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Sample records for chlorophenoxy acid type

  1. 40 CFR 180.325 - 2-(m-Chlorophenoxy) propionic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2-(m-Chlorophenoxy) propionic acid... Tolerances § 180.325 2-(m-Chlorophenoxy) propionic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established for negligible residues of the plant regulator 2-(m-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid from...

  2. 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid (MCPB)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    4 - ( 2 - Methyl - 4 - chlorophenoxy ) butyric acid ( MCPB ) ; CASRN 94 - 81 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Hea

  3. 2-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid (MCPP)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 - ( 2 - Methyl - 4 - chlorophenoxy ) propionic acid ( MCPP ) ; CASRN 93 - 65 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( H

  4. Sorption of chlorophenoxy propionic acids by organoclay complexes.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chiu-Jung; Chen, Chou-Pin; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Chiang, Po-Neng; Pai, Chuan-Wen

    2006-02-01

    The organoclays Wyoming montmorillonite (SWy-1, Mon), W. R. Grace vermiculite (Ver), and Tung-Wei (Tw) soil montmorillonite were prepared to sorb or remove chlorophenoxy propionic acids (CPA) pollutants such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acid (2,4-DP), 2,4,6-tri chlorophenoxy acid (2,4,6-TCP), and pentachlorophenoxy propionic acid (PCP). The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of organoclays that have sorbed three types of CPA and to assess the applicability to basaltic-developed iron-rich calcareous soil. This type of soil contains high amounts of montmorillonite. The mean-layer charge per formula unit of Mon, Ver, and Tw clays, characterized by the alkylammonium method, was 0.27, 0.70, and 0.52 mol(c)/O(10)(OH)(2), respectively. The sorption isotherms of 2,4-DP, 2,4,6-TCP, and PCP sorbed by hexadecyltrimethyl-ammonium (HDTMA organoclay, 150% cation-exchange capacity) were evaluated. The data on sorption of CPAs fit well with the Freundlich isotherm equation. In general, the sorption of three types of CPA by the organoclays showed a linear relationship, with a high correlation coefficient (r > 0.935). The K(f) value of PCP was the same as that of 2,4,6-TCP sorbed by the organoclays and was higher than that of 2,4-DP. However, the 1/n(f) values of the three CPAs sorbed by the organoclays did not show significant differences. In general, maximum CPA sorption occurred at a pH of approximately 3, but very significant differences were observed for the 2,4,6-TCP and PCP sorbed by the organoclays. However, there was no significant difference in pH for 2,4-DP sorption. This should be related to the solubility and pKa of each CPA. The experimental results showed that solubility of 2,4-DP, 2,4,6-TCP, and PCP is a function of pH, ionic strength, and temperature.

  5. Initiation of Ripening in Bartlett Pear with an Antiauxin alpha(p-Chlorophenoxy)isobutyric Acid.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, C; Haard, N F

    1973-10-01

    A vacuum infiltration technique was used to apply an anti-auxin, alpha-(p-chlorophenoxy) isobutyric acid to mature green pears (Pyrus communis var. Bartlett). Application of alpha-(p-chlorophenoxy) isobutyric acid, at 0.02, 0.2, and 2.0 mm progressively accelerated the onset of chlorophyll degradation, softening, and CO(2) evolution. The action of alpha(p-chlorophenoxy) isobutyric acid is apparently independent of ethylene, since the auxin analogue depressed ethylene evolution and could overcome ethylene deficiency in fruit ripening under hypobaric conditions.The auxin analogue decreased the Michaelis constant of indoleacetic acid oxidase in vitro, suggesting that the antiauxin action of alpha-(p-chlorophenoxy) isobutyric acid is the acceleration in the breakdown of endogenous auxins in fruit and subsequently the initiation of ripening.

  6. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)butanoic acid, and its metabolite MCPA, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid, in or on the following food... acid; tolerance for residues. 180.318 Section 180.318 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.318 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues...

  7. DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF CHLOROPHENOXY ACID HERBICIDES FROM SOIL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extraction of chlorophenoxy acid herbicides from soil samples with supercritical carbon dioxide as extractant and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide and methyl iodide as derivatization agents was investigated. The extraction was carried out at 400 atm and 80 C for 15 min static, follow...

  8. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (a) General. (1) A tolerance is established for the herbicide 4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric... established for the combined residues, free and conjugated, of the herbicide MCPB, 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy...

  9. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (a) General. (1) A tolerance is established for the herbicide 4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric... established for the combined residues, free and conjugated, of the herbicide MCPB, 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy...

  10. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (a) General. (1) A tolerance is established for the herbicide 4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric... established for the combined residues, free and conjugated, of the herbicide MCPB, 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy...

  11. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (a) General. (1) A tolerance is established for the herbicide 4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric... established for the combined residues, free and conjugated, of the herbicide MCPB, 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy...

  12. Effect of malonate and p-chlorophenoxy acetic acid on hepatic succinic dehydrogenase activity of ageing lizards.

    PubMed

    Jena, B S; Patnaik, B K

    1990-01-01

    The degree of inhibition of hepatic succinic dehydrogenase activity by malonate, a competitive inhibitor, did not differ between young and middle-aged lizards. On the other hand, the same parameter increased significantly between middle-aged and old lizards. The percent inhibition of enzyme activity by p-chlorophenoxy acetic acid was also age-dependent, being higher in middle-aged and old than in young lizards.

  13. Electrochemical degradation of chlorophenoxy and chlorobenzoic herbicides in acidic aqueous medium by the peroxi-coagulation method.

    PubMed

    Brillas, Enric; Boye, Birame; Baños, Miguel Angel; Calpe, Juan Carlos; Garrido, José Antonio

    2003-04-01

    The degradation of 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) as chlorophenoxy herbicides, as well as of 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (dicamba) as chlorobenzoic herbicide, has been studied by peroxi-coagulation. This electrochemical method yields a very effective depollution of all compounds in acidic aqueous medium of pH 3.0 working under pH regulation, since they are oxidized with hydroxyl radicals produced from Fenton's reaction between Fe(2+) and H(2)O(2) generated by the corresponding Fe anode and O(2)-diffusion cathode. Their products can then be removed by mineralization or coagulation with the Fe(OH)(3) precipitate formed. Both degradative paths compete at low currents, but coagulation predominates at high currents. The peroxi-coagulation process of dicamba at I>or=300 mA leads to more than 90% of coagulation, being much more efficient than its comparative electro-Fenton treatment with a Pt anode and 1 mM Fe(2+), where only mineralization takes place. For the chlorophenoxy compounds, electro-Fenton gives a slightly lower depollution than peroxi-coagulation, because more easily oxidable products are produced. Oxidation of chlorinated products during peroxi-coagulation is accompanied by the release of chloride ion to the solution. The efficiency of this method decreases with increasing electrolysis time and current. The decay of all herbicides follows a pseudo-first-order reaction, with a similar constant rate for 4-CPA, MCPA, 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, and a higher value for dicamba.

  14. Combination of graphene oxide-based solid phase extraction and electro membrane extraction for the preconcentration of chlorophenoxy acid herbicides in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Tabani, Hadi; Fakhari, Ali Reza; Shahsavani, Abolfath; Behbahani, Mohammad; Salarian, Mani; Bagheri, Akbar; Nojavan, Saeed

    2013-07-26

    Combination of different extraction methods is an interesting and debatable work in the field of sample preparation. In the current study, for the first time, solid phase extraction combined with electro membrane extraction (SPE-EME) was developed for ultra-preconcentration and determination of chlorophenoxy acid herbicides in environmental samples using capillary electrophoresis (CE). In the mentioned method, first, a 100mL of chlorophenoxy acid herbicides (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) propanoic acid (2,4-DP) and 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy) propanoic acid (MCPP)) was passed through a column of graphene oxide as a solid phase, and then the adsorbed herbicides were eluted by 4.0mL of 8% acetic acid (HOAC) in methanol. Then, the elution solvent was evaporated and the herbicides residue was dissolved in 4.0mL of double distilled water (pH 9.0). Afterwards, the herbicides in 4.0mL of the aqueous solution were transferred to an EME glass vial. In the EME step, the herbicides were extracted from the sample solution into the basic acceptor solution (pH 13.0) under electrical potential, which was held inside the lumen of the fiber with 1-octanol as the supported liquid membrane (SLM). Under the optimized conditions, high enrichment factors were obtained in the range of 1950-2000. The limits of quantification (LOQs) and method detection limits (MDLs) were obtained in the range of 1.0-1.5 and 0.3-0.5ngmL(-1), respectively. Finally, the performance of the present method was evaluated for extraction and determination of chlorophenoxy acid herbicides in environmental samples.

  15. Degradation of the Herbicide Mecoprop [2-(2-Methyl-4-Chlorophenoxy)Propionic Acid] by a Synergistic Microbial Community

    PubMed Central

    Lappin, Hilary M.; Greaves, Michael P.; Slater, J. Howard

    1985-01-01

    A microbial community isolated from wheat root systems was capable of growth on mecoprop as the sole carbon and energy source. When exposed to fresh herbicide additions, the community was able to shorten the lag phase from 30 days to less than 24 h. The community comprised two Pseudomonas species, an Alcaligenes species, a Flavobacterium species, and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. None of the pure cultures was capable of growing on mecoprop. Certain combinations of two or more community constituents were required before growth commenced. The mecoprop-degrading community could also degrade 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid but not 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid. PMID:16346731

  16. Mechanism of block of single protopores of the Torpedo chloride channel ClC-0 by 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)butyric acid (CPB).

    PubMed

    Pusch, M; Accardi, A; Liantonio, A; Ferrera, L; De Luca, A; Camerino, D C; Conti, F

    2001-07-01

    We investigated in detail the mechanism of inhibition by the S(-) enantiomer of 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)butyric acid (CPB) of the Torpedo Cl(-)channel, ClC-0. The substance has been previously shown to inhibit the homologous skeletal muscle channel, CLC-1. ClC-0 is a homodimer with probably two independently gated protopores that are conductive only if an additional common gate is open. As a simplification, we used a mutant of ClC-0 (C212S) that has the common gate "locked open" (Lin, Y.W., C.W. Lin, and T.Y. Chen. 1999. J. Gen. Physiol. 114:1-12). CPB inhibits C212S currents only when applied to the cytoplasmic side, and single-channel recordings at voltages (V) between -120 and -80 mV demonstrate that it acts independently on individual protopores by introducing a long-lived nonconductive state with no effect on the conductance and little effect on the lifetime of the open state. Steady-state macroscopic currents at -140 mV are half-inhibited by approximately 0.5 mM CPB, but the inhibition decreases with V and vanishes for V > or = 40 mV. Relaxations of CPB inhibition after voltage steps are seen in the current responses as an additional exponential component that is much slower than the gating of drug-free protopores. For V = 60 mV) with an IC50 of approximately 30-40 mM. Altogether, these findings support a model for the mechanism of CPB inhibition in which the drug competes with Cl(-) for binding to a site of the pore where it blocks permeation. CPB binds preferentially to closed channels, and thereby also strongly alters the gating of the single protopore. Since the affinity of CPB for open WT pores is extremely low, we cannot decide in this case if it acts also as an open pore blocker. However, the experiments with the mutant K519E strongly support this interpretation. CPB block may become a useful tool to study the pore of ClC channels. As a first application, our results provide additional evidence for a double-barreled structure of ClC-0 and ClC-1.

  17. Characterization of (R/S)-mecoprop [2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid]-degrading Alcaligenes sp.CS1 and Ralstonia sp. CS2 isolated from agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Smejkal, C W; Vallaeys, T; Seymour, F A; Burton, S K; Lappin-Scott, H M

    2001-04-01

    The herbicide mecoprop [2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid] is widely applied to corn fields in order to control broad-leaved weeds. However, it is often detected in groundwater where it can be a persistent contaminant. Two mecoprop-degrading bacterial strains were isolated from agricultural soils through their capability to degrade (R/S)-mecoprop rapidly. 16S rDNA sequencing of the isolates demonstrated that one was closely related to the genera Alcaligenes sp. (designated CS1) and the other to Ralstonia sp. (designated CS2). Additionally, these isolates demonstrated ability to grow on other related herbicides, including 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), MCPA [4-chloro-2-methyl phenoxy acetic acid] and (R/S)-2,4-DP [2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propionic acid] as sole carbon sources. tfdABC gene-specific probes derived from the 2,4-D-degrading Variovorax paradoxus TV1 were used in hybridization analyses to establish whether tfd-like genes are present in mecoprop-degrading bacteria. Hybridization analysis demonstrated that both Alcaligenes sp. CS1 and Ralstonia sp. CS2 harboured tfdA, tfdB and tfdC genes on plasmids that have approximately > 60% sequence similarity to the tfdA, tfdB and tfdC genes of V. paradoxus. It is therefore likely that tfd-like genes may be involved in the degradation of mecoprop, and we are currently investigating this further.

  18. Molecular requisites for drug binding to muscle CLC-1 and renal CLC-K channel revealed by the use of phenoxy-alkyl derivatives of 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid.

    PubMed

    Liantonio, Antonella; Accardi, Alessio; Carbonara, Giuseppe; Fracchiolla, Giuseppe; Loiodice, Fulvio; Tortorella, Paolo; Traverso, Sonia; Guida, Patrizia; Pierno, Sabata; De Luca, Annamaria; Camerino, Diana Conte; Pusch, Michael

    2002-08-01

    CLC channels are a gene family of Cl(-) channels that serve a variety of functions, several of which are involved in genetic diseases. Few specific ligands of CLC channels are known that could be useful as pharmacological tools or potential drugs. We synthesized various derivatives of 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid, the S(-)-enantiomer of which is a specific blocker of the muscle channel CLC-1. In particular, compounds with different alkyl or phenoxy-alkyl groups on the chiral center, isosteres of the oxygen in the aryloxy moiety, or bioisosteres of the carboxy function were prepared. We found that compounds containing a phenoxy and a phenoxy-alkyl group on the chiral center (bis-phenoxy derivatives) specifically inhibited renal CLC-K channels from the extracellular side with an affinity in the 150-microM range and with almost no effect on other CLC channels when applied from the outside. Surprisingly, the same substances inhibited CLC-1 from the intracellular side in a voltage-dependent manner with an apparent K(D) of <5 microM at -140 mV, thus being the most potent blockers of a CLC channel known so far. Although the chlorine atom in para- position of the second phenoxy group was essential for inhibition of CLC-K channels from the outside, it could be substituted by a methoxy group without changing the potency of block for CLC-1 from the inside. These newly identified substances provide powerful tools for studying the structure-function relationship and the physiological role of CLC channels and may represent a starting point for the development of useful drugs targeting CLC-K channels.

  19. Coupling continuous subcritical water extraction, filtration, preconcentration, chromatographic separation and UV detection for the determination of chlorophenoxy acid herbicides in soils.

    PubMed

    Luque-García, J L; Luque de Castro, M D

    2002-06-14

    Subcritical water extraction has been coupled with filtration, preconcentration and chromatographic analysis for the determination of acid herbicides in different types of soil. Two experimental designs were used for the optimization of the leaching step. The use of water as extractant in the continuous mode at a flow-rate of 1 ml/min and 85 degrees C was sufficient for quantitative extraction of the analytes. A static extraction time was unnecessary for reducing the extraction time to 1 h. A minicolumn containing C18-Hydra as sorbent proved an excellent material for the quantitative preconcentration of the herbicides prior to individual chromatographic separation. A flow-injection manifold was used as interface for coupling the four steps, thus allowing automation of the whole analytical process. Recoveries of the target analytes ranged between 94.2 and 113.1%, and repeatabilities, expressed as relative standard deviations, were between 0.61 and 6.83%.

  20. Regulation of catabolic enzymes during long-term exposure of Delftia acidovorans MC1 to chlorophenoxy herbicides.

    PubMed

    Benndorf, Dirk; Davidson, Ian; Babel, Wolfgang

    2004-04-01

    Delftia acidovorans MC1 is able to grow on chlorophenoxy herbicides such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxypropionic acid (2,4-DCPP) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid as sole sources of carbon and energy. High concentrations of the potentially toxic organics inhibit the productive degradation and poison the organism. To discover the target of chlorophenoxy herbicides in D. acidovorans MC1 and to recognize adaptation mechanisms, the response to chlorophenoxy acids at the level of proteins was analysed. The comparison of protein patterns after chemostatic growth on pyruvate and 2,4-DCPP facilitated the discovery of several proteins induced and repressed due to the substrate shifts. Many of the induced enzymes, for example two chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenases, are involved in the metabolism of 2,4-DCPP. A stronger induction of some catabolic enzymes (chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase TfdC(II), chloromuconate cycloisomerase TfdD) caused by an instant increase in the concentration of 2,4-DCPP resulted in increased rates of productive detoxification and finally in resistance of the cells. Nevertheless, the decrease of the (S)-2,4-DCPP-specific 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase in 2D gels reveals a potential bottleneck in 2,4-DCPP degradation. Well-known heat-shock proteins and oxidative-stress proteins play a minor role in adaptation, because apart from DnaK only a weak or no induction of the proteins GroEL, AhpC and SodA was observed. Moreover, the modification of elongation factor Tu (TufA), a strong decrease of asparaginase and the induction of the hypothetical periplasmic protein YceI point to additional resistance mechanisms against chlorophenoxy herbicides.

  1. Dacthal and chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorothalonil fungicide in eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) from the Duwamish-Lake Washington-Puget Sound area of Washington state, USA.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shaogang; Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L; Drouillard, Ken G; Haffner, G Douglas; Letcher, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    Current-use chlorophenoxy herbicides including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, dicamba, triclopyr, dicamba, dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA or dacthal), and the metabolite of pyrethroids, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), and the fungicide, chlorothalonil, were investigated in the eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) that were collected from 15 sites from five study areas Puget Sound/Seattle area of Washington State, USA. DCPA differs from acidic chlorophenoxy herbicides, and is not readily hydrolyzed to free acid or acid metabolites, and thus we developed a new method. Of the 12 chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorothalonil analyzed only DCPA could be quantified at six of these sites (2.0 to 10.3 pg/g fresh weight). However, higher levels (6.9 to 85.5 pg/g fresh weight) of the unexpected DCPA structural isomer, dimethyl tetrachlorophthalate (diMe-TCP) were quantified in eggs from all sites. diMe-TCP concentrations tended to be higher in eggs from the Everett Harbor area. As diMe-TCP is not an industrial product, and not commercially available, the source of diMe-TCP is unclear. Regardless, these findings indicate that DCPA and diMe-TCP can be accumulated in the food chain of fish-eating osprey, and transferred in ovo to eggs, and thus may be of concern to the health of the developing chick and the general reproductive health of this osprey population.

  2. Dacthal and chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorothalonil fungicide in eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) from the Duwamish-Lake Washington-Puget Sound area of Washington state, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chu, S.; Henny, C.J.; Kaiser, J.L.; Drouillard, K.G.; Haffner, G.D.; Letcher, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Current-use chlorophenoxy herbicides including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, dicamba, triclopyr, dicamba, dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA or dacthal), and the metabolite of pyrethroids, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), and the fungicide, chlorothalonil, were investigated in the eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) that were collected from 15 sites from five study areas Puget Sound/Seattle area of Washington State, USA. DCPA differs from acidic chlorophenoxy herbicides, and is not readily hydrolyzed to free acid or acid metabolites, and thus we developed a new method. Of the 12 chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorothalonil analyzed only DCPA could be quantified at six of these sites (2.0 to 10.3 pg/g fresh weight). However, higher levels (6.9 to 85.5 pg/g fresh weight) of the unexpected DCPA structural isomer, dimethyl tetrachlorophthalate (diMe-TCP) were quantified in eggs from all sites. diMe-TCP concentrations tended to be higher in eggs from the Everett Harbor area. As diMe-TCP is not an industrial product, and not commercially available, the source of diMe-TCP is unclear. Regardless, these findings indicate that DCPA and diMe-TCP can be accumulated in the food chain of fish-eating osprey, and transferred in ovo to eggs, and thus may be of concern to the health of the developing chick and the general reproductive health of this osprey population. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Degradation of chlorophenoxy herbicides by coupled Fenton and biological oxidation.

    PubMed

    Sanchis, Sonia; Polo, Alicia M; Tobajas, Montserrat; Rodriguez, Juan J; Mohedano, Angel F

    2013-09-01

    A combined treatment for the degradation of the chlorophenoxy herbicides 2,4-D and MCPA in water by means of Fenton and biological oxidation has been studied. The chemical oxidation step was necessary to achieve an efficient removal of these pollutants due to their toxicity and low biodegradability. Aqueous herbicide solutions (180mgL(-1)) were subjected to Fenton oxidation upon different H2O2 doses (from the theoretical stoichiometric amount referred to initial COD to 20% of this value). The toxicity and biodegradability tests of the Fenton effluents suggested that the ones resulting upon treatment with 80% and 60% of stoichiometric H2O2 were the optimal for subsequent biological treatment dealing with 2,4-D and MCPA, respectively. These effluents were treated in a sequencing batch reactor achieving nearly 90% conversion of organic matter measured as COD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Chlorophenoxy Herbicides and Their Main Transformation Products on DNA Damage and Acetylcholinesterase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Benfeito, Sofia; Silva, Tiago; Garrido, Jorge; Andrade, Paula B.; Sottomayor, M. J.; Borges, Fernanda; Garrido, E. Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Persistent pesticide transformation products (TPs) are increasingly being detected among different environmental compartments, including groundwater and surface water. However, there is no sufficient experimental data on their toxicological potential to assess the risk associated with TPs, even if their occurrence is known. In this study, the interaction of chlorophenoxy herbicides (MCPA, mecoprop, 2,4-D and dichlorprop) and their main transformation products with calf thymus DNA by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy has been assessed. Additionally, the toxicity of the chlorophenoxy herbicides and TPs was also assessed evaluating the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. On the basis of the results found, it seems that AChE is not the main target of chlorophenoxy herbicides and their TPs. However, the results found showed that the transformation products displayed a higher inhibitory activity when compared with the parent herbicides. The results obtained in the DNA interaction studies showed, in general, a slight effect on the stability of the double helix. However, the data found for 4-chloro-2-methyl-6-nitrophenol suggest that this transformation product can interact with DNA through a noncovalent mode. PMID:24795892

  5. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CANCER MORTALITY AND WHEAT ACREAGE AS A SURROGATE FOR CHLOROPHENOXY HERBICIDES IN COUNTIES OF OUR NORTHERN STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorophenoxy herbicides which have endocrine disrupting properties, are used widely both in cereal grain agriculture and in non-agricultural settings, such as right-of-ways, lawns, and parks. Most of the spring and durum wheat produced in the U.S. is grown in four northern stat...

  6. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CANCER MORTALITY AND WHEAT ACREAGE AS A SURROGATE FOR CHLOROPHENOXY HERBICIDES IN COUNTIES OF OUR NORTHERN STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorophenoxy herbicides which have endocrine disrupting properties, are used widely both in cereal grain agriculture and in non-agricultural settings, such as right-of-ways, lawns, and parks. Most of the spring and durum wheat produced in the U.S. is grown in four northern stat...

  7. Type 2 Diabetes and Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maalouf, Naim M.

    2008-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased propensity for uric acid nephrolithiasis. In individuals with diabetes, this increased risk is due to a lower urine pH that results from obesity, dietary factors, and impaired renal ammoniagenesis. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of uric acid stone disease in patients with diabetes are hereby reviewed, and potential molecular mechanisms are proposed.

  8. Cholinesterase inhibitory activity of chlorophenoxy derivatives-Histamine H3 receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Łażewska, Dorota; Jończyk, Jakub; Bajda, Marek; Szałaj, Natalia; Więckowska, Anna; Panek, Dawid; Moore, Caitlin; Kuder, Kamil; Malawska, Barbara; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-08-15

    In recent years, multitarget-directed ligands have become an interesting strategy in a search for a new treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Combination of both: a histamine H3 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist and a cholinesterases inhibitor in one molecule could provide a new therapeutic opportunity. Here, we present biological evaluation of histamine H3 receptor ligands-chlorophenoxyalkylamine derivatives against cholinesterases: acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase. The target compounds showed cholinesterase inhibitory activity in a low micromolar range. The most potent in this group was 1-(7-(4-chlorophenoxy)heptyl)homopiperidine (18) inhibiting the both enzymes (EeAChE IC50=1.93μM and EqBuChE IC50=1.64μM). Molecular modeling studies were performed to explain the binding mode of 18 with histamine H3 receptor as well as with cholinesterases.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: congenital bile acid synthesis defect type 2

    MedlinePlus

    ... bile acid synthesis defect type 2 congenital bile acid synthesis defect type 2 Printable PDF Open All ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Congenital bile acid synthesis defect type 2 is a disorder characterized ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: congenital bile acid synthesis defect type 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... bile acid synthesis defect type 1 congenital bile acid synthesis defect type 1 Printable PDF Open All ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Congenital bile acid synthesis defect type 1 is a disorder characterized ...

  11. Vegetation types on acid soils of Micronesia

    Treesearch

    Marjorie C. Falanruw; Thomas G.. Cole; Craig D. Whitesell

    1987-01-01

    The soils and vegetation of the Caroline high islands, Federated States of Micronesia, are being mapped by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service and Soil Conservation Service. By the end of 1987, vegetation maps and reports on Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap, four Truk Islands, and Palau are expected to be available. To compare soil types with vegetation types...

  12. New lanostane-type triterpene acids from wolfiporia extensa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgroud Dried sclerotia of Wolfiporia extensa (Polyporaceae) is used to invigorate the spleen and to tranquilize the mind in Chinese herbal medicine. Lanostane-type triterpene acids were regard as major secondary metabolites from dried sclerotia of W. extensa. Results Three new lanostane-type triterpene acids, 3-epi-benzoyloxyl-dehydrotumulosic acid (1), 3-epi-(3′-O-methyl malonyloxy)-dehydrotumulosic acid (2) and 3-epi-(3′-hydroxy-3′-methylglutaryloxyl)-dehydrotumulosic acid (3), were isolated from the sclerotia of W. extensa, together with 3 known lanostane derivatives (4–6). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D-NMR techniques. Conclusion Six lanostane derivatives including three new triterpene acids and three known compounds were reported from the sclerotia of W. extensa in this paper. PMID:22559059

  13. New lanostane-type triterpene acids from wolfiporia extensa.

    PubMed

    She, Gaimei; Zhu, Nailiang; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Yang; Ba, Yinying; Sun, Changqing; Shi, Renbing

    2012-05-06

    Dried sclerotia of Wolfiporia extensa (Polyporaceae) is used to invigorate the spleen and to tranquilize the mind in Chinese herbal medicine. Lanostane-type triterpene acids were regard as major secondary metabolites from dried sclerotia of W. extensa. Three new lanostane-type triterpene acids, 3-epi-benzoyloxyl-dehydrotumulosic acid (1), 3-epi-(3'-O-methyl malonyloxy)-dehydrotumulosic acid (2) and 3-epi-(3'-hydroxy-3'-methylglutaryloxyl)-dehydrotumulosic acid (3), were isolated from the sclerotia of W. extensa, together with 3 known lanostane derivatives (4-6). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D-NMR techniques. Six lanostane derivatives including three new triterpene acids and three known compounds were reported from the sclerotia of W. extensa in this paper.

  14. Uric acid calculi: types, etiology and mechanisms of formation.

    PubMed

    Grases, F; Villacampa, A I; Costa-Bauzá, A; Söhnel, O

    2000-12-01

    The study of the composition and structure of 41 stones composed of uric acid was complemented by in vitro investigation of the crystallization of uric acid. Uric acid dihydrate (UAD) precipitates from synthetic urine under physiological conditions when the medium is supersaturated with respect to this compound, though uric acid anhydrous (UAA) represents the thermodynamically stable form. Solid UAD in contact with liquid transforms into UAA within 2 days. This transition is accompanied by development of hexagonal bulky crystals of UAA and appearance of cracks in the UAD crystals. Uric acid calculi can be classified into two groups, differing in outer appearance and inner structure. Type I includes stones with a little central core and a compact columnar UAA shell and stones with interior structured in alternating densely non-columnar layers developed around a central core; both of them are formed mainly by crystalline growth at low uric acid supersaturation. Type II includes porous stones without inner structure and stones formed by a well developed outermost layer with an inner central cavity; this type of stones is formed mainly by sedimentation of uric acid crystals generated at higher uric acid supersaturation.

  15. 6-(3-chloro)-phenoxy-2-methyl-1-oxa-4-azospiro-[4,5]decane-3-one (CERM 3726) and sleep of healthy men.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, A N; Stone, B M

    1982-01-01

    Immediate effects on sleep of 100, 200 and 300 mg 6-(3-chloro)-phenoxy-2-methyl-1-oxa-4-azospiro-[4,5]decane-3-one (CERM 3726) were studied in six healthy males. There was some sleep disturbance in two subjects with 100 and 200 mg, but only with 300 mg was there unequivocal evidence of reduced total sleep time and stage 2 sleep, together with a trend toward reduced rapid eye movement sleep. Arousal, at least as indicated by sleep studies, may be associated with the reported effect of the drug to oppose the deterioration in performance of tests of prolonged duration.

  16. Brønsted versus Lewis Acid Type Anion Recognition by Arylboronic Acids.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Aguirre, Mayte A; Yatsimirsky, Anatoly K

    2015-05-15

    Interactions between arylboronic acids and a series of anions as tetrabutylammonium salts in DMSO and MeCN were studied by (1)H and (11)B NMR as well as spectrophotometrically. Boronic acids act as Brønsted acid type receptors through hydrogen bonding with B(OH)2 hydroxyl groups toward Cl(-), Br(-), HSO4(-), and AcO(-), but they act as Lewis acid type receptors toward F(-) and H2PO4(-), which form tetrahedral adducts with the B(III) center of boronic acids, although there is also evidence for some contribution of hydrogen bonding with these anions. The Hammett plot for the binding constants of AcO(-) with 3- and 4-substituted phenylboronic acids in DMSO is nonlinear, with a small negative slope for electron-donating and weakly electron-accepting substituents and a large positive slope for strongly electron-accepting substituents. 3-Nitrophenylboronic acid recognizes zwitterions of amino acids in DMSO, and its UV absorption maximum undergoes a significant red shift in the presence of acetate anions, providing a means for sensing anions optically. Arylboronic acids as Brønsted acid type receptors show relatively low sensitivity to solvent polarity and are equally or even more efficient than widely employed proton donors such as ureas or dicarboxamides.

  17. Interaction of humic acids and humic-acid-like polymers with herpes simplex virus type 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klöcking, Renate; Helbig, Björn

    The study was performed in order to compare the antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) of synthetic humic-acid-like polymers to that of their low-molecular-weight basic compounds and naturally occurring humic acids (HA) in vitro. HA from peat water showed a moderate antiviral activity at a minimum effective concentration (MEC) of 20 µg/ml. HA-like polymers, i.e. the oxidation products of caffeic acid (KOP), hydrocaffeic acid (HYKOP), chlorogenic acid (CHOP), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (3,4-DHPOP), nordihydroguaretic acid (NOROP), gentisinic acid (GENOP), pyrogallol (PYROP) and gallic acid (GALOP), generally inhibit virus multiplication, although with different potency and selectivity. Of the substances tested, GENOP, KOP, 3,4-DHPOP and HYKOP with MEC values in the range of 2 to 10 µg/ml, proved to be the most potent HSV-1 inhibitors. Despite its lower antiviral potency (MEC 40 µg/ml), CHOP has a remarkable selectivity due to the high concentration of this polymer that is tolerated by the host cells (>640 µg/ml). As a rule, the antiviral activity of the synthetic compounds was restricted to the polymers and was not preformed in the low-molecular-weight basic compounds. This finding speaks in favour of the formation of antivirally active structures during the oxidative polymerization of phenolic compounds and, indirectly, of corresponding structural parts in different HA-type substances.

  18. Type 2 diabetes is associated with postprandial amino acid measures.

    PubMed

    Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; de Mutsert, Renée; Rensen, Patrick C N; Prehn, Cornelia; Adamski, Jerzy; den Heijer, Martin; le Cessie, Saskia; Suhre, Karsten; Rosendaal, Frits R; van Dijk, Ko Willems

    2016-01-01

    Most studies examining the association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and amino acids have focused on fasting concentrations. We hypothesized that, besides fasting concentrations, amino acid responses to a standardized meal challenge are also associated with T2D. In a cross-sectional study of 525 participants (165 newly-diagnosed T2D, 186 newly-diagnosed impaired fasting glycaemia, and 174 normal fasting glucose), we examined postprandial amino acid concentrations and the responses (defined as the concentrations and responses 150 min after a standardized meal) of fourteen amino acids in relation to T2D. T2D was associated with lower postprandial concentration of seven amino acids compared to the normal fasting glucose group (lowest effect estimate for serine: -0.54 standard deviations (SD) (95% CI: -0.77, -0.32)), and higher concentrations of phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine and (iso-)leucine (highest effect estimate for (iso-)leucine: 0.44 SD (95% CI: 0.20, 0.67)). Regarding the meal responses, T2D was associated with lower responses of seven amino acids (ranging from -0.55 SD ((95% CI): -0.78, -0.33) for serine to -0.25 SD ((95% CI: -0.45, -0.02) for ornithine). We conclude that T2D is associated with postprandial concentrations of amino acids and a reduced amino acid meal response, indicating that these measures may also be potential markers of T2D. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Phosphate immobilization using an acidic type F fly ash.

    PubMed

    Grubb, D G; Guimaraes, M S; Valencia, R

    2000-09-15

    Batch equilibration experiments using a low calcium ( approximately 1 wt.% as CaO), acidic (pH approximately 4.5) Type F fly ash demonstrated phosphate immobilization on the order of 100% to 75% for 50 and 100 mg P/l solutions, respectively. A loosely compacted column of fly ash similarly removed 10 mg P/l for over 85 pore volumes. While the interactions between phosphate and calcium-rich (Type C) ashes are relatively well understood, insight into the mechanisms of phosphate immobilization in Type F ash necessitated a review of the phosphate chemistry and interactions with acidic geomedia. Phosphate adsorption was subsequently modeled using a constant capacitance model approach (CCM) excluding precipitation reactions. Our CCM predictions of total phosphate immobilization (20%) were substantially less than the results of the batch equilibration experiments and phosphate adsorption predicted by other researchers examining near pure natural and synthetic geomedia due to the compositional heterogeneity of the fly ash. Nevertheless, for the amorphous and crystalline phases studied, the immobilization of phosphate in the Type F fly ash is attributed to the formation of insoluble aluminum and iron phosphates at low to medium values of pH.

  20. Niflumic acid blocks native and recombinant T-type channels.

    PubMed

    Balderas, Enrique; Ateaga-Tlecuitl, Rogelio; Rivera, Manuel; Gomora, Juan C; Darszon, Alberto

    2012-06-01

    Voltage-dependent calcium channels are widely distributed in animal cells, including spermatozoa. Calcium is fundamental in many sperm functions such as: motility, capacitation, and the acrosome reaction (AR), all essential for fertilization. Pharmacological evidence has suggested T-type calcium channels participate in the AR. Niflumic acid (NA), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly used as chloride channel blocker, blocks T-currents in mouse spermatogenic cells and Cl(-) channels in testicular sperm. Here we examine the mechanism of NA blockade and explore if it can be used to separate the contribution of different Ca(V)3 members previously detected in these cells. Electrophysiological patch-clamp recordings were performed in isolated mouse spermatogenic cells and in HEK cells heterologously expressing Ca(V)3 channels. NA blocks mouse spermatogenic cell T-type currents with an IC(50) of 73.5 µM, without major voltage-dependent effects. The NA blockade is more potent in the open and in the inactivated state than in the closed state of the T-type channels. Interestingly, we found that heterologously expressed Ca(V)3.1 and Ca(V)3.3 channels were more sensitive to NA than Ca(V)3.2 channels, and this drug substantially slowed the recovery from inactivation of the three isoforms. Molecular docking modeling of drug-channel binding predicts that NA binds preferentially to the extracellular face of Ca(V)3.1 channels. The biophysical characteristics of mouse spermatogenic cell T-type currents more closely resemble those from heterologously expressed Ca(V)3.1 channels, including their sensitivity to NA. As Ca(V)3.1 null mice maintain their spermatogenic cell T-currents, it is likely that a novel Ca(V)3.2 isoform is responsible for them.

  1. NIFLUMIC ACID BLOCKS NATIVE AND RECOMBINANT T-TYPE CHANNELS

    PubMed Central

    Balderas, E; Arteaga-Tlecuitl, R; Rivera, M; Gomora, JC; Darszon, A

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-dependent calcium channels are widely distributed in animal cells, including spermatozoa. Calcium is fundamental in many sperm functions such as: motility, capacitation and the acrosome reaction, all essential for fertilization. Pharmacological evidence has suggested T-type calcium channels participate in the acrosome reaction. Niflumic acid (NA), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly used as chloride channel blocker, blocks T-currents in mouse spermatogenic cells and Cl− channels in testicular sperm. Here we examine the mechanism of NA blockade and explore if it can be used to separate the contribution of different CaV3 members previously detected in these cells. Electrophysiological patch-clamp recordings were performed in isolated mouse spermatogenic cells and in HEK cells heterologously expressing CaV3 channels. NA blocks mouse spermatogenic cell T-type currents with an IC50 of 73.5 µM, without major voltage-dependent effects. The NA blockade is more potent in the open and in the inactivated state than in the closed state of the T-type channels. Interestingly, we found that heterologously expressed CaV3.1 and CaV3.3 channels were more sensitive to NA than CaV3.2 channels, and this drug substantially slowed the recovery from inactivation of the three isoforms. Molecular docking modeling of drug-channel binding predicts that NA binds preferentially to the extracellular face of CaV3.1 channels. The biophysical characteristics of mouse spermatogenic cell T-type currents more closely resemble those from heterologously expressed CaV3.1 channels, including their sensitivity to NA. As CaV3.1 null mice maintain their spermatogenic cell T-currents, it is likely that a novel CaV3.2 isoform is responsible for them. PMID:21898399

  2. Type I and type II fatty acid biosynthesis in Eimeria tenella: enoyl reductase activity and structure.

    PubMed

    Lu, J Z; Muench, S P; Allary, M; Campbell, S; Roberts, C W; Mui, E; McLeod, R L; Rice, D W; Prigge, S T

    2007-12-01

    Apicomplexan parasites of the genus Eimeria are the major causative agent of avian coccidiosis, leading to high economic losses in the poultry industry. Recent results show that Eimeria tenella harbours an apicoplast organelle, and that a key biosynthetic enzyme, enoyl reductase, is located in this organelle. In related parasites, enoyl reductase is one component of a type II fatty acid synthase (FAS) and has proven to be an attractive target for antimicrobial compounds. We cloned and expressed the mature form of E. tenella enoyl reductase (EtENR) for biochemical and structural studies. Recombinant EtENR exhibits NADH-dependent enoyl reductase activity and is inhibited by triclosan with an IC50 value of 60 nm. The crystal structure of EtENR reveals overall similarity with other ENR enzymes; however, the active site of EtENR is unoccupied, a state rarely observed in other ENR structures. Furthermore, the position of the central beta-sheet appears to block NADH binding and would require significant movement to allow NADH binding, a feature not previously seen in the ENR family. We analysed the E. tenella genomic database for orthologues of well-characterized bacterial and apicomplexan FAS enzymes and identified 6 additional genes, suggesting that E. tenella contains a type II FAS capable of synthesizing saturated, but not unsaturated, fatty acids. Interestingly, we also identified sequences that appear to encode multifunctional type I FAS enzymes, a feature also observed in Toxoplasma gondii, highlighting the similarity between these apicomplexan parasites.

  3. Toward amino acid typing for proteins in FFLUX.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Timothy L; Popelier, Paul L A

    2017-03-05

    Continuing the development of the FFLUX, a multipolar polarizable force field driven by machine learning, we present a modern approach to atom-typing and building transferable models for predicting atomic properties in proteins. Amino acid atomic charges in a peptide chain respond to the substitution of a neighboring residue and this response can be categorized in a manner similar to atom-typing. Using a machine learning method called kriging, we are able to build predictive models for an atom that is defined, not only by its local environment, but also by its neighboring residues, for a minimal additional computational cost. We found that prediction errors were up to 11 times lower when using a model specific to the correct group of neighboring residues, with a mean prediction of ∼0.0015 au. This finding suggests that atoms in a force field should be defined by more than just their immediate atomic neighbors. When comparing an atom in a single alanine to an analogous atom in a deca-alanine helix, the mean difference in charge is 0.026 au. Meanwhile, the same difference between a trialanine and a deca-alanine helix is only 0.012 au. When compared to deca-alanine models, the transferable models are up to 20 times faster to train, and require significantly less ab initio calculation, providing a practical route to modeling large biological systems. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Salicylic acid retention impairs aspirin reactivity in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haowen; Xie, Hao; Zheng, Xiao; Chai, Yingying; Tang, Zhiyuan; Chen, Hanyu; Li, Feiyan; Christoph, Heier; Chen, Jiandong; Sun, Weixin; Ye, Hui; Wang, Shiguang; Hao, Haiping; Chen, Xiaohu

    2017-01-05

    High on-aspirin platelet reactivity (HAPR) has been associated with compromised aspirin efficacy in patients with diabetes suffering from acute cardiovascular events, but the key mechanisms remain elusive. The objective of this study was to uncover the potential link between pathogenic accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), the major metabolite of aspirin, and HAPR in diabetic state. Aspirin failed to inhibit platelet CD62P expression and thromboxane (TX) B2/6-keto-prostaglandin(PG)F1α ratio in a type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice model, particularly in the female, which were unanimously accompanied by significantly higher plasma SA concentrations. Pre-administration with SA increased both platelet CD62P expression and TXB2/6-keto-PGF1α ratio in female T2DM mice, while pretreatment with NaHCO3 caused the opposite effect. On the in vitro human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)-platelet interaction assay, SA suppressed inflammation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 upregulation on HUVECs and attenuated their inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. The prolonged retention of SA in diabetes may be partially explained by the downregulation of various SA efflux transporters in the kidney and the decreased urine pH. Importantly, in female aspirin non-responsive patients, the trough plasma concentration of SA are markedly increased with T2DM treated with long-term aspirin, and TXB2/6-keto-PGF1α ratio and uric acid level in plasma are positively correlated with SA concentration. Our findings support that the accumulation of SA represents an important factor in causing HAPR in diabetes, and that targeting impaired SA excretion may become a novel intervention strategy to diabetes-associated HAPR.

  5. An acidic sphingomyelinase Type C activity from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Castro-Garza, Jorge; González-Salazar, Francisco; Quinn, Frederick D; Karls, Russell K; De La Garza-Salinas, Laura Hermila; Guzmán-de la Garza, Francisco J; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Sphingomyelinases (SMases) catalyze the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide and phosphorylcholine. Sphingolipids are recognized as diverse and dynamic regulators of a multitude of cellular processes mediating cell cycle control, differentiation, stress response, cell migration, adhesion, and apoptosis. Bacterial SMases are virulence factors for several species of pathogens. Whole cell extracts of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains H37Rv and CDC1551 were assayed using [N-methyl-(14)C]-sphingomyelin as substrate. Acidic Zn(2+)-dependent SMase activity was identified in both strains. Peak SMase activity was observed at pH 5.5. Interestingly, overall SMase activity levels from CDC1551 extracts are approximately 1/3 of those of H37Rv. The presence of exogenous SMase produced by M. tuberculosis during infection may interfere with the normal host inflammatory response thus allowing the establishment of infection and disease development. This Type C activity is different from previously identified M. tuberculosis SMases. Defining the biochemical characteristics of M. tuberculosis SMases helps to elucidate the roles that these enzymes play during infection and disease. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Dachtal Isomers and Acidic Herbicides and Pesticides in Eggs of Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) from the Seattle and Everett Areas, Washington, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chu, S.; Henny, Charles J.; Kaiser, James L.; Drouillard, K.G.; Haffner, G.D.; Letcher, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Current-use chlorophenoxy herbicides including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, dicamba, triclopyr, dicamba, dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA or dacthal), and the metabolite of pyrethroids, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), and the fungicide, chlorothalonil, were investigated in the eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) that were collected from 15 sites from five study areas Puget Sound/Seattle area of Washington State, USA. DCPA differs from acidic chlorophenoxy herbicides, and is not readily hydrolyzed to free acid or acid metabolites, and thus we developed a new method. Of the 12 chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorothalonil analyzed only DCPA could be quantified at six of these sites (2.0 to 10.3 pg/g fresh weight). However, higher levels (6.9 to 85.5 pg/g fresh weight) of the unexpected DCPA structural isomer, dimethyl tetrachlorophthalate (diMe-TCP) were quantified in eggs from all sites. diMe-TCP concentrations tended to be higher in eggs from the Everett Harbor area. As diMe-TCP is not an industrial product, and not commercially available, the source of diMe-TCP is unclear. Regardless, these findings indicate that DCPA and diMe-TCP can be accumulated in the food chain of fish-eating osprey, and transferred in ovo to eggs, and thus may be of concern to the health of the developing chick and the general reproductive health of this osprey population.

  7. Effects of 6-(4-chlorophenoxy)-tetrazolo[5,1-a]phthalazine on anticoagulation in mice and the inhibition of experimental thrombosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai-Ling; Zhang, Feng; Lan, Tian; Quan, Zhe-Shan

    2014-12-01

    : Thrombosis is a major complication that could be fatal in acute or chronic cardio-cerebral-vascular diseases. Therefore, the development of novel agents for anticlotting and the prevention of thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases are clinically significant. This study aimed to evaluate the anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects of 6-(4-chlorophenoxy)-tetrazolo[5,1-a]phthalazine (Q808), a new phthalazine tetrazole derivative. Bleeding time, clotting time, and serum calcium ion (Ca) concentration were assessed in mice, whereas arteriovenous thrombus weight and plasma prothrombin time were evaluated in rats, and platelets Ca influx was determined in rabbit. Daily oral administration of Q808 at 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg for 3 days significantly delayed bleeding time and clotting time in mice compared with controls. Q808 administration at 50 mg/kg significantly reduced experimental thrombus weight by 62.6% and delayed plasma prothrombin time by 58.7% in rats, whereas 50 and 100 mg/kg of Q808 daily significantly increased serum Ca concentration in mice. Q808 at 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/mL significantly inhibited thrombin-induced Ca influx in rabbit platelets. Our results suggest that Q808 at 25-200 mg/kg daily exerts anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects, and its mechanisms of action may involve both the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways that inhibit certain coagulation factors and platelet functions.

  8. Unambiguous typing of canine adenovirus isolates by deoxyribonucleic acid restriction-endonuclease analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Assaf, R; Marsolais, G; Yelle, J; Hamelin, C

    1983-01-01

    Viral deoxyribonucleic acid extracted from a limited number of cells infected with canine adenovirus type 1 or type 2 was cleaved with several restriction endonucleases. Agarose gel electrophoresis of the limit digests showed stable differences between the canine adenovirus type 1 and type 2 cleavage patterns. Rapid and accurate typing of large numbers of clinical isolates may thus be done by deoxyribonucleic acid restriction-endonuclease analysis. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:6321002

  9. Pyrazinoic acid and its n-propyl ester inhibit fatty acid synthase type I in replicating tubercle bacilli.

    PubMed

    Zimhony, Oren; Vilchèze, Catherine; Arai, Masayoshi; Welch, John T; Jacobs, William R

    2007-02-01

    The activity of different analogs of pyrazinamide on Mycobacterium tuberculosis fatty acid synthase type I (FASI) in replicating bacilli was studied. Palmitic acid biosynthesis was diminished by 96% in bacilli treated with n-propyl pyrazinoate, 94% in bacilli treated with 5-chloro-pyrazinamide, and 97% in bacilli treated with pyrazinoic acid, the pharmacologically active agent of pyrazinamide. We conclude that the minimal structure of pyrazine ring with an acyl group is sufficient for FASI inhibition and antimycobacterial activity.

  10. Terminal sialic acid linkages determine different cell infectivities of human parainfluenza virus type 1 and type 3.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Keijo; Takahashi, Tadanobu; Ito, Seigo; Takaguchi, Masahiro; Takano, Maiko; Kurebayashi, Yuuki; Oishi, Kenta; Minami, Akira; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y; Nishimura, Hidekazu; Takimoto, Toru; Suzuki, Takashi

    2014-09-01

    Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV1) and type 3 (hPIV3) initiate infection by sialic acid binding. Here, we investigated sialic acid linkage specificities for binding and infection of hPIV1 and hPIV3 by using sialic acid linkage-modified cells treated with sialidases or sialyltransferases. The hPIV1 is bound to only α2,3-linked sialic acid residues, whereas hPIV3 is bound to α2,6-linked sialic acid residues in addition to α2,3-linked sialic acid residues in human red blood cells. α2,3 linkage-specific sialidase treatment of LLC-MK2 cells and A549 cells decreased the infectivity of hPIV1 but not that of hPIV3. Treatment of A549 cells with α2,3 linkage-specific sialyltransferase increased infectivities of both hPIV1 and hPIV3, whereas α2,6 linkage-specific sialyltransferase treatment increased only hPIV3 infectivity. Clinical isolates also showed similar sialic acid linkage specificities. We concluded that hPIV1 utilizes only α2,3 sialic acid linkages and that hPIV3 makes use of α2,6 sialic acid linkages in addition to α2,3 sialic acid linkages as viral receptors.

  11. Biological Function of Acetic Acid-Improvement in Obesity and Glucose Tolerance by Acetic Acid in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-07-29

    Fatty acids derived from adipose tissue are oxidized by β-oxidation to form ketone bodies as final products under the starving condition. Previously, we found that free acetic acid was formed concomitantly with the production of ketone bodies in isolated rat liver perfusion, and mitochondrial acetyl CoA hydrolase was appeared to be involved with the acetic acid production. It was revealed that acetic acid was formed as a final product of enhanced β-oxidation of fatty acids and utilized as a fuel in extrahepatic tissues under the starving condition. Under the fed condition, β-oxidation is suppressed and acetic acid production is decreased. When acetic acid was taken daily by obesity-linked type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats under the fed condition, it protected OLETF rats against obesity. Furthermore, acetic acid contributed to protect from the accumulation of lipid in the liver as well as abdominal fat in OLETF rats. Transcripts of lipogenic genes in the liver were decreased, while transcripts of myoglobin and Glut4 genes in abdominal muscles were increased in the acetic acid-administered OLETF rats. It is indicated that exogenously administered acetic acid would have effects on lipid metabolism in both the liver and the skeletal muscles, and have function that works against obesity and obesity-linked type 2 diabetes.

  12. Combined effects of organic acids and salt depending on type of acids and pathogens in laboratory media and acidified pickle.

    PubMed

    Bae, Y-M; Lee, S-Y

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of combining each of seven types of acids with 3% salt as a treatment against pathogens was investigated in laboratory media and acidified food. When 0.5% malic, 0.5% tartaric, 0.5% citric or 0.25% phosphoric acid was combined with 3% salt, there was a higher reduction in Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium) compared to when using acid alone. However, when 0.5% acetic, 0.5% propionic or 0.25% lactic acid was combined with 3% salt, the salt provided protection against the acid treatment. However, the antagonistic effects of acetic, propionic and lactic acid seen with Gram-negative bacteria were not observed in Listeria monocytogenes. Antagonistic effects were similarly observed when E. coli O157:H7 was treated with acetic acid and salt in food. These results show that the addition of salt increases the resistance of Gram-negative bacteria to acid treatments when using acetic, propionic and lactic acid. This study shows that antagonistic effects were observed when Gram-negative bacteria were treated with organic acids of simple structure. It may provide useful information for understanding the acid resistance mechanism of Gram-negative bacteria and developing methods for preserving acidified food. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Amino acid analyses of type 3 chondrites Colony, Ornans, Chainpur, and Bishunpur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, H.-S.; Martins, Zita; Sephton, Mark A.

    2012-09-01

    The CO3s Colony and Ornans and LL3s Chainpur and Bishunpur were analyzed for the first time for amino acids using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Type 3 chondrites have relatively unaltered metamorphic and petrological histories. Chainpur was the most amino acid rich of the four type 3 chondrites with a total amino acid abundance of 3330 parts per billion (ppb). The other type 3 chondrites had total amino acid abundances that ranged from 660 to 1110 ppb. A D/L ratio of <0.7 for all proteic amino acids suggests at least some amino acid terrestrial contamination. However, a small fraction of indigenous extraterrestrial amino acids cannot be excluded because of the presence of the nonprotein amino acid α-aminoisobutyric acid (α-AIB), and unusually high relative abundances (to glycine) of β-alanine and γ-ABA. The comparisons between the free and total amino acid contents of the samples also indicate a low free/total amino acid ratio (ranging from about 1:4 in CO chondrites to about 1:50 in Chainpur), which indicate that amino acids are present mainly in the bound form and were made detectable after acid hydrolysis.

  14. Boric acid solution concentration influencing p-type emitter formation in n-type crystalline Si solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, Bandana; Singh Solanki, Chetan

    2016-09-01

    Boric acid (BA) is a spin on dopant (BSoD) source which is used to form p+ emitters in n-type c-Si solar cells. High purity boric acid powder (99.99% pure) when mixed with deionized (DI) water can result in high quality p-type emitter with less amount of surface defects. In this work, we have used different concentrations of boric acid solution concentrations to fabricate p-type emitters with sheet resistance values < 90 Ω/□. The corresponding junction depths for the same are less than 500 nm as measured by SIMS analysis. Boron rich layer (BRL), which is considered as detrimental in emitter performance is found to be minimal for BA solution concentration less than 2% and hence useful for p-type emitter formation.

  15. Nucleic acid (cDNA) and amino acid sequences of alpha-type gliadins from wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed Central

    Kasarda, D D; Okita, T W; Bernardin, J E; Baecker, P A; Nimmo, C C; Lew, E J; Dietler, M D; Greene, F C

    1984-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence for an alpha-type gliadin protein of wheat (Triticum aestivum Linnaeus) endosperm has been derived from a cloned cDNA sequence. An additional cDNA clone that corresponds to about 75% of a similar alpha-type gliadin has been sequenced and shows some important differences. About 97% of the composite sequence of A-gliadin (an alpha-type gliadin fraction) has also been obtained by direct amino acid sequencing. This sequence shows a high degree of similarity with amino acid sequences derived from both cDNA clones and is virtually identical to one of them. On the basis of sequence information, after loss of the signal sequence, the mature alpha-type gliadins may be divided into five different domains, two of which may have evolved from an ancestral gliadin gene, whereas the remaining three contain repeating sequences that may have developed independently. Images PMID:6589619

  16. Amino acids in a Fischer Tropsch type synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. L.; Lawless, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    One postulation is described for the presence of organic compounds in meteorites which states that they were formed during the condensation of the solar nebula. A viable laboratory simulation of these conditions can be modeled after the industrial Fischer Tropsch reaction, which is known to produce organic compounds called hydrocarbons. In this simulation, a mixture of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and ammonia is heated in the presence of iron meteorite. The reaction products for amino acids, a class of organic compounds important to life, were examined. A large number of these compounds is found in meteorites and other chemical evolution experiments, but only small quantities of a few amino acids were found in the present simulation work. These results are at odds with the existing literature in which many amino acids were reported.

  17. Inhibition of type 1 and type 2 5alpha-reductase activity by free fatty acids, active ingredients of Permixon.

    PubMed

    Raynaud, Jean Pierre; Cousse, Henri; Martin, Pierre Marie

    2002-10-01

    In different cell systems, the lipido-sterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr, Permixon inhibits both type 1 and type 2 5alpha-reductase activity (5alphaR1 and 5alphaR2). LSESr is mainly constituted of fatty acids (90+/-5%) essentially as free fatty acids (80%). Among these free fatty acids, the main components are oleic and lauric acids which represent 65% and linoleic and myristic acids 15%. To evaluate the inhibitory effect of the different components of LSESr on 5alphaR1 or 5alphaR2 activity, the corresponding type 1 and type 2 human genes have been cloned and expressed in the baculovirus-directed insect cell expression system Sf9. The cells were incubated at pH 5.5 (5alphaR2) and pH 7.4 (5alphaR1) with 1 or 3nM testosterone in presence or absence of various concentrations of LSESr or of its different components. Dihydrotestosterone formation was measured with an automatic system combining HPLC and an on-line radiodetector. The inhibition of 5alphaR1 and 5alphaR2 activity was only observed with free fatty acids: esterified fatty acids, alcohols as well as sterols assayed were inactive. A specificity of the fatty acids in 5alphaR1 or 5alphaR2 inhibition has been found. Long unsaturated chains (oleic and linolenic) were active (IC(50)=4+/-2 and 13+/-3 microg/ml, respectively) on 5alphaR1 but to a much lesser extent (IC(50)>100 and 35+/-21 microg/ml, respectively) on 5alphaR2. Palmitic and stearic acids were inactive on the two isoforms. Lauric acid was active on 5alphaR1 (IC(50)=17+/-3 microg/ml) and 5alphaR2 (IC(50)=19+/-9 microg/ml). The inhibitory activity of myristic acid was evaluated on 5alphaR2 only and found active on this isoform (IC(50)=4+/-2 microg/ml). The dual inhibitory activity of LSESr on 5alpha-reductase type 1 and type 2 can be attributed to its high content in free fatty acids.

  18. Effects of Sodium Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors on Serum Uric Acid in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ahmadieh, Hala; Azar, Sami

    2017-07-27

    Hyperuricemia has been linked to metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Hyperuricemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus were inter-related, type 2 diabetes mellitus was more at risk of having a higher serum uric acid level, and also individuals with higher serum uric acid had higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future. Insulin resistance seems to play an important role in the causal relationship between metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and hyperuricemia. Oral diabetic drugs that would have additional beneficial effects on reducing serum uric acid levels are of importance. Selective SGLT2 inhibitors were extensively studied in type 2 diabetes mellitus and were found to have improvement of glycemic control, in addition to their proven metabolic effects on weight and blood pressure. Additional beneficial effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on serum uric acid level reduction is investigated. Recently, data have been accumulating showing that they have additional beneficial effects on serum uric acid reduction. As for the postulated mechanism, serum uric acid decreased in SGLT2 inhibitor users as a result of the increase in the urinary excretion rate of uric acid, due to the inhibition of uric acid reabsorption mediated by the effect of the drug on the GLUT9 isoform 2, located at the collecting duct of the renal tubule.

  19. Metabolomic Profiling of Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Metabolism in Youth With Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mihalik, Stephanie J.; Michaliszyn, Sara F.; de las Heras, Javier; Bacha, Fida; Lee, SoJung; Chace, Donald H.; DeJesus, Victor R.; Vockley, Jerry; Arslanian, Silva A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We compared acylcarnitine (AcylCN) species, common amino acid and fat oxidation (FOX) byproducts, and plasma amino acids in normal weight (NW; n = 39), obese (OB; n = 64), and type 2 diabetic (n = 17) adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Fasting plasma was analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography, and total-body lipolysis and substrate oxidation by [2H5]glycerol and indirect calorimetry, respectively. In vivo insulin sensitivity (IS) was assessed with a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. RESULTS Long-chain AcylCNs (C18:2-CN to C14:0-CN) were similar among the three groups. Medium- to short-chain AcylCNs (except C8 and C10) were significantly lower in type 2 diabetes compared with NW, and when compared with OB, C2-, C6-, and C10-CN were lower. Amino acid concentrations were lower in type 2 diabetes compared with NW. Fasting lipolysis and FOX were higher in OB and type 2 diabetes compared with NW, and the negative association of FOX to C10:1 disappeared after controlling for adiposity, Tanner stage, and sex. IS was lower in OB and type 2 diabetes with positive associations between IS and arginine, histidine, and serine after adjusting for adiposity, Tanner stage, and sex. CONCLUSIONS These metabolomics results, together with the increased rates of in vivo FOX, are not supportive of defective fatty acid or amino acid metabolism in obesity and type 2 diabetes in youth. Such observations are consistent with early adaptive metabolic plasticity in youth, which over time—with continued obesity and aging—may become dysfunctional, as observed in adults. PMID:22266733

  20. Expanding the product portfolio of fungal type I fatty acid synthases.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhou, Yongjin J; Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Grininger, Martin; Zhao, Zongbao K; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Fungal type I fatty acid synthases (FASs) are mega-enzymes with two separated, identical compartments, in which the acyl carrier protein (ACP) domains shuttle substrates to catalytically active sites embedded in the chamber wall. We devised synthetic FASs by integrating heterologous enzymes into the reaction chambers and demonstrated their capability to convert acyl-ACP or acyl-CoA from canonical fatty acid biosynthesis to short/medium-chain fatty acids and methyl ketones.

  1. Presynaptic (Type III) cells in mouse taste buds sense sour (acid) taste.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yijen A; Maruyama, Yutaka; Stimac, Robert; Roper, Stephen D

    2008-06-15

    Taste buds contain two types of cells that directly participate in taste transduction - receptor (Type II) cells and presynaptic (Type III) cells. Receptor cells respond to sweet, bitter and umami taste stimulation but until recently the identity of cells that respond directly to sour (acid) tastants has only been inferred from recordings in situ, from behavioural studies, and from immunostaining for putative sour transduction molecules. Using calcium imaging on single isolated taste cells and with biosensor cells to identify neurotransmitter release, we show that presynaptic (Type III) cells specifically respond to acid taste stimulation and release serotonin. By recording responses in cells isolated from taste buds and in taste cells in lingual slices to acetic acid titrated to different acid levels (pH), we also show that the active stimulus for acid taste is the membrane-permeant, uncharged acetic acid moiety (CH(3)COOH), not free protons (H(+)). That observation is consistent with the proximate stimulus for acid taste being intracellular acidification, not extracellular protons per se. These findings may also have implications for other sensory receptors that respond to acids, such as nociceptors.

  2. DNA polymorphisms in the tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene in "drug-type" and "fiber-type" Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Kojoma, Mareshige; Seki, Hikaru; Yoshida, Shigeo; Muranaka, Toshiya

    2006-06-02

    The cannabinoid content of 13 different strains of cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) was analyzed. Six strains fell into the "drug-type" class, with high Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) content, and seven strains into the "fiber-type" class, with low THCA using HPLC analysis. Genomic DNA sequence polymorphisms in the THCA synthase gene from each strain were studied. A single PCR fragment of the THCA synthase gene was detected from six strains of "drug-type" plants. We could also detect the fragment from seven strains of "fiber-type" plants, although no or very low content of THCA were detected in these samples. These were 1638 bp from all 13 strains and no intron among the sequences obtained. There were two variants of the THCA synthase gene in the "drug-type" and "fiber-type" cannabis plants, respectively. Thirty-seven major substitutions were detected in the alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences from these variants. Furthermore, we identified a specific PCR marker for the THCA synthase gene for the "drug-type" strains. This PCR marker was not detected in the "fiber-type" strains.

  3. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in Orgueil and Ivuna: Tracing the Parent Body of CI Type Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor); Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Glavin, Daniel P.; Bota, Oliver; Cooper, George; Bada, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Amino acid analyses using HPLC of pristine interior pieces of the CI carbonaceous chondrites Orgueil and Ivuna have found that beta-alanine, glycine, and gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (ABA) are the most abundant amino acids in these two meteorites, with concentrations ranging from approx. 600 to 2,000 parts per billion (ppb). Other alpha-amino acids such as alanine, alpha-ABA, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), and isovaline are present only in trace amounts (less than 200 ppb). Carbon isotopic measurements of beta-alanine and glycine and the presence of racemic (D/L 1) alanine and beta-ABA in Orgueil suggest that these amino acids are extraterrestrial in origin. In comparison to the CM carbonaceous chondrites Murchison and Murray, the amino acid composition of the CIs is strikingly distinct, suggesting that these meteorites came from a different type of parent body, possibly an extinct comet, than did the CM carbonaceous chondrites.

  4. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in Orgueil and Ivuna: Tracing the Parent Body of CI Type Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor); Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Glavin, Daniel P.; Bota, Oliver; Cooper, George; Bada, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Amino acid analyses using HPLC of pristine interior pieces of the CI carbonaceous chondrites Orgueil and Ivuna have found that beta-alanine, glycine, and gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (ABA) are the most abundant amino acids in these two meteorites, with concentrations ranging from approx. 600 to 2,000 parts per billion (ppb). Other alpha-amino acids such as alanine, alpha-ABA, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), and isovaline are present only in trace amounts (less than 200 ppb). Carbon isotopic measurements of beta-alanine and glycine and the presence of racemic (D/L 1) alanine and beta-ABA in Orgueil suggest that these amino acids are extraterrestrial in origin. In comparison to the CM carbonaceous chondrites Murchison and Murray, the amino acid composition of the CIs is strikingly distinct, suggesting that these meteorites came from a different type of parent body, possibly an extinct comet, than did the CM carbonaceous chondrites.

  5. Extraterrestrial amino acids in Orgueil and Ivuna: Tracing the parent body of CI type carbonaceous chondrites

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Glavin, Daniel P.; Botta, Oliver; Cooper, George; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2001-01-01

    Amino acid analyses using HPLC of pristine interior pieces of the CI carbonaceous chondrites Orgueil and Ivuna have found that β-alanine, glycine, and γ-amino-n-butyric acid (ABA) are the most abundant amino acids in these two meteorites, with concentrations ranging from ≈600 to 2,000 parts per billion (ppb). Other α-amino acids such as alanine, α-ABA, α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), and isovaline are present only in trace amounts (<200 ppb). Carbon isotopic measurements of β-alanine and glycine and the presence of racemic (D/L ≈ 1) alanine and β-ABA in Orgueil suggest that these amino acids are extraterrestrial in origin. In comparison to the CM carbonaceous chondrites Murchison and Murray, the amino acid composition of the CIs is strikingly distinct, suggesting that these meteorites came from a different type of parent body, possibly an extinct comet, than did the CM carbonaceous chondrites. PMID:11226205

  6. The folding type of a protein is relevant to the amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, H; Nishikawa, K; Ooi, T

    1986-01-01

    The folding types of 135 proteins, the three-dimensional structures of which are known, were analyzed in terms of the amino acid composition. The amino acid composition of a protein was expressed as a point in a multidimensional space spanned with 20 axes, on which the corresponding contents of 20 amino acids in the protein were represented. The distribution pattern of proteins in this composition space was examined in relation to five folding types, alpha, beta, alpha/beta, alpha + beta, and irregular type. The results show that amino acid compositions of the alpha, beta, and alpha/beta types are located in different regions in the composition space, thus allowing distinct separation of proteins depending on the folding types. The points representing proteins of the alpha + beta and irregular types, however, are widely scattered in the space, and the existing regions overlap with those of the other folding types. A simple method of utilizing the "distance" in the space was found to be convenient for classification of proteins into the five folding types. The assignment of the folding type with this method gave an accuracy of 70% in the coincidence with the experimental data.

  7. Cannabidiolic-acid synthase, the chemotype-determining enzyme in the fiber-type Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Taura, Futoshi; Sirikantaramas, Supaart; Shoyama, Yoshinari; Yoshikai, Kazuyoshi; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2007-06-26

    Cannabidiolic-acid (CBDA) synthase is the enzyme that catalyzes oxidative cyclization of cannabigerolic-acid into CBDA, the dominant cannabinoid constituent of the fiber-type Cannabis sativa. We cloned a novel cDNA encoding CBDA synthase by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reactions with degenerate and gene-specific primers. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme demonstrated that CBDA synthase is a covalently flavinylated oxidase. The structural and functional properties of CBDA synthase are quite similar to those of tetrahydrocannabinolic-acid (THCA) synthase, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of THCA, the major cannabinoid in drug-type Cannabis plants.

  8. The role of L-type amino acid transporter 1 in human tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Lin; Pan, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Summary L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is an L-type amino acid transporter and transports large neutral amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, methionine, and histidine. LAT1 was found to be highly expressed especially in human cancer tissues, and up-regulated LAT1 can lead to dysfunction in human tumor cells. These findings suggest that LAT1 plays an important role in human tumors. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of LAT1 expression and its clinical significance and function in tumors. PMID:26668776

  9. Cooperative Brønsted Acid-Type Organocatalysis for the Stereoselective Synthesis of Deoxyglycosides

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A practical approach for the α-stereoselective synthesis of deoxyglycosides using cooperative Brønsted acid-type organocatalysis has been developed. The method is tolerant of a wide range of glycoside donors and acceptors, and its versatility is exemplified in the one-pot synthesis of a trisaccharide. Mechanistic studies suggest that thiourea-induced acid amplification of the chiral acid via H-bonding is key for the enhancement in reaction rate and yield, while stereocontrol is dependent on the chirality of the acid. PMID:28004941

  10. Complete amino acid sequence of the N-terminal extension of calf skin type III procollagen.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, A; Glanville, R W; Hörlein, D; Bruckner, P; Timpl, R; Fietzek, P P; Kühn, K

    1984-01-01

    The N-terminal extension peptide of type III procollagen, isolated from foetal-calf skin, contains 130 amino acid residues. To determine its amino acid sequence, the peptide was reduced and carboxymethylated or aminoethylated and fragmented with trypsin, Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase and bacterial collagenase. Pyroglutamate aminopeptidase was used to deblock the N-terminal collagenase fragment to enable amino acid sequencing. The type III collagen extension peptide is homologous to that of the alpha 1 chain of type I procollagen with respect to a three-domain structure. The N-terminal 79 amino acids, which contain ten of the 12 cysteine residues, form a compact globular domain. The next 39 amino acids are in a collagenase triplet sequence (Gly- Xaa - Yaa )n with a high hydroxyproline content. Finally, another short non-collagenous domain of 12 amino acids ends at the cleavage site for procollagen aminopeptidase, which cleaves a proline-glutamine bond. In contrast with type I procollagen, the type III procollagen extension peptides contain interchain disulphide bridges located at the C-terminus of the triple-helical domain. PMID:6331392

  11. Ginkgolic acids induce neuronal death and activate protein phosphatase type-2C.

    PubMed

    Ahlemeyer, B; Selke, D; Schaper, C; Klumpp, S; Krieglstein, J

    2001-10-26

    The standardized extract from Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) is used for the treatment of dementia. Because of allergenic and genotoxic effects, ginkgolic acids are restricted in EGb 761 to 5 ppm. The question arises whether ginkgolic acids also have neurotoxic effects. In the present study, ginkgolic acids caused death of cultured chick embryonic neurons in a concentration-dependent manner, in the presence and in the absence of serum. Ginkgolic acids-induced death showed features of apoptosis as we observed chromatin condensation, shrinkage of the nucleus and reduction of the damage by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, demonstrating an active type of cell death. However, DNA fragmentation detected by the terminal-transferase-mediated ddUTP-digoxigenin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay and caspase-3 activation, which are also considered as hallmarks of apoptosis, were not seen after treatment with 150 microM ginkgolic acids in serum-free medium, a dose which increased the percentage of neurons with chromatin condensation and shrunken nuclei to 88% compared with 25% in serum-deprived, vehicle-treated controls. This suggests that ginkgolic acid-induced death showed signs of apoptosis as well as of necrosis. Ginkgolic acids specifically increased the activity of protein phosphatase type-2C, whereas other protein phosphatases such as protein phosphatases 1A, 2A and 2B, tyrosine phosphatase, and unspecific acid- and alkaline phosphatases were inhibited or remained unchanged, suggesting protein phosphatase 2C to play a role in the neurotoxic effect mediated by ginkgolic acids.

  12. Bile acid sequestrants in type 2 diabetes: potential effects on GLP1 secretion.

    PubMed

    Sonne, David P; Hansen, Morten; Knop, Filip K

    2014-08-01

    Bile acid sequestrants have been used for decades for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia. Sequestering of bile acids in the intestinal lumen interrupts enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids, which initiate feedback mechanisms on the conversion of cholesterol into bile acids in the liver, thereby lowering cholesterol concentrations in the circulation. In the early 1990s, it was observed that bile acid sequestrants improved glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Subsequently, several studies confirmed the finding and recently - despite elusive mechanisms of action - bile acid sequestrants have been approved in the USA for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Nowadays, bile acids are no longer labelled as simple detergents necessary for lipid digestion and absorption, but are increasingly recognised as metabolic regulators. They are potent hormones, work as signalling molecules on nuclear receptors and G protein-coupled receptors and trigger a myriad of signalling pathways in many target organs. The most described and well-known receptors activated by bile acids are the farnesoid X receptor (nuclear receptor) and the G protein-coupled cell membrane receptor TGR5. Besides controlling bile acid metabolism, these receptors are implicated in lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. Interestingly, activation of TGR5 on enteroendocrine L cells has been suggested to affect secretion of incretin hormones, particularly glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1 (GCG)). This review discusses the role of bile acid sequestrants in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, the possible mechanism of action and the role of bile acid-induced secretion of GLP1 via activation of TGR5.

