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Sample records for chloroplastid pigment contents

  1. Changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of pink chicken eggshells with different pigment intensity during incubation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yue; Li, Zhanming

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of chicken eggshells with different intensities of pink pigment during the incubation period. We also investigated the effects of the region (small pole, equator and large pole) and pink pigment intensity of the chicken eggshell on the percent transmission of light passing through the chicken eggshells. Method. Eggs of comparable weight from a meat-type breeder (Meihuang) were used, and divided based on three levels of pink pigment (light, medium and dark) in the eggshells. During the incubation (0–21 d), the values of the eggshell pigment (ΔE, L∗, a∗, b∗) were measured. The percent transmission of light for different regions and intensities of eggshell pigmentation was measured by using the visible wavelength range of 380–780 nm. Result. Three measured indicators of eggshell color, ΔE, L∗ and a∗, did not change significantly during incubation. Compared with other regions and pigment intensities, eggshell at the small pole and with light pigmentation intensity showed the highest percent transmission of light. The transmission value varied significantly (P < 0.001) with incubation time. The element analysis of eggshells with different levels of pink pigment showed that the potassium content of the eggshells for all pigment levels decreased significantly during incubation. Conclusion. In summary, pigment intensity and the region of the eggshell influenced the percent transmission of light of eggshell. Differences in the spectral characteristics of different eggshells may influence the effects of photostimulation during the incubation of eggs. All of these results will be applicable for perfecting the design of light intensity for lighted incubation to improve productivity. PMID:27019785

  2. Changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of pink chicken eggshells with different pigment intensity during incubation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Li, Zhanming; Pan, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of chicken eggshells with different intensities of pink pigment during the incubation period. We also investigated the effects of the region (small pole, equator and large pole) and pink pigment intensity of the chicken eggshell on the percent transmission of light passing through the chicken eggshells. Method. Eggs of comparable weight from a meat-type breeder (Meihuang) were used, and divided based on three levels of pink pigment (light, medium and dark) in the eggshells. During the incubation (0-21 d), the values of the eggshell pigment (ΔE, L (∗), a (∗), b (∗)) were measured. The percent transmission of light for different regions and intensities of eggshell pigmentation was measured by using the visible wavelength range of 380-780 nm. Result. Three measured indicators of eggshell color, ΔE, L (∗) and a (∗), did not change significantly during incubation. Compared with other regions and pigment intensities, eggshell at the small pole and with light pigmentation intensity showed the highest percent transmission of light. The transmission value varied significantly (P < 0.001) with incubation time. The element analysis of eggshells with different levels of pink pigment showed that the potassium content of the eggshells for all pigment levels decreased significantly during incubation. Conclusion. In summary, pigment intensity and the region of the eggshell influenced the percent transmission of light of eggshell. Differences in the spectral characteristics of different eggshells may influence the effects of photostimulation during the incubation of eggs. All of these results will be applicable for perfecting the design of light intensity for lighted incubation to improve productivity.

  3. The influence of moisture content variation on fungal pigment formation in spalted wood.

    PubMed

    Tudor, Daniela; Robinson, Sara C; Cooper, Paul A

    2012-12-17

    Eight fungal species known to produce wood pigmentation were tested for reaction to various moisture contents in two hardwood species. Fungal pigmentation by Trametes versicolor and Xylaria polymorpha was stimulated at low water concentrations in both Acer saccharum (sugar maple) and Fagus grandifolia (American beech), while Inonotus hispidus and Polyporus squamosus were stimulated above 22-28% and 34-38% moisture content in beech and in sugar maple respectively. Fomes fomentarius and Polyporus brumalis produced maximum pigmentation in beech at 26 - 41% and in sugar maple at 59 - 96% moisture content. The pink staining Scytalidium cuboideum pigmented both wood species at above 35% moisture content. This research indicates that controlling the moisture content values of wood substrates can stimulate the intensity of pigmentation of specific fungi when spalting wood for decorative and commercial purpose.

  4. The influence of moisture content variation on fungal pigment formation in spalted wood

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Eight fungal species known to produce wood pigmentation were tested for reaction to various moisture contents in two hardwood species. Fungal pigmentation by Trametes versicolor and Xylaria polymorpha was stimulated at low water concentrations in both Acer saccharum (sugar maple) and Fagus grandifolia (American beech), while Inonotus hispidus and Polyporus squamosus were stimulated above 22-28% and 34-38% moisture content in beech and in sugar maple respectively. Fomes fomentarius and Polyporus brumalis produced maximum pigmentation in beech at 26 - 41% and in sugar maple at 59 - 96% moisture content. The pink staining Scytalidium cuboideum pigmented both wood species at above 35% moisture content. This research indicates that controlling the moisture content values of wood substrates can stimulate the intensity of pigmentation of specific fungi when spalting wood for decorative and commercial purpose. PMID:23245292

  5. Comparison of pigment content of paint samples using spectrometric methods.

    PubMed

    Trzcińska, Beata; Kowalski, Rafał; Zięba-Palus, Janina

    2014-09-15

    The aim of the paper was to evaluate the influence of pigment concentration and its distribution in polymer binder on the possibility of colour identification and paint sample comparison. Two sets of paint samples: one containing red and another one green pigment were prepared. Each set consisted of 13 samples differing gradually in the concentration of pigment. To obtain the sets of various colour shades white paint was mixed with the appropriate pigment in the form of a concentrated suspension. After solvents evaporation the samples were examined using spectrometric methods. The resin and main filler were identified by IR method. Colour and white pigments were identified on the base of Raman spectra. Colour of samples were compared based on Vis spectrometry according to colour theory. It was found that samples are homogenous (parameter measuring colour similarity ΔE<3). The values of ΔE between the neighbouring samples in the set revealed decreasing linear function and between the first and following one--a logarithmic function.

  6. The effect of thermal treatment on antioxidant capacity and pigment contents in separated betalain fractions.

    PubMed

    Mikołajczyk-Bator, Katarzyna; Pawlak, Sylwia

    2016-01-01

    Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables significantly reduces the risk of cardio-vascular disease. This beneficial effect on the human organism is ascribed to the antioxidant compounds these foods contain. Unfortunately, many products, particularly vegetables, need to be subjected to thermal processing before consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of such thermal treatment on the antioxidant capacity and pigment contents in separated fractions of violet pigments (betacyanins) and yellow pigments (betaxanthins and betacyanins). Fractions of violet and yellow pigments were obtained by separation of betalain pigments from fresh roots of 3 red beet cultivars using column chromatography and solid phase extraction (SPE). The betalain pigment content was determined in all samples before and after thermal treatment (90°C/30 min) by spectrophotometry, according to Nilsson's method [1970] and antioxidant capacity was assessed based on ABTS. Betalain pigments in the separated fractions were identified using HPLC-MS. After thermal treatment of betacyanin fractions a slight, but statistically significant degradation of pigments was observed, while the antioxidant capacity of these fractions did not change markedly. Losses of betacyanin content amounted to 13-15% depending on the cultivar, while losses of antioxidant capacity were approx. 7%. HPLC/MS analyses showed that before heating, betanin was the dominant pigment in the betacyanin fraction, while after heating it was additionally 15-decarboxy-betanin. Isolated fractions of yellow pigments in red beets are three times less heat-resistant than betacyanin fractions. At losses of yellow pigment contents in the course of thermal treatment reaching 47%, antioxidant capacity did not change markedly (a decrease by approx. 5%). In the yellow pigment fractions neobetanin was the dominant peak in the HPLC chromatogram, while vulgaxanthin was found in a much smaller area, whereas after heating

  7. [Study on hyperspectra estimation of pigment contents in canopy leaves of winter wheat under disease stress].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jin-Bao; Chen, Yun-Hao; Huang, Wen-Jiang

    2007-07-01

    The canopy reflectance of winter wheat infected with stripe rust was measured in the field through artificial inoculation, and the pigment contents of the wheat leaves were determined indoor. The correlation between pigment contents and canopy hyperspectra data and the first derivative data of the disease wheat were analyzed respectively. Using linear and non-linear regression methods, and choosing a part of samples, the estimation models about pigment contents of disease wheat were built. Through the test of the other part samples, the result shows that the model containing the normalized value of the sum of first derivative within green edge (SD(g)) and the sum of first derivative within red edge (SD(r)) is the best one. The model was used to estimate the contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b and carotenoid of the disease wheat, and the relative errors were 17.0%, 16.3% and 12.4%, respectively. This study shows that canopy hyperspectra data can be used to estimate the pigment contents of crops leaves and the estimation precision is high. This conclusion has great practice and application value to monitor the grow-ing way of and disease influence on crops by using hyperspectral remote sensing.

  8. Pigment content and leaf plastid ultrastructure in the tomato mutant lutescent-2.

    PubMed

    Fornasiero, R B; Bonatti, P M

    1985-03-01

    The non-lethal tomato mutant «lutescent-2» shows an early yellowing of normal developed leaves. Its ripe fruits display a yellow colouring, red pigment synthesis being delayed by up to two weeks. Typical pigment synthesis, related to leaf maturation, does not occur in mutant leaves. Both the concentration of chl a and chl b start to decrease very quickly at the end of leaf expansion. Early yellowing of «1-2» leaves appears to be related to the reduced car(470) content, which leads to chlorophyll photooxidation. Structural evidence of a deficiency in car(470) content in young «1- 2» plastids is given by a reduction of stroma thylakoids as well as by a limited grana stacking. The altered balance between the two pigment classes determined an active, even if incomplete, conversion of chloroplasts to chromoplast-like organelles.

  9. [Effects of light quality on photosynthetic pigment contents and photosynthetic characteristics of peanut seedling leaves].

    PubMed

    Yan, Meng-Meng; Wang, Ming-Lun; Wang, Hong-Bo; Wang, Yue-Fu; Zhao, Chang-Xing

    2014-02-01

    This study explored the effects of different light quality on photosynthetic pigment contents and photosynthetic characteristics of peanut (Qinhua 6) seedling leaves. The results showed that, compared with natural light, blue light (445-470 nm) could significantly improve the specific leaf area (SLA), chlorophyll a/b value and carotenoid content of peanut seedlings. Meanwhile, the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate were higher, the intercellular CO2 content was lower, and the photosynthetic efficiency was improved significantly under blue light. Red light (610-660 nm) could improve the chlorophyll content significantly, and reduce SLA, chlorophyll a/b value and carotenoid content, with a lower photosynthetic efficiency than natural light. Green light (515-520 nm) and yellow light (590-595 nm) were not conducive to photosynthetic pigment accumulation of leaves, and significantly inhibited leaf photosynthesis of peanut seedlings.

  10. Functional xanthophyll cycle and pigment content of a kleptoplastic benthic foraminifer: Haynesina germanica

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, Bruno; Méléder, Vona; Geslin, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-01

    Some shallow water benthic foraminifera are able to retain functional chloroplasts (kleptoplasts) from their food source, i.e. diatoms. Here we assessed the functionality of the kleptoplast xanthophyll cycle (XC, i.e. the main diatom short-term photo-regulation mechanism) and we surveyed Haynesina germanica kleptoplast pigment composition over time and at different light regimes. Six common diatom lipophilic pigments were detected, two chlorophylls (Chl a, Chl c) and four carotenoids (fucoxanthin and by-products, diadinoxanthin, diatoxanthin and β-carotene), the same pigment profile as the diatom species frequently isolated at the sampling site. The xanthophyll cycle (XC) was functional with kleptoplast diatoxanthin (DT) content increase with concomitant diadinoxanthin (DD) decrease after short term light exposure. DT/(DT+DD) and DT/DD ratios increased significantly in specimens exposed to low light and high light in comparison to specimens maintained in the dark. Specimens placed in very low light after the light treatments reverted to values close to the initial ones, suggesting that H. germanica XC is functional. A functional XC is an indication of H. germanica kleptoplasts capacity for short-term photo-protection from photo-oxidative damages caused by excess of light. Furthermore, the pigment survey suggests that H. germanica preserved some chloroplasts over a longer time than others and that pigment content is influenced by previous light history. Finally, the current study highlighted seasonal differences, with higher pigment contents in winter specimens (27.35 ± 1.30 ng cell-1) and lower in summer specimens (6.08 ± 1.21 ng cell-1), a quantitative and qualitative composition suggesting light acclimation to low or high light availability, according to the season. PMID:28231315

  11. Functional xanthophyll cycle and pigment content of a kleptoplastic benthic foraminifer: Haynesina germanica.

    PubMed

    Jauffrais, Thierry; Jesus, Bruno; Méléder, Vona; Geslin, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-01

    Some shallow water benthic foraminifera are able to retain functional chloroplasts (kleptoplasts) from their food source, i.e. diatoms. Here we assessed the functionality of the kleptoplast xanthophyll cycle (XC, i.e. the main diatom short-term photo-regulation mechanism) and we surveyed Haynesina germanica kleptoplast pigment composition over time and at different light regimes. Six common diatom lipophilic pigments were detected, two chlorophylls (Chl a, Chl c) and four carotenoids (fucoxanthin and by-products, diadinoxanthin, diatoxanthin and β-carotene), the same pigment profile as the diatom species frequently isolated at the sampling site. The xanthophyll cycle (XC) was functional with kleptoplast diatoxanthin (DT) content increase with concomitant diadinoxanthin (DD) decrease after short term light exposure. DT/(DT+DD) and DT/DD ratios increased significantly in specimens exposed to low light and high light in comparison to specimens maintained in the dark. Specimens placed in very low light after the light treatments reverted to values close to the initial ones, suggesting that H. germanica XC is functional. A functional XC is an indication of H. germanica kleptoplasts capacity for short-term photo-protection from photo-oxidative damages caused by excess of light. Furthermore, the pigment survey suggests that H. germanica preserved some chloroplasts over a longer time than others and that pigment content is influenced by previous light history. Finally, the current study highlighted seasonal differences, with higher pigment contents in winter specimens (27.35 ± 1.30 ng cell-1) and lower in summer specimens (6.08 ± 1.21 ng cell-1), a quantitative and qualitative composition suggesting light acclimation to low or high light availability, according to the season.

  12. Effect of salinity on moisture content, pigment system, and lipid composition in Ephedra alata Decne.

    PubMed

    Alqarawi, A A; Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, E F; Alshahrani, T S; Huqail, Asma A

    2014-03-01

    The present work was carried out to uncover the effect of salinity stress on shoot moisture percentage, pigment content and lipid composition of Ephedra alata Decne. The results suggested that salinity caused significant decrease in plant moisture content. The chl. a, b and carotenoids showed significant decrease with increasing concentration of salt. Total pigment content also showed decline at all salt stress levels. Salt stress caused significant decrease in total lipids (TL), triacylglycerol (TG) and sterol (S) accompanied with an increase in diacylglycerol (DG), sterol ester (SE), and non-esterified fatty acids (FAA) of E. alata. Moreover, saline stress caused significant decrease in all phospholipid fractions except phosphatidic acid which increases during salt stress. Salinity stress resulted in increase of saturated fatty acids and decreases the percentage of un-saturated fatty acids in E. alalta.

  13. Influence of space conditions on photosynthetic pigment contents and chloroplast ultrastructure of maize leaves.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Liu, M; Wang, Y; Liu, Y; Zhang, C; Zeng, M

    1998-12-01

    Dried seeds of maize inbred lines were carried by recoverable satellite to space conditions at an altitude of 175-253 km from sea level for 15 d. The effects of space flight on ultrastructure and photosynthetic pigment contents of maize leaves were studied. Various changes in structure were observed. Chloroplast envelope membrane notch, swelling of thylakoids, less granum stacks and stroma thylakoid membranes, and changes of chloroplast contour were often seen. The contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and chlorophyll a+b and carotenoids tended to be lower, but Ca/Cb ratio tended to be higher in the leaves from space flight maize in comparison with ground control.

  14. Hyperspectral Imaging for Determining Pigment Contents in Cucumber Leaves in Response to Angular Leaf Spot Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan-Ru; Li, Xiaoli; Yu, Ke-Qiang; Cheng, Fan; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging technique was employed to determine spatial distributions of chlorophyll (Chl), and carotenoid (Car) contents in cucumber leaves in response to angular leaf spot (ALS). Altogether, 196 hyperspectral images of cucumber leaves with five infection severities of ALS were captured by a hyperspectral imaging system in the range of 380–1,030 nm covering 512 wavebands. Mean spectrum were extracted from regions of interest (ROIs) in the hyperspectral images. Partial least square regression (PLSR) models were used to develop quantitative analysis between the spectra and the pigment contents measured by biochemical analyses. In addition, regression coefficients (RCs) in PLSR models were employed to select important wavelengths (IWs) for modelling. It was found that the PLSR models developed by the IWs provided the optimal measurement results with correlation coefficient (R) of prediction of 0.871 and 0.876 for Chl and Car contents, respectively. Finally, Chl and Car distributions in cucumber leaves with the ALS infection were mapped by applying the optimal models pixel-wise to the hyperspectral images. The results proved the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging for visualizing the pigment distributions in cucumber leaves in response to ALS. PMID:27283050

  15. Non-destructive prediction of pigment content in lettuce based on visible-NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Steidle Neto, Antonio José; Moura, Lorena de Oliveira; Lopes, Daniela de Carvalho; Carlos, Lanamar de Almeida; Martins, Luma Moreira; Ferraz, Leila de Castro Louback

    2017-05-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most important salad vegetables in the world, with a number of head shapes, leaf types and colors. The lettuce pigments play important physiological functions, such as photosynthetic processes and light stress defense, but they also benefit human health because of their antioxidant action and anticarcinogenic properties. In this study three lettuce cultivars were grown under different farming systems, and partial least squares models were built to predict the leaf chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin content. The three proposed models resulted in high coefficients of determination and variable importance for the projection values, as well as low estimative errors for calibration and external validation datasets. These results confirmed that it is possible to accurately predict chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin content of green and red lettuces, grown in different farming systems, based on the spectral reflectance from 500 to 1000 nm. The proposed models were adequate for estimating lettuce pigments in a quick and non-destructive way, representing an alternative to conventional measurement methods. Prediction accuracies were improved by using the detrending, smoothing and first derivative pretreatments to the original spectral signatures prior to estimating lettuce chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin content, respectively. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. High-throughput, high-content screening for novel pigmentation regulators using a keratinocyte/melanocyte co-culture system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Hee; Chen, Hongxiang; Kolev, Vihren; Aull, Katherine H; Jung, Inhee; Wang, Jun; Miyamoto, Shoko; Hosoi, Junichi; Mandinova, Anna; Fisher, David E

    2014-02-01

    Skin pigmentation is a complex process including melanogenesis within melanocytes and melanin transfer to the keratinocytes. To develop a comprehensive screening method for novel pigmentation regulators, we used immortalized melanocytes and keratinocytes in co-culture to screen large numbers of compounds. High-throughput screening plates were subjected to digital automated microscopy to quantify the pigmentation via brightfield microscopy. Compounds with pigment suppression were secondarily tested for their effects on expression of microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and several pigment regulatory genes, and further validated in terms of non-toxicity to keratinocytes/melanocytes and dose-dependent activity. The results demonstrate a high-throughput, high-content screening approach, which is applicable to the analysis of large chemical libraries using a co-culture system. We identified candidate pigmentation inhibitors from 4000 screened compounds including zoxazolamine, 3-methoxycatechol and alpha-mangostin, which were also shown to modulate expression of MITF and several key pigmentation factors and are worthy of further evaluation for potential translation to clinical use.

  17. [Leaf cell damage and changes in photosynthetic pigment contents of three moss species under cadmium stress].

    PubMed

    Gong, Shuang-jiao; Ma, Tao-wu; Li, Jing; Liu, Ying-di

    2010-10-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to study the leaf cell damage and the changes in photosynthetic pigment contents of three moss species under Cd stress, aimed to reveal the Cd sensibility and tolerance of the species. Even though the Cd stress was relatively low (1 mg Cd x L(-1)), the leaf cells of Dolichomitriopsis diversiformis and Plagiomnium acutum were damaged. With the increasing level of Cd stress, the leaf cell damage of the three moss species aggravated significantly, and the resulted damage under high level (100 mg x L(-1)) Cd stress was in the order Brachythecium procumbens > P. acutum > D. diversiformis. Relatively low (1 mg x L(-1)) Cd stress had no significant effects on the total chlorophyll content of the three species. However, with the increase of Cd stress (> or = 10 mg x L(-1)), the total chlorophyll content decreased significantly, with the order of B. procumbens > P. acutum > D. diversiformis. The Cd stress at 1 and 10 mg x L(-1) had no significant effects on the chlorophyll a/b, but the Cd stress at 100 mg x L(-1) led to a significant decrease of chlorophyll a/b in P. acutum and B. procumbens. The maximal decline of carotenoid content in B. procumbens was observed at 1 mg x L(-1) of Cd. The three moss species could significantly enrich Cd, and the Cd enrichment was D. diversiformis > P. acutum > B. procumbens. The leaf cell damage rate and the changes of chlorophyll and carotenoid contents could be used to indicate the differences in the sensitivity of D. diversiformis, P. acutum, and B. procumbens to Cd stress. D. diversiformis had the strongest tolerance to Cd stress, while P. acutum and B. procumbens had weaker tolerance. The tolerance of the three moss species to Cd stress was positively correlated to the capability of their Cd enrichment.

  18. Effect of clinorotation on the leaf mesophyll structure and pigment content in Arabidopsis thaliana L. and Pisum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Adamchuk, N I

    2004-07-01

    Properties of mesophyll cells and photosynthetic membranes of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and Pisum sativum (L.) plants grown in a horizontal clinostat and in control conditions were compared. Obtained data have show that under clinorotation conditions seedlings have experienced the following cell morphology changes structural chloroplast rearrangement in palisade cells, pigment content alteration, and cell aging acceleration.

  19. Hordeum chilense genome, a useful tool to investigate the endosperm yellow pigment content in the Triticeae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The wild barley Hordeum chilense fulfills some requirements for being a useful tool to investigate the endosperm yellow pigment content (YPC) in the Triticeae including its diploid constitution, the availability of genetic resources (addition and deletion stocks and a high density genetic map) and, especially, its high seed YPC not silenced in tritordeums (amphiploids derived from H. chilense and wheat). Thus, the aim of this work was to test the utility of the H. chilense genome for investigating the YPC in the Triticeae. Results Twelve genes related to endosperm carotenoid content and/or YPC in grasses (Dxr, Hdr [synonym ispH], Ggpps1, Psy2, Psy3, Pds, Zds, e-Lcy, b-Lcy, Hyd3, Ccd1 and Ppo1) were identified, and mapped in H. chilense using rice genes to identify orthologs from barley, wheat, sorghum and maize. Macrocolinearity studies revealed that gene positions were in agreement in H. vulgare and H. chilense. Additionally, three main regions associated with YPC were identified in chromosomes 2Hch, 3Hch and 7Hch in H. chilense, the former being the most significant one. Conclusions The results obtained are consistent with previous findings in wheat and suggest that Ggpps1, Zds and Hyd3 on chromosome 2Hch may be considered candidate genes in wheat for further studies in YPC improvement. Considering the syntenic location of carotenoid genes in H. chilense, we have concluded that the Hch genome may constitute a valuable tool for YPC studies in the Triticeae. PMID:23122232

  20. Hordeum chilense genome, a useful tool to investigate the endosperm yellow pigment content in the Triticeae.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Suárez, Cristina; Atienza, Sergio G

    2012-11-02

    The wild barley Hordeum chilense fulfills some requirements for being a useful tool to investigate the endosperm yellow pigment content (YPC) in the Triticeae including its diploid constitution, the availability of genetic resources (addition and deletion stocks and a high density genetic map) and, especially, its high seed YPC not silenced in tritordeums (amphiploids derived from H. chilense and wheat). Thus, the aim of this work was to test the utility of the H. chilense genome for investigating the YPC in the Triticeae. Twelve genes related to endosperm carotenoid content and/or YPC in grasses (Dxr, Hdr [synonym ispH], Ggpps1, Psy2, Psy3, Pds, Zds, e-Lcy, b-Lcy, Hyd3, Ccd1 and Ppo1) were identified, and mapped in H. chilense using rice genes to identify orthologs from barley, wheat, sorghum and maize. Macrocolinearity studies revealed that gene positions were in agreement in H. vulgare and H. chilense. Additionally, three main regions associated with YPC were identified in chromosomes 2Hch, 3Hch and 7Hch in H. chilense, the former being the most significant one. The results obtained are consistent with previous findings in wheat and suggest that Ggpps1, Zds and Hyd3 on chromosome 2Hch may be considered candidate genes in wheat for further studies in YPC improvement. Considering the syntenic location of carotenoid genes in H. chilense, we have concluded that the Hch genome may constitute a valuable tool for YPC studies in the Triticeae.

  1. Effect of manganese toxicity on pigment content, Hill activity and photosynthetic rate of Vigna radiata L. Wilczek seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Suchita; Mukherji, S; Dutta, Jayanta

    2002-07-01

    Effect of different concentrations, viz. 10(-4) M, 5 x 10(-4) M, 10(-3) M and 5 x 10(-3) M of manganese sulphate (MnSO4, 7H2O) on chlorophyll, carotenoid pigment content and photosynthesis of mungbean seedlings was examined Progressive increase in manganese sulphate concentration upto 5 x 10(-3) M brought about a progressive decrease in total chlorophyll and chl a content. Chl b content changed very little by excess manganese treatment. Total carotenoid pigment content decreased considerably in comparison to control with every concentration of manganese sulphate tried here. Hill activity of chloroplasts isolated from leaves of mungbean seedling and rate of photosynthesis in terms of CO2 uptake showed progressive reduction along with the increase in concentration of the manganese.

  2. Increased growth and pigment content of Chromera velia in mixotrophic culture.

    PubMed

    Foster, Christie; Portman, Neil; Chen, Min; Šlapeta, Jan

    2014-04-01

    The alveolate microalga Chromera velia is an evolutionarily significant organism, representing the closest photosynthetic relative of the parasitic Apicomplexa. Chromera velia has been detected in and isolated from several stony corals and can be readily cultured in vitro under strictly autotrophic conditions. However, little is known about the ecology of this organism in the coral holobiont, an environment in which it could potentially access abundant organic carbon sources. To understand the response of C. velia to ecologically relevant organic compounds in vitro, we tested a mixotrophic culture strategy by supplementing inorganic f-medium with sugars, sugar-alcohols, organic acids and amino acids. For 15 of the 18 tested growth media, culture growth rate was significantly higher than that of strictly autotrophic cultures, and in three of these, a significant increase in maximum culture density was observed. In cultures supplemented with glutamate or glycine, the chlorophyll content per cell was up to 11-fold higher than cultures grown in standard inorganic media. Together, the in vitro culture growth and pigment responses demonstrate an ability to respond to nutritional resources when available. We propose that C. velia is a facultative opportunist in environments similarly enriched in such organic compounds, such as the coral holobiont. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification, content and distribution of anthocyanins and low molecular weight anthocyanin-derived pigments in Spanish commercial red wines.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Vega, Dora; Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro

    2014-09-01

    The content and distribution of low molecular weight red wine pigments (anthocyanins, flavanol-anthocyanins adducts and pyranoanthocyanins) has been analysed in 283 wine samples. A total of 90 red wine pigments were identified and up to 68 of them quantified in most of the wine samples. The content of the different pigments classes accounted for wide ranges of values, because of the diversity of the commercial wines regarding grape cultivar and age. Garnacha young wines were prone to contain higher hydroxyphenyl-pyranoanthocyanin concentrations. The aging had an effect of making uniform the concentrations and molar percentages of every type of pigments, and only slight differences among wine groups were found for B-type vitisins (highest values for Syrah wines) and 10-hydroxyphenyl-pyranoanthocyanins (highest values for Merlot wines). Among Tempranillo wines, the ethylidene-bridged flavanol-anthocyanin adducts were the most affected by disappearance during aging, whereas hydroxyphenyl-pyranoanthocyanins increased their contribution in most of those aged wines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer and harvesting stage on photosynthetic pigments and phytol contents of Italian ryegrass silage.

    PubMed

    Lv, Renlong; El-Sabagh, Mabrouk; Obitsu, Taketo; Sugino, Toshihisa; Kurokawa, Yuzo; Kawamura, Kensuke

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and harvesting stage on the contents of chlorophyll, phytol and carotenoids (β-carotene and lutein) in Italian ryegrass herbage before and after ensiling, and the extent of phytol preservation after ensiling. Three rates of N fertilizer (0, 60 and 120 kg N/ha) were applied by top-dressing as an additional fertilizer. The herbage harvested at booting stage (27 weeks of age) or heading stage (29 weeks of age) were wilted for 1 day, then ensiled for 60 days using a small-scale pouch system. In the pre-ensiled herbages, increasing N fertilizer application increased the contents of crude protein and photosynthetic pigments, and these contents were also higher at the booting stage compared with the heading stage. In the silage, increasing N fertilizer application also increased the contents of crude protein, the photosynthetic pigments and their derivatives (pheophytin and pheophorbide), while harvesting stage did not affect the contents of β-carotene, chlorophylls or pheophorbide. Nitrogen fertilizer application and early harvesting of herbage increased lutein and phytol contents in Italian ryegrass silage. Lutein and phytol in Italian ryegrass herbage are indicated to be well preserved during ensiling. © 2017 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Patterns in Abundance, Cell Size and Pigment Content of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria along Environmental Gradients in Northern Lakes.

    PubMed

    Fauteux, Lisa; Cottrell, Matthew T; Kirchman, David L; Borrego, Carles M; Garcia-Chaves, Maria Carolina; Del Giorgio, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    There is now evidence that aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are widespread across aquatic systems, yet the factors that determine their abundance and activity are still not well understood, particularly in freshwaters. Here we describe the patterns in AAP abundance, cell size and pigment content across wide environmental gradients in 43 temperate and boreal lakes of Québec. AAP bacterial abundance varied from 1.51 to 5.49 x 105 cells mL-1, representing <1 to 37% of total bacterial abundance. AAP bacteria were present year-round, including the ice-cover period, but their abundance relative to total bacterial abundance was significantly lower in winter than in summer (2.6% and 7.7%, respectively). AAP bacterial cells were on average two-fold larger than the average bacterial cell size, thus AAP cells made a greater relative contribution to biomass than to abundance. Bacteriochlorophyll a (BChla) concentration varied widely across lakes, and was not related to AAP bacterial abundance, suggesting a large intrinsic variability in the cellular pigment content. Absolute and relative AAP bacterial abundance increased with dissolved organic carbon (DOC), whereas cell-specific BChla content was negatively related to chlorophyll a (Chla). As a result, both the contribution of AAP bacteria to total prokaryotic abundance, and the cell-specific BChla pigment content were positively correlated with the DOC:Chla ratio, both peaking in highly colored, low-chlorophyll lakes. Our results suggest that photoheterotrophy might represent a significant ecological advantage in highly colored, low-chlorophyll lakes, where DOC pool is chemically and structurally more complex.

  6. Patterns in Abundance, Cell Size and Pigment Content of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria along Environmental Gradients in Northern Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Fauteux, Lisa; Cottrell, Matthew T.; Kirchman, David L.; Borrego, Carles M.; Garcia-Chaves, Maria Carolina; del Giorgio, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    There is now evidence that aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are widespread across aquatic systems, yet the factors that determine their abundance and activity are still not well understood, particularly in freshwaters. Here we describe the patterns in AAP abundance, cell size and pigment content across wide environmental gradients in 43 temperate and boreal lakes of Québec. AAP bacterial abundance varied from 1.51 to 5.49 x 105 cells mL-1, representing <1 to 37% of total bacterial abundance. AAP bacteria were present year-round, including the ice-cover period, but their abundance relative to total bacterial abundance was significantly lower in winter than in summer (2.6% and 7.7%, respectively). AAP bacterial cells were on average two-fold larger than the average bacterial cell size, thus AAP cells made a greater relative contribution to biomass than to abundance. Bacteriochlorophyll a (BChla) concentration varied widely across lakes, and was not related to AAP bacterial abundance, suggesting a large intrinsic variability in the cellular pigment content. Absolute and relative AAP bacterial abundance increased with dissolved organic carbon (DOC), whereas cell-specific BChla content was negatively related to chlorophyll a (Chla). As a result, both the contribution of AAP bacteria to total prokaryotic abundance, and the cell-specific BChla pigment content were positively correlated with the DOC:Chla ratio, both peaking in highly colored, low-chlorophyll lakes. Our results suggest that photoheterotrophy might represent a significant ecological advantage in highly colored, low-chlorophyll lakes, where DOC pool is chemically and structurally more complex. PMID:25927833

  7. Comparative effects of technical-grade and a commercial formulation of glyphosate on the pigment content of periphytic algae.

    PubMed

    Vera, María S; Juárez, Ángela B; Pizarro, Haydée N

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the potentially different effects of one of the most commonly used glyphosate formulations in Argentina, Glifosato Atanor(®), and the technical-grade glyphosate on the pigment content, as biomass indicators of the algal fraction in a freshwater periphytic community. A laboratory bioassay was carried out in 250-ml beakers. Two treatments were used: technical-grade glyphosate acid and Glifosato Atanor(®) (isopropylamine salt of glyphosate 48 % w/v), which were at a concentration of 3 mg active ingredient per liter. Treatments and the control (without herbicide) were replicated in triplicate. The concentrations of chlorophyll a and b and carotenes were determined at 0, 2, 6, 10, 24, 48, 96 and 192 h after herbicide addition. A significant increase in pigment content was observed for both herbicides after a 2-day exposure. Moreover, the formulation had little or no effect compared to the active ingredient, suggesting that the additives of Glifosato Atanor(®) may not enhance glyphosate toxicity.

  8. Changes in macrominerals, trace elements and pigments content during lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) growth: influence of soil composition.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Edgar; Almeida, Agostinho A; Aguiar, Ana A R M; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2014-01-01

    Changes in macrominerals, trace elements and photosynthetic pigments were monitored at 5 stages of lettuce growth. Plants were grown in three experimental agriculture greenhouse fields (A1, A2 and A3). Soil composition was also monitored to understand its influence on lettuce composition. In general, the content of macrominerals, trace elements, chlorophylls and carotenoids decreased during lettuce growth and consequently, high nutritional value was observed at younger stages. A2 lettuces showed an increase of Fe, Al, Cr, V and Pb due to the different soil physicochemical parameters. Multiple linear regression analysis with stepwise variable selection, indicated that soil characteristics, namely, pH(CaCl2) for Fe and Cr, silt and fine-sand for Al and V, OM for Al and Pb, coarse-sand and CEC for Cr, had a key role determining element bioavailability and plant mineral content. Thus, lettuce nutritional value was strongly dependent of growth stage and soil characteristics.

  9. A simple indicator for non-destructive estimation of the violaxanthin cycle pigment content in leaves.

    PubMed

    Nichelmann, Lars; Schulze, Matthias; Herppich, Werner B; Bilger, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants acclimates to irradiance. Among the features which are changing is the pool size of the pigments belonging to the violaxanthin cycle, in which zeaxanthin is formed. In high light grown leaves, the violaxanthin cycle pool size is up to five times larger than in low light. The changes are reversible on a time scale of several days. Since it has been published that violaxanthin cycle pigments do not transfer absorbed energy to chlorophyll, we hypothesized that excitation of chlorophyll fluorescence in the blue spectral region may be reduced in high light-acclimated leaves. Fluorescence excitation spectra of leaves of the Arabidopsis thaliana tt3 mutant showed strong differences between high and low light-acclimated plants from 430 to 520 nm. The resulting difference spectrum was similar to carotenoids but shifted by about 20 nm to higher wavelengths. A good correlation was observed between the fluorescence excitation ratio F 470/F 660 and the violaxanthin cycle pool size when leaves were acclimated to a range of irradiances. In parallel to the decline of F 470/F 660 with high light acclimation also the quantum yield of photosynthetic oxygen evolution in blue light decreased. The data confirm that violaxanthin cycle carotenoids do not transfer absorbed light to chlorophyll. It is proposed to use the ratio F 470/F 660 as an indicator for the light acclimation status of the chloroplasts in a leaf.

  10. Dual role of the pigmentation gene B in affecting carotenoid and vitamin E content in squash (Cucurbita pepo) mesocarp.

    PubMed

    Tadmor, Yaakov; Paris, Harry S; Meir, Ayala; Schaffer, Arthur A; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2005-12-14

    The yellow and orange colorations of the mesocarp of pumpkins and squash of Cucurbita pepo are due to the presence of carotenoid pigments that also greatly contribute to their nutritional value. Carotenoids, as well as tocopherols (vitamin E), are isoprenoid compounds formed by branches of a common biosynthetic pathway. Photodiode array HPLC analysis was used to simultaneously determine the content and composition of fruit-flesh carotenoids and tocopherols in five pairs of near-isogenic lines differing in the allelic state of genes previously identified as having profound effects on fruit color. The dominant B allele promoted carotenoid accumulation up to 5-fold and prevented tocopherol accumulation in all genetic backgrounds. The dominant L-2 allele doubled carotenoid content and, in combination with the dominant B allele, increased carotenoid content by 10-15-fold as compared to the recessive l-2 allele. The genes D and L-1 had no significant effects on mesocarp tocopherols or carotenoids content. These results indicate that the B gene, which affects both carotenoids and tocopherols, may play a regulatory role in the flux of the isoprenoid pathway products.

  11. Inactivation of Microcystis aeruginosa by DC glow discharge plasma: Impacts on cell integrity, pigment contents and microcystins degradation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Yang, Linfang; Yu, Zengliang; Huang, Qing

    2014-03-15

    We proposed a method to inactivate M. aeruginosa by using discharge plasma taking at the gas-solution interface supplied by DC power. Multiple analysis techniques including fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) and flow cytometry (FCM) were used to reveal the inactivation mechanism of M. aeruginosa. The photosynthetic pigment contents including phycocyanin, chlorophyll and metabolites were examined quantitatively. The DC glow discharge plasma caused an increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the damage of M. aeruginosa cells are mainly attributed to the oxidative stress including OH attack and H2O2 oxidation. Our findings demonstrate that plasma oxidation is a promising technology for inactivation of M. aeruginosa cells with simultaneous removal of microcystins and so it may lead us to a new route to efficient treatment of cyanobacterial blooms.

  12. Bioaccumulation of Pb2+ and its effects on growth, morphology and pigment contents of Spirulina ( Arthrospira) platensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunakumara, K. K. I. U.; Zhang, Xuecheng; Song, Xiaojin

    2008-11-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to assess the bioaccumulation of Pb2+ and its effects on growth, morphology and pigment contents of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis. The specimen cultured in Zarrouk liquid medium was treated with various initial metal concentrations (0, 5, 10, 30, 50 and 100 μg mL-1). The growth of S. platensis was adversely affected by Pb2+ at high concentrations (30, 50 and 100 μg mL-1). However, at low concentrations (5 μg mL-1), Pb2+ could stimulate its growth slightly. The pigment contents (chlorophyll α and β carotene) were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The highest reductions (67% and 53% respectively in chlorophyll α and β carotene) were observed in 100 μg mL-1 treatment group. The LC50 (96 h) of Pb2+ was measured as 75.34 μg mL-1. Apart from a few cases of filament breakages at elevated concentrations (50 and 100 μg mL-1), morphological abnormalities are not specific. Metal bioaccumulation increased with Pb2+ concentrations, but decreased with exposure time. The maximum accumulated amount was 188 mg g-1 dry weight. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) reached to a peak at day 2, followed by a gradual reduction for all the exposure concentrations. S. platensis is able to tolerate considerably high Pb2+ concentrations. Consequently it can be used as a potential species to remove heavy metal from contaminated waters.

  13. Effects of water stress on respiration, photosynthetic pigments and water content in two maize cultivars.

    PubMed

    Mohammadkhani, Nayer; Heidari, Reza

    2007-11-15

    Water stress is one of the most important environmental factors that reduce growth, development and production of plants. Stress was applied with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) 6000 and water potentials were: zero (control), -0.15 (PEG 10%), -0.49 (PEG 20%), -1.03 (PEG 30%) and -1.76 (PEG 40%) MPa. The roots and leaves respiration of two maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars -704 and 301- were determined in various concentrations of PEG 6000. Oxygen uptake declined in leaves and roots with increasing PEG concentrations. Decrease of oxygen uptake in roots and leaves of 704 variety were higher than 301 variety. Chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll content were significantly decreased (p < 0.05), but carotenoids content increased (p < 0.05) under water stress. Decrease of chlorophyll content in 704 var. was higher than 301 var., but carotenoids content in 301 var. was higher than 704 var. Relative Water Content (RWC) was used to indicate the degree of stress. RWC decreased with increasing PEG concentrations. Lowering of RWC reduced growth and increased shoot/root ratio. Decrease of water content in 704 plants was higher than 301 plants. Shoot/root ratio in 704 var. was higher than 301 var.

  14. Effect of NH4-non the pigment content of Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liangfeng; Lin, Guangheng; Wu, Chaoyuan

    1990-06-01

    Experiments with Laminaria japonica were conducted in Meidao Bay and Pier Bay, Qingdao, China, Nitrogen-starved plants were fertilized intermittently with 7.1 mM NH4-N solution for 1 hour at 3 day intervals, after which chlorophyll a, fucoxanthin, chlorophyll c and β-carotene contents were analyzed. Photosynthetic and growth rates of plants and nitrogen content of seawater were determined. their contents of chlorophyll a, fucoxanthin, chlorophyll c and β-carotene were 1.65, 0.67, 0.33 and 0.06 mg.dm-2 respectively, or 2.46, 2.03, 1.86 and 1.81 times those of the controls. The ratio of fucoxanthin to chlorophyll a in nitrogen-enriched plants was lower than that of the controls. Normal growth rate of the plants (2 cm·day-1 in length) were reached when the chlorophyll a content exceeded 0.1 mg·g-1 fresh wt., indicating that chlorophyll a content can serve as an indicator of normal growth. Experimental results show that seawater is regarded as fertile for the normal growth of Laminaria if the total inorganic nitrogen (including ammonium salt, nitrate and nitrite) content in seawater is about 2 μm, and infertile if less than 1 μm, in which case fertilizer should be applied.

  15. Technological properties, antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of pigmented chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Heiras-Palazuelos, Mar J; Ochoa-Lugo, Mirna I; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; López-Valenzuela, José A; Mora-Rochín, Saraid; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Garzón-Tiznado, José A; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc

    2013-02-01

    Chickpeas are rich sources of highly nutritious protein and dietary fibre; the health benefits of consuming legumes such as antioxidant activity (AoxA) could be effective for the expansion of their food uses. The technological properties and antioxidant potential of five pigmented chickpea cultivars were evaluated. Protein content of the grains varied from 24.9 to 27.4 g/100 g sample (dw). The cooking time (CT) of the whole grains ranged from 90.5 to 218.5 min; the lowest CT corresponded to Black ICC3761 cultivar. The total phenolic content (TPC) and AoxA [oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value] varied from 1.23 to 1.51 mg GAE/g sample (dw) and from 5011 to 5756 μmol TE/100 g sample (dw), respectively; Red ICC13124 showed the highest ORAC value. The differences in technological properties and AoxA among cultivars could be used in chickpea breeding programmes. Chickpea cultivars could contribute significantly to the management and/or prevention of degenerative diseases associated with free radical damage.

  16. The glycemic index of pigmented potatoes is related to their polyphenol content.

    PubMed

    Ramdath, D Dan; Padhi, Emily; Hawke, Aileen; Sivaramalingam, Theva; Tsao, Rong

    2014-05-01

    Polyphenol extracts from coloured fruits and vegetables inhibit α-glucosidase in vitro, however it is not known whether this translates into an attenuation of blood glucose response in vivo. We examined this relationship in a GI study by feeding coloured potatoes to 9 healthy volunteers. We also examined the in vitro inhibitory activity of potato anthocyanin extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase. Potatoes (Purple Majesty; Red-Y38; Yukon Gold and Snowden) were fed with skin after cooking in a convection oven, using a random block design and 50 g available carbohydrate. Glucose was used as the standard and venous blood collected at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 min. Areas under the curve (AUC) for glucose and insulin were calculated, and GI and Insulin Index derived. Neither AUC for blood glucose response nor insulin was significantly different among the various potatoes studied. Although the mean GI (±SE) values for the potato types varied (purple = 77.0 ± 9.0; red = 78.0 ± 14.0; yellow = 81.0 ± 16.0; and white = 93.0 ± 17.0), these differences were not significantly different. The mean (±SE) polyphenol content (mg GAE/100 g DW) was 234 ± 28; 190 ± 15; 108 ± 39; 82 ± 1 for purple, red, yellow and white potatoes, respectively. There was a significant inverse correlation between polyphenol content and GI of the potatoes (r = -0.825; p < 0.05; n = 4). In vitro, polyphenol extracts of red and purple potatoes inhibited α-glucosidase by 37.4 ± 2.2% and 28.7 ± 3.2%, respectively. The GI of coloured potatoes is significantly related to their polyphenol content, possibly mediated through an inhibitory effect of anthocyanins on intestinal α-glucosidase.

  17. Selenium accumulation in unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris and its effects on antioxidant enzymes and content of photosynthetic pigments.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xian; Zhong, Yu; Huang, Zhi; Yang, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate selenite effects in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris as a primary producer and the relationship with intracellular bioaccumulation. The effects of selenite were evaluated by measuring the effect of different selenite concentrations on algal growth during a 144 h exposure period. It was found that lower Se concentrations (≤ 75 mg L(-1)) positively promoted C. vulgaris growth and acted as antioxidant by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (LPO) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidative effect was associated with an increase in guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and photosynthetic pigments. Meanwhile, significant increase in the cell growth rate and organic Se content was also detected in the algae. In contrast, these changes were opposite in C. vulgaris exposed to Se higher than 100 mg L-1. The antioxidation and toxicity appeared to be correlated to Se bioaccumulation, which suggests the appropriate concentration of Se in the media accumulation of C. vulgaris should be 75 mg L-1. Taken together, C. vulgaris possesses tolerance to Se, and Se-Chlorella could be developed as antioxidative food for aquaculture and human health.

  18. Selenium Accumulation in Unicellular Green Alga Chlorella vulgaris and Its Effects on Antioxidant Enzymes and Content of Photosynthetic Pigments

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xian; Zhong, Yu; Huang, Zhi; Yang, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate selenite effects in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris as a primary producer and the relationship with intracellular bioaccumulation. The effects of selenite were evaluated by measuring the effect of different selenite concentrations on algal growth during a 144 h exposure period. It was found that lower Se concentrations (≤75 mg L−1) positively promoted C. vulgaris growth and acted as antioxidant by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (LPO) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidative effect was associated with an increase in guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and photosynthetic pigments. Meanwhile, significant increase in the cell growth rate and organic Se content was also detected in the algae. In contrast, these changes were opposite in C. vulgaris exposed to Se higher than 100 mg L−1. The antioxidation and toxicity appeared to be correlated to Se bioaccumulation, which suggests the appropriate concentration of Se in the media accumulation of C. vulgaris should be 75 mg L−1. Taken together, C. vulgaris possesses tolerance to Se, and Se-Chlorella could be developed as antioxidative food for aquaculture and human health. PMID:25375113

  19. Effect of cooking on the anthocyanins, phenolic acids, glycoalkaloids, and resistant starch content in two pigmented cultivars of Solanum tuberosum L.

    PubMed

    Mulinacci, Nadia; Ieri, Francesca; Giaccherini, Catia; Innocenti, Marzia; Andrenelli, Luisa; Canova, Giulia; Saracchi, Marco; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina

    2008-12-24

    HPLC/DAD/MS analysis of the phenolic acids and anthocyanin content of three cultivars of Solanum tuberosum L. (Vitelotte Noire, Highland Burgundy Red, with pigmented flesh, and Kennebec with white pulp) was performed. The analyses were carried out both on fresh tubers and after cooking treatments (boiling and microwaves). Starch digestibility and the % of resistant starch were also determined on cooked tubers by in vitro methods. For the pigmented potatoes, the heating treatment did not cause any changes in the phenolic acids content, while anthocyanins showed only a small decrement (16-29%). The cv. Highland Burgundy Red showed anthocyanins and phenolic acid concentrations close to 1 g/kg and more than 1.1 g/kg, respectively. Vitellotte Noire showed the highest amounts of resistant starch. Potato starch digestibility and % of resistant starch, considered as a component of dietary fiber, were affected both by cultivar and by heating/cooling treatments.

  20. A bi-layer model for nondestructive prediction of soluble solids content in apple based on reflectance spectra and peel pigments.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xi; Li, Jiangbo; Wang, Qingyan; Fan, Shuxiang; Huang, Wenqian

    2018-01-15

    Hyperspectral imaging technology was used to investigate the effect of various peel colors on soluble solids content (SSC) prediction model and build a SSC model insensitive to the color distribution of apple peel. The SSC and peel pigments were measured, effective wavelengths (EWs) of SSC and pigments were selected from the acquired hyperspectral images of the intact and peeled apple samples, respectively. The effect of pigments on the SSC prediction was studied and optimal SSC EWs were selected from the peel-flesh layers spectra after removing the chlorophyll and anthocyanin EWs. Then, the optimal bi-layer model for SSC prediction was built based on the finally selected optimal SSC EWs. Results showed that the correlation coefficient of prediction, root mean square error of prediction and selected bands of the bi-layer model were 0.9560, 0.2528 and 41, respectively, which will be more acceptable for future online SSC prediction of various colors of apple. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of seawater salinity and temperature on growth and pigment contents in Hypnea cervicornis J. Agardh (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Ding, Lanping; Ma, Yuanyuan; Huang, Bingxin; Chen, Shanwen

    2013-01-01

    This study simulated outdoor environmental living conditions and observed the growth rates and changes of several photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, Car, PE, and PC) in Hypnea cervicornis J. Agardh (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) by setting up different ranges of salinity (25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50) and temperature (15, 20, 25, and 30°C). At conditions of culture, the results are as follows. (1) Changes in salinity and temperature have significant effects on the growth of H. cervicornis. The growth rates first increase then decrease as the temperature increases, while growth tends to decline as salinity increases. The optimum salinity and temperature conditions for growth are 25 and 25°C, respectively. (2) Salinity and temperature have significant or extremely significant effects on photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, Car, PE, and PC) in H. cervicornis. The results of this study are advantageous to ensure propagation and economic development of this species in the southern sea area of China.

  2. Effects of Seawater Salinity and Temperature on Growth and Pigment Contents in Hypnea cervicornis J. Agardh (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lanping; Ma, Yuanyuan; Huang, Bingxin; Chen, Shanwen

    2013-01-01

    This study simulated outdoor environmental living conditions and observed the growth rates and changes of several photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, Car, PE, and PC) in Hypnea cervicornis J. Agardh (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) by setting up different ranges of salinity (25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50) and temperature (15, 20, 25, and 30°C). At conditions of culture, the results are as follows. (1) Changes in salinity and temperature have significant effects on the growth of H. cervicornis. The growth rates first increase then decrease as the temperature increases, while growth tends to decline as salinity increases. The optimum salinity and temperature conditions for growth are 25 and 25°C, respectively. (2) Salinity and temperature have significant or extremely significant effects on photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, Car, PE, and PC) in H. cervicornis. The results of this study are advantageous to ensure propagation and economic development of this species in the southern sea area of China. PMID:24350276

  3. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid on fresh weight pigment and protein content of bean leaf discs (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Canakçi, S

    2003-01-01

    The effects of 100, 250, and 500 ppm acetylsalicylic acid solutions treatments on weight alteration, pigment and protein amounts in discs from the primary leaves of one month old bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings produced tinder greenhouse conditions are presented. The experiments show that: 100 ppm ASA had no significant influence (P > 0.05) but 250 and 500 ppm ASA caused an increase on weight loss (P < 0.01); ASA at higher concentrations (250 and 500 ppm), generally, caused a decrease on pigment amounts (P < 0.05-P < 0.01) but 100 ppm ASA had no considerably significant influence on them (P > 0.05), none of the ASA treatments caused a statistically significant influence on carotenoid amount (P > 0.05); 100 and 250 ppm ASA treatments did not cause a significant influence on protein amount (P > 0.05). however 500 ppm ASA treatment caused an increase on protein injury (P < 0.05). Consequently, it is supposed that wet weight loss, pigment and protein injury have somewhat increased on leaf discs. depending on the toxic effect of high acetylsalicylic acid concentrations.

  4. Pigmented compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell Jr., J. P.

    1984-10-09

    Poly(arylene sulfide) compositions are pigmented with black carbonaceous pigments selected from at least one of finely divided bituminous coal, carbonized rice hulls, bone blacks, and micropulverized petroleum coke in an amount sufficient to provide the black pigmentation desired with little or no deleterious effect on the mechanical propertiers such as flexural and tensile strengths of the resin.

  5. Stress-induced changes in optical properties, pigment and fatty acid content of Nannochloropsis sp.: implications for non-destructive assay of total fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Solovchenko, Alexei; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Recht, Lee; Boussiba, Sammy

    2011-06-01

    In order to develop a practical approach for fast and non-destructive assay of total fatty acid (TFA) and pigments in the biomass of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis sp. changes in TFA, chlorophyll, and carotenoid contents were monitored in parallel with the cell suspension absorbance. The experiments were conducted with the cultures grown under normal (complete nutrient f/2 medium at 75 μmol PAR photons/(m(2) s)) or stressful (nitrogen-lacking media at 350 μmol PAR photons/(m(2) s)) conditions. The reliable measurement of the cell suspension absorbance using a spectrophotometer without integrating sphere was achieved by deposition of cells on glass-fiber filters in the chlorophyll content range of 3-13 mg/L. Under stressful conditions, a 30-50% decline in biomass and chlorophyll, retention of carotenoids and a build-up of TFA (15-45 % of dry weight) were recorded. Spectral regions sensitive to widely ranging changes in carotenoid-to-chlorophyll ratio and correlated changes of TFA content were revealed. Employing the tight inter-correlation of stress-induced changes in lipid metabolism and rearrangement of the pigment apparatus, the spectral indices were constructed for non-destructive assessment of carotenoid-to-chlorophyll ratio (range 0.3-0.6; root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.03; r (2) = 0.93) as well as TFA content of Nannochloropsis sp. biomass (range 5.0-45%; RMSE = 3.23 %; r (2) = 0.89) in the broad band 400-550 nm normalized to that in chlorophyll absorption band (centered at 678 nm). The findings are discussed in the context of real-time monitoring of the TFA accumulation by Nannochloropsis cultures under stressful conditions.

  6. Effects of heavy metals (Pb2+ and Cd2+) on the ultrastructure, growth and pigment contents of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunakumara, K. K. I. U.; Zhang, Xuecheng

    2009-05-01

    The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, a model organism known for its unique combination of highly desirable molecular genetic, physiological and morphological characteristics, was employed in the present study. The species was cultured in BG11 liquid medium contained various initial concentrations of Pb2+ and Cd2+ (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 mg/L). The experiment was conducted for six days and the metal induced alterations in the ultrastructure, growth and pigment contents were assessed. Alterations in the ultrastructure of the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells became evident with the increased (>4 mg/L Pb2+) metal concentration. The photosynthetic apparatus (thylakoid membranes) were found to be the worst affected. Deteriorated or completely destroyed thylakoid membranes have made large empty spaces in the cell interior. In addition, at the highest concentration (8 mg/L Pb2+), the polyphosphate granules became more prominent both in size and number. Despite the initial slight stimulations (0.2, 3.8 and 6.5% respectively at 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/L Pb2+), both metals inhibited the growth in a dose-dependent manner as incubation progressed. Pigment contents (chlorophyll α, β carotene and phycocyanin) were also decreased with increasing metal concentration. Cells exposed to 6 mg/L Pb2+, resulted in 36.56, 37.39 and 29.34% reductions of chlorophyll α, β carotene and phycocyanin respectively over the control. Corresponding reductions for the same Cd2+concentrations were 57.83, 48.94 and 56.90%. Lethal concentration (96 h LC50) values (3.47 mg/L Cd2+ and 12.11 mg/L Pb2+) indicated that Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is more vulnerable to Cd2+ than Pb2+.

  7. Seasonal variation of leaf dust accumulation and pigment content in plant species exposed to urban particulates pollution.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Santosh Kumar; Tripathi, B D

    2008-01-01

    To assess the dust interception efficiency of some selected tree species and impact of dust deposition on chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content of leaves the present study was undertaken. The plant species selected for the study were Ficus religiosa, Ficus benghalensis, Mangifera indica, Dalbergia sissoo, Psidium guajava, and Dendrocalamus strictus. It was found that all species have maximum dust deposition in the winter season followed by summer and rainy seasons. Chlorophyll content decreased and ascorbic acid content increased with the increase of dust deposition. There was significant negative and positive correlation between dust deposition and chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content, respectively. Maximum dust interception was done by Dalbergia sisso and least by Dendrocalamus strictus. Thus plants can be used to intercept dust particles which are of potential health hazards to humans.

  8. Black tattoo inks induce reactive oxygen species production correlating with aggregation of pigment nanoparticles and product brand but not with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content.

    PubMed

    Høgsberg, Trine; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Clausen, Per Axel; Serup, Jørgen

    2013-07-01

    Black tattoo inks are composed of carbon nanoparticles, additives and water and may contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We aimed to clarify whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by black inks in vitro is related to pigment chemistry, physico-chemical properties of the ink particles and the content of chemical additives and contaminants including PAHs. The study included nine brands of tattoo inks of six colours each (black, red, yellow, blue, green and white) and two additional black inks of different brands (n = 56). The ROS formation potential was determined by the dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) assay. A semiquantitative method was developed for screening extractable organic compounds in tattoo ink based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Two black inks produced high amounts of ROS. Peroxyl radicals accounted for up to 72% of the free radicals generated, whereas hydroxyl radicals and H₂O₂ accounted for <14% and 16%, respectively. The same two inks aggregated strongly in water in contrast to the other black inks. They did not exhibit any shared pattern in PAHs and other organic substances. Aggregation was exclusively shared by all ink colours belonging to the same two brands. Ten of 11 black inks had PAH concentrations exceeding the European Council's recommended level, and all 11 exceeded the recommended level for benzo(a)pyrene. It is a new finding that aggregation of tattoo pigment particles correlates with ROS production and brand, independently of chemical composition including PAHs. ROS is hypothesized to be implicated in minor clinical symptoms. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging of photosynthetic activity and pigment contents of the resurrection plants Ramonda serbica and Ramonda nathaliae during dehydration and rehydration.

    PubMed

    Gashi, Bekim; Babani, Fatbardha; Kongjika, Efigjeni

    2013-07-01

    The desiccation-tolerant plants of the R. serbica and R. nathaliae are resurrection plants which are able to fully recover their physiological function after anabiosis. A comparison of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and photosynthetic pigment contents responses of R. serbica and, for the first time, R. nathaliae to dehydration and rehydration were investigated. For this purpose, plants after collection from their natural habitats were kept fully watered for 14 days at natural condition. The experiment was conducted with mature leaves of both species. R. serbica and R. nathaliae plants were dehydrated to 5.88 % and 7.87 % relative water content (RWC) by withholding water for 15 days, afterwards the plants were rehydrated for 72 hours to 94.67 % and 97.02 % RWC. During desiccation, R. serbica plants preserved the chlorophyll content about 84 %, while R. nathaliae about 90 %. During dehydration when RWC were more than 40 %, photochemical efficiency of PSII for photochemistry, the Fv/Fm ratio, decreased about 40 % in R. nathaliae plants, but a strong reduction with 60 % was recorded for R. serbica. Following rehydration, the Fv/Fm ratio recovered more rapidly in R. nathaliae. The higher photosynthetic rates could also be detected via imaging the chlorophyll fluorescence decrease ratio Rfd, which possessed higher values after rehydration leaves of R. nathaliae as compared to R. serbica. The results showed that the photosynthetic activity and chlorophyll contents after rehydration are recovered more rapidly in R. nathaliae in comparison to R. serbica.

  10. Effects of UV-A Radiation on Desmodesmus armatus: Changes in Growth Rate, Pigment Content and Morphological Appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pálffy, Károly; Vörös, Lajos

    2006-10-01

    Laboratory cultures of Desmodesmus armatus (R. Chod.) Hegew. were grown under different levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) supplemented with 3.75 mW . cm-2 UV-A radiation. Growth rate was monitored daily, chlorophyl-a concentration, total carotenoid content, cell number and the relative abundance of different coenobial forms was determined at the end of each experiment. Exposure to UV-A radiation resulted in an increasing inhibition of growth towards higher PAR levels, reaching 100% at 400 μmol . m-2 . s-1. Cellular carotenoid content was higher in the presence of UV-A radiation, on the other hand no differences were observed in cellular chlorophyll-a concentration. UV-A radiation also induced changes in coenobium formation with a decreasing proportion of 4-celled coenobia and an increase in the abundance of 2-celled and teratologic coenobia, suggesting that high intensity UV-A radiation may influence cell cycle events or morphology development.

  11. Effects of the herbicide molinate on mixotrophic growth, photosynthetic pigments, and protein content of Anabaena sphaerica under different light conditions.

    PubMed

    Yan, G A; Yan, X; Wu, W

    1997-11-01

    The effects of the carbamate herbicide molinate on growth and chlorophyll a, biliprotein, and protein content of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sphaerica grown mixotrophically under 3000- and 300-lux light intensity were studied. Under two light intensities, the three concentrations of molinate tested (5, 25, and 50 microg ml-1) can significantly inhibit algal growth in a dose-dependent manner. The high concentration of molinate (50 microg ml-1) stimulated the synthesis of chlorophyll a and protein, but inhibited the formation of biliprotein, and these effects appear to be greater at 3000 lux than at 300 lux. The effects of the other two concentrations of molinate (5 and 25 microg ml-1) on chlorophyll a and biliprotein varied with time, but 5 microg ml-1 molinate had an inhibitory effect on the synthesis of protein. It was demonstrated that different concentrations of molinate had different effects on chlorophyll a, biliprotein, and protein content, which varied with light intensity. The results support the suggestion that the physiological mode of molinate toxicity to A. sphaerica is related to its interference with the metabolism of protein, particularly the formation and functional effectiveness of some special protein. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  12. Enhanced in vitro regeneration and change in photosynthetic pigments, biomass and proline content in Withania somnifera L. (Dunal) induced by copper and zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Nigar; Ahmad, Naseem; Anis, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    In the present study the effect of inorganic nutrients (CuSO₄ & ZnSO₄) on morphogenic and biochemical responses from nodal explants in Withania somnifera L. was investigated. Incorporation of either Copper sulphate (25-200 μM) or Zinc sulphate (50-500 μM) in the optimized Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium highly influenced the shoot bud formation and subsequent elongation, which induced maximum percentage (95%) regeneration, number (61.7 ± 0.25) of shoots with shoot length (5.46 ± 0.16 cm) on CuSO₄ (100 μM) and maximum percentage regeneration (100%), number of shoots (66.1 ± 0.96) with shoot length (6.24 ± 0.21 cm) on ZnSO₄ (300 μM) after 12 weeks of culture. Healthy growing in vitro microshoots rooted efficiently on ½ MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.5 μM), which induced (16.2 ± 0.12) roots with root length (3.30 ± 0.12 cm) after 4 weeks. Pigment content increased with increasing concentration of Cu and Zn and the maximum Chl. a (0.47), (0.41); Chl. b (0.52), (0.42); total Chl. (0.99), (0.83) and Carotenoid (0.16), (0.16) mg/g FW contents in regenerants were found on CuSO₄ (100 μM) and ZnSO₄ (300 μM), respectively. Maximum proline content (0.17), (0.16) μg/g FW was observed on high concentrations of CuSO₄ (200 μM) and ZnSO₄ (500 μM) respectively, in the basal medium. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized successfully in soilrite with a survival rate of 95%. No morphological variations were detected among the micropropagated plants when compared with seedling raised plants of the same age.

  13. [Effect of high sodium chloride concentrations on the pigment content and free-radical processes in corn seedlings leaves].

    PubMed

    Vasylyk, Iu V; Lushchak, V I

    2011-01-01

    The effect of sodium chloride on general morphometrical parameters of seedlings, and biochemical parameters in the leaves of corn seedlings was studied. Exposure to 100 and 200 mM NaCl slowed down the growth of stem and roots, whereas 100 and 200 mM NaCl during 24 h enhanced the concentration of chlorophylls, carotenoids, anthocyans, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The decrease in protein carbonyl groups was found at 24-hour exposure to 200 mM salt. The treatment during 24, 48 and 72 h to 200 mM salt increased the level of total and high molecular mass thiols, whereas low molecular mass thiol content was by 20-25% higher at 48 h exposure to all used salt concentrations. The activity of guaiacol peroxidase was higher only at 24 h exposure to 100 and 200 mM salt, and catalase--at 50 mM during 48 h. At 72-hour exposure, catalase activity was by 27 and 41% higher in seedlings, exposed to 50 and 200 mM NaCl, respectively. Therefore, it is concluded the plant exposure to 50-200 mM salt initially developed oxidative stress, inducing adaptive response--an increase in antioxidant potential and efficiency of systems of energy production. That results in plant adaptation to unfavourable conditions.

