoding a product with substantial similarity to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) was identified in the preliminary genome sequence of the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. A highly similar gene was subsequently isolated and sequenced from Chlorobium limicola f.sp. thiosulfatophilum strain Tassajara. Analysis of these amino acid sequences indicated that they lacked several conserved RubisCO active site residues. The Chlorobium RubisCO-like proteins are most closely related to deduced sequences in Bacillus subtilis and Archaeoglobus fulgidus, which also lack some typical RubisCO active site residues. When the C. tepidum gene encoding the RubisCO-like protein was disrupted, the resulting mutant strain displayed a pleiotropic phenotype with defects in photopigment content, photoautotrophic growth and carbon fixation rates, and sulfur metabolism. Most important, the mutant strain showed substantially enhanced accumulation of two oxidative stress proteins. These results indicated that the C. tepidum RubisCO-like protein might be involved in oxidative stress responses and/or sulfur metabolism. This protein might be an evolutional link to bona fide RubisCO and could serve as an important tool to analyze how the RubisCO active site developed.

  15. An alternative strategy for the membrane proteome analysis of the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum using blue native PAGE and 2-D PAGE on purified membranes.

    PubMed

    Aivaliotis, Michalis; Karas, Michael; Tsiotis, Georgios

    2007-03-01

    To avoid the specific problems concerning intrinsic membrane proteins in proteome analysis, an alternative strategy is described that is complementary to previous investigations using 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) techniques. The strategy involves (a) obtaining purified preparations of the membranes from Chlorobium tepidum by washing with 2 M NaBr, which removed membrane-associated soluble proteins and membrane-associated organelles; (b) separation of membrane protein complexes using 1-D Blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) after solubilization with n-dodecyl-beta-d-maltoside (DDM); (c) combination of the BN with Tricine-SDS-PAGE; (d) high-throughput mass spectrometric analysis after gel band excision, in-gel digestion, and MALDI target spotting; and (e) protein identification from mixtures of tryptic peptides by peptide mass fingerprinting. Using this approach, we identified 143 different proteins, 70 of which have not been previously reported using 2-D PAGE techniques. Membrane proteins with up to 14 transmembrane helices were found, and this procedure proved to be efficient with proteins within a wide pI range (4.4-11.6). About 54% of the identified membrane proteins belong to various functional categories like energy metabolism, transport, signal transduction, and protein translocation, while for the others, a function is not yet known, indicating the potential of the method for the elucidation of the membrane proteomes in general.

  16. The crystal structure of ferritin from Chlorobium tepidum reveals a new conformation of the 4-fold channel for this protein family.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Salinas, Mauricio; Townsend, Philip D; Brito, Christian; Marquez, Valeria; Marabolli, Vanessa; Gonzalez-Nilo, Fernando; Matias, Cata; Watt, Richard K; López-Castro, Juan D; Domínguez-Vera, José; Pohl, Ehmke; Yévenes, Alejandro

    2014-11-01

    Ferritins are ubiquitous iron-storage proteins found in all kingdoms of life. They share a common architecture made of 24 subunits of five α-helices. The recombinant Chlorobium tepidum ferritin (rCtFtn) is a structurally interesting protein since sequence alignments with other ferritins show that this protein has a significantly extended C-terminus, which possesses 12 histidine residues as well as several aspartate and glutamic acid residues that are potential metal ion binding residues. We show that the macromolecular assembly of rCtFtn exhibits a cage-like hollow shell consisting of 24 monomers that are related by 4-3-2 symmetry; similar to the assembly of other ferritins. In all ferritins of known structure the short fifth α-helix adopts an acute angle with respect to the four-helix bundle. However, the crystal structure of the rCtFtn presented here shows that this helix adopts a new conformation defining a new assembly of the 4-fold channel of rCtFtn. This conformation allows the arrangement of the C-terminal region into the inner cavity of the protein shell. Furthermore, two Fe(III) ions were found in each ferroxidase center of rCtFtn, with an average FeA-FeB distance of 3 Å; corresponding to a diferric μ-oxo/hydroxo species. This is the first ferritin crystal structure with an isolated di-iron center in an iron-storage ferritin. The crystal structure of rCtFtn and the biochemical results presented here, suggests that rCtFtn presents similar biochemical properties reported for other members of this protein family albeit with distinct structural plasticity.

  17. Functional analysis of three sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase homologs in Chlorobaculum tepidum.

    PubMed

    Chan, Leong-Keat; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M; Hanson, Thomas E

    2009-02-01

    Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) catalyzes sulfide oxidation during sulfide-dependent chemo- and phototrophic growth in bacteria. The green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum (formerly Chlorobium tepidum) can grow on sulfide as the sole electron donor and sulfur source. C. tepidum contains genes encoding three SQR homologs: CT0117, CT0876, and CT1087. This study examined which, if any, of the SQR homologs possess sulfide-dependent ubiquinone reduction activity and are required for growth on sulfide. In contrast to CT0117 and CT0876, transcripts of CT1087 were detected only when cells actively oxidized sulfide. Mutation of CT0117 or CT1087 in C. tepidum decreased SQR activity in membrane fractions, and the CT1087 mutant could not grow with >or=6 mM sulfide. Mutation of both CT0117 and CT1087 in C. tepidum completely abolished SQR activity, and the double mutant failed to grow with >or=4 mM sulfide. A C-terminal His(6)-tagged CT1087 protein was membrane localized, as was SQR activity. Epitope-tagged CT1087 was detected only when sulfide was actively consumed by cells. Recombinantly produced CT1087 and CT0117 proteins had SQR activity, while CT0876 did not. In summary, we conclude that, under the conditions tested, both CT0117 and CT1087 function as SQR proteins in C. tepidum. CT0876 may support the growth of C. tepidum at low sulfide concentrations, but no evidence was found for SQR activity associated with this protein.

  18. Sulfite Oxidation in Chlorobaculum Tepidum

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Jesse; Hiras, Jennifer; Hanson, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum is proposed to oxidize sulfide and elemental sulfur via sulfite as an obligate intermediate. The sulfite pool is predicted to be contained in the cytoplasm and be oxidized by the concerted action of ApsBA, which directly oxidizes sulfite, and QmoABC, which transfers electrons from ApsBA to the quinone pool. Like other green sulfur bacteria, C. tepidum was unable to use exogenously provided sulfite as the sole electron donor. However, exogenous sulfite significantly stimulated the growth yield of sulfide limited batch cultures. The growth of C. tepidum mutant strains, CT0867/qmoB::TnOGm and CT0868/qmoC::TnOGm, was not increased by sulfite. Furthermore, these strains accumulated sulfite and displayed a growth yield decrease when grown on sulfide as the sole electron donor. These results support an obligate, cytoplasmic sulfite intermediate as part of the canonical sulfur oxidation pathway in C. tepidum that requires the Qmo complex for oxidation. PMID:21747809

  19. Sorption of metals by Chlorobium spp.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gil, J; Borrego, C

    1997-12-01

    The capacity of two species of green phototrophic sulfur bacteria, Chlorobium limicola and C. phaeobacteroides, to sorb several metal ions (Mn2+, Fe2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+) has been tested in laboratory batch cultures at increasing concentrations up to 2,000 mumol/l. Except for nickel--which was not sorbed to bacterial cells--the rest of metals tested were bound in a fast and passive process, which was mathematically described by means of Freundlich isotherms models. The sorption capacity of the two species studied were found to be dependent on the metal involved, whereas no differences were observed in the sorption intensity, suggesting that in all cases the sorption process proceeds in a similar way. Further, the comparison of the sorption intensity values as well as the metal recovery index (Ri), for both species, revealed that C. phaeobacteroides was more efficient that C. limicola to attach metal ions. The ecological significance of this ability in the water column of some stratified lakes, where coinciding maxima of ferrous iron and green photosynthetic sulfur bacteria are frequently found, is discussed.

  20. Genetic Manipulation of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in the Green Sulfur Bacterium Chlorobium tepidum†

    PubMed Central

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Maresca, Julia A.; Yunker, Colleen E.; Jones, A. Daniel; Bryant, Donald A.

    2004-01-01

    The green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum is a strict anaerobe and an obligate photoautotroph. On the basis of sequence similarity with known enzymes or sequence motifs, nine open reading frames encoding putative enzymes of carotenoid biosynthesis were identified in the genome sequence of C. tepidum, and all nine genes were inactivated. Analysis of the carotenoid composition in the resulting mutants allowed the genes encoding the following six enzymes to be identified: phytoene synthase (crtB/CT1386), phytoene desaturase (crtP/CT0807), ζ-carotene desaturase (crtQ/CT1414), γ-carotene desaturase (crtU/CT0323), carotenoid 1′,2′-hydratase (crtC/CT0301), and carotenoid cis-trans isomerase (crtH/CT0649). Three mutants (CT0180, CT1357, and CT1416 mutants) did not exhibit a discernible phenotype. The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in C. tepidum is similar to that in cyanobacteria and plants by converting phytoene into lycopene using two plant-like desaturases (CrtP and CrtQ) and a plant-like cis-trans isomerase (CrtH) and thus differs from the pathway known in all other bacteria. In contrast to the situation in cyanobacteria and plants, the construction of a crtB mutant completely lacking carotenoids demonstrates that carotenoids are not essential for photosynthetic growth of green sulfur bacteria. However, the bacteriochlorophyll a contents of mutants lacking colored carotenoids (crtB, crtP, and crtQ mutants) were decreased from that of the wild type, and these mutants exhibited a significant growth rate defect under all light intensities tested. Therefore, colored carotenoids may have both structural and photoprotection roles in green sulfur bacteria. The ability to manipulate the carotenoid composition so dramatically in C. tepidum offers excellent possibilities for studying the roles of carotenoids in the light-harvesting chlorosome antenna and iron-sulfur-type (photosystem I-like) reaction center. The phylogeny of carotenogenic enzymes in green sulfur

  1. Novel Photo-Protecticon Mechanisms in Chlorosomes from Green Sulfur Bacterium Chlorobium Tepidum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hanyoup; Savikhin, Sergei; Li, Hui; Maresca, Julia; Bryant, Donald

    2006-03-01

    Chlorosome is the largest known photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna complex that incorporates thousands of bacteriochlorophtylls (BChl) and carotenoids (Car) in a closely packed quasi-regular structure. BChl is known to produce highly toxic singlet oxygen as the result of energy transfer from their excited triplet states to oxygen molecules. It has been proposed that that the carotenoids in chlorosome serve both light harvesting and photo-protection functions, transferring light excitations to nearby BChl and simultaneously quenching excited triplet state of BChl. However, experiments indicate that photoprotective role of carotenoids in chlorosomes is not as extensive as expected---photo-degradation of carotenoid-free mutants occurs only twice faster than photo-degradation of native complexes. An additional non-conventional photoprotection mechanism must exist in chlorosomes. The possible nature of this mechanism is discussed based on optical kinetic measurements of BChl and Car excited states.

  2. High-pressure hole-burning studies of the bacteriochlorophyll a antenna complex from Chlorobium tepidum

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, N.R.S.; Jankowiak, R.; Small, G.J. |

    1995-10-26

    The dependence of the low-temperature Q{sub y} absorption and nonphotochemical hole-burned spectra of the title complex (also known as the FMO complex) on pressure (<= 700 MPa) is reported. Pressure-induced structural changes of the complex were found to be elastic. The linear pressure shifts at 4.2 K for the principal absorption bands at 805, 814 and 825 nm are -0.08, -0.11, and -0.11 cm{sup -1}/MPa, respectively. Importantly, the 825 and 814 nm absorption profiles (shape, intensity) are independent of pressure. The results establish that, even at the highest values used, pressure has only a weak effect on the pairwise excitonic couplings of the bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecules, inhomogeneous broadening, and electron-phonon coupling. The pressure dependence of the Q{sub y} spectrum and zero-phonon holes (ZPH) burned in the 825 nm band can be rationalized in terms of dispersion interactions when BChl occupation numbers for the exciton levels are taken into account. These ZPH, which are assigned to the lowest level at 827 nm, carry a width of 0.6 cm{sup -1} at 4.2 K, which is independent of the pressure at which the hole is burned. This width is ascribed to dephasing, T{sub 2} = 35 ps. Possible mechanisms for the dephasing are considered, and its pressure independence is discussed. 80 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of the Pelagic Photoferrotroph Chlorobium phaeoferrooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Aria S.; Morgan-Lang, Connor; Thompson, Katherine J.; Simister, Rachel L.; Llirós, Marc; Hirst, Martin; Hallam, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Chlorobium phaeoferrooxidans, a photoferrotrophic member of the genus Chlorobium in the phylum Chlorobi. This genome sequence provides insight into the metabolic capacity that underpins photoferrotrophy within low-light-adapted pelagic Chlorobi. PMID:28360175

  4. Control of oxidative sulfur metabolism in Chlorobium

    SciTech Connect

    Maka, A.

    1986-01-01

    The photosynthetic, anaerobic microorganism Chlorobium limicola forma sp. thiosulfatophilum is being investigated as a possible biocatalyst for the removal of acid gases (primarily H/sub 2/S) generated by the hydroprocessing of fossil fuels. The organism was grown in an anaerobic, fed-batch photobioreactor which was continuously supplied with N/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S. The effect of light intensity, surface area of illuminated bioreactor, H/sub 2/S flow rate and various wavelength regions of light on oxidative sulfur metabolism by Chlorobium was examined. Light intensity, surface area of illuminated bioreactor, and H/sub 2/S flow rate regulated oxidative sulfur metabolism. The H/sub 2/S utilization rate increased with a corresponding increase in light intensity. The photoautotroph grew in any selected wavelength region with production of the various sulfur compounds, i.e., thiosulfate, sulfate, and sulfur. However, the rate of H/sub 2/S oxidation was wavelength dependent. The photosynthetic quantum efficiency (which is the molecules of sulfur (S/sup 0/) produced per photon utilized) was determined for this system. It is possible that the quantum efficiency can be used as a sufficiency factor for a photobioreactor. The sufficiency factor would be a unique characteristic of the reactor and demonstrate the relationship between light intensity and the rate of the light driven reaction. This sufficiency factor could be used for the determination of a light efficient photobioreactor.

  5. Conformational heterogeneity of the Roc domains in C. tepidum Roc–COR and implications for human LRRK2 Parkinson mutations

    PubMed Central

    Rudi, Katharina; Ho, Franz Y.; Gilsbach, Bernd K.; Pots, Henderikus; Wittinghofer, Alfred; Kortholt, Arjan; Klare, Johann P.

    2015-01-01

    Ras of complex proteins (Roc) is a Ras-like GTP-binding domain that always occurs in tandem with the C-terminal of Roc (COR) domain and is found in bacteria, plants and animals. Recently, it has been shown that Roco proteins belong to the family of G-proteins activated by nucleotide (nt)-dependent dimerization (GADs). We investigated the RocCOR tandem from the bacteria Chlorobium tepidum with site-directed spin labelling and pulse EPR distance measurements to follow conformational changes during the Roco G-protein cycle. Our results confirm that the COR domains are a stable dimerization device serving as a scaffold for the Roc domains that, in contrast, are structurally heterogeneous and dynamic entities. Contrary to other GAD proteins, we observed only minor structural alterations upon binding and hydrolysis of GTP, indicating significant mechanistic variations within this protein class. Mutations in the most prominent member of the Roco family of proteins, leucine-rich repeat (LRR) kinase 2 (LRRK2), are the most frequent cause of late-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Using a stable recombinant LRRK2 Roc-COR-kinase fragment we obtained detailed kinetic data for the G-protein cycle. Our data confirmed that dimerization is essential for efficient GTP hydrolysis and PD mutations in the Roc domain result in decreased GTPase activity. Previous data have shown that these LRRK2 PD-mutations are located in the interface between Roc and COR. Importantly, analogous mutations in the conserved C. tepidum Roc/COR interface significantly influence the structure and nt-induced conformational changes of the Roc domains. PMID:26310572

  6. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. [Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum, chlorobium phaeobacteroides, and Rhodospirillum rubrum

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-06

    The anaerobic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum has been chosen for catalysis of the biological water gas shift reaction. Two bacteria, Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum and Chlorobium phaeobacteroides, are being evaluated as candidates for H{sub 2}S conversion to elemental sulfur. Since these latter two organisms both grow and convert H{sub 2}S in batch culture using standard basal medium, the choice of a suitable bacterium must be made in consideration of specific growth and uptake rates. Produced elemental sulfur stability against further oxidation to sulfate, and minimal use of H{sub 2} as a producing agent must also be considered. The effects of temperature on the performance of R. rubrum were evaluated. It was found that the cell concentration was highest at temperatures of 25 and 30{degree}C, and that the specific uptake rate was highest at temperatures of 30, 32 and 34{degree}C. No growth was observed at 37{degree}C. Also, temperature did not affect the yield of H{sub 2} from CO. Thus, R. rubrum may be used for biological rates gas shift at any temperature between 30 and 34{degree}C, although growth is maximized at lower temperatures. Preliminary studies with C. thiosulfatophilum showed rapid utilization of H{sub 2}S from the gas and liquid phases with subsequent production of elemental sulfur. Elemental sulfur production interfered with cell concentrations measurements, although a technique has been developed to rectify this problem.

  7. Characterization of ATP citrate lyase from Chlorobium limicola.

    PubMed Central

    Antranikian, G; Herzberg, C; Gottschalk, G

    1982-01-01

    ATP citrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.8) from Chlorobium limicola was partially purified. It was established that the consumption of substrates and the formation of products proceeded stoichiometrically and that citrate cleavage was of the si-type. ADP and oxaloacetate inhibited enzyme activity. Oxaloacetate also inhibited the growth of C. limicola. PMID:7142107

  8. Control of Oxidative Sulfur Metabolism of Chlorobium limicola forma thiosulfatophilum

    PubMed Central

    Cork, Douglas; Mathers, Jeremy; Maka, Andrea; Srnak, Anna

    1985-01-01

    A metered blend of anaerobic-grade N2, CO2, and H2S gases was introduced into an illuminated, 800-ml liquid volume, continuously stirred tank reactor. The system, described as an anaerobic gas-to-liquid phase fed-batch reactor, was used to investigate the effects of H2S flow rate and light energy on the accumulation of oxidized sulfur compounds formed by the photoautotroph Chlorobium limicola forma thiosulfatophilum during growth. Elemental sulfur was formed and accumulated in stoichiometric quantities when light energy and H2S molar flow rate levels were optimally adjusted in the presence of nonlimiting CO2. Deviation from the optimal H2S and light energy levels resulted in either oxidation of sulfur or complete inhibition of sulfide oxidation. Based on these observations, a model of sulfide and sulfur oxidases electrochemically coupled to the photosynthetic reaction center of Chlorobium spp. is presented. The dynamic deregulation of oxidative pathways may be a mechanism for supplying the photosynthetic reaction center with a continuous source of electrons during periods of varying light and substrate availability, as in pond ecosystems where Chlorobium spp. are found. Possible applications for a sulfide gas removal process are discussed. PMID:16346713

  9. Chlorobium ferrooxidans sp. nov., a phototrophic green sulfur bacterium that oxidizes ferrous iron in coculture with a "Geospirillum" sp. strain.

    PubMed

    Heising, S; Richter, L; Ludwig, W; Schink, B

    1999-08-01

    A green phototrophic bacterium was enriched with ferrous iron as sole electron donor and was isolated in defined coculture with a spirilloid chemoheterotrophic bacterium. The coculture oxidized ferrous iron to ferric iron with stoichiometric formation of cell mass from carbon dioxide. Sulfide, thiosulfate, or elemental sulfur was not used as electron donor in the light. Hydrogen or acetate in the presence of ferrous iron increased the cell yield of the phototrophic partner, and hydrogen could also be used as sole electron source. Complexed ferric iron was slowly reduced to ferrous iron in the dark, with hydrogen as electron source. Similar to Chlorobium limicola, the phototrophic bacterium contained bacteriochlorophyll c and chlorobactene as photosynthetic pigments, and also resembled representatives of this species morphologically. On the basis of 16S rRNA sequence comparisons, this organism clusters with Chlorobium, Prosthecochloris, and Pelodictyon species within the green sulfur bacteria phylum. Since the phototrophic partner in the coculture KoFox is only moderately related to the other members of the cluster, it is proposed as a new species, Chlorobium ferrooxidans. The chemoheterotrophic partner bacterium, strain KoFum, was isolated in pure culture with fumarate as sole substrate. The strain was identified as a member of the epsilon-subclass of the Proteobacteria closely related to "Geospirillum arsenophilum" on the basis of physiological properties and 16S rRNA sequence comparison. The "Geospirillum" strain was present in the coculture only in low numbers. It fermented fumarate, aspartate, malate, or pyruvate to acetate, succinate, and carbon dioxide, and could reduce nitrate to dinitrogen gas. It was not involved in ferrous iron oxidation but possibly provided a thus far unidentified growth factor to the phototrophic partner.

  10. Phylogenetic taxonomy of the family Chlorobiaceae on the basis of 16S rRNA and fmo (Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein) gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, Johannes F

    2003-07-01

    A new taxonomy of the green sulfur bacteria is proposed, based on phylogenetic relationships determined using the sequences of the independent 16S rRNA and fmo (Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein) genes, and supported by the DNA G + C content and sequence signatures. Comparison of the traditional classification system for these bacteria with their phylogenetic relationship yielded a confusing picture, because properties used for classification (such as cell morphology, photosynthetic pigments and substrate utilization) do not concur with their phylogeny. Using the genetic information available, strains and species assigned to the genera Chlorobium, Pelodictyon and Prosthecochloris are considered, and the following changes are proposed. Pelodictyon luteolum is transferred to the genus Chlorobium as Chlorobium luteolum comb. nov. Pelodictyon clathratiforme and Pelodictyon phaeoclathratiforme are transferred to the genus Chlorobium and combined into one species, Chlorobium clathratiforme comb. nov. The name Pelodictyon will become a synonym of Chlorobium. Strains known as Chlorobium limicola subsp. thiosulfatophilum that have a low DNA G + C content (52-52.5 mol%) are treated as strains of Chlorobium limicola; those with a high DNA G + C content (58.1 mol%) are transferred to Chlorobaculum gen. nov., as Chlorobaculum thiosulfatiphilum sp. nov. Chlorobium tepidum is transferred to Chlorobaculum tepidum comb. nov., and defined as the type species of the genus Chlorobaculum. Strains assigned to Chlorobium phaeobacteroides, but phylogenetically distant from the type strain of this species, are assigned to Chlorobium limicola and to Chlorobaculum limnaeum sp. nov. Strains known as Chlorobium vibrioforme subsp. thiosulfatophilum are transferred to Chlorobaculum parvum sp. nov. Chlorobium chlorovibrioides is transferred to 'Chlorobaculum chlorovibrioides' comb. nov. The type strain of Chlorobium vibrioforme is phylogenetically related to Prosthecochloris, and is therefore

  11. Characterization of the quinones in purple sulfur bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuuka; Kawakami, Tomoaki; Yu, Long-Jiang; Yoshimura, Miku; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Wang-Otomo, Zheng-Yu

    2015-07-08

    Quinone distributions in the thermophilic purple sulfur bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum have been investigated at different levels of the photosynthetic apparatus. Here we show that, on average, the intracytoplasmic membrane contains 18 ubiquinones (UQ) and 4 menaquinones (MQ) per reaction center (RC). About one-third of the quinones are retained in the light-harvesting-reaction center core complex (LH1-RC) with a similar ratio of UQ to MQ. The numbers of quinones essentially remains unchanged during crystallization of the LH1-RC. There are 1-2 UQ and 1 MQ associated with the RC-only complex in the purified solution sample. Our results suggest that a large proportion of the quinones are confined to the core complex and at least five UQs remain invisible in the current LH1-RC crystal structure. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Temperature shift effect on the Chlorobaculum tepidum chlorosomes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Joseph Kuo-Hsiang; Xu, Ying; Muhlmann, Guillermo M; Zare, Farrokh; Khin, Yadana; Tam, Sun W

    2013-05-01

    Chlorobaculum [Cba.] tepidum is known to grow optimally at 48-52 °C and can also be cultured at ambient temperatures. In this paper, we prepared constant temperature, temperature shift, and temperature shift followed by backshift cultures and investigated the intrinsic properties and spectral features of chlorosomes from those cultures using various approaches, including temperature-dependent measurements on circular dichroism (CD), UV-visible, and dynamic light scattering. Our studies indicate that (1) chlorosomes from constant temperature cultures at 50 and 30 °C exhibited more resistance to heat relative to temperature shift cultures; (2) as temperature increases bacteriochlorophyll c (BChl c) in chlorosomes is prone to demetalation, which forms bacteriopheophytin c, and degradation under aerobic conditions. Some BChl c aggregates inside reduced chlorosomes prepared in low-oxygen environments can reform after heat treatments; (3) temperature shift cultures synthesize and incorporate more BChl c homologs with a smaller substituent at C-8 on the chlorin ring and less BChl c homologs with a larger long-chain alcohol at C-17(3) versus constant-temperature cultures. We hypothesize that the long-chain alcohol at C-17(3) (and perhaps together with the substituent at C-8) may account for thermal stability of chlorosomes and the substituent at C-8 may assist self-assembling BChls; and (4) while almost identical absorption spectra are detected, chlorosomes from different growth conditions exhibited differences in the rotational length of the CD signal, and aerobic and reduced chlorosomes also display different Qy CD intensities. Further, chlorosomes exhibited changes of CD features in response to temperature increases. Additionally, we compare temperature-dependent studies for the Cba. tepidum chlorosomes and previous studies for the Chloroflexus aurantiacus chlorosomes. Together, our work provides useful and novel insights on the properties and organization of

  13. Quantitative proteomics of Chlorobaculum tepidum: insights into the sulfur metabolism of a phototrophic green sulfur bacterium.

    PubMed

    Falkenby, Lasse G; Szymanska, Monika; Holkenbrink, Carina; Habicht, Kirsten S; Andersen, Jens S; Miller, Mette; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik

    2011-10-01

    Chlorobaculum (Cba.) tepidum is a green sulfur bacterium that oxidizes sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate for photosynthetic growth. To gain insight into the sulfur metabolism, the proteome of Cba. tepidum cells sampled under different growth conditions has been quantified using a rapid gel-free, filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) protocol with an in-solution isotopic labeling strategy. Among the 2245 proteins predicted from the Cba. tepidum genome, approximately 970 proteins were detected in unlabeled samples, whereas approximately 630-640 proteins were detected in labeled samples comparing two different growth conditions. Wild-type cells growing on thiosulfate had an increased abundance of periplasmic cytochrome c-555 and proteins of the periplasmic thiosulfate-oxidizing SOX enzyme system when compared with cells growing on sulfide. A dsrM mutant of Cba. tepidum, which lacks the dissimilatory sulfite reductase DsrM protein and therefore is unable to oxidize sulfur globules to sulfite, was also investigated. When compared with wild type, the dsrM cells exhibited an increased abundance of DSR enzymes involved in the initial steps of sulfur globule oxidation (DsrABCL) and a decreased abundance of enzymes putatively involved in sulfite oxidation (Sat-AprAB-QmoABC). The results show that Cba. tepidum regulates the cellular levels of enzymes involved in sulfur metabolism and other electron-transferring processes in response to the availability of reduced sulfur compounds.

  14. Transformation of glutamate to. delta. -aminolevulinic acid by soluble extracts of Chlorobium vibrioforme

    SciTech Connect

    Rieble, S.; Ormerod, J.G.; Beale, S. )

    1989-07-01

    Formation of the tetrapyrrole pigment precursor {delta}-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) from glutamate was detected and partially characterized in extracts of the strictly anaerobic green photosynthetic bacterial species Chlorobium vibrioforme by using assay methods derived from those developed for algae and cyanobacteria. ALA formation in Chlorobium extracts was saturated at 10 mM glutamate and required NADPH and ATP at optimal concentrations of 0.3 and 3 mM, respectively. Preincubation of the enzyme extract with RNase A destroyed the ALA-forming activity completely. Activity in the RNase-treated extract was restored by supplementation with Chlorobium RNA after addition of RNasin to block further RNase action. RNA from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 and Escherichia coli tRNA{sup Glu} also restored activity. Activity was inhibited 50% by 0.2 {mu}M hemin. ALA formation was completely abolished by the addition of 5 {mu}M 3-amino-2,3-dihydrobenzoic acid (gabaculine). These results indicate that Chlorobium extracts share with those of plants, eucaryotic algae, cyanobacteria, prochlorophytes, and methanogens the capacity for RNA-dependent ALA formation from glutamate.

  15. Final Report - "CO2 Sequestration in Cell Biomass of Chlorobium Thiosulfatophilum"

    SciTech Connect

    James L. Gaddy, PhD; Ching-Whan Ko, PhD

    2009-05-04

    World carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have increased at a rate of about 3 percent per year during the last 40 years to over 24 billion tons today. While a number of methods have been proposed and are under study for dealing with the carbon dioxide problem, all have advantages as well as disadvantages which limit their application. The anaerobic bacterium Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum uses hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide to produce elemental sulfur and cell biomass. The overall objective of this project is to develop a commercial process for the biological sequestration of carbon dioxide and simultaneous conversion of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur. The Phase I study successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of utilizing this bacterium for carbon dioxide sequestration and hydrogen sulfide conversion to elemental sulfur by utilizing the bacterium in continuous reactor studies. Phase II studies involved an advanced research and development to develop the engineering and scale-up parameters for commercialization of the technology. Tasks include culture isolation and optimization studies, further continuous reactor studies, light delivery systems, high pressure studies, process scale-up, a market analysis and economic projections. A number of anaerobic and aerobic microorgansims, both non-photosynthetic and photosynthetic, were examined to find those with the fastest rates for detailed study to continuous culture experiments. C. thiosulfatophilum was selected for study to anaerobically produce sulfur and Thiomicrospira crunogena waws selected for study to produce sulfate non-photosynthetically. Optimal conditions for growth, H2S and CO2 comparison, supplying light and separating sulfur were defined. The design and economic projections show that light supply for photosynthetic reactions is far too expensive, even when solar systems are considered. However, the aerobic non-photosynthetic reaction to produce sulfate with T

  16. Energy transfer between antenna complexes in the purple sulfur bacteria Chromatium tepidum and Chromatium vinosum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennis, John T. M.; Aartsma, Thijs J.; Amesz, Jan

    1995-05-01

    Energy transfer between antenna complexes was studied by means of time resolved absorption spectroscopy in the purple sulfur bacteria Chromatium tepidum and C. vinosum. The first species contains only one peripheral antenna complex, B800-B50, the other one has two, B800-850 and B800-820. Results obtained with chromatophores of C. tepidum indicated two time constants for energy transfer from B800-850 to the core complex, of 10 ps and a smaller one of 30 ps, suggesting non-uniform distances between the peripheral and core complexes. Similar results were obtained with C. vinosum, where time constants of 7 and 30 ps were found. Energy transfer from B800-820 to B800-850 was significantly faster. These results show that the rates of energy transfer from bacteriochlorophyll 850 to the core complex in the purple sulfur bacteria studied are quite similar to those found in purple non-sulfur bacteria. This may seem remarkable in view of the fact that the core antenna in C. tepidum absorbs at the unusually long wavelength of 918 nm, but a calculation indicates that the overlap integral for energy transfer to the core is not dramatically less than in C. vinosum.

  17. The ultrastructure of Chlorobaculum tepidum revealed by cryo-electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Kudryashev, Misha; Aktoudianaki, Aikaterini; Dedoglou, Dimitrios; Stahlberg, Henning; Tsiotis, Georgios

    2014-10-01

    Chlorobaculum (Cba) tepidum is a green sulfur bacterium that oxidizes sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate for photosynthetic growth. As other anoxygenic green photosynthetic bacteria, Cba tepidum synthesizes bacteriochlorophylls for the assembly of a large light-harvesting antenna structure, the chlorosome. Chlorosomes are sac-like structures that are connected to the reaction centers in the cytoplasmic membrane through the BChl α-containing Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein. Most components of the photosynthetic machinery are known on a biophysical level, however, the structural integration of light harvesting with charge separation is still not fully understood. Despite over two decades of research, gaps in our understanding of cellular architecture exist. Here we present an in-depth analysis of the cellular architecture of the thermophilic photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium of Cba tepidum by cryo-electron tomography. We examined whole hydrated cells grown under different electron donor conditions. Our results reveal the distribution of chlorosomes in 3D in an unperturbed cell, connecting elements between chlorosomes and the cytoplasmic membrane and the distribution of reaction centers in the cytoplasmic membrane.

  18. Ab initio calculation of excitonic Hamiltonian of light-harvesting complex LH1 of Thermochromatium tepidum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Maxim I.; Poddubnyy, Vladimir V.; Glebov, Ilya O.; Belov, Aleksandr S.; Khokhlov, Daniil V.

    2016-02-01

    The electronic properties of light-harvesting complexes determine the efficiency of energy transfer in photosynthetic antennae. Ab initio calculations of the electronic properties of bacteriochlorophylls (composing the LH1 complex of the purple bacteria Thermochromatium tepidum) were performed. Based on these calculations, the excitonic Hamiltonian of a native cyclic complex and the Hamiltonians of open complexes with several removed bacteriochlorophylls were constructed. Absorption spectra calculated based on these Hamiltonians agree well with the experimental data. We found that the parameters of interaction between the neighboring bacteriochlorophylls are significantly larger than the empirical parameters suggested previously.

  19. Identification of a chondroitin synthase from an unexpected source, the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium phaeobacteroides.

    PubMed

    Green, Dixy E; DeAngelis, Paul L

    2017-05-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are known to be present in all animals as well as some pathogenic microbes. Chondroitin sulfate is the most abundant GAG in mammals where it has various structural and adhesion roles. The Gram-negative bacteria Pasteurella multocida Type F and Escherichia coli K4 produce extracellular capsules composed of unsulfated chondroitin or a fructosylated chondroitin, respectively. Such polysaccharides that are structurally related to host molecules do not generally provoke a strong antibody response thus are thought to be employed as molecular camouflage during infection. We observed a sequence from the photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria, Chlorobium phaeobacteroides DSM 266, which was very similar (~62% identical) to the open reading frames of the known bifunctional chondroitin synthases (PmCS and KfoC); some segments are strikingly conserved amongst the three proteins. Recombinant E. coli-derived Chlorobium enzyme preparations were found to possess bona fide chondroitin synthase activity in vitro. This new catalyst, CpCS, however, has a more promiscuous acceptor usage than the prototypical PmCS, which may be of utility in novel chimeric GAG syntheses. The finding of such a similar chondroitin synthase enzyme in C. phaeobacteroides is unexpected for several reasons including (a) a free-living nonpathogenic organism should not "need" an animal self molecule for protection, (b) the Proteobacteria and the green sulfur bacterial lineages diverged ~2.5-3 billion years ago and (c) the ecological niches of these bacteria are not thought to overlap substantially to facilitate horizontal gene transfer. CpCS provides insight into the structure/function relationship of this class of enzymes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. In situ high-resolution structure of the baseplate antenna complex in Chlorobaculum tepidum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Jakob Toudahl; Kulminskaya, Natalia V.; Bjerring, Morten; Linnanto, Juha M.; Rätsep, Margus; Pedersen, Marie Østergaard; Lambrev, Petar H.; Dorogi, Márta; Garab, Győző; Thomsen, Karen; Jegerschöld, Caroline; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Lindahl, Martin; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic antenna systems enable organisms harvesting light and transfer the energy to the photosynthetic reaction centre, where the conversion to chemical energy takes place. One of the most complex antenna systems, the chlorosome, found in the photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum (Cba.) tepidum contains a baseplate, which is a scaffolding super-structure, formed by the protein CsmA and bacteriochlorophyll a. Here we present the first high-resolution structure of the CsmA baseplate using intact fully functional, light-harvesting organelles from Cba. tepidum, following a hybrid approach combining five complementary methods: solid-state NMR spectroscopy, cryo-electron microscopy, isotropic and anisotropic circular dichroism and linear dichroism. The structure calculation was facilitated through development of new software, GASyCS for efficient geometry optimization of highly symmetric oligomeric structures. We show that the baseplate is composed of rods of repeated dimers of the strongly amphipathic CsmA with pigments sandwiched within the dimer at the hydrophobic side of the helix.

  1. In situ high-resolution structure of the baseplate antenna complex in Chlorobaculum tepidum

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Jakob Toudahl; Kulminskaya, Natalia V.; Bjerring, Morten; Linnanto, Juha M.; Rätsep, Margus; Pedersen, Marie Østergaard; Lambrev, Petar H.; Dorogi, Márta; Garab, Győző; Thomsen, Karen; Jegerschöld, Caroline; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Lindahl, Martin; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic antenna systems enable organisms harvesting light and transfer the energy to the photosynthetic reaction centre, where the conversion to chemical energy takes place. One of the most complex antenna systems, the chlorosome, found in the photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum (Cba.) tepidum contains a baseplate, which is a scaffolding super-structure, formed by the protein CsmA and bacteriochlorophyll a. Here we present the first high-resolution structure of the CsmA baseplate using intact fully functional, light-harvesting organelles from Cba. tepidum, following a hybrid approach combining five complementary methods: solid-state NMR spectroscopy, cryo-electron microscopy, isotropic and anisotropic circular dichroism and linear dichroism. The structure calculation was facilitated through development of new software, GASyCS for efficient geometry optimization of highly symmetric oligomeric structures. We show that the baseplate is composed of rods of repeated dimers of the strongly amphipathic CsmA with pigments sandwiched within the dimer at the hydrophobic side of the helix. PMID:27534696

  2. Multiple antioxidant proteins protect Chlorobaculum tepidum against oxygen and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Jubelirer, Sara; Garcia Costas, Amaya M; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Bryant, Donald A

    2009-11-01

    The genome of the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum (Cba.) tepidum, a strictly anaerobic photolithoautotroph, is predicted to encode more than ten genes whose products are potentially involved in protection from reactive oxygen species and an oxidative stress response. The encoded proteins include cytochrome bd quinol oxidase, NADH oxidase, rubredoxin oxygen oxidoreductase, several thiol peroxidases, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, superoxide dismutase, methionine sulfoxide reductase, and rubrerythrin. To test the physiological functions of some of these proteins, ten genes were insertionally inactivated. Wild-type Cba. tepidum cells were very sensitive to oxygen in the light but were remarkably resistant to oxygen in the dark. When wild-type and mutant cells were subjected to air for various times under dark or light condition, significant decreases in viability were detected in most of the mutants relative to wild type. Treatments with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) and methyl viologen resulted in more severe effects in most of the mutants than in the wild type. The results demonstrated that these putative antioxidant proteins combine to form an effective defense against oxygen and reactive oxygen species. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction studies showed that the genes with functions in oxidative stress protection were constitutively transcribed under anoxic growth conditions.

  3. Insights into the excitonic states of individual chlorosomes from Chlorobaculum tepidum.

    PubMed

    Jendrny, Marc; Aartsma, Thijs J; Köhler, Jürgen

    2014-05-06

    Green-sulfur bacteria have evolved a unique light-harvesting apparatus, the chlorosome, by which it is perfectly adapted to thrive photosynthetically under extremely low light conditions. We have used single-particle, optical spectroscopy to study the structure-function relationship of chlorosomes each of which incorporates hundreds of thousands of self-assembled bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecules. The electronically excited states of these molecular assemblies are described as Frenkel excitons whose photophysical properties depend crucially on the mutual arrangement of the pigments. The signature of these Frenkel excitons and its relation to the supramolecular organization of the chlorosome becomes accessible by optical spectroscopy. Because subtle spectral features get obscured by ensemble averaging, we have studied individual chlorosomes from wild-type Chlorobaculum tepidum by polarization-resolved fluorescence-excitation spectroscopy. This approach minimizes the inherent sample heterogeneity and allows us to reveal properties of the exciton states without ensemble averaging. The results are compared with predictions from computer simulations of various models of the supramolecular organization of the BChl monomers. We find that the photophysical properties of individual chlorosomes from wild-type Chlorobaculum tepidum are consistent with a (multiwall) helical arrangement of syn-anti stacked BChl molecules in cylinders and/or spirals of different size.

  4. Chlorobaculum tepidum TLS displays a complex transcriptional response to sulfide addition.

    PubMed

    Eddie, Brian J; Hanson, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Chlorobaculum tepidum is a green sulfur bacterium (GSB) that is a model system for phototrophic sulfur oxidation. Despite over 2 decades of research, conspicuous gaps exist in our understanding of its electron donor metabolism and regulation. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to provide a global picture of the C. tepidum transcriptome during growth on thiosulfate as the sole electron donor and at time points following the addition of sulfide to such a culture. Following sulfide addition, 121 to 150 protein-coding genes displayed significant changes in expression depending upon the time point. These changes included a rapid decrease in expression of thiosulfate and elemental sulfur oxidation genes. Genes and gene loci with increased expression included CT1087, encoding a sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase required for growth in high sulfide concentrations; a polysulfide reductase-like complex operon, psrABC (CT0496 to CT0494); and, surprisingly, a large cluster of genes involved in iron acquisition. Finally, two genes that are conserved as a cassette in anaerobic bacteria and archaea, CT1276 and CT1277, displayed a strong increase in expression. The CT1277 gene product contains a DNA-binding domain, suggesting a role for it in sulfide-dependent gene expression changes.

  5. Chlorobaculum tepidum regulates chlorosome structure and function in response to temperature and electron donor availability.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M; Chan, Leong-Keat; Modla, Shannon; Weber, Timothy S; Warner, Mark; Czymmek, Kirk J; Hanson, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    Green sulfur bacteria (GSB) rely on the chlorosome, a light-harvesting apparatus comprised almost entirely of self-organizing arrays of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecules, to harvest light energy and pass it to the reaction center. In Chlorobaculum tepidum, over 97% of the total BChl is made up of a mixture of four BChl c homologs in the chlorosome that differ in the number and identity of alkyl side chains attached to the chlorin ring. C. tepidum has been reported to vary the distribution of BChl c homologs with growth light intensity, with the highest degree of BChl c alkylation observed under low-light conditions. Here, we provide evidence that this functional response at the level of the chlorosome can be induced not only by light intensity, but also by temperature and a mutation that prevents phototrophic thiosulfate oxidation. Furthermore, we show that in conjunction with these functional adjustments, the fraction of cellular volume occupied by chlorosomes was altered in response to environmental conditions that perturb the balance between energy absorbed by the light-harvesting apparatus and energy utilized by downstream metabolic reactions.

  6. Triplet excited state spectra and dynamics of carotenoids from the thermophilic purple photosynthetic bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum

    SciTech Connect

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Blankenship, R. E.

    2011-01-13

    Light-harvesting complex 2 from the anoxygenic phototrophic purple bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum was purified and studied by steady-state absorption, fluorescence and flash photolysis spectroscopy. Steady-state absorption and fluorescence measurements show that carotenoids play a negligible role as supportive energy donors and transfer excitation to bacteriochlorophyll-a with low energy transfer efficiency of ~30%. HPLC analysis determined that the dominant carotenoids in the complex are rhodopin and spirilloxanthin. Carotenoid excited triplet state formation upon direct (carotenoid) or indirect (bacteriochlorophyll-a Q{sub x} band) excitation shows that carotenoid triplets are mostly localized on spirilloxanthin. In addition, no triplet excitation transfer between carotenoids was observed. Such specific carotenoid composition and spectroscopic results strongly suggest that this organism optimized carotenoid composition in the light-harvesting complex 2 in order to maximize photoprotective capabilities of carotenoids but subsequently drastically suppressed their supporting role in light-harvesting process.

  7. Glycolipid analyses of light-harvesting chlorosomes from envelope protein mutants of Chlorobaculum tepidum.

    PubMed

    Tsukatani, Yusuke; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Thweatt, Jennifer; Tank, Marcus; Bryant, Donald A; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    Chlorosomes are large and efficient light-harvesting organelles in green photosynthetic bacteria, and they characteristically contain large numbers of bacteriochlorophyll c, d, or e molecules. Self-aggregated bacteriochlorophyll pigments are surrounded by a monolayer envelope membrane comprised of glycolipids and Csm proteins. Here, we analyzed glycolipid compositions of chlorosomes from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum mutants lacking one, two, or three Csm proteins by HPLC equipped with an evaporative light-scattering detector. The ratio of monogalactosyldiacylglyceride (MGDG) to rhamnosylgalactosyldiacylglyceride (RGDG) was smaller in chlorosomes from mutants lacking two or three proteins in CsmC/D/H motif family than in chlorosomes from the wild-type, whereas chlorosomes lacking CsmIJ showed relatively less RGDG than MGDG. The results suggest that the CsmC, CsmD, CsmH, and other chlorosome proteins are involved in organizing MGDG and RGDG and thereby affect the size and shape of the chlorosome.

  8. A novel and mild isolation procedure of chlorosomes from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum.

    PubMed

    Tokita, Seiji; Shimada, Keizo; Watabe, Kazuyuki; Matsuura, Katsumi; Mimuro, Mamoru

    2011-09-01

    In this article, we developed a new and mild procedure for the isolation of chlorosomes from a green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum. In this procedure, Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein was released by long cold treatment (6°C) of cells under the presence of a chaotrope (2 M NaSCN) and 0.6 M sucrose. Chlorosomes were released by an osmotic shock of the cold-treated cells after the formation of spheroplasts without mechanical disruption. Chlorosomes were finally purified by a sucrose step-wise density gradient centrifugation. We obtained two samples with different density (20 and 23% sucrose band, respectively) and compared them by SDS-PAGE, absorption spectroscopy at 80 K, fluorescence and CD spectroscopy at room temperature. Cells whose absorption maximum was longer than 750 nm yielded higher amount of the 20% sucrose fraction than those having an absorption maximum shorter than 750 nm.

  9. Excitation dynamics of two spectral forms of the core complexes from photosynthetic bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fei; Kimura, Yukihiro; Zhao, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Yi-Shi; Wang, Peng; Fu, Li-Min; Wang, Zheng-Yu; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2008-10-01

    The intact core antenna-reaction center (LH1-RC) core complex of thermophilic photosynthetic bacterium Thermochromatium (Tch.) tepidum is peculiar in its long-wavelength LH1-Q(y) absorption (915 nm). We have attempted comparative studies on the excitation dynamics of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) and carotenoid (Car) between the intact core complex and the EDTA-treated one with the Q(y) absorption at 889 nm. For both spectral forms, the overall Car-to-BChl excitation energy transfer efficiency is determined to be approximately 20%, which is considerably lower than the reported values, e.g., approximately 35%, for other photosynthetic purple bacteria containing the same kind of Car (spirilloxanthin). The RC trapping time constants are found to be 50 approximately 60 ps (170 approximately 200 ps) for RC in open (closed) state irrespective to the spectral forms and the wavelengths of Q(y) excitation. Despite the low-energy LH1-Q(y) absorption, the RC trapping time are comparable to those reported for other photosynthetic bacteria with normal LH1-Q(y) absorption at 880 nm. Selective excitation to Car results in distinct differences in the Q(y)-bleaching dynamics between the two different spectral forms. This, together with the Car band-shift signals in response to Q(y) excitation, reveals the presence of two major groups of BChls in the LH1 of Tch. tepidum with a spectral heterogeneity of approximately 240 cm(-1), as well as an alteration in BChl-Car geometry in the 889-nm preparation with respect to the native one.

  10. Mutational analysis of three bchH paralogs in (bacterio-)chlorophyll biosynthesis in Chlorobaculum tepidum.

    PubMed

    Gomez Maqueo Chew, Aline; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Bryant, Donald A

    2009-07-01

    The first committed step in the biosynthesis of (bacterio-)chlorophyll is the insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX by Mg-chelatase. In all known (B)Chl-synthesizing organisms, Mg-chelatase is encoded by three genes that are homologous to bchH, bchD, and bchI of Rhodobacter spp. The genomes of all sequenced strains of green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobi) encode multiple bchH paralogs, and in the genome of Chlorobaculum tepidum, there are three bchH paralogs, denoted CT1295 (bchT), CT1955 (bchS), and CT1957 (bchH). Cba. tepidum mutants lacking one or two of these paralogs were constructed and characterized. All of the mutants lacking only one of these BchH homologs, as well as bchS bchT and bchH bchT double mutants, which can only produce BchH or BchS, respectively, were viable. However, attempts to construct a bchH bchS double mutant, in which only BchT was functional, were consistently unsuccessful. This result suggested that BchT alone is unable to support the minimal (B)Chl synthesis requirements of cells required for viability. The pigment compositions of the various mutant strains varied significantly. The BChl c content of the bchS mutant was only approximately 10% of that of the wild type, and this mutant excreted large amounts of protoporphyrin IX into the growth medium. The observed differences in BChl c production of the mutant strains were consistent with the hypothesis that the three BchH homologs function in end product regulation and/or substrate channeling of intermediates in the BChl c biosynthetic pathway.

  11. Excitation Energy Transfer Dynamics and Excited-State Structure in Chlorosomes of Chlorobium phaeobacteroides

    PubMed Central

    Pšenčík, Jakub; Ma, Ying-Zhong; Arellano, Juan B.; Hála, Jan; Gillbro, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    The excited-state relaxation within bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) e and a in chlorosomes of Chlorobium phaeobacteroides has been studied by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy at room temperature. Singlet-singlet annihilation was observed to strongly influence both the isotropic and anisotropic decays. Pump intensities in the order of 1011 photons × pulse−1 × cm−2 were required to obtain annihilation-free conditions. The most important consequence of applied very low excitation doses is an observation of a subpicosecond process within the BChl e manifold (∼200–500 fs), manifesting itself as a rise in the red part of the Qy absorption band of the BChl e aggregates. The subsequent decay of the kinetics measured in the BChl e region and the corresponding rise in the baseplate BChl a is not single-exponential, and at least two components are necessary to fit the data, corresponding to several BChl e→BChl a transfer steps. Under annihilation-free conditions, the anisotropic kinetics show a generally slow decay within the BChl e band (10–20 ps) whereas it decays more rapidly in the BChl a region (∼1 ps). Analysis of the experimental data gives a detailed picture of the overall time evolution of the energy relaxation and energy transfer processes within the chlorosome. The results are interpreted within an exciton model based on the proposed structure. PMID:12547796

  12. Purification and characterization of the thermostable ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from the thermophilic purple bacterium Chromatium tepidum.

    PubMed

    Heda, G D; Madigan, M T

    1989-09-15

    The Calvin cycle enzyme ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase has been purified and characterized from the thermophilic and obligately anaerobic purple sulfur bacterium, Chromatium tepidum. The enzyme is an L8S8 carboxylase with a molecular mass near 550 kDa. No evidence for a second form of the enzyme lacking small subunits was obtained. C. tepidum ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase was stable to heating to temperatures of 60 degrees C and could be readily purified in an active form at room temperature. Both carboxylase and oxygenase activities of this enzyme were Mg2+-dependent and carboxylase activity was sensitive to the effector 6-phosphogluconic acid. The Km for ribulose bisphosphate for the carboxylase activity of the C. tepidum enzyme was substantially higher than that observed in mesophilic Calvin cycle autotrophs. Amino acid composition and immunological analyses of C. tepidum and Chromatium vinosum ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylases showed the enzymes to be highly related despite significant differences in heat stability. It is hypothesized that thermal stability of C. tepidum ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase is due to differences in primary structure affecting folding patterns in both the large and small subunits and is clearly not the result of any unique quaternary structure of the thermostable enzyme.

