Sample records for chocolate chip cookies

  1. Teaching Quality Control with Chocolate Chip Cookies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ardith

    2014-01-01

    Chocolate chip cookies are used to illustrate the importance and effectiveness of control charts in Statistical Process Control. By counting the number of chocolate chips, creating the spreadsheet, calculating the control limits and graphing the control charts, the student becomes actively engaged in the learning process. In addition, examining…

  2. Reduced-in-sugar Chocolate Chip Cookies: Functionality of Sucralose/Maltodextrin: Isomalt Blends

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reduced-in-sugar Chocolate Chip Cookies: Functionality of Sucralose/Maltodextrin:Isomalt Blends Rebecca McKemie1, Ruthann B. Swanson1, Elizabeth M. Savage2 and Hong Zhuang2 1University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605; 2ARS-USDA, Athens, GA 30605 Modified baked product availability may reduce simple ...

  3. Chocolate Chip Cookies and Rubrics: Helping Students Understand Rubrics in Inclusive Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Elizabeth Wikfors; Salmon, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses how teachers can familiarize their students, with and without disabilities, with rubric terminology and the use of rubrics. It addresses why rubrics should be used, designing a rubric, and current uses of rubrics. A chocolate chip cookie rubric is provided as an example. (Contains 7 references.) (CR)

  4. Emotional and uncontrolled eating styles and chocolate chip cookie consumption. A controlled trial of the effects of positive mood enhancement.

    PubMed

    Turner, Sally Ann; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Warner, Lisa; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2010-02-01

    The study tested the effects of positive mood enhancement on chocolate chip cookie consumption in the context of emotional and uncontrolled eating styles. The relationship between emotional eating style and chocolate chip cookie intake was assumed to be mediated by uncontrolled eating style. Further, it was hypothesized that the effectiveness of the positive mood enhancement may be more salient among those who have effective control of their eating. In this experimental study, respondents (N=106, 70% women, aged 16-45 years old) were assigned by means of cluster randomization to the control or positive mood enhancement condition (a comedy movie clip). Compared to the control condition, positive mood enhancement resulted in consuming on average 53.86 kcal less. Relationships between emotional eating style and cookie intake were mediated by uncontrolled eating. Moderated mediation analysis indicated that the effect of a mediator (uncontrolled eating) on cookie intake was moderated by the group assignment. Positive mood enhancement resulted in eating on average 3.3 cookies less among individuals with a more controlled eating style. By contrast, among those who presented uncontrolled eating, positive mood enhancement led to consuming an average of 1.7 cookies more. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Baseball Bats and Chocolate Chip Cookies: The Judicial Treatment of DNA in the Myriad Genetics Litigation

    PubMed Central

    Binnie, Ian; Park-Thompson, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    In June 2013, the U.S. Supreme Court rendered a controversial ruling that naturally occurring DNA segments are “products of nature” and therefore not patentable subject matter. At this intersection between science and law, in litigation of crucial importance to patients, science, and multibillion-dollar biotech enterprises, the appellate judges sidestepped genetics and engaged in a war of metaphors from diamonds to chocolate chip cookies. This case is not an outlier. Apprehensive judges and juries in both Canada and the United States find many convenient excuses to avoid coming to grips with the underlying science in patent cases. But this is simply not acceptable. Legal rulings must be, and must seem to be, well grounded, as a matter of both law and science. The legitimacy of court decisions in the eyes of the stakeholders and the broader public depends on it. PMID:25524722

  6. Fluorine content of several brands of chocolate bars and chocolate cookies found in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Granjeiro, José Mauro; Cardoso, Vanessa Eid da Silva; da Silva, Thelma Lopes; Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro

    2003-01-01

    Chocolate bars and chocolate cookies are foodstuffs highly appreciated by children. The possibility of having fluorine (F) among their components, associated with an excessive consumption, may make them decisive contributors to the total daily F intake. Thus, they could participate in the establishment of dental fluorosis. The aim of this study was to analyze the fluorine concentration [F] of the chocolates bars (CB) Baton, Confeti, Garoto Ball, Kinder Ovo, M&M s, Milkybar, Nescau, Nescau Ball, Surpresa, Surpresa Bichos, Tortuguita; and of the chocolate cookies (CC) Danyt s, Hipop , Nescau, Passatempo, Pokémon, S tio do Pica-Pau Amarelo and Trakinas. Samples were purchased in Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil. Three grams of each product were previously ashed at 525 C (CB and cookies fillings) and at 550 C (cookies dough), during 4 hours. Fluorine was separated from the ash by hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS)-facilitated diffusion. Fluorine analysis was carried out with the specific electrode. Mean [F]s SD and amplitude (unit mg/g) were: CB = 0.30 0.45 (0.07 - 1.60, n = 12) and CC = 1.08 2.64 (0.04 - 7.10, n = 7). It was concluded that some of the analyzed foods may be important contributors to the total daily F intake. As for the product that had the highest [F] (Danyt s), when only 3 units are consumed just once a day, they may supply up to 40% of the maximum recommended daily F intake (0.07 mg/kg body weight) for a 2-year-old child (12 kg). The [F] in these products should be informed on their labels.

  7. Novel cookie-with-chocolate carbon dots displaying extremely acidophilic high luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Siyu; Zhao, Xiaohuan; Zhu, Shoujun; Song, Yubin; Yang, Bai

    2014-10-01

    A fluorescent carbon dot with a cookie-with-chocolate film structure (about 5 × 5 μm2) showed a high fluorescence quantum yield (61.12%) at low pH. It was hydrothermally synthesized from l-serine and l-tryptophan. The formation mechanism of the film with carbon dots (CDs) was investigated. The film structure was formed by hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions between aromatic rings. The strong blue fluorescence of the CDs increased under strong acidic conditions owing to the changes in the N-groups. These cookie-like CDs are attractive for their potential use as effective fluorescent probes for the sensitive detection of aqueous H+ and Fe3+.A fluorescent carbon dot with a cookie-with-chocolate film structure (about 5 × 5 μm2) showed a high fluorescence quantum yield (61.12%) at low pH. It was hydrothermally synthesized from l-serine and l-tryptophan. The formation mechanism of the film with carbon dots (CDs) was investigated. The film structure was formed by hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions between aromatic rings. The strong blue fluorescence of the CDs increased under strong acidic conditions owing to the changes in the N-groups. These cookie-like CDs are attractive for their potential use as effective fluorescent probes for the sensitive detection of aqueous H+ and Fe3+. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03965c

  8. Influence of time orientation on food choice: Case study with cookie labels.

    PubMed

    Tórtora, Giuliana; Ares, Gastón

    2018-04-01

    Time orientation can influence health-related behaviors, including food consumption. The aim of the present work was to study the influence of time orientation on food choice, using cookie labels as case study. A choice-conjoint task was designed using labels differing in type of cookie (chocolate chips vs. granola), front-of-pack nutrition information (nutritional warnings vs. Facts Up Front system) and nutritional claim (no claim vs. "0% cholesterol. 0% trans fat"). An online study was conducted, in which 155 participants evaluated 8 pairs of cookie labels and selected the one they would buy if they were in the supermarket. Then, they were asked to complete a consideration of future consequences scale (CFC) adapted to eating habits, as well as a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics. Time orientation influenced participants' choices of cookies labels; particularly the importance attached to type of cookie. Participants with greater consideration of future consequences preferred the granola cookies, associated with health, while those who prioritized immediate consequences preferred chocolate chip cookies. In addition, nutritional warnings discouraged choice regardless of participants' time orientation. Results from the present work provide additional evidence of the influence of time preferences on food choices and suggest that strategies to stimulate and generate a more future-oriented perspective on eating habits could contribute to more healthful food choices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2007-12-01

    Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  10. Planning Multisentential English Text Using Communicative Acts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    bowl. Add the flour and the baking soda. Stir in the chocolate pieces. Grease a cookie sheet. Spoon the cookie dough onto the cookie sheet. Bake it at...Chocolate Chip Cookies ......................................................................................... 185 Figure 6.5 identify-location Plan...34), and recurses on subactions as required. The plan operators of Figures 6.1 and 6.3 were tested with a small knowledge base of cookie recipe

  11. Commercial lateral flow devices for rapid detection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and hazelnut (Corylus avellana) cross-contamination in the industrial production of cookies.