  14. Elodea nuttallii exposure to mercury exposure under enhanced ultraviolet radiation: Effects on bioaccumulation, transcriptome, pigment content and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Regier, Nicole; Beauvais-Flück, Rebecca; Slaveykova, Vera I; Cosio, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    The hypothesis that increased UV radiation result in co-tolerance to Hg toxicity in aquatic plants was studied at the physiological and transcriptomic level in Elodea nuttallii. At the transcriptomic level, combined exposure to UV+Hg enhanced the stress response in comparison with single treatments, affecting the expression level of transcripts involved in energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, nutrition, and redox homeostasis. Single and combined UV and Hg treatments dysregulated different genes but with similar functions, suggesting a fine regulation of the plant to stresses triggered by Hg, UV and their combination but lack of co-tolerance. At the physiological level, UV+Hg treatment reduced chlorophyll content and depleted antioxidative compounds such as anthocyanin and GSH/GSSG in E. nuttallii. Nonetheless, combined exposure to UV+Hg resulted in about 30% reduction of Hg accumulation into shoots vs exposure to Hg alone, which was congruent with the level of expression of several transporter genes, as well as the UV effect on Hg bioavailability in water. The findings of the present work underlined the importance of performing experimentation under environmentally realistic conditions and to consider the interplay between contaminants and environmental variables such as light that might have confounding effects to better understand and anticipate the effects of multiple stressors in aquatic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of magnetic iron oxide (Fe₃O₄) nanoparticles on the growth and photosynthetic pigment content of Picochlorum sp.

    PubMed

    Hazeem, Layla J; Waheed, Fatima Abdul; Rashdan, Suad; Bououdina, Mohamed; Brunet, Loïc; Slomianny, Christian; Boukherroub, Rabah; Elmeselmani, Wael A

    2015-08-01

    Magnetite iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (NPs) are key materials applied in many different fields of modern technology. The potential environmental impact of these NPs is of great concern. In this study, initially the effect of Fe3O4 NPs size (20 and 40 nm) as well as bulk (>100 nm) at 200 mg L(-1) on Picochlorum sp. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) is investigated during the different growth phases. The most inhibitory NPs were then chosen to assess their effects at different concentrations. The 20 nm NPs at 200 mg L(-1) were found to significantly reduce the viable cell concentration and chlorophyll a content during the exponential growth phase compared to the other particle sizes. However, the 20 nm NPs at different concentrations were found to promote algal growth during the late growth stages (stationary and decline phases) compared to the control. Additionally, algae were found to accelerate the aggregation and sedimentation of nanoparticles into the medium and therefore can be considered as potential organisms for bioremediation of nano-pollution.

  16. Effect of Different Light Qualities on Growth, Pigment Content, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in the Red Alga Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Wu, Huanyang

    2016-01-01

    Spectral light changes evoke different morphogenetic and photosynthetic responses that can vary among different algae species. The aim of this study is to investigate the photosynthetic characteristics of the red macroalgae grown under different spectrum environments. In this study, Pyropia haitanensis were cultured under blue, red, and green LED and fluorescent tubes light. The growth rate, photopigment composition, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzymes activities in different light spectrums were investigated. The results revealed that growth rate was significantly higher in the thalli grown under blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light. Contents of Chl a and phycobiliprotein in red light were lower among all the growth conditions. Furthermore, a striking increase in SOD and CAT activity was observed in red light treatment along with the NPQ increase. The results revealed that the photosynthetic efficiency and increased growth rate of P. haitanensis benefitted from light spectrums such as blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light by pigment composition and photochemical efficiency manipulation, whereas red light has disadvantageous effects. Accordingly, the results for improving quality and the economic yield of algae species in some extent and the combination of different wavelengths could allow better economic resource exploitation.

  17. Effect of Different Light Qualities on Growth, Pigment Content, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in the Red Alga Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Spectral light changes evoke different morphogenetic and photosynthetic responses that can vary among different algae species. The aim of this study is to investigate the photosynthetic characteristics of the red macroalgae grown under different spectrum environments. In this study, Pyropia haitanensis were cultured under blue, red, and green LED and fluorescent tubes light. The growth rate, photopigment composition, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzymes activities in different light spectrums were investigated. The results revealed that growth rate was significantly higher in the thalli grown under blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light. Contents of Chl a and phycobiliprotein in red light were lower among all the growth conditions. Furthermore, a striking increase in SOD and CAT activity was observed in red light treatment along with the NPQ increase. The results revealed that the photosynthetic efficiency and increased growth rate of P. haitanensis benefitted from light spectrums such as blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light by pigment composition and photochemical efficiency manipulation, whereas red light has disadvantageous effects. Accordingly, the results for improving quality and the economic yield of algae species in some extent and the combination of different wavelengths could allow better economic resource exploitation. PMID:27642603

  18. Determination of mesenchymal stem cell fate by pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) results in increased adiposity and reduced bone mineral content.

    PubMed

    Gattu, Arijeet K; Swenson, E Scott; Iwakiri, Yasuko; Samuel, Varman T; Troiano, Nancy; Berry, Ryan; Church, Christopher D; Rodeheffer, Matthew S; Carpenter, Thomas O; Chung, Chuhan

    2013-11-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), the protein product of the SERPINF1 gene, has been linked to distinct diseases involving adipose or bone tissue, the metabolic syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type VI. Since mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation into adipocytes vs. osteoblasts can be regulated by specific factors, PEDF-directed dependency of murine and human MSCs was assessed. PEDF inhibited adipogenesis and promoted osteoblast differentiation of murine MSCs, osteoblast precursors, and human MSCs. Blockade of adipogenesis by PEDF suppressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), adiponectin, and other adipocyte markers by nearly 90% compared with control-treated cells (P<0.001). Differentiation to osteoblasts by PEDF resulted in a common pathway that involved PPARγ suppression (P<0.01). Canonical Wnt-β-catenin signaling results in a MSC differentiation pattern analogous to that seen with PEDF. Thus, adding PEDF enhanced Wnt-β-catenin signal transduction in human MSCs, demonstrating a novel Wnt agonist function. In PEDF knockout (KO) mice, total body adiposity was increased by >50% compared with controls, illustrating its systemic role as a negative regulator of adipogenesis. Bones from KO mice demonstrated a reduction in mineral content recapitulating the OI type VI phenotype. These results demonstrate that the human diseases associated with PEDF reflect its ability to modulate MSC differentiation.

  19. Gamma radiation effects on seed germination, growth and pigment content, and ESR study of induced free radicals in maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Marcu, Delia; Damian, Grigore; Cosma, Constantin; Cristea, Victoria

    2013-09-01

    The effects of gamma radiation are investigated by studying plant germination, growth and development, and biochemical characteristics of maize. Maize dry seeds are exposed to a gamma source at doses ranging from 0.1 to 1 kGy. Our results show that the germination potential, expressed through the final germination percentage and the germination index, as well as the physiological parameters of maize seedlings (root and shoot lengths) decreased by increasing the irradiation dose. Moreover, plants derived from seeds exposed at higher doses (≤0.5 kGy) did not survive more than 10 days. Biochemical differences based on photosynthetic pigment (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids) content revealed an inversely proportional relationship to doses of exposure. Furthermore, the concentration of chlorophyll a was higher than chlorophyll b in both irradiated and non-irradiated seedlings. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy used to evaluate the amount of free radicals induced by gamma ray treatment demonstrates that the relative concentration of radiation-induced free radicals depends linearly on the absorbed doses.

  20. Association of the OCA2 Polymorphism His615Arg with Melanin Content in East Asian Populations: Further Evidence of Convergent Evolution of Skin Pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Melissa; Bigham, Abigail; Tan, Jinze; Li, Shilin; Gozdzik, Agnes; Ross, Kendra; Jin, Li; Parra, Esteban J.

    2010-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed important advances in our understanding of the genetics of pigmentation in European populations, but very little is known about the genes involved in skin pigmentation variation in East Asian populations. Here, we present the results of a study evaluating the association of 10 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) located within 5 pigmentation candidate genes (OCA2, DCT, ADAM17, ADAMTS20, and TYRP1) with skin pigmentation measured quantitatively in a sample of individuals of East Asian ancestry living in Canada. We show that the non-synonymous polymorphism rs1800414 (His615Arg) located within the OCA2 gene is significantly associated with skin pigmentation in this sample. We replicated this result in an independent sample of Chinese individuals of Han ancestry. This polymorphism is characterized by a derived allele that is present at a high frequency in East Asian populations, but is absent in other population groups. In both samples, individuals with the derived G allele, which codes for the amino acid arginine, show lower melanin levels than those with the ancestral A allele, which codes for the amino acid histidine. An analysis of this non-synonymous polymorphism using several programs to predict potential functional effects provides additional support for the role of this SNP in skin pigmentation variation in East Asian populations. Our results are consistent with previous research indicating that evolution to lightly-pigmented skin occurred, at least in part, independently in Europe and East Asia. PMID:20221248

  1. Pigment content of D1-D2-cytochrome b559 reaction center preparations after removal of CP47 contamination: an immunological study.

    PubMed

    Pueyo, J J; Moliner, E; Seibert, M; Picorel, R

    1995-11-21

    Isolated D1-D2-cytochrome b559 photosystem II reaction center preparations with pigment stoichiometry higher than 4 chlorophylls per 2 pheophytins can be contaminated with CP47 proximal antenna complex. Reaction center prepared by a modification of the Nanba-Satoh procedure and containing about 6 chlorophylls per 2 pheophytins showed immuno-cross-reactivity when probed with a monoclonal antibody raised against the CP47 polypeptide. Furthermore, they could be fractionated successfully by Superose-12 sieve chromatography into two different populations. The first few fractions off the column contained a more definitive 435 nm shoulder corresponding to increased chlorophyll content, and showed strong immuno-cross-reactivity with the CP47 antibody. The peak fractions off the column displayed a less prominent 435 nm shoulder, and did not cross-react with the antibody. Moreover, when a 6-chlorophyll preparation was mixed with Sepharose beads coupled to CP47 antibody, the eluted material corresponded to a preparation of about 4 chlorophylls per 2 pheophytins and did not show any cross-reaction with the antibody against CP47. The amount of CP47 protein in the 6-chlorophyll preparation as quantitated using Coomassie Blue staining or from gel blots was sufficient to account for most of the extra 2 chlorophylls. We conclude that D1-D2-cytochrome b559 preparations containing more than 4 chlorophylls per 2 pheophytins can be contaminated with small amounts of CP47-D1-D2-Cyt b559 complex and that native photosystem II reaction centers contain 4 core chlorophylls per 2 pheophytins.

  2. Pigment content of D1-D2-cytochrome b{sub 559} reaction center preparations after removal of CP47 contamination: An immunological study

    SciTech Connect

    Pueyo, J.J.; Moliner, E.; Siebert, M.

    1995-11-21

    Isolated D1-D2-cytochrome b{sub 559} photosystem II reaction center preparations with pigment stoichiometry higher than 4 chlorophylls per 2 pheophytins can be contaminated with CP47 proximal antenna complex. Reaction centers prepared by a modification of the Nanba-Satoh procedure and containing about 6 chlorophylls per 2 pheophytins showed immuno-cross-reactivity when probed with a monoclonal antibody raised against the CP47 polypeptide. Furthermore, they could be fractionated successfully by Superose-12 sieve chromatography into two different populations. The first few fractions off the column contained a more definitive 435 nm shoulder corresponding to increased chlorophyll content, and showed strong immuno-cross-reactivity with the CP47 antibody. The peak fractions off the column displayed a less prominent 435 nm shoulder, and did not cross-react with the antibody. Moreover, when a 6-chlorophyll preparation was mixed with Sepharose beads coupled to CP47 antibody. the eluted material corresponded to a preparation of about 4 chlorophylls per 2 pheophytins and did not show any cross-reaction with the antibody against CP47. The amount of CP47 protein in the 6-chlorophyll preparation as quantitated using Coomassie Blue staining or from gel blots was sufficient to account for most of the extra 2 chlorophylls. We conclude that D1-D2-cytochrome b{sub 559} preparations containing more than 4 chlorophylls per 2 pheophytins can be contaminated with small amounts of CP47-D1-D2-Cyt b{sub 559} complex and that native photosystem II reaction centers contain 4 core chlorophylls per 2 pheophytins. 38 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Definition of an automated Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) system for the comparison of dermoscopic images of pigmented skin lesions

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Alfonso; Murace, Raffaele; Dragonetti, Emanuele; Manganaro, Mario; Guerra, Oscar; Bizzi, Stefano; Galli, Luca

    2009-01-01

    Background New generations of image-based diagnostic machines are based on digital technologies for data acquisition; consequently, the diffusion of digital archiving systems for diagnostic exams preservation and cataloguing is rapidly increasing. To overcome the limits of current state of art text-based access methods, we have developed a novel content-based search engine for dermoscopic images to support clinical decision making. Methods To this end, we have enrolled, from 2004 to 2008, 3415 caucasian patients and collected 24804 dermoscopic images corresponding to 20491 pigmented lesions with known pathology. The images were acquired with a well defined dermoscopy system and stored to disk in 24-bit per pixel TIFF format using interactive software developed in C++, in order to create a digital archive. Results The analysis system of the images consists in the extraction of the low-level representative features which permits the retrieval of similar images in terms of colour and texture from the archive, by using a hierarchical multi-scale computation of the Bhattacharyya distance of all the database images representation with respect to the representation of user submitted (query). Conclusion The system is able to locate, retrieve and display dermoscopic images similar in appearance to one that is given as a query, using a set of primitive features not related to any specific diagnostic method able to visually characterize the image. Similar search engine could find possible usage in all sectors of diagnostic imaging, or digital signals, which could be supported by the information available in medical archives. PMID:19682395

  4. Yield components, leaf pigment contents, patterns of seed filling, dry matter, LAI and LAID of some safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) genotypes in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mokhtassi-Bidgoli, A; Akbari, Gh Al; Mirhadi, M J; Pazoki, A R; Soufizadeh, S

    2007-05-01

    In order to assess the genotypic variation among yield components and different physiological parameters and their relationships with safflower seed yield, six safflower genotypes were grown in Pakdasht, Iran in a randomized complete block design with four replications, during 2003-2004 growing season. Among the genotypes, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a+b, total carotenoids contents, chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratio and Chlorophyll a+b/total cartenoids ratio ranged from 0.78 to 1.10, from 0.54 to 0.71, from 1.37 to 1.71, from 0.09 to 0.13 mg g(-1), from 1.33 to 1.68 and from 13.52 to 14.82, respectively. Negative relationships existed between seed yield and pigment contents. There were significant yield differences among genotypes and varied from 2452.60 to 3897.20 kg ha(-1). A diverse range of capitulum diameter (24.08-28.91 mm), seed weight/capitulum (1.18-2.04 g), number of seeds/m2 (8704.5-13165.4), number of capitula/plant (16.38-23.27), number of seeds/capitulum (35.65-41.90) and 1000-seed weight (29.94-50.60 g) was recorded. Genotypes differed in HI and the HI values ranged from 21.83% (LRK-262) to 29.62% (IL.111). In the studied set of 6 safflower genotypes, total biomass and LAI peaked around after full flowering and at the beginning of flowering, respectively. Zarghan-279 (with the greatest LAID) had 25% longer LAID than LRV.51.51 (with the lowest LAID). Differences among genotypes for rate of seed filling and effective seed filling duration were significant and differences in seed yield could be attributed to differences in the rate of seed filling. The results of this experiment indicate that physiological parameters including rate of seed filling, rapid leaf formation and expansion and delayed plant senescence are the characteristics of high-yielding safflower. Also, higher dry matter accumulation, HI, seed weight/capitulum, 1000-seed weight and capitulum diameter were found to be closely related to high-yield genotypes.

  5. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  6. Monascus pigments.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yanli; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2012-12-01

    Monascus pigments (MPs) as natural food colorants have been widely utilized in food industries in the world, especially in China and Japan. Moreover, MPs possess a range of biological activities, such as anti-mutagenic and anticancer properties, antimicrobial activities, potential anti-obesity activities, and so on. So, in the past two decades, more and more attention has been paid to MPs. Up to now, more than 50 MPs have been identified and studied. However, there have been some reviews about red fermented rice and the secondary metabolites produced by Monascus, but no monograph or review of MPs has been published. This review covers the categories and structures, biosynthetic pathway, production, properties, detection methods, functions, and molecular biology of MPs.

  7. Population structure, egg production and gut content pigment of large grazing copepods during the spring phytoplankton bloom in the Oyashio region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Onishi, Yuka; Omata, Aya; Kawai, Momoka; Kaneda, Mariko; Ikeda, Tsutomu

    2010-09-01

    As a basis for analyzing development of six large grazing copepods ( Eucalanus bungii, Metridia pacifica, M. okhotensis, Neocalanus cristatus, N. flemingeri and N. plumchrus) in the Oyashio region, quasi-daily twin-NORPAC net (0.33 and 0.10 mm mesh) hauls were taken through the upper 150 m and 500 m at a station southwest of Hokkaido before (9-14 March) and after (6-30 April) the onset of the phytoplankton bloom in 2007. Based on additional fresh specimens collected from 0-150 m, egg production of E. bungii, M. pacifica and M. okhotensis, and gut pigments of late copepodid stages in each species were evaluated. Total zooplankton biomass was greater from 10 April onward by a factor of 2- to 8-fold the previous levels. This increase of the 0-150 m biomass was caused by development of Neocalanus spp. copepodids and upward migration of resting E. bungii. Egg production of E. bungii peaked on 18 April, while abundance of its nauplii and C1 peaked on 20 and 25 April, respectively. Sex ratio and C6-female gonad maturation index of E. bungii showed new recruitment to C6 during 20-30 April, likely derived from a population that over-wintered as C3 or C4. Egg production and hatchability of M. pacifica and M. okhotensis were highly variable and no temporal trend was detected. Comparison with field abundance data for Metridia spp. suggests that our estimates of egg production and hatchability are too low, despite care with experimental conditions. All the Neocalanus species utilize the bloom as energy for juvenile growth. Neocalanus cristatus developed from C2 through C4, and stage duration of C3 was estimated to be 24 days. Neocalanus flemingeri also developed from C1 through C3, and stage durations of C1 and C2 were estimated to be 7-9 days. Neocalanus plumchrus occurred in small numbers from mid-April onward. The stage duration estimates for Neocalanus spp. are similar to those reported from the high-nutrition southeastern Bering Sea shelf. Gut pigment variation clearly

  8. Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis (PVNS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... OverviewWhat is pigmented villonodular synovitis?Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a joint problem that usually affects the ... ankle, elbow, hand or foot.When you have PVNS, the lining of a joint becomes swollen and ...

  9. Oral pigmentation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  10. Oral pigmentation: A review.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Ramakrishnan, K; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations.

  11. Overview of plant pigments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids and betalains are four major classes of biological pigments produced in plants. Chlorophylls are the primary pigments responsible for plant green and photosynthesis. The other three are accessary pigments and secondary metabolites that yield non-green colors and...

  12. Mild reductions in cytosolic NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity result in lower amino acid contents and pigmentation without impacting growth.

    PubMed

    Sulpice, Ronan; Sienkiewicz-Porzucek, Agata; Osorio, Sonia; Krahnert, Ina; Stitt, Mark; Fernie, Alisdair R; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano

    2010-10-01

    Transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were generated targeting the cytosolic NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (SlICDH1) via the RNA interference approach. The resultant transformants displayed a relatively mild reduction in the expression and activity of the target enzyme in the leaves. However, biochemical analyses revealed that the transgenic lines displayed a considerable shift in metabolism, being characterized by decreases in the levels of the TCA cycle intermediates, total amino acids, photosynthetic pigments, starch and NAD(P)H. The plants showed little change in photosynthesis with the exception of a minor decrease in maximum photosynthetic efficiency (F (v)/F (m)), and a small decrease in growth compared to the wild type. These results reveal that even small changes in cytosolic NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity lead to noticeable alterations in the activities of enzymes involved in primary nitrate assimilation and in the synthesis of 2-oxoglutarate derived amino acids. These data are discussed within the context of current models for the role of the various isoforms of isocitrate dehydrogenase within plant amino acid metabolism.

  13. Mild reductions in cytosolic NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity result in lower amino acid contents and pigmentation without impacting growth

    PubMed Central

    Sulpice, Ronan; Sienkiewicz-Porzucek, Agata; Osorio, Sonia; Krahnert, Ina; Stitt, Mark; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were generated targeting the cytosolic NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (SlICDH1) via the RNA interference approach. The resultant transformants displayed a relatively mild reduction in the expression and activity of the target enzyme in the leaves. However, biochemical analyses revealed that the transgenic lines displayed a considerable shift in metabolism, being characterized by decreases in the levels of the TCA cycle intermediates, total amino acids, photosynthetic pigments, starch and NAD(P)H. The plants showed little change in photosynthesis with the exception of a minor decrease in maximum photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), and a small decrease in growth compared to the wild type. These results reveal that even small changes in cytosolic NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity lead to noticeable alterations in the activities of enzymes involved in primary nitrate assimilation and in the synthesis of 2-oxoglutarate derived amino acids. These data are discussed within the context of current models for the role of the various isoforms of isocitrate dehydrogenase within plant amino acid metabolism. PMID:20473773

  14. Effects of small intestinal submucosa content on the adhesion and proliferation of retinal pigment epithelial cells on SIS-PLGA films.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ga Young; Kang, Su Ji; Lee, So Jin; Song, Jeong Eun; Joo, Choun-Ki; Lee, Dongwon; Khang, Gilson

    2017-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays a critical role in the maintenance of the normal functions of the retina, particularly the photoreceptors. RPE dysfunction, vision loss and degeneration have been implicated as the cause of many retinal diseases, including retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To overcome such disorders, tissue engineering could offer useful strategies, using biodegradable polymeric films to replace diseased or lost RPE. Synthetic/natural hybrid films have been studied as a temporary substrate for growing RPEs in biological implantations. In this study, we prepared small intestinal submucosa (SIS)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA) hybrid films and seeded human RPE cells (ARPE-19 cells) onto the film surface. We investigated the film suitability for RPE cell proliferation by MTT assay. The morphology of cellular adhesion on the film was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole (AEC) staining were performed to examine mRNA expression and to compare cell proliferation on the films, using cytokeratin as a marker of RPE. Conclusively, we confirmed the higher cell survival rate and much stronger phenotype expression of RPEs on SIS-PLGA films compared to pure PLGA films. These results demonstrated the potential application of SIS-PLGA films in tissue-engineering strategies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Toxicological effects of copper oxide nanoparticles on the growth rate, photosynthetic pigment content, and cell morphology of the duckweed Landoltia punctata.

    PubMed

    Lalau, Cristina Moreira; Mohedano, Rodrigo de Almeida; Schmidt, Éder C; Bouzon, Zenilda L; Ouriques, Luciane C; dos Santos, Rodrigo W; da Costa, Cristina H; Vicentini, Denice S; Matias, William Gerson

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the application of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) has increased considerably, primarily in scientific and industrial fields. However, studies to assess their health risks and environmental impacts are scarce. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the toxicological effects of CuO-NPs on the duckweed species Landoltia punctata, which was used as a test organism. To accomplish this, duckweed was grown under standard procedures according to ISO DIS 20079 and exposed to three different concentrations of CuO-NPs (0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 g L(-1)), with one control group (without CuO-NPs). The toxicological effects were measured based on growth rate inhibition, changes in the plant's morphology, effects on ultrastructure, and alterations in photosynthetic pigments. The morphological and ultrastructural effects were evaluated by electronic, scanning and light microscopic analysis, and CuO-NPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta potential, and superficial area methods of analysis. This analysis was performed to evaluate nanoparticle size and form in solution and sample stability. The results showed that CuO-NPs affected morphology more significantly than growth rate. L. punctata also showed the ability to remove copper ions. However, for this plant to be representative within the trophic chain, the biomagnification of effects must be assessed.

  16. Photosynthetic acclimation to light in woody and herbaceous species: a comparison of leaf structure, pigment content and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics measured in the field.

    PubMed

    Hallik, L; Niinemets, U; Kull, O

    2012-01-01

    Acclimation of foliage photosynthetic properties occurs with varying time kinetics, but structural, chemical and physiological factors controlling the kinetics of acclimation are poorly understood, especially in field environments. We measured chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, leaf total carotenoid (Car), chlorophyll (Chl) and nitrogen (N) content and leaf dry mass per area (LMA) along vertical light gradients in natural canopies of the herb species, Inula salicina and Centaurea jacea, and tree species, Populus tremula and Tilia cordata, in the middle of the growing season. Presence of stress was assessed on the basis of night measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence. Our aim was to compare the light acclimation of leaf traits, which respond to light availability at long (LMA and N), medium (Chl a/b ratio, Car/Chl ratio) and short time scales (fluorescence characteristics). We found that light acclimation of nitrogen content per unit leaf area (N(area)), chlorophyll content per unit dry mass (Chl(mass)) and Chl/N ratio were related to modifications in LMA. The maximum PSII quantum yield (F(v) /F(m)) increased with increasing growth irradiance in I. salicina and P. tremula but decreased in T. cordata. Leaf growth irradiance, N content and plant species explained the majority of variability in chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, up to 90% for steady-state fluorescence yield, while the contribution of leaf total carotenoid content was generally not significant. Chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics did not differ strongly between growth forms, but differed among species within a given growth form. These data highlight that foliage acclimation to light is driven by interactions between traits with varying time kinetics.

  17. Melatonin enhances root regeneration, photosynthetic pigments, biomass, total carbohydrates and proline content in the cherry rootstock PHL-C (Prunus avium × Prunus cerasus).

    PubMed

    Sarropoulou, Virginia; Dimassi-Theriou, Kortessa; Therios, Ioannis; Koukourikou-Petridou, Magdalene

    2012-12-01

    The present study, investigates the effects of melatonin (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μM) on the morphogenic and biochemical responses in the cherry rootstock PHL-C (Prunus avium L. × Prunus cerasus L.), from shoot tip explants. The incorporation of melatonin (0-10 μM) in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, greatly influenced rooting either positively or negatively. Melatonin, irrespective of its concentration, had a negative effect concerning the number of roots. However, application of 0.5 μM melatonin significantly increased the root length; while 1 μM melatonin increased the root length by 2.5 times, and the fresh weight of the roots by 4 times, in comparison to the control. Although 0.05 μM melatonin increased rooting by 11.11%, 5 μM melatonin had a significant reduction on the number, the fresh weight of roots, and the rooting percentage. Melatonin concentration of 0.1 μM resulted in the greatest chlorophyll (a + b) content, and 5-10 μM reduced the chlorophyll concentration by 2 times, compared to the control. The high melatonin concentrations (5 and 10 μM), increased the levels of proline and carbohydrates in leaves by 3-4 times. In the roots, 0.5 μM of melatonin concentration increased the carbohydrate levels by 1.5 times, while 0.05, 0.1 and 1 μM melatonin concentration significantly reduced the proline content. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Cone visual pigments.

    PubMed

    Imamoto, Yasushi; Shichida, Yoshinori

    2014-05-01

    Cone visual pigments are visual opsins that are present in vertebrate cone photoreceptor cells and act as photoreceptor molecules responsible for photopic vision. Like the rod visual pigment rhodopsin, which is responsible for scotopic vision, cone visual pigments contain the chromophore 11-cis-retinal, which undergoes cis-trans isomerization resulting in the induction of conformational changes of the protein moiety to form a G protein-activating state. There are multiple types of cone visual pigments with different absorption maxima, which are the molecular basis of color discrimination in animals. Cone visual pigments form a phylogenetic sister group with non-visual opsin groups such as pinopsin, VA opsin, parapinopsin and parietopsin groups. Cone visual pigments diverged into four groups with different absorption maxima, and the rhodopsin group diverged from one of the four groups of cone visual pigments. The photochemical behavior of cone visual pigments is similar to that of pinopsin but considerably different from those of other non-visual opsins. G protein activation efficiency of cone visual pigments is also comparable to that of pinopsin but higher than that of the other non-visual opsins. Recent measurements with sufficient time-resolution demonstrated that G protein activation efficiency of cone visual pigments is lower than that of rhodopsin, which is one of the molecular bases for the lower amplification of cones compared to rods. In this review, the uniqueness of cone visual pigments is shown by comparison of their molecular properties with those of non-visual opsins and rhodopsin. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Retinal Proteins - You can teach an old dog new tricks. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Laser treatment of pigmented lesions.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, D J

    1997-07-01

    Several pigment-specific lasers can effectively treat epidermal and dermal pigmented lesions without complications using the basic principles of selective photothermolysis. Although such pigmented lesions as solar lentigines and nevi of Ota are relatively easy to treat using pigment-specific laser technology, café-au-lait macules and melasma show variable responses to treatment. New, long-pulsed pigment-specific lasers may prove to further enhance the clinical results obtained in resistant pigmented lesions and other conditions.

  20. Ion transport in pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Bellono, Nicholas W.; Oancea, Elena V.

    2014-01-01

    Skin melanocytes and ocular pigment cells contain specialized organelles called melanosomes, which are responsible for the synthesis of melanin, the major pigment in mammals. Defects in the complex mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and regulation result in vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired development of the visual system,, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Ion transport across cellular membranes is critical for many biological processes, including pigmentation, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates melanin synthesis, storage, and transfer are not understood. In this review we first discuss ion channels and transporters that function at the plasma membrane of melanocytes; in the second part we consider ion transport across the membrane of intracellular organelles, with emphasis on melanosomes. We discuss recently characterized lysosomal and endosomal ion channels and transporters associated with pigmentation phenotypes. We then review the evidence for melanosomal channels and transporters critical for pigmentation, discussing potential molecular mechanisms mediating their function. The studies investigating ion transport in pigmentation physiology open new avenues for future research and could reveal novel molecular mechanisms underlying melanogenesis. PMID:25034214

  1. [Microbial sources of pigments].

    PubMed

    Cañizares-Villanueva, R O; Ríos-Leal, E; Olvera Ramírez, R; Ponce Noyola, T; Márquez Rocha, F

    1998-01-01

    Pigments from natural sources has been obtained since long time ago, and their interest has increased due to the toxicity problems caused by those of synthetic origin. In this way the pigments from microbial sources are a good alternative. Some of more important natural pigments, are the carotenoids, flavonoids (anthocyanins) and some tetrapirroles (chloropyls, phycobilliproteins). Another group less important are the betalains and quinones. The carotenoids are molecules formed by isoprenoids units and the most important used as colorant are the alpha and beta carotene which are precursors of vitamin A, and some xantophylls as astaxanthin. The pigment more used in the industry is the beta-carotene which is obtained from some microalgae and cyanobacteria. The astaxanthin another important carotenoid is a red pigment of great commercial value, and it is used in the pharmaceutical feed and acuaculture industries. This pigments is mainly obtained from Phaffia rhodozyma and Haematococcus pluvialis and other organisms. The phycobilliproteins obtained from cyanobacteria and some group of algae, have recently been increased on the food industries. In the last years it has been used as fluorescent marker in biochemical assays. Our research group have carried out studies about the factors that improve the production of these pigments obtained from different microbial species as well as the methods for their extraction and application.

  2. Ion transport in pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Oancea, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Skin melanocytes and ocular pigment cells contain specialized organelles called melanosomes, which are responsible for the synthesis of melanin, the major pigment in mammals. Defects in the complex mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and regulation result in vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired development of the visual system, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Ion transport across cellular membranes is critical for many biological processes, including pigmentation, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates melanin synthesis, storage, and transfer are not understood. In this review we first discuss ion channels and transporters that function at the plasma membrane of melanocytes; in the second part we consider ion transport across the membrane of intracellular organelles, with emphasis on melanosomes. We discuss recently characterized lysosomal and endosomal ion channels and transporters associated with pigmentation phenotypes. We then review the evidence for melanosomal channels and transporters critical for pigmentation, discussing potential molecular mechanisms mediating their function. The studies investigating ion transport in pigmentation physiology open new avenues for future research and could reveal novel molecular mechanisms underlying melanogenesis.

  3. Ultrastructure and migration of screening pigments in the retina of Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera, Pieridae).

    PubMed

    Ribi, W A

    1978-07-13

    The retinal morphology of the butterfly, Pieris rapae L., was investigated using light and electron microscopy with special emphasis on the morphology and distribution of its screening pigments. Pigment migration in pigment- and retinula cells was analysed after light-dark adaptation and after different selective chromatic adaptations. The primary pigment cells with white- to yellow-green pigments symmetrically surround the cone process and the distal half of the crystalline cone, whilst the six secondary pigment cells, around each ommatidium, contain dark brown pigment granules. The nine retinula cells in one ommatidium can be categorised into four types. Receptor cells 1-4, which have microvilli in the distal half of the ommatidium only, contain numerous dark brown pigment granules. On the basis of the pigment content and morphology of their pigment granules, two groups of cells, cells 1, 2 and cells 3, 4 can be distinguished. The four diagonally arranged cells (5-8), with rhabdomeric structures and pigments in the proximal half of the cells, contain small red pigment granules of irregular shape. The ninth cell, which has only a small number of microvilli, lacks pigment. Chromatic adaptation experiments in which the location of retinula cell pigment granules was used as a criterium reveal two UV-receptors (cells 1 and 2), two green receptors (cells 3 and 4) and four cells (5-8) containing the red screening pigment, with a yellow-green sensitivity.

  4. Pigment-protein complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Siegelman, H W

    1980-01-01

    The photosynthetically-active pigment protein complexes of procaryotes and eucaryotes include chlorophyll proteins, carotenochlorophyll proteins, and biliproteins. They are either integral components or attached to photosynthetic membranes. Detergents are frequently required to solubilize the pigment-protein complexes. The membrane localization and detergent solubilization strongly suggest that the pigment-protein complexes are bound to the membranes by hydrophobic interactions. Hydrophobic interactions of proteins are characterized by an increase in entropy. Their bonding energy is directly related to temperature and ionic strength. Hydrophobic-interaction chromatography, a relatively new separation procedure, can furnish an important method for the purification of pigment-protein complexes. Phycobilisome purification and properties provide an example of the need to maintain hydrophobic interactions to preserve structure and function.

  5. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms.

    PubMed

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-09-16

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries.

  6. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries. PMID:26389924

  7. Skin pigmentation evaluation in broilers fed natural and synthetic pigments.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, M P; Hirschler, E M; Sams, A R

    2005-01-01

    Broiler carcass skin color is important in the United States and Mexico. This study evaluated the use of natural and synthetic pigments in broiler diets at commercial levels. Birds were fed natural or synthetic pigments at low or high levels, simulating US and Mexican commercial practices. Skin color was measured during live production (3 to 7 wk of age) and after slaughter and chilling. The natural pigments had consistently greater skin b* values (yellowness) than the synthetic pigments. The high levels produced greater skin b* values than the low levels, regardless of source. The synthetic pigments had a slower increase in skin b* but reached the same level as the natural low by 7 wk. There was no difference in skin a* values (redness) due to pigment source or level or the age of the bird. By 7 wk, all pigment sources approached plateau levels in the blood, but the synthetic pigment diet produced higher blood levels of yellow and red pigments than the natural pigment diets. Processing intensified skin yellowness and reduced skin redness. These data suggest that although synthetic pigments might have been absorbed better than natural ones, natural pigments were more efficient at increasing skin yellowness and there were only small differences between high and low levels for each pigment source. This finding may allow reduction in pigment use and feed cost to achieve the same skin acceptance by the consumer.

  8. Disorders of pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Fistarol, Susanna K; Itin, Peter H

    2010-03-01

    Skin color is highly individual and the variations are controlled by numerous genes. The different skin colors result from the size and number of melanosomes and do not mirror the amount of melanocytes. Disorders of pigmentation can result from migration abnormalities of melanocytes from the neural crest to the skin during embryogenesis. In addition, impairment of melanosome transfer to the surrounding keratinocytes, an alteration in melanin synthesis and a defective degradation or removal of melanin may lead to abnormal skin pigmentation. Immunologic or toxic mediated destructions of melanocytes can end in pigmentation disorders. Disorders of pigmentation are classified in hypo- or hyperpigmentation which can occur as a genetic or acquired disease. They can manifest locally or diffuse. Congenital hypopigmentation can be restricted to the skin as in piebaldism or they represent a systemic disease as in Menkes disease or phenylketonuria. Localized hypo- or hyperpigmentation in children may serve as markers for systemic diseases. Ash-leaf hypopigmentation are characteristic for tuberous sclerosis and more than 5 café-au-lait spots suggest neurofibromatosis 1 (von Recklinghausen disease). The most common autoimmune-induced depigmentation is vitiligo. Generalized hyperpigmentation only rarely reflects a primary genetic disorder but is most often from acquired diseases as in Addison disease, secondary hemochromatosis or primary biliary cirrhosis. Treatment of pigmentation disorders are based on a diagnosis which sometimes allow a specific intervention. Cosmetically acceptable results are difficult to obtain.

  9. Pigmented central neurocytoma.

    PubMed

    Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Kalkanis, Steven N; Louis, David N

    2004-06-01

    Central neurocytoma is a low-grade neuronal neoplasm that occurs most often within the lateral ventricles. We report the case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with gait problems, headache and memory loss. Preoperative evaluation demonstrated a heterogeneous, hypervascular and partially cystic mass in the left lateral ventricle. Histopathological examination revealed characteristic features of central neurocytoma, including immunoreactivity for synaptophysin, as well as the unusual feature of abundant pigment in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. Special stains revealed iron, consistent with hemosiderin, but found no evidence of melanin or melanosomes. Previous reports of pigmented central neurocytoma have described the presence of lipofuscin or neuromelanin. To our knowledge, the present case represents the first example of pigmented central neurocytoma secondary to hemosiderin deposition.

  10. Radial retroiridal linear pigmentation.

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, G

    1981-01-01

    Radial retroiridal pigmented lines found on the peripheral anterior capsule of the lens have been interpreted since their description by Vogt as remnants of the tunica vasculosa retroiridalis (membrana capsulopupillaris). They were found in nearly 5% of adults. A control examination of 1108 children and juveniles failed to reveal a single example. They are therefore thought to be caused by pigment released from the posterior layers of the iris, particularly near the pupillary border in old age, as a result of constant abrasive movements of the iris on the anterior surface of the lens. Images PMID:7326223

  11. Biology of pigmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, F.

    1981-01-01

    The many factors involved in the normal pigmentation of human skin are highly complex involving anatomic, biochemical, and genetic aspects of melanocytes in the skin and the influence of UV light and various hormones on the melanocytes. It is probably more than just coincidence that the melanocytes, which are of neurogenic origin, are so responsive to several trophic hormones produced in the brain. Understanding of the various factors involved in the normal pigmentary process is crucial to explaining the many alterations and anomalies in human pigmentation.

  12. The peripheral clock regulates human pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Jonathan A; Tobin, Desmond J; Haslam, Iain S; Farjo, Nilofer; Farjo, Bessam; Al-Nuaimi, Yusur; Grimaldi, Benedetto; Paus, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Although the regulation of pigmentation is well characterized, it remains unclear whether cell-autonomous controls regulate the cyclic on-off switching of pigmentation in the hair follicle (HF). As human HFs and epidermal melanocytes express clock genes and proteins, and given that core clock genes (PER1, BMAL1) modulate human HF cycling, we investigated whether peripheral clock activity influences human HF pigmentation. We found that silencing BMAL1 or PER1 in human HFs increased HF melanin content. Furthermore, tyrosinase expression and activity, as well as TYRP1 and TYRP2 mRNA levels, gp100 protein expression, melanocyte dendricity, and the number gp100+ HF melanocytes, were all significantly increased in BMAL1 and/or PER1-silenced HFs. BMAL1 or PER1 silencing also increased epidermal melanin content, gp100 protein expression, and tyrosinase activity in human skin. These effects reflect direct modulation of melanocytes, as BMAL1 and/or PER1 silencing in isolated melanocytes increased tyrosinase activity and TYRP1/2 expression. Mechanistically, BMAL1 knockdown reduces PER1 transcription, and PER1 silencing induces phosphorylation of the master regulator of melanogenesis, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, thus stimulating human melanogenesis and melanocyte activity in situ and in vitro. Therefore, the molecular clock operates as a cell-autonomous modulator of human pigmentation and may be targeted for future therapeutic strategies.

  13. Structural and functional characterization of enamel pigmentation in shrews.

    PubMed

    Dumont, M; Tütken, T; Kostka, A; Duarte, M J; Borodin, S

    2014-04-01

    Pigmented tooth enamel occurs in several vertebrate clades, ranging from mammals to fish. Although an iron compound is associated with this orange to red colored pigmentation, its chemical and structural organization within the enamel is unknown. To determine the nature of the iron compound, we investigated heavily pigmented teeth of the northern short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda using combined characterization techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. We found that the pigmentation of the enamel with an iron content of around 8wt% results from a close to amorphous magnetite phase deposited around the nm-sized enamel crystals. Furthermore, the influence of the pigmentation on the enamel hardness was determined by nanoindentation measurements. Finally, the biomechanical function and biological context are discussed in light of the obtained results.

  14. [Effect of cyclic compounds on pigment formation in Aspergillus niger cultures].

    PubMed

    Malama, A A; Smirnova, L A

    1975-01-01

    The mycelial pigment os Asp. niger VP has been fractionated into four fractions ehose solubility is similar to melanin pigments obtained from other sources. The addition of pyrocatechol, L-aspartic, benzoic, kojic and salicylic acids to the liquid Capek medium stimulates the fungal growth but diminishes the yield of fractions of the melanin pigment from the mycelium. Cinnamic acid does not influence the growth but also decreases the yield of the pigment. DL-tyrosine stimulates the fungal growth and produces no influence on the total yield of fractions 2, 3 and 4 from the mycelial pigment. All the cyclic compounds enhance the pigmentation of the culture liquid and give rise to the formation of fractions 2 and 3 of the melanin pigment. This latter constitutes a substantial portion of the dry matter of the fungal cell. The pigment content in the mycelium is much higher than that in the culture liquid of the corresponding culture.

  15. Differences in pigmentation between life cycle stages in Scrippsiella lachrymosa (dinophyceae).

    PubMed

    Persson, Agneta; Smith, Barry C; Cyronak, Tyler; Cooper, Emily; DiTullio, Giacomo R

    2016-02-01

    Various life cycle stages of cyst-producing dinoflagellates often appear differently colored under the microscope; gametes appear paler while zygotes are darker in comparison to vegetative cells. To compare physiological and photochemical competency, the pigment composition of discrete life cycle stages was determined for the common resting cyst-producing dinoflagellate Scrippsiella lachrymosa. Vegetative cells had the highest cellular pigment content (25.2 ± 0.5 pg · cell(-1) ), whereas gamete pigment content was 22% lower. The pigment content of zygotes was 82% lower than vegetative cells, even though they appeared darker under the microscope. Zygotes of S. lachrymosa contained significantly higher cellular concentrations of β-carotene (0.65 ± 0.15 pg · cell(-1) ) than all other life stages. Photoprotective pigments and the de-epoxidation ratio of xanthophylls-cycle pigments in S. lachrymosa were significantly elevated in zygotes and cysts compared to other stages. This suggests a role for accessory pigments in combating intracellular oxidative stress during sexual reproduction or encystment. Resting cysts contained some pigments even though chloroplasts were not visible, suggesting that the brightly colored accumulation body contained photosynthetic pigments. The differences in pigmentation between life stages have implications for interpretation of pigment data from field samples when sampled during dinoflagellate blooms.

  16. The extraction of pigments from fresh Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liqun; Li, Pengcheng; Fan, Shoujin

    2008-05-01

    The pigments in Laminaria japonica was extracted with six organic solvents and analyzed in spectroscopy analysis. The extractions conditions were screened by an orthogonal test and the quantity of extracted pigments was determined spectroscopically. The results show that: (1) among the six organic solvents, acetone was the most effective one for the extraction; (2) the optimum extraction conditions were as follows: the ratio of S/M (solvent volume/ material weight) was 30 ml/g; fresh seaweed was extracted 2 times in 2 h; (3) the average total content of pigments was 1.85 mg/g (calculated with dry L. japonica).

  17. Determination of pigments in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Schoefs, Benoît

    2004-10-29

    Plant pigments are responsible for the shining color of plant tissues. They are also found in animal tissues and, eventually in transformed food products as additives. These pigments have an important impact on the commercial value of products, because the colors establish the first contact with the consumer. In addition plant pigments may have an influence on the health of the consumers. Pigments are labile: they can be easily altered, and even destroyed. Analytical processes have been developed to determine pigment composition. The aim of this paper is to provide a brief overview of these methods.

  18. Terahertz Analysis of Quinacridone Pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, A. D.; Kelly, M.; Lewis, R. A.

    2017-03-01

    We present terahertz spectroscopy and analysis of two commercially available quinacridone pigments in the 0.5-4.5 THz range. Our results show a clear distinction between quinacridone red and magenta pigments. We reveal four definite absorptions in the terahertz regime common to both pigments, but offset between the pigments by ˜0.2 THz. The lowest-energy line in each pigment is observed to increase in frequency by ˜0.1 THz as the temperature is reduced from 300 to 12 K.

  19. Metarhodopsin control by arrestin, light-filtering screening pigments, and visual pigment turnover in invertebrate microvillar photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Stavenga, Doekele G; Hardie, Roger C

    2011-03-01

    The visual pigments of most invertebrate photoreceptors have two thermostable photo-interconvertible states, the ground state rhodopsin and photo-activated metarhodopsin, which triggers the phototransduction cascade until it binds arrestin. The ratio of the two states in photoequilibrium is determined by their absorbance spectra and the effective spectral distribution of illumination. Calculations indicate that metarhodopsin levels in fly photoreceptors are maintained below ~35% in normal diurnal environments, due to the combination of a blue-green rhodopsin, an orange-absorbing metarhodopsin and red transparent screening pigments. Slow metarhodopsin degradation and rhodopsin regeneration processes further subserve visual pigment maintenance. In most insect eyes, where the majority of photoreceptors have green-absorbing rhodopsins and blue-absorbing metarhodopsins, natural illuminants are predicted to create metarhodopsin levels greater than 60% at high intensities. However, fast metarhodopsin decay and rhodopsin regeneration also play an important role in controlling metarhodopsin in green receptors, resulting in a high rhodopsin content at low light intensities and a reduced overall visual pigment content in bright light. A simple model for the visual pigment-arrestin cycle is used to illustrate the dependence of the visual pigment population states on light intensity, arrestin levels and pigment turnover.

  20. PIGMENTS OF THE RETINA

    PubMed Central

    Wald, George

    1936-01-01

    1. Visual purple from the sea robin, sea bass, and scup is almost identical spectroscopically with that from frogs. The interrelations of this pigment with vitamin A and retinene are also the same as in the frog. 2. In strong acids or at pH > 11, the visual yellow of sea robin retinas is converted irreversibly into a pH indicator, yellow in acid and almost colorless in alkaline solution. Unlike neutral visual yellow, the indicator is not removed to form either vitamin A or visual purple. In the ammoniacal retina the reversion of visual yellow itself to purple is accelerated. 3. The combined pigment epithelium and choroid layer in these fishes contain vitamin A, flavine, and an unidentified xanthophyll. PMID:19872983

  1. The bioefficacy of microemulsified natural pigments in egg yolk pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Chow, P Y; Gue, S Z; Leow, S K; Goh, L B

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that microemulsified carotenoid products show improved bioavailability over corresponding regular preparations, leading to greater yolk pigmentation at lower dosages. 2. The first trial was conducted using a maize-soya bean basal diet supplemented with either 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 g/kg of microemulsified Red or non-microemulsified Red. The second trial involved feeding microemulsified Yellow or non-microemulsified Yellow using a similar dosage range. The layers were divided into 4 replicates of 8 layers each (32 layers per treatment). The 8 cages of layers were fed from a single feed trough. Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the trial. Each week, the eggs were collected. The whole liquid egg colour was determined by means of a commercially available yolk colour fan. Where required, HPLC-(high-performance liquid chromatography) based analysis of trans-capsanthin or trans-lutein equivalents using the Association of Analytical Communities method was carried out. Data were statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA method using Statgraphics. 3. Results showed that the colour and carotenoid content of the egg yolk increased with increasing amount of carotenoids in the diet. The colour of egg yolks from layers fed similar concentrations of microemulsified versus the regular preparation was significantly different. At the commercial recommended dose of one g/kg regular Yellow or Red product, the microemulsified pigmenter is able to provide the equivalent yolk colour at a 20-30% lower dose. 4. In conclusion, the trial results supported the hypothesis that a desired yolk colour score is achievable at a significantly lower inclusion rate when carotenoid molecules are emulsified using the microemulsion nanotechnology.

  2. Appearance of polychromic endothelial pigment.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, J; Hecht, S D

    1987-10-01

    Multicolored corneal endothelial pigment was noted in patients on routine specular microscopy, confirming the presence of chromatic pigment deposits at the corneal endothelium. These deposits were polychromic, exhibiting blue, green, red, pink, orange, gold, and yellow colors. These pigment deposits were of different sizes and shapes and often seemed to surround darkened cells or clusters of cells. The variations in color may be the result of differing concentrations of melanin in iris or other pigmented cells that adhere to the posterior surface of the corneal endothelium. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the observation of polychromic endothelial pigment. We encourage the use of color film for specular microscopy to help detect and identify this pigment further.

  3. Racial Differences of Pigmentation in the Human Vestibular Organs.

    PubMed

    Erbele, Isaac D; Lin, Frank R; Agrawal, Yuri; Francis, Howard W; Carey, John P; Chien, Wade W

    2016-09-01

    Melanin pigmentation is present in the human inner ear. In this study, we quantify the melanin pigmentation in the vestibular system and examine racial differences of vestibular melanin pigmentation using human cadaveric temporal bone specimens. Basic research. Laboratory. Light microscopy was used to examine specimens from 40 left temporal bones from the Johns Hopkins Human Temporal Bone Collection. Color images of (1) ampulla of the horizontal canal, (2) utricular wall, (3) endolymphatic duct, and (4) posterior ampullary nerve as it enters the posterior canal were acquired with a digital camera attached to the microscope and image acquisition software. Acquired images of each anatomic area of interest were processed offline through ImageJ. Melanin content was then compared according to ethnicity, age, sex, and location. Fifteen African American and 25 Caucasian specimens were analyzed. Mean age was 68.8 years. African American specimens had a significantly greater amount of pigment at all 4 sampled locations as compared with Caucasian specimens (P < .01). Between sexes, there was a statistically significant difference (P < .05) at the posterior ampullary nerve, with males having more than females. Melanin content was not associated with age. There is greater melanin pigmentation within the vestibular system of African Americans than in Caucasians, similar to what has been described in the cochlea. Racial differences in vestibular physiologic function have been observed in the literature and may be explained by differences in melanin pigmentation. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  4. Conjunctival Pigmentation Following Minocycline Therapy.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tanya T; Reddy, Usha P

    Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic commonly used to treat acne and rosacea. Although pigmentation of the skin, nails, teeth, oral mucosa, and sclera is a well-recognized adverse outcome associated with minocycline, ocular pigmentation may be missed on routine examination. The authors present a case of a 43-year-old white woman who demonstrated bilateral pigmented palpebral conjunctival cysts after 12 months of minocycline therapy for cystic acne. To date, only 5 cases of minocycline-induced conjunctival pigmentation have been reported. After drug discontinuation, the patient's examination remained stable and no new ocular lesions were noted.

  5. Raman Spectroscopy of Microbial Pigments

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapid nondestructive technique providing spectroscopic and structural information on both organic and inorganic molecular compounds. Extensive applications for the method in the characterization of pigments have been found. Due to the high sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy for the detection of chlorophylls, carotenoids, scytonemin, and a range of other pigments found in the microbial world, it is an excellent technique to monitor the presence of such pigments, both in pure cultures and in environmental samples. Miniaturized portable handheld instruments are available; these instruments can be used to detect pigments in microbiological samples of different types and origins under field conditions. PMID:24682303

  6. [Pigmentation disorders in systemic sclerodermia].

    PubMed

    Gonin, M; Gerster, J C

    1994-01-11

    Skin pigmentation changes in systemic sclerosis have been known since the end of the last century. Many different aspects have been described. We report the case of a 48-year-old man with severe progressive systemic sclerosis who presented many different types of pigmentation changes of skin, but particularly a severe hyperpigmentation. This clinical observation suggests that local factors, including repetitive friction, trauma or variations in skin temperature, may influence the development, distribution and severity of pigmentation abnormalities in patients with systemic sclerosis. Physical treatments (connective tissue massage and lymphatic drainage) were very beneficial for our patient (healing of skin ulcerations and decrease of pigmentation.

  7. Internal and external factors affecting photosynthetic pigment composition in plants: a meta-analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Raquel; Barrutia, Oihana; Artetxe, Unai; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Hernández, Antonio; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2015-04-01

    Photosynthetic pigment composition has been a major study target in plant ecophysiology during the last three decades. Although more than 2000 papers have been published, a comprehensive evaluation of the responses of photosynthetic pigment composition to environmental conditions is not yet available. After an extensive survey, we compiled data from 525 papers including 809 species (subkingdom Viridiplantae) in which pigment composition was described. A meta-analysis was then conducted to assess the ranges of photosynthetic pigment content. Calculated frequency distributions of pigments were compared with those expected from the theoretical pigment composition. Responses to environmental factors were also analysed. The results revealed that lutein and xanthophyll cycle pigments (VAZ) were highly responsive to the environment, emphasizing the high phenotypic plasticity of VAZ, whereas neoxanthin was very stable. The present meta-analysis supports the existence of relatively narrow limits for pigment ratios and also supports the presence of a pool of free 'unbound' VAZ. Results from this study provide highly reliable ranges of photosynthetic pigment contents as a framework for future research on plant pigments.

  8. Nonphotosynthetic pigments as potential biosignatures.

    PubMed

    Schwieterman, Edward W; Cockell, Charles S; Meadows, Victoria S

    2015-05-01

    Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversity and detectability of nonphotosynthetic pigments as biosignatures, which includes a description of environments that host nonphotosynthetic biologically pigmented surfaces, and a lab-based experimental analysis of the spectral and broadband color diversity of pigmented organisms on Earth. We test the utility of broadband color to distinguish between Earth-like planets with significant coverage of nonphotosynthetic pigments and those with photosynthetic or nonbiological surfaces, using both 1-D and 3-D spectral models. We demonstrate that, given sufficient surface coverage, nonphotosynthetic pigments could significantly impact the disk-averaged spectrum of a planet. However, we find that due to the possible diversity of organisms and environments, and the confounding effects of the atmosphere and clouds, determination of substantial coverage by biologically produced pigments would be difficult with broadband colors alone and would likely require spectrally resolved data.

  9. Nonphotosynthetic Pigments as Potential Biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwieterman, Edward W.; Cockell, Charles S.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2015-05-01

    Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversity and detectability of nonphotosynthetic pigments as biosignatures, which includes a description of environments that host nonphotosynthetic biologically pigmented surfaces, and a lab-based experimental analysis of the spectral and broadband color diversity of pigmented organisms on Earth. We test the utility of broadband color to distinguish between Earth-like planets with significant coverage of nonphotosynthetic pigments and those with photosynthetic or nonbiological surfaces, using both 1-D and 3-D spectral models. We demonstrate that, given sufficient surface coverage, nonphotosynthetic pigments could significantly impact the disk-averaged spectrum of a planet. However, we find that due to the possible diversity of organisms and environments, and the confounding effects of the atmosphere and clouds, determination of substantial coverage by biologically produced pigments would be difficult with broadband colors alone and would likely require spectrally resolved data.

  10. Nonphotosynthetic Pigments as Potential Biosignatures

    PubMed Central

    Cockell, Charles S.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversity and detectability of nonphotosynthetic pigments as biosignatures, which includes a description of environments that host nonphotosynthetic biologically pigmented surfaces, and a lab-based experimental analysis of the spectral and broadband color diversity of pigmented organisms on Earth. We test the utility of broadband color to distinguish between Earth-like planets with significant coverage of nonphotosynthetic pigments and those with photosynthetic or nonbiological surfaces, using both 1-D and 3-D spectral models. We demonstrate that, given sufficient surface coverage, nonphotosynthetic pigments could significantly impact the disk-averaged spectrum of a planet. However, we find that due to the possible diversity of organisms and environments, and the confounding effects of the atmosphere and clouds, determination of substantial coverage by biologically produced pigments would be difficult with broadband colors alone and would likely require spectrally resolved data. Key Words: Biosignatures—Exoplanets—Halophiles—Pigmentation—Reflectance spectroscopy—Spectral models. Astrobiology 15, 341–361. PMID:25941875

  11. Energy Conserving Coating - Pigment Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    indicated above, changes from yellow to orange. Thermochromic CVL Mixtures Thermochromic dye mixtures were made by reacting specific leuco (colorless...2 Photochromic Pigments and Dyes ................................. 3 Thermochromic Inorganic Pigments...describing the state of the art in color changing materials, from liquid crystals to thermochromic metal complexes to photochromic spiran dyes . The re- search

  12. Comparative chromatography of chloroplast pigment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandolfo, M.; Sherma, J.; Strain, H. H.

    1969-01-01

    Methods for isolation of low concentration pigments of the cocklebur species are described. The methods entail two step chromatography so that the different sorption properties of the various pigments in varying column parameters can be utilized. Columnar and thin layer methods are compared. Many conditions influence separability of the chloroplasts.

  13. Diversity of Polyhydroxynaphthoquinone Pigments in North Pacific Sea Urchins.

    PubMed

    Vasileva, Elena A; Mishchenko, Natalia P; Fedoreyev, Sergey A

    2017-09-01

    Using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/MS) we investigated the composition of polyhydroxynaphthoquinone (PHNQ) pigments from sea urchins Strongylocentrotus pallidus, St. polyacanthus, St. droebachiensis, Brisaster latifrons and Echinarachnius parma, collected in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea. Identification of PHNQ pigments from sea urchins St. polyacanthus, B. latifrons, and E. parma was performed for the first time. Among the usual PHNQ pigments, mono- and dimethoxy derivatives of spinochrome E, not previously found in other sea urchins, were discovered in St. polyacanthus and St. droebachiensis. In St. droebachiensis, two monomethoxy derivatives of echinochrome A were detected, isolated previously from only tropical sea urchins. It was found that the composition and total content of pigments of St. droebachiensis depends on the collection area of the sea urchins and its depth and varies from 88 to 331 μg/g of dry shells. Sea urchins St. pallidus, B. latifrons and E. parma had average values for PHNQ pigment content, approximately 30 μg/g, and St. polyacanthus had a low PHNQ content, 13 μg/g. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  14. New directions in phthalocyanine pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Diep VO

    1994-01-01

    Phthalocyanines have been used as a pigment in coatings and related applications for many years. These pigments are some of the most stable organic pigments known. The phthalo blue and green pigments have been known to be ultraviolet (UV) stable and thermally stable to over 400 C. These phthalocyanines are both a semiconductor and photoconductor, exhibiting catalytic activity and photostabilization capability of polymers. Many metal free and metallic phthalocyanine derivatives have been prepared. Development of the new classes of phthalocyanine pigment could be used as coating on NASA spacecraft material such as glass to decrease the optical degradation from UV light, the outside of the space station modules for UV protection, and coating on solar cells to increase lifetime and efficiency.

  15. Iris phenotypes and pigment dispersion caused by genes influencing pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Michael G; Hawes, Norman L; Trantow, Colleen M; Chang, Bo; John, Simon W M

    2008-10-01

    Spontaneous mutations altering mouse coat colors have been a classic resource for discovery of numerous molecular pathways. Although often overlooked, the mouse iris is also densely pigmented and easily observed, thus representing a similarly powerful opportunity for studying pigment cell biology. Here, we present an analysis of iris phenotypes among 16 mouse strains with mutations influencing melanosomes. Many of these strains exhibit biologically and medically relevant phenotypes, including pigment dispersion, a common feature of several human ocular diseases. Pigment dispersion was identified in several strains with mutant alleles known to influence melanosomes, including beige, light, and vitiligo. Pigment dispersion was also detected in the recently arising spontaneous coat color variant, nm2798. We have identified the nm2798 mutation as a missense mutation in the Dct gene, an identical re-occurrence of the slaty light mutation. These results suggest that dysregulated events of melanosomes can be potent contributors to the pigment dispersion phenotype. Combined, these findings illustrate the utility of studying iris phenotypes as a means of discovering new pathways, and re-linking old ones, to processes of pigmented cells in health and disease.

  16. [INHERITANCE OF EPIDERMIS PIGMENTATION IN SUNFLOWER ACHENES].

    PubMed

    Gorohivets, N A; Vedmedeva, E V

    2016-01-01

    Inheritance of epidermis pigmentation in the pericarp of sunflower seeds was studied. Inheritance of pigmentation was confirmed by three alleles Ew (epidermis devoid of pigmentation), Estr (epidermal pigmentation in strips), Edg (solid pigmentation). Dominance of the lack of epidermis pigmentation over striped epidermis and striped epidermis over solid pigmentation was established. It was shown that the striped epidermis pigmentation and the presence of testa layer are controlled by two genes, expression of which is independent from each other. Yellowish hypodermis was discovered in the sample I2K2218, which is inherited monogenically dominantly.

  17. Hair Follicle Pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Slominski, Andrzej; Wortsman, Jacobo; Plonka, Przemyslaw M.; Schallreuter, Karin U.; Paus, Ralf; Tobin, Desmond J.

    2005-01-01

    Hair shaft melanin components (eu- or/and pheomelanin) are a long-lived record of precise interactions in the hair follicle pigmentary unit, e.g., between follicular melanocytes, keratinocytes, and dermal papilla fibroblasts. Follicular melanogenesis (FM) involves sequentially the melanogenic activity of follicular melanocytes, the transfer of melanin granules into cortical and medulla keratinocytes, and the formation of pigmented hair shafts. This activity is in turn regulated by an array of enzymes, structural and regulatory proteins, transporters, and receptors and their ligands, acting on the developmental stages, cellular, and hair follicle levels. FM is stringently coupled to the anagen stage of the hair cycle, being switched-off in catagen to remain absent through telogen. At the organ level FM is precisely coupled to the life cycle of melanocytes with changes in their compartmental distribution and accelerated melanoblast/melanocyte differentiation with enhanced secretory activity. The melanocyte compartments in the upper hair follicle also provides a reservoir for the repigmentation of epidermis and, for the cyclic formation of new anagen hair bulbs. Melanin synthesis and pigment transfer to bulb keratinocytes are dependent on the availability of melanin precursors, and regulation by signal transduction pathways intrinsic to skin and hair follicle, which are both receptor dependent and independent, act through auto-, para- or intracrine mechanisms and can be modified by hormonal signals. The important regulators are MC1 receptor its and adrenocorticotropic hormone, melanocyte stimulating hormone, agouti protein ligands (in rodents), c-Kit, and the endothelin receptors with their ligands. Melanin itself has a wide range of bioactivities that extend far beyond its determination of hair color. PMID:15654948

  18. Natural pigments and sacred art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelekian, Lena, ,, Lady

    2010-05-01

    Since the dawn of mankind, cavemen has expressed himself through art. The earliest known cave paintings date to some 32,000 years ago and used 4 colours derived from the earth. These pigments were iron oxides and known as ochres, blacks and whites. All pigments known by the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans and Renaissance man were natural and it was not until the 18th century that synthetic pigments were made and widely used. Until that time all art, be it sacred or secular used only natural pigments, of which the preparation of many have been lost or rarely used because of their tedious preparation. As a geologist, a mineralogist and an artist specializing in iconography, I have been able to rediscover 89 natural pigments extracted from minerals. I use these pigments to paint my icons in the traditional Byzantine manner and also to restore old icons, bringing back their glamour and conserving them for years to come. The use of the natural pigments in its proper way also helps to preserve the traditional skills of the iconographer. In the ancient past, pigments were extremely precious. Many took an exceedingly long journey to reach the artists, and came from remote countries. Research into these pigments is the work of history, geography and anthropology. It is an interesting journey in itself to discover that the blue aquamarines came from Afghanistan, the reds from Spain, the greens Africa, and so on. In this contribution I will be describing the origins, preparation and use of some natural pigments, together with their history and provenance. Additionally, I will show how the natural pigments are used in the creation of an icon. Being a geologist iconographer, for me, is a sacrement that transforms that which is earthly, material and natural into a thing of beauty that is sacred. As bread and wine in the Eucharist, water during baptism and oil in Holy Union transmit sanctification to the beholder, natural pigments do the same when one considers an icon. The

  19. Analysis of Minoan white pigments used on pottery from Palaikastro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, Charles P.; Ferrence, Susan; Betancourt, Phlip P.

    2000-03-01

    Previous analyses of Early Minoan (ca. 2200-2000 BC) and Middle Minoan (ca. 2000-1700 BC) white pigments from Crete have revealed a complex situation in which several different substances were used for the ornament on pottery. The technological situation and the nature of these pigments is still not fully understood. A high-magnesium paint has been tentatively identified as talc, and a high-calcium paint has been tentatively identified as calcium silicate, but the distribution of these pigments is still not known. A new program of analysis by PIXE at the Bartol Research Institute of the University of Delaware has examined several white pigments from Palaikastro, a site in Eastern Crete, with interesting results. Three different materials or mixtures of materials can be identified. None of the pigments is rich in magnesium. All of the paints tested contain substantial amounts of aluminum and silica, with a variable calcium content. One class is high in calcium, and the second is substantially lower in calcium, but both contain appreciable amounts of iron. The third substance is an iron free white pigment. The materials can be tentatively identified as mixtures of calcium silicates and aluminosilicates, probably with admixed quartz.