  13. Chlorobaculum tepidum Modulates Amino Acid Composition in Response to Energy Availability, as Revealed by a Systematic Exploration of the Energy Landscape of Phototrophic Sulfur Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Levy, Amalie T; Lee, Kelvin H; Hanson, Thomas E

    2016-11-01

    Microbial sulfur metabolism, particularly the formation and consumption of insoluble elemental sulfur (S(0)), is an important biogeochemical engine that has been harnessed for applications ranging from bioleaching and biomining to remediation of waste streams. Chlorobaculum tepidum, a low-light-adapted photoautolithotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, oxidizes multiple sulfur species and displays a preference for more reduced electron donors: sulfide > S(0) > thiosulfate. To understand this preference in the context of light energy availability, an "energy landscape" of phototrophic sulfur oxidation was constructed by varying electron donor identity, light flux, and culture duration. Biomass and cellular parameters of C. tepidum cultures grown across this landscape were analyzed. From these data, a correction factor for colorimetric protein assays was developed, enabling more accurate biomass measurements for C. tepidum, as well as other organisms. C. tepidum's bulk amino acid composition correlated with energy landscape parameters, including a tendency toward less energetically expensive amino acids under reduced light flux. This correlation, paired with an observation of increased cell size and storage carbon production under electron-rich growth conditions, suggests that C. tepidum has evolved to cope with changing energy availability by tuning its proteome for energetic efficiency and storing compounds for leaner times.

  14. Measurement of photosynthesis using PAM technology in a purple sulfur bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum (Chromatiaceae).

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Raymond J; Mekjinda, Nutsara

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that Blue-diode-based pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) technology can be used to measure the photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) of purple sulfur bacteria (Thermochromatium tepidum, Chromatiaceae). Previous studies showed that PAM technology could be used to estimate photosynthesis in purple nonsulfur bacteria and so PAM technology can be used to estimate photosynthesis of both kinds of purple photosynthetic bacteria. The absorptance of Thermochromatium films on glass fiber disks was measured and used to calculate actual ETR. ETR vs Irradiance (P vs E) curves fitted the waiting-in-line model (ETR = (ETRmax × E/Eopt) × exp (1−E/Eopt)). Yield (Y) was only ≈ 0.3–0.4. Thermochromatium saturates at 325 ± 13.8 μmol photons m(−2) s(−1) or ≈15% sunlight and shows photoinhibition at high irradiances. A pond of Thermochromatium would exhibit classic surface inhibition. Photosynthesis is extremely low in the absence of an electron source: ETR increases in the presence of acetate (5 mol m(−3)) provided as an organic carbon source and also increases in the presence of sulfite (3 mol m(−3)) but not sulfide and is only marginally increased by the presence of Fe(2+). Nonphotochemical quenching does occur in Thermochromatium but at very low levels compared to oxygenic photo-organisms or Rhodopseudomonads.

  15. On destabilization of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex of Chlorobaculum tepidum.

    PubMed

    Kell, Adam; Acharya, Khem; Blankenship, Robert E; Jankowiak, Ryszard

    2014-06-01

    The Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum was studied with respect to its stability. We provide a critical assessment of published and recently measured optical spectra. FMO complexes were found to destabilize over time producing spectral shifts, with destabilized samples having significantly higher hole-burning efficiencies; indicating a remodeled protein energy landscape. Observed correlated peak shifts near 825 and 815 nm suggest possible correlated (protein) fluctuations. It is proposed that the value of 35 cm(-1) widely used for reorganization energy (E λ ), which has important implications for the contributions to the coherence rate (Kreisbeck and Kramer 3:2828-2833, 2012), in various modeling studies of two-dimensional electronic spectra is overestimated. We demonstrate that the value of E λ is most likely about 15-22 cm(-1) and suggest that spectra reported in the literature (often measured on different FMO samples) exhibit varied peak positions due to different purification/isolation procedures or destabilization effects.

  16. /sup 34/S//sup 32/S fractionation in sulfur cycles catalyzed by anaerobic bacteria. [Chlorobium vibrioforme; Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, B.; Gest, H.; Hayes, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Stable isotopic distributions in the sulfur cycle were studied with pure and mixed cultures of the anaerobic bacteria, Chlorobium vibrioforme and Desulfovibrio vulgaris. D. vulgaris and C. vibrioforme can catalyze three reactions constituting a complete anaerobic sulfur cycle: reduction of sulfate to sulfide (D. vulgaris), oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur (C. vibrioforme), and oxidation of sulfur to sulfate (C. vibrioforme). In all experiments, the first and last reactions favored concentration of the light /sup 32/S isotope in products (isotopic fractionation factor ..sigma.. = -7.2 and -1.7 per thousand, respectively), whereas oxidation of sulfide favored concentration of the heavy /sup 34/S isotope in products (..sigma.. = +1.7 per thousand). Experimental results and model calculations suggest that elemental sulfur enriched in /sup 34/S versus sulfide may be a biogeochemical marker for the presence of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria in modern and ancient environments.

  17. Structural analysis of the homodimeric reaction center complex from the photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum.

    PubMed

    He, Guannan; Zhang, Hao; King, Jeremy D; Blankenship, Robert E

    2014-08-05

    The reaction center (RC) complex of the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum is composed of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson antenna protein (FMO) and the reaction center core (RCC) complex. The RCC complex has four subunits: PscA, PscB, PscC, and PscD. We studied the FMO/RCC complex by chemically cross-linking the purified sample followed by biochemical and spectroscopic analysis. Blue-native gels showed that there were two types of FMO/RCC complexes, which are consistent with complexes with one copy of FMO per RCC and two copies of FMO per RCC. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the samples after cross-linking showed that all five subunits of the RC can be linked by three different cross-linkers: bissulfosuccinimidyl suberate, disuccinimidyl suberate, and 3,3-dithiobis-sulfosuccinimidyl propionate. The interaction sites of the cross-linked complex were also studied using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The results indicated that FMO, PscB, PscD, and part of PscA are exposed on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. PscD helps stabilize FMO to the reaction center and may facilitate transfer of the electron from the RC to ferredoxin. The soluble domain of the heme-containing cytochrome subunit PscC and part of the core subunit PscA are located on the periplasmic side of the membrane. There is a close relationship between the periplasmic portions of PscA and PscC, which is needed for the efficient transfer of the electron between PscC and P840.

  18. In Vitro Enzymatic Activities of Bacteriochlorophyll a Synthase Derived from the Green Sulfur Photosynthetic Bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum.

    PubMed

    Saga, Yoshitaka; Hirota, Keiya; Harada, Jiro; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2015-08-18

    The activity of an enzyme encoded by the CT1610 gene in the green sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum, which was annotated as bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a synthase, BchG (denoted as tepBchG), was examined in vitro using the lysates of Escherichia coli containing the heterologously expressed enzyme. BChl a possessing a geranylgeranyl group at the 17-propionate residue (BChl aGG) was produced from bacteriochlorophyllide (BChlide) a and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate in the presence of tepBchG. Surprisingly, tepBchG catalyzed the formation of BChl a bearing a farnesyl group (BChl aF) as in the enzymatic production of BChl aGG, indicating loose recognition of isoprenoid pyrophosphates in tepBchG. In contrast to such loose recognition of isoprenoid substrates, BChlide c and chlorophyllide a gave no esterifying product upon being incubated with geranylgeranyl or farnesyl pyrophosphate in the presence of tepBchG. These results confirm that tepBchG undoubtedly acts as the BChl a synthase in Cba. tepidum. The enzymatic activity of tepBchG was higher than that of BchG of Rhodobacter sphaeroides at 45 °C, although the former activity was lower than the latter below 35 °C.

  19. ATR-FTIR detection of metal-sensitive structural changes in the light-harvesting 1 reaction center complex from the thermophilic purple sulfur bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Kimura, Yukihiro; Arikawa, Teruhisa; Wang-Otomo, Zheng-Yu; Ohno, Takashi

    2013-12-17

    Thermochromatium tepidum grows at the highest temperature among purple bacteria, and the light-harvesting 1 reaction center (LH1-RC) complex enhances the thermal stability by utilizing Ca(2+), although the molecular mechanism has yet to be resolved. Here, we applied perfusion-induced attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to highly purified LH1-RC complexes from Tch. tepidum and detected for the first time metal-sensitive fine structural changes involved in the enhanced thermal stability of this complex. The Tch. tepidum LH1-RC complex exhibited Sr(2+)/Ca(2+) ATR-FTIR difference bands that reflect changes in the polypeptide backbones and amino acid residues upon the replacement of native Ca(2+) with Sr(2+). The difference bands also appeared in the following Ca(2+)/Sr(2+) difference spectra with almost identical intensities but inverse signs, demonstrating that the structural changes induced by the metal exchange are fully reversible. In contrast, these ATR-FTIR signals were faintly detected in the mesophilic counterpart Allochromatium vinosum . A comparative analysis using LH1 complexes lacking the RCs strongly indicated that the metal-sensitive bands originate from polypeptide backbones and amino acid residues near the putative Ca(2+)-binding site at the C-terminal region of the Tch. tepidum LH1 complexes. Structural changes induced by Sr(2+) and Ba(2+) substitutions were essentially identical. However, Cd(2+) substitution exhibited unique structural modifications, which may be responsible for the severely deteriorated thermal stability of Cd(2+)-substituted complexes. Possible assignments for the present ATR-FTIR signals and their relation with the molecular mechanism of enhancing the thermal stability of Tch. tepidum LH1-RC proteins are discussed on the basis of the recent structural information on the Ca(2+)-binding site.

  20. Chlorobium limicola forma thiosulfatophilum: Biocatalyst in the Production of Sulfur and Organic Carbon from a Gas Stream Containing H2S and CO2

    PubMed Central

    Cork, Douglas J.; Garunas, Ruta; Sajjad, Ashfaq

    1983-01-01

    Chlorobium limicola forma thiosulfatophilum (ATCC 17092) was grown in a 1-liter continuously stirred tank reactor (800-ml liquid volume) at pH 6.8, 30°C, saturated light intensity, and a gas flow rate of 23.6 ml/min from a gas cylinder blend consisting of 3.9 mol% H2S, 9.2 mol% CO2, 86.4 mol% N2, and 0.5 mol% H2. This is the first demonstration of photoautotrophic growth of a Chlorobium sp. on a continuous inorganic gas feed. A significant potential exists for applying this photoautotrophic process to desulfurization and CO2 fixation of gases containing acidic components (H2S and CO2). PMID:16346255

  1. Chlorobium limicola forma thiosulfatophilum: biocatalyst in the production of sulfur and organic carbon from a gas stream containing H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Cork, D.J.; Garunas, R.; Sajjad, A.

    1983-03-01

    Chlorobium limicola forma thiosulfatophilum (ATCC 17092) was grown in a 1-liter continuously stirred tank reactor (800-ml liquid volume) at pH 6.8, 30/sup 0/C, saturated light intensity, and gas flow rate of 23.6 ml/min from a gas cylinder blend consisting of 3.9 mol% H/sub 2/S, 9.2 mol% CO/sub 2/, 86.4 mol% N/sub 2/, and 0.5 mol% H/sub 2/. This is the first demonstration of photoautotrophic growth of a Chlorobium sp. on a continuous inorganic gas feed. A significant potential exists for applying this photoautotrophic process to desulfurization and CO/sub 2/ fixation of gases containing acidic components (H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/).

  2. Cloning, characterization, and sequence of a gene from Chlorobium vibrioforme that encodes a structural component of glutamyl-tRNA dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Avissar, Y.J.; Majumdar, D.; Wyche, J.H.; Beale, S.I. )

    1990-05-01

    Escherichia coli SASX41B carries the hemA mutation and requires {delta}-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) for growth. Strain SASX41B was transformed to prototrophy with pYA1, a plasmid vector carrying a 5.8-kb insert of genomic DNA from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium vibrioforme. Cell extracts prepared from transformed cells catalyzed transfer of label from (1-{sup 14}C)glutamate or (3,4-{sup 3}H)glutamyl-tRNA to ALA at rates much higher than extracts of wild-type E. coli cells, whereas extracts prepared from untransformed strain SASX41B cells lacked both activities. By comparing the relative abilities of glutamyl-tRNAs derived from several heterologous cell types to function as substrates for the in vitro dehydrogenase reaction, it was determined that the substrate specificity of the expressed dehydrogenase in the transformed cells resembled that of Chlorobium and not that of wild-type E. coli. This indicates that plasmid pYA1 contains inserted DNA that codes for glutamyl-tRNA dehydrogenase, or a component of that enzyme which confers glutamyl-tRNA substrate specificity. A 1.9-kb transforming subclone (pYA3) of Chlorobium DNA was sequenced and the sequence exhibited significant homology with published sequences of the hemA gene of E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium.

  3. Clostridium tepidum sp. nov., a close relative of Clostridium sporogenes and Clostridium botulinum Group I.

    PubMed

    Dobritsa, Anatoly P; Kutumbaka, Kirthi K; Werner, Kirsten; Wiedmann, Martin; Asmus, Aaron; Samadpour, Mansour

    2017-07-01

    Obligately anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming bacteria indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were isolated from non-dairy protein shakes in bloated bottles. One of the isolates, strain IEH 97212T, was selected for further study. The strain was closely related to Clostridium sporogenes and Clostridium botulinum Group 1 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. Phylogenetic analysis also showed that strain IEH 97212T and strain PE (=DSM 18688), a bacterium isolated from solfataric mud, had identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Strains IEH 97 212T and DSM 18 688 were relatively more thermophilic (temperature range for growth: 30-55 °C) and less halotolerant [growth range: 0-2.5 % (w/v) NaCl] than C. sporogenes and C. botulinum. They were negative for catalase, oxidase, urease and l-pyrrolidonyl-arylamidase and did not produce indole. The strains produced acid from d-glucose, maltose and trehalose, and hydrolysed gelatin, but did not hydrolyse aesculin. The end-products of growth included acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, isobutyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, isocaproic acid, phenylpropionic acid, 2-piperidinone, 2-pyrrolidinone and gas(es). The predominant fatty acids were C14 : 0, C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. The genomic DNA G+C content of strains IEH 97212T and DSM 18688 was 26.9 and 26.7 mol%, respectively. According to the digital DNA-DNA hybridization data, the relatedness of these strains was 98.4 %, while they showed only 35.7-36.0 % relatedness to C. sporogenes. Based on the results of this polyphasic study, these strains represent a novel species, for which the name Clostridium tepidum sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain IEH 97212T (=NRRL B-65463T=DSM 104389T).

  4. Ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy of the light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) from the photosynthetic bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum

    SciTech Connect

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M.; Fuciman, Marcel; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Frank, Harry A.; Blankenship, Robert E.

    2011-10-08

    The light-harvesting complex 2 from the thermophilic purple bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum was purified and studied by steady-state absorption and fluorescence, sub-nanosecond-time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. The measurements were performed at room temperature and at 10 K. The combination of both ultrafast and steady-state optical spectroscopy methods at ambient and cryogenic temperatures allowed the detailed study of carotenoid (Car)-to-bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) as well BChl-to-BChl excitation energy transfer in the complex. The studies show that the dominant Cars rhodopin (N = 11) and spirilloxanthin (N = 13) do not play a significant role as supportive energy donors for BChl a. This is related with their photophysical properties regulated by long π-electron conjugation. On the other hand, such properties favor some of the Cars, particularly spirilloxanthin (N = 13) to play the role of the direct quencher of the excited singlet state of BChl.

  5. Characterization of chlorophyll pigments in the mutant lacking 8-vinyl reductase of green photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Harada, Jiro; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2012-12-01

    The mutant lacking the enzyme BciA (renamed CT1063), which catalyzed reduction of the 8-vinyl group of a porphyrinoid-type 3,8-divinyl-(proto)chlorophyllide-a [DV-(P)Chlide-a] in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum (Cba.) tepidum, was reconstructed on the basis of the previous study reported by Chew and Bryant [J. Biol. Chem.2007, 282, 2967-2975]. Cba. tepidum biosynthesizes the following three different types of chlorophylls (Chls) through their common precursory DV-(P)Chlide-a as its photosynthetically active pigments: bacteriochlorophyll(BChl)-c and Chl-a with the partially reduced 17,18-trans-dihydroporphyrin and BChl-a with the further reduced 7,8-trans-17,18-trans-tetrahydroporphyrin. The structures of Chls thus produced were characterized in detail by various spectroscopic techniques. In the mutant, both BChl-c and Chl-a possessing the alkyl group at the 8-position were exclusively replaced by their 8-vinylated derivatives, whereas BChl-a possessed the original 8-ethyl group. The present observations were inconsistent with the previous report. However, it was apparently confirmed that the enzyme BciA was responsible for the reduction of DV-(P)Chlide-a to produce BChl-c and Chl-a. Noteworthily, exclusive accumulation of the reduced (8-ethylated) form of BChl-a, not its 8-vinylated derivative, in the mutant indicates the presence of another enzyme catalyzing the 8-vinyl reduction as yet unidentified or any other reduction mechanism using a known enzyme to yield BChl-a.

  6. The chlorosome of Chlorobaculum tepidum: size, mass and protein composition revealed by electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and mass spectrometry-driven proteomics.

    PubMed

    Kouyianou, Kalliopi; De Bock, Pieter-Jan; Müller, Shirley A; Nikolaki, Antigoni; Rizos, Apostolos; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Aktoudianaki, Aikaterini; Vandekerckhove, Joël; Engel, Andreas; Gevaert, Kris; Tsiotis, Georgios

    2011-07-01

    Chlorosomes, the antenna complexes of green bacteria, are unique antenna systems in which pigments are organized in aggregates. Studies on isolated chlorosomes from Chlorobaculum tepidum based on SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting and molecular biology have revealed that they contain ten chlorosomal proteins, but no comprehensive information is available about the protein composition of the entire organelle. To extend these studies, chlorosomes were isolated from C. tepidum using three related and one independent isolation protocol and characterized by absorption spectroscopy, tricine SDS-PAGE, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and electron microscopy. Tricine SDS-PAGE showed the presence of more than 20 proteins with molecular weights ranging between 6 and 70 kDa. The chlorosomes varied in size. Their hydrodynamic radius (R(h) ) ranged from 51 to 75 nm and electron microscopy indicated that they were on average 140 nm wide and 170 nm long. Furthermore, the mass of 184 whole chlorosome organelles determined by scanning transmission electron microscopy ranged from 27 to 237 MDa being on average 88 (±28) MDa. In contrast their mass-per-area was independent of their size, indicating that there is a strict limit to chlorosome thickness. The average protein composition of the C. tepidum chlorosome organelles was obtained by MS/MS-driven proteomics and for the first time a detailed protein catalogue of the isolated chlorosomal proteome is presented. Based on the proteomics results for chlorosomes isolated by different protocols, four proteins that are involved in the electron or ion transport are proposed to be tightly associated with or incorporated into C. tepidum chlorosomes as well as the ten Csm proteins known to date.

  7. A heterogeneous tag-attachment to the homodimeric type 1 photosynthetic reaction center core protein in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum.

    PubMed

    Azai, Chihiro; Kim, Kwang; Kondo, Toru; Harada, Jiro; Itoh, Shigeru; Oh-oka, Hirozo

    2011-07-01

    The 6xHis-tag-pscA gene, which was genetically engineered to express N-terminally histidine (His)-tagged PscA, was inserted into a coding region of the recA gene in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum (C. tepidum). Although the inactivation of the recA gene strongly suppressed a homologous recombination in C. tepidum genomic DNA, the mutant grew well under normal photosynthetic conditions. The His-tagged reaction center (RC) complex could be obtained simply by Ni(2+)-affinity chromatography after detergent solubilization of chlorosome-containing membranes. The complex consisted of three subunits, PscA, PscB, and PscC, in addition to the Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein, but there was no PscD. Low-temperature EPR spectroscopic studies in combination with transient absorption measurements indicated that the complex contained all intrinsic electron transfer cofactors as detected in the wild-type strain. Furthermore, the LC/MS/MS analysis revealed that the core protein consisted of a mixture of a His-/His-tagged PscA homodimer and a non-/His-tagged PscA heterodimer. The development of the pscA gene duplication method presented here, thus, enables not only a quick and large-scale preparation of the RC complex from C. tepidum but also site-directed mutagenesis experiments on the artificially incorporated 6xHis-tag-pscA gene itself, since the expression of the authentic PscA/PscA homodimeric RC complex could complement any defect in mutated His-tagged PscA. This method would provide an invaluable tool for structural and functional analyses of the homodimeric type 1 RC complex.

  8. Cloning and expression of a structural gene from Chlorobium vibrioforme that complements the hemA mutation in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Avissar, Y.J.; Beale, S.I. )

    1990-03-01

    Escherichia coli SASX41B carries the hemA mutation and requires {delta}-aminolevulinic acid for growth. Strain SASX41B was transformed to prototrophy with pYA1, a plasmid vector carrying a 5.8-kilobase insert of genomic DNA from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium vibrioforme. Cell extracts prepared from transformed cells are able to catalyze transfer of label from (1-{sup 14}C)glutamate or (3,4-{sup 3}H)glutamyl-tRNA to {delta}-aminolevulinic acid at rates much higher than extracts of wild-type cells can, whereas extracts prepared from untransformed strain SASX41B cells lack both activities. By comparing the relative abilities of glutamyl-tRNAs derived from several heterologous cell type to function as substrates for the dehydrogenase reaction in extracts of HB101 and SASX41B cell transformed by pYA1, it was determined that the expressed dehydrogenase in the transformed cells resembled that of C. vibrioforme and not that of E. coli. Thus it can be conclude that plasmid pYA1 contains inserted DNA that codes for a structural component of C. vibrioforme glutamyl-RNA dehydrogenase which confers glutamyl-RNA susbtrate specificity.

  9. Metabolic analysis of Chlorobium chlorochromatii CaD3 reveals clues of the symbiosis in 'Chlorochromatium aggregatum'.

    PubMed

    Cerqueda-García, Daniel; Martínez-Castilla, León P; Falcón, Luisa I; Delaye, Luis

    2014-05-01

    A symbiotic association occurs in 'Chlorochromatium aggregatum', a phototrophic consortium integrated by two species of phylogenetically distant bacteria composed by the green-sulfur Chlorobium chlorochromatii CaD3 epibiont that surrounds a central β-proteobacterium. The non-motile chlorobia can perform nitrogen and carbon fixation, using sulfide as electron donors for anoxygenic photosynthesis. The consortium can move due to the flagella present in the central β-protobacterium. Although Chl. chlorochromatii CaD3 is never found as free-living bacteria in nature, previous transcriptomic and proteomic studies have revealed that there are differential transcription patterns between the symbiotic and free-living status of Chl. chlorocromatii CaD3 when grown in laboratory conditions. The differences occur mainly in genes encoding the enzymatic reactions involved in nitrogen and amino acid metabolism. We performed a metabolic reconstruction of Chl. chlorochromatii CaD3 and an in silico analysis of its amino acid metabolism using an elementary flux modes approach (EFM). Our study suggests that in symbiosis, Chl. chlorochromatii CaD3 is under limited nitrogen conditions where the GS/GOGAT (glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthetase) pathway is actively assimilating ammonia obtained via N2 fixation. In contrast, when free-living, Chl. chlorochromatii CaD3 is in a condition of nitrogen excess and ammonia is assimilated by the alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) pathway. We postulate that 'Chlorochromatium aggregatum' originated from a parasitic interaction where the N2 fixation capacity of the chlorobia would be enhanced by injection of 2-oxoglutarate from the β-proteobacterium via the periplasm. This consortium would have the advantage of motility, which is fundamental to a phototrophic bacterium, and the syntrophy of nitrogen and carbon sources.

  10. Metabolic analysis of Chlorobium chlorochromatii CaD3 reveals clues of the symbiosis in ‘Chlorochromatium aggregatum'.

    PubMed Central

    Cerqueda-García, Daniel; Martínez-Castilla, León P; Falcón, Luisa I; Delaye, Luis

    2014-01-01

    A symbiotic association occurs in ‘Chlorochromatium aggregatum', a phototrophic consortium integrated by two species of phylogenetically distant bacteria composed by the green-sulfur Chlorobium chlorochromatii CaD3 epibiont that surrounds a central β-proteobacterium. The non-motile chlorobia can perform nitrogen and carbon fixation, using sulfide as electron donors for anoxygenic photosynthesis. The consortium can move due to the flagella present in the central β-protobacterium. Although Chl. chlorochromatii CaD3 is never found as free-living bacteria in nature, previous transcriptomic and proteomic studies have revealed that there are differential transcription patterns between the symbiotic and free-living status of Chl. chlorocromatii CaD3 when grown in laboratory conditions. The differences occur mainly in genes encoding the enzymatic reactions involved in nitrogen and amino acid metabolism. We performed a metabolic reconstruction of Chl. chlorochromatii CaD3 and an in silico analysis of its amino acid metabolism using an elementary flux modes approach (EFM). Our study suggests that in symbiosis, Chl. chlorochromatii CaD3 is under limited nitrogen conditions where the GS/GOGAT (glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthetase) pathway is actively assimilating ammonia obtained via N2 fixation. In contrast, when free-living, Chl. chlorochromatii CaD3 is in a condition of nitrogen excess and ammonia is assimilated by the alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) pathway. We postulate that ‘Chlorochromatium aggregatum' originated from a parasitic interaction where the N2 fixation capacity of the chlorobia would be enhanced by injection of 2-oxoglutarate from the β-proteobacterium via the periplasm. This consortium would have the advantage of motility, which is fundamental to a phototrophic bacterium, and the syntrophy of nitrogen and carbon sources. PMID:24285361

  11. Gene sequencing and characterization of the light-harvesting complex 2 from thermophilic purple sulfur bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Fumie; Horiguchi, Kentaro; Kashino, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Yuuki; Yu, Long-Jiang; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Wang, Zheng-Yu

    2012-03-01

    In this study, gene sequences coding for the light-harvesting (LH) 2 polypeptides from a thermophilic purple sulfur bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum are reported and characterization of the LH2 complex is described. Three sets of pucBA genes have been identified, and the gene products have been analyzed by electrophoresis and reversed-phase chromatography. The result shows that all of the genes are expressed but the distribution of the expression is not uniform. The gene products undergo post-translational modification, where two of the β-polypeptides appear to be N-terminally methylated. Absorption spectrum of the purified LH2 complex exhibits Q (y) transitions at 800 and 854 nm in dodecyl β-maltopyranoside solution, and the circular dichroism spectrum shows a "molischianum"-like characteristic. No spectral change was observed for the LH2 when the bacterium was cultured under different conditions of light intensity. In lauryl dimethylamine N-oxide (LDAO) solution, significant changes in the absorption spectrum were observed. The B850 peak decreased and blue-shifted with increasing the LDAO concentration, whereas the B800 intensity increased without change in the peak position. The spectral changes can be partially or almost completely reversed by addition of metal ions, and the divalent cations seem to be more effective. The results indicate that ionic interactions may exist between LH2, detergent molecules and metal ions. Possible mechanisms involved in the detergent- and cation-induced spectral changes are discussed.

  12. Ca(2+)-binding reduces conformational flexibility of RC-LH1 core complex from thermophile Thermochromatium tepidum.

    PubMed

    Jakob-Grun, Selma; Radeck, Jara; Braun, Paula

    2012-03-01

    The light-harvesting complex, LH1, of thermophile purple bacteria Thermochromatium tepidum consists of an array of α- and β-polypeptides which assemble the photoactive bacteriochlorophyll and closely interact with the membrane-lipids. In this study, we investigated the effect of calcium and manganese ions on the protein structure and thermostability of the reaction centre (RC)-LH1/lipid complex. The binding of Ca(2+), but not Mn(2+) is shown to shift the LH1 Q ( y ) absorption maximum from ~889 to 915 nm and to significantly raise the thermostability of the RC-LH1 complex. The ATR-FTIR spectra indicate that interaction of Ca(2+) as monitored by the carboxylates' vibration of aspartate residues, but not Mn(2+) induces changes in the α-helix packing arrangement. The reduced rate of (1)H/(2)H exchange of proteins' amide protons shows that the accessibility to (2)H(2)O is significantly lowered in Ca(2+)-substituted RC-LH1/lipid complexes. In particular, exchange with the associated lipid molecules, is significantly retarded. These results suggest that the thermostability of the RC-LH1 complex is raised by the distinct interaction with calcium cations which reduces the RC-LH1/lipid dynamics, particularly, at the membrane-water interface.

  13. Alternative Excitonic Structure in the Baseplate (BChl a-CsmA Complex) of the Chlorosome from Chlorobaculum tepidum.

    PubMed

    Kell, Adam; Chen, Jinhai; Jassas, Mahboobe; Tang, Joseph Kuo-Hsiang; Jankowiak, Ryszard

    2015-07-16

    In the photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum, the baseplate mediates excitation energy transfer from the light-harvesting chlorosome to the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex and subsequently toward the reaction center (RC). Literature data suggest that the baseplate is a 2D lattice of BChl a-CsmA dimers. However, recently, it has been proposed, using 2D electronic spectroscopy (2DES) at 77 K, that at least four excitonically coupled BChl a are in close contact within the baseplate structure [ Dostál , J. ; et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2014 , 5 , 1743 ]. This finding is tested via hole burning (HB) spectroscopy (5 K). Our results indicate that the four excitonic states identified by 2DES likely correspond to contamination of the baseplate with the FMO antenna and possibly the RC. In contrast, HB reveals a different excitonic structure of the baseplate chromophores, where excitation is transferred to a localized trap state near 818 nm via exciton hopping, which leads to emission near 826 nm.

  14. A monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase found in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum reveals important roles for galactolipids in photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Shinji; Harada, Jiro; Yokono, Makio; Yuzawa, Yuichi; Shimojima, Mie; Murofushi, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Hironori; Masuda, Hanako; Murakawa, Masato; Haraguchi, Tsuyoshi; Kondo, Maki; Nishimura, Mikio; Yuasa, Hideya; Noguchi, Masato; Oh-Oka, Hirozo; Tanaka, Ayumi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2011-07-01

    Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), which is conserved in almost all photosynthetic organisms, is the most abundant natural polar lipid on Earth. In plants, MGDG is highly accumulated in the chloroplast membranes and is an important bulk constituent of thylakoid membranes. However, precise functions of MGDG in photosynthesis have not been well understood. Here, we report a novel MGDG synthase from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum. This enzyme, MgdA, catalyzes MGDG synthesis using UDP-Gal as a substrate. The gene encoding MgdA was essential for this bacterium; only heterozygous mgdA mutants could be isolated. An mgdA knockdown mutation affected in vivo assembly of bacteriochlorophyll c aggregates, suggesting the involvement of MGDG in the construction of the light-harvesting complex called chlorosome. These results indicate that MGDG biosynthesis has been independently established in each photosynthetic organism to perform photosynthesis under different environmental conditions. We complemented an Arabidopsis thaliana MGDG synthase mutant by heterologous expression of MgdA. The complemented plants showed almost normal levels of MGDG, although they also had abnormal morphological phenotypes, including reduced chlorophyll content, no apical dominance in shoot growth, atypical flower development, and infertility. These observations provide new insights regarding the importance of regulated MGDG synthesis in the physiology of higher plants.

  15. Calcium ions are required for the enhanced thermal stability of the light-harvesting-reaction center core complex from thermophilic purple sulfur bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yukihiro; Yu, Long-Jiang; Hirano, Yu; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Wang, Zheng-Yu

    2009-01-02

    Thermochromatium tepidum is a thermophilic purple sulfur photosynthetic bacterium collected from the Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park. A previous study showed that the light-harvesting-reaction center core complex (LH1-RC) purified from this bacterium is highly stable at room temperature (Suzuki, H., Hirano, Y., Kimura, Y., Takaichi, S., Kobayashi, M., Miki, K., and Wang, Z.-Y. (2007) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1767, 1057-1063). In this work, we demonstrate that thermal stability of the Tch. tepidum LH1-RC is much higher than that of its mesophilic counterparts, and the enhanced thermal stability requires Ca2+ as a cofactor. Removal of the Ca2+ from Tch. tepidum LH1-RC resulted in a complex with the same degree of thermal stability as that of the LH1-RCs purified from mesophilic bacteria. The enhanced thermal stability can be restored by addition of Ca2+ to the Ca2+-depleted LH1-RC, and this process is fully reversible. Interchange of the thermal stability between the two forms is accompanied by a shift of the LH1 Qy transition between 915 nm for the native and 880 nm for the Ca2+-depleted LH1-RC. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements reveal that degradation temperature of the native LH1-RC is 15 degrees C higher and the enthalpy change is about 28% larger than the Ca2+-depleted LH1-RC. Substitution of the Ca2+ with other metal cations caused a decrease in thermal stability of an extent depending on the properties of the cations. These results indicate that Ca2+ ions play a dual role in stabilizing the structure of the pigment-membrane protein complex and in altering its spectroscopic properties, and hence provide insight into the adaptive strategy of this photosynthetic organism to survive in extreme environments using natural resources.

  16. The roles of C-terminal residues on the thermal stability and local heme environment of cytochrome c' from the thermophilic purple sulfur bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yukihiro; Kasuga, Sachiko; Unno, Masashi; Furusawa, Takashi; Osoegawa, Shinsuke; Sasaki, Yuko; Ohno, Takashi; Wang-Otomo, Zheng-Yu

    2015-04-01

    A soluble cytochrome (Cyt) c' from thermophilic purple sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Thermochromatium (Tch.) tepidum exhibits marked thermal tolerance compared with that from the closely related mesophilic counterpart Allochromatium vinosum. Here, we focused on the difference in the C-terminal region of the two Cyts c' and examined the effects of D131 and R129 mutations on the thermal stability and local heme environment of Cyt c' by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy. In the oxidized forms, D131K and D131G mutants exhibited denaturing temperatures significantly lower than that of the recombinant control Cyt c'. In contrast, R129K and R129A mutants denatured at nearly identical temperatures with the control Cyt c', indicating that the C-terminal D131 is an important residue maintaining the enhanced thermal stability of Tch. tepidum Cyt c'. The control Cyt c' and all of the mutants increased their thermal stability upon the reduction. Interestingly, D131K exhibited narrow DSC curves and unusual thermodynamic parameters in both redox states. The RR spectra of the control Cyt c' exhibited characteristic bands at 1,635 and 1,625 cm(-1), ascribed to intermediate spin (IS) and high spin (HS) states, respectively. The IS/HS distribution was differently affected by the D131 and R129 mutations and pH changes. Furthermore, R129 mutants suggested the lowering of their redox potentials. These results strongly indicate that the D131 and R129 residues play significant roles in maintaining the thermal stability and modulating the local heme environment of Tch. tepidum Cyt c'.

  17. Bacteriochlorophyllide c C-8(2) and C-12(1) methyltransferases are essential for adaptation to low light in Chlorobaculum tepidum.

    PubMed

    Gomez Maqueo Chew, Aline; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Bryant, Donald A

    2007-09-01

    Bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) c is the major photosynthetic pigment in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum, in which it forms protein-independent aggregates that function in light harvesting. BChls c, d, and e are found only in chlorosome-producing bacteria and are unique among chlorophylls because of methylations that occur at the C-8(2) and C-12(1) carbons. Two genes required for these methylation reactions were identified and designated bchQ (CT1777) and bchR (CT1320). BchQ and BchR are members of the radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) protein superfamily; each has sequence motifs to ligate a [4Fe-4S] cluster, and we propose that they catalyze the methyl group transfers. bchQ, bchR, and bchQ bchR mutants of C. tepidum were constructed and characterized. The bchQ mutant produced BChl c that was not methylated at C-8(2), the bchR mutant produced BChl c that was not methylated at C-12(1), and the double mutant produced [8-ethyl, 12-methyl]-BChl c that lacked methylation at both the C-8(2) and C-12(1) positions. Compared to the wild type, the Qy absorption bands for BChl c in the mutant cells were narrower and blue shifted to various extents. All three mutants grew slower and had a lower cellular BChl c content than the wild type, an effect that was especially pronounced at low light intensities. These observations show that the C-8(2) and C-12(1) methylations of BChl c play important roles in the adaptation of C. tepidum to low light intensity. The data additionally suggest that these methylations also directly or indirectly affect the regulation of the BChl c biosynthetic pathway.

  18. Structural Basis for the Unusual Qy Red-Shift and Enhanced Thermostability of the LH1 Complex from Thermochromatium tepidum.

    PubMed

    Yu, Long-Jiang; Kawakami, Tomoaki; Kimura, Yukihiro; Wang-Otomo, Zheng-Yu

    2016-11-29

    While the majority of the core light-harvesting complexes (LH1) in purple photosynthetic bacteria exhibit a Qy absorption band in the range of 870-890 nm, LH1 from the thermophilic bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum displays the Qy band at 915 nm with an enhanced thermostability. These properties are regulated by Ca(2+) ions. Substitution of the Ca(2+) with other divalent metal ions results in a complex with the Qy band blue-shifted to 880-890 nm and a reduced thermostability. Following the recent publication of the structure of the Ca-bound LH1-reaction center (RC) complex [Niwa, S., et al. (2014) Nature 508, 228], we have determined the crystal structures of the Sr- and Ba-substituted LH1-RC complexes with the LH1 Qy band at 888 nm. Sixteen Sr(2+) and Ba(2+) ions are identified in the LH1 complexes. Both Sr(2+) and Ba(2+) are located at the same positions, and these are clearly different from, though close to, the Ca(2+)-binding sites. Conformational rearrangement induced by the substitution is limited to the metal-binding sites. Unlike the Ca-LH1-RC complex, only the α-polypeptides are involved in the Sr and Ba coordinations in LH1. The difference in the thermostability between these complexes can be attributed to the different patterns of the network formed by metal binding. The Sr- and Ba-LH1-RC complexes form a single-ring network by the LH1 α-polypeptides only, in contrast to the double-ring network composed of both α- and β-polypeptides in the Ca-LH1-RC complex. On the basis of the structural information, a combined effect of hydrogen bonding, structural integrity, and charge distribution is considered to influence the spectral properties of the core antenna complex.

  19. Biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophyll c derivatives possessing chlorine and bromine atoms at the terminus of esterifying chains in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum.

    PubMed

    Saga, Yoshitaka; Hayashi, Keisuke; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2014-07-01

    The green sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum newly produced BChl c derivatives possessing a chlorine or bromine atom at the terminus of the esterifying chain in the 17-propionate residue by cultivation with exogenous ω-halo-1-alkanols. The relative ratios of BChl c derivatives esterified with 8-chloro-1-octanol and 10-chloro-1-decanol were estimated to be 26.5% and 33.3% by cultivation with these ω-chloro-1-alkanols at the final concentrations of 300 and 150 μM, respectively. In contrast, smaller amounts of unnatural BChls c esterified with ω-bromo-1-alkanols were biosynthesized than those esterified with ω-chloro-1-alkanols: the ratios of BChl c derivatives esterified with 8-bromo-1-octanol and 10-bromo-1-decanol were 11.3% and 12.2% at the concentrations of 300 and 150 μM, respectively. These indicate that ω-chloro-1-alkanols can be incorporated into bacteriochlorophyllide c more than ω-bromo-1-alkanols in the BChl c biosynthetic pathway. The homolog compositions of the novel BChl c derivatives possessing a halogen atom were analogous to those of coexisting natural BChl c esterified with farnesol. These results demonstrate unique properties of BChl c synthase, BchK, which can utilize unnatural substrates containing halogen in the BChl c biosynthesis of Cba. tepidum.

  20. Biochemical studies of a soxF-encoded monomeric flavoprotein purified from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum that stimulates in vitro thiosulfate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Takuro; Furusawa, Toshinari; Shiga, Michiko; Seo, Daisuke; Sakurai, Hidehiro; Inoue, Kazuhito

    2010-01-01

    In the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum, three sulfur oxidizing enzyme system (Sox) proteins, SoxAXK, SoxYZ, and SoxB (the core TOMES, thiosulfate oxidizing multi-enzyme system) are essential to in vitro thiosulfate oxidation. We purified monomeric flavoprotein SoxF from this bacterium, which had sulfide dehydrogenase activity. SoxF enhanced the thiosulfate oxidation activity of the purified core TOMES with various cytochromes as electron acceptors to different degrees without any change in the affinity for thiosulfate. The apparent reaction rates with 50 microM- C. tepidum cytochrome c-554 were slightly higher than with horse-heart cytochrome c, and the addition of 0.5 microM- SoxF increased the rate by 92%. The rates with 50 microM- horse-heart cytochrome c and 50 muM- horse-heart cytochrome c plus 0.5 muM- cytochrome c-554 were increased by SoxF by 31% and 120% respectively. We conclude that SoxF mediates electron transfer between the components of core TOMES and externally added cytochromes.

  1. Heterologous Production of the Photosynthetic Reaction Center and Light Harvesting 1 Complexes of the Thermophile Thermochromatium tepidum in the Mesophile Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Thermal Stability of a Hybrid Core Complex.

    PubMed

    Jun, D; Huang, V; Beatty, J T

    2017-10-15

    The photosynthetic complexes of the thermophile Thermochromatium tepidum are of considerable interest in biohybrid solar cell applications because of the ability of thermophilic proteins to tolerate elevated temperatures. Synthetic operons encoding reaction center (RC) and light harvesting 1 (LH1) pigment-protein complexes of T. tepidum were expressed in the mesophile Rhodobacter sphaeroides The T. tepidum RC (TRC) was assembled and was found to be functional with the addition of menadione to populate the QA pocket. The production of T. tepidum LH1 (TLH1) was increased by selection of a phototrophy-capable mutant after UV irradiation mutagenesis, which yielded a hybrid RC-TLH1 core complex consisting of the R. sphaeroides RC and T. tepidum TLH1, confirmed by the absorbance peak of TLH1 at 915 nm. Affinity chromatography partial purification and subsequent sucrose gradient analysis of the hybrid RC-TLH1 core complex indicated that this core complex assembled as a monomer. Furthermore, the RC-TLH1 hybrid core complex was more tolerant of a temperature of 70°C than the R. sphaeroides RC-LH1 core complexes in both the dimeric and monomeric forms; after 1 h, the hybrid complex retained 58% of the initial starting value, compared to values of 11% and 53% for the R. sphaeroides RC-LH1 dimer and monomer forms, respectively.IMPORTANCE This work is important because it is a new approach to bioengineering of photosynthesis proteins for potential use in biophotovoltaic solar energy capture. The work establishes a proof of principle for future biohybrid solar cell applications. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Membrane-associated c-type cytochromes from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium limicola forma thiosulfatophilum: purification and characterization of cytochrome c553.

    PubMed

    Albouy, D; Sturgis, J N; Feiler, U; Nitschke, W; Robert, B

    1997-02-18

    Tetraheme cytochromes involved in photosynthetic electron transport have previously been described associated with the reaction centers of purple photosynthetic bacteria; however, similar heme proteins have not until now been characterized in the phylogenetically distinct green sulfur bacteria. In this paper we describe the first isolation and characterization of a multitheme, membrane-associated cytochrome from a green sulfur bacterium, Chlorobium limicola forma thiosulfatophilum. We show that this cytochrome contains a single polypeptide of 32 kDa apparent molecular mass on SDS-PAGE and has a characteristic broad alpha-band absorption at 553 nm. By both low-temperature absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we demonstrate that there are at least four distinct heme groups.

  3. Structure and organization of a 25 kbp region of the genome of the photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium vibrioforme containing Mg-chelatase encoding genes.

    PubMed

    Petersen, B L; Møller, M G; Stummann, B M; Henningsen, K W

    1998-01-01

    A region comprising approximately 25 kbp of the genome of the strictly anaerobic and obligate photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium vibrioforme has been mapped, subcloned and partly sequenced. Approximately 15 kbp have been sequenced in it's entirety and three genes with significant homology and feature similarity to the bchI, -D and -H genes and the chlI, -D and -H genes of Rhodobacter and Synechocystis strain PCC6803, respectively, which encode magnesium chelatase subunits, have been identified. Magnesium chelatase catalyzes the insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX, and is the first enzyme unique to the (bacterio)chlorophyll specific branch of the porphyrin biosynthetic pathway. The organization of the three Mg-chelatase encoding genes is unique to Chlorobium and suggests that the magnesium chelatase of C. vibrioforme is encoded by a single operon. The analyzed 25 kbp region contains five additional open reading frames, two of which display significant homology and feature similarity to genes encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase and genes with function in purine synthesis, and another three display significant homology to open reading frames with unknown function in distantly related bacteria. Putative E. coli sigma 70-like promoter sequences, ribosome binding sequences and rho-independent transcriptional stop signals within the sequenced 15 kbp region are related to the identified genes and orfs. Southern analysis, restriction mapping and partial sequencing of the remaining ca. 10 kbp of the analyzed 25 kbp region have shown that this part includes the hemA, -C, -D and -B genes (MOBERG and AVISSAR 1994), which encode enzymes with function in the early part of the biosynthetic pathway of porphyrins.

  4. The origin of the unusual Qy red shift in LH1-RC complexes from purple bacteria Thermochromatium tepidum as revealed by Stark absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fei; Yu, Long-Jiang; Wang-Otomo, Zheng-Yu; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2015-12-01

    Native LH1-RC of photosynthetic purple bacteria Thermochromatium (Tch.) tepidum, B915, has an ultra-red BChl a Qy absorption. Two blue-shifted complexes obtained by chemical modification, B893 and B882, have increasing full widths at half maximum (FWHM) and decreasing transition dipole oscillator strength. 77K Stark absorption spectroscopy studies were employed for the three complexes, trying to understand the origin of the 915 nm absorption. We found that Tr(∆α) and |∆μ| of both Qy and carotenoid (Car) bands are larger than for other purple bacterial LH complexes reported previously. Moreover, the red shifts of the Qy bands are associated with (1) increasing Tr(∆α) and |∆μ| of the Qy band, (2) the red shift of the Car Stark signal and (3) the increasing |∆μ| of the Car band. Based on the results and the crystal structure, a combined effect of exciton-charge transfer (CT) states mixing, and inhomogeneous narrowing of the BChl a site energy is proposed to be the origin of the 915 nm absorption. CT-exciton state mixing has long been found to be the origin of strong Stark signal in LH1 and special pair, and the more extent of the mixing in Tch. tepidum LH1 is mainly the consequence of the shorter BChl-BChl distances. The less flexible protein structure results in a smaller site energy disorder (inhomogeneous narrowing), which was demonstrated to be able to influence |∆μ| and absorption. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Presence of exclusively bacteriochlorophyll-c containing substrain in the culture of green sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobium vibrioforme strain NCIB 8327 producing bacteriochlorophyll-d.

    PubMed

    Saga, Yoshitaka; Oh-oka, Hirozo; Hayashi, Takashi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2003-12-01

    The light-dependent composition change of light harvesting bacteriochlorophyll(BChl)s in the present culture of a green sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobium (Chl.) vibrioforme f. sp. thiosulfatophilum strain NCIB 8327 was investigated by visible absorption spectroscopy and HPLC analyses. When the culture was repeatedly grown in liquid media under a low light condition, both the Soret and Qy absorption bands of the in vivo spectrum were shifted to longer wavelengths. Analysis of the extracted pigments by HPLC revealed that the ratio of the amount of BChl-c to that of BChl-d molecules gradually increased during repeated cultivation. In contrast, when the culture grown under a low light intensity was transferred to a high light condition and continued to be grown, the absorption bands were shifted to shorter wavelengths and the ratio of BChls-c/d decreased finally to the almost original value. Colonies were prepared on solid agar media from the liquid culture containing both BChls-c and d, which was grown under a low light intensity. Each colony obtained was found to contain either BChl-c or d, but not both of them. Two types of cells isolated in this study were derived from the same clone, judged from their genetic analyses. The variation of pigment composition in our liquid culture observed here could be ascribed to the difference of growth rates between two substrains containing BChl-c and BChl-d, respectively, depending on light conditions.

  6. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the sulfur carrier protein SoxY from Chlorobium limicola f. thiosulfatophilum reveals a tetrameric structure

    PubMed Central

    Stout, Jan; Van Driessche, Gonzalez; Savvides, Savvas N.; Van Beeumen, Jozef

    2007-01-01

    Dissimilatory oxidation of thiosulfate in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium limicola f. thiosulfatophilum is carried out by the ubiquitous sulfur-oxidizing (Sox) multi-enzyme system. In this system, SoxY plays a key role, functioning as the sulfur substrate-binding protein that offers its sulfur substrate, which is covalently bound to a conserved C-terminal cysteine, to another oxidizing Sox enzyme. Here, we report the crystal structures of a stand-alone SoxY protein of C. limicola f. thiosulfatophilum, solved at 2.15 Å and 2.40 Å resolution using X-ray diffraction data collected at 100 K and room temperature, respectively. The structure reveals a monomeric Ig-like protein, with an N-terminal α-helix, that oligomerizes into a tetramer via conserved contact regions between the monomers. The tetramer can be described as a dimer of dimers that exhibits one large hydrophobic contact region in each dimer and two small hydrophilic interface patches in the tetramer. At the tetramer interface patch, two conserved redox-active C-terminal cysteines form an intersubunit disulfide bridge. Intriguingly, SoxY exhibits a dimer/tetramer equilibrium that is dependent on the redox state of the cysteines and on the type of sulfur substrate component bound to them. Taken together, the dimer/tetramer equilibrium, the specific interactions between the subunits in the tetramer, and the significant conservation level of the interfaces strongly indicate that these SoxY oligomers are biologically relevant. PMID:17327392

  7. Dynamics of Energy and Electron Transfer in the FMO-Reaction Center Core Complex from the Phototrophic Green Sulfur Bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum.

    PubMed

    He, Guannan; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Orf, Gregory S; Zhang, Hao; Blankenship, Robert E

    2015-07-02

    The reaction center core (RCC) complex and the RCC with associated Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein (FMO-RCC) complex from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum were studied comparatively by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) and femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption (TA) spectroscopies. The energy transfer efficiency from the FMO to the RCC complex was calculated to be ∼40% based on the steady-state fluorescence. TRF showed that most of the FMO complexes (66%), regardless of the fact that they were physically attached to the RCC, were not able to transfer excitation energy to the reaction center. The TA spectra of the RCC complex showed a 30-38 ps lifetime component regardless of the excitation wavelengths, which is attributed to charge separation. Excitonic equilibration was shown in TA spectra of the RCC complex when excited into the BChl a Qx band at 590 nm and the Chl a Qy band at 670 nm, while excitation at 840 nm directly populated the low-energy excited state and equilibration within the excitonic BChl a manifold was not observed. The TA spectra for the FMO-RCC complex excited into the BChl a Qx band could be interpreted by a combination of the excited FMO protein and RCC complex. The FMO-RCC complex showed an additional fast kinetic component compared with the FMO protein and the RCC complex, which may be due to FMO-to-RCC energy transfer.

  8. Specific Ca2+-binding motif in the LH1 complex from photosynthetic bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum as revealed by optical spectroscopy and structural modeling.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fei; Kimura, Yukihiro; Yu, Long-Jiang; Wang, Peng; Ai, Xi-Cheng; Wang, Zheng-Yu; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2009-03-01

    Native and Ca(2+)-depleted light-harvesting-reaction center core complexes (LH1-RC) from the photosynthetic bacterium Thermochromatium (Tch.) tepidum exhibit maximal LH1-Q(y) absorption at 915 and 889 nm, respectively. To understand the structural origins of the spectral variation, we performed spectroscopic and structure modeling investigations. For the 889 nm form of LH1-RC, bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) in the native form was found by means of near-infrared Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy, a higher degree of macrocycle distortion and a stronger hydrogen bond with the beta-Trp(-8) residue. SWISS-MODEL structure modeling suggests the presence of a specific coordination motif of Ca(2+) at the C-terminus of the alpha-subunit of LH1, while MODELLER reveals the tilt of alpha- and beta-polypeptides with reference to the structural template, as well as a change in the concentric orientation of BChl a molecules, both of which may be connected to the long-wavelength LH1-Q(y) absorption of the 915 nm form. The carotenoid spirilloxanthin shows a twisted all-trans configuration in both forms of LH1 as evidenced by the resonance Raman spectroscopic results. With regard to the thermal stability, the 915 nm form was shown by the use of temperature-dependent fluorescence spectroscopy to be approximately 20 K more stable than the 889 nm form, which may be ascribed to the specific Ca(2+)-binding motif of LH1.