  13. Citric acid inhibits development of cataracts, proteinuria and ketosis in streptozotocin (type1) diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Ryoji; Nagai, Mime; Shimasaki, Satoko; Baynes, John W.; Fujiwara, Yukio

    2010-01-01

    Although many fruits such as lemon and orange contain citric acid, little is known about beneficial effects of citric acid on health. Here we measured the effect of citric acid on the pathogenesis of diabetic complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Although oral administration of citric acid to diabetic rats did not affect blood glucose concentration, it delayed the development of cataracts, inhibited accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) such as Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) and Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) in lens proteins, and protected against albuminuria and ketosis . We also show that incubation of protein with acetol, a metabolite formed from acetone by acetone monooxygenase, generate CEL, suggesting that inhibition of ketosis by citric acid may lead to the decrease in CEL in lens proteins. These results demonstrate that the oral administration of citric acid ameliorates ketosis and protects against the development of diabetic complications in an animal model of type 1 diabetes. PMID:20117096

  14. Enhanced phagocytosis of group A streptococci M type 6 by oleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Speert, D.P.; Quie, P.G.; Wannamaker, L.W.

    1981-04-01

    M protein, located on the surface fimbriae of group A streptococci, is antiphagocytic by unknown means. It is known that oleic acid kills group A streptococci and distorts the fimbriae. The effect of oleic acid on phagocytosis of group A streptococci was examined. Phagocytosis of a strain possessing M protein (M+) and its M- variant was assessed by uptake of radiolabeled bacteria and by chemiluminescence. The M- but not the M+ streptococci were well phagocytized and induced chemiluminescence. Oleic acid-killed and heat-killed streptococci (both M+ and M-) were readily phagocytized and induced sustained chemiluminescence. M+ streptococci killed by ultraviolet irradiation were inefficiently phagocytized and did not induce chemiluminescence. Oleic acid-killed M+ streptococci absorbed type-specific antibody. An extract of M protein reduced the bactericidal capacity of oleic acid. It is proposed that oleic acid may bind to and alter the M protein of group A streptococci and thereby enhance phagocytosis.

  15. Heat transfer, erosion and acid condensation characteristics for novel H-type finned oval tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Zhao, X.; Tang, G.

    2015-09-01

    Low efficiency of heat transfer, acid corrosion and erosion of economizers affect the economy and security in coal-fired power plants significantly. The H-type finned oval tube is proposed to alleviate these problems. Based on the H-type finned oval tube, we investigated three novel types of fins, including bleeding dimples, longitudinal vortex generators (LVGs), and compound dimple-LVG. We considered the three aspects together, and obtained the heat transfer, acid condensation rate and erosion loss. The results show that the tube bank with the new structured fins can improve the performance on the three aspects, and the compound dimple-LVG performs the highest comprehensive effect.

  16. Urinary pH reflects dietary acid load in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Miki, Akane; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Muhei; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Wada, Sayori; Kuwahata, Masashi; Kido, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Fukui, Michiaki

    2017-07-01

    Dietary acid load is important information, however, survey of food intake needs time and skill. Therefore, it is difficult to survey food intake from all patients. It remains to be elucidated the association between dietary acid load and urinary pH in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this cross-sectional study of 173 patients, we investigated the relationship between urinary pH and dietary acid load, assessed with potential renal acid load. Habitual food and nutrient intake was assessed by a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Urinary pH was negatively correlated with potential renal acid load (r = -0.24, p = 0.002). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that potential renal acid load (standardized regression coefficient = -0.21, p = 0.036) was associated with urinary pH after adjusting for covariates. In addition, according to the receiver operator characteristic analysis, the optimal cut-off point of urinary pH for high dietary acid load, defined as potential renal acid load over 7.0 mEq/day was 5.7 (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve 0.63 (95% CI 0.54-0.71), sensitivity = 0.56, specificity = 0.70, p = 0.004). Urinary pH was associated with dietary acid load in patients with type 2 diabetes. We suggest that urinary pH can be a practical screening marker for dietary acid load in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  17. Urinary pH reflects dietary acid load in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Akane; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Muhei; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Wada, Sayori; Kuwahata, Masashi; Kido, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Fukui, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    Dietary acid load is important information, however, survey of food intake needs time and skill. Therefore, it is difficult to survey food intake from all patients. It remains to be elucidated the association between dietary acid load and urinary pH in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this cross-sectional study of 173 patients, we investigated the relationship between urinary pH and dietary acid load, assessed with potential renal acid load. Habitual food and nutrient intake was assessed by a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Urinary pH was negatively correlated with potential renal acid load (r = –0.24, p = 0.002). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that potential renal acid load (standardized regression coefficient = –0.21, p = 0.036) was associated with urinary pH after adjusting for covariates. In addition, according to the receiver operator characteristic analysis, the optimal cut-off point of urinary pH for high dietary acid load, defined as potential renal acid load over 7.0 mEq/day was 5.7 (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve 0.63 (95% CI 0.54–0.71), sensitivity = 0.56, specificity = 0.70, p = 0.004). Urinary pH was associated with dietary acid load in patients with type 2 diabetes. We suggest that urinary pH can be a practical screening marker for dietary acid load in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:28751813

  18. Type IV resistant starch increases cecum short chain fatty acids level in rats.

    PubMed

    Le Thanh-Blicharz, Joanna; Anioła, Jacek; Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Przygoński, Krzysztof; Zaborowska, Zofia; Lewandowicz, Grażyna

    2014-01-01

    Resistant starches are type of dietary fibers. However, their physiological effects depend on the way they resist digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that new type of RS4 preparations, of in vitro digestibility of about 50%, obtained by cross-linking and acetylation, acts as a prebiotic by increasing short chain fatty acids content in cecum digesta. The rats were fed with diet containing pregelatinized, cross-linked and acetylated starches as a main carbohydrate source. Pregelatinized, but not chemically modified, potato starch was used in the composition of the control diet. After two weeks of experiment the increase of short chain fatty acids contents in ceceum digesta was observed. The intake of starch A, cross-linked only with adipic acid, resulted in increase of about 40% of short chain fatty acids content, whereas starch PA cross-linked with sodium trimetaphosphate and adipic acid of about 50%. The utmost twofold increase was observed in the case of the production of propionic acid. In contrast, the content of butyric acid increased (12%) only as an effect of consumption of starch PA and even decreased (about 30%) in case of starch A. Both RS4 starches caused an increase of the production of acetic acid by more than 40%. No changes in serum biochemistry, liver cholesterol and organ weights of rats were stated.

  19. Ascorbic acid enhances the expression of type 1 and type 4 collagen and SVCT2 in cultured human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yuki; Saito, Norikatsu; Kurita, Katsumi; Shimokado, Kentaro; Maruyama, Naoki; Ishigami, Akihito

    2013-01-11

    Ascorbic acid (AA) is essential for collagen biosynthesis as a cofactor for prolyl and lysyl hydroxylase and as a stimulus for collagen gene expression. Many studies have evaluated the relationship between AA and collagen expression in short- and long-term effects on cells after a single administration of AA into the culture medium. However, no such study has monitored in detail the stability of AA in medium or the alterations of intracellular AA levels during a protracted interval. Therefore, we examined here intracellular AA levels and stability throughout its exposure to human skin fibroblasts in vitro. Moreover, we determined the effects on type 1 and type 4 collagen and sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter (SVCT) gene expression when medium containing 100 μM AA was replaced every 24h for 5 days to avoid depletion of AA. Throughout this long-term culture, intracellular AA levels remained constant; the expression of type 1 and type 4 collagens and SVCT2 mRNA was enhanced, and type 1 procollagen synthesis increased. Thus, these results indicate that human skin fibroblasts exposed to AA over time had rising levels of type 1/type 4 collagens and SVCT2 mRNA expression and type 1 procollagen synthesis. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Niflumic acid differentially modulates two types of skeletal ryanodine-sensitive Ca(2+)-release channels.

    PubMed

    Oba, T

    1997-11-01

    The effects of niflumic acid on ryanodine receptors (RyRs) of frog skeletal muscle were studied by incorporating sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles into planar lipid bilayers. Frog muscle had two distinct types of RyRs in the SR: one showed a bell-shaped channel activation curve against cytoplasmic Ca2+ or niflumic acid, and its mean open probability (Po) was increased by perchlorate at 20-30 mM (termed "alpha-like" RyR); the other showed a sigmoidal activation curve against Ca2+ or niflumic acid, with no effect on perchlorate (termed "beta-like" RyR). The unitary conductance and reversal potential of both channel types were unaffected after exposure to niflumic acid when clamped at 0 mV. When clamped at more positive potentials, the beta-like RyR channel rectified this, increasing the unitary current. Treatment with niflumic acid did not inhibit the response of both channels to Ca2+ release channel modulators such as caffeine, ryanodine, and ruthenium red. The different effects of niflumic acid on Po and the unitary current amplitude in both types of channels may be attributable to the lack or the presence of inactivation sites and/or distinct responses to agonists.

  1. Molecular mechanisms of lipoic acid modulation of T-type calcium channels in pain pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo Yong; Orestes, Peihan; Latham, Janelle; Naik, Ajit K.; Nelson, Michael T.; Vitko, Iuliia; Perez-Reyes, Edward; Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna; Todorovic, Slobodan M.

    2011-01-01

    α-Lipoic acid (1,2-dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid; lipoic acid) is an endogenous compound used to treat pain disorders in humans, but its mechanisms of analgesic action are not well understood. Here we show that lipoic acid selectively inhibited native CaV3.2 T-type calcium currents (T-currents) and diminished T-channel-dependent cellular excitability in acutely isolated rat sensory neurons. Lipoic acid locally injected into peripheral receptive fields of pain-sensing sensory neurons (nociceptors) in vivo decreased sensitivity to noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli in wild-type but not CaV3.2 knockout mice. Ensuing molecular studies demonstrated that lipoic acid inhibited recombinant CaV3.2 channels heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells by oxidating specific thiol residues on the cytoplasmic face of the channel. This study provides the first mechanistic demonstration of a nociceptive ion channel modulation that may contribute to the documented analgesic properties of lipoic acid in vivo. PMID:19641113

  2. Prediction algorithm for amino acid types with their secondary structure in proteins (PLATON) using chemical shifts.

    PubMed

    Labudde, D; Leitner, D; Krüger, M; Oschkinat, H

    2003-01-01

    The algorithm PLATON is able to assign sets of chemical shifts derived from a single residue to amino acid types with its secondary structure (amino acid species). A subsequent ranking procedure using optionally two different penalty functions yields predictions for possible amino acid species for the given set of chemical shifts. This was demonstrated in the case of the alpha-spectrin SH3 domain and applied to 9 further protein data sets taken from the BioMagRes database. A database consisting of reference chemical shift patterns (reference CSPs) was generated from assigned chemical shifts of proteins with known 3D-structure. This reference CSP database is used in our approach for extracting distributions of amino acid types with their most likely secondary structure elements (namely alpha-helix, beta-sheet, and coil) for single amino acids by comparison with query CSPs. Results obtained for the 10 investigated proteins indicates that the percentage of correct amino acid species in the first three positions in the ranking list, ranges from 71.4% to 93.2% for the more favorable penalty function. Where only the top result of the ranking list for these 10 proteins is considered, 36.5% to 83.1% of the amino acid species are correctly predicted. The main advantage of our approach, over other methods that rely on average chemical shift values is the ability to increase database content by incorporating newly derived CSPs, and therefore to improve PLATON's performance over time.

  3. 75 FR 22814 - Guidance for Industry: Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ...: Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV... availability of a document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) for Human... Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Nucleic Acid Test (NAT) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) NAT, on...

  4. Familial type II hyperlipoproteinemia with coronary heart disease: effect of diet-colestipol-nicotinic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Kuo, P T; Kostis, J B; Moreyra, A E; Hayes, J A

    1981-03-01

    Heterozygous familial type II hyperlipoproteinemia (F type II) is primarily manifested in hypercholesterolemia (due to low density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C] elevation) and premature coronary heart disease (CHD). We studied sequentially the effects of low cholesterol-low saturated fat-low simple carbohydrate diet; diet and colestipol, 30 g/day; and diet, colestipol, plus nicotinic acid (NA) 3 to 7 g/day on plasma cholesterol (Ch), LDL-C, triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and angiographically documented coronary arterial lesions of 32 F type II patients. Effective control of F type II resulted in arresting the progression of angiographically demonstrated coronary arterial lesions.

  5. Effect of exercise on concentrations of free amino acids in pools of type I and type II fibres in human muscle with reduced glycogen stores.

    PubMed

    Essén-Gustavsson, B; Blomstrand, E

    2002-03-01

    A few animal studies have shown that some amino acid concentrations vary between different muscle fibre types. In the present study, amino acid concentrations were measured in separate pools of different fibre types in human skeletal muscle, with reduced glycogen stores, before and after sustained exercise. Five subjects exercised at a submaximal work rate for 60 min and then at a maximal rate for 20 min. Biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise; they were freeze-dried and individual fibres were dissected out. Fragments of these fibres were stained for myosin-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and identified as type I or type II fibres. The concentrations of free amino acids were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in perchloric acid (PCA) extracts containing pools of either type of fibre. After exercise, glycogen was decreased in type I fibres (53%) and in four subjects also in type II fibres. The concentrations of most amino acids were similar in the two fibre types before exercise, but the glutamate, aspartate and arginine levels were 10% higher in type II than in type I fibres. After exercise, the glutamate concentration was decreased by 45% in both fibre types and the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) were decreased in type II fibres (14%). Exercise caused an increase by 25-30% in tyrosine concentration in both type I and type II fibres. The results show that amino acids can be measured in pools of fibre fragments and suggest that amino acid metabolism play an important role in both type I and type II fibres during exercise.

  6. Folic Acid: A Marker of Endothelial Function in Type 2 Diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    Mangoni, Arduino A; Sherwood, Roy A; Asonganyi, Belinda; Ouldred, Emma L; Thomas, Stephen; Jackson, Stephen HD

    2005-01-01

    Objectives Endothelial dysfunction is a common feature of type 2 diabetes. Recent studies suggest that the B-vitamin folic acid exerts direct beneficial effects on endothelial function, beyond the well known homocysteine lowering effects. Therefore, folic acid might represent a novel “biomarker” of endothelial function. We sought to determine whether plasma levels of folic acid determine endothelial-dependent vasodilation in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Forearm arterial blood flow (FABF) was measured at baseline and during intrabrachial infusion of the endothelial-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (15 μg/min) and the endothelial-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (2 μg/min) in 26 type 2 diabetic patients (age 56.5 ± 0.9 years, means ± SEM) with no history of cardiovascular disease. Results FABF ratio (ie, the ratio between the infused and control forearm FABF) significantly increased during acetylcholine (1.10 ± 0.04 vs 1.52 ± 0.07, p < 0.001) and sodium nitroprusside (1.12 ± 0.11 vs 1.62 ± 0.06, p < 0.001) infusions. After correcting for age, gender, diabetes duration, smoking, hypertension, body mass index, microalbuminuria, glycated hemoglobin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and homocysteine, multiple regression analysis showed that plasma folic acid concentration was the only independent determinant (p = 0.037, R2 = 0.22) of acetylcholine-mediated, but not sodium nitroprusside-mediated, vasodilatation. Conclusions Folic acid plasma concentrations determine endothelium-mediated vasodilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes. These results support the hypothesis of a direct effect of folic acid on endothelial function and the rationale for interventions aimed at increasing folic acid levels to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:17319100

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Benzylidene Acetal-Type Bridged Nucleic Acids (BA-BNA).

    PubMed

    Kodama, Tetsuya; Morihiro, Kunihiko; Obika, Satoshi

    2014-09-08

    Benzylidene acetal-type bridged nucleic acids (BA-BNAs) have a bridged structure that cleaves upon exposure to appropriate external stimuli, which induces changes in oligonucleotide properties. In particular, duplex stability and resistance to enzymatic digestion vary depending on the incorporation number and/or position of BA-BNAs. This unit describes the synthesis of some types of BA-BNA thymine nucleosides and the corresponding BA-BNA phosphoramidites, as well as the incorporation of BA-BNA nucleosides into oligonucleotides. Moreover, typical procedures that induce property changes in each BA-BNA are described. 6-Nitroveratrylidene and 2-nitrobenzylidene acetal type BA-BNA respond to photoirradiation and subsequent thiol treatment. Benzylidene and 4-nitrobenzylidene acetal type BA-BNAs respond to acids and reducing agents, respectively. Every BA-BNA is derivatized into 4'-C-hydroxymethyl RNA by hydrolysis of the acetal-bridged structure. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Established dietary estimates of net acid production do not predict measured net acid excretion in patients with Type 2 diabetes on Paleolithic-Hunter-Gatherer-type diets

    PubMed Central

    Frassetto, Lynda A; Shi, Lijie; Schloetter, Monique; Sebastian, Anthony; Remer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Formulas developed to estimate diet-dependent net acid excretion (NAE) generally agree with measured values for typical Western diets. Whether they can also appropriately predict NAE for "Paleolithic-type" (Paleo) diets – which contain very high amounts of fruits and vegetables (F&V) and concurrent high amounts of protein is unknown. Here we compare measured NAEs with established NAE-estimates in subjects with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Thirteen subjects with well controlled T2D were randomized to either a Paleo or American Diabetes Association (ADA) diet for 14 days. 24-hour urine collections were performed at baseline and end of the diet period, and analyzed for titratable acid, bicarbonate, and ammonium to calculate measured NAE. Three formulas for estimating NAE from dietary intake were used; two (NAE_diet R or L) that include dietary mineral intake and sulfate- and organic acid (OA) production, and one that is empirically-derived (NAE_diet F) only considering potassium and protein intake. Results Measured NAE on the Paleo diet was significantly lower than on the ADA diet (+31±22 vs. 112±52 mEq/day, p=0.002). Although all formula estimates showed similar and reasonable correlations (r=0.52–0.76) with measured NAE, each one underestimated measured values. The formula with the best correlation did not contain an estimate of dietary organic acid production. Conclusions Paleo diets are lower in NAE than typical Western diets. However, commonly used formulas clearly underestimate NAE, especially for diets with very high F&V (as the Paleo diet), and in subjects with T2D. This may be due to an inappropriate estimation of proton loads stemming from OAs, underlining the necessity for improved measures of OA-related proton sources. PMID:23859996

  9. Unique amino acid signatures that are evolutionarily conserved distinguish simple-type, epidermal and hair keratins

    PubMed Central

    Strnad, Pavel; Usachov, Valentyn; Debes, Cedric; Gräter, Frauke; Parry, David A. D.; Omary, M. Bishr

    2011-01-01

    Keratins (Ks) consist of central α-helical rod domains that are flanked by non-α-helical head and tail domains. The cellular abundance of keratins, coupled with their selective cell expression patterns, suggests that they diversified to fulfill tissue-specific functions although the primary structure differences between them have not been comprehensively compared. We analyzed keratin sequences from many species: K1, K2, K5, K9, K10, K14 were studied as representatives of epidermal keratins, and compared with K7, K8, K18, K19, K20 and K31, K35, K81, K85, K86, which represent simple-type (single-layered or glandular) epithelial and hair keratins, respectively. We show that keratin domains have striking differences in their amino acids. There are many cysteines in hair keratins but only a small number in epidermal keratins and rare or none in simple-type keratins. The heads and/or tails of epidermal keratins are glycine and phenylalanine rich but alanine poor, whereas parallel domains of hair keratins are abundant in prolines, and those of simple-type epithelial keratins are enriched in acidic and/or basic residues. The observed differences between simple-type, epidermal and hair keratins are highly conserved throughout evolution. Cysteines and histidines, which are infrequent keratin amino acids, are involved in de novo mutations that are markedly overrepresented in keratins. Hence, keratins have evolutionarily conserved and domain-selectively enriched amino acids including glycine and phenylalanine (epidermal), cysteine and proline (hair), and basic and acidic (simple-type epithelial), which reflect unique functions related to structural flexibility, rigidity and solubility, respectively. Our findings also support the importance of human keratin ‘mutation hotspot’ residues and their wild-type counterparts. PMID:22215855

  10. [Uric acid predicts type 2 diabetes mellitus in the general population].

    PubMed

    Cardona, Fernando; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; de la Cruz Almaraz, María; Soriguer, Federico; García-Fuentes, Eduardo; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2009-02-01

    Abnormal uric acid levels are considered by some to be a risk factor for metabolic disorders, whereas others consider it to be just a marker. We therefore examined the association between plasma uric acid concentrations and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We undertook a prospective, 8-year study of 411 persons from the general population with no carbohydrate metabolism disorder at the start of the study evaluated by oral glucose overload. The following variables were measured at the beginning and end of the study: uric acid, triglycerides, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose and insulin in plasma, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. The participants were classified according to their plasma uric acid concentration, with a cut-off at the 33rd percentile (men, 291.45 and women, 208.18 micromol/l). Participants with plasma uric acid concentrations above the 33rd percentile at the start of the study had worse lipid and anthropometric profiles. These persons were at greater risk for carbohydrate disorder at the end of the 8- year follow-up study (relative risk, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.8). No significant differences were found in age or in the remaining variables studied between these two groups. Increased uric acid levels in response to a possible chronic increase in oxidative stress may predict future disorders or complications such as type 2 diabetes in otherwise healthy persons.

  11. Two amino acid residues confer type specificity to a neutralizing, conformationally dependent epitope on human papillomavirus type 11.

    PubMed Central

    Ludmerer, S W; Benincasa, D; Mark, G E

    1996-01-01

    Characterization of virus binding by neutralizing antibodies is important both in understanding early events in viral infectivity and in development of vaccines. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV11) have been described, but mapping the binding site has been difficult because of the conformational nature of key type-specific neutralization epitopes on the L1 coat protein. We have determined those residues of the L1 protein of HPV11 which confer type specificity to the binding of HPV11-neutralizing MAbs. Binding of three HPV11-specific neutralizing MAbs could be redirected to HPV6 L1 virus-like particles in which as few as two substitutions of corresponding amino acid residues from HPV11 L1 have been made, thus demonstrating the importance of these residues to MAb binding through the transfer of a conformationally dependent epitope. In addition, a fourth neutralizing MAb could be distinguished from the other neutralizing MAbs in terms of the amino acid residues which affect binding, suggesting the possibility that it neutralizes HPV11 through a different mechanism. PMID:8676509

  12. Amino acid substitutions contributing to α2,6-sialic acid linkage binding specificity of human parainfluenza virus type 3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Keijo; Takahashi, Tadanobu; Ueyama, Hiroo; Takaguchi, Masahiro; Ito, Seigo; Oishi, Kenta; Minami, Akira; Ishitsubo, Erika; Tokiwa, Hiroaki; Takimoto, Toru; Suzuki, Takashi

    2015-05-08

    Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV3) recognizes both α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acids, whereas human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV1) recognizes only α2,3-linked sialic acids. To identify amino acid residues that confer α2,6-linked sialic acid recognition of hPIV3, amino acid residues in or neighboring the sialic acid binding pocket of the hPIV3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein were substituted for the corresponding residues of hPIV1 HN. Hemadsorption assay with sialyl linkage-modified red blood cells indicated that amino acid residues at positions 275, 277, 372, and 426 contribute to α2,6-linked sialic acid recognition of the HN3 glycoprotein. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Type 2 diabetes associated changes in the plasma non-esterified fatty acids, oxylipins and endocannabinoids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has profound effects on metabolism that can be detected in plasma. While increases in circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are well described in T2D, effects on circulating signaling lipids have received little attention. Oxylipins and endocannabinoids are classes of ...

  14. Physics of soft hyaluronic acid-collagen type II double network gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Svetlana; Muthukumar, Murugappan

    2015-03-01

    Many biological hydrogels are made up of multiple interpenetrating, charged components. We study the swelling, elastic diffusion, mechanical, and optical behaviors of 100 mol% ionizable hyaluronic acid (HA) and collagen type II fiber networks. Dilute, 0.05-0.5 wt% hyaluronic acid networks are extremely sensitive to solution salt concentration, but are stable at pH above 2. When swelled in 0.1M NaCl, single-network hyaluronic acid gels follow scaling laws relevant to high salt semidilute solutions; the elastic shear modulus G' and diffusion constant D scale with the volume fraction ϕ as G' ~ϕ 9 / 4 and D ~ϕ 3 / 4 , respectively. With the addition of a collagen fiber network, we find that the hyaluronic acid network swells to suspend the rigid collagen fibers, providing extra strength to the hydrogel. Results on swelling equilibria, elasticity, and collective diffusion on these double network hydrogels will be presented.

  15. Malonic acid suppresses mucin-type O-glycan degradation during hydrazine treatment of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Goso, Yukinobu

    2016-03-01

    Hydrazine treatment is frequently used for releasing mucin-type O-glycans (O-glycans) from glycoproteins because the method provides O-glycans that retain a reducible GalNAc at their reducing end, which is available for fluorescent labeling. However, many O-glycans are degraded by "peeling" during this treatment. In the current study, it was found that malonic acid suppressed O-glycan degradation during hydrazine treatment of bovine fetuin or porcine gastric mucin in both the gas and liquid phases. This is paradoxical because the release of O-glycans from glycoproteins occurs under alkaline conditions. However, malonic acid seems to prevent the degradation through its acidic property given that other weak acids also prevented the degradation. Accordingly, disodium malonate did not suppress O-glycan degradation. Application of this method to rat gastric mucin demonstrated that the majority of the major O-glycans obtained in the presence of malonic acid were intact, whereas those obtained in the absence of malonic acid were degraded. These results suggest that hydrazine treatment in the presence of malonic acid would allow glycomic analysis of native mucin glycoproteins.

  16. Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia: Linkage of Glucose, Glycogen, Lactic Acid, Triglyceride, and Uric Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sever, Sakine; Weinstein, David A.; Wolfsdorf, Joseph I.; Gedik, Reyhan; Schaefer, Ernst J.

    2013-01-01

    Case Summary A female presented in infancy with hypotonia, undetectable serum glucose, lactic acidosis, and triglycerides > 5,000 mg/dl. The diagnosis of type 1A glycogen storage disease (GSD) was made by liver biopsy that showed increased glycogen and absent glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme activity. She was treated with dextrose feeding, which was replaced by frequent cornstarch feeding, with improvement of her metabolic parameters. At age 18 years she had marked hypertriglyceridemia (3,860 mg/dl) and eruptive xanthomas, and was treated with fenofibrate, atorvastatin, and fish oil. At age 29 years she was noted to have multiple liver adenomas, severe anemia, and hyperuricemia. Aggressive cornstarch therapy was commenced with a goal of maintaining her blood glucose levels > 75 mg/dl and lactate levels < 2 mmol/L. After 15 months on this regimen, her lipids levels (measured in mg/dl) off all medications were: total cholesterol 222, triglycerides 179, high density lipoprotein cholesterol 32, and calculated low density lipoprotein cholesterol 154. Her weight was stable with a body mass index of 24.8 kg/m2. Her liver adenomas had decreased in size, and her anemia and hyperuricemia had improved. She was homozygous for the R83C missense mutation in G6PC. Our data indicate that optimized metabolic control to maintain blood glucose levels > 75 mg/dl is critical in the management of this disease. PMID:23312056

  17. Glycogen storage disease type Ia: linkage of glucose, glycogen, lactic acid, triglyceride, and uric acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sever, Sakine; Weinstein, David A; Wolfsdorf, Joseph I; Gedik, Reyhan; Schaefer, Ernst J

    2012-01-01

    A female presented in infancy with hypotonia, undetectable serum glucose, lactic acidosis, and triglycerides >5000 mg/dL. The diagnosis of type 1A glycogen storage disease was made via the result of a liver biopsy, which showed increased glycogen and absent glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme activity. The patient was treated with dextrose administered orally, which was replaced by frequent feedings of cornstarch, which resulted in an improvement of her metabolic parameters. At age 18 years of age, she had marked hypertriglyceridemia (3860 mg/dL) and eruptive xanthomas and was treated with fenofibrate, atorvastatin, and fish oil. At age 29 years she was noted to have multiple liver adenomas, severe anemia, and hyperuricemia. Aggressive cornstarch therapy was commenced with a goal of maintaining her blood glucose levels >75 mg/dL and lactate levels <2 mmol/L. After 15 months on this regimen, her lipids levels (measured in mg/dL) off all medications were as follows: total cholesterol 222, triglycerides 179, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol 32, and calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 154. Her weight was stable with a body mass index of 24.8 kg/m(2). Her liver adenomas had decreased in size, and her anemia and hyperuricemia had improved. She was homozygous for the R83C missense mutation in G6PC. Our data indicate that optimized metabolic control to maintain blood glucose levels >75 mg/dL is critical in the management of this disease. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Glycosyltransferases A and B: Four Critical Amino Acids Determine Blood Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Natisha L.; Palcic, Monica M.; Evans, Stephen V.

    2005-12-01

    Human A, B, and O blood type is determined by the presence or absence of distinct carbohydrate structures on red blood cells. Type O individuals have α-fucose(1→2)galactose disaccharides [O(H) structures] on their cell surfaces while in type A or B individuals, the O antigen is capped by the addition of an α- N -acetylgalactosamine or α-galactose residue, respectively. The addition of these monosaccharides is catalyzed by glycosyltransferase A (GTA) or glycosyltransferase B (GTB). These are homologous enzymes differing by only 4 amino acids out of 354 that change the specificity from GTA to GTB. In this review the chemistry of the blood group ABO system and the role of GTA, GTB, and the four critical amino acids in determining blood group status are discussed. See JCE Featured Molecules .

  19. Regulation and expression of type V (tartrate-resistant) acid phosphatase in human mononuclear phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, M A; Lord, D K; Cross, N C; Whitaker, K B; Moss, D W; Cox, T M

    1991-02-01

    Human type V (tartrate-resistant) acid phosphatase belongs to a unique group of iron-binding proteins that includes uteroferrin and other purple phosphatases. The enzyme is normally restricted to osteoclasts and certain phagocytic cells but its rôle is unknown. We show that phosphatase mRNA is abundant in cells of monohistiocytic phenotype and that enzyme expression in cultured human monocyte-derived macrophages is depressed by gamma-interferon and bacterial lipopolysaccharide, agents that promote functional differentiation in these cells. In contrast, phorbol ester, which stimulates intracellular calcium-mediated events, greatly enhances type V phosphatase expression and mRNA abundance. Lymphokine and phorbol ester-modulated expression of type V acid phosphatase expression thus represents a model system for investigating proliferative responses that are specific to cells of the mononuclear macrophage system.

  20. Established dietary estimates of net acid production do not predict measured net acid excretion in patients with Type 2 diabetes on Paleolithic-Hunter-Gatherer-type diets.

    PubMed

    Frassetto, L A; Shi, L; Schloetter, M; Sebastian, A; Remer, T

    2013-09-01

    Formulas developed to estimate diet-dependent net acid excretion (NAE) generally agree with measured values for typical Western diets. Whether they can also appropriately predict NAE for 'Paleolithic-type' (Paleo) diets-which contain very high amounts of fruits and vegetables (F&V) and concurrent high amounts of protein is unknown. Here, we compare measured NAEs with established NAE estimates in subjects with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Thirteen subjects with well-controlled T2D were randomized to either a Paleo or American Diabetes Association (ADA) diet for 14 days. Twenty-four hour urine collections were performed at baseline and end of the diet period, and analyzed for titratable acid, bicarbonate and ammonium to calculate measured NAE. Three formulas for estimating NAE from dietary intake were used; two (NAE_diet R or L) that include dietary mineral intake and sulfate- and organic acid (OA) production, and one that is empirically derived (NAE_diet F) only considering potassium and protein intake. Measured NAE on the Paleo diet was significantly lower than on the ADA-diet (+31±22 vs 112±52 mEq/day, P=0.002). Although all formula estimates showed similar and reasonable correlations (r=0.52-0.76) with measured NAE, each one underestimated measured values. The formula with the best correlation did not contain an estimate of dietary OA production. Paleo-diets are lower in NAE than typical Western diets. However, commonly used formulas clearly underestimate NAE, especially for diets with very high F&V (as the Paleo diet), and in subjects with T2D. This may be due to an inappropriate estimation of proton loads stemming from OAs, underlining the necessity for improved measures of OA-related proton sources.

  1. Features of “All LNA” Duplexes Showing a New Type of Nucleic Acid Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Charlotte; Eichert, André; Oberthür, Dominik; Betzel, Christian; Geßner, Reinhard; Nitsche, Andreas; Fürste, Jens P.

    2012-01-01

    “Locked nucleic acids” (LNAs) belong to the backbone-modified nucleic acid family. The 2′-O,4′-C-methylene-β-D-ribofuranose nucleotides are used for single or multiple substitutions in RNA molecules and thereby introduce enhanced bio- and thermostability. This renders LNAs powerful tools for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. RNA molecules maintain the overall canonical A-type conformation upon substitution of single or multiple residues/nucleotides by LNA monomers. The structures of “all” LNA homoduplexes, however, exhibit significant differences in their overall geometry, in particular a decreased twist, roll and propeller twist. This results in a widening of the major groove, a decrease in helical winding, and an enlarged helical pitch. Therefore, the LNA duplex structure can no longer be described as a canonical A-type RNA geometry but can rather be brought into proximity to other backbone-modified nucleic acids, like glycol nucleic acids or peptide nucleic acids. LNA-modified nucleic acids provide thus structural and functional features that may be successfully exploited for future application in biotechnology and drug discovery. PMID:22666550

  2. Synthesis and Monolayer Behaviors of Succinic Acid-Type Gemini Surfactants Containing Semifluoroalkyl Groups.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Tokuzo; Nagase, Youhei; Oida, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, novel succinic acid-type gemini surfactants containing semifluoroalkyl groups, dl- and meso-2,3-bis[Rf-(CH2)n]-succinic acids (Rf = C4F9, C6F13, C8F17; n = 2, 9), were successfully synthesized, and the effects of Rf, methylene chain length (n), and stereochemistry on their monolayer behaviors were studied. Critical micelle concentrations (CMC) of dl- and meso-2,3-bis[C4F9(CH2)9]-succinic acids were one order of magnitude smaller than that of the corresponding 1+1 type surfactant, C4F9(CH2)9COOH. From surface pressure-area (π-A) measurements, the lift-off areas of the geminis were found to decrease in the order C4F9 ≥ C6F13 > C8F17, regardless of methylene chain length and stereochemistry. The zero-pressure molecular areas of the geminis were twice those of the corresponding 1+1 type surfactants. Based on Gibbs compression modulus analysis, it was clarified that 2,3-bis[C8F17(CH2)n]-succinic gemini with short methylene chains (n = 2) would form more rigid monolayers than those having long methylene chains (n = 9). Unlike for 2,3-bis(alkyl)-succinic acids, the effects of stereochemistry on the monolayer behavior of semifluoroalkylated geminis were small.

  3. Studying the loading effect of acidic type antioxidant on amorphous silica nanoparticle carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravinayagam, Vijaya; Rabindran Jermy, B.

    2017-06-01

    The study investigates the suitable nanosilica carriers to transport acidic type cargo molecules for potential targeted drug delivery application. Using phenolic acidic type antioxidant gallic acid (GA) as model compound, the present study investigates the loading effect of GA (0.3-15.9 mmol GA g-1 support) on textural characteristics of amorphous silica nanoparticles such as Q10 silica (1D), structured two-dimensional Si-MCM-41 (2D), and three-dimensional Si-SBA-16 (3D). The variation in the nature of textures after GA loading was analyzed using X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption, FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Among the nanocarriers, high adsorption of GA was found in the following order: Si-SBA-16 (3D)˜Si-KIT-6 (3D) > Si-MCM-41 (2D) > ultralarge pore FDU-12 (ULPFDU-12; 3D) > Q10 (1D)˜mesostructured cellular silica foam (MSU-F). 3D-type silicas Si-SBA-16 and KIT-6 were shown to maintain structural integrity at acidic condition (pH ˜3) and accommodate GA in non-crystalline form. In the case of ULPFDU-12 and MSU-F cellular foam, only crystalline deposition of GA occurs with a significant variation in the surface area and pore volume. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Frequency and type of seafood consumed influence plasma (n-3) fatty acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyoju; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Barr, R Graham; Tsai, Michael Y; Tracy, Russell P; Siscovick, David S

    2008-12-01

    Few studies have adequately considered the type of seafood and background dietary factors when evaluating diet-biomarker and diet-disease associations. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between different seafood meals and long-chain (n-3) fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] biomarkers in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) with white, Chinese-American, black, and Hispanic participants. Dietary intake from a FFQ and plasma phospholipid fatty acids were assessed in 900 MESA participants who were not taking fish oil supplements. When simultaneously adjusting for all seafood groups, concentrations of EPA and DHA in plasma phospholipids were positively correlated with nonfried fish consumption in all 4 ethnic groups (r = 0.24-0.46; P < 0.01) but not with nonfried shellfish, fried fish, or fish in mixed dishes. The magnitude of this correlation was attenuated by up to 67% when type of seafood was not taken into account. After further adjusting for demographic characteristics and other dietary characteristics in multivariate regression models, the association of nonfried fish consumption remained significant (P-trend < 0.001). Data were suggestive of a plateau effect at a nonfried fish intake of about twice weekly. The association of nonfried fish consumption was not modified by intake of (n-6) PUFA or alpha-linolenic acid. This study highlights the importance of cooking methods (nonfried vs. fried fish), types of seafood (fish vs. shellfish), and the overall seafood consumption when assessing health effects of long-chain (n-3) fatty acids of seafood consumption.

  5. Novel therapeutic approaches targeting L-type amino acid transporters for cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Keitaro; Anzai, Naohiko

    2017-01-01

    L-type amino acid transporters (LATs) mainly assist the uptake of neutral amino acids into cells. Four LATs (LAT1, LAT2, LAT3 and LAT4) have so far been identified. LAT1 (SLC7A5) has been attracting much attention in the field of cancer research since it is commonly up-regulated in various cancers. Basic research has made it increasingly clear that LAT1 plays a predominant role in malignancy. The functional significance of LAT1 in cancer and the potential therapeutic application of the features of LAT1 to cancer management are described in this review. PMID:28144396

  6. Effect of urea and uric acid on influenza virus type C. Brief report.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A K; Czekalowski, J W; Jennings, R

    1984-01-01

    The replication of influenza type C/1233 virus following inoculation into the amniotic sac of embryonated hen's eggs is significantly greater than that seen in the allantoic cavity. However, optimal growth condition for amniotically propagated C/1233 occur in the allantois of 8-day old embryos incubated post-inoculation at 32 degrees C. Differences in pH levels between the amniotic and allantoic cavities did not account for the variable growth ability of C/1233 virus, but in both in vitro and in ovo studies, levels of urea and uric acid, or urea-uric acid mixtures caused significant reductions in virus yield.

  7. Increasing dietary linoleic acid does not increase tissue arachidonic acid content in adults consuming Western-type diets: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Linoleic acid, with a DRI of 12-17 g/d, is the most highly consumed polyunsaturated fatty acid in the Western diet and is found in virtually all commonly consumed foods. The concern with dietary linoleic acid, being the metabolic precursor of arachidonic acid, is its consumption may enrich tissues with arachidonic acid and contribute to chronic and overproduction of bioactive eicosanoids. However, no systematic review of human trials regarding linoleic acid consumption and subsequent changes in tissue levels of arachidonic acid has been undertaken. Objective In this study, we reviewed the human literature that reported changes in dietary linoleic acid and its subsequent impact on changing tissue arachidonic acid in erythrocytes and plasma/serum phospholipids. Design We identified, reviewed, and evaluated all peer-reviewed published literature presenting data outlining changes in dietary linoleic acid in adult human clinical trials that reported changes in phospholipid fatty acid composition (specifically arachidonic acid) in plasma/serum and erythrocytes within the parameters of our inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results Decreasing dietary linoleic acid by up to 90% was not significantly correlated with changes in arachidonic acid levels in the phospholipid pool of plasma/serum (p = 0.39). Similarly, when dietary linoleic acid levels were increased up to six fold, no significant correlations with arachidonic acid levels were observed (p = 0.72). However, there was a positive relationship between dietary gamma-linolenic acid and dietary arachidonic acid on changes in arachidonic levels in plasma/serum phospholipids. Conclusions Our results do not support the concept that modifying current intakes of dietary linoleic acid has an effect on changing levels of arachidonic acid in plasma/serum or erythrocytes in adults consuming Western-type diets. PMID:21663641

  8. Effect of canagliflozin on serum uric acid in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Davies, M J; Trujillo, A; Vijapurkar, U; Damaraju, C V; Meininger, G

    2015-04-01

    Hyperuricaemia is associated with an increased risk of gout, kidney stones and cardiovascular disease. The present post hoc analysis of pooled data from four placebo-controlled phase III studies assessed the effect of canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, on serum uric acid levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and in a subset of patients with hyperuricaemia [defined as baseline serum uric acid ≥475 µmol/l (∼8 mg/dl)]. At week 26, canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg were associated with a ∼13% reduction in serum uric acid compared with placebo. In the subset of patients with hyperuricaemia, placebo-subtracted percent reductions in serum uric acid were similar to those in the overall cohort. More patients in the hyperuricaemic group achieved a serum uric acid level of <360 µmol/l (∼6 mg/dl) with both canagliflozin 100 mg (23.5%) and 300 mg (32.4%) compared with placebo (3.1%). Incidences of gout and kidney stones were low and similar across groups. In conclusion, canagliflozin treatment decreased serum uric acid in patients with T2DM, including those with baseline hyperuricaemia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Etomoxir, sodium 2-[6-(4-chlorophenoxy)hexyl]oxirane-2-carboxylate, up-regulates uncoupling protein-3 mRNA levels in primary culture of rat preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Cabrero, A; Alegret, M; Sánchez, R; Adzet, T; Laguna, J C; Vázquez, M

    1999-09-16

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are mitochondrial membrane proton transporters that uncouple respiration from oxidative phosphorylation by dissipating the proton gradient across the membrane. Treatment of primary culture of rat preadipocytes for 24 h with 40 microM etomoxir, an irreversible inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I), up-regulated UCP-3 mRNA levels (3. 6-fold induction), whereas changes in UCP-2 mRNA levels were not significant. As a consequence of increased UCP-3 expression, a fall in the mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by flow cytometry. Etomoxir treatment modified neither L-CPT-I (liver-type) nor PPARalpha mRNA levels in preadipocytes. In contrast, mRNA expression of acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), the rate-limiting enzyme of peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation, whose transcription is controlled by PPARalpha, was significantly induced (1.3-fold induction, P = 0.015). These findings suggest that the effects of etomoxir were mediated by PPARalpha. Since it has been reported that the intracellular accumulation of lipids following the inhibition of CPT-I by etomoxir leads to a PPARalpha-mediated metabolic response that increases the expression of genes involved in alternate fatty acid oxidation pathways, these results seem to implicate UCP-3 in this protective metabolic response. It remains to be studied whether reductions in the expression of UCP-3 could compromise this response, giving rise to lipotoxic effects on cells.

  10. Type 304L stainless steel surface microstructure: Performance in hydride storage and acid cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    1994-07-01

    The performance of stainless steel as the container in hydride storage bed systems has been evaluated, primarily using scanning electron microscopy. No adverse reaction between Type 304L stainless steel and either LaNi{sub 5{minus}x},Al{sub x}, or palladium supported on Kieselguhr granules (silica) during exposure in hydrogen was found in examination of retired prototype storage bed containers and special compatibility test samples. Intergranular surface ditching, observed on many of the stainless steel surfaces examined, was shown to result from air annealing and acid cleaning of stainless steel during normal fabrication. The ditched air annealed and acid cleaned stainless steel samples were more resistant to subsequent acid attack than vacuum annealed or polished samples without ditches.

  11. Chemoselective Boron-Catalyzed Nucleophilic Activation of Carboxylic Acids for Mannich-Type Reactions.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yuya; Yamamoto, Tomohiro; Nagai, Hideoki; Shimizu, Yohei; Kanai, Motomu

    2015-06-10

    The carboxyl group (COOH) is an omnipresent functional group in organic molecules, and its direct catalytic activation represents an attractive synthetic method. Herein, we describe the first example of a direct catalytic nucleophilic activation of carboxylic acids with BH3·SMe2, after which the acids are able to act as carbon nucleophiles, i.e. enolates, in Mannich-type reactions. This reaction proceeds with a mild organic base (DBU) and exhibits high levels of functional group tolerance. The boron catalyst is highly chemoselective toward the COOH group, even in the presence of other carbonyl moieties, such as amides, esters, or ketones. Furthermore, this catalytic method can be extended to highly enantioselective Mannich-type reactions by using a (R)-3,3'-I2-BINOL-substituted boron catalyst.

  12. Fabrication of an implantable fine needle-type glucose sensor using gamma-polyglutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Hiroki; Yasuzawa, Mikito

    2010-01-01

    Implantable fine needle-type glucose sensors with an outer diameter of less that 0.2 mm were fabricated using a low-cost and non-animal origin polyamide, gamma-polyglutamic acid (PGA) as a glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilizing material. Two types of PGA, gamma-polyglutamic acid (PGAH) and gamma-polyglutamic acid sodium salt (PGANa), were employed to prepare GOx immobilized film by the covalent attachment of GOx using water-soluble carbodiimide (EDC). Nafion/cellulose acetate composite film and polyurethane/polydimethylsiloxane composite film were employed as a permselective inner film and a biocompatible outer film, respectively. The procedure of enzyme-immobilized film fabrication affected the stability of the sensor; that is, GOx immobilized film prepared by pouring a mixture solution of GOx and EDC on a PGA precoated surface showed higher sensor stability than that prepared by pouring a mixture solution of GOx, PGA and EDC. Although, obvious differences in the sensor properties were not observed between the use of PGANa and PGAH, the electrode prepared with PGAH had a lower swelling degree. The glucose sensors prepared with both PGANa and PGAH were practically not affected by the existence of electroactive compounds, such as uric acid, and provided long-term stability for approximately 5 weeks. These sensors also showed good performance in horse serum.

  13. New amino acid germinants for spores of the enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens type A isolates.

    PubMed

    Udompijitkul, Pathima; Alnoman, Maryam; Banawas, Saeed; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Sarker, Mahfuzur R

    2014-12-01

    Clostridium perfringens spore germination plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of C. perfringens-associated food poisoning (FP) and non-food-borne (NFB) gastrointestinal diseases. Germination is initiated when bacterial spores sense specific nutrient germinants (such as amino acids) through germinant receptors (GRs). In this study, we aimed to identify and characterize amino acid germinants for spores of enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A. The polar, uncharged amino acids at pH 6.0 efficiently induced germination of C. perfringens spores; L-asparagine, L-cysteine, L-serine, and L-threonine triggered germination of spores of most FP and NFB isolates; whereas, L-glutamine was a unique germinant for FP spores. For cysteine- or glutamine-induced germination, gerKC spores (spores of a gerKC mutant derivative of FP strain SM101) germinated to a significantly lower extent and released less DPA than wild type spores; however, a less defective germination phenotype was observed in gerAA or gerKB spores. The germination defects in gerKC spores were partially restored by complementing the gerKC mutant with a recombinant plasmid carrying wild-type gerKA-KC, indicating that GerKC is an essential GR protein. The gerKA, gerKC, and gerKB spores germinated significantly slower with L-serine and L-threonine than their parental strain, suggesting the requirement for these GR proteins for normal germination of C. perfringens spores. In summary, these results indicate that the polar, uncharged amino acids at pH 6.0 are effective germinants for spores of C. perfringens type A and that GerKC is the main GR protein for germination of spores of FP strain SM101 with L-cysteine, L-glutamine, and L-asparagine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anodic treatment of magnesium alloys, acid type, full coat. (SAE standard)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This specification establishes the engineering requirements for producing an acid-type, anodic coating on magnesium alloys and the properties of the coating. This process has been used typically to increase corrosion and abrasion resistance and to provide surfaces which will ensure maximum paint adheresion, but usage is not limited to such applications. This process is applicable to all magnesium alloys provided proper allowance is made for dimensional change.

  15. Omega-3 fatty acids and incident type 2 diabetes: the Singapore Chinese Health Study1234

    PubMed Central

    Brostow, Diana P; Odegaard, Andrew O; Koh, Woon-Puay; Duval, Sue; Gross, Myron D; Yuan, Jian-Min; Pereira, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Background: The role of omega-3 (n–3) fatty acids (FAs) in the development of type 2 diabetes is uncertain, especially with regard to any differential influence of α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Objective: The objective was to examine the association between total omega-3 FAs, marine omega-3 (EPA, DHA), nonmarine omega-3 (ALA), and omega-6 (n–6) FAs and omega-6:omega-3 ratio and risk of type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population in Singapore. Design: The analysis included 43,176 Chinese men and women free of chronic disease, aged 45–74 y, in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Baseline data collection occurred between 1993 and 1998, with follow-up interviews between 1999 and 2004. Cox regression models were used to examine the associations between FA intakes at baseline and risk of developing diabetes. Results: Increased intakes of total omega-3 FAs were inversely associated with diabetes incidence [hazard ratio (HR) for the fifth compared with the first quintile: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.65, 0.94; P for trend = 0.02]. Omega-3 FAs from marine sources were not associated with diabetes risk, whereas nonmarine omega-3 FA intake was strongly associated (HR for the fifth compared with the first quintile: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.93; P for trend = 0.004). Omega-6 and omega-6:omega-3 ratio were not associated with incidence of type 2 diabetes. Conclusion: Consumption of nonmarine sources (ALA) of omega-3 FAs is associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes in Chinese Singaporeans. PMID:21593505

  16. GABA sub A (gamma-aminobutyric acid) type binding sites on membranes of spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Erdoe, S.L. ); Wekerle, L. )

    1990-01-01

    The binding of ({sup 3}H) gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to seminal membranes of swines and rams was examined. Specific, GABA binding was demonstrated in both species, which showed the features of GABA{sub A} type receptors. The affinity of binding was similar in both species, whereas the density of seminal GABA binding sites was 5 times higher in swine. Our findings suggest that GABA may have a direct effect on spermatozoa.

  17. Urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein change in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wen-Jin; Wang, Du-Juan; Deng, Ren-Tang; Huang, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Mei-Lian; Jang, You-Ming; Wen, Shu; Yang, Hong-Ling; Huang, Xian-zhang

    2015-09-01

    We compared urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) among non-pregnant and pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Higher urinary L-FABP was found in pregnant with and without GDM, and considerably higher urinary L-FABP was found in the GDM group compared with the non-GDM group. Hyperglycemia and anemia were related with high urinary L-FABP expression.

  18. Type III polyketide synthase is involved in the biosynthesis of protocatechuic acid in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yangyong; Xiao, Jing; Pan, Li

    2014-11-01

    Genomic studies have shown that not only plants but also filamentous fungi contain type III polyketide synthases. To study the function of type III polyketide synthase (AnPKSIII) in Aspergillus niger, a deletion strain (delAnPKSIII) and an overexpression strain (oeAnPKSIII) were constructed in A. niger MA169.4, a derivative of the wild-type (WT) A. niger ATCC 9029 that produces large quantities of gluconic acid. Alterations in the metabolites were analyzed by HPLC when the extract of the overexpression strain was compared with extracts of the WT and deletion strains. Protocatechuic acid (PCA; 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3.2 mg/l) was isolated and identified as the main product of AnPKSIII when inductively expressed in A. niger MA169.4. The molecular weight of PCA was 154.1 (m/z 153.1 [M-H](-)), was detected by ESI-MS in the negative ionization mode, and (1)H and (13)C NMR data confirmed its structure.

  19. [Prediction of lipases types by different scale pseudo-amino acid composition].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangya; Li, Hongchun; Gao, Jiaqiang; Fang, Baishan

    2008-11-01

    Lipases are widely used enzymes in biotechnology. Although they catalyze the same reaction, their sequences vary. Therefore, it is highly desired to develop a fast and reliable method to identify the types of lipases according to their sequences, or even just to confirm whether they are lipases or not. By proposing two scales based pseudo amino acid composition approaches to extract the features of the sequences, a powerful predictor based on k-nearest neighbor was introduced to address the problems. The overall success rates thus obtained by the 10-fold cross-validation test were shown as below: for predicting lipases and nonlipase, the success rates were 92.8%, 91.4% and 91.3%, respectively. For lipase types, the success rates were 92.3%, 90.3% and 89.7%, respectively. Among them, the Z scales based pseudo amino acid composition was the best, T scales was the second. They outperformed significantly than 6 other frequently used sequence feature extraction methods. The high success rates yielded for such a stringent dataset indicate predicting the types of lipases is feasible and the different scales pseudo amino acid composition might be a useful tool for extracting the features of protein sequences, or at lease can play a complementary role to many of the other existing approaches.

  20. MUSIC in triple-resonance experiments: amino acid type-selective (1)H-(15)N correlations

    PubMed

    Schubert; Smalla; Schmieder; Oschkinat

    1999-11-01

    Amino acid type-selective triple-resonance experiments can be of great help for the assignment of protein spectra, since they help to remove ambiguities in either manual or automated assignment procedures. Here, modified triple-resonance experiments that yield amino acid type-selective (1)H-(15)N correlations are presented. They are based on novel coherence transfer schemes, the MUSIC pulse sequence elements, that replace the initial INEPT transfer and are selective for XH(2) or XH(3) (X can be (15)N or (13)C). The desired amino acid type is thereby selected based on the topology of the side chain. Experiments for Gly (G-HSQC); Ala (A-HSQC); Thr, Val, Ile, and Ala (TAVI-HSQC); Thr and Ala (TA-HSQC), as well as Asn and Gln (N-HSQC and QN-HSQC), are described. The new experiments are recorded as two-dimensional experiments and therefore need only small amounts of spectrometer time. The performance of the experiments is demonstrated with the application to two protein domains. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  1. Surface acidity of 2:1-type dioctahedral clay minerals from first principles molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiandong; Cheng, Jun; Sprik, Michiel; Lu, Xiancai; Wang, Rucheng

    2014-09-01

    We report a first principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) study of the acid chemistry of 2:1-type dioctahedral phyllosilicates. Using the FPMD based vertical energy gap method, we computed intrinsic acidity constants of phyllosilicate edge sites. The investigated models include both neutral and charged frameworks (i.e., Mg for Al replacement in octahedral sheets and Al for Si replacement in tetrahedral sheets) and the common edge surface types (i.e., (0 1 0) and (1 1 0)). The result of the neutral framework agrees with the experiment of pyrophyllite. For charged frameworks, it is found that tbnd Al(OH) sites in T-sheets (i.e., Al-sub) and tbnd Mg(OH2) sites (i.e., Mg-sub) have extremely high pKas and thus they all keep protonated. Both types of substitutions increase pKas of the apical oxygen sites on (1 1 0) surfaces and Mg substitution also increases the pKas of neighboring silanol sites. With the calculated pKas, we explore the mechanism of heavy metal cations complexation on edge surfaces. As a quantitative basis, the results in this work can be used in future modeling and experimental studies for understanding acid reactivity of phyllosilicates.

  2. MUSIC in Triple-Resonance Experiments: Amino Acid Type-Selective 1H- 15N Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Mario; Smalla, Maika; Schmieder, Peter; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    1999-11-01

    Amino acid type-selective triple-resonance experiments can be of great help for the assignment of protein spectra, since they help to remove ambiguities in either manual or automated assignment procedures. Here, modified triple-resonance experiments that yield amino acid type-selective 1H-15N correlations are presented. They are based on novel coherence transfer schemes, the MUSIC pulse sequence elements, that replace the initial INEPT transfer and are selective for XH2 or XH3 (X can be 15N or 13C). The desired amino acid type is thereby selected based on the topology of the side chain. Experiments for Gly (G-HSQC); Ala (A-HSQC); Thr, Val, Ile, and Ala (TAVI-HSQC); Thr and Ala (TA-HSQC), as well as Asn and Gln (N-HSQC and QN-HSQC), are described. The new experiments are recorded as two-dimensional experiments and therefore need only small amounts of spectrometer time. The performance of the experiments is demonstrated with the application to two protein domains.

  3. A Type II Pathway for Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Presents Drug Targets in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Ross F.; Ralph, Stuart A.; Reed, Michael B.; Su, Vanessa; Douglas, James D.; Minnikin, David E.; Cowman, Alan F.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; McFadden, Geoffrey I.

    2003-01-01

    It has long been held that the malaria parasite, Plasmodium sp., is incapable of de novo fatty acid synthesis. This view has recently been overturned with the emergence of data for the presence of a fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in the relict plastid of P. falciparum (known as the apicoplast). This pathway represents the type II pathway common to plant chloroplasts and bacteria but distinct from the type I pathway of animals including humans. Specific inhibitors of the type II pathway, thiolactomycin and triclosan, have been reported to target this Plasmodium pathway. Here we report further inhibitors of the plastid-based pathway that inhibit Plasmodium parasites. These include several analogues of thiolactomycin, two with sixfold-greater efficacy than thiolactomycin. We also report that parasites respond very rapidly to such inhibitors and that the greatest sensitivity is seen in ring-stage parasites. This study substantiates the importance of fatty acid synthesis for blood-stage parasite survival and shows that this pathway provides scope for the development of novel antimalarial drugs. PMID:12499205

  4. Mismatch discrimination in fluorescent in situ hybridization using different types of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Fontenete, Silvia; Silvia, Fontenete; Barros, Joana; Joana, Barros; Madureira, Pedro; Pedro, Madureira; Figueiredo, Céu; Céu, Figueiredo; Wengel, Jesper; Jesper, Wengel; Azevedo, Nuno Filipe; Filipe, Azevedo Nuno

    2015-05-01

    In the past few years, several researchers have focused their attention on nucleic acid mimics due to the increasing necessity of developing a more robust recognition of DNA or RNA sequences. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is an example of a method where the use of these novel nucleic acid monomers might be crucial to the success of the analysis. To achieve the expected accuracy in detection, FISH probes should have high binding affinity towards their complementary strands and discriminate effectively the noncomplementary strands. In this study, we investigate the effect of different chemical modifications in fluorescent probes on their ability to successfully detect the complementary target and discriminate the mismatched base pairs by FISH. To our knowledge, this paper presents the first study where this analysis is performed with different types of FISH probes directly in biological targets, Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter acinonychis. This is also the first study where unlocked nucleic acids (UNA) were used as chemistry modification in oligonucleotides for FISH methodologies. The effectiveness in detecting the specific target and in mismatch discrimination appears to be improved using locked nucleic acids (LNA)/2'-O-methyl RNA (2'OMe) or peptide nucleic acid (PNA) in comparison to LNA/DNA, LNA/UNA, or DNA probes. Further, the use of LNA modifications together with 2'OMe monomers allowed the use of shorter fluorescent probes and increased the range of hybridization temperatures at which FISH would work.

  5. Mercury analysis of various types of coal using acid extraction and pyrolysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jae Young Park; Jong Hyun Won; Tai Gyu Lee

    2006-12-15

    The mercury contents of various types of coal currently consumed in Korea were analyzed using acid extraction and pyrolysis methods. The results of analysis by acid extraction and pyrolysis methods were compared and discussed. Generally, high mercury concentrations of 105.6 to 434.5 ng/g (by acid extraction) and 125.7 to 475.4 ng/g (by pyrolysis) were obtained for tested anthracite coals in this study. For bituminous coals, the mercury contents were 11.5-48 ng/g (by acid extraction) and 12.5-52.4 ng/g (by pyrolysis). For coal samples, much simpler and far less time-consuming pyrolysis method tends to give higher values for the Hg concentration than the acid extraction method (by less than 10%) because of the interference from a UV absorption by SOx generated during thermal destruction of coal matrix. Also, further analysis shows that coals with higher densities have higher mercury contents and that the sulfur and mercury contents of coals are positively correlated with each other. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Phase diagram of crystallization of Aspergillus niger acid proteinase A, a non-pepsin-type acid proteinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Norio; Ataka, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Tomonari; Katsura, Tatsuo; Tanokura, Masaru

    1996-10-01

    Proteinase A from Aspergillus niger var. macrosporus is a non-pepsin-type acid proteinase with an extremely low isoelectric point (pI 3.3). The protein is crystallized from ammonium sulfate solutions of pH lower than 4. The crystallization is affected by the presence of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). We have studied the phase diagram of the crystallization of proteinase A in the absence and presence of DMSO, to clarify crystallization at such an extremely low pH and to study the effects of DMSO. The results indicate that the logarithm of protein solubility is a rectilinear function of ammonium sulfate concentration in both the absence and presence of DMSO. DMSO definitely lowers the solubility at relatively low concentrations of ammonium sulfate, but had little effect on protein solubility at higher concentrations of ammonium sulfate.

  7. Identification and functional differentiation of two type I fatty acid synthases in Brevibacterium ammoniagenes.

    PubMed Central

    Stuible, H P; Wagner, C; Andreou, I; Huter, G; Haselmann, J; Schweizer, E

    1996-01-01

    The fatty acid synthase (FAS) from Brevibacterium ammoniagenes is a homohexameric multienzyme complex that catalyzes the synthesis of both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. By immunological screening of a B. ammoniagenes expression library, an fas DNA fragment was isolated and subsequently used to clone the entire gene together with its flanking sequences. Within 10,525 bp of sequenced DNA, the 9,189-bp FAS coding region was identified, corresponding to a protein of 3,063 amino acids with a molecular mass of 324,910 Da. This gene (fasA) encodes, at its 5' end, the same amino acid sequence as is observed with purified B. ammoniagenes FAS. A second reading frame encoding another B. ammoniagenes FAS variant (FasB) had been identified previously. Both sequences are colinear and exhibit 61 and 47% identity at the DNA and protein levels, respectively. By using specific antibodies raised against a unique peptide sequence of FasB, this enzyme was shown to represent only 5 to 10% of the cellular FAS protein. Insertional inactivation of the FasB coding sequence causes no defective phenotype, while fasA disruptants require oleic acid for growth. Correspondingly, oleate-dependent B. ammoniagenes cells obtained by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis were complemented by transformation with fasA DNA but not with fasB DNA. The data indicate that B. ammoniagenes contains two related though differently expressed type I FASs. FasA represents the bulk of cellular FAS protein and catalyzes the synthesis of both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, while the minor variant, FasB, cannot catalyze the synthesis of oleic acid. PMID:8759839

  8. Serum uric acid levels and hormone therapy type: a retrospective cohort study of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae H; Song, Gwan G; Lee, Young H; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Hyun, Myung H; Choi, Sung J

    2017-08-07

    Serum uric acid levels increase in postmenopausal women, but decrease when hormone therapy (HT) is administered. No study has, however, evaluated the effects of different types of HT on serum uric acid levels. We therefore examined whether estrogen therapy (ET), estrogen plus progestogen therapy (EPT), and tibolone use affected serum uric acid levels in this population. We performed a retrospective cohort study of postmenopausal women. From 2005 to 2015, postmenopausal women who had undergone blood uric acid-level testing at least twice were enrolled. Participants were grouped according to HT regimen: ET, EPT, or tibolone. The nonhormone therapy group did not receive HT. Differences in serum uric acid levels were examined in each group. Our analysis was adjusted to accommodate different follow-up intervals for individual participants. Multiple variables were adjusted using the Tukey-Kramer method. Age, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, estimated glomerular filtration rate, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and comedications were also adjusted. After adjusting for multiple variables, the serum uric acid level increased to 0.87 ± 0.27 mg/dL (least squares mean ± standard error) in the nonhormone therapy group, and serum uric levels in the EPT group were found to be significantly lower (-0.38 ± 0.29 mg/dL, P < 0.001). The serum uric acid levels in the ET and tibolone groups did not, however, differ significantly from the nonhormone therapy group level. We attribute our findings to the effects of progestogen, rather than estrogen.

  9. Uric acid, renal function and risk of hypoglycaemia in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yanfeng; Ji, Linong; Mu, Yiming; Hong, Tianpei; Ji, Qiuhe; Guo, Lixin; Huang, Qin; Yang, Xilin

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to explore independent associations between serum uric acid and hypoglycaemia, and whether mildly increased serum uric acid exacerbated the association between mild decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and hypoglycaemia. A cross-sectional survey of 6713 inpatients with type 2 diabetes and eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and admitted to 81 tertiary care hospitals in China was conducted. Self-reported asymptotic hypoglycaemia with plasma glucose ≤3.9 mmol/L, hypoglycaemia episodes with symptoms in 1 month or hypoglycaemia that needed assistance from other people in 3 months before hospitalization was used to define hypoglycaemia. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of serum uric acid for hypoglycaemia. Three measures, that is, relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), attributable proportion due to interaction and synergy index (S) were used to estimate the effect of mildly decreased eGFR on the association of serum uric acid with hypoglycaemia. Serum uric acid was associated with hypoglycaemia in an ordinal manner (P for trend <0.01) with an odds ratio of top quartile versus the lowest quartile up to 3.03 (95% confidence interval: 2.13-4.32). The odds ratio of serum uric acid levels ≥ versus <283 µmol/L (i.e. the median) was 1.98 (95% confidence interval:1.58-2.48). Serum uric acid levels ≥ versus <283 µmol/L greatly enhanced the association between mild decline in eGFR (eGFR < 90 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ) and hypoglycaemia from 0.94 (0.36-2.43) to 3.90 (2.55-5.95), with a significant additive interaction (P < 0.05 for RERI, AP and S). Mildly increased serum uric acid was associated with increased risk of hypoglycaemia and enhanced the association between mildly decreased eGFR and hypoglycaemia in type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Using fourier spectrum analysis and pseudo amino acid composition for prediction of membrane protein types.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Yang, Jie; Wang, Meng; Xue, Li; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2005-08-01

    Membrane proteins are generally classified into the following five types: (1) type I membrane protein, (2) type II membrane protein, (3) multipass transmembrane proteins, (4) lipid chain-anchored membrane proteins, and (5) GPI-anchored membrane proteins. Given the sequence of an uncharacterized membrane protein, how can we identify which one of the above five types it belongs to? This is important because the biological function of a membrane protein is closely correlated with its type. Particularly, with the explosion of protein sequences entering into databanks, it is in high demand to develop an automated method to address this problem. To realize this, the key is to catch the statistical characteristics for each of the five types. However, it is not easy because they are buried in a pile of long and complicated sequences. In this paper, based on the concept of the pseudo amino acid composition (Chou, K. C. (2001). PROTEINS: Structure, Function, and Genetics 43: 246-255), the technique of Fourier spectrum analysis is introduced. By doing so, the sample of a protein is represented by a set of discrete components that can incorporate a considerable amount of the sequence order effects as well as its amino acid composition information. On the basis of such a statistical frame, the support vector machine (SVM) is introduced to perform predictions. High success rates were yielded by the self-consistency test, jackknife test, and independent dataset test, suggesting that the current approach holds a promising potential to become a high throughput tool for membrane protein type prediction as well as other related areas.

  11. The "Gln-Type" Thiol Dioxygenase from Azotobacter vinelandii is a 3-Mercaptopropionic Acid Dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Brad S; Subedi, Bishnu P; Sardar, Sinjinee; Crowell, Joshua K

    2015-12-29

    Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) is a non-heme iron enzyme that catalyzes the O2-dependent oxidation of l-cysteine to produce cysteinesulfinic acid. Bacterial CDOs have been subdivided as either "Arg-type" or "Gln-type" on the basis of the identity of conserved active site residues. To date, "Gln-type" enzymes remain largely uncharacterized. It was recently noted that the "Gln-type" enzymes are more homologous with another thiol dioxygenase [3-mercaptopropionate dioxygenase (MDO)] identified in Variovorax paradoxus, suggesting that enzymes of the "Gln-type" subclass are in fact MDOs. In this work, a putative "Gln-type" thiol dioxygenase from Azotobacter vinelandii (Av) was purified to homogeneity and characterized. Steady-state assays were performed using three substrates [3-mercaptopropionic acid (3mpa), l-cysteine (cys), and cysteamine (ca)]. Despite comparable maximal velocities, the "Gln-type" Av enzyme exhibited a specificity for 3mpa (kcat/KM = 72000 M(-1) s(-1)) nearly 2 orders of magnitude greater than those for cys (110 M(-1) s(-1)) and ca (11 M(-1) s(-1)). Supporting X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies were performed using nitric oxide (NO) as a surrogate for O2 binding to confirm obligate-ordered addition of substrate prior to NO. Stoichimetric addition of NO to solutions of 3mpa-bound enzyme quantitatively yields an iron-nitrosyl species (Av ES-NO) with EPR features consistent with a mononuclear (S = (3)/2) {FeNO}(7) site. Conversely, two distinct substrate-bound conformations were observed in Av ES-NO samples prepared with cys and ca, suggesting heterogeneous binding within the enzymatic active site. Analytical EPR simulations are provided to establish the relative binding affinity for each substrate (3map > cys > ca). Both kinetic and spectroscopic results presented here are consistent with 3mpa being the preferred substrate for this enzyme.

  12. Development of the Oleic Acid/Linoleic Acid Ratio in High-Oleic Valencia Market Type Peanuts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The major fatty acids in peanuts are oleic acid (O), a monounsaturated omega-9, and linoleic acid (L), a polyunsaturated omega-6. Peanuts containing these two fatty acids in a ratio (O/L) above 9 are known as high oleic (HO). Normal oleic (NO) peanuts are those with an O/L ratio less than 9. HO pean...

  13. Influence of phenolic acids on indole acetic acid production and on the type III secretion system gene transcription in food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05.

    PubMed

    Myszka, Kamila; Schmidt, Marcin T; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka K; Leja, Katarzyna; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of these investigations was to evaluate the reduction capability of phenolic acids (ferulic, chlorogenic, gallic, and p-coumaric acids) on indole acetic acid synthesis by food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05. Specific genetic primer for the type III secretion system (TTSS) in P. fluorescens KM05 was designed and the influence of phenolic acids on its expression was investigated. In the work the ferulic and chlorogenic acids at the concentration of 0.02 and 0.04 μg/ml affected on bacterial growth pattern and the signal molecules production. The phenolic acids, that were appreciable effective against P. fluorescens KM05 indole acetic acid production, significantly suppressed TTSS gene.

  14. Resistance Training in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Improves Uric Acid levels

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Moisés S.S.R.; Saavedra, Francisco J.F.; Neto, Gabriel R.; Novaes, Giovanni S.; Souza, Antonio C. R.; Salerno, Verônica P.; Novaes, Jefferson S.

    2014-01-01

    Resistance training (RT) can provide several benefits for individuals with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance training on the strength levels and uric acid (UA) concentration in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. The study included 68 patients (57.7±9.0 years) that participated in an organized program of RT for 12 weeks. The volunteers were divided into two groups: an experimental group (EG; n=34) that performed the resistance training program consisting of seven exercises executed in an alternating order based on segments; and a control group (CG; n=34) that maintained their normal daily life activities. Muscle strength and uric acid were measured both pre- and post-experiment. The results showed a significant increase in strength of the subjects in the EG for all exercises included in the study (p<0.001). Comparing the strength levels of the post-test, intergroup differences were found in supine sitting (p<0.001), leg extension (p<0.001), shoulder press (p<0.001), leg curl (p=0.001), seated row (p<0.001), leg press (p=0.001) and high pulley (p<0.001). The measured uric acid was significantly increased in both experimental and control groups (p<0.001 and p=0.001, respectively). The intergroup comparison showed a significant increase for the EG (p=0.024). We conclude that the training program was effective for strength gains despite an increase in uric acid in Type 2 diabetics. PMID:25713640

  15. Comparative Study of the Use of Trichloroacetic Acid and Phenolic Acid in the Treatment of Atrophic-Type Acne Scars.

    PubMed

    Dalpizzol, Mariana; Weber, Magda B; Mattiazzi, Anna Paula F; Manzoni, Ana Paula D

    2016-03-01

    Many therapies involving varying degrees of complexity have been used to treat acne scars, but none is considered the gold standard treatment. A comparative evaluation of 88% phenol and 90% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) applied using the chemical reconstruction of skin scars (CROSS) technique. A nonrandomized, single-blinded self-controlled clinical trial was conducted among patients with ice pick-type and boxcar-type atrophic acne scars. Using 88% phenol on the left hemiface and 90% TCA on the right hemiface was adopted as the standard practice of the CROSS technique. The dermatological quality of life index (DLQI) questionnaire, acne scar grading scale Échelle d´Evaluation Clinique des Cicatrices d'Acne (ECCA), and evaluation of improvement were performed pretreatment and post-treatment. Regarding ECCA, significant differences were found in pretreatment and post-treatment (p < .001). Regarding tolerance to pain, it was found that the discomfort felt with 90% TCA was significantly less than that felt with 88% phenol (p = .020). Regarding the quality of life measured with the DLQI, the results showed that the mean score in post-treatment assessment was significantly lower than that in the pretreatment assessment (p < .05). Hypochromia and enlargement scar were only seen after the use of 90% TCA. This study confirmed the efficacy of both TCA and phenol for treating such scars, with less severe complications from the use of phenol.