  20. A general method for the quantitative assessment of mineral pigments.

    PubMed

    Ares, M C Zurita; Fernández, J M

    2016-01-01

    A general method for the estimation of mineral pigment contents in different bases has been proposed using a sole set of calibration curves, (one for each pigment), calculated for a white standard base, thus elaborating patterns for each utilized base is not necessary. The method can be used in different bases and its validity had ev en been proved in strongly tinted bases. The method consists of a novel procedure that combines diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, second derivatives and the Kubelka-Munk function. This technique has proved to be at least one order of magnitude more sensitive than X-Ray diffraction for colored compounds, since it allowed the determination of the pigment amount in colored samples containing 0.5 wt% of pigment that was not detected by X-Ray Diffraction. The method can be used to estimate the concentration of mineral pigments in a wide variety of either natural or artificial materials, since it does not requiere the calculation of each pigment pattern in every base. This fact could have important industrial consequences, as the proposed method would be more convenient, faster and cheaper.

  1. Fruit flesh betacyanin pigments in hylocereus cacti.

    PubMed

    Wybraniec, Sławomir; Mizrahi, Yosef

    2002-10-09

    Determination of profiles and total contents of betacyanins in cactus fruits of Hylocereus species using chromatographic and spectrophotometric method is described. The investigated species were H. polyrhizus, H. purpusii, H. costaricensis, H. sp. 487 (all red-flesh species and hybrids made among them), and the white- or red-flesh species H. undatus. Hybrids included hybrid 1 (H. undatus white-flesh clone and H. sp. 487), hybrid 35 (H. sp. 487 and H. polyrhizus), and the reciprocal hybrid hybrid 95 (H. polyrhizus and H. sp. 487). Fruits of H. polyrhizus exhibited the highest relative concentration (expressed as percentage of the total HPLC peak area) of hylocerenin, a recently discovered pigment, and a high relative concentration of phyllocactin. Hylocerenin and isohylocerenin, present in fruits at relative concentrations of 11.7 and 5.8%, respectively, are probably responsible for the fluorescent color of the fruit pulp. H. costaricensis fruits have a much higher content of phyllocactin (63.9%), which is almost 4 times higher than the betanin content. These differences in pigment concentrations might explain the differences in red hues of the flesh of these fruits.

  2. Pigmented villonodular synovitis: dedicated PET imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Amber, Ian Blake; Clark, Brian J; Greene, Gary Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is an uncommon entity, which has the potential to cause severe pain. The gold standard for evaluation is MRI, and previous PET findings associated with PVNS have only been documented in the setting of concurrent malignancy. In the setting of recurrent disease, PET is being used to evaluate prebiological and postbiological treatment responses. Recurrent PVNS demonstrates greater hypermetabolic activity than previously documented, supporting the case as a potential mimic of malignant/metastatic disease. Post-treatment evaluations demonstrate decreased metabolic activity, which suggests response to treatment. This behaviour further supports the contention that there is a neoplastic origin to PVNS. PMID:23598941

  3. Photoreactivation in pigmented and non-pigmented extreme halophiles.

    PubMed

    Sharma, N; Hepburn, D; Fitt, P S

    1984-06-15

    The sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation (254 nm) and the photoreactivability of four pigmented and three colourless strains of the extremely halophilic bacteria Halobacterium cutirubrum and Halobacterium salinarium have been studied. The results with three pigmented/non-pigmented pairs show that the pigments play an accessory role in photoreactivation at low visible light intensities and confirm that they do not provide passive protection against ultraviolet light. Evidence is presented that photoreactivation plays an unexpected direct role in the resistance of extreme halophiles to ultraviolet radiation and that colourless mutants of H. cutirubrum NRC 34001 only arise in cultures that have been both ultraviolet-irradiated and photoreactivated. None of these extreme halophiles is capable of excision repair of ultraviolet damage to DNA.

  4. Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Soyer, H P; Argenziano, G; Chimenti, S; Ruocco, V

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the basic concepts of dermoscopy, the various dermoscopic equipments and the standard criteria for diagnosing pigmented skin lesions. In assessing dermoscopic images, both global and local features can be recognized. These features will be systematically described and illustrated in Part I of this article. First, we will focus on 8 morphologically rather distinctive global features that allow a quick, preliminary categorization of a given pigmented skin lesion. Second, we will describe various local features representing the letters of the dermoscopic alphabet. The local features permit a more detailed assessment of pigmented skin lesions.

  5. Photosynthetic pigments: perplexing persistent prevalence of 'superfluous' pigment production.

    PubMed

    Beale, Samuel I

    2008-04-22

    Phycobilins function as light-harvesting pigments in most cyanobacteria and red algae. Although green cyanobacteria of the genus Prochlorococcus express genes encoding enzymes that direct the synthesis of phycobilins, these pigments do not appear to play a role in light harvesting in Prochlorococcus. Now, it is shown that cyanophages infecting Prochlorococcus also contain genes for phycobilin-synthesizing enzymes, and these are expressed in Prochlorococcus, raising further questions as to the role of phycobilins in the host and the virus.

  6. Health-Promoting Compounds in Pigmented Thai and Wild Rice

    PubMed Central

    Melini, Valentina; Acquistucci, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Organic pigmented Thai rice and wild rice are commonly available in specialized Italian markets and food shops, and they are gaining popularity among consumers demanding healthy foods. Indeed, the typical colour of kernels, which is the unique characteristic of pigmented cereals, is due to the accumulation of pigments that are also responsible for a number of healthy effects. The aim of this study was to provide a portrait of two organic pigmented Thai rice varieties from Thailand and one wild rice variety from Canada, imported into Italy and at Italian consumers’ disposal. To this end, the proximate composition and the content of health-promoting compounds, such as carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, were determined in Thai and wild rice. Moreover, the effect of cooking on phytochemicals was assessed, in order to provide reliable data on the dietary intake of bioactive compounds by samples under investigation. Results show that studied samples have a content of phytochemicals higher than white rice and comparable to other cereals. The cooking process determined a decrease of bioactive compounds in all varieties under investigation. However, some samples were found more resistant to cooking stress, and some phytochemicals were little affected by this process. Therefore, pigmented Thai and wild rice may represent a valuable source of healthy compounds and an alternative to other wholesome foods required by consumers. PMID:28231088

  7. Pigment profiles and bacterial communities from Thailand thermal mats.

    PubMed

    Portillo, M C; Sririn, V; Kanoksilapatham, W; Gonzalez, J M

    2009-11-01

    Differently colored layers of freshwater hot spring mats at Boekleung (Western Thailand) were studied. Temperatures ranged from over 50 up to 57 degrees C. Two mats were characterized: a laminated mat with a green and a red layers, and a monolayer, greenish-yellow mat. Bacterial communities in green, red, and yellow layers were investigated using molecular, culturing and pigment analysis methods. Pigment profiles covered a wide spectrum from chlorophylls to carotenoids. A green mat layer showed higher relative content of chlorophyll than yellow and red layers which presented higher proportion of carotenoids. Cyanobacterial isolates grow up to 55-56 degrees C and their pigment profiles showed a relatively high content of chlorophylls suggesting the importance of other bacterial groups in the mat pigment profiles. Bacterial communities were analyzed by 16S rDNA surveys showing Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi as the mayor components of the community. Other significant members were Candidate Division OP10, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes and Actinobacteria. These results highlight a major participation of Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi in thermal mat communities, and the preferential presence of Candidate Division OP10 in green mat layers. Differently colored mat layers showed characteristic bacterial communities which could be discriminated from pigment profiles and molecular surveys.

  8. Monitoring pigmented skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Vincent P.; Bamber, Jeffery C.; Ott, Robert J.; Crawford, Diane C.; Mortimer, Peter S.

    2002-06-01

    The rising incidence of skin cancer has led to an increase in the number of patients with skin lesions that require diagnosis, mostly using subjective visual examination. Successful treatment depends on early diagnosis. Unfortunately diagnostic accuracy, even by experts, can be as low as 56%; therefore, an accurate, objective diagnostic aid is greatly needed. Reflectance characteristics of pigmented skin lesions were documented to evaluate their diagnostic potential. Reflectance spectra in the wavelength range 320-1100nm were obtained from 260 lesions. Differences between spectra from benign and malignant lesions were utilized by extracting features with the best discriminating power. Discrimination was evaluated using two techniques: multivariate statistical analysis and artificial neural networks, using histology as the standard. Each technique was tested in a blind study and assessed in terms of its ability to diagnose new cases and compared to the clinical diagnosis. The artificial neural network achieved the best diagnostic performance for discriminating between malignant melanoma and benign nevi, having a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 65%. Utilization of visible and infrared techniques for monitoring skin lesions has lead to improvements in diagnostic accuracy. We conclude that these techniques are worthy of further development and evaluation in clinical practice as a screening tool.

  9. Pigments, patterns, and fish behavior.

    PubMed

    Price, Anna C; Weadick, Cameron J; Shim, Janet; Rodd, F Helen

    2008-12-01

    Color patterns in fish are often multicomponent signals, composed of pigment-based and structural color patches that can be used to communicate within species, in both inter- and intrasexual interactions, and between species. In this review, we discuss some of the roles played by pigment-based elements of color pattern. We begin by discussing general forms of coloration, classifying them by appearance (e.g., cryptic vs. conspicuous) and apparent function (e.g., conspicuous coloration and mating displays, stripes and cooperation, and bars and aggression). We then briefly discuss the roles pigments play in the perception of these color patterns via their presence in the eye. In the last section, we look at the relative importance of carotenoid versus melanic coloration in situations where honest signals to potential rivals and potential mates might be required. In this survey, we have highlighted some recent research, especially studies that consider both the physiological and behavioral processes underlying the evolution and expression of pigment-based color patterns in fish. The nature of pigmented color patterns depends not just on the dynamics of pattern development and physiological regulation, but also on the behavioral roles played by these patterns, both now and in the past. As such, advances in particular fields of study on pigment patterns (physiology, developmental biology, behavioral ecology, evolutionary biology, etc.) will increasingly depend on insights from other fields.

  10. High biological variability of plastids, photosynthetic pigments and pigment forms of leaf primordia in buds.

    PubMed

    Solymosi, Katalin; Morandi, Dominique; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla; Schoefs, Benoît

    2012-05-01

    To study the formation of the photosynthetic apparatus in nature, the carotenoid and chlorophyllous pigment compositions of differently developed leaf primordia in closed and opening buds of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) as well as in closed buds of tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima P. Mill.) were analyzed with HPLC. The native organization of the chlorophyllous pigments was studied using 77 K fluorescence spectroscopy, and plastid ultrastructure was investigated with electron microscopy. Complete etiolation, i.e., accumulation of protochlorophyllide, and absence of chlorophylls occurred in the innermost leaf primordia of common ash buds. The other leaf primordia were partially etiolated in the buds and contained protochlorophyllide (0.5-1 μg g(-1) fresh mass), chlorophyllides (0.2-27 μg g(-1) fresh mass) and chlorophylls (0.9-643 μg g(-1) fresh mass). Etio-chloroplasts with prolamellar bodies and either regular or only low grana were found in leaves having high or low amounts of chlorophyll a and b, respectively. After bud break, etioplast-chloroplast conversion proceeded and the pigment contents increased in the leaves, similarly to the greening processes observed in illuminated etiolated seedlings under laboratory conditions. The pigment contents and the ratio of the different spectral forms had a high biological variability that could be attributed to (i) various light conditions due to light filtering in the buds resulting in differently etiolated leaf primordia, (ii) to differences in the light-exposed and inner regions of the same primordia in opening buds due to various leaf folding, and (iii) to tissue-specific slight variations of plastid ultrastructure.

  11. Drying of Pigment-Cellulose Nanofibril Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Timofeev, Oleg; Torvinen, Katariina; Sievänen, Jenni; Kaljunen, Timo; Kouko, Jarmo; Ketoja, Jukka A.

    2014-01-01

    A new substrate containing cellulose nanofibrils and inorganic pigment particles has been developed for printed electronics applications. The studied composite structure contains 80% fillers and is mechanically stable and flexible. Before drying, the solids content can be as low as 20% due to the high water binding capacity of the cellulose nanofibrils. We have studied several drying methods and their effects on the substrate properties. The aim is to achieve a tight, smooth surface keeping the drying efficiency simultaneously at a high level. The methods studied include: (1) drying on a hot metal surface; (2) air impingement drying; and (3) hot pressing. Somewhat surprisingly, drying rates measured for the pigment-cellulose nanofibril substrates were quite similar to those for the reference board sheets. Very high dewatering rates were observed for the hot pressing at high moisture contents. The drying method had significant effects on the final substrate properties, especially on short-range surface smoothness. The best smoothness was obtained with a combination of impingement and contact drying. The mechanical properties of the sheets were also affected by the drying method and associated temperature. PMID:28788220

  12. Yolk pigments of the Mexican leaf frog.

    PubMed

    Marinetti, G V; Bagnara, J T

    1983-02-25

    Eggs of the Mexican leaf frog contain blue and yellow pigments identified as biliverdin and lutein, respectively. Both pigments are bound to proteins that occur in crystalline form in the yolk platelet. The major blue pigment is biliverdin IX alpha. The eggs vary in color from brilliant blue to pale yellow-green depending on the amount of each pigment. These pigments may provide protective coloration to the eggs.

  13. Related allopolyploids display distinct floral pigment profiles and transgressive pigments.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Elizabeth W; Berardi, Andrea E; Smith, Stacey D; Litt, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Both polyploidy and shifts in floral color have marked angiosperm evolution. Here, we investigate the biochemical basis of the novel and diverse floral phenotypes seen in allopolyploids in Nicotiana (Solanaceae) and examine the extent to which the merging of distinct genomes alters flavonoid pigment production. We analyzed flavonol and anthocyanin pigments from Nicotiana allopolyploids of different ages (N. tabacum, 0.2 million years old; several species from Nicotiana section Repandae, 4.5 million years old; and five lines of first-generation synthetic N. tabacum) as well as their diploid progenitors. Allopolyploid floral pigment profiles tend not to overlap with their progenitors or related allopolyploids, and allopolyploids produce transgressive pigments that are not present in either progenitor. Differences in floral color among N. tabacum accessions seems mainly to be due to variation in cyanidin concentration, but changes in flavonol concentrations among accessions are also present. Competition for substrates within the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway to make either flavonols or anthocyanins may drive the differences seen among related allopolyploids. Some of the pigment differences observed in allopolyploids may be associated with making flowers more visible to nocturnal pollinators. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  14. Tryptophan in human hair: correlation with pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bertazzo, A; Biasiolo, M; Costa, C V; Cardin de Stefani, E; Allegri, G

    2000-08-01

    The distribution of tryptophan content in human hair of various colours was evaluated, in order to study the accumulation of this amino acid, precursor of serotonin, melatonin and niacin, in hair and the influence on hair pigmentation. Pigmentation is an important factor in determining drug incorporation into hair. Results from 1211 samples of hair from healthy subjects (577 men and 634 women) show that tryptophan levels are significantly higher in males (37.83 +/- 3.45 microg/g dry hair) than in females (26.62 +/- 2.40 microg/g hair). Besides sex, age also influences the distribution of tryptophan in human hair, the highest levels being found in both sexes in the first few years of life, probably due to the influence of milk, and in aging subjects in the groups of 61-80 and > 80 years. In order to investigate the influence of hair colour, hair samples were subdivided according to colour into blond, dark blond, red, light brown, brown, black, grey and white. The hair contents of tryptophan in both sexes was higher in brown and black hair than in blond hair, but in grey and white hair concentrations were the highest, demonstrating that tryptophan accumulates among hair fibres with age. Grouping subjects by age in relation to hair colour, we observed that at ages 1-5 and 6-12 years, colour did not influence tryptophan contents, but at ages 13-19 and 20-40 years tryptophan content increased significantly from blond to brown at 13-19 years and from blond to black at 20-40 years in both sexes. Therefore, variations in tryptophan levels of human hair appear to be correlated with differences in hair colour in both sexes. Tryptophan also accumulates in hair during keratinization, as shown by the presence of high levels of this amino acid in grey and white hair.

  15. Effect of freezing and canning on the content of selected vitamins and pigments in seeds of two grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivars at the not fully mature stage.

    PubMed

    Korus, Anna; Lisiewska, Zofia; Kmiecik, Waldemar

    2002-08-01

    Seeds of the grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivars Derek and Krab, with a dry matter content of about 33%, were used for freezing and for canning. The content of vitamins C, B1, and B2 and of carotenoids, beta-carotene, and chlorophylls was determined in raw and blanched material, in frozen products after 6-month storage before and after cooking to consumption consistency, and in canned products after 6-month storage. In comparison with the cultivar Krab, raw seeds of Derek contained 45% more vitamin C, 14% more total chlorophylls, 13% less thiamine (vitamin B1), and 7% less riboflavin (vitamin B2). The level of carotenoids was similar. Blanching of seeds led to a statistically significant decrease only in the content of vitamin C. Freezing and frozen storage significantly lowered the level of vitamin C and chlorophylls. The cooking of frozen seeds and the production of canned products and their storage resulted in a statistically verified reduction in the content of components analysed in all the samples. Greater losses were found in products prepared from seeds of the cv. Krab. After cooking, frozen seeds contained more of all the analysed components than the canned products.

  16. Adaptive divergence in pigment composition promotes phytoplankton biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Stomp, Maayke; Huisman, Jef; De Jongh, Floris; Veraart, Annelies J; Gerla, Daan; Rijkeboer, Machteld; Ibelings, Bas W; Wollenzien, Ute I A; Stal, Lucas J

    2004-11-04

    The dazzling diversity of the phytoplankton has puzzled biologists for decades. The puzzle has been enlarged rather than solved by the progressive discovery of new phototrophic microorganisms in the oceans, including picocyanobacteria, pico-eukaryotes, and bacteriochlorophyll-based and rhodopsin-based phototrophic bacteria. Physiological and genomic studies suggest that natural selection promotes niche differentiation among these phototrophic microorganisms, particularly with respect to their photosynthetic characteristics. We have analysed competition for light between two closely related picocyanobacteria of the Synechococcus group that we isolated from the Baltic Sea. One of these two has a red colour because it contains the pigment phycoerythrin, whereas the other is blue-green because it contains high contents of the pigment phycocyanin. Here we report theory and competition experiments that reveal stable coexistence of the two picocyanobacteria, owing to partitioning of the light spectrum. Further competition experiments with a third marine cyanobacterium, capable of adapting its pigment composition, show that this species persists by investing in the pigment that absorbs the colour not used by its competitors. These results demonstrate the adaptive significance of divergence in pigment composition of phototrophic microorganisms, which allows an efficient utilization of light energy and favours species coexistence.

  17. Changes in chloroplast pigments of olive varieties during fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Roca, M; Mínguez-Mosquera, M I

    2001-02-01

    Changes in chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments of five olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties destined for milling were investigated at six consecutive ripening stages. There was a manifest dependence between olive variety, moment of picking, and chloroplast pigment composition of the fruits. Although the content of chlorophylls and carotenoids differed with fruit variety, ripening always involved their gradual loss, which becames more pronounced with increased presence of anthocyanin compounds. The relative rates of disappearance of chlorophylls and carotenoids were markedly different between varieties, implying that the catabolism of these pigments takes place at a relative rate inherent to each variety. The varieties less rich in pigments showed the most extreme behavior. The highest relative rate of disappearance was observed in fruits of the Blanqueta variety, and the lowest was observed in those of Arbequina. The chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratio remained practically constant during ripening, with a value very similar for Hojiblanca, Picual, Cornicabra, and Blanqueta, but much higher for Arbequina, implying that the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus is different in the latter variety. In the five varieties studied, lutein was the slowest carotenoid to be degraded, so that its percentage in the fruits increased with ripening, whereas beta-carotene was the fastest to disappear. In ripe fruits covered with anthocyanins, chloroplast pigments were retained in both skin and pulp, with the rate of disappearance being much higher in the latter.

  18. Diversity and functional properties of bistable pigments.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Hisao; Terakita, Akihisa

    2010-11-01

    Rhodopsin and related opsin-based pigments, which are photosensitive membrane proteins, have been extensively studied using a wide variety of techniques, with rhodopsin being the most understood G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Animals use various opsin-based pigments for vision and a wide variety of non-visual functions. Many functionally varied pigments are roughly divided into two kinds, based on their photoreaction: bistable and monostable pigments. Bistable pigments are thermally stable before and after photo-activation, but monostable pigments are stable only before activation. Here, we review the diversity of bistable pigments and their molecular characteristics. We also discuss the mechanisms underlying different molecular characteristics of bistable and monostable pigments. In addition, the potential of bistable pigments as a GPCR model is proposed.

  19. Effect of Debagging Time on Pigment Patterns in the Peel and Sugar and Organic Acid Contents in the Pulp of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Qinguan' Apple Fruit at Mid and Late Stages of Development.

    PubMed

    Jing, Chenjuan; Ma, Changqing; Zhang, Juan; Jing, Shujuan; Jiang, Xiaobing; Yang, Yazhou; Zhao, Zhengyang

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of debagging time on color and flavor / taste compounds in the non-red apple cultivar 'Golden Delicious' and red cultivar 'Qinguan' at mid and late stages of fruit development. Debagging briefly improved the red color in both cultivars, the peel of 'Golden Delicious' presenting pale-pink hue. However, rapid anthocyanin accumulation occurred in apple peel at a specific time (after 179 days after flowering (DAF) in 'Qinguan') and was unaltered by debagging time in the red cultivar 'Qinguan'. Furthermore, untimely debagging had a detrimental effect on the content of anthocyanin. All sugars increased and organic acids decreased in apple pulp at mid to late stages of development. Bagging treatment reduced the content of most sugars and organic acids, as well as, the overall total. However, glucose and citric acid contents were higher in bagged fruit than non-bagged fruit; the maximum occurred in T7 treatment that was no-debagging at DAF 159 / 196 ('Golden delicious' / 'Qinguan'), i.e., 24.35 and 0.07 mg g-1 FW in 'Golden delicious', and 38.86 and 0.06 mg g-1 FW in 'Qinguan', respectively. In a word, bagging treatment can alter the pattern of peel color development in apple fruit; however, it remains difficult to alter the timing of rapid anthocyanin accumulation as it is regulated solely by development. Moreover, bagging treatment reduced the total accumulation of sugars and organic acids, and even the over total in pulp, but increased the glucose and citric acid contents in apple pulp.

  20. Effect of Debagging Time on Pigment Patterns in the Peel and Sugar and Organic Acid Contents in the Pulp of ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Qinguan’ Apple Fruit at Mid and Late Stages of Development

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Chenjuan; Ma, Changqing; Zhang, Juan; Jing, Shujuan; Jiang, Xiaobing; Yang, Yazhou; Zhao, Zhengyang

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of debagging time on color and flavor / taste compounds in the non-red apple cultivar ‘Golden Delicious’ and red cultivar ‘Qinguan’ at mid and late stages of fruit development. Debagging briefly improved the red color in both cultivars, the peel of ‘Golden Delicious’ presenting pale-pink hue. However, rapid anthocyanin accumulation occurred in apple peel at a specific time (after 179 days after flowering (DAF) in ‘Qinguan’) and was unaltered by debagging time in the red cultivar ‘Qinguan’. Furthermore, untimely debagging had a detrimental effect on the content of anthocyanin. All sugars increased and organic acids decreased in apple pulp at mid to late stages of development. Bagging treatment reduced the content of most sugars and organic acids, as well as, the overall total. However, glucose and citric acid contents were higher in bagged fruit than non-bagged fruit; the maximum occurred in T7 treatment that was no-debagging at DAF 159 / 196 (‘Golden delicious’ / ‘Qinguan’), i.e., 24.35 and 0.07 mg g-1 FW in ‘Golden delicious’, and 38.86 and 0.06 mg g-1 FW in ‘Qinguan’, respectively. In a word, bagging treatment can alter the pattern of peel color development in apple fruit; however, it remains difficult to alter the timing of rapid anthocyanin accumulation as it is regulated solely by development. Moreover, bagging treatment reduced the total accumulation of sugars and organic acids, and even the over total in pulp, but increased the glucose and citric acid contents in apple pulp. PMID:27788164

  1. Microprobe analysis of chlorpromazine pigmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Benning, T.L.; McCormack, K.M.; Ingram, P.; Kaplan, D.L.; Shelburne, J.D.

    1988-10-01

    We describe the histochemical, ultrastructural, and microanalytical features of a skin biopsy specimen obtained from a patient with chlorpromazine pigmentation. Golden-brown pigment granules were present in the dermis, predominantly in a perivascular arrangement. The granules stained positively with the Fontana-Masson stain for silver-reducing substances and negatively with Perl's stain for iron. Electron microscopy revealed dense inclusion bodies in dermal histiocytes, pericytes, endothelial cells, and Schwann cells, as well as lying free in the extracellular matrix. These ''chlorpromazine bodies'' were quite dense even in unosmicated, unstained ultrathin sections, indicating that the pigmentation is related, at least in part, to the inclusions. Microprobe analysis of the chlorpromazine bodies revealed a striking peak for sulfur, which strongly suggests the presence of the drug or its metabolite within these inclusions.

  2. [Radiolucent pigment gallstones (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wosiewitz, U; Wolpers, C; Quint, P

    1978-12-01

    Pigment gallstones may be subdivided into three different types: radiolucent and radioopaque stones in the gallbladder and radiolucent stones in the common bile duct. 35 of our patients had radiolucent pigment stones in the gallbladder; 21 of these were followed for years by repeated X-ray examination. There is only little enlargement of these stones as time passes by, however the number of these stones increases continuously. Chemical analysis could be done on such stones in 24 cases. The stones were composed of granular calcium bilirubinate and of asphalt-like products derived from abnormal bilirubin degradation. 5 patients had pigment stones in the common bile duct. These stones contained little cholesterol and exhibited a spongy microstructure characterized by small tubules with a diameter of 1 micrometer. They contained more lipids and bilirubin than the stones collected from the gallbladder and on extraction with organic solvents no asphalt-like residues could be obtained.

  3. Pigmented Porokeratosis. A Further Variant?

    PubMed

    Tan, Tracy S P; Tallon, Ben

    2016-03-01

    Porokeratosis is a clonal disorder of keratinization characterized by the presence of the cornoid lamella. A number of variants of porokeratosis have been described, based on the clinical features and histologic features of the lesions. The authors present a case of porokeratosis with prominent melanocytic hyperplasia, which was biopsied to clinically exclude melanoma. The authors retrospectively studied cases of porokeratosis to look for the presence of melanocytic hyperplasia. Melanocytic hyperplasia was identified in 8 of 31 cases (25.8%). All of the cases except the index case were clinically nonpigmented but arose in solar damaged skin. This case represents a distinct variant of porokeratosis, and the authors propose the designation pigmented porokeratosis. Melanocytic hyperplasia is a benign condition, and it is important that this is not histologically confused with melanoma in situ, particularly in a context of clinically pigmented lesion. Increased recognition of pigmented porokeratosis is essential to avoid an erroneous diagnosis of melanoma in situ.

  4. Racial difference in cochlear pigmentation is associated with hearing loss risk.

    PubMed

    Sun, Daniel Q; Zhou, Xin; Lin, Frank R; Francis, Howard W; Carey, John P; Chien, Wade W

    2014-10-01

    The goals of this study are to characterize the distribution of melanin pigmentation in the human cochlea and to investigate differences in pigment content between races. Human temporal bone specimens from the Johns Hopkins Temporal Bone Collection were examined. Demographic, clinical, and audiometric data were analyzed. Melanin pigmentation in the cochlea was quantified in each specimen. Nineteen African-American (AA) and 27 Caucasian specimens were selected for the study. The mean ages were 64 and 70 years for AA and Caucasian specimens, respectively (p = 0.21). At all cochlear turns, AA specimens contained significantly more pigmentation in the stria vascularis (p = 0.0003) and Rosenthal's canal (p < 0.0001) compared with Caucasian specimens. Strial melanin content increased significantly with age. Cochlear pigmentation content was not associated with sex or hearing thresholds. Melanin pigmentation is significantly more abundant in AA cochleae than in Caucasian cochleae. This study provides a detailed description of pigmentation in the cochlea and may help to explain the observed racial differences in hearing thresholds.

  5. Optimization of Light-Harvesting Pigment Improves Photosynthetic Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Jin, Honglei; Li, Mengshu; Duan, Sujuan; Fu, Mei; Dong, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Bing; Feng, Dongru; Wang, Jinfa; Wang, Hong-Bin

    2016-11-01

    Maximizing light capture by light-harvesting pigment optimization represents an attractive but challenging strategy to improve photosynthetic efficiency. Here, we report that loss of a previously uncharacterized gene, HIGH PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY1 (HPE1), optimizes light-harvesting pigments, leading to improved photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hpe1 mutants show faster electron transport and increased contents of carbohydrates. HPE1 encodes a chloroplast protein containing an RNA recognition motif that directly associates with and regulates the splicing of target RNAs of plastid genes. HPE1 also interacts with other plastid RNA-splicing factors, including CAF1 and OTP51, which share common targets with HPE1. Deficiency of HPE1 alters the expression of nucleus-encoded chlorophyll-related genes, probably through plastid-to-nucleus signaling, causing decreased total content of chlorophyll (a+b) in a limited range but increased chlorophyll a/b ratio. Interestingly, this adjustment of light-harvesting pigment reduces antenna size, improves light capture, decreases energy loss, mitigates photodamage, and enhances photosynthetic quantum yield during photosynthesis. Our findings suggest a novel strategy to optimize light-harvesting pigments that improves photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production in higher plants.

  6. Properties of alginate fiber spun-dyed with fluorescent pigment dispersion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Tawiah, Benjamin; Tian, Anli; Wang, Chunxia; Zhang, Liping; Fu, Shaohai

    2015-03-15

    Spun-dyed alginate fiber was prepared by the spun-dyeing method with the mixture of fluorescent pigment dispersion and sodium alginate fiber spinning solution, and its properties were characterized by SEM, TGA, DSC, and XRD. The results indicate that fluorescent pigment dispersion prepared with esterified poly (styrene-alt maleic acid) had excellent compatibility with sodium alginate fiber spinning solution, and small amount of fluorescent pigment could reduce the viscosity of spun-dyed spinning solutions. SEM photo of spun-dyed alginate fiber indicated that fewer pigment particles deposited on its surface. TGA, DSC, and XRD results suggested that thermal properties and crystal phase of spun-dyed alginate fibers had slight changes compared to the original alginate fibers. The fluorescence intensity of spun-dyed alginate fiber reached its maximum when the content of fluorescent pigment was 4%. The spun-dyed alginate fiber showed excellent rubbing and washing fastness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of different ripening conditions on pigments of pepper for paprika production at green stage of maturity.

    PubMed

    Kevrešan, Žarko S; Mastilović, Jasna S; Mandić, Anamarija I; Torbica, Aleksandra M

    2013-09-25

    The content and composition of pigments and CIELab color properties in fruits ripened in the field were compared with those obtained in ground paprika produced from green pepper fruits after postharvest ripening for 15 days in a greenhouse under different conditions. Obtained data for pigment content, composition, and esterification rate have shown that the processes of pigment biosynthesis in fruits ripened under greenhouse conditions are different from those occurring in fruits naturally matured in the field: the red/yellow pigment ratio (3:1) in greenhouse-ripened fruits is much higher than in naturally ripened pepper in breaker (1:1) and also in faint red (2:1) ripening stages from the field. Additionally, during the postharvest ripening of green pepper in the greenhouse esterification processes are less expressed than during the ripening of the fruits in the field. Postharvest ripening under natural daylight resulted in higher content of red pigments, followed by higher ASTA value.

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Red Pigment Produced by Halolactibacillus alkaliphilus MSRD1--an Isolate from Seaweed.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Murugan; Renugadevi, B; Brammavidhya, S; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Anantharaman, Perumal

    2015-05-01

    The present study was carried out with the aim to isolate an antibacterial pigment from seaweed-associated bacterium. The bacterium was identified as Halolactibacillus alkaliphilus MSRD1 by 16S rRNA sequencing. The isolated bacterium was cultured in 50% Luria-Bertani seawater broth (LB-SWB) with 1% glycerol. The pigment was extracted with 99% ethanol and analyzed by UV-Vis spectroscopy at 490 nm. The candidate bacterium was optimized with various NaCl concentrations from 5 to 20%. The results inferred that the bacterium produce maximum pigment at 5% NaCl level. The candidate bacterium H. alkaliphilus MSRD1 was found to be producing the maximum pigment during the 120-h incubation. The protein content of the pigment was found to be maximum of 72% at the end of the 120-h incubation. The extracted pigment was stable up to 80 °C, pink at acidic pH (1 to 5) and orange at basic pH (8 to 12). The isolated pigment was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography. Fractionated pigment was characterized by TLC, FT-IR, and SDS-PAGE. In the antibacterial context, the pigment was highly inhibited Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi with the zone of inhibition 16 and 14 mm, respectively. According to SDS-PAGE, the size of the pigment was approximately 80 kDa. The H. alkaliphilus MSRD1 has high capacity to produce the pigment with antibacterial properties. This could be effectively used in the future.

  9. Metabolism and secretion of yellow pigment under high glucose stress with Monascus ruber.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Wang, Meihua; Shi, Kan; Chen, Gong; Tian, Xiaofei; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2017-12-01

    The biosynthesis of microbial secondary metabolites is induced by a wide range of environmental stresses. In this study, submerged fermentation of Monascus yellow pigments by Monascus ruber CGMCC 10910 under high glucose stress was investigated. The increase of lipid content was the major contributor to the increase of dry cell weight (DCW), and the lipid-free DCW was only slightly changed under high glucose stress, which benefited the accumulation of intracellular hydrophobic pigments. The fatty acid composition analysis in Monascus cell membranes showed that high glucose stress significantly increased the ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acid and the index of unsaturated fatty acid (IUFA) value, which would improve the fluidity and permeability of the cell membrane. As a consequence, high glucose stress increased extracellular yellow pigments production by enhancing secretion and trans-membrane conversion of intracellular pigments to the broth. The total yield of extracellular and intracellular yellow pigments per unit of lipid-free DCW increased by 94.86 and 26.31% under high glucose stress compared to conventional fermentation, respectively. A real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression of the pigment biosynthetic gene cluster was up-regulated under high glucose stress. The gene mppE, which is associated with yellow pigment biosynthesis, was significantly up-regulated. These results  indicated that high glucose stress can shift the Monascus pigment biosynthesis pathway to accumulate yellow pigments and lead to a high yield of both extracellular and intracellular yellow pigments. These findings have potential application in commercial Monascus yellow pigment production.

  10. Clofazimine-induced Hair Pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Mariam; Samson, Joan Felicita; Simi, Puthenveedu Salahudeen

    2012-01-01

    A 45-year-old man was treated with WHO multibacillary multidrug therapy for borderline leprosy and high dose daily Clofazimine for lepra reaction. Along with the expected side effect of skin pigmentation, the patient also noticed darkening of previously grey hair. This colour persisted eight months after completing multibacillary multidrug therapy. PMID:23180930

  11. Clofazimine-induced Hair Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Philip, Mariam; Samson, Joan Felicita; Simi, Puthenveedu Salahudeen

    2012-07-01

    A 45-year-old man was treated with WHO multibacillary multidrug therapy for borderline leprosy and high dose daily Clofazimine for lepra reaction. Along with the expected side effect of skin pigmentation, the patient also noticed darkening of previously grey hair. This colour persisted eight months after completing multibacillary multidrug therapy.

  12. Exogenous ammonium inhibits petal pigmentation and expansion in Gerbera hybrida.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhigang; Liang, Minting; Peng, Jianzong; Xing, Tim; Wang, Xiaojing

    2008-06-01

    Petal pigmentation is the most important aspect in natural flower coloration. In the present study, the inhibition of petal pigmentation by exogenous ammonium was investigated. Ray floret petals detached from inflorescences of Gerbera hybrida (Shenzhen No. 5) were cultured in vitro on media supplied with different forms of nitrogen and its assimilated compounds. The expression of a set of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation was determined by Northern blotting assay. It was found that ammonium (NH4+), not nitrate (NO3-), in millimolar concentrations inhibited anthocyanin accumulation. The expressions of Gerbera chalcone synthase 1 (GCHS1), Gerbera chalcone synthase 2 (GCHS2) and Gerbera dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (GDFR) decreased, while six other related genes showed no significant changes after NH4+ treatment. Further studies on NH4+ function indicated that glutamine (Gln) acted as a downstream factor of NH4+ to suppress petal pigmentation. Both exogenous Gln and NH4+ were found to inhibit anthocyanin accumulation in the petals, and the application of Gln was also found to inhibit the expressions of GCHS1, GCHS2 and GDFR. The application of NH4+ also resulted in an increase in the activity of Gerbera glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2) along with a rapid increase of Gln content. When methionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS), was added, it was found to block the NH4+-induced inhibition of pigmentation. From these experiments, we conclude that the NH4+-induced suppression of petal pigmentation is not because of NH4+ toxicity, and the inhibition of pigmentation caused by the addition of exogenous NH4+ is the result of its assimilation into Gln.

  13. Swapping one red pigment for another.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Betalains are bright red and yellow pigments, which are produced in only one order of plants, the Caryophyllales, and replace the more familiar anthocyanin pigments. The evolutionary origin of betalain production is a mystery, but a new study has identified the first regulator of betalain production and discovered a previously unknown link between the two pigment pathways.

  14. A case of pigmented Bowen's disease*

    PubMed Central

    Vivan, Márcia Maria; Hirata, Sérgio Henrique; do Nascimento, Liliane Santos; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simões e Silva

    2017-01-01

    Pigmented Bowen's disease is a rare subtype of Bowen's disease. Clinically it presents as a slow-growing, well-defined, hyperpigmented plaque, and should be included as a differential diagnosis of other pigmented lesions. The authors describe a challenging case of pigmented Bowen's disease with non-diagnostic dermscopy findings. PMID:28225972

  15. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  16. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  17. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  18. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  19. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  20. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  1. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in food-contact materials....

  2. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  3. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  4. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725 Food... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  5. BACILLUS PYOCYANEUS AND ITS PIGMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Edwin O.

    1899-01-01

    The principal conclusions that seem to me justified are as follows: 1. The fluorescent pigment formed by some varieties of B. pyocyaneus is produced under conditions identical with those governing the production of the pigment by other "fluorescent bacteria." 2. The production of pyocyanin is not dependent upon the presence of either phosphate or sulfate in the culture medium. It is formed in non-proteid as well as in proteid media, but is not a necessary accompaniment of the metabolic activities of the organism (e. g. tartrate solution). 3. The power of producing pyocyanin under conditions of artificial cultivation is lost sooner than the fluorescigenic power. 4. There are greater natural and acquired differences in pyocyanigenic power than in fluorescigenic. 5. The fluorescent pigment may be oxidized slowly by the action of light and air as well as by reagents into a yellow pigment, and pyocyanin may be similarly oxidized into a black pigment. 6. A convenient separation of B. pyocyaneus into four varieties would be the following: var. α, pyocyanigenic and fluorescigenic (most common); var. β, pyocyanigenic only (rare); var. γ, fluorescigenic only (not uncommon, closely related to "B. fluorescens liquefaciens"); var. δ, non-chromogenic. 7. Except for the occasional loss of one or another function the different varieties are not so plastic as sometimes assumed, and cannot be readily converted into one another by subjection to varying conditions of life. 8. The signification and correlation of the almost countless physiological variations among the members of this group in respect to growth in gelatin, behavior to temperature, indol production, etc., remain to be determined. It is not yet clear that the variations in chromogenic power can be in any way correlated with the presence or absence of other physiological functions. PMID:19866929

  6. Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibitor ICG-001 enhances pigmentation of cultured melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Il; Jeong, Do-Sun; Jung, Eui Chang; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Kim, Chang Deok; Yoon, Tae-Jin

    2016-11-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling is important in development and differentiation of melanocytes. The object of this study was to evaluate the effects of several Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibitors on pigmentation using melanoma cells. Melanoma cells were treated with Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibitors, and then melanin content and tyrosinase activity were checked. Although some inhibitors showed slight inhibition of pigmentation, we failed to observe potential inhibitory effect of those chemicals on pigmentation of HM3KO melanoma cells. Rather, one of powerful Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibitors, ICG-001, increased the pigmentation of HM3KO melanoma cells. Pigmentation-enhancing effect of ICG-001 was reproducible in other melanoma cell line MNT-1. Consistent with these results. ICG-001 increased the expression of pigmentation-related genes, such as MITF, tyrosinase and TRP1. When ICG-001 was treated, the phosphorylation of CREB was significantly increased. In addition, ICG-001 treatment led to quick increase of intracellular cAMP level, suggesting that ICG-001 activated PKA signaling. The blockage of PKA signaling with pharmaceutical inhibitor H89 inhibited the ICG-001-induced pigmentation significantly. These results suggest that PKA signaling is pivotal in pigmentation process itself, while the importance of Wnt/β-catenin signaling should be emphasized in the context of development and differentiation. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of relationship between lipid and Monascus pigment accumulation by extractive fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Zhilong

    2015-10-20

    Fermented Monascus pigments have been utilized as traditional Chinese medicine and food colorant for thousands of years. Under the limited nitrogen concentration and/or low initial pH 2.5 conditions, it was observed that production of intracellular pigments and accumulation of microbial lipids (high content reaching to approximately 50% in dry cell weight) by edible Monascus anka exhibited a positive correlated relationship. Extractive fermentation in nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution selectively exported the intracellular Monascus pigments into its extracellular broth, in which the concentration of intracellular pigments was negligible while the extracellular one was enhanced. The extractive fermentation provides a novel strategy for shifting of the metabolic channeling from intracellular lipid accumulation to Monascus pigment production. High pigment concentration, i.e., approximately 40 AU of extracellular Monascus pigments, was achieved by extractive fermentation at a relatively high nonionic surfactant concentration 10 g/l. This phenomenon might be attributed to the nonionic surfactant micelles acting as pigment reservoirs by biomimetic of intracellular lipids.

  8. Correlation between tryptophan and hair pigmentation in human hair.

    PubMed

    Biasiolo, M; Bertazzo, A; Costa, C V; Allegri, G

    1999-01-01

    The concentration of tryptophan in human hair of various colours is determined in order to study their correlation with hair pigmentation. The mean levels of this amino acid in hair samples are higher in men than in women. Therefore, sex influences the content of tryptophan in human hair. In addition, age influences the distribution, the highest levels are observed in the 1-5 year age-group and in ageing subjects in the groups up to 61-80 years in both sexes. The hair samples subdivided, according the colour, into blond, dark blond, red, light brown, brown, black, grey, and white demonstrate that in both sexes the concentrations of tryptophan are higher in brown and black hair than in blond hair. However, the tryptophan levels are highest in grey and white hair, showing that tryptophan accumulates among hair fibres with age. Therefore, there is a correlation between tryptophan content and hair pigmentation.

  9. A comparative study on starch digestibility, glycemic index and resistant starch of pigmented ('Njavara' and 'Jyothi') and a non-pigmented ('IR 64') rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Deepa, G; Singh, Vasudeva; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2010-12-01

    In vitro starch digestibility and glycemic indices of three rice varieties- 'Njavara', 'Jyothi' (pigmented rice verities) and 'IR 64' (non-pigmented rice) with similar amylose content were studied. Starch digestibility studies showed differences in glycemic response in three types of rice. The rate of starch hydrolysis was maximum (67.3%) in 'Njavara' rice compared to other two rice varieties. 'Njavara' exhibited the lowest kinetic constant (k) indicating inherent resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. The glycemic load (GL) and glycemic index (GI) of 'Njavara' were similar to 'Jyothi' and 'IR 64'. Resistant starch content was high in pigmented rice varieties compared to 'IR 64'. The resistant starch content of dehusked and cooked rice increased with the storage time at refrigeration temperature (4°C). 'Njavara' is an easily digestible rice and can be used for baby and geriatric foods.

  10. Theoretical review of the treatment of pigmented lesions in Asian skin

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Samantha Y.; Chan, Henry H.L.; Groff, William F.; Imagawa, Kotaro; Akamatsu, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Asian skin has a higher epidermal melanin content, making it more likely to develop adverse pigmentary reactions following laser surgery. The nanosecond lasers are the gold standard for the treatment of pigmented lesions, but the risk of complications, such as post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, is increased in dark-skinned patients. Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) or long-pulsed lasers are available for treating superficial pigmented lesions, and fewer complications are seen when using these devices compared to the nanosecond lasers. Nanosecond lasers are essential in the treatment of dermal melanosis. Recently, picosecond lasers have been investigated. Picosecond lasers will also play an important role in the treatment of pigmented lesions. PMID:27853342

  11. Theoretical review of the treatment of pigmented lesions in Asian skin.

    PubMed

    Kono, Taro; Shek, Samantha Y; Chan, Henry H L; Groff, William F; Imagawa, Kotaro; Akamatsu, Tadashi

    2016-10-01

    Asian skin has a higher epidermal melanin content, making it more likely to develop adverse pigmentary reactions following laser surgery. The nanosecond lasers are the gold standard for the treatment of pigmented lesions, but the risk of complications, such as post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, is increased in dark-skinned patients. Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) or long-pulsed lasers are available for treating superficial pigmented lesions, and fewer complications are seen when using these devices compared to the nanosecond lasers. Nanosecond lasers are essential in the treatment of dermal melanosis. Recently, picosecond lasers have been investigated. Picosecond lasers will also play an important role in the treatment of pigmented lesions.

  12. Heat and pulsed electric field resistance of pigmented and non-pigmented enterotoxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus in exponential and stationary phase of growth.

    PubMed

    Cebrián, G; Sagarzazu, N; Pagán, R; Condón, S; Mañas, P

    2007-09-30

    The survival of four enterotoxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus (with different pigment content) to heat and to pulsed electric fields (PEF) treatments, and the increase in resistance to both processing stresses associated with entrance into stationary phase was examined. Survival curves to heat (58 degrees C) and to PEF (26 kV/cm) of cells in the stationary and in the exponential phase of growth were obtained. Whereas a wide variation in resistance to heat treatments was detected amongst the four strains, with decimal reduction time values at 58 degrees C (D(58 degrees C)) ranging from 0.93 to 0.20 min, the resistance to PEF was very similar. The occurrence of a higher tolerance to heat in stationary phase was coincident with a higher content in carotenoid pigmentation in S. aureus colonies. However, cells of the most heat resistant (pigmented) and the most heat sensitive (non-pigmented) strains in the mid-exponential phase of growth showed similar resistance to heat and to PEF. Therefore the increase in thermotolerance upon entrance into stationary phase of growth was more marked for the pigmented strains. Recovery in anaerobic conditions particularly enhanced survival to heat treatments in a non-pigmented strain. Strain CECT 4630, which possess a deficient sigma B activity, showed low heat resistance, low pigmentation, and reduced increase in thermotolerance in stationary phase. These results indicate that the magnitude of the development of a higher heat resistance in S. aureus in stationary phase is positively related to the carotenoid content of the strain. The development of tolerance to pulsed electric field was less relevant and not linked to the carotenoid content.

  13. Hybrid pigment organelles in an invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Schliwa, M; Euteneuer, U

    1979-02-28

    Observations of a number of vertebrate chromatophores have revealed the presence of more than one type of pigment organelles, suggesting that the different types are all derived from an equipotential organelle able to differentiate into any of the major pigment-containing organelles (Bagnara, 1972). Observations are presented concerning the occurrence of hybrid pigment inclusions, i.e., all kinds of intergrades between melanosomes, pterinosomes, and reflecting platelets in pigment cells of the daddy-long-legs. It therefore seems possible that pigment organelles in some invertebrates may also be derived from a common pluripotential primordial organelle.

  14. Availability and Utilization of Pigments from Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Begum, Hasina; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Khatoon, Helena; Shariff, Mohamed

    2016-10-02

    Microalgae are the major photosynthesizers on earth and produce important pigments that include chlorophyll a, b and c, β-carotene, astaxanthin, xanthophylls, and phycobiliproteins. Presently, synthetic colorants are used in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. However, due to problems associated with the harmful effects of synthetic colorants, exploitation of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors becomes an attractive option. There are various factors such as nutrient availability, salinity, pH, temperature, light wavelength, and light intensity that affect pigment production in microalgae. This paper reviews the availability and characteristics of microalgal pigments, factors affecting pigment production, and the application of pigments produced from microalgae. The potential of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors is enormous as an alternative to synthetic coloring agents, which has limited applications due to regulatory practice for health reasons.

  15. Holographic films from carotenoid pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Lecona-Sánchez, J. F.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    Carotenoids pigments presents in pineapple can be more than just natural dyes, which is one of the applications that now at day gives the chemical industry. In this research shown that can be used in implementing of holographic recording Films. Therefore we describe the technique how to obtain this kind of pigments trough spay drying of natural pineapple juice, which are then dissolved with water in a proportion of 0.1g to 1mL. The obtained sample is poured into glass substrates using the gravity method, after a drying of 24 hours in laboratory normal conditions the films are ready. The films are characterized by recording transmission holographic gratings (LSR 445 NL 445 nm) and measuring the diffraction efficiency holographic parameter. This recording material has good diffraction efficiency and environmental stability.

  16. Cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gaitan-Gaona, Francisco; Said, Mirra C; Valdes-Rodriguez, Rodrigo

    2016-03-16

    A 66-year-old woman presented with a 3 cm black, ulcerated nodule located on the skin of the upper abdomen, just below the breast. The lesion was painful to the touch, but the patient reported no other associated symptoms and was otherwise healthy. A 4-mm punch biopsy of the affected skin was obtained and the histological diagnosis was cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma.

  17. Visual Pigments of Goldfish Cones

    PubMed Central

    Hárosi, Ferenc I.; MacNichol, Edward F.

    1974-01-01

    Freshly isolated retinal photoreceptors of goldfish were studied microspectrophotometrically. Absolute absorptance spectra obtained from dark-adapted cone outer segments reaffirm the existence of three spectrally distinct cone types with absorption maxima at 455 ± 3,530 ± 3, and 625 ± 5 nm. These types were found often recognizable by gross cellular morphology. Side-illuminated cone outer segments were dichroic. The measured dichroic ratio for the main absorption band of each type was 2–3:1. Rapidly bleached cells revealed spectral and dichroic transitions in regions near 400–410, 435–455, and 350–360 nm. These photoproducts decay about fivefold as fast as the intermediates in frog rods. The spectral maxima of photoproducts, combined with other evidence, indicate that retinene2 is the chromophore of all three cone pigments. The average specific optical density for goldfish cone outer segments was found to be 0.0124 ± 0.0015/µm. The spectra of the blue-, and green-absorbing cones appeared to match porphyropsin standards with half-band width Δν = 4,832 ± 100 cm–1. The red-absorbing spectrum was found narrower, having Δν = 3,625 ± 100 cm–1. The results are consistent with the notion that visual pigment concentration within the outer segments is about the same for frog rods and goldfish cones, but that the blue-, and green-absorbing pigments possess molar extinctions of 30,000 liter/mol cm. The red-absorbing pigment was found to have extinction of 40,000 liter/mol cm, assuming invariance of oscillator strength among the three cone spectra. PMID:4817352

  18. Nanoscience of an ancient pigment.

    PubMed

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Barrett, Christopher A; Sharafi, Asma; Salguero, Tina T

    2013-02-06

    We describe monolayer nanosheets of calcium copper tetrasilicate, CaCuSi(4)O(10), which have strong near-IR luminescence and are amenable to solution processing methods. The facile exfoliation of bulk CaCuSi(4)O(10) into nanosheets is especially surprising in view of the long history of this material as the colored component of Egyptian blue, a well-known pigment from ancient times.

  19. Itchy lesions in pigmented skin

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Rachel; Ahmeen, Mahreen; Fleming, Ann; Hoque, Shamali

    2013-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman with type VI skin presented with 1-year history of pruritic lesions affecting her arms, chest and legs. The lesions were approximately 5 mm in diameter, annular and with a raised border. A skin biopsy was performed which showed a diagnosis of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis. Porokeratosis is an unusual presentation in pigmented skin and there are very limited reports of this occurrence in the literature. PMID:24114602

  20. Biosynthesis of Monascus pigments by resting cell submerged culture in nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Zhilong

    2016-08-01

    Growing cell submerged culture is usually applied for fermentative production of intracellular orange Monascus pigments, in which accumulation of Monascus pigments is at least partially associated to cell growth. In the present work, extractive fermentation in a nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution was utilized as a strategy for releasing of intracellular Monascus pigments. Those mycelia with low content of intracellular Monascus pigments were utilized as biocatalyst in resting cell submerged culture. By this means, resting cell submerged culture for production of orange Monascus pigments was carried out successfully in the nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution, which exhibited some advantages comparing with the corresponding conventional growing cell submerged culture, such as non-sterilization operation, high cell density (24 g/l DCW) leading to high productivity (14 AU of orange Monascus pigments at 470 nm per day), and recycling of cells as biocatalyst leading to high product yield (approximately 1 AU of orange Monascus pigments at 470 nm per gram of glucose) based on energy metabolism.

  1. Isolation and characterization of melanin pigment from yesso scallop Patinopecten yessoensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiujun; Wu, Biao; Zhou, Liqing; Liu, Zhihong; Dong, Yinghui; Yang, Aiguo

    2017-04-01

    Melanin is one of the essential compounds in the pigments of molluscan shells. However, the effects of melanin on color variations in molluscs are largely unknown. Our previous study suggests that Yesso scallop Patinopecten yessoensis might contain melanin pigment in the dark brown shell. We therefore isolated melanin from the pigmented shells using hydrochloric acid method, and characterized the types of melanin pigments by spectrophotometry. The purified melanin, which was verified by spectrophotometry scanning and HPLC analysis, showed the typical characteristics of melanin absorption spectra and HPLC chromatograms. The contents of pheomelanin and eumelanin in pigmented shells, which were determined by the linear standard curve of melanin at 405 nm and 350 nm absorbance, were 48.23 ± 1.350 and 157.65 ± 5.905 mg, respectively. The present results indicate that the brown-pigmented shells of scallops comprise approximately 76.6% of eumelanin and 23.4% of pheomelanin, which supports the presence of eumelanin-rich pigment in scallop shells. Therefore, the combination of hydrochloric acid extraction and spectrophotometric quantification is a rapid and efficient method to isolate and quantify melanin in shells. This will facilitate the melanin studies related to shell color polymorphism and the selective breeding of bivalves with different shell colors.

  2. Phytochemistry: structure of the blue cornflower pigment.

    PubMed

    Shiono, Masaaki; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Takeda, Kosaku

    2005-08-11

    The same anthocyanin pigment makes roses red but cornflowers blue, a phenomenon that has so far not been entirely explained. Here we describe the X-ray crystal structure of the cornflower pigment, which reveals that its blue colour arises from a complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions. We believe that this tetrametal complex may represent a previously undiscovered type of supermolecular pigment.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of hematite pigment obtained from a steel waste industry.

    PubMed

    Prim, S R; Folgueras, M V; de Lima, M A; Hotza, D

    2011-09-15

    Pigments that meet environmental and technology requirements are the focus of the research in the ceramic sector. This study focuses on the synthesis of ceramic pigment by encapsulation of hematite in crystalline and amorphous silica matrix. Iron oxide from a metal sheet rolling process was used as chromophore. A different content of hematite and silica was homogenized by conventional and high energy milling. The powders obtained after calcinations between 1050 and 1200 °C for 2h were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. The pigments were applied to ceramic enamel and porcelain body. The effect of pigment was measured by comparing L*a*b* values of the heated samples. Results showed that the color developed is influenced by variables such as oxide content employed, conditions of milling and processing temperature. The results showed that the use of pigment developed does not interfere in microstructural characteristics of pigmented material. The best hue was obtained from samples with 15 wt% of chromophore, heated at 1200 °C in amorphous silica matrix.

  4. Skin Color and Pigmentation in Ethnic Skin.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Marty O

    2017-02-01

    Skin coloration is highly diverse, partly due to the presence of pigmentation. Color variation is related to the extent of ultraviolet radiation exposure, as well as other factors. Inherent skin coloration arises from differences in basal epidermal melanin amount and type. Skin color is influenced by both the quantity and distribution of melanocytes. The effectiveness of inherent pigmentation for protecting living cells also varies. This article discusses skin color, pigmentation, and ethnicity in relation to clinical practice. Color perception, skin typing/classification, and quantitation of pigmentation are reviewed in relation to ethnicity, environmental stresses/irritants, and potential treatment effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-photosynthetic pigments as potential biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwieterman, E. W.; Cockell, C. S.; Meadows, V. S.

    2014-03-01

    Photosynthetic organisms on Earth produce potentially detectable surface reflectance biosignatures due in part to the spectral location and strength of pigment absorption. However, life on Earth uses pigments for a multitude of purposes other than photosynthesis, including coping with extreme environments. Macroscopic environments exist on Earth where the surface reflectance is significantly altered by a nonphotosynthetic pigment, such as the case of hypersaline lakes and ponds (Oren et al. 1992). Here we explore the nature and potential detectability of non-photosynthetic pigments in disk-averaged planetary observations using a combination of laboratory measurements and archival reflectance spectra, along with simulated broadband photometry and spectra. The in vivo visible reflectance spectra of a cross section of pigmented microorganisms are presented to illustrate the spectral diversity of biologically produced pigments. Synthetic broadband colors are generated to show a significant spread in color space. A 1D radiative transfer model (Meadows & Crisp 1996; Crisp 1997) is used to approximate the spectra of scenarios where pigmented organisms are widespread on planets with Earth-like atmospheres. Broadband colors are revisited to show that colors due to surface reflectivity are not robust to the addition of scattering and absorption effects from the atmosphere. We consider a èbest case' plausible scenario for the detection of nonphotosynthetic pigments by using the Virtual Planetary Laboratory's 3D spectral Earth model (Robinson et al. 2011) to explore the detectability of the surface biosignature produced by pigmented halophiles that are widespread on an Earth-analog planet.

  6. Evolution of vertebrate visual pigments.

    PubMed

    Bowmaker, James K

    2008-09-01

    The visual pigments of vertebrates evolved about 500 million years ago, before the major evolutionary step of the development of jaws. Four spectrally distinct classes of cone opsin evolved through gene duplication, followed by the rod opsin class that arose from the duplication of the middle-wave-sensitive cone opsin. All four cone classes are present in many extant teleost fish, reptiles and birds, but one or more classes have been lost in primitive fish, amphibians and mammals. Gene duplication within the cone classes, especially in teleosts, has resulted in multiple opsins being available, both temporally and spatially, during development.

  7. Melanin pigmented solar absorbing surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gallas, J.M.; Eisner, M.

    1980-01-01

    Selectivity enhancement is shown to result for melanin, a black biopolymer pigment, for sufficiently low sample density. The effect is proposed to follow from a consideration of the evanescent waves associated with the total internal reflection phenomenon. A relationship is discussed among powder density, pH and the paramagnetic properties of melanin; this relationship is shown to be consistent with, and offer support to an amino-acid side group proposed earlier as part of the melanin structure. A brief discussion is also presented on the optical properties of melanin and the relative importance of quinhydrone, a change transfer complex believed to exist in the polymeric structure of melanin.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of black ceramic pigments by recycling of two hazardous wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Minxing; Du, Yi; Chen, Zhongtao; Li, Zhongfu; Yang, Kai; Lv, Xingjie; Feng, Yibing

    2017-09-01

    In this study, two different industrial wastes, namely vanadium tailing and leather sludge, were used as less expensive alternative raw materials for the synthesis of black ceramic pigments to be used in commercial glazes. The pigments were based on hematite structure (FexCr1-x)2O3 and prepared by the common solid-state reaction method, under optimal formulation and processing conditions. The synthesized pigments were characterized in typical ceramic glazes and ceramic tile bodies. Optimal color development was achieved when the Fe/Cr mole ratios were 2.0 with 40 wt% content of vanadium tailing at 1200 °C. The coloring properties were similar to those imparted by a commercial black pigment.

  9. Solid-state fermentation for the production of Monascus pigments from jackfruit seed.

    PubMed

    Babitha, Sumathy; Soccol, Carlos R; Pandey, Ashok

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the feasibility of jackfruit seed powder as a substrate for the production of pigments by Monascus purpureus in solid-state fermentation (SSF). A pigment yield of 25ODUnits/g dry fermented substrate was achieved by employing jackfruit seed powder with optimized process parameters such as 50% initial moisture content, incubation temperature 30 degrees C, 9x10(4)spores/g dry substrate inoculum and an incubation period of seven days. The color of the pigments was stable over a wide range of pH, apparently due to the buffering nature of the substrate, which could be a significant point for its scope in food applications. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on pigment production using jackfruit seed powder in solid-state fermentation (SSF).

  10. Spectral tuning of deep red cone pigments.

    PubMed

    Amora, Tabitha L; Ramos, Lavoisier S; Galan, Jhenny F; Birge, Robert R

    2008-04-22

    Visual pigments are G-protein-coupled receptors that provide a critical interface between organisms and their external environment. Natural selection has generated vertebrate pigments that absorb light from the far-UV (360 nm) to the deep red (630 nm) while using a single chromophore, in either the A1 (11- cis-retinal) or A2 (11- cis-3,4-dehydroretinal) form. The fact that a single chromophore can be manipulated to have an absorption maximum across such an extended spectral region is remarkable. The mechanisms of wavelength regulation remain to be fully revealed, and one of the least well-understood mechanisms is that associated with the deep red pigments. We investigate theoretically the hypothesis that deep red cone pigments select a 6- s- trans conformation of the retinal chromophore ring geometry. This conformation is in contrast to the 6- s- cis ring geometry observed in rhodopsin and, through model chromophore studies, the vast majority of visual pigments. Nomographic spectral analysis of 294 A1 and A2 cone pigment literature absorption maxima indicates that the selection of a 6- s- trans geometry red shifts M/LWS A1 pigments by approximately 1500 cm (-1) ( approximately 50 nm) and A2 pigments by approximately 2700 cm (-1) ( approximately 100 nm). The homology models of seven cone pigments indicate that the deep red cone pigments select 6- s- trans chromophore conformations primarily via electrostatic steering. Our results reveal that the generation of a 6- s- trans conformation not only achieves a significant red shift but also provides enhanced stability of the chromophore within the deep red cone pigment binding sites.

  11. Analysis of earthy pigments in grounds of Baroque paintings.

    PubMed

    Grygar, Tomás; Hradilová, Janka; Hradil, David; Bezdicka, Petr; Bakardjieva, Snejana

    2003-04-01

    Sixteen samples of orange-red and yellow Fe-oxide earthy pigments mainly from bole grounds of Baroque paintings were studied by elemental and phase analysis and voltammetry. Fe, K, and Ti content were found to be suitable for further classification of those earthy pigments. According to the chemical and phase composition the yellow grounds were natural yellow ochres formed by intense chemical weathering in a moderate climate. Very similar phase and elemental composition of part of the orange-red boles indicated their similar geological origin or even their formation by calcination of yellow ochres. Part of the orange-red boles differed significantly from the yellow boles, especially in their increased content of Ti, indicating their relation to end products of intense weathering, e.g. laterites formed in a tropical climate. Analogous materials with a correspondingly large Ti content are not currently commercially available and their geological origin (provenance) is not clear. In several orange-red boles the intentional addition of rather coarse-grained haematite to natural ochre by the painters was assumed on the basis of Fe oxide content and crystallinity.

  12. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of Chlorophyll Pigments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, procedures used, and discussion of typical results are provided for an experiment on the thin layer chromatography of chlorophyll pigments. The experiment works well in high school, since the chemicals used are the same as those used in paper chromatography of plant pigments. (JN)

  13. In vitro spectral analysis of tattoo pigments.

    PubMed

    Beute, Trisha Clarke; Miller, Charles H; Timko, Anthony Louis; Ross, Edward Victor

    2008-04-01

    Absorption spectra of common tattoo pigments, their reaction to irradiation at 532 and 752 nm, and correlation with their titanium and iron component are important to the selection of an optimal laser device. The objectives were (1) to establish the absorption spectra of common tattoo pigments and India ink and (2) to determine their response to laser irradiation at 532 and 752 nm and correlate this to their composition. Samples of 28 tattoo pigments and India ink were mixed in agar and analyzed with a spectrophotometer. These agar plates were irradiated with Q-switched wavelengths of 532 and 752 nm. The highest absorbance of red was in the complementary spectrum, while blue, yellow, and orange had peaks in the adjacent portion of the visible light spectrum. There is great variability in the absorbance of green tattoo material. Pigment darkening was noted at both wavelengths in all iron-containing pigments except black. It was variable in those containing titanium. Pigments tested responded with either clearance or darkening at 532 nm; however, response at 752 nm was more limited. (1) Tattoo pigment absorption spectra can explain why some colors are more resistant to removal. (2) Pigment darkening is a complex process.