  9. Calcium ions are involved in the unusual red shift of the light-harvesting 1 Qy transition of the core complex in thermophilic purple sulfur bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yukihiro; Hirano, Yu; Yu, Long-Jiang; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Wang, Zheng-Yu

    2008-05-16

    Thermophilic purple sulfur bacterium, Thermochromatium tepidum, can grow at temperatures up to 58 degrees C and exhibits an unusual Qy absorption at 915 nm for the core light-harvesting complex (LH1), an approximately 35-nm red shift from those of its mesophilic counterparts. We demonstrate in this study, using a highly purified LH1-reaction center complex, that the LH1 Qy transition is strongly dependent on metal cations and Ca2+ is involved in the unusual red shift. Removal of the Ca2+ resulted in formation of a species with the LH1 Qy absorption at 880 nm, and addition of the Ca2+ to the 880-nm species recovered the native 915-nm form. Interchange between the two forms is fully reversible. Based on spectroscopic and isothermal titration calorimetry analyses, the Ca2+ binding to the LH1 complex was estimated to occur in a stoichiometric ratio of Ca2+/alphabeta-subunit = 1:1 and the binding constant was in 10(5) m(-1) order of magnitude, which is comparable with those for EF-hand Ca2+-binding proteins. Despite the high affinity, conformational changes in the LH1 complex upon Ca2+ binding were small and occurred slowly, with a typical time constant of approximately 6 min. Replacement of the Ca2+ with other metal cations caused blue shifts of the Qy bands depending on the property of the cations, indicating that the binding site is highly selective. Based on the amino acid sequences of the LH1 complex, possible Ca2+-binding sites are proposed that consist of several acidic amino acid residues near the membrane interfaces of the C-terminal region of the alpha-polypeptide and the N-terminal region of the beta-polypeptide.

  10. Characterization of three homologs of the large subunit of the magnesium chelatase from Chlorobaculum tepidum and interaction with the magnesium protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ethan T; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2008-10-10

    Green bacteria synthesize several types of (bacterio)chlorophylls for the assembly of functional photosynthetic reaction centers and antenna complexes. A distinctive feature of green bacteria compared with other photosynthetic microbes is that their genomes contain multiple homologs of the large subunit (BchH) of the magnesium chelatase which is a three-subunit enzyme complex (BchH, BchD, and BchI) that inserts magnesium into protoporphyrin IX as the first committed step of (bacterio)chlorophyll biosynthesis. There is speculation that the additional BchH homologs may regulate the biosynthesis of each type of chlorophyll, although the biochemical properties of the different magnesium chelatase complexes from a single species of green bacteria have not yet been compared. In this study, we investigated the activities of all three chelatase complexes from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum and interactions with the next enzyme in the pathway, magnesium protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase (BchM). Although all three chelatase complexes insert magnesium into protoporphyrin IX, the activities range by a factor of 10(5). Further, there are differences in the interactions between the BchH homologs and BchM; two of the subunits increase the methyltransferase activity by 30-60%, and the third decreases it by 30%. Expression of the chelatase complexes alone and together with BchM in Escherichia coli overproducing protoporphyrin IX suggests that the chelatase is the rate-limiting enzyme. We observed that BchM uses protoporphyrin IX without bound metal as a substrate. Our results conflict with expectations generated by previous gene inactivation studies and suggest a complex regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis in green bacteria.

  11. Structural variability in wild-type and bchQ bchR mutant chlorosomes of the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Swapna; Oostergetel, Gert T; Reus, Michael; Tsukatani, Yusuke; Gomez Maqueo Chew, Aline; Buda, Francesco; Bryant, Donald A; Holzwarth, Alfred R; de Groot, Huub J M

    2012-06-05

    The self-aggregated state of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) c molecules in chlorosomes belonging to a bchQ bchR mutant of the green sulfur bacteria Chlorobaculum tepidum, which mostly produces a single 17(2)-farnesyl-(R)-[8-ethyl,12-methyl]BChl c homologue, was characterized by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high-resolution electron microscopy. A nearly complete (1)H and (13)C chemical shift assignment was obtained from well-resolved homonuclear (13)C-(13)C and heteronuclear (1)H-(13)C NMR data sets collected from (13)C-enriched chlorosome preparations. Pronounced doubling (1:1) of specific (13)C and (1)H resonances revealed the presence of two distinct and nonequivalent BChl c components, attributed to all syn- and all anti-coordinated parallel stacks, depending on the rotation of the macrocycle with respect to the 3(1)-methyl group. Steric hindrance from the 20-methyl functionality induces structural differences between the syn and anti forms. A weak but significant and reproducible reflection at 1/0.69 nm(-1) in the direction perpendicular to the curvature of cylindrical segments observed with electron microscopy also suggests parallel stacking of BChl c molecules, though the observed lamellar spacing of 2.4 nm suggests weaker packing than for wild-type chlorosomes. We propose that relaxation of the pseudosymmetry observed for the wild type and a related BChl d mutant leads to extended domains of alternating syn and anti stacks in the bchQ bchR chlorosomes. Domains can be joined to form cylinders by helical syn-anti transition trajectories. The phase separation in domains on the cylindrical surface represents a basic mechanism for establishing suprastructural heterogeneity in an otherwise uniform supramolecular scaffolding framework that is well-ordered at the molecular level.

  12. The impact of different intensities of green light on the bacteriochlorophyll homologue composition of the Chlorobiaceae Prosthecochloris aestuarii and Chlorobium phaeobacteroides.

    PubMed

    Massé, Astrid; Airs, Ruth L; Keely, Brendan J; de Wit, Rutger

    2004-08-01

    Members of the Chlorobiaceae and Chloroflexaceae are unique among the phototrophic micro-organisms in having a remarkably rich chlorophyll pigment diversity. The physiological regulation of this diversity and its ecological implications are still enigmatic. The bacteriochlorophyll composition of the chlorobiaceae Prosthecochloris aestuarii strain CE 2404 and Chlorobium phaeobacteroides strain UdG 6030 was therefore studied by both HPLC with photodiode array (PDA) detection and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). These strains were grown in liquid cultures under green light (480-615 nm) at different light intensities (0.2-55.7 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)), simulating the irradiance regime at different depths of the water column of deep lakes. The specific growth rates of Ptc. aestuarii under green light achieved a maximum of 0.06 h(-1) at light intensities exceeding 6 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1), lower than the maximum observed under white light (approx. 0.1 h(-1)). The maximal growth rates of Chl. phaeobacteroides under green light were slightly higher (0.07 h(-1)) than observed for Ptc. aestuarii and were achieved at 3.5 and 4.3 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1). LC-MS/MS analysis of pigment extracts revealed most (>90 %) BChl c homologues of Ptc. aestuarii to be esterified with farnesol. The homologues differed in mass by multiples of 14 Da, reflecting different alkyl subsituents at positions C-8 and C-12 on the tetrapyrrole macrocycle. The relative proportions of the individual homologues varied only slightly among different light intensities. The specific content of BChl c was maximal at 3-5 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1) [400+/-150 nmol BChl c (mg protein)(-1)]. In the case of Chl. phaeobacteroides, the specific content of BChl e was maximal at 4.3 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1) [115 nmol BChl e (mg protein)(-1)], and this species was characterized by high carotenoid (isorenieratene) contents. The major BChl e forms were esterified with a range of

  13. Reconstitution of an active magnesium chelatase enzyme complex from the bchI, -D, and -H gene products of the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium vibrioforme expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Petersen, B L; Jensen, P E; Gibson, L C; Stummann, B M; Hunter, C N; Henningsen, K W

    1998-02-01

    Magnesium-protoporphyrin chelatase, the first enzyme unique to the (bacterio)chlorophyll-specific branch of the porphyrin biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes the insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX. Three genes, designated bchI, -D, and -H, from the strictly anaerobic and obligately phototrophic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium vibrioforme show a significant level of homology to the magnesium chelatase-encoding genes bchI, -D, and -H and chlI, -D, and -H of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Synechocystis strain PCC6803, respectively. These three genes were expressed in Escherichia coli; the subsequent purification of overproduced BchI and -H proteins on an Ni2+-agarose affinity column and denaturation of insoluble BchD protein in 6 M urea were required for reconstitution of Mg-chelatase activity in vitro. This work therefore establishes that the magnesium chelatase of C. vibrioforme is similar to the magnesium chelatases of the distantly related bacteria R. sphaeroides and Synechocystis strain PCC6803 with respect to number of subunits and ATP requirement. In addition, reconstitution of an active heterologous magnesium chelatase enzyme complex was obtained by combining the C. vibrioforme BchI and -D proteins and the Synechocystis strain PCC6803 ChlH protein. Furthermore, two versions, with respect to the N-terminal start of the bchI gene product, were expressed in E. coli, yielding ca. 38- and ca. 42-kDa versions of the BchI protein, both of which proved to be active. Western blot analysis of these proteins indicated that two forms of BchI, corresponding to the 38- and the 42-kDa expressed proteins, are also present in C. vibrioforme.

  14. Energy transfer and exciton coupling in isolated B800-850 complexes of the photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium Choromatium tepidum. The effect of structural symmetry on bacteriochlorophyll excited states

    SciTech Connect

    Kennis, J.T.M.; Streltsov, A.M.; Aartsma, T.J.; Amesz, J.; Nozawa, Tsunenori

    1996-02-08

    Energy transfer and exciton coupling in isolated B800-850 complexes from the purple sulfur bacterium Chromatium tepidum were studied by means of spectrally resolved absorbance difference spectroscopy with a time resolution of 200 fs. Energy transfer from bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) 800 to BChl 850 was found to occur with a time constant of 0.8-0.9 ps. Remarkably, the amplitude of the absorbance changes of BChl 850 was 4 times larger than that of BChl 800. By relating this result to the crystal structure of B800-850 complexes of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila, it was concluded that the spectral properties of BChl 850 are mainly determined by strong exciton interactions between BChl 850 molecules in a circular symmetric arrangement, which lead to concentration of the oscillator strength in a few optically allowed transitions, corresponding to delocalized eigenstates. In BChl 850, a rapid red shift of the bleaching was observed. This relaxation process may be ascribed either to vibrational relaxation or exciton scattering. A similar red shift appears to occur in BChl 800. 26 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Temperature dependent LH1→RC energy transfer in purple bacteria Tch. tepidum with shiftable LH1-Qy band: A natural system to investigate thermally activated energy transfer in photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fei; Yu, Long-Jiang; Wang-Otomo, Zheng-Yu; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2016-04-01

    The native LH1-RC complex of the purple bacterium Thermochromatium (Tch.) tepidum has an ultra-red LH1-Qy absorption at 915nm, which can shift to 893 and 882nm by means of chemical modifications. These unique complexes are a good natural system to investigate the thermally activated energy transfer process, with the donor energies different while the other factors (such as the acceptor energy, special pair at 890nm, and the distance/relative orientation between the donor and acceptor) remain the same. The native B915-RC, B893-RC and B882-RC complexes, as well as the LH1-RC complex of Rhodobacter (Rba.) sphaeroides were studied by temperature-dependent time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. The energy transfer time constants, kET(-1), are 65, 45, 46 and 45ps at room temperature while 225, 58, 85, 33ps at 77K for the B915-RC, B893-RC, B882-RC and Rba. sphaeroides LH1-RC, respectively. The dependences of kET on temperature have different trends. The reorganization energies are determined to be 70, 290, 200 and 45cm(-1), respectively, by fitting kET vs temperature using Marcus equation. The activation energies are 200, 60, 115 and 20cm(-1), respectively. The influences of the structure (the arrangement of the 32 BChl a molecules) on kET are discussed based on these results, to reveal how the B915-RC complex accomplishes its energy transfer function with a large uphill energy of 290cm(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Isolation and structural determination of C8-vinyl-bacteriochlorophyll d from the bciA and bchU double mutant of the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum.

    PubMed

    Harada, Jiro; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Nomura, Kota; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2014-07-01

    The mutant lacking enzymes BciA and BchU, that catalyzed reduction of the C8-vinyl group and methylation at the C20 position of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) c, respectively, in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum, were constructed. This mutant accumulated C8-vinyl-BChl d derivatives, and a molecular structure of the major pigment was fully characterized by its NMR, mass, and circular dichroism spectra, as well as by chemical modification: (3(1) R)-8-vinyl-12-ethyl-(R[V,E])BChl d was confirmed as a new BChl d species in the cells. In vitro chlorosome-like self-aggregates of this pigment were prepared in an aqueous micellar solution, and formed more rapidly than those of (3(1) R)-8,12-diethyl-(R[E,E])BChl d isolated from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum parvum NCIB8327d synthesizing BChl d homologs. Their red-shifted Q y absorption bands were almost the same at 761 nm, and the value was larger than those of in vitro self-aggregates of R[E,E]BChl c (737 nm) and R[V,E]BChl c (726 nm), while the monomeric states of the former gave Q y bands at shorter wavelengths than those of the latter. Red shifts by self-aggregation of the two BChl d species were estimated to be 110 nm and much larger than those by BChls c (75 nm for [E,E] and 64 nm for [V,E]).

  17. Biochemistry and control of the reductive tricarboxylic acid pathway of CO2 fixation and physiological role of the Rubis CO-like protein

    SciTech Connect

    Tabita, F. Robert

    2008-12-04

    During the past years of this project we have made progress relative to the two major goals of the proposal: (1) to study the biochemistry and regulation of the reductive TCA cycle of CO2 fixation and (2) to probe the physiological role of a RubisCO-like protein (RLP). Both studies primarily employ the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum as well as other photosynthetic bacteria including Rhodospirillum rubrum and Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

  18. Influence of organics and silica on Fe(II) oxidation rates and cell-mineral aggregate formation by the green-sulfur Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium Chlorobium ferrooxidans KoFox - Implications for Fe(II) oxidation in ancient oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauger, Tina; Byrne, James M.; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Obst, Martin; Crowe, Sean; Kappler, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Most studies on microbial phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation (photoferrotrophy) have focused on purple bacteria, but recent evidence points to the importance of green-sulfur bacteria (GSB). Their recovery from modern ferruginous environments suggests that these photoferrotrophs can offer insights into how their ancient counterparts grew in Archean oceans at the time of banded iron formation (BIF) deposition. It is unknown, however, how Fe(II) oxidation rates, cell-mineral aggregate formation, and Fe-mineralogy vary under environmental conditions reminiscent of the geological past. To address this, we studied the Fe(II)-oxidizer Chlorobium ferrooxidans KoFox, a GSB living in co-culture with the heterotrophic Geospirillum strain KoFum. We investigated the mineralogy of Fe(III) metabolic products at low/high light intensity, and in the presence of dissolved silica and/or fumarate. Silica and fumarate influenced the crystallinity and particle size of the produced Fe(III) minerals. The presence of silica also enhanced Fe(II) oxidation rates, especially at high light intensities, potentially by lowering Fe(II)-toxicity to the cells. Electron microscopic imaging showed no encrustation of either KoFox or KoFum cells with Fe(III)-minerals, though weak associations were observed suggesting co-sedimentation of Fe(III) with at least some biomass via these aggregates, which could support diagenetic Fe(III)-reduction. Given that GSB are presumably one of the most ancient photosynthetic organisms, and pre-date cyanobacteria, our findings, on the one hand, strengthen arguments for photoferrotrophic activity as a likely mechanism for BIF deposition on a predominantly anoxic early Earth, but, on the other hand, also suggest that preservation of remnants of Fe(II)-oxidizing GSB as microfossils in the rock record is unlikely.

  19. Coherent Control Protocol for Separating Energy-Transfer Pathways in Photosynthetic Complexes by Chiral Multidimensional Signals†

    PubMed Central

    Abramavicius, Darius; Mukamel, Shaul

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive optimizations performed using a genetic algorithm are employed to construct optimal laser pulse configurations that separate spectroscopic features associated with the two main energy-transfer pathways in the third-order nonlinear optical response simulated for the Fenna–Matthews–Olson (FMO) photosynthetic complex from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. Superpositions of chirality-induced tensor components in both collinear and noncollinear pulse configurations are analyzed. The optimal signals obtained by manipulating the ratios of various 2D spectral peaks reveal detailed information about the excitation dynamics. PMID:21495702

  20. Chirality-Based Signatures of Local Protein Environments in Two-Dimensional Optical Spectroscopy of Two Species Photosynthetic Complexes of Green Sulfur Bacteria: Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Voronine, Dmitri V.; Abramavicius, Darius; Mukamel, Shaul

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional electronic chirality-induced signals of excitons in the photosynthetic Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex from two species of green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobium tepidum and Prosthecochloris aestuarii) are compared. The spectra are predicted to provide sensitive probes of local protein environment of the constituent bacteriochlorophyll a chromophores and reflect electronic structure variations (site energies and couplings) of the two complexes. Pulse polarization configurations are designed that can separate the coherent and incoherent exciton dynamics contributions to the two-dimensional spectra. PMID:18676650

  1. Chirality-based signatures of local protein environments in two-dimensional optical spectroscopy of two species photosynthetic complexes of green sulfur bacteria: simulation study.

    PubMed

    Voronine, Dmitri V; Abramavicius, Darius; Mukamel, Shaul

    2008-11-15

    Two-dimensional electronic chirality-induced signals of excitons in the photosynthetic Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex from two species of green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobium tepidum and Prosthecochloris aestuarii) are compared. The spectra are predicted to provide sensitive probes of local protein environment of the constituent bacteriochlorophyll a chromophores and reflect electronic structure variations (site energies and couplings) of the two complexes. Pulse polarization configurations are designed that can separate the coherent and incoherent exciton dynamics contributions to the two-dimensional spectra.

  2. Specific gene bciD for C7-methyl oxidation in bacteriochlorophyll e biosynthesis of brown-colored green sulfur bacteria.

    PubMed

    Harada, Jiro; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Satoh, Souichirou; Tsukatani, Yusuke; Yokono, Makio; Noguchi, Masato; Tanaka, Ayumi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    The gene named bciD, which encodes the enzyme involved in C7-formylation in bacteriochlorophyll e biosynthesis, was found and investigated by insertional inactivation in the brown-colored green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum limnaeum (previously called Chlorobium phaeobacteroides). The bciD mutant cells were green in color, and accumulated bacteriochlorophyll c homologs bearing the 7-methyl group, compared to C7-formylated BChl e homologs in the wild type. BChl-c homolog compositions in the mutant were further different from those in Chlorobaculum tepidum which originally produced BChl c: (3(1) S)-8-isobutyl-12-ethyl-BChl c was unusually predominant.

  3. The Diversity of Sulfide Oxidation and Sulfate Reduction Genes Expressed by the Bacterial Communities of the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Mora, Maria J.; Edgcomb, Virginia P.; Taylor, Craig; Scranton, Mary I.; Taylor, Gordon T.; Chistoserdov, Andrei Y.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative expression of dissimilative sulfite reductase (dsrA), a key gene in sulfate reduction, and sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (sqr), a key gene in sulfide oxidation was investigated. Neither of the two could be amplified from mRNA retrieved with Niskin bottles but were amplified from mRNA retrieved by the Deep SID. The sqr and sqr-like genes retrieved from the Cariaco Basin were related to the sqr genes from a Bradyrhizobium sp., Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum, Sulfurovum sp. NBC37-1, Sulfurimonas autotrophica, Thiorhodospira sibirica and Chlorobium tepidum. The dsrA gene sequences obtained from the redoxcline of the Cariaco Basin belonged to chemoorganotrophic and chemoautotrophic sulfate and sulfur reducers belonging to the class Deltaproteobacteria (phylum Proteobacteria) and the order Clostridiales (phylum Firmicutes). PMID:27651847

  4. The Diversity of Sulfide Oxidation and Sulfate Reduction Genes Expressed by the Bacterial Communities of the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Mora, Maria J; Edgcomb, Virginia P; Taylor, Craig; Scranton, Mary I; Taylor, Gordon T; Chistoserdov, Andrei Y

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative expression of dissimilative sulfite reductase (dsrA), a key gene in sulfate reduction, and sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (sqr), a key gene in sulfide oxidation was investigated. Neither of the two could be amplified from mRNA retrieved with Niskin bottles but were amplified from mRNA retrieved by the Deep SID. The sqr and sqr-like genes retrieved from the Cariaco Basin were related to the sqr genes from a Bradyrhizobium sp., Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum, Sulfurovum sp. NBC37-1, Sulfurimonas autotrophica, Thiorhodospira sibirica and Chlorobium tepidum. The dsrA gene sequences obtained from the redoxcline of the Cariaco Basin belonged to chemoorganotrophic and chemoautotrophic sulfate and sulfur reducers belonging to the class Deltaproteobacteria (phylum Proteobacteria) and the order Clostridiales (phylum Firmicutes).

  5. Isorenieratene Biosynthesis in Green Sulfur Bacteria Requires the Cooperative Actions of Two Carotenoid Cyclases▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Maresca, Julia A.; Romberger, Steven P.; Bryant, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    The cyclization of lycopene to γ- or β-carotene is a major branch point in the biosynthesis of carotenoids in photosynthetic bacteria. Four families of carotenoid cyclases are known, and each family includes both mono- and dicyclases, which catalyze the formation of γ- and β-carotene, respectively. Green sulfur bacteria (GSB) synthesize aromatic carotenoids, of which the most commonly occurring types are the monocyclic chlorobactene and the dicyclic isorenieratene. Recently, the cruA gene, encoding a conserved hypothetical protein found in the genomes of all GSB and some cyanobacteria, was identified as a lycopene cyclase. Further genomic analyses have found that all available fully sequenced genomes of GSB encode an ortholog of cruA. Additionally, the genomes of all isorenieratene-producing species of GSB encode a cruA paralog, now named cruB. The cruA gene from the chlorobactene-producing GSB species Chlorobaculum tepidum and both cruA and cruB from the brown-colored, isorenieratene-producing GSB species Chlorobium phaeobacteroides strain DSM 266T were heterologously expressed in lycopene- and neurosporene-producing strains of Escherichia coli, and the cruB gene of Chlorobium clathratiforme strain DSM 5477T was also heterologously expressed in C. tepidum by inserting the gene at the bchU locus. The results show that CruA is probably a lycopene monocyclase in all GSB and that CruB is a γ-carotene cyclase in isorenieratene-producing species. Consequently, the branch point for the synthesis of mono- and dicyclic carotenoids in GSB seems to be the modification of γ-carotene, rather than the cyclization of lycopene as occurs in cyanobacteria. PMID:18676669

  6. Co-occurrence of denitrification and nitrogen fixation in a meromictic lake, Lake Cadagno (Switzerland).

    PubMed

    Halm, Hannah; Musat, Niculina; Lam, Phyllis; Langlois, Rebecca; Musat, Florin; Peduzzi, Sandro; Lavik, Gaute; Schubert, Carsten J; Sinha, Bärbel; Singha, Bärbel; LaRoche, Julie; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2009-08-01

    The nitrogen cycling of Lake Cadagno was investigated by using a combination of biogeochemical and molecular ecological techniques. In the upper oxic freshwater zone inorganic nitrogen concentrations were low (up to approximately 3.4 microM nitrate at the base of the oxic zone), while in the lower anoxic zone there were high concentrations of ammonium (up to 40 microM). Between these zones, a narrow zone was characterized by no measurable inorganic nitrogen, but high microbial biomass (up to 4 x 10(7) cells ml(-1)). Incubation experiments with (15)N-nitrite revealed nitrogen loss occurring in the chemocline through denitrification (approximately 3 nM N h(-1)). At the same depth, incubations experiments with (15)N(2)- and (13)C(DIC)-labelled bicarbonate, indicated substantial N(2) fixation (31.7-42.1 pM h(-1)) and inorganic carbon assimilation (40-85 nM h(-1)). Catalysed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed that the microbial community at the chemocline was dominated by the phototrophic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium clathratiforme. Phylogenetic analyses of the nifH genes expressed as mRNA revealed a high diversity of N(2) fixers, with the highest expression levels right at the chemocline. The majority of N(2) fixers were related to Chlorobium tepidum/C. phaeobacteroides. By using Halogen In Situ Hybridization-Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (HISH-SIMS), we could for the first time directly link Chlorobium to N(2) fixation in the environment. Moreover, our results show that N(2) fixation could partly compensate for the N loss and that both processes occur at the same locale at the same time as suggested for the ancient Ocean.

  7. Wavelength Comparison

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-27

    The difference in features that are visible in different wavelengths of extreme ultraviolet light can be stunning as we see when we compare very large coronal holes, easily seen in the AIA 171 image (colorized bronze) yet hardly perceptible in the AIA 304 image (colorized red). Both were taken at just about the same time (Oct. 27, 2016). Coronal holes are areas of open magnetic field that carry solar wind out into space. In fact, these holes are currently causing a lot of geomagnetic activity here on Earth. The bronze image wavelength captures material that is much hotter and further up in the corona than the red image. The comparison dramatizes the value of observing the sun in multiple wavelengths of light. Movies are available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA15377

  8. Characterization of an FMO Variant of Chlorobaculum tepidum Carrying Bacteriochlorophyll a Esterified by Geranylgeraniol

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Jianzhong; Harada, Jiro; Buyle, Kenny; Yuan, Kevin; Tamiaki, Hitoshi; Oh-oka, Hirozo; Loomis, Richard A; Blankenship, R. E.

    2010-06-15

    The Fenna-Matthews-Olson light-harvesting antenna (FMO) protein has been a model system for understanding pigment-protein interactions in the energy transfer process in photosynthesis. All previous studies have utilized wild-type FMO proteins from several species. Here we report the purification and characterization of the first FMO protein variant generated via replacement of the esterifying alcohol at the C-17 propionate residue of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a, phytol, with geranylgeraniol, which possesses three more double bonds. The FMO protein still assembles with the modified pigment, but both the whole cell absorption and the biochemical purification indicate that the mutant cells contain a much less mature FMO protein. The gene expression was checked using qRT-PCR, and none of the genes encoding BChl a-binding proteins are strongly regulated at the transcriptional level. The smaller amount of the FMO protein in the mutant cell is probably due to the degradation of the apo-FMO protein at different stages after it does not bind the normal pigment. The absorption, fluorescence, and CD spectra of the purified FMO variant protein are similar to those of the wild-type FMO protein except the conformations of most pigments are more heterogeneous, which broadens the spectral bands. Interestingly, the lowest-energy pigment binding site seems to be unchanged and is the only peak that can be well resolved in 77 K absorption spectra. The excited-state lifetime of the variant FMO protein is unchanged from that of the wild type and shows a temperature-dependent modulation similar to that of the wild type. The variant FMO protein is less thermally stable than the wild type. The assembly of the FMO protein and also the implications of the decreased FMO/chlorosome stoichiometry are discussed in terms of the topology of these two antennas on the cytoplasmic membrane.

  9. Dimensional comparison theory.

    PubMed

    Möller, Jens; Marsh, Herb W

    2013-07-01

    Although social comparison (Festinger, 1954) and temporal comparison (Albert, 1977) theories are well established, dimensional comparison is a largely neglected yet influential process in self-evaluation. Dimensional comparison entails a single individual comparing his or her ability in a (target) domain with his or her ability in a standard domain (e.g., "How good am I in math compared with English?"). This article reviews empirical findings from introspective, path-analytic, and experimental studies on dimensional comparisons, categorized into 3 groups according to whether they address the "why," "with what," or "with what effect" question. As the corresponding research shows, dimensional comparisons are made in everyday life situations. They impact on domain-specific self-evaluations of abilities in both domains: Dimensional comparisons reduce self-concept in the worse off domain and increase self-concept in the better off domain. The motivational basis for dimensional comparisons, their integration with recent social cognitive approaches, and the interdependence of dimensional, temporal, and social comparisons are discussed.

  10. Theoretical Simulations and Ultrafast Pump-probe Spectroscopy Experiments in Pigment-protein Photosynthetic Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, D. R.

    2000-09-12

    Theoretical simulations and ultrafast pump-probe laser spectroscopy experiments were used to study photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes and antennae found in green sulfur bacteria such as Prosthecochloris aestuarii, Chloroflexus aurantiacus, and Chlorobium tepidum. The work focused on understanding structure-function relationships in energy transfer processes in these complexes through experiments and trying to model that data as we tested our theoretical assumptions with calculations. Theoretical exciton calculations on tubular pigment aggregates yield electronic absorption spectra that are superimpositions of linear J-aggregate spectra. The electronic spectroscopy of BChl c/d/e antennae in light harvesting chlorosomes from Chloroflexus aurantiacus differs considerably from J-aggregate spectra. Strong symmetry breaking is needed if we hope to simulate the absorption spectra of the BChl c antenna. The theory for simulating absorption difference spectra in strongly coupled photosynthetic antenna is described, first for a relatively simple heterodimer, then for the general N-pigment system. The theory is applied to the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) BChl a protein trimers from Prosthecochloris aestuarii and then compared with experimental low-temperature absorption difference spectra of FMO trimers from Chlorobium tepidum. Circular dichroism spectra of the FMO trimer are unusually sensitive to diagonal energy disorder. Substantial differences occur between CD spectra in exciton simulations performed with and without realistic inhomogeneous distribution functions for the input pigment diagonal energies. Anisotropic absorption difference spectroscopy measurements are less consistent with 21-pigment trimer simulations than 7-pigment monomer simulations which assume that the laser-prepared states are localized within a subunit of the trimer. Experimental anisotropies from real samples likely arise from statistical averaging over states with diagonal energies shifted by

  11. Exciton theory for supramolecular chlorosomal aggregates: 1. Aggregate size dependence of the linear spectra.

    PubMed

    Prokhorenko, V I; Steensgaard, D B; Holzwarth, A R

    2003-11-01

    The interior of chlorosomes of green bacteria forms an unusual antenna system organized without proteins. The steady-spectra (absorption, circular dichroism, and linear dichroism) have been modeled using the Frenkel Hamiltonian for the large tubular aggregates of bacteriochlorophylls with geometries corresponding to those proposed for Chloroflexus aurantiacus and Chlorobium tepidum chlorosomes. For the Cf. aurantiacus aggregates we apply a structure used previously (V. I. Prokhorenko., D. B. Steensgaard, and A. R. Holzwarth, Biophys: J. 2000, 79:2105-2120), whereas for the Cb. tepidum aggregates a new extended model of double-tube aggregates, based on recently published solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance studies (B.-J. van Rossum, B. Y. van Duhl, D. B. Steensgaard, T. S. Balaban, A. R. Holzwarth, K. Schaffner, and H. J. M. de Groot, Biochemistry 2001, 40:1587-1595), is developed. We find that the circular dichroism spectra depend strongly on the aggregate length for both types of chlorosomes. Their shape changes from "type-II" (negative at short wavelengths to positive at long wavelengths) to the "mixed-type" (negative-positive-negative) in the nomenclature proposed in K. Griebenow, A. R. Holzwarth, F. van Mourik, and R. van Grondelle, Biochim: Biophys. Acta 1991, 1058:194-202, for an aggregate length of 30-40 bacteriochlorophyll molecules per stack. This "size effect" on the circular dichroism spectra is caused by appearance of macroscopic chirality due to circular distribution of the transition dipole moment of the monomers. We visualize these distributions, and also the corresponding Frenkel excitons, using a novel presentation technique. The observed size effects provide a key to explain many previously puzzling and seemingly contradictory experimental data in the literature on the circular and linear dichroism spectra of seemingly identical types of chlorosomes.

  12. Redox regulation of energy transfer efficiency in antennas of green photosynthetic bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, R. E.; Cheng, P.; Causgrove, T. P.; Brune, D. C.; Wang, J.

    1993-01-01

    The efficiency of energy transfer from the peripheral chlorosome antenna structure to the membrane-bound antenna in green sulfur bacteria depends strongly on the redox potential of the medium. The fluorescence spectra and lifetimes indicate that efficient quenching pathways are induced in the chlorosome at high redox potential. The midpoint redox potential for the induction of this effect in isolated chlorosomes from Chlorobium vibrioforme is -146 mV at pH 7 (vs the normal hydrogen electrode), and the observed midpoint potential (n = 1) decreases by 60 mV per pH unit over the pH range 7-10. Extraction of isolated chlorosomes with hexane has little effect on the redox-induced quenching, indicating that the component(s) responsible for this effect are bound and not readily extractable. We have purified and partially characterized the trimeric water-soluble bacteriochlorophyll a-containing protein from the thermophilic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. This protein is located between the chlorosome and the membrane. Fluorescence spectra of the purified protein indicate that it also contains groups that quench excitations at high redox potential. The results indicate that the energy transfer pathway in green sulfur bacteria is regulated by redox potential. This regulation appears to operate in at least two distinct places in the energy transfer pathway, the oligomeric pigments in the interior of the chlorosome and in the bacteriochlorophyll a protein. The regulatory effect may serve to protect the cell against superoxide-induced damage when oxygen is present. By quenching excitations before they reach the reaction center, reduction and subsequent autooxidation of the low potential electron acceptors found in these organisms is avoided.

  13. Modelling the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center. V. Assignment of the electronic transition observed at 2200 cm-1 in the special-pair radical-cation as a second-highest occupied molecular orbital to highest occupied molecular orbital transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Shapley, Warwick A.; Hush, Noel S.

    2003-08-01

    Primary charge separation in photoexcited photosynthetic reaction centers produces the radical cation P+ of a bacteriochlorophyll dimer known as the special-pair P. P+ has an intense electronic transition in the vicinity of 1800-5000 cm-1 which is usually assigned to the interchromophore hole-transfer excitation of the dimer radical cation; in principle, this spectrum can give much insight into key steps of the solar-to-electrical energy-conversion process. The extent to which this transition is localized on one-half of the dimer or delocalized over both is of utmost importance; an authoritative deduction of this quantity from purely spectroscopic arguments requires the detailed assignment of the observed high to medium resolution spectra. For reaction centers containing bacteriochlorophylls a or b, a shoulder is observed at 2200 cm-1 on the low-energy side of the main hole-transfer absorption band, a band whose maximum is near 2700 cm-1. Before quantitative analysis of the hole-transfer absorption in these well-studied systems can be attempted, the nature of the processes leading to this shoulder must be determined. We interpret it as arising from an intrachromophore SHOMO to HOMO transition whose intensity arises wholly through vibronic coupling with the hole-transfer band. A range of ab initio and density-functional calculations are performed to estimate the energy of this transition both for monomeric cations and for P+ of Blastochloris viridis, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Chlorobium limicola, Chlorobium tepidum, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Synochocystis S.6803, spinach photosystems I and II, Heliobacillus mobilis, and finally Heliobacterium modesticaldum, with the results found to qualitatively describe the available experimental data. Subsequent papers in this series provide quantitative analyses of the vibronic coupling and complete spectral simulations based on the model developed herein.

  14. Redox regulation of energy transfer efficiency in antennas of green photosynthetic bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, R. E.; Cheng, P.; Causgrove, T. P.; Brune, D. C.; Wang, J.

    1993-01-01

    The efficiency of energy transfer from the peripheral chlorosome antenna structure to the membrane-bound antenna in green sulfur bacteria depends strongly on the redox potential of the medium. The fluorescence spectra and lifetimes indicate that efficient quenching pathways are induced in the chlorosome at high redox potential. The midpoint redox potential for the induction of this effect in isolated chlorosomes from Chlorobium vibrioforme is -146 mV at pH 7 (vs the normal hydrogen electrode), and the observed midpoint potential (n = 1) decreases by 60 mV per pH unit over the pH range 7-10. Extraction of isolated chlorosomes with hexane has little effect on the redox-induced quenching, indicating that the component(s) responsible for this effect are bound and not readily extractable. We have purified and partially characterized the trimeric water-soluble bacteriochlorophyll a-containing protein from the thermophilic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. This protein is located between the chlorosome and the membrane. Fluorescence spectra of the purified protein indicate that it also contains groups that quench excitations at high redox potential. The results indicate that the energy transfer pathway in green sulfur bacteria is regulated by redox potential. This regulation appears to operate in at least two distinct places in the energy transfer pathway, the oligomeric pigments in the interior of the chlorosome and in the bacteriochlorophyll a protein. The regulatory effect may serve to protect the cell against superoxide-induced damage when oxygen is present. By quenching excitations before they reach the reaction center, reduction and subsequent autooxidation of the low potential electron acceptors found in these organisms is avoided.

  15. Acquisition of Comparison Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohaus, Vera; Tiemann, Sonja; Beck, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study on the time course of the acquisition of comparison constructions. The order in which comparison constructions (comparatives, measure phrases, superlatives, degree questions, etc.) show up in English- and German-learning children's spontaneous speech is quite fixed. It is shown to be insufficiently determined by…

  16. Acquisition of Comparison Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohaus, Vera; Tiemann, Sonja; Beck, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study on the time course of the acquisition of comparison constructions. The order in which comparison constructions (comparatives, measure phrases, superlatives, degree questions, etc.) show up in English- and German-learning children's spontaneous speech is quite fixed. It is shown to be insufficiently determined by…

  17. Pairwise-Comparison Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Wendell R.

    1995-01-01

    Pairwise comparison (PWC) is computer program that collects data for psychometric scaling techniques now used in cognitive research. It applies technique of pairwise comparisons, which is one of many techniques commonly used to acquire the data necessary for analyses. PWC administers task, collects data from test subject, and formats data for analysis. Written in Turbo Pascal v6.0.

  18. Uncertainty and Social Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruder, Charles L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to determine how experimental manipulations of certainty would affect social comparison choices in the paradigm used by Wheeler et al. (1969) and Gruder (1971). (Author)

  19. Uncertainty and Social Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruder, Charles L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to determine how experimental manipulations of certainty would affect social comparison choices in the paradigm used by Wheeler et al. (1969) and Gruder (1971). (Author)

  20. Structure of the light-harvesting bacteriochlorophyll c assembly in chlorosomes from Chlorobium limicola determined by solid-state NMR

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, Ayako; Fujiwara, Toshimichi; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Kakitani, Yoshinori; Koyama, Yasushi; Akutsu, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    We have determined the atomic structure of the bacteriochlorophyll c (BChl c) assembly in a huge light-harvesting organelle, the chlorosome of green photosynthetic bacteria, by solid-state NMR. Previous electron microscopic and spectroscopic studies indicated that chlorosomes have a cylindrical architecture with a diameter of ≈10 nm consisting of layered BChl molecules. Assembly structures in huge noncrystalline chlorosomes have been proposed based mainly on structure-dependent chemical shifts and a few distances acquired by solid-state NMR, but those studies did not provide a definite structure. Our approach is based on 13C dipolar spin-diffusion solid-state NMR of uniformly 13C-labeled chlorosomes under magic-angle spinning. Approximately 90 intermolecular CC distances were obtained by simultaneous assignment of distance correlations and structure optimization preceded by polarization-transfer matrix analysis. It was determined from the ≈90 intermolecular distances that BChl c molecules form piggyback-dimer-based parallel layers. This finding rules out the well known monomer-based structures. A molecular model of the cylinder in the chlorosome was built by using this structure. It provided insights into the mechanisms of efficient light harvesting and excitation transfer to the reaction centers. This work constitutes an important advance in the structure determination of huge intact systems that cannot be crystallized. PMID:17215361

  1. Anchored paired comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, E. N.; Handley, J. C.; Wu, W.; Wang, J.

    2008-01-01

    The method of paired comparisons is often used in image quality evaluations. Psychometric scale values for quality judgments are modeled using Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgment in which distance in a psychometric scale space is a function of the probability of preference. The transformation from psychometric space to probability is a cumulative probability distribution. The major drawback of a complete paired comparison experiment is that every treatment is compared to every other, thus the number of comparisons grows quadratically. We ameliorate this difficulty by performing paired comparisons in two stages, by precisely estimating anchors in the psychometric scale space which are spaced apart to cover the range of scale values and comparing treatments against those anchors. In this model, we employ a generalized linear model where the regression equation has a constant offset vector determined by the anchors. The result of this formulation is a straightforward statistical model easily analyzed using any modern statistics package. This enables model fitting and diagnostics. This method was applied to overall preference evaluations of color pictorial hardcopy images. The results were found to be compatible with complete paired comparison experiments, but with significantly less effort.

  2. Model comparison in ANOVA.

    PubMed

    Rouder, Jeffrey N; Engelhardt, Christopher R; McCabe, Simon; Morey, Richard D

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of variance (ANOVA), the workhorse analysis of experimental designs, consists of F-tests of main effects and interactions. Yet, testing, including traditional ANOVA, has been recently critiqued on a number of theoretical and practical grounds. In light of these critiques, model comparison and model selection serve as an attractive alternative. Model comparison differs from testing in that one can support a null or nested model vis-a-vis a more general alternative by penalizing more flexible models. We argue this ability to support more simple models allows for more nuanced theoretical conclusions than provided by traditional ANOVA F-tests. We provide a model comparison strategy and show how ANOVA models may be reparameterized to better address substantive questions in data analysis.

  3. Phylobiochemical Characterization of Class-Ib Aspartate/Prephenate Aminotransferases Reveals Evolution of the Plant Arogenate Phenylalanine Pathway[W

    PubMed Central

    Dornfeld, Camilla; Weisberg, Alexandra J.; K C, Ritesh; Dudareva, Natalia; Jelesko, John G.; Maeda, Hiroshi A.

    2014-01-01

    The aromatic amino acid Phe is required for protein synthesis and serves as the precursor of abundant phenylpropanoid plant natural products. While Phe is synthesized from prephenate exclusively via a phenylpyruvate intermediate in model microbes, the alternative pathway via arogenate is predominant in plant Phe biosynthesis. However, the molecular and biochemical evolution of the plant arogenate pathway is currently unknown. Here, we conducted phylogenetically informed biochemical characterization of prephenate aminotransferases (PPA-ATs) that belong to class-Ib aspartate aminotransferases (AspAT Ibs) and catalyze the first committed step of the arogenate pathway in plants. Plant PPA-ATs and succeeding arogenate dehydratases (ADTs) were found to be most closely related to homologs from Chlorobi/Bacteroidetes bacteria. The Chlorobium tepidum PPA-AT and ADT homologs indeed efficiently converted prephenate and arogenate into arogenate and Phe, respectively. A subset of AspAT Ib enzymes exhibiting PPA-AT activity was further identified from both Plantae and prokaryotes and, together with site-directed mutagenesis, showed that Thr-84 and Lys-169 play key roles in specific recognition of dicarboxylic keto (prephenate) and amino (aspartate) acid substrates. The results suggest that, along with ADT, a gene encoding prephenate-specific PPA-AT was transferred from a Chlorobi/Bacteroidetes ancestor to a eukaryotic ancestor of Plantae, allowing efficient Phe and phenylpropanoid production via arogenate in plants today. PMID:25070637

  4. Structures of Open (R) and Close (T) States of Prephenate Dehydratase (PDT) - Implication of Allosteric Regulation by L-Phenylalanine

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kemin; Li, Hui; Zhang, Rongguang; Gu, Minyi; Clancy, Shonda T.; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    The enzyme prephenate dehydratase (PDT) converts prephenate to phenylpyruvate in L-phenylalanine biosynthesis. PDT is allosterically regulated by L-Phe and other amino acids. We report the first crystal structures of PDT from Staphylococcus aureus in a relaxed (R) state and PDT from Chlorobium tepidum in a tense (T) state. The two enzymes show low sequence identity (27.3%) but the same prototypic architecture and domain organization. Both enzymes are tetramers (dimer of dimers) in crystal and solution while a PDT dimer can be regarded as a basic catalytic unit. The N-terminal PDT domain consists of two similar subdomains with a cleft in between, which hosts the highly conserved active site. In one PDT dimer two clefts are aligned to form an extended active site across the dimer interface. Similarly at the interface two ACT regulatory domains create two highly conserved pockets. Upon binding of the L-Phe inside the pockets, PDT transits from an open to a closed conformation. PMID:18171624

  5. Unravelling Coherent Dynamics and Energy Dissipation in Photosynthetic Complexes by 2D Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Abramavicius, Darius; Voronine, Dmitri V.; Mukamel, Shaul

    2008-01-01

    Spectroscopic studies of light harvesting and the subsequent energy conversion in photosynthesis can track quantum dynamics happening on the microscopic level. The Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex of the photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria Chlorobium tepidum is a prototype efficient light-harvesting antenna: it stores the captured photon energy in the form of excitons (collective excitations), which are subsequently converted to chemical energy with almost 100% efficiency. These excitons show an elaborate relaxation pattern involving coherent and incoherent pathways. We make use of the complex chirality and fundamental symmetries of multidimensional optical signals to design new sequences of ultrashort laser pulses that can distinguish between coherent quantum oscillations and incoherent energy dissipation during the exciton relaxation. The cooperative dynamical features, which reflect the coherent nature of excitations, are amplified. The extent of quantum oscillations and their timescales in photosynthesis can be readily extracted from the designed signals, showing that cooperativity is maintained during energy transport in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex. The proposed pulse sequences may also be applied to reveal information on the robustness of quantum states in the presence of fluctuating environments in other nanoscopic complexes and devices. PMID:18192357

  6. Nonphotochemical Hole-Burning Studies of Energy Transfer Dynamics in Antenna Complexes of Photosynthetic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuzaki, Satoshi

    2001-01-01

    This thesis contains the candidate's original work on excitonic structure and energy transfer dynamics of two bacterial antenna complexes as studied using spectral hole-burning spectroscopy. The general introduction is divided into two chapters (1 and 2). Chapter 1 provides background material on photosynthesis and bacterial antenna complexes with emphasis on the two bacterial antenna systems related to the thesis research. Chapter 2 reviews the underlying principles and mechanism of persistent nonphotochemical hole-burning (NPHB) spectroscopy. Relevant energy transfer theories are also discussed. Chapters 3 and 4 are papers by the candidate that have been published. Chapter 3 describes the application of NPHB spectroscopy to the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex from the green sulfur bacterium Prosthecochloris aestuarii; emphasis is on determination of the low energy vibrational structure that is important for understanding the energy transfer process associated within three lowest energy Qy-states of the complex. The results are compared with those obtained earlier on the FMO complex from Chlorobium tepidum. In Chapter 4, the energy transfer dynamics of the B800 molecules of intact LH2 and B800-deficient LH2 complexes of the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila are compared. New insights on the additional decay channel of the B800 ring of bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) molecules are provided. General conclusions are given in Chapter 5.

  7. Low-Temperature Fluorescence from Single Chlorosomes, Photosynthetic Antenna Complexes of Green Filamentous and Sulfur Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Yutaka; Saga, Yoshitaka; Tamiaki, Hitoshi; Itoh, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    Fluorescence spectra of single chlorosomes isolated from a green filamentous bacterium (Chloroflexus (Cfl.) aurantiacus) and a green sulfur bacterium (Chlorobium (Cb.) tepidum) were measured by using a confocal laser microscope at 13 K. Chlorosomes were frozen either in a liquid solution (floating chlorosome) or on a quartz plate after being adsorbed (adsorbed chlorosome). Fluorescence peak wavelengths were shorter for the adsorbed single chlorosomes than for the floating ones. Single floating Cfl. chlorosomes showed a distribution of fluorescence peak positions having a center at 759.0 nm with a full width at half maximum of 6.3 nm. Single floating Cb. chlorosomes showed a 782.7 nm center with a full width at half-maximum of 3.4 nm. The distribution shifted to the blue and became wider with increasing temperature, especially in Cb. chlorosomes, suggesting a large excitonic density of states just above the lowest level. Energy transfer from BChl-c aggregates to BChl-a molecules in the baseplate proteins was observed in the floating chlorosomes but not in the adsorbed ones. A positive correlation was found between the peak wavelength of BChl-c fluorescence and the intensity of BChl-a fluorescence in single Cfl. chlorosomes. The results suggest that the BChl-c aggregates with longer wavelengths of the fluorescence peaks have a more efficient Förster-type energy transfer to the baseplate BChl-a. PMID:16950839

  8. Unravelling coherent dynamics and energy dissipation in photosynthetic complexes by 2D spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Abramavicius, Darius; Voronine, Dmitri V; Mukamel, Shaul

    2008-05-01

    Spectroscopic studies of light harvesting and the subsequent energy conversion in photosynthesis can track quantum dynamics happening on the microscopic level. The Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex of the photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria Chlorobium tepidum is a prototype efficient light-harvesting antenna: it stores the captured photon energy in the form of excitons (collective excitations), which are subsequently converted to chemical energy with almost 100% efficiency. These excitons show an elaborate relaxation pattern involving coherent and incoherent pathways. We make use of the complex chirality and fundamental symmetries of multidimensional optical signals to design new sequences of ultrashort laser pulses that can distinguish between coherent quantum oscillations and incoherent energy dissipation during the exciton relaxation. The cooperative dynamical features, which reflect the coherent nature of excitations, are amplified. The extent of quantum oscillations and their timescales in photosynthesis can be readily extracted from the designed signals, showing that cooperativity is maintained during energy transport in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex. The proposed pulse sequences may also be applied to reveal information on the robustness of quantum states in the presence of fluctuating environments in other nanoscopic complexes and devices.

  9. Prediction of the repeat domain structures and impact of parkinsonism-associated variations on structure and function of all functional domains of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2).

    PubMed

    Mills, Ryan D; Mulhern, Terrence D; Liu, Fei; Culvenor, Janetta G; Cheng, Heung-Chin

    2014-04-01

    Genetic variations of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the major cause of dominantly inherited Parkinson disease (PD). LRRK2 protein contains seven predicted domains: a tandem Ras-like GTPase (ROC) domain and C-terminal of Roc (COR) domain, a protein kinase domain, and four repeat domains. PD-causative variations arise in all domains, suggesting that aberrant functioning of any domain can contribute to neurotoxic mechanisms of LRRK2. Determination of the three-dimensional structure of LRRK2 is one of the best avenues to decipher its neurotoxic mechanism. However, with the exception of the Roc domain, the three-dimensional structures of the functional domains of LRRK2 have yet to be determined. Based on the known three-dimensional structures of repeat domains of other proteins, the tandem Roc-COR domains of the Chlorobium tepidum Rab family protein, and the kinase domain of the Dictyostelium discoideum Roco4 protein, we predicted (1) the motifs essential for protein-protein interactions in all domains, (2) the motifs critical for catalysis and substrate recognition in the tandem Roc-COR and kinase domains, and (3) the effects of some PD-associated missense variations on the neurotoxic action of LRRK2. Results of our analysis provide a conceptual framework for future investigation into the regulation and the neurotoxic mechanism of LRRK2.

  10. Photoreduction and reoxidation of the three iron-sulfur clusters of reaction centers of green sulfur bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sétif, P; Seo, D; Sakurai, H

    2001-09-01

    Iron-sulfur clusters are the terminal electron acceptors of the photosynthetic reaction centers of green sulfur bacteria and photosystem I. We have studied electron-transfer reactions involving these clusters in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum, using flash-absorption spectroscopic measurements. We show for the first time that three different clusters, named F(X), F(1), and F(2), can be photoreduced at room temperature during a series of consecutive flashes. The rates of electron escape to exogenous acceptors depend strongly upon the number of reduced clusters. When two or three clusters are reduced, the escape is biphasic, with the fastest phase being 12-14-fold faster than the slowest phase, which is similar to that observed after single reduction. This is explained by assuming that escape involves mostly the second reducible cluster. Evidence is thus provided for a functional asymmetry between the two terminal acceptors F(1) and F(2). From multiple-flash experiments, it was possible to derive the intrinsic recombination rates between P840(+) and reduced iron-sulfur clusters: values of 7, 14, and 59 s(-1) were found after one, two and three electron reduction of the clusters, respectively. The implications of our results for the relative redox potentials of the three clusters are discussed.

  11. MCNP and GADRAS Comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Klasky, Marc Louis; Myers, Steven Charles; James, Michael R.; Mayo, Douglas R.