  16. Fatty acid status in infancy is associated with the risk of type 1 diabetes-associated autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Niinistö, Sari; Takkinen, Hanna-Mari; Erlund, Iris; Ahonen, Suvi; Toppari, Jorma; Ilonen, Jorma; Veijola, Riitta; Knip, Mikael; Vaarala, Outi; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the association of early serum fatty acid composition with the risk of type 1 diabetes-associated autoimmunity. Our hypothesis was that fatty acid status during infancy is related to type 1 diabetes-associated autoimmunity and that long-chain n-3 fatty acids, in particular, are associated with decreased risk. We performed a nested case-control analysis within the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study birth cohort, carrying HLA-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (n = 7782). Serum total fatty acid composition was analysed by gas chromatography in 240 infants with islet autoimmunity and 480 control infants at the age of 3 and 6 months. Islet autoimmunity was defined as repeated positivity for islet cell autoantibodies in combination with at least one of three selected autoantibodies. In addition, a subset of 43 infants with primary insulin autoimmunity (i.e. those with insulin autoantibodies as the first autoantibody with no concomitant other autoantibodies) and a control group (n = 86) were analysed. A third endpoint was primary GAD autoimmunity defined as GAD autoantibody appearing as the first antibody without other concomitant autoantibodies (22 infants with GAD autoimmunity; 42 infants in control group). Conditional logistic regression was applied, considering multiple comparisons by false discovery rate <0.05. Serum fatty acid composition differed between breastfed and non-breastfed infants, reflecting differences in the fatty acid composition of the milk. Fatty acids were associated with islet autoimmunity (higher serum pentadecanoic, palmitic, palmitoleic and docosahexaenoic acids decreased risk; higher arachidonic:docosahexaenoic and n-6:n-3 acid ratios increased risk). Furthermore, fatty acids were associated with primary insulin autoimmunity, these associations being stronger (higher palmitoleic acid, cis-vaccenic, arachidonic, docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids decreased risk; higher α-linoleic acid

  17. Brain pathology in Niemann Pick disease type A: Insights from the acid sphingomyelinase knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ledesma, Maria Dolores; Prinetti, Alessandro; Sonnino, Sandro; Schuchman, Edward H.

    2010-01-01

    Severe neurological involvement characterizes Niemann Pick disease (NPD) type A, an inherited disorder caused by loss of function mutations in the gene encoding acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). Mice lacking ASM (ASMko), which mimic NPD type A, have provided important insights into the aberrant brain phenotypes induced by ASM deficiency. For example, lipid alterations, including the accumulation of sphingolipids, affect the membranes of different subcellular compartments of neurons and glial cells, leading to anomalies in signalling pathways, neuronal polarization, calcium homeostasis, synaptic plasticity, myelin production or immune response. These findings contribute to our understanding of the overall role of sphingolipids and their metabolic enzymes in brain physiology, and pave the way to design and test new therapeutic strategies for type A NPD and other neurodegenerative disorders. Some of these have already been tested in ASMko mice with promising results. PMID:21214563

  18. Brain pathology in Niemann Pick disease type A: insights from the acid sphingomyelinase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Maria Dolores; Prinetti, Alessandro; Sonnino, Sandro; Schuchman, Edward H

    2011-03-01

    Severe neurological involvement characterizes Niemann Pick disease (NPD) type A, an inherited disorder caused by loss of function mutations in the gene encoding acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). Mice lacking ASM, which mimic NPD type A, have provided important insights into the aberrant brain phenotypes induced by ASM deficiency. For example, lipid alterations, including the accumulation of sphingolipids, affect the membranes of different subcellular compartments of neurons and glial cells, leading to anomalies in signalling pathways, neuronal polarization, calcium homeostasis, synaptic plasticity, myelin production or immune response. These findings contribute to our understanding of the overall role of sphingolipids and their metabolic enzymes in brain physiology, and pave the way to design and test new therapeutic strategies for type A NPD and other neurodegenerative disorders. Some of these have already been tested in mice lacking ASM with promising results. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  19. Relationship of plasma creatinine and lactic acid in type 2 diabetic patients without renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Lu, Jun-xi; Tang, Jun-ling; Li, Li; Lu, Hui-juan; Hou, Xu-hong; Jia, Wei-ping; Xiang, Kun-san

    2009-11-05

    As one of most widely-used biguanides, metformin can induce the lactic acidosis in patients with renal failure though its incidence is very low. However, lactic acidemia induced by metformin was reported in patients without renal dysfunction. It is unclear that whether lactatemia exists in diabetic patients with normal renal function in Chinese or not and its influencing factors. This study aimed to clarify the influencing factors of lactic acid, and identify a practiced clinical marker to predict the hyperlactacidemia in diabetics with normal renal function. The clinical data and venous blood samples of 1024 type 2 diabetic patients treated with (n = 426) or without metformin (n = 599) were collected. The lactic acid was assayed by enzyme-electrode method. The biochemical indexes included creatinine (Cr) and hepatase were measured with enzymatic procedures. The lactic acid concentrations of different Cr subgroups were compared, and the correlation and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were used. The mean lactic acid level and the proportion of hyperlactatemia of metformin group were significantly higher than that of non-metformin group (P < 0.01), but no lactic acidosis was found in all patients. The correlation and multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that the correlative factors of lactic acid in turn were Cr, metformin, alanine transferase (ALT), body mass index (BMI), Urine albumin (Ualb), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in total patients; and Cr, ALT, BMI and BUN in non-metformin treated patients; Cr and ALT in metformin-group. The lactate concentration increased with the increment of Cr levels, and reached its peak at Cr 111-130 micromol/L, and the optimal cutoff of Cr in predicting hyperlactacidemia was 96.5 micromol/L. Metformin can increase the incidence of lactatemia in type 2 diabetic patients without renal dysfunction. Cr, ALT, and BMI are independent associated factors of blood lactic acid levels. There is low proportion of

  20. Prediction of biological protein-protein interactions using atom-type and amino acid properties.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Md Mominul; Maleki, Mina; Rueda, Luis; Raza, Mohammad; Banerjee, Sridip

    2011-10-01

    Identification and analysis of types of biological protein-protein interactions and their interfaces to predict obligate and non-obligate complexes is a problem that has drawn the attention of the research community in the past few years. In this paper, we propose a prediction approach to predict these two types of complexes. We use desolvation energies - amino acid and atom type - of the residues present in the interface. The prediction is performed via two state-of-the-art classification techniques, namely linear dimensionality reduction (LDR) and support vector machines (SVM). The results on a newly compiled data set, namely BPPI, which is a joint and modified version of two well-known data sets consisting of 213 obligate and 303 non-obligate complexes, show that the best prediction is achieved with SVM (76.94% accuracy) when using desolvation energies of atom-type features. Also, the proposed approach outperforms the previous solvent accessible area-based approaches using SVM (75% accuracy) and LDR (73.06% accuracy). Moreover, a visual analysis of desolvation energies in obligate and non-obligate complexes shows that a few atom-type pairs are good descriptors for these types of complexes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Cell type-specific response to high intracellular loading of polyacrylic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lojk, Jasna; Bregar, Vladimir B; Rajh, Maruša; Miš, Katarina; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Pirkmajer, Sergej; Veranič, Peter; Pavlin, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are a special type of NP with a ferromagnetic, electron-dense core that enables several applications such as cell tracking, hyperthermia, and magnetic separation, as well as multimodality. So far, superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs) are the only clinically approved type of metal oxide NPs, but cobalt ferrite NPs have properties suitable for biomedical applications as well. In this study, we analyzed the cellular responses to magnetic cobalt ferrite NPs coated with polyacrylic acid (PAA) in three cell types: Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO), mouse melanoma (B16) cell line, and primary human myoblasts (MYO). We compared the internalization pathway, intracellular trafficking, and intracellular fate of our NPs using fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as quantified NP uptake and analyzed uptake dynamics. We determined cell viability after 24 or 96 hours’ exposure to increasing concentrations of NPs, and quantified the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon 24 and 48 hours’ exposure. Our NPs have been shown to readily enter and accumulate in cells in high quantities using the same two endocytic pathways; mostly by macropinocytosis and partially by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The cell types differed in their uptake rate, the dynamics of intracellular trafficking, and the uptake capacity, as well as in their response to higher concentrations of internalized NPs. The observed differences in cell responses stress the importance of evaluation of NP–cell interactions on several different cell types for better prediction of possible toxic effects on different cell and tissue types in vivo. PMID:25733835

  2. Cell type-specific response to high intracellular loading of polyacrylic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lojk, Jasna; Bregar, Vladimir B; Rajh, Maruša; Miš, Katarina; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Pirkmajer, Sergej; Veranič, Peter; Pavlin, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are a special type of NP with a ferromagnetic, electron-dense core that enables several applications such as cell tracking, hyperthermia, and magnetic separation, as well as multimodality. So far, superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs) are the only clinically approved type of metal oxide NPs, but cobalt ferrite NPs have properties suitable for biomedical applications as well. In this study, we analyzed the cellular responses to magnetic cobalt ferrite NPs coated with polyacrylic acid (PAA) in three cell types: Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO), mouse melanoma (B16) cell line, and primary human myoblasts (MYO). We compared the internalization pathway, intracellular trafficking, and intracellular fate of our NPs using fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as quantified NP uptake and analyzed uptake dynamics. We determined cell viability after 24 or 96 hours' exposure to increasing concentrations of NPs, and quantified the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon 24 and 48 hours' exposure. Our NPs have been shown to readily enter and accumulate in cells in high quantities using the same two endocytic pathways; mostly by macropinocytosis and partially by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The cell types differed in their uptake rate, the dynamics of intracellular trafficking, and the uptake capacity, as well as in their response to higher concentrations of internalized NPs. The observed differences in cell responses stress the importance of evaluation of NP-cell interactions on several different cell types for better prediction of possible toxic effects on different cell and tissue types in vivo.

  3. Crystal structures and biochemical studies of human lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase type 6.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Dong, Yu; Lü, Xingru; Wang, Lu; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Xuejun C; Rao, Zihe

    2013-07-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an important bioactive phospholipid involved in cell signaling through Gprotein-coupled receptors pathways. It is also involved in balancing the lipid composition inside the cell, and modulates the function of lipid rafts as an intermediate in phospholipid metabolism. Because of its involvement in these important processes, LPA degradation needs to be regulated as precisely as its production. Lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase type 6 (ACP6) is an LPA-specific acid phosphatase that hydrolyzes LPA to monoacylglycerol (MAG) and phosphate. Here, we report three crystal structures of human ACP6 in complex with malonate, L-(+)-tartrate and tris, respectively. Our analyses revealed that ACP6 possesses a highly conserved Rossmann-foldlike body domain as well as a less conserved cap domain. The vast hydrophobic substrate-binding pocket, which is located between those two domains, is suitable for accommodating LPA, and its shape is different from that of other histidine acid phosphatases, a fact that is consistent with the observed difference in substrate preferences. Our analysis of the binding of three molecules in the active site reveals the involvement of six conserved and crucial residues in binding of the LPA phosphate group and its catalysis. The structure also indicates a water-supplying channel for substrate hydrolysis. Our structural data are consistent with the fact that the enzyme is active as a monomer. In combination with additional mutagenesis and enzyme activity studies, our structural data provide important insights into substrate recognition and the mechanism for catalytic activity of ACP6.

  4. Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes by Free Fatty Acid Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Watterson, Kenneth R.; Hudson, Brian D.; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Dietary free fatty acids (FFAs), such as ω-3 fatty acids, regulate metabolic and anti-inflammatory processes, with many of these effects attributed to FFAs interacting with a family of G protein-coupled receptors. Selective synthetic ligands for free fatty acid receptors (FFA1-4) have consequently been developed as potential treatments for type 2 diabetes (T2D). In particular, clinical studies show that Fasiglifam, an agonist of the long-chain FFA receptor, FFA1, improved glycemic control and reduced HbA1c levels in T2D patients, with a reduced risk of hypoglycemia. However, this ligand was removed from clinical trials due to potential liver toxicity and determining if this is a target or a ligand-specific feature is now of major importance. Pre-clinical studies also show that FFA4 agonism increases insulin sensitivity, induces weight loss, and reduces inflammation and the metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are linked with FFA2 and FFA3 activation. In this review, we therefore show that FFA receptor agonism is a potential clinical target for T2D treatment and discuss ongoing drug development programs within industry and academia aimed at improving the safety and effectiveness of these potential treatments. PMID:25221541

  5. ESR study of the molecular orientation and dynamics of stable organic radicals included in the 1-D organic nanochannels of 2,4,6-tris-4-(chlorophenoxy)-1,3,5-triazine.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Asaji, Tetsuo; Tani, Atsushi

    2012-03-01

    The molecular orientation and dynamics of the organic stable radicals such as 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyl-1-oxyl (TEMPO) or 4-hydroxy-TEMPO (TEMPOL) included in the one-dimensional (1-D) organic nanochannels of 2,4,6-tris-4-(chlorophenoxy)-1,3,5-triazine (CLPOT) were investigated by examining the inclusion compounds (ICs) diluted by the co-inclusion of non-radicals using ESR spectroscopy. Spectral simulation showed that the axial rotation of TEMPO or TEMPOL molecules is excited in the nanochannels with activation energies of 8 and 7 kJ mol(-1) , respectively. The rotation axis was estimated to be tilted towards the principal x direction in the axis system of the g-tensor of the respective radicals. This is quite different from that for similar ICs in the nanochannels of tris(o-phenylenedioxy)cyclotriphosphazene (TPP), in which the radicals are axially rotating around the principal axis y of the g-tensor. The difference is attributed to the larger nanospace of the CLPOT nanochannels. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Acid maltase deficiency (type II glycogenosis). Morphological and biochemical study of a childhood phenotype.

    PubMed

    Martin, J J; De Barsy, T; De Schrijver; Leroy, J G; Palladini, G

    1976-11-01

    Pathological and biochemical data are reported on a 4(4)/12-year-old male patient with a severe myopathic disorder, hepatomegaly, recurrent pulmonary infections ending fatally. Combined morphological and enzymatic studies on muscle biopsy led to the diagnosis of acid maltase deficiency (Type II glycogenosis). On post mortem examination, lysosomal glycogen storage is found in skeletal muscles and liver, while heart and central nervous sytem are spared. Both hydrolytic and transferase activities of acid maltase are absent in cultured fibroblasts, heart, liver and postmortem skeletal muscles. That in the biopsied skeletal muscle only, the transferase activity alone is deficient while the hydrolytic function is maintained at low normal levels correlates well with the abnormal structure of the glycogen stored in that muscle. However, these findings on biopsied muscle cannot be reconciled with the absence of both functions and the presence of normal glycogen in other biopsied tissues or in postmortem specimens from the same patient.

  7. Predicting lipase types by improved Chou's pseudo-amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-Ya; Li, Hong-Chun; Gao, Jia-Qiang; Fang, Bai-Shan

    2008-01-01

    By proposing a improved Chou's pseudo amino acid composition approach to extract the features of the sequences, a powerful predictor based on k-nearest neighbor was introduced to identify the types of lipases according to their sequences. To avoid redundancy and bias, demonstrations were performed on a dataset where none of the proteins has > or =25% sequence identity to any other. The overall success rate thus obtained by the 10-fold cross-validation test was over 90%, indicating that the improved Chou's pseudo amino acid composition might be a useful tool for extracting the features of protein sequences, or at lease can play a complementary role to many of the other existing approaches.

  8. The missing piece of the type II fatty acid synthase system from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Emmanuelle; Covarrubias, Adrian Suarez; O'Hare, Helen M.; Carroll, Paul; Eynard, Nathalie; Jones, T. Alwyn; Parish, Tanya; Daffé, Mamadou; Bäckbro, Kristina; Quémard, Annaïk

    2007-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis fatty acid synthase type II (FAS-II) system has the unique property of producing unusually long-chain fatty acids involved in the biosynthesis of mycolic acids, key molecules of the tubercle bacillus. The enzyme(s) responsible for dehydration of (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP during the elongation cycles of the mycobacterial FAS-II remained unknown. This step is classically catalyzed by FabZ- and FabA-type enzymes in bacteria, but no such proteins are present in mycobacteria. Bioinformatic analyses and an essentiality study allowed the identification of a candidate protein cluster, Rv0635-Rv0636-Rv0637. Its expression in recombinant Escherichia coli strains leads to the formation of two heterodimers, Rv0635-Rv0636 (HadAB) and Rv0636-Rv0637 (HadBC), which also occurs in Mycobacterium smegmatis, as shown by split-Trp assays. Both heterodimers exhibit the enzymatic properties expected for mycobacterial FAS-II dehydratases: a marked specificity for both long-chain (≥C12) and ACP-linked substrates. Furthermore, they function as 3-hydroxyacyl dehydratases when coupled with MabA and InhA enzymes from the M. tuberculosis FAS-II system. HadAB and HadBC are the long-sought (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratases. The correlation between the substrate specificities of these enzymes, the organization of the orthologous gene cluster in different Corynebacterineae, and the structure of their mycolic acids suggests distinct roles for both heterodimers during the elongation process. This work describes bacterial monofunctional (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratases belonging to the hydratase 2 family. Their original structure and the fact that they are essential for M. tuberculosis survival make these enzymes very good candidates for the development of antimycobacterial drugs. PMID:17804795

  9. Type 2 diabetes associated changes in the plasma non-esterified fatty acids, oxylipins and endocannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Grapov, Dmitry; Adams, Sean H; Pedersen, Theresa L; Garvey, W Timothy; Newman, John W

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes has profound effects on metabolism that can be detected in plasma. While increases in circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are well-described in diabetes, effects on signaling lipids have received little attention. Oxylipins and endocannabinoids are classes of bioactive fatty acid metabolites with many structural members that influence insulin signaling, adipose function and inflammation through autocrine, paracrine and endocrine mechanisms. To link diabetes-associated changes in plasma NEFA and signaling lipids, we quantitatively targeted >150 plasma lipidome components in age- and body mass index-matched, overweight to obese, non-diabetic (n = 12) and type 2 diabetic (n = 43) African-American women. Diabetes related NEFA patterns indicated ∼60% increase in steroyl-CoA desaturase activity and ∼40% decrease in very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid chain shortening, patterns previously associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Further, epoxides and ketones of eighteen carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids were elevated >80% in diabetes and strongly correlated with changes in NEFA, consistent with their liberation during adipose lipolysis. Endocannabinoid behavior differed by class with diabetes increasing an array of N-acylethanolamides which were positively correlated with pro-inflammatory 5-lipooxygenase-derived metabolites, while monoacylglycerols were negatively correlated with body mass. These results clearly show that diabetes not only results in an increase in plasma NEFA, but shifts the plasma lipidomic profiles in ways that reflect the biochemical and physiological changes of this pathological state which are independent of obesity associated changes.

  10. Current Metabolic Status Affects Urinary Liver-Type Fatty-Acid Binding Protein in Normoalbuminuric Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Hitomi; Nakashima, Mina; Takaki, Akifusa; Yukawa, Chiduko; Matsumoto, Suzuko; Omoto, Takashi; Shinozaki, Masahiro; Nishio, Shinya; Abe, Mariko; Antoku, Shinichi; Mifune, Mizuo; Togane, Michiko

    2017-01-01

    Background We aimed to study the association between urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), a biomarker of tubulointerstitial injury, and the clinical characteristics of normoalbuminuric and albuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes in order to detect the factors affecting urinary L-FABP. Methods Urinary L-FABP levels were measured in 788 patients with type 2 diabetes and again in 666 patients at 6 months after the initial measurement. The association between the urinary L-FABP level and the clinical parameters was investigated in a retrospective cross-sectional study and a subsequent observation. Results The HbA1c (odds ratio (OR): 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11 - 1.79; P < 0.01), systolic blood pressure (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01 - 1.05; P < 0.01) levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96 - 1.00; P = 0.01) were significantly associated with the high levels of urinary L-FABP (> 8.4 μg/gCr) in normoalbuminuric patients. However, a logistic regression analysis revealed that use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors (OR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.16 - 4.89; P = 0.02), urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.01; P < 0.01) and serum HDL-cholesterol concentration (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.11 - 0.89; P = 0.03) were significantly associated in albuminuric patients. In the follow-up observation, the change in urinary L-FABP was found to be significantly (P < 0.01) influenced by the change in the HbA1c level in both the normoalbuminuric and albuminuric patients. Conclusions High urinary L-FABP is associated with part of the current metabolic abnormalities, including high levels of HbA1c and systolic blood pressure among normoalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:28270898

  11. Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin suppress Th1-type immune response in vitro.

    PubMed

    Maier, Elisabeth; Kurz, Katharina; Jenny, Marcel; Schennach, Harald; Ueberall, Florian; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2010-07-01

    Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin are demonstrated to suppress in a dose-dependent manner Th1-type immune response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro. Results show an anti-inflammatory property of compounds which however could shift the Th1-Th2-type immune balance towards Th2-type immunity.

  12. Sulfonic-hydroxyl-type heterogemini surfactants synthesized from unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Sangawa, Yuta; Takamatsu, Yuichiro; Kawai, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Mutsuyoshi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    Novel anionic heterogemini surfactants have been synthesized from two kinds of unsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid and petroselinic acid). The hydrocarbon chain is covalently bound to the terminal carbonyl group of the unsaturated fatty acids and hydrophilic headgroups (i.e., sulfonic and hydroxyl groups) are introduced to the cis double bond. The aqueous solution properties of the surfactants synthesized here have been studied on the basis of static/dynamic surface tension, conductivity, fluorescence, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) data. We have mainly focused on the following two factors that may significantly impact the aqueous solution properties of the surfactants: one is hydrocarbon chain length and the other is molecular symmetry. The first key result from our current study is that increased hydrocarbon chain length results in a closely packed monolayer film at the air/aqueous solution interface, even at low concentrations as a result of the increased hydrophobicity of the longer chain analogue. We have previously observed a similar trend when aqueous solution properties of oleic acid-based phosphate-type heterogemini surfactants were studied. The second key finding of our current research is that increased molecular symmetry results in greater surface activities (which include lower aqueous surface tension and greater molecular packing at the air/aqueous solution interface). In addition, it seems likely that the size of molecular assemblies spontaneously formed in bulk solution decreases when the molecular symmetry increases. These results suggest that the symmetric analogue provides greater hydrophobic environments, although the exact reason for this is not yet known.

  13. Resistance to the anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 compound L-chicoric acid results from a single mutation at amino acid 140 of integrase.

    PubMed

    King, P J; Robinson, W E

    1998-10-01

    L-Chicoric acid is an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase in vitro and of HIV-1 replication in tissue culture. Following 3 months of selection in the presence of increasing concentrations of L-chicoric acid, HIV-1 was completely resistant to the compound. Introduction of the mutant integrase containing a single glycine-to-serine amino acid change at position 140 into the native, L-chicoric acid-sensitive virus demonstrated that this change was sufficient to confer resistance to L-chicoric acid. These results confirm through natural selection previous biochemical studies showing that L-chicoric acid inhibits integrase and that the drug is likely to interact at residues near the catalytic triad in the integrase active site.

  14. Arachidonic acid modulation of alpha1H, a cloned human T-type calcium channel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Cribbs, L L; Satin, J

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) and the products of its metabolism are central mediators of changes in cellular excitability. We show that the recently cloned and expressed T-type or low-voltage-activated Ca channel, alpha1H, is modulated by external AA. AA (10 microM) causes a slow, time-dependent attenuation of alpha1H current. At a holding potential of -80 mV, 10 microM AA reduces peak inward alpha1H current by 15% in 15 min and 70% in 30 min and shifts the steady-state inactivation curve -25 mV. AA inhibition was not affected by applying the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin or the lipoxygenase inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid. The epoxygenase inhibitor octadecynoic acid partially antagonized AA attenuation of alpha1H. The epoxygenase metabolite epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (8,9-EET) mimicked the inhibitory effect of AA on alpha1H peak current. A protein kinase C (PKC)-specific inhibitor (peptide fragment 19-36) only partially antagonized the AA-induced reduction of peak alpha1H current and the shift of the steady-state inactivation curve but had no effect on 8,9-EET-induced attenuation of current. In contrast, PKA has no role in the modulation of alpha1H. These results suggest that AA attenuation and shift of alpha1H may be mediated directly by AA. The heterologous expression of T-type Ca channels allows us to study for the first time properties of this important class of ion channel in isolation. There is a significant overlap of the steady-state activation and inactivation curves, which implies a substantial window current. The selective shift of the steady-state inactivation curve by AA reduces peak Ca current and eliminates the window current. We conclude that AA may partly mediate physiological effects such as vasodilatation via the attenuation of T-type Ca channel current and the elimination of a T-type channel steady window current.

  15. Electrical conductivity of α-LiIO 3 acid type crystals at 1 kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galez, C.; Rosso, C.; Teisseyre, Y.; Crettez, J. M.; Bourson, P.; Medeiros-Ribeiro, G.; Righi, A.; Moreira, R. L.

    1995-03-01

    The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity of α-LiIO 3 acid type crystals is studied. By applying a very low amplitude electric field at 1 kHz and performing a continuous sampling of measurements, differences, reproducible for all the investigated samples, appeared between the first and subsequent heatings The anomalies occurring during the first heating are attributed mainly to inclusions of mother liquor, HIO 3 and Li 1-xH xIO 3. The 'intrinsic' conductivity is measured after a first annealing at about 470 K; the activation energies are then calculated.

  16. Hydrodeoxygenation of fatty acid esters catalyzed by Ni on nano-sized MFI type zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, Moritz W.; Rodriguez-Niño, Daniella; Gutiérrez, Oliver Y.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of support morphology and composition on the intrinsic activity of Ni supported on MFI-type zeolite was explored in the hydrodeoxygenation of methyl stearate, tristearate, and algae oil (mixture of triglycerides). The nano-sized structure of the support (self-pillared nanosheets) is beneficial for the activity of the catalysts. Higher Ni dispersion and concomitant higher reaction rates were obtained on nano-structured supports than on zeolite with conventional morphology. Rates normalized to accessible Ni atoms (TOF), however, varied little with support morphology. Acidity of the support increases the rate of Ni-catalyzed C-O hydrogenolysis per surface metal site.

  17. Approach to Merosesquiterpenes via Lewis Acid Catalyzed Nazarov-Type Cyclization: Total Synthesis of Akaol A.

    PubMed

    Kakde, Badrinath N; Kumar, Nivesh; Mondal, Pradip Kumar; Bisai, Alakesh

    2016-04-15

    A Lewis acid catalyzed Nazarov-type cyclization of arylvinylcarbinol has been developed for the asymmetric synthesis of carbotetracyclic core of merosesquiterpenes. The reaction works only in the presence of 2 mol % of Sn(OTf)2 and Bi(OTf)3 in dichloroethane under elevated temperature. The methodology offers the synthesis of a variety of enantioenriched arylvinylcarbinols from commercially available (3aR)-sclareolide 9 in six steps with an eventual concise total synthesis of marine sesquiterpene quinol, akaol A (1a).

  18. Effect of heat stress on amino acid digestibility and transporters in meat-type chickens.

    PubMed

    Habashy, W S; Milfort, M C; Adomako, K; Attia, Y A; Rekaya, R; Aggrey, S E

    2017-03-02

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of heat stress (HS) on performance, digestibility, and molecular transporters of amino acids in broilers. Cobb 500 chicks were raised from hatch till 13 d in floor pens. At d 14, 48 birds were randomly and equally divided between a control group (25°C) and a HS treatment group (35°C). Birds in both treatment classes were individually caged and fed ad libitum on a diet containing 18.7% CP and 3,560 Kcal ME/Kg. Five birds per treatment at one and 12 d post treatment were euthanized and the Pectoralis major (P. major) and ileum were sampled for gene expression analysis. At d 33, ileal contents were collected and used for digestibility analysis. Broilers under HS had reduced growth and feed intake compared to controls. Although the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) was consistently higher for all amino acids in the HS group, it was not significant except for hydroxylysine. The amino acid consumption and retention were significantly lower in the HS group when compared to the control group. Meanwhile, the retention of amino acids per BWG was higher in the HS group when compared to the control group except for hydroxylysine and ornithine. The dynamics of amino acid transporters in the P. major and ileum was influenced by HS. In P. major and ileum tissues at d one, transporters SNAT1, SNAT2, SNAT7, TAT1, and b0,+AT, were down-regulated in the HS group. Meanwhile, LAT4 and B0AT were down-regulated only in the P. major in the treatment group. The amino acid transporters B0AT and SNAT7 at d 12 post HS were down-regulated in the P. major and ileum, but SNAT2 was down-regulated only in the ileum and TAT1 was down-regulated only in the P. major compared with the control group. These changes in amino acid transporters may explain the reduced growth in meat type chickens under heat stress.

  19. Strain typing of acetic acid bacteria responsible for vinegar production by the submerged elaboration method.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, Rocío; Torres, Carmen; Sanz, Susana; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda

    2010-12-01

    Strain typing of 103 acetic acid bacteria isolates from vinegars elaborated by the submerged method from ciders, wines and spirit ethanol, was carried on in this study. Two different molecular methods were utilised: pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of total DNA digests with a number of restriction enzymes, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) - PCR analysis. The comparative study of both methods showed that restriction fragment PFGE of SpeI digests of total DNA was a suitable method for strain typing and for determining which strains were present in vinegar fermentations. Results showed that strains of the species Gluconacetobacter europaeus were the most frequent leader strains of fermentations by the submerged method in the studied vinegars, and among them strain R1 was the predominant one. Results showed as well that mixed populations (at least two different strains) occurred in vinegars from cider and wine, whereas unique strains were found in spirit vinegars, which offered the most stressing conditions for bacterial growth.

  20. Ultraviolet-irradiated urocanic acid suppresses delayed-type hypersensitivity to herpes simplex virus in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, J.A.; Howie, S.E.; Norval, M.; Maingay, J.; Simpson, T.J.

    1986-11-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is known to induce a transient defect in epidermal antigen presentation which leads to the generation of antigen-specific suppression of the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. The putative receptor in skin for the primary event in UV-suppression is urocanic acid (UCA) which may then interact locally, or systemically, with antigen presenting cells or initiate a cascade of events resulting in suppression. We present the first direct evidence that UCA, when irradiated with a dose (96 mJ/cm2) of UVB radiation known to suppress the DTH response to herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1) in mice, can induce suppression following epidermal application or s.c. injection of the irradiated substance. This suppression is transferable with nylon wool-passed spleen cells.

  1. Urinary Excretion of Liver Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein Accurately Reflects the Degree of Tubulointerstitial Damage

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Takeshi; Kamijo-Ikemori, Atsuko; Sugaya, Takeshi; Hoshino, Seiko; Yasuda, Takashi; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), a biomarker of chronic kidney disease, in the kidney and the degree of tubulointerstitial damage, folic acid (FA)-induced nephropathy was studied in a mouse model system. As renal L-FABP is not expressed in wild-type mice, human L-FABP (hL-FABP) transgenic mice were used in this study. hL-FABP is expressed in the renal proximal tubules of the transgenic mice that were injected intraperitoneally with FA in NaHCO3 (the FA group) or only NaHCO3 (the control group) and oral saline solution daily during the experimental period. The FA group developed severe tubulointerstitial damage with the infiltration of macrophages and the deposition of type I collagen on days 3 and 7 and recovered to the control level on day 14. The gene and protein expression levels of hL-FABP in the kidney were significantly enhanced on days 3 and 7. Urinary hL-FABP in the FA group was elevated on days 3 and 7 and decreased to the control level on day 14. The protein expression levels of hL-FABP in both the kidney and urine significantly correlated with the degree of tubulointerstitial damage, the infiltration of macrophages, and the deposition of type I collagen. In conclusion, renal expression and urinary excretion of hL-FABP significantly reflected the severity of tubulointerstitial damage in FA-induced nephropathy. PMID:19435794

  2. Synthesis, biological activity, and bioavailability of moschamine, a safflomide-type phenylpropenoic acid amide found in Centaurea cyanus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Moschamine is a safflomide-type phenylpropenoic acid amide originally isolated from Centaurea cyanus. This paper describes the synthesis, detection of serotoninergic and COX inhibitory activities, and bioavailability of moschamine. Moschamine was chemically synthesized and identified using NMR spect...

  3. New oleanan-type triterpene and cincholic acid glycosides from Peruvian "Uña de Gato" (Uncaria tomentosa).

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Mariko; Hashimoto, Ken-Ichiro; Sandoval, Manuel; Aimi, Norio; Takayama, Hiromitsu

    2004-10-01

    A new oleanan-type triterpene and three new cincholic acid glycosides were isolated from Peruvian "Una de Gato" (Cat's claw, plant of origin: Uncaria tomentosa), a traditional herbal medicine in Peru. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis.

  4. ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ameliorate type 1 diabetes and autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Xinyun; Li, Fanghong; Liu, Shanshan; Jin, Yan; Zhang, Xin; Yang, Tao; Dai, Yifan; Li, Xiaoxi; Zhao, Allan Zijian

    2017-01-01

    Despite the benefit of insulin, blockade of autoimmune attack and regeneration of pancreatic islets are ultimate goals for the complete cure of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Long-term consumption of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is known to suppress inflammatory processes, making these fatty acids candidates for the prevention and amelioration of autoimmune diseases. Here, we explored the preventative and therapeutic effects of ω-3 PUFAs on T1D. In NOD mice, dietary intervention with ω-3 PUFAs sharply reduced the incidence of T1D, modulated the differentiation of Th cells and Tregs, and decreased the levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-6, and TNF-α. ω-3 PUFAs exerted similar effects on the differentiation of CD4+ T cells isolated from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The regulation of CD4+ T cell differentiation was mediated at least in part through ω-3 PUFA eicosanoid derivatives and by mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibition. Importantly, therapeutic intervention in NOD mice through nutritional supplementation or lentivirus-mediated expression of an ω-3 fatty acid desaturase, mfat-1, normalized blood glucose and insulin levels for at least 182 days, blocked the development of autoimmunity, prevented lymphocyte infiltration into regenerated islets, and sharply elevated the expression of the β cell markers pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1) and paired box 4 (Pax4). The findings suggest that ω-3 PUFAs could potentially serve as a therapeutic modality for T1D. PMID:28375156

  5. Humic substances of varying types increase survivorship of the freshwater shrimp Caridina sp. D to acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Holland, Aleicia; Duivenvoorden, Leo J; Kinnear, Susan H W

    2014-07-01

    Differences relating to the ability of various types of humic substances (HS) to influence toxicity of pollutants have been reported in the literature, but there still remains a gap in understanding whether various HS will have the same influence on the toxicity of acid mine drainage (AMD). This study investigated differences in the ability of Aldrich humic acid (AHA), Suwannee River humic acid and Suwannee River fulvic acid to decrease toxicity of AMD to the freshwater shrimp (Caridina sp. D). Toxicity tests were conducted over 96 h and used Mount Morgan open pit water as source of AMD and Dee River water as control/diluents. Concentrations of 0-4 % AMD at 0 mg/L HS, 10 mg/L AHA, 10 mg/L Suwannee River humic acid and 10 mg/L Suwannee River fulvic acid were used. Significantly higher survival of shrimp was recorded in the HS treatments compared with the treatment containing no HS. No significant differences were found among HS type. HS considerably increased LC50 values irrespective of type, from 1.29 (0 mg/L HS) to 2.12 % (AHA); 2.19 (Suwannee River humic acid) and 2.22 % (Suwannee River fulvic acid). These results support previous work that HS decrease the toxicity of AMD to freshwater organisms, but with the novel finding that this ability occurs irrespective of HS type. These results increase the stock of knowledge regarding HS and may contribute to a possible remediation option for AMD environments.

  6. Caffeic and chlorogenic acids inhibit key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (in vitro): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Agunloye, Odunayo M; Adefegha, Stephen A; Akinyemi, Ayodele J; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O

    2015-03-01

    Chlorogenic acid is a major phenolic compound that forms a substantial part of plant foods and is an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid. However, the effect of the structures of both chlorogenic and caffeic acids on their antioxidant and antidiabetic potentials have not been fully understood. Thus, this study sought to investigate and compare the interaction of caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid with α-amylase and α-glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes) activities in vitro. The inhibitory effect of the phenolic acids on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities was evaluated. Thereafter, their antioxidant activities as typified by their 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant properties were determined. The results revealed that both phenolic acids inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities in a dose-dependent manner (2-8 μg/mL). However, caffeic acid had a significantly (p<0.05) higher inhibitory effect on α-amylase [IC50 (concentration of sample causing 50% enzyme inhibition)=3.68 μg/mL] and α-glucosidase (IC50=4.98 μg/mL) activities than chlorogenic acid (α-amylase IC50=9.10 μg/mL and α-glucosidase IC50=9.24 μg/mL). Furthermore, both phenolic acids exhibited high antioxidant properties, with caffeic acid showing higher effects. The esterification of caffeic acid with quinic acid, producing chlorogenic acid, reduces their ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Thus, the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities by the phenolic acids could be part of the possible mechanism by which the phenolic acids exert their antidiabetic effects.

  7. Protein digestibility using corrected amino acid score method (PDCAAS) of four types of mushrooms grown in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Takruri, Hamed R

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the protein quality of four types of edible mushrooms common in Jordan in terms of protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), which is a combination of the chemical score of the limiting amino acid multiplied by true digestibility of the protein. True protein digestibility values were low (61.4, 73.4, 52.6 and 80.5 for Terfezia claveryi, Pleurotus ostreatus, Tricholoma terrum and Agaricus macrosporus, respectively). Based on the essential amino acids pattern requirements for children, the limiting amino acids in P. ostreatus and A. macrosporus protein were sulphur-containing amino acids with chemical scores of 0.61 and 0.50, respectively. However, lysine was the limiting amino acid in the protein of T. claveryi and T. terreum with chemical scores of 0.71 and 0.67, respectively, and the PDCAAS was 0.43, 0.45, 0.35 and 0.40 for the mushrooms types, respectively. Considering the pattern of essential amino acid requirements of laboratory rats, the sulphur containing amino acids were the limiting amino acids in the protein of T. claveryi, P. ostreatus, T. terreum and A. macrosporus with chemical scores of 0.56, 0.30, 0.34 and 0.25, respectively. The PDCAAS were 0.34, 0.22. 0.17 and 0.20, respectively. It is concluded that the four mushroom types studied are of low protein quality.

  8. Spillover of Fatty Acids During Dietary Fat Storage in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Almandoz, Jaime P.; Singh, Ekta; Howell, Lisa A.; Grothe, Karen; Vlazny, Danielle T.; Smailovic, Almira; Irving, Brian A.; Nelson, Robert H.; Miles, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Spillover of lipoprotein lipase-generated fatty acids from chylomicrons into the plasma free fatty acid (FFA) pool is an important source of FFA and reflects inefficiency in dietary fat storage. We measured spillover in 13 people with type 2 diabetes using infusions of a [3H]triolein-labeled lipid emulsion and [U-13C]oleate during continuous feeding, before and after weight loss. Body fat was measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. Participants lost ∼14% of body weight. There was an ∼38% decrease in meal-suppressed FFA concentration (P < 0.0001) and an ∼23% decrease in oleate flux (P = 0.007). Fractional spillover did not change (P = NS). At baseline, there was a strong negative correlation between spillover and leg fat (r = −0.79, P = 0.001) and a positive correlation with the trunk-to-leg fat ratio (R = 0.56, P = 0.047). These correlations disappeared after weight loss. Baseline leg fat (R = −0.61, P = 0.027) but not trunk fat (R = −0.27, P = 0.38) negatively predicted decreases in spillover with weight loss. These results indicate that spillover, a measure of inefficiency in dietary fat storage, is inversely associated with lower body fat in type 2 diabetes. PMID:23349503

  9. Fluorescent Phthalocyanine Assembly Distinguishes Chiral Isomers of Different Types of Amino Acids and Sugars.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuying; Liu, Chenxi; Wang, Xiqian; Wang, Tianyu; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2017-07-25

    The functions of some natural supramolecular architectures, such as ribosomes, are dependent on the recognition of different types of chiral biomolecules. However, the recognition of different types of chiral molecules (multiobject chiral recognition), such as amino acids and sugars, by independent and identically artificial supramolecular assembly, was rarely achieved. In this article, simple amphiphilic achiral phthalocyanine was found to form supramolecular chiral assemblies with charged water-soluble polymers upon host-guest interactions at the air/water interface. Among these systems, one identical phthalocyanine/poly(l-lysine) assembly not only can distinguish enantiomers of different amino acids but also can recognize several epimers of monose. The chiral recognitions were achieved by comparing either the steady-state fluorescence intensity or fluorescence quenching rate of phthalocyanine/poly(l-lysine) assemblies, before and after interaction with different small chiral molecules. It was demonstrated that the interactions between poly(l-lysine) and different small chiral molecules could change the aggregation of phthalocyanines. And the sensitivity of fluorescence and the excellent multiobject chiral recognition properties of the phthalocyanine/poly(l-lysine) assembly are dependent on the subtle molecular packing mode and the cooperation of different noncovalent interactions.

  10. Anti-diabetic Effect of Fermented Milk Containing Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Type II Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee-Sun; Lee, Sang-Cheon; Huh, Chang-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a group of positional and geometric isomers of conjugated dienoic derivatives of linoleic acid. CLA has been reported to be able to reduce body fat. In this study, we investigated the antidiabetic effect of fermented milk (FM) containing CLA on type II diabetes db/db mice. Mice were treated with 0.2% low FM, 0.6% high FM, or Glimepiride (GLM) for 6 wk. Our results revealed that the body weight and the levels of fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and leptin were significantly decreased in FM fed mice compared to db/db mice. Oral glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance were significantly ameliorated in FM fed mice compared to db/db mice. Consistent with these results, the concentrations of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol were also significantly decreased in FM fed mice compared to db/db mice. However, the concentration of HDL cholesterol was significantly higher in FM fed mice compared to db/db mice. These results were similar to those of GLM, a commercial anti-diabetic drug. Therefore, our results suggest that FM has anti-diabetic effect as a functional food to treat type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:27194924

  11. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and type 2 diabetes: impact on the glycemic control mechanism.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Olívia Gonçalves Leão; da Silva, Bárbara Pereira; Rocha, Daniela Mayumi Usuda Prado; Lopes, Lílian Lelis; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves

    2016-02-06

    There is a growing mortality related to co-morbidities associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake has been associated with low cardiometabolic risk and reduction of inflammatory process. The objective of this paper is to review the impact of PUFA intake on glycemic control in diabetic patients, as well as elucidate the possible mechanisms involved. Medline/PubMed electronic database was searched to identify studies published within the last 5 years regarding the effect of PUFA intake on glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetics. The search terms used were: "polyunsaturated fatty acid (s)", "PUFA", and "diabetes." We included only intervetion studies that assessed the effects of PUFA intake on glucose metabolism - fasting glucose, serum insulin, HbA1c and HOMA-IR assessment- in type 2 diabetics. Initially, 48 articles were identified, which 1 was not available and 41 did not match the inclusion criteria. Within the selected studies, 3 showed an improvement on fasting blood glucose, 2 showed an increase on fasting glycemia and there was no effect of the intervention in only 1. Based on the analyzed clinical intervention studies, supplementation of 0,42-5,2 g PUFA/day for at least 8 weeks may be an alternative treatment for T2DM, particularly to Asian people.

  12. n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in type 2 diabetes: a review.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Joyce A; Katz, Robert

    2005-03-01

    Historically, epidemiologic studies have reported a lower prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes in populations consuming large amounts of the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) found mainly in fish. Controlled clinical studies have shown that consumption of n-3 LC-PUFAs has cardioprotective effects in persons with type 2 diabetes without adverse effects on glucose control and insulin activity. Benefits include lower risk of primary cardiac arrest; reduced cardiovascular mortality, particularly sudden cardiac death; reduced triglyceride levels; increased high-density lipoprotein levels; improved endothelial function; reduced platelet aggregability; and lower blood pressure. These favorable effects outweigh the modest increase in low-density lipoprotein levels that may result from increased n-3 LC-PUFA intake. Preliminary evidence suggests increased consumption of n-3 LC-PUFAs with reduced intake of saturated fat may reduce the risk of conversion from impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes in overweight persons. Reported improvements in hemostasis, slower progression of artery narrowing, albuminuria, subclinical inflammation, oxidative stress, and obesity require additional confirmation. Expected health benefits and public health implications of consuming 1 to 2 g/day n-3 LC-PUFA as part of lifestyle modification in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are discussed.

  13. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids and fish consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Djoussé, Luc; Gaziano, J Michael; Buring, Julie E; Lee, I-Min

    2011-01-01

    Although dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids may confer some cardiovascular benefits, it is unclear whether these nutrients may also unfavorably affect risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We evaluated whether dietary omega-3 fatty acids and fish consumption were associated with increased risk of T2D. This was a prospective study of 36,328 women (mean age: 54.6 y) who participated in the Women's Health Study and who were followed from 1992 to 2008. Incident T2D was self-reported and validated primarily through the collection of supplementary information from participants. Information on omega-3 and fish intakes was obtained by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate adjusted relative risks. During an average follow-up of 12.4 y, 2370 women developed T2D. Marine but not plant-based omega-3 fatty acids were positively associated with incident T2D. From the lowest to highest quintiles of marine omega-3 intake, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs) for T2D were 1.0 (referent), 1.17 (1.03, 1.33), 1.20 (1.05, 1.38), 1.46 (1.28, 1.66), and 1.44 (1.25, 1.65), respectively (P for trend < 0.0001). A similar association was observed with fish intake, but additional adjustment for docosahexaenoic acid led to the elimination of the association. The relation between marine omega-3 fatty acids and T2D was observed in hypertensive and nonhypertensive subjects and in women who reported infrequent fish consumption. Our data suggest an increased risk of T2D with the intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, especially with higher intakes (≥ 0.20 g omega-3/d or ≥ 2 servings of fish/d). The Women's Health Study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000479.

  14. Hydroxyindole Carboxylic Acid-Based Inhibitors for Receptor-Type Protein Tyrosine Protein Phosphatase Beta

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Li-Fan; Zhang, Ruo-Yu; Bai, Yunpeng; Wu, Li; Gunawan, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play an important role in regulating a wide range of cellular processes. Understanding the role of PTPs within these processes has been hampered by a lack of potent and selective PTP inhibitors. Generating potent and selective probes for PTPs remains a significant challenge because of the highly conserved and positively charged PTP active site that also harbors a redox-sensitive Cys residue. Results: We describe a facile method that uses an appropriate hydroxyindole carboxylic acid to anchor the inhibitor to the PTP active site and relies on the secondary binding elements introduced through an amide-focused library to enhance binding affinity for the target PTP and to impart selectivity against off-target phosphatases. Here, we disclose a novel series of hydroxyindole carboxylic acid-based inhibitors for receptor-type tyrosine protein phosphatase beta (RPTPβ), a potential target that is implicated in blood vessel development. The representative RPTPβ inhibitor 8b-1 (L87B44) has an IC50 of 0.38 μM and at least 14-fold selectivity for RPTPβ over a large panel of PTPs. Moreover, 8b-1 also exhibits excellent cellular activity and augments growth factor signaling in HEK293, MDA-MB-468, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Innovation: The bicyclic salicylic acid pharmacophore-based focused library approach may provide a potential solution to overcome the bioavailability issue that has plagued the PTP drug discovery field for many years. Conclusion: A novel method is described for the development of bioavailable PTP inhibitors that utilizes bicyclic salicylic acid to anchor the inhibitors to the active site and peripheral site interactions to enhance binding affinity and selectivity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2130–2140. PMID:24180557

  15. Molecular cloning of magnesium-independent type 2 phosphatidic acid phosphatases from airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Tate, R J; Tolan, D; Pyne, S

    1999-07-01

    Members of the type 2 phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP2) family catalyse the dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid (PA), lysophosphatidate and sphingosine 1-phosphate. Here, we demonstrate the presence of a Mg(2+)-independent and N-ethymaleimide-insensitive PAP2 activity in cultured guinea-pig airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. Two PAP2 cDNAs of 923 and 926 base pairs were identified and subsequently cloned from these cells. The ORF of the 923 base pair cDNA encoded a protein of 285 amino acids (Mr = 32.1 kDa), which had 94% homology with human PAP2a (hPAP2a) and which probably represents a guinea-pig specific PAP2a (gpPAP2a1). The ORF of the 926 base pair cDNA encoded a protein of 286 amino acids (Mr = 32.1 kDa) which had 84% and 91% homology with hPAP2a and gpPAP2a1, respectively. This protein, termed gpPAP2a2, has two regions (aa 21-33 and 51-74) of marked divergence and altered hydrophobicity compared with hPAP2a and gpPAP2a1. This occurs in the predicted first and second transmembrane domains and at the extremes of the first outer loop. Other significant differences between gpPAP2a1/2 and hPAP2a, hPAP2b and hPAP2c occur at the cytoplasmic C-terminal. Transient expression of gpPAP2a2 in Cos-7 cells resulted in an approx. 4-fold increase in Mg(2+)-independent PAP activity, thereby confirming that gpPAP2a2 is another catalytically active member of an extended PAP2 family.

  16. Decreased exposure of simvastatin and simvastatin acid in a rat model of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dan; Li, Feng; Zhang, Mian; Zhang, Ji; Liu, Can; Hu, Meng-yue; Zhong, Ze-yu; Jia, Ling-ling; Wang, Da-wei; Wu, Jie; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiao-dong

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Simvastatin is frequently administered to diabetic patients with hypercholesterolemia. The aim of the study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of simvastatin and its hydrolysate simvastatin acid in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Methods: Diabetes was induced in 4-week-old rats by a treatment of high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin. After the rats received a single dose of simvastatin (20 mg/kg, po, or 2 mg/kg, iv), the plasma concentrations of simvastatin and simvastatin acid were determined. Simvastatin metabolism and cytochrome P4503A (Cyp3a) activity were assessed in hepatic microsomes, and its uptake was studied in freshly isolated hepatocytes. The expression of Cyp3a1, organic anion transporting polypeptide 2 (Oatp2), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) in livers was measured using qRT-PCR. Results: After oral or intravenous administration, the plasma concentrations and areas under concentrations of simvastatin and simvastatin acid were markedly decreased in diabetic rats. Both simvastatin metabolism and Cyp3a activity were markedly increased in hepatocytes of diabetic rats, accompanied by increased expression of hepatic Cyp3a1 mRNA. Furthermore, the uptake of simvastatin by hepatocytes of diabetic rats was markedly increased, which was associated with increased expression of the influx transporter Oatp2, and decreased expression of the efflux transporters Mrp2 and Bcrp. Conclusion: Diabetes enhances the metabolism of simvastatin and simvastatin acid in rats via up-regulating hepatic Cyp3a activity and expression and increasing hepatic uptake. PMID:25152023

  17. Amino acid ester prodrugs conjugated to the α-carboxylic acid group do not display affinity for the L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1).

    PubMed

    Rautio, Jarkko; Kärkkäinen, Jussi; Huttunen, Kristiina M; Gynther, Mikko

    2015-01-23

    L-type amino acid transporter (LAT1) is an intriguing target for carrier-mediated transport of drugs as it is highly expressed in the blood-brain barrier and also in various types of cancer. Several studies have proposed that in order for compounds to act as LAT1 substrates they should possess both negatively charged α-carboxyl and positively charged α-amino groups. However, in some reports, such as in two recent publications describing an isoleucine-quinidine ester prodrug (1), compounds having no free α-carboxyl group have been reported to exhibit high affinity for LAT1 in vitro. In the present study, 1 was synthesized and its affinity for LAT1 was evaluated both with an in situ rat brain perfusion technique and in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 in vitro. 1 showed no affinity for LAT1 in either model nor did it show any affinity for LAT2 in an in vitro study. Our results confirm the earlier reported requirements for LAT1 substrates. Thus drugs or prodrugs with substituted α-carboxyl group cannot bind to LAT with high affinity.

  18. Receptor-level interrelationships of amino acids and the adequate amino acid type hormones in Tetrahymena: a receptor evolution model.

    PubMed

    Csaba, G; Darvas, Z

    1986-01-01

    Histidine stimulates the phagocytosis of Tetrahymena to the same extent as histamine, and also stimulates its division, which histamine does not. Tyrosine and diiodotyrosine equally stimulate the growth of the Tetrahymena. Both amino acids inhibit the characteristic influence of the adequate amino acid hormone when added to Tetrahymena culture 72 h in advance of it. Primary interaction with diiodotyrosine and tyrosine notably increases the cellular growth rate. Histamine has a similar, although less notable effect than histidine. In the light of these experimental observations there is reason to postulate that the receptors of the amino acid hormones have developed from amino acid receptors.

  19. Effects of fatty acids and ketone bodies on basal insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Boden, G; Chen, X

    1999-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the role of free fatty acids (FFAs) as insulin secretagogues in patients with type 2 diabetes. To this end, basal insulin secretion rates (ISR) in response to acute increases in plasma FFAs were evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes and in age- and weight-matched nondiabetic control subjects during 1) intravenous infusion of lipid plus heparin (L/H), which stimulated intravascular lipolysis, and 2) the FFA rebound, which followed lowering of plasma FFAs with nicotinic acid (NA) and was a consequence of increased lipolysis from the subject's own adipose tissue. At comparable euglycemia, diabetic patients had similar ISR but higher plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB) levels during L/H infusion and higher plasma FFA and beta-OHB levels during the FFA rebound than nondiabetic control subjects. Correlating ISR with plasma FFA plus beta-OHB levels showed that in response to the same changes in FFA plus beta-OHB levels, diabetic patients secreted approximately 30% less insulin than nondiabetic control subjects. In addition, twice as much insulin was secreted during L/H infusion as during the FFA rebound in response to the same FFA/beta-OHB stimulation by both diabetic patients and control subjects. Glycerol, which was present in the infused lipid (272 mmol/l) did not affect ISR. We concluded that 1) assessment of FFA effects on ISR requires consideration of effects on ISR by ketone bodies; 2) ISR responses to FFA/beta-OHB were defective in patients with type 2 diabetes (partial beta-cell lipid blindness), but this defect was compensated by elevated plasma levels of FFAs and ketone bodies; and 3) approximately two times more insulin was released per unit change in plasma FFA plus beta-OHB during L/H infusion than during the FFA rebound after NA. The reason for this remains to be explored.

  20. Plasma uric acid effects on glomerular haemodynamic profile of patients with uncomplicated Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lytvyn, Y; Škrtić, M; Yang, G K; Lai, V; Scholey, J W; Yip, P M; Perkins, B A; Cherney, D Z I

    2016-08-01

    Increased plasma uric acid (PUA) levels are associated with impaired renal function in patients with Type 1 diabetes, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Our aim was to evaluate whether higher PUA levels are associated with increased afferent arteriolar resistance in patients with Type 1 diabetes vs. healthy controls, thereby influencing renal function. PUA, GFR (inulin) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF; para-aminohippurate) were measured in 70 otherwise healthy patients with Type 1 diabetes and 60 healthy controls. Gomez's equations were used to estimate afferent (RA ) and efferent (RE ) arteriolar resistances, glomerular hydrostatic pressure (PGLO ) and filtration pressure (ΔPF ). The relationships between PUA and glomerular haemodynamic parameters were evaluated by univariable linear regression correlation coefficients. In patients with Type 1 diabetes, higher PUA correlated with lower PGLO (P = 0.002) and ΔPF (P = 0.0007), with higher RA (P = 0.001), but not with RE (P = 0.55). These associations were accompanied by correlations between higher PUA with lower GFR (P = 0.0007), ERPF (P = 0.008), RBF (P = 0.047) and higher RVR (P = 0.021). There were no significant correlations between PUA and renal haemodynamic parameters in the healthy controls. The association between higher PUA with lower GFR and lower ERPF in patients with Type 1 diabetes is driven by alterations in the estimated RA . PUA-mediated RA may be caused by increased tone or thickening of the afferent renal arteriole, which might potentiate renal injury by causing ischaemia to the renal microcirculation. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  1. Multiple nucleic acid cleavage modes in divergent type III CRISPR systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Graham, Shirley; Tello, Agnes; Liu, Huanting; White, Malcolm F.

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas is an RNA-guided adaptive immune system that protects bacteria and archaea from invading nucleic acids. Type III systems (Cmr, Csm) have been shown to cleave RNA targets in vitro and some are capable of transcription-dependent DNA targeting. The crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus has two divergent subtypes of the type III system (Sso-IIID and a Cmr7-containing variant of Sso-IIIB). Here, we report that both the Sso-IIID and Sso-IIIB complexes cleave cognate RNA targets with a ruler mechanism and 6 or 12 nt spacing that relates to the organization of the Cas7 backbone. This backbone-mediated cleavage activity thus appears universal for the type III systems. The Sso-IIIB complex is also known to possess a distinct ‘UA’ cleavage mode. The predominant activity observed in vitro depends on the relative molar concentration of protein and target RNA. The Sso-IIID complex can cleave plasmid DNA targets in vitro, generating linear DNA products with an activity that is dependent on both the cyclase and HD nuclease domains of the Cas10 subunit, suggesting a role for both nuclease active sites in the degradation of double-stranded DNA targets. PMID:26801642

  2. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on peri-procedural (type IVa) myocardial infarction following elective coronary stenting.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Akiyoshi; Takashima, Hiroaki; Ando, Hirohiko; Kumagai, Soichiro; Waseda, Katsuhisa; Gosho, Masahiko; Amano, Tetsuya

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on peri-procedural (type IVa) myocardial infarction (MI) following elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We analyzed data from 165 of 178 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris who underwent de novo successful stent implantation in the native coronary artery. Patients were assigned to receive statin therapy in combination with 1800mg/day of EPA or statin alone. Post-procedural index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) values were calculated for 30 patients in the EPA group and 32 controls. In the multivariate logistic model, EPA administration, low kidney function, and the presence of slow flow/no reflow were significantly and independently associated with type IVa MI. Post-procedural IMR values were significantly lower in the EPA group [19.8 (6.4, 51.1) vs. 27.8 (8.2, 89.3), p=0.003] compared to the control group. Pre-treatment with EPA in addition to statins significantly reduced the incidence of type IVa MI compared to statin therapy only, which may be attributed to the ability of EPA to reduce microvascular dysfunction induced by PCI. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effect of α-Lipoic Acid on Platelet Reactivity in Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mollo, Roberto; Zaccardi, Francesco; Scalone, Giancarla; Scavone, Giuseppe; Rizzo, Paola; Navarese, Eliano Pio; Manto, Andrea; Pitocco, Dario; Lanza, Gaetano Antonio; Ghirlanda, Giovanni; Crea, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Type 1 diabetes is associated with increased platelet reactivity. We investigated whether α-lipoic acid (ALA) has any effect on platelet reactivity in these patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We randomly assigned 51 type 1 diabetic patients to ALA (600 mg once daily) or placebo for 5 weeks. Platelet reactivity was evaluated by the PFA-100 method and by measuring CD41 and CD62 platelet expression. C-reactive protein (CRP) and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α serum levels also were measured. RESULTS Baseline variables were similar in the two groups. After treatment, closure time was longer (P = 0.006) and CD62P platelet expression was lower, both before (P = 0.002) and after (P = 0.009) ADP stimulation in the ALA group compared with the placebo group. CRP and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α levels showed no differences between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Our data show that ALA reduces measures of platelet reactivity ex vivo in type 1 diabetic patients, independently of antioxidant or anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:22228743

  4. Clinical Trial of L-Carnitine and Valproic Acid in Spinal Muscular Atrophy Type I.

    PubMed

    Krosschell, Kristin J; Kissel, John T; Townsend, Elise L; Simeone, Sarah D; Zhang, Ren Zhe; Reyna, Sandra P; Thomas, O Crawford; Schroth, Mary K; Acsadi, Gyula; Kishnani, Priya S; von Kleist-Retzow, Jürgen-Christoph; Hero, Barbara; D'Anjou, Guy; Smith, Edward C; Elsheikh, Bakri; Simard, Louise R; Prior, Thomas W; Scott, Charles B; LaSalle, Bernard; Sakonju, Ai; Wirth, Brunhilde; Swoboda, Kathryn J

    2017-08-18

    To explore safety and therapeutic potential of L-carnitine and valproic acid (VPA) in infants with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Open-label phase 2 multicenter trial of L-carnitine and VPA in infants with SMA type I with retrospective comparison to an untreated, matched cohort. Primary outcomes were safety and adverse events (AEs); secondary outcomes were survival, time to death/> 16 hours/day ventilator support, motor outcomes and maximum ulnar compound motor action potential amplitude. 245 AEs were observed in 35 of 37 treated subjects (95%). Respiratory events accounted for 49% of all AEs, resulting in 14 deaths. Survival was not significantly different between treated and untreated cohorts. This trial provides evidence that in infants with SMA type I, L-carnitine/VPA is ineffective in altering survival. The substantial proportion of infants reaching endpoints within 6 months of enrollment underscores the urgent need for pre-symptomatic treatment in SMA type I. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Partition dataset according to amino acid type improves the prediction of deleterious non-synonymous SNPs

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jing; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yi-Xue; Ye, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proper dataset partition can improve the prediction of deleterious nsSNPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Partition according to original residue type at nsSNP is a good criterion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Similar strategy is supposed promising in other machine learning problems. -- Abstract: Many non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) are associated with diseases, and numerous machine learning methods have been applied to train classifiers for sorting disease-associated nsSNPs from neutral ones. The continuously accumulated nsSNP data allows us to further explore better prediction approaches. In this work, we partitioned the training data into 20 subsets according to either original or substituted amino acid type at the nsSNP site. Using support vector machine (SVM), training classification models on each subset resulted in an overall accuracy of 76.3% or 74.9% depending on the two different partition criteria, while training on the whole dataset obtained an accuracy of only 72.6%. Moreover, the dataset was also randomly divided into 20 subsets, but the corresponding accuracy was only 73.2%. Our results demonstrated that partitioning the whole training dataset into subsets properly, i.e., according to the residue type at the nsSNP site, will improve the performance of the trained classifiers significantly, which should be valuable in developing better tools for predicting the disease-association of nsSNPs.

  6. Clavulanic acid production by the MMS 150 mutant obtained from wild type Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Vasconcelos, Eliton; de Lima, Vanderlei Aparecido; Goto, Leandro Seiji; Cruz-Hernández, Isara Lourdes; Hokka, Carlos Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Clavulanic acid (CA) is a powerful inhibitor of the beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistants to penicillin and cefalosporin. This molecule is produced industrially by strains of Streptomyces clavuligerus in complex media which carbon and nitrogen resources are supplied by inexpensive compounds still providing high productivity. The genetic production improvement using physical and chemical mutagenic agents is an important strategy in programs of industrial production development of bioactive metabolites. However, parental strains are susceptible to loss of their original productivity due genetic instability phenomenona. In this work, some S. clavuligerus mutant strains obtained by treatment with UV light and with MMS are compared with the wild type (Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064). The results indicated that the random mutations originated some strains with different phenotypes, most divergent demonstrated by the mutants strains named AC116, MMS 150 and MMS 54, that exhibited lack of pigmentation in their mature spores. Also, the strain MMS 150 presented a larger production of CA when cultivated in semi-synthetics media. Using other media, the wild type strain obtained a larger CA production. Besides, using the modifed complex media the MMS 150 strain showed changes in its lipolitic activity and a larger production of CA. The studies also allowed finding the best conditions for a lipase activity exhibited by wild type S. clavuligerus and the MMS150 mutant. PMID:24688492

  7. Evaluation of mono or mixed cultures of lactic acid bacteria in type II sourdough system.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Raci; Şimşek, Ömer; Küçükçuban, Ayca; Nas, Sebahattin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of mono and mixed lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures to determine suitable LAB combinations for a type II sourdough system. In this context, previously isolated sourdough LAB strains with antimicrobial activity, which included Lactobacillus plantarum PFC22, Lactobacillus brevis PFC31, Pediococcus acidilactici PFC38, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis PFC80, were used as mono or mixed culture combinations in a fermentation system to produce type II sourdough, and subsequently in bread dough production. Compared to the monoculture fermentation of dough, the use of mixed cultures shortened the adaptation period by half. In addition, the use of mixed cultures ensured higher microbial viability, and enhanced the fruity flavor during bread dough production. It was determined that the combination of L. plantarum PFC22 + P. acidilactici PFC38 + L. sanfranciscensis PFC80 is a promising culture mixture that can be used in the production of type II sourdough systems, and that may also contribute to an increase in metabolic activity during bread production process.

  8. Toxicogenomic profiling of perfluorononanoic acid in wild-type and PPARa-null mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and a developmental toxicant in laboratory animals. Like other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOA) and perfluoroalkyl acid (PFOS), PFNA is a known activator ofperoxisome prol...

  9. Toxicogenomic profiling of perfluorononanoic acid in wild-type and PPARa-null mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and a developmental toxicant in laboratory animals. Like other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOA) and perfluoroalkyl acid (PFOS), PFNA is a known activator ofperoxisome prol...

  10. Epidemiological Typing of Campylobacter Isolates from Meat Processing Plants by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, Fatty Acid Profile Typing, Serotyping, and Biotyping

    PubMed Central

    Steele, M.; McNab, B.; Fruhner, L.; DeGrandis, S.; Woodward, D.; Odumeru, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Foods of animal origin, particularly undercooked poultry, are common sources of Campylobacter species associated with disease in humans. A collection of 110 Campylobacter jejuni and 31 C. coli human and environmental isolates from different Ontario, Canada, abattoirs were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, fatty acid profile typing, and biotyping. Previously collected serotyping data for the same isolates were also analyzed in this study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was found to be the most discriminatory of the typing methods, followed by serotyping, fatty acid profile typing, and biotyping. A wide variety of typing profiles were observed within the isolates, suggesting that several different Campylobacter sp. strains were present within the abattoirs. PMID:9647797

  11. Epidemiological typing of Campylobacter isolates from meat processing plants by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, fatty acid profile typing, serotyping, and biotyping.

    PubMed

    Steele, M; McNab, B; Fruhner, L; DeGrandis, S; Woodward, D; Odumeru, J A

    1998-07-01

    Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Foods of animal origin, particularly under-cooked poultry, are common sources of Campylobacter species associated with disease in humans. A collection of 110 Campylobacter jejuni and 31 C. coli human and environmental isolates from different Ontario, Canada, abattoirs were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, fatty acid profile typing, and biotyping. Previously collected serotyping data for the same isolates were also analyzed in this study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was found to be the most discriminatory of the typing methods, followed by serotyping, fatty acid profile typing, and biotyping. A wide variety of typing profiles were observed within the isolates, suggesting that several different Campylobacter sp. strains were present within the abattoirs.

  12. On the nature and origin of acidic species in petroleum. 1. Detailed acid type distribution in a California crude oil.

    SciTech Connect

    Tomczyk, N. A.; Winans, R. E.; Shinn, J. H.; Robinson, R. C.; Chemistry; Chevron Research and Technology Co.

    2001-11-21

    Acidity in crude oils has long been a problem for refining. Knowledge of the detailed chemical composition of the acids responsible for corrosion can facilitate identification of problem crude oils and potentially lead to improved processing options for corrosive oils. A highly aerobically biodegraded crude from the San Joaquin Valley, which has a long history of causing corrosion problems during refining, was the subject of this study. The oil was first extracted with base, then acidified and extracted with petroleum ether. A portion of the resulting acid fraction was methylated. The unmethylated extract was analyzed by FTIR, NMR, and the methylated sample was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Over 96% of the ions observed in HRMS have been assigned reliable formulas. Considerably greater functionality is seen in this sample than would be presumed from the 'naphthenic acid' title typically assigned to these species. Although over 60% of the compounds contained two or more oxygens, compounds containing only oxygen heteroatoms accounted for less than 10% of the acidic compounds identified. Approximately one-half of the species contained nitrogen and about one-fourth contained sulfur. It is believed that microbial degradation is a major source of these acidic components. It was also observed that acid species with higher degrees of heteroatom substitution generally also had a higher degree of saturation than those species having less heteroatoms, possibly due to impeded migration of highly substituted, less-saturated species.

  13. Preclinical Characterization of a (S)-N-(4-Cyano-3-Trifluoromethyl-Phenyl)-3-(3-Fluoro, 4-Chlorophenoxy)-2-Hydroxy-2-Methyl-Propanamide: A Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator for Hormonal Male Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Amanda; Chen, Jiyun; Hwang, Dong Jin; Miller, Duane D.; Dalton, James T.

    2009-01-01

    The pharmacologic effects of (S)-N-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-3-(3-fluoro, 4-chlorophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-propanamide (S-23) were characterized in male rats as an animal model of hormonal male contraception. S-23 showed high binding affinity (inhibitory constant = 1.7 ± 0.2 nm) and was identified as a full agonist in vitro. In castrated male rats, the ED50 of S-23 in the prostate and levator ani muscle was 0.43 and 0.079 mg/d, respectively. In intact male rats treated for 14 d, S-23 alone suppressed LH levels by greater than 50% at doses greater than 0.1 mg/d, with corresponding decreases in the size of the prostate but increases in the size of levator ani muscle. In intact male rats treated for up to 10 wk with S-23 and estradiol benzoate (EB; necessary to maintain sexual behavior in rats), S-23 showed biphasic effects on androgenic tissues and spermatogenesis by suppressing serum concentrations of LH and FSH. EB alone showed no effect on spermatogenesis. In the EB + S-23 (0.1 mg/d) group, four of six animals showed no sperm in the testis and zero pregnancies (none of six) in mating trials. After termination of treatment, infertility was fully reversible, with a 100% pregnancy rate observed after 100 d of recovery. S-23 increased bone mineral density and lean mass but reduced fat mass in a dose-dependent manner. This is the first study to show that a selective androgen receptor modulator combined with EB is an effective and reversible regimen for hormonal male contraception in rats. The beneficial effects of S-23 on the muscle, tissue selectivity, and favorable pharmacokinetic properties make it a strong candidate for use in oral male contraception. PMID:18772237

  14. Revisiting the Assignment of Rv0241c to Fatty Acid Synthase Type II of Mycobacterium tuberculosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Emmanuelle; Slama, Nawel; Bäckbro, Kristina; Parish, Tanya; Laval, Françoise; Daffé, Mamadou; Eynard, Nathalie; Quémard, Annaık̈

    2010-01-01

    The fatty acid synthase type II enzymatic complex of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (FAS-IIMt) catalyzes an essential metabolic pathway involved in the biosynthesis of major envelope lipids, mycolic acids. The partner proteins of this singular FAS-II system represent relevant targets for antituberculous drug design. Two heterodimers of the hydratase 2 protein family, HadAB and HadBC, were shown to be involved in the (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydration (HAD) step of FAS-IIMt cycles. Recently, an additional member of this family, Rv0241c, was proposed to have the same function, based on the heterologous complementation of a HAD mutant of the yeast mitochondrial FAS-II system. In the present work, Rv0241c was able to complement a HAD mutant in the Escherichia coli model but not a dehydratase-isomerase deficient mutant. However, an enzymatic study of the purified protein demonstrated that Rv0241c possesses a broad chain length specificity for the substrate, unlike FAS-IIMt enzymes. Most importantly, Rv0241c exhibited a strict dependence on the coenzyme A (CoA) as opposed to AcpM, the natural acyl carrier protein bearing the chains elongated by FAS-IIMt. The deletion of Rv0241c showed that this gene is not essential to M. tuberculosis survival in vitro. The resulting mutant did not display any change in the mycolic acid profile. This demonstrates that Rv0241c is a trans-2-enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase that does not belong to FAS-IIMt. The relevance of a heterologous complementation strategy to identifying proteins of such a system is questioned. PMID:20511508

  15. Type II fatty acid synthesis is essential for the replication of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jiangwei; Abdelrahman, Yasser M; Robertson, Rosanna M; Cox, John V; Belland, Robert J; White, Stephen W; Rock, Charles O

    2014-08-08

    The major phospholipid classes of the obligate intracellular bacterial parasite Chlamydia trachomatis are the same as its eukaryotic host except that they also contain chlamydia-made branched-chain fatty acids in the 2-position. Genomic analysis predicts that C. trachomatis is capable of type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII). AFN-1252 was deployed as a chemical tool to specifically inhibit the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI) of C. trachomatis to determine whether chlamydial FASII is essential for replication within the host. The C. trachomatis FabI (CtFabI) is a homotetramer and exhibited typical FabI kinetics, and its expression complemented an Escherichia coli fabI(Ts) strain. AFN-1252 inhibited CtFabI by binding to the FabI·NADH complex with an IC50 of 0.9 μM at saturating substrate concentration. The x-ray crystal structure of the CtFabI·NADH·AFN-1252 ternary complex revealed the specific interactions between the drug, protein, and cofactor within the substrate binding site. AFN-1252 treatment of C. trachomatis-infected HeLa cells at any point in the infectious cycle caused a decrease in infectious titers that correlated with a decrease in branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis. AFN-1252 treatment at the time of infection prevented the first cell division of C. trachomatis, although the cell morphology suggested differentiation into a metabolically active reticulate body. These results demonstrate that FASII activity is essential for C. trachomatis proliferation within its eukaryotic host and validate CtFabI as a therapeutic target against C. trachomatis. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Type II Fatty Acid Synthesis Is Essential for the Replication of Chlamydia trachomatis*

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jiangwei; Abdelrahman, Yasser M.; Robertson, Rosanna M.; Cox, John V.; Belland, Robert J.; White, Stephen W.; Rock, Charles O.