  14. Dermatoscopic findings of pigmented purpuric dermatosis*

    PubMed Central

    Ozkaya, Dilek Biyik; Emiroglu, Nazan; Su, Ozlem; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Bahali, Anil Gulsel; Yildiz, Pelin; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Onsun, Nahide

    2016-01-01

    Background Pigmented purpuric dermatosis is a chronic skin disorder of unknown aetiology characterised by symmetrical petechial and pigmented macules, often confined to the lower limbs. The aetiology of pigmented purpuric dermatosis is unknown. Dermatoscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that allows the visualisation of morphological features invisible to the naked eye; it combines a method that renders the corneal layer of the skin translucent with an optical system that magnifies the image projected onto the retina. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the dermatoscopic findings of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. Methods This study enrolled patients diagnosed histopathologically with pigmented purpuric dermatosis who had dermatoscopic records. We reviewed the dermatoscopic images of PPD patients who attended the outpatient clinic in the Istanbul Dermatovenereology Department at the Bezmialem Vakıf University Medical Faculty. Results Dermatoscopy showed: coppery-red pigmentation (97%, n = 31) in the background, a brown network (34%, n = 11), linear vessels (22%, n = 7), round to oval red dots, globules, and patches (69%, n = 22; 75%, n = 24; 34%, n = 11; respectively), brown globules (26%, n = 8) and dots (53%, n = 17), linear brown lines (22%, n = 7), and follicular openings (13%, n = 4). Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the dermatoscopy of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. In our opinion, dermatoscopy can be useful in the diagnosis of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. PMID:27828629

  15. The spleen pigment cells in some amphibia.

    PubMed

    Scalia, Marina; Di Pietro, Cinzia; Poma, Mariangela; Ragusa, Marco; Sichel, Giovanni; Corsaro, Concetta

    2004-04-01

    It was demonstrated that the spleen pigment cells of Amphibia are macrophages: they show an ultrastructurally distinctive morphology, are able to phagocytose and react positively for non-specific esterases. These pigmented macrophages express mRNA for tyrosinase and also they show dopa oxidase activity; therefore they are able to synthesize melanins, as Kupffer cells do.

  16. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of Chlorophyll Pigments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, procedures used, and discussion of typical results are provided for an experiment on the thin layer chromatography of chlorophyll pigments. The experiment works well in high school, since the chemicals used are the same as those used in paper chromatography of plant pigments. (JN)

  17. Pigmentation and acriflavine resistance in Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Woods, D R; Mosmann, T R; Hanson, S; Hendry, D A

    1971-11-01

    Stable, orange, acriflavine-resistant variants were selected by treatment of a wild-type, red, acriflavine-sensitive strain of Serratia marcescens with acriflavine. Visible, ultraviolet, infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of purified pigment from the red strain were identical to those of the pigment from the orange strain, and the orange mutant was not due to a mutation affecting the structure of the pigment, prodigiosin. The color of the red strain was not affected by variations in pH between 5.0 and 8.0, whereas the color of the orange mutant changed from pink to orange over the same pH range. This variation was mimicked by the pH-induced variation in color of prodigiosin purified from either the red, wild-type or the orange, mutant strains. Density-gradient centrifugation of cell fragments after ultrasonic disintegration resulted in characteristic pigmented bands. Biochemical characterization of these pigmented bands showed that they contained pigment and a protein component, but no lipids, polysaccharides, sugars, glucosamine, or phosphates were detected. Further fractionation of these pigmented bands by zone electrophoresis on a sucrose density gradient indicated that some pigment in S. marcescens was specifically attached to protein components.

  18. Pigmentation and Acriflavine Resistance in Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Woods, D. R.; Mosmann, T. R.; Hanson, Sally; Hendry, D. A.

    1971-01-01

    Stable, orange, acriflavine-resistant variants were selected by treatment of a wild-type, red, acriflavine-sensitive strain of Serratia marcescens with acriflavine. Visible, ultraviolet, infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of purified pigment from the red strain were identical to those of the pigment from the orange strain, and the orange mutant was not due to a mutation affecting the structure of the pigment, prodigiosin. The color of the red strain was not affected by variations in pH between 5.0 and 8.0, whereas the color of the orange mutant changed from pink to orange over the same pH range. This variation was mimicked by the pH-induced variation in color of prodigiosin purified from either the red, wild-type or the orange, mutant strains. Density-gradient centrifugation of cell fragments after ultrasonic disintegration resulted in characteristic pigmented bands. Biochemical characterization of these pigmented bands showed that they contained pigment and a protein component, but no lipids, polysaccharides, sugars, glucosamine, or phosphates were detected. Further fractionation of these pigmented bands by zone electrophoresis on a sucrose density gradient indicated that some pigment in S. marcescens was specifically attached to protein components. Images PMID:4942763

  19. Application of high-performance liquid chromatography to the characterization of the betalain pigments in prickly pear fruits.

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, J A; Almela, L

    2001-04-13

    The qualitative and quantitative betalain pigment content of two cultivars of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruits grown in southeastern Spain was evaluated. After methanolic extraction of crushed fruits, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection were applied simultaneously for the separation, identification and quantification of these pigments. Two main pigments were obtained, which were identified as indicaxanthin (lambda(max) 484 nm) and betanin (lambda(max) 535 nm). Spectrophotometric evaluation of both pigments showed a yield of around 20-30 mg per 100 g of fresh pulp. When the influence of temperature (25 to 90 degrees C) on betacyanin pigment stability was investigated, the results revealed a substantial degree of thermodegradation at temperatures higher than 70 degrees C.

  20. Mevinolin, citrinin and pigments of adlay angkak fermented by Monascus sp.

    PubMed

    Pattanagul, Patcharee; Pinthong, Renu; Phianmongkhol, Aphirak; Tharatha, Somsak

    2008-08-15

    Adlay angkak a new developed product from an adlay substrate fermented by Monascus fungi can be used both as a natural coloring and a dietary supplement. However, not only useful secondary metabolites such as mevinolin and pigments are produced; the fungi also produce toxin substance called citrinin. This study conducted the cultivation of M. purpureus (ATCC 16365, BCC 6131, DMKU and FTCMU) and M. ruber TISTR 3006 on the adlay substrate for mevinolin, citrinin, pigments and glucosamine synthesis at room temperature (32-35 degrees C) for 28 days. The results elucidated that glucosamine levels expressed as the mold growth in solid-state fermentation corresponded as a relatively reliable indicator to the mevinolin, citrinin and pigments production. M. purpureus DMKU produced the lowest citrinin content of 0.26 ppm and the highest mevinolin content of 25.03 ppm with pigment concentrations expressed by absorbance at wavelengths of 400, 470 and 500 nm for yellow, orange and red pigments of 9.76, 3.03 and 3.43 units respectively and moisture content and pH of 83.51% and 6.54 respectively. This study suggested that M. purpureus DMKU has a potential for the production of adlay angkak within an authorized citrinin level.

  1. Organic pigments in plastics can cause allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L; Estlander, T

    1987-01-01

    A short review on organic pigments in plastics as a cause of allergic contact dermatitis is presented. Previously, organic pigments have been reported as provoking allergic pigmented contact dermatitis when used in cosmetics. Here we present the case of a patient who developed allergic contact dermatitis from an organic pigment (Irgalite Orange F2G) in a plastic glove. This shows that organic pigments in plastics can also cause allergic contact dermatitis. The potential sensitizing capacity of organic pigments should be noted.

  2. Developing fungal pigments for "painting" vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sara C

    2012-02-01

    The use of fungal pigments as color additives to wood as a method to increase forest revenue is a relatively new, but quickly developing field. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is currently the primary utilized hardwood for spalting and appears to be the best suited North American hardwood for such purposes. The combination of Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta has been identified in several instances as a strong fungal pairing for zone line production; however, Xylaria polymorpha is capable of creating zone lines without the antagonism of a secondary fungus. Few fungal pigments have been developed for reliable use; Scytalidium cuboideum is capable of producing a penetrating pink/red stain, as well as a blue pigment after extended incubation, and Chlorociboria sp. produces a blue/green pigment if grown on aspen (Populus tremuloides). Several opportunities exist for stimulation of fungal pigments including the use of copper sulfate and changes in wood pH.

  3. Analysing avian eggshell pigments with Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daniel B; Hauber, Mark E; Hanley, Daniel; Waterhouse, Geoffrey I N; Fraser, Sara; Gordon, Keith C

    2015-09-01

    Avian eggshells are variable in appearance, including coloration. Here, we demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy can provide accurate diagnostic information about major eggshell constituents, including the pigments biliverdin and protoporphyrin IX. Eggshells pigmented with biliverdin showed a series of pigment-diagnostic Raman peaks under 785 nm excitation. Eggshells pigmented with protoporphyrin IX showed strong emission under 1064 nm and 785 nm excitation, whereas resonance Raman spectra (351 nm excitation) showed a set of protoporphyrin IX informative peaks characteristic of protoporphyrin IX. As representative examples, we identified biliverdin in the olive green eggshells of elegant crested tinamous (Eudromia elegans) and in the blue eggshells of extinct upland moa (Megalapteryx didinus). This study encourages the wider use of Raman spectroscopy in pigment and coloration research and highlights the value of this technique for non-destructive analyses of museum eggshell specimens. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Bilateral pigmented villonodular synovitis of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Samir H.; Porrino, Jack A.; Green, John R.; Chew, Felix S.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a disorder resulting in a villous, nodular, or villonodular proliferation of the synovium, with pigmentation related to the presence of hemosiderin. These lesions are almost exclusively benign with rare reports of malignancy. Pigmented villonodular synovitis can occur in a variety of joints and at any age but most often occurs within the knee in the young adult. Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a rare disease entity, and bilateral synchronous or metachronous involvement of a joint is even more uncommon, with few reports previously described in the literature. We present a case of pigmented villonodular synovitis involving both the right and left knee in the same patient, with radiographic imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, photograph and video intraoperative imaging, and pathologic correlation. PMID:26649121

  5. Genetic Analysis of Pigmentation in Cordyceps militaris

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Choi, Sung-Keun; Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Woong

    2005-01-01

    Pigmentation of ascospore-derived isolates from seven different natural specimens of Cordyceps militaris EFCC C-5888, EFCC C-7159, EFCC C-7833, EFCC C-7991, EFCC C-8021, EFCC C-8023 and EFCC C-8179 was observed on the plates of Sabouraud Dextrose agar plus Yeast Extract at 25℃ under continuous illumination (500 lux). Pigmentation of the wild-type isolates of C. militaris was diverse ranging from yellowish white to orange, while white color was believed as a mutant. Inheritance of pigmentation was found to be controlled by both parental isolates when F1 progeny were analyzed. Pigmentation and mating type were shown to be either independent or distantly linked each other due to the high percentage of non-parental phenotypes among F1 progeny. Crosses between white mutant isolates of C. militaris yielded progeny with wild type pigmentations, indicating that the albino mutations in the parents were unlinked to each other. PMID:24049487

  6. Glucose metabolism in rat retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Coffe, Víctor; Carbajal, Raymundo C; Salceda, Rocío

    2006-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the major transport pathway for exchange of metabolites and ions between choroidal blood supply and the neural retina. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism in RPE and its possible relationship to retinopathy, we studied the influence of different glucose concentrations on glycogen and lactate levels and CO(2) production in RPE from normal and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Incubation of normal RPE in the absence of glucose caused a decrease in lactate production and glycogen content. In normal RPE, increasing glucose concentrations from 5.6 mM to 30 mM caused a four-fold increase in glucose accumulation and CO(2) yield, as well as reduction in lactate and glycogen production. In RPE from diabetic rats glucose accumulation did not increase in the presence of high glucose substrate, but it showed a four- and a seven-fold increase in CO(2) production through the mitochondrial and pentose phosphate pathways, respectively. We found high glycogen levels in RPE which can be used as an energy reserve for RPE itself and/or neural retina. Findings further show that the RPE possesses a high oxidative capacity. The large increase in glucose shunting to the pentose phosphate pathway in diabetic retina exposed to high glucose suggests a need for reducing capacity, consistent with increased oxidative stress.

  7. Key Regulatory Role of Dermal Fibroblasts in Pigmentation as Demonstrated Using a Reconstructed Skin Model: Impact of Photo-Aging

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Christine; Cohen, Catherine; Chagnoleau, Corinne; Flouret, Virginie; Bourreau, Emilie; Bernerd, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    To study cutaneous pigmentation in a physiological context, we have previously developed a functional pigmented reconstructed skin model composed of a melanocyte-containing epidermis grown on a dermal equivalent comprising living fibroblasts. The present studies, using the same model, aimed to demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts influence skin pigmentation up to the macroscopic level. The proof of principle was performed with pigmented skins differing only in the fibroblast component. First, the in vitro system was reconstructed with or without fibroblasts in order to test the global influence of the presence of this cell type. We then assessed the impact of the origin of the fibroblast strain on the degree of pigmentation using fetal versus adult fibroblasts. In both experiments, impressive variation in skin pigmentation at the macroscopic level was observed and confirmed by quantitative parameters related to skin color, melanin content and melanocyte numbers. These data confirmed the responsiveness of the model and demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts do indeed impact the degree of skin pigmentation. We then hypothesized that a physiological state associated with pigmentary alterations such as photo-aging could be linked to dermal fibroblasts modifications that accumulate over time. Pigmentation of skin reconstructed using young unexposed fibroblasts (n = 3) was compared to that of tissues containing natural photo-aged fibroblasts (n = 3) which express a senescent phenotype. A stimulation of pigmentation in the presence of the natural photo-aged fibroblasts was revealed by a significant increase in the skin color (decrease in Luminance) and an increase in both epidermal melanin content and melanogenic gene expression, thus confirming our hypothesis. Altogether, these data demonstrate that the level of pigmentation of the skin model is influenced by dermal fibroblasts and that natural photo-aged fibroblasts can contribute to the hyperpigmentation that is

  8. Key regulatory role of dermal fibroblasts in pigmentation as demonstrated using a reconstructed skin model: impact of photo-aging.

    PubMed

    Duval, Christine; Cohen, Catherine; Chagnoleau, Corinne; Flouret, Virginie; Bourreau, Emilie; Bernerd, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    To study cutaneous pigmentation in a physiological context, we have previously developed a functional pigmented reconstructed skin model composed of a melanocyte-containing epidermis grown on a dermal equivalent comprising living fibroblasts. The present studies, using the same model, aimed to demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts influence skin pigmentation up to the macroscopic level. The proof of principle was performed with pigmented skins differing only in the fibroblast component. First, the in vitro system was reconstructed with or without fibroblasts in order to test the global influence of the presence of this cell type. We then assessed the impact of the origin of the fibroblast strain on the degree of pigmentation using fetal versus adult fibroblasts. In both experiments, impressive variation in skin pigmentation at the macroscopic level was observed and confirmed by quantitative parameters related to skin color, melanin content and melanocyte numbers. These data confirmed the responsiveness of the model and demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts do indeed impact the degree of skin pigmentation. We then hypothesized that a physiological state associated with pigmentary alterations such as photo-aging could be linked to dermal fibroblasts modifications that accumulate over time. Pigmentation of skin reconstructed using young unexposed fibroblasts (n = 3) was compared to that of tissues containing natural photo-aged fibroblasts (n = 3) which express a senescent phenotype. A stimulation of pigmentation in the presence of the natural photo-aged fibroblasts was revealed by a significant increase in the skin color (decrease in Luminance) and an increase in both epidermal melanin content and melanogenic gene expression, thus confirming our hypothesis. Altogether, these data demonstrate that the level of pigmentation of the skin model is influenced by dermal fibroblasts and that natural photo-aged fibroblasts can contribute to the hyperpigmentation that is

  9. Fungal and Bacterial Pigments: Secondary Metabolites with Wide Applications

    PubMed Central

    Narsing Rao, Manik Prabhu; Xiao, Min; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The demand for natural colors is increasing day by day due to harmful effects of some synthetic dyes. Bacterial and fungal pigments provide a readily available alternative source of naturally derived pigments. In contrast to other natural pigments, they have enormous advantages including rapid growth, easy processing, and independence of weather conditions. Apart from colorant, bacterial and fungal pigments possess many biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity. This review outlines different types of pigments. It lists some bacterial and fungal pigments and current bacterial and fungal pigment status and challenges. It also focuses on possible fungal and bacterial pigment applications. PMID:28690593

  10. Rod sensitivity and visual pigment concentration in Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Xenopus larvae were raised on a vitamin A-free diet under constant illumination until their visual pigment content had decreased to between 8% of normal and an undetectably low level. After the intramuscular injection of 2.1 X 10(13-2.1 X 10(16) molecules of [3H]vitamin A, ocular tissue showed a rapid rate of uptake of label which reached a maximum level of incorporation by 48 h. Light- microscopic autoradiography revealed that the retinal uptake of label was concentrated within the receptor outer segments. Spectral transmissivity measurements at various times after injection were made upon intact retinas and upon digitonin extracts. They showed that visual pigment with a lambdamax of 504 nm was formed in the retina and that the amount formed was a function of incubation time and the magnitude of the dose administered. Electrophysiological measures of photoreceptor light responses were obtained from the PIII component of the electroretinogram, isolated with aspartate. The quantal flux required to elicit a criterion response was determined and related to the fraction of visual pigment present. The results showed that rod sensitivity varied linearly with the probability of quantal absorption. PMID:731198

  11. The effects of polymer pigmentation on fingermark development techniques.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Simon R; Ojeda, Jesus J; Downham, Rory; Sears, Vaughn G; Jones, Benjamin J

    2013-11-01

    The effectiveness of latent fingerprint development techniques is heavily influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the deposition surface. The use of powder suspensions is increasing for development of prints on a range of surfaces. We demonstrate that carbon powder suspension development on polymers is detrimentally affected by the presence of common white pigment, titanium dioxide. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrates that patches of the compound are clearly associated with increased levels of powder adhesion. Substrates with nonlocalized titanium dioxide content also exhibit increased levels of carbon powder staining on a surface-wide basis. Secondary ion mass spectrometry and complementary techniques demonstrate the importance of levels of the pigment within the top 30 nm. The association is independent of fingermark deposition and may be related to surface energy variation. The detrimental effect of the pigment is not observed with small-particle reagent (MoS2 SPR) or cyanoacrylate (superglue) fuming techniques that exploit different development mechanisms. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Structure of plant bile pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenleber, R.W.

    1983-12-01

    Selective peptide cleavage has provided a general procedure for the study of the structure, including stereochemistry, of plant bile pigments. The information derived from the synthesis and spectral analysis of a series of 2,3-dihydrodioxobilins allows the determination of the trans relative stereochemistry for ring A of the ..beta../sub 1/-phycocyanobilin from C-phycocyanin as well as for ring A of phytochrome. A complete structure proof of the five phycoerythrobilins attached to the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of B-phycoerythrin is described. One of these tetrapyrroles is doubly-peptide linked to a single peptide chain through two thioethers at the C-3' and C-18' positions. The four remaining phycoerythrobilins are singly-linked to the protein through thioethers at the C-3' position and all possess the probable stereochemistry C-2(R), C-3(R), C-3'(R), and C-16(R).

  13. Anthocyanins. Plant pigments and beyond.

    PubMed

    Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Mateus, Nuno; De Freitas, Victor

    2014-07-23

    Anthocyanins are plant pigments widespread in nature. They play relevant roles in plant propagation and ecophysiology and plant defense mechanisms and are responsible for the color of fruits and vegetables. A large number of novel anthocyanin structures have been identified, including new families such as pyranoanthocyanins or anthocyanin oligomers; their biosynthesis pathways have been elucidated, and new plants with "a la carte" colors have been created by genetic engineering. Furthermore, evidence about their benefits in human health has accumulated, and processes of anthocyanin absorption and biotransformation in the human organism have started to be ascertained. These advances in anthocyanin research were revised in the Seventh International Workshop on Anthocyanins that took place in Porto (Portugal) on September 9-11, 2013. Some selected papers are collected in this special issue, where aspects such as anthocyanin accumulation in plants, relationship with color expression, stability in plants and food, and bioavailability or biological activity are revised.

  14. Carotenoid pigments and the selectivity of psittacofulvin-based coloration systems in parrots.

    PubMed

    McGraw, K J; Nogare, M C

    2004-07-01

    Carotenoid pigments are commonly used as colorants of feathers and bare parts by birds. However, parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes) use a novel class of plumage pigments (called psittacofulvins) that, like carotenoids, are lipid-soluble and red, orange, or yellow in color. To begin to understand how and why parrots use these pigments and not carotenoids in their feathers, we must first describe the distribution of these two types of pigments in the diet, tissues, and fluids of these birds. Here, we studied the carotenoid content of blood in five species of parrots with red in their plumage to see if they show the physiological ability to accumulate carotenoids in the body. Although Scarlet (Ara macao) and Greenwing Macaws (Ara chloroptera) and Eclectus (Eclectus roratus), African Gray (Psittacus erithacus) and Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) Parrots all use psittacofulvins to color their feathers red, we found that they also circulated high concentrations of both dietary (lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin) and metabolically derived (anhydrolutein, dehydrolutein) carotenoids through blood at the time of feather growth, at levels comparable to those found in many other carotenoid-colored birds. These results suggest that parrots have the potential to use carotenoids for plumage pigmentation, but preferentially avoid depositing them in feathers, which is likely under the control of the maturing feather follicle. As there is no evidence of psittacofulvins in parrot blood at the tune of feather growth, we presume that these pigments are locally synthesized by growing feathers within the follicular tissue.

  15. Photochemistry of two rhodopsinlike pigments in bacteriorhodopsin-free mutant of Halobacterium halobium.

    PubMed Central

    Hazemoto, N; Kamo, N; Terayama, Y; Kobatake, Y; Tsuda, M

    1983-01-01

    Two photocycles due to two different pigments were found in membrane vesicles of a bacteriorhodopsin-free mutant of Halobacterium halobium. A pigment absorbing approximately 590 nm halorhodopsin (HR) underwent a faster photocycle with a phototransient at approximately 490 nm (half-time of decay, tau 1/2 = 10 ms). Another third rhodopsinlike pigment (TR) absorbing approximately 580 nm underwent a slower photocycle accompanying a phototransient absorbing below 410 nm (tau 1/2 = 0.8s). The photocycles were measured under various conditions of temperature, NaCl concentration, pH, and in the presence of cholate. All results obtained support the notion that the two photocycles are independent of each other, and the fast or the slow cycle can be abolished after these treatments. At alkaline pH, the wavelength of maximum absorbance of both pigments shifted to blue, but the magnitude of the shift of the pigment undergoing the slow photocycle was much greater than the other. The ratio of the content of the two pigments varies among bacteriorhodopsin-free mutants. PMID:6626679

  16. Antioxidant activities and phenolic compounds of pigmented rice bran extracts.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hyun-Il; Song, Geun-Seoup; Yang, Eun-In; Youn, Young; Kim, Young-Soo

    2012-07-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant activities and phenolic compounds of pigmented rice (black, red, and green rice) and brown rice brans. Antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation assay, reducing power, and chelating ability. Phenolic compounds were measured by using HPLC. Pigmented rice brans were extracted by using aqueous mixtures of acetone, ethanol, and methanol to determine the most effective extraction solvent. Of all solvents examined, extract from 40:60 acetone-water mixtures (v/v) provided the highest DPPH radical assay as well as the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content. We finally selected 40% acetone as an extraction solvent for antioxidant study of pigmented rice bran. Antioxidant activities of 40% acetone extracts of pigmented rice bran, measured in the range of 0 to 1500 μg/mL. At 500 μg/mL concentration, red rice bran, which had the highest total phenolic (259.5 μg/mg) and total flavonoid (187.4 μg/mg) contents, showed the highest antioxidant activity: 83.6%, 71.5%, 1.2%, and 16.4% for DPPH radical assay, ABTS radical cation assay, reducing power, and chelating ability, respectively. Red rice bran showed a lower EC(50) value (112.6 μg/mL) than that of butylated hydroxytoluene (144.5 μg/mL) from the DPPH radical assay. The major phenolic acids of red rice bran were ferulic, vanillic and p-coumaric acids. The results indicated pigmented rice bran might be used as a natural antioxidant. The present study revealed black and red rice bran shows high antioxidant activities and they contain high amount of phenolic compounds. Indeed, black and red rice bran could be better raw materials for manufacturing the food with high antioxidant activity. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Relationship between pigment producibility and drug resistance in Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Muto, Y; Tsuji, A; Kaneko, Y; Goto, S

    1981-01-01

    Among the clinical isolates of Serratia marcescens, non-pigmented cells appeared more frequently from pigmented, drug-resistant strains than from pigmented, drug-sensitive strains. Transfer of R plasmid from Escherichia coli to pigmented strains caused spontaneous loss of pigment producibility, whereas such spontaneous loss never occurred in fresh cultures of drug-sensitive strains. The non-pigmented strain was a better recipient of R plasmid from E. coli than was the pigmented strain. R plasmid was transferred from the non-pigmented strain to the pigmented strain at a higher frequency than from E. coli to the pigmented strain. The results of the present investigation suggest that transfer of R plasmid may be one of the reasons for the significant increase of non-pigmented, drug-resistant strains of S. marcescens in nature.

  18. Inhibitory effect of 5-iodotubercidin on pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Il; Jeong, Hae Bong; Ro, Hyunju; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Kim, Chang Deok; Yoon, Tae-Jin

    2017-09-02

    Melanin pigments are the primary contributors for the skin color. They are produced in melanocytes and then transferred to keratinocytes, eventually giving various colors on skin surface. Although many depigmenting and/or skin-lightening agents have been developed, there is still a growing demand on materials for reducing pigmentation. We attempted to find materials for depigmentation and/or skin-lightening using the small molecule compounds commercially available, and found that 5-iodotubercidin had inhibitory potential on pigmentation. When HM3KO melanoma cells were treated with 5-iodotubercidin, pigmentation was dramatically reduced. The 5-iodotubercidin decreased the protein level for pigmentation-related molecules such as MITF, tyrosinase, and TRP1. In addition, 5-iodotubercidin decreased the phosphorylation of CREB, while increased the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK. These data suggest that 5-iodotubercidin inhibits melanogenesis via the regulation of intracellular signaling related with pigmentation. Finally, 5-iodotubercidin markedly inhibited the melanogenesis of zebrafish embryos, an in vivo evaluation model for pigmentation. Together, these data suggest that 5-iodotubercidin can be developed as a depigmenting and/or skin-lightening agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Surgical Management of Iatrogenic Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Mierlo, Camille Van; Pinto, Luis Abegão

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Iatrogenic pigment dispersion syndrome generally originates from a repetitive, mechanical trauma to the pigmented posterior epithelium of the iris. This trauma can arise after intraocular surgery, most commonly due to an abnormal contact between the intraocular lens (IOL) and the iris. Whether surgical removal of this primary insult can lead to a successful intraocular pressure (IOP) control remains unclear. Methods: Case-series. Patients with IOP elevation and clinical signs of pigment dispersion were screened for a diagnosis of iatrogenic IOL-related pigment dispersion. Results: Three patients in which the IOL or the IOL-bag complex caused a pigment dispersion through a repetitive iris chafing were selected. In two cases, replacement of a sulcus-based single-piece IOL (patient 1) or a sub-luxated in-the-bag IOL (patient 2) by an anterior-chamber (AC) iris-fixed IOL led to a sustained decrease in IOP. In the third case, extensive iris atrophy and poor anatomical AC parameters for IOL implantation precluded further surgical intervention. Conclusion: IOL-exchange appears to be a useful tool in the management of iatrogenic pigment dispersion glaucoma due to inappropriate IOL implantation. This cause-oriented approach seems to be effective in controlling IOP, but should be offered only if safety criteria are met. How to cite this article: Van Mierlo C, Abegao Pinto L, Stalmans I. Surgical Management of Iatrogenic Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(1):28-32. PMID:26997830

  20. Skin Pigmentation Genetics for the Clinic.

    PubMed

    Ainger, Stephen A; Jagirdar, Kasturee; Lee, Katie J; Soyer, H Peter; Sturm, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Human pigmentation characteristics play an important role in the effects of sun exposure, skin cancer induction and disease outcomes. Several of the genes most important for this diversity are involved in the regulation and distribution of melanin pigmentation or enzymes involved in melanogenesis itself within the melanocyte cell present in the skin, hair and eyes. The single nucleotide polymorphisms and extended haplotypes within or surrounding these genes have been identified as risk factors for skin cancer, in particular, melanoma. These same polymorphisms have been under selective pressure leading towards lighter pigmentation in Europeans in the last 5,000-20,000 years that have driven the increase in frequency in modern populations. Although pigmentation is a polygenic trait, due to interactive and quantitative gene effects, strong phenotypic associations are readily apparent for these major genes. However, predictive value and utility are increased when considering gene polymorphism interactions. In melanoma, an increased penetrance is found in cases when pigmentation gene risk alleles such as MC1R variants are coincident with mutation of higher-risk melanoma genes including CDKN2A, CDK4 and MITF E318K, demonstrating an interface between the pathways for pigmentation, naevogenesis and melanoma. The clinical phenotypes associated with germline changes in pigmentation and naevogenic genes must be understood by clinicians, and will be of increasing relevance to dermatologists, as genomics is incorporated into the delivery of personalised medicine. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Influence of hydration on dihydroxyacetone-induced pigmentation of stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Bach-Cuc; Kochevar, Irene E

    2003-04-01

    Dihydroxyacetone, the browning ingredient in sunless tanning formulations, reacts with amino acids in the outer stratum corneum to form a mixture of high molecular weight pigments. Our initial observations indicated that high hydration of dihydroxyacetone-treated skin completely inhibited development of pigmentation. To investigate the mechanism underlying this effect, studies were carried out in isolated murine epidermis, polyvinyl alcohol/lysine films, and lysine in glycerol/water solvent. Murine epidermis treated with dihydroxyacetone showed a biphasic dependence on relative humidity: maximum pigmentation developed at 84% relative humidity and minimum pigmentation at 0% and 100% relative humidity. Filaggrin proteolysis, which shows a similar dependence on relative humidity and provides free amino acids in the outer stratum corneum, did not account for the relative humidity dependence of dihydroxyacetone pigmentation. A similar biphasic pigmentation response was obtained when polyvinyl alcohol film containing lysine was treated with dihydroxyacetone and incubated at various relative humidities, indicating that the structure of the stratum corneum was not a major factor. To remove the influence of the matrix, the reaction of dihydroxyacetone with lysine was followed at varying concentrations of water in mixed glycerol/buffer solvent. Again, greater pigment formation was found at an intermediate level of water (6% vol/vol) and little pigmentation at 0% and 100% water content. These results are consistent with a requirement for water at low relative humidity, which facilitates formation of free amine groups needed for the initial reaction with dihydroxyacetone, and with inhibition of the dehydration reactions by water through the law of mass action at high relative humidity.

  2. Pigment pattern formation in the quail mutant of the silkworm, Bombyx mori: parallel increase of pteridine biosynthesis and pigmentation of melanin and ommochromes.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tomomi; Sawada, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Mase, Keisuke; Nakagoshi, Motoko

    2006-08-01

    The larval pigment pattern in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, is formed by melanin, ommochromes and pteridines. During development all these pigments are synthesized autonomously, and possibly also with mutual interaction between them, to yield unique pigment patterns. In order to find the key trigger for such pigment pattern formation, developmental changes in pteridine biosynthesis were studied using the quail mutant (q/q), which has darker larval marks formed by melanin and an abundance of ommochromes in the integument. In the current study, emphasis has been placed on the analysis of GTP-cyclohydrolase I (GTP-CH I), which is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of pteridines, during the development of the silkworm. Results of Northern blotting showed that in the quail mutant strong signals of GTP-CH I mRNA appeared around each period of ecdysis, while no such signals appeared in the background strain (+q/q) used. Also, both GTP-CH I activities and pteridine content were higher in the quail mutant compared with the background strain. These results strongly suggest that pteridine biosynthesis is closely linked to the formation of melanin and ommochromes. It is also suggested here that in the silkworm a recessive gene (q) may be involved in the regulation of its pigment pattern formation.

  3. Exosomes released by keratinocytes modulate melanocyte pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Cicero, Alessandra Lo; Delevoye, Cédric; Gilles-Marsens, Floriane; Loew, Damarys; Dingli, Florent; Guéré, Christelle; André, Nathalie; Vié, Katell; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graça

    2015-01-01

    Cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes and microvesicles, which transfer proteins, lipids and RNAs to regulate recipient cell functions. Skin pigmentation relies on a tight dialogue between keratinocytes and melanocytes in the epidermis. Here we report that exosomes secreted by keratinocytes enhance melanin synthesis by increasing both the expression and activity of melanosomal proteins. Furthermore, we show that the function of keratinocyte-derived exosomes is phototype-dependent and is modulated by ultraviolet B. In sum, this study uncovers an important physiological function for exosomes in human pigmentation and opens new avenues in our understanding of how pigmentation is regulated by intercellular communication in both healthy and diseased states. PMID:26103923

  4. Exosomes released by keratinocytes modulate melanocyte pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Lo Cicero, Alessandra; Delevoye, Cédric; Gilles-Marsens, Floriane; Loew, Damarys; Dingli, Florent; Guéré, Christelle; André, Nathalie; Vié, Katell; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graça

    2015-06-24

    Cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes and microvesicles, which transfer proteins, lipids and RNAs to regulate recipient cell functions. Skin pigmentation relies on a tight dialogue between keratinocytes and melanocytes in the epidermis. Here we report that exosomes secreted by keratinocytes enhance melanin synthesis by increasing both the expression and activity of melanosomal proteins. Furthermore, we show that the function of keratinocyte-derived exosomes is phototype-dependent and is modulated by ultraviolet B. In sum, this study uncovers an important physiological function for exosomes in human pigmentation and opens new avenues in our understanding of how pigmentation is regulated by intercellular communication in both healthy and diseased states.

  5. Perioral pigmentation: what is your diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Patrícia, Santos; Cláudia, Neto; Susana, Machado; Inês, Lobo; José, Soares; Manuela, Selores

    2008-11-15

    Pigmented spots in the skin and mucosa (lentigines) can be found in various diseases called familial lentiginosis syndromes; Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is one of them. It is characterized by the association of mucocutaneous melanin pigmentation and hamartomatous gastrointestinal polyps. Patients with PJS are at increased risk of intussusception and cancer development (gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal tumors). We present a 5-year-old girl with pigmented macules of perioral and perinasal skin, lips, and buccal mucosa and review lentiginoses and the surveillance of PJS.

  6. [Influence of iron on siderophore and photosynthetic pigments biosynthesis by siderophore-producing Rhodopesudomonnas palustris].

    PubMed

    Hu, Bihui; Zhao, Chungui; Yang, Suping

    2014-04-04

    To explore the regulation of iron on siderophore production, cell growth and photosynthetic pigments biosynthesis by siderophore-producing anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. Siderophore production was determined using Chrome Azurol S (CAS) assay. The siderophore types were determined by Arnow method, Csaky test and Shenker test. The compositions and contents of photosynthetic pigments were determined by spectrophotometry and HPLC analysis. Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Rps. palustris) CQV97 was capable of producing hydroxamate-type of siderophore. Siderophore production reached the highest yield in the absence of ferric chloride. With increasing ferric chloride concentrations, the lag phase of cell growth was shortened, and the cell growth rate, final biomass and the total amounts of carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll a were increased significantly. The characteristic absorption maxima of carotenoids from pigment extracts were blueshifted. Iron concentration had little effect on the compositions and relative contents of bacteriochlorophylls a, whereas predominately affected carotenoid compositions, rhodopin was present as major carotenoid component instead of spirillxanthin. Culture tends to accumulate the Cars having shorter conjugated double bonds at the expense of longer conjugated double bonds as the ferric chloride concentration increased. The changes in carotenoid composition were consistent with those of the blue shift of absorption spectra of pigment extracts. Rps. palustris CQV97 can produce siderophore and the changes in microbial growth, siderophore production and photosynthetic pigments accumulation of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are related to the iron concentration in the medium.

  7. Physicochemical and nutritional properties of pigmented rice subjected to different degrees of milling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent studies have reported the health benefits of pigmented rice cultivars due to the presence of bioactive compounds in its bran layer of caryopsis. This study evaluated the proximate composition, colour, total flavonoids, anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins contents, as well as the total phenolic...

  8. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    PubMed Central

    González, Alfredo; Crittenden, Elizabeth L; García, Dana M

    2004-01-01

    Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. Results The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl) carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusions Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion. PMID:15251036

  9. Induction of Yellow Pigmentation in Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Trias, Joaquim; Viñas, Miquel; Guinea, Jesús; Lorén, José G.

    1988-01-01

    The appearance of yellow pigmentation in nonpigmented strains of Serratia sp. has been demonstrated to be due to the production of a muconic acid, 2-hydroxy-5-carboxymethylmuconic acid semialdehyde. The 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate 2,3-dioxygenase responsible for the synthesis of this muconic acid was induced in all strains tested. Another muconic acid, the β-cis-cis-carboxymuconic acid, could also be synthesized from 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, but this product was not colored. Mutants that were unable to grow on tyrosine and produced yellow pigment were isolated from nonpigmented strains. These mutants had properties similar to those of the yellow-pigmented strains. The ability to produce pigment may be more widespread among Serratia marcescens strains than is currently known. PMID:16347803

  10. Pseudoephedrine may cause "pigmenting" fixed drug eruption.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Esen; Elinç-Aslan, Meryem Sevinç

    2011-05-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a distinctive drug eruption characterized by recurrent well-defined lesions in the same location each time the responsible drug is taken. Two different clinical forms have been described: the common classic pigmenting form and the rare nonpigmenting form. Nonpigmenting FDE is mainly characterized by symmetrical large erythematous plaques and the dermal histopathologic reaction pattern. Pseudoephedrine is known as the major inducer of nonpigmenting FDE. Pigmenting FDE from pseudoephedrine has not been reported previously. Here, the first case of pseudoephedrine-induced pigmenting FDE is reported, showing the characteristic features of classic pigmenting FDE such as asymmetry, normal-sized lesions, and the epidermodermal histopathologic reaction pattern. Moreover, a positive occlusive patch-test reaction to pseudoephedrine could be demonstrated on postlesional FDE skin for the first time.

  11. Pigments of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

    PubMed

    Stintzing, Florian; Schliemann, Willibald

    2007-01-01

    The complex pigment pattern of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) cap skins has been studied by LC-DAD and mass spectrometry. Among the betaxanthins the corresponding derivatives of serine, threonine, ethanolamine, alanine, Dopa, phenylalanine and tryptophan are reported for the first time to contribute to the pigment pattern of fly agarics. Betalamic acid, the chromophoric precursor of betaxanthins and betacyanins, muscaflavin and seco-dopas were also detected. Furthermore, the red-purple muscapurpurin and the red muscarubrin were tentatively assigned while further six betacyanin-like components could not be structurally allocated. Stability studies indicated a high susceptibility of pigment extracts to degradation which led to rapid colour loss thus rendering a complete characterization of betacyanin-like compounds impossible at present. Taking into account these difficulties the presented results may be a starting point for a comprehensive characterization of the pigment composition of fly agarics.

  12. Diagnosis and management of facial pigmented macules.

    PubMed

    Lallas, Aimilios; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Moscarella, Elvira; Longo, Caterina; Simonetti, Vito; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of pigmented macules on the mottled chronic sun-damaged skin of the face is challenging and includes lentigo maligna (LM), pigmented actinic (solar) keratosis, solar lentigo, and lichen-planus-like keratosis. Although dermatoscopy improves the diagnostic accuracy of the unaided eye, the accurate diagnosis and management of pigmented facial macules remains one of the most challenging scenarios in daily practice. This is related to the fact that pigmented actinic (solar) keratosis, lichen-planus-like keratosis, and LM may reveal overlapping criteria, making their differential diagnosis clinically difficult. For this reason, practical rules have been introduced, which should help to minimize the risk for inappropriate diagnosis and management of LM.

  13. Color characterization of coatings with diffraction pigments.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, A; Bernad, B; Campos, J; Perales, E; Velázquez, J L; Martínez-Verdú, F M

    2016-10-01

    Coatings with diffraction pigments present high iridescence, which needs to be characterized in order to describe their appearance. The spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) of six coatings with SpectraFlair diffraction pigments were measured using the robot-arm-based goniospectrophotometer GEFE, designed and developed at CSIC. Principal component analysis has been applied to study the coatings of BRDF data. From data evaluation and based on theoretical considerations, we propose a relevant geometric factor to study the spectral reflectance and color gamut variation of coatings with diffraction pigments. At fixed values of this geometric factor, the spectral BRDF component due to diffraction is almost constant. Commercially available portable goniospectrophotometers, extensively used in several industries (automotive and others), should be provided with more aspecular measurement angles to characterize the complex reflectance of goniochromatic coatings based on diffraction pigments, but they would not require either more than one irradiation angle or additional out-of-plane geometries.

  14. New Directions in Phthalocyanine Pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandemark, Michael R.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives were the following: (1) investigation of the synthesis of new phthalocyanines; (2) characterization of the new phthalocyanines synthesized; (3) investigate the properties of the newly synthesized phthalocyanines with emphasis on UV protection of plastics and coatings; and (4) utilize quantum mechanics to evaluate the structural relationships with possible properties and synthetic approaches. The proposed research targeted the synthesis of phthalocyanines containing an aromatic bridge between two phthalocyanine rings. The goal was to synthesize pigments which would protect plastics when exposed to the photodegradation effects of the sun in space. The stability and extended conjugation of the phthalocyanines offer a unique opportunity for energy absorption and numerous radiative and non-radiative energy loss mechanisms. Although the original targeted phthalocyanines were changed early in the project, several new and unique phthalocyanine compounds were prepared. The basic goals of this work were met and some unique and unexpected outcomes of the work were the result of the integral use of quantum mechanics and molecular modeling with the synthetic effort.

  15. [Recurrent pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS)].

    PubMed

    Neuss, M; Hermanns, B; Wirtz, D C

    2001-01-01

    The pigmented vilionodular synovitis (PVNS) is a tumour like disease of unknown origin that often shows recurrence. The pathogenesis is still unknown and therefore the question of the right therapy is not resolved. With a case report of a patient with recurrence after two arthroscopic synovectomies, PVNS is discussed against the background of the clinical, histological, and radiological features. We performed an open synovectomy and cystic lesions in both condyles of the femur and proximal tibia were filled with homologous and autologous cancellous bone. Three months later the patient had no pain and the bone density in the former cystic lesions was appropriate. The pathogenesis is still unknown. Diagnosis often is obtained much too late due to missing specific symptoms. PVNS occurs in local forms as well as in a diffuse growth pattern. Recurrence rates of up to 78% are very high. Besides arthroscopic and open synovectomy, the treatment with radiosynoviorthesis must be considered. Depending on the growth pattern, the tumour masses, and the affected joint, the therapy has to be chosen very carefully and sometimes different forms have to be combined if a recurrence--free result is to be achieved.

  16. [Bacterial pigment prodigiosin and its genotoxic effects].

    PubMed

    Gur'ianov, I D; Karamova, N S; Iusupova, D V; Gnezdilov, O I; Koshkarova, L A

    2013-01-01

    The prodigiosin preparation was isolated and purified from Serratia marcescens ATCC 9986, using chromatographic methods. The analysis of the preparation by TLC, NMR-spectrometry and mass-spectrometry allowed to confirm the red pigment fraction as the prodigiosin and detect its purity. Originally, the specific features of the toxic and genotoxic effects of prodigiosin and the possibility of induction of mutations by pigment in the cells of Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 (Ames test) and chromosome damage of mammalian erythroblasts have been determined.

  17. Laser eradication of pigmented lesions: a review.

    PubMed

    Polder, Kristel D; Landau, Jennifer M; Vergilis-Kalner, Irene J; Goldberg, Leonard H; Friedman, Paul M; Bruce, Suzanne

    2011-05-01

    Pigmented lesions include solar lentigines, seborrheic keratoses, dermatosis papulosa nigra, ephelides, café-au-lait macules, nevus spilus, Becker's nevus, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, nevocellular nevi, congenital nevi, junctional and compound melanocytic nevi, nevus of Ota and Ito, Hori's nevus, and blue nevi. Advances in laser technology have resulted in the ability to treat pigmented lesions with greater safety and efficacy. To review the literature on the use of cutaneous laser treatments for pigmented lesions using Medline. The literature cited the use of various lasers to treat pigmented lesions, including argon, carbon dioxide, erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet, Q-switched, long-pulsed ruby, alexandrite, diode, and fractional lasers. For each lesion, we describe the efficacy of laser treatments, treatment intervals, and settings used for a variety of diagnoses. The treatment of pigmented lesions continues to evolve as new laser technology emerges and improvements in existing devices are made. The ability to treat pigmented lesions with greater efficacy and safety has resulted from recent advances in laser technology. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  18. Microspectrophotometry of Arthropod Visual Screening Pigments

    PubMed Central

    Strother, G. K.; Casella, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Absorption spectra of visual screening pigments obtained in vitro with a microspectrophotometer using frozen sections are given for the insects Musca domestica, Phormia regina, Libellula luctuosa, Apis mellifera (worker honeybee only), Drosophila melanogaster (wild type only) and the arachnids Lycosa baltimoriana and Lycosa miami. The spectral range covered is 260–700 nm for Lycosa and Drosophila and 310–700 nm for the remainder of the arthropods. A complete description of the instrumentation is given. For the flies, Phormia and Musca, light absorption by the yellow and red pigments is high from 310 to about 610 nm. This implies that for these insects there should be no wavelength shift in electroretinogram (ERG) results due to light leakage among neighboring ommatidia for this wavelength range. The same comment applies to Calliphora erythrocephala, which is known to have similar screening pigments. For some of the insects studied a close correspondence is noted between screening pigment absorption spectra and spectral sensitivity curves for individual photoreceptors, available in the literature. In some cases the screening pigment absorption spectra can be related to chemical extraction results, with the general observation that some of the in vitro absorption peaks are shifted to the red. The Lycosa, Apis, and Libellula dark red pigments absorb strongly over a wide spectral range and therefore prevent chemical identification. PMID:4623852

  19. Macular pigment and lutein supplementation in choroideremia.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Jacque L; Aleman, Tomas S; Gardner, Leigh M; De Castro, Elaine; Marks, Daniel A; Emmons, Jessica M; Bieber, Michelle L; Steinberg, Janet D; Bennett, Jean; Stone, Edwin M; MacDonald, Ian M; Cideciyan, Artur V; Maguire, Maureen G; Jacobson, Samuel G

    2002-03-01

    Choroideremia is an incurable X-linked retinal degeneration caused by mutations in the gene encoding Rab escort protein-1. A group of clinically defined and genotyped patients were studied to determine: (1) the degree of rod and cone dysfunction and structural abnormality in the central retina and the level of macular pigment; and (2) the response of macular pigment and foveal vision to a 6 month trial of supplementation with oral lutein (at 20 mg per day). Rod and cone-mediated function was measured with dark-adapted static perimetry; in vivo retinal structure was determined with optical coherence tomography; and macular pigment optical density was measured with heterochromatic flicker photometry. In this cohort of patients (ages 15-65 years), both rod- and cone-mediated central function declined with age as did central retinal thickness. Macular pigment levels did not differ between patients and male control subjects. Supplementation of oral lutein in a subset of patients led to an increase in serum lutein and macular pigment levels; absolute foveal sensitivity did not change. It is concluded that macular pigment density can be augmented by oral intake of lutein in patients with choroideremia. There was no short-term change in the central vision of the patients on the supplement, but long-term influences of lutein supplementation on disease natural history warrant further study.

  20. THE NATURE OF THE GECKO VISUAL PIGMENT

    PubMed Central

    Crescitelli, Frederick

    1956-01-01

    Retinal extracts of the Australian gecko, Phyllurus milii (White), have revealed the presence of a photosensitive pigment, unusual for terrestrial animals, because of its absorption maximum at 524 mµ. This pigment has an absorption spectrum which is identical in form with that of other visual chromoproteins. It is not a porphyropsin, for bleaching revealed the presence, not of retinene2, but of retinene1 as a chromophore. Photolabile pigments with characteristics similar to those of the Phyllurus visual pigment were also detected in retinal extracts of six other species of nocturnal geckos. The presence of this retinal chromoprotein adequately accounts for the unusual visual sensitivity curve described by Denton for the nocturnal gecko. This pigment may have special biological significance in terms of the unique phylogenetic position of geckos as living representatives of nocturnal animals which retain some of the characteristics of their diurnal ancestors. The occurrence of this retinene1 pigment, intermediate in spectral position between rhodopsin and iodopsin, is interpreted in support of the transmutation theory of Walls. The results and interpretation of this investigation point up the fact that, from a phylogenetic point of view, too great an emphasis on the duplicity theory may serve to detract attention from the evolutionary history of the retina and the essential unitarianism of the visual cells. PMID:13385449

  1. Pigmentation of regenerated hairs after wounding.

    PubMed

    Yuriguchi, Minoru; Aoki, Hitomi; Taguchi, Nobuhiko; Kunisada, Takahiro

    2016-10-01

    After severe wounding, hair follicles were known to be regenerated de novo along with the re-epithelialization. However, the regenerated hairs lack pigmentation. We aimed to find out the condition to regenerate pigmented hairs after severe wounding. De novo hair regeneration was observed during the re-epithelialization process after the full thickness excision of dorsal skin. Hair pigmentation mechanism was assessed by the modulation of Wnt and Kit signalings. Stable regeneration of pigmented hairs was demonstrated when a wound was created to the mice during the anagen stage of the hair cycle. A significant increase in the number of melanocyte stem cells in the postnatal 1st anagen interfollicular skin of 5-week-old mice was observed. An increase of Wnt7a of the keratinocytes was observed in the skin at this stage, which may direct melanocyte stem cells to produce pigmented hairs in the regenerating follicles. This was supported by the finding that transgenic mice expressing the melanocyte stimulatory factor Kitl in their skin promoted the regeneration of pigmented hairs irrespective of the stage of the hair cycle. Our results provide a new insight into the intimate regulation process between two follicular stem cell systems, keratinocyte stem cells and melanocyte stem cells, during de novo hair regeneration after wounding. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetics of pigmentation and melanoma predisposition.

    PubMed

    Pho, L N; Leachman, S A

    2010-02-01

    About 5-10% of human cutaneous malignant melanoma is hereditary and known to involve rare germline mutations in highly penetrant, autosomal dominant genes. These genes are important in cell cycle control but are not responsible for all familial cases of melanoma. Epidemiologic studies have linked specific phenotypic traits including fair skin, light-colored eyes, and poor tanning ability to melanoma risks. The ability to visually discern and define pigmentary phenotypes in humans and in animal models has permitted elucidation of many genes involved in pigmentation and melanin biosynthesis. Additional genetic epidemiological studies have recently identified a subset of these pigmentation genes that are associated with risk for melanoma and other cutaneous malignancies as well as photosensitivity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have unveiled single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or genetic variants in MC1R, TPCN2, ASIP, KITLG, NCKX5, TYR, IRF4, OCA2, and TYRP1 pigmentation genes. These findings emphasize the contribution of pigmentation pathways to melanoma predisposition and tumorigenesis through gene-environment interactions. Since pigmentation genes in the melanin synthesis pathway also confer risk for cutaneous malignancy, a better understanding of the operative molecular mechanisms involved in this relationship has the potential to impact individual risk assessment for cutaneous malignant melanoma in the future. This paper is an overview of our current understanding of pigmentation gene modifications that have been associated with melanoma risk and how these genes can enrich clinical management, prevention, and early detection of malignant melanoma.

  3. Formation of primary production in the reservoirs of the Volga chain of hydroelectric stations under present conditions: Phytoplankton pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Mineeva, N.M.

    1995-11-01

    Data of field observations of 1989-1991 on the content of photosynthetic pigments in the reservoirs of the Volga chain of hydroelectric stations are given. The effect of biogenic elements on the development of the Volga River phytoplankton is discussed. The present state of the water bodies is assessed in terms of chlorophyll content.

  4. [Studies of Nocardia pellegrino SN 5108 pigment mutants: reasons for differences in pigmentation (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wenzel, U; Tárnok, I

    1976-01-01

    Yellow and white mutants of the strains Nocardia pellegrino SN 5108 R have been isolated. Regarding their morphological and physiological properties, the mutants are identical with the wild type bacteria with the exception of their pigmentation and lipid composition. However, the pigment composition (number, Rf-values and spectra of the pigment components) of the yellow mutant is identical with that of the wild type; as a consequence, the modified pigmentation of the yellow mutant cannot be explained by an altered pigment synthesis. The wild type cells and the mutant SN 5108 G contain three main pigment components designated as I, II and III. Components II and III posses a marked indicator character and show a bathochromic shift in solutions of pH 12 or higher. Components II and III contain functional groups which are able to react with acetic acid yielding acetylated products; after acetylating, no bathochromic shift in alkali occurs. Intact cells of the wild type retain their orange-red pigmentation in buffer solution with a pH-value of 12 or higher. Cells of the yellow mutant, however, change the yellow color immediately after the alkali treatment to orange-red; this new color is identical with that of the wild type and can be changed to yellow by placing the cells into 1 N HCl. Regarding these facts it seems to be very probable that the functional groups of the pigment components II and III are differently bound in the wild type and mutant cells. In the mutant, they are accessible to OH- ions yielding a bathochromic shift while in the wild type cells, OH- ions are unable to provoke this shift. It seems to be also probable that different lipids in the two strains are responsible for the binding of the pigments. So far known, this is the first observation about the occurence of pigment mutants with an altered pigment binding site in the cells.

  5. Production of indole pigments by Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Mayser, Peter; Wenzel, Maja; Krämer, Hans-Joachim; Kindler, Bernhard L J; Spiteller, Peter; Haase, Gerhard

    2007-09-01

    When provided as the sole nitrogen source tryptophan induces the production of several indole alkaloids, e.g., pityriacitrin, malasseziaindole, pityriaanhydride and pityriarubin with proven biological activity in the lipophilic yeast Malassezia furfur. So far these pigments seem to have been unique and only produced by highly specialized basidiomycetal yeasts of the genus Malassezia. Having surprisingly observed a brown pigmented Candida glabrata isolate as a contaminant on such a pigment inducing culture plate, we systematically analyzed whether this ascomycetal yeast can also synthesize the respective pigments. Therefore, 30 Candida glabrata strains, including the ex-type strain CBS 138, were cultured for 2 weeks on a pigment-inducing medium containing L-tryptophan. This culture medium along with the resultant biomass was then extracted with ethyl acetate. The extracted pigments were separated into six fractions by column chromatography. Each of these fractions was subjected to thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on silica gel and yielded identical pigment bands comparable to those observed with M. furfur. In the case of strain CBS 138, the individual TLC zones were further purified by HPLC and structural analysis of the pure metabolites was performed by mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR), thereby proving the presence of pityriacitrin, malassezia indole, pityriaanhydride and pityriarubin C. Since lineage divergence of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota occurred approximately 600 million years ago, our findings demonstrate that the complex underlying biochemical pathway has not been exclusively evolved in the highly adapted basidiomycetes yeast M. furfur, but instead seems to be rather fundamental and archaic. Therefore, further investigations on the potential biological properties and the genetic regulation of these metabolites are needed to elucidate their hitherto unknown functions.

  6. Pigment, physicochemical, and microbiological changes related to the freshness of cracked table olives.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Guerrero, Lourdes; Gandul-Rojas, Beatriz; Moreno-Baquero, J M; López-López, Antonio; Bautista-Gallego, Joaquín; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio

    2013-04-17

    The changes in chloroplastic pigments, mineral nutrients, and characteristics related to freshness were studied during storage and packing of cracked seasoned olives. Cracking produced an initial loss in green pigments and color degradation. Later, storage caused a progressive degradation of chlorophylls and carotenoids, with a slower rate in refrigerated fruits (which preserved the greenish tones better), but after packing (and storage at room temperature), the differential effect disappeared and, at the end of the study, all olives showed similar pigment transformations, which were correlated with CIE a* and hue. Processing led to a Na content increase in olive flesh (and Ca and Zn, when added) but marked losses in the other mineral nutrients. Sodium metabisulfite and ZnCl₂ promoted LAB growth while inhibiting yeast, thus enhancing product stability, and erythorbic acid caused yeast growth and firmness deterioration.

  7. Deconvolution of pigment and physiologically related photochemical reflectance index variability at the canopy scale over an entire growing season.

    PubMed

    Hmimina, G; Merlier, E; Dufrêne, E; Soudani, K

    2015-08-01

    The sensitivity of the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) to leaf pigmentation and its impacts on its potential as a proxy for light-use efficiency (LUE) have recently been shown to be problematic at the leaf scale. Most leaf-to-leaf and seasonal variability can be explained by such a confounding effect. This study relies on the analysis of PRI light curves that were generated at the canopy scale under natural conditions to derive a precise deconvolution of pigment-related and physiologically related variability in the PRI. These sources of variability were explained by measured or estimated physiologically relevant variables, such as soil water content, that can be used as indicators of water availability and canopy chlorophyll content. The PRI mainly reflected the variability in the pigment content of the canopy. However, the corrected PRI, which was obtained by subtracting the pigment-related seasonal variability from the PRI measurement, was highly correlated with the upscaled LUE measurements. Moreover, the sensitivity of the PRI to the leaf pigment content may mask the PRI versus LUE relationship or result in an artificial relationship that reflects the relationship of chlorophyll versus LUE, depending on the species phenology.

  8. Pupal development and pigmentation process of a polka-dotted fruit fly, Drosophila guttifera (Insecta, Diptera).

    PubMed

    Fukutomi, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Agata, Kiyokazu; Funayama, Noriko; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki

    2017-06-01

    Various organisms have color patterns on their body surfaces, and these color patterns are thought to contribute to physiological regulation, communication with conspecifics, and signaling with the environment. An adult fly of Drosophila guttifera (Insecta: Diptera: Drosophilidae) has melanin pigmentation patterns on its body and wings. Though D. guttifera has been used for research into color pattern formation, how its pupal development proceeds and when the pigmentation starts have not been well studied. In this study, we defined the pupal stages of D. guttifera and measured the pigment content of wing spots from the pupal period to the period after eclosion. Using a transgenic line which carries eGFP connected with an enhancer of yellow, a gene necessary for melanin synthesis, we analyzed the timing at which the yellow enhancer starts to drive eGFP. We also analyzed the distribution of Yellow-producing cells, as indicated by the expression of eGFP during pupal and young adult periods. The results suggested that Yellow-producing cells were removed from wings within 3 h after eclosion, and wing pigmentation continued without epithelial cells. Furthermore, the results of vein cutting experiments showed that the transport of melanin precursors through veins was necessary for wing pigmentation. These results showed the importance of melanin precursors transported through veins and of extracellular factors which were secreted from epithelial cells and left in the cuticle.

  9. Pigment characterization for the 2011 bloom in Qinhuangdao implicated "brown tide" events in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Fanzhou; Yu, Rencheng; Zhang, Qingchun; Yan, Tian; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2012-05-01

    A large-scale bloom occurred from May to June in 2011 in sea area near Qinhuangdao of the Bohai Sea, leading to huge damage of the scallop culture industry. Similar blooms have been observed in this region for three years. The causative species of the bloom, which dominated the phytoplankton community with the maximum cell density around 109 cell/L, could not be identified with morphological features due to the small cell size (˜2 m m). A pigment analytical method was then adopted to analyze the pigment profile of the phytoplankton samples collected from the blooming sea area. It was found that pico-sized (<2 m m), nano-sized (2-20 m m), and bulk phytoplankton samples had similar pigment profile, representing the pigment signature of the bloom-causative species. The major pigments detected included 19-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin (But-fuco), fucoxanthin (Fuco), diadinoxanthin (Diad) and chlorophyll a (Chl a), and high content of But-fuco was the most significant characteristics of the phytoplankton samples. Based on the pigment composition and content, the bloom-causative species could be tentatively identified as pelagophyte, "type 8" group of haptophyte, or silicoflagellate. Some unique features of the bloom, such as the extremely high cell density, small-sized and But-fuco containing cells, occurring in early summer, and the feeding-cessation effects on scallops, suggest it be a "brown tide" event similar to those reported in the east coast of the United States of America. The recurrent "brown tide" events and their dramatic impacts on the shellfish mariculture industry in Qinhuangdao need close attention in the coming years.

  10. The etiology and molecular genetics of human pigmentation disorders.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Laura L; Pavan, William J

    2013-01-01

    Pigmentation, defined as the placement of pigment in skin, hair, and eyes for coloration, is distinctive because the location, amount, and type of pigmentation provides a visual manifestation of genetic heterogeneity in pathways regulating the pigment-producing cells, melanocytes. The scope of this genetic heterogeneity in humans ranges from normal to pathological pigmentation phenotypes. Clinically, normal human pigmentation encompasses a variety of skin and hair color as well as punctate pigmentation such as melanocytic nevi (moles) or ephelides (freckles), while abnormal human pigmentation exhibits markedly reduced or increased pigment levels, known as hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation, respectively. Elucidation of the molecular genetics underlying pigmentation has revealed genes important for melanocyte development and function. Furthermore, many pigmentation disorders show additional defects in cells other than melanocytes, and identification of the genetic insults in these disorders has revealed pleiotropic genes, where a single gene is required for various functions in different cell types. Thus, unravelling the genetics of easily visualized pigmentation disorders has identified molecular similarities between melanocytes and less visible cell types/tissues, arising from a common developmental origin and/or shared genetic regulatory pathways. Herein we discuss notable human pigmentation disorders and their associated genetic alterations, focusing on the fact that the developmental genetics of pigmentation abnormalities are instructive for understanding normal pathways governing development and function of melanocytes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The etiology and molecular genetics of human pigmentation disorders

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Laura L.; Pavan, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Pigmentation, defined as the placement of pigment in skin, hair, and eyes for coloration, is distinctive because the location, amount, and type of pigmentation provides a visual manifestation of genetic heterogeneity in pathways regulating the pigment-producing cells, melanocytes. The scope of this genetic heterogeneity in humans ranges from normal to pathological pigmentation phenotypes. Clinically normal human pigmentation encompasses a variety of skin and hair color as well as with punctate pigmentation such as melanocytic nevi (moles) or ephelides (freckles), while clinically abnormal human pigmentation exhibits markedly reduced or increased pigment levels, known as hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation, respectively. Elucidation of the molecular genetics underlying pigmentation has revealed genes important for melanocyte development and function. Furthermore, many pigmentation disorders show additional defects in cells other than melanocytes, and identification of the genetic insults in these disorders has revealed pleiotropic genes, where a single gene is required for various functions, often in different cell types. Thus unravelling the genetics of easily visualized pigmentation disorders has identified molecular similarities between melanocytes and less visible cell types/tissues, revealing a common cellular origin and/or common genetic regulatory pathways. Herein we discuss notable human pigmentation disorders and their associated genetic alterations, focusing on the fact that the developmental genetics of pigmentation abnormalities is instructive for understanding normal pathways governing development and function of melanocytes. PMID:23799582

  12. Minocycline-induced skin pigmentation: an update.

    PubMed

    Geria, Aanand N; Tajirian, Ani L; Kihiczak, George; Schwartz, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Minocycline is a commonly used antibiotic for long-term treatment of acne vulgaris. A well-documented and cosmetically dis-pleasing side effect is skin pigmentation. Three distinct types occur: Type I, blue-black/grey pigment on the face in areas of scarring or inflammation associated with acne; type II, blue-grey pigment on normal skin on the shins and forearms; type III, diffuse muddy-brown discoloration in areas of sun exposure. Types I and II stain for iron and melanin extracellularly and within macrophages in the dermis. Type III shows nonspecific increased melanin in basal keratinocytes and dermal melanophages staining for melanin only. The etiology of this pigmentation is unknown, but may be related to polymerized reactive metabolites, insoluble chelation products, and lengthy treatment durations of minocycline compared to other tetracyclines. Types I and II tend to resolve slowly over time, whereas type III persists indefinitely. Treatment involves early recognition, discontinuation of the drug, sun protection, and laser for persistent pigmentation.

  13. Investigations of biomimetic light energy harvesting pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Van Patten, P.G.; Donohoe, R.J.; Lindsey, J.S.; Bocian, D.F.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Nature uses chlorophyll and other porphyrinic pigments to capture and transfer light energy as a preliminary step in photosynthesis. The design of synthetic assemblies of light harvesting and energy directing pigments has been explored through synthesis and characterization of porphyrin oligomers. In this project, pigment electronic and vibrational structures have been explored by electrochemistry and dynamic and static optical measurements. Transient absorption data reveal energy transfer between pigments with lifetimes on the order of 20--200 picoseconds, while Raman data reveal that the basic porphyrin core structure is unperturbed relative to the individual monomer units. These two findings, along with an extensive series of experiments on the oxidized oligomers, reveal that coupling between the pigments is fundamentally weak, but sufficient to allow facile energy transfer as the predominant excited state process. Modeling of the expected quantum yields for energy transfer within a variety of arrays was accomplished, thereby providing a tool to guide synthetic goals.

  14. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, Shabnam; Prendiville, Kevin John; Martinez, Eladio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We report a case of iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn and discuss the importance of an accurate diagnosis for prevention of amblyopia. Methods: We describe a case of an abnormal red reflex seen on a newborn exam. Results: A full-term female born via normal spontaneous vaginal delivery without any complications was seen in the newborn nursery. She was noted to have an abnormal eye exam. Pupils were large with circular dark excrescences of the iris pigment epithelium. She was referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist where she was noted to fixate and follow faces. No afferent pupillary defect was seen. OD red reflex was normal whereas OS red reflex was blocked mostly by dark excrescences. A 2–3 mm dark brown lesion was seen in the OD iris and a 3–5 mm dark brown lesion was seen in the OS iris, consistent with a pupillary iris pigment epithelial cyst. Central visual axis was clear OU. Glaucoma was not present and patching was not performed. Observations and clinical photographs were recommended with follow-up in three months. Conclusion: Iris pigment epithelial cysts are uncommonly seen in children. The primary care provider first seeing a newborn must be aware of lesions obscuring a red reflex with appropriate follow-up. Follow-up in three months with IOP measurements is recommended. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in children may be a cause of amblyopia, thus prompt evaluation is important for prognostic purposes and the prevention of amblyopia. PMID:27625966

  15. Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2010-04-15

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound's presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments.