    PubMed

    Röder, Martin; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    Lateral flow devices (LFDs) are qualitative immunochromatographic tests for the rapid and specific detection of target analytes. We investigated commercially available LFDs for their ability to detect potentially allergenic peanut and hazelnut in raw cookie dough and chocolate, two important food matrices in the industrial production of cookies. Each three commercial LFDs for the detection of hazelnut and peanut were performed according to the manufacturers' instructions. All LFDs had comparably satisfactory specificity that was investigated with a variety of characteristic foods and food ingredients used in the production of cookies. In concordance with hazelnut-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), walnut was the most cross-reactive food for hazelnut-specific LFD. The sensitivity was verified in raw cookie doughs and chocolates that were either spiked with peanut or hazelnut between 1 and 25 mg/kg, respectively. Two hazelnut-specific LFDs detected hazelnut at a level of 3.5 mg/kg in both matrices, whereas the third LFD detected hazelnut at a level of 3.9 mg/kg in dough and 12.5 mg/kg in chocolate. Two peanut-specific LFDs detected peanut at a level of 1 mg/kg in both matrices. The third LFD detected peanut at a level of 14.2 mg/kg in chocolate and 4 mg/kg in dough. In conclusion, specific and sensitive LFD were identified for each hazelnut and peanut, having a level of sensitivity that is comparable to commercial ELISA for the investigated matrices. Such sensitive, specific, and rapid tests are useful analytical tools for allergen screening and sanitation in the industrial manufacture of foods.

  12. Programming Many-Core Systems with GRAMPS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    12 3.2 Hypothetical GRAMPS cookie dough application . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.3 Using a queue set...programming model. As shown, dough preparation is broken into individual stages corresponding to logical steps in 3.2. A GRAMPS EXAMPLE 13 Scoop Cookies Put on...chocolate chip cookie dough . the recipe [7]. Each stage sends its output downstream and takes as input the in- gredients and/or batter from its prior

  13. Potential utilization of algal protein concentrate as a food ingredient in space habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.

    1989-01-01

    Green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was studied as one of the potential sources of macronutrients in a space habitat. Algal protein concentrate (70.5% protein) was incorporated into a variety of food products such as bran muffins, fettuccine (spinach noodle imitation) and chocolate chip cookies. Food products containing 20 to 40% of incorporated algal proteins were considered. In the sensory analysis the greenish color of the bran muffins and cookies was not found to be objectional. The mild spinachy flavor (algae flavor) was less detectable in chocolate chip cookies than in bran muffins. The color and taste of the algae noodles were found to be pleasant and compared well with commercially available spinach noodles. Commercially available spray-dried Spirulina algae was also incorporated so the products can be compared with those containing Scenedesmus obliquus concentrate. Food products containing commercial algae had a dark green color and a "burnt after taste" and were less acceptable to the panelists.

  14. The influence of labeling the vegetable content of snack food on children's taste preferences: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pope, Lizzy; Wolf, Randi L

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study examined whether informing children of the presence of vegetables in select snack food items alters taste preference. A random sample of 68 elementary and middle school children tasted identical pairs of 3 snack food items containing vegetables. In each pair, 1 sample's label included the food's vegetable (eg, broccoli gingerbread spice cake), and 1 sample's label did not (eg, gingerbread spice cake). Participants reported whether the samples tasted the same, or whether they preferred one sample. Frequency of vegetable consumption was also assessed. Taste preferences did not differ for the labeled versus the unlabeled sample of zucchini chocolate chip bread, χ(2) (2, n = 68) = 3.21, P = .20 or broccoli gingerbread spice cake χ(2) (2, n = 68) = 2.15, P = .34. However, students preferred the unlabeled cookies (ie, chocolate chip cookies) over the vegetable-labeled version (ie, chickpea chocolate chip cookies), χ(2) = (2, n = 68) 9.21, P = .01. Chickpeas were consumed less frequently (81% had not tried in past year) as compared to zucchini and broccoli. Informing children of the presence of vegetables hidden within snack food may or may not alter taste preference and may depend on the frequency of prior exposure to the vegetable. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Real Time Estimation and Prediction using Optimistic Simulation and Control Theory Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    then orders dessert. Jim now has to decide on whether to order a pricy ice cream sundae or an inexpensive chocolate chip cookie . At this point, Jim...universe, Jim enjoys his ice cream sundae, while in the other universe Jim eats his cookie . Meanwhile, cars driving by the restaurant are unaffected by...automatically splits into two. In one universe, Nancy enjoys the ice cream sundae with Jim. In the other universe, Nancy shares Jim’s cookie . After they