    2014-01-01

    The major phospholipid classes of the obligate intracellular bacterial parasite Chlamydia trachomatis are the same as its eukaryotic host except that they also contain chlamydia-made branched-chain fatty acids in the 2-position. Genomic analysis predicts that C. trachomatis is capable of type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII). AFN-1252 was deployed as a chemical tool to specifically inhibit the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI) of C. trachomatis to determine whether chlamydial FASII is essential for replication within the host. The C. trachomatis FabI (CtFabI) is a homotetramer and exhibited typical FabI kinetics, and its expression complemented an Escherichia coli fabI(Ts) strain. AFN-1252 inhibited CtFabI by binding to the FabI·NADH complex with an IC50 of 0.9 μm at saturating substrate concentration. The x-ray crystal structure of the CtFabI·NADH·AFN-1252 ternary complex revealed the specific interactions between the drug, protein, and cofactor within the substrate binding site. AFN-1252 treatment of C. trachomatis-infected HeLa cells at any point in the infectious cycle caused a decrease in infectious titers that correlated with a decrease in branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis. AFN-1252 treatment at the time of infection prevented the first cell division of C. trachomatis, although the cell morphology suggested differentiation into a metabolically active reticulate body. These results demonstrate that FASII activity is essential for C. trachomatis proliferation within its eukaryotic host and validate CtFabI as a therapeutic target against C. trachomatis. PMID:24958721

  17. Mechanistic effects of amino acids and glucose in a novel glutaric aciduria type 1 cell model.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xi; Gao, Hongjie; Tian, Fengyan; Gao, Jinzhi; Lou, Liping; Liang, Yan; Ning, Qin; Luo, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    Acute neurological crises involving striatal degeneration induced by a deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) and the accumulation of glutaric (GA) and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid (3-OHGA) are considered to be the most striking features of glutaric aciduria type I (GA1). In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of apoptosis and energy metabolism impairment in our novel GA1 neuronal model. We also explored the effects of appropriate amounts of amino acids (2 mM arginine, 2 mM homoarginine, 0.45 g/L tyrosine and 10 mM leucine) and 2 g/L glucose on these cells. Our results revealed that the novel GA1 neuronal model effectively simulates the hypermetabolic state of GA1. We found that leucine, tyrosine, arginine, homoarginine or glucose treatment of the GA1 model cells reduced the gene expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, bax, fos, and jun and restored the intracellular NADH and ATP levels. Tyrosine, arginine or homoarginine treatment in particular showed anti-apoptotic effects; increased α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDC), fumarase (FH), and citrate synthase (CS) expression; and relieved the observed impairment in energy metabolism. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the protective mechanisms of amino acids and glucose in GA1 at the cellular level from the point of view of apoptosis and energy metabolism. Our data support the results of previous studies, indicating that supplementation of arginine and homoarginine as a dietary control strategy can have a therapeutic effect on GA1. All of these findings facilitate the understanding of cell apoptosis and energy metabolism impairment in GA1 and reveal new therapeutic perspectives for this disease.

  18. Mechanistic Effects of Amino Acids and Glucose in a Novel Glutaric Aciduria Type 1 Cell Model

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xi; Gao, Hongjie; Tian, Fengyan; Gao, Jinzhi; Lou, Liping; Liang, Yan; Ning, Qin; Luo, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    Acute neurological crises involving striatal degeneration induced by a deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) and the accumulation of glutaric (GA) and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid (3-OHGA) are considered to be the most striking features of glutaric aciduria type I (GA1). In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of apoptosis and energy metabolism impairment in our novel GA1 neuronal model. We also explored the effects of appropriate amounts of amino acids (2 mM arginine, 2 mM homoarginine, 0.45 g/L tyrosine and 10 mM leucine) and 2 g/L glucose on these cells. Our results revealed that the novel GA1 neuronal model effectively simulates the hypermetabolic state of GA1. We found that leucine, tyrosine, arginine, homoarginine or glucose treatment of the GA1 model cells reduced the gene expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, bax, fos, and jun and restored the intracellular NADH and ATP levels. Tyrosine, arginine or homoarginine treatment in particular showed anti-apoptotic effects; increased α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDC), fumarase (FH), and citrate synthase (CS) expression; and relieved the observed impairment in energy metabolism. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the protective mechanisms of amino acids and glucose in GA1 at the cellular level from the point of view of apoptosis and energy metabolism. Our data support the results of previous studies, indicating that supplementation of arginine and homoarginine as a dietary control strategy can have a therapeutic effect on GA1. All of these findings facilitate the understanding of cell apoptosis and energy metabolism impairment in GA1 and reveal new therapeutic perspectives for this disease. PMID:25333616

  19. Ion exchange properties of monolithic and particle type iminodiacetic acid modified silica.

    PubMed

    Sugrue, Edel; Nesterenko, Pavel; Paull, Brett

    2004-07-01

    A 10 cm silica monolith has been modified with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) groups and characterised for its selectivity toward alkali, alkaline earth, and selected transition metal cations. Physical characterisation of the modified monolith found non-homogeneous modification along the length of the monolith, although sufficient capacity was achieved to facilitate significant retention of alkaline earth and transition/heavy metal ions over a range of eluent pH and ionic strength conditions. For alkaline earth and transition/heavy metal ions, selectivity of the 10 cm IDA monolith closely matched that seen with a 25 cm IDA modified silica gel particle packed column, although the separation of alkali metal ions was noticeably poorer on the monolithic column. Peak efficiencies for most metal ions were of a similar order for both column types, except for Zn(II), which showed significant peak broadening on the IDA monolithic column.

  20. Sinapic acid ester metabolism in wild type and a sinapoylglucose-accumulating mutant of arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, M; Racicot, V; Strack, D; Chapple, C

    1996-01-01

    Sinapoylmalate is one of the major phenylpropanoid metabolites that is accumulated in the vegetative tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana. A thin-layer chromatography-based mutant screen identified two allelic mutant lines that accumulated sinapoylglucose in their leaves in place of sinapoylmalate. Both mutations were found to be recessive and segregated as single Mendelian genes. These mutants define a new locus called SNG1 for sinapoylglucose accumulator. Plants that are homozygous for the sng1 mutation accumulate normal levels of malate in their leaves but lack detectable levels of the final enzyme in sinapate ester biosynthesis, sinapoylglucose:malate sinapoyltransferase. A study of wild-type and sng1 seedlings found that sinapic acid ester biosynthesis in Arabidopsis is developmentally regulated and that the accumulation of sinapate esters is delayed in sng1 mutant seedlings. PMID:8972602

  1. Pyrrolidinobenzoic Acid Inhibitors of Influenza Virus Neuraminidase: the Hydrophobic Side Chain Influences Type A Subtype Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanwu; Silamkoti, Arundutt; Kolavi, Gundurao; Mou, Liyuan; Gulati, Shelly; Air, Gillian M.

    2012-01-01

    Neuraminidase (NA) plays a critical role in the life cycle of influenza virus and is a target for new therapeutic agents. A series of influenza neuraminidase inhibitors with the pyrrolidinobenzoic acid scaffold containing lipophilic side chains at the C3 position have been synthesized and evaluated for influenza neuraminidase inhibitory activity. The size and geometry of the C3 side chains have been modified in order to investigate structure-activity relationships. The results indicated that size and geometry of the C3-side chain are important for selectivity of inhibition against N1 vs N2 NA, important type A influenza variants that infect man, including the highly lethal avian influenza. PMID:22677529

  2. Type II phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases have unique sensitivities towards fatty acid composition and head group phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Annette C; Wise, Helen M; Mitchell, Christina A; Nussbaum, Robert; Woscholski, Rüdiger

    2004-10-08

    The catalytic properties of the type II phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases of Lowe's oculocerebrorenal syndrome, INPP5B, Synaptojanin1, Synaptojanin2 and SKIP were analysed with respect to their substrate specificity and enzymological properties. Our data reveal that all phosphatases have unique substrate specificities as judged by their corresponding KM and VMax values. They also possessed an exclusive sensitivity towards fatty acid composition, head group phosphorylation and micellar presentation. Thus, the biological function of these enzymes will not just be determined by their corresponding regulatory domains, but will be distinctly influenced by their catalytic properties as well. This suggests that the phosphatase domains fulfil a unique catalytic function that cannot be fully compensated by other phosphatases.

  3. Further characterization and amino acid sequence of m-type thioredoxins from spinach chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Maeda, K; Tsugita, A; Dalzoppo, D; Vilbois, F; Schürmann, P

    1986-01-02

    The complete primary structure of m-type thioredoxin from spinach chloroplasts has been sequenced by conventional sequencing including fragmentation, Edman degradation and carboxypeptidase digestion. As already reported [Tsugita, A., Maeda, K. & Schürmann, P. (1983) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 115, 1-7] these thioredoxins contain the same active-site sequence as thioredoxins from other sources. Based on the amino acid sequence thioredoxin mc contains 103 residues, has a relative molecular mass of 11425 and a molar absorption coefficient at 280 nm of 19 300 M-1 cm-1. The spinach thioredoxin mc has an overall homology of 44% with the thioredoxin from Escherichia coli mainly due to differences in the N-terminal and C-terminal regions.

  4. Michael-type addition of azoles of broad-scale acidity to methyl acrylate.

    PubMed

    Boncel, Sławomir; Saletra, Kinga; Hefczyc, Barbara; Walczak, Krzysztof Z

    2011-02-08

    An optimisation of Michael-type addition of azole derivatives of broad-scale acidity - ranging from 5.20 to 15.00 pK(a) units - namely 4-nitropyrazole, 3,5-dimethyl-4-nitropyrazole, 4(5)-nitroimidazole, 4,5-diphenylimidazole, 4,5-dicyanoimidazole, 2-methyl-4(5)-nitroimidazole, 5(4)-bromo-2-methyl-4(5)-nitroimidazole and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole to methyl acrylate as an acceptor was carried out. The optimisation process involved the use of an appropriate basic catalyst (DBU, DIPEA, NaOH, NaH, TEDA), a donor/base/acceptor ratio and the reaction temperature. The reactions were performed in DMF as solvent. Target Michael adducts were obtained in medium to excellent yields. Importantly, for imidazole and 1,2,4-triazole derivatives, no corresponding regioisomers were obtained.

  5. The type and concentration of milk increase the in vitro bioaccessibility of coffee chlorogenic acids.

    PubMed

    Tagliazucchi, Davide; Helal, Ahmed; Verzelloni, Elena; Conte, Angela

    2012-11-07

    Coffee with different types and concentrations of milk was digested with pepsin (2 h) and pancreatin (2 h) to simulate gastropancreatic digestion. Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in ultrafiltrate (cutoff 3 kDa) to evaluate their bioaccessibility. After digestion, bioaccessible CGAs decreased from 80.2 to 53.0 and 69.5 μmol/200 mL in coffee without milk and coffee-whole milk, respectively. When whole, semiskimmed, skimmed, or diluted milk were present, the increase in bioaccessibility was dependent on fat content (r = 0.99, p < 0.001). No relationship was observed between bioaccessibility and proteins, carbohydrates, and calcium content. The addition of milk to coffee caused an immediate decrease in the bioaccessibility due to CGAs binding to proteins. After digestion, 86-94% of bound CGAs remained in the high molecular weight fraction. Casein bound 5-caffeoylquinic acid with high affinity (K(D) of 37.9 ± 2.3 μmol/L; n = 0.88 ± 0.06).

  6. Hydrocarbon and fatty acid composition of cheese as affected by the pasture vegetation type.

    PubMed

    Povolo, Milena; Pelizzola, Valeria; Lombardi, Giampiero; Tava, Aldo; Contarini, Giovanna

    2012-01-11

    The determination of the geographical origin of dairy products is an ongoing issue. In this paper the effects of botanical diversity of two pastures on the hydrocarbon and fatty acid composition of cheese fat were studied, over 2 years of experimentation. Two areas in the Italian southwestern Alpine region, dominated by Trifolium alpinum (T) and Festuca nigrescens (F) vegetation, respectively, were chosen, and milk obtained from cows grazing on these pastures was used to produce a semihard traditional cheese. Cheese samples showed a significantly different composition of most linear hydrocarbons, odd-chain (C15, C17, and C17:1) and unsaturated (trans-11,cis-15-C18:2, C18:3, C20:4n-6, C20:4n-3, and 20:5n-3) fatty acids, according to pasture type. The ratio between C(29) and C(27) linear hydrocarbons, unlike the absolute content of the single molecules, showed a good discriminating ability between the two pastures and was little affected by the natural variability due to the climatic and environmental factors.

  7. Sialyl Lewis(x) hybridized complement receptor type 1 moderates acid aspiration injury.

    PubMed

    Kyriakides, C; Wang, Y; Austen, W G; Favuzza, J; Kobzik, L; Moore, F D; Hechtman, H B

    2001-12-01

    The potentially enhanced anti-inflammatory effects of the sialyl Lewis(x) (sLe(x))-decorated version of soluble complement receptor type 1 (sCR1) in moderating acid aspiration injury are examined. HCl was instilled in tracheostomy tubes placed in mice, and extravasation of (125)I-labeled albumin in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was used to calculate the vascular permeability index (PI). Neutrophil counts in BAL fluid and immunohistochemistry were performed. PI was moderated by 82% after treatment with sCR1sLe(x) compared with 54% in sCR1-untreated mice (P < 0.05). Respective reductions in PI in mice treated 0.5 and 1 h after acid aspiration with sCR1sLe(x) of 70 and 57% were greater than the decreases in PI of 45 and 38% observed in respective sCR1-treated groups (P < 0.05). BAL fluid neutrophil counts in sCR1sLe(x)-treated mice were significantly less than those in sCR1-treated animals, which were similar to those in untreated mice. Immunohistochemistry stained for sCR1 only on the pulmonary vascular endothelium of sCR1sLe(x)- but not sCR1-treated mice. In conclusion, sCR1sLe(x) moderates permeability by antagonizing complement activation and neutrophil adhesion. Delayed complement and neutrophil antagonism significantly reduces injury.

  8. Flash photolysis and pulse radiolysis studies on collagen Type I in acetic acid solution.

    PubMed

    Sionkowska, Alina

    2006-07-03

    An investigation of the photochemical properties of collagen Type I in acetic acid solution was carried out using nanosecond laser irradiation. The transient spectra of collagen solution excited at 266 nm show two bands. One of them with maximum at 295 nm and the second one with maximum at 400 nm. The peak at 400 nm is assigned to tyrosyl radicals. The first peak of the transient absorption spectra at 295 nm is probably due to photoionisation producing collagen radical cation. The transient for collagen solution in acetic acid at 640 nm was not observed. It is evidence that there is no hydrated electron in the irradiated collagen solution. The reactions of hydrated electrons and (*)OH radicals with collagen have been studied by pulse radiolysis. In the absorption spectra of products resulting from the reaction of collagen with e(aq)(-) no characteristic maximum absorption in UV and visible light region has been observed. In the absorption spectra of products resulting from the reaction of the hydroxyl radicals with collagen two bands have been observed. The first one at 320 nm and the second one at 405 nm. Reaction of (*)OH radicals with tyrosine residues in collagen chains gives rise to Tyr phenoxyl radicals (absorption at 400 nm).

  9. Side effects assessment in glicolyc acid peelings in patients with acne type I.

    PubMed

    Perić, Sanja; Bubanj, Maja; Bubanj, Saša; Jančić, Snežana

    2011-02-01

    Chemical peeling implies the application of a chemical agent to the skin, which causes controlled destruction of a part or the entire epidermis, with or without the dermis, leading to exfoliation and removal of superficial lesions, followed by regeneration of new epidermal and dermal tissues. The present study was directed toward safety concerns associated with superficial chemical peeling with glycolic acid (GA) in different concentrations at patients with acne tip I. A sample of 90 patients of either sex, aged between 17 to 21 years, were included in the study and submitted to superficial chemical peeling for acne vulgaris. The study lasted eight weeks and peeling sessions were carried out in each patient. Tolerance to the procedure and any undesirable effects noted during these sessions were recorded. For data statistical analysis and interpretation of results, software program "SPSS version 13" was used. Results were expressed through the descriptive statistics, as simple frequencies and percentages, while for establishing of statistically significant differences, in use was Friedman's test of significance. Almost all the patients tolerated the procedure well. Of totally 90 patients, only six, at the end of therapy experienced hard erythema, only ten, at the end of therapy experienced hard desquamation and only eleven, at the end of therapy experienced hard sensation of pulling of facial skin. Chemical peeling with glycolic acid is a well tolerated and safe treatment modality in acne type I.

  10. Hypothesis: Could Excessive Fructose Intake and Uric Acid Cause Type 2 Diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard J.; Perez-Pozo, Santos E.; Sautin, Yuri Y.; Manitius, Jacek; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Feig, Daniel I.; Shafiu, Mohamed; Segal, Mark; Glassock, Richard J.; Shimada, Michiko; Roncal, Carlos; Nakagawa, Takahiko

    2009-01-01

    We propose that excessive fructose intake (>50 g/d) may be one of the underlying etiologies of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The primary sources of fructose are sugar (sucrose) and high fructose corn syrup. First, fructose intake correlates closely with the rate of diabetes worldwide. Second, unlike other sugars, the ingestion of excessive fructose induces features of metabolic syndrome in both laboratory animals and humans. Third, fructose appears to mediate the metabolic syndrome in part by raising uric acid, and there are now extensive experimental and clinical data supporting uric acid in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Fourth, environmental and genetic considerations provide a potential explanation of why certain groups might be more susceptible to developing diabetes. Finally, we discuss the counterarguments associated with the hypothesis and a potential explanation for these findings. If diabetes might result from excessive intake of fructose, then simple public health measures could have a major impact on improving the overall health of our populace. PMID:19151107

  11. Binding of water, oil, and bile acids to dietary fibers of the cellan type.

    PubMed

    Dongowski, G; Ehwald, R

    1999-01-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) of the "cellan" type (consisting mainly or exclusively of undestroyed cells) were prepared as ethanol-dried materials from apple, cabbage, sugar-beet, soybean hulls, wheat bran, and suspension cultures of Chenopodium album L. and investigated with respect to their interactions with water, water-oil dispersions, bile acids, and oil. Water binding and retention capacities were found to be especially high in cellans obtained from thin-walled raw material. Water damp sorption by dry cellans, when analyzed according to the GAB and BET equations, shows a considerable fraction of monolayer water. At a water activity of 0.98, the cell and capillary spaces outside the walls remained in the air-filled state but the cell wall pores are filled with water. When the water content of a concentrated aqueous cellan suspension was equal to or below the water binding capacity, its rheological behavior was found to be of pseudoplastic nature. At a given dry weight concentration, yield stress and viscosity of such concentrated suspensions were highest for cellans with the highest water binding capacity. Dry cellan particles absorbed fatty oils without swelling but swell in a detergent-stabilized oil/water emulsion with a similar liquid absorption capacity as in water. In contrast to the dry or alkane-saturated cell wall, the hydrated wall is not permeable to oils in the absence of a detergent. Oil droplets may be entrapped within the cells, yielding a stable dispersion of oil in water. As DF of the cellan type absorb bile acids, preferentially glycoconjugates, from diluted solutions, they may have a potential to decrease the serum cholesterol level.

  12. Lysophosphatidic acid expression in theca cells depends on the type of bovine ovarian follicle.

    PubMed

    Sinderewicz, E; Grycmacher, K; Boruszewska, D; Kowalczyk-Zięba, I; Woclawek-Potocka, I

    2017-02-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) exerts various actions on the mammalian reproductive system. In cows, LPA stimulates the synthesis and secretion of luteotropic factors in the ovary, which affects the growth and development of ovarian follicles. The role of LPA in granulosa cells, oocyte and oocyte-cumulus complex (COC) has previously been investigated; but its role in the theca layer, which is an important structural and functional component of the ovarian follicle, is still unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the expression of LPA in theca cells originating from different bovine ovarian follicle types. Theca cells were separated from healthy, transitional and atretic ovarian follicles, based on intrafollicular estradiol: progesterone ratios. LPA concentration in the follicular fluid (FF) in different follicle types was measured, and expression of the enzymes responsible for LPA synthesis (autotaxin [AX], phospholipase A2 [PLA2]) and receptors for LPA (LPAR1-4) were determined. The obtained results confirmed the follicle-type dependent presence of LPA in the FF of the bovine ovarian follicles. The highest concentration of LPA was detected in follicles classified as healthy and dominant. LPAR1-4, PLA2 and AX expression in theca cells in all of the types of follicles examined were detected at mRNA and protein level. These results suggest that theca cells can be a source of LPA synthesis other than granulosa cells and COCs, as well as the target for its action in the bovine ovarian follicle, with PLA2 and LPAR4 playing major roles in LPA synthesis and action. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Metabolomic profiling of fatty acid and amino acid metabolism in youth with obesity and type 2 diabetes: evidence for enhanced mitochondrial oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mihalik, Stephanie J; Michaliszyn, Sara F; de las Heras, Javier; Bacha, Fida; Lee, SoJung; Chace, Donald H; DeJesus, Victor R; Vockley, Jerry; Arslanian, Silva A

    2012-03-01

    We compared acylcarnitine (AcylCN) species, common amino acid and fat oxidation (FOX) byproducts, and plasma amino acids in normal weight (NW; n = 39), obese (OB; n = 64), and type 2 diabetic (n = 17) adolescents. Fasting plasma was analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography, and total-body lipolysis and substrate oxidation by [(2)H(5)]glycerol and indirect calorimetry, respectively. In vivo insulin sensitivity (IS) was assessed with a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Long-chain AcylCNs (C18:2-CN to C14:0-CN) were similar among the three groups. Medium- to short-chain AcylCNs (except C8 and C10) were significantly lower in type 2 diabetes compared with NW, and when compared with OB, C2-, C6-, and C10-CN were lower. Amino acid concentrations were lower in type 2 diabetes compared with NW. Fasting lipolysis and FOX were higher in OB and type 2 diabetes compared with NW, and the negative association of FOX to C10:1 disappeared after controlling for adiposity, Tanner stage, and sex. IS was lower in OB and type 2 diabetes with positive associations between IS and arginine, histidine, and serine after adjusting for adiposity, Tanner stage, and sex. These metabolomics results, together with the increased rates of in vivo FOX, are not supportive of defective fatty acid or amino acid metabolism in obesity and type 2 diabetes in youth. Such observations are consistent with early adaptive metabolic plasticity in youth, which over time-with continued obesity and aging-may become dysfunctional, as observed in adults.

  14. Heart-type Fatty Acid-binding Protein Is Essential for Efficient Brown Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Oxidation and Cold Tolerance*

    PubMed Central

    Vergnes, Laurent; Chin, Robert; Young, Stephen G.; Reue, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue has a central role in thermogenesis to maintain body temperature through energy dissipation in small mammals and has recently been verified to function in adult humans as well. Here, we demonstrate that the heart-type fatty acid-binding protein, FABP3, is essential for cold tolerance and efficient fatty acid oxidation in mouse brown adipose tissue, despite the abundant expression of adipose-type fatty acid-binding protein, FABP4 (also known as aP2). Fabp3−/− mice exhibit extreme cold sensitivity despite induction of uncoupling and oxidative genes and hydrolysis of brown adipose tissue lipid stores. However, using FABP3 gain- and loss-of-function approaches in brown adipocytes, we detected a correlation between FABP3 levels and the utilization of exogenous fatty acids. Thus, Fabp3−/− brown adipocytes fail to oxidize exogenously supplied fatty acids, whereas enhanced Fabp3 expression promotes more efficient oxidation. These results suggest that FABP3 levels are a determinant of fatty acid oxidation efficiency by brown adipose tissue and that FABP3 represents a potential target for modulation of energy dissipation. PMID:21044951

  15. Glycosuria-mediated urinary uric acid excretion in patients with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lytvyn, Yuliya; Škrtić, Marko; Yang, Gary K; Yip, Paul M; Perkins, Bruce A; Cherney, David Z I

    2015-01-15

    Plasma uric acid (PUA) is associated with metabolic, cardiovascular, and renal abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes but is less well understood in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Our aim was to compare PUA levels and fractional uric acid excretion (FEUA) in patients with T1D vs. healthy controls (HC) during euglycemia and hyperglycemia. PUA, FEUA, blood pressure (BP), glomerular filtration rate (GFR-inulin), and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF-paraaminohippurate) were evaluated in patients with T1D (n = 66) during clamped euglycemia (glucose 4-6 mmol/l) and hyperglycemia (9-11 mmol/l), and in HC (n = 41) during euglycemia. To separate the effects of hyperglycemia vs. increased glycosuria, parameters were evaluated during clamped euglycemia in a subset of T1D patients before and after sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition for 8 wk. PUA was lower in T1D vs. HC (228 ± 62 vs. 305 ± 75 μmol/l, P < 0.0001). In T1D, hyperglycemia further decreased PUA (228 ± 62 to 199 ± 65 μmol/l, P < 0.0001), which was accompanied by an increase in FEUA (7.3 ± 3.8 to 11.6 ± 6.7, P < 0.0001). In T1D, PUA levels correlated positively with SBP (P = 0.029) and negatively with ERPF (P = 0.031) and GFR (P = 0.028). After induction of glycosuria with SGLT2 inhibition while maintaining clamped euglycemia, PUA decreased (P < 0.0001) and FEUA increased (P < 0.0001). PUA is lower in T1D vs. HC and positively correlates with SBP and negatively with GFR and ERPF in T1D. Glycosuria rather than hyperglycemia increases uricosuria in T1D. Future studies examining the effect of uric acid-lowering therapies should account for the impact of ambient glycemia, which causes an important uricosuric effect. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Higher Serum Uric Acid May Contribute to Cerebral Infarction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Du, Lei; Ma, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiaoning

    2017-01-01

    Higher levels of serum uric acid tend to increase the diabetes-related complications. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate whether the higher serum uric acid levels were associated with cerebral infarction in type 2 diabetes patients. We searched for relevant studies in the PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China BioMedicine, and VIP database until August 2015. All observational studies comparing serum uric acid levels in type 2 diabetic patients with and without cerebral infarction were included. We calculated the ratio of means (RoM) of serum uric acid by mean cerebral infarction/mean diabetic control from the individual studies and then pooled RoM and its 95 % confidence intervals (CI). A total of 23 eligible studies were identified. Pooled estimates indicated that type 2 diabetes patients with cerebral infarction were associated with 29 % (RoM 1.29; 95 % CI 1.26-1.31) higher serum uric acid levels than those without cerebral infarction in a random effect model. Subgroup analyses based on gender indicated that RoM was 1.23 (95 % CI 1.09-1.38) for men and 1.12 (95 % CI 0.98-1.27) for women. This meta-analysis suggests that higher serum uric acid levels may contribute to cerebral infarction in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  17. Association of Serum Uric Acid Concentration with Diabetic Retinopathy and Albuminuria in Taiwanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Chao; Lin, Pi-Chen; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Chen, Szu-Chia; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Lin, Kun-Der; Hsu, Wei-Hao

    2016-08-02

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) may experience chronic microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) during their lifetime. In clinical studies, serum uric acid concentration has been found to be associated with DR and DN. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the increases in serum uric acid level and the severity of DR and albuminuria in Taiwanese patients with type 2 DM. We recorded serum uric acid concentration, the severity of DR, and the severity of albuminuria by calculating urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) in 385 patients with type 2 DM. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, a high uric acid concentration was a risk factor for albuminuria (odds ratio (OR), 1.227; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.015-1.482; p = 0.034) and DR (OR, 1.264; 95% CI = 1.084-1.473; p = 0.003). We also demonstrated that there was a higher concentration of serum uric acid in the patients with more severe albuminuria and DR. In conclusion, an increased serum uric acid level was significantly correlated with the severity of albuminuria and DR in Taiwanese patients with type 2 DM.

  18. Saturated fatty acid intake decreases serum adiponectin levels in subjects with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Eccel Prates, Raquel; Beretta, Mileni V; Nascimento, Filipe V; Bernaud, Fernanda R; de Almeira, Jussara Carnevale; Rodrigues, Ticiana C

    2016-06-01

    Adiponectin is a protein secreted by adipose tissue. It plays a key role in insulin resistance and has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic functions. Changes in diet can influence adiponectin levels. Different dietary interventions, especially those altering fatty acid intake, have been reported as possible mediators of adiponectin levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 122 subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Dietary intake was evaluated by 3-day weighed-diet records. Adiponectin levels were categorized into tertiles (T1, <10.260μg/mL; T2, 10.261-18.280μg/mL; T3, >18.281μg/mL). Mean age was 38±11years, and mean duration of diabetes was 17±9years. After multiple regression analysis, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (r=-0.19, p = 0.03), age (r=-0.22, p=0.01), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (r=-0.27, p=0.002), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (r=-0.19, p=0.30), total lipid intake (g) (r=-0.20, p=0.02), saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake (r=-0.25, p=0.004), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) intake (r=-0.21, p=0.02), cholesterol intake (mg) (r=-0.20, p=0.021), sodium intake (g) (r=-0.19, p=0.03), and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAE) (μg/24h) (r=0.26, p=0.02) correlated with adiponectin levels. Even after adjustment for age, SBP or DBP, UAE, and WHR in all models, inverse associations between adiponectin levels and intake of total SFA and MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acid fractions were observed. Subjects in the first and third tertiles of adiponectin exhibited the greatest differences between adiponectin levels, with a trend toward increasing levels with higher SFA intake. The present study suggests that high SFA intake may be associated with lower adiponectin levels in patients with T1DM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Unlike type 2 diabetes, type 1 does not interact with the codon 54 polymorphism of the fatty acid binding protein 2 gene.

    PubMed

    Georgopoulos, Angeliki; Aras, Omer; Noutsou, Marina; Tsai, Michael Y

    2002-08-01

    In type 2 diabetes, the threonine (Thr) for alanine (Ala) codon 54 polymorphism of the fatty acid binding protein 2 gene is associated with elevated fasting and postprandial triglycerides and dyslipidemia when compared with the wild type (Ala-54/Ala-54). To assess whether this is the case in patients with type 1 diabetes, who usually do not manifest the metabolic syndrome, we screened 181 patients with similar glycemic control as the type 2 patients. Thirty percent were heterozygous, and 9% were homozygous for the polymorphism. Mean (+/-SEM) fasting plasma triglyceride levels in patients with the wild type (n = 84), those heterozygous for Ala-54/Thr-54 (n = 44), and those homozygous for the Thr-54 (n = 13) were 1.0 +/- 0.07, 1.1 +/- 0.17, and 1.2 +/- 0.23 mmol/liter, respectively. In addition, there were no differences in total, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol among the three groups. After a fat load, the postprandial area under the curve of triglyceride in plasma, chylomicrons, and very low-density lipoprotein were similar between the wild type (n = 18) and the Thr-54 homozygotes (n = 12). In conclusion, in contrast to type 2, type 1 diabetes does not interact with the codon 54 polymorphism of the fatty acid binding protein 2 gene to cause hypertriglyceridemia/dyslipidemia. Insulin resistance could account possibly for this difference.

  20. Oleanolic Acid Induces the Type III Secretion System of Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dousheng; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xuejiao; Yang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt, can naturally infect a wide range of host plants. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a major virulence determinant in this bacterium. Studies have shown that plant-derived compounds are able to inhibit or induce the T3SS in some plant pathogenic bacteria, though no specific T3SS inhibitor or inducer has yet been identified in R. solanacearum. In this study, a total of 50 different compounds were screened and almost half of them (22 of 50) significantly inhibited or induced the T3SS expression of R. solanacearum. Based on the strong induction activity on T3SS, the T3SS inducer oleanolic acid (OA) was chosen for further study. We found that OA induced the expression of T3SS through the HrpG-HrpB pathway. Some type III effector genes were induced in T3SS inducing medium supplemented with OA. In addition, OA targeted only the T3SS and did not affect other virulence determinants. Finally, we observed that induction of T3SS by OA accelerated disease progress on tobacco. Overall our results suggest that plant-derived compounds are an abundant source of R. solanacearum T3SS regulators, which could prove useful as tools to interrogate the regulation of this key virulence pathway. PMID:26732647

  1. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria in two Flemish artisan raw milk Gouda-type cheeses.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorde, Koenraad; Verstraete, Tine; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2008-10-01

    PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to study the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in two Flemish artisan raw milk Gouda-type cheeses. In parallel, conventional culturing was performed. Isolates were identified using (GTG)(5)-PCR and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and pheS genes. Discriminant analysis revealed some differences in overall LAB diversity between the two batches and between the two cheeses. Within each batch, the diversity of 8- and 12-week-old cheeses was relatively similar. Conventional isolation mainly revealed the presence of Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Pediococcus pentosaceus. PCR-DGGE revealed the presence of three species of which no isolates were recovered, i.e. Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus gallinarum. Conversely, not all isolated bacteria were detected by PCR-DGGE. We recommend the integrated use of culture-dependent and -independent approaches to maximally encompass the taxonomic spectrum of LAB occurring in Gouda-type and other cheeses.

  2. Trans-Fatty Acid-Stimulated Mammary Gland Growth in Ovariectomized Mice is Fatty Acid Type and Isomer Specific.

    PubMed

    Berryhill, Grace E; Miszewski, Susan G; Trott, Josephine F; Kraft, Jana; Lock, Adam L; Hovey, Russell C

    2017-03-01

    We previously reported that the trans-18:2 fatty acid trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10,c12-CLA) stimulates mammary gland development independent of estrogen and its receptor. Given the negative consequences of dietary trans-fatty acids on various aspects of human health, we sought to establish whether other trans-fatty acids could similarly induce ovary-independent mammary gland growth in mice. Prepubertal BALB/cJ mice were ovariectomized at 21 days of age then were fed diets enriched with cis-9, trans-11 CLA (c9,t11-CLA), or mixtures of trans-18:1 fatty acids supplied by partially hydrogenated sunflower, safflower, or linseed oil. The resultant mammary phenotype was evaluated 3 weeks later and compared to the growth response elicited by t10,c12-CLA, or the defined control diet. Whereas partially hydrogenated safflower oil increased mammary gland weight, none of the partially hydrogenated vegetable oils promoted mammary ductal growth. Similarly, the c9,t11-CLA supplemented diet was without effect on mammary development. Taken together, our data emphasize a unique effect of t10,c12-CLA in stimulating estrogen-independent mammary gland growth manifest as increased mammary ductal area and elongation that was not recapitulated by c9,t11-CLA or the partially hydrogenated vegetable oil diets.

  3. Multiple effects of nordihydroguaiaretic acid on ionic currents in rat isolated type I carotid body cells

    PubMed Central

    Hatton, C J; Peers, C

    1997-01-01

    The effects of the lipoxygenase inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) on the ionic currents of rat carotid body type I cells were investigated by use of whole-cell and outside-out patch clamp techniques. NDGA (5–50 μM) produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of whole-cell K+ currents at all activating test potentials (holding potential −70 mV). The time-course of the inhibition was also concentration-dependent and the effects of NDGA were only reversible following brief periods of exposure (<2 min). Another lipoxygenase inhibitor, phenidone (5 μM), was without effect on whole-cell K+ currents in carotid body type I cells. NDGA (5–50 μM) also inhibited whole-cell Ca2+ channel currents (recorded with Ba2+ as charge carrier) in a concentration-dependent manner. Isolation of voltage-gated K+ channels by use of high [Mg2+] (6 mM), low [Ca2+] (0.1 mM) solutions revealed a direct inhibition of the voltage-sensitive component of the whole-cell K+ current by NDGA (50 μM). In excised, outside-out patches NDGA (20–50 μM) increased large conductance, Ca2+ activated K+ channel activity approximately 10 fold, an effect which could be reversed by either tetraethylammonium (10 mM) or charybdotoxin (30 nM). It is concluded that NDGA activates maxi-K+ channels in carotid body type I cells and over the same concentration range inhibits voltage-sensitive K+ and Ca2+ channels. The inhibition of whole cell K+ currents seen is most likely due to a combination of direct inhibition of the voltage-sensitive K+ current and indirect inhibition of maxi-K+ channel activity through blockade of Ca2+ channels. PMID:9384510

  4. Ferulic acid, an efficient inhibitor of type B trichothecene biosynthesis and Tri gene expression in Fusarium liquid cultures.

    PubMed

    Boutigny, Anne-Laure; Barreau, Christian; Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela; Verdal-Bonnin, Marie-Noëlle; Pinson-Gadais, Laëtitia; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2009-01-01

    The effect of ferulic acid, the most abundant phenolic acid in wheat bran, was studied in vitro on type B trichothecene biosynthesis by Fusarium. It was demonstrated that ferulic acid is an efficient inhibitor of mycotoxin production by all strains of Fusarium tested, including different chemotypes and species. To analyse the mechanism of toxin biosynthesis inhibition by ferulic acid, expression of representative Tri genes, involved in the trichothecene biosynthesis pathway, was monitored by real-time RT-PCR. A decrease in the level of Tri gene expression was measured, suggesting that inhibition of toxin synthesis by ferulic acid could be regulated at the transcriptional level. Moreover, toxin production was shown to be reduced proportionally to the initial amount of ferulic acid added in the culture medium. Addition of ferulic acid either at the spore germination step or to a mycelial culture resulted in the same final inhibitory effect on mycotoxin accumulation. A cumulative inhibitory effect on trichothecene biosynthesis was even observed with successive supplementation of ferulic acid. Ferulic acid, which content varies among wheat varieties, could then play an important role in modulating trichothecene biosynthesis by Fusarium in some wheat varieties.

  5. A study on lithium/air secondary batteries-Stability of NASICON-type glass ceramics in acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimonishi, Y.; Zhang, T.; Johnson, P.; Imanishi, N.; Hirano, A.; Takeda, Y.; Yamamoto, O.; Sammes, N.

    The stability of a NASICON-type lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte, Li 1+ x+ yTi 2- xAl xP 3- ySi yO 12 (LTAP), in acetic acid and formic acid solutions was examined. XRD patterns of the LTAP powders immersed in 100% acetic acid and formic acid at 50 °C for 4 months showed no change as compared to the pristine LTAP. However, the electrical conductivity of LTAP drastically decreased. On the other hand, no significant electrical conductivity change of LTAP immersed in lithium formate saturated formic acid-water solution was observed, and the electrical conductivity of LTAP immersed in lithium acetate saturated acetic acid-water increased. Cyclic voltammogram tests suggested that acetic acid was stable up to a high potential, but formic acid decomposed under the decomposition potential of water. The acetic acid solution was considered to be a candidate for the active material in the air electrode of lithium-air rechargeable batteries. The cell reaction was considered as 2Li + 2 CH 3COOH + 1/2O 2 = 2CH 3COOLi + H 2O. The energy density of this lithium-air system is calculated to be 1477 Wh kg -1 from the weights of Li and CH 3COOH, and an observed open-circuit voltage of 3.69 V.

  6. Enantioselective Direct Mannich-Type Reactions Catalyzed by Frustrated Lewis Acid/Brønsted Base Complexes.

    PubMed

    Shang, Ming; Cao, Min; Wang, Qifan; Wasa, Masayuki

    2017-09-05

    An enantioselective direct Mannich-type reaction catalyzed by a sterically frustrated Lewis acid/Brønsted base complex is disclosed. Cooperative functioning of the chiral Lewis acid and achiral Brønsted base components gives rise to in situ enolate generation from monocarbonyl compounds. Subsequent reaction with hydrogen-bond-activated aldimines delivers β-aminocarbonyl compounds with high enantiomeric purity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Influence of the acid type in the production of chitosan films reinforced with bacterial nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    Velásquez-Cock, J; Ramírez, E; Betancourt, S; Putaux, J-L; Osorio, M; Castro, C; Gañán, P; Zuluaga, R

    2014-08-01

    Chitosan films reinforced with bacterial cellulose (BC) nanoribbons were studied to understand the influence of acid (acetic and lactic acids) on the reinforcing effect. For both acids, the maximum concentration of the reinforcing constituent was 5wt% with respect to the dry weight of chitosan. The infrared spectra, mechanical properties, morphology and antimicrobial activity of the films were analyzed. The results showed a difference between the acids in their behavior and effect on the reinforcement, with a tensile strength of 12.3MPa for the acetic acid films and 3.3MPa for the lactic acid films. Additionally, the bacterial inhibition tests were shown to be positive for the lactic acid films and negative for the acetic acid films. Therefore, exchanging the acid used in these films may be desirable for certain applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Type II Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase from Claviceps purpurea with Ricinoleic Acid, a Hydroxyl Fatty Acid of Industrial Importance, as Preferred Substrate ▿

    PubMed Central

    Mavraganis, Ioannis; Meesapyodsuk, Dauenpen; Vrinten, Patricia; Smith, Mark; Qiu, Xiao

    2010-01-01

    Claviceps purpurea, the fungal pathogen that causes the cereal disease ergot, produces glycerides that contain high levels of ricinoleic acid [(R)-12-hydroxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic acid] in its sclerotia. Recently, a fatty acid hydroxylase (C. purpurea FAH [CpFAH]) involved in the biosynthesis of ricinoleic acid was identified from this fungus (D. Meesapyodsuk and X. Qiu, Plant Physiol. 147:1325-1333, 2008). Here, we describe the cloning and biochemical characterization of a C. purpurea type II diacylglycerol acyltransferase (CpDGAT2) involved in the assembly of ricinoleic acid into triglycerides. The CpDGAT2 gene was cloned by degenerate RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR). The expression of this gene restored the in vivo synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG) in the quadruple mutant strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae H1246, in which all four TAG biosynthesis genes (DGA1, LRO1, ARE1, and ARE2) are disrupted. In vitro enzymatic assays using microsomal preparations from the transformed yeast strain indicated that CpDGAT2 prefers ricinoleic acid as an acyl donor over linoleic acid, oleic acid, or linolenic acid, and it prefers 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol over 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol as an acyl acceptor. The coexpression of CpFAH with CpDGAT2 in yeast resulted in an increased accumulation of ricinoleic acid compared to the coexpression of CpFAH with the native yeast DGAT2 (S. cerevisiae DGA1 [ScDGA1]) or the expression of CpFAH alone. Northern blot analysis indicated that CpFAH is expressed solely in sclerotium cells, with no transcripts of this gene being detected in mycelium or conidial cells. CpDGAT2 was more widely expressed among the cell types examined, although expression was low in conidiospores. The high expression of CpDGAT2 and CpFAH in sclerotium cells, where high levels of ricinoleate glycerides accumulate, provided further evidence supporting the roles of CpDGAT2 and CpFAH as key enzymes for the synthesis and assembly of ricinoleic acid in C. purpurea. PMID

  9. Increased plasma levels of xanthurenic and kynurenic acids in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Oxenkrug, Gregory F

    2015-01-01

    About 350 million people worldwide have type 2 diabetes (T2D). The major risk factor of T2D is impaired glucose tolerance (pre-diabetes) with 10% of pre-diabetes subjects develop T2D every year. Understanding of mechanisms of development of T2D from pre-diabetes is important for prevention and treatment of T2D. Chronic stress and chronic low grade inflammation are prominent risk factors for T2D development in pre-diabetic subjects. However, molecular mechanisms mediating effect of stress and inflammation on development of T2D from pre-diabetes remain unknown. One of such mechanisms might involve kynurenine (KYN) pathway (KP) of tryptophan (TRP) metabolism. We suggested that chronic stress- or chronic low grade inflammation-induced upregulation of formation of upstream KTP metabolites, KYN and 3-hydroxyKYN, combined with chronic stress or chronic low grade inflammation-induced deficiency of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, a cofactor of downstream enzymes of KTP, triggers overproduction of diabetogenic downstream KYN metabolites, kynurenic acid (KYNA) and 3-hydroxyKYNA (also known as xanthurenic acid (XA)). As the initial assessment of our working hypothesis, we evaluated plasma levels of up- and down-stream KP metabolites in the same samples of T2D patients. KYN, XA and KYNA levels in plasma samples of T2D patients were higher than in samples of non-diabetic subjects. Our results provide further support of “kynurenine hypothesis of insulin resistance and its progression to T2D” that suggested that overproduction of diabetogenic KP metabolites, induced by chronic stress- or chronic low grade inflammation, is one of the mechanisms promoting development of T2D from pre-diabetes. Downstream metabolites of KP might serve as biomarkers of T2D and targets for clinical intervention. PMID:26055228

  10. Investigation of electroless tin deposition from acidic thiourea-type bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araźna, A.; Bieliński, J.

    2006-10-01

    The constant tendency of miniaturization in electronic products and developments in surface assembly techniques creates requirement to prepare new techniques and processes also in the range of metallic coatings. An additional factor which influences the evolution of preservatives coatings technology is the necessity to adapt Polish law to European directive. From 1 st July 2006 there will be an obligatory RoHS directive banning applying lead in electronics. Electroless tin deposition is one of an alternative for Sn/Pb lead free preservative films on copper surface in PCB technology. Electroless deposition of tin coatings on copper can be made in two ways: from an alkaline bath - the process disproportionation of Sn(II) compounds and from acidic bath contain complex compound such as thiourea - the displacement of copper by tin in Sn(II). Alkaline baths are not used in printed circuit board technology because it has destructive influence on resists. Besides acidic baths complex compounds contain additional stability solution composition which modify structure of obtained tin film. Quality and thickness tin layer are fundamental parameters which determine its protective character. The research test were done in thiourea-type electroless tin bath. The influence of different parameters on n rate of tin deposition and thickness of Sn coating were determined: temperature of the bath, Sn(II)-salt, thiourea and HCl concentration. Tin layers were depositioned on electrolytical copper foil. The thickness of Sn coating was determined by coulometry in 2M HCl. The rate deposition process depends mainly on the thiourea and HCl concentrations in solution. The temperature is also a very important parameter. The thickness of tin layer grows when the temperature increase. Although above 70°C appear undesirable thiourea decomposition. The results of the investigation show that further investigations are necessary for this solution.

  11. Dicaffeoylquinic and Dicaffeoyltartaric Acids Are Selective Inhibitors of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Integrase

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Brenda; King, Peter J.; Wu, Bor Wen; Hostomsky, Zdenek; Reinecke, Manfred G.; Robinson, W. Edward

    1998-01-01

    Current pharmacological agents for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection include drugs targeted against HIV reverse transcriptase and HIV protease. An understudied therapeutic target is HIV integrase, an essential enzyme that mediates integration of the HIV genome into the host chromosome. The dicaffeoylquinic acids (DCQAs) and the dicaffeoyltartaric acids (DCTAs) have potent activity against HIV integrase in vitro and prevent HIV replication in tissue culture. However, their specificity against HIV integrase in cell culture has been questioned. Thus, the ability of the DCQAs and DCTAs to inhibit binding of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 to CD4 and their activities against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and HIV RNase H were studied. The DCQAs and DCTAs inhibited HIV-1 integrase at concentrations between 150 and 840 nM. They inhibited HIV replication at concentrations between 2 and 12 μM. Their activity against reverse transcriptase ranged from 7 μM to greater than 100 μM. Concentrations that inhibited gp120 binding to CD4 exceeded 80 μM. None of the compounds blocked HIV-1 RNase H by 50% at concentrations exceeding 80 μM. Furthermore, when the effects of the DCTAs on reverse transcription in acutely infected cells were measured, they were found to have no activity. Therefore, the DCQAs and DCTAs exhibit >10- to >100-fold specificity for HIV integrase, and their activity against integrase in biochemical assays is consistent with their observed anti-HIV activity in tissue culture. Thus, the DCQAs and DCTAs are a potentially important class of HIV inhibitors that act at a site distinct from that of current HIV therapeutic agents. PMID:9449274

  12. Ethanol metabolite acetic acid as causative agent for type-1 hypersensitivity-like reactions to alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Boehncke, W H; Gall, H

    1996-09-01

    Adverse reactions to alcoholic beverages are common and more frequently mediated by immunological mechanisms than previously thought. To elucidate relevant allergens in this context we studied patients with an informative medical history. This report describes a comprehensive allergological approach in a patient exhibiting type-I hypersensitivity-like reactions towards beverages and medication containing alcohol, and salad dressings with acetic acid. The ethanol metabolite acetic acid was found to yield positive prick test results in concentrations not eliciting reactions in healthy and atopic controls. Among other ethanol metabolites, acetic acid is a potential allergen in the context of hypersensitivity towards alcoholic beverages.

  13. Seasonal and rainfall-type variations in inorganic ions and dicarboxylic acids and acidity of wet deposition samples collected from subtropical East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ying I.; Hsieh, Li-Ying; Kuo, Su-Ching; Chen, Chien-Lung; Wu, Pei-Ling

    2011-07-01

    Rainfall samples were collected over a period of 3 years and 8 months in subtropical East Asia. They are categorized into different rainfall types and analyzed to assess the ionic composition and its effect on the acidity of wet deposition in southern Taiwan. Only 4% of samples had a pH of <5.0, indicating that the study area is not impacted significantly by acid rain. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) pH by rainfall type was Spring Rain 5.74, Typhoon Rain 5.56, Summer Rain 5.46, Typhoon Outer Circulation (TOC) Rain 5.45, Plum Rain 5.32 and Autumn-Winter Rain 5.29. Dilution effects were important to the equivalent ionic concentration of different rainfall types. HCO 3-, SO 42- and Cl - were detected as major anions whereas NH 4+, Na + and Ca 2+ were major cations. CO 2-derived HCO 3- was the major ionic species in all but Typhoon Rain and Spring Rain, in which the major species were Na + and Cl - and Ca 2+, respectively. Excluding HCO 3-, the major species were NH 4+, Na + and Ca 2+ in Plum Rain, the secondary photochemical products SO 42-, NO 3- and NH 4+ in TOC Rain and Summer Rain, and Na + and Ca 2+ in Autumn-Winter Rain. Calculation of arithmetic means showed that dicarboxylic acids contributed between 0.25% and 0.53% of the total ionic concentration and of these, oxalic acid contributed the least (81.3% of the dicarboxylic acid) to TOC Rain and the most (96.1% of the dicarboxylic acid) to Spring Rain, suggestive of long-range transport in the latter. Differences in wet deposition composition were shown to be a result of differences in local emissions and long-range transport (hence of prevailing wind direction) during the period of rainfall and of the frequency and volume of rain that typifies each rainfall type. Principal component analysis (PCA) further revealed that traffic-related and industrial organic and inorganic pollutants, their secondary photochemical products, sea salts, and dust are important contributors to wet deposition. Moreover, the ratio of

  14. Completion of the amino acid sequence of the alpha 1 chain from type I calf skin collagen. Amino acid sequence of alpha 1(I)B8.

    PubMed Central

    Glanville, R W; Breitkreutz, D; Meitinger, M; Fietzek, P P

    1983-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of the 279-residue CNBr peptide CB8 from the alpha 1 chain of type I calf skin collagen is presented. It was determined by sequencing overlapping fragments of CB8 produced by Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase, trypsin, Endoproteinase Arg-C and hydroxylamine. Tryptic cleavages were also made specific for lysine by blocking arginine residues with cyclohexane-1,2-dione. This completes the amino acid sequence analysis of the 1054-residues-long alpha (I) chain of calf skin collagen. PMID:6354180

  15. Different response to acetic acid stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild-type and l-ascorbic acid-producing strains.

    PubMed

    Martani, Francesca; Fossati, Tiziana; Posteri, Riccardo; Signori, Lorenzo; Porro, Danilo; Branduardi, Paola

    2013-09-01

    Biotechnological processes are of increasing significance for industrial production of fine and bulk chemicals, including biofuels. Unfortunately, under operative conditions microorganisms meet multiple stresses, such as non-optimal pH, temperature, oxygenation and osmotic stress. Moreover, they have to face inhibitory compounds released during the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomasses, which constitute the preferential substrate for second-generation processes. Inhibitors include furan derivatives, phenolic compounds and weak organic acids, among which acetic acid is one of the most abundant and detrimental for cells. They impair cellular metabolism and growth, reducing the productivity of the process: therefore, the development of robust cell factories with improved production rates and resistance is of crucial importance. Here we show that a yeast strain engineered to endogenously produce vitamin C exhibits an increased tolerance compared to the parental strain when exposed to acetic acid at moderately toxic concentrations, measured as viability on plates. Starting from this evidence, we investigated more deeply: (a) the nature and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS); (b) the activation of enzymes that act directly as detoxifiers of reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, in parental and engineered strains during acetic acid stress. The data indicate that the engineered strain can better recover from stress by limiting ROS accumulation, independently from SOD activation. The engineered yeast can be proposed as a model for further investigating direct and indirect mechanism(s) by which an antioxidant can rescue cells from organic acid damage; moreover, these studies will possibly provide additional targets for further strain improvements. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The effect of dietary fat content on phospholipid fatty acid profile is muscle fiber type dependent.

    PubMed

    Janovská, Alena; Hatzinikolas, George; Mano, Mark; Wittert, Gary A

    2010-04-01

    A high-saturated-fat diet (HFD) induces obesity and insulin resistance (IR). IR has been linked to alterations and increased saturation in the phospholipid composition of skeletal muscles. We aimed to determine whether HFD feeding affects fatty acid (FA) membrane profile in a muscle fiber type-specific manner. We measured phospholipid FAs and expression of FA synthesis genes in oxidative soleus (SOL) and glycolytic extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from rats fed either standard chow (standard laboratory diet, SLD) or a HFD. The HFD increased fat mass, plasma insulin, and leptin levels. Compared with EDL, SOL muscles preferentially accumulated C18 over C16 FAs and n-6 over n-3 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) on either diet. With the HFD, SOL muscles contained more n-9 monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) and n-6 PUFAs and less n-7 MUFAs and n-3 PUFAs than EDL muscles and had lower unsaturation index, a pattern known to be associated with IR. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 expression was approximately 13-fold greater in EDL than in SOL muscles but did not change with the HFD in either muscle. The expression of Elongase-5 was higher, and that of Elongase-6 (Elovl6) was lower in EDL compared with SOL muscles with both diets. In EDL muscles, the expression of Elovl6 was lower in the HFD than in the SLD. The pattern of FA uptake, expression, and diet-induced changes in FA desaturating and elongating enzymes maintained higher FA unsaturation in EDL muscles. Accordingly, the fiber type composition of skeletal muscles and their distribution may be important in the development and progression of obesity and IR.

  17. Efficient Modulation of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptors by Piperine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Piperine activates TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor) receptors and modulates γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAAR). We have synthesized a library of 76 piperine analogues and analyzed their effects on GABAAR by means of a two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. GABAAR were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Structure–activity relationships (SARs) were established to identify structural elements essential for efficiency and potency. Efficiency of piperine derivatives was significantly increased by exchanging the piperidine moiety with either N,N-dipropyl, N,N-diisopropyl, N,N-dibutyl, p-methylpiperidine, or N,N-bis(trifluoroethyl) groups. Potency was enhanced by replacing the piperidine moiety by N,N-dibutyl, N,N-diisobutyl, or N,N-bistrifluoroethyl groups. Linker modifications did not substantially enhance the effect on GABAAR. Compound 23 [(2E,4E)-5-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N,N-dipropyl-2,4-pentadienamide] induced the strongest modulation of GABAA (maximal GABA-induced chloride current modulation (IGABA-max = 1673% ± 146%, EC50 = 51.7 ± 9.5 μM), while 25 [(2E,4E)-5-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N,N-dibutyl-2,4-pentadienamide] displayed the highest potency (EC50 = 13.8 ± 1.8 μM, IGABA-max = 760% ± 47%). Compound 23 induced significantly stronger anxiolysis in mice than piperine and thus may serve as a starting point for developing novel GABAAR modulators. PMID:24905252

  18. Two types of rare earth-organic frameworks constructed by racemic tartaric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Zhanguo; Lv Yaokang; Cheng Jianwen; Feng Yunlong

    2012-01-15

    Hydrothermal reactions of rare earth oxides with racemic tartaric acid (H{sub 2}tar) yielded 7 rare earth(III) MOFs with general formulas [R{sub 2}(tar){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (R=Y (1), Sm (4), Eu (5), Tb (6), Dy (7)) and [R{sub 2}(tar){sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n}{center_dot}4nH{sub 2}O (R=La (2), Nd (3)). X-ray powder diffraction analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveal that they present two different structural types. MOFs 1, 4, 5, 6 and 7 are isostructural and crystallize in the orthorhombic non-centrosymmetric space group Iba2, and feature unusual fsc-3,4-Iba2 topology. MOFs 2 and 3 are isostructural and crystallize in monoclinic P2{sub 1}/c space group and display rare fsx-4,5-P2{sub 1}/c topology containing hydrophilic channels bounded by triple helical chains along a axis. MOFs 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 exhibit intense lanthanide characteristic photoluminescence at room temperature. - Graphical Abstract: [R{sub 2}(tar){sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n}{center_dot}4nH{sub 2}O (R=La (2), Nd (3)) display rare fsx-4,5-P2{sub 1}/c topology containing hydrophilic channels bounded by triple helical chains along a axis. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two types of rare earth MOFs were synthesized by hydrothermal conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MOFs feature unusual fsc-3,4-Iba2 and rare fsx-4,5-P2{sub 1}/c topology structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MOFs exhibit intense lanthanide characteristic photoluminescence.

  19. A Development of Ceramics Cylinder Type Sulfuric Acid Decomposer for Thermo-Chemical Iodine-Sulfur Process Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minatsuki, Isao; Fukui, Hiroshi; Ishino, Kazuo

    The hydrogen production method applying thermo-chemical Iodine-Sulfur process (IS process) which uses a nuclear high temperature gas cooled reactor is world widely greatly concerned from the view point of a combination as a clean method, free carbon dioxide in essence. In this process, it is essential a using ceramic material, especially SiC because a operation condition of this process is very corrosive due to a sulfuric acid atmosphere with high temperature and high pressure. In the IS process, a sulfuric acid decomposer is the key component which performs evaporating of sulfuric acid from liquid to gas and disassembling to SO2 gas. SiC was selected as ceramic material to apply for the sulfuric acid decomposer and a new type of binding material was also developed for SiC junction. This technology is expected to wide application not only for a sulfuric acid decomposer but also for various type components in this process. Process parameters were provided as design condition for the decomposer. The configuration of the sulfuric acid decomposer was studied, and a cylindrical tubes assembling type was selected. The advantage of this type is applicable for various type of components in the IS process due to manufacturing with using only simple shape part. A sulfuric acid decomposer was divided into two regions of the liquid and the gaseous phase of sulfuric acid. The thermal structural integrity analysis was studied for the liquid phase part. From the result of this analysis, it was investigated that the stress was below the strength of the breakdown probability 1/100,000 at any position, base material or junction part. The prototype model was manufactured, which was a ceramic portion in the liquid phase part, comparatively complicated configuration, of a sulfuric acid decomposer. The size of model was about 1.9m in height, 1.0m in width. Thirty-six cylinders including inlet and outlet nozzles were combined and each part article was joined using the new binder (slurry

  20. A Development of Ceramics Cylinder Type Sulfuric Acid Decomposer for Thermo-Chemical Iodine-Sulfur Process Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroshi Fukui; Isao Minatsuki; Kazuo Ishino

    2006-07-01

    The hydrogen production method applying thermo-chemical Iodine-Sulfur process (IS process) which uses a nuclear high temperature gas cooled reactor is world widely greatly concerned from the view point of a combination as a clean method, free carbon dioxide in essence. In this process, it is essential a using ceramic material, especially SiC because a operation condition of this process is very corrosive due to a sulfuric acid atmosphere with high temperature and high pressure. In the IS process, a sulfuric acid decomposer is the key component which performs evaporating of sulfuric acid from liquid to gas and disassembling to SO{sub 2} gas. SiC was selected as ceramic material to apply for the sulfuric acid decomposer and a new type of binding material was also developed for SiC junction. This technology is expected to wide application not only for a sulfuric acid decomposer but also for various type components in this process. Process parameters were provided as design condition for the decomposer. The configuration of the sulfuric acid decomposer was studied, and a cylindrical tubes assembling type was selected. The advantage of this type is applicable for various type of components in the IS process due to manufacturing with using only simple shape part. A sulfuric acid decomposer was divided into two regions of the liquid and the gaseous phase of sulfuric acid. The thermal structural integrity analysis was studied for the liquid phase part. From the result of this analysis, it was investigated that the stress was below the strength of the breakdown probability 1/100,000 at any position, base material or junction part. The prototype model was manufactured, which was a ceramic portion in the liquid phase part, comparatively complicated configuration, of a sulfuric acid decomposer. The size of model was about 1.9 m in height, 1.0 m in width. Thirty-six cylinders including inlet and outlet nozzles were combined and each part article was joined using the new binder

  1. The effects of folic acid on markers of endothelial function in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Alian, Zahra; Hashemipour, Mahin; Dehkordi, Elham Hashemi; Hovsepian, Silva; Amini, Massoud; Moadab, Mohammad Hassan; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is considered as a fundamental and also preventable factor in the progression of vascular complications among type 1 diabetic patient. It occurs before the clinical manifestation of the mentioned complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of folic acid on endothelial function by measurements of adhesion molecules and von Willebrand factor (vWF) in patients with type 1 diabetes in Isfahan, Iran. This double blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial included type 1 diabetic patients aged 5-20 years old. Selected patients were randomized into two groups of A and B to receive folic acid 5 mg daily or placebo for 8 weeks. After a 2-week washout period, patients in the two groups were swapped to receive placebo or folic acid, respectively, for another 8 weeks. Blood and urine samples were taken to evaluate glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc), folic acid, vWF, intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), and microalbuminuria levels. Results of these measurements were compared in the two groups before and after folic acid and placebo administrations. Fifty five type 1 diabetic patients aged 12.1 +/- 3.4 years with diabetes duration of 3.9 +/- 2.1 years were enrolled. Mean of folic acid level in the two studied groups was increased significantly (10.1 +/- 3.8 vs. 21.2 +/- 1.1 in group A and 15.5 +/- 1.9 vs. 19.9 +/- 2.8 in group B, p < 0.05). Mean of VCAM and microalbuminuria was decreased significantly after folic acid administration in the two groups (p < 0.05). Mean of HbA1c, ICAM and vWF did not significantly change after folic acid administration in the two groups (p > 0.05). Folic acid administration decreased the level of endothelial dysfunction measured by adhesion molecules, especially VCAM and microalbuminuria. However, it did not significantly affect vWF. Further studies with larger sample size and long-term administration of folic acid are necessary for making precise decisions in this

  2. Acid diffusion into rice boluses is influenced by rice type, variety, and presence of α-amylase.

    PubMed

    Mennah-Govela, Yamile A; Bornhorst, Gail M; Singh, R Paul

    2015-02-01

    Breakdown of rice during gastric digestion may be influenced by rice structure, presence of salivary α-amylase, and hydrolysis by gastric acid. During mastication, saliva is mixed with rice, allowing α-amylase to begin starch hydrolysis. This hydrolysis may continue in the gastric environment depending on the rate at which gastric acid penetrates into the rice bolus. The objective of this study was to determine the acid uptake into rice boluses with and without α-amylase in saliva. Two types each of brown and white rice (medium and long grain), were formed into a cylindrical-shaped bolus. Each bolus was sealed on all sides except one to allow one-dimensional mass transfer, and incubated by immersion in simulated gastric juice at 37 °C under static conditions. Acidity of the boluses was measured by titration after 1 to 96 h of incubation. Effective diffusivity of the gastric juice through the bolus was estimated using MATLAB. Average acidity values ranged from 0.04 mg HCl/g dry matter (medium grain white rice, no incubation) to 10.01 mg HCl/g dry matter (long-grain brown rice, 72 h incubation). The rice type, presence of α-amylase, and incubation time all significantly influenced rice bolus acidity (P < 0.001). Effective diffusivity of gastric juice into the bolus was greater in brown rice than in white rice. These results indicate that starch hydrolysis by α-amylase may continue in the stomach before the gastric acid penetrates the rice bolus, and the rate of acid uptake will depend on the type of rice consumed.

  3. Fatty acid content profile and main constituents of Corylus avellana kernel in wild type and cultivars growing in Italy.

    PubMed

    Granata, M U; Bracco, F; Gratani, L; Catoni, R; Corana, F; Mannucci, B; Sartori, F; Martino, E

    2017-01-01

    The kernel composition (moisture, ash, protein, carbohydrate, calories, fat, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids) of two hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars ('Tonda Gentile Trilobata' and 'Tonda Gentile Romana') and of two wild types growing in different climatic conditions (north-west and central Italy) was evaluated. The main kernel component was fatty acid (65.9 ± 1.8%, mean value), and the most abundant fatty acid in hazelnut was oleic acid (C18:1) (83.5 ± 1.0%, mean value). The saturated fatty acids are the minor compounds in kernel hazelnut, resulting in a unsatured fatty acid to saturated (U/S) fatty acid ratio of 9.0 ± 1.6. Compared to other tree nuts and vegetable oils, hazelnut oil is among the ones with the highest contents of monounsaturated and the lowest content of saturated fatty acid. Thus, hazelnut may be beneficial for the human diet preventing cholesterol-based atherosclerosis and ischemic cardiovascular diseases.

  4. The LysR-type regulator LeuO regulates the acid tolerance response in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Ante, Vanessa M.; Bina, X. Renee

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a neutrophilic enteric pathogen that is extremely sensitive to acid. As V. cholerae passages through the host gastrointestinal tract it is exposed to a variety of environmental stresses including low pH and volatile fatty acids. Exposure to acidic environments induces expression of the V. cholerae acid tolerance response. A key component of the acid tolerance response is the cad system, which is encoded by cadC and the cadBA operon. CadB is a lysine/cadaverine antiporter and CadA is a lysine decarboxylase and these function together to counter low intracellular and extracellular pH. CadC is a membrane-associated transcription factor that activates cadBA expression in response to acidic conditions. Herein we investigated the role of the LysR-type transcriptional regulator LeuO in the V. cholerae acid tolerance response. Transcriptional reporter assays revealed that leuO expression repressed cadC transcription, indicating that LeuO was a cadC repressor. Consistent with this, leuO expression was inversely linked to lysine decarboxylase production and leuO overexpression resulted in increased sensitivity to organic acids. Overexpression of leuO in a cadA mutant potentiated killing by organic acids, suggesting that the function of leuO in the acid tolerance response extended beyond its regulation of the cad system. Collectively, these studies have identified a new physiological role for LeuO in V. cholerae acid tolerance. PMID:26424466

  5. Activation of Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor Type 1 Contributes to Pathophysiology of Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Nogueira, Eva; López-Serrano, Clara; Hernández, Joaquim; Lago, Natalia; Astudillo, Alma M.; Balsinde, Jesús; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodriguez; Chun, Jerold

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an extracellular lipid mediator involved in many physiological functions that signals through six known G-protein-coupled receptors (LPA1–LPA6). A wide range of LPA effects have been identified in the CNS, including neural progenitor cell physiology, astrocyte and microglia activation, neuronal cell death, axonal retraction, and development of neuropathic pain. However, little is known about the involvement of LPA in CNS pathologies. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time that LPA signaling via LPA1 contributes to secondary damage after spinal cord injury. LPA levels increase in the contused spinal cord parenchyma during the first 14 d. To model this potential contribution of LPA in the spinal cord, we injected LPA into the normal spinal cord, revealing that LPA induces microglia/macrophage activation and demyelination. Use of a selective LPA1 antagonist or mice lacking LPA1 linked receptor-mediated signaling to demyelination, which was in part mediated by microglia. Finally, we demonstrate that selective blockade of LPA1 after spinal cord injury results in reduced demyelination and improvement in locomotor recovery. Overall, these results support LPA–LPA1 signaling as a novel pathway that contributes to secondary damage after spinal cord contusion in mice and suggest that LPA1 antagonism might be useful for the treatment of acute spinal cord injury. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study reveals that LPA signaling via LPA receptor type 1 activation causes demyelination and functional deficits after spinal cord injury. PMID:26180199

  6. Treatment with alpha-lipoic acid reduces asymmetric dimethylarginine in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mittermayer, Friedrich; Pleiner, Johannes; Francesconi, Mario; Wolzt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Elevated asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentrations predict cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It has been shown that alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) improves endothelial function and oxidative stress in these patients. The present study investigated if ALA reduces ADMA in patients with T2DM. Plasma concentrations of ADMA, L-arginine and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) were determined in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study in patients with T2DM. Intravenous ALA (n = 16) or placebo (n = 14) was administered daily for 3 weeks. ALA reduced ADMA while no change was observed with placebo (mean change -0.05 micromol/1[95% CI: -0.01; -0.09] vs. 0.01 micromol/1 [95% CI: -0.05; -0.03]; ANOVA p = 0.031). SDMA and L-arginine were not affected by ALA. In conclusion ALA treatment reduces ADMA in patients with T2DM. Long-term studies need to demonstrate if ALA may cause cardiovascular risk reduction.

  7. Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid Reduces Arterial Stiffness and Improves Endothelial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Battson, Micah L; Lee, Dustin M; Jarrell, Dillon K; Hou, Shoufei; Ecton, Kayl E; Phan, Anna B; Gentile, Christopher L

    2017-09-21

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has emerged as a potential mechanism contributing to diabetes and its comorbidities. However, the importance of ER stress in diabetic vascular dysfunction is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the ER stress inhibitor, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), on arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mice. Carotid and mesenteric artery endothelial function were assessed via ex vivo pressure myography, and arterial stiffness was measured by aortic pulse wave velocity. The effects of TUDCA were examined both acutely (ex vivo) and chronically (250 mg/kg/day; i.p., 4 weeks). Compared to control C57BL/6J mice, db/db (DB) mice did not display carotid artery endothelial dysfunction; however, mesenteric artery endothelial function was markedly impaired. Acute incubation and chronic administration of TUDCA improved endothelium-dependent dilation in DB mesenteric arteries, without affecting endothelium-independent dilation. Chronic TUDCA administration also reduced arterial stiffness and was associated with reductions in ER stress markers in aortic and perivascular adipose tissue. These results suggest that ER stress may represent a novel cause of, and therapeutic target for, diabetic vascular dysfunction. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Discovery of Bacterial Fatty Acid Synthase Type II Inhibitors Using a Novel Cellular Bioluminescent Reporter Assay

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Joselynn; Bowlin, Nicholas O.; Mills, Debra M.; Saenkham, Panatda; Kwasny, Steven M.; Opperman, Timothy J.; Williams, John D.; Rock, Charles O.; Bowlin, Terry L.