  16. Pigmented eccrine poroma: dermoscopic and confocal features

    PubMed Central

    Bombonato, Caterina; Piana, Simonetta; Moscarella, Elvira; Lallas, Aimillios; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Eccrine poroma is a rare benign adnexal tumor of epithelial cells originating from the terminal ductal portion of the sweat glands that is typically located on palms and soles, although other cutaneous sites can be affected [1]. It is usually nonpigmented even if there is a pigmented variant that corresponds to 17% of cases and it is usually underdiagnosed, since it is mistakenly confused with other pigmented tumors [2,3]. Dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) may assist in the correct diagnosis of this tumor. Herein, we report one case of pigmented eccrine poroma (PEP) that simulated clinically a cutaneous melanoma or a basal cell carcinoma. Dermoscopy and RCM excluded the possibilities of those two diagnoses; the overall confocal findings were suggestive for a benign epithelial tumor. Histology was fundamental to diagnose this lesion as a pigmented eccrine poroma. Even if the diagnosis of eccrine poroma remains histopathological still, as in this case report, noninvasive tools such as dermoscopy and RCM examinations can be of help to rule out the diagnosis of melanoma. Larger studies on this rare pigmented variant of eccrine poroma could shed new light on the identification of specific diagnostic dermoscopic and confocal features. PMID:27648386

  17. Fish pigmentation and the melanocortin system.

    PubMed

    Cal, Laura; Suarez-Bregua, Paula; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel; Braasch, Ingo; Rotllant, Josep

    2017-09-01

    The melanocortin system is a complex neuroendocrine signaling mechanism involved in numerous physiological processes in vertebrates, including pigmentation, steroidogenesis and metabolic control. This review focuses at one of its most fascinating function in fish, its regulatory role in the control of pigmentation, in which the melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r), its agonist α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-Msh), and the endogenous antagonist agouti signaling protein (Asip1) are the main players. Functional control of Mc1r, which is highly expressed in fish skin and whose activation stimulates melanin production and melanosome dispersion in fish melanophores, is considered a key mechanism for vertebrate pigment phenotypes. The α-Msh peptide, the most documented Mc1r agonist involved in pigmentation, is produced in the pituitary gland, activating melanin synthesis by binding to Mc1r in fish melanophores. Finally, Asip1 is the putative factor for establishing the evolutionarily conserved dorso-ventral pigment pattern found across vertebrates. However, we are just starting to understand how other melanocortin system components are acting in this complex regulatory network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pigments in avocado tissue and oil.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Ofelia B O; Wong, Marie; McGhie, Tony K; Vather, Rosheila; Wang, Yan; Requejo-Jackman, Cecilia; Ramankutty, Padmaja; Woolf, Allan B

    2006-12-27

    Pigments are important contributors to the appearance and healthful properties of both avocado fruits and the oils extracted from these fruits. This study determined carotenoid and chlorophyll pigment concentrations in the skin and three sections of the flesh (outer dark green, middle pale green, and inner yellow flesh-nearest the seed) and anthocyanin concentrations in the skin of Hass avocado during ripening at 20 degrees C. Pigments were extracted from frozen tissue with acetone and measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Pigments were also measured in the oil extracted from freeze-dried tissue sections by an accelerated solvent extraction system using hexane. Carotenoids and chlorophylls identified in the skin, flesh, and oil were lutein, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, chlorophylls a and b, and pheophytins a and b with the highest concentrations of all pigments in the skin. Chlorophyllides a and b were identified in the skin and flesh tissues only. As the fruit ripened and softened, the skin changed from green to purple/black, corresponding to changes in skin hue angle, and a concomitant increase in cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and the loss of chlorophyllide a. In flesh tissue, chroma and lightness values decreased with ripening, with no changes in hue angle. The levels of carotenoids and chlorophylls did not change significantly during ripening. As fruit ripened, the total chlorophyll level in the oil from the flesh sections remained constant but declined in the oil extracted from the skin.

  19. Recreating a functional ancestral archosaur visual pigment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Belinda S W; Jönsson, Karolina; Kazmi, Manija A; Donoghue, Michael J; Sakmar, Thomas P

    2002-09-01

    The ancestors of the archosaurs, a major branch of the diapsid reptiles, originated more than 240 MYA near the dawn of the Triassic Period. We used maximum likelihood phylogenetic ancestral reconstruction methods and explored different models of evolution for inferring the amino acid sequence of a putative ancestral archosaur visual pigment. Three different types of maximum likelihood models were used: nucleotide-based, amino acid-based, and codon-based models. Where possible, within each type of model, likelihood ratio tests were used to determine which model best fit the data. Ancestral reconstructions of the ancestral archosaur node using the best-fitting models of each type were found to be in agreement, except for three amino acid residues at which one reconstruction differed from the other two. To determine if these ancestral pigments would be functionally active, the corresponding genes were chemically synthesized and then expressed in a mammalian cell line in tissue culture. The expressed artificial genes were all found to bind to 11-cis-retinal to yield stable photoactive pigments with lambda(max) values of about 508 nm, which is slightly redshifted relative to that of extant vertebrate pigments. The ancestral archosaur pigments also activated the retinal G protein transducin, as measured in a fluorescence assay. Our results show that ancestral genes from ancient organisms can be reconstructed de novo and tested for function using a combination of phylogenetic and biochemical methods.

  20. Epiphytic marine pigmented bacteria: A prospective source of natural antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Ravindra; Mohandass, Chellandi; Sivaperumal, Elakkiya; Sabu, Elaine; Rajasabapathy, Raju; Jagtap, Tanaji

    2015-01-01

    Awareness on antioxidants and its significance in human healthcare has increased many folds in recent time. Increased demand requisite on welcoming newer and alternative resources for natural antioxidants. Seaweed associated pigmented bacteria screened for its antioxidant potentials reveals 55.5% of the organisms were able to synthesize antioxidant compounds. DPPH assay showed 20% of the organisms to reach a antioxidant zone of 1 cm and 8.3% of the strains more than 3 cm. Pseudomonas koreensis (JX915782) a Sargassum associated yellowish brown pigmented bacteria have better activity than known commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) against DPPH scavenging. Serratia rubidaea (JX915783), an associate of Ulva sp. and Pseudomonas argentinensis (JX915781) an epiphyte of Chaetomorpha media , were also contributed significantly towards ABTS (7.2% ± 0.03 to 15.2 ± 0.09%; 1.8% ± 0.01 to 15.7 ± 0.22%) and FRAP (1.81 ± 0.01 to 9.35 ± 0.98; 7.97 ± 0.12 to 18.70 ± 1.84 μg/mL of AsA Eq.) respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed bacteria that have higher antioxidant activity belongs to a bacterial class Gammaproteobacteria. Statistical analysis of phenolic contents in relation with other parameters like DPPH, ABTS, reducing power and FRAP are well correlated (p < 0.05). Results obtained from the current study inferred that the seaweed associated pigmented bacteria have enormous potential on antioxidant compounds and need to be extracted in a larger way for clinical applications. PMID:26221086

  1. Ultraviolet radiation directly induces pigment production by cultured human melanocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, P.S.; Gilchrest, B.A.

    1987-10-01

    In humans the major stimulus for cutaneous pigmentation is ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Little is known about the mechanism underlying this response, in part because of the complexity of interactions in whole epidermis. Using a recently developed culture system, human melanocytes were exposed daily to a physiologic range of UVR doses from a solar simulator. Responses were determined 24 hours after the last exposure. There was a dose-related increase in melanin content per cell and uptake of /sup 14/C-DOPA, accompanied by growth inhibition. Cells from donors of different racial origin gave proportionately similar increases in melanin, although there were approximately tenfold differences in basal values. Light and electron microscopy revealed UVR-stimulated increases in dendricity as well as melanosome number and degree of melanization, analogous to the well-recognized melanocyte changes following sun exposure of intact skin. Similar responses were seen with Cloudman S91 melanoma cells, although this murine cell line required lower UVR dosages and fewer exposures for maximal stimulation. These data establish that UVR is capable of directly stimulating melanogenesis. Because cyclic AMP elevation has been associated in some settings with increased pigment production by cultured melanocytes, preliminary experiments were conducted to see if the effects of UVR were mediated by cAMP. Both alpha-MSH and isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), as positive controls, caused a fourfold increase in cAMP level in human melanocytes and/or S91 cells, but following a dose of UVR sufficient to stimulate pigment production there was no change in cAMP level up to 4 hours after exposure. Thus, it appears that the UVR-induced melanogenesis is mediated by cAMP-independent mechanisms.

  2. Chromatographic determination of changes in pigments in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) during processing.

    PubMed

    Kidmose, Ulla; Edelenbos, Merete; Christensen, Lars P; Hegelund, Erling

    2005-10-01

    The content of individual chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments is determined in three spinach varieties (Lorelei, Springfield, and Ballet) after processing. Raw spinach and spinach that is steam-blanched for 3, 9, or 15 min is stored frozen at -24 degrees C for 6 months. In addition, spinach is air-dried at 75 degrees C, packed in atmospheric air or nitrogen, and stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. Processing has a significant effect on the content of individual chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments; however, there are no differences between varieties in their content of total and individual pigments in raw, frozen spinach. Increasing blanching time resulted in decreased contents of chlorophyll a and b and increased contents of chlorophyll a' and b' and pheophytin a and b because of pheophytinization. Changes in the color because of pheophytinization are only detected after 15 min blanching. The carotenoid pigments are more stable than the chlorophyll pigments during blanching. (all-E)-Violaxanthin is significantly reduced, caused by degradation to other xanthophylls, such as neochrome, during blanching. There are no significant differences in the content of chlorophyll a and b of dried spinach and blanched, frozen spinach. Formation of chlorophyll a' and b', pheophytin a and b, and chlorophyll a-1 and b-1 is observed after drying. The content of pheophytin a and b is significantly lower in dried versus blanched frozen samples. In dried spinach that is stored in atmospheric air, the content of beta-carotene [599 mg/kg dry matter (DM)] is significantly lower compared with nitrogen (766 mg/kg DM), and the content of (all-E)-lutein is lower than in blanched frozen spinach. Neochrome is not detected in raw spinach but in steam-blanched and dried spinach. No differences are observed in the content of (all-E)-neoxanthin, (9'Z)-neoxanthin, (all-E)-violaxanthin, (all-E)-lutein epoxide, or neolutein A and B between spinach that is stored frozen after 3 min blanching

  3. Pretreatment of pigments to prepare liquids for enteric coating.

    PubMed

    Bölcskei, E; Bajdik, J; Müller, J; Knop, K; Kleinebudde, P; Pintye-Hódi, K

    2008-07-01

    Film coating fluids commonly contain different pigments. The objective of this work was a study of the distribution of these particles in the coating film. Different pretreatment forms (pigment suspension, pigment paste and untreated pigments) were applied. They were incorporated into a Eudragit L 30 D-55 dispersion. The surface roughness and the mechanical properties of the free films indicated, that the most homogeneous film was obtained with the pigment paste. The homogeneity of the film was investigated by mechanical testing. The protective effect of the coating did not vary with the application of pigments in different forms, but the appearance of the coated tablets underwent a considerable change.

  4. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  5. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  6. Detection of Pigment Networks in Dermoscopy Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltayef, Khalid; Li, Yongmin; Liu, Xiaohui

    2017-02-01

    One of the most important structures in dermoscopy images is the pigment network, which is also one of the most challenging and fundamental task for dermatologists in early detection of melanoma. This paper presents an automatic system to detect pigment network from dermoscopy images. The design of the proposed algorithm consists of four stages. First, a pre-processing algorithm is carried out in order to remove the noise and improve the quality of the image. Second, a bank of directional filters and morphological connected component analysis are applied to detect the pigment networks. Third, features are extracted from the detected image, which can be used in the subsequent stage. Fourth, the classification process is performed by applying feed-forward neural network, in order to classify the region as either normal or abnormal skin. The method was tested on a dataset of 200 dermoscopy images from Hospital Pedro Hispano (Matosinhos), and better results were produced compared to previous studies.

  7. Predicting Phenotype from Genotype: Normal Pigmentation*

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Robert K.; Henderson, Miquia S.; Walsh, Monica H.; Garrison, Nanibaa’A.; Kelch, Jessica T.; Cohen-Barak, Orit; Erickson, Drew T.; Meaney, F. John; Walsh, J. Bruce; Cheng, Keith C.; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Frudakis, Tony; Thomas, Matthew; Brilliant, Murray H.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic information in forensic studies is largely limited to CODIS data and the ability to match samples and assign them to an individual. However, there are circumstances, in which a given DNA sample does not match anyone in the CODIS database, and no other information about the donor is available. In this study, we determined 75 SNPs in 24 genes (previously implicated in human or animal pigmentation studies) for the analysis of single- and multi-locus associations with hair, skin, and eye color in 789 individuals of various ethnic backgrounds. Using multiple linear regression modeling, five SNPs in five genes were found to account for large proportions of pigmentation variation in hair, skin, and eyes in our across-population analyses. Thus, these models may be of predictive value to determine an individual’s pigmentation type from a forensic sample, independent of ethnic origin. PMID:20158590

  8. Hydrophobic blue pigment formation from phosphatidylgenipin.

    PubMed

    Takami, M; Suzuki, Y

    1994-10-01

    Phosphatidylgenipin, synthesized via the transphosphatidylation reaction of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-sn-phosphatidylcholine to genipin by phospholipase D, was found to react with L-phenylalanine in chloroform and gave a clear blue solution. This blue solution was also formed in following organic solvents: ethanol, ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, benzene, and hexane. However, genipin and L-phenylalanine did not give any colored product under the same conditions. The blue pigment resulted from phosphatidylgenipin and L-phenylalanine showed lambda max at 615 nm in chloroform, and had a similar blue color to an aqueous solution of the natural blue pigment "gardenia blue." This is an example for the preparation of a hydrophobic pigment from a phosphatidyl derivative of a water-soluble compound.

  9. An intracellular anion channel critical for pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Escobar, Iliana E; Lefkovith, Ariel J; Marks, Michael S; Oancea, Elena

    2014-12-16

    Intracellular ion channels are essential regulators of organellar and cellular function, yet the molecular identity and physiological role of many of these channels remains elusive. In particular, no ion channel has been characterized in melanosomes, organelles that produce and store the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanosome function cause albinism, characterized by vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired retinal development, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. The most common form of albinism is caused by mutations in oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), a melanosome-specific transmembrane protein with unknown function. Here we used direct patch-clamp of skin and eye melanosomes to identify a novel chloride-selective anion conductance mediated by OCA2 and required for melanin production. Expression of OCA2 increases organelle pH, suggesting that the chloride channel might regulate melanin synthesis by modulating melanosome pH. Thus, a melanosomal anion channel that requires OCA2 is essential for skin and eye pigmentation.

  10. Tocopherol and tocotrienol contents of different varieties of rice in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Shammugasamy, Balakrishnan; Ramakrishnan, Yogeshini; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-03-15

    The present study examined the contents of tocopherols and tocotrienols and their distribution in 58 different varieties of whole rice cultivated in Malaysia. The analytical method used was saponification of samples followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The total vitamin E contents of different varieties of whole rice ranged between 19.36 and 63.29 mg kg⁻¹. Contents of vitamin E isomers varied among rice varieties both within and between grain color groups. Black-pigmented rice showed significantly higher mean contents of α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol than non-pigmented rice and red-pigmented rice. Red-pigmented rice had significantly lower mean contents of γ-tocotrienol and total vitamin E than non-pigmented rice. The mean contents of δ-tocotrienol and total vitamin E in non-pigmented rice, however, were similar to those in black-pigmented rice. γ-Tocotrienol was the predominant form of vitamin E isomer in all analyzed varieties. The Pearson correlations among vitamin E isomers and total vitamin E content of whole rice were also studied. This study provides information on vitamin E content of different rice varieties that would be beneficial for decision making in genetic breeding of bioactive compound-rich rice varieties. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    PubMed Central

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  12. Green pigments of the Pompeian artists' palette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliatis, Irene; Bersani, Danilo; Campani, Elisa; Casoli, Antonella; Lottici, Pier Paolo; Mantovan, Silvia; Marino, Iari-Gabriel; Ospitali, Francesca

    2009-08-01

    Green colored samples on wall paintings and green powder from a pigment pot found in Pompeii area are investigated by micro-Raman, FT-IR and, for one sample, SEM-EDX. To obtain the green color, green earths and malachite were used, together with mixture of Egyptian blue and yellow ochre. The mineralogical identification of the green earths has been attempted through the comparison of the vibrational features, discriminating between celadonite and glauconite spectra. Traces of a modern synthetic pigment containing copper phthalocyanine were found in a fresco fragment.

  13. The focal differentiation of pigment cells.

    PubMed

    Whimster, I W

    1979-05-01

    A study has been made of the normal development and of the regeneration after excision of the groups of large pigment cells which form the spotted skin pattern of the gecko Eublepharis macularius, together with the effects of neonatal graft transplantation on this pattern. The results all indicate strongly that such groups of specialized pigment cells are not clones but the product of an induction process. This is then compared with the neural reflex mechanism by which the skin pattern of Chamaeoleo dilepis is formed.

  14. RISK ASSESSMENT FOR THE DYE AND PIGMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This risk assessment calculates the maximum loadings of constituents found in dyes and pigment industries waste streams which can be disposed in different types of waste management units without causing health benchmarks to be exceeded at plausible receptor locations. The assessment focuses on potential risks from volatilization and leaching to groundwater of constituents disposed in surface impoundments and landfills with either clay liners or composite liners. This product will be used by EPA decision makers to assist in determining whether certain waste streams generated by the dyes and pigments industries should be designated as hazardous.

  15. Minocycline-induced pigmentation. Incidence, prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Eisen, D; Hakim, M D

    1998-06-01

    Pigmentation is a well recognised adverse effect of minocycline therapy. Various body sites, most notably the skin, nails, bones, thyroid, mouth and eyes are affected and the pigmentation may appear at multiple sites. In general, pigmentation results from long term administration of minocycline at cumulative doses greater than 100 g, although cutaneous or oral mucosal pigmentation may appear, regardless of dose or duration of therapy. When the skin is involved, the blue-black pigmentation develops most frequently on the shins, ankles and arms. Other patterns of skin involvement include pigmentation that is either generalised and symmetrical, or that develops at sites of inflammation. The bones of the oral cavity are probably the most frequently affected sites of pigmentation affecting greater than 20% of patients taking minocycline for more than 4 years. In contrast, the oral mucous membranes and teeth are infrequently pigmented from minocycline. Ocular, thyroid and visceral pigmentation is also relatively uncommon and usually develops only with high doses and long term minocycline use. Whereas pigmentation of the skin and oral mucosa is generally reversible when the drug is discontinued, the pigmentation is often permanent when other sites are involved. Although minocycline-induced pigmentation is not harmful, the drug should be discontinued when the adverse effect is recognised. All patients receiving minocycline, especially those treated for longer than 1 year, require screening for the development of pigmentation.

  16. Optimization of Light-Harvesting Pigment Improves Photosynthetic Efficiency1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Honglei; Li, Mengshu; Duan, Sujuan; Fu, Mei; Dong, Xiaoxiao; Feng, Dongru; Wang, Jinfa

    2016-01-01

    Maximizing light capture by light-harvesting pigment optimization represents an attractive but challenging strategy to improve photosynthetic efficiency. Here, we report that loss of a previously uncharacterized gene, HIGH PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY1 (HPE1), optimizes light-harvesting pigments, leading to improved photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hpe1 mutants show faster electron transport and increased contents of carbohydrates. HPE1 encodes a chloroplast protein containing an RNA recognition motif that directly associates with and regulates the splicing of target RNAs of plastid genes. HPE1 also interacts with other plastid RNA-splicing factors, including CAF1 and OTP51, which share common targets with HPE1. Deficiency of HPE1 alters the expression of nucleus-encoded chlorophyll-related genes, probably through plastid-to-nucleus signaling, causing decreased total content of chlorophyll (a+b) in a limited range but increased chlorophyll a/b ratio. Interestingly, this adjustment of light-harvesting pigment reduces antenna size, improves light capture, decreases energy loss, mitigates photodamage, and enhances photosynthetic quantum yield during photosynthesis. Our findings suggest a novel strategy to optimize light-harvesting pigments that improves photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production in higher plants. PMID:27609860

  17. Pigment oligomers as natural and artificial photosynthetic antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Green photosynthetic bacteria contain antenna complexes known as chlorosomes. These complexes are appressed to the cytoplasmic side of the inner cell membrane and function to absorb light and transfer the energy to the photochemical reaction center, where photochemical energy storage takes place. Chlorosomes differ from all other known photosynthetic antenna complexes in that the geometrical arrangement of pigments is determined primarily by pigment-pigment interactions instead of pigment-protein interactions. The bacteriochlorophyll c, d or e pigments found in chlorosomes form large oligomers with characteristic spectral properties significantly perturbed from those exhibited by monomeric pigments. Because of their close spatial interaction, the pigments are thought to be strongly coupled electronically, and many of the optical properties result from exciton interactions. This presentation will summarize existing knowledge on the chemical composition and properties of chlorosomes, the evidence for the oligomeric nature of chlorosome pigment organization and proposed structures for the oligomers, and the kinetics and mechanisms of energy transfer in chlorosomes.

  18. Locally differentiated cryptic pigmentation in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus.

    PubMed

    Hargeby, A; Stoltz, J; Johansson, J

    2005-05-01

    A repeated pattern of background colour matching in animals is an indication that pigmentation may be cryptic. Here, we examine the relationship between pigmentation of the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus and background darkness in 29 lakes, wetlands and ponds in Southern Sweden. The results show that Asellus pigmentation was correlated with substrate darkness across all localities. In seven localities, in which two contrasting substrate types were noted, Asellus populations were differentiated with respect to pigmentation. These findings thus provide phenomenological support for cryptic pigmentation in Asellus. Pigmentation generally increased with body size, but the relationship between pigmentation and size differed among localities, possibly as a result of differences in correlational selection on pigmentation and size. Selection thus appears to have resulted in local differentiation over a small spatial scale, even within lakes and wetlands. This differentiation is a likely cause behind elevated phenotype variation noted in localities with two substrate types, suggesting that habitat heterogeneity promotes genetic diversity.

  19. Separation of Chloroplast Pigments Using Reverse Phase Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, R. Neil

    1997-01-01

    Presents a protocol that uses reverse phase chromatography for the separation of chloroplast pigments. Provides a simple and relatively safe procedure for use in teaching laboratories. Discusses pigment extraction, chromatography, results, and advantages of the process. (JRH)

  20. Separation of Chloroplast Pigments Using Reverse Phase Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, R. Neil

    1997-01-01

    Presents a protocol that uses reverse phase chromatography for the separation of chloroplast pigments. Provides a simple and relatively safe procedure for use in teaching laboratories. Discusses pigment extraction, chromatography, results, and advantages of the process. (JRH)

  1. Effect of cadmium on photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, and artemisinin in hydroponically grown Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Zhao, Manxi; Guo, Lanping; Huang, Luqi

    2012-01-01

    The effects of different cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 20, 60, and 100 micromol/L) on hydroponically grown Artemisia annua L. were investigated. Cd treatments applied for 0, 4, 12, 24, 72, 144, 216, and 336 hr were assessed by measuring the changes in photosynthetic pigments, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidants (ascorbic acid and glutathione), while the artemisinin content was tested after 0, 12, 144, 216, and 336 hr. A significant decrease was observed in photosynthetic pigment levels over time with increasing Cd concentration. Chlorophyll b levels were more affected by Cd than were chlorophyll a or carotenoid levels. The cell membrane was sensitive to Cd stress, as MDA content in all treatment groups showed insignificant differences from the control group, except at 12 hr treatment time. Ascorbic acid (AsA) content changed slightly over time, while glutathione (GSH) content took less time to reach a maximum as Cd concentration increased. Cd was found to promote synthesis and accumulation of artemisinin, especially at concentrations of 20 and 100 micromol/L. In conclusion, Cd stress can damage to photosynthetic pigments, and vigorously growing A. annua showed a strong tolerance for Cd stress. Appropriate amounts of added Cd aided synthesis and accumulation of artemisinin.

  2. Pigmented poroma with unusual location and dermatoscopic features

    PubMed Central

    Kassuga, Luiza E. B. P.; Jeunon, Thiago; Sousa, Maria Auxiliadora Jeunon; Campos-do-Carmo, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Poroma is a benign adnexal neoplasm with atn “poroid”/ductal differentiation that mimics benign and malignant skin tumors. Histopathology shows circumscribed proliferation of poroid cells intermingled with a variable number of cuticular cells. We report a case of pigmented poroma located on the face that simulated clinically and dermatoscopically a pigmented basal cell carcinoma. The features of pigmented and non-pigmented poromas were revisited in order to assist in the diagnosis. PMID:23785609

  3. The Use of HPLC for the Characterization of Phytoplankton Pigments.

    PubMed

    Garrido, José L; Roy, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    HPLC is still the technique of choice for the analysis and characterization of phytoplankton pigments. In this chapter we describe procedures for sample preparation and pigment extraction, and the use of octyl silica columns and pyridine-containing mobile phases to separate chlorophylls and carotenoids. The identification of pigments on the basis of their retention times and visible spectra, the preparation of pigment standards, and the quantitative analysis by either external or internal standard procedures are also described.

  4. BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Picosecond spectroscopy of pyrrol pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippitsch, M. E.; Leitner, A.; Riegler, M.; Aussenegg, F. R.

    1982-05-01

    Picosecond fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy methods were used to study pyrromethenone, pyrromethene, and biliverdin. These methods made it possible to determine some details of the kinetics of various relaxation mechanisms. The results obtained provided a better understanding of the biological action of pyrrol pigments.

  5. Pigment Deposition in the Rat Retina.

    PubMed

    Hojman, Anne S; Otzen, Louise W D; Schrøder-Hansen, Lise Maj; Wegener, Karen M

    2015-08-01

    Incidental findings in the rat eye are not uncommon in acute and long-term toxicological studies. These findings can be associated with a number of causes unrelated to treatment with the test article, including congenital malformation, trauma, infection, metabolic disease, genetic predisposition, and age-related changes. The occurrence of pigment deposition in the retina of Wistar Hannover (Crl:WI (Han)) rats in a 4-week toxicity study is reported in this communication. The microscopic examination of the eyes in the 4-week toxicity study revealed focal yellow-brown pigment deposits in the retina, mainly located in the ganglion cell layer. The retinal pigment deposits were randomly distributed in the control and treated groups and were considered incidental. The deposits were clearly positive for ferric iron in the Perls' stain but not for lipofuscin by the Schmorl's and Long Ziehl-Neelsen methods. The iron-containing pigment is likely to represent hemosiderin accumulation after retinal micro-hemorrhage or could be indicative of the normal intraretinal iron transport and turnover.

  6. Prostaglandin-induced iridial pigmentation in primates.

    PubMed

    Selén, G; Stjernschantz, J; Resul, B

    1997-02-01

    Latanoprost, a new ocular hypotensive prostaglandin F2 alpha analogue prodrug, was found to induce increased pigmentation of monkey irides in chronic toxicity studies. This prompted us to investigate the effect of naturally occurring prostaglandins on the monkey iris to determine whether this pigmentary effect is unique for latanoprost or whether it is a class effect of prostaglandins. PGF2 alpha-isopropyl ester (IE), PGE2-IE and latanoprost were applied topically to cynomolgus monkey eyes for 18-44 weeks. One eye of each animal was treated, while the other served as control. In addition, latanoprost was applied to sympathectomized monkey eyes. PGF2 alpha-IE, PGE2-IE, as well as latanoprost, induced increased pigmentation in the monkey eye. The first signs of this effect were seen after about two months of treatment. Latanoprost also induced increased pigmentation in sympathectomized eyes. It is concluded that both naturally occurring prostaglandins and their synthetic analogues can induce increased iridial pigmentation in cynomolgus monkeys, and that the effect does not require the presence of sympathetic nerves.

  7. Retinal pigment epithelial hamartoma--unusual manifestations.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, P. R.; Walsh, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    Hamartoma of the retinal pigment epithelium is an uncommon tumour of young adults. We have seen 2 patients with this clinical diagnosis, both with unusual manifestations. In one patient growth of the tumour was observed over a 5-year period. In the second patient arterial-arterial anastomoses were detected at a site distal to the tumour. Images PMID:6722077

  8. Human pigmentation genes under environmental selection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies and comparative genomics have established major loci and specific polymorphisms affecting human skin, hair and eye color. Environmental changes have had an impact on selected pigmentation genes as populations have expanded into different regions of the globe. PMID:23110848

  9. "Dry-column" chromatography of plant pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeller, F. H.; Lehwalt, M. F.; Oyama, V. I.

    1973-01-01

    Separation of plant pigments which can be accomplished on thin-layer silica plates with mixture of petroleum ether, halocarbon, acetone, and polar solvent can be readily translated into dry-column technique that yields reproducible chromatograms after elution in fashion of liquid chromatography with fluorimeter as detector. Best solvent system was found to be mixture of petroleum ether, dichloromethane, acetone, and ethyl acetate.

  10. The 503nm pigment of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kamitakahara, Joyce R.; Polglase, W. J.

    1970-01-01

    The yield of cell protein was one-third less for streptomycin-dependent Escherichia coli B than for the wild-type parent strain when both were grown aerobically on a medium with limiting glucose, but anaerobically the yield of protein was similar for both strains. The transient pigment absorbing at 503nm that is known to be present in E. coli and other organisms was not detectable in streptomycin-dependent mutants nor in a non-dependent (energy-deficient) revertant. When wild-type E. coli B was grown on limiting glucose–salts medium containing 2,4 dinitrophenol, the yield of cell protein was decreased and formation of the 503nm pigment was inhibited. Fumarase, aconitase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were de-repressed in E. coli B cells grown with excess of glucose in a medium containing 2,4-dinitrophenol. In air-oxidized, wild-type E. coli B cells, the 503nm pigment appeared before reduced cytochromes when gluconate was the substrate but failed to appear when succinate was the substrate. The results provide evidence for a role of the 503nm pigment in aerobic energy metabolism, possibly as an electron acceptor from NADPH. PMID:4395501

  11. Pigment patterns in adult fish result from superimposition of two largely independent pigmentation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ceinos, Rosa M; Guillot, Raúl; Kelsh, Robert N; Cerdá-Reverter, José M; Rotllant, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Dorso-ventral pigment pattern differences are the most widespread pigmentary adaptations in vertebrates. In mammals, this pattern is controlled by regulating melanin chemistry in melanocytes using a protein, agouti-signalling peptide (ASIP). In fish, studies of pigment patterning have focused on stripe formation, identifying a core striping mechanism dependent upon interactions between different pigment cell types. In contrast, mechanisms driving the dorso-ventral countershading pattern have been overlooked. Here, we demonstrate that, in fact, zebrafish utilize two distinct adult pigment patterning mechanisms - an ancient dorso-ventral patterning mechanism, and a more recent striping mechanism based on cell-cell interactions; remarkably, the dorso-ventral patterning mechanism also utilizes ASIP. These two mechanisms function largely independently, with resultant patterns superimposed to give the full pattern.

  12. Anthocyanidins and anthocyanins: colored pigments as food, pharmaceutical ingredients, and the potential health benefits

    PubMed Central

    Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Tang, Sou Teng; Lim, See Meng

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Anthocyanins are colored water-soluble pigments belonging to the phenolic group. The pigments are in glycosylated forms. Anthocyanins responsible for the colors, red, purple, and blue, are in fruits and vegetables. Berries, currants, grapes, and some tropical fruits have high anthocyanins content. Red to purplish blue-colored leafy vegetables, grains, roots, and tubers are the edible vegetables that contain a high level of anthocyanins. Among the anthocyanin pigments, cyanidin-3-glucoside is the major anthocyanin found in most of the plants. The colored anthocyanin pigments have been traditionally used as a natural food colorant. The color and stability of these pigments are influenced by pH, light, temperature, and structure. In acidic condition, anthocyanins appear as red but turn blue when the pH increases. Chromatography has been largely applied in extraction, separation, and quantification of anthocyanins. Besides the use of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins as natural dyes, these colored pigments are potential pharmaceutical ingredients that give various beneficial health effects. Scientific studies, such as cell culture studies, animal models, and human clinical trials, show that anthocyanidins and anthocyanins possess antioxidative and antimicrobial activities, improve visual and neurological health, and protect against various non-communicable diseases. These studies confer the health effects of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins, which are due to their potent antioxidant properties. Different mechanisms and pathways are involved in the protective effects, including free-radical scavenging pathway, cyclooxygenase pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and inflammatory cytokines signaling. Therefore, this review focuses on the role of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins as natural food colorants and their nutraceutical properties for health. Abbreviations: CVD: Cardiovascular disease VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor PMID:28970777

  13. The functional morphology of color changing in a spider: development of ommochrome pigment granules.

    PubMed

    Insausti, Teresita C; Casas, Jérôme

    2008-03-01

    Studies on the formation of ommochrome pigment granules are very few, despite their generalized occurrence as screening pigments in insect eyes. This is particularly true for ommochrome granules responsible for epidermal coloration. The aims of this study were to characterize the localization of major body pigments in a color changing mimetic spider, Misumena vatia (Thomisidae), and to describe the formation and location of ommochrome pigment granules responsible for the spider's color change from white to yellow. The unpigmented cuticula of this spider is transparent. Both the guanine localized in guanine cells in the opisthosoma and the uric acid localized in epidermis cells in the prosoma are responsible for the white coloration. The bright yellow color is due to the combination of ommochrome pigment granules and the white reflectance from coincident guanine and/or uric acid. The formation of ommochrome pigment granules in epidermis cells proceeds via three distinctive steps. Translucent, UV fluorescent, progranules (type I) are produced by a dense network of endoplasmic reticulum associated with numerous mitochondria and glycogen rosettes. These progranules are present in white spiders only, and regularly distributed in the cytoplasm. The merging of several progranules of type I into a transient state (progranule type II) leads to the formation of granules (type III) characterized by their lack of fluorescence, their spherical sections and their osmophilic-electron-dense contents. They are found in yellow spiders and in the red stripes on the body sides. Their color varies from yellow to red. Thus, white spiders contain only type I granules, yellow tinted spiders contain type II and III granules and bright yellow spiders contain only type III granules. We present a synthetic view of the ontogeny of ommochrome granules. We discuss the physiology of color changing and the nature of the chemical compounds in the different types of granules. Extended studies on the

  14. Detection of six novel papillomavirus sequences within canine pigmented plaques

    PubMed Central

    Luff, Jennifer A.; Affolter, Verena K.; Yeargan, Bret; Moore, Peter F.

    2013-01-01

    In dogs, papillomaviruses are thought to cause oral and cutaneous papillomas and pigmented plaques. Eight canine papillomaviruses have been fully sequenced to date. Four of these canine papillomaviruses, including Canis familiaris papillomavirus (CPV)-3, CPV-4, CPV-5, and CPV-8, were amplified from pigmented plaques. Given this recent identification of several different canine papillomaviruses within pigmented plaques, it is likely that there are additional papillomavirus sequences that have not been previously identified. The aim of this study was to detect papillomavirus DNA sequences from pigmented plaques and identify potentially novel PV sequences through nucleotide sequence analysis. Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify DNA sequences of the papillomavirus L1 gene from 27 pigmented plaques. Identification of novel papillomavirus sequences was based upon less than 90% shared DNA homology to any known papillomavirus. Ten different papillomaviruses were detected within the pigmented plaques, including 6 novel PV sequences. CPV-4 was detected within 41% (11/27) of the pigmented plaques, while CPV-5 was identified within 2 pigmented plaques and CPV-3 within a single pigmented plaque. A previously identified novel papillomavirus sequence was identified within 2 pigmented plaques in this study. The remaining 11 pigmented plaques contained 6 papillomavirus DNA sequences that have not been previously reported. These novel PV sequences were most similar to papillomaviruses that have been detected within canine pigmented plaques. PMID:22529129

  15. The determination and optimization of (rutile) pigment particle size distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    A light scattering particle size test which can be used with materials having a broad particle size distribution is described. This test is useful for pigments. The relation between the particle size distribution of a rutile pigment and its optical performance in a gray tint test at low pigment concentration is calculated and compared with experimental data.

  16. Rethinking the History of Artists' Pigments Through Chemical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrie, Barbara H.

    2012-07-01

    Following a brief overview of the history of analysis of artists' pigments, I discuss the illustrative example of lead-tin yellow. Recent advances in our knowledge of artists' use of red lakes, glassy pigments, and metallic pigments in works of cultural heritage, particularly European paintings, as determined from chemical analyses are described.

  17. The determination and optimization of (rutile) pigment particle size distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    A light scattering particle size test which can be used with materials having a broad particle size distribution is described. This test is useful for pigments. The relation between the particle size distribution of a rutile pigment and its optical performance in a gray tint test at low pigment concentration is calculated and compared with experimental data.

  18. Oxidative stress does not influence carotenoid mobilization and plumage pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Caroline; Andersson, Staffan

    2008-02-07

    Oxidative stress has been suggested to create a link between 'good genes' and carotenoid coloration via an allocation conflict between external pigmentation and internal antioxidant functions. However, although carotenoid displays have been extensively investigated, there are no experimental tests of the antioxidant efficiency of carotenoids in vivo. We induced oxidative stress in a small passerine (the great tit, Parus major) under both carotenoid deprivation and supplementation, and investigated the effect on carotenoid mobilization (i.e. plasma) and allocation (i.e. deposition in feather incorporation and liver storage). We found no effects of the stressor on either mobilization or allocation of carotenoids. These results reject the previously suggested superior role of carotenoid's function as antioxidant in vivo with important implications for signal content and honesty.

  19. Radiative and nonradiative deexcitation of pigments from natural oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łukasiewicz, J.; Dudkowiak, A.; Pieńkowska, H.; Frąckowiak, D.

    2006-11-01

    The absorption, steady state photoacoustic, fluorescence emission and excitation spectra of unbleached oils obtained by pressing the seeds of: evening primrose, borage, rape and viper`s burgloss have been taken. Results obtained for samples under air and washed by nitrogen have been compared. In order to establish the occurrence of the slow thermal processes usually related to very photochemically active triplet states, the thermal deactivation in the absorption regions of carotenoids and the pheophytins has been observed at various frequencies of acting light modulations. The interactions between oil pigments are discussed. The generation of triplet states of dyes and singlet oxygen production in oils with different content of carotenoids and pheophytins is evaluated.

  20. Oxidative stress does not influence carotenoid mobilization and plumage pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Isaksson, Caroline; Andersson, Staffan

    2007-01-01

    Summary Oxidative stress has been suggested to create a link between ‘good genes’ and carotenoid coloration via an allocation conflict between external pigmentation and internal antioxidant functions. However, although carotenoid displays have been extensively investigated, there are no experimental tests of the antioxidant efficiency of carotenoids in vivo. We induced oxidative stress in a small passerine (the great tit, Parus major) under both carotenoid deprivation and supplementation, and investigated the effect on carotenoid mobilization (i.e. plasma) and allocation (i.e. deposition in feather incorporation and liver storage). We found no effects of the stressor on either mobilization or allocation of carotenoids. These results reject the previously suggested superior role of carotenoid's function as antioxidant in vivo with important implications for signal content and honesty. PMID:18029305

  1. Automated Dermoscopy Image Analysis of Pigmented Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Alfonso; Quartulli, Marco; Murace, Raffaele; Dragonetti, Emanuele; Manganaro, Mario; Guerra, Oscar; Bizzi, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy, epiluminescence microscopy) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique for the in vivo observation of pigmented skin lesions (PSLs), allowing a better visualization of surface and subsurface structures (from the epidermis to the papillary dermis). This diagnostic tool permits the recognition of morphologic structures not visible by the naked eye, thus opening a new dimension in the analysis of the clinical morphologic features of PSLs. In order to reduce the learning-curve of non-expert clinicians and to mitigate problems inherent in the reliability and reproducibility of the diagnostic criteria used in pattern analysis, several indicative methods based on diagnostic algorithms have been introduced in the last few years. Recently, numerous systems designed to provide computer-aided analysis of digital images obtained by dermoscopy have been reported in the literature. The goal of this article is to review these systems, focusing on the most recent approaches based on content-based image retrieval systems (CBIR). PMID:24281070

  2. Origin of adult-type pigment cells forming the asymmetric pigment pattern, in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Yamada, Toshiyuki; Okauchi, Masanori; Araki, Kazuo

    2010-12-01

    The flatfish-specific asymmetric pigment pattern depends on the asymmetric appearance of adult-type pigment cells after the late metamorphic stages. To understand the mechanism enabling the formation of this asymmetric pattern, we investigated the behavior of pigment cell latent precursors in postembryonic Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, by analysis of the expression patterns of pigment lineage markers (colony stimulating factor 1 receptor, dopachrome tautomerase, kit) and the DiI (DiO) labeling test for latent precursors. We found that, throughout the larval stages, pigment cell latent precursors were predominantly localized along the dorsal and ventral margins of the flank symmetrically and migrated continuously from these regions to the lateral sides symmetrically, and after late metamorphic stages these precursors differentiated into adult-type pigment cells on the lateral side asymmetrically. We conclude that adult-type pigment cells that form the asymmetric pigment pattern are continuously derived from the dorsal and ventral margins of the flank during larval development.

  3. Dimerization of visual pigments in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Cao, Li-Hui; Kumar, Sandeep; Enemchukwu, Nduka O.; Zhang, Ning; Lambert, Alyssia; Zhao, Xuchen; Jones, Alex; Wang, Shixian; Dennis, Emily M.; Fnu, Amrita; Ham, Sam; Rainier, Jon; Yau, King-Wai; Fu, Yingbin

    2016-01-01

    It is a deeply engrained notion that the visual pigment rhodopsin signals light as a monomer, even though many G protein-coupled receptors are now known to exist and function as dimers. Nonetheless, recent studies (albeit all in vitro) have suggested that rhodopsin and its chromophore-free apoprotein, R-opsin, may indeed exist as a homodimer in rod disk membranes. Given the overwhelmingly strong historical context, the crucial remaining question, therefore, is whether pigment dimerization truly exists naturally and what function this dimerization may serve. We addressed this question in vivo with a unique mouse line (S-opsin+Lrat−/−) expressing, transgenically, short-wavelength–sensitive cone opsin (S-opsin) in rods and also lacking chromophore to exploit the fact that cone opsins, but not R-opsin, require chromophore for proper folding and trafficking to the photoreceptor’s outer segment. In R-opsin’s absence, S-opsin in these transgenic rods without chromophore was mislocalized; in R-opsin’s presence, however, S-opsin trafficked normally to the rod outer segment and produced functional S-pigment upon subsequent chromophore restoration. Introducing a competing R-opsin transmembrane helix H1 or helix H8 peptide, but not helix H4 or helix H5 peptide, into these transgenic rods caused mislocalization of R-opsin and S-opsin to the perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum. Importantly, a similar peptide-competition effect was observed even in WT rods. Our work provides convincing evidence for visual pigment dimerization in vivo under physiological conditions and for its role in pigment maturation and targeting. Our work raises new questions regarding a potential mechanistic role of dimerization in rhodopsin signaling. PMID:27462111

  4. Central posterior capsule pigmentation in a patient with pigment dispersion and previous ocular trauma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Al-Mezaine, Hani S

    2010-01-01

    We report a 55-year-old man with unusually dense, unilateral central posterior capsule pigmentation associated with the characteristic clinical features of pigment dispersion syndrome, including a Krukenberg's spindle and dense trabecular pigmentation in both eyes. A history of an old blunt ocular trauma probably caused separation of the anterior hyaloid from the back of the lens, thereby creating an avenue by which pigment could reach the potential space of Berger's from the posterior chamber.

  5. Comparative effects of different triazole compounds on growth, photosynthetic pigments and carbohydrate metabolism of Solenostemon rotundifolius.

    PubMed

    Kishorekumar, A; Jaleel, C Abdul; Manivannan, P; Sankar, B; Sridharan, R; Panneerselvam, R

    2007-11-15

    The effects of two triazole compounds, triadimefon and hexaconazole, on the growth and carbohydrate metabolism were studied in Solenostemon rotundifolius Poir., Morton plants under pot culture. Plants were treated with triadimefon at 15mg l(-1) and hexaconazole at 10mg l(-1) separately by soil drenching on 80, 110 and 140 days after planting (DAP). The plants were harvested randomly and growth parameters were studied on 90, 120 and 150 DAP for determining the effect of both the triazole on growth and chlorophyll pigments. These triazole compounds increased the chlorophyll pigments. However, both the treatments decreased the fresh and dry weights of shoot and leaf area. Both these triazole resulted in a marginal increase in starch content and decreased the sugar contents. The carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes alpha- and beta-amylase activities were reduced and invertase activity increased in S. rotundifolius under triadimefon and hexaconazole treatments.

  6. Photosynthetic pigments of Zoster a noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa in some Albanian lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ylli, Arjana; Babani, Fatbardha; Stamo, Iliriana

    2010-01-01

    In the coastal lagoons of Adriatic Sea Zostera noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa are plants with seeds and flowers, that colonizes the sandy bottom of lagoons. They are capable to produce oxygen with very weak light. Characterization of photosynthetic pigments of eelgrass Zostera noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa, were performed during the period 2002-2008 in some Adriatic lagoons: Kune-Vaini, Patog, Karavasta and Narta. Dynamics of chlorophylls and carotenoids during the vegetation period of these plants were characterized. As a result, the chlorophyll content of Zoostera noltii taken from the Kune- Vain lagoon is higher than at plants collected from the other lagoons. The photosynthetic pigment content of the Zostera noltii plants is higher than of Ruppia cirrhosa. The differences on the distribution of these species in the analyzed lagoons are represented in this presentation.

  7. Multimode spectroscopy for the in vivo assessment of post-inflammatory pigmentation: preliminary observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianhua; Alkhayat, Hana; Al Robaee, Ahmad; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I.; Lui, Harvey

    2006-02-01

    Although post-inflammatory pigmentation (PIH) is a common acquired skin disorder, however, its mechanism still remains unclear. In this paper, multimode optical spectroscopic techniques including diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been used to probe the morphologic and biochemical changes associated with PIH. Both pigmented skin and the adjacent normal skin were measured for paired analysis. Distinctive spectral features were observed which may provide the potentials for identifying the mechanism of PIH. The diffuse reflectance spectrum was also converted into the CIE standard L*a*b* color system. The melanin and the hemoglobin content in the PIH were quantitatively derived from the diffusive reflectance spectrum using the Stamatas-Kollias algorithm. It was found that PIH always has a lower value in L* and more melanin and hemoglobin content which is consistent with clinical appearance of dark skin as perceived by the human eye.

  8. Influence of growth regulators and elicitors on cell growth and α-tocopherol and pigment productions in cell cultures of Carthamus tinctorius L.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Smita P; Lokhande, Vinayak H; Nitnaware, Kirti M; Nikam, Tukaram D

    2011-03-01

    The present study examined the effects of plant growth hormones, incubation period, biotic (Trametes versicolor, Mucor sp., Penicillium notatum, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Fusarium oxysporum) and abiotic (NaCl, MgSO(4), FeSO(4), ZnSO(4), and FeCl(3)) elicitors on cell growth and α-tocopherol and pigment (red and yellow) productions in Carthamus tinctorius cell cultures. The cell growth and α-tocopherol and pigment contents improved significantly on Murashige and Skoog (MS) liquid medium containing 50.0 μM α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 2.5 μM 6-Benzyladenine (BA) at 28 days of incubation period. Incorporation of T. versicolor (50 mg l(-1)) significantly enhanced the production of α-tocopherol (12.7-fold) and red pigment (4.24-fold). Similarly, supplementation of 30 mg l(-1) T. versicolor (7.54-fold) and 70 mg l(-1) Mucor sp. (7.40-fold) significantly increased the production of yellow pigment. Among abiotic elicitors, NaCl (50-70 mg l(-1)) and MgSO(4) (10-30 mg l(-1)) significantly improved production of α-tocopherol (1.24-fold) and red pigment (20-fold), whereas yellow pigment content increased considerably by all the abiotic elicitor treatments. Taken together, the present study reports improved productions of α-tocopherol and the pigment as a stress response of safflower cell cultures exposed to these elicitors.

  9. Comparative studies on the late bleaching processes of four kinds of cone visual pigments and rod visual pigment.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keita; Yamashita, Takahiro; Imamoto, Yasushi; Shichida, Yoshinori

    2012-05-29

    Visual pigments in rod and cone photoreceptor cells of vertebrate retinas are highly diversified photoreceptive proteins that consist of a protein moiety opsin and a light-absorbing chromophore 11-cis-retinal. There are four types of cone visual pigments and a single type of rod visual pigment. The reaction process of the rod visual pigment, rhodopsin, has been extensively investigated, whereas there have been few studies of cone visual pigments. Here we comprehensively investigated the reaction processes of cone visual pigments on a time scale of milliseconds to minutes, using flash photolysis equipment optimized for cone visual pigment photochemistry. We used chicken violet (L-group), chicken blue (M1-group), chicken green (M2-group), and monkey green (L-group) visual pigments as representatives of the respective groups of the phylogenetic tree of cone pigments. The S, M1, and M2 pigments showed the formation of a pH-dependent mixture of meta intermediates, similar to that formed from rhodopsin. Although monkey green (L-group) also formed a mixture of meta intermediates, pH dependency of meta intermediates was not observed. However, meta intermediates of monkey green became pH dependent when the chloride ion bound to the monkey green was replaced with a nitrate ion. These results strongly suggest that rhodopsin and S, M1, and M2 cone visual pigments share a molecular mechanism for activation, whereas the L-group pigment may have a special reaction mechanism involving the chloride-binding site.

  10. TPC2 controls pigmentation by regulating melanosome pH and size

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosio, Andrea L.; Boyle, Judith A.; Aradi, Al E.; Christian, Keith A.; Di Pietro, Santiago M.

    2016-01-01

    Melanin is responsible for pigmentation of skin and hair and is synthesized in a specialized organelle, the melanosome, in melanocytes. A genome-wide association study revealed that the two pore segment channel 2 (TPCN2) gene is strongly linked to pigmentation variations. TPCN2 encodes the two-pore channel 2 (TPC2) protein, a cation channel. Nevertheless, how TPC2 regulates pigmentation remains unknown. Here, we show that TPC2 is expressed in melanocytes and localizes to the melanosome-limiting membrane and, to a lesser extent, to endolysosomal compartments by confocal fluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy. Immunomagnetic isolation of TPC2-containing organelles confirmed its coresidence with melanosomal markers. TPCN2 knockout by means of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/CRISPR-associated 9 gene editing elicited a dramatic increase in pigment content in MNT-1 melanocytic cells. This effect was rescued by transient expression of TPC2-GFP. Consistently, siRNA-mediated knockdown of TPC2 also caused a substantial increase in melanin content in both MNT-1 cells and primary human melanocytes. Using a newly developed genetically encoded pH sensor targeted to melanosomes, we determined that the melanosome lumen in TPC2-KO MNT-1 cells and primary melanocytes subjected to TPC2 knockdown is less acidic than in control cells. Fluorescence and electron microscopy analysis revealed that TPC2-KO MNT-1 cells have significantly larger melanosomes than control cells, but the number of organelles is unchanged. TPC2 likely regulates melanosomes pH and size by mediating Ca2+ release from the organelle, which is decreased in TPC2-KO MNT-1 cells, as determined with the Ca2+ sensor tyrosinase-GCaMP6. Thus, our data show that TPC2 regulates pigmentation through two fundamental determinants of melanosome function: pH and size. PMID:27140606

  11. TPC2 controls pigmentation by regulating melanosome pH and size.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Andrea L; Boyle, Judith A; Aradi, Al E; Christian, Keith A; Di Pietro, Santiago M

    2016-05-17

    Melanin is responsible for pigmentation of skin and hair and is synthesized in a specialized organelle, the melanosome, in melanocytes. A genome-wide association study revealed that the two pore segment channel 2 (TPCN2) gene is strongly linked to pigmentation variations. TPCN2 encodes the two-pore channel 2 (TPC2) protein, a cation channel. Nevertheless, how TPC2 regulates pigmentation remains unknown. Here, we show that TPC2 is expressed in melanocytes and localizes to the melanosome-limiting membrane and, to a lesser extent, to endolysosomal compartments by confocal fluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy. Immunomagnetic isolation of TPC2-containing organelles confirmed its coresidence with melanosomal markers. TPCN2 knockout by means of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/CRISPR-associated 9 gene editing elicited a dramatic increase in pigment content in MNT-1 melanocytic cells. This effect was rescued by transient expression of TPC2-GFP. Consistently, siRNA-mediated knockdown of TPC2 also caused a substantial increase in melanin content in both MNT-1 cells and primary human melanocytes. Using a newly developed genetically encoded pH sensor targeted to melanosomes, we determined that the melanosome lumen in TPC2-KO MNT-1 cells and primary melanocytes subjected to TPC2 knockdown is less acidic than in control cells. Fluorescence and electron microscopy analysis revealed that TPC2-KO MNT-1 cells have significantly larger melanosomes than control cells, but the number of organelles is unchanged. TPC2 likely regulates melanosomes pH and size by mediating Ca(2+) release from the organelle, which is decreased in TPC2-KO MNT-1 cells, as determined with the Ca(2+) sensor tyrosinase-GCaMP6. Thus, our data show that TPC2 regulates pigmentation through two fundamental determinants of melanosome function: pH and size.

  12. Carotenoid pigments and trophic behaviour of deep-sea shrimps (Crustacea, decapoda, alvinocarididae) from a hydrothermal area of the mid-atlantic ridge.

    PubMed

    Nègre-Sadargues, G; Castillo, R; Segonzac, M

    2000-11-01

    Pigments and trophic behaviour of three species of Alvinocarididae from a Mid-Atlantic hydrothermal site were analysed. Carotenoid pigments are responsible for the more or less marked colouration of these animals. The carotenoid content of whole animals and different tissues were evaluated. Rimicaris exoculata exhibits an increased carotenoid level at the juvenile stage, while Chorocaris chacei and Alvinocaris markensis contain only few traces of pigment. Free and esterified astaxanthin, reported for most pelagic crustaceans, are present in these deep-sea shrimps. The origin of carotenoids of crustaceans living in the aphotic zone is discussed.

  13. A novel Helicosporium isolate and its antimicrobial and cytotoxic pigment.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye Jung; Lee, Sang Myeong; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kim, Dong Wan; Choi, Young Whan; Joo, Woo Hong

    2012-09-01

    One Helicosporium strain, isolated from a wilted chestnut tree, evidenced in vitro antimicrobial activity against various types of bacteria and fungi, and generated a diffusible pigment. The antimicrobial compounds and the diffusible pigment of the Helicosporium sp. isolate were purified via solvent fractionation, column chromatography, and recycling preparative chromatography. Both the major antimicrobial compound and the diffusible pigment were identified as 2-methylresorcinol via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Therefore, 2-methylresorcinol, a diffusible pigment generated by Helicosporium sp., appears to be an active antimicrobial principle. This pigment also exhibited considerable cytotoxicity against mammalian cells.

  14. Biosynthesis of drosopterins, the red eye pigments of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heuijong; Kim, Kiyoung; Yim, Jeongbin

    2013-04-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has red eyes. Scientists have been curious about the biosynthesis of the red eye pigments and have completed a number of investigations on these compounds. Scientific contributions made over the past 50 years have improved our understanding of the red eye pigments. Researchers have elucidated the chemical structures of some pigments and have successfully purified and identified the enzymes that participate in the biosynthesis of the red eye pigments. In this article, we will review the characteristics of the Drosophila red eye pigments and of the enzymes and genes involved in its biosynthetic pathway. Copyright © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Challenges of identifying eczema in darkly pigmented skin.

    PubMed

    Myers, Joan

    2015-07-01

    There is a paucity of information about the difference in the presentation of eczema in darkly pigmented skin compared to children with fair or white skin. This article describes the possible challenges of diagnosing eczema in children with darkly pigmented skin. The physiological difference in darkly pigmented skin compared with fair or white skin is explored, and how eczema may be manifested and identified in darkly pigmented skin. The author uses the term darkly pigmented skin to describe children of black Caribbean, African or Asian descent.

  16. Mapping of Photosynthetic Pigments in Spanish Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Martinez, R.; Domínguez-Gómez, J.-A.; de Hoyos, C.; Ruiz-Verdú, A.

    2004-05-01

    We present the preliminary results of the first stage of the project AO-594, which comprises the development and calibration of algorithms for photosynthetic pigment mapping in Spanish reservoirs. In the years 2001-2002, an extensive field campaign was made in 36 reservoirs and lakes in order to obtain a database of Rrs spectra (400-1000 nm), photosynthetic pigments concentration and phytoplankton composition. The sampled water bodies cover a wide range of environmental conditions, trophic levels and phytoplankton communities. As a first approach in algorithm development, we have explored the relationships between ratios of MERIS bands and pigment concentrations through simple linear regression analysis. The bands have been selected based on the spectral properties of each pigment and a peak analysis of the Rrs spectra. For chlorophyll a, we have found a very good linear relationship (R2 =0.919) using the ratio between bands 9 and 7. Similar results are found using band 8 instead of 7. In any case, the model derived for the whole range of concentrations (0-500 mg m3 ) fails for low values (<15 mg m-3 ). Possible solutions include the use of - non-linear models or the use of two different models depending on the ratio values. For cyanobacteria detection, the ratio between bands 9 and 6 (the later centred at 620 nm) shows a good correlation (R2 =0.723) with phycocyanin concentration measured fluorometrically, and better (R2 =0.945) with zeaxanthin measured using HPLC. The correlation of other indicator pigments with MERIS band ratios is less strong, but is still possible to develop algorithms accurate enough for bloom monitoring. We also discuss the problems found with the L2 MERIS reflectance imagery that we have tried to use for model calibration. We present the results of the study carried on six reservoirs in northeastern Spain. In a date coincident with a MERIS image (June 19th, 2003) we have collected pigment concentration and reflectance data measured from a

  17. Pigmented Pindborg tumor of the maxilla: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Priya, Subashchandrabose; Madanagopaal, Lakshmikanth Ramiah; Sarada, Venkaterwaran

    2016-01-01

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), also known as the Pindborg tumor, is a benign locally invasive neoplasm. Common variants of CEOT include noncalcifying, Langerhans cell, bone and cementum forming and clear cell, which have a prognostic significance. Pigmented variants are known to occur in other odontogenic tumors. However, a definitive pigmented variant of CEOT has not been reported in literature so far. Here, we report the first case of pigmented Pindborg tumor arising from the maxilla in a young female. The pigment was demonstrated as melanin by staining and confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The pigmented variant of CEOT did not recur within 18 months postsurgery. Our report indicates that it is essential to recognize the pigmented variant. We discuss the common variants of CEOT and potential histogenesis of the pigmented variant. Further studies are required to reveal the histogenesis of melanocytes and their pathological significance in the odontogenic tumors. PMID:27721633

  18. Color me bad: microbial pigments as virulence factors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, George Y.; Nizet, Victor

    2009-01-01

    A hallmark feature of several pathogenic microbes is the distinctive color of their colonies when propagated in the clinical laboratory. Such pigmentation comes in a variety of hues, and has often proven useful in presumptive clinical diagnosis. Recent advances in microbial pigment biochemistry and the genetic basis of pigment production has sometimes revealed a more sinister aspect to these curious materials that change the color of reflected light by selective light absorbance. In many cases, the microbial pigment contributes to disease pathogenesis by interfering with host immune clearance mechanisms or by exhibiting pro-inflammatory or cytotoxic properties. Here, we review several examples of pigments that promote microbial virulence, including the golden staphyloxanthin of Staphylococcus aureus, the blue-green pyocyanin of Pseudomonas spp., and the dark brown or black melanin pigments of Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus spp. Targeted pigment neutralization may represent a viable concept to enhance treatment of certain difficult infectious disease conditions. PMID:19726196

  19. Introducing the "Human Element" in Chemistry by Synthesizing Blue Pigments and Creating Cyanotypes in a First-Year Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morizot, Olivier; Audureau, Eric; Briend, Jean-Yves; Hagel, Gaetan; Boulc'h, Florence

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present two concrete applications of the concept of the human element to chemistry education; starting with a course and experimental project on blue pigment synthesis and concluding with cross-disciplinary lessons and experiments on blue photography. In addition to the description of the content of these courses, we explore…

  20. Introducing the "Human Element" in Chemistry by Synthesizing Blue Pigments and Creating Cyanotypes in a First-Year Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morizot, Olivier; Audureau, Eric; Briend, Jean-Yves; Hagel, Gaetan; Boulc'h, Florence

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present two concrete applications of the concept of the human element to chemistry education; starting with a course and experimental project on blue pigment synthesis and concluding with cross-disciplinary lessons and experiments on blue photography. In addition to the description of the content of these courses, we explore…

  1. Growth and photosynthetic pigments responses of two varieties of Catharanthus roseus to triadimefon treatment.

    PubMed

    Jaleel, Cheruth Abdul; Gopi, Ragupathi; Panneerselvam, Rajaram

    2008-04-01

    Triadimefon, potential fungicide cum plant-growth retardant was used in this study to investigate its effect on the growth and the photosynthetic pigment contents of two varieties of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. The plants of both varieties were subjected to 15 mg l(-1) triadimefon treatment by soil drenching 30, 45, 60, and 75 days after planting (DAP). Plants were uprooted on 90 DAP, and morphological parameters, like plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, root length and fresh and dry weights were determined. The photosynthetic pigments, like chlorophylls a and b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, floral pigment, anthocyanin, were extracted and estimated. It was observed that plant height, number of leaves and leaf area were decreased and that root length, fresh and dry weights were increased under triadimefon treatment. The photosynthetic and floral pigments were increased under triadimefon treatment in both varieties. The results suggest that the application of this plant-growth retardant (triadimefon) has favourable effects on the reduction of plant height; it can thus be used for replacing manual hand pruning and for improving floral and vegetation colour in bedding plants like C. roseus.

  2. Structural Characterization of Melanin Pigments from Commercial Preparations of the Edible Mushroom Auricularia auricula.

    PubMed

    Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Toriola, Stacy; Nakouzi, Antonio; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Stark, Ruth; Gerfen, Gary; Tumpowsky, Paul; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-08-26

    Many of the most widely consumed edible mushrooms are pigmented, and these have been associated with some beneficial health effects. Nevertheless, the majority of the reported compounds associated with these desirable properties are non-pigmented. We have previously reported that melanin pigment from the edible mushroom Auricularia auricula can protect mice against ionizing radiation, although no physicochemical characterization was reported. Consequently, in this study we have characterized commercial A. auricula mushroom preparations for melanin content and carried out structural characterization of isolated insoluble melanin materials using a panel of sophisticated spectroscopic and physical/imaging techniques. Our results show that approximately 10% of the dry mass of A. auricula is melanin and that the pigment has physicochemical properties consistent with those of eumelanins, including hosting a stable free radical population. Electron microscopy studies show that melanin is associated with the mushroom cell wall in a manner similar to that of melanin from the model fungus C. neoformans. Elemental analysis of melanin indicated C, H, and N ratios consistent with 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid/5,6-dihydroxyindole and 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene eumelanin. Validation of the identity of the isolated product as melanin was achieved by EPR analysis. A. auricula melanin manifested structural differences, relative to the C. neoformans melanin, with regard to the variable proportions of alkyl chains or oxygenated carbons. Given the necessity for new oral and inexpensive radioprotective materials coupled with the commercial availability of A. auricula mushrooms, this product may represent an excellent source of edible melanin.

  3. Study of the Pigments in Colombian Powdered Coffee Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Delgado, F.; Bedoya, A.; Marín, E.

    2017-01-01

    Biological pigments are chemical compounds that absorb light in the wavelength range of the visible region. They are present in all living organisms, vegetables being among their main producers. In this work, the photoacoustic spectroscopy technique was used to investigate some qualitative features related to pigments of ground and roasted coffee. The samples were collected at several Colombian commercial markets from different regions. Colombian coffee is known worldwide for its quality and flavor, being the main agricultural export product of the country. Therefore, it is important to study the composition and color of ground and roasted coffee in order to show quality and special characteristics of local varieties. Studying the content of pigments after roasting and grinding the coffee can allow a better understanding of the coloring process, which can lead to the definition of new criteria for evaluating the quality and other characteristics of the final product by comparing the optical spectra. In this work, the optical absorption spectra obtained by photoacoustic spectroscopy show absorption bands that match those of the pigments capsanthin, lutein and chlorophyll. In addition, an absorption peak in the near-infrared region was revealed, which also provides information regarding the composition of roasted and ground coffee.

  4. Biomarker pigment signatures in Cochin back water system - A tropical estuary south west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aneeshkumar, N.; Sujatha, C. H.

    2012-03-01

    Sedimentary biomarker pigments around Cochin estuary situated in the southwest coast of India were determined by HPLC. Fucoxanthin, an indicator of diatom was observed to be the most abundant carotenoid pigment in the estuary. Dinoflagellate derived carotenoid pigment peridinin was confined in the southern part of estuary and zeaxanthin pigment indicative of cyanobacteria were more found in sites influenced by anthropogenic activities. One compound having close similarity to fucoxanthin was also detected. Alloxanthin (cryptophyceae), chl b (green algae), canthaxanthin, neoxanthin, lutein and peridinin isomer were also detected by spectra and corresponding algal class were identified. The highest concentration of chl a (11.01 μg g-1) found near to the anthropogenic affected area while the lowest chl a (0.65 μg g-1) was recorded in industrial area. Degradation products of chl a, such as pheophorbide and pheophytin were observed and principal mode of mechanism of degradation were derived. Higher pheopigments content than chl a, reflects a density trapping of dead cells and early degradation of phytopigments from grazing activities.