  16. Shape up Somerville: A District Tackles Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluggish, Sarah; Kinder, Gretchen

    2008-01-01

    Walking today through Somerville, Massachusetts's Winter Hill Community School during school hours differs markedly compared to just a few years ago. Gone are the greasy potato chips and chocolate-chip cookies from the a la carte offerings in the cafeteria. Missing are the late morning fundraisers when children would fill up on cupcakes and other…

  17. Shape Up Somerville: District Tackles Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluggish, Sarah; Kinder, Gretchen

    2008-01-01

    Walking today through Somerville, Massachusetts' Winter-Hill Community School during school hours differs markedly compared with just a few years ago. Gone are the greasy potato chips and chocolate-chip cookies from the a la carte offerings in the cafeteria. Missing are the late morning fundraisers when children would fill up on cupcakes and other…

  18. Utilization of non-conventional systems for conversion of biomass to food components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Described here is work accomplished in investigating the potential use of micro-algae in yielding useful macronutrients for closed ecological life support systems in space habitats. Analysis of the chemical composition of the blue-green alga Synechoccus 6311 was done in the present work, and was compared to values found in previous work on the green algae Scenedesmus obliquus. Similar values were obtained for proteins, and lower values for nucleic acids and lipids. A second part of the work involved fabrication of food products containing various levels of incorporated algae (S. obliquus) proteins and/or lipids. Protein isolate was incorporated into a variety of food products such as bran muffins, fettuccine (spinach noodle imitation), and chocolate chip cookies. In the sensory analysis, the greenish color of the bran muffins and cookies was not found to be objectionable. The mild spinachy flavor was less detectable in chocolate chip cookies than in bran muffins. The color and taste of the algae noodles were found to be pleasant and compared well with commercially available spinach noodles.

  19. Plantain peel - a potential source of antioxidant dietary fibre for developing functional cookies.

    PubMed

    Arun, K B; Persia, Florence; Aswathy, P S; Chandran, Janu; Sajeev, M S; Jayamurthy, P; Nisha, P

    2015-10-01

    Plantain cultivar Nendran is popular as a staple food in many parts of India and deep fried chips made from raw matured Nendran are one of the popular snack items in India. This study aims to utilize peel from Nendran variety- the main byproduct of banana chips industry- to develop high fibre cookies with enhanced bioactive content. Proximate analysis indicated that peels are rich in total dietary fibre (64.33 g/100 g), vitamins (Folic acid- 33.12 mg/100 g) and minerals (Potassium- 35.61 mg/100 g). Nendran Peel Flour (NPF) was extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Phenolic and flavonoid content was high for ethyl acetate extract (15.21 and 9.39 mg QE/g dry weight). Methanol extract was more potent in reducing Copper ion (2.36 μM TR/g dry weight) and scavenging NO (IC50-381.71 μg/mL). Ethyl acetate extract was capable of scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radical. HPLC profiling showed presence of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, rutin hydrate and quercetin in ethyl acetate extract and gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and vanillic acid in methanol extract. Cookies prepared with NPF possess higher total dietary fibre content. There was a decrease in spread ratio, breaking strength and browning index of cookies as the percentage of NPF increased. NPF incorporation gradually increased the phenolic content from 4.36 to 5.28 mg GAE, compared to control cookie (3.21 mg GAE). DPPH scavenging activity also increased with increase in NPF. Hence NPF is a very good source of antioxidant dietary fibre and acceptable cookies can be produced by replacing wheat flour with 10 % NPF.