    2015-01-01

    Novel, cellular, gain-of-signal, bioluminescent reporter assays for fatty acid synthesis type II (FASII) inhibitors were constructed in an efflux-deficient strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and based on the discovery that FASII genes in P. aeruginosa are coordinately upregulated in response to pathway disruption. A screen of 115,000 compounds identified a series of sulfonamidobenzamide (SABA) analogs, which generated strong luminescent signals in two FASII reporter strains but not in four control reporter strains designed to respond to inhibitors of pathways other than FASII. The SABA analogs selectively inhibited lipid biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa and exhibited minimal cytotoxicity to mammalian cells (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50] ≥ 80 μM). The most potent SABA analogs had MICs of 0.5 to 7.0 μM (0.2 to 3.0 μg/ml) against an efflux-deficient Escherichia coli (ΔtolC) strain but had no detectable MIC against efflux-proficient E. coli or against P. aeruginosa (efflux deficient or proficient). Genetic, molecular genetic, and biochemical studies revealed that SABA analogs target the enzyme (AccC) catalyzing the biotin carboxylase half-reaction of the acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylase step in the initiation phase of FASII in E. coli and P. aeruginosa. These results validate the capability and the sensitivity of this novel bioluminescent reporter screen to identify inhibitors of E. coli and P. aeruginosa FASII. PMID:26169404

  9. Effect of type of alcoholic beverages on carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, sialic acid, and liver enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sillanaukee, P; van der Gaag, M S; Sierksma, A; Hendriks, H F J; Strid, N; Pönniö, M; Nikkari, S T

    2003-01-01

    There are only limited data obtained under well controlled conditions on the effects of moderate drinking on markers of alcohol use disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate intake of different alcoholic beverages on these markers, including carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), sialic acid (SA), and the liver enzymes gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. Eleven apparently healthy, nonsmoking middle-aged men were included in a 12-week randomized, diet-controlled crossover trial according to a 4 x 4 Latin-square design. Changes in CDT, SA, gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were analyzed after 3 weeks of daily intake of four glasses (40 g of alcohol) of red wine, beer, spirits (Dutch gin), or water (control). After 3 weeks' daily consumption of red wine, a significant decrease of serum CDT concentration was observed compared with water consumption. There was no effect of any alcoholic beverage on the other outcome measures. Daily consumption of 40 g of alcohol from different types of alcoholic beverages with dinner did not affect SA or liver enzymes. Further investigations to explore the mechanisms for the red wine-induced decreases of CDT, including changes in iron metabolism, are clearly needed.

  10. Evaluation of DNA typing as a positive identification method for soft and hard tissues immersed in strong acids.

    PubMed

    Robino, C; Pazzi, M; Di Vella, G; Martinelli, D; Mazzola, L; Ricci, U; Testi, R; Vincenti, M

    2015-11-01

    Identification of human remains can be hindered by several factors (e.g., traumatic mutilation, carbonization or decomposition). Moreover, in some criminal cases, offenders may purposely adopt various expedients to thwart the victim's identification, including the dissolution of body tissues by the use of corrosive reagents, as repeatedly reported in the past for Mafia-related murders. By means of an animal model, namely porcine samples, we evaluated standard DNA typing as a method for identifying soft (muscle) and hard (bone and teeth) tissues immersed in strong acids (hydrochloric, nitric and sulfuric acid) or in mixtures of acids (aqua regia). Samples were tested at different time intervals, ranging between 2 and 6h (soft tissues) and 2-28 days (hard tissues). It was shown that, in every type of acid, complete degradation of the DNA extracted from soft tissues preceded tissue dissolution and could be observed within 4h of immersion. Conversely, high molecular weight DNA amenable to STR analysis could be isolated from hard tissues as long as cortical bone fragments were still present (28 days for sulfuric acid, 7 days for nitric acid, 2 days for hydrochloric acid and aqua regia), or the integrity of the dental pulp chamber was preserved (7 days, in sulfuric acid only). The results indicate that DNA profiling of acid-treated body parts (in particular, cortical bone) is still feasible at advanced stages of corrosion, even when the morphological methods used in forensic anthropology and odontology can no longer be applied for identification purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A causal relationship between uric acid and diabetic macrovascular disease in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients: A Mendelian randomization analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dandan; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Feng; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Tao; Wang, Shiyun; Peng, Danfeng; He, Zhen; Chen, Haibing; Bao, Yuqian; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping

    2016-07-01

    As the association between uric acid and macrovascular disease has been heavily debated, we aimed to confirm whether there is a causal relationship between uric acid and diabetic macrovascular disease through Mendelian randomization analysis. In 3207 type 2 diabetes patients, seventeen SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) related to uric acid were genotyped. A weighted GRS (genetic risk score) was calculated using selected SNPs and the strength of their effects on uric acid levels. Diabetic macrovascular disease was diagnosed through vascular ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging or other clinical evidence. Associations of diabetic macrovascular disease with uric acid and weighted GRS were evaluated separately. In total participants and among females, the prevalence of diabetic macrovascular disease was significantly higher in hyperuricemic group than in normouricemic group, and uric acid was associated with diabetic macrovascular disease (OR=1.068, p=0.0349; OR=1.122, p=0.0158). The prevalence of diabetic macrovascular disease increased with the weighted GRS in a J-shaped manner for the females. The weighted GRS was positively correlated with uric acid in total population, male patients and female patients (β=0.203, p<0.0001; β=0.255, p<0.0001; β=0.142, p<0.0001, respectively). The weighted GRS was significantly associated with diabetic macrovascular disease in female patients (OR=1.184, p=0.0039). Among females, the observed association between weighted GRS and diabetic macrovascular disease was greater than predicted. Using the uric acid-related weighted GRS as an instrumental variable for Mendelian randomization analysis, our study provided an evidence for causal relationship between uric acid and diabetic macrovascular disease in Chinese females with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of forage type with or without corn supplementation on animal performance, beef fatty acid composition, and palatability.

    PubMed

    Wright, A M; Andrae, J G; Rosso, C Fernandez; Miller, M C; Pavan, E; Bridges, W; Duckett, S K

    2015-10-01

    Thirty-two steers were used to examine forage type (legumes [ and ] vs. grasses [ and ]) with or without individual corn grain supplementation (0 vs. 0.75% of live weight [LW]/d) on beef fatty acid composition and palatability. In each year, steers ( = 16/yr) were randomly assigned to forage type ( = 8/forage type per yr) and to supplementation treatments within forage type ( = 4/supplementation treatment/forage type per yr). Forage types (grasses vs. legumes) were replicated in 2 paddocks of perennial and annual forage type pastures. A mixed model was developed with forage type, corn grain supplementation, and the 2-way interaction as fixed effects and 2 different error terms, one for testing forage and another for testing grain supplement and grain supplement × forage interaction. Corn grain supplementation increased ( = 0.01) ADG by 0.29 kg/d and final LW by 13 kg. Hot carcass weight, dressing percentage (DP), and KPH were greater ( < 0.05) for steers supplemented with corn grain. Carcasses from steers grazing legumes had greater ( = 0.04) DP compared with carcasses from steers grazing grasses. Alpha-linolenic acid concentration was higher ( < 0.05) in LM of steers grazing legumes than in LM of steers grazing grasses, both without supplementation. Supplementation decreased ( < 0.05) linolenic acid levels for both forage types; however, the magnitude of this reduction was greater for legumes than for grasses. The ratio of -6 to -3 PUFA was greater ( = 0.03) in the LM of corn grain-supplemented steers than in the LM of nonsupplemented steers. Supplementation of corn grain decreased ( < 0.05) the percentage of odd-chain fatty acids and increased ( < 0.05) the percentage of MUFA in the LM. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were not altered ( > 0.05) by forage type, supplementation, or the 2-way interaction. Beef finished on legumes had greater concentrations of -3 PUFA, whereas beef supplemented with corn grain had a greater ratio of -6 to -3 fatty acids. On a

  13. Hyaluronic acid increases tendon derived cell viability and collagen type I expression in vitro: Comparative study of four different Hyaluronic acid preparations by molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Berardocco, Martina; di Giacomo, Viviana; Di Bernardo, Graziella; Oliva, Francesco; Berardi, Anna C

    2015-10-06

    Hyaluronic Acid (HA) has been already approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for osteoarthritis (OA), while its use in the treatment of tendinopathy is still debated. The aim of this study was to evaluate in human rotator cuff tendon derived cells the effects of four different HA on cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis and the expression of collagen type I and collagen type III. An in vitro model was developed on human tendon derived cells from rotator cuff tears to study the effects of four different HA preparations (Ps) (sodium hyaluronate MW: 500-730 KDa - Hyalgan®, 1000 kDa Artrosulfur HA®, 1600 KDa Hyalubrix® and 2200 KDa Synolis-VA®) at various concentrations. Tendon derived cells morphology were evaluated after 0, 7 and 14 d of culture. Viability, proliferation, apoptosis were evaluated after 0, 24 and 48 h of culture. The expression and deposition of collagen type I and collagen type III were evaluated after 1, 7 and 14 d of culture. All HAPs tested increased viability and proliferation, in dose dependent manner. HAPs already reduce apoptosis at 24 h compared to control cells (without HAPs). Furthermore, HAPs stimulated the synthesis of collagen type I in a dose dependent fashion over 14 d, without increase in collagen type III; moreover, in the presence of Synolis-VA® the expression and deposition of collagen type I was significantly higher as compare with the other HAPs. HAPs enhanced viability, proliferation and expression of collagen type I in tendon derived cells.

  14. Functional and computational analysis of amino acid patterns predictive of type III secretion system substrates in Pseudomonas syringae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial type III secretion systems (T3SSs) deliver proteins called effectors into eukaryotic cells. Although N-terminal amino acid sequences are required for translocation, the mechanism of substrate recognition by the T3SS is unknown. Almost all actively deployed T3SS substrates in the plant path...

  15. The serum uric acid concentration is not causally linked to diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ahola, Aila J; Sandholm, Niina; Forsblom, Carol; Harjutsalo, Valma; Dahlström, Emma; Groop, Per-Henrik

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between uric acid concentration and progression of renal disease. Here we studied causality between the serum uric acid concentration and progression of diabetic nephropathy in 3895 individuals with type 1 diabetes in the FinnDiane Study. The renal status was assessed with the urinary albumin excretion rate and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline and at the end of the follow-up. Based on previous genomewide association studies on serum uric acid concentration, 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with good imputation quality were selected for the SNP score. This score was used to assess the causality between serum uric acid and renal complications using a Mendelian randomization approach. At baseline, the serum uric acid concentration was higher with worsening renal status. In multivariable Cox regression analyses, baseline serum uric acid concentration was not independently associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy over a mean follow-up of 7 years. However, over the same period, baseline serum uric acid was independently associated with the decline in eGFR. In the cross-sectional logistic regression analyses, the SNP score was associated with the serum uric acid concentration. Nevertheless, the Mendelian randomization showed no causality between uric acid and diabetic nephropathy, eGFR categories, or eGFR as a continuous variable. Thus, our results suggest that the serum uric acid concentration is not causally related to diabetic nephropathy but is a downstream marker of kidney damage. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Association between serum uric acid related genetic loci and diabetic kidney disease in the Chinese type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dandan; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Feng; Zhang, Rong; Sun, Xue; Wang, Tao; Wang, Shiyun; Peng, Danfeng; He, Zhen; Bao, Yuqian; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between uric acid related genetic loci and DKD susceptibility in type 2 diabetes patients. Seventeen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from thirteen loci related to serum uric acid were genotyped in 2,892 type 2 diabetes patients. Associations between SNPs and uric acid, SNPs and quantitative traits related to DKD or its susceptibility were evaluated. In this study, uric acid showed a strong association with DKD (OR=1.006, p<0.0001). GCKR rs780094, SLC2A9 rs11722228, SLC2A9 rs3775948, ABCG2 rs2231142, SLC22A12 rs505802 and NRXN2 rs506338 were positively associated with serum uric acid (p=3.79E-05, 0.0002, 2.04E-10, 2.23E-09, 0.0018 and 0.0015, respectively). SLC2A9 rs11722228 and SF1 rs606458 were significantly associated with DKD (OR=0.864, p=0.0440; OR=1.223, p=0.0038). SLC2A9 rs3775948 and ABCG2 rs2231142 were associated with DKD marginally (OR=0.878, p=0.0506; OR=0.879, p=0.0698). SLC2A9 rs11722228, SLC2A9 rs3775948, ABCG2 rs2231142 and SF1 rs606458 were significantly associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (p=0.0005, 0.0006, 0.0003, and 0.0424, respectively). Our study indicated that the uric acid related alleles of SLC2A9 rs11722228, SLC2A9 rs3775948, ABCG2 rs2231142 might affect DKD susceptibility and possibly through non-uric acid pathway in the Chinese people with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Uric acid concentration in subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: relationship to components of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Costa, A; Igualá, I; Bedini, J; Quintó, L; Conget, I

    2002-03-01

    High uric acid concentration is a common finding in subjects with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), including some characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. However, its exact role in this setting and in the progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is not well understood and could be affected by confounding factors such as hypertriglyceridemia. Our study aimed to establish the relationship between uric acid (avoiding the interference of high triglyceride levels), insulin sensitivity, and components of the metabolic syndrome in a group of subjects at high risk of developing DM. Among 201 subjects included in the study, 111 (55.2%) showed an abnormal oral glucose tolerance and uric acid levels higher than those measured in subjects with normal glucose tolerance. Body mass index (BMI), triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and 2-hour glycemia in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) contributed independently to uric acid concentration (R2 =.59). However, uric acid did not affect either insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance. The recovery tests revealed that a triglyceride concentration > or = 3 mmol/L interfered with the measurement of uric acid level when a colorimetric method was used, but not when a dry-chemistry method was used. In conclusion, uric acid concentration is higher in subjects at high risk of DM with abnormal glucose tolerance and is independently determined by various components of the metabolic syndrome.

  18. The association between serum uric acid and the incidence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Rotterdam Study.

    PubMed

    van der Schaft, Niels; Brahimaj, Adela; Wen, Ke-Xin; Franco, Oscar H; Dehghan, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Limited evidence is available about the association between serum uric acid and sub-stages of the spectrum from normoglycaemia to type 2 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to investigate the association between serum uric acid and risk of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eligible participants of the Rotterdam Study (n = 8,367) were classified into mutually exclusive subgroups of normoglycaemia (n = 7,030) and prediabetes (n = 1,337) at baseline. These subgroups were followed up for incident prediabetes (n = 1,071) and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 407), respectively. We used Cox proportional hazard models to determine hazard ratios (HRs) for incident prediabetes among individuals with normoglycaemia and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus among individuals with prediabetes. The mean duration of follow-up was 7.5 years for incident prediabetes and 7.2 years for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. A standard deviation increment in serum uric acid was significantly associated with incident prediabetes among individuals with normoglycaemia (HR 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01; 1.18), but not with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus among individuals with prediabetes (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.94; 1.21). Exclusion of individuals who used diuretics or individuals with hypertension did not change our results. Serum uric acid was significantly associated with incident prediabetes among normoglycaemic women (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02; 1.25) but not among normoglycaemic men (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.96; 1.21). In contrast, serum uric acid was significantly associated with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus among prediabetic men (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.01; 1.48) but not among prediabetic women (HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.84; 1.19). Our findings agree with the notion that serum uric acid is more closely related to early-phase mechanisms in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus than late-phase mechanisms.

  19. The type I fatty acid and polyketide synthases: a tale of two megasynthases

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shiou-Chuan

    2008-01-01

    This review chronicles the synergistic growth of the fields of fatty acid and polyketide synthesis over the last century. In both animal fatty acid synthases and modular polyketide synthases, similar catalytic elements are covalently linked in the same order in megasynthases. Whereas in fatty acid synthases the basic elements of the design remain immutable, guaranteeing the faithful production of saturated fatty acids, in the modular polyketide synthases, the potential of the basic design has been exploited to the full for the elaboration of a wide range of secondary metabolites of extraordinary structural diversity. PMID:17898897

  20. Report of the blind trial of the Cetus Amplitype HLA DQ alpha forensic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) amplification and typing kit.

    PubMed

    Walsh, P S; Fildes, N; Louie, A S; Higuchi, R

    1991-09-01

    The AmpliType HLA DQ alpha forensic DNA amplification and typing kit is designed for the qualitative analysis of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ alpha alleles present in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracted from forensic samples. The AmpliType kit is the first forensic DNA typing product based on the GeneAmp polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process. The kit was evaluated by five forensic science laboratories (test sites) to assess their ability to perform DNA typing using PCR on sample types typically encountered by forensic laboratories. None of the DNA-containing samples was mistyped. Of the 180 DNA-containing samples analyzed, results were reported for 178 (98.9%). Of the 178 samples with results, all were correctly typed. Two sites did not report a result for one sample each. Four of the five laboratories experienced no significant levels of contamination in the DNA-containing samples. At the one site with the highest number of DNA-containing samples with contamination, the typing results were not compromised. This site was able to correct the contamination problem through simple procedural changes and stricter attention to sterile technique. Blank controls were important to monitor contamination. In conclusion, the trial demonstrated that forensic science laboratories are capable of setting up a PCR-based DNA typing laboratory and successfully using the AmpliType HLA DQ alpha forensic DNA amplification and typing kit to analyze forensic samples.

  1. Correlation of retinal nerve fibre layer and macular thickness with serum uric acid among type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Vinuthinee-Naidu, Munisamy-Naidu; Zunaina, Embong; Azreen-Redzal, Anuar; Nyi-Nyi, Naing

    2017-06-14

    Uric acid is a final breakdown product of purine catabolism in humans. It's a potent antioxidant and can also act as a pro-oxidant that induces oxidative stress on the vascular endothelial cells, thus mediating progression of diabetic related diseases. Various epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest that uric acid has a role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the correlation of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) and macular thickness with serum uric acid in type 2 diabetic patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Eye Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan between the period of August 2013 till July 2015 involving type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with no diabetic retinopathy and with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). An evaluation for RNFL and macular thickness was measured using Spectralis Heidelberg optical coherence tomography. Six ml of venous blood was taken for the measurement of serum uric acid and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C). A total of 180 diabetic patients were recruited (90 patients with no diabetic retinopathy and 90 patients with NPDR) into the study. The mean level of serum uric acid for both the groups was within normal range and there was no significance difference between the two groups. Based on gender, both male and female gender showed significantly higher level of mean serum uric acid in no diabetic retinopathy group (p = 0.004 respectively). The mean serum uric acid was significantly higher in patient with HbA1C < 6.5% (p < 0.031). Patients with NPDR have thicker RNFL and macular thickness compared to patients with no diabetic retinopathy. However, only the RNFL thickness of the temporal quadrant and the macular thickness of the superior outer, inferior outer and temporal outer subfields were statistically significant (p = 0.038, p = 0.004, 0.033 and <0.001 respectively). There was poor correlation between RNFL and macular

  2. Novel Type II Fatty Acid Biosynthesis (FAS II) Inhibitors as Multistage Antimalarial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Florian C.; Glinca, Serghei; Sattler, Julia M.; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Afanador, Gustavo A.; Prigge, Sean T.; Lanzer, Michael; Mueller, Ann-Kristin; Klebe, Gerhard; Schlitzer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is a potentially fatal disease caused by Plasmodium parasites and poses a major medical risk in large parts of the world. The development of new, affordable antimalarial drugs is of vital importance as there are increasing reports of resistance to the currently available therapeutics. In addition, most of the current drugs used for chemoprophylaxis merely act on parasites already replicating in the blood. At this point, a patient might already be suffering from the symptoms associated with the disease and could additionally be infectious to an Anopheles mosquito. These insects act as a vector, subsequently spreading the disease to other humans. In order to cure not only malaria but prevent transmission as well, a drug must target both the blood- and pre-erythrocytic liver stages of the parasite. P. falciparum (Pf) enoyl acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (ENR) is a key enzyme of plasmodial type II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS II). It has been shown to be essential for liver-stage development of Plasmodium berghei and is therefore qualified as a target for true causal chemoprophylaxis. Using virtual screening based on two crystal structures of PfENR, we identified a structurally novel class of FAS inhibitors. Subsequent chemical optimization yielded two compounds that are effective against multiple stages of the malaria parasite. These two most promising derivatives were found to inhibit blood-stage parasite growth with IC50 values of 1.7 and 3.0 µm and lead to a more prominent developmental attenuation of liver-stage parasites than the gold-standard drug, primaquine. PMID:23341167

  3. Effect of nucleic acid binding dyes on DNA extraction, amplification, and STR typing.

    PubMed

    Haines, Alicia M; Tobe, Shanan S; Kobus, Hilton J; Linacre, Adrian

    2015-10-01

    We report on the effects of six dyes used in the detection of DNA on the process of DNA extraction, amplification, and detection of STR loci. While dyes can be used to detect the presence of DNA, their use is restricted if they adversely affect subsequent DNA typing processes. Diamond™ Nucleic Acid Dye, GelGreen™, GelRed™, RedSafe™, SYBR(®) Green I, and EvaGreen™ were evaluated in this study. The percentage of dye removed during the extraction process was determined to be: 70.3% for SYBR(®) Green I; 99.6% for RedSafe™; 99.4% for EvaGreen™; 52.7% for Diamond™ Dye; 50.6% for GelRed™, and; could not be determined for GelGreen™. It was then assumed that the amount of dye in the fluorescent quantification assay had no effect on the DNA signal. The presence of all six dyes was then reviewed for their effect on DNA extraction. The t-test showed no significant difference between the dyes and the control. These extracts were then STR profiled and all dyes and control produced full DNA profiles. STR loci in the presence of GelGreen(TM) at 1X concentration showed increased amplification products in comparison to the control samples. Full STR profiles were detected in the presence of EvaGreen™ (1X), although with reduced amplification products. RedSafe™ (1X), Diamond™ Dye (1X), and SYBR(®) Green I (1X) all exhibited varying degrees of locus drop-out with GelRed™ generating no loci at all. We provide recommendations for the best dye to visualize the presence of DNA profile as a biological stain and its subsequent amplification and detection. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Stearidonic acid: is there a role in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus?

    PubMed

    Banz, William J; Davis, Jeremy E; Clough, Richard W; Cheatwood, Joseph L

    2012-03-01

    Obesity and its related comorbidities are major public health concerns in the United States with over two-thirds of adults and one-third of children classified as overweight or obese. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has similarly risen to an estimated 25.8 million, which accounts for a staggering $174 billion in annual healthcare costs. Identification of dietary interventions that protect against the development of T2DM would markedly reduce the medical and economic consequences of the disease. Hence, we review current evidence supporting a role of (n-3) PUFA in T2DM and explore potential therapeutic implications of stearidonic acid (SDA). The low consumption of fish in the US along with a reduced efficiency to interconvert most plant (n-3) PUFA highlights a need to find alternative sources of (n-3) PUFA. The efficient biological conversion of SDA to EPA underscores the potential implications of SDA as a source of (n-3) PUFA. The full therapeutic efficacy of SDA remains to be further determined. However, recent data have suggested a protective role of SDA consumption on markers of dyslipidemia and inflammation. The AHA recommends that healthy individuals consume oily fish at least twice per week and individuals with a history of cardiovascular disease consume 1 g of EPA+DHA/d. These goals will likely not be met by the typical American diet. Therefore, SDA may represent a sustainable alternative to marine-based (n-3) PUFA and may have novel therapeutic efficacy regarding the development of T2DM.

  5. Activation of Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor Type 1 Contributes to Pathophysiology of Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Santos-Nogueira, Eva; López-Serrano, Clara; Hernández, Joaquim; Lago, Natalia; Astudillo, Alma M; Balsinde, Jesús; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodriguez; Chun, Jerold; López-Vales, Rubèn

    2015-07-15

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an extracellular lipid mediator involved in many physiological functions that signals through six known G-protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-LPA6). A wide range of LPA effects have been identified in the CNS, including neural progenitor cell physiology, astrocyte and microglia activation, neuronal cell death, axonal retraction, and development of neuropathic pain. However, little is known about the involvement of LPA in CNS pathologies. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time that LPA signaling via LPA1 contributes to secondary damage after spinal cord injury. LPA levels increase in the contused spinal cord parenchyma during the first 14 d. To model this potential contribution of LPA in the spinal cord, we injected LPA into the normal spinal cord, revealing that LPA induces microglia/macrophage activation and demyelination. Use of a selective LPA1 antagonist or mice lacking LPA1 linked receptor-mediated signaling to demyelination, which was in part mediated by microglia. Finally, we demonstrate that selective blockade of LPA1 after spinal cord injury results in reduced demyelination and improvement in locomotor recovery. Overall, these results support LPA-LPA1 signaling as a novel pathway that contributes to secondary damage after spinal cord contusion in mice and suggest that LPA1 antagonism might be useful for the treatment of acute spinal cord injury. This study reveals that LPA signaling via LPA receptor type 1 activation causes demyelination and functional deficits after spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3510224-12$15.00/0.

  6. Renal and Vascular Effects of Uric Acid Lowering in Normouricemic Patients With Uncomplicated Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lytvyn, Yuliya; Har, Ronnie; Locke, Amy; Lai, Vesta; Fong, Derek; Advani, Andrew; Perkins, Bruce A; Cherney, David Z I

    2017-07-01

    Higher plasma uric acid (PUA) levels are associated with lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and higher blood pressure (BP) in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Our aim was to determine the impact of PUA lowering on renal and vascular function in patients with uncomplicated T1D. T1D patients (n = 49) were studied under euglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions at baseline and after PUA lowering with febuxostat (FBX) for 8 weeks. Healthy control subjects were studied under normoglycemic conditions (n = 24). PUA, GFR (inulin), effective renal plasma flow (para-aminohippurate), BP, and hemodynamic responses to an infusion of angiotensin II (assessment of intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system [RAAS]) were measured before and after FBX treatment. Arterial stiffness, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (GMD), urinary nitric oxide (NO), and inflammatory markers were measured before and after FBX treatment. Gomez equations were used to estimate arteriolar afferent resistance, efferent resistance (RE), and glomerular hydrostatic pressure (PGLO). FBX had a modest systolic BP-lowering effect in T1D patients (112 ± 10 to 109 ± 9 mmHg, P = 0.049) without impacting arterial stiffness, FMD, GMD, or NO. FBX enhanced the filtration fraction response to hyperglycemia in T1D patients through larger increases in RE, PGLO, and interleukin-18 but without impacting the RAAS. FBX lowered systolic BP and modulated the renal RE responses to hyperglycemia but without impacting the RAAS or NO levels, suggesting that PUA may augment other hemodynamic or inflammatory mechanisms that control the renal response to hyperglycemia at the efferent arteriole. Ongoing outcome trials will determine cardiorenal outcomes of PUA lowering in patients with T1D. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  7. Ondansetron attenuates the activity of excitatory amino acid transporter type 3 expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Hur, Wonseok; Lee, Mi Kyoung; Park, Hee-Pyeong; Kim, Chong-Sung; Yoon, Hea-Jo; Zuo, Zhiyi; Do, Sang-Hwan

    2014-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ondansetron on excitatory amino acid transporter type 3 (EAAT3) and to elucidate the roles of protein kinase C (PKC) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in the effect. EAAT3 was expressed in Xenopus oocytes following the injection of rat EAAT3 mRNAs. Using the two-electrode voltage clamping method, the inward currents induced by L-glutamate were measured for 1 min in the presence and absence of ondansetron (1-1000 μM). Different concentrations of L-glutamate (3-300 μM) were used to determine the kinetic characteristics of EAAT3. To identify the involvement of PKC and PI3K in the effect, oocytes were exposed to a PKC activator and to PKC inhibitors and PI3K inhibitors, and L-glutamate-induced currents were recorded. Ondansetron decreased EAAT3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. In a kinetic study, ondansetron (10 μM for 3 min) reduced Vmax, but not Km compared with the control group. The PKC activator abolished the ondansetron-induced decrease in EAAT3 activity. The PKC inhibitors (staurosporine and chelerythrine) and ondansetron had not additive or synergistic effects on EAAT3 activity. The PI3K inhibitors (wortmannin and LY294002) decreased the EAAT3 response, although there were no differences among the groups comprising ondansetron, PI3K inhibitors, and PI3K inhibitors plus ondansetron. Our results demonstrate that ondansetron attenuates EAAT3 activity and this effect seems to be mediated by PKC and PI3K.

  8. γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type B (GABAB) Receptor Internalization Is Regulated by the R2 Subunit*

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Saad; Wilkins, Megan E.; Dehghani-Tafti, Ebrahim; Thomas, Philip; Baddeley, Stuart M.; Smart, Trevor G.

    2011-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptors are important for slow synaptic inhibition in the CNS. The efficacy of inhibition is directly related to the stability of cell surface receptors. For GABAB receptors, heterodimerization between R1 and R2 subunits is critical for cell surface expression and signaling, but how this determines the rate and extent of receptor internalization is unknown. Here, we insert a high affinity α-bungarotoxin binding site into the N terminus of the R2 subunit and reveal its dominant role in regulating the internalization of GABAB receptors in live cells. To simultaneously study R1a and R2 trafficking, a new α-bungarotoxin binding site-labeling technique was used, allowing α-bungarotoxin conjugated to different fluorophores to selectively label R1a and R2 subunits. This approach demonstrated that R1a and R2 are internalized as dimers. In heterologous expression systems and neurons, the rates and extents of internalization for R1aR2 heteromers and R2 homomers are similar, suggesting a regulatory role for R2 in determining cell surface receptor stability. The fast internalization rate of R1a, which has been engineered to exit the endoplasmic reticulum, was slowed to that of R2 by truncating the R1a C-terminal tail or by removing a dileucine motif in its coiled-coil domain. Slowing the rate of internalization by co-assembly with R2 represents a novel role for GPCR heterodimerization whereby R2 subunits, via their C terminus coiled-coil domain, mask a dileucine motif on R1a subunits to determine the surface stability of the GABAB receptor. PMID:21724853

  9. Mitochondrial regulators of fatty acid metabolism reflect metabolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Sameer S; Salehzadeh, Firoozeh; Fritz, Tomas; Zierath, Juleen R; Krook, Anna; Osler, Megan E

    2012-02-01

    The delicate homeostatic balance between glucose and fatty acid metabolism in relation to whole-body energy regulation is influenced by mitochondrial function. We determined expression and regulation of mitochondrial enzymes including pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) 4, PDK2, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b, and malonyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase in skeletal muscle from people with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained from NGT (n = 79) or T2DM (n = 33) men and women matched for age and body mass index. A subset of participants participated in a 4-month lifestyle intervention program consisting of an unsupervised walking exercise. Muscle biopsies were analyzed for expression and DNA methylation status. Primary myotubes were derived from biopsies obtained from NGT individuals for metabolic studies. Cultured skeletal muscle was exposed to agents mimicking exercise activation for messenger RNA (mRNA) expression analysis. The mRNA expression of PDK4, PDK2, and malonyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase was increased in skeletal muscle from T2DM patients. Methylation of the PDK4 promoter was reduced in T2DM and inversely correlated with PDK4 expression. Moreover, PDK4 expression was positively correlated with body mass index, blood glucose, insulin, C peptide, and hemoglobin A(1c). A lifestyle intervention program resulted in increased PDK4 mRNA expression in NGT individuals, but not in those with T2DM. Exposure to caffeine or palmitate increased PDK4 mRNA in a cultured skeletal muscle system. Our findings reveal that skeletal muscle expression of PDK4 and related genes regulating mitochondrial function reflects alterations in substrate utilization and clinical features associated with T2DM. Furthermore, hypomethylation of the PDK4 promoter in T2DM coincided with an impaired response of PDK4 mRNA after exercise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Oral loading of homogentisic acid in controls and in obligate heterozygotes for hereditary tyrosinemia type I.

    PubMed Central

    Laberge, C; Lescault, A; Grenier, A; Morrisette, J; Gagné, R; Gadbois, P; Halket, J

    1990-01-01

    Homogentisic acid (HGA) (50 mg/kg) was given orally to 22 obligate heterozygotes for hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT) and to 11 controls. After 1 h the mean +/- standard error (SE) plasma level of HGA was 30.42 +/- 1.41 micrograms/ml in carriers and 19.29 +/- 1.62 in controls. Mean +/- SE fasting delta-amino-levulinate dehydratase (delta-ALD) was 40.05 +/- 1.79 m microM/min/g Hb in carriers, much lower than the 60.81 +/- 5.11 found in controls. After 3 h this difference in levels of delta-ALD remained, with mean +/- SE values of 25.70 +/- 2.89 m microM/min/g Hb in carriers, compared with 48.83 +/- 5.37 in controls. Three-hour mean +/- SE excretion of fumarylacetone "equivalent" [FAc] in urine in carriers, 51.597 +/- 5.580 micrograms/mg/creatinine, was significantly higher than the 27.941 +/- 5.916 in controls. Three-hour excretion of succinylacetone "equivalent" [SAc] was also significantly higher in the urine of carriers. FAc in 3-h urine was identified by thin-layer chromatography and confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Multivariate stepwise discriminant analysis showed that the inclusion order of significant variables was as follows: HGA levels at 1 hr, fasting level of delta-ALD, residual level of HGA at 3 h, and 3-h excretion of [FAc]. Non-significant variables were HGA tolerance, levels of delta-ALD at 3 h, sex, and 3-h excretion of [SAc].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 PMID:2378359

  11. Liver phospholipids fatty acids composition in response to different types of diets in rats of both sexes.

    PubMed

    Ranković, Slavica; Popović, Tamara; Martačić, Jasmina Debeljak; Petrović, Snježana; Tomić, Mirko; Ignjatović, Đurđica; Tovilović-Kovačević, Gordana; Glibetić, Maria

    2017-05-19

    Dietary intake influence changes in fatty acids (FA) profiles in liver which plays a central role in fatty acid metabolism, triacylglycerol synthesis and energy homeostasis. We investigated the effects of 4-weeks treatment with milk- and fish-based diet, on plasma biochemical parameters and FA composition of liver phospholipids (PL) in rats of both sexes. Adult, 4 months old, Wistar rats of both sexes, were fed with different types of diets: standard, milk-based and fish-based, during 4 weeks. Analytical characterization of different foods was done. Biochemical parameters in plasma were determined. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas-chromatography. Statistical significance of FA levels was tested with two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the sex of animals and treatment (type of diet) as factors on logarithmic or trigonometric transformed data. Our results showed that both, milk- and fish-based diet, changed the composition and ratio of rat liver phospholipids FA, in gender-specific manner. Initially present sex differences appear to be dietary modulated. Although, applied diets changed the ratio of total saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and effects were gender specific. Milk-based diet lowered SFA and elevated MUFA in males and increased PUFA in females vs. standard diet. The same diet decreased n-3, increased n-6 and n-6/n-3 ratio in males. Fish-based diet increased n-3, decreased n-6 and n-6/n-3 ratio vs. standard and milk-based diet in females. However, the ratio of individual FA in liver PL was also dietary-influenced, but with gender specific manner. While in females fish-based diet decreased AA (arachidonic acid) increased level of EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), DPA (docosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), the same diet elevated only DHA levels in males. Gender related variations in FA composition of rat liver PL were observed, and results have shown that

  12. [Synchronous extraction and determination of phenoxy acid herbicides in water by on-line monolithic solid phase microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiabin; Wu, Fangling; Zhao, Qi

    2015-08-01

    A C18 monolithic capillary column was utilized as the solid phase microextraction column to construct an in-tube SPME-HPLC system which was used to simultaneously extract and detect five phenoxy acid herbicides, including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2- (2-chloro)-phenoxy propionic acid (2,2-CPPA), 2-(3-chloro)-phenoxy propionic acid (2,3- CPPA), phenoxy propionic acid (PPA) and 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) propionic acid (2,4-DP). The operating parameters of the in-tube SPME-HPLC system, including the length of the monolithic column, the sampling flow rate, the sampling time, the elution flow rate and the elution time, had been investigated in detail. The optimized operating parameters of the in-tube SPME-HPLC system were as follow: the length of the monolithic column was 20 cm, the sampling flow rate was 0. 04 mL/min, sampling time was 13 min; the elution flow rate was 0.02 mL/min, elution time was 5 min. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of the five phenoxy acid herbicides were as follows: 9 µg/L for PPA, 4 µg/L for 2,2-CPPA, 4 µg/L for 2,3-CPPA, 5 µg/L for 2,4-D, 5 µg/L for 2,4-DP. Compared with the HPLC method with direct injection, the combined system showed a good enrichment factors to the analytes. The recoveries of the five phenoxy acid herbicides were between 79.0% and 98.0% (RSD ≤ 3.9%). This method was successfully used to detect the five phenoxy acid herbicides in water samples with satisfactory results.

  13. The importance of palmitoleic acid to adipocyte insulin resistance and whole-body insulin sensitivity in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Bryan C; Howard, David; Schauer, Irene E; Maahs, David M; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Clement, Timothy W; Eckel, Robert H; Perreault, Leigh; Rewers, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an insulin-resistant state, but it is less clear which tissues are affected. Our previous report implicated skeletal muscle and liver insulin resistance in people with type 1 diabetes, but this occurred independently of generalized, visceral, or ectopic fat. The aim of the study was to measure adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and plasma triglyceride composition in individuals with type 1 diabetes after overnight insulin infusion to lower fasting glucose. Fifty subjects (25 individuals with type 1 diabetes and 25 controls without) were studied. After 3 d of dietary control and overnight insulin infusion, we performed a three-stage hyperinsulinemic/euglycemic clamp infusing insulin at 4, 8, and 40 mU/m(2) · min. Infusions of [1,1,2,3,3-(2)H(2)]glycerol and [1-(13)C]palmitate were used to quantify lipid metabolism. Basal glycerol and palmitate rates of appearance were similar between groups, decreased more in control subjects during the first two stages of the clamp, and similarly suppressed during the highest insulin dose. The concentration of insulin required for 50% inhibition of lipolysis was twice as high in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Plasma triglyceride saturation was similar between groups, but palmitoleic acid in plasma triglyceride was inversely related to adipocyte insulin sensitivity. Unesterified palmitoleic acid in plasma was positively related to insulin sensitivity in controls, but not in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Adipose tissue insulin resistance is a significant feature of type 1 diabetes. Palmitoleic acid is not related to insulin sensitivity in type 1 diabetes, as it was in controls, suggesting a novel mechanism for insulin resistance in this population.

  14. Nucleic acids encoding mosaic clade M human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope immunogens

    DOEpatents

    Korber, Bette T; Fischer, William; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F; Letvin, Norman; Hahn, Beatrice H

    2015-04-21

    The present invention relates to nucleic acids encoding mosaic clade M HIV-1 Env polypeptides and to compositions and vectors comprising same. The nucleic acids of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  15. Ascorbic acid modulates collagen type I gene expression by cells from an eye tissue--trabecular meshwork.

    PubMed

    Sawaguchi, S; Yue, B Y; Chang, I L; Wong, F; Higginbotham, E J

    1992-09-01

    The trabecular meshwork, a specialized tissue in the anterior chamber of the eye, plays a major role in the regulation of aqueous humor outflow. We studied the effects of ascorbic acid, a significant component in the aqueous humor, on gene expression of type I collagen in cultures of bovine trabecular meshwork cells. These cells were plated for 6 days, exposed to ascorbic acid in concentrations of 100, 250 and 500 micrograms/ml for 3 days and labeled with (3H)proline for the last 24 hrs. Cultures that did not receive ascorbic acid served as controls. Bacterial collagenase assays showed enhanced incorporation of (3H)proline into collagenous proteins in cultures treated with 100 and 250 micrograms/ml of ascorbic acid. Gel electrophoresis and fluorography revealed that ascorbic acid caused a 2.6- to 4.9-fold increase in production of alpha 1 (I) and alpha 2(I) collagen chains by trabecular meshwork cells. Such an increase was found, using a cDNA probe specific for pro alpha 1(I) chains, to be accompanied by an increase in steady-state mRNA levels. Similar findings were also yielded from in situ hybridization experiments. These results, coupled with previously demonstrated ascorbate-induced effects on glycosaminoglycan, fibronectin and laminin synthesis, suggest that ascorbic acid is a key mediator of the extracellular matrix production by trabecular meshwork cells. Fluctuations in its concentration may lead to alterations in the makeup and assembly of matrices underlying the cells.

  16. Unraveling the Role of Formic Acid and the Type of Solvent in the Catalytic Conversion of Lignin: A Holistic Approach.

    PubMed

    Oregui-Bengoechea, Mikel; Gandarias, Inaki; Arias, Pedro L; Barth, Tanja

    2017-02-22

    The role of formic acid together with the effect of the solvent type and their synergic interactions with a NiMo catalyst were studied for the conversion of lignin into bio-oil in an alcohol/formic acid media. The replacement of formic acid with H2 or isopropanol decreased the oil yield to a considerable degree, increased the solid yield, and altered the nature of the bio-oil. The differences induced by the presence of H2 were comparable to those observed in the isopropanol system, which suggests similar lignin conversion mechanisms for both systems. Additional semi-batch experiments confirmed that formic acid does not act merely as an in situ hydrogen source or hydrogen donor molecule. Actually, is seems to react with lignin through a formylation-elimination-hydrogenolysis mechanism that leads to the depolymerization of the biopolymer. This reaction competes with formic acid decomposition, which gives mainly H2 and CO2 , and forms a complex reaction system. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the distinctive role/mechanism of formic acid has been observed in the conversion of real lignin feedstock. In addition, the solvent, especially ethanol, seems also to play a vital role in the stabilization of the depolymerized monomers and in the elimination/deformylation step. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effects of free fatty acids on the enzymic synthesis of diacyl and ether types of choline and ethanolamine phosphoglycerides.

    PubMed

    Radominska-Pyrek, A; Strosznajder, J; Dabrowiecki, Z; Chojnacki, T; Horrocks, L A

    1976-11-01

    Activities of ethanolaminephosphotransferases (EC 2.7.8.1) and choline phosphotransferases (EC 2.7.8.2) in microsomal fractions from brains and livers of mature rats are increased several fold by the addition of 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols or 1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-clycerols. Oleic acid added with diacylglycerols stimulated further the synthesis of lecithins by liver microsomes, confirming the work of Sribney and Lyman (Can J. Biochem. 51: 1479-1486, 1973). With alkylacylglycerols, oleic and stearic acids were inhibitory and linoleic acid was even more inhibitory for the synthesis of both 1-alkyl-1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholines and the corresponding ethanolamine compounds with microsomes from both tissues. Free fatty acids without added diglycerides had mixed effects. These results are best explained by postulating the presence of two isoenzymes each for ethanolaminephosphotransferase and cholinephosphotransferase of which only one is affected by free fatty acids. Regulation of the phosphotransferases by free fatty acids may determine the proportion of CDP-choline and CDP-ethanolamine used for synthesis of diacyl and alkylacyl types of these phosphoglycerides.

  18. [Study on the acid hydrolysis, fiber remodeling and bionics mineralization of rat tail tendon collagen type Ⅰ].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhan; Zhang, Chun; Guo, Qiaofeng

    2016-05-25

    Objective: To produce bionic bone material that is consistent with human bone in chemical composition and molecular structure using rat tail tendon collagen type Ⅰ. Methods: The type Ⅰcollagen derived from rat tail was extracted by acetic acid to form collagen fibers. The reconstructed collagen fibers were placed in the mineralized solution to mimic bone mineralization for 2-6 days. Bone mineralization was observed by transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction.Results: Collagen fibers with characteristic D-Band structure were reconstructed by using rat tail tendon collagen type Ⅰ extracted with acid hydrolysis method. Transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction showed that calcium hydroxyapatite precursor infiltrated into the collagen fibers, and the collagen fibers were partially mineralized after 2 days of mineralization; the collagen fibers were completely mineralized and bionic bone material of typeⅠ collagen/calcium hydroxyapatite was formed after 6 days of mineralization.Conclusion: The collagen type Ⅰ can be extracted from rat tail tendon by acid hydrolysis method, and can be reformed and mineralized to form the bionic bone material which mimics human bone in chemical composition and the molecular structure.

  19. Inorganic Nitrate Mimics Exercise-Stimulated Muscular Fiber-Type Switching and Myokine and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Release.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lee D; Ashmore, Tom; McNally, Ben D; Murfitt, Steven A; Fernandez, Bernadette O; Feelisch, Martin; Lindsay, Ross; Siervo, Mario; Williams, Elizabeth A; Murray, Andrew J; Griffin, Julian L

    2017-03-01

    Exercise is an effective intervention for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle combines multiple signals that contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise on cardiometabolic health. Inorganic nitrate increases exercise efficiency, tolerance, and performance. The transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) coordinates the exercise-stimulated skeletal muscle fiber-type switch from glycolytic fast-twitch (type IIb) to oxidative slow-twitch (type I) and intermediate (type IIa) fibers, an effect reversed in insulin resistance and diabetes. We found that nitrate induces PGC1α expression and a switch toward type I and IIa fibers in rat muscle and myotubes in vitro. Nitrate induces the release of exercise/PGC1α-dependent myokine FNDC5/irisin and β-aminoisobutyric acid from myotubes and muscle in rats and humans. Both exercise and nitrate stimulated PGC1α-mediated γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) secretion from muscle. Circulating GABA concentrations were increased in exercising mice and nitrate-treated rats and humans; thus, GABA may function as an exercise/PGC1α-mediated myokine-like small molecule. Moreover, nitrate increased circulating growth hormone levels in humans and rodents. Nitrate induces physiological responses that mimic exercise training and may underlie the beneficial effects of this metabolite on exercise and cardiometabolic health.

  20. Serum Uric Acid Levels and Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuai; Chen, Ying; Hou, Xu; Xu, Donghua; Che, Kui; Li, Changgui; Yan, Shengli; Wang, Yangang; Wang, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies suggested a possible association between serum uric acid levels and peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes, but no definite evidence was available. A systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies were performed to comprehensively estimate the association. Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases were searched for eligible studies. Study-specific data were combined using random-effect or fixed-effect models of meta-analysis according to between-study heterogeneity. Twelve studies were finally included into the meta-analysis, which involved a total of 1388 type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy and 4746 patients without peripheral neuropathy. Meta-analysis showed that there were obvious increased serum uric acid levels in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 50.03 μmol/L, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 22.14-77.93, P = 0.0004). Hyperuricemia was also significantly associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes (risk ratio [RR] = 2.83, 95%CI 2.13-3.76, P < 0.00001). Meta-analysis of two studies with adjusted risk estimates showed that hyperuricemia was independently associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients (RR = 1.95, 95%CI 1.23-3.11, P = 0.005). Type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy have obvious increased serum uric acid levels, and hyperuricemia is associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy. Further prospective cohort studies are needed to validate the impact of serum uric acid levels on peripheral neuropathy risk.

  1. Protocatechuic acid exerts a cardioprotective effect in type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Semaming, Yoswaris; Kumfu, Sirinart; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2014-10-01

    Oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a phenolic compound, a main metabolite of anthocyanin, which has been reported to display various pharmacological properties. We proposed the hypothesis that PCA exerts cardioprotection in type 1 diabetic (T1DM) rats. T1DM was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by a single i.p. injection of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) and groups of these animals received the following treatments for 12 weeks: i) oral administration of vehicle, ii) oral administration of PCA at a dose of 50  mg/kg per day, iii) oral administration of PCA at a dose of 100 mg/kg per day, iv) s.c. injection of insulin at a dose of 4 U/kg per day, and v) a combination of PCA, 100 mg/kg per day and insulin, 4 U/kg per day. Metabolic parameters, results from echocardiography, and heart rate variability were monitored every 4 weeks, and the HbA1c, cardiac malondialdehyde (MDA), cardiac mitochondrial function, and cardiac BAX/BCL2 expression were evaluated at the end of treatment. PCA, insulin, and combined drug treatments significantly improved metabolic parameters and cardiac function as shown by increased percentage fractional shortening and percentage left ventricular ejection fraction and decreased low-frequency:high-frequency ratio in T1DM rats. Moreover, all treatments significantly decreased plasma HbA1c and cardiac MDA levels, improved cardiac mitochondrial function, and increased BCL2 expression. Our results demonstrated for the first time, to our knowledge, the efficacy of PCA in improving cardiac function and cardiac autonomic balance, preventing cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction, and increasing anti-apoptotic protein in STZ-induced T1DM rats. Thus, PCA possesses a potential cardioprotective effect and could restore cardiac function when combined with insulin treatment. These findings indicated that supplementation with PCA might be

  2. Intercalating nucleic acids: the influence of linker length and intercalator type on their duplex stabilities.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Ulf B; Wamberg, Michael; El-Essawy, Farag A G; Ismail, Abd El-Hamid; Nielsen, Christina B; Filichev, Vyacheslav V; Jessen, Carsten H; Petersen, Michael; Pedersen, Erik B

    2004-01-01

    Six new examples of intercalating nucleic acids were synthesized in order to evaluate the dependence of the length of the linker between oligo and intercalator on the thermal stability of their corresponding duplexes and triplexes.

  3. The alpha9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor shares pharmacological properties with type A gamma-aminobutyric acid, glycine, and type 3 serotonin receptors.

    PubMed

    Rothlin, C V; Katz, E; Verbitsky, M; Elgoyhen, A B

    1999-02-01

    In the present study, we provide evidence that the alpha9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) shares pharmacological properties with members of the Cys-loop family of receptors. Thus, the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor antagonist bicuculline, the glycinergic antagonist strychnine, and the type 3 serotonin receptor antagonist ICS-205,930 block ACh-evoked currents in alpha9-injected Xenopus laevis oocytes with the following rank order of potency: strychnine > ICS-205,930 > bicuculline. Block by antagonists was reflected in an increase in the acetylcholine (ACh) EC50 value, with no changes in agonist maximal response or Hill coefficient, which suggests a competitive type of block. Moreover, whereas neither gamma-aminobutyric acid nor glycine modified ACh-evoked currents, serotonin blocked responses to ACh in a concentration-dependent manner. The present results suggest that the alpha9 nAChR must conserve in its primary structure some residues responsible for ligand binding common to other Cys-loop receptors. In addition, it adds further evidence that the alpha9 nAChR and the cholinergic receptor present at the base of cochlear outer hair cells have similar pharmacological properties.

  4. Clinical significance of coexpression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and ASC amino acid transporter 2 (ASCT2) in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yazawa, Tomohiro; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Kaira, Kyoichi; Nagashima, Toshiteru; Ohtaki, Yoichi; Atsumi, Jun; Obayashi, Kai; Nagamori, Shushi; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Oyama, Tetsunari; Takeyoshi, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    Background: L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and ASC amino acid transporter 2 (ASCT2) have been associated with tumor growth and progression. However, the clinical significance of LAT1 and ASCT2 coexpression in the prognosis of patients with lung adenocarcinoma remains unclear. Methods: In total, 222 patients with surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma were investigated retrospectively. Tumor sections were stained immunohistochemically for LAT1, ASCT2, CD98, phosphorylated mammalian target-of-rapamycin (p-mTOR), and Ki-67, and microvessel density (MVD) was determined by staining for CD34. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status was also examined. Results: LAT1 and ASCT2 were positively expressed in 22% and 40% of cases, respectively. Coexpression of LAT1 and ASCT2 was observed in 12% of cases and was associated significantly with disease stage, lymphatic permeation, vascular invasion, CD98, Ki-67, and p-mTOR. Only LAT1 and ASCT2 coexpression indicated a poor prognosis for lung adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, this characteristic was recognized in early-stage patients, especially those who had wild-type, rather than mutated, EGFR. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the coexpression of LAT1 and ASCT2 was an independent factor for predicting poor outcome. Conclusions: LAT1 and ASCT2 coexpression is an independent prognostic factor for patients with lung adenocarcinoma, especially during the early stages, expressing wild-type EGFR. PMID:26279756

  5. Carbon dioxide evolution in a Belousov-Zhabotinsky type oscillating reaction with acetonedicarboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Sevcík, Peter; Misicák, Daniel; Adamcíková, L'ubica

    2007-10-11

    Oscillations in the platinum redox potential during the reaction of bromate ions with acetonedicarboxylic acid catalyzed by Mn(II) ions were observed. The volume of gaseous carbon dioxide produced was measured. A nonoscillatory course was found both at the slow and rapid stirring rates for carbon dioxide evolution. The perturbation experiments suggest supersaturation during the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction with acetonedicarboxylic acid. Possible reasons for such observations are discussed.

  6. Bile Acid Control of Metabolism and Inflammation in Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes, Dyslipidemia, and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Talavera, Oscar; Tailleux, Anne; Lefebvre, Philippe; Staels, Bart

    2017-05-01

    Bile acids are signaling molecules that coordinately regulate metabolism and inflammation via the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5). These receptors activate transcriptional networks and signaling cascades controlling the expression and activity of genes involved in bile acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, energy expenditure, and inflammation by acting predominantly in enterohepatic tissues, but also in peripheral organs. In this review, we discuss the most recent findings on the inter-organ signaling and interplay with the gut microbiota of bile acids and their receptors in meta-inflammation, with a focus on their pathophysiologic roles in obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and their potential therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. New type of chitosan/2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin composite membrane for gallic acid encapsulation and controlled release.

    PubMed

    Paun, Gabriela; Neagu, Elena; Tache, Andreia; Radu, G L

    2014-01-01

    A new type of chitosan/2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin composite membrane have been developed for the encapsulation and controlled release of gallic acid. The morphology of the composite membrane was investigated by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), whereas swelling gallic acid and release properties were investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy. The release behavior with pH changes was also explored. The composite membrane based on chitosan/2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin with gallic acid included showed improved antioxidant capacities compared to plain chitosan membrane. The information obtained in this study will facilitate the design and preparation of composite membrane based on chitosan and could open a wide range of applications, particularly its use as an antioxidant in food, food packaging, biomedical (biodegradable soft porous scaffolds for enhance the surrounding tissue regeneration), pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries.

  8. Defined amino acids in the gag proteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are functionally active during virus assembly.

    PubMed

    Kattenbeck, B; Rohrhofer, A; Niedrig, M; Wolf, H; Modrow, S

    1996-01-01

    A structurally highly ordered arrangement of the polyprotein precursor, Pr55gag is a necessary prerequisite for assembly, budding and maturation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In particular, distinct regions of the matrix protein (p17) and the capsid protein (p24) contained within Pr55gag are functionally active during these processes. In order to determine such regions we exchanged amino acid triplets within p17 (amino acids 46-61) and p24 (amino acids 341-352) for alanine residues and deleted the whole regions. Synthetic peptides derived from these regions had been shown previously to inhibit the production of infectious virus. The effect of the mutations on the release of viral particles was investigated by using recombinant baculoviruses for the expression of mutated Pr55gag as virus-like particles and by use of the respective HI proviruses for monitoring the production of infectious particles.

  9. Screening of wild type Streptomyces isolates able to overproduce clavulanic acid

    PubMed Central

    Viana Marques, Daniela A.; Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria de Carvalho; de Oliveira, Patrícia Maria Sobral; Lima, Gláucia Manoella de Souza; Araújo, Janete M.; Lima-Filho, José L.; Converti, Attilio; Pessoa-Júnior, Adalberto; Porto, Ana L.F.

    2014-01-01

    The selection of new microorganisms able to produce antimicrobial compounds is hoped for to reduce their production costs and the side effects caused by synthetic drugs. Clavulanic acid is a β-lactam antibiotic produced by submerged culture, which is widely used in medicine as a powerful inhibitor of β-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistant to antibiotics such penicillin and cephalosporin. The purpose of this work was to select the best clavulanic acid producer among strains of Streptomyces belonging to the Microorganism Collection of the Department of Antibiotics of the Federal University of Pernambuco (DAUFPE). Initially, the strains were studied for their capacity to inhibit the action of β-lactamases produced by Klebsiella aerogenes ATCC 15380. From these results, five strains were selected to investigate the batch kinetics of growth and clavulanic acid production in submerged culture carried out in flasks. The results were compared with the ones obtained by Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064 selected as a control strain. The best clavulanic acid producer was Streptomyces DAUFPE 3060, molecularly identified as Streptomyces variabilis, which increased the clavulanic acid production by 28% compared to the control strain. This work contributes to the enlargement of knowledge on new Streptomyces wild strains able to produce clavulanic acid by submerged culture. PMID:25477926

  10. Screening of wild type Streptomyces isolates able to overproduce clavulanic acid.

    PubMed

    Viana Marques, Daniela A; Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria de Carvalho; de Oliveira, Patrícia Maria Sobral; Lima, Gláucia Manoella de Souza; Araújo, Janete M; Lima-Filho, José L; Converti, Attilio; Pessoa-Júnior, Adalberto; Porto, Ana L F

    2014-01-01

    The selection of new microorganisms able to produce antimicrobial compounds is hoped for to reduce their production costs and the side effects caused by synthetic drugs. Clavulanic acid is a β-lactam antibiotic produced by submerged culture, which is widely used in medicine as a powerful inhibitor of β-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistant to antibiotics such penicillin and cephalosporin. The purpose of this work was to select the best clavulanic acid producer among strains of Streptomyces belonging to the Microorganism Collection of the Department of Antibiotics of the Federal University of Pernambuco (DAUFPE). Initially, the strains were studied for their capacity to inhibit the action of β-lactamases produced by Klebsiella aerogenes ATCC 15380. From these results, five strains were selected to investigate the batch kinetics of growth and clavulanic acid production in submerged culture carried out in flasks. The results were compared with the ones obtained by Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064 selected as a control strain. The best clavulanic acid producer was Streptomyces DAUFPE 3060, molecularly identified as Streptomyces variabilis, which increased the clavulanic acid production by 28% compared to the control strain. This work contributes to the enlargement of knowledge on new Streptomyces wild strains able to produce clavulanic acid by submerged culture.

  11. Influence of pH, type of acid and recovery media on the thermal inactivation of Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Miller, Fátima A; Ramos, Bárbara; Gil, Maria M; Brandão, Teresa R S; Teixeira, Paula; Silva, Cristina L M

    2009-07-31

    Acidification of foods with organic acids, either by fermentation or by intentional addition, is an important and common mechanism for controlling foodborne pathogens in a diversity of food products. The objective of this work was to study thermal inactivation of Listeria innocua, an acid tolerant microorganism, at 52.5, 60.0 and 65.0 degrees C, at different pH values (4.5, 6.0 and 7.5), using three types of acid (lactic, acetic and hydrochloric) and three different plating media (Tryptic Soy Agar with 0.6% yeast extract-TSAYE; TSAYE plus 5% NaCl-TSAYE+5%NaCl; and Palcam Agar with selective supplement-Palcam Agar), according to a 3(4) factorial experimental design. Survival data experimentally obtained were fitted with a Gompertz-inspired model and kinetic parameters (shoulder, maximum inactivation rate-k(max), and tail) were estimated for all conditions considered. The influence of temperature, pH, type of acid and enumeration media on kinetic parameters was assessed. Results showed that, with the exception of the type of acid, all the remaining factors and their combinations significantly affected the shoulder period and k(max). In relation to tail, temperature and recovery media were the affectable factors. It was concluded that the survival of this bacteria is higher when combining low temperature with neutral pH, and when TSAYE is the enumeration medium. Bigelow-inspired models were successfully developed and describe accurately the temperature and pH effects on the kinetic parameters.

  12. LC-MS/MS analysis of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids in type 2 diabetic patients after insulin analog initiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Eicosanoids derived from omega-6 (n6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have proinflammatory functions whereas eicosanoids derived from omega-3 (n3) PUFAs have anti-inflammatory properties. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of insulin analog initiation therapy on n6 and n3 PUFAs in type 2 diabetic patients during early phase. Methods Sixteen type 2 diabetic patients with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels above 10% despite ongoing combination therapy with sulphonylurea and metformin were selected. Former treatment regimen was continued for the first day followed by substitution of sulphonylurea therapy with different insulin analogs (0.4 U/kg/day) plus metformin. Blood samples were obtained from all patients at 24 and 72 hours. Plasma levels of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n6), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, C20:3n6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n3) were determined by an optimized multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method using ultra fast-liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was measured in serum samples by enzyme immunoassay. Results All measured PUFAs were significantly increased after treatment with insulin analogs plus metformin compared to before treatment levels. The mean AA/EPA ratio was significantly lower after treatment with insulin analogs plus metformin. A 22% decrease was observed in PGE2 levels after treatment with insulin analogs plus metformin compared to pretreatment levels (p > 0.05). Conclusion The significant decrease in AA/EPA ratio indicates that insulin analog initiation therapy has anti-inflammatory properties by favoring the increase of n3 fatty acid EPA. PMID:24195588

  13. Serum Collagen Type II Cleavage Epitope and Serum Hyaluronic Acid as Biomarkers for Treatment Monitoring of Dogs with Hip Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, José M.; Rubio, Mónica; Spinella, Giuseppe; Cuervo, Belén; Sopena, Joaquín; Cugat, Ramón; Garcia-Balletbó, Montserrat; Dominguez, Juan M.; Granados, Maria; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Ceron, José J.; Carrillo, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of serum type II collagen cleavage epitope and serum hyaluronic acid as biomarkers for treatment monitoring in osteoarthritic dogs. For this purpose, a treatment model based on mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue combined with plasma rich in growth factors was used. This clinical study included 10 dogs with hip osteoarthritis. Both analytes were measured in serum at baseline, just before applying the treatment, and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. These results were compared with those obtained from force plate analysis using the same animals during the same study period. Levels of type II collagen cleavage epitope decreased and those of hyaluronic acid increased with clinical improvement objectively verified via force plate analysis, suggesting these two biomarkers could be effective as indicators of clinical development of joint disease in dogs. PMID:26886592

  14. Serum Collagen Type II Cleavage Epitope and Serum Hyaluronic Acid as Biomarkers for Treatment Monitoring of Dogs with Hip Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Vilar, José M; Rubio, Mónica; Spinella, Giuseppe; Cuervo, Belén; Sopena, Joaquín; Cugat, Ramón; Garcia-Balletbó, Montserrat; Dominguez, Juan M; Granados, Maria; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Ceron, José J; Carrillo, José M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of serum type II collagen cleavage epitope and serum hyaluronic acid as biomarkers for treatment monitoring in osteoarthritic dogs. For this purpose, a treatment model based on mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue combined with plasma rich in growth factors was used. This clinical study included 10 dogs with hip osteoarthritis. Both analytes were measured in serum at baseline, just before applying the treatment, and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. These results were compared with those obtained from force plate analysis using the same animals during the same study period. Levels of type II collagen cleavage epitope decreased and those of hyaluronic acid increased with clinical improvement objectively verified via force plate analysis, suggesting these two biomarkers could be effective as indicators of clinical development of joint disease in dogs.

  15. Enhanced growth and fatty acid accumulation of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. LX1 by two types of auxin.

    PubMed

    Dao, Guo-Hua; Wu, Guang-Xue; Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Zhuang, Lin-Lan; Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2017-09-14

    Microalgae are potential candidates for the production of valuable products, such as renewable biodiesel, health products and pigments. However, low biomass productivity has restricted their large-scale applications. In this study, the effects of two auxins (one natural type of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the other synthetic type of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)) on the growth and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) production of a freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus sp. LX1 were investigated. Both auxins showed a "low dosage-promotion and high dosage-inhibition" effect on the growth and FAMEs accumulation. The optimum dosage of IAA and 2,4-D were 1mgL(-1) and 0.1mgL(-1), respectively. Moreover, the IAA could increase the monounsaturated fatty acid content. The auxins may promote the growth by enhancing the photosynthetic activity through increasing chlorophyll contents. Therefore, auxin significantly enhanced microalgal growth and FAMEs accumulation, and has a potential for application in developing efficient microalgal cultivation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Diversity of Innate Immune Recognition Mechanism for Bacterial Polymeric meso-Diaminopimelic Acid-type Peptidoglycan in Insects

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Park, Ji-Won; Kwon, Hyun-Mi; Hwang, Hyun-Ok; Jang, In-Hwan; Masuda, Akiko; Kurokawa, Kenji; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Lee, Won-Jae; Dohmae, Naoshi; Zhang, Jinghai; Lee, Bok Luel

    2010-01-01

    In Drosophila, the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides in response to microbial infections is under the control of the Toll and immune deficiency (Imd) signaling pathway. The Toll signaling pathway responds mainly to the lysine-type peptidoglycan of Gram-positive bacteria and fungal β-1,3-glucan, whereas the Imd pathway responds to the meso-diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-type peptidoglycan of Gram-negative bacteria and certain Gram-positive bacilli. Recently we determined the activation mechanism of a Toll signaling pathway biochemically using a large beetle, Tenebrio molitor. However, DAP-type peptidoglycan recognition mechanism and its signaling pathway are still unclear in the fly and beetle. Here, we show that polymeric DAP-type peptidoglycan, but not its monomeric form, formed a complex with Tenebrio peptidoglycan recognition protein-SA, and this complex activated the three-step proteolytic cascade to produce processed Spätzle, a Toll receptor ligand, and induced Drosophila defensin-like antimicrobial peptide in Tenebrio larvae similarly to polymeric lysine-type peptidoglycan. Monomeric DAP-type peptidoglycan induced Drosophila diptericin-like antimicrobial peptide in Tenebrio hemocytes. In addition, both polymeric and monomeric DAP-type peptidoglycans induced expression of Tenebrio peptidoglycan recognition protein-SC2, which is DAP-type peptidoglycan-selective N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine amidase that functions as a DAP-type peptidoglycan scavenger, appearing to function as a negative regulator of the DAP-type peptidoglycan signaling by cleaving DAP-type peptidoglycan in Tenebrio larvae. Taken together, these results demonstrate that molecular recognition mechanism for polymeric DAP-type peptidoglycan is different between Tenebrio larvae and Drosophila adults, providing biochemical evidences of biological diversity of innate immune responses in insects. PMID:20702416

  17. A prediction of the amino acids and structures involved in DNA recognition by type I DNA restriction and modification enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Sturrock, S S; Dryden, D T

    1997-01-01

    The S subunits of type I DNA restriction/modification enzymes are responsible for recognising the DNA target sequence for the enzyme. They contain two domains of approximately 150 amino acids, each of which is responsible for recognising one half of the bipartite asymmetric target. In the absence of any known tertiary structure for type I enzymes or recognisable DNA recognition motifs in the highly variable amino acid sequences of the S subunits, it has previously not been possible to predict which amino acids are responsible for sequence recognition. Using a combination of sequence alignment and secondary structure prediction methods to analyse the sequences of S subunits, we predict that all of the 51 known target recognition domains (TRDs) have the same tertiary structure. Furthermore, this structure is similar to the structure of the TRD of the C5-cytosine methyltransferase, Hha I, which recognises its DNA target via interactions with two short polypeptide loops and a beta strand. Our results predict the location of these sequence recognition structures within the TRDs of all type I S subunits. PMID:9254696

  18. Structural studies of the actions of anesthetic drugs on the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor.

    PubMed

    Akk, Gustav; Steinbach, Joe Henry

    2011-12-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor is the major transmitter-gated inhibitory channel in the central nervous system. The receptor is a target for anesthetics, anticonvulsants, anxiolytics, and sedatives whose actions facilitate the flow of chloride ions through the channel and enhance the inhibitory tone in the brain. Both the kinetic and structural aspects of the actions of modulators of the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor are of great importance to understanding the molecular mechanisms of general anesthesia. In this review, the structural rearrangements that take place in the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor during channel activation and modulation are described, focusing on data obtained using voltage-clamp fluorometry. Voltage-clamp fluorometry entails the binding of an environmentally sensitive fluorophore molecule to a site of interest in the receptor, and measurement of changes in the fluorescence signal resulting from activation- or modulation-elicited structural changes. Detailed investigations can provide a map of structural changes that underlie or accompany the functional effects of modulators.

  19. "Essential" phospholipids versus nicotinic acid in the treatment of patients with type IIb hyperlipoproteinemia and ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Klimov, A N; Konstantinov, V O; Lipovetsky, B M; Kuznetsov, A S; Lozovsky, V T; Trufanov, V F; Plavinsky, S L; Gundermann, K J; Schumacher, R

    1995-12-01

    In patients with moderate, dietary noncorrigible hyperlipoproteinemia type IIb and ischemic heart disease, treatment with nicotinic acid is limited by the side effects of the drug. In 100 patients, 6-month treatment with nicotinic acid (n = 50) or "essential" phospholipids (EPL); Lipostabil, manufacturer: Rhône-Poulenc Rorer) (n = 50) indicated comparable efficacy for both substances: Significant (p < .001) reductions of serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride values were similar in both groups, while nicotinic acid increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol significantly (p < .01) better than Lipostabil. A detailed analysis of ultracentrifugal lipoprotein profiles, hydroperoxide concentrations in LDL, and cholesterol-accepting properties of HDL in a small number of Lipostabil- and nicotinic acid-treated patients revealed favorable shifts in the lipoprotein profile, significant (p < .05) reductions of LDL hydroperoxides, and favorable increases of the most antiatherogenic HDL2b subfraction only in the Lipostabil-treated group. Clinically, both medications reduced the intensity and number of angina pectoris attacks per week (p < .05), but only Lipostabil-treated patients significantly (p < .05) increased their working capacity in the veloergometric test. Since in the nicotinic acid-treated group dropouts (nine patients, eight related to the drug) and side effects [14] exceeded those in the Lipostabil-treated group (two dropouts not related to the drug, no side effects), it is suggested that Lipostabil is a preferable alternative in the treatment of patients with moderate, dietary noncorrigible hyperlipoproteinemia IIb and ischemic heart disease.

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is trapped by acidic but not by neutralized human cervicovaginal mucus.

    PubMed

    Lai, Samuel K; Hida, Kaoru; Shukair, Shetha; Wang, Ying-Ying; Figueiredo, Anna; Cone, Richard; Hope, Thomas J; Hanes, Justin

    2009-11-01

    To reliably infect a primate model for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), approximately 10,000-fold more virus must be delivered vaginally than intravenously. However, the vaginal mechanisms that help protect against HIV are poorly understood. Here, we report that human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM), obtained from donors with normal lactobacillus-dominated vaginal flora, efficiently traps HIV, causing it to diffuse more than 1,000-fold more slowly than it does in water. Lactobacilli acidify CVM to pH approximately 4 by continuously producing lactic acid. At this acidic pH, we found that lactic acid, but not HCl, abolished the negative surface charge on HIV without lysing the virus membrane. In contrast, in CVM neutralized to pH 6 to 7, as occurs when semen temporarily neutralizes the vagina, HIV maintained its native surface charge and diffused only 15-fold more slowly than it would in water. Thus, methods that can maintain both a high lactic acid content and acidity for CVM during coitus may contribute to both vaginal and penile protection by trapping HIV before it can reach target cells. Our results reveal that CVM likely plays an important but currently unappreciated role in decreasing the rate of HIV sexual transmission.

  1. Phytosterol content and fatty acid pattern of ten different nut types.

    PubMed

    Kornsteiner-Krenn, Margit; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Ten different nut kinds (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) were evaluated for their total oil and phytosterol content as well as their fatty acid composition. The total oil content was the predominant component; mean values oscillated between 45.2 % (cashews) and 74.7 % (macadamias). Mean total phytosterol content ranged from 71.7 mg (Brazil nuts) to 271.9 mg (pistachios) per 100 g oil. ß-sitosterol was the major sterol (mean >71.7 mg/100 g oil) followed by minor contents of campesterol, ergosterol, and stigmasterol. Almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, and pistachios were high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA; > 55 %). MUFA- and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich nuts were peanuts and pecans, whereas Brazil nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts had the highest PUFA content (> 50 %); the high unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio ranged from 4.5 to 11.8. However, the fatty acid pattern of every nut is unique.

  2. Tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles show antiviral activity in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

    PubMed

    Orlowski, Piotr; Tomaszewska, Emilia; Gniadek, Marianna; Baska, Piotr; Nowakowska, Julita; Sokolowska, Justyna; Nowak, Zuzanna; Donten, Mikolaj; Celichowski, Grzegorz; Grobelny, Jaroslaw; Krzyzowska, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between silver nanoparticles and herpesviruses is attracting great interest due to their antiviral activity and possibility to use as microbicides for oral and anogenital herpes. In this work, we demonstrate that tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles sized 13 nm, 33 nm and 46 nm are capable of reducing HSV-2 infectivity both in vitro and in vivo. The antiviral activity of tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles was size-related, required direct interaction and blocked virus attachment, penetration and further spread. All tested tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles reduced both infection and inflammatory reaction in the mouse model of HSV-2 infection when used at infection or for a post-infection treatment. Smaller-sized nanoparticles induced production of cytokines and chemokines important for anti-viral response. The corresponding control buffers with tannic acid showed inferior antiviral effects in vitro and were ineffective in blocking in vivo infection. Our results show that tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles are good candidates for microbicides used in treatment of herpesvirus infections.