    2016-04-19

    To facilitate the timely execution of System Threat Reviews (STRs) for DNDO, and also to develop a methodology for performing STRs, LANL performed comparisons of several radiation transport codes (MCNP, GADRAS, and Gamma-Designer) that have been previously utilized to compute radiation signatures. While each of these codes has strengths, it is of paramount interest to determine the limitations of each of the respective codes and also to identify the most time efficient means by which to produce computational results, given the large number of parametric cases that are anticipated in performing STR's. These comparisons serve to identify regions of applicability for each code and provide estimates of uncertainty that may be anticipated. Furthermore, while performing these comparisons, examination of the sensitivity of the results to modeling assumptions was also examined. These investigations serve to enable the creation of the LANL methodology for performing STRs. Given the wide variety of radiation test sources, scenarios, and detectors, LANL calculated comparisons of the following parameters: decay data, multiplicity, device (n,γ) leakages, and radiation transport through representative scenes and shielding. This investigation was performed to understand potential limitations utilizing specific codes for different aspects of the STR challenges.

  12. Comparison of Nursing Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonough, Georgia P.

    2001-01-01

    This 1972 paper presents 12 comparisons of the nurse's role in the school versus in the hospital. For example, in the hospital, patients know they are ill and want to get well, while in school patients may not recognize that they need help. In the hospital, the nurse's workload is determined for her, while in school, it is self-determined. (SM)

  13. Fall 2013 International Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This Fall report is an aggregated statistical analysis of Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP®) data from international schools. The report provides a consistent means of comparisons of specific sub-groups by subject and grade, which allows partners to compare their MAP® results with other schools within their region or membership organization.…

  14. On molecular graph comparison.

    PubMed

    Melo, Jenny A; Daza, Edgar

    2011-06-01

    Since the last half of the nineteenth century, molecular graphs have been present in several branches of chemistry. When used for molecular structure representation, they have been compared after mapping the corresponding graphs into mathematical objects. However, direct molecular comparison of molecular graphs is a research field less explored. The goal of this mini-review is to show some distance and similarity coefficients which were proposed to directly compare molecular graphs or which could be useful to do so.

  15. Retained gas inventory comparison

    SciTech Connect

    BARTON, W.B.

    1999-05-18

    Gas volume data derived from four different analytical methods were collected and analyzed for comparison to volumes originally used in the technical basis for the Basis for Interim Operations (BIO). The original volumes came from Hodgson (1996) listed in the reference section of this document. Hodgson (1996) screened all 177 single and double-shell tanks for the presence of trapped gas in waste via two analytical methods: Surface Level Rise (SLR), and Barometric Pressure Effect (BPE). More recent gas volume projections have been calculated using different analytical techniques along with updates to the parameters used as input to the SLR and BPE models. Gas volumes derived from new analytical instruments include those as measured by the Void Fraction Instrument (VFI) and Retained Gas Sampler (RGS). The results of this comparison demonstrate that the original retained gas volumes of Hodgson (1996) used as a technical basis in developing the BIO were conservative, and were conservative from a safety analysis standpoint. These results represent only comparisons to the original reported volumes using the limited set of newly acquired data that is available.

  16. NTP comparison process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corban, Robert

    The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

  17. NTP comparison process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corban, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

  18. On Leighton's comparison theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatasheh, Ahmed; Weikard, Rudi

    2017-06-01

    We give a simple proof of a fairly flexible comparison theorem for equations of the type -(p (u‧ + su)) ‧ + rp (u‧ + su) + qu = 0 on a finite interval where 1 / p, r, s, and q are real and integrable. Flexibility is provided by two functions which may be chosen freely (within limits) according to the situation at hand. We illustrate this by presenting some examples and special cases which include Schrödinger equations with distributional potentials as well as Jacobi difference equations.

  19. Foundation fieldbus economics comparison

    PubMed

    Verhappen

    2000-01-01

    This paper will provide a life cycle cost comparison between installations of three different control system configurations. 1. Conventional analogue instruments. 2. HART protocol instruments with a parallel asset management system. 3. Foundation fieldbus installation. Engineering, procurement, construction, commissioning and ongoing maintenance costs will be included as part of the analysis. Data for the analysis includes equipment from multiple manufacturers so a range of expected expenses will also be provided to indicate the sensitivity of the economic calculations to supplier. All calculations will be based on the median equipment values.

  20. MACPEX Water Measurement Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saadi, J. A.; Thornhill, A.; Alston, E. J.; Chen, G.; Fahey, D. W.; Jensen, E. J.; Mace, G. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX) airborne field campaign was conducted in March and April 2011 to investigate cirrus cloud properties and the processes that affect their impact on radiation. In pursuit of this goal the NASA WB-57 was outfitted with dozens of in-situ instruments from government and university science teams including a wide range of water instruments. This provided an unprecedented situation to compare eight water instruments on one platform measuring water vapor (CIMS, DLH, HWV, JLH, and ULH), total water (ALIAS and FISH) and ice water content (CLH/IWC) for 14 flight days. Objective and data-driven approaches were applied to analyze the comparison data and to assess the consistency levels between the instruments and instrument uncertainties. The analysis is primarily focused on the upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric conditions, paying particular attention to water levels below 20 ppmv and between 20 - 120 ppmv depending on specific instrument data coverage. To be presented are comparison results suggesting the level of the agreement among the instrument as a function of atmospheric conditions, e.g., temperature and water vapor. Also discussed are some exploratory analyses of instrument precisions.

  1. Notes on the Comparison Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solt, Stephanie

    This paper investigates the role of comparison classes in the semantics of gradable adjectives in the positive form, focusing on the case where the comparison class is expressed overtly via a for-phrase (e.g. John is tall for a jockey). Two central questions are addressed: what information does the comparison class provide, and how is this information integrated compositionally? It is shown that the standard of comparison invoked by the positive form can be analyzed as a range of values whose width is based on the degree of dispersion in the comparison class. Compositionally, the comparison class can be analyzed as an argument of a null positive morpheme (contra Kennedy [13]), in parallel to recent proposals for the superlative (e.g. Heim [9]). The implications of the analysis for the choice between degree- and delineation-based analyses of gradable adjectives are discussed.

  2. Long History of IAM Comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Kejun, Jiang; Kriegler, Elmar; Masui, Toshihiko; Riahi, Keywan; Shukla, Priyadarshi R.; Tavoni, Massimo; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Weyant, John

    2015-04-23

    Correspondence to editor: We agree with the editors that the assumptions behind models of all types, including integrated assessment models (IAMs), should be as transparent as possible. The editors were in error, however, when they implied that the IAM community is just “now emulating the efforts of climate researchers by instigating their own model inter-comparison projects (MIPs).” In fact, model comparisons for integrated assessment and climate models followed a remarkably similar trajectory. Early General Circulation Model (GCM) comparison efforts, evolved to the first Atmospheric Model Inter-comparison Project (AMIP), which was initiated in the early 1990s. Atmospheric models evolved to coupled atmosphere-ocean models (AOGCMs) and results from the first Coupled Model Inter-Comparison Project (CMIP1) become available about a decade later. Results of first energy model comparison exercise, conducted under the auspices of the Stanford Energy Modeling Forum, were published in 1977. A summary of the first comparison focused on climate change was published in 1993. As energy models were coupled to simple economic and climate models to form IAMs, the first comparison exercise for IAMs (EMF-14) was initiated in 1994, and IAM comparison exercises have been on-going since this time.

  3. Geology orbiter comparison study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, J. A. J.; Blasius, K. R.; Davis, D. R.; Pang, K. D.; Shreve, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Instrument requirements of planetary geology orbiters were examined with the objective of determining the feasibility of applying standard instrument designs to a host of terrestrial targets. Within the basic discipline area of geochemistry, gamma-ray, X-ray fluorescence, and atomic spectroscopy remote sensing techniques were considered. Within the discipline area of geophysics, the complementary techniques of gravimetry and radar were studied. Experiments using these techniques were analyzed for comparison at the Moon, Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites. On the basis of these comparative assessments, the adaptability of each sensing technique was judged as a basic technique for many targets, as a single instrument applied to many targets, as a single instrument used in different mission modes, and as an instrument capability for nongeoscience objectives.

  4. Glovebox decontamination technology comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Quintana, D.M.; Rodriguez, J.B.; Cournoyer, M.E.

    1999-09-26

    Reconfiguration of the CMR Building and TA-55 Plutonium Facility for mission requirements will require the disposal or recycle of 200--300 gloveboxes or open front hoods. These gloveboxes and open front hoods must be decontaminated to meet discharge limits for Low Level Waste. Gloveboxes and open front hoods at CMR have been painted. One of the deliverables on this project is to identify the best method for stripping the paint from large numbers of gloveboxes. Four methods being considered are the following: conventional paint stripping, dry ice pellets, strippable coatings, and high pressure water technology. The advantages of each technology will be discussed. Last, cost comparisons between the technologies will be presented.

  5. Social Comparison Processes in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jerald; Ashton-James, Claire E.; Ashkanasy, Neal M.

    2007-01-01

    We systematically analyze the role of social comparison processes in organizations. Specifically, we describe how social comparison processes have been used to explain six key areas of organizational inquiry: (1) organizational justice, (2) performance appraisal, (3) virtual work environments, (4) affective behavior in the workplace, (5) stress,…

  6. Learning a Network of Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeser, Shannon D.; Tarrant, Barbara L.

    1977-01-01

    Using a network of comparisons, B. Hayes-Roth and F. Hayes-Roth found that subjects performed better on adjacent than on nonadjacent comparisons. Results suggested that such networks are processed in a manner fundamentally different from simple linear arrays. Here subjects were required to learn a similar knowledge structure. These results…

  7. Social Comparison Processes in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jerald; Ashton-James, Claire E.; Ashkanasy, Neal M.

    2007-01-01

    We systematically analyze the role of social comparison processes in organizations. Specifically, we describe how social comparison processes have been used to explain six key areas of organizational inquiry: (1) organizational justice, (2) performance appraisal, (3) virtual work environments, (4) affective behavior in the workplace, (5) stress,…

  8. Internal Comparisons in Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Jens; Husemann, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    According to the internal/external frame of reference (I/E) model (H. W. Marsh, 1986), students not only compare their own abilities in a domain with those of other students (social comparison), they also compare their own achievements in different domains (internal comparison). The main purpose of this study was to investigate internal comparison…

  9. Social Comparison in the Classroom: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje; Buunk, Abraham P.; van der Zee, Yvonne G.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research conducted on social comparison processes in the classroom since Festinger proposed his theory of social comparison. It covers the theoretical framework of social comparison theory, and it is organized around the following themes: motives for social comparison, dimensions of social comparison, direction of social…

  10. Data storage technology comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1990-01-01

    The role of data storage and data storage technology is an integral, though conceptually often underestimated, portion of data processing technology. Data storage is important in the mass storage mode in which generated data is buffered for later use. But data storage technology is also important in the data flow mode when data are manipulated and hence required to flow between databases, datasets and processors. This latter mode is commonly associated with memory hierarchies which support computation. VLSI devices can reasonably be defined as electronic circuit devices such as channel and control electronics as well as highly integrated, solid-state devices that are fabricated using thin film deposition technology. VLSI devices in both capacities play an important role in data storage technology. In addition to random access memories (RAM), read-only memories (ROM), and other silicon-based variations such as PROM's, EPROM's, and EEPROM's, integrated devices find their way into a variety of memory technologies which offer significant performance advantages. These memory technologies include magnetic tape, magnetic disk, magneto-optic disk, and vertical Bloch line memory. In this paper, some comparison between selected technologies will be made to demonstrate why more than one memory technology exists today, based for example on access time and storage density at the active bit and system levels.

  11. [Anemia: guidelines comparison].

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    The development of recombinant human erythropoietin and its introduction into the market in the late 1980s has significantly improved the quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and reduced the need for blood transfusions. Starting from a cautious target, a progressive increase in the recommended hemoglobin levels has been observed over the years, in parallel with an increase in the obtained levels. This trend has gone together with the publication of findings of observational studies showing a relationship between the increase in hemoglobin levels and a reduction in the mortality risk, with the conduction of clinical trials testing the effects of complete anemia correction, and with the compilation of guidelines on anemia control in CKD patients by scientific societies and organizations. In the last two years, evidence of a possible increase in the mortality risk in those patients who were randomized to high hemoglobin levels has resulted in a decrease in the upper limit of the recommended Hb target to be obtained with erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESA), and consequently in a narrowing of the target range. Comparison of guidelines on anemia control in CKD patients is an interesting starting point to discuss single recommendations, strengthen their importance, or suggest new topics of research to fill up important gaps in knowledge.

  12. {sup 129}I interlaboratory comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.L.; Caffee, M.W.; Proctor, L.D.

    1996-05-01

    An interlaboratory comparison exercise for {sup 129}I has been organized and conducted. A total of seven laboratories participated in the exercise to either a full or limited extent. In the comparison, a suite of 11 samples were used. This suite of standards contained both synthetic `standard type` materials(i.e., AgI) and environmental materials. The isotopic {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio of the samples varied from 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -14}. Preliminary results of the comparison are presented.

  13. Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan

    2004-01-01

    Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared. Each method is described and numerical solutions to test problems are conducted. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, and robustness is given.

  14. [Comparison between paraphilia and psychosis].

    PubMed

    Abraham, G; Vlatkovic, D; Dallon, C

    2008-03-26

    It is difficult in principle to make a diagnosis of psychoses in most cases of paraphilic behaviour. It is possible, on the contrary, to discover some structural similarities between a psychotic state and paraphilic tendencies. In any case as we assume psychoses to be a severe disorder in comparison to, for instance, a neurotic syndrome, the same comparison can be made between a permanent paraphilic disorder and a dysfunctional sexual disturbance.

  15. Large-Scale Sequence Comparison.

    PubMed

    Lal, Devi; Verma, Mansi

    2017-01-01

    There are millions of sequences deposited in genomic databases, and it is an important task to categorize them according to their structural and functional roles. Sequence comparison is a prerequisite for proper categorization of both DNA and protein sequences, and helps in assigning a putative or hypothetical structure and function to a given sequence. There are various methods available for comparing sequences, alignment being first and foremost for sequences with a small number of base pairs as well as for large-scale genome comparison. Various tools are available for performing pairwise large sequence comparison. The best known tools either perform global alignment or generate local alignments between the two sequences. In this chapter we first provide basic information regarding sequence comparison. This is followed by the description of the PAM and BLOSUM matrices that form the basis of sequence comparison. We also give a practical overview of currently available methods such as BLAST and FASTA, followed by a description and overview of tools available for genome comparison including LAGAN, MumMER, BLASTZ, and AVID.

  16. Jupiter Stratospheric Haze Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    These two views of Jupiter obtained by the imaging system aboard the Galileo spacecraft show evidence of strikingly different stratospheric hazes between the polar regions and low or mid latitudes. The Great Red Spot shows in one mosaic, centered at about 20 degrees South latitude and taken on June 26, 1996 at a range of 1.46 million kilometers. The other mosaic is centered near 50 degrees North latitude, and was taken on November 4, 1996 at a range of 1.60 million kilometers.

    North is at the top in both images. In the Red Spot image, the edge of the planet (limb) runs in a single arc from lower left to upper right, with dark space at lower right. In the polar image, the limb runs in two segments across the top right corner, with dark space at top right. Both images are mosaics; the offset of the individual frames of the mosaic produces the jagged border and the break in the polar limb.

    These are false color images, constructed specifically to reveal cloud elevation differences. Three color channels are used. The red channel is an image taken at a near infrared wavelength where methane in Jupiter's atmosphere is strongly absorbing, and therefore gives no information about deep clouds but reveals high clouds. The green channel is a weaker methane band, and the blue channel is assigned to a wavelength where Jupiter's atmosphere is transparent. Thus red features indicate high hazes. A view near the edge of the planet accentuates the high hazes because of the slanting path of the line of sight.

    The pronounced reddening near the edge of the planet in polar regions indicates a high stratospheric haze. Comparison with the Great Red Spot shows that such a high haze is absent at that latitude. Detailed analysis shows that a stratospheric haze exists at both latitudes but is approximately 50 km higher near the poles. It is likely that the high polar haze is produced by magnetospheric particles, which travel along magnetic field lines and bombard the upper atmosphere

  17. Protein Structure Comparison and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çamoǧlu, Orhan; Singh, Ambuj K.

    The success of genome projects has generated an enormous amount of sequence data. In order to realize the full value of the data, we need to understand its functional role and its evolutionary origin. Sequence comparison methods are incredibly valuable for this task. However, for sequences falling in the twilight zone (usually between 20 and 35% sequence similarity), we need to resort to structural alignment and comparison for a meaningful analysis. Such a structural approach can be used for classification of proteins, isolation of structural motifs, and discovery of drug targets.

  18. NCSL National Measurement Interlaboratory Comparison Database requirements

    SciTech Connect

    WHEELER,JAMES C.; PETTIT,RICHARD B.

    2000-04-20

    With the recent development of an International Comparisons Database which provides worldwide access to measurement comparison data between National Measurement Institutes, there is currently renewed interest in developing a database of comparisons for calibration laboratories within a country. For many years, the National Conference of Standards Laboratories (NCSL), through the Measurement Comparison Programs Committee, has sponsored Interlaboratory Comparisons in a variety of measurement areas. This paper will discuss the need for such a National database which catalogues and maintains Interlaboratory Comparisons data. The paper will also discuss future requirements in this area.

  19. Educational Comparisons and the Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkin, Keith

    This paper examines how educational comparisons might be used by the educational practitioners, and how the educator can contribute to the comparativists' work. Currently, it is argued, a gap exists between comparative educational study and the theory and practice of education. This leads to three areas of need. First, professional comparativists…

  20. International Comparisons and Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan C., Ed.

    Increasingly over the past decade there have appeared in the press bar graphs comparing the performance of U.S. students with their counterparts in other countries. Usually these graphs have been accompanied by dire warnings and pointing fingers. The main source of the data on international comparisons has been the International Association for…

  1. Comparison of fiber length analyzers

    Treesearch

    Don Guay; Nancy Ross Sutherland; Walter Rantanen; Nicole Malandri; Aimee Stephens; Kathleen Mattingly; Matt Schneider

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, several fiber new fiber length analyzers have been developed and brought to market. The new instruments provide faster measurements and the capability of both laboratory and on-line analysis. Do the various fiber analyzers provide the same length, coarseness, width, and fines measurements for a given fiber sample? This paper provides a comparison of...

  2. A comparison of five benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huss, Janice E.; Pennline, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Five benchmark programs were obtained and run on the NASA Lewis CRAY X-MP/24. A comparison was made between the programs codes and between the methods for calculating performance figures. Several multitasking jobs were run to gain experience in how parallel performance is measured.

  3. Matrixed business support comparison study.

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, Josh D.

    2004-11-01

    The Matrixed Business Support Comparison Study reviewed the current matrixed Chief Financial Officer (CFO) division staff models at Sandia National Laboratories. There were two primary drivers of this analysis: (1) the increasing number of financial staff matrixed to mission customers and (2) the desire to further understand the matrix process and the opportunities and challenges it creates.

  4. Inhibition in Dot Comparison Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Sarah; Gilmore, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Dot comparison tasks are commonly used to index an individual's Approximate Number System (ANS) acuity, but the cognitive processes involved in completing these tasks are poorly understood. Here, we investigated how factors including numerosity ratio, set size and visual cues influence task performance. Forty-four children aged 7-9 years completed…

  5. Inhibition in Dot Comparison Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Sarah; Gilmore, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Dot comparison tasks are commonly used to index an individual's Approximate Number System (ANS) acuity, but the cognitive processes involved in completing these tasks are poorly understood. Here, we investigated how factors including numerosity ratio, set size and visual cues influence task performance. Forty-four children aged 7-9 years completed…

  6. Metric-Free Distributional Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haertel, Edward H.; And Others

    Two methods are presented for comparing distributions, such as achievement test score distributions, for distinctly different groups of persons in such a way that the comparison will not be influenced by the particular metric of the test being used. Both methods use percentile scores. One method, attributed to Flanagan, fits a straight line to the…

  7. Comparison of Optimal Thermodynamic Models of the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle from Heterotrophs, Cyanobacteria, and Green Sulfur Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Dennis G.; Jaramillo Riveri, Sebastian I.; Baxter, Douglas J.; Cannon, William R.

    2014-12-15

    We have applied a new stochastic simulation approach to predict the metabolite levels, energy flow, and material flux in the different oxidative TCA cycles found in E. coli and Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, and in the reductive TCA cycle typical of chemolithoautotrophs and phototrophic green sulfur bacteria such as Chlorobaculum tepidum. The simulation approach is based on equations of state and employs an assumption similar to that used in transition state theory. The ability to evaluate the thermodynamics of metabolic pathways allows one to understand the relationship between coupling of energy and material gradients in the environment and the selforganization of stable biological systems, and it is shown that each cycle operates in the direction expected due to its environmental niche. The simulations predict changes in metabolite levels and flux in response to changes in cofactor concentrations that would be hard to predict without an elaborate model based on the law of mass action. In fact, we show that a thermodynamically unfavorable reaction can still have flux in the forward direction when it is part of a reaction network. The ability to predict metabolite levels, energy flow and material flux should be significant for understanding the dynamics of natural systems and for understanding principles for engineering organisms for production of specialty chemicals, such as biofuels.

  8. Comparison of Optimal Thermodynamic Models of the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle from Heterotrophs, Cyanobacteria, and Green Sulfur Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dennis G; Jaramillo-Riveri, Sebastian; Baxter, Douglas J; Cannon, William R

    2014-12-26

    We have applied a new stochastic simulation approach to predict the metabolite levels, material flux, and thermodynamic profiles of the oxidative TCA cycles found in E. coli and Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, and in the reductive TCA cycle typical of chemolithoautotrophs and phototrophic green sulfur bacteria such as Chlorobaculum tepidum. The simulation approach is based on modeling states using statistical thermodynamics and employs an assumption similar to that used in transition state theory. The ability to evaluate the thermodynamics of metabolic pathways allows one to understand the relationship between coupling of energy and material gradients in the environment and the self-organization of stable biological systems, and it is shown that each cycle operates in the direction expected due to its environmental niche. The simulations predict changes in metabolite levels and flux in response to changes in cofactor concentrations that would be hard to predict without an elaborate model based on the law of mass action. In fact, we show that a thermodynamically unfavorable reaction can still have flux in the forward direction when it is part of a reaction network. The ability to predict metabolite levels, energy flow, and material flux should be significant for understanding the dynamics of natural systems and for understanding principles for engineering organisms for production of specialty chemicals.

  9. Group membership and everyday social comparison experiences

    PubMed Central

    SMITH, HEATHER J.; LEACH, COLIN W.

    2006-01-01

    In two everyday experience studies, we examined the degree to which everyday social comparisons are framed by group membership. In the first study, 30 undergraduates attending a public university in the United States completed short questionnaires about their social comparison experiences whenever they were signalled. In the second study, 34 ethnic minority undergraduates from the same university completed similar questionnaires about their social comparison experiences. Across both studies, comparisons in which participants viewed themselves as an ingroup member in comparison to an outgroup comprised less than 10% of the comparison experiences reported by participants. However, minorities in the second study who reported closer identification with their ethnic group reported more comparison experiences in which they mentioned their own or the comparison target's ethnicity. PMID:16691290

  10. A comparison of high cycle fatigue methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herda, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate alternate turbopump development (ATD) high cycle fatigue (HCF) methodology, a comparison was made with the space shuttle main engine (SSME) methodology. This report documents the comparison and evaluates ATD's HCF system.

  11. Performance Comparison: Superbeams, Beta Beams, Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, Walter

    2011-10-06

    In this talk, the performance comparison among superbeams (SB), beta beams (BB), and the Neutrino Factory (NF) is discussed. The ingredients to such a comparison are described, and the optimization and status of BB and NF are addressed. Finally, one example for the performance comparison is shown.

  12. Self-Construal and Social Comparison Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Lam, Shui-fong

    2007-01-01

    Background: Social comparison research usually demonstrates that students will have higher self-evaluation in downward comparison but lower self-evaluation in upward comparison. However, the existence of this contrast effect may depend on people's self-construal. The contrast effect may exist only for people with independent self-construal. For…

  13. Initial characterization of the photosynthetic apparatus of "Candidatus Chlorothrix halophila," a filamentous, anoxygenic photoautotroph.

    PubMed

    van de Meene, Allison M L; Le Olson, Tien; Collins, Aaron M; Blankenship, Robert E

    2007-06-01

    "Candidatus Chlorothrix halophila" is a recently described halophilic, filamentous, anoxygenic photoautotroph (J. A. Klappenbach and B. K. Pierson, Arch. Microbiol. 181:17-25, 2004) that was enriched from the hypersaline microbial mats at Guerrero Negro, Mexico. Analysis of the photosynthetic apparatus by negative staining, spectroscopy, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the photosynthetic apparatus in this organism has similarities to the photosynthetic apparatus in both the Chloroflexi and Chlorobi phyla of green photosynthetic bacteria. The chlorosomes were found to be ellipsoidal and of various sizes, characteristics that are comparable to characteristics of chlorosomes in other species of green photosynthetic bacteria. The absorption spectrum of whole cells was dominated by the chlorosome bacteriochlorophyll c (BChl c) peak at 759 nm, with fluorescence emission at 760 nm. A second fluorescence emission band was observed at 870 nm and was tentatively attributed to a membrane-bound antenna complex. Fluorescence emission spectra obtained at 77 K revealed another complex that fluoresced at 820 nm, which probably resulted from the chlorosome baseplate complex. All of these results suggest that BChl c is present in the chlorosomes of "Ca. Chlorothrix halophila," that BChl a is present in the baseplate, and that there is a membrane-bound antenna complex. Analysis of the proteins in the chlorosomes revealed an approximately 6-kDa band, which was found to be related to the BChl c binding protein CsmA found in other green bacteria. Overall, the absorbance and fluorescence spectra of "Ca. Chlorothrix halophila" revealed an interesting mixture of photosynthetic characteristics that seemed to have properties similar to properties of both phyla of green bacteria when they were compared to the photosynthetic characteristics of Chlorobium tepidum and Chloroflexus aurantiacus.

  14. Nonphotochemical Hole-Burning Studies of Energy Transfer Dynamics in Antenna Complexes of Photosynthetic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuzaki, Satoshi

    2001-01-01

    This thesis contains the candidate's original work on excitonic structure and energy transfer dynamics of two bacterial antenna complexes as studied using spectral hole-burning spectroscopy. The general introduction is divided into two chapters (1 and 2). Chapter 1 provides background material on photosynthesis and bacterial antenna complexes with emphasis on the two bacterial antenna systems related to the thesis research. Chapter 2 reviews the underlying principles and mechanism of persistent nonphotochemical hole-burning (NPHB) spectroscopy. Relevant energy transfer theories are also discussed. Chapters 3 and 4 are papers by the candidate that have been published. Chapter 3 describes the application of NPHB spectroscopy to the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex from the green sulfur bacterium Prosthecochloris aestuarii; emphasis is on determination of the low energy vibrational structure that is important for understanding the energy transfer process associated within three lowest energy Qy-states of the complex. The results are compared with those obtained earlier on the FMO complex from Chlorobium tepidum. In Chapter 4, the energy transfer dynamics of the B800 molecules of intact LH2 and B800-deficient LH2 complexes of the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila are compared. New insights on the additional decay channel of the B800 ring of bacteriochlorophylla (BChla) molecules are provided. General conclusions are given in Chapter 5. A version of the hole spectrum simulation program written by the candidate for the FMO complex study (Chapter 3) is included as an appendix. The references for each chapter are given at the end of each chapter.

  15. High pressure rinsing system comparison

    SciTech Connect

    D. Sertore; M. Fusetti; P. Michelato; Carlo Pagani; Toshiyasu Higo; Jin-Seok Hong; K. Saito; G. Ciovati; T. Rothgeb

    2007-06-01

    High pressure rinsing (HPR) is a key process for the surface preparation of high field superconducting cavities. A portable apparatus for the water jet characterization, based on the transferred momentum between the water jet and a load cell, has been used in different laboratories. This apparatus allows to collected quantitative parameters that characterize the HPR water jet. In this paper, we present a quantitative comparison of the different water jet produced by various nozzles routinely used in different laboratories for the HPR process

  16. Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan

    2003-01-01

    Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating three-dimensional, steady and unsteady, laminar and turbulent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared in this work. Each method is described in detail along with appropriate physical and numerical boundary conditions. Analysis of well-posedness and numerical solutions to test problems for each method are provided. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, stability and robustness is used to establish the relative positive and negative characteristics of each method.

  17. How collective comparisons emerge without individual comparisons of the options

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elva J. H.; Feinerman, Ofer; Franks, Nigel R.

    2014-01-01

    Collective decisions in animal groups emerge from the actions of individuals who are unlikely to have global information. Comparative assessment of options can be valuable in decision-making. Ant colonies are excellent collective decision-makers, for example when selecting a new nest-site. Here, we test the dependency of this cooperative process on comparisons conducted by individual ants. We presented ant colonies with a choice between new nests: one good and one poor. Using individually radio-tagged ants and an automated system of doors, we manipulated individual-level access to information: ants visiting the good nest were barred from visiting the poor one and vice versa. Thus, no ant could individually compare the available options. Despite this, colonies still emigrated quickly and accurately when comparisons were prevented. Individual-level rules facilitated this behavioural robustness: ants allowed to experience only the poor nest subsequently searched more. Intriguingly, some ants appeared particularly discriminating across emigrations under both treatments, suggesting they had stable, high nest acceptance thresholds. Overall, our results show how a colony of ants, as a cognitive entity, can compare two options that are not both accessible by any individual ant. Our findings illustrate a collective decision process that is robust to differences in individual access to information. PMID:24920474

  18. How collective comparisons emerge without individual comparisons of the options.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Elva J H; Feinerman, Ofer; Franks, Nigel R

    2014-07-22

    Collective decisions in animal groups emerge from the actions of individuals who are unlikely to have global information. Comparative assessment of options can be valuable in decision-making. Ant colonies are excellent collective decision-makers, for example when selecting a new nest-site. Here, we test the dependency of this cooperative process on comparisons conducted by individual ants. We presented ant colonies with a choice between new nests: one good and one poor. Using individually radio-tagged ants and an automated system of doors, we manipulated individual-level access to information: ants visiting the good nest were barred from visiting the poor one and vice versa. Thus, no ant could individually compare the available options. Despite this, colonies still emigrated quickly and accurately when comparisons were prevented. Individual-level rules facilitated this behavioural robustness: ants allowed to experience only the poor nest subsequently searched more. Intriguingly, some ants appeared particularly discriminating across emigrations under both treatments, suggesting they had stable, high nest acceptance thresholds. Overall, our results show how a colony of ants, as a cognitive entity, can compare two options that are not both accessible by any individual ant. Our findings illustrate a collective decision process that is robust to differences in individual access to information.

  19. Foehn diagnosis and model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerr, B.; Sprenger, M.; Fuhrer, O.; Burri, K.; Gutermann, T.; Hächler, P.; Neururer, A.; Richner, H.; Werner, R.

    2010-09-01

    The «Alpine Research Group Foehn Rhine Valley - Lake Constance (AGF)» (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Föhnforschung Rheintal-Bodensee) is analysing meteorological parameters and investigating foehn phenomena in the Rhine valley since 1971. Their main goal is to find plausible criteria for reliable foehn forecasts and to deepen our understanding of foehn in the target area. The presentation will focus on two main topics: (a) application of a fully automated foehn diagnosis tool; and (b) comparison of model data (COSMO-2, COSMO-7, VERA, INCA) with measurements in our target area. With respect to (a), the foehn diagnosis tool is applied for different meteorological stations of the Swiss meteorological network (SMN). Although it always uses the same six criteria (relative humidity, wind sector, wind force, gale maximum, difference of potential temperature to SMN site Gütsch and wind sector Gütsch), empirical thresholds have to be determined for each site individually. In doing so, foehn can be objectively detected and automatically identified as such in the most cases. In the second part, referring to (b), the foehn case of the 8th December 2006 is considered. It brought high wind velocities as well as a unusually far-reaching foehn, which was observed even north of Lake Constance. The synoptic- to local-scale dynamics of this foehn case is presented in detail, and the further developments within the framework of COSMO-2 to a high spatial resolution of 2.2 km facilitates the comparison of model forecasts with surface measurements. This comparison will be carried out with several parameters such as wind force, potential temperature and air pressure. Furthermore, the forecasted temporal evolution of foehn will be compared to the foehn's beginning and end detected by the foehn diagnosis tool.

  20. Selected Theoretical Comparisons for Bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proukakis, Nick P.; Davis, Matthew J.; Gardiner, Simon A.

    2013-02-01

    One of the aims of the organisers of the FINESS conferences, and of the editors of this book, has been to encourage dialogue between researchers working in the general area of non-equilibrium superfluids. The researchers come from widely different backgrounds, and come with a broad array of favourite theoretical techniques. In this chapter we present an incomplete survey of figures from previously published papers that make a comparison between selected subsets of different theoretical methods. The goal is that this compilation of figures, when placed in a broader context, will provide some background for the reader to understand the physical conditions that determine when various theories are useful.

  1. Time comparison via OTS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejong, G.; Kaarls, R.; Kirchner, D.; Ressler, H.

    1982-01-01

    The time comparisons carried out via OTS-2 between the Technical University Graz (Austria) and the Van Swinden Laboratory Delft (Netherlands) are discussed. The method is based on the use of the synchronization pulse in the TV-frame of the daily evening broadcasting of a French TV-program to Northern Africa. Corrections, as a consequence of changes in the position of the satellite coordinates are applied weekly after reception of satellite coordinates. A description of the method is given as well as some of the particular techniques used in both the participating laboratories. Preliminary results are presented.

  2. Comparison of ASGARD and UFOCapture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaauw, Rhiannon C.; Cruse, Katherine S.

    2011-01-01

    The Meteoroid Environment Office is undertaking a comparison between UFOCapture/Analyzer and ASGARD (All Sky and Guided Automatic Realtime Detection). To accomplish this, video output from a Watec video camera on a 17 mm Schneider lens (25 degree field of view) was split and input into the two different meteor detection softwares. The purpose of this study is to compare the sensitivity of the two systems, false alarm rates and trajectory information, among other quantities. The important components of each software will be highlighted and comments made about the detection/rejection algorithms and the amount of user-labor required for each system.

  3. Comparison of ASGARD and UFOCapture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaauw, R.; Cruse, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    The Meteoroid Environment Office is undertaking a comparison between UFOCapture/Analyzer and Asgard (All Sky and Guided Automatic Realtime Detection), both software used to detect meteors. To accomplish this, video output from a Watec video camera on a 17 mm Schneider lens (25degrees field of view) was split and input into two computers, one running UFOCapture and the other running Asgard. The purpose of this study is to compare the sensitivity of the two systems, false alarm rates, and ease of use.

  4. Comparison of automatic control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppelt, W

    1941-01-01

    This report deals with a reciprocal comparison of an automatic pressure control, an automatic rpm control, an automatic temperature control, and an automatic directional control. It shows the difference between the "faultproof" regulator and the actual regulator which is subject to faults, and develops this difference as far as possible in a parallel manner with regard to the control systems under consideration. Such as analysis affords, particularly in its extension to the faults of the actual regulator, a deep insight into the mechanism of the regulator process.

  5. EXCOMP: an exposure comparison methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.C.; Franklin, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    When designing new facilities or modifying existing facilities that involve radioactive material, handling or processing, an area of concern is the radiological exposure received by facility personnel and the environment. The computerized models that are currently used for exposure evaluations are capable of evaluating only one relationship at a time, i.e., the effects of one source, its strength and location, on one work location. EXCOMP (EXposure COMParison) is a methodology developed for the IBM-PC to evaluate radiological exposures. It is capable of evaluating each identified work location in a facility with respect to each identified source effecting it.

  6. Inverter performance comparison at PVUSA

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, B.K.; Stolte, W.J.; Reyes, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    The paper is a summary of the Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) Project{close_quote}s experience with procurement, testing, operation and maintenance of photovoltaic (PV) power conditioning units (PCUs) at the PVUSA Davis and Kerman sites. Brief descriptions of each of five different PCU models are included to explain tests and operational characteristics. A comparison of the PCUs{close_quote} performances is presented, and conclusions are offered. Further details are in a forthcoming PVUSA report on PCUs and Power Quality [1]. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Comparison of turbulence mitigation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozacik, Stephen T.; Paolini, Aaron; Sherman, Ariel; Bonnett, James; Kelmelis, Eric

    2017-07-01

    When capturing imagery over long distances, atmospheric turbulence often degrades the data, especially when observation paths are close to the ground or in hot environments. These issues manifest as time-varying scintillation and warping effects that decrease the effective resolution of the sensor and reduce actionable intelligence. In recent years, several image processing approaches to turbulence mitigation have shown promise. Each of these algorithms has different computational requirements, usability demands, and degrees of independence from camera sensors. They also produce different degrees of enhancement when applied to turbulent imagery. Additionally, some of these algorithms are applicable to real-time operational scenarios while others may only be suitable for postprocessing workflows. EM Photonics has been developing image-processing-based turbulence mitigation technology since 2005. We will compare techniques from the literature with our commercially available, real-time, GPU-accelerated turbulence mitigation software. These comparisons will be made using real (not synthetic), experimentally obtained data for a variety of conditions, including varying optical hardware, imaging range, subjects, and turbulence conditions. Comparison metrics will include image quality, video latency, computational complexity, and potential for real-time operation. Additionally, we will present a technique for quantitatively comparing turbulence mitigation algorithms using real images of radial resolution targets.

  8. RISKIND verification and benchmark comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; Arnish, J.J.; Chen, S.Y.; Kamboj, S.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents verification calculations and benchmark comparisons for RISKIND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive materials. Spreadsheet calculations were performed to verify the proper operation of the major options and calculational steps in RISKIND. The program is unique in that it combines a variety of well-established models into a comprehensive treatment for assessing risks from the transportation of radioactive materials. Benchmark comparisons with other validated codes that incorporate similar models were also performed. For instance, the external gamma and neutron dose rate curves for a shipping package estimated by RISKIND were compared with those estimated by using the RADTRAN 4 code and NUREG-0170 methodology. Atmospheric dispersion of released material and dose estimates from the GENII and CAP88-PC codes. Verification results have shown the program to be performing its intended function correctly. The benchmark results indicate that the predictions made by RISKIND are within acceptable limits when compared with predictions from similar existing models.

  9. Computational Chemistry Comparison and Benchmark Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 101 NIST Computational Chemistry Comparison and Benchmark Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Computational Chemistry Comparison and Benchmark Database is a collection of experimental and ab initio thermochemical properties for a selected set of molecules. The goals are to provide a benchmark set of molecules for the evaluation of ab initio computational methods and allow the comparison between different ab initio computational methods for the prediction of thermochemical properties.

  10. Spore Size Comparison Between Several Bacillus Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    Spore Size Comparison Between Several Bacillus Species Ruben O. Zandomeni1, Joseph E. Fitzgibbon2, Monica Carrera1, Edward Stuebing2, James E...OCT 2005 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Spore Size Comparison Between Several Bacillus Species 5a. CONTRACT...Systematic comparison of the size of B.anthracis spores to size of other Bacillus spores (simulants/surrogates) - all spores produced under the same

  11. The Timing of Social Comparison in Crowds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-18

    and second, it is inspired by social psychology theory. In particular, the model is based on Social Comparison Theory (SCT) ( Festinger , 1954), a...evaluate its own progress ( Festinger , 1954). This approach, in which the social comparison process is triggered only when the agent is uncertain as to how to...developing a model of social behavior inspired by Festinger’s social comparison theory ( Festinger , 1954). To the best of our knowl- edge, social

  12. The neural correlates of beauty comparison.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Gayannée; Mussweiler, Thomas; Mullins, Paul; Linden, David E J

    2014-05-01

    Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. How attractive someone is perceived to be depends on the individual or cultural standards to which this person is compared. But although comparisons play a central role in the way people judge the appearance of others, the brain processes underlying attractiveness comparisons remain unknown. In the present experiment, we tested the hypothesis that attractiveness comparisons rely on the same cognitive and neural mechanisms as comparisons of simple nonsocial magnitudes such as size. We recorded brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants compared the beauty or height of two women or two dogs. Our data support the hypothesis of a common process underlying these different types of comparisons. First, we demonstrate that the distance effect characteristic of nonsocial comparisons also holds for attractiveness comparisons. Behavioral results indicated, for all our comparisons, longer response times for near than far distances. Second, the neural correlates of these distance effects overlapped in a frontoparietal network known for its involvement in processing simple nonsocial quantities. These results provide evidence for overlapping processes in the comparison of physical attractiveness and nonsocial magnitudes.

  13. The neural correlates of beauty comparison

    PubMed Central

    Mussweiler, Thomas; Mullins, Paul; Linden, David E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. How attractive someone is perceived to be depends on the individual or cultural standards to which this person is compared. But although comparisons play a central role in the way people judge the appearance of others, the brain processes underlying attractiveness comparisons remain unknown. In the present experiment, we tested the hypothesis that attractiveness comparisons rely on the same cognitive and neural mechanisms as comparisons of simple nonsocial magnitudes such as size. We recorded brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants compared the beauty or height of two women or two dogs. Our data support the hypothesis of a common process underlying these different types of comparisons. First, we demonstrate that the distance effect characteristic of nonsocial comparisons also holds for attractiveness comparisons. Behavioral results indicated, for all our comparisons, longer response times for near than far distances. Second, the neural correlates of these distance effects overlapped in a frontoparietal network known for its involvement in processing simple nonsocial quantities. These results provide evidence for overlapping processes in the comparison of physical attractiveness and nonsocial magnitudes. PMID:23508477

  14. European Measurement Comparisons of Environmental Radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Waetjen, Uwe

    2008-08-14

    The scheme of European measurement comparisons to verify radioactivity monitoring in the European Union is briefly explained. After a review of comparisons conducted during the years 1990, the approach of IRMM organising these comparisons since 2003 is presented. IRMM is providing comparison samples with a reference value traceable to the SI units and which is fully documented to all participants and national authorities after completion of the comparison. The sample preparation and determination of traceable reference values at IRMM, the sample treatment and measurement in the participating laboratories, as well as the evaluation of comparison results are described in some detail using the example of an air filter comparison. The results of a comparison to determine metabolised {sup 40}K, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in milk powder are presented as well. The necessary improvements in the estimation of measurement uncertainty by the participating laboratories are discussed. The performance of individual laboratories which have participated in at least four comparison exercises over the years is studied in terms of observable trends.

  15. Collaborative Comparison of Earthquake Simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards-Dinger, K.; Zielke, O.; Tullis, T. E.; Ward, S. N.; Kaneko, Y.; Shaw, B. E.; Lapusta, N.; Pollitz, F. F.; Morein, G.; Turcotte, D. L.; Robinson, R.; Dieterich, J. H.; Rundle, J. D.; Beeler, N. M.

    2008-12-01

    Earthquake simulators, i.e. computer models in which a series of earthquakes spontaneously occur, are important for understanding earthquake mechanics and earthquake predictability. However, to use earthquake simulators in hazard anaylsis they must show realistic behavior. It is difficult to determine how realistic simulator results are. This is in part because of the complexity of their behavior and the limited database of long sequences of natural earthquakes, especially large ones, against which to compare a simulator's behavior. Due to limits on memory and computation speed it is presently impossible to construct a simulator that simultaneously incorporates everything known about frictional behavior of rock, includes full elastodynamics, and utilizes both small enough elements to properly represent a continuum and enough elements to cover a large geographic area and represent many faults. Consequently, all simulators make compromises. A wide variety of simulators exist, each with different compromises. The effects on the simulator results of these compromises are not currently known. Our goal is to gain a better understanding of the validity of the results of earthquake simulators. This is a joint effort to compare the behavior of our nine independently devised earthquake simulators. We have defined and studied two simple problems. The first checks that each simulator accurately gives the stresses due to slip on a simple vertical strike-slip fault. All simulators satisfactorily passed this test. The second is a comparison of the behavior of a simple strike slip fault, with a simple bi-linear asymmetrically peaked initial stress distribution, and a constant loading rate. The fault constitutive properties have a fixed failure stress, higher than the peak in the initial stress, and a fixed dynamic sliding stress, although models utilizing rate and state friction only approximate this simple description. A series of earthquakes occur in the simulations and the

  16. 16 CFR 233.2 - Retail price comparisons; comparable value comparisons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retail price comparisons; comparable value... GUIDES AGAINST DECEPTIVE PRICING § 233.2 Retail price comparisons; comparable value comparisons. (a... higher price must be based upon fact, and not be fictitious or misleading. Whenever an...

  17. 16 CFR 233.2 - Retail price comparisons; comparable value comparisons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retail price comparisons; comparable value... GUIDES AGAINST DECEPTIVE PRICING § 233.2 Retail price comparisons; comparable value comparisons. (a.... Expressed another way, if a number of the principal retail outlets in the area are regularly selling Brand X...

  18. Anthropometric Comparison - USA and USSR.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    66044 SEPrEMBER , 1986 Accession For % NTIS GCA&I DTIC TAB Unannouncod E Justif~ication By Distribution/__ Availability Codes Avail and/or Dist Special 4lV...Anthropometric data for workspaces 16-2 1 CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 23 4 I*DISCUSSION OF FORMAT _ This comparison of US/USSR anthropcmetric dimensions uses...54.6 49.9 65.4 65.9 60.3 SITTING 21 SHOULDER-ELBOW LENGTH 33.3 33.2 30.8 40.2 39.7 36.6 22 ELBOW-GRIP LENGTH 31.7 32.6 29.6 38.3 37.9 35.4 23 ELBOW

  19. Comparison of column flotation cells

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Mohanty, M.K.; Ho, K.

    1995-08-01

    Six commercial column flotation technologies, i.e., Canadian, Flotaire, Jameson, Microcel, Packed-Column, and Turbo-air, were tested for the treatment of Illinois Basin fine coal and the results from each column compared based on separation performance and throughout capacity. The separation performance achieved by each cell approached and, in some cases, exceeded the ultimate performance predicted by release analysis. A comparison of the test results indicates differences in the selectivity obtained by each flotation column on the basis of both ash and sulfur rejection. This finding may be due to variations in cell hydrodynamics and the ability to support a deep froth phase among the different column cells. In addition, throughput capacity of each cell was found to differ, apparently due to the differences in the bubble-particle attachment environment, bubble size, and bubble population. Variations in the operating characteristics, such as reagent additions, aeration rate and wash water rate, were also noted and summarized in this publication.

  20. Comparison of Hartmann analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Canovas, Carmen; Ribak, Erez N

    2007-04-01

    Analysis of Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensors for the eye is traditionally performed by locating and centroiding the sensor spots. These centroids provide the gradient, which is integrated to yield the ocular aberration. Fourier methods can replace the centroid stage, and Fourier integration can replace the direct integration. The two--demodulation and integration--can be combined to directly retrieve the wavefront, all in the Fourier domain. Now we applied this full Fourier analysis to circular apertures and real images. We performed a comparison between it and previous methods of convolution, interpolation, and Fourier demodulation. We also compared it with a centroid method, which yields the Zernike coefficients of the wavefront. The best performance was achieved for ocular pupils with a small boundary slope or far from the boundary and acceptable results for images missing part of the pupil. The other Fourier analysis methods had much higher tolerance to noncentrosymmetric apertures.

  1. MCNPX Model/Table Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Hendricks

    2003-03-03

    MCNPX is a Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport code extending the capabilities of MCNP4C. As with MCNP, MCNPX uses nuclear data tables to transport neutrons, photons, and electrons. Unlike MCNP, MCNPX also uses (1) nuclear data tables to transport protons; (2) physics models to transport 30 additional particle types (deuterons, tritons, alphas, pions, muons, etc.); and (3) physics models to transport neutrons and protons when no tabular data are available or when the data are above the energy range (20 to 150 MeV) where the data tables end. MCNPX can mix and match data tables and physics models throughout a problem. For example, MCNPX can model neutron transport in a bismuth germinate (BGO) particle detector by using data tables for bismuth and oxygen and using physics models for germanium. Also, MCNPX can model neutron transport in UO{sub 2}, making the best use of physics models and data tables: below 20 MeV, data tables are used; above 150 MeV, physics models are used; between 20 and 150 MeV, data tables are used for oxygen and models are used for uranium. The mix-and-match capability became available with MCNPX2.5.b (November 2002). For the first time, we present here comparisons that calculate radiation transport in materials with various combinations of data charts and model physics. The physics models are poor at low energies (<150 MeV); thus, data tables should be used when available. Our comparisons demonstrate the importance of the mix-and-match capability and indicate how well physics models work in the absence of data tables.

  2. Media Comparison Studies: Problems and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Burbules, Nicholas C.

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Media comparison studies aim to compare the relative effectiveness of different media at promoting educational outcomes. While these types of studies remain popular, they have been under attack for more than two decades. Critics of media comparison studies claim that continued studies are unhelpful because a great number of…

  3. Forensic voice comparison and the paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart

    2009-12-01

    We are in the midst of a paradigm shift in the forensic comparison sciences. The new paradigm can be characterised as quantitative data-based implementation of the likelihood-ratio framework with quantitative evaluation of the reliability of results. The new paradigm was widely adopted for DNA profile comparison in the 1990s, and is gradually spreading to other branches of forensic science, including forensic voice comparison. The present paper first describes the new paradigm, then describes the history of its adoption for forensic voice comparison over approximately the last decade. The paradigm shift is incomplete and those working in the new paradigm still represent a minority within the forensic-voice-comparison community.

  4. The current status of microscopical hair comparisons.

    PubMed

    Rowe, W F

    2001-12-08

    Although the microscopical comparison of human hairs has been accepted in courts of law for over a century, recent advances in DNA technology have called this type of forensic examination into question. In a number of cases, post-conviction DNA testing has exonerated defendants who were convicted in part on the results of microscopical hair comparisons. A federal judge has held a Daubert hearing on the microscopical comparison of human hairs and has concluded that this type of examination does not meet the criteria for admission of scientific evidence in federal courts. A review of the available scientific literature on microscopical hair comparisons (including studies conducted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation) leads to three conclusions: (1) microscopical comparisons of human hairs can yield scientifically defensible conclusions that can contribute to criminal investigations and criminal prosecutions, (2) the reliability of microscopical hair comparisons is strongly affected by the training of the forensic hair examiner, (3) forensic hair examiners cannot offer estimates of the probability of a match of a questioned hair with a hair from a randomly selected person. In order for microscopical hair examinations to survive challenges under the U.S. Supreme Court's Daubert decision, hair microscopists must be better trained and undergo frequent proficiency testing. More research on the error rates of microscopical hair comparisons should be undertaken, and guidelines for the permissible interpretations of such comparisons should be established. Until these issues have been addressed and satisfactorily resolved, microscopical hair comparisons should be regarded by law enforcement agencies and courts of law as merely presumptive in nature, and all microscopical hair comparisons should be confirmed by nuclear DNA profiling or mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

  5. Comparison of debris flux models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sdunnus, H.; Beltrami, P.; Klinkrad, H.; Matney, M.; Nazarenko, A.; Wegener, P.

    The availability of models to estimate the impact risk from the man-made space debris and the natural meteoroid environment is essential for both, manned and unmanned satellite missions. Various independent tools based on different approaches have been developed in the past years. Due to an increased knowledge of the debris environment and its sources e.g. from improved measurement capabilities, these models could be updated regularly, providing more detailed and more reliable simulations. This paper addresses an in-depth, quantitative comparison of widely distributed debris flux models which were recently updated, namely ESA's MASTER 2001 model, NASA's ORDEM 2000 and the Russian SDPA 2000 model. The comparison was performed in the frame of the work of the 20t h Interagency Debris Coordination (IADC) meeting held in Surrey, UK. ORDEM 2000ORDEM 2000 uses careful empirical estimates of the orbit populations based onthree primary data sources - the US Space Command Catalog, the H ystackaRadar, and the Long Duration Exposure Facility spacecraft returned surfaces.Further data (e.g. HAX and Goldstone radars, impacts on Shuttle windows andradiators, and others) were used to adjust these populations for regions in time,size, and space not covered by the primary data sets. Some interpolation andextrapolation to regions with no data (such as projections into the future) wasprovided by the EVOLVE model. MASTER 2001The ESA MASTER model offers a full three dimensional description of theterrestrial debris distribution reaching from LEO up to the GEO region. Fluxresults relative to an orbiting target or to an inertial volume can be resolved intosource terms, impactor characteristics and orbit, as well as impact velocity anddirection. All relevant debris source terms are considered by the MASTERmodel. For each simulated source, a corresponding debris generation model interms of mass/diameter distribution, additional velocities, and directionalspreading has been developed. A

  6. Attractor comparisons based on density

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, T. L.