  20. A Palatable Introduction to and Demonstration of Statistical Main Effects and Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Marek, Pam

    2009-01-01

    Because concrete explanations in a familiar context facilitate understanding, we illustrate the concept of an interaction via a baking analogy to provide students with food for thought. The demonstration initially introduces the concepts of independent and dependent variables using a chocolate chip cookie recipe. The demonstration provides an…

  1. A brief mindfulness intervention reduces unhealthy eating when hungry, but not the portion size effect.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, David; Papies, Esther K

    2014-04-01

    The present research examined the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention to foster healthy eating. Specifically, we tested whether a brief mindfulness manipulation can prevent the portion size effect, and reduce overeating on unhealthy snacks when hungry. 110 undergraduate participants (MAge=20.9±2.3; MBMI=22.3±2.5) were served a small or a large portion of chocolate chip cookies after listening to an audio book or performing a mindfulness exercise (i.e., body scan). Current level of hunger was assessed unobtrusively on a visual analog scale before the eating situation. Calorie intake from chocolate chip cookies. When presented with a large compared to a small portion, participants consumed more cookies (+83kcal). This was not affected by the mindfulness intervention or by hunger. However, while control participants ate more unhealthy food when hungry than when not hungry (+67kcal), participants in the mindfulness condition did not (+1kcal). Findings confirm the prevalence and robustness of the portion size effect and suggest that it may be independent from awareness of internal cues. Prevention strategies may benefit more from targeting awareness of the external environment. However, mindfulness-based interventions may be effective to reduce effects of hunger on unhealthy food consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Picture Book Power: Connecting Children's Literature and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatzer, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    The author's experiences in using children's literature to engage her students in mathematics are described in this article. Using the book "The Wolf's Chicken Stew", the author's class participated in an interactive read-aloud, graphed favorite foods from the story, and finally followed a recipe to bake chocolate chip cookies. Reasons for making…

  3. Survey of the trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid content of cocoa-containing and chocolate products.

    PubMed

    Hurst, W Jeffrey; Glinski, Jan A; Miller, Kenneth B; Apgar, Joan; Davey, Matthew H; Stuart, David A

    2008-09-24

    Dietary resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) has been implicated in the health benefits associated with grapes and red wine, more specifically with potential benefits for metabolic syndrome, energy use, and increased endurance. Levels of trans-resveratrol and its glucoside, trans-piceid, were determined in 19 top selling commercially available cocoa-containing and chocolate products from the U.S. market. Amounts of trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were closely correlated with the amount of nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) in the cocoa-containing products. Among these products, trans-resveratrol levels were highest in cocoa powders (1.85 +/- 0.43 microg/g), followed by unsweetened baking chocolates (1.24 +/- 0.22), semisweet chocolate baking chips (0.52 +/- 0.14), dark chocolates (0.35 +/- 0.08), milk chocolates (0.10 +/- 0.05), and chocolate syrups (0.09 +/- 0.02). These cocoa-containing and chocolate products have about 3-5 times more trans-piceid than trans-resveratrol. Levels of trans-piceid were highest in the cocoa powders (7.14 +/- 0.80 microg/g), followed by unsweetened baking chocolates (4.04 +/- 0.14), semisweet chocolate baking chips (2.01 +/- 0.18), dark chocolates (1.82 +/- 0.36), milk chocolates (0.44 +/- 0.06), and chocolate syrups (0.35 +/- 0.06). On an equal weight basis, cocoa powder had about half as much trans-resveratrol as the average California red wine. On a per serving basis, cocoa-containing and chocolate products had less trans-resveratrol than red wine and grape juice but more than roasted peanuts. Overall, these cocoa-containing and chocolate products rank second after red wines and grape juice in foods with the highest levels of total trans-resveratrol in the diet.