  3. Unusual doping of donor-acceptor-type conjugated polymers using lewis acids.

    PubMed

    Poverenov, Elena; Zamoshchik, Natalia; Patra, Asit; Ridelman, Yonatan; Bendikov, Michael

    2014-04-02

    Conjugated polymers that can undergo unusual nonoxidative doping were designed. A series of polymers based on donor-acceptor-donor (DAD) moieties 2,1,3-benzoselenadiazole, 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole, 2,1,3-benzoxadiazolebenzo[2,1,5]oxodiazole, and 2-hexylbenzotriazole as acceptor fragments and 3,4-ethylenedioxyselenophene (EDOS) and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) as donor fragments was prepared. When the studied polymers were reacted with Lewis acids and bases, notable optical switching and conductivity changes were observed, evidencing the exceptional case of efficient nonoxidative doping/dedoping. Remarkably, in previously reported works, coordination of Lewis acids causes band gap shift but not doping of the conductive polymer, while in the present study, coordination of Lewis acid to highly donating EDOT and EDOS moieties led to polymer doping. The polymers show remarkable stability after numerous switching cycles from neutral to doped states and vice versa and can be switched both electrochemically and chemically. The reactivity of the prepared polymers with Lewis acids and bases of different strengths was studied. Calculation studies of the Lewis acid coordination mode, its effect on polymer energies and band gap, support the unusual doping. The reported doping approach opens up the possibility to control the conjugation, color change, and switching of states of conjugated polymers without oxidation.

  4. Tannic Acid Modified Silver Nanoparticles Show Antiviral Activity in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Orlowski, Piotr; Tomaszewska, Emilia; Gniadek, Marianna; Baska, Piotr; Nowakowska, Julita; Sokolowska, Justyna; Nowak, Zuzanna; Donten, Mikolaj; Celichowski, Grzegorz; Grobelny, Jaroslaw; Krzyzowska, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between silver nanoparticles and herpesviruses is attracting great interest due to their antiviral activity and possibility to use as microbicides for oral and anogenital herpes. In this work, we demonstrate that tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles sized 13 nm, 33 nm and 46 nm are capable of reducing HSV-2 infectivity both in vitro and in vivo. The antiviral activity of tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles was size-related, required direct interaction and blocked virus attachment, penetration and further spread. All tested tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles reduced both infection and inflammatory reaction in the mouse model of HSV-2 infection when used at infection or for a post-infection treatment. Smaller-sized nanoparticles induced production of cytokines and chemokines important for anti-viral response. The corresponding control buffers with tannic acid showed inferior antiviral effects in vitro and were ineffective in blocking in vivo infection. Our results show that tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles are good candidates for microbicides used in treatment of herpesvirus infections. PMID:25117537

  5. The preservation of ultrastructure in saturated phosphatidyl cholines by tannic acid in model systems and type II pneumocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kalina, M; Pease, DC

    1977-01-01

    The preservation for electron microscopy of saturated phospholipids in general, and phosphatidyl choline (PC)in particular, remains and unsolved problem since OsO(4) and glutaraldehyde are incapable of interacting with PC directly. However, by introducing tannic acid preceding osmication, we were able to demonstrate highly ordered, preserved lamellar structures in model experiments with saturated PC, and in vivo experiments type II pneumocytes of lung tissue. The secretory bodies of the latter are known to contain a high proportion of these saturated phospholipids. In both cases, the repeating periodicity approximated 45 A. It was determined that tannic acid interacts with the choline component of PC to form a "complex," which then could be stabilized by treatment with OsO(4). In the absence of osmication, the PC-tannic acid complex acid did not survive conventional dehydration techniques, but osmication permitted conventional Epon embedment. Sphingomyelin (SPH), which contains choline, behaved similarly in model experiments. But there was no evidence of a comparable reaction with tannic acid using phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PEA), phosphatidyl serine (PS), or phosphstidy inositol (PI). Chemical studies indicted a high pH dependency for the formation of the PC- tannic acid complex. Also, experiments demonstrated its dissociation in various organic solvents. Sharp delineation and great contrast of the polar zones in the ordered lamellar structures was achieved by additional staining with lead citrate thus leading to the conclusion that tannic acid serves as a multivalent agent, capable of simultaneous interaction with saturated PC, OsO(4), and lead citrate stains. PMID:71301

  6. [Effects of simulated acid rain on seed germination and seedling growth of different type corn Zea mays].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Yan

    2013-06-01

    Taking normal corn, waxy corn, pop corn, and sweet corn as test materials, this paper studied their seed germination and seedling growth under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 6.0, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0, 2.0, and 1.0). Simulated acid rain at pH 2.0-5.0 had no significant effects on the seed germination and seedling growth, but at pH 1.0, the germination rate of normal corn, waxy corn, pop corn, and sweet corn was 91.3%, 68.7%, 27.5%, and 11.7%, respectively. As compared with those at pH 6.0 (CK), the germination rate, germination index, vigor index, germination velocity, shoot height, root length, shoot and root dry mass, and the transformation rate of stored substances at pH 1.0 had significant decrease, and the average germination time extended apparently. At pH 1.0, the effects of acid rain were greater at seedling growth stage than at germination stage, and greater on underground part than on aboveground part. Due to the differences in gene type, normal corn and waxy corn had the strongest capability against acid rain, followed by pop corn, and sweet corn. It was suggested that corn could be categorized as an acid rain-tolerant crop, the injury threshold value of acid rain was likely between pH 1.0 and pH 2.0, and normal corn and waxy corn would be prioritized for planting in acid rain-stricken area.

  7. Contribution of mdr1b-type P-glycoprotein to okadaic acid resistance in rat pituitary GH3 cells.

    PubMed

    Ritz, V; Marwitz, J; Sieder, S; Ziemann, C; Hirsch-Ernst, K I; Quentin, I; Steinfelder, H J

    1999-08-01

    Okadaic acid as well as other, structurally different, inhibitors of serine/threonine phosphatases 1 and 2A induce apoptosis in pituitary GH3 cells. Incubation with stepwise raised concentrations of okadaic acid resulted in the isolation of cells that were increasingly less sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of this agent. After about 18 months cells were selected that survived at 300 nM okadaic acid, which is about 30 times the initially lethal concentration. This study revealed that a major pharmacokinetic mechanism underlying cell survival was the development of a P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype. The increase in mRNA levels of the mdr1b P-glycoprotein isoform correlated with the extent of drug resistance. Functional assays revealed that increasing drug resistance was paralleled by a decreased accumulation of rhodamine 123, a fluorescent dye which is a substrate of mdr1-mediated efflux activity. Resistance could be abolished by structurally different chemosensitizers of P-glycoprotein function like verapamil and reserpine but not by the leukotriene receptor antagonist MK571 which is a modulator of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP). Okadaic acid resistance included cross-resistance to other cytotoxic agents that are substrates of mdr1-type P-glycoproteins, like doxorubicin and actinomycin D, but not to non-substrates of mdr1, e.g. cytosine arabinoside. Thus, functional as well as biochemical features support the conclusion that okadaic acid is a substrate of the mdr1-mediated efflux activity in rat pituitary GH3 cells. Maintenance of resistance after withdrawal of okadaic acid as well as metaphase spreads of 100 nM okadaic acid-resistant cells suggested a stable MDR genotype without indications for the occurrence of extrachromosomal amplifications, e.g. double minute chromosomes.

  8. Omega-3 fatty acid supply from milk associates with lower type 2 diabetes in men and coronary heart disease in women.

    PubMed

    Thorsdottir, Inga; Hill, Jeremy; Ramel, Alfons

    2004-09-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids may prevent type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated these fatty acids in Nordic cow's milk and whether their supply from milk associates with type 2 diabetes prevalence and CHD mortality in the Nordic countries. Samples (N = 84) of consumers' milk were collected in five Nordic countries four times during 1 year. Fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography. Fatty acids supply from milk fat was calculated using national food balance sheets. The omega-3 fatty acids content was higher and omega-6 fatty acid content was lower in Icelandic milk when compared with milk from other Nordic countries. Type 2 diabetes prevalence in men correlated inversely with the supply of omega-3 fatty acids and eicosapentaenic acid, but positively with omega-6/omega-3 ratio in milk. CHD mortality in women correlated inversely with the supply of eicosapentaenic acid but positively with the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. Milk fatty acids content can depend upon the origin of the milk. The higher supply of omega-3 fatty acids from milk might explain the lower type 2 diabetes prevalence and CHD mortality in Iceland compared to the other Nordic countries.

  9. Removal of humic acid by a new type of electrical hollow-fiber microfiltration (E-HFMF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Ran; Deng, Hui-ping; Hu, Jing-yi

    2010-11-01

    Low pressure membrane filtration, such as microfiltration, was widely used in the field of drinking water purification in the past few decades. Traditional microfiltration membranes are not efficient enough in the removal of natural organic matters (NOM) from raw water. Moreover, they tend to be fouled by the NOM and the filtration age of the membranes is thus shrinked. To tackle these problems, a new type of electrical hollow-fiber microfiltration module (E-HFMF) was designed. In the E-HFMF module, the hollow-fiber microfiltration membranes were placed into the radialized electrical field which functioned from the centre to the exterior of the cylindrical cavity. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of E-HFMF to remove the humic acid (HA, one of the main components of NOM). According to the parallel tests compared with the traditional microfiltration, the removal rate of humic acid was raised to 70%˜85% in terms of UV-254 and to 60%˜75% in terms of DOC when filtrating with the E-HFMF, while the removal rates of humic acid were 10%˜20% and 1%˜10% respectively when filtrating with the traditional microfiltration. The negative charged humic acid moved to the anode because of the electrophoresis, so few humic acid could be able to permeate through the membrane. The electrophoresis mobility of the humic acid permeating through the traditional microfiltration decreased by 19%, while the same index from the E-HFMF decreased by 75%. This indicated that the electrophoresis played a significant role on removing the humic acid. According to the gel permeate chromatograph analysis, humic acid aggregated in an electric field and thus forms loose and permeable cake layer on the membrane surface, which also relieved membrane fouling. Meanwhile, the negative charged humic acid migrating to the anode at the center minimized the deposition onto the membrane surface, and eliminated the membrane fouling as a result. During the E-HFMF filtration, the

  10. A comparative evaluation of different types of microbial electrolysis desalination cells for malic acid production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangli; Zhou, Ying; Luo, Haiping; Cheng, Xing; Zhang, Renduo; Teng, Wenkai

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate different microbial electrolysis desalination cells for malic acid production. The systems included microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC), microbial electrolysis desalination cell (MEDC) with bipolar membrane and anion exchange membrane (BP-A MEDC), MEDC with bipolar membrane and cation exchange membrane (BP-C MEDC), and modified microbial desalination cell (M-MDC). The microbial electrolysis desalination cells performed differently in terms of malic acid production and energy consumption. The MEDCC performed best with the highest malic acid production rate (18.4 ± 0.6 mmol/Lh) and the lowest energy consumption (0.35 ± 0.14 kWh/kg). The best performance of MEDCC was attributable to the neutral pH condition in the anode chamber, the lowest internal resistance, and the highest Geobacter percentage of the anode biofilm population among all the reactors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Type 2 diabetes alters metabolic and transcriptional signatures of glucose and amino acid metabolism during exercise and recovery.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jakob S; Zhao, Xinjie; Irmler, Martin; Liu, Xinyu; Hoene, Miriam; Scheler, Mika; Li, Yanjie; Beckers, Johannes; Hrabĕ de Angelis, Martin; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Pedersen, Bente K; Lehmann, Rainer; Xu, Guowang; Plomgaard, Peter; Weigert, Cora

    2015-08-01

    The therapeutic benefit of physical activity to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes is commonly accepted. However, the impact of the disease on the acute metabolic response is less clear. To this end, we investigated the effect of type 2 diabetes on exercise-induced plasma metabolite changes and the muscular transcriptional response using a complementary metabolomics/transcriptomics approach. We analysed 139 plasma metabolites and hormones at nine time points, and whole genome expression in skeletal muscle at three time points, during a 60 min bicycle ergometer exercise and a 180 min recovery phase in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy controls matched for age, percentage body fat and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2). Pathway analysis of differentially regulated genes upon exercise revealed upregulation of regulators of GLUT4 (SLC2A4RG, FLOT1, EXOC7, RAB13, RABGAP1 and CBLB), glycolysis (HK2, PFKFB1, PFKFB3, PFKM, FBP2 and LDHA) and insulin signal mediators in diabetic participants compared with controls. Notably, diabetic participants had normalised rates of lactate and insulin levels, and of glucose appearance and disappearance, after exercise. They also showed an exercise-induced compensatory regulation of genes involved in biosynthesis and metabolism of amino acids (PSPH, GATM, NOS1 and GLDC), which responded to differences in the amino acid profile (consistently lower plasma levels of glycine, cysteine and arginine). Markers of fat oxidation (acylcarnitines) and lipolysis (glycerol) did not indicate impaired metabolic flexibility during exercise in diabetic participants. Type 2 diabetic individuals showed specific exercise-regulated gene expression. These data provide novel insight into potential mechanisms to ameliorate the disturbed glucose and amino acid metabolism associated with type 2 diabetes.

  12. Heart-type fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP3) is a lysophosphatidic acid-binding protein in human coronary artery endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Ryoko; Haniu, Hisao; Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Tsukahara, Tamotsu

    2014-01-01

    Fatty-acid-binding protein 3, muscle and heart (FABP3), also known as heart-type FABP, is a member of the family of intracellular lipid-binding proteins. It is a small cytoplasmic protein with a molecular mass of about 15 kDa. FABPs are known to be carrier proteins for transporting fatty acids and other lipophilic substances from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where these lipids are released to a group of nuclear receptors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). In this study, using lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-coated agarose beads, we have identified FABP3 as an LPA carrier protein in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). Administration of LPA to HCAECs resulted in a dose-dependent increase in PPARγ activation. Furthermore, the LPA-induced PPARγ activation was abolished when the FABP3 expression was reduced using small interfering RNA (siRNA). We further show that the nuclear fraction of control HCAECs contained a significant amount of exogenously added LPA, whereas FABP3 siRNA-transfected HCAECs had a decreased level of LPA in the nucleus. Taken together, these results suggest that FABP3 governs the transcriptional activities of LPA by targeting them to cognate PPARγ in the nucleus.

  13. Heart-type fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP3) is a lysophosphatidic acid-binding protein in human coronary artery endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsukahara, Ryoko; Haniu, Hisao; Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Tsukahara, Tamotsu

    2014-01-01

    Fatty-acid-binding protein 3, muscle and heart (FABP3), also known as heart-type FABP, is a member of the family of intracellular lipid-binding proteins. It is a small cytoplasmic protein with a molecular mass of about 15 kDa. FABPs are known to be carrier proteins for transporting fatty acids and other lipophilic substances from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where these lipids are released to a group of nuclear receptors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). In this study, using lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-coated agarose beads, we have identified FABP3 as an LPA carrier protein in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). Administration of LPA to HCAECs resulted in a dose-dependent increase in PPARγ activation. Furthermore, the LPA-induced PPARγ activation was abolished when the FABP3 expression was reduced using small interfering RNA (siRNA). We further show that the nuclear fraction of control HCAECs contained a significant amount of exogenously added LPA, whereas FABP3 siRNA-transfected HCAECs had a decreased level of LPA in the nucleus. Taken together, these results suggest that FABP3 governs the transcriptional activities of LPA by targeting them to cognate PPARγ in the nucleus. PMID:25426414

  14. Acid-base chemistry in the formation of Mackay-type icosahedral clusters: μ3-acidity analysis of Sc-rich phases of the Sc-Ir system.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yiming; Stacey, Timothy E; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2014-05-19

    The crystal structures of intermetallic phases offer a wealth of geometrical features (helices, multishelled clusters, and host-guest motifs) whose formation has yet to be explained or predicted by chemical theory. A recently developed extension of the acid-base concept to metallic systems, the μ3-acidity model, provides an avenue for developing this understanding for intermetallics formed from transition metals. In this Article, we illustrate how this approach can be used to understand one of the most striking geometrical entities to emerge in intermetallic chemistry, the Mackay cluster of icosahedral quasicrystals. We present μ3-acidity analyses, based on DFT-calibrated Hückel calculations, for a series of Sc-Ir intermetallics: ScIr (CsCl-type), Sc2Ir (Ti2Ni-type), Sc11Ir4, and the Mackay cluster containing phases Sc57Ir13 and Sc44Ir7. We begin by illustrating that a μ3-acidity model correctly predicts that each of these phases is stable relative to disproportionation into their neighboring compounds when a common set of Hückel parameters and d-orbital occupancies is used. Next, we explain these results by developing a relationship between the distance distribution of homoatomic contacts within an atom's coordination sphere and the μ3-neutralization it experiences. For a given average homoatomic distance, the role of heteroatomic contacts is higher when the distribution of homoatomic contacts is narrower. This effect is key to the strength of the acid-base neutralization of the Sc-rich phases, where the Sc atoms find a scarcity of Ir atoms from which to obtain neutralization. Under these circumstances, Sc-Ir contacts should be maximized, whereas the number and distance variations of the Sc-Sc contacts should be minimized. These expectations are borne out by the observed crystal structures. In particular, the Mackay clusters of Sc57Ir13 and Sc44Ir7, in which a central Ir atom is icosahedrally coordinated by a pentagonal dodecahedral array of face-sharing Sc

  15. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) modulate metabolic and inflammatory markers in a spontaneous type 2 diabetes mellitus model (Stillman Salgado rats).

    PubMed

    Dain, Alejandro; Repossi, Gaston; Diaz-Gerevini, Gustavo T; Vanamala, Jairam; Das, Undurti N; Eynard, Aldo R

    2016-11-25

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex disease with alterations in metabolic and inflammatory markers. Stillman Salgado rats (eSS) spontaneously develop type 2 DM by middle age showing progressive impairment of glucose tolerance with hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia. We analyzed the effects of supplementation of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with or without nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) added, an antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitor, on metabolic and inflammatory parameters in eSS rats to evaluate whether they can delay development and/or prevent progression of DM. After weaning, eSS rats received, intraperitoneally, once a month ω-3 (EPA 35% and DHA 40%-6.25 mg/Kg) or ω-6 (90% arachidonic acid- 6. 25 mg/Kg) for twelve months. Two additional groups of rats received 1.9 mg/kg NDGA added to ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids. Blood samples were collected at day 40, and at the end of the 6th month and 12th month of age to determine plasma triglycerides (TGs), total plasma fatty acids (FA), A1C hemoglobin (HbA1C), C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lipo and hydro peroxides, nitrites and IL-6 (in plasma and liver, kidney, and pancreas) and underwent oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as well. Wistar and eSS rats that received saline solution were used as controls. Plasma lipids profile, TG, fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels, and glycosylated HbA1C showed significant improvements in ω-3 and ω-3 + NDGA treated animals compared to eSS control group. ω-3 and ω-3 + NDGA groups showed an inverse correlation with fasting blood glucose and showed lower plasma levels of GGT, TG, and CRP. eSS rats treated with ω-3 LCPUFAs showed reduced level of inflammatory and oxidative indices in plasma and liver, kidney and pancreas tissues in comparison with eSS control (non-treated) and ω-6 treated groups. eSS rats are a useful model to study type 2 DM pathophysiology and related inflammatory

  16. Determination of the type and quantity of sialic acid in the egg jelly coat of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus using capillary LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Yeşilyurt, Batuhan; Şahar, Umut; Deveci, Remziye

    2015-02-01

    Sialic acid is a terminal sugar of carbohydrate chains that participates in numerous biological events. Recent studies have explored the mechanism of carbohydrate-mediated fertilisation to understand the biochemistry of fertilisation, although the type and quantity of sialic acid and the role of sialic acid during fertilisation remain unknown. Echinoderm fertilisation in particular has been studied extensively, yet our understanding of the mechanisms of carbohydrate-mediated fertilisation and the role of sialic acid remains incomplete. In this study, we characterised the sialic acid types in the egg jelly coat of the sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, using the sensitive analytical system capillary liquid chromatography electro-spray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (capLC-ESI-MS/MS). First, we isolated the egg jelly coat and released its sialic acid using acid treatment. These sialic acids were derivatised with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenediaoxy-benzene dihydrochloride (DMB) and injected into the capLC-ESI-MS/MS system. When compared with standards, we identified twelve different types of sialic acid according to their retention times and collision-induced dissociation fragments. The mass spectral data revealed that Neu5Gc, Neu5Ac, Neu5GcS, and Neu5Gc9Ac were the predominant types of sialic acid in the sea urchin jelly coat, with Neu5Gc being the most abundant. Other types of sialic acid detected included Neu5AcS, Neu5Gc7,9Ac2, Neu5,9Ac2, Neu5Gc8Ac, Neu5Gc7Ac, Neu5,7Ac2, Neu5Gc8,9Ac2, and Neu5,8Ac2. The types and quantities of sialic acid that we detected in the egg jelly coat will aid in the discovery of new sialic acid-specific receptors on the sperm membrane. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Molecular features of the L-type amino acid transporter 2 determine different import and export profiles for thyroid hormones and amino acids.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Katrin M; Neef, Dominik; Rutz, Claudia; Furkert, Jens; Köhrle, Josef; Schülein, Ralf; Krause, Gerd

    2017-03-05

    The L-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2) imports amino acids (AA) and also certain thyroid hormones (TH), e.g. 3,3'-T2 and T3, but not rT3 and T4. We utilized LAT2 mutations (Y130A, N133S, F242W) that increase 3,3'-T2 import and focus here on import and export capacity for AA, T4, T3, BCH and derivatives thereof to delineate molecular features. Transport studies and analysis of competitive inhibition of import by radiolabelled TH and AA were performed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Only Y130A, a pocket widening mutation, enabled import for T4 and increased it for T3. Mutant F242W showed increased 3,3'-T2 import but no import rates for other TH derivatives. No export was detected for any TH by LAT2-wild type (WT). Mutations Y130A and N133S enabled only the export of 3,3'-T2, while N133S also increased AA export. Thus, distinct molecular LAT2-features determine bidirectional AA transport but only an unidirectional 3,3'-T2 and T3 import.

  18. Survival of Salmonella in home-style mayonnaise and acid solutions as affected by acidulant type and preservatives.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junli; Li, Jianrong; Chen, Jinru

    2012-03-01

    Mayonnaise made from contaminated eggs has been linked to outbreaks of Salmonella infections. This study was undertaken to determine the fate of salmonellae in home-style mayonnaise and acid solutions with or without chemical preservatives. Egg yolks were inoculated with different levels of a three-serotype (Typhimurium, Heidelberg, and Enteritidis [untypeable phage type]) mixture of Salmonella or a three-phage-type (4, 8, and 13) mixture of Salmonella Enteritidis. The inoculated yolks were used to make mayonnaise with 2, 3, or 4 teaspoons of a commercial wine vinegar or lemon juice. The mayonnaise was sampled for salmonellae over a 15-day period at 4°C, and negative samples were tested further by a three-tube most-probable-number assay. The same Salmonella mixtures were respectively inoculated into six acid solutions including wine vinegar, lemon juice, and acetic or citric solutions with or without chemical preservatives. The Salmonella populations of the Salmonella Enteritidis mixture were more persistent than those of the other Salmonella mixture in mayonnaise. Both Salmonella mixtures survived longer in mayonnaise made with vinegar than with lemon juice during storage at 4°C. In the acid solutions, however, the populations of the two Salmonella mixtures were not significantly different. The numbers of the two Salmonella mixtures in acetic or citric acid solutions with the preservatives were significantly lower than those in vinegar, lemon juice, and the solutions without the preservatives. Results suggest that Salmonella in contaminated egg yolks could survive the mayonnaise-making process. The inhibition of Salmonella by vinegar and lemon juice is due to the hurdle effect of organic acids and chemical preservatives.

  19. An NMR study of merocyanine-type dyes derived from barbituric acid.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Marcos Caroli; Flores, Patricio; Guerrero, Juan; Villarroel, Luis

    2004-06-01

    The 13C NMR of two solvatochromic dyes derived from a barbituric acid acceptor and dimethylaminophenyl donor fragments, compound 1 and the related merocyanine 2, were recorded in various solvents. The observed chemical-shift variations were used to interpret their structural differences and solvatochromic behavior in solution.

  20. Dietary saturated fatty acid type modifies the plasma phospholipidome in obese mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A high intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) is associated with obesity and its related diseases. However, the contribution of particular SFAs to obesity has not been investigated. We tested the hypothesis that the composition of dietary SFA causes selective changes in the plasma phospholipidome in ...

  1. Effect of Oral Sebacic Acid on Postprandial Glycemia, Insulinemia, and Glucose Rate of Appearance in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Iaconelli, Amerigo; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Chiellini, Chiara; Gniuli, Donatella; Favuzzi, Angela; Binnert, Christophe; Macé, Katherine; Mingrone, Geltrude

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Dicarboxylic acids are natural products with the potential of being an alternate dietary source of energy. We aimed to evaluate the effect of sebacic acid (a 10-carbon dicarboxylic acid; C10) ingestion on postprandial glycemia and glucose rate of appearance (Ra) in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. Furthermore, the effect of C10 on insulin-mediated glucose uptake and on GLUT4 expression was assessed in L6 muscle cells in vitro. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects ingested a mixed meal (50% carbohydrates, 15% proteins, and 35% lipids) containing 0 g (control) or 10 g C10 in addition to the meal or 23 g C10 as a substitute of fats. RESULTS In type 2 diabetic subjects, the incremental glucose area under the curve (AUC) decreased by 42% (P < 0.05) and 70% (P < 0.05) in the 10 g C10 and 23 g C10 groups, respectively. At the largest amounts used, C10 reduced the glucose AUC in healthy volunteers also. When fats were substituted with 23 g C10, AUC of Ra was significantly reduced on the order of 18% (P < 0.05) in both healthy and diabetic subjects. The insulin-dependent glucose uptake by L6 cells was increased in the presence of C10 (38.7 ± 10.3 vs. 11.4 ± 5.4%; P = 0.026). This increase was associated with a 1.7-fold raise of GLUT4. CONCLUSIONS Sebacic acid significantly reduced hyperglycemia after a meal in type 2 diabetic subjects. This beneficial effect was associated with a reduction in glucose Ra, probably due to lowered hepatic glucose output and increased peripheral glucose disposal. PMID:20724647

  2. Alterations in fatty acid metabolism and sirtuin signaling characterize early type-2 diabetic hearts of fructose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Lou, Phing-How; Lucchinetti, Eliana; Scott, Katrina Y; Huang, Yiming; Gandhi, Manoj; Hersberger, Martin; Clanachan, Alexander S; Lemieux, Hélène; Zaugg, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Despite the fact that skeletal muscle insulin resistance is the hallmark of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), inflexibility in substrate energy metabolism has been observed in other tissues such as liver, adipose tissue, and heart. In the heart, structural and functional changes ultimately lead to diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, little is known about the early biochemical changes that cause cardiac metabolic dysregulation and dysfunction. We used a dietary model of fructose-induced T2DM (10% fructose in drinking water for 6 weeks) to study cardiac fatty acid metabolism in early T2DM and related signaling events in order to better understand mechanisms of disease. In early type-2 diabetic hearts, flux through the fatty acid oxidation pathway was increased as a result of increased cellular uptake (CD36), mitochondrial uptake (CPT1B), as well as increased β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities, despite reduced mitochondrial mass. Long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity was slightly decreased, resulting in the accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitine species. Cardiac function and overall mitochondrial respiration were unaffected. However, evidence of oxidative stress and subtle changes in cardiolipin content and composition were found in early type-2 diabetic mitochondria. Finally, we observed decreased activity of SIRT1, a pivotal regulator of fatty acid metabolism, despite increased protein levels. This indicates that the heart is no longer capable of further increasing its capacity for fatty acid oxidation. Along with increased oxidative stress, this may represent one of the earliest signs of dysfunction that will ultimately lead to inflammation and remodeling in the diabetic heart. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  3. Versatile methods for synthesizing organic acid salts of quaternary berberine-type alkaloids as anti-ulcerative colitis agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hai-Jing; Deng, An-Jun; Wu, Lian-Qiu; Li, Zhi-Hong; Song, Hong-Rui; Wang, Wen-Jie; Qin, Hai-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Two versatile methods to synthesize kinds of organic acid salts of quaternary berberine-type alkaloids were investigated in order to determine which is more efficient to improve the liposolubility of the target compounds and to explore the efficacy of the target compounds as anti-ulcerative colitis (UC) agents. Overall evaluation according to the reaction results and yields of the final products indicated that the synthetic method using tertiary (±)-8-acylmethyldihydroberberine-type alkaloids as key intermediates is superior to that of using tertiary dihydroberberine-type alkaloids as intermediates. Ten target compounds were synthesized using quaternary berberine chloride and quaternary coptisine chloride as starting materials, respectively, and the anti-UC activity of some target compounds was evaluated in an in vitro x-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) transcriptional activity assay using dual luciferase reporter detection. At 10 μM, the tested compounds were found to activate the transcription of XBP1 target at almost the same level as that of quaternary coptisine chloride. The synthesized target compounds were also found to share higher liposolubility than the inorganic acid salts of quaternary berberine-type alkaloid.

  4. DPD epitope-specific glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD)65 autoantibodies in children with Type 1 diabetes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To study whether DPD epitope-specific glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies are found more frequently in children with milder forms of Type 1 diabetes. We prospectively evaluated 75 children with new-onset autoimmune Type 1 diabetes, in whom we collected demographic, anthropometric and clinical dat...

  5. Molecular cloning of the type 5, iron-containing, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase from human placenta.

    PubMed

    Ketcham, C M; Roberts, R M; Simmen, R C; Nick, H S

    1989-01-05

    The type 5, iron-containing, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TR-AP) constitutes a relatively minor intracellular isozyme of acid phosphatase in the human that is immunologically related to uteroferrin, a secreted progesterone-induced protein of the porcine uterus. Here, the purification of small amounts of TR-AP from human placenta is described. When a placental lambda gt11 cDNA library was screened with two short 32P-labeled cDNA clones from within the coding region of uteroferrin, a 1412-base pair cDNA was identified that encodes the entire human TR-AP isozyme. This cDNA contains an open reading frame of 969 base pairs, corresponding to a protein of 323 amino acids. A putative signal sequence of 19 amino acids and two potential glycosylation sites are present. The deduced amino acid sequence of the human TR-AP is 85% identical to that of porcine uteroferrin (whose sequence is also reported here in complete form for the first time) and 82% identical to the corresponding regions of a partial amino acid sequence of a bovine spleen phosphoprotein phosphatase. Northern blotting techniques employing a labeled TR-AP cDNA probe revealed the presence of a 1.5-kilobase transcript in white cells from a patient with hairy cell leukemia, in human K562 erythroleukemic cells, and in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human B-cells, but not in a human T-cell line. Culture of K562 cells in presence of 10(-8) M phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate ester for 48-72 h enhanced TR-AP activity per cell about 30-fold and led to a corresponding increase in TR-AP mRNA levels.

  6. Glycerol and Fatty Acids in Serum Predict the Development of Hyperglycemia and Type 2 Diabetes in Finnish Men

    PubMed Central

    Mahendran, Yuvaraj; Cederberg, Henna; Vangipurapu, Jagadish; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Kuusisto, Johanna; Uusitupa, Matti; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Laakso, Markku

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We investigated the association of fasting serum glycerol and fatty acids (FAs) as predictors for worsening of hyperglycemia and incident type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of the population-based METabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) Study included 9,398 Finnish men (mean age 57 ± 7 years). At baseline, levels of serum glycerol, free FAs (FFAs), and serum FA profile, relative to total FAs, were measured with proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. RESULTS At baseline, levels of glycerol, FFAs, monounsaturated FAs, saturated FAs, and monounsaturated n-7 and -9 FAs, relative to total FAs, were increased in categories of fasting and 2-h hyperglycemia, whereas the levels of n-3 and n-6 FAs, relative to total FAs, decreased (N = 9,398). Among 4,335 men with 4.5-year follow-up data available, 276 developed type 2 diabetes. Elevated levels of glycerol, FFAs, monounsaturated FAs, and saturated and monounsaturated n-7 and -9 FAs, relative to total FAs, predicted worsening of hyperglycemia and development of incident type 2 diabetes after adjustment for confounding factors. n-6 FAs, mainly linoleic acid (LA), relative to total FAs, were associated with reduced risk for the worsening of hyperglycemia and conversion to type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Our large population-based study shows that fasting serum levels of glycerol, FFAs, monounsaturated FAs, saturated FAs, and n-7 and -9 FAs are biomarkers for an increased risk of development of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes, whereas high levels of serum n-6 FAs, reflecting dietary intake of LA, were associated with reduced risk for hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24026559

  7. Enhanced Bio-hydrogen Production from Protein Wastewater by Altering Protein Structure and Amino Acids Acidification Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Naidong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Aihui; Feng, Leiyu

    2014-02-01

    Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from protein wastewater by altering protein structure and amino acids acidification type via pH control was investigated. The hydrogen production reached 205.2 mL/g-protein when protein wastewater was pretreated at pH 12 and then fermented at pH 10. The mechanism studies showed that pH 12 pretreatment significantly enhanced protein bio-hydrolysis during the subsequent fermentation stage as it caused the unfolding of protein, damaged the protein hydrogen bonding networks, and destroyed the disulfide bridges, which increased the susceptibility of protein to protease. Moreover, pH 10 fermentation produced more acetic but less propionic acid during the anaerobic fermentation of amino acids, which was consistent with the theory of fermentation type affecting hydrogen production. Further analyses of the critical enzymes, genes, and microorganisms indicated that the activity and abundance of hydrogen producing bacteria in the pH 10 fermentation reactor were greater than those in the control.

  8. Folic acid flour fortification: impact on the frequencies of 52 congenital anomaly types in three South American countries.

    PubMed

    López-Camelo, Jorge S; Castilla, Eduardo E; Orioli, Iêda M

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to search for a reduction in birth prevalence estimates of 52 selected types of congenital anomalies, associated with folic acid fortification programs in Chile, Argentina, and Brazil. The material included 3,347,559 total births in 77 hospitals of the three countries during the 1982-2007 period: 596,704 births (17 hospitals) in Chile, 1,643,341 (41 hospitals) in Argentina, and 1,107,514 (19 hospitals) in Brazil. We compared pre- and post-fortification rates within each hospital and the resulting Prevalence Rate Ratios (PRRs) were pooled by country. Statistically significant reductions in birth prevalence estimates after fortification were observed for neural tube defects (NTDs), septal heart defects, transverse limb deficiencies, and subluxation of the hip. However, only the reduction of NTDs appeared to be associated with folic acid fortification and not due to other factors, because of its consistency among the three countries, as well as with previously published reports, and its strong statistical significance. Among the NTDs, the maximum prevalence reduction was observed for isolated cephalic (cervical-thoracic) spina bifida, followed by caudal (lumbo-sacral) spina bifida, anencephaly, and cephalocele. This observation suggests etiologic and pathogenetic heterogeneity among different levels of spina bifida, as well as among different NTD subtypes. We concluded that food fortification with folic acid prevents NTDs but not other types of congenital anomalies.

  9. Effect of succinic acid monoethyl ester on hemoglobin glycation and tail tendon collagen properties in type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Ramalingam; Pari, Leelavinothan

    2008-06-01

    Succinic acid monoethyl ester (EMS) was recently proposed as an insulinotropic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of EMS and metformin administration on tail collagen content and its characteristics in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic rats. EMS was administered intraperitoneally for 30 days to normal and diabetic rats. In the diabetic rats, a significant increase in the levels of glucose, glycated hemoglobin, hydroxyproline, collagen content, extent glycation, fluorescence, neutral salt, acid and pepsin soluble collagen content was absorbed with a significant decrease in the level of insulin, hemoglobin in streptozotocin-nicotinamide diabetic rats. Moreover, a daily administration of nonglucidic nutrient EMS and metformin significantly decreased the levels of glucose, glycated hemoglobin, hydroxyproline, collagen content, extent glycation, fluorescence, neutral salt, acid and pepsin soluble collagen content, whereas it increased insulin, hemoglobin levels in diabetic rats. The positive influence of nonglucidic nutrient on both collagen content and its properties suggests a potential mechanism for the ability of EMS to delay diabetic complications.

  10. Enhanced Bio-hydrogen Production from Protein Wastewater by Altering Protein Structure and Amino Acids Acidification Type

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Naidong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Aihui; Feng, Leiyu

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from protein wastewater by altering protein structure and amino acids acidification type via pH control was investigated. The hydrogen production reached 205.2 mL/g-protein when protein wastewater was pretreated at pH 12 and then fermented at pH 10. The mechanism studies showed that pH 12 pretreatment significantly enhanced protein bio-hydrolysis during the subsequent fermentation stage as it caused the unfolding of protein, damaged the protein hydrogen bonding networks, and destroyed the disulfide bridges, which increased the susceptibility of protein to protease. Moreover, pH 10 fermentation produced more acetic but less propionic acid during the anaerobic fermentation of amino acids, which was consistent with the theory of fermentation type affecting hydrogen production. Further analyses of the critical enzymes, genes, and microorganisms indicated that the activity and abundance of hydrogen producing bacteria in the pH 10 fermentation reactor were greater than those in the control. PMID:24495932

  11. Propofol inhibits T-helper cell type-2 differentiation by inducing apoptosis via activating gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jingxia; Xin, Xin; Liu, Zhen; Li, Hao; Huang, Bo; Huang, Yuguang; Zhao, Jing

    2016-12-01

    Propofol has been shown to attenuate airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma patients. Our previous study showed that it may alleviate lung inflammation in a mouse model of asthma. Given the critical role of T-helper cell type-2 (Th2) differentiation in asthma pathology and the immunomodulatory role of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor, we hypothesized that propofol could alleviate asthma inflammation by inhibiting Th2 cell differentiation via the GABA receptor. For in vivo testing, chicken ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged asthmatic mice were used to determine the effect of propofol on Th2-type asthma inflammation. For in vitro testing, Th2-type cytokines as well as the cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured to assess the effects of propofol on Th2 cell differentiation and determine the underlying mechanisms. We found that propofol significantly decreased inflammatory cell counts and interleukin-4 and inflammation score in vivo. Propofol, but not intralipid, significantly reduced the Th2-type cytokine interleukin-5 secretion and caused Th2 cell apoptosis without obvious inhibition of proliferation in vitro. A GABA receptor agonist simulated the effect of propofol, whereas pretreatment with an antagonist reversed this effect. This study demonstrates that the antiinflammatory effects of propofol on Th2-type asthma inflammation in mice are mediated by inducing apoptosis without compromising proliferation during Th2 cell differentiation via activation of the GABA receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dicaffeoyltartaric acid analogues inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase and HIV-1 replication at nontoxic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Reinke, Ryan A; King, Peter J; Victoria, Joseph G; McDougall, Brenda R; Ma, Guoxiang; Mao, Yingqun; Reinecke, Manfred G; Robinson, W Edward

    2002-08-15

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a major health problem worldwide. In this study, 17 analogues of L-chicoric acid, a potent inhibitor of HIV integrase, were studied. Of these analogues, five submicromolar inhibitors of integrase were discovered and 13 compounds with activity against integrase at less than 10 microM were identified. Six demonstrated greater than 10-fold selectivity for HIV replication over cellular toxicity. Ten analogues inhibited HIV replication at nontoxic concentrations. Alteration of the linkages between the two bis-catechol rings, including the use of amides, mixed amide esters, cholate, and alkyl bridges, was explored. Amides were as active as esters but were more toxic in tissue culture. Alkyl and cholate bridges were significantly less potent against HIV-1 integrase in vitro and were inactive against HIV-1 replication. Two amino acid derivates and one digalloylderivative of L-chicoric acid (L-CA) showed improved selectivity over L-CA against integration in cell culture. These data suggest that in addition to the bis-catechols and free carboxylic acid groups reported previously, polar linkages are important constituents for optimal activity against HIV-1 integrase and that new derivatives can be developed with increased specificity for integration over HIV entry in vivo.

  13. Effect of oil type and fatty acid composition on dynamic and steady shear rheology of vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Hasan; Toker, Omer Said; Dogan, Mahmut

    2012-01-01

    In this study, effect of fatty acid composition on dynamic and steady shear rheology of oils was studied. For this aim, different types of vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower, olive, hazelnut, cottonseed and canola), were used. Rheological properties of oil samples were identified by rheometer (Thermo-Haake) at 25°C and fatty acid composition of oils was determined by GC (Agilent 6890). Steady shear rheological properties of oil samples were measured at shear rate range of 0.1-100 s⁻¹. Viscosity of olive, hazelnut, cottonseed, canola, soybean and sunflower was 61.2 mPa.s, 59.7 mPa.s, 57.3 mPa.s, 53.5 mPa.s, 48.7 mPa.s and 48.2 mPa.s, respectively. There was a significant difference between viscosity of oils except soybean and sunflower. As a result it was seen that there was a correlation between viscosity and monounsaturated (R=0.89), polyunsaturated (R=-0.97) fatty acid composition of oils, separately. Equation was found to predict viscosity of the oils based on mono and polyunsaturation composition of oils. In addition the dynamic rheological properties of oils were also examined. G', G'' and tan δ (G''/G') values were measured at 0.3 Pa (in viscoelastic region) and 0.1-1 Hz. As a result of multiple regression analysis another equations were found between tan δ, viscosity and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  14. Effect of substratum, serum and linoleic acid on the lipid synthesis of isolated alveolar type II cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cott, G.R.; Edeen, K.E.; Hale, S.G.; Mason, R.J.

    1986-03-05

    The authors examined the effect of cellular substratum (plastic or amnionic basement membrane (ABM)) and serum additive (fetal bovine (FBS), pork, horse, rat or human) on phospholipid synthesis in alveolar type II cells. The cells were isolated from adult rats, cultured for 48 hours under the various substratum and serum conditions, and then incubated for an additional 2 hours with (1-/sup 14/C) acetate. ABM consistently caused a significant increase in the percent of radiolabel incorporated into phosphatidylcholine (PC) and/or phosphatidylglycerol (PG). Serum also had a significant effect with the highest values of PC and saturated PC being obtained with rat serum and the highest PG values with horse serum. The fatty acid composition of the sera used varied according to species with the largest variations in percent linoleic acid. Supplementing media with linoleic acid resulted in a marked increase in saturated PC values and a fall in PG values. Therefore, they conclude that: 1) ABM improves differentiated function, 2) FBS supplementation may not be optimal, and 3) the different effects of linoleic acid supplementation on PC, saturated PC, and PG values suggests an independent regulation of synthesis for these lipid species in vitro.

  15. Identification of conserved amino acid residues critical for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase function in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Engelman, A; Craigie, R

    1992-01-01

    We have probed the structural organization of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase protein by limited proteolysis and the functional organization by site-directed mutagenesis of selected amino acid residues. A central region of the protein was relatively resistant to proteolysis. Proteins with altered amino acids in this region, or in the N-terminal part of the protein that includes a putative zinc-binding motif, were purified and assayed for 3' processing, DNA strand transfer, and disintegration activities in vitro. In general, these mutations had parallel effects on 3' processing and DNA strand transfer, suggesting that integrase may utilize a single active site for both reactions. The only proteins that were completely inactive in all three assays contained mutations at conserved amino acids in the central region, suggesting that this part of the protein may be involved in catalysis. In contrast, none of the mutations in the N-terminal region resulted in a protein that was inactive in all three assays, suggesting that this part of integrase may not be essential for catalysis. The disintegration reaction was particularly insensitive to these amino acid substitutions, indicating that some function that is important for 3' processing and DNA strand transfer may be dispensable for disintegration. Images PMID:1404595

  16. Responses of soil N-fixing bacteria communities to invasive plant species under different types of simulated acid deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Congyan; Zhou, Jiawei; Jiang, Kun; Liu, Jun; Du, Daolin

    2017-06-01

    Biological invasions have incurred serious threats to native ecosystems in China, and soil N-fixing bacteria communities (SNB) may play a vital role in the successful plant invasion. Meanwhile, anthropogenic acid deposition is increasing in China, which may modify or upgrade the effects that invasive plant species can cause on SNB. We analyzed the structure and diversity of SNB by means of new generation sequencing technology in soils with different simulated acid deposition (SAD), i.e., different SO4 2- to NO3 - ratios, and where the invasive ( Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and the native species ( Amaranthus tricolor L.) grew mixed or isolated for 3 months. A. retroflexus itself did not exert significant effects on the diversity and richness of SNB but did it under certain SO4 2- to NO3 - ratios. Compared to soils where the native species grew isolated, the soils where the invasive A. retroflexus grew isolated showed lower relative abundance of some SNB classes under certain SAD treatments. Some types of SAD can alter soil nutrient content which in turn could affect SNB diversity and abundance. Specifically, greater SO4 2- to NO3 - ratios tended to have more toxic effects on SNB likely due to the higher exchange capacity of hydroxyl groups (OH-) between SO4 2- and NO3 -. As a conclusion, it can be expected a change in the structure of SNB after A. retroflexus invasion under acid deposition rich in sulfuric acid. This change may create a plant soil feedback favoring future A. retroflexus invasions.

  17. Primary Action of Indole-3-acetic Acid in Crown Gall Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Thomas; Kahl, Günter; Hilgenberg, Willy

    1984-01-01

    Exogenously added indole-3-acetic acid at a concentration of 100 micromolars stimulates d-glucose uptake (or 3-O-methyl-d-glucose uptake) by 25% in crown gall tumors induced on potato tuber tissue by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C 58. The titration of the endogenous IAA with the auxin antagonist 2-naphthaleneacetic acid at 100 micromolars reduces d-glucose uptake by about 80%. The apparent inhibition constant Ki is 21 micromolars. Other auxin antagonists like 1-naphthoxyacetic acid and 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid show similar effects. The uptake of the amino acids leucine, methionine, tryptophan, lysine, and aspartic acid is also inhibited by 2-naphthaleneacetic acid to similar degrees. The auxins 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid at concentrations between 10 and 100 micromolars inhibit solute uptake only slightly (inhibition less than 20%). The impact of the results on the postulated role of indole-3-acetic acid as a modifier of the electrochemical proton gradient across the plasmalemma in crown gall tumor tissue is discussed. PMID:16663625

  18. Primary Action of Indole-3-acetic Acid in Crown Gall Tumors: Increase of Solute Uptake.

    PubMed

    Rausch, T; Kahl, G; Hilgenberg, W

    1984-06-01

    Exogenously added indole-3-acetic acid at a concentration of 100 micromolars stimulates d-glucose uptake (or 3-O-methyl-d-glucose uptake) by 25% in crown gall tumors induced on potato tuber tissue by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C 58. The titration of the endogenous IAA with the auxin antagonist 2-naphthaleneacetic acid at 100 micromolars reduces d-glucose uptake by about 80%. The apparent inhibition constant K(i) is 21 micromolars. Other auxin antagonists like 1-naphthoxyacetic acid and 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid show similar effects. The uptake of the amino acids leucine, methionine, tryptophan, lysine, and aspartic acid is also inhibited by 2-naphthaleneacetic acid to similar degrees. The auxins 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid at concentrations between 10 and 100 micromolars inhibit solute uptake only slightly (inhibition less than 20%). The impact of the results on the postulated role of indole-3-acetic acid as a modifier of the electrochemical proton gradient across the plasmalemma in crown gall tumor tissue is discussed.

  19. Nucleic acids encoding modified human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M consensus envelope glycoproteins

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Barton F [Durham, NC; Gao, Feng [Durham, NC; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos, NM; Hahn, Beatrice H [Birmingham, AL; Shaw, George M [Birmingham, AL; Kothe, Denise [Birmingham, AL; Li, Ying Ying [Hoover, AL; Decker, Julie [Alabaster, AL; Liao, Hua-Xin [Chapel Hill, NC

    2011-12-06

    The present invention relates, in general, to an immunogen and, in particular, to an immunogen for inducing antibodies that neutralizes a wide spectrum of HIV primary isolates and/or to an immunogen that induces a T cell immune response. The invention also relates to a method of inducing anti-HIV antibodies, and/or to a method of inducing a T cell immune response, using such an immunogen. The invention further relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding the present immunogens.

  20. Polyethylenimine-polyacrylic acid nanocomposites: Type of bonding does influence the gene transfer efficacy and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Sushil K; Ahmadi, Zeba; Gupta, Kailash C; Kumar, Pradeep

    2016-04-01

    The main aim of the current study is to compare the physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity and gene-transfer ability of electrostatically and covalently linked nanocomposites of polyethylenimine (PEI) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) on mammalian cells. Two series of nanocomposites, ionic PEI-PAA (iPP) and covalent PEI-PAA (cPP), were synthesized by varying the amounts of polyacrylic acid (PAA). Physicochemical characterization revealed that iPP nanopcomposites were of bigger sized than cPP nanocomposites with zeta potential almost comparable. Nucleic acid binding assay displayed that iPP and cPP nanocomposites, having sufficient cationic charge, efficiently interacted with plasmid DNA and completely retarded its electrophoretic mobility on agarose gel. In vitro MTT assay showed slightly higher cell viability of cPP/pDNA complexes over their ionic counterparts. Both the series of nanocomposite/pDNA complexes exhibited considerably higher transfection efficacy compared to pDNA complexes of native bPEI and the standard transfection reagent, Lipofectamine, with cPP/pDNA complexes performed much better than iPP/pDNA complexes. Flow cytometry further confirmed these findings where cPP-4/pDNA complex showed transfection in ∼ 85% HEK293 cells, while iPP-2/pDNA complex transfected ∼ 67% HEK293 cells. Lipofectamine/pDNA and bPEI/pDNA complexes could transfect just ∼ 35% and ∼ 26% HEK293 cells. All these results demonstrate the superiority of covalently linked nanocomposites (cPP) which could be used as efficient carriers for nucleic acids in future gene delivery applications.

  1. Another unusual type of citric acid cycle enzyme in Helicobacter pylori: the malate:quinone oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Kather, B; Stingl, K; van der Rest, M E; Altendorf, K; Molenaar, D

    2000-06-01

    The only enzyme of the citric acid cycle for which no open reading frame (ORF) was found in the Helicobacter pylori genome is the NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase. Here, it is shown that in this organism the oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate is catalyzed by a malate:quinone oxidoreductase (MQO). This flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent membrane-associated enzyme donates electrons to quinones of the electron transfer chain. Similar to succinate dehydrogenase, it is part of both the electron transfer chain and the citric acid cycle. MQO activity was demonstrated in isolated membranes of H. pylori. The enzyme is encoded by the ORF HP0086, which is shown by the fact that expression of the HP0086 sequence from a plasmid induces high MQO activity in mqo deletion mutants of Escherichia coli or Corynebacterium glutamicum. Furthermore, this plasmid was able to complement the phenotype of the C. glutamicum mqo deletion mutant. Interestingly, the protein predicted to be encoded by this ORF is only distantly related to known or postulated MQO sequences from other bacteria. The presence of an MQO shown here and the previously demonstrated presence of a 2-ketoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and a succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA):acetoacetyl-CoA transferase indicate that H. pylori possesses a complete citric acid cycle, but one which deviates from the standard textbook example in three steps.

  2. Cloning, sequence, and developmental expression of a type 5, tartrate-resistant, acid phosphatase of rat bone.

    PubMed

    Ek-Rylander, B; Bill, P; Norgård, M; Nilsson, S; Andersson, G

    1991-12-25

    Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) is a characteristic constituent of osteoclasts and some mononuclear preosteoclasts and, therefore, used as a histochemical and biochemical marker for osteoclasts and bone resorption. We now report the isolation of a 1397-base pair (bp) full-length TRAP/tartrate-resistant acid ATPase (TrATPase) cDNA clone from a neonatal rat calvaria lambda gt11 cDNA library. The cDNA clone consists of a 92-bp untranslated 5'-flank, an open reading frame of 981 bp and a 324-bp untranslated 3'-poly(A)-containing region. The deduced protein sequence of 327 amino acids contains a putative cleavable signal sequence of 21 amino acids. The mature polypeptide of 306 amino acids has a calculated Mr of 34,350 Da and a pI of 9.18, and it contains two potential N-glycosylation sites and the lysosomal targeting sequence DKRFQ. At the protein level, the sequence displays 89-94% homology to TRAP enzymes from human placenta, beef spleen, and uteroferrin and identity to the N terminus of purified rat bone TRAP/TrATPase. An N-terminal amino acid segment is strikingly homologous to the corresponding region in lysosomal and prostatic acid phosphatases. The cDNA recognized a 1.5-kilobase mRNA in long bones and calvaria, and in vitro translation using, as template, mRNA transcribed from the full-length insert yielded an immunoprecipitated product of 34 kDa. In neonatal rats, TRAP/TrATPase mRNA was highly expressed in skeletal tissues, with much lower (less than 10%) levels detected in spleen, thymus, liver, skin, brain, kidney, brain, lung, and heart. In situ hybridization demonstrated specific labeling of osteoclasts at endostal surfaces and bone trabeculae of long bones. Thus, despite the apparent similarity of this osteoclastic TRAP/TrATPase with type 5, tartrate-resistant and purple, acid phosphatases expressed in other mammalian tissues, this gene appears to be preferentially expressed at skeletal sites.

  3. L-type amino acid transport and cancer: targeting the mTORC1 pathway to inhibit neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Holst, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) family are Na+-independent transporters, which deliver neutral amino acids into cells. The four LATs, LAT1 (SLC7A5), LAT2 (SLC7A8), LAT3 (SLC43A1) and LAT4 (SLC43A2), are responsible for the majority of cellular leucine uptake. They show increased expression in many cancers, and are critical for control of protein translation and cell growth through the mTORC1 pathway. The increased transporter expression observed in cancers is regulated by transcriptional pathways such as hormone receptors, c-myc and nutrient starvation responses. We review the expression and function of the LAT family in cancer, as well as the recent development of specific inhibitors targeting LAT1 or LAT3. These LAT family inhibitors may be useful adjuvant therapeutics in multiple cancers. PMID:26101697

  4. Water-mediated recognition of simple alkyl chains by heart-type fatty-acid-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Shigeru; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Matsuoka, Daisuke; Hirose, Mika; Lethu, Sébastien; Ano, Hikaru; Hara, Toshiaki; Ichihara, Osamu; Kimura, S Roy; Murakami, Satoshi; Ishida, Hanako; Mizohata, Eiichi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Murata, Michio

    2015-01-26

    Long-chain fatty acids (FAs) with low water solubility require fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABPs) to transport them from cytoplasm to the mitochondria for energy production. However, the precise mechanism by which these proteins recognize the various lengths of simple alkyl chains of FAs with similar high affinity remains unknown. To address this question, we employed a newly developed calorimetric method for comprehensively evaluating the affinity of FAs, sub-Angstrom X-ray crystallography to accurately determine their 3D structure, and energy calculations of the coexisting water molecules using the computer program WaterMap. Our results clearly showed that the heart-type FABP (FABP3) preferentially incorporates a U-shaped FA of C10-C18 using a lipid-compatible water cluster, and excludes longer FAs using a chain-length-limiting water cluster. These mechanisms could help us gain a general understanding of how proteins recognize diverse lipids with different chain lengths.

  5. Hyperuricemia and overexcretion of uric acid increase the risk of simple renal cysts in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Zhang, Mingliang; Lu, Junxi; Zhang, Lei; Han, Junfeng; Zhao, Fangya; Chen, Haibing; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2017-06-19

    Previous studies have discussed the relationship between simple renal cysts (SRC) and serum uric acid level in healthy individuals. We performed a cross-sectional study to evaluate the association between serum uric acid level and fractional excretion of uric acid (FEUA) and simple renal cysts in males and postmenopausal females with type 2 diabetes. The overall prevalence of SRC was 18.1% in our population. SRC prevalence was significantly higher in hyperuricemic than normouricemic subjects (27.3% vs. 16.8%, P < 0.001). Subjects who overexcreted uric acid had a higher prevalence of SRC than underexcretors (total population: 21.6% vs. 16.3%; normouricemic subjects: 19.8% vs. 13.7%; hyperuricemic subjects: 50.0% vs. 22.7%, all P-values < 0.05). Hyperuricemia (odds ratio [OR] 1.824, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.332-2.498, P < 0.001); FEUA (OR 1.046, 95% CI 1.002-1.091, P < 0.05); male gender (OR 1.922, 95% CI 1.489-2.480, P < 0.001); age (OR 1.049, 95% CI 1.035-1.064, P < 0.001); and albuminuria (OR 1.492, 95% CI 1.176-1.892, P < 0.01) were independent risk factors for SRC development. These findings suggested that hyperuricemia and high level of FEUA were both independent risk factors for SRC development in males and postmenopausal females with type 2 diabetes. Half of overproduction hyperuricemic patients had SRC.

  6. Incidence of type II diabetes in a cohort with substantial exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Karnes, Conny; Winquist, Andrea; Steenland, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests an increased type II diabetes mortality risk among workers occupationally exposed to PFOA. However, a cross-sectional study of highly exposed Mid-Ohio Valley community residents did not demonstrate an association between PFOA and type II diabetes. We examined the relationship between exposure to PFOA over time and incidence of type II diabetes in a cohort of community residents and workers exposed to high levels of PFOA via contaminated drinking water. Community residents and workers were interviewed in 2008-2011 to obtain medical history and other demographic information. Cumulative serum PFOA exposure estimates were calculated based on residence and occupation locations, and a history of plant emissions. We estimated the risk of developing type II diabetes using Cox proportional hazard models, controlling for demographic characteristics and family history. Out of 32,254 survey respondents, there were 4434 cases of self-reported type II diabetes, of which 4129 were validated through medical record review. In analyses based on validated type II diabetes, there was no trend of increased risk with increased cumulative PFOA serum levels (HRs compared to lowest exposure decile: 0.91 (95% CI: 0.76-1.08), 1.18 (95% CI: 0.99-1.40), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.81-1.15), 1.04 (95% CI: 0.87-1.24), 1.11 (95% CI: 0.93-1.32), 1.06 (95% CI: 0.89-1.26), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.85-1.19), 1.03 (95% CI: 0.86-1.23), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.84-1.20)). There was no association between fasting glucose level and cumulative serum levels of PFOA, after excluding diabetics. We do not find an association between PFOA exposure and incidence of type II diabetes. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Functional and Computational Analysis of Amino Acid Patterns Predictive of Type III Secretion System Substrates in Pseudomonas syringae

    PubMed Central

    Schechter, Lisa M.; Valenta, Joy C.; Schneider, David J.; Collmer, Alan; Sakk, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial type III secretion systems (T3SSs) deliver proteins called effectors into eukaryotic cells. Although N-terminal amino acid sequences are required for translocation, the mechanism of substrate recognition by the T3SS is unknown. Almost all actively deployed T3SS substrates in the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato strain DC3000 possess characteristic patterns, including (i) greater than 10% serine within the first 50 amino acids, (ii) an aliphatic residue or proline at position 3 or 4, and (iii) a lack of acidic amino acids within the first 12 residues. Here, the functional significance of the P. syringae T3SS substrate compositional patterns was tested. A mutant AvrPto effector protein lacking all three patterns was secreted into culture and translocated into plant cells, suggesting that the compositional characteristics are not absolutely required for T3SS targeting and that other recognition mechanisms exist. To further analyze the unique properties of T3SS targeting signals, we developed a computational algorithm called TEREE (Type III Effector Relative Entropy Evaluation) that distinguishes DC3000 T3SS substrates from other proteins with a high sensitivity and specificity. Although TEREE did not efficiently identify T3SS substrates in Salmonella enterica, it was effective in another P. syringae strain and Ralstonia solanacearum. Thus, the TEREE algorithm may be a useful tool for identifying new effector genes in plant pathogens. The nature of T3SS targeting signals was additionally investigated by analyzing the N-terminus of FtsX, a putative membrane protein that was classified as a T3SS substrate by TEREE. Although the first 50 amino acids of FtsX were unable to target a reporter protein to the T3SS, an AvrPto protein substituted with the first 12 amino acids of FtsX was translocated into plant cells. These results show that the T3SS targeting signals are highly mutable and that secretion may be directed by multiple features of

  8. [Characteristics of soil pH and exchangeable acidity in red soil profile under different vegetation types].

    PubMed

    Ji, Gang; Xu, Ming-gang; Wen, Shi-lin; Wang, Bo-ren; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Li-sheng

    2015-09-01

    The characteristics of soil pH and exchangeable acidity in soil profile under different vegetation types were studied in hilly red soil regions of southern Hunan Province, China. The soil samples from red soil profiles within 0-100 cm depth at fertilized plots and unfertilized plots were collected and analyzed to understand the profile distribution of soil pH and exchangeable acidity. The results showed that, pH in 0-60 cm soil from the fertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: citrus orchard > Arachis hypogaea field > tea garden. As for exchangeable acidity content, the sequence was A. hypogaea field ≤ citrus orchard < tea garden. After tea tree and A. hypogaea were planted for long time, acidification occurred in surface soil (0-40 cm), compared with the deep soil (60-100 cm), and soil pH decreased by 0.55 and 0.17 respectively, but such changes did not occur in citrus orchard. Soil pH in 0-40 cm soil from the natural recovery vegetation unfertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: Imperata cylindrica land > Castanea mollissima garden > Pinus elliottii forest ≥ Loropetalum chinensis forest. As for exchangeable acidity content, the sequence was L cylindrica land < C. mollissima garden < L. chinensis forest ≤ P. elliottii forest. Soil pH in surface soil (0-20 cm) from natural forest plots, secondary forest and Camellia oleifera forest were significantly lower than that from P. massoniana forest, decreased by 0.34 and 0.20 respectively. For exchangeable acidity content in 0-20 cm soil from natural forest plot, P. massoniana forest and secondary forest were significantly lower than C. oleifera forest. Compared with bare land, surface soil acidification in unfertilized plots except I. cylindrica land had been accelerated, and the natural secondary forest was the most serious among them, with surface soil pH decreasing by 0.52. However, the pH increased in deep soils from unfertilized plots except natural secondary forest, and I. cylindrica

  9. Requirement of N-terminal amino acid residues of gp41 for human immunodeficiency virus type 1-mediated cell fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Schaal, H; Klein, M; Gehrmann, P; Adams, O; Scheid, A

    1995-01-01

    An expression vector was designed to test the structural requirements of the gp41 N terminus for human immunodeficiency virus type 1-induced membrane fusion. Mutations in the region coding for the N terminus of gp41 were found to disrupt glycoprotein expression because of deleterious effects on the Rev-responsive element (RRE). Insertion of an additional RRE in the 3'-noncoding sequence of env made possible efficient glycoprotein expression, irrespective of the mutations introduced into the RRE in the natural location. This permitted the insertion of the unique restriction site SpeI within the N-terminal sequences of gp41, allowing convenient and efficient mutation of the gp41 N terminus by using double-stranded synthetic oligonucleotides. Mutants with deletions of 1 to 7 amino acids of the N terminus were constructed. Expression and cleavage of all mutants were confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis with anti-gp41 antibodies. The capability of mutants to induce membrane fusion was monitored following transfection of HeLa-T4+ cell lines with wild-type and mutant expression vectors by electroporation and microinjection. The efficiency of cell-fusing activity decreased drastically with deletion of 3 and 4 amino acids and was completely lost with deletion of 5 amino acids. Cotransfection of the parent and mutant expression vectors resulted in reduced cell-fusing activity. The extent of this dominant interference by mutant glycoprotein paralleled the decrease in cell-fusing activity of the mutants alone. This suggests the existence of a specific N-terminal structure required for fusing activity. However, there does not appear to be a stringent requirement for the precise length of the N terminus. This finding is supported by the length variation of this region among natural human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates and is in contrast to the apparent stringency in the length of analogous N-terminal structures of influenza A virus and paramyxovirus fusion

  10. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation and inflammatory gene expression in the duodenum of obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The extent to which long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) from fish oil such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) exert their anti-inflammatory effects by down-regulating intestinal inflammation in humans is unknown. We investigated the impact of LCn-3PUFA supplementation on inflammatory gene expression in the duodenum of obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Findings This placebo-controlled randomized crossover study included 12 men with type 2 diabetes. After a 4-week run-in period, patients received in a random sequence 5 g/d of fish oil (providing 3 g of EPA + DHA) and a placebo (corn and soybean oil) for 8 weeks each. The two treatment phases were separated by a 12-week washout period. Gene expression was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction in duodenal biopsy samples obtained in the fasted state at the end of each treatment phase. Intestinal mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-α were hardly detectable after either treatment (<100 copies/105 copies of the reference gene ATP5o). Intestinal mRNA expression of IL-18 and of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was higher (>5000 copies/105 copies ATP5o) but still relatively low. EPA + DHA supplementation had no impact on any of these levels (all P ≥ 0.73). Conclusions These data suggest that duodenal cells gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines is low in patients with type 2 diabetes and not affected by EPA + DHA supplementation. Further studies are warranted to determine if inflammatory gene expression in other tissues surrounding the intestine is modulated by EPA + DHA supplementation. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01449773 PMID:23855973

  11. Role of Histone Acetylation in the Stimulatory Effect of Valproic Acid on Vascular Endothelial Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator Expression

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson, Mia; Bergh, Niklas; Lunke, Sebastian; El-Osta, Assam; Medcalf, Robert L.; Svensson, Per-Arne; Karlsson, Lena; Jern, Sverker

    2012-01-01

    Aims Stimulated release of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is pivotal for an intravascular fibrinolytic response and protects the circulation from occluding thrombosis. Hence, an impaired t-PA production is associated with increased risk for atherothrombotic events. A pharmacological means to stimulate the production of this enzyme may thus be desirable. We investigated if the anti-epileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) is capable of enhancing t-PA expression in vitro in vascular endothelial cells, and further examined if its histone deacetylase (HDAC)-inhibitory activity is of importance for regulating t-PA expression. Methods and Results Human endothelial cells were exposed to valproic acid and t-PA mRNA and protein levels were quantified. Potential changes in histone acetylation status globally and at the t-PA promoter were examined by western blot and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Valproic acid dose-dependently stimulated t-PA mRNA and protein expression in endothelial cells reaching a 2–4-fold increase at clinically relevant concentrations and 10-fold increase at maximal concentrations. Transcription profiling analysis revealed that t-PA is selectively targeted by this agent. Augmented histone acetylation was detected at the t-PA transcription start site, and an attenuated VPA-response was observed with siRNA knock of HDAC3, HDAC5 and HDAC7. Conclusions Valproic acid induces t-PA expression in cultured endothelial cells, and this is associated with increased histone acetylation at the t-PA promoter. Given the apparent potency of valproic acid in stimulating t-PA expression in vitro this substance may be a candidate for pharmacological modulation of endogenous fibrinolysis in man. PMID:22363677

  12. Overexpression of a phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 leads to an increase in triacylglycerol production in oleaginous Rhodococcus strains.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Martín A; Comba, Santiago; Arabolaza, Ana; Gramajo, Hugo; Alvarez, Héctor M

    2015-03-01

    Oleaginous Rhodococcus strains are able to accumulate large amounts of triacylglycerol (TAG). Phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) enzyme catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid (PA) to yield diacylglycerol (DAG), a key precursor for TAG biosynthesis. Studies to establish its role in lipid metabolism have been mainly focused in eukaryotes but not in bacteria. In this work, we identified and characterized a putative PAP type 2 (PAP2) encoded by the ro00075 gene in Rhodococcus jostii RHA1. Heterologous expression of ro00075 in Escherichia coli resulted in a fourfold increase in PAP activity and twofold in DAG content. The conditional deletion of ro00075 in RHA1 led to a decrease in the content of DAG and TAG, whereas its overexpression in both RHA1 and Rhodococcus opacus PD630 promoted an increase up to 10 to 15 % by cellular dry weight in TAG content. On the other hand, expression of ro00075 in the non-oleaginous strain Rhodococcus fascians F7 promoted an increase in total fatty acid content up to 7 % at the expense of free fatty acid (FFA), DAG, and TAG fractions. Moreover, co-expression of ro00075/atf2 genes resulted in a fourfold increase in total fatty acid content by a further increase of the FFA and TAG fractions. The results of this study suggest that ro00075 encodes for a PAP2 enzyme actively involved in TAG biosynthesis. Overexpression of this gene, as single one or with an atf gene, provides an alternative approach to increase the biosynthesis and accumulation of bacterial oils as a potential source of raw material for biofuel production.

  13. Type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases of Brassica napus preferentially incorporate oleic acid into triacylglycerol

    PubMed Central

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose; Denolf, Peter; Van Audenhove, Katrien; De Bodt, Stefanie; Engelen, Steven; Fahy, Deirdre; Wallis, James G.; Browse, John

    2015-01-01

    DGAT1 enzymes (acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, EC 2.3.1.20) catalyse the formation of triacylglycerols (TAGs), the most abundant lipids in vegetable oils. Thorough understanding of the enzymology of oil accumulation is critical to the goal of modifying oilseeds for improved vegetable oil production. Four isoforms of BnDGAT1, the final and rate-limiting step in triacylglycerol synthesis, were characterized from Brassica napus, one of the world’s most important oilseed crops. Transcriptional profiling of developing B. napus seeds indicated two genes, BnDGAT1-1 and BnDGAT1-2, with high expression and two, BnDGAT1-3 and BnDGAT1-4, with low expression. The activities of each BnDGAT1 isozyme were characterized following expression in a strain of yeast deficient in TAG synthesis. TAG from B. napus seeds contain only 10% palmitic acid (16:0) at the sn-3 position, so it was surprising that all four BnDGAT1 isozymes exhibited strong (4- to 7-fold) specificity for 16:0 over oleic acid (18:1) as the acyl-CoA substrate. However, the ratio of 18:1-CoA to 16:0-CoA in B. napus seeds during the peak period of TAG synthesis is 3:1. When substrate selectivity assays were conducted with 18:1-CoA and 16:0-CoA in a 3:1 ratio, the four isozymes incorporated 18:1 in amounts 2- to 5-fold higher than 16:0. This strong sensitivity of the BnDGAT1 isozymes to the relative concentrations of acyl-CoA substrates substantially explains the observed fatty acid composition of B. napus seed oil. Understanding these enzymes that are critical for triacylglycerol synthesis will facilitate genetic and biotechnological manipulations to improve this oilseed crop. PMID:26195728

  14. Variation in the abundance of Pseudo-nitzschia and domoic acid with surf zone type.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Alan L; Morgan, Steven G; MacMahan, Jamie; Reniers, Ad J H M; Kudela, Raphael; Jarvis, Marley; Brown, Jenna; Fujimura, Atsushi; Ziccarelli, Lisa; Griesemer, Chris

    2016-05-01

    Most harmful algal blooms (HAB) originate away from the shore and, for them to endanger human health, they must be first transported to shore after which they must enter the surf zone where they can be feed upon by filter feeders. The last step in this sequence, entrance into the surf zone, depends on surf zone hydrodynamics. During two 30-day periods, we sampled Pseudo-nitzschia and particulate domoic acid (pDA) in and offshore of a more dissipative surf zone at Sand City, California (2010) and sampled Pseudo-nitzschia in and out of reflective surf zones at a beach and rocky shores at Carmel River State Beach, California (2011). At Sand City, we measured domoic acid in sand crabs, Emerita analoga. In the more dissipative surf zone, concentrations of Pseudo-nitzschia and pDA were an order of magnitude higher in samples from a rip current than in samples collected just seaward of the surf zone and were 1000 times more abundant than in samples from the shoals separating rip currents. Domoic acid was present in all the Emerita samples and varied directly with the concentration of pDA and Pseudo-nitzschia in the rip current. In the more reflective surf zones, Pseudo-nitzschia concentrations were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than in samples from 125 and 20m from shore. Surf zone hydrodynamics affects the ingress of Pseudo-nitzschia into surf zones and the exposure of intertidal organisms to HABs on the inner shelf. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Brønsted Acid Catalyzed Oxygenative Bimolecular Friedel-Crafts-type Coupling of Ynamides.