  5. Effect of nanogrinding on the pigment and bioactivity of Djulis ( Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.).

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pi-Jen; Chen, Yuh-Shuen; Sheu, Chih-Hung; Chen, Chin-Yen

    2011-03-09

    Betanin is an antioxidant pigment found in djulis, a grain native to Taiwan, and is a natural source food coloring, but the bright red color degrades rapidly if submitted to light, heat, or oxygen. The effects of nanogrinding on the stability of pigments and bioactive components are unknown. In this study, the color characteristics and bioactivity (antioxidant capacity and enzyme activity) of nanoparticle (NP) djulis was compared with those of intact granules (IG) and microparticles (MP). Results showed that the NP samples exhibited the highest betanin content (2.04 mg/g), which was almost twice that of IG. It was observed that nanogrinding resulted in higher pigment extraction efficiency. However, during storage (5-35 °C for 56 days), NP samples showed the most serious pigment degradation, and this color degradation, as expected, had the lowest activation energy. This was more evident when the storage temperature was high. Antioxidant capacities showed the same trends. MP and NP exhibited significantly higher activity of superoxide dismutaste-like activity, lactoperoxidase (LPO), and lysozyme than IG. Gel permeation chromatography confirmed the degradation of larger particles during nanogrinding, which might favor enzyme extraction and their activities. Statistical analysis revealed a close relationship between betanin and antioxidant capacity.

  6. Skin pigmentation is inversely associated with insulin resistance in healthy Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Nagata, C; Konish, K; Tamura, T; Wada, K; Hayashi, M; Takeda, N; Yasuda, K

    2016-11-01

    As a low-pigment skin type is prevalent in men and women with type 1 diabetes, it is possible that skin pigmentation may be associated with insulin resistance. This study aimed to cross-sectionally examine this association in healthy women. Study participants were 792 Japanese women who attended a health examination and were not taking any medication for diabetes. Skin pigmentation on the inner upper and lower arms and forehead was measured using a Mexameter(®) skin colorimeter, a narrow-band reflective spectrophotometer. Data are expressed as a melanin index, which quantifies melanin content. Fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were also measured, and homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores were calculated. Information on medical history and lifestyle factors were obtained by a self-administered questionnaire, while data on sun exposure were collected through interviews. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured in a subsample of women (n=464). Melanin indices at the inner upper and lower arms were significantly and inversely associated with fasting insulin levels and HOMA-IR after controlling for age, body mass index, smoking status, indicators for rater effects, cumulative sun exposure and season at the time of measurement. Additional adjustment for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels did not alter the results. These data suggest that skin pigmentation is associated with insulin resistance, and encourage future studies into the potential role of melanin and related factors in glucose homoeostasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Host cell pigmentation in Scenedesmus dimorphus as a beacon for nascent parasite infection.

    PubMed

    Collins, Aaron M; Jones, Howland D T; McBride, Robert C; Behnke, Craig; Timlin, Jerilyn A

    2014-09-01

    Biofuels derived from the mass cultivation of algae represent an emerging industry that aims to partially displace petroleum based fuels. Outdoor, open-pond, and raceway production facilities are attractive options for the mass culture of algae however, this mode of cultivation leaves the algae susceptible to epidemics from a variety of environmental challenges. Infestations can result in complete collapse of the algal populations and destruction of their valuable products making it paramount to understand the host-pathogen relationships of known algal pests in order to develop mitigation strategies. In the present work, we characterize the spatial-temporal response of photosynthetic pigments in Scenedesmus dimorphus to infection from Amoeboaphelidium protococcarum, a destructive endoparasite, with the goal of understanding the potential for early detection of infection via host pigment changes. We employed a hyperspectral confocal fluorescence microscope to quantify these changes in pigmentation with high spatial and spectral resolution during early parasite infection. Carotenoid abundance and autofluorescence increased within the first 24 h of infection while chlorophyll emission remained constant. Changes in host cell photosynthesis and bulk chlorophyll content were found to lag behind parasite replication. The results herein raise the possibility of using host-cell pigment changes as indicators of nascent parasite infection. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cottonseed colour fixed pigments. Part II. Role of hexane isomers on oil quality.

    PubMed

    Osman, F; Zaher, F A; EL-Nockrashy, A S

    1976-01-01

    Colour fixed pigments can be detected in refined and bleached oils rather than in crude oils, since in the latter their absorption is masked up by the gossypol pigments. Isohexane is the most desirable hexane isomer. Though it produces darker crude oils, yet refinability and bleachability increases as the percentage of isohexane in normal hexan increases. It has also the advantage of extracting oils with lowest refining loss and with the highest gossypol content. Recovery of gossypol, which is alkali refinable, with the oil results in a superior quality of meal. Benzene, on the other hand, is the least desirable constituent in commercial hexane. Its presence with n-hexane results in darker coloured crude, refined and bleached oil colours, indicating the selectivity of benzene to colour fixed pigments. Highest refining loss were found in oils extracted with benzene or benzene-hexane solvent mixtures. Cyclohexane presence with n-hexane (35% to 60%) and methycyclopentane (6.0% to 12.0%) do not increase the degree of extraction of colour fixed pigments, however increase the refining loss of the extracted oils.

  9. Cone visual pigments of monotremes: filling the phylogenetic gap.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Matthew J; Anderson, Mark; Chang, Ellen; Wei, Ke-Jun; Kaul, Rajinder; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall; Grützner, Frank; Deeb, Samir S

    2008-01-01

    We have determined the sequence and genomic organization of the genes encoding the cone visual pigment of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), and inferred their spectral properties and evolutionary pathways. We prepared platypus and echidna retinal RNA and used primers of the middle-wave-sensitive (MWS), long-wave-sensitive (LWS), and short-wave sensitive (SWS1) pigments corresponding to coding sequences that are highly conserved among mammals; to PCR amplify the corresponding pigment sequences. Amplification from the retinal RNA revealed the expression of LWS pigment mRNA that is homologous in sequence and spectral properties to the primate LWS visual pigments. However, we were unable to amplify the mammalian SWS1 pigment from these two species, indicating this gene was lost prior to the echidna-platypus divergence (21 MYA). Subsequently, when the platypus genome sequence became available, we found an LWS pigment gene in a conserved genomic arrangement that resembles the primate pigment, but, surprisingly we found an adjacent (20 kb) SWS2 pigment gene within this conserved genomic arrangement. We obtained the same result after sequencing the echidna genes. The encoded SWS2 pigment is predicted to have a wavelength of maximal absorption of about 440 nm, and is paralogous to SWS pigments typically found in reptiles, birds, and fish but not in mammals. This study suggests the locus control region (LCR) has played an important role in the conservation of photo receptor gene arrays and the control of their spatial and temporal expression in the retina in all mammals. In conclusion, a duplication event of an ancestral cone visual pigment gene, followed by sequence divergence and selection gave rise to the LWS and SWS2 visual pigments. So far, the echidna and platypus are the only mammals that share the gene structure of the LWS-SWS2 pigment gene complex with reptiles, birds and fishes.

  10. [Pigmented ciliary body tumours: benign or malignant?].

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Vicente, E; Saornil-Álvarez, M A; López-Lara, F; García-Álvarez, C; de Frutos-Baraja, J M; Díez-Andino, P

    2013-12-01

    We report the cases of 2 women with a pigmented tumour in the ciliary body, one a melanocytoma and the other a melanoma, with different clinical manifestations. The first one presented with decreased visual acuity associated with recent growth of the tumour, as well as sectorial opacities of the lens and subluxation. The second one is asymptomatic and has been kept under observation for more than 30 years. Although the definitive diagnosis of a pigmented tumour of the ciliary body is only achieved by the histopathology study, the group of clinical features is a determining factor when a conservative treatment is indicated. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the hip

    PubMed Central

    Steinmetz, Sylvain; Rougemont, Anne-Laure; Peter, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare disease that can affect any joint, bursa or tendon sheath. The hip is less frequently affected than the knee, and hence is less discussed in scientific journals. PVNS of the hip mainly occurs in young adults, requiring early diagnosis and adequate treatment to obtain good results. There is no consensus on the management of PVNS of the hip in current literature. We will discuss the options for surgical intervention in hip PVNS using a literature review of clinical, biological, etiological, histological and radiographic aspects of the disease. Cite this article: Steinmetz S, Rougemont A-L, Peter R. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the hip. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:260-266. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000021. PMID:28461957

  12. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the hip.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Sylvain; Rougemont, Anne-Laure; Peter, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare disease that can affect any joint, bursa or tendon sheath.The hip is less frequently affected than the knee, and hence is less discussed in scientific journals.PVNS of the hip mainly occurs in young adults, requiring early diagnosis and adequate treatment to obtain good results.There is no consensus on the management of PVNS of the hip in current literature.We will discuss the options for surgical intervention in hip PVNS using a literature review of clinical, biological, etiological, histological and radiographic aspects of the disease. Cite this article: Steinmetz S, Rougemont A-L, Peter R. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the hip. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:260-266. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000021.

  13. Animal pigment bilirubin discovered in plants.

    PubMed

    Pirone, Cary; Quirke, J Martin E; Priestap, Horacio A; Lee, David W

    2009-03-04

    The bile pigment bilirubin-IXalpha is the degradative product of heme, distributed among mammals and some other vertebrates. It can be recognized as the pigment responsible for the yellow color of jaundice and healing bruises. In this paper we present the first example of the isolation of bilirubin in plants. The compound was isolated from the brilliant orange-colored arils of Strelitzia nicolai, the white bird of paradise tree, and characterized by HPLC-ESMS, UV-visible, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, as well as comparison with an authentic standard. This discovery indicates that plant cyclic tetrapyrroles may undergo degradation by a previously unknown pathway. Preliminary analyses of related plants, including S. reginae, the bird of paradise, also revealed bilirubin in the arils and flowers, indicating that the occurrence of bilirubin is not limited to a single species or tissue type.

  14. PIGMENTATION AND TAXONOMY OF THE GENUS XANTHOMONAS

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Mortimer P.; Stephens, William L.

    1964-01-01

    Starr, Mortimer P. (University of California, Davis), and William L. Stephens. Pigmentation and taxonomy of the genus Xanthomonas. J. Bacteriol. 87:293–302. 1964.—The colonies formed by phytopathogenic bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas are typically yellow in color. This chromogenesis stems from the presence in all yellow xanthomonads of a particular carotenoid pigment. This unique “Xanthomonas-carotenoid,” which has not been found in any yellow nonxanthomonad, is characterized herein to the extent required for its recognition by relatively simple screening procedures. In general, the occurrence of a carotenoid “alcohol” with absorption maxima at 418, 437, and 463 mμ (petroleum ether)—in a gram-negative, polarly-flagellated, oxidative, rod-shaped bacterium—would suggest placement of that microorganism in the genus Xanthomonas. PMID:14151047

  15. FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PIGMENTS AS INDICATORS.

    PubMed

    Pratt, O B; Swartout, H O

    1930-05-09

    (1) Solutions of many fruit pigments act as indicators. (2) These solutions are easily prepared and stable, and the pH range of their color changes is in most cases conveniently near the neutral point (3) As liquid indicators they can be used in titrating acids, but not bases (4)Their greatest usefulness depends upon the fact that very satisfactory test papers can be made with them in a simple and inexpensive way.

  16. Skin pigmentation, biogeographical ancestry and admixture mapping.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Mark D; Parra, Esteban J; Dios, Sonia; Bonilla, Carolina; Norton, Heather; Jovel, Celina; Pfaff, Carrie; Jones, Cecily; Massac, Aisha; Cameron, Neil; Baron, Archie; Jackson, Tabitha; Argyropoulos, George; Jin, Li; Hoggart, Clive J; McKeigue, Paul M; Kittles, Rick A

    2003-04-01

    Ancestry informative markers (AIMs) are genetic loci showing alleles with large frequency differences between populations. AIMs can be used to estimate biogeographical ancestry at the level of the population, subgroup (e.g. cases and controls) and individual. Ancestry estimates at both the subgroup and individual level can be directly instructive regarding the genetics of the phenotypes that differ qualitatively or in frequency between populations. These estimates can provide a compelling foundation for the use of admixture mapping (AM) methods to identify the genes underlying these traits. We present details of a panel of 34 AIMs and demonstrate how such studies can proceed, by using skin pigmentation as a model phenotype. We have genotyped these markers in two population samples with primarily African ancestry, viz. African Americans from Washington D.C. and an African Caribbean sample from Britain, and in a sample of European Americans from Pennsylvania. In the two African population samples, we observed significant correlations between estimates of individual ancestry and skin pigmentation as measured by reflectometry (R(2)=0.21, P<0.0001 for the African-American sample and R(2)=0.16, P<0.0001 for the British African-Caribbean sample). These correlations confirm the validity of the ancestry estimates and also indicate the high level of population structure related to admixture, a level that characterizes these populations and that is detectable by using other tests to identify genetic structure. We have also applied two methods of admixture mapping to test for the effects of three candidate genes (TYR, OCA2, MC1R) on pigmentation. We show that TYR and OCA2 have measurable effects on skin pigmentation differences between the west African and west European parental populations. This work indicates that it is possible to estimate the individual ancestry of a person based on DNA analysis with a reasonable number of well-defined genetic markers. The implications and

  17. Treatment of gingival pigmentation: a case series.

    PubMed

    Deepak, Prasad; Sunil, S; Mishra, R; Sheshadri

    2005-01-01

    A smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection and courtesy, and reveals self confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position and the color of the teeth but also by the gingival tissues. Gingival health and appearance are essential components of an attractive smile. Gingival pigmentation results from melanin granules, which are produced by melanoblasts. The degree of pigmentation depends on melanoblastic activity. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of 'black gums' are common particularly in patients having a very high smile line (gummy smile). For depigmentation of gingiva different treatment modalities have been reported like- Bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery and laser. In the present case series bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap (epithelial excision) cryotherapy and electrosurgery have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction. The problems encountered with some of these techniques have also been discussed.

  18. Optical tomography of pigmented human skin biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riemann, Iris; Fischer, Peter; Kaatz, Martin; Fischer, Tobias W.; Elsner, Peter; Dimitrov, Enrico; Reif, Annette; Konig, Karsten

    2004-07-01

    The novel femtosecond NIR (near infrared) laser based high resolution imaging system DermaInspect was used for non-invasive diagnostics of pigmented skin. The system provides fluorescence and SHG images of high spatial submicron resolution (3D) and 250 ps temporal resolution (4D) based on time resolved single photon counting (TCSPC). Pigmented tissue biopsies from patients with nevi and melanoma have been investigated using the tunable 80 MHz femtosecond laser MaiTai with laser wavelengths in the range of 750 - 850 nm. The autofluorescence patterns of different intratissue cell types and structures were determined. The non-linear induced autofluorescence originates from naturally endogenous fluorophores and protein structures like NAD(P)H, flavins, elastin, collagen, phorphyrins and melanin. In addition to autofluorescence, SHG (second harmonic generation) was used to detect dermal collagen structures. Interestingly, pigmented cells showed intense luminescence signals. Further characterization of tissue components was performed via 4D measurements of the fluorescence lifetime (x, y, z, τ). The novel multiphoton technique offers the possibility of a painless high resolution non invasive diagnostic method (optical biopsy), in particular for the early detection of skin cancer.

  19. INDOCYANINE GREEN ANGIOGRAPHY OF PACHYCHOROID PIGMENT EPITHELIOPATHY.

    PubMed

    Ersoz, M Giray; Arf, Serra; Hocaoglu, Mumin; Sayman Muslubas, Isil; Karacorlu, Murat

    2017-07-18

    To compare choroidal hyperpermeability and vessel density between eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), those with pachychoroid pigment epitheliopathy (PPE) and those with uncomplicated pachychoroid (UCP). We retrospectively reviewed indocyanine green angiography images of 60 patients with unilateral active CSC who had PPE (36 eyes) or UCP (24 eyes) in their fellow eyes. We used color thresholding of indocyanine green angiography images to determine choroidal vessel density. The mean choroidal thickness of eyes with CSC was greater than that of eyes with PPE or UCP, but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.46). There was no significant difference between the PPE (92%) and CSC (93%) groups regarding choroidal hyperpermeability (P = 0.76), but both of these groups had higher choroidal permeability than the UCP group (50%) (both P < 0.001). In 30 (90%) of 33 eyes with PPE who had choroidal hyperpermeability, retinal pigment epithelium alterations were in the region of hyperpermeability. Choroidal vessel density did not differ between the PPE and UCP groups (P = 0.57). Pachychoroid pigment epitheliopathy is forme fruste of CSC. There is no difference between complicated and UCP regarding subfoveal choroidal thickness and choroidal vessel density. The main difference between these groups is choroidal hyperpermeability.

  20. Blackberry pigment (whitlockite) gallstones in uremic patient.

    PubMed

    Cariati, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Black pigment gallstones represent nearly the 15% of all gallstones and are usually related with the typical "hyperbilirubinbilia" factors as hemolysis, ineffective erythropoiesis, pathologic enterohepatic cycling of unconjugated bilirubin, cirrhosis and with gallbladder mucosa (parietal) factors as adenomyomatosis. During a prospective study on 179 patients who underwent cholecystectomy for gallstone disease a 69-year-old female with predialysis chronic kidney disease was operated for symptomatic gallstone. The removed gallstones were black pigment gallstones, with an irregular (as small blackberry) surface. Analysis of the stones revealed a great amount of whitlockite (Ca Mg)3 (PO4)2. Recent studies on chronic renal failure patients found that chronic uremia is associated with an increased risk of gallstones formation (22%) as it seems in women affected by primary hyperparathyroidism (30%). The presence of calcium phosphate gallstones in these patients have been never described. In conclusion, further studies could be necessary to establish the role of chronic renal failure and of primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism in gallstones formation and, in particular, if dialysis and predialysis patients have an higher risk to develop cholesterol and black pigment gallstones in particular of the "blackberry" (whitlockite) subtype.

  1. The Effect of Ash and Inorganic Pigment Fill on the Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers and Paints (ISMSE-12)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Simmons, Julie C.; de Groh, Kim K.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    Low atomic oxygen fluence (below 1x10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm) exposure of polymers and paints that have a small ash content and/or inorganic pigment fill does not cause a significant difference in erosion yield compared to unfilled (neat) polymers or paints. However, if the ash and/or inorganic pigment content is increased, the surface population of the inorganic content will begin to occupy a significant fraction of the surface area as the atomic oxygen exposure increases because the ash is not volatile and remains as a loosely attached surface layer. This results in a reduction of the flux of atomic oxygen reacting with the polymer and a reduction in the rate of erosion of the polymer remaining. This paper presents the results of ground laboratory and low Earth orbital (LEO) investigations to evaluate the fluence dependence of atomic oxygen erosion yields of polymers and paints having inorganic fill content.

  2. The photochromic effect of bismuth vanadate pigments. Part I: Synthesis, characterization and lightfastness of pigment coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tücks, A.; Beck, H. P.

    2005-04-01

    We report on investigations of the photochromic effect of BiVO 4 pigments. Emphasis is placed on an approach widely used in industrial color testing. By means of colorimetry Δ E ab*-values, which measure the perceived color difference, can be calculated from reflectance spectra of non-illuminated and illuminated pigment coatings. Pigments were prepared by either wet-chemical precipitation or solid-state reactions. Depending on the choice of starting compounds, lightfastness was found to vary significantly. Small amounts of impurity phases do not seem to affect photochromism. In contrast, impurities like Fe and Pb cause intense photochromism. The role of Fe is suggested by trace analyses, which (in case of pigments synthesized by precipitation reactions) reveal a correlation between concentration and Δ E ab*. Indications are found that other effects like pigment-lacquer interactions might also be of importance. Difference reflectance spectra turn out to vary in shape depending on the type and concentration of impurities or dopants. For BiVO 4 at least three different mechanisms of photochromism can be assumed.

  3. Photodecomposition of Pigment Yellow 74, a pigment used in tattoo inks.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanyan; Spann, Andrew P; Couch, Letha H; Gopee, Neera V; Evans, Frederick E; Churchwell, Mona I; Williams, Lee D; Doerge, Daniel R; Howard, Paul C

    2004-01-01

    Tattooing has become a popular recreational practice among younger adults over the past decade. Although some of the pigments used in tattooing have been described, very little is known concerning the toxicology, phototoxicology or photochemistry of these pigments. Seven yellow tattoo inks were obtained from commercial sources and their pigments extracted, identified and quantitatively analyzed. The monoazo compound Pigment Yellow 74 (PY74; CI 11741) was found to be the major pigment in several of the tattoo inks. Solutions of commercial PY74 in tetrahydrofuran (THF) were deoxygenated using argon gas, and the photochemical reaction products were determined after exposure to simulated solar light generated by a filtered 6.5 kW xenon arc lamp. Spectrophotometric and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses indicated that PY74 photodecomposed to multiple products that were isolated using a combination of silica chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC. Three of the major photodecomposition products were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry as N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxobutanamide (o-acetoacetanisidide), 2-(hydroxyimine)-N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxobutanamide and N,N''-bis(2-methoxyphenyl)urea. These results demonstrate that PY74 is not photostable in THF and that photochemical lysis occurs at several sites in PY74 including the hydrazone and amide groups. The data also suggest that the use of PY74 in tattoo inks could potentially result in the formation of photolysis products, resulting in toxicity at the tattoo site after irradiation with sunlight or more intense light sources.

  4. The photochromic effect of bismuth vanadate pigments. Part I: Synthesis, characterization and lightfastness of pigment coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Tuecks, A.; Beck, H.P. . E-mail: hp.beck@mx.uni-saarland.de

    2005-04-15

    We report on investigations of the photochromic effect of BiVO{sub 4} pigments. Emphasis is placed on an approach widely used in industrial color testing. By means of colorimetry {delta}E{sub ab}*-values, which measure the perceived color difference, can be calculated from reflectance spectra of non-illuminated and illuminated pigment coatings. Pigments were prepared by either wet-chemical precipitation or solid-state reactions. Depending on the choice of starting compounds, lightfastness was found to vary significantly. Small amounts of impurity phases do not seem to affect photochromism. In contrast, impurities like Fe and Pb cause intense photochromism. The role of Fe is suggested by trace analyses, which (in case of pigments synthesized by precipitation reactions) reveal a correlation between concentration and {delta}E{sub ab}*. Indications are found that other effects like pigment-lacquer interactions might also be of importance. Difference reflectance spectra turn out to vary in shape depending on the type and concentration of impurities or dopants. For BiVO{sub 4} at least three different mechanisms of photochromism can be assumed.

  5. Evaluation of pigment location in tinted soft contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji Won; Han, Sun Hyup; Kim, Sang Ah; Kim, Eung Kweon; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Kim, Tae-Im

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate efficient methods to evaluate the pigment layer location of tinted soft contact lenses and to assess various lens products on the market using those methods. Two types of tinted soft contact lenses with known pigment location embedded or back surface were manufactured and examined. Light microscopy (LM), focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) were used to examine the pigment layer. Lens surface roughness was also measured using atomic force microscopy. In the second part of the experiment, pigment location and surface roughness of a clear lens (Lens A) and eight commercially-available tinted soft contact lenses (Lens B-I) were evaluated using FIB-SEM and FD-OCT. Pigment location could be reliably determined with FIB-SEM and FD-OCT. With LM, 40% of the lens sections were broken or deformed during slide preparation. The pigment particles in Lens B were buried below the front surface and there were no significant differences of roughness between the front and back surfaces. However, all tinted lenses with surface pigment had significant difference of roughness between front and back surfaces at the pigmented area. The FIB-SEM and FD-OCT could reliably locate the pigment layer of tinted soft contact lenses. In addition, lens surface roughness was influenced by pigment layer location. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Skin and hair pigmentation variation in Island Melanesia.

    PubMed

    Norton, Heather L; Friedlaender, Jonathan S; Merriwether, D Andrew; Koki, George; Mgone, Charles S; Shriver, Mark D

    2006-06-01

    Skin and hair pigmentation are two of the most easily visible examples of human phenotypic variation. Selection-based explanations for pigmentation variation in humans have focused on the relationship between melanin and ultraviolet radiation, which is largely dependent on latitude. In this study, skin and hair pigmentation were measured as the melanin (M) index, using narrow-band reflectance spectroscopy for 1,135 individuals from Island Melanesia. Overall, the results show remarkable pigmentation variation, given the small geographic region surveyed. This variation is discussed in terms of differences between males and females, among islands, and among neighborhoods within those islands. The relationship of pigmentation to age, latitude, and longitude is also examined. We found that male skin pigmentation was significantly darker than females in 5 of 6 islands examined. Hair pigmentation showed a negative, but weak, correlation with age, while skin pigmentation showed a positive, but also weak, correlation with age. Skin and hair pigmentation varied significantly between islands as well as between neighborhoods within those islands. Bougainvilleans showed significantly darker skin than individuals from any other island considered, and are darker than a previously described African-American population. These findings are discussed in relation to prevailing hypotheses about the role of natural selection in shaping pigmentation variation in the human species, as well as the role of demographic processes such as admixture and drift in Island Melanesia. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. High-contrast enzymatic immunohistochemistry of pigmented tissues

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Sara M.; Seigel, Gail M.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, standard enzyme immunohistochemistry has been accomplished with brown (DAB, diaminobenzidine) substrate. This can become problematic in pigmented tissues, such as the retina, where brown pigment of retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells can be easily confounded with brown substrate. Although immunofluorescence detection methods can overcome this challenge, fluorescence may fade over a period of weeks, while enzyme substrates allow for more long-lasting, archival results. In this report, we will describe a high-contrast enzyme immunohistochemistry method ideal for pigmented tissues that utilizes purple (VIP) substrate. We compared brown (DAB) and purple (VIP) substrates in enzyme immunohistochemistry experiments using human retina (paraffin sections) and monkey retinal pigmented epithelial cells (frozen sections), both containing brown pigmented cells. We compared substrates using several primary antibodies against markers that can be detected in the retina, including GFAP, VEGF, CD147 (EMMPRIN), RHO (rhodopsin) and PAX6. Methyl green was used as a counterstain for paraffin sections. A side-by-side comparison between DAB and VIP immunohistochemistry showed excellent contrast between pigmented cells and the purple VIP substrate in both human retinal tissue and monkey pigmented epithelial cells for all of the markers tested. This was a marked improvement over DAB staining in pigmented cells and tissues. For both paraffin sections and frozen sections of pigmented tissues, purple VIP substrate is an excellent alternative to brown DAB substrate and non-permanent immunofluorescence methods. PMID:27660801

  8. GREEN FLUORESCENT PIGMENT ACCUMULATED BY A MUTANT OF CELLVIBRIO GILVUS.

    PubMed

    LOVE, S H; HULCHER, F H

    1964-01-01

    Love, Samuel H. (Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, N.C.), and Frank H. Hulcher. Green fluorescent pigment accumulated by a mutant of Cellvibrio gilvus. J. Bacteriol. 87:39-45. 1964.-A mutant of Cellvibrio gilvus, designated strain 139A, liberated a green, fluorescent pigment into the surrounding culture medium. A study of the factors which affected the accumulation of this pigment led to the development of a chemically defined medium which supported maximal pigment accumulation in aerated, liquid cultures. d-Glucose, glycine or l-serine, l-phenylalanine, l-proline, and l-lysine comprised the organic components of this medium. The visible absorption spectrum of the pigment showed a maximal band at 400 mmu (pH 7.0). A difference spectrum between reduced and oxidized pigment showed loss of the band at 400 mmu upon oxidation. However, a methanol-extractable, flavinelike compound occurred in the wild strain but not in the mutant. Ferric ions added to the defined medium stimulated growth, with a concomitant reduction of pigment accumulation. Pigment was formed at a maximal rate during the stationary growth phase, and the highest yield was obtained by 18 hr. Organic solvents did not extract the pigment from water solutions. One and sometimes two, compounds absorbing at 400 mmu could be eluted by ion-exchange chromatography on Cellex-P (H(+)), which was used to separate the pigment from other components in the culture supernatants so that the radioactivity of the pigment could be measured. The mutant synthesized C(14)-labeled pigment from d-glucose-U-C(14) and from each of four amino acids (glycine-1-C(14), l-phenylalanine-U-C(14), l-proline-U-C(14), and l-lysine-U-C(14). Delta-Amino-levulenic acid-4-C(14) did not contribute C(14) to the pigment.

  9. Study on the autofluorescence profiles of iris pigment epithelium and retinal pigment epithetlium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gaixia; Qu, Junle; Chen, Danni; Sun, Yiwen; Zhao, Lingling; Lin, Ziyang; Ding, Zhihua; Niu, Hanben

    2007-05-01

    Transplantation technique of retinal pigment epithelium has been noticeable in recent years and gradually put into clinical practice in treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. Generally, immunological, histochemical, and physical methods are used to study the iris pigment epithelium (IPE) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, which need complex sample preparation. In this paper, we provided a simple autofluorescence microscopy to investigate the fresh porcine IPE and RPE cells without any pretreatment. The results showed that the morphology and size of both were similar, round and about 15 μm. The main flourophore in both cells was similar, i.e. lipofuscin. In additional, the autofluorescence spectrum of RPE shifted blue after light-induced damage by laser illuminating. Because it was easier for IPE to be damaged by laser than for RPE, and the power of one scanning operation to get a full image was strong enough to damage IPE sample, we hadn't get any satisfied autofluorescence spectrum of IPE.

  10. Pigments and ultrastructures of pigment cells in xanthic sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna).

    PubMed

    Blanchard, P D; Angus, R A; Morrison, R L; Frost-Mason, S K; Sheetz, J H

    1991-12-01

    Electron micrographs of skin from xanthic (gold) sailfin mollies revealed numerous xanthophores, as well as scattered melanophores. The melanophores were seen to contain premelanosomes in various stages of development. This is consistent with the fact that xanthic mollies have been shown to be tyrosinase positive. Melanosomes in xanthic mollies appear to develop by one of two pathways: 1) from an endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicle which develops an internal lamellar framework, and 2) by fusion of multiple Golgi-derived vesicles which lack an internal lamellar framework. Analysis of the pigments in the skin of the xanthic mollies identified four colorless pteridine pigments (xanthopterin, isoxanthopterin, neopterin, and pterin) and a carotenoid with an absorbance spectrum similar to beta-carotene. It appears that, unlike some other poeciliid fishes, sailfin mollies do not use pteridine pigments for orange coloration. Rather, they appear to rely primarily on carotenoids.

  11. Origins of adult pigmentation: diversity in pigment stem cell lineages and implications for pattern evolution

    PubMed Central

    Spiewak, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Teleosts comprise about half of all vertebrate species and exhibit an extraordinary diversity of adult pigment patterns that function in shoaling, camouflage and mate choice and have played important roles in speciation. Here, we review recent studies that have identified several distinct neural crest lineages, with distinct genetic requirements, that give rise to adult pigment cells in fishes. These lineages include post-embryonic, peripheral nerve associated stem cells that generate black melanophores and iridescent iridophores, cells derived directly from embryonic neural crest cells that generate yellow-orange xanthophores, and bipotent stem cells that generate both melanophores and xanthophores. This complexity in adult chromatophore lineages has implications for our understanding of adult traits, melanoma, and the evolutionary diversification of pigment cell lineages and patterns. PMID:25421288

  12. Origins of adult pigmentation: diversity in pigment stem cell lineages and implications for pattern evolution.

    PubMed

    Parichy, David M; Spiewak, Jessica E

    2015-01-01

    Teleosts comprise about half of all vertebrate species and exhibit an extraordinary diversity of adult pigment patterns that function in shoaling, camouflage, and mate choice and have played important roles in speciation. Here, we review studies that have identified several distinct neural crest lineages, with distinct genetic requirements, that give rise to adult pigment cells in fishes. These lineages include post-embryonic, peripheral nerve-associated stem cells that generate black melanophores and iridescent iridophores, cells derived directly from embryonic neural crest cells that generate yellow-orange xanthophores, and bipotent stem cells that generate both melanophores and xanthophores. This complexity in adult chromatophore lineages has implications for our understanding of adult traits, melanoma, and the evolutionary diversification of pigment cell lineages and patterns.

  13. Ozone Sensitivity and Catalase Activity in Pigmented and Non-Pigmented Strains of Serratia Marcescens

    PubMed Central

    de Ondarza, José

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ozone exposure rapidly leads to bacterial death, making ozone an effective disinfectant in food industry and health care arena. However, microbial defenses may moderate this effect and play a role in the effective use of oxidizing agents for disinfection. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen, expressing genes differentially during infection of a human host. A better understanding of regulatory systems that control expression of Serratia’s virulence genes and defenses is therefore valuable. Objective: Here, we investigated the role of pigmentation and catalase in Serratia marcescens on survival to ozone exposure. Method: Pigmented and non-pigmented strains of Serratia marcescens were cultured to exponential or stationary phase and exposed to 5 ppm of gaseous ozone for 2.5 – 10 minutes. Survival was calculated via plate counts. Catalase activity was measured photometrically and tolerance to hydrogen peroxide was assayed by disk-diffusion. Results: Exposure of S. marcescens to 5 ppm gaseous ozone kills > 90% of cells within 10 minutes in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Although pigmented Serratia (grown at 28°C) survived ozonation better than unpigmented Serratia (grown at 35°C), non-pigmented mutant strains of Serratia had similar ozone survival rates, catalase activity and H2O2 tolerance as wild type strains. Rather, ozone survival and catalase activity were elevated in 6 hour cultures compared to 48 hour cultures. Conclusion: Our studies did not bear out a role for prodigiosin in ozone survival. Rather, induction of oxidative stress responses during exponential growth increased both catalase activity and ozone survival in both pigmented and unpigmented S. marcescens. PMID:28567147

  14. Fermentation and quality of yellow pigments from golden brown rice solid culture by a selected Monascus mutant.

    PubMed

    Yongsmith, Busaba; Thongpradis, Panida; Klinsupa, Worawan; Chantrapornchai, Withida; Haruthaithanasan, Vichai

    2013-10-01

    A single peak (λmax 370) yellow pigment-producing mutant derived from Monascus sp. TISTR 3179 was used for the pigment production in solid rice culture. Various factors affecting yellow tones were investigated. Hom-mali rice variety was the best amongst five Thai local varieties used for fungus culture. It was also better than corn, mungbean, soybean, potato, sweet potato, or cassava tubers. The moisture content and temperature were the key environmental factors affecting the color tones of creamy, tangerine, and golden brown rice solid cultures. The golden brown rice culture gave the highest yellow pigment concentration. Under an optimum room temperature of 28-32 °C, an initial moisture content of 42 %, and 7-day-old inoculum size of 2 % (v/w) the maximum yield at 2,224.63 A370U/gdw of yellow pigment was produced. A mellow yellow powder at 550 A370U/gdw could be obtained using spray-drying techniques. The powder had a moisture content of 5.15 %, a water activity value of 0.398, a hue angle of 73.70 ° (yellowish orange), high lightness (L) of 74.63, color saturation (C) of 28.97, a neutral pH of 7.42, 0.12 % acidity and solubility of 0.211 g/10 ml. It was noteworthy that the Chinese fresh noodle with spray-dried yellow powder showed no discoloration during 8-day storage.

  15. Inactivation of Pmel alters melanosome shape but has only a subtle effect on visible pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Anders R; Watt, Brenda; Fard, Shahrzad Shirazi; Tenza, Danièle; Mannström, Paula; Narfström, Kristina; Ekesten, Björn; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Larsson, Jimmy; Ulfendahl, Mats; Kullander, Klas; Raposo, Graça; Kerje, Susanne; Hallböök, Finn; Marks, Michael S; Andersson, Leif

    2011-09-01

    PMEL is an amyloidogenic protein that appears to be exclusively expressed in pigment cells and forms intralumenal fibrils within early stage melanosomes upon which eumelanins deposit in later stages. PMEL is well conserved among vertebrates, and allelic variants in several species are associated with reduced levels of eumelanin in epidermal tissues. However, in most of these cases it is not clear whether the allelic variants reflect gain-of-function or loss-of-function, and no complete PMEL loss-of-function has been reported in a mammal. Here, we have created a mouse line in which the Pmel gene has been inactivated (Pmel⁻/⁻). These mice are fully viable, fertile, and display no obvious developmental defects. Melanosomes within Pmel⁻/⁻ melanocytes are spherical in contrast to the oblong shape present in wild-type animals. This feature was documented in primary cultures of skin-derived melanocytes as well as in retinal pigment epithelium cells and in uveal melanocytes. Inactivation of Pmel has only a mild effect on the coat color phenotype in four different genetic backgrounds, with the clearest effect in mice also carrying the brown/Tyrp1 mutation. This phenotype, which is similar to that observed with the spontaneous silver mutation in mice, strongly suggests that other previously described alleles in vertebrates with more striking effects on pigmentation are dominant-negative mutations. Despite a mild effect on visible pigmentation, inactivation of Pmel led to a substantial reduction in eumelanin content in hair, which demonstrates that PMEL has a critical role for maintaining efficient epidermal pigmentation.

  16. Genetics of flavonoid, carotenoid, and chlorophyll pigments in melon fruit rinds.

    PubMed

    Tadmor, Yaakov; Burger, Joseph; Yaakov, Ilan; Feder, Ari; Libhaber, Smadar E; Portnoy, Vitaly; Meir, Ayala; Tzuri, Galil; Sa'ar, Uzi; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Abeliovich, Hagai; Schaffer, Arthur A; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Katzir, Nurit

    2010-10-13

    External color has profound effects on acceptability of agricultural products by consumers. Carotenoids and chlorophylls are known to be the major pigments of melon (Cucumis melo L.) rinds. Flavonoids (especially chalcones and anthocyanins) are also prominent in other fruits but have not been reported to occur in melons fruit. We analyzed the pigments accumulating in rinds of different melon genotypes during fruit development. We found that melon rind color is based on different combinations of chlorophyll, carotenoids, and flavonoids according to the cultivar tested and their ratios changed during fruit maturation. Moreover, in "canary yellow" type melons, naringenin chalcone, a yellow flavonoid pigment previously unknown to occur in melons, has been identified as the major fruit colorant in mature rinds. Naringenin chalcone is also prominent in other melon types, occurring together with carotenoids (mainly β-carotene) and chlorophyll. Both chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments segregate jointly in an F(2) population originating from a cross between a yellow canary line and a line with green rind. In contrast, the content of naringenin chalcone segregates as a monogenic trait independently to carotenoids and chlorophyll. Transcription patterns of key structural phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes were monitored in attempts to explain naringenin chalcone accumulation in melon rinds. The transcript levels of CHI were low in both parental lines, but C4H, C4L, and CHS transcripts were upregulated in "Noy Amid", the parental line that accumulates naringenin chalcone. Our results indicate that naringenin chalcone accumulates independently from carotenoids and chlorophyll pigments in melon rinds and gives an insight into the molecular mechanism for the accumulation of naringenin chalcone in melon rinds.

  17. Inactivation of Pmel Alters Melanosome Shape But Has Only a Subtle Effect on Visible Pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Hellström, Anders R.; Watt, Brenda; Fard, Shahrzad Shirazi; Tenza, Danièle; Mannström, Paula; Narfström, Kristina; Ekesten, Björn; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Larsson, Jimmy; Ulfendahl, Mats; Kullander, Klas; Raposo, Graça; Kerje, Susanne; Hallböök, Finn; Marks, Michael S.; Andersson, Leif

    2011-01-01

    PMEL is an amyloidogenic protein that appears to be exclusively expressed in pigment cells and forms intralumenal fibrils within early stage melanosomes upon which eumelanins deposit in later stages. PMEL is well conserved among vertebrates, and allelic variants in several species are associated with reduced levels of eumelanin in epidermal tissues. However, in most of these cases it is not clear whether the allelic variants reflect gain-of-function or loss-of-function, and no complete PMEL loss-of-function has been reported in a mammal. Here, we have created a mouse line in which the Pmel gene has been inactivated (Pmel −/−). These mice are fully viable, fertile, and display no obvious developmental defects. Melanosomes within Pmel −/− melanocytes are spherical in contrast to the oblong shape present in wild-type animals. This feature was documented in primary cultures of skin-derived melanocytes as well as in retinal pigment epithelium cells and in uveal melanocytes. Inactivation of Pmel has only a mild effect on the coat color phenotype in four different genetic backgrounds, with the clearest effect in mice also carrying the brown/Tyrp1 mutation. This phenotype, which is similar to that observed with the spontaneous silver mutation in mice, strongly suggests that other previously described alleles in vertebrates with more striking effects on pigmentation are dominant-negative mutations. Despite a mild effect on visible pigmentation, inactivation of Pmel led to a substantial reduction in eumelanin content in hair, which demonstrates that PMEL has a critical role for maintaining efficient epidermal pigmentation. PMID:21949658

  18. Effects of exogenous thyroid hormones on visual pigment composition in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).

    PubMed

    Temple, Shelby E; Ramsden, Samuel D; Haimberger, Theodore J; Veldhoen, Kathy M; Veldhoen, Nik J; Carter, Nicolette L; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Hawryshyn, Craig W

    2008-07-01

    The role of exogenous thyroid hormone on visual pigment content of rod and cone photoreceptors was investigated in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Coho vary the ratio of vitamin A1- and A2-based visual pigments in their eyes. This variability potentially alters spectral sensitivity and thermal stability of the visual pigments. We tested whether the direction of shift in the vitamin A1/A2 ratio, resulting from application of exogenous thyroid hormone, varied in fish of different ages and held under different environmental conditions. Changes in the vitamin A1/A2 visual pigment ratio were estimated by measuring the change in maximum absorbance (lambda max) of rods using microspectrophotometry (MSP). Exogenous thyroid hormone resulted in a long-wavelength shift in rod, middle-wavelength-sensitive (MWS) and long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cone photoreceptors. Rod and LWS cone lambda max values increased, consistent with an increase in vitamin A2. MWS cone lambda max values increased more than predicted for a change in the vitamin A1/A2 ratio. To account for this shift, we tested for the expression of multiple RH2 opsin subtypes. We isolated and sequenced a novel RH2 opsin subtype, which had 48 amino acid differences from the previously sequenced coho RH2 opsin. A substitution of glutamate for glutamine at position 122 could partially account for the greater than predicted shift in MWS cone lambda max values. Our findings fit the hypothesis that a variable vitamin A1/A2 ratio provides seasonality in spectral tuning and/or improved thermal stability of visual pigments in the face of seasonal environmental changes, and that multiple RH2 opsin subtypes can provide flexibility in spectral tuning associated with migration-metamorphic events.

  19. Melanin photosensitizes ultraviolet light (UVC) DNA damage in pigmented cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huselton, C.A.; Hill, H.Z. )

    1990-01-01

    Melanins, pigments of photoprotection and camouflage, are very photoreactive and can both absorb and emit active oxygen species. Nevertheless, black skinned individuals rarely develop skin cancer and melanin is assumed to act as a solar screen. Since DNA is the target for solar carcinogenesis, the effect of melanin on Ultraviolet (UV)-induced thymine lesions was examined in mouse melanoma and carcinoma cells that varied in melanin content. Cells prelabeled with 14C-dThd were irradiated with UVC; DNA was isolated, purified, degraded to bases by acid hydrolysis and analyzed by HPLC. Thymine dimers were detected in all of the extracts of irradiated cells. Melanotic and hypomelanotic but not mammary carcinoma cell DNA from irradiated cells contained hydrophilic thymine derivatives. The quantity of these damaged bases was a function of both the UVC dose and the cellular melanin content. One such derivative was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy as thymine glycol. The other appears to be derived from thymine glycol by further oxidation during acid hydrolysis of the DNA. The finding of oxidative DNA damage in melanin-containing cells suggests that melanin may be implicated in the etiology of caucasian skin cancer, particularly melanoma. Furthermore, the projected decrease in stratospheric ozone could impact in an unanticipated deleterious manner on dark-skinned individuals.

  20. Melanin photosensitizes ultraviolet light (UVC) DNA damage in pigmented cells.

    PubMed

    Huselton, C A; Hill, H Z

    1990-01-01

    Melanins, pigments of photoprotection and camouflage, are very photoreactive and can both absorb and emit active oxygen species. Nevertheless, black skinned individuals rarely develop skin cancer and melanin is assumed to act as a solar screen. Since DNA is the target for solar carcinogenesis, the effect of melanin on Ultraviolet (UV)-induced thymine lesions was examined in mouse melanoma and carcinoma cells that varied in melanin content. Cells prelabeled with 14C-dThd were irradiated with UVC; DNA was isolated, purified, degraded to bases by acid hydrolysis and analyzed by HPLC. Thymine dimers were detected in all of the extracts of irradiated cells. Melanotic and hypomelanotic but not mammary carcinoma cell DNA from irradiated cells contained hydrophilic thymine derivatives. The quantity of these damaged bases was a function of both the UVC dose and the cellular melanin content. One such derivative was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy as thymine glycol. The other appears to be derived from thymine glycol by further oxidation during acid hydrolysis of the DNA. The finding of oxidative DNA damage in melanin-containing cells suggests that melanin may be implicated in the etiology of caucasian skin cancer, particularly melanoma. Furthermore, the projected decrease in stratospheric ozone could impact in an unanticipated deleterious manner on dark-skinned individuals.

  1. In vivo measurement of skin erythema and pigmentation: new means of implementation of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with a commercial instrument.

    PubMed

    Stamatas, G N; Zmudzka, B Z; Kollias, N; Beer, J Z

    2008-09-01

    Various physical, chemical and biological insults, including exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, cause erythema and change in pigmentation in human skin. These reactions provide an important measure of the cutaneous response to the insult. To present a new implementation of a method for objective in vivo measurement of erythema and pigmentation. The method is based on acquisition of reflectance spectra in the visible range using a commercially available spectrophotometer. The probe of this instrument incorporates an integrating sphere that captures the light remitted from the skin in a wide range of angles. We corrected the acquired reflectance spectra for the contribution of specular reflections by an amount given by the Fresnel equation and verified this correction experimentally. This correction is particularly important when measurements are performed on heavily pigmented skin. The corrected reflectance spectra are then transformed into absorbance spectra. To analyse these spectra, we developed an algorithm which can be used to calculate apparent concentrations of oxyhaemoglobin, deoxyhaemoglobin and melanin. This method was tested in clinical studies of skin reactions induced by exposure to UV radiation. These experiments involved three groups of subjects with progressively darker complexion (constitutive pigmentation). Each group consisted of 10 subjects. Erythema was measured 1 day after UV exposure, and pigmentation (melanin content) 1 week later. Results Distinct apparent absorbance spectra were obtained for dark, intermediate and fair skin. There was good agreement between reconstructed spectra and experimental data at relevant wavelengths. Difference absorption spectra were able to show the dose dependence of UV-induced responses, and erythema and pigmentation values obtained by the spectroscopic method showed good correlation with those derived by subjective visual grading. The results demonstrate that the presented methodology provides an objective

  2. Mapping pigment distribution in mud samples through hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrübeoglu, Mehrube; Nicula, Cosmina; Trombley, Christopher; Smith, Shane W.; Smith, Dustin K.; Shanks, Elizabeth S.; Zimba, Paul V.

    2015-09-01

    Mud samples collected from bodies of water reveal information about the distribution of microorganisms in the local sediments. Hyperspectral imaging has been investigated as a technology to identify phototropic organisms living on sediments collected from the Texas Coastal Bend area based on their spectral pigment profiles and spatial arrangement. The top pigment profiles identified through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) have been correlated with spectral signatures extracted from the hyperspectral data of mud using fast Fourier transform (FFT). Spatial distributions have also been investigated using 2D hyperspectral image processing. 2D pigment distribution maps have been created based on the correlation with pigment profiles in the FFT domain. Among the tested pigments, the results show match among four out of five pigment distribution trends between HPLC and hyperspectral data analysis. Differences are attributed mainly to the difference between area and volume of scale between the HPLC analysis and area covered by hyperspectral imaging.

  3. Fuzzy logic for identifying pigments studied by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Pablo Manuel; Ferré, Joan; Ruisánchez, Itziar; Andrikopoulos, Konstantinos S

    2004-07-01

    Fuzzy logic and linguistic variables are used for the automatic interpretation of Raman spectra obtained from pigments found in cultural heritage art objects. Featured bands are extracted from a Raman spectrum of a reference pigment and the methodology for constructing the library is illustrated. An unknown spectrum is then interpreted automatically and a process for identifying the corresponding pigment is described. A reference library consisting of 32 pigments was built and the effectiveness of the algorithm was tested by the Raman spectroscopic analysis of 10 pigments that are known to have been extensively used in Byzantine hagiography. Binary mixtures of these pigments were also tested. The algorithm's level of identification was good even though extra peaks, noise, and background signals were encountered in the spectra.

  4. Characterization of Sorolla's gouache pigments by means of spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán, Clodoaldo; Juanes, David; Ferrazza, Livio; Carballo, Jorgelina

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the Joaquín Sorolla's gouache sketches for the oil on canvas series "Vision of Spain" commissioned by A. M. Huntington to decorate the library of the Hispanic Society of America in New York. The analyses were focused on the identification of the elemental composition of the gouache pigments by means of portable EDXRF spectrometry in a non-destructive mode. Additionally, SEM-EDX and FTIR analyses of a selected set of micro-samples were carried out to identify completely the pigments, the paint technique and the binding media. The obtained results have confirmed the identification of lead and zinc white, vermillion, earth pigments, ochre, zinc yellow, chrome yellow, ultramarine, Prussian blue, chromium based and copper-arsenic based green pigments, bone black and carbon based black pigments, and the use of gum arabic as binding media in the gouache pigments.

  5. Oral pigmented lesions: Clinicopathologic features and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    da Silva-Jorge, Rogério; Jorge, Jacks; Lopes, Márcio A.; Vargas, Pablo A.

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of pigmented lesions of the oral cavity and perioral tissues is challenging. Even though epidemiology may be of some help in orientating the clinician and even though some lesions may confidently be diagnosed on clinical grounds alone, the definitive diagnosis usually requires histopathologic evaluation. Oral pigmentation can be physiological or pathological, and exogenous or endogenous. Color, location, distribution, and duration as well as drugs use, family history, and change in pattern are important for the differential diagnosis. Dark or black pigmented lesions can be focal, multifocal or diffuse macules, including entities such as racial pigmentation, melanotic macule, melanocytic nevus, blue nevus, smoker’s melanosis, oral melanoacanthoma, pigmentation by foreign bodies or induced by drugs, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Addison´s disease and oral melanoma. The aim of this review is to present the main oral black lesions contributing to better approach of the patients. Key words:Pigmentation, melanin, oral, diagnosis, management. PMID:22549672

  6. Analytical Raman spectroscopic discrimination between yellow pigments of the Renaissance.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M

    2011-10-01

    The Renaissance represented a major advance in painting techniques, subject matter, artistic style and the use of pigments and pigment mixtures. However, most pigments in general use were still mineral-based as most organic dyes were believed to be fugitive; the historical study of artists' palettes and recipes has assumed importance for the attribution of art works to the Renaissance period. Although the application of diagnostic elemental and molecular spectroscopic techniques play vital and complementary roles in the analysis of art works, elemental techniques alone cannot definitively provide the data needed for pigment identification. The advantages and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for the definitive diagnostic characterisation of yellow pigments that were in use during the Renaissance is demonstrated here in consideration of heavy metal oxides and sulphides; these data will be compared with those obtained from analyses of synthetic yellow pigments that were available during the eighteenth and nineteenth Centuries which could have been used in unrecorded restorations of Renaissance paintings.

  7. Graph-based pigment network detection in skin images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, M.; Razmara, M.; Ester, M.; Lee, T. K.; Atkins, M. S.

    2010-03-01

    Detecting pigmented network is a crucial step for melanoma diagnosis. In this paper, we present a novel graphbased pigment network detection method that can find and visualize round structures belonging to the pigment network. After finding sharp changes of the luminance image by an edge detection function, the resulting binary image is converted to a graph, and then all cyclic sub-graphs are detected. Theses cycles represent meshes that belong to the pigment network. Then, we create a new graph of the cyclic structures based on their distance. According to the density ratio of the new graph of the pigment network, the image is classified as "Absent" or "Present". Being Present means that a pigment network is detected in the skin lesion. Using this approach, we achieved an accuracy of 92.6% on five hundred unseen images.

  8. Reconstructing in-vivo reflectance spectrum of pigmented skin lesion by Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuang; He, Qingli; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2012-03-01

    In dermatology applications, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been extensively investigated as a promising tool for the noninvasive method to distinguish melanoma from benign pigmented skin lesion (nevus), which is concentrated with the skin chromophores like melanin and hemoglobin. We carried out a theoretical study to examine melanin distribution in human skin tissue and establish a practical optical model for further pigmented skin investigation. The theoretical simulation was using junctional nevus as an example. A multiple layer skin optical model was developed on established anatomy structures of skin, the published optical parameters of different skin layers, blood and melanin. Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the interaction between excitation light and skin tissue and rebuild the diffuse reflectance process from skin tissue. A testified methodology was adopted to determine melanin contents in human skin based on in vivo diffuse reflectance spectra. The rebuild diffuse reflectance spectra were investigated by adding melanin into different layers of the theoretical model. One of in vivo reflectance spectra from Junctional nevi and their surrounding normal skin was studied by compare the ratio between nevus and normal skin tissue in both the experimental and simulated diffuse reflectance spectra. The simulation result showed a good agreement with our clinical measurements, which indicated that our research method, including the spectral ratio method, skin optical model and modifying the melanin content in the model, could be applied in further theoretical simulation of pigmented skin lesions.

  9. Reconstructing in-vivo reflectance spectrum of pigmented skin lesion by Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuang; He, Qingli; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2011-11-01

    In dermatology applications, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been extensively investigated as a promising tool for the noninvasive method to distinguish melanoma from benign pigmented skin lesion (nevus), which is concentrated with the skin chromophores like melanin and hemoglobin. We carried out a theoretical study to examine melanin distribution in human skin tissue and establish a practical optical model for further pigmented skin investigation. The theoretical simulation was using junctional nevus as an example. A multiple layer skin optical model was developed on established anatomy structures of skin, the published optical parameters of different skin layers, blood and melanin. Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the interaction between excitation light and skin tissue and rebuild the diffuse reflectance process from skin tissue. A testified methodology was adopted to determine melanin contents in human skin based on in vivo diffuse reflectance spectra. The rebuild diffuse reflectance spectra were investigated by adding melanin into different layers of the theoretical model. One of in vivo reflectance spectra from Junctional nevi and their surrounding normal skin was studied by compare the ratio between nevus and normal skin tissue in both the experimental and simulated diffuse reflectance spectra. The simulation result showed a good agreement with our clinical measurements, which indicated that our research method, including the spectral ratio method, skin optical model and modifying the melanin content in the model, could be applied in further theoretical simulation of pigmented skin lesions.

  10. [Morphology of hair pigmentation in wild red foxes, silver foxes, and their hybrids].

    PubMed

    Prasolova, L A; Trut, L N; Vsevolodov, E B; Latypov, I F

    2002-04-01

    The effects of dominant allele Ar of locus Agouti on the morphology of hair pigmentation were described in foxes. The Ar allele was shown to determine the type of melanin and its content in hair with no effect on the morphology of pigment granules and their distribution throughout a hair. Using the method of electron spin resonance (ESR), the types of melanin (eumelanin and pheomelanin) and their content in the hair of red (ArArEE) and silver (aaEE) foxes and their hybrids (AraEE) were determined. In silver foxes, only one type of melanin (eumelanin) was found. In red foxes and their hybrids (which are phenotypically similar but darker than red foxes), both types of melanin (eu- and pheomelanin) were found. The highest melanin content was detected in the coat of silver foxes. In the hybrids, the total melanin content was lower than in silver foxes, but significantly higher than in red foxes. In red foxes, the contribution of pheomelanin to the total hair melanin content was twice as large as in the hybrids.

  11. Long-term changes in pigmentation of arctic Daphnia provide potential for reconstructing aquatic UV exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevalainen, Liisa; Rantala, Marttiina V.; Luoto, Tomi P.; Ojala, Antti E. K.; Rautio, Milla

    2016-07-01

    Despite the biologically damaging impacts of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) in nature, little is known about its natural variability, forcing mechanisms, and long-term effects on ecosystems and organisms. Arctic zooplankton, for example the aquatic keystone genus Daphnia (Crustacea, Cladocera) responds to biologically damaging UV by utilizing photoprotective strategies, including pigmentation. We examined the preservation and content of UV-screening pigments in fossil Daphnia remains (ephippia) in two arctic lake sediment cores from Cornwallis Island (Lake R1), Canada, and Spitsbergen (Lake Fugledammen), Svalbard. The aims were to document changes in the degree of UV-protective pigmentation throughout the past centuries, elucidate the adaptive responses of zooplankton to long-term variations in UV exposure, and estimate the potential of fossil zooplankton pigments in reconstructing aquatic UV regimes. The spectroscopic absorbance measurements of fossil Daphnia ephippia under UV (280-400 nm) and visible light (400-700 nm) spectral ranges indicated that melanin (absorbance maxima at UV wavebands 280-350 nm) and carotenoids (absorbance maxima at 400-450 nm) pigments were preserved in the ephippia in both sediment cores. Downcore measurements of the most important UV-protective pigment melanin (absorbance measured at 305 and 340 nm) showed marked long-term variations in the degree of melanisation. These variations likely represented long-term trends in aquatic UV exposure and were positively related with solar radiation intensity. The corresponding trends in melanisation and solar activity were disrupted at the turn of the 20th century in R1, but remained as strong in Fugledammen. The reversed trends in the R1 core were simultaneous with a significant aquatic community reorganization taking place in the lake, suggesting that recent environmental changes, likely related to climate warming had a local effect on pigmentation strategies. This time horizon is also

  12. Atmospheric effects in the remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Clark, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    The accuracy with which relevant atmospheric parameters must be estimated to derive photoplankton pigment concentrations of a given accuracy, from measurements of the ocean's apparent spectral radiance at satellite altitudes, is examined. A phytoplankton pigment algorithm is developed which relates the pigment concentration (c) to the three ratios of upwelling radiance just beneath the sea surface which can be formed from wavelengths (lambda) 440, 520 and 550 nm.

  13. BASIS FOR ENHANCED BARRIER FUNCTION OF PIGMENTED SKIN

    PubMed Central

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Lin, Tzu-Kai; Santiago, Juan Luis; Celli, Anna; Zhong, Lily; Huang, Zhi-Ming; Roelandt, Truus; Hupe, Melanie; Sundberg, John P.; Silva, Kathleen A.; Crumrine, Debra; Martin-Ezquerra, Gemma; Trullas, Carles; Sun, Richard; Wakefield, Joan S.; Wei, Maria L.; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Mauro, Theodora M.; Elias, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans with darkly-pigmented skin display superior permeability barrier function in comparison to humans with lightly-pigmented skin. The reduced pH of the stratum corneum (SC) of darkly-pigmented skin could account for enhanced function, because acidifying lightly-pigmented human SC resets barrier function to darkly-pigmented levels. In SKH1 (non-pigmented) vs. SKH2/J (pigmented) hairless mice, we evaluated how a pigment-dependent reduction in pH could influence epidermal barrier function. Permeability barrier homeostasis is enhanced in SKH2/J vs. SKH1 mice, correlating with a reduced pH in the lower SC that co-localizes with the extrusion of melanin granules. Darkly-pigmented human epidermis also shows substantial melanin extrusion in the outer epidermis. Both acute barrier disruption and topical basic pH challenges accelerate re-acidification of SKH2/J (but not SKH1) SC, while inducing melanin extrusion. SKH2/J mice also display enhanced expression of the SC acidifying enzyme, secretory phospholipase A2f (sPLA2f). Enhanced barrier function of SKH2/J mice could be attributed to enhanced activity of two acidic pH-dependent, ceramide-generating enzymes, β-glucocerebrosidase and acidic sphingomyelinase, leading to accelerated maturation of SC lamellar bilayers. Finally, organotypic cultures of darkly-pigmented-bearing human keratinocytes display enhanced barrier function in comparison to lightly-pigmented cultures. Together, these results suggest that the superior barrier function of pigmented epidermis can be largely attributed to the pH-lowering impact of melanin persistence/extrusion and enhanced sPLA2f expression. PMID:24732399

  14. Chlorpromazine-induced skin pigmentation with corneal and lens opacities.

    PubMed

    Huff, Laura S; Prado, Renata; Pederson, Jon F; Dunnick, Cory A; Lucas, Lisa M

    2014-05-01

    Chlorpromazine is known to cause abnormal oculocutaneous pigmentation in sun-exposed areas. We present the case of a psychiatric patient who developed blue-gray pigmentation of the skin as well as corneal and lens opacities following 7 years of chlorpromazine treatment. Ten months after discontinuation of chlorpromazine, the skin discoloration and anterior lens deposits showed partial improvement, but the corneal deposits remained unchanged. A review of the literature on the reversibility of chlorpromazine-induced abnormal oculocutaneous pigmentation also is provided.

  15. Production of luteoskyrin, a hepatotoxic pigment, by Penicillium islandicum Sopp.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Y; Ishikawa, I

    1969-09-01

    Various factors affecting the yields of luteoskyrin, a hepatotoxic mycotoxin, and related pigments in the liquid medium were studied. Maximal yields of luteoskyrin (0.13% by isolation) and of other pigments were attained in the late phase of the cultivation. The yield of the pigment was increased by supplying malt extract, malonic acid, glutamic acid, or asparagine. A useful material for preparation of (14)C-labeled luteoskyrin was 2-(14)C-malonate.

  16. Atmospheric effects in the remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Clark, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    The accuracy with which relevant atmospheric parameters must be estimated to derive photoplankton pigment concentrations of a given accuracy, from measurements of the ocean's apparent spectral radiance at satellite altitudes, is examined. A phytoplankton pigment algorithm is developed which relates the pigment concentration (c) to the three ratios of upwelling radiance just beneath the sea surface which can be formed from wavelengths (lambda) 440, 520 and 550 nm.

  17. Aging of the Hair Follicle Pigmentation System

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2009-01-01

    Skin and hair phenotypes are powerful cues in human communication. They impart much information, not least about our racial, ethnic, health, gender and age status. In the case of the latter parameter, we experience significant change in pigmentation in our journey from birth to puberty and through to young adulthood, middle age and beyond. The hair follicle pigmentary unit is perhaps one of our most visible, accessible and potent aging sensors, with marked dilution of pigment intensity occurring long before even subtle changes are seen in the epidermis. This dichotomy is of interest as both skin compartments contain melanocyte subpopulations of similar embryologic (i.e., neural crest) origin. Research groups are actively pursuing the study of the differential aging of melanocytes in the hair bulb versus the epidermis and in particular are examining whether this is in part linked to the stringent coupling of follicular melanocytes to the hair growth cycle. Whether some follicular melanocyte subpopulations are affected, like epidermal melanocytes, by UV irradiation is not yet clear. A particular target of research into hair graying or canities is the nature of the melanocyte stem compartment and whether this is depleted due to reactive oxygen species-associated damage, coupled with an impaired antioxidant status, and a failure of melanocyte stem cell renewal. Over the last few years, we and others have developed advanced in vitro models and assay systems for isolated hair follicle melanocytes and for intact anagen hair follicle organ culture which may provide research tools to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle pigmentation. Long term, it may be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some of these aging-associated changes in the hair follicle that impinge particularly on the melanocyte populations. PMID:20927229

  18. Pigmented villonodular synovitis: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Murphey, Mark D; Rhee, John H; Lewis, Rachel B; Fanburg-Smith, Julie C; Flemming, Donald J; Walker, Eric A

    2008-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) represents an uncommon benign neoplastic process that may involve the synovium of the joint diffusely or focally (PVNS) or that may occur extraarticularly in a bursa (pigmented villonodular bursitis [PVNB]) or tendon sheath (pigmented villonodular tenosynovitis [PVNTS]). Pathologic specimens of the hypertrophic synovium may appear villous, nodular, or villonodular, and hemosiderin deposition, often prominent, is seen in most cases. The knee, followed by the hip, is the most common location for PVNS or PVNB, whereas PVNTS occurs most often in the hand and foot. PVNTS is also referred to as giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCTTS). PVNTS is the most common form of this disease by a ratio of approximately 3:1. Radiographs reveal nonspecific features of a joint effusion in PVNS, a focal soft-tissue mass in PVNB or PVNTS, or a normal appearance. Extrinsic erosion of bone (on both sides of the joint) may also be seen and is most frequent with intraarticular involvement of the hip (>90% of cases). Cross-sectional imaging reveals diffuse involvement of the synovium (PVNS), an intimate relationship to the tendon (PVTNS), or a typical bursal location (PVNB), findings that suggest the diagnosis. However, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of prominent low signal intensity (seen with T2-weighting) and "blooming" artifact from the hemosiderin (seen with gradient-echo sequences) are nearly pathognomonic of this diagnosis. In addition, MR imaging is optimal for evaluating lesion extent. This information is crucial to guide treatment and to achieve complete surgical resection. Recurrence is more common with diffuse intraarticular disease and is difficult to distinguish, both pathologically and radiologically, from the rare complication of malignant PVNS. Recognizing the appearances of the various types of PVNS, which reflect their pathologic characteristics, improves radiologic assessment and is important for optimal patient

  19. The Bisretinoids of Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Sparrow, Janet R.; Gregory-Roberts, Emily; Yamamoto, Kazunori; Blonska, Anna; Ghosh, Shanti Kaligotla; Ueda, Keiko; Zhou, Jilin

    2012-01-01

    The retina exhibits an inherent autofluorescence that is imaged ophthalmoscopically as fundus autofluorescence. In clinical settings, fundus autofluorescence examination aids in the diagnosis and follow-up of many retinal disorders. Fundus autofluorescence originates from the complex mixture of bisretinoid fluorophores that are amassed by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells as lipofuscin. Unlike the lipofuscin found in other cell-types, this material does not form as a result of oxidative stress. Rather, the formation is attributable to non-enzymatic reactions of vitamin A aldehyde in photoreceptor cells; transfer to RPE occurs upon phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments. These fluorescent pigments accumulate even in healthy photoreceptor cells and are generated as a consequence of the light capturing function of the cells. Nevertheless, the formation of this material is accelerated in some retinal disorders including recessive Stargardt disease and ELOVL-4-related retinal degeneration. As such, these bisretinoid side-products are implicated in the disease processes that threaten vision. In this article, we review our current understanding of the composition of RPE lipofuscin, the structural characteristics of the various bisretinoids, their related spectroscopic features and the biosynthetic pathways by which they form. We will revisit factors known to influence the extent of the accumulation and therapeutic strategies being used to limit bisretinoid formation. Given their origin from vitamin A aldehyde, an isomer of the visual pigment chromophore, it is not surprising that the bisretinoids of retina are light sensitive molecules. Accordingly, we will discuss recent findings that implicate the photodegradation of bisretinoid in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration. PMID:22209824

  20. Biomass and pigments production in photosynthetic bacteria wastewater treatment: Effects of photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Peng, Meng

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at enhancing the bacterial biomass and pigments production in together with pollution removal in photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) wastewater treatment via using different photoperiods. Different light/dark cycles and light/dark cycle frequencies were examined. Results showed that PSB had the highest biomass production, COD removal and biomass yield, and light energy efficiency with light/dark cycle of 2h/1h. The corresponding biomass, COD removal and biomass yield reached 2068mg/L, 90.3%, and 0.38mg-biomass/mg-COD-removal, respectively. PSB showed higher biomass production and biomass yield with higher light/dark cycle frequency. Mechanism analysis showed within a light/dark cycle from 1h/2h to 2h/1h, the carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll production increased with an increase in light/dark cycle. Moreover, the pigment contents were much higher with lower frequency of 2-4 times/d.