  4. Production of maize tortillas and cookies from nixtamalized flour enriched with anthocyanins, flavonoids and saponins extracted from black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed coats.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Perez-Carrillo, Esther

    2016-02-01

    Ethanolic extract from black beans coat is a source of flavonoids, saponins and antocyanins. Nixtamalized maize flours (NF) are used for the preparation of products such as tortillas, tortillas chips, cookies among others. The objective of this research was to study the effect on textural parameters and color after adding flavonoids, saponins and anthocyanins from black bean seed coat in NF used for the production of tortillas and gluten-free cookies. Furthermore, the retention of bioactive compounds after tortilla and gluten-free-cookie preparation was assessed. Ethanolic extracts of black bean seed coats were added (3g/kg or 7 g/kg) to NF in order to prepare corn tortillas and gluten free cookies characterized in terms of dimensions, color and texture. Addition of 7 g/kg affected the color of cookies and tortillas without effect on texture and dimensions. It was possible to retain more than 80% and 60% of bioactives into baked tortillas and cookies, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An after-school snack of raisins lowers cumulative food intake in young children.

    PubMed

    Patel, Barkha P; Bellissimo, Nick; Luhovyy, Bohdan; Bennett, Lorianne J; Hurton, Evelyn; Painter, James E; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    Snacks are an important part of children's dietary intake, but the role of dried fruit on energy intake in children is unknown. Therefore, the effect of ad libitum consumption of an after-school snack of raisins, grapes, potato chips, and chocolate chip cookies on appetite and energy intake in twenty-six 8- to 11-y-old normal-weight (15th to 85th percentile) children was examined. On 4 separate weekdays, 1 wk apart, children (11 M, 15 F) were given a standardized breakfast, morning snack (apple), and a standardized lunch. After school, children randomly received 1 of 4 ad libitum snacks and were instructed to eat until "comfortably full." Appetite was measured before and 15, 30, and 45 min after snack consumption. Children consumed the least calories from raisins and grapes and the most from cookies (P < 0.001). However, weight of raisins consumed was similar to potato chips (about 75 g) and lower compared to grapes and cookies (P < 0.009). Raisins and grapes led to lower cumulative food intake (breakfast + morning snack + lunch + after-school snack) (P < 0.001), while the cookies increased cumulative food intake (P < 0.001) compared to the other snacks. Grapes lowered appetite compared to all other snacks (P < 0.001) when expressed as a change in appetite per kilocalorie of the snack. Ad libitum consumption of raisins has potential as an after-school snack to achieve low snack intake prior to dinner, similar to grapes, compared to potato chips, and cookies in children 8 to 11 y old. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. A Data Mining Approach for Acoustic Diagnosis of Cardiopulmonary Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    chocolate chip cookies are amazing! This thesis was prepared at The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc., under Internal Company Research Project 21796...very expensive to perform. New medical technology has been the primary cause for the rising health care costs and insurance premiums. There are two...empirical risk minimization ( ERM ) principle. Generalization error can be minimized by using cross validation to select the best parameters for the

  7. A System for the Preference Evaluation of Cycle Menus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    Potatoes, Okra, Jellied Fruit Salad, Peach Shortcake 27. Swedish Meatballs , Fried Rice, Eggplant, Lettuce Salad, Pumpkin Pie 28. Corned Beef Hash... Meatballs , Rice, Beets, Jellied Fruit Salad, Marble Cake 81. Fish Sandwich, Fritters, Okra, Lettuce Salad, Chocolate Chip Cookies 82. Baked Macaroil...Radishes, Lettuce Salad, Bread Pudding 88 Cheesf j ", -tashea Potatoes, Cauliflower, M-.*©!.! Pm’r Sol ad, Apricot Pie 89. Meatbal ! Submarine Sandwich

  8. Optimization and validation of an extraction method for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in chocolate candies.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Rupender; Chaturvedi, Prashant; Ansari, Nasreen G; Murthy, Ramesh C; Patel, Devendra K