    PubMed

    Patil, Dilip V; Kim, Seung Woo; Nguyen, Quynh H; Kim, Hanbyul; Wang, Shan; Hoang, Tuan; Shin, Seunghoon

    2017-03-20

    A non-metal approach for accessing α-oxo carbene surrogates for a C-C bond-forming bimolecular coupling between ynamides and nucleophilic arenes was developed. This acid-catalyzed coupling features mild temperature, which is critical for the required temporal chemoselectivity among nucleophiles. The scope of nucleophiles includes indoles, pyrroles, anilines, phenols and silyl enolethers. Furthermore, a direct test of SN 2' mechanism has been provided by employing chiral N,N'-dioxides which also enlightens the nature of the intermediates in related metal-catalyzed processes.

  16. Design of a New Type of Compact Chemical Heater for Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kamal G; Guelig, Dylan; Diesburg, Steven; Buser, Joshua; Burton, Robert; LaBarre, Paul; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Weigl, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Previous chemical heater designs for isothermal nucleic acid amplification have been based on solid-liquid phase transition, but using this approach, developers have identified design challenges en route to developing a low-cost, disposable device. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of a new heater configuration suitable for isothermal amplification in which one reactant of an exothermic reaction is a liquid-gas phase-change material, thereby eliminating the need for a separate phase-change compartment. This design offers potentially enhanced performance and energy density compared to other chemical and electric heaters.

  17. New synthetic catecholate-type siderophores based on amino acids and dipeptides.

    PubMed

    Schnabelrauch, M; Wittmann, S; Rahn, K; Möllmann, U; Reissbrodt, R; Heinisch, L

    2000-12-01

    New analogs of bacterial siderophores with one, two or three catecholate moieties were synthesized using various mono- and diamino acid and dipetide scaffolds, respectively. In addition to 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl siderophore analogs and their acylated derivatives, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl derivatives were prepared. Furthermore, the synthesis of a new triscatecholate serving as an intimate model for enterobactin is reported. Most of the new compounds gave a positive CAS-test and were active as siderophores tested by growth promotion assays with a set of siderophore indicator mutants under iron limitation. Structure-activity-correlations have also been studied.

  18. Design of a New Type of Compact Chemical Heater for Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Kamal G.; Guelig, Dylan; Diesburg, Steven; Buser, Joshua; Burton, Robert; LaBarre, Paul; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Weigl, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Previous chemical heater designs for isothermal nucleic acid amplification have been based on solid-liquid phase transition, but using this approach, developers have identified design challenges en route to developing a low-cost, disposable device. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of a new heater configuration suitable for isothermal amplification in which one reactant of an exothermic reaction is a liquid-gas phase-change material, thereby eliminating the need for a separate phase-change compartment. This design offers potentially enhanced performance and energy density compared to other chemical and electric heaters. PMID:26430883

  19. Airway uric acid is a sensor of inhaled protease allergens and initiates type 2 immune responses in respiratory mucosa1

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Kenichiro; Iijima, Koji; Elias, Martha K.; Seno, Satoshi; Tojima, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Takao; Kephart, Gail M.; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Kita, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    While type 2 immune responses to environmental antigens are thought to play pivotal roles in asthma and allergic airway diseases, the immunological mechanisms that initiate the responses are largely unknown. Many allergens have biologic activities, including enzymatic activities and abilities to engage innate pattern-recognition receptors such as TLR4. Here we report that IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) were produced quickly in the lungs of naïve mice exposed to cysteine proteases, such as bromelain and papain, as a model for allergens. IL-33 and TSLP sensitized naïve animals to an innocuous airway antigen OVA, which resulted in production of type 2 cytokines and IgE antibody and eosinophilic airway inflammation when mice were challenged with the same antigen. Importantly, upon exposure to proteases, uric acid (UA) was rapidly released into the airway lumen, and removal of this endogenous UA by uricase prevented type 2 immune responses. UA promoted secretion of IL-33 by airway epithelial cells in vitro, and administration of UA into the airways of naïve animals induced extracellular release of IL-33, followed by both innate and adaptive type 2 immune responses in vivo. Finally, a potent UA synthesis inhibitor, febuxostat, mitigated asthma phenotypes that were caused by repeated exposure to natural airborne allergens. These findings provide mechanistic insights into the development of type 2 immunity to airborne allergens and recognize airway UA as a key player that regulates the process in respiratory mucosa. PMID:24663677

  20. Airway uric acid is a sensor of inhaled protease allergens and initiates type 2 immune responses in respiratory mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kenichiro; Iijima, Koji; Elias, Martha K; Seno, Satoshi; Tojima, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Takao; Kephart, Gail M; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Kita, Hirohito

    2014-05-01

    Although type 2 immune responses to environmental Ags are thought to play pivotal roles in asthma and allergic airway diseases, the immunological mechanisms that initiate the responses are largely unknown. Many allergens have biologic activities, including enzymatic activities and abilities to engage innate pattern-recognition receptors such as TLR4. In this article, we report that IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin were produced quickly in the lungs of naive mice exposed to cysteine proteases, such as bromelain and papain, as a model for allergens. IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin sensitized naive animals to an innocuous airway Ag OVA, which resulted in production of type 2 cytokines and IgE Ab, and eosinophilic airway inflammation when mice were challenged with the same Ag. Importantly, upon exposure to proteases, uric acid (UA) was rapidly released into the airway lumen, and removal of this endogenous UA by uricase prevented type 2 immune responses. UA promoted secretion of IL-33 by airway epithelial cells in vitro, and administration of UA into the airways of naive animals induced extracellular release of IL-33, followed by both innate and adaptive type 2 immune responses in vivo. Finally, a potent UA synthesis inhibitor, febuxostat, mitigated asthma phenotypes that were caused by repeated exposure to natural airborne allergens. These findings provide mechanistic insights into the development of type 2 immunity to airborne allergens and recognize airway UA as a key player that regulates the process in respiratory mucosa.

  1. Intracellular Forms of Adenovirus Deoxyribonucleic Acid I. Evidence for a Deoxyribonucleic Acid-Protein Complex in Baby Hamster Kidney Cells Infected with Adenovirus Type 12

    PubMed Central

    Doerfler, Walter; Lundholm, Ulla; Hirsch-Kauffmann, Monica

    1972-01-01

    The total intracellular deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from baby hamster kidney cells abortively infected with 3H-adenovirus type 12 was analyzed in dye-buoyant density gradients. Between 10 and 20% of the cell-associated radioactivity derived from viral DNA bands in a density position which is 0.043 to 0.085 g/cm3 higher than that of viral DNA extracted from purified virions. The DNA in the high-density region (HP-fraction) is almost completely absent when DNA, ribonucleic acid (RNA) or protein synthesis is chemically inhibited in separate experiments. The HP-fraction is not found when the virus does not adsorb to and enter the cell. The DNA in the HP-fraction appears as early as 2 hr after inoculation. At 2 hr after infection, the HP-fraction is present both in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. This DNA hybridizes exclusively with viral DNA and sediments at approximately the same rate in both neutral and alkaline sucrose density gradients. Electron microscopy has revealed no circular DNA molecules in this fraction. Evidence indicates that the viral DNA in the HP-fraction exists in a complex with protein and possibly RNA. The protein component of the complex is resistant to enzymatic digestion, whereas the complex is susceptible to ribonuclease treatment. Digestion with deoxyribonuclease reduces the amount of DNA found in the HP-fraction. The structure and biological function of this complex are currently being investigated. PMID:5062681

  2. Poly(γ-glutamic acid) and poly(γ-glutamic acid)-based nanocomplexes enhance type II collagen production in intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Joana C; Pereira, Catarina Leite; Teixeira, Graciosa Q; Silva, Ricardo V; Caldeira, Joana; Grad, Sibylle; Gonçalves, Raquel M; Barbosa, Mário A

    2017-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration often leads to low back pain, which is one of the major causes of disability worldwide, affecting more than 80% of the population. Although available treatments for degenerated IVD decrease symptoms' progression, they fail to address the underlying causes and to restore native IVD properties. Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) has recently been shown to support the production of chondrogenic matrix by mesenchymal stem/stromal cells. γ-PGA/chitosan (Ch) nanocomplexes (NCs) have been proposed for several biomedical applications, showing advantages compared with either polymer alone. Hence, this study explores the potential of γ-PGA and γ-PGA/Ch NCs for IVD regeneration. Nucleotomised bovine IVDs were cultured ex vivo upon injection of γ-PGA (pH 7.4) and γ-PGA/Ch NCs (pH 5.0 and pH 7.4). Tissue metabolic activity and nucleus pulposus DNA content were significantly reduced when NCs were injected in acidic-buffered solution (pH 5.0). However, at pH 7.4, both γ-PGA and NCs promoted sulphated glycosaminoglycan production and significant type II collagen synthesis, as determined at the protein level. This study is a first proof of concept that γ-PGA and γ-PGA/Ch NCs promote recovery of IVD native matrix, opening new perspectives on the development of alternative therapeutic approaches for IVD degeneration.

  3. Enantioseparation of gantofiban precursors on chiral stationary phases of the poly-(N-acryloyl amino acid derivative)-type.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Michael; Devant, R; Grosser, R

    2002-01-15

    A separation strategy for the preparative enantioseparation of intermediates of the synthesis route towards the new antithrombotic drug Gantofiban is outlined. The selectivities of six different intermediates on a series of chiral stationary phases of the poly-[N-(meth-)acryloyl amino acid derivative]-type are determined. The separations are optimized with respect to high enantioselectivities and good solubilities in the mobile phase. For three optimized combinations of chiral stationary and mobile phases the separation parameters for a simulated moving bed-systems are determined.

  4. [Particularities of γ-aminobutyric acid metabolism in the liver of rats during different types of alcohol withdrawal].

    PubMed

    Lelevich, V V; Vinitskaya, A G; Lelevich, S V; Doroshenko, Ye M

    2014-01-01

    Activities of GABA-catabolising enzymes and the contents of some amino acids have been studied in the liver of the rats with different types of alcohol cessation after its systemic administration. Intermittent alcohol intoxication was accompanied by activation of liver GABA catabolism in case of the lowest alcohol load. However ethanol in higher doses and prolongation of intermittent alcohol administration decreased GABA catabolism. It is suggested that the observed changes may reflect non-specific adaptation of hepatocytes to the excessive alcohol consumption and its further cessation.

  5. Mapping General Anesthetic Sites in Heteromeric γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptors Reveals a Potential For Targeting Receptor Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Forman, Stuart A; Miller, Keith W

    2016-11-01

    IV general anesthetics, including propofol, etomidate, alphaxalone, and barbiturates, produce important actions by enhancing γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor activation. In this article, we review scientific studies that have located and mapped IV anesthetic sites using photoaffinity labeling and substituted cysteine modification protection. These anesthetics bind in transmembrane pockets between subunits of typical synaptic GABAA receptors, and drugs that display stereoselectivity also show remarkably selective interactions with distinct interfacial sites. These results suggest strategies for developing new drugs that selectively modulate distinct GABAA receptor subtypes.

  6. Plasma acylcarnitine profiles suggest incomplete long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation and altered tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in type 2 diabetic African-American women.

    PubMed

    Adams, Sean H; Hoppel, Charles L; Lok, Kerry H; Zhao, Ling; Wong, Scott W; Minkler, Paul E; Hwang, Daniel H; Newman, John W; Garvey, W Timothy

    2009-06-01

    Inefficient muscle long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) combustion is associated with insulin resistance, but molecular links between mitochondrial fat catabolism and insulin action remain controversial. We hypothesized that plasma acylcarnitine profiling would identify distinct metabolite patterns reflective of muscle fat catabolism when comparing individuals bearing a missense G304A uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 g/a) polymorphism to controls, because UCP3 is predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and g/a individuals have reduced whole-body fat oxidation. MS analyses of 42 carnitine moieties in plasma samples from fasting type 2 diabetics (n = 44) and nondiabetics (n = 12) with or without the UCP3 g/a polymorphism (n = 28/genotype: 22 diabetic, 6 nondiabetic/genotype) were conducted. Contrary to our hypothesis, genotype had a negligible impact on plasma metabolite patterns. However, a comparison of nondiabetics vs. type 2 diabetics revealed a striking increase in the concentrations of fatty acylcarnitines reflective of incomplete LCFA beta-oxidation in the latter (i.e. summed C10- to C14-carnitine concentrations were approximately 300% of controls; P = 0.004). Across all volunteers (n = 56), acetylcarnitine rose and propionylcarnitine decreased with increasing hemoglobin A1c (r = 0.544, P < 0.0001; and r = -0.308, P < 0.05, respectively) and with increasing total plasma acylcarnitine concentration. In proof-of-concept studies, we made the novel observation that C12-C14 acylcarnitines significantly stimulated nuclear factor kappa-B activity (up to 200% of controls) in RAW264.7 cells. These results are consistent with the working hypothesis that inefficient tissue LCFA beta-oxidation, due in part to a relatively low tricarboxylic acid cycle capacity, increases tissue accumulation of acetyl-CoA and generates chain-shortened acylcarnitine molecules that activate proinflammatory pathways implicated in insulin resistance.

  7. Comparison of Copper Sorption on Lignite and on Soils of Different Types and Their Humic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Pekar, M.; Klucakova, M.

    2008-10-15

    We compared the sorption of copper on South Moravian lignite with that on several soils from Slovakia, using batch adsorption at a laboratory temperature of 25{sup o}C followed by a two-step desorption procedure. The results confirmed that lignite has a copper-sorption capacity and copper-binding strength that is comparable to or better than that of the Slovakian soils that we investigated. We compared these results with previously obtained data for sorption on humic acids (HA) isolated from lignite and soils. Although soil constituents other than HA, such as fulvic acids and mineral particles, also control metal sorption, HA bind copper at higher capacity and with greater strength than do the whole matrices of the soils we tested, and lignite showed a greater binding strength for copper than any of these soils. Our results thus far indicate that natural lignite mined in the Czech Republic, or lignite-derived HA, are potential agents for in situ soil remediation.

  8. Microwaves effectively examine the extent and type of coking over acid zeolite catalysts.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Slocombe, D R; Wang, J; Aldawsari, A; Gonzalez-Cortes, S; Arden, J; Kuznetsov, V L; AlMegren, H; AlKinany, M; Xiao, T; Edwards, P P

    2017-09-11

    Coking leads to the deactivation of solid acid catalyst. This phenomenon is a ubiquitous problem in the modern petrochemical and energy transformation industries. Here, we show a method based on microwave cavity perturbation analysis for an effective examination of both the amount and the chemical composition of cokes formed over acid zeolite catalysts. The employed microwave cavity can rapidly and non-intrusively measure the catalytically coked zeolites with sample full body penetration. The overall coke amount is reflected by the obtained dielectric loss (ε″) value, where different coke compositions lead to dramatically different absorption efficiencies (ε″/cokes' wt%). The deeper-dehydrogenated coke compounds (e.g., polyaromatics) lead to an apparently higher ε″/wt% value thus can be effectively separated from lightly coked compounds. The measurement is based on the nature of coke formation during catalytic reactions, from saturated status (e.g., aliphatic) to graphitized status (e.g., polyaromatics), with more delocalized electrons obtained for enhanced Maxwell-Wagner polarization.Catalyst deactivation by coke deposition is a major drawback in industrial processes. Here, the authors show a non-intrusive microwave cavity perturbation technique as a powerful tool to determine the nature and extent of coke accumulation in industrially-relevant zeolite catalysts.

  9. Effects of milk type, production month, and brand on fatty acid composition: A case study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Park, Inmyoung; Oh, Jin-Young; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the difference in fatty acid (FA) composition of organic and conventional milk at the retail market level in Korea for different milk production months and brands. The essential FA contents of the milk vary significantly under the combined effects of milk type, production month, and brand. Chemometric analysis reveals a greater difference between milk types than between production months and identifies significantly different levels of nutritionally desirable FAs-notably C18:3 n-3, C18:2 n-6 c and t-in the organic and conventional milks. Notwithstanding the limited sampling size and period, the results from this study may provide a better understanding of the nutritional quality of organic milk to consumers who are interested in organic milk intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Modifier Type on Properties of in Situ Organo-Montmorillonite Modified Wood Flour/Poly(lactic acid) Composites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ru; Chen, Yu; Cao, Jinzhen

    2016-01-13

    Wood flour (WF) was modified with sodium-montmorillonite (Na-MMT) and two types of surfactant modifiers, namely, didecyl dimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) and sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) though a two-step process inside WF. The thus-modified WFs were characterized, and the effects of MMT type on physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of their composites with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were investigated. The results showed: (1) either DDAC or SDS could modified Na-MMT into OMMT, and then uniformly distributed in WF cell walls; (2) OMMT improved the physical properties, most mechanical properties, and thermal properties of the composites except for the impact strength; and (3) compared with SDS, DDAC seemed to perform better in properties of composites. However, DDAC showed some negative effect on the early stage of composite thermal decomposition.

  11. Type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases of Brassica napus preferentially incorporate oleic acid into triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose; Denolf, Peter; Van Audenhove, Katrien; De Bodt, Stefanie; Engelen, Steven; Fahy, Deirdre; Wallis, James G; Browse, John

    2015-10-01

    DGAT1 enzymes (acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, EC 2.3.1.20) catalyse the formation of triacylglycerols (TAGs), the most abundant lipids in vegetable oils. Thorough understanding of the enzymology of oil accumulation is critical to the goal of modifying oilseeds for improved vegetable oil production. Four isoforms of BnDGAT1, the final and rate-limiting step in triacylglycerol synthesis, were characterized from Brassica napus, one of the world's most important oilseed crops. Transcriptional profiling of developing B. napus seeds indicated two genes, BnDGAT1-1 and BnDGAT1-2, with high expression and two, BnDGAT1-3 and BnDGAT1-4, with low expression. The activities of each BnDGAT1 isozyme were characterized following expression in a strain of yeast deficient in TAG synthesis. TAG from B. napus seeds contain only 10% palmitic acid (16:0) at the sn-3 position, so it was surprising that all four BnDGAT1 isozymes exhibited strong (4- to 7-fold) specificity for 16:0 over oleic acid (18:1) as the acyl-CoA substrate. However, the ratio of 18:1-CoA to 16:0-CoA in B. napus seeds during the peak period of TAG synthesis is 3:1. When substrate selectivity assays were conducted with 18:1-CoA and 16:0-CoA in a 3:1 ratio, the four isozymes incorporated 18:1 in amounts 2- to 5-fold higher than 16:0. This strong sensitivity of the BnDGAT1 isozymes to the relative concentrations of acyl-CoA substrates substantially explains the observed fatty acid composition of B. napus seed oil. Understanding these enzymes that are critical for triacylglycerol synthesis will facilitate genetic and biotechnological manipulations to improve this oilseed crop. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Discovery of 4-[(2S)-2-{[4-(4-chlorophenoxy)phenoxy]methyl}-1-pyrrolidinyl]butanoic acid (DG-051) as a novel leukotriene A4 hydrolase inhibitor of leukotriene B4 biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Sandanayaka, Vincent; Mamat, Bjorn; Mishra, Rama K; Winger, Jennifer; Krohn, Michael; Zhou, Li-Ming; Keyvan, Monica; Enache, Livia; Sullins, David; Onua, Emmanuel; Zhang, Jun; Halldorsdottir, Gudrun; Sigthorsdottir, Heida; Thorlaksdottir, Audur; Sigthorsson, Gudmundur; Thorsteinnsdottir, Margret; Davies, Douglas R; Stewart, Lance J; Zembower, David E; Andresson, Thorkell; Kiselyov, Alex S; Singh, Jasbir; Gurney, Mark E

    2010-01-28

    Both in-house human genetic and literature data have converged on the identification of leukotriene 4 hydrolase (LTA(4)H) as a key target for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. We combined fragment-based crystallography screening with an iterative medicinal chemistry effort to optimize inhibitors of LTA(4)H. Ligand efficiency was followed throughout our structure-activity studies. As applied within the context of LTA(4)H inhibitor design, the chemistry team was able to design a potent compound 20 (DG-051) (K(d) = 26 nM) with high aqueous solubility (>30 mg/mL) and high oral bioavailability (>80% across species) that is currently undergoing clinical evaluation for the treatment of myocardial infarction and stroke. The structural biology-chemistry interaction described in this paper provides a sound alternative to conventional screening techniques. This is the first example of a gene-to-clinic paradigm enabled by a fragment-based drug discovery effort.

  13. Ubiquitylation of an ERAD substrate occurs on multiple types of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yuichiro; Okuda-Shimizu, Yuki; Hendershot, Linda M

    2010-12-22

    Any protein synthesized in the secretory pathway has the potential to misfold and would need to be recognized and ubiquitylated for degradation. This is astounding, since only a few ERAD-specific E3 ligases have been identified. To begin to understand substrate recognition, we wished to map the ubiquitylation sites on the NS-1 nonsecreted immunoglobulin light chain, which is an ERAD substrate. Ubiquitin is usually attached to lysine residues and less frequently to the N terminus of proteins. In addition, several viral E3s have been identified that attach ubiquitin to cysteine or serine/threonine residues. Mutation of lysines, serines, and threonines in the NS-1 variable region was necessary to significantly reduce ubiquitylation and stabilize the protein. The Hrd1 E3 ligase was required to modify all three amino acids. Our studies argue that ubiquitylation of ER proteins relies on very different mechanisms of recognition and modification than those used to regulate biological processes.

  14. Evaluation of difluoromethyl ketones as agonists of the γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptor.

    PubMed

    Han, Changho; Salyer, Amy E; Kim, Eun Hoo; Jiang, Xinyi; Jarrard, Rachel E; Powers, Matthew S; Kirchhoff, Aaron M; Salvador, Tolani K; Chester, Julia A; Hockerman, Gregory H; Colby, David A

    2013-03-28

    The design, synthesis, biological evaluation, and in vivo studies of difluoromethyl ketones as GABAB agonists that are not structurally analogous to known GABAB agonists, such as baclofen or 3-aminopropyl phosphinic acid, are presented. The difluoromethyl ketones were assembled in three synthetic steps using a trifluoroacetate-release aldol reaction. Following evaluation at clinically relevant GABA receptors, we have identified a difluoromethyl ketone that is a potent GABAB agonist, obtained its X-ray structure, and presented preliminary in vivo data in alcohol-preferring mice. The behavioral studies in mice demonstrated that this compound tended to reduce the acoustic startle response, which is consistent with an anxiolytic profile. Structure-activity investigations determined that replacing the fluorines of the difluoromethyl ketone with hydrogens resulted in an inactive analogue. Resolution of the individual enantiomers of the difluoromethyl ketone provided a compound with full biological activity at concentrations less than an order of magnitude greater than the pharmaceutical, baclofen.

  15. Self-motion of a camphanic acid disk on water with different types of surfactants.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Satoshi; Kirisaka, Junko; Arima, Yoshie; Ishii, Toshio

    2006-10-26

    Control of the self-motion of a camphanic acid disk on water was investigated upon the addition of different kinds of surfactants (Triton X-100 and Brij58 as neutral surfactants, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an anionic surfactant) to the water phase. With an increase in the concentration of surfactant, continuous motion changed to no motion via intermittent motion (repetition between motion and rest), and the concentration regions of these motions were different among these surfactants. Although the concentration regions of these motions were determined by the surface tension for neutral surfactants, they were different than those for CTAB and SDS. These characteristics of self-motion are discussed in relation to the surface tension, depending on the concentration of individual surfactants, and the hydrophilic effect of the surfactants.

  16. Molecular characterization, tissue expression, and polymorphism analysis of liver-type fatty acid binding protein in Landes geese.

    PubMed

    Song, Z; Shao, D; Sun, X X; Niu, J W; Gong, D Q

    2015-01-23

    Liver weight is an important economic trait in the fatty goose liver industry. Liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is involved in the formation and metabolism of fatty acids. Thus, we hypothesized that sequence polymorphisms in L-FABP were associated with fatty liver weight in goose. We first isolated, sequenced, and characterized the goose L-FABP gene, which had not been previously reported. The goose L-FABP gene was 2490 bp and included 4 exons coding for a 126-amino acid protein. Analysis of expression levels of the goose L-FABP gene in different tissues showed that the expression level in the liver tissue was higher than in other tissues, and was significantly higher in the liver tissue of overfed geese than in control geese. Moreover, a single nucleotide polymorphism located at 774 bp in the gene was identified in a Landes goose population. To test whether this single nucleotide polymorphism was associated with fatty liver production, liver weight and the ratio of liver to carcass weights were determined for the 3 genotypes with this single nucleotide polymorphism (TT, TG, GG) in overfed Landes geese. Our data indicate that individuals with the GG genotype had higher values for the variables measured than those with the other 2 genotypes, suggesting that L-FABP can be a selection marker for the trait of fatty liver production in goose.

  17. Sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste and acid mine drainage using geochemistry, mine type, mineralogy, texture, ore extraction and climate knowledge.

    PubMed

    Anawar, Hossain Md

    2015-08-01

    The oxidative dissolution of sulfidic minerals releases the extremely acidic leachate, sulfate and potentially toxic elements e.g., As, Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Th, U, Zn, etc. from different mine tailings and waste dumps. For the sustainable rehabilitation and disposal of mining waste, the sources and mechanisms of contaminant generation, fate and transport of contaminants should be clearly understood. Therefore, this study has provided a critical review on (1) recent insights in mechanisms of oxidation of sulfidic minerals, (2) environmental contamination by mining waste, and (3) remediation and rehabilitation techniques, and (4) then developed the GEMTEC conceptual model/guide [(bio)-geochemistry-mine type-mineralogy- geological texture-ore extraction process-climatic knowledge)] to provide the new scientific approach and knowledge for remediation of mining wastes and acid mine drainage. This study has suggested the pre-mining geological, geochemical, mineralogical and microtextural characterization of different mineral deposits, and post-mining studies of ore extraction processes, physical, geochemical, mineralogical and microbial reactions, natural attenuation and effect of climate change for sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste. All components of this model should be considered for effective and integrated management of mining waste and acid mine drainage.

  18. Human acid alpha-glucosidase from rabbit milk has therapeutic effect in mice with glycogen storage disease type II.

    PubMed

    Bijvoet, A G; Van Hirtum, H; Kroos, M A; Van de Kamp, E H; Schoneveld, O; Visser, P; Brakenhoff, J P; Weggeman, M; van Corven, E J; Van der Ploeg, A T; Reuser, A J

    1999-11-01

    Pompe's disease or glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII) belongs to the family of inherited lysosomal storage diseases. The underlying deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase leads in different degrees of severity to glycogen storage in heart, skeletal and smooth muscle. There is currently no treatment for this fatal disease, but the applicability of enzyme replacement therapy is under investigation. For this purpose, recombinant human acid alpha-glucosidase has been produced on an industrial scale in the milk of transgenic rabbits. In this paper we demonstrate the therapeutic effect of this enzyme in our knockout mouse model of GSDII. Full correction of acid alpha-glucosidase deficiency was obtained in all tissues except brain after a single dose of i.v. enzyme administration. Weekly enzyme infusions over a period of 6 months resulted in degradation of lysosomal glycogen in heart, skeletal and smooth muscle. The tissue morphology improved substantially despite the advanced state of disease at the start of treatment. The results have led to the start of a Phase II clinical trial of enzyme replacement therapy in patients.

  19. Preparation of Two Types of Polymeric Micelles Based on Poly(β-L-Malic Acid) for Antitumor Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiao; Zhu, Lin; Fan, Li; Qiao, Youbei; Wu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Polymeric micelles represent an effective delivery system for poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs. In this work, two types of CPT-conjugated polymers were synthesized based on poly(β-L-malic acid) (PMLA) derivatives. Folic acid (FA) was introduced into the polymers as tumor targeting group. The micellization behaviors of these polymers and antitumor activity of different self-assembled micelles were investigated. Results indicate that poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(β-L-malic acid)-campotothecin-I (PEG-PMLA-CPT-I, P1) is a grafted copolymer, and could form star micelles in aqueous solution with a diameter of about 97 nm, also that PEG-PMLA-CPT-II (P2) is an amphiphilic block copolymer, and could form crew cut micelles with a diameter of about 76 nm. Both P1 and P2 micelles could improve the cellular uptake of CPT, especially the FA-modified micelles, while P2 micelles showed higher stability, higher drug loading efficiency, smaller size, and slower drug release rate than that of P1 micelles. These results suggested that the P2 (crew cut) micelles possess better stability than that of the P1 (star) micelles and might be a potential drug delivery system for cancer therapy. PMID:27649562

  20. A novel Dps-type protein from insect gut bacteria catalyses hydrolysis and synthesis of N-acyl amino acids.

    PubMed

    Ping, Liyan; Büchler, Rita; Mithöfer, Axel; Svatos, Ales; Spiteller, Dieter; Dettner, Konrad; Gmeiner, Sophie; Piel, Jörn; Schlott, Bernhard; Boland, Wilhelm

    2007-06-01

    A novel type of a microbial N-acyl amino acid hydrolase (AAH) from insect gut bacteria was purified, cloned and functionally characterized. The enzyme was obtained from Microbacterium arborescens SE14 isolated from the foregut of larvae of the generalist herbivore Spodoptera exigua. The substrates of AAH are N-acyl-glutamines previously reported to elicit plant defence reactions after introduction into the leaf during feeding. The isolated AAH catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond (K(m) = 36 micromol l(-1)) and, less efficient, the formation (K(m) = 3 mmol l(-1)) of the elicitor active N-acyl amino acids. The AAH from M. arborescens SE14 shows no homology to known fatty acyl amidases (EC 3.5.1.4) but belongs to the family of Dps proteins (DNA-binding protein from starved cell). In line with other DPS proteins AAH is a homododecamer (monomer 17 181 Da) and contains iron atoms (c. 1-16 iron atoms per subunit). Unlike genuine DPS proteins the enzyme does not significantly bind DNA. Amino acid hydrolase is the first member of the DPS family that catalyses the cleavage or formation of amide bonds. The participation of a microbial enzyme in the homeostasis of N-acyl-glutamines in the insect gut adds further complexity to the interaction between plants and their herbivores.

  1. Preparation of Two Types of Polymeric Micelles Based on Poly(β-L-Malic Acid) for Antitumor Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tiehong; Li, Wei; Duan, Xiao; Zhu, Lin; Fan, Li; Qiao, Youbei; Wu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Polymeric micelles represent an effective delivery system for poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs. In this work, two types of CPT-conjugated polymers were synthesized based on poly(β-L-malic acid) (PMLA) derivatives. Folic acid (FA) was introduced into the polymers as tumor targeting group. The micellization behaviors of these polymers and antitumor activity of different self-assembled micelles were investigated. Results indicate that poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(β-L-malic acid)-campotothecin-I (PEG-PMLA-CPT-I, P1) is a grafted copolymer, and could form star micelles in aqueous solution with a diameter of about 97 nm, also that PEG-PMLA-CPT-II (P2) is an amphiphilic block copolymer, and could form crew cut micelles with a diameter of about 76 nm. Both P1 and P2 micelles could improve the cellular uptake of CPT, especially the FA-modified micelles, while P2 micelles showed higher stability, higher drug loading efficiency, smaller size, and slower drug release rate than that of P1 micelles. These results suggested that the P2 (crew cut) micelles possess better stability than that of the P1 (star) micelles and might be a potential drug delivery system for cancer therapy.

  2. Fatty acid composition in double and multilayered microcapsules of ω-3 as affected by storage conditions and type of emulsions.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Martín, Estefanía; Antequera Rojas, Teresa; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad

    2016-03-01

    Spray-dried microcapsules from double (DM) and multilayered (MM) fish oil emulsions were produced to evaluate the effect of type of emulsion on the fatty acid composition during the microencapsulation process and after one month of storage at refrigeration (4°C) and room (20°C) temperature. Encapsulation efficiency, loading and loading efficiency were significantly higher in MM than in DM. C20:5 n-3 (EPA) and C22:6 n-3 (DHA) showed higher proportions in MM than in DM. Some differences in microstructural features were detected, with DM showing cracks and pores. The influence of the storage was significant, decreasing the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in both MM and DM, above all at 20°C. This decrease was more notable in DM. Multilayered emulsions are more suitable to encapsulate fish oil in terms of quantity of encapsulated oil, microstructure of the microcapsules and protection of fatty acids, especially EPA and DHA, during storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. L/N-type calcium channel blocker cilnidipine reduces plasma aldosterone, albuminuria, and urinary liver-type fatty acid binding protein in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masanori; Maruyama, Noriaki; Suzuki, Hiroko; Inoshita, Atsushi; Yoshida, Yoshinori; Okada, Kazuyoshi; Soma, Masayoshi

    2013-07-01

    Cilnidipine inhibits both L- and N-type calcium channels and has been shown to dilate efferent arterioles as effectively as afferent arterioles. We conducted an open-label, randomized trial to compare the effects of cilnidipine against those of amlodipine on blood pressure (BP), albuminuria, and plasma aldosterone concentration in hypertensive patients with mild- to moderate-stage chronic kidney disease. Patients with BP ≥130/80 mmHg, an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 90-30 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and albuminuria ≥30 mg/g, despite treatment with the maximum recommended dose of angiotensin II receptor blockers, were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients received either 10 mg/day cilnidipine (increased to 20 mg/day; n = 35) or 2.5 mg/day amlodipine (increased to 5 mg/day; n = 35). After 48 weeks of treatment, a significant and comparable reduction in systolic and diastolic BP was observed in both groups. The percent reduction in the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio and liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) in the cilnidipine group was significantly greater than in the amlodipine group. Although plasma renin activity did not differ between the two groups, the plasma aldosterone level was significantly decreased in the cilnidipine group. Cilnidipine therefore appears to reduce albuminuria, urinary L-FABP, and plasma aldosterone levels more than amlodipine, and these effects are independent of BP reduction.

  4. Tolerance of acid-adapted and non-adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells to reduced pH as affected by type of acidulant.

    PubMed

    Deng, Y; Ryu, J H; Beuchat, L R

    1999-02-01

    A study was carried out to determine if three strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 grown (18 h) in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB) and TSB supplemented with 1.25% glucose (TSBG), i.e. unadapted and acid-adapted cells, respectively, exhibited changes in tolerance to reduced pH when plated on Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA) acidified (pH 3.9, 4.2, 4.5, 4.8, 5.1 and 5.4) with acetic, citric or malic acids. All test strains grew well on TSA acidified with acetic acid at pH > or = 5.4 or malic acid at pH > or = 4.5; two strains grew on TSA acidified with citric acid at pH > or = 4.5, while the third strain grew at pH > or = 4.8. Acid-adapted and control (unadapted) cells differed little in their ability to form visible colonies on TSA containing the same acid at the same pH. However, on plates not showing visible colonies, acid-adapted cells retained higher viability than unadapted cells when plated on acidified TSA. Growth of acid-adapted and control cells of E. coli O157:H7 inoculated into TSB containing acetic acid (pH 5.4 and 5.7) and citric or malic acids (pH 4.2 and 4.5) was also studied. There was essentially no difference in growth characteristics of the two types of cells in TSB acidified at the same pH with a given acid. Tolerance of acid-adapted and control cells on subsequent exposure to low pH is influenced by the type of acidulant. The order of sensitivity at a given pH is acetic > citric > malic acid. When performing acid challenge studies to determine survival and growth characteristics of E. coli O157:H7 in foods, consideration should be given to the type of acid to which cells have been exposed previously, the procedure used to achieve acidic environments and possible differences in response among strains. The use of strains less affected by pH than type of acidulant or vice versa could result in an underestimation of the potential for survival and growth of E. coli O157:H7 in acid foods.

  5. Effect of endophyte type on carcass traits, meat quality, and fatty acid composition of beef cattle grazing tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Realini, C E; Duckett, S K; Hill, N S; Hoveland, C S; Lyon, B G; Sackmann, J R; Gillis, M H

    2005-02-01

    Fourteen Hereford steers were used to compare carcass traits, meat quality, and fatty acid composition of beef from cattle grazing tall fescue infected with either wild-type (E+; n = 6) or novel, nil ergot alkaloid (AR542; n = 8) endophyte for 209 d. Average daily gain, live weight, and HCW were greater (P < 0.05) for AR542 cattle than for E+. No differences in LM color or pH were observed between AR542 and E+. Steaks from E+ cattle tended (P = 0.10) to have higher L* and b* than those from AR542 cattle at 0 d of display. Ground beef from E+ cattle also had higher (P < 0.05) L* than AR542 cattle, with no differences in a* or b* at 0 d of display. Color changes during display did not differ for both steaks and ground beef from E+ and AR542. Lipid oxidation levels increased (P < 0.05) during simulated retail display, but they did not differ between endophyte treatments. Adipose tissues from E+ cattle had a higher (P < 0.05) percentage of SFA, and a lower (P < 0.05) percentage of MUFA than adipose from AR542 cattle. Ground beef and i.m. fat had higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of SFA, MUFA, and cis-9, trans-11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid, and lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of PUFA and PUFA:SFA ratio than s.c. fat. The n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio did not differ among fat depots. Ergot-alkaloids were detected in s.c. adipose tissues, and alkaloid concentration was greater (P < 0.05) for E+ than AR542. Warner-Bratzler shear force values did not differ between endophyte types, but it decreased (P < 0.01) across the postmortem aging period. Conversely, sensory panel evaluation detected greater (P < 0.01) chewiness and lower (P < 0.05) juiciness for AR542 than for E+ steaks aged for 14 d. Although grazing cattle on tall fescue pastures infected with nil ergot alkaloid endophyte improved cattle performance, these results suggest that endophyte type has minor effects on carcass traits and meat quality of pasture-fed beef. Moreover, finishing cattle on tall fescue

  6. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of a complete bacterial fatty-acid synthase type I

    SciTech Connect

    Enderle, Mathias; McCarthy, Andrew; Paithankar, Karthik Shivaji; Grininger, Martin

    2015-10-23

    Bacterial and fungal type I fatty-acid synthases (FAS I) are evolutionarily connected, as bacterial FAS I is considered to be the ancestor of fungal FAS I. In this work, the production, crystallization and X-ray diffraction data analysis of a bacterial FAS I are reported. While a deep understanding of the fungal and mammalian multi-enzyme type I fatty-acid synthases (FAS I) has been achieved in recent years, the bacterial FAS I family, which is narrowly distributed within the Actinomycetales genera Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium and Nocardia, is still poorly understood. This is of particular relevance for two reasons: (i) although homologous to fungal FAS I, cryo-electron microscopic studies have shown that bacterial FAS I has unique structural and functional properties, and (ii) M. tuberculosis FAS I is a drug target for the therapeutic treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and therefore is of extraordinary importance as a drug target. Crystals of FAS I from C. efficiens, a homologue of M. tuberculosis FAS I, were produced and diffracted X-rays to about 4.5 Å resolution.

  7. Non-random distribution of amino acids in the transmembrane segments of human type I single span membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Landolt-Marticorena, C; Williams, K A; Deber, C M; Reithmeier, R A

    1993-02-05

    The distribution of amino acids in the transmembrane segments and flanking regions of 115 human type I single span (amino terminus extracellular and carboxyl terminus cytosolic) plasma membrane proteins was found to be non-random. In this sample, Ile was preferentially localized to the amino-terminal region of the hydrophobic transmembrane segments, followed by Val, while Leu predominated in the carboxyl-terminal half of the segment. Although Gly residues were preferentially located in the transmembrane segment, this residue was excluded from the carboxyl-terminal and adjacent boundary regions. Aromatic residues (Tyr, Trp and Phe) occurred preferentially at the cytoplasmic boundary, with Trp also favored at the extracellular boundary. The extracellular flanking sequence amino-terminal to the transmembrane segment was enriched in residues predicted to initiate helix formation (Pro, Asn and Ser), while Arg and Lys were enriched in the cytoplasmic flank where they may function as topological determinants. The positional preferences of these particular amino acids within the transmembrane segment and flanking regions suggests that, in addition to lipid-protein interactions, these residues may participate in specific protein-protein interactions. A consensus sequence motif for type I membrane proteins is proposed and its role in the biosynthesis, folding, assembly and function of these segments is discussed.

  8. Influence of methoxy-substituents on the strength of Br … Br type II halogen bonds in bromobenzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffo, Pablo A.; Marcolongo, Juan P.; Funes, Alejandro V.; Slep, Leonardo D.; Baggio, Ricardo F.; Cukiernik, Fabio D.

    2016-03-01

    4-bromo-3,5-di(methoxy)benzoic acid (I) crystallizes in the monoclinic C2/c space group, a = 22.3405 (6) Å, b = 4.85142 (14) Å, c = 18.1583 (5) Å, β = 93.086 (2)°. The crystal structure shows head-to-head dimeric units linked via type II Br … Br interactions as well as Br … π and weak H-bonding interactions. The whole structure exhibits features similar to those of the parent 4-bromobenzoic acid (II), most notably the overall geometrical features involved in the Br … Br type II interactions. Both structures display comparable C-Br … Br angles (θ1 = 98.3 and 91.6° and θ2 = 163.0 and 163.5° for (I) and (II) respectively), but the Br … Br distance is significantly shorter in (I) (3.58 Å) than in (II) (3.81 Å). QM computations provide the magnitude of the intermolecular interactions present in both (I) and (II), and allow disclosing the individual covalent and electrostatic contributions to the Br⋯Br halogen bond in terms of interaction energies, electrostatic potentials, and a molecular orbital (MO) analysis.

  9. Release of 5-amino salicylic acid from acrylic type polymeric prodrugs designed for colon-specific drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Davaran, S; Hanaee, J; Khosravi, A

    1999-04-19

    New acrylic type polymeric systems having degradable ester or amide bonds linked to the bioactive agent 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA), were prepared and evaluated as materials for colon-specific drug delivery. Methacryloyloxyethyl 5-amino salicylate (MOES), and N-methacryloylaminoethyl 5-amino salicylamide (MAES) were prepared as the polymerizable derivatives of 5-ASA using activated ester methodology. The drug-containing monomers were free radically copolymerized with methacrylic acid or hydroxyethyl methacrylate, utilizing azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator. The polymer bearing 5-ASA units as side substituents of the acrylic backbone were obtained in the form of poly pendent esters or poly pendent amides. The drug release studies were performed by hydrolysis in buffered solutions (pH 1, 7.2, 8.5), or simulated intestinal fluid containing pancreatin to measure the chemical degradation expected to occur in the intestinal tract. The release profiles indicated that the hydrolytic behavior of polymers strongly depends on their degree of swelling, type of comonomer, and the nature of hydrolyzable bond. Implication of the results for use of these polymers for colon targeting are discussed.

  10. Heart type fatty acid binding protein response and subsequent development of atherosclerosis in insulin resistant polycystic ovary syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Heart type fatty acid binding protein (HFABP) has been found to be predictive for myocardial ischemia.Wet ested whether HFABP is the predictor for CVD in PCOS patients, who have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods This was a prospective, cross sectional controlled study conducted in a training and research hospital.The study population consisted of 46 reproductive-age PCOS women and 28 control subjects. We evaluated anthropometric and metabolic parameters, carotid intima media thickness and HFABP levels in both PCOS patients and control group. Results Mean fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, free testosterone, total testosterone, carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) levels were significantly higher in PCOS patients. Although HFABP levels were higher in PCOS patients, the difference did not reach statistically significant in early age groups. After adjustment for age and body mass index, HFABP level was positive correlated with hsCRP, free testosterone levels, CIMT and HOMA-IR. Conclusions Heart type free fatty acid binding protein appeared to have an important role in metabolic response and subsequent development of atherosclerosis in insulin resistant, hyperandrogenemic PCOS patients. PMID:23249450

  11. Identification and functional analysis of a prokaryotic-type aspartate aminotransferase: implications for plant amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Fernando; De Santis, Laura; Suárez, María Fernanda; Crespillo, Remedios; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we report the identification of genes from pine (PpAAT), Arabidopsis (AtAAT) and rice (OsAAT) encoding a novel class of aspartate aminotransferase (AAT, EC 2.6.1.1) in plants. The enzyme is unrelated to other eukaryotic AATs from plants and animals but similar to bacterial enzymes. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that this prokaryotic-type AAT is closely related to cyanobacterial enzymes, suggesting it might have an endosymbiotic origin. Interestingly, most of the essential residues involved in the interaction with the substrate and the attachment of pyridoxal phosphate cofactor in the active site of the enzyme were conserved in the deduced polypeptide. The polypeptide is processed in planta to a mature subunit of 45 kDa that is immunologically distinct from the cytosolic, mitochondrial and chloroplastic isoforms of AAT previously characterized in plants. Functional expression of PpAAT sequences in Escherichia coli showed that the processed precursor is assembled into a catalytically active homodimeric holoenzyme that is strictly specific for aspartate. These atypical genes are predominantly expressed in green tissues of pine, Arabidopsis and rice, suggesting a key role of this AAT in nitrogen metabolism associated with photosynthetic activity. Moreover, immunological analyses revealed that the plant prokaryotic-type AAT is a nuclear-encoded chloroplast protein. This implies that two plastidic AAT co-exist in plants: a eukaryotic type previously characterized and the prokaryotic type described here. The respective roles of these two enzymes in plant amino acid metabolism are discussed.

  12. Identifying the Types of Ion Channel-Targeted Conotoxins by Incorporating New Properties of Residues into Pseudo Amino Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Conotoxins are a kind of neurotoxin which can specifically interact with potassium, sodium type, and calcium channels. They have become potential drug candidates to treat diseases such as chronic pain, epilepsy, and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, correctly identifying the types of ion channel-targeted conotoxins will provide important clue to understand their function and find potential drugs. Based on this consideration, we developed a new computational method to rapidly and accurately predict the types of ion-targeted conotoxins. Three kinds of new properties of residues were proposed to use in pseudo amino acid composition to formulate conotoxins samples. The support vector machine was utilized as classifier. A feature selection technique based on F-score was used to optimize features. Jackknife cross-validated results showed that the overall accuracy of 94.6% was achieved, which is higher than other published results, demonstrating that the proposed method is superior to published methods. Hence the current method may play a complementary role to other existing methods for recognizing the types of ion-target conotoxins. PMID:27631006

  13. High Serum Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jer-Chuan; Wu, Du-An; Hou, Jia-Sian; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Chen, Hsin-Dean

    2016-01-01

    Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) is a key mediator of obesity-related metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between A-FABP concentration and MetS in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Fasting blood samples were obtained from 165 type 2 DM volunteers. MetS and its components were defined using diagnostic criteria from the International Diabetes Federation. Among 165 DM patients, 113 patients (68.5%) had MetS. Diabetic persons who had MetS had significantly higher A-FABP levels (P < 0.001) than those without MetS. Female DM persons had higher A-FABP level than man (P < 0.001). No statistically significant differences in A-FABP levels were found in use of statin, fibrate, or antidiabetic drugs. Multivariate forward stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that body fat mass (P < 0.001), logarithmically transformed creatinine (log-creatinine; P < 0.001), female DM patients (P < 0.001), and logarithmically transformed high sensitive C-reactive protein (log-hs-CRP; P = 0.013) were positively correlated, while albumin (P = 0.004) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR; P = 0.043) were negatively correlated with serum A-FABP levels in type 2 DM patients. In this study, higher serum A-FABP level was positively associated with MetS in type 2 DM patients. PMID:28042581

  14. Classification of membrane protein types using Voting Feature Interval in combination with Chou's Pseudo Amino Acid Composition.

    PubMed

    Ali, Farman; Hayat, Maqsood

    2015-11-07

    Membrane protein is a major constituent of cell, performing numerous crucial functions in the cell. These functions are mostly concerned with membrane protein's types. Initially, membrane proteins types are classified through traditional methods and reasonable results were obtained using these methods. However, due to large exploration of protein sequences in databases, it is very difficult or sometimes impossible to classify through conventional methods, because it is laborious and wasting of time. Therefore, a new powerful discriminating model is indispensable for classification of membrane protein's types with high precision. In this work, a quite promising classification model is developed having effective discriminating power of membrane protein's types. In our classification model, silent features of protein sequences are extracted via Pseudo Amino Acid Composition. Five classification algorithms were utilized. Among these classification algorithms Voting Feature Interval has obtained outstanding performance in all the three datasets. The accuracy of proposed model is 93.9% on dataset S1, 89.33% on S2 and 86.9% on dataset S3, respectively, applying 10-fold cross validation test. The success rates revealed that our proposed model has obtained the utmost outcomes than other existing models in literatures so far and will be played a substantial role in the fields of drug design and pharmaceutical industry.

  15. Cell type-specific modulation of lipid mediator's formation in murine adipose tissue by omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kuda, Ondrej; Rombaldova, Martina; Janovska, Petra; Flachs, Pavel; Kopecky, Jan

    2016-01-15

    Mutual interactions between adipocytes and immune cells in white adipose tissue (WAT) are involved in modulation of lipid metabolism in the tissue and also in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which counteract adverse effects of obesity. This complex interplay depends in part on in situ formed anti- as well as pro-inflammatory lipid mediators, but cell types engaged in the synthesis of the specific mediators need to be better characterized. We used tissue fractionation and metabolipidomic analysis to identify cells producing lipid mediators in epididymal WAT of mice fed for 5 weeks obesogenic high-fat diet (lipid content 35% wt/wt), which was supplemented or not by omega-3 PUFA (4.3 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 14.7 mg docosahexaenoic acid per g of diet). Our results demonstrate selective increase in levels of anti-inflammatory lipid mediators in WAT in response to omega-3, reflecting either their association with adipocytes (endocannabinoid-related N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine) or with stromal vascular cells (pro-resolving lipid mediator protectin D1). In parallel, tissue levels of obesity-associated pro-inflammatory endocannabinoids were suppressed. Moreover, we show that adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), which could be isolated using magnetic force from the stromal vascular fraction, are not the major producers of protectin D1 and that omega-3 PUFA lowered lipid load in ATMs while promoting their less-inflammatory phenotype. Taken together, these results further document specific roles of various cell types in WAT in control of WAT inflammation and metabolism and they suggest that also other cells but ATMs are engaged in production of pro-resolving lipid mediators in response to omega-3 PUFA.

  16. Lipid and fatty acid composition of cytoplasmic membranes from Streptomyces hygroscopicus and its stable protoplast-type L form.

    PubMed Central

    Hoischen, C; Gura, K; Luge, C; Gumpert, J

    1997-01-01

    The cells of an L-form strain of Streptomyces hygroscopicus have been grown for 20 years without a cell wall. Their cytoplasmic membranes have high stability and an unusual structural polymorphism. To clarify the importance of the lipid components for these membrane properties, a comparative analysis has been carried out with purified membranes of L-form cells, of parent vegetative hyphal cells (N-form cells), and of protoplasts derived from the latter. The phospholipid classes and fatty acids were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), two-dimensional TLC, high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry. The qualitative compositions of cardiolipin (CL), lyso-cardiolipin (LCL), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE1 and PE2), lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), phosphatidylinositolmannoside (PIM), phosphatidic acid (PA), dilyso-cardiolipin-phosphatidylinositol (DLCL-PI), and the 13 main fatty acids were the same in the three membrane types. However, significant quantitative differences were observed in the L-form membrane. They consist of a three- to fourfold-higher content of total, extractable lipids, 20% more phospholipids, an increased content of CL and PIM, and a reduced amount of the component DLCL-PI. Furthermore, the L-form membrane is characterized by a higher content of branched anteiso 15:0 and anteiso 17:0 fatty acids compared to that of the membranes of the walled vegetative cells. These fatty acids have lower melting points than their straight and iso-branched counterparts and make the membrane more fluid. The phospholipid composition of the protoplast membrane differs quantitatively from that of the N form and the L form. Whereas the phospholipid classes are mostly similar to that of the N form, the fatty acid pattern tends to be closer to that of the L-form membrane. The membranes of both the L-form cells and the protoplasts need to be more fluid because of their spherical cell shape and higher degree of curvature

  17. Leucine supplementation after mechanical stimulation activates protein synthesis via L-type amino acid transporter 1 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Naoya; Kawano, Fuminori; Murakami, Taro; Nakata, Ken; Higashida, Kazuhiko

    2017-08-30

    Branched-chain amino acid supplements consumed following exercise are widely used to increase muscle mass. Although both exercise (ie, mechanical stimulation) and branched-chain amino acid leucine supplementation have been reported to stimulate muscle protein synthesis by activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway independently, the mechanisms underlying their synergistic effects are largely unknown. Utilizing cultured differentiated C2C12 myotubes, we established a combination treatment model in which the cells were subjected to cyclic uniaxial mechanical stretching (4 h, 15%, 1 Hz) followed by stimulation with 2 mM leucine for 45 min. Phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K), an mTOR-regulated marker of protein translation initiation, was significantly increased following mechanical stretching alone but returned to the baseline after 4 h. Leucine supplementation further increased p70S6K phosphorylation, with a greater increase observed in the stretched cells than in the non-stretched cells. Notably, the expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), a stimulator of the mTOR pathway, was also increased by mechanical stretching, and siRNA-mediated knockdown partially attenuated leucine-induced p70S6K phosphorylation. These results suggest that mechanical stretching promotes LAT1 expression and, consequently, amino acid uptake, leading to enhanced leucine-induced activation of protein synthesis. LAT1 has been demonstrated to be a point of crosstalk between exercise- and nutrition-induced skeletal muscle growth. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Responses of soil N-fixing bacteria communities to invasive plant species under different types of simulated acid deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congyan; Zhou, Jiawei; Jiang, Kun; Liu, Jun; Du, Daolin

    2017-06-01

    Biological invasions have incurred serious threats to native ecosystems in China, and soil N-fixing bacteria communities (SNB) may play a vital role in the successful plant invasion. Meanwhile, anthropogenic acid deposition is increasing in China, which may modify or upgrade the effects that invasive plant species can cause on SNB. We analyzed the structure and diversity of SNB by means of new generation sequencing technology in soils with different simulated acid deposition (SAD), i.e., different SO4(2-) to NO3(-) ratios, and where the invasive (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and the native species (Amaranthus tricolor L.) grew mixed or isolated for 3 months. A. retroflexus itself did not exert significant effects on the diversity and richness of SNB but did it under certain SO4(2-) to NO3(-) ratios. Compared to soils where the native species grew isolated, the soils where the invasive A. retroflexus grew isolated showed lower relative abundance of some SNB classes under certain SAD treatments. Some types of SAD can alter soil nutrient content which in turn could affect SNB diversity and abundance. Specifically, greater SO4(2-) to NO3(-) ratios tended to have more toxic effects on SNB likely due to the higher exchange capacity of hydroxyl groups (OH(-)) between SO4(2-) and NO3(-). As a conclusion, it can be expected a change in the structure of SNB after A. retroflexus invasion under acid deposition rich in sulfuric acid. This change may create a plant soil feedback favoring future A. retroflexus invasions.

  19. Type II fatty acid biosynthesis is essential for Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite development in the midgut of Anopheles mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    van Schaijk, Ben C L; Kumar, T R Santha; Vos, Martijn W; Richman, Adam; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Li, Tao; Eappen, Abraham G; Williamson, Kim C; Morahan, Belinda J; Fishbaugher, Matt; Kennedy, Mark; Camargo, Nelly; Khan, Shahid M; Janse, Chris J; Sim, Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kappe, Stefan H I; Sauerwein, Robert W; Fidock, David A; Vaughan, Ashley M

    2014-05-01

    The prodigious rate at which malaria parasites proliferate during asexual blood-stage replication, midgut sporozoite production, and intrahepatic development creates a substantial requirement for essential nutrients, including fatty acids that likely are necessary for parasite membrane formation. Plasmodium parasites obtain fatty acids either by scavenging from the vertebrate host and mosquito vector or by producing fatty acids de novo via the type two fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (FAS-II). Here, we study the FAS-II pathway in Plasmodium falciparum, the species responsible for the most lethal form of human malaria. Using antibodies, we find that the FAS-II enzyme FabI is expressed in mosquito midgut oocysts and sporozoites as well as liver-stage parasites but not during the blood stages. As expected, FabI colocalizes with the apicoplast-targeted acyl carrier protein, indicating that FabI functions in the apicoplast. We further analyze the FAS-II pathway in Plasmodium falciparum by assessing the functional consequences of deleting fabI and fabB/F. Targeted deletion or disruption of these genes in P. falciparum did not affect asexual blood-stage replication or the generation of midgut oocysts; however, subsequent sporozoite development was abolished. We conclude that the P. falciparum FAS-II pathway is essential for sporozoite development within the midgut oocyst. These findings reveal an important distinction from the rodent Plasmodium parasites P. berghei and P. yoelii, where the FAS-II pathway is known to be required for normal parasite progression through the liver stage but is not required for oocyst development in the Anopheles mosquito midgut.

  20. Placental glucose and amino acid transport in calorie-restricted wild-type and Glut3 null heterozygous mice.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Amit; Collis, Laura; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2012-08-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) decreased placenta and fetal weights in wild-type (wt) and glucose transporter (Glut) 3 heterozygous null (glut3(+/-)) mice. Because placental nutrient transport is a primary energy determinant of placentofetal growth, we examined key transport systems. Maternal CR reduced intra- and transplacental glucose and leucine transport but enhanced system A amino acid transport in wt mice. These transport perturbations were accompanied by reduced placental Glut3 and leucine amino acid transporter (LAT) family member 2, no change in Glut1 and LAT family member 1, but increased sodium coupled neutral amino acid transporter (SNAT) and SNAT2 expression. We also noted decreased total and active phosphorylated forms of mammalian target of rapamycin, which is the intracellular nutrient sensor, the downstream total P70S6 kinase, and pS6 ribosomal protein with no change in total and phosphorylated 4E-binding protein 1. To determine the role of placental Glut3 in mediating CR-induced placental transport changes, we next investigated the effect of gestational CR in glut3(+/-) mice. In glut3(+/-) mice, a key role of placental Glut3 in mediating transplacental and intraplacental glucose transport was established. In addition, reduced Glut3 results in a compensatory increase of leucine and system A transplacental transport. On the other hand, diminished Glut3-mediated intraplacental glucose transport reduced leucine transport and mammalian target of rapamycin and preserved LAT and enhancing SNAT. CR in glut3(+/-) mice further reduced transplacental glucose transport and enhanced system A amino acid transport, although the increased leucine transport was lost. In addition, increased Glut3 was seen and preserved Glut1, LAT, and SNAT. These placental changes collectively protect survival of wt and glut3(+/-) fetuses against maternal CR-imposed reduction of macromolecular nutrients.

  1. Placental Glucose and Amino Acid Transport in Calorie-Restricted Wild-Type and Glut3 Null Heterozygous Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Amit; Collis, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) decreased placenta and fetal weights in wild-type (wt) and glucose transporter (Glut) 3 heterozygous null (glut3+/−) mice. Because placental nutrient transport is a primary energy determinant of placentofetal growth, we examined key transport systems. Maternal CR reduced intra- and transplacental glucose and leucine transport but enhanced system A amino acid transport in wt mice. These transport perturbations were accompanied by reduced placental Glut3 and leucine amino acid transporter (LAT) family member 2, no change in Glut1 and LAT family member 1, but increased sodium coupled neutral amino acid transporter (SNAT) and SNAT2 expression. We also noted decreased total and active phosphorylated forms of mammalian target of rapamycin, which is the intracellular nutrient sensor, the downstream total P70S6 kinase, and pS6 ribosomal protein with no change in total and phosphorylated 4E-binding protein 1. To determine the role of placental Glut3 in mediating CR-induced placental transport changes, we next investigated the effect of gestational CR in glut3+/− mice. In glut3+/− mice, a key role of placental Glut3 in mediating transplacental and intraplacental glucose transport was established. In addition, reduced Glut3 results in a compensatory increase of leucine and system A transplacental transport. On the other hand, diminished Glut3-mediated intraplacental glucose transport reduced leucine transport and mammalian target of rapamycin and preserved LAT and enhancing SNAT. CR in glut3+/− mice further reduced transplacental glucose transport and enhanced system A amino acid transport, although the increased leucine transport was lost. In addition, increased Glut3 was seen and preserved Glut1, LAT, and SNAT. These placental changes collectively protect survival of wt and glut3+/− fetuses against maternal CR-imposed reduction of macromolecular nutrients. PMID:22700768

  2. Abnormalities in the Metabolism of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols in the Liver of the Goto-Kakizaki Rat: A Model for Non-Obese Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Karahashi, Minako; Hirata-Hanta, Yuko; Kawabata, Kohei; Tsutsumi, Daisuke; Kametani, Misaki; Takamatsu, Nanako; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Yamazaki, Tohru; Asano, Satoshi; Mitsumoto, Atsushi; Kawashima, Yoichi; Kudo, Naomi

    2016-08-01

    The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is widely used as an animal model for spontaneous-onset type 2 diabetes without obesity; nevertheless, little information is available on the metabolism of fatty acids and triacylglycerols (TAG) in their livers. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the alterations in the metabolism of fatty acids and TAG in their livers, in comparison with Zucker (fa/fa) rats, which are obese and insulin resistant. Lipid profiles, the expression of genes for enzymes and proteins related to the metabolism of fatty acid and TAG, de novo synthesis of fatty acids and TAG in vivo, fatty acid synthase activity in vitro, fatty acid oxidation in liver slices, and very-low-density-lipoprotein (VLDL)-TAG secretion in vivo were estimated. Our results revealed that (1) the TAG accumulation was moderate, (2) the de novo fatty acid synthesis was increased by upregulation of fatty acid synthase in a post-transcriptional manner, (3) fatty acid oxidation was also augmented through the induction of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a, and (4) the secretion rate of VLDL-TAG remained unchanged in the livers of GK rats. These results suggest that, despite the fact that GK rats exhibit non-obese type 2 diabetes, the upregulation of de novo lipogenesis is largely compensated by the upregulation of fatty acid oxidation, resulting in only moderate increase in TAG accumulation in the liver.

  3. Quantitative analysis of fatty-acid-based biofuels produced by wild-type and genetically engineered cyanobacteria by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wenna; Zhao, Hui; Lu, Xuefeng; Wang, Cong; Yang, Menglong; Bai, Fali

    2011-11-11

    Simple and rapid quantitative determination of fatty-acid-based biofuels is greatly important for the study of genetic engineering progress for biofuels production by microalgae. Ideal biofuels produced from biological systems should be chemically similar to petroleum, like fatty-acid-based molecules including free fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols and fatty alkanes. This study founded a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for simultaneous quantification of seven free fatty acids, nine fatty acid methyl esters, five fatty acid ethyl esters, five fatty alcohols and three fatty alkanes produced by wild-type Synechocystis PCC 6803 and its genetically engineered strain. Data obtained from GC-MS analyses were quantified using internal standard peak area comparisons. The linearity, limit of detection (LOD) and precision (RSD) of the method were evaluated. The results demonstrated that fatty-acid-based biofuels can be directly determined by GC-MS without derivation. Therefore, rapid and reliable quantitative analysis of fatty-acid-based biofuels produced by wild-type and genetically engineered cyanobacteria can be achieved using the GC-MS method founded in this work.

  4. [Effect of protein intervention on amino acid metabolism spectrum of Qi and Yin deficiency type 2 diabetic rats].

    PubMed

    Ma, Li-Na; Mao, Xin-Min; Ma, Xiao-Li; Li, Lin-Lin; Wang, Ye; Tao, Yi-Cun; Wang, Jing-Wei; Guo, Jia-Jia; Lan, Yi

    2016-11-01

    To study the effect of plant protein and animal protein on amino acid metabolism spectrum of Qi and Yin deficiency type 2 diabetic rats. 110 male SD rats were randomly divided into blank group (n=10), diabetic model group (n=20), disease-symptoms group (n=80). The rats of blank group received ordinary feeding, while other groups were fed with high sugar and fat diets. During the whole process of feeding, rats of disease-symptoms group were given with Qingpi-Fuzi (15.75 g•kg⁻¹) once a day through oral administration. Five weeks later, the rats were given with a low dose of STZ (40 mg•kg⁻¹) by intraperitoneal injection to establish experimental diabetic models. Then the models were randomly divided into disease-symptoms group 1 (Qi and Yin deficiency diabetic group, 15.75 g•kg⁻¹), disease-symptoms group 2 (plant protein group, 0.5 g•kg⁻¹), disease-symptoms group 3 (animal protein group, 0.5 g•kg⁻¹), disease-symptoms group 4 (berberine group, 0.1 g•kg⁻¹). The drugs were given for 4 weeks by gavage administration. After 4 weeks of protein intervention, the abdominal aortic blood was collected and serum was isolated to analyze its free amino acid by using AQC pre-column derivatization HPLC and fluorescence detector. Four weeks after the protein intervention, plant protein, animal protein and berberine had no obvious effect on body weight and blood sugar in type 2 diabetic rats. As compared with animal protein group, histidine and proline(P<0.01), serine, glycine, threonine, alanine, tyrosine, valine, methionine, bright+isoleucine, phenylalanine and lysine(P<0.05)changed a lot in rats serum of plant protein group.The results showed that gavage administration of protein would produce effects on amino acid metabolism of Qi and Yin deficiency type 2 diabetic SD rats. Symbolic differential compounds could be found through metabonomics technology, providing experimental basis for early warning of type 2 diabetes and diagnosis of Qi and

  5. Is there an association between liver type fatty acid binding protein and severity of preeclampsia?

    PubMed

    Uzunlar, Ozlem; Engin-Ustun, Yaprak; Ozyer, Sebnem; Danısman, Nuri; Candar, Tuba; Keskin, Senem M; Mollamahmutoglu, Leyla

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the level of liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) in women with preeclampsia. A case-control study was conducted in 90 pregnant women who were divided into the following three groups: normal pregnancy (n = 30), mild-moderate preeclampsia (n = 30), and severe preeclampsia (n = 30). Maternal blood samples were obtained during an antenatal clinic visit in normal pregnant women, and at the time of diagnosis in women with preeclampsia. Serum LFABP levels were measured by the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Serum LFABP level was significantly higher in severe and mild-moderate preeclampsia groups than normal pregnancy group (1,709.90 ± 94.82, 1,614.93 ± 118.22, and 1,532.36 ± 140.98 pg/ml, respectively; p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the severity of preeclampsia was correlated with LFABP level [unadjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 1.008 (1.003-1.012), p < 0.001 and LDH 1.063 (1.029-1.099), p < 0.001]. Maternal serum LFABP level appears to be correlated with the severity of the preeclampsia and can be used to confirm the diagnosis.

  6. Oleanolic acid suppresses aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells by switching pyruvate kinase type M isoforms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Wu, Ning; Ma, Leina; Liu, Ming; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Yuyan; Lin, Xiukun

    2014-01-01

    Warburg effect, one of the hallmarks for cancer cells, is characterized by metabolic switch from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis. In recent years, increased expression level of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) has been found to be the culprit of enhanced aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells. However, there is no agent inhibiting aerobic glycolysis by targeting PKM2. In this study, we found that Oleanolic acid (OA) induced a switch from PKM2 to PKM1, and consistently, abrogated Warburg effect in cancer cells. Suppression of aerobic glycolysis by OA is mediated by PKM2/PKM1 switch. Furthermore, mTOR signaling was found to be inactivated in OA-treated cancer cells, and mTOR inhibition is required for the effect of OA on PKM2/PKM1 switch. Decreased expression of c-Myc-dependent hnRNPA1 and hnRNPA1 was responsible for OA-induced switch between PKM isoforms. Collectively, we identified that OA is an antitumor compound that suppresses aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells and there is potential that PKM2 may be developed as an important target in aerobic glycolysis pathway for developing novel anticancer agents.

  7. PDR-type ABC transporter mediates cellular uptake of the phytohormone abscisic acid

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Joohyun; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Kim, Yu-Young; Assmann, Sarah M.; Martinoia, Enrico; Lee, Youngsook

    2010-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a ubiquitous phytohormone involved in many developmental processes and stress responses of plants. ABA moves within the plant, and intracellular receptors for ABA have been recently identified; however, no ABA transporter has been described to date. Here, we report the identification of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter Arabidopsis thaliana Pleiotropic drug resistance transporter PDR12 (AtPDR12)/ABCG40 as a plasma membrane ABA uptake transporter. Uptake of ABA into yeast and BY2 cells expressing AtABCG40 was increased, whereas ABA uptake into protoplasts of atabcg40 plants was decreased compared with control cells. In response to exogenous ABA, the up-regulation of ABA responsive genes was strongly delayed in atabcg40 plants, indicating that ABCG40 is necessary for timely responses to ABA. Stomata of loss-of-function atabcg40 mutants closed more slowly in response to ABA, resulting in reduced drought tolerance. Our results integrate ABA-dependent signaling and transport processes and open another avenue for the engineering of drought-tolerant plants. PMID:20133880

  8. Effect of Gallic Acid on Dementia Type of Alzheimer Disease in Rats: Electrophysiological and Histological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hajipour, Somayeh; Sarkaki, Alireza; Farbood, Yaghoob; Eidi, Akram; Mortazavi, Pejman; Valizadeh, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To study the effect of gallic acid (GA) on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and histological changes in animal model of Alzheimer disease (AD) induced by beta-amyloid (Aβ). Methods: Sixty-four adult male Wistar rats (300±20 g) were divided into 8 groups: 1) Control (Cont); 2) AD; 3) Sham; 4–7) AD+GA (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg for 10 days, orally) or vehicle, 8) Cont+GA100, Aβ (1μg/μL in each site) was infused into hippocampus bilaterally. Changes of amplitude and slope of LTP induced in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) were evaluated by high frequency stimulation (HFS) of perforant path (PP). Results: Data showed that LTP amplitude and area under curve significantly impaired in AD rats (P<0.001), while significantly improved in AD rats treated with GA (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion: Current findings suggest that GA reduces neural damage and brain amyloid neuropathology and improves cognitive function via free radicals scavenging and inhibiting oligomerization of Aβ but with no effect on healthy rats. PMID:27303604

  9. The involvement of L-type amino acid transporters in theanine transport.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Sachiko; Kimura, Toru; Tachiki, Takashi; Anzai, Naohiko; Sakurai, Takuya; Ushimaru, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    L-Theanine has favorable physiological effects in terms of human health, but the mechanisms that transport it to its target organs or cells are not completely defined. To identify the major transport mechanisms of L-theanine, we screened for candidate transporters of L-3H-theanine in several mammal cell lines that intrinsically express multiple transporters with various specificities. All of the cells tested, T24, HepG2, COS1, 293A, Neuro2a, and HuH7, absorbed L-3H-theanine. Uptake was significantly inhibited by the addition of L-leucine and by a specific inhibitor of the system L transport system, 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH). L-3H-Theanine uptake occurred mostly independently of Na+. These results indicate that L-theanine was taken up via a system L like transport system in all of the cells tested. Additionally, in experiments using cells stably expressing two system L isoforms, LAT1 and LAT2, we found that the two isoforms mediated L-theanine transport to similar extents. Taken together, our results indicate that L-theanine is transported mostly via the system L transport pathway and its isoforms.