  1. Was skin cancer a selective force for black pigmentation in early hominin evolution?

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, Mel

    2014-01-01

    Melanin provides a crucial filter for solar UV radiation and its genetically determined variation influences both skin pigmentation and risk of cancer. Genetic evidence suggests that the acquisition of a highly stable melanocortin 1 receptor allele promoting black pigmentation arose around the time of savannah colonization by hominins at some 1–2 Ma. The adaptive significance of dark skin is generally believed to be protection from UV damage but the pathologies that might have had a deleterious impact on survival and/or reproductive fitness, though much debated, are uncertain. Here, I suggest that data on age-associated cancer incidence and lethality in albinos living at low latitudes in both Africa and Central America support the contention that skin cancer could have provided a potent selective force for the emergence of black skin in early hominins. PMID:24573849

  2. Was skin cancer a selective force for black pigmentation in early hominin evolution?

    PubMed

    Greaves, Mel

    2014-04-22

    Melanin provides a crucial filter for solar UV radiation and its genetically determined variation influences both skin pigmentation and risk of cancer. Genetic evidence suggests that the acquisition of a highly stable melanocortin 1 receptor allele promoting black pigmentation arose around the time of savannah colonization by hominins at some 1-2 Ma. The adaptive significance of dark skin is generally believed to be protection from UV damage but the pathologies that might have had a deleterious impact on survival and/or reproductive fitness, though much debated, are uncertain. Here, I suggest that data on age-associated cancer incidence and lethality in albinos living at low latitudes in both Africa and Central America support the contention that skin cancer could have provided a potent selective force for the emergence of black skin in early hominins.

  3. Marginal differentiation between the sexual and general carotenoid pigmentation of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) and a possible visual explanation.

    PubMed

    Hudon, Jocelyn; Grether, Gregory F; Millie, David F

    2003-01-01

    We present the first detailed analysis of carotenoid pigmentation of the integument of guppies (Poecilia reticulata Peters), quantifying variation in carotenoid content and composition of wild guppies from three drainages on Trinidad (1) between the sexual and general pigmentation of males, (2) between the sexes, and (3) geographically in relation to carotenoid availability. We report that the carotenoid pigments in the integument of guppies are predominantly esters of tunaxanthin. The peak wavelength of carotenoids in the orange spots of males lay only ca. 2.8 nm higher than that of pigments outside of the orange spots, and the peak wavelength of carotenoids in the male whole integument does not differ from that in the female whole integument. Carotenoid composition of the general integument of females and the non-orange spot fraction of males, but not of the orange spot fraction of males, varied with diet, correlating with the ratio beta-carotene to lutein in the different streams. Male guppies deposit higher concentrations of carotenoids in their orange spots than in the rest of the integument (five to nine times higher), but not at the expense of the general integument, which was similarly endowed as the general integument of females, even in carotenoid-poor streams. Presumably males absorb/retain more pigments than females. Photoreceptor-based simulations suggest that tunaxanthin provides both greater brightness and chroma than would 4-keto-carotenoids such as astaxanthin.

  4. Sedimentary pigments and nature of organic matter within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Eastern Arabian Sea (Indian margin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasiq, K. T.; Kurian, S.; Karapurkar, S. G.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2016-07-01

    Sedimentary pigments, carbon and nitrogen content and their stable isotopes were studied in three short cores collected from the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Eastern Arabian Sea (EAS). Nine pigments including chlorophyll a and their degradation products were quantified using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Astaxanthin followed by canthaxanthin and zeaxanthin were the major carotenoids detected in these cores. The total pigment concentration was high in the core collected from 500 m water depth (6.5 μgg-1) followed by 800 m (1.7 μgg-1) and 1100 m (1.1 μgg-1) depths respectively. The organic carbon did not have considerable control on sedimentary pigments preservation. Pigment degradation was comparatively high in the core collected from the 800 m site which depended not only the bottom dissolved oxygen levels, but also on the faunal activity. As reported earlier, the bottom water dissolved oxygen and presence of fauna have good control on the organic carbon accumulation and preservation at Indian margin OMZ sediments. The C/N ratios and δ13C values for all the cores conclude the marine origin of organic matter and δ15N profiles revealed signature of upwelling associated denitrification within the water column.

  5. Dichroism measurements in forensic fibre examination: part 5-pigmented fibres.

    PubMed

    De Wael, K; Lepot, L

    2012-09-01

    A number of pigmented fibre samples were examined with plane polarized light on their dichroic behaviour by optical light microscopy (OLM) and microspectrophotometry with plane polarized light (MSP-PPL). It was found that about half of the samples show a strong dichroic effect and another 20% have a weak dichroism. Both regular (80%) and inversed dichroic effects (20%) occur. The dichroic characteristics of pigmented fibres can be compared to these of sheet polarizers. It is suggested that the dichroic behaviour of pigmented fibres depends strongly on the crystal structure (shape of the pigment grains) and the draw ratio (orientation of the polymer chains).

  6. Early Diagenesis of Plant Pigments in Hudson River Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Thomas S.; Dibb, Jack E.; Findlay, Stuart

    1993-06-01

    Plant pigment concentrations were measured using high performance liquid chromatography in Hudson River sediments. Sedimentation rates and mixing characteristics were determined from depth profiles of the naturally occurring radionuclides 7Be, 210Pb. Previous estimates of the mean-lives (1/λ) of plant pigments (chlorophylls a and b, fucoxanthin) from laboratory experiments, indicate a range of c. 20-40 days. However, in the field, we observed that these pigments decreased less rapidly with depth and penetrated deeper than 7Be (mean-life 77 days) in Hudson sediments 95% of the time. Assuming similar mixing processes for particles carrying 7Be and pigments, this indicates that pigment decay rates in the field are slower than the 0·013 day -1 decay rate of 7Be, hence, more than 2-fold slower than the derived laboratory rates. We believe that high inputs of vascular plant detritus in the Hudson may increase the complexation of humic substances with pigments resulting in slower decay rates. While most pigments showed an exponential decrease with sediment depth, lutein concentrations generally increased with depth. This pattern of decay resistance is in agreement with laboratory experiments which show that lutein is the most decay resistant among dominant pigments. These data along with other studies demonstrate that the carotenoids lacking the 5,6-epoxide group (i.e., lutein) are more decay resistant than pigments that contain it (i.e., fucoxanthin).

  7. Neodymium-YAG transscleral cyclophotocoagulation. The role of pigmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Cantor, L.B.; Nichols, D.A.; Katz, L.J.; Moster, M.R.; Poryzees, E.; Shields, J.A.; Spaeth, G.L. )

    1989-08-01

    Using a rabbit model we investigated the role of pigmentation of the ciliary body in obtaining ciliodestruction by neodymium-YAG transscleral cyclophotocoagulation. There was marked destruction of the ciliary body in pigmented rabbit eyes, but no histologic effect was observed in albino rabbit eyes. These findings suggest that pigmentation of the ciliary body is important for obtaining the desired response from neodymium-YAG transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in rabbit eyes by our technique. Further study is necessary to define the role of pigmentation in human eyes in this treatment modality.

  8. Corneal tolerance to micronised mineral pigments for keratopigmentation.

    PubMed

    Amesty, Maria A; Alio, Jorge L; Rodriguez, Alejandra E

    2014-12-01

    To study the tolerance and biocompatibility of micronised mineral pigments for corneal cosmetic pigmentation in an experimental animal model. Corneal intralamellar keratopigmentation was performed in 28 New Zealand white rabbits using micronised mineral pigments. Prophylactic actions using intraoperative antibiotic prophylaxis and gamma radiation of the pigment mixtures were performed to avoid infection. Animals were examined regularly by slit lamp to detect any sign of inflammation, pigment diffusion, colour changes or neovascularisation. Histopathological examination was performed to determine the level of pigment diffusion, the level of inflammation and the presence of neovascularisation. No pigment diffusion or changes in colour, inflammation or neovascularisation were detected in the eyes treated. Histopathological examination corroborated clinical results regarding inflammation. Pigmented corneas showed a good cosmetic appearance without signs of ocular toxicity. Micronised mineral pigments could be a valid alternative treatment for cosmetic keratopigmentation. The intralamellar keratopigmentation technique presented good cosmetic appearance without adverse effects in the eyes treated. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Multiple visual pigments in a photoreceptor of the salamander retina

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Although a given retina typically contains several visual pigments, each formed from a retinal chromophore bound to a specific opsin protein, single photoreceptor cells have been thought to express only one type of opsin. This design maximizes a cell's sensitivity to a particular wavelength band and facilitates wavelength discrimination in retinas that process color. We report electrophysiological evidence that the ultraviolet-sensitive cone of salamander violates this rule. This cell contains three different functional opsins. The three opsins could combine with the two different chromophores present in salamander retina to form six visual pigments. Whereas rods and other cones of salamander use both chromophores, they appear to express only one type of opsin per cell. In visual pigment absorption spectra, the bandwidth at half-maximal sensitivity increases as the pigment's wavelength maximum decreases. However, the bandwidth of the UV-absorbing pigment deviates from this trend; it is narrow like that of a red-absorbing pigment. In addition, the UV-absorbing pigment has a high apparent photosensitivity when compared with that of red- and blue-absorbing pigments and rhodopsin. These properties suggest that the mechanisms responsible for spectrally tuning visual pigments separate two absorption bands as the wavelength of maximal sensitivity shifts from UV to long wavelengths. PMID:8817382

  10. Skin pigmentation variation among populations of West Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, Manjari; Ozarkar, Shantanu; Ashma, Richa; Kulkarni, Shaunak

    2016-01-01

    Global patterns of skin pigmentation have evolved as an adaptation to local ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Indian populations exposed to intense UVR show great variation in skin pigmentation. The UVR-based selection model cannot satisfactorily address the high prevalence of light skin among these populations. Thus, the present study examines pigmentation variation among populations of West Maharashtra and the Indian subcontinent within the context of population structure and social hierarchy. Melanin index (MI) was measured from 555 individuals representing six endogamous populations of West Maharashtra. Skin pigmentation was assessed in terms of variation between populations and differences between and among castes and tribes. A linear regression analysis was run to assess the relationship among MI, UVR, and social hierarchy using published MI data from 13 Indian endogamous populations. Skin pigmentation differed significantly among populations of West Maharashtra. Significant pigmentation variation exists between castes and tribes of West Maharashtra as well as across the Indian subcontinent. We observe a significant negative relationship between social hierarchy and skin pigmentation, whereas the relationship between UVR and MI is weak. Our results suggest that various factors may have contributed to pigmentation diversity across the Indian subcontinent. The lack of correlation between UVR and MI suggests that natural selection may not have played a significant role in shaping pigmentation variation across the subcontinent. We discuss other possible explanations, including metabolic conservation and cultural factors such as traditional social hierarchies and strict endogamy that have led to the development of population structure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. FRACTIONATION OF THE EYE PIGMENTS OF DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Wald, George; Allen, Gordon

    1946-01-01

    Eye pigments of normal and mutant types of D. melanogaster have been extracted with water and fractionated by chromatographic adsorption on powdered talc. Spectra of all the fractions obtainable in solution have been measured and the general chemical behavior of the pigments is described. Two chemically distinct groups of pigments are found, to be identified with the earlier designated red and brown components. The red component in the wild-type eye contains three well defined pigments, two of them capable of further subdivision so that the total number of fractions obtained is five. There is also present a brown component pigment which could not be treated quantitatively by the methods employed. All members of the wild-type red component are found in cinnabar eyes, unaccompanied by the brown component. Conversely, brown eyes contain a pigment indistinguishable from the wild-type brown component, virtually alone. In sepia eyes, one red component and two brown component pigments can be distinguished, all three pigments differing from those of wild-type eyes. Pigments apparently identical with those found in wild-type melanogaster eyes have also been found in D. virilis. PMID:19873476

  12. FRACTIONATION OF THE EYE PIGMENTS OF DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER.

    PubMed

    Wald, G; Allen, G

    1946-09-20

    Eye pigments of normal and mutant types of D. melanogaster have been extracted with water and fractionated by chromatographic adsorption on powdered talc. Spectra of all the fractions obtainable in solution have been measured and the general chemical behavior of the pigments is described. Two chemically distinct groups of pigments are found, to be identified with the earlier designated red and brown components. The red component in the wild-type eye contains three well defined pigments, two of them capable of further subdivision so that the total number of fractions obtained is five. There is also present a brown component pigment which could not be treated quantitatively by the methods employed. All members of the wild-type red component are found in cinnabar eyes, unaccompanied by the brown component. Conversely, brown eyes contain a pigment indistinguishable from the wild-type brown component, virtually alone. In sepia eyes, one red component and two brown component pigments can be distinguished, all three pigments differing from those of wild-type eyes. Pigments apparently identical with those found in wild-type melanogaster eyes have also been found in D. virilis.

  13. Pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma--a major review.

    PubMed

    Niyadurupola, Nuwan; Broadway, David C

    2008-12-01

    Pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) is an interesting condition that can lead to secondary open angle glaucoma. Pigmentary glaucoma is primarily a disease of young people, myopes and men. PDS is characterized by the presence of Krukenberg spindles, iris trans-illumination defects, trabecular meshwork pigmentation and backward bowing of the iris. Posterior bowing of the iris causes rubbing of the pigmented iris epithelium against lens structures, liberation of pigment and trabecular meshwork changes that result in reduced aqueous outflow with the risk of glaucoma. Peripheral laser iridotomy can reverse backward bowing of the iris and may prevent progression of pigmentary glaucoma.

  14. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma: increased melanin or increased melanocytes?

    PubMed

    Brankov, Nikoleta; Prodanovic, Edward M; Hurley, M Yadira

    2016-12-01

    Studies on the precise cause of increased melanization in pigmented basal cell carcinomas (BCC) are limited. We aimed to determine whether the cause of melanization is from increased number of melanocytes or increased melanin pigment, and if there is a difference in the number of melanocytes on different sun-exposed locations. A retrospective review of 45 skin biopsies from January 2011 to February 2011 was performed; 30 were diagnosed as pigmented BCC and 15 as non-pigmented BCC. Immunohistochemistry for MART-1 (melanoma-associated antigen recognized by T-cell 1)/Melan-A (clone M2-7610 + M2-9E3; Leica Microsystems Inc. Buffalo Grove, IL, USA) from Biocare Medical (Concord, CA, USA) was performed on all biopsies. Associations between histopathologic features, number of melanocytes, location, and specific diagnoses were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test. The mean melanocyte count per high powered field in pigmented BCCs from sun-exposed skin was 101.9 and from intermittently sun-exposed skin was 122.5, as compared to the controls (nodular non-pigmented BCC) of 27.4 (p = 0.002) and 34.9 (p = 0.002), respectively. Pigmented BCCs have a higher mean melanocyte count as compared to non-pigmented BCCs irrespective of location. Therefore, the pigment is not only due to increased melanin, but also due to increased melanocytes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Abnormal pigmentation within cutaneous scars: A complication of wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Sarah; Heath, Rebecca; Shah, Mamta

    2012-01-01

    Abnormally pigmented scars are an undesirable consequence of cutaneous wound healing and are a complication every single individual worldwide is at risk of. They present a challenge for clinicians, as there are currently no definitive treatment options available, and render scars much more noticeable making them highly distressing for patients. Despite extensive research into both wound healing and the pigment cell, there remains a scarcity of knowledge surrounding the repigmentation of cutaneous scars. Pigment production is complex and under the control of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors and patterns of scar repigmentation are unpredictable. This article gives an overview of human skin pigmentation, repigmentation following wounding and current treatment options. PMID:23162241

  16. Characterization of major betalain pigments -gomphrenin, betanin and isobetanin from Basella rubra L. fruit and evaluation of efficacy as a natural colourant in product (ice cream) development.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Sravan; Manoj, P; Shetty, N P; Prakash, Maya; Giridhar, P

    2015-08-01

    Basella rubra L. (Basellaceae) commonly known as Malabar spinach is a leafy vegetable which accumulates pigments in its fruits. To find out the feasibility of utilizing pigment rich extracts of its fruit as natural food colourant, fruits at different stages were analysed for pigment profiling, carbohydrate content, physical dimensions and weight. Total betalains content increased rapidly from early (green) through intermediate (half-done red-violet) to matured stage (red-violet). Maximum pigment content was observed in ripened fruits (143.76 mg/100 g fresh weight). The major betalain pigment characterized was gomphrenin I in ripened fruits (26.06 mg), followed by intermediate fruits (2.15 mg) and least in early fruits (0.23 mg) in 100 g of fresh deseeded fruits. Total carbohydrates content and the chroma values (redness) were also increased during ontogeny of B. rubra fruits. The textural characters of developing fruits showed the smoothness of green fruits with lower rupture force (0.16 N/s) than ripe ones (0.38 N/s). The pigment-rich fruit extract was used as natural colourant in ice-cream, to evaluate its effect on physicochemical properties and acceptability of the product. After six months of storage at -20 °C, 86.63 % colour was retained in ice-cream. The ice-cream had good overall sensorial quality and was liked by consumers indicating that addition of B. rubra fruit extract did not alter the sensory quality of the product. The colour values also indicate that there was no significant decrease of this pigment-rich extracts of fruits for its incorporation in food products.

  17. Characterization of Brevibacterium linens pigmentation using spectrocolorimetry.

    PubMed

    Guyomarc'h, F; Binet, A; Dufossé, L

    2000-06-15

    Spectrocolorimetry was used for the evaluation of Brevibacterium linens pigmentation. A total of 23 strains of Brevibacterium linens, from various sources, were plated onto solid agar media and their color coordinates were measured and expressed by the L*a*b* colorimetric system. All the strains were located along a straight line with a hue of 66 degrees (orange color). The effect of light exposure versus storage in the dark was also investigated using this approach. Three groups with distinct behaviors were demonstrated for the 23 B. linens strains.

  18. Corrosion-Indicating Pigment And Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Attia, Alan I.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed hydrogen-sensitive paint for metal structures changes color at onset of corrosion, involving emission of hydrogen as result of electrochemical reactions. Pigment of suitable paint includes rhodium compound RhCl(PPh3)3, known as Wilkinson's catalyst. As coating on critical parts of such structures as bridges and aircraft, paint gives early warning of corrosion, and parts thus repaired or replaced before failing catastrophically. Reveals corrosion before it becomes visible to eye. Inspection for changes in color not ordinarily necessitate removal of structure from service, and costs less than inspection by x-ray or thermal neutron radiography, ultrasonic, eddy-current, or acoustic-emission techniques.

  19. LOCALIZED PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho Godoy, Fabiola Andrea de; Faustino, Carlos Alberto Cury; Meneses, Cláudio Santos; Nishi, Sergio Tadao; Góes, César Eduardo Giancoli; Canto, Abaeté Leite do

    2015-01-01

    This case concerned a female patient with a complaint of pain in the anterior region of her left knee during and after sports activities, followed by joint blockage three months ago. From imaging examinations, simple radiography of the knee was normal and magnetic resonance showed a solid expansive mass, possibly corresponding to soft-tissue chondroma or focal nodular synovitis. Arthroscopic resection of the lesion was performed, and the diagnosis of diffuse giant cell tumor resembling localized pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) was made from the result of the anatomopathological examination. The patient presented good clinical evolution, with disappearance of symptoms and return to physical activities. PMID:27027040

  20. LOCALIZED PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Carvalho Godoy, Fabiola Andrea de; Faustino, Carlos Alberto Cury; Meneses, Cláudio Santos; Nishi, Sergio Tadao; Góes, César Eduardo Giancoli; Canto, Abaeté Leite do

    2011-01-01

    This case concerned a female patient with a complaint of pain in the anterior region of her left knee during and after sports activities, followed by joint blockage three months ago. From imaging examinations, simple radiography of the knee was normal and magnetic resonance showed a solid expansive mass, possibly corresponding to soft-tissue chondroma or focal nodular synovitis. Arthroscopic resection of the lesion was performed, and the diagnosis of diffuse giant cell tumor resembling localized pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) was made from the result of the anatomopathological examination. The patient presented good clinical evolution, with disappearance of symptoms and return to physical activities.

  1. Reflective color display using thermochromic pigments.

    PubMed

    Heo, Kyong Chan; Sohn, Youngku; Yi, Jonghoon; Kwon, Jin Hyuk; Son, Phil Kook; Gwag, Jin Seog

    2012-06-20

    A reflective thermochromic display fabricated by a very simple method using three kinds of thermochromic pigments is produced and its thermo-optical characteristics are investigated. The display exhibits maximum red, green, and blue reflectances of 38%, 30%, and 35%, respectively. The reflective display cell shows continuous gray color with changing temperature, which is crucial for multicolor displays. It also shows an excellent viewing angle above 80° without any of the additional optical components that are required in liquid crystal displays. We expect that this display technology will be used for outdoor billboard information display applications.

  2. Monte Carlo modeling of pigmented lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareau, Daniel; Jacques, Steven; Krueger, James

    2014-03-01

    Colors observed in clinical dermoscopy are critical to diagnosis but the mechanisms that lead to the spectral components of diffuse reflectance are more than meets the eye: combinations of the absorption and scattering spectra of the biomolecules as well as the "structural color" effect of skin anatomy. We modeled diffuse remittance from skin based on histopathology. The optical properties of the tissue types were based on the relevant chromophores and scatterers. The resulting spectral images mimic the appearance of pigmented lesions quite well when the morphology is mathematically derived but limited when based on histopathology, raising interesting questions about the interaction between various wavelengths with various pathological anatomical features.

  3. Corrosion-Indicating Pigment And Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Attia, Alan I.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed hydrogen-sensitive paint for metal structures changes color at onset of corrosion, involving emission of hydrogen as result of electrochemical reactions. Pigment of suitable paint includes rhodium compound RhCl(PPh3)3, known as Wilkinson's catalyst. As coating on critical parts of such structures as bridges and aircraft, paint gives early warning of corrosion, and parts thus repaired or replaced before failing catastrophically. Reveals corrosion before it becomes visible to eye. Inspection for changes in color not ordinarily necessitate removal of structure from service, and costs less than inspection by x-ray or thermal neutron radiography, ultrasonic, eddy-current, or acoustic-emission techniques.

  4. Method of preparing zinc orthotitanate pigment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, D. W.; Harada, Y.; Logan, W. R.; Gilligan, J. E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Zinc orthotitanate suitable for use as a pigment for spacecraft thermal control coatings is prepared by heating a slightly zinc deficient reaction mixture of precipitated oxalates of zinc and titanium. The reaction mixture can be formed by coprecipitation of zinc and titanium oxalates from chloride solution or by mixing separately precipitated oxalates. The mixture is first heated to 400 to 600 C to remove volatiles and is then rapidly heated at 900 to 1200 C. Zinc orthotitanate produced by this method exhibits the very fine particle size needed for thermal control coatings as well as stability in a space environment.

  5. 'Shadow sign' in congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium of young myopic pigmented patients.

    PubMed

    Chang, M Y; McBeath, J B; McCannel, C A; McCannel, T A

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) may simulate choroidal melanoma in certain cases. We report unique clinical features we have observed in cases of CHRPE in young myopic pigmented patients.METHODS Patients who were referred for evaluation of a suspicious choroidal lesion and found to have a CHRPE lesion with the clinical appearance of lesion elevation and a subretinal fluid-like 'shadow sign' were included. Patient and lesion characteristics were tabulated. Available images, including fundus photography, ultrasonography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and fluorescein angiography (FA) were reviewed.ResultsSix patients were included. The 'shadow sign' was anterior to the CHRPE lesion in all cases. The mean age of the patients was 27.3 years. The ethnicities of the patients were Chinese (n=1), Hispanic (n=3), or African-American (n=2). Five of six patients were myopic.CONCLUSIONS Although most CHRPE lesions appear flat on ophthalmoscopy, lesions in young myopic patients of pigmented ethnicities may appear elevated with a 'shadow sign' due to 'dark without pressure.' This new finding may be related to the vitreoretinal interface in young myopic pigmented patients and must be distinguished from true subretinal fluid and lesion thickness, which are often observed in choroidal melanoma.

  6. Mutations in CTNNA1 cause butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy and perturbed retinal pigment epithelium integrity

    PubMed Central

    Saksens, Nicole T.M.; Krebs, Mark P.; Schoenmaker-Koller, Frederieke E.; Hicks, Wanda; Yu, Minzhong; Shi, Lanying; Rowe, Lucy; Collin, Gayle B.; Charette, Jeremy R.; Letteboer, Stef J.; Neveling, Kornelia; van Moorsel, Tamara W.; Abu-Ltaif, Sleiman; De Baere, Elfride; Walraedt, Sophie; Banfi, Sandro; Simonelli, Francesca; Cremers, Frans P.M.; Boon, Camiel J.F.; Roepman, Ronald; Leroy, Bart P.; Peachey, Neal S.; Hoyng, Carel B.; Nishina, Patsy M.; den Hollander, Anneke I.

    2015-01-01

    Butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy is an eye disease characterized by lesions in the macula that can resemble the wings of a butterfly. Here, we report the identification of heterozygous missense mutations in the α-catenin 1 (CTNNA1) gene in three families with butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy. In addition, we identified a Ctnna1 missense mutation in a chemically induced mouse mutant, tvrm5. Parallel clinical phenotypes were observed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of individuals with butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy and in tvrm5 mice, including pigmentary abnormalities, focal thickening and elevated lesions, and decreased light-activated responses. Morphological studies in tvrm5 mice revealed increased cell shedding and large multinucleated RPE cells, suggesting defects in intercellular adhesion and cytokinesis. This study identifies CTNNA1 gene variants as a cause of macular dystrophy, suggests that CTNNA1 is involved in maintaining RPE integrity, and suggests that other components that participate in intercellular adhesion may be implicated in macular disease. PMID:26691986

  7. Protective effects of adipose-derived stem cells against UVB-induced skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Byung-Joon; Kim, Deok-Woo; Kim, Min-Sook; Park, Seung-Ha; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Yoon, Eul-Sik; Lee, Byung-Il; Hwang, Na-Hyun

    2016-12-01

    Hyperpigmentation, mainly following UV-irradiation, can cause major cosmetic concerns. Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been reported to serve as whitening agents through a paracrine effect. However, there have been few reports on the direct effects of ASCs on skin pigmentation following UVB-irradiation. To evaluate the effect of ASCs on UVB-irradiated mouse skin, UVB-irradiation alone was applied to one side of the backs of mice (melanin-processing hairless mouse, HRM-2) as a control, and UVB-irradiation plus injection of ASCs was applied to the contralateral side. Skin pigmentation and histology were evaluated and the number of DOPA-positive melanocytes in the mouse skin was counted. The absolute value of ΔL* via a colorimeter was measured to evaluate the degree of skin pigmentation. The effects of ASCs on the melanogenic activities of mouse skin were examined by measuring the tyrosinase activity and the melanin contents in the epidermis of the mouse skin. Skin pigmentation was suppressed in the ASC-injected side. Moreover, the change in skin thickness following UVB irradiation was reduced in the ASC-injected side. The number of DOPA-positive melanocytes in the ASC-injected side (139 ± 18 cells/mm(2)) was significantly lower than that in the control side (239 ± 48 cells/mm(2)). The tyrosinase activity (67.4 ± 9.8% of that of the control side) and melanin content (63.4 ± 5.7% of that of the control side) of the ASC-injected side were also significantly reduced. Collectively, these results suggest that ASCs injected subcutaneously into the backs of mice can attenuate tanning following UVB-irradiation, through suppression of tyrosinase activity.

  8. Stem Cell Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The Role of Pigmentation as Maturation Marker and Gene Expression Profile Comparison with Human Endogenous Retinal Pigment Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Bennis, A; Jacobs, J G; Catsburg, L A E; Ten Brink, J B; Koster, C; Schlingemann, R O; van Meurs, J; Gorgels, T G M F; Moerland, P D; Heine, V M; Bergen, A A

    2017-07-21

    In age-related macular degeneration (AMD) the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) deteriorates, leading to photoreceptor decay and severe vision loss. New therapeutic strategies aim at RPE replacement by transplantation of pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived RPE. Several protocols to generate RPE have been developed where appearance of pigmentation is commonly used as indicator of RPE differentiation and maturation. It is, however, unclear how different pigmentation stages reflect developmental stages and functionality of PSC-derived RPE cells. We generated human embryonic stem cell-derived RPE (hESC-RPE) cells and investigated their gene expression profiles at early pigmentation (EP) and late pigmentation (LP) stages. In addition, we compared the hESC-RPE samples with human endogenous RPE. We used a common reference design microarray (44 K). Our analysis showed that maturing hESC-RPE, upon acquiring pigmentation, expresses markers specific for human RPE. Interestingly, our analysis revealed that EP and LP hESC-RPE do not differ much in gene expression. Our data further showed that pigmented hESC-RPE has a significant lower expression than human endogenous RPE in the visual cycle and oxidative stress pathways. In contrast, we observed a significantly higher expression of pathways related to the process adhesion-to-polarity model that is typical of developing epithelial cells. We conclude that, in vitro, the first appearance of pigmentation hallmarks differentiated RPE. However, further increase in pigmentation does not result in much significant gene expression changes and does not add important RPE functionalities. Consequently, our results suggest that the time span for obtaining differentiated hESC-RPE cells, that are suitable for transplantation, may be greatly reduced.

  9. A colorimetric sensor array of porous pigments.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sung H; Kemling, Jonathan W; Feng, Liang; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2009-12-01

    The development of a low-cost, simple colorimetric sensor array capable of the detection and identification of toxic gases is reported. This technology uses a disposable printed array of porous pigments in which metalloporphyrins and chemically-responsive dyes are immobilized in a porous matrix of organically modified siloxanes (ormosils) and printed on a porous membrane. The printing of the ormosil into the membrane is highly uniform and does not lessen the porosity of the membrane, as shown by scanning electron microscopy. When exposed to an analyte, these pigments undergo reactions that result in well-defined color changes due to strong chemical interactions: ligation to metal ions, Lewis or Brønsted acid-base interactions, hydrogen bonding, etc. Striking visual identification of 3 toxic gases has been shown at the IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration, at the PEL (permissible exposure level), and at a level well below the PEL. Identification and quantification of analytes were achieved using the color change profiles, which were readily distinguishable in a hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) dendrogram, with no misclassifications in 50 trials.

  10. Enamel ultrastructure in pigmented hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Wright, J T; Lord, V; Robinson, C; Shore, R

    1992-10-01

    Hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a hereditary condition of enamel that is presumed to result from defects during the maturation stage of enamel development. This study characterized the enamel ultrastructure and enamel crystallite morphology, as well as the distribution of organic material in enamel affected with pigmented hypomaturation AI. Enamel exhibiting autosomal recessive pigmented hypomaturation AI was sectioned or fractured and examined using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Enamel samples were treated with 30% NaOCl or 8 M urea to remove organic components and determine the effect of deproteinization on crystallite morphology. These were compared with untreated normal enamel samples. The enamel crystallites in hypomaturation AI exhibited considerable variability in size and morphology. Examination of deproteinized tissue indicated that the AI crystallites had a thick coating, presumably of organic or partially mineralized material, which was not visible in normal enamel. The results of this investigation provide further evidence that hypomaturation AI is associated with the retention of organic material that is most probably enamel protein. Enamel protein retention is likely to be involved in the inhibition of normal crystallite growth resulting in the morphological crystallite abnormalities associated with this disorder.

  11. A colorimetric sensor array of porous pigments

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung H.; Kemling, Jonathan W.; Feng, Liang

    2010-01-01

    The development of a low-cost, simple colorimetric sensor array capable of detection and identification of toxic gases is reported. This technology uses a disposable printed array of porous pigments in which metalloporphyrins and chemically responsive dyes are immobilized in a porous matrix of organically modified siloxanes (ormosils) and printed on a porous membrane. The printing of the ormosil into the membrane is highly uniform and does not lessen the porosity of the membrane, as shown by scanning electron microscopy. When exposed to an analyte, these pigments undergo reactions that result in well-defined color changes due to strong chemical interactions: ligation to metal ions, Lewis or Bronsted acid-base interactions, hydrogen bonding, etc. Striking visual identification of 3 toxic gases has been shown at the IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health), at the PEL (permissible exposure level), and at a level well below the PEL. Identification and quantification of analytes were achieved using the color change profiles, which were readily distinguishable in a hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) dendrogram, with no misclassifications in 50 trials. PMID:19918616

  12. Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments of prochloron (prochlorophyta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paerl, H. W.; Lewin, R. A.; Cheng, L.

    1983-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a gradient-elution technique was utilized to separate and quantify chlorophylls a and b as well as major carotenoid pigments present in freeze-dried preprations of prochloron-didemnid associations and in Prochloron cells separated from host colonies. Results confirm earlier spectrophotometric evidence for both chlorophylls a and b in this prokaryote. Chlorophyll a:b ratios range from 4.14 to 19.71; generally good agreement was found between ratios determined in isolated cell preprations and in symbiotic colonies (in hospite). These values are 1.5 to 5-fold higher than ratios determined in a variety of eukaryotic green plants. The carotenoids in Prochloron are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to those found in various freshwater and marine blue-green algae (cyanopbytes) from high-light environments. However, Prochloron differs from cyanophytes by the absence of myxoxanthophyll and related glycosidic carotenoids. It pigment characteristics are considered sufficiently different from those of cyanophytes to justify its assignment to a separate algal division.

  13. Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments of prochloron (prochlorophyta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paerl, H. W.; Lewin, R. A.; Cheng, L.

    1983-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a gradient-elution technique was utilized to separate and quantify chlorophylls a and b as well as major carotenoid pigments present in freeze-dried preprations of prochloron-didemnid associations and in Prochloron cells separated from host colonies. Results confirm earlier spectrophotometric evidence for both chlorophylls a and b in this prokaryote. Chlorophyll a:b ratios range from 4.14 to 19.71; generally good agreement was found between ratios determined in isolated cell preprations and in symbiotic colonies (in hospite). These values are 1.5 to 5-fold higher than ratios determined in a variety of eukaryotic green plants. The carotenoids in Prochloron are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to those found in various freshwater and marine blue-green algae (cyanopbytes) from high-light environments. However, Prochloron differs from cyanophytes by the absence of myxoxanthophyll and related glycosidic carotenoids. It pigment characteristics are considered sufficiently different from those of cyanophytes to justify its assignment to a separate algal division.

  14. Construction of artificial pigment-protein antennae

    SciTech Connect

    Sibbald, JeNell

    1997-01-10

    Photosynthesis is a complex process which results in the conversion of solar radiation into chemical energy. This chemical energy is then used as the free energy source for all living organisms. In its basic form, photosynthesis can be described as the light-activated synthesis of carbohydrates from the simple molecules of water and carbon dioxide: 6H2O + 6 CO2 light C6H12O6 + 6 O2 This basic mechanism actually requires numerous reaction steps. The two primary steps being: the capture of light by pigment molecules in light-harvesting antenna complexes and the transfer of this captured energy to the so-called photochemical reaction center. While the preferred pathway for energy absorbed by the chromophores in the antenna complexes is transfer to the reaction center, energy can be lost to competing processes such as internal conversion or radiative decay. Therefore, the energy transfer must be rapid, typically on the order of picoseconds, to successfully compete. The focus of the present work is on the construction of light-harvesting antenna complexes incorporating modular pigment-proteins.

  15. Human skin pigmentation, migration and disease susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Nina G.; Chaplin, George

    2012-01-01

    Human skin pigmentation evolved as a compromise between the conflicting physiological demands of protection against the deleterious effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and photosynthesis of UVB-dependent vitamin D3. Living under high UVR near the equator, ancestral Homo sapiens had skin rich in protective eumelanin. Dispersals outside of the tropics were associated with positive selection for depigmentation to maximize cutaneous biosynthesis of pre-vitamin D3 under low and highly seasonal UVB conditions. In recent centuries, migrations and high-speed transportation have brought many people into UVR regimes different from those experienced by their ancestors and, accordingly, exposed them to new disease risks. These have been increased by urbanization and changes in diet and lifestyle. Three examples—nutritional rickets, multiple sclerosis (MS) and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM)—are chosen to illustrate the serious health effects of mismatches between skin pigmentation and UVR. The aetiology of MS in particular provides insight into complex and contingent interactions of genetic and environmental factors necessary to trigger lethal disease states. Low UVB levels and vitamin D deficiencies produced by changes in location and lifestyle pose some of the most serious disease risks of the twenty-first century. PMID:22312045

  16. Photoinduced changes in photosystem II pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Atanaska S.; Busheva, Mira C.; Stoitchkova, Katerina V.; Tzonova, Iren K.

    2010-11-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus in higher plants performs two seemingly opposing tasks: efficient harvest of sunlight, but also rapid and harmless dissipation of excess light energy as heat to avoid deleterious photodamage. In order to study this process in pigment-protein supercomplexes of photosystem II (PSII), 77 K fluorescence and room temperature resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy were applied to investigate the changes in structure and spectral properties of the pigments in spinach PSII membranes. The high-light treatment results in a strong quenching of the fluorescence (being largest when the excitation is absorbed by carotenoids) and a red-shift of the main maximum. Decomposition of the fluorescence spectra into four bands revealed intensive quenching of F685 and F695 bands, possible bleaching of chlorophyll a, enhanced extent of light harvesting complexes (LHCII) aggregation and increased energy transfer to aggregated LHCII. The analysis of RR spectra revealed the predominant contribution of ß-carotene (ß-Car) upon 457.8 and 488 nm excitations and lutein (Lut) at 514.5 nm. During prolonged exposure to strong light no significant bleaching of ß-Car and weak photobleaching of Lut is observed. The results will contribute to the efforts to produce more efficient and robust solar cells when exposed to fluctuations in light intensity.

  17. Bile pigments in pulmonary and vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Ryter, Stefan W

    2012-01-01

    The bile pigments, biliverdin, and bilirubin, are endogenously derived substances generated during enzymatic heme degradation. These compounds have been shown to act as chemical antioxidants in vitro. Bilirubin formed in tissues circulates in the serum, prior to undergoing hepatic conjugation and biliary excretion. The excess production of bilirubin has been associated with neurotoxicity, in particular to the newborn. Nevertheless, clinical evidence suggests that mild states of hyperbilirubinemia may be beneficial in protecting against cardiovascular disease in adults. Pharmacological application of either bilirubin and/or its biological precursor biliverdin, can provide therapeutic benefit in several animal models of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. Furthermore, biliverdin and bilirubin can confer protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury and graft rejection secondary to organ transplantation in animal models. Several possible mechanisms for these effects have been proposed, including direct antioxidant and scavenging effects, and modulation of signaling pathways regulating inflammation, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and immune responses. The practicality and therapeutic-effectiveness of bile pigment application to humans remains unclear.

  18. Metabolism of carotenoid pigments in birds.

    PubMed

    Brush, A H

    1990-09-01

    Carotenoid pigments are an important component in the plumage of birds. The metabolic precursors are dietary in origin but many species have the capacity to chemically modify and selectively deposit the pigments. The ensuing plumage patterns are important in communication and identification. The bright yellows, oranges, and reds are due mostly to xanthophylls; keto and hydroxy carotenes. Some are deposited unmodified (e.g., lutein) whereas others are modified chemically (canthaxanthin, astaxanthin). Early workers concentrated on demonstrating that feather carotenoids were derived from the diet and deposited selectively. Progress in defining and solving biological problems depended on advances in chemical and analytical techniques. Subsequent investigation showed that various plumage colormorphs, seasonal plumage changes or colors in common mutant, were due to relatively simple chemical changes in carotenoids but had profound biological consequences. Equally important was the realization that many of these processes were under genetic control. Validation came from feeding studies of flamingos and finches. Recent studies have employed the plumage carotenoids to test hypotheses of genetic divergence, to relate plumage color to environmental process, and to demonstrate the influence of synthetic changes on color. Understanding the processes has advanced with the introduction of high-resolution separation techniques and the ability to determine both conformation and absolute configuration. The next steps will be in the direction of understanding the enzymatic modification, transport, and tissue selectivity of feather carotenoids.

  19. Basis for enhanced barrier function of pigmented skin.

    PubMed

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Lin, Tzu-Kai; Santiago, Juan L; Celli, Anna; Zhong, Lily; Huang, Zhi-Ming; Roelandt, Truus; Hupe, Melanie; Sundberg, John P; Silva, Kathleen A; Crumrine, Debra; Martin-Ezquerra, Gemma; Trullas, Carles; Sun, Richard; Wakefield, Joan S; Wei, Maria L; Feingold, Kenneth R; Mauro, Theodora M; Elias, Peter M

    2014-09-01

    Humans with darkly pigmented skin display superior permeability barrier function in comparison with humans with lightly pigmented skin. The reduced pH of the stratum corneum (SC) of darkly pigmented skin could account for enhanced function, because acidifying lightly pigmented human SC resets barrier function to darkly pigmented levels. In SKH1 (nonpigmented) versus SKH2/J (pigmented) hairless mice, we evaluated how a pigment-dependent reduction in pH could influence epidermal barrier function. Permeability barrier homeostasis is enhanced in SKH2/J versus SKH1 mice, correlating with a reduced pH in the lower SC that colocalizes with the extrusion of melanin granules. Darkly pigmented human epidermis also shows substantial melanin extrusion in the outer epidermis. Both acute barrier disruption and topical basic pH challenges accelerate reacidification of SKH2/J (but not SKH1) SC, while inducing melanin extrusion. SKH2/J mice also display enhanced expression of the SC acidifying enzyme, secretory phospholipase A2f (sPLA2f). Enhanced barrier function of SKH2/J mice could be attributed to enhanced activity of two acidic pH-dependent, ceramide-generating enzymes, β-glucocerebrosidase and acidic sphingomyelinase, leading to accelerated maturation of SC lamellar bilayers. Finally, organotypic cultures of darkly pigmented human keratinocytes display enhanced barrier function in comparison with lightly pigmented cultures. Together, these results suggest that the superior barrier function of pigmented epidermis can be largely attributed to the pH-lowering impact of melanin persistence/extrusion and enhanced sPLA2f expression.

  20. Analysis of optimal narrow band RVI for estimating foliar photosynthetic pigments based on PROSPECT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong; Shi, Runhe; Liu, Pudong; Ma, Mingliang; Gao, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Remote sensing is an effective tool to estimate foliar pigments contents with the analysis of vegetation index. The crucial issue is how to choose the optimal bands-combination to conduct the vegetation index. In this study, RVI, a vegetation index computed by the reflectance of Red and NIR bands, has been used to estimate the contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid. The reflectance of the two bands forming the narrow band RVI was simulated by the PROSPECT model. The possible combinations of narrow band RVI were examined from 400 nm to 800 nm. The results showed that: At the leaf level, estimation of chlorophyll content can be identified in narrow band RVI. Ranges for these bands included: (1) 549-589nm, 616-636nm or 729-735nm combined with 434-454nm; (2) 663-688nm, 710-717nm, 719-728nm or 730- 739nm combined with 549-561nm; (3) 663-688nm combined with 569-615nm. However, no valid narrow-band RVI for the estimation of carotenoid content was successfully identified. Our results also showed that two rules should be followed when choosing optimal bands-combination: (1) the selected bands must have minimal interference from other biochemical constituents; (2) there should be distinct differences between the sensitivities of the bands selected for particular pigments.

  1. [Effects of Pb Stress on Photosynthetic Pigment Biosynthesis and Growth of Rabdosia rubescens].

    PubMed

    Kong, Si-xin; Li, Hai-kui; Chao, Jing; Cui, Xu-sheng; Guo, Yu-hai

    2015-02-01

    To study the impacts of lead (Pb) stress on the leaf photosynthetic pigment and the growth of Rabdosia rubescens,in order to provide a basis for planting area selection and growth regulation. Taking chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, growth rate, biomass and Pb content as the indexes, the Ramets hydroponic experiments at Pb concentration levels (135,270 and 540 mg/L) in the time(20, 35 and 50 d) were carried out. Photosynthetic pigment content was determined by spectrophotometer, and Pb mass fraction was detected with plasma emission spectrometer. There was uncertain effect on chlorophyll and carotenoid synthesis in different Pb concentrations in-early period (20 and 35 d). At the time of 50 d, the chlorophyll content was higher in the low-mid Pb concentrations, significantly lower in the high Pb concentration compared with the control group, and there were no significant differences on carotenoid contents in different Pb concentrations. Low-mid Pb concentrations can promote chlorophyll synthesis, and the bioaccumulation of high Pb concentration can inhibit the chlorophyll synthesis, and then restrict the growth of Rabdosia rubescens.

  2. SKIN AS A LIVING COLORING BOOK: HOW EPITHELIAL CELLS CREATE PATTERNS OF PIGMENTATION

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Lorin; Fu, Wenyu; Chirico, William J.; Brissette, Janice L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The pigmentation of mammalian skin and hair develops through the interaction of two basic cell types — pigment donors and recipients. The pigment donors are melanocytes, which produce and distribute melanin through specialized structures. The pigment recipients are epithelial cells, which acquire melanin and put it to use, collectively yielding the pigmentation visible to the eye. This review will focus on the pigment recipients, the historically less understood cell type. These end-users of pigment are now known to exert a specialized control over the patterning of pigmentation, as they identify themselves as melanocyte targets, recruit pigment donors, and stimulate the transfer of melanin. As such, this review will discuss the evidence that the skin is like a coloring book: the pigment recipients create a “picture,” a blueprint for pigmentation, which is colorless initially but outlines where pigment should be placed. Melanocytes then melanize the recipients and “color in” the picture. PMID:25104547

  3. Skin as a living coloring book: how epithelial cells create patterns of pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Lorin; Fu, Wenyu; Chirico, William J; Brissette, Janice L

    2014-11-01

    The pigmentation of mammalian skin and hair develops through the interaction of two basic cell types - pigment donors and recipients. The pigment donors are melanocytes, which produce and distribute melanin through specialized structures. The pigment recipients are epithelial cells, which acquire melanin and put it to use, collectively yielding the pigmentation visible to the eye. This review will focus on the pigment recipients, the historically less understood cell type. These end-users of pigment are now known to exert a specialized control over the patterning of pigmentation, as they identify themselves as melanocyte targets, recruit pigment donors, and stimulate the transfer of melanin. As such, this review will discuss the evidence that the skin is like a coloring book: the pigment recipients create a 'picture,' a blueprint for pigmentation, which is colorless initially but outlines where pigment should be placed. Melanocytes then melanize the recipients and 'color in' the picture.

  4. Pigmented mammary paget disease misdiagnosed as malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hye; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Soo-Chan; Kim, You Chan; Roh, Mi Ryung

    2014-12-01

    Pigmented mammary Paget disease is a very rare clinicopathologic variant of mammary Paget disease. Diagnosis is often difficult because its clinical and histological features are very similar to those of malignant melanoma. Herein, we report a case of pigmented mammary Paget disease misdiagnosed as malignant melanoma.

  5. Pigment Production by Streptococcus agalactiae in Quasi-Defined Media

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Fraile, Manuel; Sampedro, Antonio; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier; García-Peña, Maria Luisa; Ruiz-Bravo, Alfonso; Haïdour, Ali

    2001-01-01

    A quasi-defined medium that supports the growth of Streptococcus agalactiae as pigmented colonies has been developed. The medium contains starch, a peptic digest of albumin, amino acids, nucleosides, vitamins, and salts. The presence of free cysteine, which could be replaced with other sulphur-containing compounds and to a lesser degree by reducing agents, was required for pigment formation. PMID:11133484

  6. Wound care for patients with darkly pigmented skin.

    PubMed

    Bethell, Elaine

    This article examines the main skin or wound assessment parameters used for patients with darkly pigmented skin. Differences in skin pigmentation are discussed along with the challenges health professionals encounter in clinical practice and why linking theory to practice is vital.

  7. Intraclutch variation in avian eggshell pigmentation: the anaemia hypothesis.

    PubMed

    De Coster, Greet; De Neve, Liesbeth; Lens, Luc

    2012-10-01

    Many passerine species lay eggs that are speckled with dark protoporphyrin pigmentation. Because protoporphyrin is mainly derived from the blood, we here formulate and test a new hypothesis that links an increase in anaemia along the laying sequence to within-clutch variation in egg pigmentation. More intense pigmentation is expected if pigments accumulate during enhanced red blood cell production in response to anaemia. Reduced pigmentation is expected if pigments are derived from the degradation of red blood cells that circulate in smaller numbers due to blood loss. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated anaemia in great tit (Parus major) females by infesting the nests with hen fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinae) prior to egg laying. Polychromatophil (i.e., immature red blood cells) percentage, as a measure of blood cell production, was positively correlated with parasite load confirming that female great tits experienced stronger anaemia when infested with haematophagous parasites during egg laying. We found a positive relationship between spot darkness and laying order that weakened under high parasite load. This result suggests that anaemia in females due to blood-sucking parasites led to diminished protoporphyrin from disintegrated red blood cells and hence a decreased deposition of protoporphyrin. However, the overall increase in pigment darkness along the laying sequence suggests that pigments also accumulate by enhanced red blood cell production caused by anaemia due to egg production itself.

  8. Melanoma and pigmentation of the leptomeninges in Ugandan Africans

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, M. G.

    1969-01-01

    A case of leptomeningeal melanoma in an African child of 7 years is presented together with a survey of pigmentation in the normal African brain. There is a direct relationship between the depth of pigment of the leptomeninges and the skin in Ugandan Africans, suggesting that similar factors operate in the control of melanocytes in these two sites. Images PMID:5776549

  9. Dihydrolindbladiones, three new naphthoquinone pigments from a myxomycete Lindbladia tubulina.

    PubMed

    Misono, Yuka; Ishikawa, Yae; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Hayashi, Masahiko; Komiyama, Kanki; Ishibashi, Masami

    2003-07-01

    Three new naphthoquinone pigments, 6,7-dimethoxydihydrolindbladione (1), dihydrolindbladione (2), and 6-methoxydihydrolindbladione (3), have been isolated from a myxomycete Lindbladia tubulina, and their structures were elucidated by spectral data. Compound 3 appreciably exhibited a reversal effect of multidrug resistance. Lindbladione (4), the major pigment of this myxomycete, was also isolated from Cribraria intricata.

  10. A green process to prepare chromic oxide green pigment.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Xu, Hong-Bin; Zheng, Shi-Li; Zhang, Yi; Li, Zuo-Hu; Bai, Yu-Lan

    2008-10-01

    A hydrogen reduction and activated sintering process was proposed to prepare chromic oxide green pigment. Through ICP, XRD, SEM, FT-IR, UV, and CIE-L*a*b* colorimetric analysis, key factors and mechanism that influenced preparation of chromic oxide green pigment were studied. The results revealed that lower hydrogen reduction temperature, suitable addition of Al and Ba, were beneficial to obtaining the high quality chromic oxide green pigment. Typically, when the hydrogen reduction temperature was kept at 450-500 degrees C, physicochemical properties and color performance of the prepared chromic oxide green pigment doped with about 0.1-0.2 wt % Al and 0.2-0.5 wt % Ba conformed to commercial pigment standards. Additionally, characteristics of the green process were discussed. About 90 wt % KOH was reused directly and about 90 wt % Cr(VI) was conversed to Cr(III) directly from potassium chromate to chromic oxide green pigment. Integrating the proprietary green metallurgical process from chromite ore to potassium chromate of this laboratory, more than 99 wt % Cr(VI) could be conversed to Cr(III) compounds and about 99 wt % KOH could be recycled to use. The whole green process, ranging from chromite ore to chromic oxide green pigment, eventually not only provided the possibility for producing the high quality chromic oxide green pigment, but could reach comprehensive utilization of resources, inner recycle of KOH, and zero emission of Cr(VI).

  11. Posterior scleritis with retinal pigment epithelium rip: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Fiebai, Bassey; Padhi, Tapas Ranjan; Panda, Krushna Gopal; Modi, Rohit Ramesh

    2015-02-01

    Posterior scleritis is a great mimicker and can cause irreversible visual loss because of late or misdiagnosis. We report a case of retinal pigment epithelial rip in the event of nodular posterior scleritis that is hardly reported in the literature. The authors hypothesize the rip to be a result of inflammation, exudation and continuing pressure by the fluid or granuloma on the pigment epithelium.

  12. [Synthesis of melanin pigments by Antarctic black yeast].

    PubMed

    Tashirev, A B; Romanovskaia, V A; Rokitko, P V; Matveeva, N A; Shilin, S O; Tashireva, A A

    2012-01-01

    Five strains of the black yeast similar to Exophiala nigra (Nadsoniela nigra), which we have isolated from the Antarctic biotopes, are studied. At cultivation in a periodic operation the maximum level of absolutely dry biomass in five tested strains constituted 3.2-7.8 g/l of medium, melanin pigment yield being 6-9% of absolutely dry mass of cells. Two highly productive strains have been selected. Pigments of the studied black yeast are water-insoluble, however dissolve in alkali and concentrated acids. The maximum absorption of the yeast pigments was in the range of 220 nm. The above-stated properties of pigments of the investigated yeast correspond to the description of melanin fractions of Nadsoniela nigra and some microscopic mushrooms. The water-soluble melanin-pigments have been obtained after the dialysis of alkaline solution of the pigment. UV-spectra and visible absorption spectra of water solution of melanin-pigments are almost identical to those of initial alkaline solutions. It is shown that the studied yeast are resistant to high concentrations of toxic metals (Hg2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Cr(VI) and Ni2+), and introduction of Co2+ into the cultivation medium leads to the increase of pigments synthesis.

  13. Internal pigment cells respond to external UV radiation in frogs.

    PubMed

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Nilsson Sköld, Helen; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-05-01

    Fish and amphibians have pigment cells that generate colorful skins important for signaling, camouflage, thermoregulation and protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, many animals also have pigment cells inside their bodies, on their internal organs and membranes. In contrast to external pigmentation, internal pigmentation is remarkably little studied and its function is not well known. Here, we tested genotoxic effects of UVR and its effects on internal pigmentation in a neotropical frog, Physalaemus nattereri We found increases in body darkness and internal melanin pigmentation in testes and heart surfaces and in the mesenterium and lumbar region after just a few hours of UVR exposure. The melanin dispersion in melanomacrophages in the liver and melanocytes in testes increased after UV exposure. In addition, the amount of melanin inside melanomacrophages cells also increased. Although mast cells were quickly activated by UVR, only longer UVR exposure resulted in genotoxic effects inside frogs, by increasing the frequency of micronuclei in red blood cells. This is the first study to describe systemic responses of external UVR on internal melanin pigmentation, melanomacrophages and melanocytes in frogs and thus provides a functional explanation to the presence of internal pigmentation.

  14. Characterization of yellow-pigmented enterococci from severe human infections.

    PubMed Central

    Pompei, R; Lampis, G; Berlutti, F; Thaller, M C

    1991-01-01

    Four strains of yellow-pigmented enterococci that resembled the species Enterococcus casseliflavus were isolated from patients who had undergone surgical treatment. They were substantially homologous in terms of biochemical properties, antibiotic susceptibilities, and plasmid DNA profiles. Yellow-pigmented enterococci could be another potentially important cause of nosocomial infection in surgical units. Images PMID:1757566

  15. Passivation of pigment particles for thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sancier, K. M.; Morrison, S. R.; Farley, E. P.

    1975-01-01

    The preparation of a matrix of 48 samples consisting of pigments and pigmented paints is described. The results obtained from testing these samples by electron spin resonance and by in situ spectral reflectance measurements in space simulation tests are presented. Conclusions and recommendations for further research are given.

  16. Stabilized pigment and method for producing the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Stanley Roy (Inventor); Freund, Thomas (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A chemical species, present in two oxidation states which differ from one another by one equivalent, is added to pigment materials to serve as a recombination center for alternately capturing electrons and holes produced by the pigment materials when they are subjected to ultraviolet light exposure.

  17. Passivation of pigment particles for thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sancier, K. M.; Morrison, S. R.; Farley, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    Various redox couple surface additives are studied which increase the photostability of coprecipitated zinc orthotitanate pigment. The electron spin resonance technique was used to examine the characteristic photodamage centers. Results indicate that cerium surface redox additive completely passivates the pigment at the surface concentrations studied. Less passivation occurs with the iridium chloride and the iron cyanide redox couples.

  18. Spectral tuning of rhodopsin and visual cone pigments.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiuwen; Sundholm, Dage; Wesołowski, Tomasz A; Kaila, Ville R I

    2014-02-19

    Retinal is the light-absorbing biochromophore responsible for the activation of vision pigments and light-driven ion pumps. Nature has evolved molecular tuning mechanisms that significantly shift the optical properties of the retinal pigments to enable their absorption of visible light. Using large-scale quantum chemical calculations at the density functional theory level combined with frozen density embedding theory, we show here how the protein environment of vision pigments tunes the absorption of retinal by electrostatically dominated interactions between the chromophore and the surrounding protein residues. The calculations accurately reproduce the experimental absorption maxima of rhodopsin and the red, green, and blue color pigments. We further identify key interactions responsible for the color-shifting effects by mutating the rhodopsin structure in silico, and we find that deprotonation of the retinyl is likely to be responsible for the blue-shifted absorption in the blue cone vision pigment.

  19. Heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae for pigment production: A review.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianjun; Nagarajan, Dillirani; Zhang, Quanguo; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2017-09-22

    Pigments (mainly carotenoids) are important nutraceuticals known for their potent anti-oxidant activities and have been used extensively as high end health supplements. Microalgae are the most promising sources of natural carotenoids and are devoid of the toxic effects associated with synthetic derivatives. Compared to photoautotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae in well-controlled bioreactors for pigments production has attracted much attention for commercial applications due to overcoming the difficulties associated with the supply of CO2 and light, as well as avoiding the contamination problems and land requirements in open autotrophic culture systems. In this review, the heterotrophic metabolic potential of microalgae and their uses in pigment production are comprehensively described. Strategies to enhance pigment production under heterotrophic conditions are critically discussed and the challenges faced in heterotrophic pigment production with possible alternative solutions are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Ruchi Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-04-13

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na{sup +} with Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  1. Light pigmentation phenotype is correlated with increased substantia nigra echogenicity.

    PubMed

    Rumpf, Jost-Julian; Schirmer, Maria; Fricke, Christopher; Weise, David; Wagner, Justinus Aspasios; Simon, Jan; Classen, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    This study was undertaken to address the question of whether pigmentation may be mechanistically linked with Parkinson's disease. In a cross-sectional, observational study, 116 healthy subjects received transcranial sonography of the substantia nigra. Pigmentation phenotype was assessed using the Fitzpatrick skin phototype classification, and five additional phenotypic pigmentation traits as well as a photographic method (Melanin index) in a subgroup of 46 subjects. Lighter skin phototype was associated with larger echogenic substantia nigra area and increased prevalence of abnormally enlarged echogenic substantia nigra area. The strongest association of substantia nigra echogenicity and phenotypic pigmentation traits was found for hair color and facial tanning. Findings suggest an increasing prevalence of structural abnormality of substantia nigra with decreasing darkness of skin and thus may provide additional evidence in favor of a pathogenic link of pigmentation and Parkinson's disease. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  2. Pigmentation and behavior: potential association through pleiotropic genes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Aya

    2013-01-01

    The molecular basis of pigmentation variation within and among Drosophila species is largely attributed to genes in melanin biosynthesis pathway, which involves dopamine metabolism. Most of the genetic changes underlying pigmentation variations reported to date are changes at the expression levels of the structural genes in the pathway. Within D. melanogaster, changes in cis-regulatory regions of a gene, ebony, are responsible for the naturally occurring variation of the body pigmentation intensity. This gene is also known to be expressed in glia, and many visual and behavioral abnormalities of its mutants have been reported. This implies that the gene has pleiotropic functions in the nervous systems. In this review, current knowledge on pigmentation variation and melanin biosynthesis pathway are summarized, with some focus on pleiotropic features of ebony and other genes in the pathway. A potential association between pigmentation and behavior through such pleiotropic genes is discussed in light of cis-regulatory structure and pleiotropic mutations.

  3. A melanosomal two-pore sodium channel regulates pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Bellono, Nicholas W.; Escobar, Iliana E.; Oancea, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular organelles mediate complex cellular functions that often require ion transport across their membranes. Melanosomes are organelles responsible for the synthesis of the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanin synthesis result in pigmentation defects, visual deficits, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Although genes encoding putative melanosomal ion transporters have been identified as key regulators of melanin synthesis, melanosome ion transport and its contribution to pigmentation remain poorly understood. Here we identify two-pore channel 2 (TPC2) as the first reported melanosomal cation conductance by directly patch-clamping skin and eye melanosomes. TPC2 has been implicated in human pigmentation and melanoma, but the molecular mechanism mediating this function was entirely unknown. We demonstrate that the vesicular signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate PI(3,5)P2 modulates TPC2 activity to control melanosomal membrane potential, pH, and regulate pigmentation. PMID:27231233

  4. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Ruchi; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na+ with Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  5. Optimization and design of pigments for heat-insulating coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guang-Hai; Zhang, Yue

    2010-12-01

    This paper reports that heat insulating property of infrared reflective coatings is obtained through the use of pigments which diffuse near-infrared thermal radiation. Suitable structure and size distribution of pigments would attain maximum diffuse infrared radiation and reduce the pigment volume concentration required. The optimum structure and size range of pigments for reflective infrared coatings are studied by using Kubelka—Munk theory, Mie model and independent scattering approximation. Taking titania particle as the pigment embedded in an inorganic coating, the computational results show that core-shell particles present excellent scattering ability, more so than solid and hollow spherical particles. The optimum radius range of core-shell particles is around 0.3 ~ 1.6 μm. Furthermore, the influence of shell thickness on optical parameters of the coating is also obvious and the optimal thickness of shell is 100-300 nm.

  6. Altitudinal and seasonal variation of protective and photosynthetic pigments in leaves of the world's highest elevation trees Polylepis tarapacana (Rosaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. A.; Gallardo, M. G.; Boero, C.; Liberman Cruz, M.; Prado, F. E.

    2007-07-01

    In the present study we analyzed both photosynthetic and UV-B absorbing pigment variations in Polylepis tarapacana (Rosaceae) during two contrasting seasons (winter and summer) at two altitudes (4300 and 5000 m a.s.l.) in the Sajama volcano (Oruro, Bolivia). UV-B absorbing pigments, chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids contents as well as the chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b ratio showed clear differences in both seasons. UV-B absorbing pigments, total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a contents as well as chlorophyll a/b values were higher in winter than in summer at both altitudes, while chlorophyll b content and the total chlorophyll to carotenoids ratio showed an opposite pattern. Carotenoids content exhibited not only an increase with altitude but also a significant variation between seasons, the highest value being recorded in winter. We discuss the results in relation to the radiation regime of the Sajama region rather than to the water status of the plant studied, since the latter was similar for both seasons and altitudes.

  7. Algal pigments record shifts in dominant primary productivity through the Holocene in an arctic lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florian, C.; Miller, G. H.; Fogel, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    matter content of the sediment, C and N stable isotopes, and diatoms species assemblages. Whether this shift in dominant primary producer occurs in other arctic lakes remains to be seen. Samples are currently being run from several other sites on Baffin Island to test this relationship. The fast response time of algal production to changing environmental conditions makes the measurement of these pigments suitable for the study of abrupt climate changes.