    2015-01-15

    Recognizing a chaotic attractor can be seen as a problem in pattern recognition. Some feature vector must be extracted from the attractor and used to compare to other attractors. The field of machine learning has many methods for extracting feature vectors, including clustering methods, decision trees, support vector machines, and many others. In this work, feature vectors are created by representing the attractor as a density in phase space and creating polynomials based on this density. Density is useful in itself because it is a one dimensional function of phase space position, but representing an attractor as a density is also a way to reduce the size of a large data set before analyzing it with graph theory methods, which can be computationally intensive. The density computation in this paper is also fast to execute. In this paper, as a demonstration of the usefulness of density, the density is used directly to construct phase space polynomials for comparing attractors. Comparisons between attractors could be useful for tracking changes in an experiment when the underlying equations are too complicated for vector field modeling.

  7. Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE’s '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets.

  8. RTU Comparison Calculator Enhancement Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, James D.; Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2015-07-01

    Over the past two years, Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Office (BTO) has been investigating ways to increase the operating efficiency of the packaged rooftop units (RTUs) in the field. First, by issuing a challenge to the RTU manufactures to increase the integrated energy efficiency ratio (IEER) by 60% over the existing ASHRAE 90.1-2010 standard. Second, by evaluating the performance of an advanced RTU controller that reduces the energy consumption by over 40%. BTO has previously also funded development of a RTU comparison calculator (RTUCC). RTUCC is a web-based tool that provides the user a way to compare energy and cost savings for two units with different efficiencies. However, the RTUCC currently cannot compare savings associated with either the RTU Challenge unit or the advanced RTU controls retrofit. Therefore, BTO has asked PNNL to enhance the tool so building owners can compare energy and savings associated with this new class of products. This document provides the details of the enhancements that are required to support estimating energy savings from use of RTU challenge units or advanced controls on existing RTUs.

  9. Performance Comparison of CGM Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kirchsteiger, Harald; Heinemann, Lutz; Freckmann, Guido; Lodwig, Volker; Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; del Re, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The ongoing progress of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems results in an increasing interest in comparing their performance, in particular in terms of accuracy, that is, matching CGM readings with reference values measured at the same time. Most often accuracy is evaluated by the mean absolute relative difference (MARD). It is frequently overseen that MARD does not only reflect accuracy, but also the study protocol and evaluation procedure, making a cross-study comparison problematic. Methods: We evaluate the effect of several factors on the MARD statistical properties: number of paired reference and CGM values, distribution of the paired values, accuracy of the reference measurement device itself and the time delay between data pairs. All analysis is done using clinical data from 12 patients wearing 6 sensors each. Results: We have found that a few paired points can have a potentially high impact on MARD. Leaving out those points for evaluation thus reduces the MARD. Similarly, accuracy of the reference measurements greatly affects the MARD as numerical and graphical data show. Results also show that a log-normal distribution of the paired references provides a significantly different MARD than, for example, a uniform distribution. Conclusions: MARD is a reasonable parameter to characterize the performance of CGM systems when keeping its limitations in mind. To support clinicians and patients in selecting which CGM system to use in a clinical setting, care should be taken to make MARD more comparable by employing a standardized evaluation procedure. PMID:26330485

  10. RTU Comparison Calculator Enhancement Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, James D.; Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2014-03-31

    Over the past two years, Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Office (BTO) has been investigating ways to increase the operating efficiency of the packaged rooftop units (RTUs) in the field. First, by issuing a challenge to the RTU manufactures to increase the integrated energy efficiency ratio (IEER) by 60% over the existing ASHRAE 90.1-2010 standard. Second, by evaluating the performance of an advanced RTU controller that reduces the energy consumption by over 40%. BTO has previously also funded development of a RTU comparison calculator (RTUCC). RTUCC is a web-based tool that provides the user a way to compare energy and cost savings for two units with different efficiencies. However, the RTUCC currently cannot compare savings associated with either the RTU Challenge unit or the advanced RTU controls retrofit. Therefore, BTO has asked PNNL to enhance the tool so building owners can compare energy and savings associated with this new class of products. This document provides the details of the enhancements that are required to support estimating energy savings from use of RTU challenge units or advanced controls on existing RTUs.

  11. Zika detection: comparison of methodologies.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Tatiana Elias; Terzian, Ana Carolina Bernardes; Júnior, João Pessoa Araújo; Parreira, Ricardo; Cabrera, Eliana Márcia Sotello; Santos, Izalco Nuremberg Penha Dos; Reis, Andréia Francesli Negri; Costa, Fabiana Rodrigues; Cruz, Lilian Elisa Arão Antônio; Rombola, Patrícia Lopes; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda

    2017-08-30

    Many countries in the Americas have detected local transmission of multiple arboviruses that cause febrile illnesses. Therefore, laboratory testing has become an important tool for confirming the etiology of these diseases. The present study aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of three different Zika virus detection assays. One hundred serum samples from patients presenting with acute febrile symptoms were tested using a previously reported TaqMan(®) RT-qPCR assay. We used a SYBR(®) Green RT-qPCR and a conventional PCR methodologies to compare the results. Of the samples that were determined to be negative by the TaqMan(®) RT-qPCR assay, 100% (Kappa=0.670) were also found to be negative by SYBR(®) Green RT-qPCR based on Tm comparison; however, 14% (Kappa=0.035) were found to be positive by conventional PCR followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The differences between the ZIKV strains circulating worldwide and the low viremia period can compromise diagnostic accuracy and thereby the accuracy of outbreak data. Therefore, improved assays are required to improve the diagnosis and surveillance of arbovirus. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Helicity comparison among three magnetographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haiqing; Gao, Yu; Zhang, Hongqi; Sakurai, T.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Sokoloff, D.

    We compare vector magnetograms of 228 active regions observed by Solar Magnetic Field Telescope (SMFT) at Huairou (HR) Solar Observing Station and the Solar Flare Telescope (SFT) at Mitaka (MTK) of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan from 1992 to 2005 and 55 active regions observed by SFT and Haleakala Stokes Polarimeter (HSP) at Mees Solar Observatory, University of Hawaii from 1997 to 2000. Two helicity parameters, current helicity density hc and αff coefficient of linear force free field are calculated. From this comparison we conclude: (1) the mean azimuthal angle differences of transverse fields between HR and MTK data are systematic smaller than that between MTK and Mees data; (2) there are 83.8% of hc and 78.1% of αff for 228 active regions observed at HR and MTK agree in sign, and the Pearson linear correlation coefficient between these two data sets is 0.72 for hc and 0.56 for αff. There are 61.8% of hc and 58.2% of αff for 55 active regions observed at MTK and Mees agree in sign, and the Pearson linear correlation coefficient between these two data sets is 0.34 for hc and 0.31 for αff; (3) there is a basic agreement on time variation of helicity parameters in active regions observed at HR, Mees, and MTK.

  13. Comparison theorems for causal diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthiere, Clément; Gibbons, Gary; Solodukhin, Sergey N.

    2015-09-01

    We formulate certain inequalities for the geometric quantities characterizing causal diamonds in curved and Minkowski spacetimes. These inequalities involve the redshift factor which, as we show explicitly in the spherically symmetric case, is monotonic in the radial direction, and it takes its maximal value at the center. As a by-product of our discussion we rederive Bishop's inequality without assuming the positivity of the spatial Ricci tensor. We then generalize our considerations to arbitrary, static and not necessarily spherically symmetric, asymptotically flat spacetimes. In the case of spacetimes with a horizon our generalization involves the so-called domain of dependence. The respective volume, expressed in terms of the duration measured by a distant observer compared with the volume of the domain in Minkowski spacetime, exhibits behaviors which differ if d =4 or d >4 . This peculiarity of four dimensions is due to the logarithmic subleading term in the asymptotic expansion of the metric near infinity. In terms of the invariant duration measured by a comoving observer associated with the diamond we establish an inequality which is universal for all d . We suggest some possible applications of our results including comparison theorems for entanglement entropy, causal set theory, and fundamental limits on computation.

  14. An ecological momentary assessment of comparison target as a moderator of the effects of appearance-focused social comparisons.

    PubMed

    Leahey, Tricia M; Crowther, Janis H

    2008-09-01

    This research examined whether comparison target moderates the effects of naturally occurring appearance-focused social comparisons on women's affect, appearance esteem, and dieting thoughts. During daily activities, body-satisfied (BS) women and body-dissatisfied (BD) women recorded their comparison targets and reactions to comparison information. For BS women, upward comparisons with peers were associated with more positive affect (PA) and appearance esteem and less guilt than upward comparisons with media images and downward comparisons with peers were associated with less PA than downward comparisons with media images. For BD women, upward comparisons with peers were associated with more appearance esteem and diet thoughts than upward comparisons with media images and downward comparisons with peers were associated with less PA, appearance esteem, and diet thoughts and more guilt than downward comparisons with media images.

  15. Nanocarbon nanofluids: morphology and nanostructure comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Wal, Randy L.; Mozes, Steven D.; Pushkarev, Vladimir

    2009-03-01

    Reported here are experimental results of studies designed to identify the operable mechanisms responsible for the gains in thermal conductivity of nanofluids based on nanocarbons. Comparison of functionalized versus nonfunctionalized nanocarbons addresses the effect of interfacial fluid ordering. Comparison between graphitized and nongraphitized carbon black addresses the effect of long-range phonon propagation. Comparison between multi-walled nanotubes and carbon black addresses particle aggregation by comparing two very different, yet fixed, nanocarbon morphologies. Lastly, partial network formation, i.e., spatially distributed clustering, is addressed by varied concentrations of different nanocarbon morphologies.

  16. Uav Photogrammetry: Block Triangulation Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gini, R.; Pagliari, D.; Passoni, D.; Pinto, L.; Sona, G.; Dosso, P.

    2013-08-01

    UAVs systems represent a flexible technology able to collect a big amount of high resolution information, both for metric and interpretation uses. In the frame of experimental tests carried out at Dept. ICA of Politecnico di Milano to validate vector-sensor systems and to assess metric accuracies of images acquired by UAVs, a block of photos taken by a fixed wing system is triangulated with several software. The test field is a rural area included in an Italian Park ("Parco Adda Nord"), useful to study flight and imagery performances on buildings, roads, cultivated and uncultivated vegetation. The UAV SenseFly, equipped with a camera Canon Ixus 220HS, flew autonomously over the area at a height of 130 m yielding a block of 49 images divided in 5 strips. Sixteen pre-signalized Ground Control Points, surveyed in the area through GPS (NRTK survey), allowed the referencing of the block and accuracy analyses. Approximate values for exterior orientation parameters (positions and attitudes) were recorded by the flight control system. The block was processed with several software: Erdas-LPS, EyeDEA (Univ. of Parma), Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4UAV, in assisted or automatic way. Results comparisons are given in terms of differences among digital surface models, differences in orientation parameters and accuracies, when available. Moreover, image and ground point coordinates obtained by the various software were independently used as initial values in a comparative adjustment made by scientific in-house software, which can apply constraints to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods of point extraction and accuracies on ground check points.

  17. Venus - Magellan and Arecibo Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This image shows a comparison between a Magellan image (right) and the highest resolution Earth-based radar image of Venus, obtained by the U.S. National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center's Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. The small white box in the Arecibo image on the left corresponds to the Magellan image. This portion of a Magellan radar image strip shows a small region on the east flank of a major volcanic upland called Beta Regio. The image is centered at 23 degrees north latitude and 286.7 degrees east longitude. The ridge and valley network in the middle part of the image is formed by intersecting faults which have broken the Venusian crust into a complex deformed type of surface called tessera, the Latin word for tile. The parallel mountains and valleys resemble the Basin and Range Province in the western United States. The irregular dark patch near the top of the image is a smooth surface, probably formed by lava flows in a region about 10 km (6 miles) across. Similar dark surfaces within the valleys indicate lava flows that are younger than the tessera. The Arecibo image contains probable impact craters, many faults, volcanic flows and tessera regions that will be mapped in detail by Magellan. The Magellan image has a resolution of 120 meters, (400 feet). The image segment is 20 km (12.4 miles) wide and 150 km (90 miles) long. The Arecibo image has a resolution of 1 3 km (0.6 1.8 miles) and is approximately 900 km (550 miles) across. The National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center is operated by Cornell University under a management agreement with the National Science Foundation with some support from NASA.

  18. Economic Comparison of Processes Using Spreadsheet Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrall, J. F.; Pappano, A. W.; Jennings, C. N.

    1986-01-01

    Inexpensive approach aids plant-design decisions. Commercially available electronic spreadsheet programs aid economic comparison of different processes for producing particular end products. Facilitates plantdesign decisions without requiring large expenditures for powerful mainframe computers.

  19. Sentence Comparison: An Activity for Teaching Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Edgar H.

    2005-01-01

    An English teacher provides some sentence comparison activities that enlarge students' linguistic resources for writing. He believes that students can learn to revise for style if they recognize the stylistic choices writers make.

  20. STS-134 Launch Composite Video Comparison

    NASA Image and Video Library

    A side-by-side comparison video shows a one-camera view of the STS-134 launch (left) with the six-camera composited view (right). Imaging experts funded by the Space Shuttle Program and located at ...

  1. Comparison results for solving preconditioned linear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen

    2005-04-01

    In this paper we present some comparison theorems between two different modified Gauss-Seidel (MGS) methods. The second preconditioning based on the first preconditioning is also discussed in this paper.

  2. OpenMP Experiences and Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Terry; Thigpen, William W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The document discusses message passage interfaces (MPI), open message passage issues and parallelization. A comparison of the two vector platforms, C90 and SVlex is presented. Sections of the document are written in computer code.

  3. Comparisons with a rotating shadowband pyranometer

    SciTech Connect

    Vignola, F.; Domingo, J.; McDaniels, D.K.

    1996-11-01

    Comparisons are performed between measurements made with a Rotating Shadowband Pyranometer (RSP) and an Eppley PSP, an Eppley NIP, and an Eppley PSP with a shadow band. Comparisons are made on a five minute, daily, and monthly average basis. The purpose of this study is to identify systematic errors in the RSP measurements. In general, the RSP underestimates diffuse insolation and overestimates beam radiation while giving a good estimate of the global radiation.

  4. Comparison of LASSO and GPS time transfers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, W.; Petit, G.; Baumont, F.; Fridelance, P.; Gaignebet, J.; Grudler, P.; Veillet, C.; Wiant, J.; Klepczynski, W. J.

    1994-01-01

    The LASSO is a technique which should allow the comparison of remote atomic clocks with sub-nanosecond precision and accuracy. The first successful time transfer using LASSO has been carried out between the Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur in France and the McDonald Observatory in Texas, United States. This paper presents a preliminary comparison of LASSO time transfer with GPS common-view time transfer.

  5. Comparison of SAND-II and FERRET

    SciTech Connect

    Wootan, D.W.; Schmittroth, F.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison was made of the advantages and disadvantages of two codes, SAND-II and FERRET, for determining the neutron flux spectrum and uncertainty from experimental dosimeter measurements as anticipated in the FFTF Reactor Characterization Program. This comparison involved an examination of the methodology and the operational performance of each code. The merits of each code were identified with respect to theoretical basis, directness of method, solution uniqueness, subjective influences, and sensitivity to various input parameters.

  6. Rankings, Standards, and Competition: Task vs. Scale Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Stephen M.; Tor, Avishalom

    2007-01-01

    Research showing how upward social comparison breeds competitive behavior has so far conflated local comparisons in "task" performance (e.g. a test score) with comparisons on a more general "scale" (i.e. an underlying skill). Using a ranking methodology (Garcia, Tor, & Gonzalez, 2006) to separate task and scale comparisons, Studies 1-2 reveal that…

  7. Rankings, Standards, and Competition: Task vs. Scale Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Stephen M.; Tor, Avishalom

    2007-01-01

    Research showing how upward social comparison breeds competitive behavior has so far conflated local comparisons in "task" performance (e.g. a test score) with comparisons on a more general "scale" (i.e. an underlying skill). Using a ranking methodology (Garcia, Tor, & Gonzalez, 2006) to separate task and scale comparisons, Studies 1-2 reveal that…

  8. Indirect Comparisons and Network Meta-Analyses.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Corinna; Sturtz, Sibylle; Bender, Ralf

    2015-11-20

    Systematic reviews provide a structured summary of the results of trials that have been carried out on any particular subject. If the data from multiple trials are sufficiently homogenous, a meta-analysis can be performed to calculate pooled effect estimates. Traditional meta-analysis involves groups of trials that compare the same two interventions directly (head to head). Lately, however, indirect comparisons and network metaanalyses have become increasingly common. Various methods of indirect comparison and network meta-analysis are presented and discussed on the basis of a selective review of the literature. The main assumptions and requirements of these methods are described, and a checklist is provided as an aid to the evaluation of published indirect comparisons and network meta-analyses. When no head-to-head trials of two interventions are available, indirect comparisons and network metaanalyses enable the estimation of effects as well as the simultaneous analysis of networks involving more than two interventions. Network meta-analyses and indirect comparisons can only be useful if the trial or patient characteristics are similar and the observed effects are sufficiently homogeneous. Moreover, there should be no major discrepancy between the direct and indirect evidence. If trials are available that compare each of two treatments against a third one, but not against each other, then the third intervention can be used as a common comparator to enable a comparison of the other two. Indirect comparisons and network metaanalyses are an important further development of traditional meta-analysis. Clear and detailed documentation is needed so that findings obtained by these new methods can be reliably judged.

  9. Comparisons between Intel 386 and i486 microprecessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yuan-Kwei

    1989-01-01

    A quick and preliminary comparison is made between the Intel 386 and i486 microprocessors. The following topics are discussed: the i486 key elements, comparison of instruction set architecture, the i486 on-chip cache characteristics, the i486 multiprocessor support, comparison of performance, comparison of power consumption, comparison of radiation hardening potential, and recommendations for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Data Management System (DMS).

  10. Comparisons between Intel 386 and i486 microprecessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yuan-Kwei

    1989-01-01

    A quick and preliminary comparison is made between the Intel 386 and i486 microprocessors. The following topics are discussed: the i486 key elements, comparison of instruction set architecture, the i486 on-chip cache characteristics, the i486 multiprocessor support, comparison of performance, comparison of power consumption, comparison of radiation hardening potential, and recommendations for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Data Management System (DMS).

  11. 16 CFR 233.2 - Retail price comparisons; comparable value comparisons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... GUIDES AGAINST DECEPTIVE PRICING § 233.2 Retail price comparisons; comparable value comparisons. (a... here would be deceptive, since the price charged by the small suburban outlets would have no real... similar pen, for that price, this advertisement would be deceptive....

  12. 16 CFR 233.2 - Retail price comparisons; comparable value comparisons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... GUIDES AGAINST DECEPTIVE PRICING § 233.2 Retail price comparisons; comparable value comparisons. (a... here would be deceptive, since the price charged by the small suburban outlets would have no real... similar pen, for that price, this advertisement would be deceptive....

  13. 16 CFR 233.2 - Retail price comparisons; comparable value comparisons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... GUIDES AGAINST DECEPTIVE PRICING § 233.2 Retail price comparisons; comparable value comparisons. (a... here would be deceptive, since the price charged by the small suburban outlets would have no real... similar pen, for that price, this advertisement would be deceptive....

  14. Differential Item Functioning Detection across Two Methods of Defining Group Comparisons: Pairwise and Composite Group Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Halil Ibrahim; Huggins, Anne Corinne

    2015-01-01

    This study compares two methods of defining groups for the detection of differential item functioning (DIF): (a) pairwise comparisons and (b) composite group comparisons. We aim to emphasize and empirically support the notion that the choice of pairwise versus composite group definitions in DIF is a reflection of how one defines fairness in DIF…

  15. Differential Item Functioning Detection across Two Methods of Defining Group Comparisons: Pairwise and Composite Group Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Halil Ibrahim; Huggins, Anne Corinne

    2015-01-01

    This study compares two methods of defining groups for the detection of differential item functioning (DIF): (a) pairwise comparisons and (b) composite group comparisons. We aim to emphasize and empirically support the notion that the choice of pairwise versus composite group definitions in DIF is a reflection of how one defines fairness in DIF…

  16. Photon/Electron Benchmarks for Intercode Comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Henry Grady III; Sweezy, Jeremy Ed; Lemaire, Sebastien

    2015-07-21

    The goal of this work was to improve accuracy and efficiency of two Monte-Carlo transport codes (MCNP and DIANE) with an emphasis on γ+electron physics. The approach involved intercode comparisons + measurements for gamma/e- energy deposition in a cylinder with a photon source and different materials (C, Pb) and the bombardment of 15-MeV electrons on thick targets (Al, Be, Pb). Comparisons of the codes DIANE and MCNP6 showed good agreement (differences < 3%) for gamma-electron energy deposition in a 2D cylinder, except for the first 0.1 μm of lead (difference < 10%). Comparisons with measurements showed generally good agreement, often better than 10%; best-performing codes/options are problem-dependent; and single-event discrepancies are in active use in reviewing electron elastic scattering.

  17. A comparison study of hair examination methodologies.

    PubMed

    Kolowski, Jason C; Petraco, Nicholas; Wallace, Margaret M; De Forest, Peter R; Prinz, Mechthild

    2004-11-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the accuracy between two methods of hair analysis: PCR-STR DNA analysis and microscopic comparison analysis. Standard sets of pubic hairs were collected from volunteers, and unknown sets were generated from these samples. Three out of five (60%) of the hairs analyzed produced full DNA profiles that were correctly matched to the standard sets. DNA analysis was inconclusive (partial or no DNA profile) for two out of five (40%) of the samples. In contrast, the microscopic comparison analysis correctly matched four out of five (80%) of the samples to the standard sets but mis-identified one out of five (20%) of the samples. These results reinforce the practice of preliminary microscopic hair examination in narrowing down a set of hairs for DNA analysis. Microscopic comparison analysis is sufficiently reliable to remain a rapid and inexpensive method for forensic hair analysis.

  18. Real medical benefit assessed by indirect comparison.

    PubMed

    Falissard, Bruno; Zylberman, Myriam; Cucherat, Michel; Izard, Valérie; Meyer, François

    2009-01-01

    Frequently, in data packages submitted for Marketing Approval to the CHMP, there is a lack of relevant head-to-head comparisons of medicinal products that could enable national authorities responsible for the approval of reimbursement to assess the Added Therapeutic Value (ASMR) of new clinical entities or line extensions of existing therapies.Indirect or mixed treatment comparisons (MTC) are methods stemming from the field of meta-analysis that have been designed to tackle this problem. Adjusted indirect comparisons, meta-regressions, mixed models, Bayesian network analyses pool results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), enabling a quantitative synthesis.The REAL procedure, recently developed by the HAS (French National Authority for Health), is a mixture of an MTC and effect model based on expert opinions. It is intended to translate the efficacy observed in the trials into effectiveness expected in day-to-day clinical practice in France.

  19. Comparison of Tritium Component Failure Rate Data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-09-01

    Published failure rate values from the US Tritium Systems Test Assembly, the Japanese Tritium Process Laboratory, the German Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, and the Joint European Torus Active Gas Handling System have been compared. This comparison is on a limited set of components, but there is a good variety of data sets in the comparison. The data compared reasonably well. The most reasonable failure rate values are recommended for use on next generation tritium handling system components, such as those in the tritium plant systems for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and the tritium fuel systems of inertial fusion facilities, such as the US National Ignition Facility. These data and the comparison results are also shared with the International Energy Agency cooperative task on fusion component failure rate data.

  20. Key comparison of liquid density standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Christian; Zelenka, Zoltan; Kajastie, Heikki; Madec, Tanguy; Wolf, Henning; Vámossy, Csilla; Lorefice, Salvatore; Garberg, Torgunn; Lenard, Elżbieta; Spohr, Isabel; Mares, Gabriela; Spurný, Robert; Lumbreras, Angel; Medina, Nieves; Y Akçadağ, Ümit; Perkin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Hydrostatic density determination for liquids is mainly performed by laboratories to provide means for calibrating liquid density measuring instruments such as oscillation-type density meters. From 2002 to 2005 the CIPM key comparison CCM.D-K2 'comparison of liquid density standards' was carried out piloted by the PTB. The aim was to compare the results of the density determination by the participating laboratories to support entries to the CMC tables in this sub-field. To provide further laboratories the possibility to support their entries to the CMC tables at the meeting of the EUROMET Working Group on Density in 2007 this comparison was agreed on. BEV (Austria) organized the comparison supported by the PTB (Germany). For the comparison samples of pentadecane, water, tetrachloroethylene and of an oil of high viscosity were measured in the temperature range from 5 °C to 60 °C at atmospheric pressure by hydrostatic weighing. The measurements were completed in 2008. The reference values of the first reports based on the draft of the CCM.D-K2. After the official publication of the CCM.D-K2 the reference values were recalculated and the report was finalised in 2015. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  1. Infrared spectral normal emittance/emissivity comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanssen, L.; Wilthan, B.; Filtz, J.-R.; Hameury, J.; Girard, F.; Battuello, M.; Ishii, J.; Hollandt, J.; Monte, C.

    2016-01-01

    The National Measurement Institutes (NMIs) of the United States, Germany, France, Italy and Japan, have joined in an inter-laboratory comparison of their infrared spectral emittance scales. This action is part of a series of supplementary inter-laboratory comparisons (including thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity) sponsored by the Consultative Committee on Thermometry (CCT) Task Group on Thermophysical Quantities (TG-ThQ). The objective of this collaborative work is to strengthen the major operative National Measurement Institutes' infrared spectral emittance scales and consequently the consistency of radiative properties measurements carried out worldwide. The comparison has been performed over a spectral range of 2 μm to 14 μm, and a temperature range from 23 °C to 800 °C. Artefacts included in the comparison are potential standards: oxidized Inconel, boron nitride, and silicon carbide. The measurement instrumentation and techniques used for emittance scales are unique for each NMI, including the temperature ranges covered as well as the artefact sizes required. For example, all three common types of spectral instruments are represented: dispersive grating monochromator, Fourier transform and filter-based spectrometers. More than 2000 data points (combinations of material, wavelength and temperature) were compared. Ninety-eight percent (98%) of the data points were in agreement, with differences to weighted mean values less than the expanded uncertainties calculated from the individual NMI uncertainties and uncertainties related to the comparison process. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  2. ACIX: Atmospheric Correction Inter-comparison Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doxani, Georgia; Gascon, Ferran; Vermote, Éric; Roger, Jean-Claude

    2017-04-01

    The free and open data access policy to Sentinel-2 (S-2) and Landsat-8 (L-8) satellite imagery has stimulated the development of atmospheric correction (AC) processors for generating Bottom-of-Atmosphere (BOA) products. Several entities have started to generate (or plan to generate in the short term) BOA reflectance products at global scale for S-2 and L-8 missions. To this end, the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA are organizing an exercise on AC processors inter-comparison. The results of the exercise are expected to point out the strengths and weaknesses, as well as communalities and discrepancies of various AC processors, in order to suggest and define ways for their further improvement. In particular, 13 atmospheric processors from five different countries participate in ACIX with the aim to inter-compare their performance when applied to L-8 and S-2 data. A protocol describing the inter-comparison process and the test dataset, which is based on the AERONET sites, will be presented. The protocol has been defined according to what was agreed among the participants during the 1st ACIX workshop held in June 2016. It includes the comparison of aerosol optical thickness and water vapour products of the processors with the AERONET measurements. Moreover, concerning the surface reflectances, the protocol describes the inter-comparison among the processors, as well as the comparison with the MODIS surface reflectance and with a reference surface reflectance product. Such a reference product will be obtained using the AERONET characterization of the aerosol (size distribution and refractive indices) and an accurate radiative transfer code. The inter-comparison outcomes will be presented and discussed among the participants in the 2nd ACIX workshop, which will be held on 11-12 April 2017 (ESRIN/ESA). The proposed presentation is an opportunity for the user community to be informed for the first time about the ACIX results and conclusions.

  3. On relative distortion in fingerprint comparison.

    PubMed

    Kalka, Nathan D; Hicklin, R Austin

    2014-11-01

    When fingerprints are deposited, non-uniform pressure in conjunction with the inherent elasticity of friction ridge skin often causes linear and non-linear distortions in the ridge and valley structure. The effects of these distortions must be considered during analysis of fingerprint images. Even when individual prints are not notably distorted, relative distortion between two prints can have a serious impact on comparison. In this paper we discuss several metrics for quantifying and visualizing linear and non-linear fingerprint deformations, and software tools to assist examiners in accounting for distortion in fingerprint comparisons.

  4. Metrics for comparison of crystallographic maps

    SciTech Connect

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Lunin, Vladimir Y.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-10-01

    Numerical comparison of crystallographic contour maps is used extensively in structure solution and model refinement, analysis and validation. However, traditional metrics such as the map correlation coefficient (map CC, real-space CC or RSCC) sometimes contradict the results of visual assessment of the corresponding maps. This article explains such apparent contradictions and suggests new metrics and tools to compare crystallographic contour maps. The key to the new methods is rank scaling of the Fourier syntheses. The new metrics are complementary to the usual map CC and can be more helpful in map comparison, in particular when only some of their aspects, such as regions of high density, are of interest.

  5. A Comparison of Information System Development Methodologies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    r Dll -ft lU 5? R COMPARISON OF INFORMATION SYSTEM DEYELOPMENT IETHOOOLOGXES(U) AIR FORCE ]NST OF TECH IGHMT-PRTTERSON RFI 0ON SCHOOL OF SYSTEMS AND...DEVELOPMENT METHODOLJOGI ES THESIS Steven D. Branch Captain, USAF AFIT/GI R /LSR/87D-1 ...................i TON STTEM " A Approyed for public relecog4i...AFIT/GIR/LSR/87D- 1 A COMPARISON OF INFORMATION SYSTEM - DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGIES .> THESIS ’ r ~( D~9ii Captain, USAF% AFIT/GIR/LSR/8?D-1 FE 0

  6. Comparison of IR and Visible Cloud Imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandeville, W.; McLaughlin, T.; Bygren, S.; Randell, C.

    This paper presents a comparison between the Infrared Cloud Imager (IRCI) used at Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) sites and the Visible Cloud Imager (VCI) developed using a COTS all-sky camera. The cloud imagers are used to create exclusion maps for GEODSS observations based on detected cloud locations. Excluding observation attempts in obscured areas of the sky is done to improve the allocation of sensor resources. Estimates are made for atmospheric extinction across the entire sky by comparing known star brightness to measured brightness. Data for the comparison were collected at the GEODSS test site located in Yoder, Colorado for a variety of cloud conditions.

  7. Parallel mergs sort using comparison matrices. I

    SciTech Connect

    Romm, Y.E.

    1995-05-01

    The topics discussed in this paper are connected with internal merge sorting by a key (in short, M-sorting or M-sort). Originally developed by von Neumann, this is one of the first sorting methods. It still remains one of the fastest, involving Nlog{sub 2}N comparisons. The purpose of our article is to demonstrate the use of comparison matrices (CMs) for merging in M-sort. While preserving the known advantages of the sequential implementation of M-sort. CMs ensure more efficient use of main memory (one of the known weaknesses of M-sort is its large memory requirements) and effective parallelizability.

  8. N Reactor RELAP5 model benchmark comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, C.D.; Bolander, M.A.

    1988-02-01

    This report documents work performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in support of Westinghouse Hanford Company safety analyses for the N Reactor. The portion of the work reported here includes comparisons of RELAP5/MOD2-calculated data with measured plant data for: (1) a plant trip reactor transient from full power operation; and (2) a hot dump test performed prior to plant startup. These qualitative comparisons are valuable because they provide an indication of the capabilities of the RELAP5/MOD2 code to simulate operational and blowdonw transients in the N Reactor. 9 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Metrics for comparison of crystallographic maps

    PubMed Central

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Lunin, Vladimir Y.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical comparison of crystallographic contour maps is used extensively in structure solution and model refinement, analysis and validation. However, traditional metrics such as the map correlation coefficient (map CC, real-space CC or RSCC) sometimes contradict the results of visual assessment of the corresponding maps. This article explains such apparent contradictions and suggests new metrics and tools to compare crystallographic contour maps. The key to the new methods is rank scaling of the Fourier syntheses. The new metrics are complementary to the usual map CC and can be more helpful in map comparison, in particular when only some of their aspects, such as regions of high density, are of interest. PMID:25286844

  10. Inner Radiation Belt Data / Model Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, Timothy; O'Brien, Paul; Selesnick, Richard

    We present detailed comparisons of a time-dependent inner radiation belt model with proton observations made by a variety of in-situ spacecraft during solar cycle 23. The recently-developed model (Selesnick et al., 2007) computes proton intensities as a function of time and of the three adiabatic invariants in the inner belt, which we convert to the observable count rate at the location of the satellite by using a nominal instrument response function. These comparisons and initial data-assimilation efforts suggest that the model performance can be improved especially during intervals containing unmodeled processes such as trapped proton losses during geomagnetic storms.

  11. Inner Radiation Belt Data / Model Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, T. P.; Selesnick, R.; Looper, M.

    2008-12-01

    We present detailed comparisons of a time-dependent inner radiation belt model with in-situ proton observations made by a variety of spacecraft during solar cycle 23. The recently-developed model (Selesnick et al., 2007) computes proton intensities as a function of time and of the three adiabatic invariants in the inner belt, which we convert to the observable count rate in a detector at the location of the satellite by using instrument response functions. These comparisons and initial data-assimilation efforts suggest that the model performance can be improved especially during injections of solar protons, and at L-shells above 2.

  12. Systematic Comparison of Operating Reserve Methodologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, E.; Krad, I.; Ela, E.

    2014-04-01

    Operating reserve requirements are a key component of modern power systems, and they contribute to maintaining reliable operations with minimum economic impact. No universal method exists for determining reserve requirements, thus there is a need for a thorough study and performance comparison of the different existing methodologies. Increasing penetrations of variable generation (VG) on electric power systems are posed to increase system uncertainty and variability, thus the need for additional reserve also increases. This paper presents background information on operating reserve and its relationship to VG. A consistent comparison of three methodologies to calculate regulating and flexibility reserve in systems with VG is performed.

  13. KEY COMPARISON: Report on the CCPR Key Comparison K6: Spectral regular transmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obein, Gaël; Bastie, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The CCPR K6 key comparison on spectral regular transmittance was carried out in the framework of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement by 15 laboratories: IFA (Spain), KRISS (Republic of Korea), LNE-IMN (France), NIST (USA), NMC-A*STAR (Singapore), NMi (The Netherlands), NMIA (Australia), NMIJ/AIST (Japan), NPL (United Kingdom), NRC (Canada), MIKES (Finland), MSL (New Zealand), PTB (Germany), SMU (Slovakia) and VNIIOFI (Russia), with the LNE-INM acting as the central and reporting laboratory. The aim of the comparison was restricted to checking the accuracy of the radiometric scale of spectrophotometers, using coloured glass filters with nominal transmittance of approximately 92%, 56%, 10%, 1% and 0.1%. The wavelengths of measurement were 380 nm, 400 nm, 500 nm, 600 nm, 700 nm, 800 nm, 900 nm and 1000 nm. The comparison was a star type comparison with the samples provided by the pilot laboratory and sent out to all the participants at the same time. The report describes in detail the measurements made at the LNE-INM and summarizes the reports submitted by the participants. The comparison of the results of measurements carried out by the pilot laboratory before and after the circulation of the filters points out that the stability of most of the filters was rather poor. Moreover, for the coloured glass filters B to E, the drift was wavelength dependent. As a consequence, for many results, the uncertainty due to the drift of the filters during the comparison is the major cause of uncertainties, much larger than the measurement uncertainty of the measurements reported by the laboratories. Measurement results from participants and their associated uncertainties were analysed in this report according to the Guidelines for CCPR Comparison Report Preparation, but with some adjustment for taking into account that transmittance measurements have unit 1. Across the spectral region (380 nm to 1000 nm) there were 8 wavelengths at which a comparison was made. These were

  14. Drift Eliminating Designs for Non-Simultaneous Comparison Calibrations.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Ted

    1993-01-01

    The effects of drift on calibrations carried out by comparison have been studied at the National Institute of Standards and Technology for many years, and a number of strategies have been introduced to combat these effects. One strategy, the use of comparison designs which are inherently immune to linear drift, was developed specifically for mass comparison measurements. These techniques, developed for simultaneous comparisons, are extended to the case of non-simultaneous comparisons, such as gage block calibrations, where each artifact is measured separately, and the comparison is made mathematically from the individual measurements.

  15. Drift Eliminating Designs for Non-Simultaneous Comparison Calibrations

    PubMed Central

    Doiron, Ted

    1993-01-01

    The effects of drift on calibrations carried out by comparison have been studied at the National Institute of Standards and Technology for many years, and a number of strategies have been introduced to combat these effects. One strategy, the use of comparison designs which are inherently immune to linear drift, was developed specifically for mass comparison measurements. These techniques, developed for simultaneous comparisons, are extended to the case of non-simultaneous comparisons, such as gage block calibrations, where each artifact is measured separately, and the comparison is made mathematically from the individual measurements. PMID:28053468

  16. Teaching Creativity: A Comparison of Two Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Doreen A.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A comparison was made of the effects of a topic-centered lecture and a skill-centered practice session on creativity, as measured by two tests of divergent thinking. Results were interpreted as supporting De Bono's claim that thinking skills are best taught by focusing on techniques which, with practice, can be deliberately applied to a number of…

  17. ABL and BAM Friction Analysis Comparison

    DOE PAGES

    Warner, Kirstin F.; Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; ...

    2014-12-29

    Here, the Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program has conducted a proficiency study for Small-Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here is a comparison of the Alleghany Ballistic Laboratory (ABL) friction data and Bundesanstalt fur Materialforschung und -prufung (BAM) friction data for 19 HEM and military standard explosives.

  18. A comparison of Monte Carlo generators

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, Tomasz

    2015-05-15

    A comparison of GENIE, NEUT, NUANCE, and NuWro Monte Carlo neutrino event generators is presented using a set of four observables: protons multiplicity, total visible energy, most energetic proton momentum, and π{sup +} two-dimensional energy vs cosine distribution.

  19. Do young children understand relative value comparisons?

    PubMed

    Benenson, Joyce F; Markovits, Henry; Whitmore, Bjorn; Van, Christophe; Margolius, Sara; Wrangham, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Many forms of judgments, such as those used in economic games or measures of social comparison, require understanding relative value, as well as the more complex ability to make comparisons between relative values. To examine whether young children can accurately compare relative values, we presented children 4 to 7 years with simple judgments of relative value in two scenarios. Children then were asked to compare the relative values in the two scenarios. Results show that even the youngest children downgraded evaluations of a reward when another has a larger amount, indicating the ability to make relative value judgments. When asked to compare relative values however, only the oldest children were able to make these comparisons consistently. We then extended this analysis to economic game performance. Specifically, previous results using economic games suggest that younger children are more generous than older ones. We replicate this result, and then show that a simple change in procedure, based on the initial study, is sufficient to change young children's choices. Our results strongly suggest that conclusions regarding young children's pro-social motives based on relative value comparisons should be viewed cautiously.

  20. Social Comparison of Pay and Inequity Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Ben

    Inequity theory differs from social exchange theory in its analysis of a worker's reaction to pay by asserting that effects on work performance caused by high or low pay are due to social comparison of fairness rather than principles of direct exchange, such as reciprocity and power. The present experiment held piece-rate pay constant at two…

  1. Tukey-Like Pairwise Comparisons among Proportions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard H.

    1992-01-01

    A QuickBASIC microcomputer program for conducting Tukey-like pairwise comparisons on "k" independent sample proportions is described. The program can accommodate applications involving equal or unequal sample sizes. Studentized range values are computed and displayed on a computer monitor, each of which represents a simple comparison…

  2. "Units of Comparison" across Languages, across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Lardiere's keynote article adverts to a succession of "units of comparison" that have been employed in the study of cross-linguistic differences, including mid-twentieth-century structural patterns, generative grammar's parameters, and (within contemporary Minimalism) features. This commentary expands on the idea of units of cross-linguistic…

  3. Comparison of Classical and Quantum Mechanical Uncertainties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peslak, John, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Comparisons are made for the particle-in-a-box, the harmonic oscillator, and the one-electron atom. A classical uncertainty principle is derived and compared with its quantum-mechanical counterpart. The results are discussed in terms of the statistical interpretation of the uncertainty principle. (Author/BB)

  4. Research Techniques for Phonetic Comparison of Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delattre, Pierre

    1963-01-01

    This is the first in a series of articles on general phonetic characteristics of American English. Language research techniques of spectrographic analysis, spectrographic synthesis, articulatory motion-picture study, and statistical calculation are briefly described. Thirty-five areas of phonetic difference for comparison of English to Spanish,…

  5. "Units of Comparison" across Languages, across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Lardiere's keynote article adverts to a succession of "units of comparison" that have been employed in the study of cross-linguistic differences, including mid-twentieth-century structural patterns, generative grammar's parameters, and (within contemporary Minimalism) features. This commentary expands on the idea of units of cross-linguistic…

  6. COMPARISONS AND CONTRASTS AMONG DIFFERENT SCALED ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparison of a regional (multi-state) and local (multi-county) scale assessment was done to evaluate similarities and differences in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of landscape data. The study areas included EP A Region 3 a11d a sub-region spanning North and Sout...

  7. Interlaboratory comparison of olfactometry in Japan.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, T; Masuda, J

    2004-01-01

    In 2000, 2001, and 2002, interlaboratory comparison of olfactometry was carried out in order to collect basic data for the establishment of a quality control procedure and the determination of quality criteria for the triangular odour bag method. In 2000, interlaboratory comparison was conducted by using a measurement method for samples taken at smoke stacks. On the other hand, the measurement method for samples taken at boundary lines was used for interlaboratory comparison in 2001. A total of seven olfactometry laboratories in Japan participated in each test, and mean values, repeatability standard deviations, reproducibility standard deviations, and standard deviations under intermediate conditions of detection threshold of ethyl acetate were calculated from the results. These values can be used in a quality control process of olfactometry. In 2002, interlaboratory comparison was carried out by using a measurement method for samples taken at smoke stacks. A total of 137 olfactometry laboratories in Japan participated in the test, and 69% of them lay within the permissible range of the odour index.

  8. Interview Design for Ratio Comparison Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alatorre, Silvia; Figueras, Olimpia

    2003-01-01

    In this article, which is part of an ongoing research, a classification is proposed for ratio comparison problems, according to their context, their quantity type, and their numerical structure. Deriving from this classification, an interview protocol was designed, and guidelines for the interpretation of answers into strategies were decided. A…

  9. Inter-comparison of subglacial hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fleurian, Basile; Werder, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    The recent emergence of a number of subglacial hydrological models allows us to obtain theoretical insights on basal processes; for instance on the coupling between water pressure and the sliding of glaciers. In ice-flow models, it is relatively clear what the simulated physics ought to be. Conversely, the physical processes incorporated into subglacial hydrology models are diverse as it is yet unclear which ones are of relevance for a particular setting. An inter-comparison of hydrology models will therefore need a somewhat different approach to the one used in the many ice-flow model inter-comparisons (EISMINT, ISMIP, etc.). Here, we present a set of experiments that will allow the comparison of the behavior of different hydrology models. The design of the benchmark aims at allowing the participation of a wide range of models based on different physical approaches. We aim at evaluating the models with a focus on the effective pressure which has the most impact on the dynamics of glaciers. The aim of this inter-comparison is to provide modellers with the necessary data to make an informed decision on which subglacial hydrology model to use for a particular study.

  10. On the comparison of fundamental numerical ephemerides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachuk, V. V.; Choliy, V. Ya.

    2013-12-01

    We present the results of our comparison of three main numerical ephemerides (DELE, INPOP, EPM) for the determination of precision and errors of their dynamical coordinate systems. It was shown that all of them have comparable levels of precision, however the EPM demonstrates an unusual shift of the coordinate origin. Systematic errors were estimated as well, and mutual shifts of coordinate centres were found.

  11. Multivariate normative comparisons using an aggregated database.

    PubMed

    Agelink van Rentergem, Joost A; Murre, Jaap M J; Huizenga, Hilde M

    2017-01-01

    In multivariate normative comparisons, a patient's profile of test scores is compared to those in a normative sample. Recently, it has been shown that these multivariate normative comparisons enhance the sensitivity of neuropsychological assessment. However, multivariate normative comparisons require multivariate normative data, which are often unavailable. In this paper, we show how a multivariate normative database can be constructed by combining healthy control group data from published neuropsychological studies. We show that three issues should be addressed to construct a multivariate normative database. First, the database may have a multilevel structure, with participants nested within studies. Second, not all tests are administered in every study, so many data may be missing. Third, a patient should be compared to controls of similar age, gender and educational background rather than to the entire normative sample. To address these issues, we propose a multilevel approach for multivariate normative comparisons that accounts for missing data and includes covariates for age, gender and educational background. Simulations show that this approach controls the number of false positives and has high sensitivity to detect genuine deviations from the norm. An empirical example is provided. Implications for other domains than neuropsychology are also discussed. To facilitate broader adoption of these methods, we provide code implementing the entire analysis in the open source software package R.

  12. Reasoning by Analogy in Solving Comparison Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates 10-year-old children's abilities to reason by analogy in solving addition and subtraction comparison problems involving unknown compare sets and unknown reference sets. Children responded in a consistent manner to the tasks involving the basic addition problems, indicating substantial relational knowledge of these but responded in an…

  13. ACIX: Atmospheric Correction Inter-comparison Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermote, E.; Roger, J. C.; Gascon, F.; Doxani, G.

    2016-12-01

    Surface reflectance is one of the key products used in developing several higher-order land products. Understanding and characterizing the uncertainties of surface reflectance is critical for downstream users. The purpose of ACIX is to inter-compare the performance of 14 atmospheric processors from five different countries for the Landsat8 OLI and Sentinel 2 MSI data. The exercise is expected to point out the strengths and weaknesses as well as the commonalities and differences of the different atmospheric correction processors with aim to enable further improvements. A carefully crafted protocol for the inter-comparison and the test dataset focused on the AERONET sites will be described, according to what was agreed during the first ACIX workshop held in June 2016. The protocol includes the comparison of aerosol optical thickness and water vapor products of the processors with the AERONET measurements.. Concerning the surface reflectances, the protocol describes the inter-comparison among the processors, as well as the comparison with the MODIS surface reflectance and with a reference surface reflectance product. Such a reference product will be obtained using the AERONET characterization of the aerosol (size distribution and refractive indices) and an accurate radiative transfer code. We will present the first results and lessons learned from the first phase of this exercise.

  14. International Comparisons and Sensitivity to Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2008-01-01

    While international comparisons such as those provided by PISA may be meaningful in terms of overall judgements about the performance of educational systems, caution is needed in terms of more fine-grained judgements. In particular it is argued that the results of PISA to draw conclusions about the quality of instruction in different systems is…

  15. Multiple Comparison Procedures when Population Variances Differ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olejnik, Stephen; Lee, JaeShin

    A review of the literature on multiple comparison procedures suggests several alternative approaches for comparing means when population variances differ. These include: (1) the approach of P. A. Games and J. F. Howell (1976); (2) C. W. Dunnett's C confidence interval (1980); and (3) Dunnett's T3 solution (1980). These procedures control the…

  16. Analysis of Paired Comparison Data Using Mx

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Rung-Ching; Wu, Tsung-Lin

    2004-01-01

    By postulating that the random utilities associated with the choice options follow a multivariate normal distribution, Thurstonian models (Thurstone, 1927) provide a straightforward representation of paired comparison data. The use of Monte Carlo Expectation-Maximization (MCEM) algorithms and limited information approaches have been proposed to…

  17. Comparison of Classical and Quantum Mechanical Uncertainties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peslak, John, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Comparisons are made for the particle-in-a-box, the harmonic oscillator, and the one-electron atom. A classical uncertainty principle is derived and compared with its quantum-mechanical counterpart. The results are discussed in terms of the statistical interpretation of the uncertainty principle. (Author/BB)

  18. A Comparison of Software Schedule Estimators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    and Limitations ............................... 3 II. Literature Review ..................................... 5 Software Development Life Cycle...94 V List of ieu Figure Page 1. An Example Of System Development Reviews And Audits ...... 8 2. Life Cycle Estimate Comparison...missing a measurement that is required to run the model. 4 II. Literature Review The field of software development is of interest to a wide variety of

  19. COMPARISONS AND CONTRASTS AMONG DIFFERENT SCALED ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparison of a regional (multi-state) and local (multi-county) scale assessment was done to evaluate similarities and differences in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of landscape data. The study areas included EP A Region 3 a11d a sub-region spanning North and Sout...

  20. FEEDBACK DESIGN METHOD REVIEW AND COMPARISON.

    SciTech Connect

    ONILLON,E.

    1999-03-29

    Different methods for feedback designs are compared. These includes classical Proportional Integral Derivative (P. I. D.), state variable based methods like pole placement, Linear Quadratic Regulator (L. Q. R.), H-infinity and p-analysis. These methods are then applied for the design and analysis of the RHIC phase and radial loop, yielding a performance, stability and robustness comparison.

  1. Cross-Cultural Comparison of Cognitive Consistency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khokhlov, Nikolai E.; Gonzalez E. John

    1973-01-01

    A comparison of cognitive consistency was conducted across two cultural groups. Forty-five American subjects in Southern California and 45 subjects in Northern Greece responded to a questionnaire written in their native language and which contained three classical paradigms for balance theory. It was hypothesized that significant differences in…

  2. Measurement of Social Development: An International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Amal Kanti

    2008-01-01

    PQLI and HDI are the two most popular measures of development, besides per capita income. Over the years, PQLI appears to be not much in use for regional comparisons, especially after the introduction of HDI. While PQLI considers only the physical variables--adult literacy, life expectancy at birth and infant survival rate, HDI has life expectancy…

  3. A comparison of chronologies from tree rings

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Riitters

    1990-01-01

    Forty-five-year ring width index chronologies were estimated by five mean-value functions applied to 183 ring width series from four similar sites. The effects of autocorrelation on the comparisons among mean-value functions were explored by fitting box-Jenkins models to individual-tree index services prior to pooling (prewhitening), and to the pooled chronologies...