  10. Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid Attenuates Renal Tubular Injury in a Mouse Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Fan, Ying; Zeng, Chuchu; He, Li; Wang, Niansong

    2016-01-01

    Renal tubular injury is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in diabetic nephropathy. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is an effective inhibitor of ER stress. Here, we investigated the role of TUDCA in the progression of tubular injury in DN. For eight weeks, being treated with TUDCA at 250 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) twice a day, diabetic db/db mice had significantly reduced blood glucose, albuminuria and attenuated renal histopathology. These changes were associated with a significant decreased expression of ER stress markers. At the same time, diabetic db/db mice had more TUNEL-positive nuclei in the renal tubule, which were attenuated by TUDCA treatment, along with decreases in ER stress–associated apoptotic markers in the kidneys. In summary, the effect of TUDCA on tubular injury, in part, is associated with inhibition of ER stress in the kidneys of diabetic db/db mice. TUDCA shows potential as a therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of DN. PMID:27669287

  11. Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids Attenuate Progression of Albuminuria in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Elajami, Tarec K; Alfaddagh, Abdulhamied; Lakshminarayan, Dharshan; Soliman, Michael; Chandnani, Madhuri; Welty, Francine K

    2017-07-14

    Albuminuria is a marker of inflammation and an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The current study evaluated whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation attenuates progression of albuminuria in subjects with coronary artery disease. Two-hundred sixty-two subjects with stable coronary artery disease were randomized to either Lovaza (1.86 g of EPA and 1.5 g of DHA daily) or no Lovaza (control) for 1 year. Percent change in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was compared. Mean (SD) age was 63.3 (7.6) years; 17% were women and 30% had type 2 diabetes mellitus. In nondiabetic subjects, no change in urine ACR occurred in either the Lovaza or control groups. In contrast, ACR increased 72.3% (P<0.001) in diabetic subjects not receiving Lovaza, whereas those receiving Lovaza had no change. In diabetic subjects on an angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker, those receiving Lovaza had no change in urine ACR, whereas those not receiving Lovaza had a 64.2% increase (P<0.001). Change in ACR was directly correlated with change in systolic blood pressure (r=0.394, P=0.01). EPA and DHA supplementation attenuated progression of albuminuria in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease, most of whom were on an angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker. Thus, EPA and DHA supplementation should be considered as additional therapy to an angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01624727. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  12. Circulating ribonucleic acids and metabolic stress parameters may reflect progression of autoimmune or inflammatory conditions in juvenile type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kocic, Gordana; Pavlovic, Radmila; Najman, Stevo; Nikolic, Goran; Sokolovic, Dusan; Jevtovic-Stoimenov, Tatjana; Musovic, Dijana; Veljkovic, Andrej; Kocic, Radivoj; Djindjic, Natasa

    2011-07-28

    The sensing of ribonucleic acids (RNAs) by the monocyte/macrophage system occurs through the TLR7/8 Toll-like receptor family, the retinoic acid-inducible protein I (RIG-I), and the melanoma differentiation-associated protein-5 (MDA-5). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of circulating RNAs, isolated from juvenile type 1 diabetic patients and healthy control children, on the inflammatory, apoptotic, and antiviral response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from a healthy donor. Obtained effects were compared to the effects of metabolic stress parameters (hyperglycemia, oxidative and nitrosative stress). Forty-eight patients with juvenile type 1 diabetes and control children were included in the study. By performing the chromatographic analysis of circulating RNAs, the peak at the retention time 0.645 min for diabetic and control RNA samples was identified. To determine whether circulating RNAs have an agonistic or antagonistic effect on the signaling pathways involved in inflammatory, apoptotic, and antiviral cascade, their effect on TLR8, RIG-I, MDA-5, MyD88, NF-KB, IRF-3, phosphoIRF-3, IRF-7, RIP, and p38 was evaluated. A significantly lower level was achieved by cultivating PBMCs with circulating RNAs isolated from type 1 diabetic children, compared to the intact PBMCs, in relation to TLR-8, MDA-5, NF-KB, phospho IRF-3, and RIP, while it was higher for Bax. All the metabolic stress conditions up-regulated NF-KB, Bcl-2, and Bax. The NF-êB determination seems to be the most sensitive parameter that may reflect disease processes associated with the progression of autoimmune or inflammatory conditions, while the IRF3/phosphoIRF3 ratio may suggest an insufficient antiviral response.

  13. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester v. oleic acid-rich safflower oil on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic model rats with hypertriacylglycerolaemia.

    PubMed

    Minami, Asako; Ishimura, Noriko; Sakamoto, Sadaichi; Takishita, Eiko; Mawatari, Kazuaki; Okada, Kazuko; Nakaya, Yutaka

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test whether hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats can be improved by dietary supplementation with purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or oleic acid (OA). Male OLETF rats were fed powdered chow (510 g fat/kg) alone (n 8) or chow supplemented with 10 g EPA- (n 8) or OA- (n 8) rich oil/kg per d from 5 weeks until 30 weeks of age. An oral glucose tolerance test and hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp was performed at 25 and 30 weeks of age. EPA supplementation resulted in significantly (P<0.05) reduced plasma lipids, hepatic triacylglycerols, and abdominal fat deposits, and more efficient in vivo glucose disposal compared with OA supplementation and no supplementation. OA supplementation was associated with significantly increased insulin response to oral glucose compared with EPA supplementation and no supplementation. Inverse correlation was noted between glucose uptake and plasma triacylglycerol levels (r -086, P<0.001) and abdominal fat volume (r -0.80, P<0.001). The result of oral glucose tolerance test study showed that the rats fed EPA tended to improve glucose intolerance, although this was not statistically significant. Levels of plasma insulin at 60 min after glucose was significantly increased in rats fed OA compared with the other two groups. The results indicate that long-term feeding of EPA might be effective in preventing insulin resistance in diabetes-prone rats, at least in part, due to improving hypertriacylglycerolaemia.

  14. Serum uric acid to creatinine ratio: A predictor of incident chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with preserved kidney function.

    PubMed

    Gu, Liubao; Huang, Liji; Wu, Haidi; Lou, Qinglin; Bian, Rongwen

    2017-05-01

    Serum uric acid has shown to be a predictor of renal disease progression in most but not all studies. This study aims to test whether renal function-normalized serum uric acid is superior to serum uric acid as the predictor of incident chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. In this study, 1339 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate ⩾60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and normouricemia were included. Renal function-normalized serum uric acid was calculated using serum uric acid/creatinine. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the association between serum uric acid, renal function-normalized serum uric acid and incident chronic kidney disease. In total, 74 (5.53%) patients developed to chronic kidney disease 3 or greater during a median follow-up of 4 years, with older ages, longer diabetes duration and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate at baseline. The decline rate of estimated glomerular filtration rate was positively correlated with serum uric acid/creatinine ( r = 0.219, p < 0.001), but not serum uric acid ( r = 0.005, p = 0.858). Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that serum uric acid was not an independent risk factor for incident chronic kidney disease ( p = 0.055), whereas serum uric acid to creatinine ratio was significantly associated with incident chronic kidney disease independently of potential confounders including baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate. serum uric acid to creatinine ratio might be a better predictor of incident chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  15. Effect of muscle type, sire breed, and time of weaning on fatty acid composition of finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Sexten, A K; Krehbiel, C R; Dillwith, J W; Madden, R D; McMurphy, C P; Lalman, D L; Mateescu, R G

    2012-02-01

    Thirty-three steer calves were used to determine the effect of sire breed (Angus or Charolais), time of weaning [normal weaned at approximately 210 d of age (NW) or late weaned at approximately 300 d of age (LW)], and muscle type [LM and semitendinosus muscle (STN)] on fatty acid composition. The whole plot consisted of a 2 (sire breed) × 2 (time of weaning) treatment arrangement, and the subplot treatment was muscle type. Body weights were recorded at 28-d intervals to determine animal performance. Muscle biopsies were collected on d 127 and 128 of finishing. All calves were slaughtered on d 138, and carcass data were collected. Angus-sired steers had lighter initial BW (271 vs. 298 kg; P = 0.02), and LW steers were heavier (351 vs. 323 kg; P = 0.03) on d 28, but no other differences in BW were noted. Charolais-sired steers had larger LM area (P = 0.03), reduced yield grades (P = 0.01), less 12th-rib fat (P < 0.01), and less marbling (P < 0.01) than Angus-sired steers. Carcass measures overall indicate Angus-sired steers were fatter. Hot carcass weight was heavier (348 vs. 324 kg; P = 0.04) in LW steers than NW steers. No other differences (P > 0.05) were observed for feedlot performance or carcass characteristics. Total lipids were extracted from muscle biopsies, derivatized to their methyl esters, and analyzed using gas chromatography. The LM had greater SFA (43.94 vs. 35.76%; P < 0.01) and decreased unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; 56.90 vs. 66.19%; P < 0.01) compared with the STN. Percent total MUFA was greater in STN than LM (51.05 vs. 41.98%; P < 0.01). Total SFA, UFA, and MUFA did not differ due to sire breed or time of weaning. Total PUFA differed (P = 0.04) due to a sire breed × time of weaning interaction but did not differ due to muscle type, with greater PUFA in NW Charolais than any other sire breed × time of weaning combination. Observed changes in percent MUFA may be a result of greater Δ(9)-desaturase activity. The calculated desaturase index

  16. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) acid-base regulation differs in response to different types of acidoses.

    PubMed

    Shartau, Ryan B; Baker, Dan W; Brauner, Colin J

    2017-03-11

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) completely protect intracellular tissue pH (pHi) despite large reductions in extracellular (blood) pH (pHe), termed preferential pHi regulation, in response to elevated environmental PCO2 (hypercarbia) and in general appear to be relatively resilient to stressors. Preferential pHi regulation is thought to be associated with hypercarbia tolerance in general, but has also recently been observed to protect pHi against metabolic acidoses induced by exhaustive exercise and anoxia in a tropical air breathing catfish. We hypothesized that preferential pHi regulation may also be a general strategy of acid-base regulation in sturgeon. To address this hypothesis, severe acidoses were imposed to reduce pHe, and the presence or absence of preferential pHi regulation was assessed in red blood cells (RBC), heart, brain, liver and white muscle. A respiratory acidosis was imposed using hyperoxia, while metabolic acidoses were induced by exhaustive exercise, anoxia or air exposure. Reductions in pHe occurred following hyperoxia (0.15 units), exhaustive exercise (0.30 units), anoxia (0.10 units) and air exposure (0.35 units); all acidoses reduced RBC pHi. Following hyperoxia, heart, brain and liver pHi were preferentially regulated against the reduction in pHe, similar to hypercarbia exposure. Following all metabolic acidoses heart pHi was protected and brain pHi remained unchanged following exhaustive exercise and air exposure, however, brain pHi was reduced following anoxia. Liver and white muscle pHi were reduced following all metabolic acidoses. These results suggest preferential pHi regulation may be a general strategy during respiratory acidoses but during metabolic acidoses, the response differs between source of acidoses and tissues.

  17. Activation of A-type gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors excites gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons.

    PubMed

    DeFazio, R Anthony; Heger, Sabine; Ojeda, Sergio R; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2002-12-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), acting through GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)R), is hypothesized to suppress reproduction by inhibiting GnRH secretion, but GABA actions directly on GnRH neurons are not well established. In green fluorescent protein-identified adult mouse GnRH neurons in brain slices, gramicidin-perforated-patch-clamp experiments revealed the reversal potential (E(GABA)) for current through GABA(A)Rs was depolarized relative to the resting potential. Furthermore, rapid GABA application elicited action potentials in GnRH neurons but not controls. The consequence of GABA(A)R activation depends on intracellular chloride levels, which are maintained by homeostatic mechanisms. Membrane proteins that typically extrude chloride (KCC-2 cotransporter, CLC-2 channel) were absent from the GT1-7 immortalized GnRH cell line and GnRH neurons in situ or were not localized to the proper cell compartment for function. In contrast, GT1-7 cells and some GnRH neurons expressed the chloride-accumulating cotransporter, NKCC-1. Patch-clamp experiments showed that blockade of NKCC hyperpolarized E(GABA) by lowering intracellular chloride. Regardless of reproductive state, rapid GABA application excited GnRH neurons. In contrast, bath application of the GABA(A)R agonist muscimol transiently increased then suppressed firing; suppression persisted 4-15 min. Rapid activation of GABA(A)R thus excites GnRH neurons whereas prolonged activation reduces excitability, suggesting the physiological consequence of synaptic activation of GABA(A)R in GnRH neurons is excitation.

  18. Specific reactions of different striatal neuron types in morphology induced by quinolinic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qiqi; Ma, Yuxin; Mu, Shuhua; Wu, Jiajia; Chen, Si; Ouyang, Lisi; Lei, Wanlong

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurological degenerative disease and quinolinic acid (QA) has been used to establish HD model in animals through the mechanism of excitotoxicity. Yet the specific pathological changes and the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. We aimed to reveal the specific morphological changes of different striatal neurons in the HD model. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to unilaterally intrastriatal injections of QA to mimic the HD model. Behavioral tests, histochemical and immunhistochemical stainings as well as Western blots were applied in the present study. The results showed that QA-treated rats had obvious motor and cognitive impairments when compared with the control group. Immunohistochemical detection showed a great loss of NeuN+ neurons and Darpp32+ projection neurons in the transition zone in the QA group when compared with the control group. The numbers of parvalbumin (Parv)+ and neuropeptide Y (NPY)+ interneurons were both significantly reduced while those of calretinin (Cr)+ and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)+ were not changed notably in the transition zone in the QA group when compared to the controls. Parv+, NPY+ and ChAT+ interneurons were not significantly increased in fiber density while Cr+ neurons displayed an obvious increase in fiber density in the transition zone in QA-treated rats. The varicosity densities of Parv+, Cr+ and NPY+ interneurons were all raised in the transition zone after QA treatment. In conclusion, the present study revealed that QA induced obvious behavioral changes as well as a general loss of striatal projection neurons and specific morphological changes in different striatal interneurons, which may help further explain the underlying mechanisms and the specific functions of various striatal neurons in the pathological process of HD.

  19. [Studies on the effects of carbon:nitrogen ratio, inoculum type and yeast extract addition on jasmonic acid production by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. strain RC1].

    PubMed

    Eng Sánchez, Felipe; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Mariano; Favela-Torres, Ernesto

    2008-09-30

    Jasmonic acid is a native plant growth regulator produced by algae, microorganisms and higher plants. This regulator is involved in the activation of defence mechanisms against pathogens and wounding in plants. Studies concerning the effects of carbon: nitrogen ratio (C/Nr: 17, 35 and 70), type of inoculum (spores or mycelium) and the yeast extract addition in the media on jasmonic acid production by Botryodiplodia theobromae were evaluated. Jasmonic acid production was stimulated at the carbon: nitrogen ratio of 17. Jasmonic acid productivity was higher in the media inoculated with mycelium and in the media with yeast extract 1.7 and 1.3 times, respectively.

  20. Key Amino Acid Residues Involved in the Transitions of L- to R-Type Protofilaments of the Salmonella Flagellar Filament

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Fumio; Tomaru, Hidetoshi; Furukawa, Eiji; Ikeda, Kanae; Fukano, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    The flagellar filament enables bacteria to swim by functioning as a helical propeller. The filament is a supercoiled assembly of a single protein, flagellin, and is formed by 11 protofilaments arranged in a circle. Bacterial swimming and tumbling correlate with changes of the various helical structures, called polymorphic transformation, that are determined by the ratios of two distinct forms of protofilaments, the L and R types. The polymorphic transformation is caused by transition of the protofilament between L and R types. Elucidation of this transition mechanism has been addressed by comparing the atomic structures of L- and R-type straight filaments or using massive molecular dynamic simulation. Here, we found amino acid residues required for the transition of the protofilament using fliC-intragenic suppressor analysis. We isolated a number of revertants producing supercoiled filaments from mutants with straight filaments and identified the second-site mutations in all of the revertants. The results suggest that Asp107, Gly426, and Ser448 and Ser106, Ala416, Ala427, and Arg431 are the key residues involved in inducing supercoiled filaments from the R- and the L-type straight filaments, respectively. Considering the structures of the R- and L-type protofilaments and the relationship between the rotation of the flagellar motor and the polymorphic transformation, we propose that Gly426, Ala427, and Arg431 contribute to the first stage of the transition and that Ser106, Asp107, and Ala416 play a role in propagating the transitions along the flagellar filament. PMID:23729653

  1. Differences in the prospective association between individual plasma phospholipid saturated fatty acids and incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Forouhi, Nita G; Koulman, Albert; Sharp, Stephen J; Imamura, Fumiaki; Kröger, Janine; Schulze, Matthias B; Crowe, Francesca L; Huerta, José María; Guevara, Marcela; Beulens, Joline W J; van Woudenbergh, Geertruida J; Wang, Laura; Summerhill, Keith; Griffin, Julian L; Feskens, Edith J M; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Gonzalez, Carlos; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Mattiello, Amalia; Nilsson, Peter M; Overvad, Kim; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Quirós, J Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Roswall, Nina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez, María-José; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Tjonneland, Anne; Tormo, Maria-José; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Langenberg, Claudia; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2014-10-01

    Conflicting evidence exists regarding the association between saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and type 2 diabetes. In this longitudinal case-cohort study, we aimed to investigate the prospective associations between objectively measured individual plasma phospholipid SFAs and incident type 2 diabetes in EPIC-InterAct participants. The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study includes 12,403 people with incident type 2 diabetes and a representative subcohort of 16,154 individuals who were selected from a cohort of 340.234 European participants with 3·99 million person-years of follow-up (the EPIC study). Incident type 2 diabetes was ascertained until Dec 31, 2007, by a review of several sources of evidence. Gas chromatography was used to measure the distribution of fatty acids in plasma phospholipids (mol%); samples from people with type 2 diabetes and subcohort participants were processed in a random order by centre, and laboratory staff were masked to participant characteristics. We estimated country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for associations per SD of each SFA with incident type 2 diabetes using Prentice-weighted Cox regression, which is weighted for case-cohort sampling, and pooled our findings using random-effects meta-analysis. SFAs accounted for 46% of total plasma phospholipid fatty acids. In adjusted analyses, different individual SFAs were associated with incident type 2 diabetes in opposing directions. Even-chain SFAs that were measured (14:0 [myristic acid], 16:0 [palmitic acid], and 18:0 [stearic acid]) were positively associated with incident type 2 diabetes (HR [95% CI] per SD difference: myristic acid 1·15 [95% CI 1·09-1·22], palmitic acid 1·26 [1·15-1·37], and stearic acid 1·06 [1·00-1·13]). By contrast, measured odd-chain SFAs (15:0 [pentadecanoic acid] and 17:0 [heptadecanoic acid]) were inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes (HR [95% CI] per 1 SD difference: 0·79 [0·73-0·85] for pentadecanoic acid and 0·67 [0·63-0·71] for

  2. The highly conserved aspartic acid residue between hypervariable regions 1 and 2 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 is important for early stages of virus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W K; Essex, M; Lee, T H

    1995-01-01

    Between hypervariable regions V1 and V2 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 lies a cluster of relatively conserved residues. The contribution of nine charged residues in this region to virus infectivity was evaluated by single-amino-acid substitutions in an infectious provirus clone. Three of the HIV-1 mutants studied had slower growth kinetics than the wild-type virus. The delay was most pronounced in a mutant with an alanine substituted for an aspartic acid residue at position 180. This aspartic acid is conserved by all HIV-1 isolates with known nucleotide sequences. Substitutions with three other residues at this position, including a negatively charged glutamic acid, all affected virus infectivity. The defect identified in these mutants suggests that this aspartic acid residue is involved in the early stages of HIV-1 replication. PMID:7983752

  3. Removal of salicylic acid on perovskite-type oxide LaFeO3 catalyst in catalytic wet air oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Xu, Aihua; Du, Hongzhang; Sun, Chenglin; Li, Can

    2007-01-02

    It has been found that salicylic acid can be removal effectively at the lower temperature of 140 degrees C on perovskite-type oxide LaFeO3 catalyst in the catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) process. Under the same condition, the activities for the CWAO of phenol, benzoic acid and sulfonic salicylic acid have been also investigated. The results indicated that, with compared to the very poor activities for phenol and benzoic acid, the activities for salicylic acid and sulfonic salicylic acid were very high, which are attributed to their same intramolecular H-bonding structures. With the role of hard acidity of intramolecular H-bonding, salicylic acid and sulfonic salicylic acid can be adsorbed effectively on the basic center of LaFeO3 catalyst and are easy to take place the total oxidation reaction. However, at temperatures higher than 140 degrees C, the intramolecular H-bonding structure of salicylic acid was destroyed and the activities at 160 and 180 degrees C decreased greatly, which confirms further the key role of intramolecular H-bonding in the CWAO. Moreover, the LaFeO3 catalyst also indicated a superior stability of activity and structure in CWAO of salicylic acid.

  4. Chronic administration of palmitoleic acid reduces insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation in KK-Ay Mice with genetic type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of palmitoleic acid (C16:1 n-7) on reducing muscle insulin resistance and preventing beta-cell apoptosis. However, the effect of palmitoleic acid on diabetes remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine the antidiabetic effect of palmitoleic acid in KK-Ay mice, a spontaneous model for studies of obese type 2 diabetes with low insulin sensitivity. Methods KK-Ay mice were orally administered vehicle, 300 mg/kg of palmitoleic acid, or 300 mg/kg of palmitic acid (C16:0) on a daily basis for 4 weeks. Results Palmitoleic acid reduced body weight increase, ameliorated the development of hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia, and improved insulin sensitivity. In addition, hepatic characteristics were significantly affected, as weight of the liver and hepatic triglyceride levels were lower in the palmitoleic acid group when compared to the control (vehicle and palmitic acid groups). Oil red O staining clearly indicated reduced hepatic lipid accumulation in response to palmitoleic acid. Furthermore, palmitoleic acid down-regulated mRNA expressions of proinflammatory adipocytokine genes (TNFα and resistin) in white adipose tissue and lipogenic genes (SREBP-1, FAS, and SCD-1) in liver. Conclusions These results suggest that palmitoleic acid improves hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia by increasing insulin sensitivity, in part owing to suppressing proinflammatory gene expressions and improving hepatic lipid metabolism in diabetic mice. PMID:21774832

  5. A fluorescence study of type I and type II receptors of bone morphogenetic proteins with bis-ANS (4, 4'-dianilino-1, 1'-bisnaphthyl-5, 5' disulfonic acid).

    PubMed

    Yin, Huiran; Zhou, Qing; Panda, Markandeswar; Yeh, Lee-Chuan C; Zavala, Michelle C; Lee, John C

    2007-04-01

    Crystallography studies on several members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors suggested that hydrophobic regions in these proteins play an important role in their structure and function. In the present study, the environment sensitive fluorescent probe 4, 4'-dianilino-1, 1'-bisnaphthyl-5, 5' disulfonic acid (bis-ANS) was used to study the hydrophobic regions of the extracellular domain of the type I and II receptors for bone morphogenetic proteins (ecBMPR-IB and ecBMPR-II). A single bis-ANS binding site per receptor molecule was found for both receptors, but the two receptors interacted with bis-ANS with distinctive characteristics. A significant shift in the emission maximum from 498 to 510 nm was detected when bis-ANS binds ecBMPR-IB, but a negligible change in the emission maximum was observed when the dye binds ecBMPR-II. Under identical reaction conditions, the maximum fluorescence intensities of the probe (I(max)) for the ecBMPR-IB and -II are 4.0 and 6.2 x 10(4) arbitrary units, respectively. The probe binds to ecBMPR-IB and -II with K(d)=11.0 and 17.5 microM, respectively. The bis-ANS modified site on both receptor types was not readily accessible to acrylamide quenching. Fluorescence energy transfer experiments further revealed close proximity between the tyrosine (in ecBMPR-IB) and the tryptophan residue (in ecBMPR-II) and the respective bis-ANS binding site in these receptors. The binding of bis-ANS did not alter the ligand binding activity of ecBMPR-IB, but enhanced that of ecBMPR-II. These results show that the bis-ANS-modified hydrophobic site on the ecBMPR-IB and -II molecules plays a different functional role.

  6. Diverse amino acid residues function within the type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal. Implications for the role of accessory residues upstream of the type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal.

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, R T; Lee, M S; Flynn, C R; Trelease, R N

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the plant type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1) utilizes amino acid residues that do not strictly adhere to the serine-lysine-leucine (SKL) motif (small-basic-hydrophobic residues). Selected residues were appended to the C terminus of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and were tested for their ability to target CAT fusion proteins to glyoxysomes in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cv Bright Yellow 2 suspension-cultured cells. CAT was redirected from the cytosol into glyoxysomes by a wide range of residues, i.e. A/C/G/S/T-H/K/ L/N/R-I/L/M/Y. Although L and N at the -2 position (-SLL, -ANL) do not conform to the SKL motif, both functioned, but in a temporally less-efficient manner. Other SKL divergent residues, however, did not target CAT to glyoxysomes, i.e. F or P at the -3 position (-FKL, -PKL), S or T at the -2 position (-SSI, STL), or D at the -1 position (-SKD). The targeting inefficiency of CAT-ANL could be ameliorated when K was included at the -4 position (-KANL). In summary, the plant PTS1 mostly conforms to the SKL motif. For those PTS1s that possess nonconforming residue(s), other residues upstream of the PTS1 appear to function as accessory sequences that enhance the temporal efficiency of peroxisomal targeting. PMID:9390426

  7. Rapid identification of amino acid types in proteins using phase modulated 2D HN(CACB) and 2D HN(COCACB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Abhinav; Mondal, Somnath; Chandra, Kousik; Atreya, Hanudatta S.

    2016-06-01

    We present a simple approach to rapidly identify amino acid types in proteins from a 2D spectrum. The method is based on the fact that 13Cβ chemical shifts of different amino acid types fall in distinct spectral regions. By evolving the 13C chemical shifts in the conventional HNCACB or HN(CO)CACB type experiment for a single specified delay period, the phase of the cross peaks of different amino acid residues are modulated depending on their 13Cβ shift values. Following this specified evolution period, the 2D HN projections of these experiments are acquired. The 13C evolution period can be chosen such that all residues belonging to a given set of amino acid types have the same phase pattern (positive or negative) facilitating their identification. This approach does not require the preparation of any additional samples, involves the analysis of 2D [15N-1H] HSQC-type spectra obtained from the routinely used triple resonance experiments with minor modifications, and is applicable to deuterated proteins. The method will be useful for quick assignment of signals that shift during ligand binding or in combination with selective labeling/unlabeling approaches for identification of amino acid types to aid the sequential assignment process.

  8. Influence of H 2SO 4 concentration on lead-acid battery performance . H-type and P-type batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, D.; Naidenov, V.; Ruevski, S.

    With commercialization of the VRLA battery design the H 2SO 4 concentration of the electrolyte filled in the battery has increased to over 1.30 g cm -3. On the other hand, it has been established that the electrochemical activity of PbO 2 depends on the concentration of H 2SO 4, the highest activity being achieved in solutions with concentrations from 1.10 to 1.28 s.g. H 2SO 4. At CH2SO4 > 1.29 g c m-3 , the PbO 2/PbSO 4 electrode gets partially passivated. The present investigation determines the initial capacity performance and the changes in battery capacity on cycling of 12 V/32 A h batteries with six different electrolyte concentrations between 1.15 and 1.33 s.g. H 2SO 4. The batteries are cycled with two discharge currents, 3.2 and 8 A. The utilization of PAM is 50% against 37% NAM utilization. The utilization of H 2SO 4 (ηH2SO4) varies between 38 and 88%, depending on the concentration of H 2SO 4 in the electrolyte (CH2SO4). At CH2SO4 = 1.24 g c m-3 , ηH2SO4 ≈ ηPAM . At CH2SO4 < 1.24 s .g . , the H 2SO 4 concentration limits the capacity of the battery (H-region of H 2SO 4 concentrations), whereas at CH2SO4 > 1.24 s .g . , the capacity of the battery is limited by PAM (P-region). It has been established that in the P-region of H 2SO 4 concentrations, the initial capacity of the battery is higher than the rated value (C 0), but the life of the battery is short (maximum 100 cycles). In the H-region of H 2SO 4 concentrations, the initial capacity is lower than C 0, but the cycle life is considerably longer than 100 cycles and depends on the discharge current and the H 2SO 4 concentration. The voltage of charged cells on open circuit declines with decrease in H 2SO 4 concentration, which allows charging of batteries at lower voltages, as is the case with IT batteries, and reversible sulfation of the plates is avoided as well. The obtained results of the present investigation suggest that lead-acid batteries can be divided in two types depending on the

  9. Amino acid substitutions in the thymidine kinase gene of induced acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussin, Ainulkhir; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    Acyclovir (ACV) is an antiviral drug of choice in healthcare setting to treat infections caused by herpes viruses, including, but not limited to genital herpes, cold sores, shingles and chicken pox. Acyclovir resistance has emerged significantly due to extensive use and misuse of this antiviral in human, especially in immunocompromised patients. However, it remains unclear about the amino acid substitutions in thymidine (TK) gene, which specifically confer the resistance-associated mutation in herpes simplex virus. Hence, acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 was selected at high concentration (2.0 - 4.5 μg/mL), and the TK-gene was subjected to sequencing and genotypic characterization. Genotypic sequences comparison was done using HSV-1 17 (GenBank Accesion no. X14112) for resistance-associated mutation determination whereas HSV-1 KOS, HSV-1 473/08 and HSV clinical isolates sequences were used for polymorphism-associated mutation. The result showed that amino acid substitutions at the non-conserved region (UKM-1: Gln34Lys, UKM-2: Arg32Ser & UKM-5: Arg32Cys) and ATP-binding site (UKM-3: Tyr53End & UKM-4: Ile54Leu) of the TK-gene. These discoveries play an important role to extend another dimension to the evolution of acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 and suggest that selection at high ACV concentration induced ACV-resistant HSV-1 evolution. These findings also expand the knowledge on the type of mutations among acyclovir-resistant HSV-1. In conclusion, HSV-1 showed multiple strategies to exhibit acyclovir resistance, including amino acid substitutions in the TK gene.

  10. Constitutive ω-3 fatty acid production in fat-1 transgenic mice and docosahexaenoic acid administration to wild type mice protect against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Yum, Hye-Won; Kang, Jing X; Hahm, Ki Baik; Surh, Young-Joon

    2017-06-10

    Omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are known to have strong anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of ω-3 PUFAs on experimentally induced murine colitis. Intrarectal administration of 2.5% 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) caused inflammation in the colon of wild type mice, but this was less severe in fat-1 transgenic mice that constitutively produce ω-3 PUFAs from ω-6 PUFAs. The intraperitoneal administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a representative ω-3 PUFA, was also protective against TNBS-induced murine colitis. In addition, endogenously formed and exogenously introduced ω-3 PUFAs attenuated the production of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal in the colon of TNBS-treated mice. The effective protection against inflammatory and oxidative colonic tissue damages in fat-1 and DHA-treated mice was associated with suppression of NF-κB activation and cyclooxygenase-2 expression and with elevated activation of Nrf2 and upregulation of its target gene, heme oxygenase-1. Taken together, these results provide mechanistic basis of protective action of ω-3 fatty PUFAs against experimental colitis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Formulation of oil-in-water β-carotene microemulsions: effect of oil type and fatty acid chain length.

    PubMed

    Roohinejad, Shahin; Oey, Indrawati; Wen, Jingyuan; Lee, Sung Je; Everett, David W; Burritt, David J

    2015-05-01

    The impact of oil type and fatty acid chain length on the development of food-grade microemulsions for the entrapment of β-carotene was investigated. The microemulsion region of a ternary phase diagram containing short chain monoglycerides was larger than for di- and triglycerides when Tween 80 was used as surfactant. The cytotoxicity of microemulsions composed of a 30% monoglyceride oil, 20% Tween 80 and 50% aqueous buffer were evaluated using an in vitro cell culture model (human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma, Caco-2). The cytotoxicity test showed that the viability of Caco-2 cells against β-carotene microemulsions at concentrations of 0.03125% (v/v) was higher than 90%. This study suggests that short chain monoglycerides could be used with Tween 80 to prepare transparent β-carotene-encapsulated O/W microemulsions in the particle size range of 12-100 nm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation and characterisation of Chlorogenic acid-gelatin: A type of biologically active film for coating preservation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shalu; Wu, Chunhua; Wu, Tiantian; Yu, Haixia; Yang, Shuibing; Hu, Yaqin

    2017-04-15

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a type of plant polyphenol, was conjugated onto gelatin (Gel) to prepare a novel coating material for the preservation of fresh seafood. The optimal reaction molar ratio of CGA to gelatin (4:1) was determined according to the CGA content in the CGA-Gel conjugate. CGA was confirmed to be successfully conjugated onto gelatin by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. The antioxidant activity of CGA-Gel was proven to be higher than that of the free CGA in 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ion reducing power and lipid oxidation assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of CGA against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were 1, 1, 2 and 2mg/mL, respectively. The antibacterial activity of CGA-Gel was unaffected by conjugation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of a histamine type 2 receptor antagonist, BMY-26539-01, on equine gastric acid secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, J A; Spencer, P A

    2001-01-01

    A dose-response study was undertaken of the effects of a newly developed histamine type 2 receptor antagonist, BMY-26539-01, on gastric acid secretion in 4 fasted horses. Doses of 0.1 mg/kg, 0.3 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg, or placebo were administered in a randomly assigned treatment sequence. Hydrogen ion concentration and pH were variable during baseline measurements in all 4 animals; however, following BMY-26539-01 administration, mean pH increased and hydrogen ion concentration decreased in a dose-related pattern. At the 0.3 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg dose levels, pH remained elevated for > 4 h and > 8 h, respectively. No adverse effects were observed. A significant level of 0.01 was used for all statistical methods. PMID:11227196

  14. Biochemical characterization of enoyl reductase involved in Type II fatty acid synthesis in the intestinal coccidium Eimeria tenella (Phylum Apicomplexa).

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaomin; Lorraine Fuller, A; McDougald, Larry R; Tan, Xiangshi; Cai, Jianping; Wang, Feng; Sacchettini, James C; Zhu, Guan

    2007-07-01

    An enoyl reductase (EtENR) closely related to those of green algae and involved in Type II fatty acid synthesis was characterized and localized to the apicoplast in the coccidium Eimeria tenella. Biochemical analysis using native EtENR protein extracted from parasites confirmed its function as an enoyl reductase using NADH as a cofactor. However, the recombinant form (rEtENR) expressed in bacteria was only able to oxidize NADH, but unable to transfer the electron to enoyl-CoA, possibly due to the inappropriate folding of rEtENR expressed in bacteria. The functions of both native and recombinant EtENR could be inhibited by triclosan (IC(50)=1.45 microM), suggesting that this enzyme may be explored as a drug target against coccidiosis.

  15. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of a complete bacterial fatty-acid synthase type I

    PubMed Central

    Enderle, Mathias; McCarthy, Andrew; Paithankar, Karthik Shivaji; Grininger, Martin

    2015-01-01

    While a deep understanding of the fungal and mammalian multi-enzyme type I fatty-acid synthases (FAS I) has been achieved in recent years, the bacterial FAS I family, which is narrowly distributed within the Actinomycetales genera Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium and Nocardia, is still poorly understood. This is of particular relevance for two reasons: (i) although homologous to fungal FAS I, cryo-electron microscopic studies have shown that bacterial FAS I has unique structural and functional properties, and (ii) M. tuberculosis FAS I is a drug target for the therapeutic treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and therefore is of extraordinary importance as a drug target. Crystals of FAS I from C. efficiens, a homologue of M. tuberculosis FAS I, were produced and diffracted X-rays to about 4.5 Å resolution. PMID:26527268

  16. Leaky splicing mutation in the acid maltase gene is associated with delayed onset of glycogenosis type II

    SciTech Connect

    Boerkoel, C.F.; Exelbert, R.; Nicastri, C.; Nichols, R.C.; Plotz, P.H.; Raben, N.; Miller, F.W.

    1995-04-01

    An autosomal recessive deficiency of acid {alpha}-glucosidase (GAA), type II glycogenosis, is genetically and clinically heterogeneous. The discovery of an enzyme-inactivating genomic deletion of exon 18 in three unrelated genetic compound patients - two infants and and adult - provided a rare opportunity to analyze the effect of the second mutation in patients who displayed dramatically different phenotypes. A deletion of Lys-903 in one patient and a substitution of Arg for Leu-299 in another resulted in the fatal infantile form. In the adult, a T-to-G base change at position-13 of intron 1 resulted in alternatively spliced transcripts with deletion of exon 2, the location of the start codon. The low level of active enzyme (12% of normal) generated from the leakage of normally spliced mRNA sustained the patient to adult life. 61 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Genome wide association study of uric acid in Indian population and interaction of identified variants with Type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Anil K; Banerjee, Priyanka; Chakraborty, Shraddha; Kauser, Yasmeen; Undru, Aditya; Roy, Suki; Parekatt, Vaisak; Ghosh, Saurabh; Tandon, Nikhil; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal level of Serum Uric Acid (SUA) is an important marker and risk factor for complex diseases including Type 2 Diabetes. Since genetic determinant of uric acid in Indians is totally unexplored, we tried to identify common variants associated with SUA in Indians using Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS). Association of five known variants in SLC2A9 and SLC22A11 genes with SUA level in 4,834 normoglycemics (1,109 in discovery and 3,725 in validation phase) was revealed with different effect size in Indians compared to other major ethnic population of the world. Combined analysis of 1,077 T2DM subjects (772 in discovery and 305 in validation phase) and normoglycemics revealed additional GWAS signal in ABCG2 gene. Differences in effect sizes of ABCG2 and SLC2A9 gene variants were observed between normoglycemics and T2DM patients. We identified two novel variants near long non-coding RNA genes AL356739.1 and AC064865.1 with nearly genome wide significance level. Meta-analysis and in silico replication in 11,745 individuals from AUSTWIN consortium improved association for rs12206002 in AL356739.1 gene to sub-genome wide association level. Our results extends association of SLC2A9, SLC22A11 and ABCG2 genes with SUA level in Indians and enrich the assemblages of evidence for SUA level and T2DM interrelationship. PMID:26902266

  18. Type 2 lysophosphatidic acid receptor in gastric surface mucous cells: Possible implication of prostaglandin E2 production.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tamotsu; Ohmoto, Mayumi; Morito, Katsuya; Kondo, Hiroki; Urikura, Mai; Satouchi, Kiyoshi; Tokumura, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator that induces various cell responses via its specific receptors. Recently, we found that orally administered LPA and phosphatidic acid (PA) ameliorate stress- or aspirin-induced stomach injury. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects have not been elucidated yet. In this study, we examined effect of LPA on prostaglandin (PG) E2 production in MKN74 cells, a gastric cell-line expressing type 2 LPA receptor (LPA2). When the cells were treated with LPA, the level of mRNA of COX-2 but not COX-1 was upregulated. The LPA effect was abolished when the cells were pretreated with pertussis toxin (PTX), suggesting the involvement of receptor(s) coupled with Gi. Pretreatment of MKN74 cells with LPA enhanced the PGE2 production triggered by calcium ionophore A23187. Again, PTX abolished the LPA effect. Fluorescent immunohistochemistry using an antibody against LPA2 showed that surface mucous cells (pit cells) in gastric mucosa of mice express LPA2 on the apical side of the plasma membrane. These results suggest that LPA in the diet or its digestion may contribute to the epithelial integrity of stomach mucosa by enhancement of PGE2 production via activation of LPA2. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Dilated cardiomyopathy due to type II X-linked 3-methylglutaconic aciduria: successful treatment with pantothenic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Ostman-Smith, I; Brown, G; Johnson, A; Land, J M

    1994-01-01

    A case of dilated cardiomyopathy in a young boy secondary to type II 3-methylglutaconic aciduria is described. A metabolic cause for his dilated cardiomyopathy was suspected because of the development on the electrocardiogram of an unusual "camel's hump" shape of the T waves, and of progressive thickening with increasing echogenicity of the left ventricular wall. He initially improved on digoxin treatment, but did not maintain the response with conventional dietary treatment for this condition. Supplementation with L-carnitine was associated with rapid deterioration in cardiac state, and may be contraindicated in this condition. At a point when the patient was moribund, large doses of pantothenic acid, a precursor of coenzyme A, produced a dramatic and sustained improvement in myocardial function and in growth, neutrophil cell count, hypocholesterolaemia, and hyperuricaemia, which suggests that limitation of availability of coenzyme A is a fundamental pathological process in this condition. The clinical improvement has been maintained for 13 months, and myocardial function is now nearly normal. Oral pantothenol, unlike pantothenic acid, is not efficacious. PMID:7833193

  20. Lipid nanocapsule functionalization by lipopeptides derived from human papillomavirus type-16 capsid for nucleic acid delivery into cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Weyland, M; Griveau, A; Bejaud, J; Benoit, J-P; Coursaget, P; Garcion, E

    2013-10-01

    Plasmid DNA (pDNA) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are very useful tools for the treatment of cancer. However, pDNA and siRNAs efficacy is restricted by their negative charge and susceptibility to degradation by endonucleases that prevent them penetrating tissue and cellular barriers such as the plasma and endolysosomal membranes. Viral vectors have some advantages but their use is largely limited by their immunogenicity. On the other hand, synthetic nanoparticles have advantage of being relatively non-immunogenic but their ability to deliver nucleic acids remains less efficient than their viral counterparts. The present study is focussed on the development and evaluation of biomimetic lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) functionalized with a L1 papillomavirus type-16 capsid-derived lipopeptide on their surface, for transfection of U87MG glioma cells and Caco-2 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells with pDNA or siRNAs. Since the L1-peptide has been described as a nuclear localization signal able to complex with nucleic acids and bind to heparan sulfate on the cell surface, the structure and function of L1-peptide bound to LNCs (L1-LNCs) were investigated. Although L1-LNCs were shown to complex with both pDNA and siRNAs, the pDNA-L1-LNC complexes showed only weak transfection efficiency. In contrast, siRNA-L1-LNC complexes appeared as effective repressors of targeted messengers.

  1. Electrocatalytic performance of carbon supported Pd catalyst modified with Keggin type of Sn-substituted polyoxometalatate for formic acid oxidization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yun; Shen, Liping; Wang, Anxing; Wu, Min; Tang, Yawen; Chen, Yu; Lu, Tianhong

    2014-08-01

    The carbon supported Pd(Pd/C) catalyst modified by the new polyoxometalate with Keggin type of Sn-Substituted structure K7CoIIW11O39SnIVOH (Pd/C-K7) catalyst is prepared with the simple impregnation-reduction method. This work investigates the effects of Pd/C-K7 catalyst for direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs). The morphology, structure, size and composition of the Pd/C-K7 catalyst are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD). Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and CO-stripping voltammetry tests demonstrate the Pd/C-K7 catalyst have higher electrocatalytic activity, better electrochemical stability, and higher resistance to CO poisoning over the unmodified Pd/C catalyst for the formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR) owing to K7CoIIW11O39SnIVOH with Keggin structure. Therefore, the Pd/C-K7 catalyst could be used as the excellent anodic catalyst in DFAFCs.

  2. The allelopathic effects of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of Lactuca sativa enhanced by different types of acid deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congyan; Xiao, Hongguang; Zhao, Lulu; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fei; Shi, Yanchun; Du, Daolin

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species can exhibit allelopathic effects on native species. Meanwhile, the types of acid deposition are gradually changing. Thus, the allelopathic effects of invasive species on seed germination and growth of native species may be altered or even enhanced under conditions with diversified acid deposition. This study aims to assess the allelopathic effects (using leaves extracts) of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of native species Lactuca sativa treated with five types of acid deposition with different SO4(2-) to NO3(-) ratios (1:0, sulfuric acid; 5:1, sulfuric-rich acid; 1:1, mixed acid; 1:5, nitric-rich acid; 0:1, nitric acid). Solidago canadensis leaf extracts exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. High concentration of S. canadensis leaf extracts also similarly exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on root length of L. sativa. This may be due to that S. canadensis could release allelochemicals and then trigger allelopathic effects on seed germination and growth of L. sativa. Acid deposition exhibited significantly negative effects on seedling biomass, root length, seedling height, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be ascribed to the decreased soil pH values mediated by acid deposition which could produce toxic effects on seedling growth. Sulfuric acid deposition triggered more toxic effects on seedling biomass and vigor index of L. sativa than nitric acid deposition. This may be attributing to the difference in exchange capacity with hydroxyl groups (OH(-)) between SO4(2-) and NO3(-) as well as the fertilizing effects mediated by nitric deposition. All types of acid deposition significantly enhanced the allelopathic effects of S. canadensis on root length, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be due to the negatively synergistic effects of

  3. Effects of syringe type and storage conditions on results of equine blood gas and acid-base analysis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Sarah A; Constable, Peter D; Sen, Ismail; Couëtil, Laurent

    2012-07-01

    To determine effects of syringe type and storage conditions on blood gas and acid-base values for equine blood samples. Blood samples obtained from 8 healthy horses. Heparinized jugular venous blood was equilibrated via a tonometer at 37°C with 12% O(2) and 5% CO(2). Aliquots (3 mL) of tonometer-equilibrated blood were collected in random order by use of a glass syringe (GS), general-purpose polypropylene syringe (GPPS), or polypropylene syringe designed for blood gas analysis (PSBGA) and stored in ice water (0°C) or at room temperature (22°C) for 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, or 120 minutes. Blood pH was measured, and blood gas analysis was performed; data were analyzed by use of multivariable regression analysis. Blood Po(2) remained constant for the reference method (GS stored at 0°C) but decreased linearly at a rate of 7.3 mm Hg/h when stored in a GS at 22°C. In contrast, Po(2) increased when blood was stored at 0°C in a GPPS and PSBGA or at 22°C in a GPPS; however, Po(2) did not change when blood was stored at 22°C in a PSBGA. Calculated values for plasma concentration of HCO(3) and total CO(2) concentration remained constant in the 3 syringe types when blood was stored at 22°C for 2 hours but increased when blood was stored in a GS or GPPS at 0°C. Blood samples for blood gas and acid-base analysis should be collected into a GS and stored at 0°C or collected into a PSBGA and stored at room temperature.

  4. A Comprehensive Study of Formic Acid Oxidation on Palladium Nanocrystals with Different Types of Facets and Twin Defects

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Sang; Herron, Jeffrey A.; Scaranto, Jessica; Huang, Hongwen; Wang, Yi; Xia, Xiaohu; Lv, Tian; Park, Jinho; Peng, Hsin-Chieh; Mavrikakis, Manos; Xia, Younan

    2015-07-13

    Palladium has been recognized as the best anodic, monometallic electrocatalyst for the formic acid oxidation (FAO) reaction in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Here we report a systematic study of FAO on a variety of Pd nanocrystals, including cubes, right bipyramids, octahedra, tetrahedra, decahedra, and icosahedra. These nanocrystals were synthesized with approximately the same size, but different types of facets and twin defects on their surfaces. Our measurements indicate that the Pd nanocrystals enclosed by {1 0 0} facets have higher specific activities than those enclosed by {1 1 1} facets, in agreement with prior observations for Pd single-crystal substrates. If comparing nanocrystals predominantly enclosed by a specific type of facet, {1 0 0} or {1 1 1}, those with twin defects displayed greatly enhanced FAO activities compared to their single-crystal counterparts. To rationalize these experimental results, we performed periodic, self-consistent DFT calculations on model single-crystal substrates of Pd, representing the active sites present in the nanocrystals used in the experiments. The calculation results suggest that the enhancement of FAO activity on defect regions, represented by Pd(2 1 1) sites, compared to the activity of both Pd(1 0 0) and Pd(1 1 1) surfaces, could be attributed to an increased flux through the HCOO-mediated pathway rather than the COOH-mediated pathway on Pd(2 1 1). Since COOH has been identified as a precursor to CO, a site-poisoning species, a lower coverage of CO at the defect regions will lead to a higher activity for the corresponding nanocrystal catalysts, containing those defect regions.

  5. Genomic and Metabolic Disposition of Non-Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rats to Increased Myocardial Fatty Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Devanathan, Sriram; Nemanich, Samuel T.; Kovacs, Attila; Fettig, Nicole; Gropler, Robert J.; Shoghi, Kooresh I.

    2013-01-01

    Lipotoxicity of the heart has been implicated as a leading cause of morbidity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). While numerous reports have demonstrated increased myocardial fatty acid (FA) utilization in obese T2DM animal models, this diabetic phenotype has yet to be demonstrated in non-obese animal models of T2DM. Therefore, the present study investigates functional, metabolic, and genomic differences in myocardial FA metabolism in non-obese type 2 diabetic rats. The study utilized Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats at the age of 24 weeks. Each rat was imaged with small animal positron emission tomography (PET) to estimate myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial FA metabolism. Echocardiograms (ECHOs) were performed to assess cardiac function. Levels of triglycerides (TG) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were measured in both plasma and cardiac tissues. Finally, expression profiles for 168 genes that have been implicated in diabetes and FA metabolism were measured using quantitative PCR (qPCR) arrays. GK rats exhibited increased NEFA and TG in both plasma and cardiac tissue. Quantitative PET imaging suggests that GK rats have increased FA metabolism. ECHO data indicates that GK rats have a significant increase in left ventricle mass index (LVMI) and decrease in peak early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E’) compared to Wistar rats, suggesting structural remodeling and impaired diastolic function. Of the 84 genes in each the diabetes and FA metabolism arrays, 17 genes in the diabetes array and 41 genes in the FA metabolism array were significantly up-regulated in GK rats. Our data suggest that GK rats’ exhibit increased genomic disposition to FA and TG metabolism independent of obesity. PMID:24205240

  6. Solution structure and backbone dynamics of human epidermal-type fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP).

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-González, Luis H; Ludwig, Christian; Hohoff, Carsten; Rademacher, Martin; Hanhoff, Thorsten; Rüterjans, Heinz; Spener, Friedrich; Lücke, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Human epidermal-type fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP) belongs to a family of intracellular 14-15 kDa lipid-binding proteins, whose functions have been associated with fatty acid signalling, cell growth, regulation and differentiation. As a contribution to understanding the structure-function relationship, we report in the present study features of its solution structure and backbone dynamics determined by NMR spectroscopy. Applying multi-dimensional high-resolution NMR techniques on unlabelled and 15N-enriched recombinant human E-FABP, the 1H and 15N resonance assignments were completed. On the basis of 2008 distance restraints, the three-dimensional solution structure of human E-FABP was subsequently obtained (backbone atom root-mean-square deviation of 0.92+/-0.11 A; where 1 A=0.1 nm), consisting mainly of 10 anti-parallel beta-strands that form a beta-barrel structure. 15N relaxation experiments (T1, T2 and heteronuclear nuclear Overhauser effects) at 500, 600 and 800 MHz provided information on the internal dynamics of the protein backbone. Nearly all non-terminal backbone amide groups showed order parameters S(2)>0.8, with an average value of 0.88+/-0.04, suggesting a uniformly low backbone mobility in the nanosecond-to-picosecond time range. Moreover, hydrogen/deuterium exchange experiments indicated a direct correlation between the stability of the hydrogen-bonding network in the beta-sheet structure and the conformational exchange in the millisecond-to-microsecond time range. The features of E-FABP backbone dynamics elaborated in the present study differ markedly from those of the phylogenetically closely related heart-type FABP and the more distantly related ileal lipid-binding protein, implying a strong interdependence with the overall protein stability and possibly also with the ligand-binding affinity for members of the lipid-binding protein family. PMID:12049637

  7. Effects of dietary supplementation of meat-type quail breeders with guanidinoacetic acid on their reproductive parameters and progeny performance.

    PubMed

    Murakami, A E; Rodrigueiro, R J B; Santos, T C; Ospina-Rojas, I C; Rademacher, M

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of dietary supplementation of meat-type quail breeders with guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on their reproductive parameters and progeny performance. Two hundred forty meat-type quails at 25 wk of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 8 replicates of 6 birds each. The treatments consisted of 5 dietary levels of GAA (0.00, 0.06, 0.12, 0.18, and 0.24%). The progenies from quail breeders were housed according to breeder treatments and fed a conventional diet based on corn and soybean meal without GAA supplementation. Dietary GAA levels did not affect (P > 0.05) the productivity of meat-type quail breeders, although the concentration of guanidinic compounds (creatine, GAA, and creatinine) in the eggs from the breeders increased linearly (P < 0.05) according to the increase in dietary GAA levels. The number of spermatozoa present in the vitelline membrane was not affected (P > 0.05) by the treatments, but there was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) of the levels of GAA on fertility, embryonic mortality, and egg hatchability, with the best results estimated at 0.13, 0.15, and 0.14% GAA, respectively. The creatine levels of the pectoral muscle in newborn quails showed a quadratic effect (P ≤ 0.07), and the dietary GAA level of 0.11% was estimated to maximize the muscular creatine level in the progeny. There was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) of GAA levels on weight gain and feed conversion of progeny at 35 d of age with an optimization point of 0.14% GAA for these variables. Dietary GAA supplementation of meat-type quail breeders increases the availability of creatine in eggs and muscle of progeny, which results in better reproductive parameters and better postnatal progeny performance. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Influence of telopeptides on the structural and physical properties of polymeric and monomeric acid-soluble type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Róisín; Kirk, Steve; Tronci, Giuseppe; Yang, Xuebin; Wood, David

    2017-08-01

    Currently two factors hinder the use of collagen as building block of regenerative devices: the limited mechanical strength in aqueous environment, and potential antigenicity. Polymeric collagen is naturally found in the cross-linked state and is mechanically tougher than the monomeric, acid-soluble collagen ex vivo. The antigenicity of collagen, on the other hand, is mainly ascribed to inter-species variations in amino acid sequences of the non-helical terminal telopeptides. These telopeptides can be removed through enzymatic treatment to produce atelocollagen, although the effect of this cleavage on triple helix organization, amino acidic composition and thermal properties is often disregarded. Here, we compare the structural, chemical and physical properties of polymeric and monomeric type I collagen with and without telopeptides, in an effort to elucidate the influence of either mature covalent crosslinks or telopeptides. Circular dichroism (CD) was used to examine the triple helical conformation and quantify the denaturation temperature (Td) of both monomeric collagen (36.5°C) and monomeric atelocollagen (35.5°C). CD measurements were combined with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in order to gain insight into the triple helix-to-coil thermal transition and shrinkage temperature (Ts) of polymeric atelo collagen (44.8°C), polymeric collagen (62.7°C), monomeric atelo collagen (51.4°C) and monomeric collagen (66.5°C). Structural and thermal analysis was combined with high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine the content of specific collagen amino acidic residues used as markers for the presence of telopeptides and mature crosslinks. Hydroxylamine was used as the marker for polymeric collagen, and had a total content of 9.66% for both polymeric and polymeric atelo collagen; tyrosine was used as the marker for telopeptide cleavage, was expressed as 0.526% of the content of polymeric collagen and the partially-reduced content of 0.39% for

  9. Effects of the N/L-type calcium channel blocker cilnidipine on nephropathy and uric acid metabolism in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease (J-CIRCLE study).

    PubMed

    Uchida, Shunya; Takahashi, Masato; Sugawara, Masahiro; Saito, Tomoaki; Nakai, Kazuhiko; Fujita, Masami; Mochizuki, Koichi; Shin, Isu; Morita, Takashi; Hikita, Tomoyuki; Itakura, Hironao; Takahashi, Yuko; Mizuno, Shigeki; Ohno, Yasumi; Ito, Kageki; Ito, Takafumi; Soma, Masayoshi

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) and uric acid metabolism in 70 hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease in whom urinary ACR had remained ≥30 mg/g under the treatment of the L-type calcium channel blocker amlodipine. Three months after switching to the N/L-type calcium channel blocker cilnidipine, blood pressure (BP) did not change; however, urinary ACR significantly decreased with cilnidipine. Serum uric acid levels showed no significant change. In cases where uric acid production had been high (urinary uric acid/creatinine ratio ≥0.5), the urinary uric acid/creatinine ratio decreased significantly after cilnidipine treatment, suggesting that cilnidipine can suppress excessive uric acid formation. These results suggest that switching from amlodipine to cilnidipine results in a significant reduction in urinary ACR as well as significant reduction in uric acid production. Thus, cilnidipine is more useful than amlodipine in improving albuminuria and uric acid metabolism in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease.

  10. Long-chain ethers as solvents can amplify the enantioselectivity of the Carica papaya lipase-catalyzed transesterification of 2-(substituted phenoxy)propanoic acid esters.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Toshifumi; Iguchi, Wakana

    2013-10-01

    The enantioselectivity of the transesterification of the 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl esters of 2-(substituted phenoxy)propanoic acids, as catalyzed by the lipase from Carica papaya, was greatly improved by using long-chain ethers, such as di-n-hexyl ether, as solvents instead of the conventional diisopropyl ether. Thus, for example, the E value was enhanced from 21 [in diisopropyl ether (0.8 ml)] to 57 [in di-n-hexyl ether (0.8 ml)] in the reaction of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl(RS)-2-phenoxypropanoate (0.1 mmol) with methanol (0.4 mmol) in the presence of the plant lipase preparation (10 mg); it was also improved from 13 (in diisopropyl ether) to 44 (in di-n-hexyl ether) in the reaction of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl(RS)-2-(2-chlorophenoxy)propanoate with methanol under the same reaction conditions.

  11. Plasma concentrations of trans fatty acids in persons with Type 2 diabetes between September 2002 and April 2004

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    TransFatty acids (TFAs) increase cardiovascular disease risk. TFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the food supply may be declining, with reciprocal increases in cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs). We sought to determine whether plasma 18-carbon TFA a...

  12. Postsynaptic clustering of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors by the γ3 subunit in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Kristin; Essrich, Christian; Benson, Jack A.; Benke, Dietmar; Bluethmann, Horst; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Lüscher, Bernhard

    1999-01-01

    Synaptic localization of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors is a prerequisite for synaptic inhibitory function, but the mechanism by which different receptor subtypes are localized to postsynaptic sites is poorly understood. The γ2 subunit and the postsynaptic clustering protein gephyrin are required for synaptic localization and function of major GABAA receptor subtypes. We now show that transgenic overexpression of the γ3 subunit in γ2 subunit-deficient mice restores benzodiazepine binding sites, benzodiazepine-modulated whole cell currents, and postsynaptic miniature currents, suggesting the formation of functional, postsynaptic receptors. Moreover, the γ3 subunit can substitute for γ2 in the formation of GABAA receptors that are synaptically clustered and colocalized with gephyrin in vivo. These clusters were formed even in brain regions devoid of endogenous γ3 subunit, indicating that the factors present for clustering of γ2 subunit-containing receptors are sufficient to cluster γ3 subunit-containing receptors. The GABAA receptor and gephyrin-clustering properties of the ectopic γ3 subunit were also observed for the endogenous γ3 subunit, but only in the absence of the γ2 subunit, suggesting that the γ3 subunit is at a competitive disadvantage with the γ2 subunit for clustering of postsynaptic GABAA receptors in wild-type mice. PMID:10536013

  13. Environmental DNA-encoded antibiotics fasamycins A and B inhibit FabF in type II fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhiyang; Chakraborty, Debjani; Dewell, Scott B; Reddy, Boojala Vijay B; Brady, Sean F

    2012-02-15

    In a recent study of polyketide biosynthetic gene clusters cloned directly from soil, we isolated two antibiotics, fasamycins A and B, which showed activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. To identify the target of the fasamycins, mutants with elevated fasamycin A minimum inhibitory concentrations were selected from a wild-type culture of E. faecalis OG1RF. Next-generation sequencing of these mutants, in conjunction with in vitro biochemical assays, showed that the fasamycins inhibit FabF of type II fatty acid biosynthesis (FASII). Candidate gene overexpression studies also showed that fasamycin resistance is conferred by fabF overexpression. On the basis of comparisons with known FASII inhibitors and in silico docking studies, the chloro-gem-dimethyl-anthracenone substructure seen in the fasamycins is predicted to represent a naturally occurring FabF-specific antibiotic pharmacophore. Optimization of this pharmacophore should yield FabF-specific antibiotics with increased potencies and differing spectra of activity. This study demonstrates that culture-independent antibiotic discovery methods have the potential to provide access to novel metabolites with modes of action that differ from those of antibiotics currently in clinical use.

  14. Valproic acid reduces insulin-resistance, fat deposition and FOXO1-mediated gluconeogenesis in type-2 diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sabbir; Kumar, Sandeep; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidences highlighted the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in insulin-resistance, gluconeogenesis and islet function. HDACs can modulate the expression of various genes, which directly or indirectly affect glucose metabolism. This study was aimed to evaluate the role of valproic acid (VPA) on fat deposition, insulin-resistance and gluconeogenesis in type-2 diabetic rat. Diabetes was developed in Sprague-Dawley rats by the combination of high-fat diet and low dose streptozotocin. VPA at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg/day and metformin (positive control) 150 mg/kg twice daily for 10 weeks were administered by oral gavage. Insulin-resistance, dyslipidemia and glycemia were evaluated by biochemical estimations, while fat accumulation and structural alteration were assessed by histopathology. Protein expression and insulin signaling were evaluated by western blot and immunohistochemistry. VPA treatment significantly reduced the plasma glucose, HbA1c, insulin-resistance, fat deposition in brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue and liver, which are comparable to metformin treatment. Further, VPA inhibited the gluconeogenesis and glucagon expression as well as restored the histopathological alterations in pancreas and liver. Our findings provide new insights on the anti-diabetic role of VPA in type-2 diabetes mellitus by the modulation of insulin signaling and forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1)-mediated gluconeogenesis. Since VPA is a well established clinical drug, the detailed molecular mechanisms of the present findings can be further investigated for possible clinical use.

  15. Melatonin enhances cold tolerance in drought-primed wild-type and abscisic acid-deficient mutant barley.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangnan; Tan, Dun-Xian; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai

    2016-10-01

    Melatonin is involved in multiple plant developmental processes and various stress responses. To explore the roles of melatonin played as well as its association with abscisic acid (ABA) in a process of drought priming-induced cold tolerance (DPICT), a wild-type barley and its ABA-deficient mutant Az34 counterpart were selected for comparison, in which the effects of melatonin application (either foliarly or rhizospherically) and/or drought priming on the cold tolerance of both types of barleys were systematically investigated. It was demonstrated that the early drought priming induced an increase of endogenous melatonin production, which is not ABA dependent. In addition, exogenously applied melatonin resulted in higher ABA concentration in the drought-primed plants than in the nonprimed plants when exposed to cold stress, indicating that ABA responded in a drought-dependent manner. The interplay of melatonin and ABA leads to plants maintaining better water status. Drought priming-induced melatonin accumulation enhanced the antioxidant capacity in both chloroplasts and mitochondria, which sustained the photosynthetic electron transport in photosynthetic apparatus of the plants under cold stress. These results suggest that the exogenous melatonin application enhances the DPICT by modulating subcellular antioxidant systems and ABA levels in barley.

  16. Enhanced Acid Tolerance in Bifidobacterium longum by Adaptive Evolution: Comparison of the Genes between the Acid-Resistant Variant and Wild-Type Strain.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yunyun; Ren, Fazheng; Liu, Songling; Zhao, Liang; Guo, Huiyuan; Hou, Caiyun

    2016-03-01

    Acid stress can affect the viability of probiotics, especially Bifidobacterium. This study aimed to improve the acid tolerance of Bifidobacterium longum BBMN68 using adaptive evolution. The stress response, and genomic differences of the parental strain and the variant strain were compared by acid stress. The highest acid-resistant mutant strain (BBMN68m) was isolated from more than 100 asexual lines, which were adaptive to the acid stress for 10(th), 20(th), 30(th), 40(th), and 50(th) repeats, respectively. The variant strain showed a significant increase in acid tolerance under conditions of pH 2.5 for 2 h (from 7.92 to 4.44 log CFU/ml) compared with the wildtype strain (WT, from 7.87 to 0 log CFU/ml). The surface of the variant strain was also smoother. Comparative whole-genome analysis showed that the galactosyl transferase D gene (cpsD, bbmn68_1012), a key gene involved in exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis, was altered by two nucleotides in the mutant, causing alteration in amino acids, pI (from 8.94 to 9.19), and predicted protein structure. Meanwhile, cpsD expression and EPS production were also reduced in the variant strain (p < 0.05) compared with WT, and the exogenous WT-EPS in the variant strain reduced its acid-resistant ability. These results suggested EPS was related to acid responses of BBMN68.

  17. Two phenotypically distinct T cells are involved in ultraviolet-irradiated urocanic acid-induced suppression of the efferent delayed-type hypersensitivity response to herpes simplex virus, type 1 in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, J.A.; Howie, S.E.; Norval, M.; Maingay, J.

    1987-09-01

    When UVB-irradiated urocanic acid, the putative photoreceptor/mediator for UVB suppression, is administered to mice it induces a dose-dependent suppression of the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1), of similar magnitude to that induced by UV irradiation of mice. In this study, the efferent suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity by UV-irradiated urocanic acid is demonstrated to be due to 2 phenotypically distinct T cells, (Thy1+, L3T4-, Ly2+) and (Thy1+, L3T4+, Ly2-). The suppression is specific for HSV-1. This situation parallels the generation of 2 distinct T-suppressor cells for HSV-1 by UV irradiation of mice and provides further evidence for the involvement of urocanic acid in the generation of UVB suppression.

  18. Nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells of patients with type I and II diabetes treated with folic acid.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Meda, B C; Zamora-Perez, A L; Muñoz-Magallanes, T; Sánchez-Parada, M G; García Bañuelos, J J; Guerrero-Velázquez, C; Sánchez-Orozco, L V; Vera-Cruz, J M; Armendáriz-Borunda, J; Zúñiga-González, G M

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by high blood glucose. Excessive production of free radicals may cause oxidative damage to DNA and other molecules, leading to complications of the disease. It may be possible to delay or reduce such damage by administration of antioxidants such as folic acid (FA). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of FA on nuclear abnormalities (NAs) in the oral mucosa of patients with DM. NAs (micronucleated cells, binucleated cells, pyknotic nuclei, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, abnormally condensed chromatin, and nuclear buds) were analyzed in 2000 cells from 45 healthy individuals (control group) and 55 patients with controlled or uncontrolled type I or II DM; 35 patients in the latter group were treated with FA. Samples were taken from the FA group before and after treatment. An increased rate of NAs was found in patients with DM in comparison with that of the control group (P<0.001). FA supplementation in patients with DM reduced the frequency of NAs (20.4 ± 8.0 before treatment vs. 10.5 ± 5.2 after treatment; P<0.001). The type I and type II DM and controlled and uncontrolled DM subgroups were analyzed in terms of sex, age, and smoking habit. The significantly reduced frequencies of buccal mucosa cells with micronuclei, binucleation, pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyorrhexis+abnormally condensed chromatin, karyolysis, and nuclear buds produced by FA supplementation in DM patients (P<0.02) are consistent with the idea that free radicals are responsible for the increased frequency of NAs in DM patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Inhibition of human and rat 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 by 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiangdong; Vicker, Nigel; Lawrence, Harshani; Smith, Andrew; Purohit, Atul; Reed, Michael J; Potter, Barry V L

    2007-05-01

    11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) plays an important role in regulating the cortisol availability to bind to corticosteroid receptors within specific tissue. Recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of metabolic syndrome indicate that elevation of cortisol levels within specific tissues through the action of 11beta-HSD1 could contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. Therefore, selective inhibitors of 11beta-HSD1 have been investigated as potential treatments for metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus type 2 or obesity. Here we report the discovery and synthesis of some 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (18beta-GA) derivatives (2-5) and their inhibitory activities against rat hepatic11beta-HSD1 and rat renal 11beta-HSD2. Once the selectivity over the rat type 2 enzyme was established, these compounds' ability to inhibit human 11beta-HSD1 was also evaluated using both radioimmunoassay (RIA) and homogeneous time resolved fluorescence (HTRF) methods. The 11-modified 18beta-GA derivatives 2 and 3 with apparent selectivity for rat 11beta-HSD1 showed a high percentage inhibition for human microsomal 11beta-HSD1 at 10 microM and exhibited IC50 values of 400 and 1100 nM, respectively. The side chain modified 18beta-GA derivatives 4 and 5, although showing selectivity for rat 11beta-HSD1 inhibited human microsomal 11beta-HSD1 with IC50 values in the low micromolar range.

  20. Hyperoxia Inhibits Nitric Oxide Treatment Effects in Alveolar Epithelial Cells via Effects on L-Type Amino Acid Transporter-1

    PubMed Central

    Brahmajothi, Mulugu V.; Tinch, Brian T.; Wempe, Michael F.; Endou, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The aims of this study were to determine hyperoxia effects on S-nitrosothiol (SNO) accumulation and L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) expression/function in alveolar epithelium and to determine whether hyperoxia impairs exogenous nitric oxide (NO) treatment effects in alveolar epithelium through effects on LAT1 expression and/or function. Results: SNO accumulation in vitro and in vivo after NO treatment was dependent on the LAT1 system transport. Hyperoxia (60% or 90%) impaired NO effects on SNO accumulation and soluble guanylyl cyclase activation in proportion to the magnitude of hyperoxia and the duration of exposure, up to 12 h, in type I-like (R3/1) and type II-like (L2) rat and human (A549) alveolar epithelial cells. LAT function, determined by sodium-independent 3H-leucine uptake, was impaired in a parallel manner. Hyperoxia impaired LAT1 expression in alveolar epithelial cells, determined by immunoblots and immunofluorescence, and in newborn rats exposed to 60% O2 for 4 days, determined by immunohistochemistry. Innovation: Despite significant preclinical evidence, inhaled NO has shown disappointing limitations in clinical applications. Our studies suggest an important explanation: oxidative stress, a common feature of diseases in which therapeutic NO would be considered, impairs LAT1 expression and function, blocking a major route for inhaled NO (iNO) action, that is, the uptake of S-nitrosocysteine via LAT1. Conclusions: SNO uptake after NO treatment is dependent on LAT1. Hyperoxia impairs SNO uptake and NO effects during NO exposure and impairs LAT system function and LAT1 expression. Effects on SNO formation and transport must be considered for rational optimization of NO-based therapeutics. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1823–1836. PMID:25089378

  1. Pulmonary alveolar epithelial uptake of S-nitrosothiols is regulated by L-type amino acid transporter

    PubMed Central

    Granillo, Olivia M.; Brahmajothi, Mulugu V.; Li, Sheng; Whorton, A. Richard; Mason, S. Nicholas; McMahon, Timothy J.; Auten, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) effects are often mediated via S-nitrosothiol (SNO) formation; SNO uptake has recently been shown to be mediated in some cell types via system L-type amino acid transporters (LAT-1, 2). Inhaled NO therapy may exert some biological effects via SNO formation. We therefore sought to determine if pulmonary epithelial SNO uptake depended on LAT or peptide transporter 2 (PEPT2). Both LAT-1 and PEPT2 proteins were detected by immunoblot and immunocytochemistry in L2 cells and rat lung. We tested SNO uptake through the transporters by exposing rat alveolar epithelial cells (L2 and type II) to RSNOs: S-nitrosoglutathione, S-nitrosocysteinylglycine (SNO-Cys-Gly), S-nitrosocysteine (CSNO), and to NO donor diethylamine NONOate (DEA-NONOate). SNO was detected in cell lysates by ozone chemiluminescence. NO uptake was detected by fluorescence in alveolar epithelial cells loaded with 4-amino-5-methylamino-2′,7′-difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM) diacetate cultured in submersion and exposed to RSNOs and DEA NONOate. Addition of l-Cys but not d-Cys to RSNOs or DEA NONOate increased SNO and DAF-FM signal that was inhibited by coincubation with LAT competitors. Incubation of cells with PEPT2 substrate SNO-Cys-Gly showed no increase in SNO or DAF-FM signal unless incubated with l-Cys. This was unaffected by PEPT2 inhibition. We conclude that RSNOs (thionitrites, S-nitrosothiols) and NO enter alveolar epithelial cells predominantly by S-nitrosation of l-Cys, which is then imported through LAT. PMID:18441097

  2. The biomarker-based validity of a brief-type diet history questionnaire for estimating eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intakes in pregnant Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Murayama, Ryoko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intakes is important for brain development in fetuses. Accurate assessment of EPA and DHA intakes is required in clinical settings to identify women with deficiency of these nutrients and provide an appropriate intervention for them. We examined the validity and reproducibility of a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) for evaluating EPA and DHA intakes of pregnant Japanese women, to establish an easily administered dietary assessment tool. A total of 105 women in the second trimester and 102 women in the third trimester were studied at a university hospital in Tokyo, between November 2010 and February 2012. The reference values for the validation study were plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA. For the reproducibility study, 54 women completed the BDHQ twice, within a 4-week period in the second trimester. Energy-adjusted intakes of EPA, DHA, and EPA+DHA were significantly associated with the corresponding plasma concentrations (rs=0.354, rs=0.305, and rs=0.327 in the second trimester; rs=0.391, rs=0.316, and rs=0.358 in the third trimester, respectively). Intraclass correlation coefficients for the two-time BDHQ were 0.543 (EPA), 0.611 (DHA), and 0.581 (EPA+DHA). In the Bland-Altman plots, the intakes of EPA, DHA, and EPA+DHA in the two-time BDHQ showed that the values for most participants were in the accepted range of agreement. BDHQ has an acceptable validity level for assessing EPA and DHA intakes among Japanese women in the second and third trimesters.

  3. T-type amino acid transporter TAT1 (Slc16a10) is essential for extracellular aromatic amino acid homeostasis control