  8. The influence of abdominal pigmentation on desiccation and ultraviolet resistance in two species of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Matute, Daniel R; Harris, Alexandra

    2013-08-01

    Drosophila yakuba and D. santomea are sister species that differ in their levels of abdominal pigmentation; D. yakuba shows heavily pigmented posterior abdominal segments in both sexes, whereas D. santomea lacks dark pigment anywhere on its body. Using naturally collected lines, we demonstrate the existence of altitudinal variation in abdominal pigmentation in D. yakuba but not in D. santomea. We use the variation in pigmentation within D. yakuba and two body-color mutants in D. yakuba to elucidate selective advantage of differences in pigmentation. Our results indicate that although differences in abdominal pigmentation have no effect on desiccation resistance, lighter pigmentation confers ultraviolet radiation resistance in this pair of species.

  9. Preferential interactions in pigmented, polymer blends - C.I. Pigment Blue 15:4 and C.I. Pigment Red 122 - as used in a poly(carbonate)-poly(butylene terephthalate) polymer blend.

    PubMed

    Fagelman, K E; Guthrie, J T

    2005-11-18

    Some important characteristics of selected pigments have been evaluated, using the inverse gas chromatography (IGC) technique, that indicate the occurrence of preferential interactions in pigmented polymer blends. Attention has been given to copper phthalocyanine pigments and to quinacridone pigments incorporated in polycarbonate-poly(butylene terephthalate) blends. Selected supporting techniques were used to provide supplementary information concerning the pigments of interest, C.I. Pigment Blue 15:4 and C.I. Pigment Red 122. For C.I. Pigment Red 122 and for C.I. Pigment Blue, the dispersive component of the surface free energy decreases as the temperature increases, indicating the relative ease with which the molecules can be removed from the surface.

  10. Relation Between Changes in Pigments' Spectral Properties and Structural Distortions of Pigment Protein Complexes (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoitchkova, Katerina; Andreeva, Atanaska; Busheva, Mira

    2009-04-01

    Scientists continue to investigate photosynthesis-nature's process to efficiently regulate and store energy. To explore the mechanisms of regulation we used fluorescence, resonance Raman spectroscopy, and biochemical preparative methods. For detailed analysis we applied decomposition of the low temperature steady-state fluorescence spectra. This allowed us to estimate the emission of distinct pigment protein complexes (PPC) and evaluate the fluorescence of various aggregation forms of the main light harvesting complex (LHCII), which plays a major role in the studied mechanisms. Resonance Raman spectroscopy revealed with precision the relation between changes in pigments' spectral properties and structural distortions of PPC. It was shown that aggregation of LHCII led to out-of-plane distortion, not only of neoxanthin, but also of lutein molecules. This was enhanced when the complex was embedded in thylakoid membranes (TM). It was suggested that lutein molecules are more closely related to the process of aggregation of LHCII in TM than neoxanthin.

  11. The other pigment cell: specification and development of the pigmented epithelium of the vertebrate eye

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Kapil; Nguyen, Minh-Thanh T.; Skuntz, Susan; Bertuzzi, Stefano; Arnheiter, Heinz

    2006-01-01

    Summary Vertebrate retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells are derived from the multipotent optic neuroepithelium, develop in close proximity to the retina, and are indispensible for eye organogenesis and vision. Recent advances in our understanding of RPE development provide evidence for how critical signaling factors operating in dorso-ventral and distal-proximal gradients interact with key transcription factors to specify three distinct domains in the budding optic neuroepithelium: the distal future retina, the proximal future optic stalk/optic nerve, and the dorsal future RPE. Concomitantly with domain specification, the eye primordium progresses from a vesicle to a cup, RPE pigmentation extends towards the ventral side, and the future ciliary body and iris form from the margin zone between RPE and retina. While much has been learned about the molecular networks controlling RPE cell specification, key questions concerning the cell proliferative parameters in RPE and the subsequent morphogenetic events still need to be addressed in greater detail. PMID:16965267

  12. pH-Regulated Mechanisms Account for Pigment-Type Differences in Epidermal Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Gunathilake, Roshan; Schurer, Nanna Y.; Shoo, Brenda A.; Celli, Anna; Hachem, Jean-Pierre; Crumrine, Debra; Sirimanna, Ganga; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Mauro, Theodora M.; Elias, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether pigment type determines differences in epidermal function, we studied stratum corneum (SC) pH, permeability barrier homeostasis, and SC integrity in three geographically disparate populations with pigment type I–II versus IV–V skin (Fitzpatrick I–VI scale). Type IV–V subjects showed: (i) lower surface pH (≈0.5 U); (ii) enhanced SC integrity (transepidermal water loss change with sequential tape strippings); and (iii) more rapid barrier recovery than type I–II subjects. Enhanced barrier function could be ascribed to increased epidermal lipid content, increased lamellar body production, and reduced acidity, leading to enhanced lipid processing. Compromised SC integrity in type I–II subjects could be ascribed to increased serine protease activity, resulting in accelerated desmoglein-1 (DSG-1)/corneodesmosome degradation. In contrast, DSG-1-positive CDs persisted in type IV–V subjects, but due to enhanced cathepsin-D activity, SC thickness did not increase. Adjustment of pH of type I–II SC to type IV–V levels improved epidermal function. Finally, dendrites from type IV–V melanocytes were more acidic than those from type I–II subjects, and they transfer more melanosomes to the SC, suggesting that melanosome secretion could contribute to the more acidic pH of type IV–V skin. These studies show marked pigment-type differences in epidermal structure and function that are pH driven. PMID:19177137

  13. The carotenoid biosynthetic and catabolic genes in wheat and their association with yellow pigments.

    PubMed

    Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Lozito, Maria Luisa; Marcotuli, Ilaria; Nigro, Domenica; Giancaspro, Angelica; Mangini, Giacomo; De Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria; Pecchioni, Nicola; Houston, Kelly; Simeone, Rosanna; Gadaleta, Agata; Blanco, Antonio

    2017-01-31

    In plants carotenoids play an important role in the photosynthetic process and photo-oxidative protection, and are the substrate for the synthesis of abscisic acid and strigolactones. In addition to their protective role as antioxidants and precursors of vitamin A, in wheat carotenoids are important as they influence the colour (whiteness vs. yellowness) of the grain. Understanding the genetic basis of grain yellow pigments, and identifying associated markers provide the basis for improving wheat quality by molecular breeding. Twenty-four candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis and catabolism of carotenoid compounds have been identified in wheat by comparative genomics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in the coding sequences of 19 candidate genes allowed their chromosomal location and accurate map position on two reference consensus maps to be determined. The genome-wide association study based on genotyping a tetraploid wheat collection with 81,587 gene-associated SNPs validated quantitative trait loci (QTLs) previously detected in biparental populations and discovered new QTLs for grain colour-related traits. Ten carotenoid genes mapped in chromosome regions underlying pigment content QTLs indicating possible functional relationships between candidate genes and the trait. The availability of linked, candidate gene-based markers can facilitate breeding wheat cultivars with desirable levels of carotenoids. Identifying QTLs linked to carotenoid pigmentation can contribute to understanding genes underlying carotenoid accumulation in the wheat kernels. Together these outputs can be combined to exploit the genetic variability of colour-related traits for the nutritional and commercial improvement of wheat products.

  14. Phylogeography and pigment type diversity of Synechococcus cyanobacteria in surface waters of the northwestern pacific ocean.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaomin; Partensky, Frédéric; Garczarek, Laurence; Suzuki, Koji; Guo, Cui; Yan Cheung, Shun; Liu, Hongbin

    2017-01-01

    The widespread unicellular cyanobacteria Synechococcus are major contributors to global marine primary production. Here, we report their abundance, phylogenetic diversity (as assessed using the RNA polymerase gamma subunit gene rpoC1) and pigment diversity (as indirectly assessed using the laterally transferred cpeBA genes, encoding phycoerythrin-I) in surface waters of the northwestern Pacific Ocean, sampled over nine distinct cruises (2008-2015). Abundance of Synechococcus was low in the subarctic ocean and South China Sea, intermediate in the western subtropical Pacific Ocean, and the highest in the Japan and East China seas. Clades I and II were by far the most abundant Synechococcus lineages, the former dominating in temperate cold waters and the latter in (sub)tropical waters. Clades III and VI were also fairly abundant in warm waters, but with a narrower distribution than clade II. One type of chromatic acclimater (3dA) largely dominated the Synechococcus communities in the subarctic ocean, while another (3dB) and/or cells with a fixed high phycourobilin to phycoerythrobilin ratio (pigment type 3c) predominated at mid and low latitudes. Altogether, our results suggest that the variety of pigment content found in most Synechococcus clades considerably extends the niches that they can colonize and therefore the whole genus habitat. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Simultaneous quantification of opiates and effect of pigmentation on its deposition in hair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sooyeun; Han, Eunyoung; Kim, Eunmi; Choi, Hwakyung; Chung, Heesun; Oh, Seung Min; Yun, Young Mi; Jwa, Seok Hun; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2010-11-01

    In forensic toxicology, the abuse of various opiate preparations, such as raw opium and heroin, is of interest since the metabolic pathways of these opiates overlap. Although the pharmaco(toxico)kinetics in hair is not clearly understood, melanin is thought to play a key part in the incorporation and distribution of drugs and metabolites in hair. Therefore, in the present study, a simultaneous quantification method for the determination of codeine, morphine, norcodeine, normorphine and 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) in hair was developed in order to analytically diagnose chronic users of opiates including morphine and codeine preparations, raw opium and heroin. Furthermore, the effect of hair pigmentation on the distribution of opiates in hair was investigated using lean Zucker rats with both dark grey and white hair on the same body. Opiates were extracted using 0.1 M hydrochloric acid followed by solid phase extraction. The extracts were derivatized with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The method was fully validated and applied to the animal study. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that codeine, morphine and their metabolites were successfully determined in both pigmented and non-pigmented hair. However, the melanin content plays an important role in the degree of incorporation of morphine, codeine and their metabolites into hair.

  16. Superpixel segmentation and pigment identification of colored relics based on visible spectral image.

    PubMed

    Li, Junfeng; Wan, Xiaoxia

    2017-08-14

    To enrich the contents of digital archive and to guide the copy and restoration of colored relics, non-invasive methods for extraction of painting boundary and identification of pigment composition are proposed in this study based on the visible spectral images of colored relics. Superpixel concept is applied for the first time to the field of oversegmentation of visible spectral images and implemented on the visible spectral images of colored relics to extract their painting boundary. Since different pigments are characterized by their own spectrum and the same kind of pigment has the similar geometric profile in spectrum, an automatic identification method is established by comparing the proximity between the geometric profiles of the unknown spectrum from each superpixel and the pre-known spectrum from a deliberately prepared database. The methods are validated using the visible spectral images of the ancient wall paintings in Mogao Grottoes. By the way, the visible spectral images are captured by a multispectral imaging system consisting of two broadband filters and a RGB camera with high spatial resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Endogenous circadian rhythms in pigment composition induce changes in photochemical efficiency in plant canopies.

    PubMed

    García-Plazaola, José Ignacio; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Alday, Josu G; Hoch, Günter; Landais, Damien; Milcu, Alexandru; Tissue, David T; Voltas, Jordi; Gessler, Arthur; Roy, Jacques; Resco de Dios, Víctor

    2017-01-18

    There is increasing evidence that the circadian clock is a significant driver of photosynthesis that becomes apparent when environmental cues are experimentally held constant. We studied whether the composition of photosynthetic pigments is under circadian regulation, and whether pigment oscillations lead to rhythmic changes in photochemical efficiency. To address these questions, canopies of bean and cotton were maintained, after an entrainment phase, under constant (light or darkness) conditions for 30-48 h. Photosynthesis and quantum yield peaked at subjective noon and non-photochemical quenching peaked at night. These oscillations were not associated to parallel changes in carbohydrate content or xanthophyll cycle activity. We observed robust oscillations of Chla/b during constant light in both species, and also under constant darkness in bean, peaking when it would have been night during the entrainment (subjective nights). These oscillations could be attributed to the synthesis and/or degradation of trimeric light-harvesting complex II (reflected by the rhythmic changes in Chla/b), with the antenna size minimal at night and maximal around subjective noon. Considering together the oscillations of pigments and photochemistry, the observed pattern of changes is counterintuitive if we assume that the plant strategy is to avoid photo-damage, but consistent with a strategy where non-stressed plants maximize photosynthesis.

  18. Effect of storage on refined olive oil composition: stabilization by addition of chlorophyll pigments and squalene.

    PubMed

    Rigane, Ghayth; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Sayadi, Sami; Salem, Ridha Ben

    2013-01-01

    Refined olive oil has been analyzed in order to evaluate the influence of storage time on their quality after enrichment with chlorophyll pigments and squalene. At the end of the storage, chlorophyll pigments decomposed for more than 90%, while, carotene pigment loss was lower showing up to 75% in all oil samples stored at 20°C and 50°C. The reduction of total phenolic compounds exhibited similar degradation profiles, reducing by 81% for enriched refined olive oil stored at 20°C and 50°C after six months. For all studied samples, squalene content decreased significantly (p< 0.05) only after four months of storage. Oils with added pure squalene had the lower peroxide values (52 meq O2 · kg(-1)) at the end of storage at 20°C. After six months of storage the oxidative stability increased to 1 h 28 min and 2 h 06 min for refined olive oil stored at 20°C enriched with chlorophyll + squalene and only by squalene, respectively. Therefore, squalene supplemented with 800 mg · kg(-1) exhibited favorable antioxidant effects and is preferable for effectively avoiding oxidation. This study could provide useful information for industry to produce high-stability vegetable oil.

  19. Radiative Cooling With Pigmented Polyethylene Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Eriksson, Tord S.

    1989-03-01

    Polyethylene foils containing a nonabsorbing pigment can be suitable for radiative cooling because of their high reflectance of solar radiation combined with a high transmittance in the atmospheric window region in the thermal infrared. We have studied the optical properties in the wavelength range 0.3-50 μm of extruded polyethylene foils containing various amounts of 0.23 μm diameter Ti02 particles. It appears that the foils can prevent heating of an underlying material, even when directly illuminated by the sun. The total transmittance and reflectance of the Ti02-polyethylene foils were compared with multiple scattering calculations. Lorenz-Mie theory was used to model the scattering and absorption of a single TiO2 sphere. The single scattering parameters were then introduced into the four flux theory, by which the transmittance and reflectance were calculated. We find a satisfactory agreement between theory and experiments in most cases.

  20. Photosynthesis-dependent anthocyanin pigmentation in arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Prasanta Kumar; Geul, Bang; Choi, Sang-Bong; Yoo, Sang-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Light is the ultimate energy source for photo-autotrophs on earth. For green plants, however, it can also be toxic under certain stressful environmental conditions and at critical developmental stages. Anthocyanins, a class of flavonoids, act as an effective screening mechanism that allows plant survival and proliferation under occasional periods of harmful irradiation through modulation of light absorption. Apart from light-sensing through photoreceptors such as phytochrome and cryptochrome, plants use the photosynthetic electron transfer (PET) chain to integrate light information. The redox status of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool of the PET chain regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, together with the plant hormone ethylene and plant hormone-like sugars. A complex signaling apparatus in acyanic cells appears to transduce information to cyanic cells to regulate anthocyanin production through an intercellular signaling pathway that remains largely uncharacterized. This review will highlight recent advances in this field and their implications for the regulation of anthocyanin pigmentation. PMID:21248473

  1. Idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation with papillomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shikha; Thakur, Binod Kumar

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of an otherwise healthy 10-year-old girl who presented with asymptomatic brown macules over the trunk and proximal extremities, of three months’ duration. The cutaneous examination revealed multiple, dark brown, discrete, round to oval macules and a few mildly elevated lesions over the trunk and proximal limbs. The individual lesion was 1-3 cm in diameter and a few showed velvety appearance over the surface. Darier's sign was negative. The histopathological study from the velvety lesion showed acanthosis, papillomatosis and increased melanin in the basal layer. The upper dermis showed sparse perivascular infiltrate of lymphocytes without any dermal melanophages. It fulfilled the criteria for idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation with additional histological finding of papillomatosis. PMID:23130237

  2. Photosynthesis-dependent anthocyanin pigmentation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Das, Prasanta Kumar; Geul, Bang; Choi, Sang-Bong; Yoo, Sang-Dong; Park, Youn-Il

    2011-01-01

    Light is the ultimate energy source for photo-autotrophs on earth. For green plants, however, it can also be toxic under certain stressful environmental conditions and at critical developmental stages. Anthocyanins, a class of flavonoids, act as an effective screening mechanism that allows plant survival and proliferation under occasional periods of harmful irradiation through modulation of light absorption. Apart from light-sensing through photoreceptors such as phytochrome and cryptochrome, plants use the photosynthetic electron transfer (PET) chain to integrate light information. The redox status of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool of the PET chain regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, together with the plant hormone ethylene and plant hormone-like sugars. A complex signaling apparatus in acyanic cells appears to transduce information to cyanic cells to regulate anthocyanin production through an intercellular signaling pathway that remains largely uncharacterized. This review will highlight recent advances in this field and their implications for the regulation of anthocyanin pigmentation.

  3. Genetics of pigmentation in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Kaelin, Christopher B; Barsh, Gregory S

    2013-01-01

    Color variation in companion animals has long been of interest to the breeding and scientific communities. Simple traits, like black versus brown or yellow versus black, have helped to explain principles of transmission genetics and continue to serve as models for studying gene action and interaction. We present a molecular genetic review of pigmentary variation in dogs and cats using a nomenclature and logical framework established by early leaders in the field. For most loci in which molecular variants have been identified (nine in dogs and seven in cats), homologous mutations exist in laboratory mice and/or humans. Exceptions include the K locus in dogs and the Tabby locus in cats, which give rise to alternating stripes or marks of different color, and which illustrate the continued potential of coat color genetics to provide insight into areas that transcend pigment cell biology.

  4. Cutaneous pigmentation secondary to amiodarone therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Trimble, J.W.; Mendelson, D.S.; Fetter, B.F.; Ingram, P.; Gallagher, J.J.; Shelburne, J.D.

    1983-11-01

    Amiodarone (Cordarone) is an iodinated cardiac antiarrhythmic drug that causes a slate-gray discoloration of the sun-exposed skin and a yellow-brown stippling of the cornea. Histopathologically, biopsy specimens of aminodarone pigmentation sites disclose yellow-brown refractile granules in the reticular dermis. These granules were characterized by transmission electron microscopy as being concentrically arranged intralysosomal inclusions (''myelinlike'' bodies) in dermal endothelial cells and perivascular smooth-muscle cells. Electron probe x-ray analysis of these same inclusions disclosed definite peaks for iodine, evidence for the presence of amiodarone or a metabolite of the drug at these sites. Amiodarone, then, concentrates in lysosomes and causes an accumulation of lipids similar to what has been seen with other cationic amphiphilic compounds, such as the glycosphingolipid stored in Fabry's disease. Amiodarone must be recognized as a cause of a drug-induced lipid storage disease with cutaneous and corneal manifestations.

  5. Antioxidant activity and content of chlorophylls and carotenoids in raw and heat-processed Jalapeño peppers at intermediate stages of ripening.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Paz, Braulio; Yahia, Elhadi M; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, José; Victoria-Campos, Claudia I; Ibarra-Junquera, Vrani; Pérez-Martínez, Jaime David; Escalante-Minakata, Pilar

    2014-03-01

    Jalapeño peppers at intermediate ripening stages (IRS) are typically discarded at the packinghouse because they are not demanded for fresh consumption or industrial processing. These peppers have been scarcely studied in terms of pigment composition and bioactivity. In this study, the profile of pigments (carotenoids and chlorophylls) and antioxidant activity were determined in raw and heat-processed Jalapeño peppers at three IRS (brown, 50% red, and 75% red). Peppers contained 64 different pigments. Chlorophylls were the most abundant pigments in raw brown peppers while capsanthin was the most abundant at the other IRS. The content of most pigments decreased due to heat treatments. Several pheophytins and cis isomers of carotenoids were generated by heat processing. Boiling and grilling consistently decreased and increased the antioxidant activity of peppers, respectively. Tested peppers showed a more complex/abundant pigment content and higher antioxidant activity than those typically reported for green and red peppers.

  6. The role of meta-topolins on the photosynthetic pigment profiles and foliar structures of micropropagated 'Williams' bananas.

    PubMed

    Aremu, Adeyemi O; Bairu, Michael W; Szüčová, Lucie; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

    2012-10-15

    The effect of five topolins (meta-Topolin=mT; meta-Topolin riboside=mTR; meta-Methoxy topolin=MemT; meta-Methoxy topolin riboside=MemTR and 6-(meta-methoxy)-9-(tetrahydropyran-2-yl)-topolin=MemTTHP) on the photosynthetic pigments and leaf structures of micropropagated 'Williams' bananas was compared with the commonly used benzyladenine (BA). Surface-decontaminated explants were cultured for 70 d on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium and supplemented with 10, 20 or 30μM cytokinins (CKs). At 10 d intervals, the photosynthetic pigments were quantified via spectrophotometric methods for 7 cycles. Generally, the maximum pigment content was attained between 40 and 50 d. The control plantlets had the highest pigment content (1150μg/g FW). Among the CKs, 10μM MemTTHP generally had the best pigment stimulatory effect at the same period. After 40 d, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the foliar surface showed that the stomata density was highest in 10μM MemTTHP-treated and lowest in 10μM MemTR-treated plantlets. The stomatal structure and pore area also varied with the type and concentration of CK added. Generally, prolonging culture duration as well as increasing CK concentrations reduced the pigment content. However, the drastic breakdown in chlorophyll pigments beyond 50 d was slightly inhibited by the presence of mT, mTR, MemTTHP and BA compared to the control. The CK-treated plantlets at equimolar concentration had comparable chlorophyll a/b and total chlorophyll/carotenoid ratios after 10 d; probably as an adaptive measure. At the end of the current study, 10μM mT and mTR plantlets remained green as reflected by the higher total chlorophyll/carotenoid ratio as well as by the visual observations. A well-developed photosynthetic apparatus enhances the survival of in vitro plantlets during the acclimatization stage. Current findings provide some insight into the role of meta-topolins on photosynthetic parameters in vitro, which inevitably partly

  7. Clinicoepidemiological study of pigmented purpuric dermatoses

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Lata; Gupta, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPD) are a group of vascular disorders with varied manifestations which cause concern and are resistant to treatment. The literature is still lacking in clinicoepidemiological studies. Aim: To study the epidemiology, etiological, host and environmental factors, clinical manifestations, its variations, and the type prevalent in this part of the world. Materials and Methods: All cases of PPD were selected for the study from Skin and Venereal Disease, Out Patient Department between January 2008 and June 2009. Their history, examination, hematological investigations, and, in a few, histopathology findings were also recorded and data obtained were evaluated statistically. Results: There were 100 cases of PPD of total 55 323 patients (0.18%). There were 79 males and 21 females between 11 and 66 years. They were working as police men, security guards, barber, chemist, teachers, students, farmers, businessmen, and housewives. In a majority, there was a history of prolonged standing in day-to-day work. Purpuric, brownish pigmented, lichenoid or atrophic lesions were seen depending upon the type of PPD on lower parts of one or both lower limbs. Blood investigations were normal. Schamberg's disease was seen in ninety five, Lichen aureus in three, lichenoid dermatosis and Majocchi's disease in one case each. Discussion: Three clinical types of PPD were diagnosed which may represent different features of the same disease. Cell-mediated immunity, immune complexes, capillary fragility, gravitational forces, venous hypertension, focal infection, clothing, contact allergy to dyes, and drug intake have been incriminating factors in the past. Patient's occupation and environmental factors may also be considered contributory in precipitating the disease. Conclusions: The study revealed the problem of PPD in this geographical area, its magnitude, clinical presentation, the type prevalent, and possible aggravating factors to be kept in mind

  8. Human hair pigmentation--biological aspects.

    PubMed

    Tobin, D J

    2008-08-01

    Skin and hair colour contribute significantly to our overall visual appearance and to social/sexual communication. Despite their shared origins in the embryologic neural crest, the hair follicle and epidermal pigmentary units occupy distinct, although open, cutaneous compartments. They can be distinguished principally on the basis of the former's stringent coupling to the hair growth cycle compared with the latter's continuous melanogenesis. The biosynthesis of melanin and its subsequent transfer from melanocyte to hair bulb keratinocytes depend on the availability of melanin precursors and on a raft of signal transduction pathways that are both highly complex and commonly redundant. These signalling pathways can be both dependent and independent of receptors, act through auto-, para- or intracrine mechanisms and can be modified by hormonal signals. Despite many shared features, follicular melanocytes appear to be more sensitive than epidermal melanocytes to ageing influences. This can be seen most dramatically in hair greying/canities and this is likely to reflect significant differences in the epidermal and follicular microenvironments. The hair follicle pigmentary unit may also serve as an important environmental sensor, whereby hair pigment contributes to the rapid excretion of heavy metals, chemicals and toxins from the body by their selective binding to melanin; rendering the hair fibre a useful barometer of exposures. The recent availability of advanced cell culture methodologies for isolated hair follicle melanocytes and for intact anagen hair follicle organ culture should provide the research tools necessary to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle pigmentation. In the longer term, it may be feasible to develop hair colour modifiers of a biological nature to accompany those based on chemicals.

  9. Raman spectroscopic monitoring of the growth of pigmented and non-pigmented mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Stephan; Stanca, Andrei Sebastian; Helbig, Jonathan; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    Raman microspectroscopy has increased in popularity in the field of microbiology because it allows a spectral fingerprinting of bacterial pathogens at an unrivaled speed, which is important for the early treatment of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. An indispensable prerequisite for the success of this method is a profound knowledge, how the spectral profiles depend on the age of the bacteria. We therefore followed the growth of two rapidly growing Mycobacterium tuberculosis relatives, the pigmented Mycobacterium aurum, and the non-pigmented Mycobacterium smegmatis, by means of Raman microspectroscopy. Both species showed remarkable temporal changes in the single-bacteria Raman spectra: In the signatures of M. aurum, pigment-associated Raman signals could be detected not until 72 h of growth and also remained highly variable thereafter. The Raman spectra of M. smegmatis exhibited lipid signals presumably arising from mycolic acids, which are a hallmark feature of mycobacteria, but only after the bacteria reached the late stationary growth phase (>48 h). A principal component analysis thus classified the Raman spectra according to the cultivation age. In summary, these findings have to be reckoned with in future studies dealing with the identification of mycobacteria via Raman microspectroscopy. Graphical abstract Changes in the chemical composition of bacterial cells over growth time may influence the results of Raman spectroscopic studies of bacteria.

  10. Characterization of total antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of differently pigmented rice varieties and their changes during domestic cooking.

    PubMed

    Zaupa, Maria; Calani, Luca; Del Rio, Daniele; Brighenti, Furio; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2015-11-15

    In the recent years, the pigmented rice varieties are becoming more popular due to their antioxidant properties and phenolic content. In this study, we characterized the antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the phenolic profile in white, red and black rice varieties, and evaluated the effect of two cooking methods (i.e. "risotto" and boiling) on these compounds. Before the cooking, all the varieties contained several phenolic acids, whereas anthocyanins and flavonols were peculiar of black rice and flavan-3-ols of red rice. Among the rice varieties, the black had the highest TAC value. The content of (poly)phenolic compounds and TAC decreased after cooking in all three varieties, but to a lesser extent after the risotto method. As a consequence, the risotto cooking, which allows a complete absorption of water, would be a good cooking method to retain (poly)phenolic compounds and TAC in pigmented and non-pigmented whole-meal rice.

  11. Destruction of liver haem by norethindrone. Conversion into green pigments

    PubMed Central

    White, Ian N. H.

    1981-01-01

    1. Factors affecting the norethindrone-mediated conversion of hepatic haem into green pigments have been studied in the rat. Concentrations of haem and green pigments were estimated spectrophotometrically after esterification and separation by silica gel high-pressure liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.). 2. Accumulation of green pigments in the liver was dependent on the dose of steroid and the time after dosing, maximum values being reached after 4–8h. Phenobarbitone pretreatment of rats resulted in an 8-fold increase in the concentration of green pigments at these times. 3. In microsomal systems in vitro, the formation of green pigments in the presence of NADPH and norethindrone was also dependent on the concentration of steroid and incubation times. Reaction rates very rapidly became non-linear with time, consistent with the self-catalysed destruction of the form(s) of cytochrome P-450 responsible for the metabolic activation of norethindrone. Microsomal mixtures incubated for a short period of time (1min) with norethindrone gave only one green-pigment peak after h.p.l.c. Longer incubation times gave four or five additional green pigments. Results suggested that multiple green pigments may arise by metabolic transformation of a single precursor. 4. When liver haem was prelabelled with 14C by using 5-amino[4-14C]laevulinic acid, subsequent dosing with norethindrone in vivo gave rise to three major 14C-labelled-green-pigment peaks on h.p.l.c. None of these components had the same retention times as the green pigments produced by microsomal fractions in vitro. 5. When liver haem was prelabelled with 59Fe by using 59FeCl3, norethindrone administration resulted in the detection of 59Fe-labelled green pigments if subsequent esterification was carried out under neutral conditions with trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate, but not when carried out under acidic conditions with methanol/H2SO4. These results suggested that green pigments normally contain chelated iron and

  12. Comparative short-term inhalation toxicity of five organic diketopyrrolopyrrole pigments and two inorganic iron-oxide-based pigments

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Thomas; Ma-Hock, Lan; Strauss, Volker; Treumann, Silke; Rey Moreno, Maria; Neubauer, Nicole; Wohlleben, Wendel; Gröters, Sibylle; Wiench, Karin; Veith, Ulrich; Teubner, Wera; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diketopyrrolopyrroles (DPP) are a relatively new class of organic high-performance pigments. The present inhalation and particle characterization studies were performed to compare the effects of five DPP-based pigments (coarse and fine Pigment Red 254, coarse and fine meta-chloro DPP isomer and one form of mixed chlorinated DPP isomers) and compare it to coarse and fine inorganic Pigment Red 101. Wistar rats were exposed head-nose to atmospheres of the respective materials for 6 h/day on 5 consecutive days. Target concentrations were 30 mg/m3 as high dose for all compounds and selected based occupational exposure limits for respirable nuisance dust. Toxicity was determined after end of exposure and after 3-week recovery using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and microscopic examinations of the entire respiratory tract. Mixed chlorinated DPP isomers and coarse meta-chloro DPP isomer caused marginal changes in BALF, consisting of slight increases of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, and in case of coarse meta-chloro DPP increased MCP-1 and osteopontin levels. Mixed chlorinated DPP isomers, Pigment Red 254, and meta-chloro DPP caused pigment deposits and phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages, slight hypertrophy/hyperplasia of the bronchioles and alveolar ducts, but without evidence of inflammation. In contrast, only pigment deposition and pigment phagocytosis were observed after exposure to Pigment Red 101. All pigments were tolerated well and caused only marginal effects in BALF or no effects at all. Only minor effects were seen on the lung by microscopic examination. There was no evidence of systemic inflammation based on acute-phase protein levels in blood. PMID:27387137

  13. Effects of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) on the light and temperature stability of a pigment from Beta vulgaris and its potential food industry applications.

    PubMed

    Molina, Gustavo A; Hernández-Martínez, Angel Ramon; Cortez-Valadez, Manuel; García-Hernández, Fernando; Estevez, Miriam

    2014-11-05

    A novel, simple and inexpensive modification method using TEOS to increase the UV light, pH and temperature stability of a red-beet-pigment extracted from Beta vulgaris has been proposed. The effects on the molecular structure of betalains were studied by FTIR spectroscopy. The presence of betacyanin was verified by UV-Vis spectroscopy and its degradation in modified red-beet-pigment was evaluated and compared to the unmodified red-beet-pigment; performance improvements of 88.33%, 16.84% and 20.90% for UV light, pH and temperature stability were obtained, respectively,. Measurements of reducing sugars, phenol, and antioxidant contents were performed on unmodified and modified red-beet-pigment and losses of close to 21%, 54% and 36%, respectively, were found to be caused by the addition of TEOS. Polar diagrams of color by unmodified and modified red-beet-pigment in models of a beverage and of a yogurt were obtained and the color is preserved, although here is a small loss in the chromaticity parameter of the modified red-beet-pigment.

  14. Interactions between inorganic pigments and proteinaceous binders in reference paint reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Duce, Celia; Bramanti, Emilia; Ghezzi, Lisa; Bernazzani, Luca; Bonaduce, Ilaria; Colombini, Maria Perla; Spepi, Alessio; Biagi, Simona; Tine, Maria Rosaria

    2013-05-07

    The degradation of the proteinaceous binders, ovalbumin (OVA) and casein, and their interactions with azurite (Cu(3)(CO(3))(2)(OH)(2)), calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)), hematite (Fe(2)O(3)) and red lead (Pb(3)O(4)) pigments were studied. A multi-analytical approach based on Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) was used. The research was carried out on a set of paint reconstructions, which were analysed before and after artificial light ageing. We highlighted that in most cases the inorganic pigments interact with both proteins by decreasing their thermal stability and their intermolecular β-sheet content, and that ageing induces aggregation. We hypothesized that pigments intercalate between protein molecules, producing a partial disruption to the protein-protein intermolecular interaction. In the case of casein, these phenomena continued during ageing. In fact, we observed a complete disappearance of intermolecular β-sheets and an increase in intramolecular β-sheets and random coil during ageing. This result is in agreement with the structural properties of casein, whose aggregation is known to be induced by hydrophobic interactions. On the other hand, in aged OVA paint replicas, we observed the formation of new intermolecular β-sheets and an increase in thermostability. In addition FTIR showed oxidation of the side chains of the aged OVA/hematite sample and aged casein pigment samples, and SEC highlighted hydrolysis phenomena in aged carbonate, azurite and red lead/OVA complexes and in aged casein/calcium carbonate and casein/azurite samples.

  15. Structural Characterization of Melanin Pigments from Commercial Preparations of the Edible Mushroom Auricularia auricula

    PubMed Central

    Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Toriola, Stacy; Nakouzi, Antonio; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Stark, Ruth; Gerfen, Gary; Tumpowsky, Paul; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Many of the most widely consumed edible mushrooms are pigmented, and these have been associated with some beneficial health effects. Nevertheless, the majority of the reported compounds associated with these desirable properties are non-pigmented. We have previously reported that melanin pigment from the edible mushroom Auricularia auricula can protect mice against ionizing radiation, although no physicochemical characterization was reported. Consequently, in this study we have characterized commercial A. auricula mushroom preparations for melanin content and carried out structural characterization of isolated insoluble melanin materials using a panel of sophisticated spectroscopic and physical/imaging techniques. Our results show that approximately 10% of the dry mass of A. auricula is melanin and that the pigment has physicochemical properties consistent with those of eumelanins, including hosting a stable free radical population. Electron microscopy studies show that melanin is associated with the mushroom cell wall in a manner similar to that of melanin from the model fungus C. neoformans. Elemental analysis of melanin indicated C, H, and N ratios consistent with 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid/5,6-dihydroxyindole and 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene eumelanin. Validation of the identity of the isolated product as melanin was achieved by EPR analysis. A. auricula melanin manifested structural differences, relative to the C. neoformans melanin, with regard to the variable proportions of alkyl chains or oxygenated carbons. Given the necessity for new oral and inexpensive radioprotective materials coupled with the commercial availability of A. auricula mushrooms, this product may represent an excellent source of edible melanin. PMID:26244793

  16. The Effects of Nitrogen Deficiency on Pigments and Lipids of Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    de Loura, Isabel Canto; Dubacq, Jean Paul; Thomas, Jean Claude

    1987-01-01

    In contrast to what happens in higher plants and eukaryotic algae, a nitrogen deficiency during growth causes a change in pigment composition but no significant changes in whole cell lipid and fatty acid composition of the two Cyanobacteria, Pseudanabaena sp. (strain M2) and Oscillatoria splendida (strain L3). Nitrogen deficiency does not affect the cellular content in chlorophyll a, but it causes a selective loss in phycobiliproteins; carotenoid content increases with phycocyanin depletion. The major cellular lipids in both Cyanobacteria studied are monogalactosyl diacylglycerol, digalactosyl diacylglycerol, sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol, and phosphatidylglycerol. The fatty acid composition is particularly interesting as both these filamentous Oscillatoriaceae show important contents in α- and γ-linolenic (18:3) and parinaric (18:4) acids. This seems to be very unusual in Cyanobacteria. Images Fig. 3 PMID:16665349

  17. The retinal pigment epithelium undergoes massive apoptosis during early differentiation and pigmentation of the optic cup

    PubMed Central

    Pequignot, M.O.; Provost, A.C.; Sallé, S.; Menasche, M.; Saule, S.; Jaïs, J-P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of our work was to study apoptosis during the development of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in mice between embryonic day (E) 10.5 and E12.5 and to examine a possible link between apoptosis and pigmentation. Methods We collected mouse embryos at E10.5, E11.5, and E12.5 and labeled apoptotic cells in 5-µm paraffin sections, using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling technique. We counted the total number of cells and the number of apoptotic cells in the early developing RPE and calculated the percentage of apoptosis at each stage. Results In the C57BL/6J mouse, 17% of the RPE cells were apoptotic at E10.5 compared to 0.9% at E12.5. At E11.5, three-quarters of the RPE cells began to pigment, and apoptotic cells were located mostly in the nonpigmented part. In contrast, in the BALB/c mouse (tyrosinase-deficient) and pJ mouse (carrying mutations in the p gene) hypopigmented strains, the RPE contained significantly fewer apoptotic cells (7.5% and 10.1%, respectively) at E10.5 than controls. Subsequently at E11.5 and E12.5, the two hypopigmented strains displayed different apoptotic patterns; the BALB/c RPE had a similar percentage of apoptotic cells to controls (1.5% and 1.1%, respectively, for BALB/c versus 3.0% and 0.9%, respectively, for C57BL/6J), whereas the pJ RPE contained significantly more apoptosis (7.5% and 3.5%, respectively). Overall we observed differences in the evolution of the relative total number of RPE cells between the three strains. Conclusions Apoptosis is a main event during the first stages of normal RPE development, indicating an essential role during RPE differentiation. Moreover, the early apoptotic pattern and possibly the whole early development of the RPE is different between hypopigmented and pigmented strains, as well as between BALB/c and pJ mice. This suggests the existence of regulatory and developmental differences with a more complex origin than just differing pigmentation levels

  18. The retinal pigment epithelium undergoes massive apoptosis during early differentiation and pigmentation of the optic cup.

    PubMed

    Pequignot, M O; Provost, A C; Sallé, S; Menasche, M; Saule, S; Jaïs, J-P; Abitbol, M

    2011-04-20

    The aim of our work was to study apoptosis during the development of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in mice between embryonic day (E) 10.5 and E12.5 and to examine a possible link between apoptosis and pigmentation. We collected mouse embryos at E10.5, E11.5, and E12.5 and labeled apoptotic cells in 5-µm paraffin sections, using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling technique. We counted the total number of cells and the number of apoptotic cells in the early developing RPE and calculated the percentage of apoptosis at each stage. In the C57BL/6J mouse, 17% of the RPE cells were apoptotic at E10.5 compared to 0.9% at E12.5. At E11.5, three-quarters of the RPE cells began to pigment, and apoptotic cells were located mostly in the nonpigmented part. In contrast, in the BALB/c mouse (tyrosinase-deficient) and pJ mouse (carrying mutations in the p gene) hypopigmented strains, the RPE contained significantly fewer apoptotic cells (7.5% and 10.1%, respectively) at E10.5 than controls. Subsequently at E11.5 and E12.5, the two hypopigmented strains displayed different apoptotic patterns; the BALB/c RPE had a similar percentage of apoptotic cells to controls (1.5% and 1.1%, respectively, for BALB/c versus 3.0% and 0.9%, respectively, for C57BL/6J), whereas the pJ RPE contained significantly more apoptosis (7.5% and 3.5%, respectively). Overall we observed differences in the evolution of the relative total number of RPE cells between the three strains. Apoptosis is a main event during the first stages of normal RPE development, indicating an essential role during RPE differentiation. Moreover, the early apoptotic pattern and possibly the whole early development of the RPE is different between hypopigmented and pigmented strains, as well as between BALB/c and pJ mice. This suggests the existence of regulatory and developmental differences with a more complex origin than just differing pigmentation levels.

  19. Content Wizard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlers-Zavala, Fabiola P.

    2001-01-01

    This classroom tip focuses on sustained-content language teaching. The game described--content wizard-- illustrates a practical technique for incorporating a range of language and academic skills into subject matter lessons for English-as-a-Second-Language learners. (Author/VWL)

  20. Genetic analyses of visual pigments of the pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, S; Blow, N S; Yokoyama, S

    1999-01-01

    We isolated five classes of retinal opsin genes rh1(Cl), rh2(Cl), sws1(Cl), sws2(Cl), and lws(Cl) from the pigeon; these encode RH1(Cl), RH2(Cl), SWS1(Cl), SWS2(Cl), and LWS(Cl) opsins, respectively. Upon binding to 11-cis-retinal, these opsins regenerate the corresponding photosensitive molecules, visual pigments. The absorbance spectra of visual pigments have a broad bell shape with the peak, being called lambdamax. Previously, the SWS1(Cl) opsin cDNA was isolated from the pigeon retinal RNA, expressed in cultured COS1 cells, reconstituted with 11-cis-retinal, and the lambdamax of the resulting SWS1(Cl) pigment was shown to be 393 nm. In this article, using the same methods, the lambdamax values of RH1(Cl), RH2(Cl), SWS2(Cl), and LWS(Cl) pigments were determined to be 502, 503, 448, and 559 nm, respectively. The pigeon is also known for its UV vision, detecting light at 320-380 nm. Being the only pigments that absorb light below 400 nm, the SWS1(Cl) pigments must mediate its UV vision. We also determined that a nonretinal P(Cl) pigment in the pineal gland of the pigeon has a lambdamax value at 481 nm. PMID:10581289

  1. In vitro quantitative chemical analysis of tattoo pigments.

    PubMed

    Timko, A L; Miller, C H; Johnson, F B; Ross, E

    2001-02-01

    The composition of cosmetic tattoos might prove relevant to their treatment by high-powered lasers. To test the accuracy and completeness of information supplied by the tattoo ink manufacturers and to perform an elemental assay of tattoo pigments using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Samples of 30 tattoo inks were examined using "standardless" energy-dispersive spectrometry. This technique uses quantitative electron x-ray microanalysis. The technique reliably identifies all elements with the exception of those elements with atomic numbers less than 11. A major national referral laboratory for microscopic examination and biochemical analysis of tissue. These results were compared with ink compositions compiled from manufacturer-supplied material safety data sheets. (1) The percentage of any given element in whole tattoo pigments. (2) The presence or absence of elements and/or compounds as recorded in material safety data sheets supplied by the tattoo ink manufacturers. Of the 30 tattoo inks studied, the most commonly identified elements were aluminum (87% of the pigments), oxygen (73% of the pigments), titanium (67% of the pigments), and carbon (67% of the pigments). The relative contribution of elements to the tattoo ink compositions was highly variable between different compounds. Overall, the manufacturer-supplied data sheets were consistent with the elemental analysis, but there were important exceptions. The composition of elements in tattoo inks varies greatly, even among like-colored pigments. Knowledge of the chemical composition of popular tattoo inks might aid the clinician in effective laser removal.

  2. Antimycobacterial activity in vitro of pigments isolated from Antarctic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mojib, Nazia; Philpott, Rachel; Huang, Jonathan P; Niederweis, Michael; Bej, Asim K

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we describe the antimycobacterial activity of two pigments, violacein, a purple violet pigment from Janthinobacterium sp. Ant5-2 (J-PVP), and flexirubin, a yellow-orange pigment from Flavobacterium sp. Ant342 (F-YOP). These pigments were isolated from bacterial strains found in the land-locked freshwater lakes of Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these pigments for avirulent and virulent mycobacteria were determined by the microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) and Nitrate Reductase Assay (NRA). Results indicated that the MICs of J-PVP and F-YOP were 8.6 and 3.6 μg/ml for avirulent Mycobacterium smegmatis mc²155; 5 and 2.6 μg/ml for avirulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis mc²6230; and 34.4 and 10.8 μg/ml for virulent M. tuberculosis H₃₇Rv, respectively. J-PVP exhibited a ~15 times lower MIC for Mycobacterium sp. than previously reported for violacein pigment from Chromobacterium violaceum, while the antimycobacterial effect of F-YOP remains undocumented. Our results indicate these pigments isolated from Antarctic bacteria might be valuable lead compounds for new antimycobacterial drugs used for chemotherapy of tuberculosis.

  3. LIBS identification of pigments from Aula Leopoldina vault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, R.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Marczak, J.; Sarzynski, A.

    2009-07-01

    Aula Leopoldina is the most representative, baroque hall in Wroclaw University. In 2008, LIBS measurements of paintings layers of Aula vault were done. LIBS spectra permitted identification of mineral pigments used for specific colors of painting layers. This identification could not be unambiguous in each case since simultaneous occurrence of elements that could be components of different pigments of the same color was observed in some samples. For example, in some red samples the presence of aluminum and iron was stated, and hence red ochre or Mars red could be used as a pigment. In other samples the cinnabar can be additionally responsible for red color. Similar problems were observed in case of blue pigments, where existence of copper may show that azurite was used, but the presence of aluminum, sodium, silicon and iron can point to application of ultramarine, Egyptian or Prussian blues. The greatest difficulties occurred during identification of white pigments. Because of presence of barium, zinc, lead and titanium, the potential pigments might be lithopone, barite, zinc white, lead white or titanium white. Final choice of the pigment is determined by the time of last renovation and this points out that the zinc white was used.

  4. Heart pigmentation in the gray bichir, Polypterus senegalus (Actinopterygii: Polypteriformes).

    PubMed

    Reyes-Moya, I; Torres-Prioris, A; Sans-Coma, V; Fernández, B; Durán, A C

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of pigment cells in the heart is well documented in amphibians, birds and mammals. By contrast, information on heart pigmentation in fish is extremely sparse. The aim is to report the presence of pigment cells over the entire surface of the heart in the gray bichir, Polypterus senegalus. The sample consisted of 12 hearts, which, after gross anatomical examination, were studied using histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques for light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The pigment cells were located in the subepicardium, showing a regular distribution pattern across the whole heart, except for the anterior end of the outflow tract, where the pigmentation was much more intense. The cells contained dark, ovoid-shaped organelles which was consistent with a melanosome cell identity. As in other vertebrates, the physiological role of the pigment cells in the heart of the gray bichir is unknown. The absence of such cells in hearts of other polypteriforms suggests that cells containing melanin are not essential for normal fish heart function. Basing on literature data concerning tetrapods, it can be inferred that the pigment cells of the heart of the gray bichir derive from the neural crest. If this were true, our findings would provide the first evidence for the presence of neural crest-derived cells in the subepicardium of adult hearts of early actinopterygians.

  5. Networks and pathways in pigmentation, health, and disease.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Laura L; Loftus, Stacie K; Pavan, William J

    2009-01-01

    Extensive studies of the biology of the pigment-producing cell (melanocyte) have resulted in a wealth of knowledge regarding the genetics and developmental mechanisms governing skin and hair pigmentation. The ease of identification of altered pigment phenotypes, particularly in mouse coat color mutants, facilitated early use of the pigmentary system in mammalian genetics and development. In addition to the large collection of developmental genetics data, melanocytes are of interest because their malignancy results in melanoma, a highly aggressive and frequently fatal cancer that is increasing in Caucasian populations worldwide. The genetic programs regulating melanocyte development, function, and malignancy are highly complex and only partially understood. Current research in melanocyte development and pigmentation is revealing new genes important in these processes and additional functions for previously known individual components. A detailed understanding of all the components involved in melanocyte development and function, including interactions with neighboring cells and response to environmental stimuli, will be necessary to fully comprehend this complex system. The inherent characteristics of pigmentation biology as well as the resources available to researchers in the pigment cell community make melanocytes an ideal cell type for analysis using systems biology approaches. In this review, the study of melanocyte development and pigmentation is considered as a candidate for systems biology-based analyses.

  6. Kinetics of thermal activation of an ultraviolet cone pigment.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Victoria; Sekharan, Sivakumar; Liu, Jian; Guo, Ying; Batista, Victor S; Yan, Elsa C Y

    2015-01-14

    Visual pigments can be thermally activated via isomerization of the retinyl chromophore and hydrolysis of the Schiff base (SB) through which the retinyl chromophore is bound to the opsin protein. Here, we present the first combined experimental and theoretical study of the thermal activation of a Siberian hamster ultraviolet (SHUV) pigment. We measured the rates of thermal isomerization and hydrolysis in the SHUV pigment and bovine rhodopsin. We found that these rates were significantly faster in the UV pigment than in rhodopsin due to the difference in the structural and electrostatic effects surrounding the unprotonated Schiff base (USB) retinyl chromophore in the UV pigment. Theoretical (DFT-QM/MM) calculations of the cis-trans thermal isomerization revealed a barrier of ∼23 kcal/mol for the USB retinyl chromophore in SHUV compared to ∼40 kcal/mol for protonated Schiff base (PSB) chromophore in rhodopsin. The lower barrier for thermal isomerization in the SHUV pigment is attributed to the (i) lessening of the steric restraints near the β-ionone ring and SB ends of the chromophore, (ii) displacement of the transmembrane helix 6 (TM6) away from the binding pocket toward TM5 due to absence of the salt bridge between the USB and the protonated E113 residue, and (iii) change in orientation of the hydrogen-bonding networks (HBNs) in the extracellular loop 2 (EII). The results in comparing thermal stability of UV cone pigment and rhodopsin provide insight into molecular evolution of vertebrate visual pigments in achieving low discrete dark noise and high photosensitivity in rod pigments for dim-light vision.

  7. Characterizing pigments with hyperspectral imaging variable false-color composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayem-Ghez, Anita; Ravaud, Elisabeth; Boust, Clotilde; Bastian, Gilles; Menu, Michel; Brodie-Linder, Nancy

    2015-11-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has been used for pigment characterization on paintings for the last 10 years. It is a noninvasive technique, which mixes the power of spectrophotometry and that of imaging technologies. We have access to a visible and near-infrared hyperspectral camera, ranging from 400 to 1000 nm in 80-160 spectral bands. In order to treat the large amount of data that this imaging technique generates, one can use statistical tools such as principal component analysis (PCA). To conduct the characterization of pigments, researchers mostly use PCA, convex geometry algorithms and the comparison of resulting clusters to database spectra with a specific tolerance (like the Spectral Angle Mapper tool on the dedicated software ENVI). Our approach originates from false-color photography and aims at providing a simple tool to identify pigments thanks to imaging spectroscopy. It can be considered as a quick first analysis to see the principal pigments of a painting, before using a more complete multivariate statistical tool. We study pigment spectra, for each kind of hue (blue, green, red and yellow) to identify the wavelength maximizing spectral differences. The case of red pigments is most interesting because our methodology can discriminate the red pigments very well—even red lakes, which are always difficult to identify. As for the yellow and blue categories, it represents a good progress of IRFC photography for pigment discrimination. We apply our methodology to study the pigments on a painting by Eustache Le Sueur, a French painter of the seventeenth century. We compare the results to other noninvasive analysis like X-ray fluorescence and optical microscopy. Finally, we draw conclusions about the advantages and limits of the variable false-color image method using hyperspectral imaging.

  8. Further characterization of pigment-producing Malassezia strains.

    PubMed

    Mayser, P; Töws, A; Krämer, H-J; Weiss, R

    2004-02-01

    Reference as well as field strains of Malassezia furfur (30), M. sympodialis (49), M. globosa (52), M. obtusa (one), M. restricta (one), M. slooffiae (seven), and M. pachydermatis (373) were investigated for their ability to produce pigment and fluorochromes when tryptophan (Trp) is offered as the main nitrogen source. Only the M. furfur strains produced pigment on a pigment-inducing medium (p-medium). Remarkably, the optical activity of Trp was not significant for pigment synthesis. Other nitrogen sources that are structurally similar to Trp (gramine, tryptamine, serotonin) did not induce pigment formation. All lipophilic non-furfur species failed to grow and to form pigment on this agar. However, growth of all lipid-dependent species was achieved on a modified Dixon agar in which peptone had been substituted by an equal amount of l-Trp. Here, too, the M. furfur colonies were characterized by rapidly developing dark brown halos. Furthermore, about 11% of the M. pachydermatis strains tested produced pigment formation on the p-medium, which was enhanced by addition of d-glucose. In contrast to M. furfur, pigment formation occurred after a markedly longer incubation time (4 weeks unlike 3-5 days) with a lower yield and limited color spectrum (thin layer chromatography, TLC). The UV filter pityriacitrine recently described for M. furfur was also demonstrated for M. pachydermatis by extraction, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis with co-elution and mass spectroscopy. The phenotypic feature of pigment formation in some strains of M. pachydermatis may confirm recent molecular-genetic findings suggesting a relationship between some strains of M. pachydermatis and M. furfur.

  9. Inorganic yellow-red pigments without toxic metals

    PubMed

    Jansen; Letschert

    2000-04-27

    Inorganic pigments have been utilized by mankind since ancient times, and are still widely used to colour materials exposed to elevated temperatures during processing or application. Indeed, in the case of glasses, glazes and ceramics, there is no alternative to inorganic pigments for colouring. However, most inorganic pigments contain heavy metals or transition metals that can adversely effect the environment and human health if critical levels are exceeded. Cadmium-based pigments in particular are a cause of concern: although the pigments are not toxic due to their very low solubility in water and dilute mineral acids, cadmium itself is toxic and can enter the environment in a bioavailable form through waste-disposal sites and incineration plants. This has led to regulations, based on the precautionary principle, that strongly restrict the use of cadmium pigments. And even though recent assessments have concluded that the risk to humans or the environment might be not as significant as originally feared, a strong demand for inherently safer substitutes remains. Here we demonstrate that solid solutions of the perovskites CaTaO2N and LaTaON2 constitute promising candidates for such substitutes: their brilliance, tinting strength, opacity, dispersability, light-fastness and heat stability rival that of the cadmium pigments, while their colour can be tuned through the desired range, from yellow through orange to deep red, by simple composition adjustments. Because all the constituent elements are harmless, this perovskite-based inorganic pigment system seems a promising replacement that could eliminate one of the sources for cadmium emissions to the environment and some of the remaining concerns about pigment safety.

  10. Inorganic yellow-red pigments without toxic metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, M.; Letschert, H. P.

    2000-04-01

    Inorganic pigments have been utilized by mankind since ancient times, and are still widely used to colour materials exposed to elevated temperatures during processing or application. Indeed, in the case of glasses, glazes and ceramics, there is no alternative to inorganic pigments for colouring. However, most inorganic pigments contain heavy metals or transition metals that can adversely effect the environment and human health if critical levels are exceeded. Cadmium-based pigments in particular are a cause of concern: although the pigments are not toxic due to their very low solubility in water and dilute mineral acids, cadmium itself is toxic and can enter the environment in a bioavailable form through waste-disposal sites and incineration plants. This has led to regulations, based on the precautionary principle, that strongly restrict the use of cadmium pigments. And even though recent assessments have concluded that the risk to humans or the environment might be not as significant as originally feared, a strong demand for inherently safer substitutes remains. Here we demonstrate that solid solutions of the perovskites CaTaO 2N and LaTaON2 constitute promising candidates for such substitutes: their brilliance, tinting strength, opacity, dispersability, light-fastness and heat stability rival that of the cadmium pigments, while their colour can be tuned through the desired range, from yellow through orange to deep red, by simple composition adjustments. Because all the constituent elements are harmless, this perovskite-based inorganic pigment system seems a promising replacement that could eliminate one of the sources for cadmium emissions to the environment and some of the remaining concerns about pigment safety.

  11. Flavonoid wing pigments increase attractiveness of female common blue (Polyommatus icarus) butterflies to mate-searching males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burghardt, Frank; Knüttel, Helge; Becker, Mechthild; Fiedler, K.

    Common blue butterflies (Polyommatus icarus) sequester flavonoids from their larval host plants and allocate these UV-absorbing pigments to the wings. In field experiments using dummies constructed from female butterflies, mate-searching males inspected flavonoid-rich dummies more intensively than those with little or no flavonoids. Flavonoid content as signalled by UV-wing pattern may indicate ontogenetically determined female quality or enhance detectability to males.

  12. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma mimicking a superficial spreading melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hasbún Acuña, Paula; Cullen Aravena, Roberto; Maturana Donaire, César; Ares Mora, Raúl; Porras Kusmanic, Ninoska

    2016-12-20

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer, especially in elderly people. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a rare subtype and has been described in the literature as a nodular and hyperpigmented lesion; rarely, it can appear as an extensive pigmented plate, which may be clinically indistinguishable from superficial spreading melanoma and Bowen disease. Dermatoscopy has a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. When Menzies criteria are used; however, the final diagnosis is made by histopathology. The objective of the present report is to analyze the case of a patient with pigmented basal cell carcinoma simulating a superficial spreading melanoma.

  13. Cholecystokinin octapeptide antagonizes apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Yueling; Gu, Zhaohui; Hao, Lina; Du, Juan; Yang, Qian; Li, Suping; Wang, Liying; Gong, Shilei

    2014-07-15

    Although cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 is important for neurological function, its neuroprotective properties remain unclear. We speculated that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative injury. In this study, retinal pigment epithelial cells were treated with peroxynitrite to induce oxidative stress. Peroxynitrite triggered apoptosis in these cells, and increased the expression of Fas-associated death domain, Bax, caspa-se-8 and Bcl-2. These changes were suppressed by treatment with cholecystokinin octapeptide-8. These results suggest that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against apoptosis induced by peroxynitrite.

  14. Cholecystokinin octapeptide antagonizes apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Yueling; Gu, Zhaohui; Hao, Lina; Du, Juan; Yang, Qian; Li, Suping; Wang, Liying; Gong, Shilei

    2014-01-01

    Although cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 is important for neurological function, its neuroprotective properties remain unclear. We speculated that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative injury. In this study, retinal pigment epithelial cells were treated with peroxynitrite to induce oxidative stress. Peroxynitrite triggered apoptosis in these cells, and increased the expression of Fas-associated death domain, Bax, caspa-se-8 and Bcl-2. These changes were suppressed by treatment with cholecystokinin octapeptide-8. These results suggest that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against apoptosis induced by peroxynitrite. PMID:25221599

  15. Mineral resource of the month: iron oxide pigments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses iron oxide pigments, which have been used as colorants since human began painting as they resist color change due to sunlight exposure, have good chemical resistance and are stable under normal ambient conditions. Cyprus, Italy and Spain are among the countries that are known for the production of iron oxide pigments. Granular forms of iron oxides and nano-sized materials are cited as developments in the synthetic iron oxide pigment industry which are being used in computer disk drives and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

  16. Passivation of pigment particles for thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, E. P.; Sancier, K. M.; Morrison, S. R.

    1973-01-01

    Five powders were received for plasma calcining during this report period. The particle size using a fluid energy mill, and obtained pigments that could be plasma calcined. Optimum results are obtained in the plasma calcining of zinc orthotitanate when finely dispersed particles are subjected to a calculated plasma temperature of 1670 C. Increasing the plasma calcining time by using multiple passes through the plasma stabilized the pigment to vacuum UV irradiation was evidenced by the resulting ESR spectra but slightly decreased the whiteness of the pigment. The observed darkening is apparently associated with the formation of Ti(+3) color centers.

  17. [Distribution Characteristics of Sedimentary Pigments in the Changjiang Estuary and Zhe-Min Coast and its Implications].

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Yao, Peng; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Jin-peng; Pan, Hui-hui

    2015-08-01

    Compositions and contents of sedimentary pigments were examined using high performance liquid chromatography in order to discuss the spatial distributions of phytoplankton primary production, phytoplankton functional type and the preservation efficiency of phytoplankton pigments and their influencing factors. The results showed that: chloropigments [Chlorins, including chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and pheopigments (Pheo-a), such as pheophytin-a (PHtin-a), pheophorbide-a (PHide-a), pPheophytin-a (pPHtin-a), sterol chlorin esters (SCEs) and carotenol chlorin esters (CCEs)] were the major type of sedimentary pigments. The nutrients inputs from Changjiang Diluted Water and upwelling in the Zhe-Min coastal mud area were the major cause for the patchy distribution with high sedimentary chloropigment contents. Carotenoid contents showed no trending changes and exhibited high values in the Changjiang Estuary and Zhe-Min Coasts. Based on the relative proportions of each diagnostic carotenoid to the total diagnostic carotenoids in the sediments, the relative contributions of diatoms, dinoflagellates, prymnesiophytes, prasinophytes, cryptophytes and cyanobacterias in the phytoplankton fuctional types were 48.8% +/- 17.4%, 10.7% +/- 11.5%, 8.1% +/- 7.2%, 18.6% +/- 8.2%, 9.4% +/- 6.4% and 4.3% +/- 3.2%, respectively. The preference for external environmental conditions (e.g., nutrient level and water salinity) was the main cause for the decreasing trends of diatoms and dinoflagellates proportions and the increasing trends of prasinophytes, cryptophytes and cyanobacterias seawards. Based on the spatial distribution of Chl-a/Pheo-a ratios, the higher preservation efficiencies of sedimentary pigments in the coastal regions (e.g., outer edge of maximum turbidity zone in the Changjiang Estuary, mouth of the Hangzhou Bay and upwelling region in the Zhe-Min Coast) were mainly due to the higher sedimentation rate and seasonal occurrences of hypoxia in bottom water, and these regions with

  18. Effect of light on growth, intracellular and extracellular pigment production by five pigment-producing filamentous fungi in synthetic medium.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Lee, Yong Hoon; Venil, Chidambaram Kulandaisamy; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, Perumalsamy; Chae, Jong-Chan; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2010-04-01

    The competence of the living creatures to sense and respond to light is well known. The effect of darkness and different color light quality on biomass, extracellular and intracellular pigment yield of five potent pigment producers Monascus purpureus, Isaria farinosa, Emericella nidulans, Fusarium verticillioides and Penicillium purpurogenum, with different color shades such as red, pink, reddish brown and yellow, were investigated. Incubation in total darkness increased the biomass, extracellular and intracellular pigment production in all the fungi. Extracellular red pigment produced by M. purpureus resulted maximum in darkness 36.75 + or - 2.1 OD and minimum in white unscreened light 5.90 + or - 1.1 OD. Similarly, intracellular red pigment produced by M. purpureus resulted maximum in darkness 18.27 + or - 0.9 OD/g and minimum in yellow light 8.03 + or - 0.6 OD/g of substrate. The maximum biomass production was also noticed in darkness 2.51 g/L and minimum in yellow light 0.5 g/L of dry weight. In contrast, growth of fungi in green and yellow wavelengths resulted in low biomass and pigment yield. It was found that darkness, (red 780-622 nm, blue 492-455 nm) and white light influenced pigment and biomass yield. Copyright 2009 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nature, Source and Function of Pigments in Tardigrades: In Vivo Raman Imaging of Carotenoids in Echiniscus blumi

    PubMed Central

    Bonifacio, Alois; Guidetti, Roberto; Altiero, Tiziana; Sergo, Valter; Rebecchi, Lorena

    2012-01-01

    Tardigrades are microscopic aquatic animals with remarkable abilities to withstand harsh physical conditions such as dehydration or exposure to harmful highly energetic radiation. The mechanisms responsible for such robustness are presently little known, but protection against oxidative stresses is thought to play a role. Despite the fact that many tardigrade species are variously pigmented, scarce information is available about this characteristic. By applying Raman micro-spectroscopy on living specimens, pigments in the tardigrade Echiniscus blumi are identified as carotenoids, and their distribution within the animal body is visualized. The dietary origin of these pigments is demonstrated, as well as their presence in the eggs and in eye-spots of these animals, together with their absence in the outer layer of the animal (i.e., cuticle and epidermis). Using in-vivo semi-quantitative Raman micro-spectroscopy, a decrease in carotenoid content is detected after inducing oxidative stress, demonstrating that this approach can be used for studying the role of carotenoids in oxidative stress-related processes in tardigrades. This approach could be thus used in further investigations to test several hypotheses concerning the function of these carotenoids in tardigrades as photo-protective pigments against ionizing radiations or as antioxidants defending these organisms against the oxidative stress occurring during desiccation processes. PMID:23185564

  20. Iron-containing pigment from an archaeological rupestrian painting of the Planalto Tradition in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floresta, D. L.; Fagundes, M.; Fabris, J. D.; Ardisson, J. D.

    2015-06-01

    Archaeological rupestrian arts of the Planalto Tradition are of relatively widespread occurrence all over the land area of the state of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil. They are typically composed by monochromic zoomorphic figures, especially of cervids, mainly in red or orange color. A fragment of a rock wall containing an archaeological painting was collected at the Itanguá site, in the municipality of Senador Modestino Gonçalves (geographical coordinates, 17° 56' 51″ S 43° 13' 22″ W), MG. The rock piece was covered with an archaeological painting with pigments of two different hues of red. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis revealed only a slight difference in Fe and P content for the two different color zones. The pigment materials on this small fragment of rock were analyzed by X-ray diffraction on the conventional incidence mode (XRD) and on grazing incidence X-ray mode (GIXRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray detector (SEM/EDS) and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) at room temperature. Results indicated the occurrence of mainly hematite but also of diopside in the pigment. CEMS at RT reveal the presence of hematite and (super)paramagnetic ferric components. In order to confirm these results a small amount of powder from the painting pigments was also analyzed by transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy at 20 K.