  4. Labels Facilitate Infants' Comparison of Action Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerson, Sarah A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the actions of others depends on the insight that these actions are structured by intentional relations. In a number of conceptual domains, comparison with familiar instances has been shown to support children's and adults' ability to discern the relational structure of novel instances. Recent evidence suggests that this process…

  5. Planned Contrasts: An Overview of Comparison Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatham, Kathy

    Contrasts or comparisons can be used to investigate specific differences between means. Contrasts, as explained by B. Thompson (1985, 1994) are coding vectors that mathematically express hypotheses. The most basic categories of contrasts are planned and unplanned. The purpose of this paper is to explain the relative advantages of using planned…

  6. Do Young Children Understand Relative Value Comparisons?

    PubMed Central

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Markovits, Henry; Whitmore, Bjorn; Van, Christophe; Margolius, Sara; Wrangham, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Many forms of judgments, such as those used in economic games or measures of social comparison, require understanding relative value, as well as the more complex ability to make comparisons between relative values. To examine whether young children can accurately compare relative values, we presented children 4 to 7 years with simple judgments of relative value in two scenarios. Children then were asked to compare the relative values in the two scenarios. Results show that even the youngest children downgraded evaluations of a reward when another has a larger amount, indicating the ability to make relative value judgments. When asked to compare relative values however, only the oldest children were able to make these comparisons consistently. We then extended this analysis to economic game performance. Specifically, previous results using economic games suggest that younger children are more generous than older ones. We replicate this result, and then show that a simple change in procedure, based on the initial study, is sufficient to change young children’s choices. Our results strongly suggest that conclusions regarding young children’s pro-social motives based on relative value comparisons should be viewed cautiously. PMID:25875949

  7. Multiple alignment-free sequence comparison

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jie; Song, Kai; Sun, Fengzhu; Deng, Minghua; Reinert, Gesine

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Recently, a range of new statistics have become available for the alignment-free comparison of two sequences based on k-tuple word content. Here, we extend these statistics to the simultaneous comparison of more than two sequences. Our suite of statistics contains, first, and , extensions of statistics for pairwise comparison of the joint k-tuple content of all the sequences, and second, , and , averages of sums of pairwise comparison statistics. The two tasks we consider are, first, to identify sequences that are similar to a set of target sequences, and, second, to measure the similarity within a set of sequences. Results: Our investigation uses both simulated data as well as cis-regulatory module data where the task is to identify cis-regulatory modules with similar transcription factor binding sites. We find that although for real data, all of our statistics show a similar performance, on simulated data the Shepp-type statistics are in some instances outperformed by star-type statistics. The multiple alignment-free statistics are more sensitive to contamination in the data than the pairwise average statistics. Availability: Our implementation of the five statistics is available as R package named ‘multiAlignFree’ at be http://www-rcf.usc.edu/∼fsun/Programs/multiAlignFree/multiAlignFreemain.html. Contact: reinert@stats.ox.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23990418

  8. Construction of Health Indices Using Paired Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ip, Wai Cheung; Chiu, Lai Lin; Kwan, Ying Keung

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses, by making use of past experiences in the area, the main issues and the methodology of developing a health status instrument for a developing country from a well-established instrument. The use of Thurstone's model of paired comparisons in evaluating the relative importance of health symptoms has been reviewed and some…

  9. Analysis of Paired Comparison Data Using Mx

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Rung-Ching; Wu, Tsung-Lin

    2004-01-01

    By postulating that the random utilities associated with the choice options follow a multivariate normal distribution, Thurstonian models (Thurstone, 1927) provide a straightforward representation of paired comparison data. The use of Monte Carlo Expectation-Maximization (MCEM) algorithms and limited information approaches have been proposed to…

  10. International Comparisons of Vocational Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Brett

    This report, which is based primarily on figures released by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), reviews the indicators available for international comparisons of vocational education and training (VET) to clarify the following issues: the kinds of comparability problems that exit, their extent and severity, their…

  11. Measurement of Social Development: An International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Amal Kanti

    2008-01-01

    PQLI and HDI are the two most popular measures of development, besides per capita income. Over the years, PQLI appears to be not much in use for regional comparisons, especially after the introduction of HDI. While PQLI considers only the physical variables--adult literacy, life expectancy at birth and infant survival rate, HDI has life expectancy…

  12. Comparison of Current Health Care Reform Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 1994

    1994-01-01

    A chart compares provisions regarding vision-related services of five major federal health reform bills. Comparisons cover general characteristics, vision services, inpatient rehabilitation, outpatient rehabilitation, durable medical equipment, long-term care, consumer information in accessible formats, and other provisions of interest. (DB)

  13. Multivariate normative comparisons using an aggregated database

    PubMed Central

    Murre, Jaap M. J.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

    2017-01-01

    In multivariate normative comparisons, a patient’s profile of test scores is compared to those in a normative sample. Recently, it has been shown that these multivariate normative comparisons enhance the sensitivity of neuropsychological assessment. However, multivariate normative comparisons require multivariate normative data, which are often unavailable. In this paper, we show how a multivariate normative database can be constructed by combining healthy control group data from published neuropsychological studies. We show that three issues should be addressed to construct a multivariate normative database. First, the database may have a multilevel structure, with participants nested within studies. Second, not all tests are administered in every study, so many data may be missing. Third, a patient should be compared to controls of similar age, gender and educational background rather than to the entire normative sample. To address these issues, we propose a multilevel approach for multivariate normative comparisons that accounts for missing data and includes covariates for age, gender and educational background. Simulations show that this approach controls the number of false positives and has high sensitivity to detect genuine deviations from the norm. An empirical example is provided. Implications for other domains than neuropsychology are also discussed. To facilitate broader adoption of these methods, we provide code implementing the entire analysis in the open source software package R. PMID:28267796

  14. The discovery and comparison of symbolic magnitudes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dawn; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J

    2014-06-01

    Humans and other primates are able to make relative magnitude comparisons, both with perceptual stimuli and with symbolic inputs that convey magnitude information. Although numerous models of magnitude comparison have been proposed, the basic question of how symbolic magnitudes (e.g., size or intelligence of animals) are derived and represented in memory has received little attention. We argue that symbolic magnitudes often will not correspond directly to elementary features of individual concepts. Rather, magnitudes may be formed in working memory based on computations over more basic features stored in long-term memory. We present a model of how magnitudes can be acquired and compared based on BARTlet, a representationally simpler version of Bayesian Analogy with Relational Transformations (BART; Lu, Chen, & Holyoak, 2012). BARTlet operates on distributions of magnitude variables created by applying dimension-specific weights (learned with the aid of empirical priors derived from pre-categorical comparisons) to more primitive features of objects. The resulting magnitude distributions, formed and maintained in working memory, are sensitive to contextual influences such as the range of stimuli and polarity of the question. By incorporating psychological reference points that control the precision of magnitudes in working memory and applying the tools of signal detection theory, BARTlet is able to account for a wide range of empirical phenomena involving magnitude comparisons, including the symbolic distance effect and the semantic congruity effect. We discuss the role of reference points in cognitive and social decision-making, and implications for the evolution of relational representations.

  15. A comparison of forest canopy transmittance estimators

    Treesearch

    E.R. Smith; Kurt H. Riitters

    1994-01-01

    Multiple sensors, and alternate statistical estimators, were tested for measuring canopy transmittance in four stands under a variety of sky conditions. On a given day, stand average transmittance estimates were insensitive to degree of synchronization of the sensors used to measure under-canopy and incoming radiation. In comparisons to periodic measurement of incoming...

  16. Photographic catalog of selected planetary size comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, S. P.

    1985-01-01

    Photographs taken by NASA spacecraft, and cartographic products based on these photos, are used to illustrate size comparisons of the planets and moons of the solar system. Global views and prominent geographical features are depicted at the same scale, allowing size relationships to be studied visually.

  17. PROMPT: a protein mapping and comparison tool

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Thorsten; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2006-01-01

    Background Comparison of large protein datasets has become a standard task in bioinformatics. Typically researchers wish to know whether one group of proteins is significantly enriched in certain annotation attributes or sequence properties compared to another group, and whether this enrichment is statistically significant. In order to conduct such comparisons it is often required to integrate molecular sequence data and experimental information from disparate incompatible sources. While many specialized programs exist for comparisons of this kind in individual problem domains, such as expression data analysis, no generic software solution capable of addressing a wide spectrum of routine tasks in comparative proteomics is currently available. Results PROMPT is a comprehensive bioinformatics software environment which enables the user to compare arbitrary protein sequence sets, revealing statistically significant differences in their annotation features. It allows automatic retrieval and integration of data from a multitude of molecular biological databases as well as from a custom XML format. Similarity-based mapping of sequence IDs makes it possible to link experimental information obtained from different sources despite discrepancies in gene identifiers and minor sequence variation. PROMPT provides a full set of statistical procedures to address the following four use cases: i) comparison of the frequencies of categorical annotations between two sets, ii) enrichment of nominal features in one set with respect to another one, iii) comparison of numeric distributions, and iv) correlation of numeric variables. Analysis results can be visualized in the form of plots and spreadsheets and exported in various formats, including Microsoft Excel. Conclusion PROMPT is a versatile, platform-independent, easily expandable, stand-alone application designed to be a practical workhorse in analysing and mining protein sequences and associated annotation. The availability of the

  18. Cross-Cultural Comparisons: The Validity of Assessment by Indices of Factor Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eysenck, Hans J.

    1986-01-01

    Considers the cross-cultural consistency of personality inventories, concluding that it is justifiable to use the scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire for comparisons within and between different countries. (Author/LHW)

  19. Cross-Cultural Comparisons: The Validity of Assessment by Indices of Factor Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eysenck, Hans J.

    1986-01-01

    Considers the cross-cultural consistency of personality inventories, concluding that it is justifiable to use the scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire for comparisons within and between different countries. (Author/LHW)

  20. Supplementary comparison EURAMET.L-S22, calibration of gauge blocks by mechanical comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Andrew; Lillepea, Lauri; Matus, Michael; Prieto, Emilio; Ačko, Bojan; Svendsmark Hansen, Maria; Turner, Paul; Testa, Nicola; Daoud, Anouar; Montassar, Chekir; Švedova, Larisa; Hald, Jan; Gaidamovičiūtė, Lilijana; Bajic, Gordana

    2017-01-01

    In October 2012, the EURAMET Technical Committee for Length, TC-L, decided upon a supplementary comparison on gauge block measurements by mechanical comparison, numbered EURAMET.L-S22, with the Danish Technological Institute (DTI) as the pilot laboratory, assisted by NPL (Andrew Lewis), which would provide a link to CCL-K1. The comparison was registered in February 2013, artefact circulation starts in June 2013 and ended in September 2014. Eight gauge blocks were calibrated using a five point measurement. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  1. 16 CFR 233.1 - Former price comparisons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DECEPTIVE PRICING § 233.1 Former price comparisons. (a) One of the most commonly used forms of bargain..., not for the purpose of establishing a fictitious higher price on which a deceptive comparison might...

  2. 16 CFR 233.1 - Former price comparisons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DECEPTIVE PRICING § 233.1 Former price comparisons. (a) One of the most commonly used forms of bargain..., not for the purpose of establishing a fictitious higher price on which a deceptive comparison might...

  3. 16 CFR 233.1 - Former price comparisons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DECEPTIVE PRICING § 233.1 Former price comparisons. (a) One of the most commonly used forms of bargain..., not for the purpose of establishing a fictitious higher price on which a deceptive comparison might...

  4. Positive identification by X-rays bone trabeculae comparison.

    PubMed

    Quatrehomme, Gérald; Biglia, Elodie; Padovani, Bernard; du Jardin, Philippe; Alunni, Véronique

    2014-12-01

    Positive (certain, absolute) identification of human remains needs a scientific comparison between ante mortem and post-mortem biologic features, as fingerprint, odontological, radiological or DNA comparisons. X-rays comparison has been extensively used, usually comparing some peculiarities such as outlines of the bones, degenerative evolution or pathological conditions. Trabeculae comparisons are sparsely underlined in the forensic literature. We report on a case of decomposed body where fingerprint, DNA and odontological comparisons were not possible. After dissecting the leg and preparing the bones, comparison of ante mortem and postmortem trabeculae led to a positive identification. It was observed that tens of radiolucencies and radiodensities drawn by the trabeculae were useful for comparison, within a very small part of bone. In the case reported here the positive identity could have been assessed only by the comparison of the first metatarsal. The statement of positive identification needs scientific criteria that will be discussed in this article.

  5. Supplementary comparison EURAMET.L-S25 (#1354) comparison of pocket type laser distance measuring instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Emilio; Mar Pérez, M.; Ruíz, Juan A.; Matus, Michael; Kotte, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Supplementary comparison of distance measurements using pocket-type laser instruments (EDMs), following the previous comparison EURAMET.L-S20. Originally proposed by the CEM (ES) as a bilateral comparison with BEV (AT), after the open call made at the 2014 EURAMET TC-L meeting, VSL (NL) joined the comparison too. Registered as supplementary comparison EURAMET.L-S25 with CEM acting as coordinator and pilot laboratory. Transfer devices were two Leica DISTO EDMs, being the measurands the distances from the rear part of the EDMs to a target plate situated at 0.3 m and every 5 m until covering a range of 50 m. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  6. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: Final report on COOMET.L-S6: Comparison of standards of evolvent surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimir Semenovich, Kupko

    2010-01-01

    TThe COOMET Project No 314/UA/04, 'Comparison of the involute surface standards', KCDB Reference COOMET.L-S6, was organized by TC 1.5 'Length and Angle' of COOMET. This supplementary comparison started in September 2004 and finished in July 2007. It was piloted by the National Scientific Centre 'Institute of Metrology', Kharkov, Ukraine, and VNIIMS, Russia, participated in the comparison. The comparison standard of NSC 'Institute of Metrology' was carried to the place of the comparison (VNIIMS) by NCS IM attendant specialists as personal baggage, where it was measured by reference to the VNIIMS measuring instrument of parameters of evolvent surfaces, VNIIMS ZMC-550. The pilot laboratory processed the data for estimating measurement result differences between the measuring instruments of NSC IM and VNIIMS. The following parameters were determined: deviation from profile form, deviation from profile position and full profile error. The conclusion is that the equivalence of the reference installations for parameter measurements of involute surfaces of NSC 'Institute of Metrology', Ukraine, and of VNIIMS, Russia, is sufficient and constitutes an appropriate basis for mutual recognition of measurement results. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by COOMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  7. The Performance versus Ability Distinction Following Social Comparison Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Justin T.; LeBeau, Lavonia Smith; Klein, William M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that self-evaluations can be influenced by social comparison feedback. The present study tested whether social comparison feedback has stronger effects on self-evaluations of performance than ability. Participants received social comparison feedback indicating that they had performed above or below average. In addition…

  8. 30 CFR 206.155 - Accounting for comparison.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounting for comparison. 206.155 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 206.155 Accounting for comparison. (a) Except as provided in... subpart. (b) The requirement for accounting for comparison contained in the terms of leases will govern as...

  9. Learning through Case Comparisons: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfieri, Louis; Nokes-Malach, Timothy J.; Schunn, Christian D.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been much research on how people learn from case comparisons. This work has implemented comparison activities in a variety of different ways across a wide range of laboratory and classroom contexts. In an effort to assess the overall effectiveness of case comparisons across this diversity of implementation and…

  10. 40 CFR 761.326 - Conducting the comparison study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conducting the comparison study. 761...-liquid PCB Remediation Waste Samples § 761.326 Conducting the comparison study. Extract or analyze the comparison study samples using the alternative method. For an alternative extraction method or alternative...

  11. 40 CFR 761.326 - Conducting the comparison study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conducting the comparison study. 761...-liquid PCB Remediation Waste Samples § 761.326 Conducting the comparison study. Extract or analyze the comparison study samples using the alternative method. For an alternative extraction method or alternative...

  12. 40 CFR 761.326 - Conducting the comparison study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conducting the comparison study. 761...-liquid PCB Remediation Waste Samples § 761.326 Conducting the comparison study. Extract or analyze the comparison study samples using the alternative method. For an alternative extraction method or alternative...

  13. Supplement to photographic catalog of selected planetary size comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, Stephen Paul

    1991-01-01

    This document updates and extends the photographic catalog of selected planetary size comparisons. It utilizes photographs taken by NASA spacecraft to illustrate size comparisons of planets and moons of the solar system. Global views are depicted at the same scale, within each comparison, allowing size relationships to be studied visually.

  14. The Performance versus Ability Distinction Following Social Comparison Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Justin T.; LeBeau, Lavonia Smith; Klein, William M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that self-evaluations can be influenced by social comparison feedback. The present study tested whether social comparison feedback has stronger effects on self-evaluations of performance than ability. Participants received social comparison feedback indicating that they had performed above or below average. In addition…

  15. Comparison versus Contrast: Task Specifics Affect Category Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ankowski, Amber A.; Vlach, Haley A.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    A large literature has documented that comparison and contrast lead to better performance in a variety of tasks. However, studies of comparison and contrast present contradictory conclusions as to when and how these processes benefit learners. Across four studies, we examined how the specifics of the comparison and contrast task affect performance…

  16. 30 CFR 1206.155 - Accounting for comparison.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accounting for comparison. 1206.155 Section... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.155 Accounting for comparison. (a... with § 1206.152 of this subpart. (b) The requirement for accounting for comparison contained in...

  17. 30 CFR 1206.155 - Accounting for comparison.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accounting for comparison. 1206.155 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.155 Accounting for comparison. (a) Except as provided... with § 1206.152 of this subpart. (b) The requirement for accounting for comparison contained in...

  18. Learning through Case Comparisons: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfieri, Louis; Nokes-Malach, Timothy J.; Schunn, Christian D.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been much research on how people learn from case comparisons. This work has implemented comparison activities in a variety of different ways across a wide range of laboratory and classroom contexts. In an effort to assess the overall effectiveness of case comparisons across this diversity of implementation and…

  19. Ontology for Genome Comparison and Genomic Rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Keith; Stevens, Robert; Pocock, Matthew; Lee, Pete

    2004-01-01

    We present an ontology for describing genomes, genome comparisons, their evolution and biological function. This ontology will support the development of novel genome comparison algorithms and aid the community in discussing genomic evolution. It provides a framework for communication about comparative genomics, and a basis upon which further automated analysis can be built. The nomenclature defined by the ontology will foster clearer communication between biologists, and also standardize terms used by data publishers in the results of analysis programs. The overriding aim of this ontology is the facilitation of consistent annotation of genomes through computational methods, rather than human annotators. To this end, the ontology includes definitions that support computer analysis and automated transfer of annotations between genomes, rather than relying upon human mediation. PMID:18629137

  20. Comparison of fugitive coal dust sizing techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.H.; Lenkevich, M.J.; Davis, E.A.

    1984-10-01

    In conjunction with a field-test program to measure fugitive dust emissions from a rotary railcar dumper, several techniques for particle sizing were compared. The comparison experiments were done at Potomac Electric Power Company's coal-fired generating station at Morgantown, Maryland with support of the Maryland Power Plant Siting Program. Three cascade impactor instruments were compared, including a quartz-crystal microbalance. In addition, two other methods, a 40mm millipore filter operated isokinetically and a rotary arm impactor, were used to obtain particulate samples for optical sizing from calibrated microphotographs. The microphotographs also provided information on coal-particle shape, aggregation, and friability. An aerodynamic particle sizer based on laser velocimetry was also used during one of three comparison tests. Two particle resuspension and sizing methods were attempted but abandoned due to experimental difficulties. Coal particle size and cumulative mass-fraction size distributions for the various sampling techniques were compared.

  1. Using Dali for structural comparison of proteins.

    PubMed

    Holm, Liisa; Kääriäinen, Sakari; Wilton, Chris; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2006-07-01

    The Dali program is widely used for carrying out automatic comparisons of protein structures determined by X-ray crystallography or NMR. The most familiar version is the Dali server, which performs a database search comparing a query structure supplied by the user against the database of known structures (PDB) and returns the list of structural neighbors by e-mail. The more recently introduced DaliLite server compares two structures against each other and visualizes the result interactively. The Dali database is a structural classification based on precomputed all-against-all structural similarities within the PDB. The resulting hierarchical classification can be browsed on the Web and is linked to protein sequence classification resources. All Dali resources use an identical algorithm for structure comparison. Users may run Dali using the Web, or the program may be downloaded to be run locally on Linux computers.

  2. Robot Trajectories Comparison: A Statistical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ansuategui, A.; Arruti, A.; Susperregi, L.; Yurramendi, Y.; Jauregi, E.; Lazkano, E.; Sierra, B.

    2014-01-01

    The task of planning a collision-free trajectory from a start to a goal position is fundamental for an autonomous mobile robot. Although path planning has been extensively investigated since the beginning of robotics, there is no agreement on how to measure the performance of a motion algorithm. This paper presents a new approach to perform robot trajectories comparison that could be applied to any kind of trajectories and in both simulated and real environments. Given an initial set of features, it automatically selects the most significant ones and performs a statistical comparison using them. Additionally, a graphical data visualization named polygraph which helps to better understand the obtained results is provided. The proposed method has been applied, as an example, to compare two different motion planners, FM2 and WaveFront, using different environments, robots, and local planners. PMID:25525618

  3. Visual comparison testing of automotive paint simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Gary; Fan, Hua-Tzu; Seubert, Christopher; Evey, Curtis; Meseth, Jan; Schnackenberg, Ryan

    2015-03-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether typical industrial automotive color paint comparisons made using real physical samples could also be carried out using a digital simulation displayed on a calibrated color television monitor. A special light booth, designed to facilitate evaluation of the car paint color with reflectance angle, was employed in both the real and virtual color comparisons. Paint samples were measured using a multi-angle spectrophotometer and were simulated using a commercially available software package. Subjects performed the test quicker using the computer graphic simulation, and results indicate that there is only a small difference between the decisions made using the light booth and the computer monitor. This outcome demonstrates the potential of employing simulations to replace some of the time consuming work with real physical samples that still characterizes material appearance work in industry.

  4. Comparison of strains of Mycoplasma iowae.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, K R

    1984-01-01

    Comparison of biochemical test results and protein electrophoretic patterns of 21 strains of Mycoplasma iowae indicated that all were similar. Comparison of agglutination test results indicated marked within-species antigenic variation. None of 21 antigens prepared from different strains were effective in demonstrating turkey antibody against five reference strains. Examination of sera from turkeys exposed by intra-air-sac inoculation to two pathogenic strains also indicated antigenic variation. Neither the M. iowae type-strain, Iowa 695, nor the other reference strains were effective in demonstrating antibody against both strains used to expose the turkeys. These findings suggest that antigenic variation may be a major problem in effective serodiagnosis of M. iowae infections.

  5. 33alloy: comparison between experiment and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, M J; Mendelev, M I; Asta, M

    2014-04-22

    We report data on the structure of liquid Al and an Al67Mg33 alloy obtained from state-of-the-art X-ray diffraction experiments and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. To facilitate a direct comparison between these data, we develop a method to elongate the AIMD pair correlation function in order to obtain reliable AIMD structure factors. The comparison reveals an appreciable level of discrepancy between experimental and AIMD liquid structures, with the latter being consistently more ordered than the former at the same temperature. The discrepancy noted in this study is estimated to have significant implications for simulation-based calculations of liquid transport properties and solid–liquid interface kinetic properties.

  6. Metrics for comparison of crystallographic maps

    DOE PAGES

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Lunin, Vladimir Y.; ...

    2014-10-01

    Numerical comparison of crystallographic contour maps is used extensively in structure solution and model refinement, analysis and validation. However, traditional metrics such as the map correlation coefficient (map CC, real-space CC or RSCC) sometimes contradict the results of visual assessment of the corresponding maps. This article explains such apparent contradictions and suggests new metrics and tools to compare crystallographic contour maps. The key to the new methods is rank scaling of the Fourier syntheses. The new metrics are complementary to the usual map CC and can be more helpful in map comparison, in particular when only some of their aspects,more » such as regions of high density, are of interest.« less

  7. Social comparison, personal relative deprivation, and materialism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunji; Callan, Mitchell J; Gheorghiu, Ana I; Matthews, William J

    2016-11-23

    Across five studies, we found consistent evidence for the idea that personal relative deprivation (PRD), which refers to resentment stemming from the belief that one is deprived of deserved outcomes compared to others, uniquely contributes to materialism. In Study 1, self-reports of PRD positively predicted materialistic values over and above socioeconomic status, personal power, self-esteem, and emotional uncertainty. The experience of PRD starts with social comparison, and Studies 2 and 3 found that PRD mediated the positive relation between a tendency to make social comparisons of abilities and materialism. In Study 4, participants who learned that they had less (vs. similar) discretionary income than people like them reported a stronger desire for more money relative to donating more to charity. In Study 5, during a windfall-spending task, participants higher in PRD spent more on things they wanted relative to other spending categories (e.g., paying off debts).

  8. Inter-species comparisons of carcinogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Purchase, I. F.

    1980-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of 250 chemicals in 2 species, usually the rat and the mouse, was obtained from the published literature through 3 independent sources. Of the 250 compounds listed, 38% were non-carcinogenic in both rats and mice, and 44% were carcinogenic in both species. A total of 43 compounds had different results in the two species, 21 (8%) being carcinogenic in mice only, 17 (7%) in rats only and 5 (2%) having differing results from other species. A comparison of the major target organs affected by chemicals carcinogenic in both species revealed that 64% of the chemicals studied produced cancer at the same site. This comparison of carcinogenic activity in 2 species suggests that extrapolation from results in a single-animal study to man may be subject to substantial errors. PMID:7387835

  9. Supercomputers and biological sequence comparison algorithms.

    PubMed

    Core, N G; Edmiston, E W; Saltz, J H; Smith, R M

    1989-12-01

    Comparison of biological (DNA or protein) sequences provides insight into molecular structure, function, and homology and is increasingly important as the available databases become larger and more numerous. One method of increasing the speed of the calculations is to perform them in parallel. We present the results of initial investigations using two dynamic programming algorithms on the Intel iPSC hypercube and the Connection Machine as well as an inexpensive, heuristically-based algorithm on the Encore Multimax.

  10. An International Comparison of Military Compensation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    for public release; distribution unlimited An International Comparison Of Military Compensation by Myron Clifford Oyloe Major, United States Army B.S...COMPENSATION by Myron Clifford Oyloe Major, United States Army B.S. North Dakota State University, 1967 December 1980 Thesis Advisor: Ragnhild Sohlberg...V) IMyron Clifford /oyloe IMajor, United States Army S. PERFORMING ORG"NI2ATIONMNAME9 AND A0G1RE68 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Naval

  11. Rocket/Nimbus Sounder Comparison (RNSC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The experimental results for radiance and temperature differences in the Wallops Island comparisons indicate that the differences between satellite and rocket systems are of the same order of magnitude as the differences among the various satellite and rocket sounders. The Arcasondes produced usable data to about 50 km, while the Datasondes require design modification. The SIRS and IRIS soundings provided usable data to 30 mb; extension of these soundings was also investigated.

  12. Comparison results for ignition in conjugate systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pushpavanam, S.; Narayanan, R.

    1988-01-01

    The exothermic reaction of an arbitrarily shaped solid in a well-mixed continuous flow of constant density and velocity is investigated analytically, with a focus on a zeroth-order reaction in a pellet. Comparison theorems for the basic problem and the eigenvalue problem of ignition are derived, and the domain dependence of the bifurcation point is explored using the method of Joseph (1976). Some typical analytical results are presented in tables and compared with published values obtained using numerical methods.

  13. Are all Linear Paired Comparison Models Equivalent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Previous authors (Jackson and Fleckenstein 1957, Mosteller 1958, Noether 1960) have found that different models of paired comparisons data lead to simi...ponential distribution with a location parameter (Mosteller 1958, Noether 1960). Formal statements describing the limiting behavior of the gamma...that are not convolu- tion type linear models (the uniform model considered by Smith (1956), Mosteller (1958), Noether (1960)) and other convolution

  14. Comparison of Dam Breach Parameter Estimators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    from a large storm in 1975 (CEATI). The dam was constructed of a clay core containing shale. The upstream and downstream fill was homogeneous earth ...Comparison of Dam Breach Parameter Estimators D. Michael Gee1 1 Senior Hydraulic Engineer, Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering...Center, 609 2nd St., Davis, CA 95616; email: michael.gee@usace.army.mil. ABSTRACT Analytical techniques for the estimation of dam breach

  15. Spectral comparisons of sunlight and different lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deitzer, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    The tables in this report were compiled to characterize the spectra of available lamp types and provide comparison to the spectra of sunlight. Table 1 reports the spectral distributions for various lamp sources and compares them to those measured for sunlight. Table 2 provides the amount of energy in Wm(exp -2) relative to the number of photons of PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) (400-700 nm) for each light source.

  16. Comparison of disaccharide solutions across glass transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magazù, S.; Branca, C.; Faraone, A.; Migliardo, F.; Migliardo, P.; Romeo, G.

    2001-07-01

    Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements on trehalose/H 2O and sucrose/H 2O mixtures have been carried out using the spectrometer MIBEMOL at the Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB, Saclay). The study, addressed to the comparison of the vibrational properties of the two homologous disaccharide water mixtures across the glass transition, allows to characterize the different rigidity of both the disaccharide/H 2O mixtures.

  17. Comparison of two dissimilar modal identification techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Schenk, Axel; Niedbal, Norbert; Klusowski, Erhard

    1992-01-01

    Recent laboratory results using a refined phase resonance method and the eigensystem realization algorithm on the same test structure are reported. These methods are dissimilar modal identification techniques suitable for future large spacecraft. The theory, application approach, and results obtained for each technique are summarized and compared. Although both methods worked well in this investigation, significant differences occurred in some identified mode shapes. Comparison of independently derived modal parameters provides the means for disclosing such discrepancies in flight projects.

  18. Comparison of US Blast Design Guidance Documents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    shear reinforcing steel so that the sum of the concrete and steel shear strengths is equal to the equivalent reaction...rev. 1, SBEDS “calculates the required area of shear reinforcing steel so that the sum of the concrete and steel shear strengths is equal to the...greater than 2-degrees typically have fixed supports. 5 In comparison, SBEDS calculates the direct shear capacity of reinforced concrete

  19. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCQM-K69 key comparison: Testosterone glucuronide in human urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fong-Ha; Mackay, Lindsey; Murby, John

    2010-01-01

    The CCQM-K69 key comparison of testosterone glucuronide in human urine was organized under the auspices of the CCQM Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG). The National Measurement Institute Australia (NMIA) acted as the coordinating laboratory for the comparison. The samples distributed for the key comparison were prepared at NMIA with funding from the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). WADA granted the approval for this material to be used for the intercomparison provided the distribution and handling of the material were strictly controlled. Three national metrology institutes (NMIs)/designated institutes (DIs) developed reference methods and submitted data for the key comparison along with two other laboratories who participated in the parallel pilot study. A good selection of analytical methods and sample workup procedures was displayed in the results submitted considering the complexities of the matrix involved. The comparability of measurement results was successfully demonstrated by the participating NMIs. Only the key comparison data were used to estimate the key comparison reference value (KCRV), using the arithmetic mean approach. The reported expanded uncertainties for results ranged from 3.7% to 6.7% at the 95% level of confidence and all results agreed within the expanded uncertainty of the KCRV. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  20. Flat parlog: a basis for comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Taylor, S.

    1987-04-01

    Three similar parallel logic programming languages have been proposed; Parlog, Flat Concurrent Prolog, and Guarded Horn Clauses. Quantitative comparison of the languages has not previously been possible since they employ different execution models and implementation techniques. In order to uncover the effects of semantic differences on efficiency, a common basis is required for experimentation. This paper presents a subset of the language Parlog called Flat Parlog which provides a basis for quantitative comparison. The language combines the directional semantics of Parlog with the simple execution model of Flat Concurrent Prolog. A performance comparison between Flat Parlog and Flat Concurrent Prolog based on new implementations of both languages is presented. These new implementations are identical except for optimizations that are possible by virtue of semantic differences. Benchmark results indicate that Flat Parlog is more efficient; experiments have been able to quantify and explain this performance differential. A detailed description of the abstract machine for Flat Parlog is presented to illustrate the simplicity of the language.

  1. Visual and statistical comparison of metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Suparna; Klar, Bernhard; Huson, Daniel H

    2009-08-01

    Metagenomics is the study of the genomic content of an environmental sample of microbes. Advances in the through-put and cost-efficiency of sequencing technology is fueling a rapid increase in the number and size of metagenomic datasets being generated. Bioinformatics is faced with the problem of how to handle and analyze these datasets in an efficient and useful way. One goal of these metagenomic studies is to get a basic understanding of the microbial world both surrounding us and within us. One major challenge is how to compare multiple datasets. Furthermore, there is a need for bioinformatics tools that can process many large datasets and are easy to use. This article describes two new and helpful techniques for comparing multiple metagenomic datasets. The first is a visualization technique for multiple datasets and the second is a new statistical method for highlighting the differences in a pairwise comparison. We have developed implementations of both methods that are suitable for very large datasets and provide these in Version 3 of our standalone metagenome analysis tool MEGAN. These new methods are suitable for the visual comparison of many large metagenomes and the statistical comparison of two metagenomes at a time. Nevertheless, more work needs to be done to support the comparative analysis of multiple metagenome datasets. Version 3 of MEGAN, which implements all ideas presented in this article, can be obtained from our web site at: www-ab.informatik.uni-tuebingen.de/software/megan. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  2. Hydraulic fracture model comparison study: Complete results

    SciTech Connect

    Warpinski, N.R.; Abou-Sayed, I.S.; Moschovidis, Z.; Parker, C.

    1993-02-01

    Large quantities of natural gas exist in low permeability reservoirs throughout the US. Characteristics of these reservoirs, however, make production difficult and often economic and stimulation is required. Because of the diversity of application, hydraulic fracture design models must be able to account for widely varying rock properties, reservoir properties, in situ stresses, fracturing fluids, and proppant loads. As a result, fracture simulation has emerged as a highly complex endeavor that must be able to describe many different physical processes. The objective of this study was to develop a comparative study of hydraulic-fracture simulators in order to provide stimulation engineers with the necessary information to make rational decisions on the type of models most suited for their needs. This report compares the fracture modeling results of twelve different simulators, some of them run in different modes for eight separate design cases. Comparisons of length, width, height, net pressure, maximum width at the wellbore, average width at the wellbore, and average width in the fracture have been made, both for the final geometry and as a function of time. For the models in this study, differences in fracture length, height and width are often greater than a factor of two. In addition, several comparisons of the same model with different options show a large variability in model output depending upon the options chosen. Two comparisons were made of the same model run by different companies; in both cases the agreement was good. 41 refs., 54 figs., 83 tabs.

  3. An alternative approach to multiple genome comparison.

    PubMed

    Mancheron, Alban; Uricaru, Raluca; Rivals, Eric

    2011-08-01

    Genome comparison is now a crucial step for genome annotation and identification of regulatory motifs. Genome comparison aims for instance at finding genomic regions either specific to or in one-to-one correspondence between individuals/strains/species. It serves e.g. to pre-annotate a new genome by automatically transferring annotations from a known one. However, efficiency, flexibility and objectives of current methods do not suit the whole spectrum of applications, genome sizes and organizations. Innovative approaches are still needed. Hence, we propose an alternative way of comparing multiple genomes based on segmentation by similarity. In this framework, rather than being formulated as a complex optimization problem, genome comparison is seen as a segmentation question for which a single optimal solution can be found in almost linear time. We apply our method to analyse three strains of a virulent pathogenic bacteria, Ehrlichia ruminantium, and identify 92 new genes. We also find out that a substantial number of genes thought to be strain specific have potential orthologs in the other strains. Our solution is implemented in an efficient program, qod, equipped with a user-friendly interface, and enables the automatic transfer of annotations between compared genomes or contigs (Video in Supplementary Data). Because it somehow disregards the relative order of genomic blocks, qod can handle unfinished genomes, which due to the difficulty of sequencing completion may become an interesting characteristic for the future. Availabilty: http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/qod.

  4. Sequence comparisons via algorithmic mutual information

    SciTech Connect

    Milosavijevic, A.

    1994-12-31

    One of the main problems in DNA and protein sequence comparisons is to decide whether observed similarity of two sequences should be explained by their relatedness or by mere presence of some shared internal structure, e.g., shared internal tandem repeats. The standard methods that are based on statistics or classical information theory can be used to discover either internal structure or mutual sequence similarity, but cannot take into account both. Consequently, currently used methods for sequence comparison employ {open_quotes}masking{close_quotes} techniques that simply eliminate sequences that exhibit internal repetitive structure prior to sequence comparisons. The {open_quotes}masking{close_quotes} approach precludes discovery of homologous sequences of moderate or low complexity, which abound at both DNA and protein levels. As a solution to this problem, we propose a general method that is based on algorithmic information theory and minimal length encoding. We show that algorithmic mutual information factors out the sequence similarity that is due to shared internal structure and thus enables discovery of truly related sequences. We extend the recently developed algorithmic significance method to show that significance depends exponentially on algorithmic mutual information.

  5. Goals and Social Comparisons Promote Walking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Gretchen B; Colby, Helen; Convery, Kimberly; Coups, Elliot J

    2016-05-01

    The effectiveness of a pedometer intervention was affected by manipulating the goals given to participants and by providing social comparison feedback about how participants' performance compared with others. In study 1 (n= 148), university staff members received a low, medium, or high walking goal (10%, 50%, or 100% increase over baseline walking). Participants walked 1358 more steps per day (95% confidence interval [CI], 729, 1985), when receiving a high goal than when receiving a medium goal, but a medium goal did not increase walking relative to a low goal (554 more steps; 95% CI, -71,1179). In study 2 (n= 64), participants received individual feedback only or individual plus social comparison feedback. Participants walked 1120 more steps per day (95% CI, 538, 1703) when receiving social comparison feedback than when receiving only individual feedback. Goals and the performance of others act as reference points and influence the effect that pedometer feedback has on walking behavior, illustrating the applicability of the principles of behavioral economics and social psychology to the design of health behavior interventions.

  6. On the role of code comparisons in verification and validation.

    SciTech Connect

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Pilch, Martin M.

    2003-08-01

    This report presents a perspective on the role of code comparison activities in verification and validation. We formally define the act of code comparison as the Code Comparison Principle (CCP) and investigate its application in both verification and validation. One of our primary conclusions is that the use of code comparisons for validation is improper and dangerous. We also conclude that while code comparisons may be argued to provide a beneficial component in code verification activities, there are higher quality code verification tasks that should take precedence. Finally, we provide a process for application of the CCP that we believe is minimal for achieving benefit in verification processes.

  7. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on international comparison COOMET.QM-K23b: Natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopelko, L. A.; Kustikov, Y. A.; Gromova, E. V.; Rozhnov, M. S.; Mironchik, A. M.; Kluchits, A. S.; Heine, H.-J.; Valkova, M.; Musil, S.; Tichy, J.

    2010-01-01

    The composition of natural gas is one of the significant objects for comparison study. Since 2000 three key comparisons of natural gas within CCQM have been implemented: CCQM-K1e-g, CCQM-K16a-b and CCQM-K23a-c. In 2007 VNIIM offered to organize within COOMET a key comparison of natural gas linked to CCQM-K23b. There were five NMIs that decided to take part in COOMET.QM-K23b in order to claim new or improve present CMCs: Ukrmetrteststandard (Ukraine), BelGIM (Belarus), BAM (Germany), SMU (Slovak Republic) and CMI (Czech Republic). Most of the NMIs (VNIIM, BAM, SMU, CMI) participated in CCQM-K23b; BelGIM and Ukrmetrteststandard participated in a comparison of natural gas for the first time. The gas mixtures for study contained nitrogen, carbon dioxide, ethane, propane, iso-butane, n-butane and methane. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) was based on the gravimetric preparation for all components. In order to determine the link between COOMET.QM-K23b and CCQM-K23b the uncertainty of degrees of equivalence of all the participants included the degree of equivalence of VNIIM in CCQM-K23b. The agreement of the results in this key comparison is very good. Most of the results agree with the KCRV within 0.5% relative. BelGIM and Ukrmetrteststandard participated in a comparison of natural gas for the first time, and both laboratories performed well in this key comparison. CMI obtained better results than in CCQM-K23b. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  8. Appearance comparisons styles and eating disordered symptoms in women.

    PubMed

    Lin, Linda; Soby, Meghann

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between styles of upward and downward appearance comparisons and eating disordered symptoms in women. Data on upward and downward appearance comparisons, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, dietary restraint, and negative body talk were collected from 321 female college students. Results indicated that upward appearance comparisons were linked to higher levels of drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative body talk, whereas downward appearance comparisons were linked to higher levels of drive for thinness and dietary restraint, but showed no relationship to body dissatisfaction and negative body talk. There was an interaction effect between upward and downward comparisons and body image variables. Taken together, this study suggests that downward appearance comparison does not buffer the negative effects of upward appearance comparison, and in some cases can increase negative body image outcomes.

  9. Physical appearance comparisons in ethnically diverse college women.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Lauren M; Thibodaux, Lia K; Krenik, Daniel; Arnold, Elysse; Thompson, J Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Research demonstrates ethnic differences in rates of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Appearance comparison frequency is related to these outcomes, however, research has not examined possible ethnic differences in levels of appearance comparisons nor their relation to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. The current study examined the frequency of appearance comparisons and the strength of the relationships between appearance comparisons, appearance evaluation, and disordered eating among White, Black, and Hispanic women. Measures of appearance comparison, appearance evaluation, and disordered eating were administered to 895 college women. Compared with White and Hispanic women, Black women reported fewer appearance comparisons, more positive appearance evaluation, and lower levels of disordered eating. Associations between examined variables were generally weaker among Black women. Results suggest that the reduced frequency and impact of appearance comparisons may contribute to more positive appearance evaluation and reduced levels of disordered eating among Black women.

  10. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: Final report on APMP.PR-S1.1: Bilateral comparison of irradiance responsivity of UVA detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xuebo

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the performance of the standards and techniques used for calibration and measurement of UVA irradiance responsivity of photodetectors in NMISA, South Africa, a new comparison was decided as a follow-up to comparison APMP.PR-S1. It is registered in the Key Comparison Data Base (KCDB) of BIPM as a bilateral supplementary comparison, with the identifier APMP.PR-S1.1. The comparison was carried out following the same technical protocol as that of supplementary comparison APMP PR-S1. The principle, organization and method of the comparison, as well as the preliminary measurements at the pilot laboratory NMC-A*STAR Singapore, were described in the Final Report of the APMP.PR-S1 comparison. The results of this bilateral comparison show that the NMISA's results lie within ±2% against the comparison reference values of APMP.PR-S1, which is a great improvement. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the APMP, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  11. KEY COMPARISON: Report on acceleration comparison SIM.AUV.V-K1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David J.; Hornikova, Adriana; Leigh, Stefan D.; Rukhin, Andrew L.; Strawderman, William

    2009-01-01

    The first regional key comparison in vibration conducted under the auspices of the Inter American System of Metrology (SIM) was begun in 1996. The comparison was registered with the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) through the Consultative Committee for Acoustics, Ultrasound and Vibration (CCAUV) under the key comparison designation of SIM.AUV.V K1. The national measurement institutes (NMIs) of five countries participating in SIM performed and reported calibrations of one back-to-back and two single-ended accelerometers for this comparison during the time period of 1997 to 1999. The participants in the comparison were: Argentina (INTI), Brazil (INMETRO), Canada (NRC), Mexico (CENAM) and the United States (NIST). Reference Values (RVs) were established for the SIM.AUV.V-K1 comparison using maximum likelihood consensus estimation applied to the summary values of charge sensitivity with the nominal numbers of repeat measurements reported by the participating NMIs. Degrees of equivalence between the results reported by the NMIs and the RVs as well as pairwise degrees of equivalence between the results reported by the NMIs were computed using the uncertainties associated with the results reported by the NMIs and those of the RVs as appropriate. Transformation values were found in order to link the results of SIM.AUV.V-K1 with those of the first international key comparison in vibration conducted under the auspices of the CCAUV during 1999 to 2001 (CCAUV.V-K1). The degrees of equivalence between the NMIs participating in SIM.AUV.V-K1 and those participating in CCAUV.V-K1 were established using linkage values computed from the transformation values. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCAUV, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual

  12. A mathematical framework for protein structure comparison.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Srivastava, Anuj; Zhang, Jinfeng

    2011-02-03

    Comparison of protein structures is important for revealing the evolutionary relationship among proteins, predicting protein functions and predicting protein structures. Many methods have been developed in the past to align two or multiple protein structures. Despite the importance of this problem, rigorous mathematical or statistical frameworks have seldom been pursued for general protein structure comparison. One notable issue in this field is that with many different distances used to measure the similarity between protein structures, none of them are proper distances when protein structures of different sequences are compared. Statistical approaches based on those non-proper distances or similarity scores as random variables are thus not mathematically rigorous. In this work, we develop a mathematical framework for protein structure comparison by treating protein structures as three-dimensional curves. Using an elastic Riemannian metric on spaces of curves, geodesic distance, a proper distance on spaces of curves, can be computed for any two protein structures. In this framework, protein structures can be treated as random variables on the shape manifold, and means and covariance can be computed for populations of protein structures. Furthermore, these moments can be used to build Gaussian-type probability distributions of protein structures for use in hypothesis testing. The covariance of a population of protein structures can reveal the population-specific variations and be helpful in improving structure classification. With curves representing protein structures, the matching is performed using elastic shape analysis of curves, which can effectively model conformational changes and insertions/deletions. We show that our method performs comparably with commonly used methods in protein structure classification on a large manually annotated data set.

  13. Results from the FIN-2 formal comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Paul; Hoose, Corinna; Liu, Xiaohong; Moehler, Ottmar; Cziczo, Daniel; DeMott, Paul

    2017-04-01

    During the Fifth International Ice Nucleation Workshop (FIN-2) at the AIDA Ice Nucleation facility in Karlsruhe, Germany in March 2015, a formal comparison of ice nucleation measurement methods was conducted. During the experiments the samples of ice nucleating particles were not revealed to the instrument scientists, hence this was referred to as a "blind comparison". The two samples used were later revealed to be Arizona Test Dust and an Argentina soil sample. For these two samples seven mobile ice nucleating particle counters sampled directly from the AIDA chamber or from the aerosol preparation chamber at specified temperatures, whereas filter samples were taken for two offline deposition nucleation instruments. Wet suspension methods for determining IN concentrations were also used with 10 different methods employed. For the wet suspension methods experiments were conducted using INPs collected from the air inside the chambers (impinger sampling) and INPs taken from the bulk samples (vial sampling). Direct comparisons of the ice nucleating particle concentrations are reported as well as derived ice nucleation active site densities. The study highlights the difficulties in performing such analyses, but generally indicates that there is reasonable agreement between the wet suspension techniques. It is noted that ice nucleation efficiency derived from the AIDA chamber (quantified using the ice active surface site density approach) is higher than that for the cold stage techniques. This is both true for the Argentina soil sample and, to a lesser extent, for the Arizona Test Dust sample too. Other interesting effects were noted: for the ATD the impinger sampling demonstrated higher INP efficiency at higher temperatures (>255 K) than the vial sampling, but agreed at the lower temperatures (<255K), whereas the opposite was true for the Argentina soil sample. The results are analysed to better understand the performance of the various techniques and to address any

  14. Comparison of erosion and channel characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Gene W.

    1998-01-01

    Erosion was observed at 33 percent of 22,495 bridge sites in nine States. Among sites with erosion, 56 percent were associated with skewed flows, curved channels, or a combination of these two conditions, and at 18 percent of the sites, channels were straight with steep bank angles. The remaining 26 percent are sites with observable erosion at piers or abutments on straight channels. Comparison of the sites with erosion to channel bed-material indicate that 44 percent of the single-span sites had gravel-size or smaller bed material and 70 percent of the multiple-span sites had gravel-size or smaller bed material.

  15. A comparison of thermal zone aggregation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, Justin R.; Hencey, Brandon M.

    2012-12-10

    The impact of increasing energy prices on building operation budgets has fueled demand for more energy-efficient structures. Existing building energy simulation tools generate an immense amount of data yet comparatively little knowledge. This paper introduces a framework that allows aggregation-based model reduction to operate on geometric building information models. The resulting aggregation sequence provides designers with faster simulations and affords insight into complex multi-scale thermal interactions. A comparison of the trade-off between simulation speed and accuracy for three hierarchical cluster partitioning methods concludes the discussion.

  16. Numerical comparison between DHF and RHF methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobus, J.; Jaskolski, W.

    1987-10-01

    A detailed numerical comparison of the Dirac-Hartree-Fock method and the relativistic Hartree-Fock (RHF) method of Cowan and Griffith (1976) is presented, considering the total energy, the orbital energies, and the one-electron and two-electron integrals. The RHF method is found to yield accurate values of the relativistic transition energies. Using accurate values of the correlation corrections for p-electron and d-electron systems, the usefulness of the RHF method in obtaining relativistic corrections to the differential term energies is demonstrated. Advantages of the method for positron scattering on heavy systems are also pointed out.

  17. Interior structure of neptune: comparison with uranus.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, W B; Nellis, W J; Mitchell, A C; Holmes, N C; Limaye, S S; McCandless, P C

    1991-08-09

    Measurements of rotation rates and gravitational harmonics of Neptune made with the Voyager 2 spacecraft allow tighter constraints on models of the planet's interior. Shock measurements of material that may match the composition of Neptune, the so-calied planetary ;;ice,'' have been carried out to pressures exceeding 200 gigapascals (2 megabars). Comparison of shock data with inferred pressure-density profiles for both Uranus and Neptune shows substantial similarity through most of the mass of both planets. Analysis of the effect of Neptune's strong differential rotation on its gravitational harmonics indicates that differential rotation involves only the outermost few percent of Neptune's mass.

  18. Interior structure of Neptune: Comparison with Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, W.B. ); Nellis, W.J.; Mitchell, A.C.; Holmes, N.C.; McCandless, P.C. ); Limaye, S.S. )

    1991-08-09

    Measurements of rotation rates and gravitational harmonics of Neptune made with the Voyager 2 spacecraft allow tighter constraints on models of the planet's interior. Shock measurements of material that may match the composition of Neptune, the so-called planetary ice, have been carried out to pressures exceeding 200 gigapascals (2 megabars). Comparison of shock data with inferred pressure-density profiles for both Uranus and Neptune shows substantial similarity through most of the mass of both planets. Analysis of the effect of Neptune's strong differential rotation on its gravitational harmonics indicates that differential rotation involves only the outermost few percent of Neptune's mass.

  19. Multivariate Lipschitz optimization: Survey and computational comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, P.; Gourdin, E.; Jaumard, B.

    1994-12-31

    Many methods have been proposed to minimize a multivariate Lipschitz function on a box. They pertain the three approaches: (i) reduction to the univariate case by projection (Pijavskii) or by using a space-filling curve (Strongin); (ii) construction and refinement of a single upper bounding function (Pijavskii, Mladineo, Mayne and Polak, Jaumard Hermann and Ribault, Wood...); (iii) branch and bound with local upper bounding functions (Galperin, Pint{acute e}r, Meewella and Mayne, the present authors). A survey is made, stressing similarities of algorithms, expressed when possible within a unified framework. Moreover, an extensive computational comparison is reported on.

  20. On using the bootstrap for multiple comparisons.

    PubMed

    Westfall, Peter H

    2011-11-01

    There are many ways to bootstrap data for multiple comparisons procedures. Methods described here include (i) bootstrap (parametric and nonparametric) as a generalization of classical normal-based MaxT methods, (ii) bootstrap as an approximation to exact permutation methods, (iii) bootstrap as a generator of realistic null data sets, and (iv) bootstrap as a generator of realistic non-null data sets. Resampling of MinP versus MaxT is discussed, and the use of the bootstrap for closed testing is also presented. Applications to biopharmaceutical statistics are given.

  1. Intercode comparison of gyrokinetic global electromagnetic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Görler, T. Tronko, N.; Hornsby, W. A.; Bottino, A.; Sonnendrücker, E.; Kleiber, R.; Norscini, C.; Grandgirard, V.; Jenko, F.

    2016-07-15

    Aiming to fill a corresponding lack of sophisticated test cases for global electromagnetic gyrokinetic codes, a new hierarchical benchmark is proposed. Starting from established test sets with adiabatic electrons, fully gyrokinetic electrons, and electrostatic fluctuations are taken into account before finally studying the global electromagnetic micro-instabilities. Results from up to five codes involving representatives from different numerical approaches as particle-in-cell methods, Eulerian and Semi-Lagrangian are shown. By means of spectrally resolved growth rates and frequencies and mode structure comparisons, agreement can be confirmed on ion-gyro-radius scales, thus providing confidence in the correct implementation of the underlying equations.

  2. Rooftop Unit Comparison Calculator User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, James D.

    2015-04-30

    This document serves as a user manual for the Packaged rooftop air conditioners and heat pump units comparison calculator (RTUCC) and is an aggregation of the calculator’s website documentation. Content ranges from new-user guide material like the “Quick Start” to the more technical/algorithmic descriptions of the “Methods Pages.” There is also a section listing all the context-help topics that support the features on the “Controls” page. The appendix has a discussion of the EnergyPlus runs that supported the development of the building-response models.

  3. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of candidate alternate fuels for aircraft is presented. The fuels discussed include liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene. Each fuel is evaluated from the standpoint of production, transmission, airport storage and distribution facilities, and use in aircraft. Technology deficient areas for cryogenic fuels, which should be advanced prior to the introduction of the fuels into the aviation industry, are identified, as are the cost and energy penalties associated with not achieving those advances. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed. A detailed description of the various fuel production and liquefaction processes and their efficiencies and economics is given.

  4. Protein determination: a comparison of several methods.

    PubMed

    Hocman, G; Palkovic, M

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of four methods for the determination of total proteins is presented from the following points of view: - sensitivity; - specificity; - amount of work, chemicals, time and equipment needed for the performance of the determination. The following tests have been examined; Tombs' (absorbancy at 210 nm); Waddell's (difference in absorbancy between 215 and 225 nm); Warburg's (absorbancy at 280 nm); Lowry's (absorbancy at 500 nm after the reaction with phenol reagent). The authors recommend Tombs' method for its outstanding sensitivity, specificity and simplicity as the best of the four.

  5. A comparison of RISKIND and RADTRAN 4

    SciTech Connect

    Brumburgh, G.P.; Alesso, H.P.

    1993-11-01

    Our objective in this paper is to provide preliminary comparisons between the two computer codes RISKIND and RADTRAN 4. These codes have utility in evaluating radiological consequences during the transportation of radioactive materials. We reviewed the codes to three criteria: (1) the code`s evaluation capability for accident sequences, frequencies, and environmental consequences, (2) the code`s ``user friendliness`` (as well as how much specific technical expertise the user needed to apply to it), and (3) compatibility with other code output or modules.

  6. Local and Global Comparison of Continuous Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Edelsbrunner, H; Harer, J; Natarajan, V; Pascucci, V

    2004-12-16

    We introduce local and global comparison measures for a collection of k {<=} d real-valued smooth functions on a common d-dimensional Riemannian manifold. For k = d = 2 we relate the measures to the set of critical points of one function restricted to the level sets of the other. The definition of the measures extends to piecewise linear functions for which they are easy to compute. The computation of the measures forms the centerpiece of a software tool which we use to study scientific datasets.

  7. Comparison of CALPUFF with ISC3

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, C.T.; Eckhoff, P.A.

    1998-12-01

    In the report, a comparison is made of two different dispersion models, CALPUFF and ISC3. CALPUFF is a Lagrangian puff model which simulates continuous puffs of pollutants released into the ambient flow, whereas ISC3 is a Gaussian plume model that treats emissions from a source as a contiguous mass. CALPUFF may be configured to treat emissions as integrated puffs or as slugs. ISC3 is currently recommended for routine use in assessing source impacts involving transport distances of less than 50km. The report is being released to establish part of the basis for review of the consequences resulting from use of CALPUFF in routine dispersion modeling of air pollution impacts.

  8. Comparison of Ridges on Triton and Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prockter, L. M.; Pappalardo, R. .

    2003-01-01

    Triton and Europa each display a variety of ridges and associated troughs. The resemblance of double ridges on these two satellites has been previously noted [R. Kirk, pers. comm.], but as yet, the similarities and differences between these feature types have not been examined in any detail. Triton s ridges, and Europa s, exhibit an evolutionary sequence ranging from isolated troughs, through doublet ridges, to complex ridge swaths [1, 2]. Comparison of ridges on Europa to those on Triton may provide insight into their formation on both satellites, and thereby have implications for the satellites' histories.

  9. Planetary size comparisons: A photographic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    Over the past two decades NASA spacecraft missions obtained photographs permitting accurate size measurements of the planets and moons, and their surface features. Planetary global views are displayed at the same scale, in each picture to allow visual size comparisons. Additionally, special geographical features on some of the planets are compared with selected Earth areas, again at the same scale. Artist renderings and estimated sizes are used for worlds not yet reached by spacecraft. Included with each picture is number designation for use in ordering copies of the photos.

  10. A comparison of tests for thyroglobulin antibody

    PubMed Central

    Rawstron, J. R.; Farthing, C. P.

    1962-01-01

    A comparison is made of tests for thyroglobulin antibody, using gel diffusion, electroprecipitin, bentonite flocculation, tanned red cell agglutination, and latex slide agglutination techniques on sera from cases of Hashimoto's disease and other thyroid disorders. Any increase in γ globulin was also noted from the serum electrophoretic pattern. The gel diffusion and electroprecipitin tests are shown to be comparable in their sensitivity, as are the bentonite flocculation and tanned red cell agglutination tests. The flocculation and agglutination tests were oversensitive. The latex slide test in conjunction with the electro-precipitin test is recommended for routine use in the detection of Hashimoto's disease. Images PMID:14490690

  11. Cray 1 v. Cyber 205: some comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Temperton, C.

    1983-04-01

    The author has been able to work on two of the world's fastest computers, the Cray-1 (at the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts) and the Cyber 205 (at the UK Meteorological Office). A comparison between the two machines is of interest not only to poential users but also to a more general audience. The author points out some of the differences between the two machines, and the impact these differences have on the way in which certain problems should be formulated and programmed.

  12. Interior structure of Neptune - Comparison with Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Nellis, W. J.; Mitchell, A. C.; Holmes, N. C.; Mccandless, P. C.; Limaye, S. S.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of rotation rates and gravitational harmonics of Neptune made with the Voyager 2 spacecraft allow tighter constraints on models of the planet's interior. Shock measurements of material that may match the composition of Neptune, the so-called planetary 'ice', have been carried out to pressures exceeding 200 gigapascals (2 megabars). Comparison of shock data with inferred pressure-density profiles for both Uranus and Neptune shows substantial similarity through most of the mass of both planets. Analysis of the effect of Neptune's strong differential rotation on its gravitational harmonics indicates that differential rotation involves only the outermost few percent of Neptune's mass.

  13. Quantum Private Comparison Protocol with Linear Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qing-bin; Yang, Guo-wu; She, Kun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an innovative quantum private comparison(QPC) protocol based on partial Bell-state measurement from the view of linear optics, which enabling two parties to compare the equality of their private information with the help of a semi-honest third party. Partial Bell-state measurement has been realized by using only linear optical elements in experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution(MDI-QKD) schemes, which makes us believe that our protocol can be realized in the near future. The security analysis shows that the participants will not leak their private information.

  14. Neuropsychological Comparison of Children with Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and an IQ-Matched Comparison Group

    PubMed Central

    Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2012-01-01

    An objective in current research on children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is to determine neurobehavioral profiles to identify affected individuals. Deficits observed when children with FASD are compared to typically developing controls may be confounded by lower IQ scores in the subjects with FASD. To determine if prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with neurobehavioral deficits after controlling for IQ differences, multivariate analyses were conducted to compare alcohol-exposed (ALC) subjects to a comparison group closely matched on IQ (IQC). The initial analysis included a broad neuropsychological battery with measures of language, executive function, visual–motor integration, motor ability, and academic achievement. Additional, in depth comparisons focused on visual sustained attention, verbal learning and memory and parent/guardian-reported behavior problems. Group differences (ALC < IQC) were found on verbal learning and parent-rated behavior problems. Group differences were marginally significant (measures within the broad neuropsychological comparison) or not significant (visual attention, retention of verbal material) on the remaining comparisons. Therefore, some deficits (e.g., verbal learning and behavior problems) in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be explained by the lower FSIQ observed in the population. These areas of relative weakness could be useful in distinguishing children with FASD from other children with lowered IQ. PMID:21349236

  15. Neuropsychological comparison of children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and an IQ-matched comparison group.

    PubMed

    Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2011-05-01

    An objective in current research on children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is to determine neurobehavioral profiles to identify affected individuals. Deficits observed when children with FASD are compared to typically developing controls may be confounded by lower IQ scores in the subjects with FASD. To determine if prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with neurobehavioral deficits after controlling for IQ differences, multivariate analyses were conducted to compare alcohol-exposed (ALC) subjects to a comparison group closely matched on IQ (IQC). The initial analysis included a broad neuropsychological battery with measures of language, executive function, visual-motor integration, motor ability, and academic achievement. Additional, in depth comparisons focused on visual sustained attention, verbal learning and memory and parent/guardian-reported behavior problems. Group differences (ALC < IQC) were found on verbal learning and parent-rated behavior problems. Group differences were marginally significant (measures within the broad neuropsychological comparison) or not significant (visual attention, retention of verbal material) on the remaining comparisons. Therefore, some deficits (e.g., verbal learning and behavior problems) in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be explained by the lower FSIQ observed in the population. These areas of relative weakness could be useful in distinguishing children with FASD from other children with lowered IQ.

  16. Comparison of State Unemployment Insurance Laws. Comparison Revision, Number 1, August 6, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Unemployment Insurance Service.

    To inform the public about details of the employment security program and how it functions, this comparison of state unemployment insurance laws is presented. The report is based primarily on an analysis of state statutes. It examines state by state the types of workers and employers that are covered under the state law, the methods of financing…

  17. KEY COMPARISON: Report on bilateral comparison COOMET.AUV.A-K1.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedtke, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    A bilateral comparison of primary standards for sound in air, COOMET.AUV.A-K1.1 was conducted in 2004 between the DNDI (Ukraine) and the PTB (Germany) with PTB acting as the linking laboratory to the previous COOMET.AUV.A-K1 comparison. A similar protocol was followed, and although measurements were made at 23 acoustic frequencies, the results were analysed in terms of degrees of equivalence only at the recommended frequencies of the CCAUV.A-K1 comparison so that the appropriate links could be made. The results were approved by CCAUV in October 2008 are in agreement with all the linked results within the uncertainties. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCAUV, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  18. Effects of Comparison Question Type and Between Test Stimulation on the Validity of Comparison Question Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-08

    C. J., & Iacono, W. G. (1989). Psychopathy , threat, and polygraph test accuracy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 347-355. Patrick, C. J... Psychopathy and detection of deception in a prison population. Psychophysiology, 15,121-136. Raskin, D. C, & Honts, C. R. (2002). The comparison question

  19. Final report on CCM key comparison CCM.D-K2: Comparison of liquid density standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettin, Horst; Jacques, Claude; Zelenka, Zoltán; Fujii, Ken-ichi; Kuramoto, Naoki; Chang, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Yong Jae; Becerra, Luis Omar; Domostroeva, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The results are presented of the key comparison CCM.D-K2 that covered the density measurements of four liquids: the density of water at 20 °C, of pentadecane at 15 °C, 20 °C, 40 °C and 60°C, of tetrachloroethlyene at 5 °C and 20 °C and of a viscous oil at 20 °C. Seven national metrology institutes measured the densities at atmospheric pressure by hydrostatic weighing of solid density standards in the time interval from 27 April 2004 to 28 June 2004. Since the participants were asked not to include components for a possible drift or inhomogeneity of the liquid in their uncertainty budget, these uncertainty contributions are investigated for the final evaluation of the data. For this purpose, results of stability and homogeneity measurements of the pilot laboratory are used. The participants decided not to include a possible drift of the liquid's density since no significant drift could be detected, and the influence of the drift and its uncertainty are negligible. Similarly, the inhomogeneity of the water and pentadecane samples is not significant and has no influence on the evaluation. Thus, it was neglected. Only the inhomogeneities of tetrachloroethylene and of the viscous oil were significant. Consequently, they were included in the evaluation. With one or two exceptions, the results show good agreement among the participants. Only in the case of water are the results clearly discrepant. The key comparison reference values were calculated by the weighted mean (taking into account a small correlation between two participants) in the case of consistent results. Otherwise the Procedure B of Cox was used. The expanded uncertainties of all reference densities are below 1 × 10-5 in relative terms. This satisfies the needs of all customers who wish to calibrate or check liquid density measuring instruments such as oscillation-type density meters. The comparison fully supports the calibration measurement capabilities table in the BIPM key comparison database

  20. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: Final report on Supplementary Comparison APMP.M.H-S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongkavitool, Rugkanawan; Hattori, Koichiro; Sanh, Vo; Yen, Lim Gin

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of supplementary comparison APMP.M.H-S1 among four national metrology institutes (NIMT, NMIJ/AIST, VMI and SPRING). The comparison was carried out during October 2004 to January 2005 in order to determine the capability of the primary Rockwell hardness standard, including standard conditions, of each participant, to confirm the accuracy of Rockwell hardness scale C measurement declared by the participant, which includes the effect of each participant's primary indenter and determine the degrees of equivalence of hardness scale measurement in the range 20 HRC to 60 HRC. Furthermore, the comparison was carried out a by common indenter, which was provided by the pilot institute, in order to determine the measurement capability of the participant's primary machine without the influence of the indenter, as a study of scientific purpose. The pilot institute was the National Institute of Metrology (Thailand), NIMT. There were two sets of artifacts for the comparison. Each set was composed of nine hardness blocks: 20 HRC, 25 HRC, 30 HRC, 35 HRC, 40 HRC, 45 HRC, 50 HRC, 55 HRC, 60 HRC. The verification of the participant's primary Rockwell hardness machine was carried out according to ISO6508-3 before making the measurement. The pilot institute made measurements at the beginning and the end of the comparison in order to monitor the stability of the artifacts. The degree of equivalence of each national primary hardness standard was expressed quantitatively by two terms, the deviation from KCRV and the uncertainty of this deviation at a 95% level of confidence. The En parameter was calculated to express the equivalence between the measurements of participants as well. The degree of equivalence between pairs of participating institutes was expressed by the difference of their deviations from the key comparison reference value and the uncertainty of this difference at the 95% level of confidence. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper

  1. Comparison of Fast Neutron Detector Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, Sy; Mckigney, Edward Allen

    2015-02-09

    This report documents the work performed for the Department of Homeland Security Domestic Nuclear Detection O ce as the project Fast Neutron Detection Evaluation under contract HSHQDC-14-X-00022. This study was performed as a follow-on to the project Study of Fast Neutron Signatures and Measurement Techniques for SNM Detection - DNDO CFP11-100 STA-01. That work compared various detector technologies in a portal monitor con guration, focusing on a comparison between a number of fast neutron detection techniques and two standard thermal neutron detection technologies. The conclusions of the earlier work are contained in the report Comparison of Fast Neutron Detector Technologies. This work is designed to address questions raised about assumptions underlying the models built for the earlier project. To that end, liquid scintillators of two di erent sizes{ one a commercial, o -the-shelf (COTS) model of standard dimensions and the other a large, planer module{were characterized at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The results of those measurements were combined with the results of the earlier models to gain a more complete picture of the performance of liquid scintillator as a portal monitor technology.

  2. YBYRÁ facilitates comparison of large phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Machado, Denis Jacob

    2015-07-01

    The number and size of tree topologies that are being compared by phylogenetic systematists is increasing due to technological advancements in high-throughput DNA sequencing. However, we still lack tools to facilitate comparison among phylogenetic trees with a large number of terminals. The "YBYRÁ" project integrates software solutions for data analysis in phylogenetics. It comprises tools for (1) topological distance calculation based on the number of shared splits or clades, (2) sensitivity analysis and automatic generation of sensitivity plots and (3) clade diagnoses based on different categories of synapomorphies. YBYRÁ also provides (4) an original framework to facilitate the search for potential rogue taxa based on how much they affect average matching split distances (using MSdist). YBYRÁ facilitates comparison of large phylogenetic trees and outperforms competing software in terms of usability and time efficiency, specially for large data sets. The programs that comprises this toolkit are written in Python, hence they do not require installation and have minimum dependencies. The entire project is available under an open-source licence at http://www.ib.usp.br/grant/anfibios/researchSoftware.html .

  3. Comparisons of Yield Calculations with Data

    SciTech Connect

    Dugan, G.

    1986-02-01

    Given what is claimed to a reasonably accurate technique for calculating the pbar yield, it is useful to ask for comparisons with the data available from the recent commissioning run. The simplest comparison to make is that of the yield. The number of pbars circulating in the Debuncher was measured many times; the total number of secondaries at IC728 in AP-2 was also measured many times. The ratio of pbars to total flux at IC728 was measured once (Bk. I, p 166); this number was {bar P}/total = 0.032. Typically, the ratio of secondaries at IC728 to protons on target was about 0.0012 (this was about the same number, independent of whether the lens was operated at 600 or 1000 T/m.). Thus, at IC728 we have N{sub P}/N{sub {bar P}} {approx} 1.2 x 10{sup -3} x 3.2 x 10{sup -2} = 3.8 x 10{sup -5} = 38 ppm.

  4. Bilateral Comparison in Chemosensory-Mediated Foraging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, D. R.; Rahman, S.; Dasi, L. P.

    2000-11-01

    Motivation is drawn from the need to determine the sensory cues that animals such as blue crabs and lobsters use to track chemical odor plumes to locate food or mates. Major steps forward with this difficult problem can only be achieved through an appreciation of the spatial and temporal variation of concentration fields and the information content available to a forager in the plume. Here we discuss the usefulness of bilateral comparison to an animal tracking a turbulent plume. Instantaneous concentration fields of a chemical plume diffusing in a fully-developed turbulent open channel flow are measured using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). The plume is released iso-kinetically 25 mm above the smooth bed (z+ = 90), thus transport is mainly due to advection and ambient turbulence. A spatial correlation function in the spanwise direction is a dramatic indicator of the relative position of the centerline and distance from the source. The relative direction of the plume centerline can be estimated from an instantaneous bilateral comparison provided the sensors are separated by a distance that is relatively large compared to the spanwise integral length scale based on the spatial correlation function.

  5. Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project. Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David O'C.; DeMott, Paul J.; Cotton, Richard; Jensen, Eric; Sassen, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison (CPMC) is a project of the GEWEX Cloud System Study Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems (GCSS WG2). The primary goal of this project is to identify cirrus model sensitivities to the state of our knowledge of nucleation and microphysics. Furthermore, the common ground of the findings may provide guidelines for models with simpler cirrus microphysics modules. We focus on the nucleation regimes of the warm (parcel starting at -40 C and 340 hPa) and cold (-60 C and 170 hPa) cases studied in the GCSS WG2 Idealized Cirrus Model Comparison Project. Nucleation and ice crystal growth were forced through an externally imposed rate of lift and consequent adiabatic cooling. The background haze particles are assumed to be lognormally-distributed H2SO4 particles. Only the homogeneous nucleation mode is allowed to form ice crystals in the HN-ONLY runs; all nucleation modes are switched on in the ALL-MODE runs. Participants were asked to run the HN-lambda-fixed runs by setting lambda = 2 (lambda is further discussed in section 2) or tailoring the nucleation rate calculation in agreement with lambda = 2 (exp 1). The depth of parcel lift (800 m) was set to assure that parcels underwent complete transition through the nucleation regime to a stage of approximate equilibrium between ice mass growth and vapor supplied by the specified updrafts.

  6. Methods for peptide identification by spectral comparison

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; Bell, Alexander W; Bergeron, John JM; Yanofsky, Corey M; Carrillo, Brian; Beaudrie, Christian EH; Kearney, Robert E

    2007-01-01

    Background Tandem mass spectrometry followed by database search is currently the predominant technology for peptide sequencing in shotgun proteomics experiments. Most methods compare experimentally observed spectra to the theoretical spectra predicted from the sequences in protein databases. There is a growing interest, however, in comparing unknown experimental spectra to a library of previously identified spectra. This approach has the advantage of taking into account instrument-dependent factors and peptide-specific differences in fragmentation probabilities. It is also computationally more efficient for high-throughput proteomics studies. Results This paper investigates computational issues related to this spectral comparison approach. Different methods have been empirically evaluated over several large sets of spectra. First, we illustrate that the peak intensities follow a Poisson distribution. This implies that applying a square root transform will optimally stabilize the peak intensity variance. Our results show that the square root did indeed outperform other transforms, resulting in improved accuracy of spectral matching. Second, different measures of spectral similarity were compared, and the results illustrated that the correlation coefficient was most robust. Finally, we examine how to assemble multiple spectra associated with the same peptide to generate a synthetic reference spectrum. Ensemble averaging is shown to provide the best combination of accuracy and efficiency. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that when combined, these methods can boost the sensitivity and specificity of spectral comparison. Therefore they are capable of enhancing and complementing existing tools for consistent and accurate peptide identification. PMID:17227583

  7. Topology based methods for vector field comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Rajesh Kumar

    Vector fields are commonly found in almost all branches of the physical sciences. Aerodynamics, dynamical systems, electromagnetism, and global climate modeling are a few examples. These multivariate data fields are often large, and no general, automated method exists for comparing these fields. Existing methods require either subjective visual judgments, or data interface compatibility, or domain specific knowledge. A topology based method intrinsically eliminates all of the above limitations and has the additional advantage of significantly compressing the vector field by representing only key features of the flow. Therefore, large databases are compactly represented and quickly searched. Topology is a natural framework for the study of many vector fields. It provides rules of an organizing principle, a flow grammar, that can describe and connect together the properties common to flows. Helman and Hesselink first introduced automated methods to extract and visualize this grammar. This work extends their method by introducing automated methods for vector topology comparison. Basic two-dimensional flows are first compared. The theory is extended to compare three-dimensional flow fields and the topology on no-slip surfaces. Concepts from graph theory and linear programming are utilized to solve these problems. Finally, the first automated method for higher order singularity comparisons is introduced using mathematical theories from geometric (Clifford) algebra.

  8. Multiple comparison analysis testing in ANOVA.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Mary L

    2011-01-01

    The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test has long been an important tool for researchers conducting studies on multiple experimental groups and one or more control groups. However, ANOVA cannot provide detailed information on differences among the various study groups, or on complex combinations of study groups. To fully understand group differences in an ANOVA, researchers must conduct tests of the differences between particular pairs of experimental and control groups. Tests conducted on subsets of data tested previously in another analysis are called post hoc tests. A class of post hoc tests that provide this type of detailed information for ANOVA results are called "multiple comparison analysis" tests. The most commonly used multiple comparison analysis statistics include the following tests: Tukey, Newman-Keuls, Scheffee, Bonferroni and Dunnett. These statistical tools each have specific uses, advantages and disadvantages. Some are best used for testing theory while others are useful in generating new theory. Selection of the appropriate post hoc test will provide researchers with the most detailed information while limiting Type 1 errors due to alpha inflation.

  9. Thermal sensation models: a systematic comparison.

    PubMed

    Koelblen, B; Psikuta, A; Bogdan, A; Annaheim, S; Rossi, R M

    2017-05-01

    Thermal sensation models, capable of predicting human's perception of thermal surroundings, are commonly used to assess given indoor conditions. These models differ in many aspects, such as the number and type of input conditions, the range of conditions in which the models can be applied, and the complexity of equations. Moreover, the models are associated with various thermal sensation scales. In this study, a systematic comparison of seven existing thermal sensation models has been performed with regard to exposures including various air temperatures, clothing thermal insulation, and metabolic rate values after a careful investigation of the models' range of applicability. Thermo-physiological data needed as input for some of the models were obtained from a mathematical model for human physiological responses. The comparison showed differences between models' predictions for the analyzed conditions, mostly higher than typical intersubject differences in votes. Therefore, it can be concluded that the choice of model strongly influences the assessment of indoor spaces. The issue of comparing different thermal sensation scales has also been discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Data for Room Fire Model Comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Richard D.; Davis, Sanford; Babrauskas, Vytenis

    1991-01-01

    With the development of models to predict fire growth and spread in buildings, there has been a concomitant evolution in the measurement and analysis of experimental data in real-scale fires. This report presents the types of analyses that can be used to examine large-scale room fire test data to prepare the data for comparison with zone-based fire models. Five sets of experimental data which can be used to test the limits of a typical two-zone fire model are detailed. A standard set of nomenclature describing the geometry of the building and the quantities measured in each experiment is presented. Availability of ancillary data (such as smaller-scale test results) is included. These descriptions, along with the data (available in computer-readable form) should allow comparisons between the experiment and model predictions. The base of experimental data ranges in complexity from one room tests with individual furniture items to a series of tests conducted in a multiple story hotel equipped with a zoned smoke control system. PMID:28184121

  11. Water gun vs air gun: A comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Detrick, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    The water gun is a relatively new marine seismic sound source that produces an acoustic signal by an implosive rather than explosive mechanism. A comparison of the source characteristics of two different-sized water guns with those of conventional air guns shows the the water gun signature is cleaner and much shorter than that of a comparable-sized air gun: about 60-100 milliseconds (ms) for an 80-in3. (1.31-liter (I)) water gun compared with several hundred ms for an 80-in3. (1.31-1) air gun. The source spectra of water guns are richer in high frequencies (>200 Hz) than are those of air guns, but they also have less energy than those of air guns at low frequencies. A comparison between water gun and air gun reflection profiles in both shallow (Long Island Sound)-and deep (western Bermuda Rise)-water settings suggests that the water gun offers a good compromise between very high resolution, limited penetration systems (e.g. 3.5-kHz profilers and sparkers) and the large volume air guns and tuned air gun arrays generally used where significant penetration is required. ?? 1984 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  12. Quantum Private Comparison via Cavity QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tian-Yu

    2017-02-01

    The first quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol via cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) is proposed in this paper by making full use of the evolution law of atom via cavity QED, where the third party (TP) is allowed to misbehave on his own but cannot conspire with either of the two users. The proposed protocol adopts two-atom product states rather than entangled states as the initial quantum resource, and only needs single-atom measurements for two users. Both the unitary operations and the quantum entanglement swapping operation are not necessary for the proposed protocol. The proposed protocol can compare the equality of one bit from each user in each round comparison with one two-atom product state. The proposed protocol can resist both the outside attack and the participant attack. Particularly, it can prevent TP from knowing two users’ secrets. Furthermore, the qubit efficiency of the proposed protocol is as high as 50%. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61402407

  13. Comparison of radar data versus rainfall data.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, B; Hromadka, T V; Perez, R

    2015-01-01

    Doppler radar data are increasingly used in rainfall-runoff synthesis studies, perhaps due to radar data availability, among other factors. However, the veracity of the radar data are often a topic of concern. In this paper, three Doppler radar outcomes developed by the United States National Weather Service at three radar sites are examined and compared to actual rain gage data for two separate severe storm events in order to assess accuracy in the published radar estimates of rainfall. Because the subject storms were very intense rainfall events lasting approximately one hour in duration, direct comparisons between the three radar gages themselves can be made, as well as a comparison to rain gage data at a rain gage location subjected to the same storm cells. It is shown that topographic interference with the radar outcomes can be a significant factor leading to differences between radar and rain gage readings, and that care is needed in calibrating radar outcomes using available rain gage data in order to interpolate rainfall estimates between rain gages using the spatial variation observed in the radar readings. The paper establishes and describes•the need for "ground-truthing" of radar data, and•possible errors due to topographic interference.

  14. Solar Sail GN and C Model Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaton, Andrew F.

    2004-01-01

    The Solar Sail Propulsion project is engaged in an ambitious program to raise the Technology Readiness Level of solar sails and prepare for a validation flight via a series of hardware ground demonstrations and development of a number of high fidelity simulations and models. Guidance, navigation, and control of solar sails is a key part of this effort. The large flexible structure and optical nature of solar sails create a considerable challenge for attitude control, thrust modeling, and navigation. In this paper, we present an overview and comparison of two recently delivered prototype solar sail guidance, navigation, and control software tools currently funded by the Solar Sail Propulsion project. The results of some key test cases are presented. Where possible, we also make comparisons to other software tools. We discuss the implications of the results of these comparative studies to the future direction and scope of development efforts for guidance, navigation and control software for solar sails, including the relationship to hardware test efforts such as the Thrust Vector Control Authority Demonstration.

  15. Comparison of Geoid Models over Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilker, M.; Poutanen, M.; Ollikainen, M.

    2003-04-01

    To get inside into the latest geoid models that were obtained with the data from the CHAMP satellite, different geoid models are compared with each other and with ground data. The considered models are: The global model EGM96, the European model EGG97, the Nordic model NKG96, the newest model for Finland FIN2000, and the three global models that include CHAMP data: TEG-4, the satellite only model EIGEN-1S, and the CHAMP only model EIGEN-2. For ground truth, a total of 245 points in Finland and Sweden are available. For all points, GPS-determined heights are available as well as orthometric or normal heights based on spirit levelling. Geoid heights obtained from these heights are compared with the values obtained from the geoid models. Corrections are applied to the height differences for the land uplift and a bias and tilt are removed to adjust to the national height systems. In the comparison with the ground truth, unmodelled long-period signals show up in the differences with EGM96, EGG97 and NKG96. Comparison of TEG-4 and EIGEN-1S grids with an EGM grid show a change in geoid height up to 0.5 meter in the centre of the Baltic Sea.

  16. Improved VCF normalization for accurate VCF comparison.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Arash; Gaëta, Bruno; Ignjatovic, Aleksandar; Parameswaran, Sri

    2017-04-01

    The Variant Call Format (VCF) is widely used to store data about genetic variation. Variant calling workflows detect potential variants in large numbers of short sequence reads generated by DNA sequencing and report them in VCF format. To evaluate the accuracy of variant callers, it is critical to correctly compare their output against a reference VCF file containing a gold standard set of variants. However, comparing VCF files is a complicated task as an individual genomic variant can be represented in several different ways and is therefore not necessarily reported in a unique way by different software. We introduce a VCF normalization method called Best Alignment Normalisation (BAN) that results in more accurate VCF file comparison. BAN applies all the variations in a VCF file to the reference genome to create a sample genome, and then recalls the variants by aligning this sample genome back with the reference genome. Since the purpose of BAN is to get an accurate result at the time of VCF comparison, we define a better normalization method as the one resulting in less disagreement between the outputs of different VCF comparators. The BAN Linux bash script along with required software are publicly available on https://sites.google.com/site/banadf16. A.Bayat@unsw.edu.au. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  17. Factorial Comparison of Working Memory Models

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Ronald; Awh, Edward; Ma, Wei Ji

    2014-01-01

    Three questions have been prominent in the study of visual working memory limitations: (a) What is the nature of mnemonic precision (e.g., quantized or continuous)? (b) How many items are remembered? (c) To what extent do spatial binding errors account for working memory failures? Modeling studies have typically focused on comparing possible answers to a single one of these questions, even though the result of such a comparison might depend on the assumed answers to both others. Here, we consider every possible combination of previously proposed answers to the individual questions. Each model is then a point in a 3-factor model space containing a total of 32 models, of which only 6 have been tested previously. We compare all models on data from 10 delayed-estimation experiments from 6 laboratories (for a total of 164 subjects and 131,452 trials). Consistently across experiments, we find that (a) mnemonic precision is not quantized but continuous and not equal but variable across items and trials; (b) the number of remembered items is likely to be variable across trials, with a mean of 6.4 in the best model (median across subjects); (c) spatial binding errors occur but explain only a small fraction of responses (16.5% at set size 8 in the best model). We find strong evidence against all 6 documented models. Our results demonstrate the value of factorial model comparison in working memory. PMID:24490791

  18. Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts Tripropellant Comparison Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted under MSFC contract NAS8-39210 to compare tripropellant and bipropellant engine configurations for the SSTO mission. The objective was to produce an 'apples-to-apples' comparison to isolate the effects of design implementation, designing company, year of design, or technologies included from the basic tripropellant/bipropellant comparison. Consequently, identical technologies were included (e.g., jet pumps) and the same design groundrules and practices were used. Engine power cycles were examined as were turbomachinery/preburner arrangements for each cycle. The bipropellant approach and two tripropellant approaches were separately optimized in terms of operating parameters: exit pressures, mixture ratios, thrust splits, etc. This briefing presents the results of the study including engine weights for both tripropellant and bipropellant engines; dry vehicle weight performance for a range of engine chamber pressures; discusses the basis for the results; examines vehicle performance due to engine cycles and the margin characteristics of various cycles; and identifies technologies with significant payoffs for this application.

  19. Storage as a Metric of Catchment Comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNamara, J.P.; Tetzlaff, D.; Bishop, K.; Soulsby, C.; Seyfried, M.; Peters, N.E.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Hooper, R.

    2011-01-01

    The volume of water stored within a catchment, and its partitioning among groundwater, soil moisture, snowpack, vegetation, and surface water are the variables that ultimately characterize the state of the hydrologic system. Accordingly, storage may provide useful metrics for catchment comparison. Unfortunately, measuring and predicting the amount of water present in a catchment is seldom done; tracking the dynamics of these stores is even rarer. Storage moderates fluxes and exerts critical controls on a wide range of hydrologic and biologic functions of a catchment. While understanding runoff generation and other processes by which catchments release water will always be central to hydrologic science, it is equally essential to understand how catchments retain water. We have initiated a catchment comparison exercise to begin assessing the value of viewing catchments from the storage perspective. The exercise is based on existing data from five watersheds, no common experimental design, and no integrated modelling efforts. Rather, storage was estimated independently for each site. This briefing presents some initial results of the exercise, poses questions about the definitions and importance of storage and the storage perspective, and suggests future directions for ongoing activities. ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Comparison between four dissimilar solar panel configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleiman, K.; Ali, U. A.; Yusuf, Ibrahim; Koko, A. D.; Bala, S. I.

    2017-03-01

    Several studies on photovoltaic systems focused on how it operates and energy required in operating it. Little attention is paid on its configurations, modeling of mean time to system failure, availability, cost benefit and comparisons of parallel and series-parallel designs. In this research work, four system configurations were studied. Configuration I consists of two sub-components arranged in parallel with 24 V each, configuration II consists of four sub-components arranged logically in parallel with 12 V each, configuration III consists of four sub-components arranged in series-parallel with 8 V each, and configuration IV has six sub-components with 6 V each arranged in series-parallel. Comparative analysis was made using Chapman Kolmogorov's method. The derivation for explicit expression of mean time to system failure, steady state availability and cost benefit analysis were performed, based on the comparison. Ranking method was used to determine the optimal configuration of the systems. The results of analytical and numerical solutions of system availability and mean time to system failure were determined and it was found that configuration I is the optimal configuration.

  1. How social neuroscience can inform theories of social comparison.

    PubMed

    Swencionis, Jillian K; Fiske, Susan T

    2014-04-01

    Social comparison pervades our interactions with others, informing us of our standing and motivating improvement, but producing negative emotional and behavioral consequences that can harm relationships and lead to poor health outcomes. Social neuroscience research has begun to illuminate some mechanisms by which status divides lead to interpersonal consequences. This review integrates core findings on the neuroscience of social comparison processes, showing the effects of comparing the self to relevant others on dimensions of competence and warmth. The literature converges to suggest that relative status divides initiate social comparison processes, that upward and downward comparisons initiate pain- and pleasure-related neural responses, and that these responses can predict people׳s kindly or aggressive intentions toward one another. Across different types of comparisons, brain regions involved in mentalizing are also sometimes involved. Along with future work, the research reviewed here may inform efforts to mitigate negative outcomes of constant social comparisons.

  2. Feeling better about doing worse: social comparisons within romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Penelope; Dolderman, Dan; Sadler, Pamela; Gerchak, Elinora

    2004-07-01

    The authors examined the role of closeness between self and partner in determining the impact of social comparisons within intimate relationships. To the extent that one's partner is a central aspect of one's identity, one may be able to restore one's positive self-regard following an upward comparison with the partner by turning to the relationship as a self-affirmational resource. Studies 1 and 2 examined reactions to imagined comparisons; Studies 3 and 4 examined reactions to actual comparison feedback. Across studies, closeness moderated the impact of upward comparisons with the partner; that is, higher closeness participants responded to a more successful partner by focusing on their relationship-related strengths. However, closeness did not moderate the impact of downward comparisons with the partner. Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association

  3. Transfer standard uncertainty can cause inconclusive inter-laboratory comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, John; Toman, Blaza; Mickan, Bodo; Wübbeler, Gerd; Bodnar, Olha; Elster, Clemens

    2016-12-01

    Inter-laboratory comparisons use the best available transfer standards to check the participants’ uncertainty analyses, identify underestimated uncertainty claims or unknown measurement biases, and improve the global measurement system. For some measurands, instability of the transfer standard can lead to an inconclusive comparison result. If the transfer standard uncertainty is large relative to a participating laboratory’s uncertainty, the commonly used standardized degree of equivalence  ⩽1 criterion does not always correctly assess whether a participant is working within their uncertainty claims. We show comparison results that demonstrate this issue and propose several criteria for assessing a comparison result as passing, failing, or inconclusive. We investigate the behavior of the standardized degree of equivalence and alternative comparison measures for a range of values of the transfer standard uncertainty relative to the individual laboratory uncertainty values. The proposed alternative criteria successfully discerned between passing, failing, and inconclusive comparison results for the cases we examined.

  4. How Social Neuroscience Can Inform Theories of Social Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Swencionis, Jillian K.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2016-01-01

    Social comparison pervades our interactions with others, informing us of our standing and motivating improvement, but producing negative emotional and behavioral consequences that can harm relationships and lead to poor health outcomes. Social neuroscience research has begun to illuminate some mechanisms by which status divides lead to interpersonal consequences. This review integrates core findings on the neuroscience of social comparison processes, showing the effects of comparing the self to relevant others on dimensions of competence and warmth. The literature converges to suggest that relative status divides initiate social comparison processes, that upward and downward comparisons initiate pain- and pleasure- related neural responses, and that these responses can predict people's kindly or aggressive intentions toward one another. Across different types of comparisons, brain regions involved in mentalizing are also sometimes involved. Along with future work, the research reviewed here may inform efforts to mitigate negative outcomes of constant social comparisons. PMID:24486767

  5. Social comparisons and well-being following widowhood and divorce.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zur, Hasida; Michael, Keren

    2009-03-01

    A sample of 196 participants (mean age 45.94 years, 54% women) completed inventories assessing upward and downward positive and negative social comparisons and general well-being. Widows and widowers were higher on upward negative comparisons than divorced or married persons while being lower on well-being measures of life satisfaction and psychosocial adjustment. The divorced were higher than the widowed or married people on upward or downward positive social comparisons. Upward negative social comparisons were associated with lower levels of well-being measures whereas upward positive social comparisons showed an opposite tendency. Upward negative comparisons were found to mediate the effects of widowhood on well-being. It is concluded that cognitive adaptation contributes to the well-being of widowed and divorced persons.

  6. Transfer Standard Uncertainty Can Cause Inconclusive Inter-Laboratory Comparisons.

    PubMed

    Wright, John; Toman, Blaza; Mickan, Bodo; Wübbeler, Gerd; Bodnar, Olha; Elster, Clemens

    2016-12-01

    Inter-laboratory comparisons use the best available transfer standards to check the participants' uncertainty analyses, identify underestimated uncertainty claims or unknown measurement biases, and improve the global measurement system. For some measurands, instability of the transfer standard can lead to an inconclusive comparison result. If the transfer standard uncertainty is large relative to a participating laboratory's uncertainty, the commonly used standardized degree of equivalence ≤ 1 criterion does not always correctly assess whether a participant is working within their uncertainty claims. We show comparison results that demonstrate this issue and propose several criteria for assessing a comparison result as passing, failing, or inconclusive. We investigate the behavior of the standardized degree of equivalence and alternative comparison measures for a range of values of the transfer standard uncertainty relative to the individual laboratory uncertainty values. The proposed alternative criteria successfully discerned between passing, failing, and inconclusive comparison results for the cases we examined.

  7. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: EUROMET.L-S10 Comparison of squareness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokros, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    The idea of performing a comparison of squareness resulted from the need to review the MRA Appendix C, Category 90° square. At its meeting in October 1999 (in Prague) it was decided upon a first comparison of squareness measurements in the framework of EUROMET, numbered #570, starting in 2000, with the Slovak Institute of Metrology (SMU) as the pilot laboratory. During the preparation stage of the project, it was agreed that it should be submitted as a EUROMET supplementary comparison in the framework of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) of the Metre Convention and would boost confidence in calibration and measurement certificates issued by the participating national metrology institutes. The aim of the comparison of squareness measurement was to compare and verify the declared calibration measurement capabilities of participating laboratories and to investigate the effect of systematic influences in the measurement process and their elimination. Eleven NMIs from the EUROMET region carried out this project. Two standards were calibrated: granite squareness standard of rectangular shape, cylindrical squareness standard of steel with marked positions for the profile lines. The following parameters had to be calibrated: granite squareness standard: interior angle γB between two lines AB and AC (envelope - LS regression) fitted through the measured profiles, and/or granite squareness standard: interior angle γLS between two LS regression lines AB and AC fitted through the measured profiles, cylindrical squareness standard: interior angles γ0°, γ90°, γ180°, γ270° between the LS regression line fitted through the measurement profiles at 0°, 90°, 180°, 270° and the envelope plane of the basis (resting on a surface plate), local LS straightness deviation for all measured profiles (2 and 4) of both standards. The results of the comparison are the deviations of profiles and angles measured by the individual NMIs from the reference values. These resulted

  8. KEY COMPARISON: Report on key comparison EUROMET.EM-K8 (DC voltage ratio)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marullo Reedtz, G.; Cerri, R.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the regional comparison EUROMET.EM-K8 was to compare the scaling capabilities up to 1000 V DC of the European national metrology institutes, thus extending to Europe the evaluation of equivalence of voltage ratio measurements obtained by the comparison CCEM-K8. Twenty laboratories participated, with the Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris (Torino, Italy) acting as pilot laboratory. The circulation of the travelling standard, a resistive voltage divider, started in July 1998 and ended in January 2002. The technical protocol requested the measurement of voltage ratios 1000 V/10 V and 100 V/10 V, the measurement of other ratios being optional. Nineteen laboratories reported measurements of the mandatory ratios. For these ratios, the measurement methods used are described and the process to evaluate the comparison reference value and the degrees of equivalence is reported in detail. The relative uncertainty of the comparison, given by the combination of the uncertainty of the reference value and the instability of the transfer standard, was about 0.26×10-6 for ratio 1000 V/10 V and about 0.16×10-6 for ratio 100 V/10 V, at 95% level of confidence. The results for the optional ratios are reported in an appendix. With some exceptions, the agreement between the results is satisfactory. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  9. KEY COMPARISON: Key comparison CCQM-K45: Sn in tomato paste: final report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff Briche, Céline S. J.; Holcombe, Gill; Sargent, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Key comparison CCQM-K45 was performed to demonstrate and document the capability of interested national metrology institutes in the mass fraction of Sn in a food matrix. This comparison was an activity of the Inorganic Analysis Working Group of the Comité Consultatif pour la Qualité de la Matière and was coordinated by LGC (Teddington, UK). The following laboratories participated in this key comparison (alphabetical order). KRISS (Republic of South Korea) LGC (UK) LNE (France) PTB (Germany) UME (Turkey) Good agreement was observed between the reported results of four of the participants. The other participant did not use any HCl during the sample preparation, which can affect the stability of the tin in solution, and its reported value was lower than for the other participants. It was not included in the calculation of the key comparison reference value with the agreement of the NMI concerned. The reference value was calculated as the arithmetic mean of the reported participants' results (excluding one), and is equal to 227.1 mg kg-1, with an expanded uncertainty of 2.4 mg kg-1 (1.1%). The equivalence statements were calculated on this basis. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  10. The efficiency of similarity-focused comparisons in person perception.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Comparison processes are ubiquitous in person perception. Comparative thinking can follow two routes: People either search for similarities or for dissimilarities while comparing. Which of these two routes is more efficient? Previous research indicates that people could compare two geometrical figures faster if they focused on similarities rather than dissimilarities. I examine comparisons of people and measure the consumption of cognitive resources as indicator for efficiency. The results confirm an efficiency-advantage of similarity-focused comparisons for social stimuli.

  11. Development of a Site Comparison Index: Southeast Upland Forests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    ER D C/ CE R L TR -0 7 -1 2 Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Development of a Site Comparison Index : Southeast...Development of a Site Comparison Index : Southeast Upland Forests Anthony J. Krzysik Prescott College 220 Grove Avenue Prescott, AZ 86301 Harold E...jective site comparison index (SCI), a combination of metrics: soil A- horizon depth, soil compaction, ground cover, canopy cover, basal area, remote

  12. Remote and Ground Truth Spectral Measurement Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Kira Jorgensen; Hamada, Kris; Guyote, Michael; Okada, Jennifer; Barker, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    FORMOSAT III are a set of six research satellites from Taiwan that were launched in April 2006. The satellites are in 800 km, 71 degree inclination orbits and separated by 24 degrees in ascending node. Ground truth spectral measurements were taken of outer surface materials on FORMOSAT III. From those measurements, a computer model was built to predict the spectral reflectance, which included phase angle and orientation of the spacecraft relative to the observer. However, materials exposed to the space environment have exhibited spectral changes including a darkening and a reddening of the spectra. This reddening was seen as an increase in slope of the reflectance as the wavelength increases. Therefore, the model of pristine materials was augmented to include the space weathering effects. Remote data were collected on two of the six FORMOSAT satellites using the 1.6 meter telescope at AMOS (Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing) site with the Spica spectrometer. Due to the separation in ascending node, observations were made on whichever one of the six satellites was visible on that specific night. Three nights of data were collected using the red (6000 9500 angstroms) filter and two nights of data were collected using the blue (3200 -6600 angstroms) filter. A comparison of the data showed a good match to the pristine model for the blue filter region. The absorption feature near 5500 angstroms due to the copper colored Kapton multi-layer insulation (MLI) was very apparent in the remote samples and a good fit to the data was seen in both satellites observed. The features in the red filter regime agreed with the pristine model up through 7000 angstroms where the reddening begins and the slope of the remote sample increases. A comparison of the two satellites showed similar features in the red and blue filter regions, i.e. the satellites were aging at the same rate. A comparison of the pristine model to the first month of remote measurements showed the amount by

  13. Remote and Ground Truth Spectral Measurement Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Kira Jorgensen; Hamada, Kris; Guyote, Michael; Okada, Jennifer; Barker, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    FORMOSAT III are a set of six research satellites from Taiwan that were launched in April 2006. The satellites are in 800 km, 71 degree inclination orbits and separated by 24 degrees in ascending node. Ground truth spectral measurements were taken of outer surface materials on FORMOSAT III. From those measurements, a computer model was built to predict the spectral reflectance, which included phase angle and orientation of the spacecraft relative to the observer. However, materials exposed to the space environment have exhibited spectral changes including a darkening and a reddening of the spectra. This reddening was seen as an increase in slope of the reflectance as the wavelength increases. Therefore, the model of pristine materials was augmented to include the space weathering effects. Remote data were collected on two of the six FORMOSAT satellites using the 1.6 meter telescope at AMOS (Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing) site with the Spica spectrometer. Due to the separation in ascending node, observations were made on whichever one of the six satellites was visible on that specific night. Three nights of data were collected using the red (6000 9500 angstroms) filter and two nights of data were collected using the blue (3200 -6600 angstroms) filter. A comparison of the data showed a good match to the pristine model for the blue filter region. The absorption feature near 5500 angstroms due to the copper colored Kapton multi-layer insulation (MLI) was very apparent in the remote samples and a good fit to the data was seen in both satellites observed. The features in the red filter regime agreed with the pristine model up through 7000 angstroms where the reddening begins and the slope of the remote sample increases. A comparison of the two satellites showed similar features in the red and blue filter regions, i.e. the satellites were aging at the same rate. A comparison of the pristine model to the first month of remote measurements showed the amount by

  14. Editorial: Cognitive Architectures, Model Comparison and AGI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebiere, Christian; Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Warwick, Walter

    2010-12-01

    Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence share compatible goals of understanding and possibly generating broadly intelligent behavior. In order to determine if progress is made, it is essential to be able to evaluate the behavior of complex computational models, especially those built on general cognitive architectures, and compare it to benchmarks of intelligent behavior such as human performance. Significant methodological challenges arise, however, when trying to extend approaches used to compare model and human performance from tightly controlled laboratory tasks to complex tasks involving more open-ended behavior. This paper describes a model comparison challenge built around a dynamic control task, the Dynamic Stocks and Flows. We present and discuss distinct approaches to evaluating performance and comparing models. Lessons drawn from this challenge are discussed in light of the challenge of using cognitive architectures to achieve Artificial General Intelligence.

  15. Historical comparisons of IRI and early ionograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Donald; Sojka, Jan J.

    2015-04-01

    The IRI2012 provides ionospheric modeling from 1 January 1958 through the present and near future. However, archives of ionogram films exist dating back to the late 1940s, and are potentially valuable for studying long-term trends and change. IRI is very useful for the analysis and interpretation of the films, so Space Environment Corporation (SEC) has modified IRI2012 to extend its operations back to 1 January 1950. This paper describes results from IRI2012 and observations from the Washington DC ionosonde WA938 (38.7°N, -77.1°E) for 1951 (active post-solar maximum) and 1954 (quiet solar minimum). The comparison shows general agreement between the extended IRI2012 and the ionosonde observations. A nighttime enhancement found in IRI results is observed in some ionograms, with modification by atmospheric waves. A significant discrepancy between IRI and observations was found in nighttime 1954 solar minimum results.

  16. Code comparison for accelerator design and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    1988-01-01

    We present a comparison between results obtained from standard accelerator physics codes used for the design and analysis of synchrotrons and storage rings, with programs SYNCH, MAD, HARMON, PATRICIA, PATPET, BETA, DIMAD, MARYLIE and RACE-TRACK. In our analysis we have considered 5 (various size) lattices with large and small angles including AGS Booster (10/degree/ bend), RHIC (2.24/degree/), SXLS, XLS (XUV ring with 45/degree/ bend) and X-RAY rings. The differences in the integration methods used and the treatment of the fringe fields in these codes could lead to different results. The inclusion of nonlinear (e.g., dipole) terms may be necessary in these calculations specially for a small ring. 12 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Sheared DNA fragment sizing: comparison of techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Ordahl, C P; Johnson, T R; Caplan, A I

    1976-01-01

    DNA fragmented by conventional French press shearing procedures (30,000 lbs/in2) has a number-average fragment size of 230 base pairs. This is considerably smaller than the 450 base pairs typically reported for DNA sheared by this method. Comparison of 5 sizing techniques indicates that sheared DNA fragment size is overestimated by either measurement of velocity sedimentation or Kleinschmidt Electron Microscopic visualization. Both adsorption grid electron microscopic visualization and gel electrophoresis yield the most reliable estimates of the mean size of small DNA fragment populations. In addition, the assessment of fragment size distribution (not possible from sedimentation analysis) potentially allows more critical evaluation of DNA hybridization and reassociation kinetic and measurement parameters. Images PMID:1034292

  18. A Comparison of Digital Signal Extraction Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M; Dowla, F

    2004-12-28

    We compare the performance of two methods of digital filtering to detect a radioactive source moving past a gamma-ray sensor. The first method is the box-car filter, which is a standard method used in the detection of a moving radioactive source. The second method is the matched filter, which takes into account the variation in the number of photons absorbed in a gamma-ray sensor as a source moves past the sensor. We optimize both methods to detect a source moving at 5, 10, 15 and 20 mph, and the receiver-operator characteristics of the two techniques are plotted for comparison. The improvement of the matched filter over the box car filter is 27% at 5 mph and 22% at 10 mph for a 90% probability of detection and an average hours between false alarms equal to 10.

  19. Comparison of historical documents for writership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Gregory R.; Pu, Danjun; Stritmatter, Roger; Srihari, Sargur N.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last century forensic document science has developed progressively more sophisticated pattern recognition methodologies for ascertaining the authorship of disputed documents. These include advances not only in computer assisted stylometrics, but forensic handwriting analysis. We present a writer verification method and an evaluation of an actual historical document written by an unknown writer. The questioned document is compared against two known handwriting samples of Herman Melville, a 19th century American author who has been hypothesized to be the writer of this document. The comparison led to a high confidence result that the questioned document was written by the same writer as the known documents. Such methodology can be applied to many such questioned documents in historical writing, both in literary and legal fields.

  20. Insights from Human/Mouse genome comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-03-30

    Large-scale public genomic sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of vertebrate sequence data poised to provide insights into mammalian biology. These include deep genomic sequence coverage of human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, and two pufferfish (Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis) (Aparicio et al. 2002; Lander et al. 2001; Venter et al. 2001; Waterston et al. 2002). In addition, a high-priority has been placed on determining the genomic sequence of chimpanzee, dog, cow, frog, and chicken (Boguski 2002). While only recently available, whole genome sequence data have provided the unique opportunity to globally compare complete genome contents. Furthermore, the shared evolutionary ancestry of vertebrate species has allowed the development of comparative genomic approaches to identify ancient conserved sequences with functionality. Accordingly, this review focuses on the initial comparison of available mammalian genomes and describes various insights derived from such analysis.

  1. Quality of life: an international comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkinson, J.; Anderson, C.F.; Liu, B.C.

    1980-04-01

    Dissatisfaction with gross national product (GNP) as a realistic yardstick for comparing the well-being of societies has led to a quality of life (QOL) concept which considers the environment in which people live. QOL includes both the economic and noneconomic factors affecting an individual's happiness. An international comparison of energy, GNP, and QOL in 50 countries considers five major categories (social, economic, health and education, environmental, and national vitality and security) and 12 subcategories. The study indicates that substantial increases in energy consumption will be needed to raise the living standards of developing countries. QOL appears to decline beyond a certain level of GNP, while continuing a direct relationship to per capita energy consumption and electricity production. 12 references. (DCK)

  2. Objective comparison of particle tracking methods

    PubMed Central

    Chenouard, Nicolas; Smal, Ihor; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Maška, Martin; Sbalzarini, Ivo F.; Gong, Yuanhao; Cardinale, Janick; Carthel, Craig; Coraluppi, Stefano; Winter, Mark; Cohen, Andrew R.; Godinez, William J.; Rohr, Karl; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Liang, Liang; Duncan, James; Shen, Hongying; Xu, Yingke; Magnusson, Klas E. G.; Jaldén, Joakim; Blau, Helen M.; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Roudot, Philippe; Kervrann, Charles; Waharte, François; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Shorte, Spencer L.; Willemse, Joost; Celler, Katherine; van Wezel, Gilles P.; Dan, Han-Wei; Tsai, Yuh-Show; de Solórzano, Carlos Ortiz; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Meijering, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Particle tracking is of key importance for quantitative analysis of intracellular dynamic processes from time-lapse microscopy image data. Since manually detecting and following large numbers of individual particles is not feasible, automated computational methods have been developed for these tasks by many groups. Aiming to perform an objective comparison of methods, we gathered the community and organized, for the first time, an open competition, in which participating teams applied their own methods independently to a commonly defined data set including diverse scenarios. Performance was assessed using commonly defined measures. Although no single method performed best across all scenarios, the results revealed clear differences between the various approaches, leading to important practical conclusions for users and developers. PMID:24441936

  3. An agreement coefficient for image comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, L.; Gallo, K.

    2006-01-01

    Combination of datasets acquired from different sensor systems is necessary to construct a long time-series dataset for remotely sensed land-surface variables. Assessment of the agreement of the data derived from various sources is an important issue in understanding the data continuity through the time-series. Some traditional measures, including correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination, mean absolute error, and root mean square error, are not always optimal for evaluating the data agreement. For this reason, we developed a new agreement coefficient for comparing two different images. The agreement coefficient has the following properties: non-dimensional, bounded, symmetric, and distinguishable between systematic and unsystematic differences. The paper provides examples of agreement analyses for hypothetical data and actual remotely sensed data. The results demonstrate that the agreement coefficient does include the above properties, and therefore is a useful tool for image comparison.

  4. Comparison of the Kepler and Eddington Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Kepler and Eddington missions are spaceborne photometric missions with similar apertures. Both are capable of finding Earth-size extrasolar planets and both can detect p-mode oscillations in stars. The Kepler mission is optimized to find Earth-size planets in the habitability zone of Solar-like stars and does astroseismology only as incidental science. The Eddington mission appears to be optimized for astroseismology. The Kepler design provides a very large field of view, a low measurement cadence, a heliocentric orbit, and a long mission duration. The demand for a large field-of-view results in a Schmidt design with a massive corrector. However, the use of the corrector allows a 105 square degree FOV and thereby provides 15 times the number of stars at a given magnitude than does the optical design used in Eddington. Because Kepler stares at a single FOV throughout the mission, it does much less astroseismology than Eddington. Other comparisons are also discussed.

  5. Critical comparison of 3D imaging approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C L

    1999-06-03

    Currently three imaging spectrometer architectures, tunable filter, dispersive, and Fourier transform, are viable for imaging the universe in three dimensions. There are domains of greatest utility for each of these architectures. The optimum choice among the various alternative architectures is dependent on the nature of the desired observations, the maturity of the relevant technology, and the character of the backgrounds. The domain appropriate for each of the alternatives is delineated; both for instruments having ideal performance as well as for instrumentation based on currently available technology. The environment and science objectives for the Next Generation Space Telescope will be used as a specific representative case to provide a basis for comparison of the various alternatives.

  6. Big Sky and Greenhorn Elemental Comparison

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-17

    NASA's Curiosity Mars rover examined both the "Greenhorn" and "Big Sky" targets with the rover's Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument. Greenhorn is located within an altered fracture zone and has an elevated concentration of silica (about 60 percent by weight). Big Sky is the unaltered counterpart for comparison. The bar plot on the left shows scaled concentrations as analyzed by Curiosity's APXS. The bar plot on the right shows what the Big Sky composition would look like if silica (SiO2) and calcium-sulfate (both abumdant in Greenhorn) were added. The similarity in the resulting composition suggests that much of the chemistry of Greenhorn could be explained by the addition of silica. Ongoing research aims to distinguish between that possible explanation for silicon enrichment and an alternative of silicon being left behind when some other elements were removed by acid weathering. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20275

  7. Comparison of Module Performance Characterization Methods

    SciTech Connect

    KROPOSKI,B.; MARION,W.; KING,DAVID L.; BOYSON,WILLIAM EARL; KRATOCHVIL,JAY A.

    2000-10-03

    The rating and modeling of photovoltaic PW module performance has been of concern to manufacturers and system designers for over 20 years. Both the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have developed methodologies to predict module and array performance under actual operating conditions. This paper compares the two methods of determining the performance of PV modules, The methods translate module performance to actual or reference conditions using slightly different approaches. The accuracy of both methods is compared for both hourly, daily, and annual energy production over a year of data recorded at NREL in Golden, CO. The comparison of the two methods will be presented for five different PV module technologies.

  8. An agreement coefficient for image comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, L.; Gallo, K.

    2006-01-01

    Combination of datasets acquired from different sensor systems is necessary to construct a long time-series dataset for remotely sensed land-surface variables. Assessment of the agreement of the data derived from various sources is an important issue in understanding the data continuity through the time-series. Some traditional measures, including correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination, mean absolute error, and root mean square error, are not always optimal for evaluating the data agreement. For this reason, we developed a new agreement coefficient for comparing two different images. The agreement coefficient has the following properties: non-dimensional, bounded, symmetric, and distinguishable between systematic and unsystematic differences. The paper provides examples of agreement analyses for hypothetical data and actual remotely sensed data. The results demonstrate that the agreement coefficient does include the above properties, and therefore is a useful tool for image comparison. ?? 2006 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  9. GCSS Idealized Cirrus Model Comparison Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David OC.; Benedetti, Angela; Boehm, Matt; Brown, Philip R. A.; Gierens, Klaus; Girard, Eric; Giraud, Vincent; Jakob, Christian; Jensen, Eric; Khvorostyanov, Vitaly; hide

    2000-01-01

    The GCSS Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems (WG2) is conducting a systematic comparison and evaluation of cirrus cloud models. This fundamental activity seeks to support the improvement of models used for climate simulation and numerical weather prediction through assessment and improvement of the "process" models underlying parametric treatments of cirrus cloud processes in large-scale models. The WG2 Idealized Cirrus Model Comparison Project is an initial comparison of cirrus cloud simulations by a variety of cloud models for a series of idealized situations with relatively simple initial conditions and forcing. The models (16) represent the state-of-the-art and include 3-dimensional large eddy simulation (LES) models, two-dimensional cloud resolving models (CRMs), and single column model (SCM) versions of GCMs. The model microphysical components are similarly varied, ranging from single-moment bulk (relative humidity) schemes to fully size-resolved (bin) treatments where ice crystal growth is explicitly calculated. Radiative processes are included in the physics package of each model. The baseline simulations include "warm" and "cold" cirrus cases where cloud top initially occurs at about -47C and -66C, respectively. All simulations are for nighttime conditions (no solar radiation) where the cloud is generated in an ice supersaturated layer, about 1 km in depth, with an ice pseudoadiabatic thermal stratification (neutral). Continuing cloud formation is forced via an imposed diabatic cooling representing a 3 cm/s uplift over a 4-hour time span followed by a 2-hour dissipation stage with no cooling. Variations of these baseline cases include no-radiation and stable-thermal-stratification cases. Preliminary results indicated the great importance of ice crystal fallout in determining even the gross cloud characteristics, such as average vertically-integrated ice water path (IWP). Significant inter-model differences were found. Ice water fall speed is directly

  10. Performance comparison of fundamental anisotropic diffusion algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayraktar, Bulent; Analoui, Mostafa

    2004-05-01

    Anisotropic diffusion (AD), first introduced by Perona and Malik (PM), provides image enhancement a strong benefit as it favors intra-region over inter-region smoothing. Early updates on the original PM algorithm focused on the cures for its drawbacks. Later some authors provided their own versions of AD techniques with a wide variety of applications. We surveyed the pros and cons of many fundamental AD techniques. To put our purpose into perspective, we compared the performances of fundamental AD algorithms to simple traditional filters and to more sophisticated tools such as wavelets. Visual inspection and two mathematical criteria are used for performance comparison: Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and universal image quality index (UIQI). We believe that a good overview of its simplicity and power will show the rightful reason of so much interest in anisotropic diffusion since its introduction.

  11. Poultry litter toxicity comparison from various bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G.; Kelly, P. )

    1992-01-01

    Poultry litter contains many toxic chemicals including Cu, As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Se and PCBs. Poultry litter leachate has been shown to be more toxic to marine luminescent organisms (Photobacterium phosphoreum) than other farm animal manures. A comparison of toxicity of the poultry litter leachate was undertaken using various bioassays. The EC{sub 50} (or LC{sub 50}) value for the leachate with the Microtox and Daphnia bioassays was 2.9 g/L/ Nitrobacter and Pseudomonas bioassays were not useful in determining the leachate toxicity because of the nutritional properties of the litter. Poultry litter leachate was found to be mutagenic to strains TA 97, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 using the Ames Test.

  12. An Operational Comparison of Lightning Warning Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Janota, D. E.; Hay, J. E.

    1982-05-01

    During the spring-summer of 1979, six lightning warning devices were evaluated in a side-by-side comparison study at three test sites. Stock commercial devices were selected based upon distinct concepts of operation. The devices tested included a sferics counter, a corona point, a radioactive probe, a field mill, an azimuth/range locator and a triangulation locator. The test sites were chosen to provide varied thunderstorm conditions: 1) San Antonio, Texas (cold air advection), 2) Kennedy Space Center, Florida (localized surface heating) and 3) Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico (orographic effects). The evaluation parameters were advance warning time, time to clear after hazard, alarm reliability, and false alarm and failure to alarm probabilities. The triangulation locator provided the best overall performance; however, all systems indicated a need for improvement in the failure to alarm rate.

  13. Algebraic Comparison of Partial Lists in Bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Jurman, Giuseppe; Riccadonna, Samantha; Visintainer, Roberto; Furlanello, Cesare

    2012-01-01

    The outcome of a functional genomics pipeline is usually a partial list of genomic features, ranked by their relevance in modelling biological phenotype in terms of a classification or regression model. Due to resampling protocols or to a meta-analysis comparison, it is often the case that sets of alternative feature lists (possibly of different lengths) are obtained, instead of just one list. Here we introduce a method, based on permutations, for studying the variability between lists (“list stability”) in the case of lists of unequal length. We provide algorithms evaluating stability for lists embedded in the full feature set or just limited to the features occurring in the partial lists. The method is demonstrated by finding and comparing gene profiles on a large prostate cancer dataset, consisting of two cohorts of patients from different countries, for a total of 455 samples. PMID:22615778

  14. GCSS Idealized Cirrus Model Comparison Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David OC.; Benedetti, Angela; Boehm, Matt; Brown, Philip R. A.; Gierens, Klaus; Girard, Eric; Giraud, Vincent; Jakob, Christian; Jensen, Eric; Khvorostyanov, Vitaly; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The GCSS Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems (WG2) is conducting a systematic comparison and evaluation of cirrus cloud models. This fundamental activity seeks to support the improvement of models used for climate simulation and numerical weather prediction through assessment and improvement of the "process" models underlying parametric treatments of cirrus cloud processes in large-scale models. The WG2 Idealized Cirrus Model Comparison Project is an initial comparison of cirrus cloud simulations by a variety of cloud models for a series of idealized situations with relatively simple initial conditions and forcing. The models (16) represent the state-of-the-art and include 3-dimensional large eddy simulation (LES) models, two-dimensional cloud resolving models (CRMs), and single column model (SCM) versions of GCMs. The model microphysical components are similarly varied, ranging from single-moment bulk (relative humidity) schemes to fully size-resolved (bin) treatments where ice crystal growth is explicitly calculated. Radiative processes are included in the physics package of each model. The baseline simulations include "warm" and "cold" cirrus cases where cloud top initially occurs at about -47C and -66C, respectively. All simulations are for nighttime conditions (no solar radiation) where the cloud is generated in an ice supersaturated layer, about 1 km in depth, with an ice pseudoadiabatic thermal stratification (neutral). Continuing cloud formation is forced via an imposed diabatic cooling representing a 3 cm/s uplift over a 4-hour time span followed by a 2-hour dissipation stage with no cooling. Variations of these baseline cases include no-radiation and stable-thermal-stratification cases. Preliminary results indicated the great importance of ice crystal fallout in determining even the gross cloud characteristics, such as average vertically-integrated ice water path (IWP). Significant inter-model differences were found. Ice water fall speed is directly

  15. Comparison of iohexol with metrizamide in myelography

    SciTech Connect

    Sortland, O.; Nestvold, K.; Kloster, R.; Aandahl, M.H.

    1984-04-01

    Myelography of the lumbar and lower thoracic spine was performed in 46 patients (23 using metrizamide and 23 using iohexol) as a parallel double blind randomized study. Neurological examinations, laboratory testing, and EEG studies were performed before and after myelography, and side effects were recorded. On comparison, adverse reactions were observed in a statistically significant lower number of patients when iohexol was used. The frequency and duration of each single adverse reaction was also lower following use of iohexol, but this was not statistically significant. Three patients had severe reactions following use of metrizamide, and in one patient sharp waves were recorded on EEG. No severe reactions, no mental reactions, and no muscular symptoms were seen following use of iohexol, and the authors consider this contrast medium better tolerated in the subarachnoid space than metrizamide.

  16. Population aging: a comparison among industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G F; Hussey, P S

    2000-01-01

    Increasing longevity and declining fertility rates are shifting the age distribution of populations in industrialized countries toward older age groups. Some countries will experience this demographic shift before others will. In this DataWatch we compare the effects of population aging on health spending, retirement policies, use of long-term care services, workforce composition, and income across eight countries: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. International comparisons suggest that the United States is generally well positioned to cope with population aging; however, three areas should be carefully monitored: heavy reliance on private-sector funding of retirement, coverage of pharmaceuticals for the elderly, and a high proportion of private long-term care financing.

  17. Comparison of select reference management tools.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingting

    2012-01-01

    Bibliographic management tools have been widely used by researchers to store, organize, and manage their references for research papers, theses, dissertations, journal articles, and other publications. There are a number of reference management tools available. In order for users to decide which tool is best for their needs, it is important to know each tool's strengths and weaknesses. This article compares four reference management tools, one of which is licensed by University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey libraries and the other three are open source and freely available. They were chosen based on their functionality, ease of use, availability to library users, and popularity. These four tools are EndNote/EndNote Web, Zotero, Connotea, and Mendeley Desktop/Mendeley Web. Each tool is analyzed in terms of the following features: accessing, collecting, organizing, collaborating, and citing/formatting. A comparison table is included to summarize the key features of these tools. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  18. Model Comparisons with STELLA Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, W. D.; Babzien, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Campbell, L. C.; Cline, D. B.; Dilley, C. E.; Gallardo, J. C.; Gottschalk, S. C.; Kusche, K. P.; Pantell, R. H.; Pogorelsky, I. V.; Quimby, D. C.; Skaritka, J.; Steinhauer, L. C.; Yakimenko, V.; Zhou, F.

    2004-12-01

    High-trapping efficiency and narrow energy spread in a staged laser acceleration system was demonstrated during the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration (STELLA) experiment. The experiment used inverse free electron lasers (IFEL) driven by the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) CO2 laser. The First IFEL modulated the electron beam energy. A subsequent chicane created a train of ˜3 fs-long microbunches separated by 10.6 μm. These microbunches are trapped and accelerated in a second IFEL, where up to 80% trapping efficiencies and energy spreads down to 0.36% (1σ) were measured. This paper presents additional model comparisons with the data, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the model.

  19. [Hospital comparison--status quo and prospects].

    PubMed

    Betzler, M; Haun, P

    1998-12-01

    Hospitals are competing with each other for the limited financial resources available in the health care sector. Comparison of hospitals is legally required (BPf1V section 5) to improve financial efficiency in the health care sector and make competition between hospitals keener, while also objectivizing it. If comparison of the hospitals is really to enhance profitability or efficiency, and not just to reduce the prices for hospital stays regardless of quality, it must extend to far more than the global figures in the compilation summarizing performance and calculation and the hospital statistics (no. of cases, days of care, length of stay, case lump sums and special fees). Documentation of particular features of the patient population, the potentials of the hospital and description of the treatment processes yield valuable information on capacity and performance level. With rising costs, the danger is growing that the quality and risk dimension of the actual medical treatment will not be promoted with the same enthusiasm by those offering the service. Hospital audit does not only allow a check on the hospital's own situation with regard to performance, quality, efficiency and patient satisfaction, but can also provide a basis of structural planning. The fact is that all efforts made and steps taken by the responsible persons in the hospital to improve the quality of structures, processes and results can only be successful if they are also perceived by the patients, the doctors who refer them and the visitors. If hospital audit is restricted to the bed occupancy and the invoicing data, it is only realistic to expect cuts in performance level. This would be bad for the patient and, in view of the consequent costs, also for the overall costs in the health care sector. Against the backdrop of a future performance-related system of remuneration instead of the principle of covering one's own costs that has been in place hitherto, openness about treatment results gains

  20. Asteroseismic versus Gaia distances: A first comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Ridder, J.; Molenberghs, G.; Eyer, L.; Aerts, C.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The Kepler space mission led to a large number of high-precision time series of solar-like oscillators. Using a Bayesian analysis that combines asteroseismic techniques and additional ground-based observations, the mass, radius, luminosity, and distance of these stars can be estimated with good precision. This has given a new impetus to the research field of galactic archeology. Aims: The first data release of the Gaia space mission contains the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) catalogue with parallax estimates for more than 2 million stars, including many of the Kepler targets. Our goal is to make a first proper comparison of asteroseismic and astrometric parallaxes of a selection of dwarfs, subgiants, and red giants observed by Kepler for which asteroseismic distances were published. Methods: We compare asteroseismic and astrometric distances of solar-like pulsators using an appropriate statistical errors-in-variables model on a linear and on a logarithmic scale. Results: For a sample of 22 dwarf and subgiant solar-like oscillators, the TGAS parallaxes considerably improved on the Hipparcos data, yet the excellent agreement between asteroseismic and astrometric distances still holds. For a sample of 938 Kepler pulsating red giants, the TGAS parallaxes are much more uncertain than the asteroseismic ones, making it worthwhile to validate the former with the latter. From errors-in-variables modelling we find a significant discrepancy between the TGAS parallaxes and the asteroseismic values. Conclusions: For the sample of dwarfs and subgiants, the comparison between astrometric and asteroseismic parallaxes does not require a revision of the stellar models on the basis of TGAS. For the sample of red giants, we identify possible causes of the discrepancy, which we will likely be able to resolve with the more precise Gaia parallaxes in the upcoming releases.

  1. Mid-Piacenzian Data-Model Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowsett, Harry; Robinson, Marci; Haywood, Alan; Valdes, Paul; Salzmann, Ulrich; Hill, Dan; Foley, Kevin; Williams, Mark

    2010-05-01

    The Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) Project aims to accurately and comprehensively reconstruct and understand mid-Pliocene climate conditions in order to gain insight into a warmer than present world that may resemble a future climate. PRISM has demonstrated a sustained and dedicated commitment to provide the paleoclimate modeling community with a mid-Piacenzian paleoenvironmental reconstruction of important boundary conditions for use in model initialization and verification. PRISM is presently in its fourth phase as reconstructions are constantly improved, refined and updated to meet this unique goal. A summary of the development of the PRISM data set will be presented. In this presentation we compare the PRISM3D reconstruction to the HadCM3 coupled ocean atmosphere model simulation of mid-Piacenzian climate. While there is overall agreement between data and model, several regions can be highlighted where disagreement is significant and requires further analysis. For example, high latitude warming shown by multiple proxies is not reflected to the same degree in model results. Low latitude warming shown by the model is still difficult to reconcile with faunal data, but the gap between the two results has diminished relative to previous data-model comparisons. The concept of a "permanent El Nino" while evident in mean conditions, is not reflected in further analyses of either model or data. With the recognition that future climate conditions near the end of this century may be somewhat similar to conditions during the mid-Piacenzian, the PRISM reconstruction, coupled with independent paleoclimate proxy data, represents a unique and invaluable tool for paleoclimate and future global change research. Similarly, data-model comparisons such as this one are integral to refining both the data-based reconstructions and the climate models themselves in order to improve confidence in model simulations.

  2. Comparison of international approaches to sustainable remediation.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Erika; Bardos, Paul; Pizzol, Lisa; Critto, Andrea; Giubilato, Elisa; Marcomini, Antonio; Albano, Claudio; Darmendrail, Dominique; Döberl, Gernot; Harclerode, Melissa; Harries, Nicola; Nathanail, Paul; Pachon, Carlos; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Slenders, Hans; Smith, Garry

    2016-12-15

    Since mid-to-late 2000s growing interest for sustainable remediation has emerged in initiatives from several international and national organisations as well as other initiatives from networks and forums. This reflects a realisation that risk-management activities can about bring environmental, social, and economic impacts (positive or negative) in addition to achieving risk-based remediation goals. These ideas have begun to develop as a new discipline of "sustainable remediation". The various initiatives have now published a number of frameworks, standards, white papers, road maps and operative guidelines. The similarities and differences in the approaches by these outputs and general trends have been identified. The comparison is based on a set of criteria developed in discussion with members of these various initiatives, and identifies a range of similarities between their publications. Overall the comparison demonstrates a high level of consensus across definitions and principles, which leads to the conclusion that there is a shared understanding of what sustainable remediation is both across countries and stakeholder groups. Publications do differ in points of detail, in particular about the operational aspects of sustainable remediation assessment. These differences likely result from differences in context and legal framework. As this analysis was carried out its findings were debated with members of the various international initiatives, many of whom have been included as authors. Hence the outcomes described in this paper can be seen as the result of a sort of multi-level debate among international experts (authors) and so can offer a starting point to new sustainable remediation initiatives (for example in other countries) that aim to start developing their own documents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: SIM.QM-S1: Bilateral comparison of NIST and CENAM binary gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, Frank; Perez-Castorena, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    Ten compressed gas cylinders from NIST containing binary mixtures with propane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide or nitric oxide, all of them with nitrogen balance, were shipped to CENAM for the purpose of bilateral comparison between CENAM and NIST. CENAM utilized its own gravimetrically prepared Primary Reference Materials (PRM) to measure the respective concentrations and reported to NIST. The cylinders were shipped back to NIST for verification of their value. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by SIM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  4. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on key comparison APMP.QM-K4 of ethanol in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, M. J. T.; Brookes, C.; Marschal, A.; Guenther, F.; de Leer, E.; Zhen, Wang Lin; Takahashi, C.; Deák, E.; Kustikov, Y.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes key comparison APMP.QM-K4 that was held under the auspices of the Asia Pacific Metrology Program (APMP) Technical Committee for Amount of Substance (TCQM) in 2000-2001, and piloted by the NMIJ. The report was checked by the CCQM Working Group on Gas Analysis and approved by the CCQM. Four national metrology institutes, CSIR-NML (South Africa), CMS-ITRI (Taiwan), KRISS (Republic of Korea) and NMIJ/CERI (Japan) participated in the key comparison. ERL-HIAST (Syria) participated as a 'study' and the results will not be included in MRA Appendix B. The protocol used is equivalent to that of the CCQM-K4, and the link laboratory is NMIJ. Gas mixtures of ethanol in air with a nominal amount-of-substance fraction of 120 µmol/mol were prepared in cylinders using the gravimetric method by CERI. One cylinder was delivered to each participant and analysed based on the participant's standard. Two of the participants have their own gravimetric primary standards, one carried out the analysis using the standard by a static volumetric method, and two purchased gravimetrically mixed gases in cylinders from other national laboratories for their standards. This key comparison demonstrates that the level of comparability between three of the four participants is adequate to meet the requirements for ethanol/air mixtures at this amount-of-substance fraction. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  5. [Apples with oranges? Comparison of scientometric indicators between fields].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András

    2016-04-17

    It is well known that all scientometric indicators strongly depend on research fields. Therefore, there is a certain reluctance to make any cross-field comparison of these indicators. The paper reviews the possibilities to normalize the most important scientometric indicators: publication counts, citation rate or h-index, thus making them suitable for cross-field comparison.

  6. Unlimited Capacity Parallel Quantity Comparison of Multiple Integers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc-Goldhammer, Daryn R.; Cohen, Dale J.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that integer comparison is quick and efficient. This efficiency may be a function of the structure of the integer comparison system. The present study tests whether integers are compared with an unlimited capacity system or a limited capacity system. We tested these models using a visual search task with time delimitation. The…

  7. Social Comparisons and Well-Being Following Widowhood and Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Zur, Hasida; Michael, Keren

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 196 participants (mean age 45.94 years, 54% women) completed inventories assessing upward and downward positive and negative social comparisons and general well-being. Widows and widowers were higher on upward negative comparisons than divorced or married persons while being lower on well-being measures of life satisfaction and…

  8. 16 CFR 233.5 - Miscellaneous price comparisons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Miscellaneous price comparisons. 233.5... DECEPTIVE PRICING § 233.5 Miscellaneous price comparisons. The practices covered in the provisions set forth... principles. For example, retailers should not advertise a retail price as a “wholesale” price. They should...

  9. RDV77 VLBA Hardware/Software Correlator Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, David

    2010-01-01

    Results of a hardware vs. software correlation of the RDV77 session are presented. Group delays are found to agree (WRMS differences) at an average level of 4.2 psec and with a noise floor of 2.5 psec. These RDV77 comparisons agree well with several previous correlator comparison studies.

  10. Comparison of INMARSAT and ATS3 satellite communication

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-29

    There exists a need to provide communication through a satellite- based network which allows a user to communicate from a remote site to a fixed site. This discussion provides a comparison, both technical and financial, between the existing ATS3 satellite system and the commercial INMARSAT system. This comparison identified the limitations of each system to provide various types of communication.

  11. On-Going Comparison of Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Bennett, R.G.; Dixon, B.W.; Herring, J.S.; Shropshire, D.E.; Roth, M.; Smith, J.D.; Finck, P.; Hill, R.; Laidler, J.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.

    2004-10-03

    This paper summarizes the current comprehensive comparison of four major fuel cycle strategies: once-through, thermal recycle, thermal+fast recycle, fast recycle. It then proceeds to summarize comparison of the major technology options for the key elements of the fuel cycle that can implement each of the four strategies - separation processing, transmutation reactors, and fuels.

  12. Selecting Evaluation Comparison Groups: A Cluster Analytic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Todd Mclin; McLean, James E.

    A persistent problem in the evaluation of field-based projects is the lack of no-treatment comparison groups. Frequently, potential comparison groups are confounded by socioeconomic, racial, or other factors. Among the possible methods for dealing with this problem are various matching procedures, but they are cumbersome to use with multiple…

  13. 16 CFR 233.5 - Miscellaneous price comparisons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Miscellaneous price comparisons. 233.5 Section 233.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST DECEPTIVE PRICING § 233.5 Miscellaneous price comparisons. The practices covered in the provisions set...

  14. 16 CFR 233.5 - Miscellaneous price comparisons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Miscellaneous price comparisons. 233.5 Section 233.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST DECEPTIVE PRICING § 233.5 Miscellaneous price comparisons. The practices covered in the provisions set...

  15. 16 CFR 233.5 - Miscellaneous price comparisons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Miscellaneous price comparisons. 233.5 Section 233.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST DECEPTIVE PRICING § 233.5 Miscellaneous price comparisons. The practices covered in the provisions set...

  16. Selecting Evaluation Comparison Groups: A Cluster Analytic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Todd Mclin; McLean, James E.

    A persistent problem in the evaluation of field-based projects is the lack of no-treatment comparison groups. Frequently, potential comparison groups are confounded by socioeconomic, racial, or other factors. Among the possible methods for dealing with this problem are various matching procedures, but they are cumbersome to use with multiple…

  17. Model Comparison of Bayesian Semiparametric and Parametric Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Xin-Yuan; Xia, Ye-Mao; Pan, Jun-Hao; Lee, Sik-Yum

    2011-01-01

    Structural equation models have wide applications. One of the most important issues in analyzing structural equation models is model comparison. This article proposes a Bayesian model comparison statistic, namely the "L[subscript nu]"-measure for both semiparametric and parametric structural equation models. For illustration purposes, we consider…

  18. Learning Radiological Appearances of Diseases: Does Comparison Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kok, Ellen M.; de Bruin, Anique B. H.; Robben, Simon G. F.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Comparison learning is a promising approach for learning complex real-life visual tasks. When medical students study radiological appearances of diseases, comparison of images showing diseases with images showing no abnormalities could help them learn to discriminate relevant, disease-related information. Medical students studied 12 diseases on…

  19. 16 CFR 233.5 - Miscellaneous price comparisons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Miscellaneous price comparisons. 233.5 Section 233.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST DECEPTIVE PRICING § 233.5 Miscellaneous price comparisons. The practices covered in the provisions set forth...

  20. Comparison Promotes Learning and Transfer of Relational Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Kenneth J.; Boukrina, Olga; Gentner, Dedre

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of co-presenting training items during supervised classification learning of novel relational categories. Strong evidence exists that comparison induces a structural alignment process that renders common relational structure more salient. We hypothesized that comparisons between exemplars would facilitate learning and…

  1. Numerical Order and Quantity Processing in Number Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turconi, Eva; Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Seron, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    We investigated processing of numerical order information and its relation to mechanisms of numerical quantity processing. In two experiments, performance on a quantity-comparison task (e.g. 2 5; which is larger?) was compared with performance on a relative-order judgment task (e.g. 2 5; ascending or descending order?). The comparison task…

  2. A Toolbox for Teaching Price Comparison to Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Pei-Lin; Bouck, Emily C.

    2017-01-01

    Price comparison is a functional mathematics skill involving purchasing, use of money, and budgeting, with the goal of selecting the best deal based on a person's financial resources (Browder, Spooner, & Trela, 2011). The operational definition of "price comparison" is to compare the magnitudes of the price numbers and then select…

  3. Automatic comparison of striation information on firearm bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puente Leon, Fernando; Beyerer, Juergen

    1999-08-01

    This paper deals with an important task within forensic science - the automatic comparison of bullets for the purpose of firearm identification. Bullets bear groove- shaped marks that can be though of as a kind of 'fingerprint' of the firearm on their circumferential surface. To accomplish the comparison task, mainly the fine grooves on the bullet surface are of interests.

  4. Comparison of JPL and European Environmental Testing Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Man, Kin Fung; Forgave, John C.; Hoffman, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    A comparison of JPL and European environmental testing standards is presented. The contents include: 1) JPL Environmental Testing Documents; 2) Focus of the Comparison; 3) Test Policy; 4) Documentation; 5) Programmatics; 6) Functional Testing; 7) Reporting; 8) Dynamics Test Levels, Durations, & Margins; 9) Thermal Test Levels, Durations, & Margins; and 10) EMC Test Levels, Durations, & Margins.

  5. Unlimited Capacity Parallel Quantity Comparison of Multiple Integers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc-Goldhammer, Daryn R.; Cohen, Dale J.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that integer comparison is quick and efficient. This efficiency may be a function of the structure of the integer comparison system. The present study tests whether integers are compared with an unlimited capacity system or a limited capacity system. We tested these models using a visual search task with time delimitation. The…

  6. Using Paired Comparisons to Assess Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Lisa L.; Fiebert, Martin S.

    Past studies which have examined need levels have identified individuals as functioning at specific need levels without an adequate assessment of the intensity of each need or a clear comparison with other need levels. To address these issues, a self-report inventory using a modified paired comparison format was developed to assess need potencies…

  7. Site-index comparisons for tree species in northern Minnesota.

    Treesearch

    Willard H. Carmean; Alexander Vasilevsky

    1971-01-01

    Presents site-index comparisons for the following forest species in northern Minnesota: quaking aspen, paper birch, basswood, red oak, black ash, jack pine, red pine, white pine, white spruce, black spruce, balsam fir, white-cedar, and tamarack. Shows site-index relationships among these species by using site-index ratios and species-comparison graphs.

  8. International Comparisons of Inservice Professional Development. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilford, Dorothy M.

    This report recommends items from international comparative education studies that are related to inservice professional development (IPD) for possible inclusion in the Schools and Staffing Survey of 1999-2000. To justify these recommendations, the value of international comparisons and of state and nation comparisons generally is discussed, along…

  9. Item Response Modeling of Paired Comparison and Ranking Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto; Brown, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The comparative format used in ranking and paired comparisons tasks can significantly reduce the impact of uniform response biases typically associated with rating scales. Thurstone's (1927, 1931) model provides a powerful framework for modeling comparative data such as paired comparisons and rankings. Although Thurstonian models are generally…

  10. 42 CFR 493.1281 - Standard: Comparison of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Comparison of test results. 493.1281... Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1281 Standard: Comparison of test results. (a) If a laboratory performs the... between test results using the different methodologies, instruments, or testing sites. (b) The laboratory...

  11. Group Comparisons of Mathematics Performance from a Cognitive Diagnostic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yi-Hsin; Ferron, John M.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Gorin, Joanna S.; Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional comparisons of test score means identify group differences in broad academic areas, but fail to provide substantive description of how the groups differ on the specific cognitive attributes required for success in the academic area. The rule space method (RSM) allows for group comparisons at the cognitive attribute level, which…

  12. Finding a Comparison Group: Is Online Crowdsourcing a Viable Option?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Tarek; Jacobson, Miriam R.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the viability of online crowdsourcing for creating matched-comparison groups. This exploratory study compares survey results from a randomized control group to survey results from a matched-comparison group created from Amazon.com's MTurk crowdsourcing service to determine their comparability. Study findings indicate…

  13. Sample sizes and model comparison metrics for species distribution models

    Treesearch

    B.B. Hanberry; H.S. He; D.C. Dey

    2012-01-01

    Species distribution models use small samples to produce continuous distribution maps. The question of how small a sample can be to produce an accurate model generally has been answered based on comparisons to maximum sample sizes of 200 observations or fewer. In addition, model comparisons often are made with the kappa statistic, which has become controversial....

  14. Learning Radiological Appearances of Diseases: Does Comparison Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kok, Ellen M.; de Bruin, Anique B. H.; Robben, Simon G. F.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Comparison learning is a promising approach for learning complex real-life visual tasks. When medical students study radiological appearances of diseases, comparison of images showing diseases with images showing no abnormalities could help them learn to discriminate relevant, disease-related information. Medical students studied 12 diseases on…

  15. Gender Differences in Comparisons and Entitlement: Implications for Comparable Worth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Brenda

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the role of comparison processes in the persistence of the gender wage gap, its toleration by those disadvantaged by it, and resistance to comparable worth as a corrective strategy. Argues that gender segregation and undercompensation for women's jobs leads women to use different comparison standards when evaluating what they deserve.…

  16. Model Comparison of Bayesian Semiparametric and Parametric Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Xin-Yuan; Xia, Ye-Mao; Pan, Jun-Hao; Lee, Sik-Yum

    2011-01-01

    Structural equation models have wide applications. One of the most important issues in analyzing structural equation models is model comparison. This article proposes a Bayesian model comparison statistic, namely the "L[subscript nu]"-measure for both semiparametric and parametric structural equation models. For illustration purposes, we consider…

  17. Choosing a Multiple Comparison Procedure Based on Alpha.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnette, J. Jackson; McLean, James E.

    Four of the most commonly used multiple comparison procedures were compared for pairwise comparisons and relative to control of per-experiment and experimentwise Type I errors when conducted as protected or unprotected tests. The methods are: (1) Dunn-Bonferroni; (2) Dunn-Sidak; (3) Holm's sequentially rejective; and (4) Tukey's honestly…

  18. Numerical Order and Quantity Processing in Number Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turconi, Eva; Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Seron, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    We investigated processing of numerical order information and its relation to mechanisms of numerical quantity processing. In two experiments, performance on a quantity-comparison task (e.g. 2 5; which is larger?) was compared with performance on a relative-order judgment task (e.g. 2 5; ascending or descending order?). The comparison task…

  19. Cache-Cache Comparison for Supporting Meaningful Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jingyun; Fujino, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a meaningful discovery learning environment called "cache-cache comparison" for a personalized learning support system. The processing of seeking hidden relations or concepts in "cache-cache comparison" is intended to encourage learners to actively locate new knowledge in their knowledge framework and check…

  20. 30 CFR 1206.155 - Accounting for comparison.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accounting for comparison. 1206.155 Section 1206.155 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.155 Accounting for comparison. (a) Except as provided...

  1. 30 CFR 1206.155 - Accounting for comparison.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accounting for comparison. 1206.155 Section 1206.155 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.155 Accounting for comparison. (a) Except as provided...

  2. Comparison of JPL and European Environmental Testing Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Man, Kin Fung; Forgave, John C.; Hoffman, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    A comparison of JPL and European environmental testing standards is presented. The contents include: 1) JPL Environmental Testing Documents; 2) Focus of the Comparison; 3) Test Policy; 4) Documentation; 5) Programmatics; 6) Functional Testing; 7) Reporting; 8) Dynamics Test Levels, Durations, & Margins; 9) Thermal Test Levels, Durations, & Margins; and 10) EMC Test Levels, Durations, & Margins.

  3. A Note on Multigroup Comparisons Using SAS PROC CALIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Farmer, L. Allison; Pitts, Jennifer P.; Rainer, R. Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Although SAS PROC CALIS is not designed to perform multigroup comparisons, it is believed that SAS can be "tricked" into doing so for groups of equal size. At present, there are no comprehensive examples of the steps involved in performing a multigroup comparison in SAS. The purpose of this article is to illustrate these steps. We demonstrate…

  4. Development of Fraction Comparison Strategies: A Latent Transition Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinne, Luke F.; Ye, Ai; Jordan, Nancy C.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of fraction comparison strategies through a longitudinal analysis of children's responses to a fraction comparison task in 4th through 6th grades (N = 394). Participants were asked to choose the larger value for 24 fraction pairs blocked by fraction type. Latent class analysis of performance over item…

  5. Comparability of Multiple Rank Order and Paired Comparison Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rounds, James B., Jr.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Two studies compared multiple rank order and paired comparison methods in terms of psychometric characteristics and user reactions. Individual and group item responses, preference counts, and Thurstone normal transform scale values obtained by the multiple rank order method were found to be similar to those obtained by paired comparisons.…

  6. Item Response Modeling of Paired Comparison and Ranking Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto; Brown, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The comparative format used in ranking and paired comparisons tasks can significantly reduce the impact of uniform response biases typically associated with rating scales. Thurstone's (1927, 1931) model provides a powerful framework for modeling comparative data such as paired comparisons and rankings. Although Thurstonian models are generally…

  7. Using Comparison to Develop Flexibility for Teaching Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakes, Christopher; Star, Jon R.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a one-day professional development activity for mathematics teachers that promoted the use of comparison as an instructional tool to develop students' flexibility in algebra. Effective use of comparison in mathematics instruction involves using side-by-side presentation of problems and solution methods and subsequent…

  8. Task Characteristics and Target Choice in Social Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorenflo, Daniel W.

    Festinger's (1954) theory of social comparison holds that in the absence of objective standards, people use the attitudes or judgments of similar others to determine the correctness of their own positions. More recent studies have suggested, however, that people often prefer dissimilar comparison targets. A study was undertaken to examine the…

  9. Social Comparison of Ability in Blind Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Stephen F.; Jones, Reginald L.

    Forty-five blind, school aged subjects (aged 6-18 years) were questioned to determine the influence of age on the choice of the blind as a reference group for social comparison of abilities. To assess the direction of social comparison behavior, each subject was presented with a replication of three questions (which differed in the degree to which…

  10. Optimism, Social Comparisons, and Coping with Vision Loss in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Zur, Hasida; Debi, Zoharit

    2005-01-01

    This study of 90 adults (aged 55?80) who lost their vision assessed their dispositional optimism, social comparisons, coping strategies, and wellbeing. The findings suggest that optimism and positive social comparisons play an important role in stimulating the motivation to cope adaptively with vision loss and that enhancing optimism and social…

  11. A Comparison of Gregg Diamond Jubilee and Century 21 Shorthand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallion, Leona M.; Kavan, C. Bruce

    A comparison of the components of the Gregg Diamond Jubilee shorthand and Century 21 shorthand systems was studied based on the 2,500 most frequently used words in business and communications. Comparisons were analyzed for the following areas: (1) number of class sessions necessary to teach the theory portion of the system, (2) number of words…

  12. KEY COMPARISON: Final report, on-going key comparison BIPM.QM-K1: Ozone at ambient level, comparison with ISCIII, 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viallon, Joële; Moussay, Philippe; Wielgosz, Robert; Morillo Gomez, Pilar; Sánchez Blaya, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    As part of the on-going key comparison BIPM.QM-K1, a comparison has been performed between the ozone national standard of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) and the common reference standard of the key comparison, maintained by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The instruments have been compared over a nominal ozone mole fraction range of 0 nmol/mol to 500 nmol/mol. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  13. Regional comparison of absolute gravimeters, EURAMET.M.G-K2 key comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pálinkáš, V.; Francis, O.; Val'ko, M.; Kostelecký, J.; Van Camp, M.; Castelein, S.; Bilker-Koivula, M.; Näränen, J.; Lothhammer, A.; Falk, R.; Schilling, M.; Timmen, L.; Iacovone, D.; Baccaro, F.; Germak, A.; Biolcati, E.; Origlia, C.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; De Plaen, R.; Klein, G.; Seil, M.; Radinovic, R.; Reudink, R.; Dykowski, P.; Sȩkowski, M.; Próchniewicz, D.; Szpunar, R.; Mojzeš, M.; Jańk, J.; Papčo, J.; Engfeldt, A.; Olsson, P. A.; Smith, V.; van Westrum, D.; Ellis, B.; Lucero, B.

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of the regional EURAMET.M.G-K2 comparison of absolute gravimeters, 17 gravimeters were compared in November 2015. Four gravimeters were from different NMIs and DIs, they were used to link the regional comparison to the CCM.G.K2 by means of linking converter. Combined least-squares adjustments with weighted constraint was used to determine KCRV. Several pilot solutions are presented and compared with the official solution to demonstrate influences of different approaches (e.g. definition of weights and the constraint) on results of the adjustment. In case of the official solution, all the gravimeters are in equivalence with declared uncertainties. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  14. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON Technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides (TENORM) in phosphogypsum: Comparison CCRI(II)-S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Sansone, U.; Wershofen, H.; Bollhöfer, A.; Kim, C. K.; Kim, C. S.; Korun, M.; Moune, M.; Lee, S. H.; Tarjan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Within the frame of mutual cooperation between the IAEA and the BIPM, the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation Section II—Measurement of Radionuclides accepted an IAEA-organized interlaboratory comparison in 2008 on the determination of technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum. The study was piloted by the Chemistry Unit at the IAEA's Laboratories in Seibersdorf (Austria). This report presents the methodology applied in conducting this comparison and the results. Activity results for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234, U-235 and U-238 were reported by three national metrology institutes (NMI) and five other expert laboratories or designated institutes. Four different approaches were used to calculate the nominal value of the reported results and associated uncertainties, and the results from each individual participant were evaluated and compared with this nominal reference value. The reported evaluation of the measurement results demonstrated agreement amongst the participating laboratories. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section II, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  15. Comparisons of absolute gravimeters (COOMET.M.G-S1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinnichenko, Mr Alexander; Germak, Alessandro, Dr

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the results of the RMO supplementary comparison COOMET.M.G-S1 (also known as bilateral comparison COOMET 634/UA/14). The comparison measurements between the two participants NSC 'IM' (pilot laboratory) and INRIM were started in December 2015 and finished in January 2016. Participants of comparisons were conducted at their national standards the measurements of the free fall acceleration in gravimetric point laboratory of absolute gravimetry of INRIM named INRiM.2. Absolute measurements of gravimetric acceleration were conducted by ballistic gravimeters. The agreement between the two participants is good. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  16. Final report of supplementary comparison SIM.M.P-S7: Hydraulic pressure comparison from 7 MPa to 70 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil Romero, Juan Carlos; Catalina Neira, María; Torres Guzmán, Jorge C.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the final results of supplementary comparison SIM.M.P-S7 in the field of hydraulic pressure up to 70 MPa, within the PTB-ANDIMET-PLUS project. Seven national pressure reference laboratories participated in this comparison, which started with an opening meeting in November 2011 at the city of Lima; the closing meeting was held at the National Metrology Institute of Colombia INM, at Bogota, on 27-28 November 2012. Each participating laboratory used for the comparison its best hydraulic pressure balance standard in the range from 7 MPa to 70 MPa. The transfer standard for the comparison was a digital manometer DH Instruments Fluke RPM-4 with an accuracy of 0.008% of the reading. The reference laboratory and advisor for the comparison was CENAM, Mexico. The comparison protocol and results analysis was made by the pressure laboratory of National Metrology Institute INM (Colombia) who participated in the comparison as well. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by SIM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  17. KEY COMPARISON: Key comparison of stainless steel 1 kg mass standards: COOMET.M.M-K1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurný, Robert; Kolozinska, Irina; Snegov, Viktor; Evsievich, Ludmila; Borys, Michael; Milkamanavičiene, Ilona

    2010-01-01

    The COOMET.M.M-K1 key comparison is an international COOMET comparison of 1 kg stainless steel mass standards, using two travelling artefacts from SMU, Slovakia. Thanks to the participation of the PTB in this comparison, it was made possible to link the results to those of the corresponding CCM key comparison, namely CCM.M-K1, thus adding new values of degrees of equivalence for BelGIM (Belarus), NSC IM (Ukraine), PTB (Germany), SMU (Slovakia), VMT/VMC (Lithuania) and VNIIM (Russia), on the CCM.M-K1 graph of equivalence. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  18. A comparison of cosmological hydrodynamic codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Hyesung; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Cen, Renyue; Ryu, Dongsu; Hernquist, Lars; Evrard, August E.; Bryan, Greg L.; Norman, Michael L.

    1994-01-01

    We present a detailed comparison of the simulation results of various hydrodynamic codes. Starting with identical initial conditions based on the cold dark matter scenario for the growth of structure, with parameters h = 0.5 Omega = Omega(sub b) = 1, and sigma(sub 8) = 1, we integrate from redshift z = 20 to z = O to determine the physical state within a representative volume of size L(exp 3) where L = 64 h(exp -1) Mpc. Five indenpendent codes are compared: three of them Eulerian mesh-based and two variants of the smooth particle hydrodynamics 'SPH' Lagrangian approach. The Eulerian codes were run at N(exp 3) = (32(exp 3), 64(exp 3), 128(exp 3), and 256(exp 3)) cells, the SPH codes at N(exp 3) = 32(exp 3) and 64(exp 3) particles. Results were then rebinned to a 16(exp 3) grid with the exception that the rebinned data should converge, by all techniques, to a common and correct result as N approaches infinity. We find that global averages of various physical quantities do, as expected, tend to converge in the rebinned model, but that uncertainites in even primitive quantities such as (T), (rho(exp 2))(exp 1/2) persists at the 3%-17% level achieve comparable and satisfactory accuracy for comparable computer time in their treatment of the high-density, high-temeprature regions as measured in the rebinned data; the variance among the five codes (at highest resolution) for the mean temperature (as weighted by rho(exp 2) is only 4.5%. Examined at high resolution we suspect that the density resolution is better in the SPH codes and the thermal accuracy in low-density regions better in the Eulerian codes. In the low-density, low-temperature regions the SPH codes have poor accuracy due to statiscal effects, and the Jameson code gives the temperatures which are too high, due to overuse of artificial viscosity in these high Mach number regions. Overall the comparison allows us to better estimate errors; it points to ways of improving this current generation ofhydrodynamic

  19. KEY COMPARISON: EURAMET regional key comparison EURAMET.M.FF-K4.b: Volume intercomparison at 20 L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, Elsa; Lau, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In the sequence of CIPM key comparisons concerning volume calibrations an interregional comparison CCM.FF-K4 was performed between December 2003 and March 2005 for volume standards of 20 L and 100 mL. The corresponding regional part of this comparison within Europe was performed in 2006 for a 100 mL Gay-Lussac Pycnometer—EUROMET.M.FF-K4 (EUROMET project number 692). It was decided during the EUROMET meeting in Istanbul 2007 to also perform the regional part of this key comparison at 20 L, as EURAMET.M.FF-K4.b (EURAMET project number 1008). This comparison was guided by IPQ (Portugal) with SP (Sweden) acting has the pilot laboratory having taken part in the interregional exercise. Fourteen countries decided to participate in this comparison. One of three 20 L pipettes, 710-04FyV used in the CCM.FF K4, was readjusted by CENAM (Mexico), which initiated this key comparison and produced the transfer standard. The main purpose of this project was to compare the experimental results and uncertainty calculations in calibrating this 20 L pipette and linking the intra-regional European results with the results obtained in the previous inter-regional CIPM key comparison. The results of all laboratories participating in EURAMET project 1008 are presented in this report as well as their equivalence with the reference value of the key comparison CCM.FF-K4. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  20. Santa Barbara Cluster Comparison Test with DISPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Makino, Junichiro

    2016-06-01

    The Santa Barbara cluster comparison project revealed that there is a systematic difference between entropy profiles of clusters of galaxies obtained by Eulerian mesh and Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) codes: mesh codes gave a core with a constant entropy, whereas SPH codes did not. One possible reason for this difference is that mesh codes are not Galilean invariant. Another possible reason is the problem of the SPH method, which might give too much “protection” to cold clumps because of the unphysical surface tension induced at contact discontinuities. In this paper, we apply the density-independent formulation of SPH (DISPH), which can handle contact discontinuities accurately, to simulations of a cluster of galaxies and compare the results with those with the standard SPH. We obtained the entropy core when we adopt DISPH. The size of the core is, however, significantly smaller than those obtained with mesh simulations and is comparable to those obtained with quasi-Lagrangian schemes such as “moving mesh” and “mesh free” schemes. We conclude that both the standard SPH without artificial conductivity and Eulerian mesh codes have serious problems even with such an idealized simulation, while DISPH, SPH with artificial conductivity, and quasi-Lagrangian schemes have sufficient capability to deal with it.