    2012-01-01

    Chocolate is a key ingredient in many foods such as milk shakes, candies, bars, cookies, and cereals. Chocolate candies are often consumed by mankind of all age groups. The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in chocolate candies may result in health risk to people. A rapid, precise, and economic extraction method was optimized and validated for the simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in chocolate candy by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GS-MS) as a confirmatory technique. The method was optimized by using different solvents for liquid-liquid extraction, varying volume of de-emulsifying agent, and quantity of silica gel used for purification. The HPLC separation of 16 PAHs was carried out by C-18 column with mobile phase composed of acetonitrile : water (70 : 30) in isocratic mode with runtime of 20 min. Limit of detection, limit of quantification (LOQ), and correlation coefficients were found in the range of 0.3 to 4 ng g⁻¹, 0.9 to 12 ng g⁻¹, and 0.9109 to 0.9952, respectively. The exploration of 25 local chocolate candy samples for the presence of PAHs showed the mean content of benzo[a]pyrene as 1.62 ng g⁻¹, which representing the need to evaluate effective measures to prevent more severe PAHs contamination in chocolate candies in future. Chocolate is one of the most favorite food items among people, especially children. Chocolate candies are often consumed by mankind of all age groups. Chocolate candies are often consumed by children in large quantities. The presence PAHs in chocolate candies may result in health risk to people. In the present study, a precise and cost effective rapid method was employed for the determination of PAHs, which can be employed for daily routine analysis of PAHs in chocolate products. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Cookies as agents for community membership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird

    2013-01-01

    When becoming a member of a community of practice, a novice must adopt certain community norms to participate, and these include the social norms of the group. Using the analytical perspective of Legitimate Peripheral Participation in a Community of Practice, this paper explores the social role of cookies as agents for community participation and membership in a physics research group. We analyze data from an ethnographic case study of a physics research group weekly research meeting. The mentors bring cookies to each meeting and view the cookies as a token of appreciation for the graduate students' work. These cookies take on a subtler role of initiating guests and students into scientific conversations and participation. Via the cookies, members also share personal histories and stories that help members strengthen their membership. The study of social norms in this research group is part of a larger study of physics expert identity development.

  10. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D. A.

    2006-08-01

    By using astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients, I have been able to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students. I will present some of the edible demonstrations I have created including using popcorn to simulate radioactivity; using chocolate, nuts, and marshmallows to illustrate density and differentiation during the formation of the planets; and making big-bang brownies or chocolate chip-cookies to illustrate the expansion of the Universe. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented.

  11. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    PubMed

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more.

  12. Learning to Dislike Chocolate: Conditioning Negative Attitudes toward Chocolate and Its Effect on Chocolate Consumption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Guosen; Zhang, Dingyuan; Wang, Lei; Cui, Xianghua; Zhu, Jinglei; Fang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) procedures can be used to form and change attitudes toward a wide variety of objects. The current study examined the effects of a negative EC procedure on attitudes toward chocolate, and whether it influenced chocolate evaluation and consumption. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental condition in which chocolate images were paired with negative stimuli, or the control condition in which chocolate images were randomly paired with positive stimuli (50%) and negative stimuli (50%). Explicit and implicit attitudes toward chocolate images were collected. During an ostensible taste test, chocolate evaluation and consumption were assessed. Results revealed that compared to participants in the control condition, participants in the experimental condition showed more negative explicit and implicit attitudes toward chocolate images and evaluated chocolate more negatively during the taste test. However, chocolate consumption did not differ between experimental and control conditions. These findings suggest that pairing chocolate with negative stimuli can influence attitudes toward chocolate, though behavioral effects are absent. Intervention applications of EC provide avenues for future research and practices.

  13. Learning to Dislike Chocolate: Conditioning Negative Attitudes toward Chocolate and Its Effect on Chocolate Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Guosen; Zhang, Dingyuan; Wang, Lei; Cui, Xianghua; Zhu, Jinglei; Fang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) procedures can be used to form and change attitudes toward a wide variety of objects. The current study examined the effects of a negative EC procedure on attitudes toward chocolate, and whether it influenced chocolate evaluation and consumption. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental condition in which chocolate images were paired with negative stimuli, or the control condition in which chocolate images were randomly paired with positive stimuli (50%) and negative stimuli (50%). Explicit and implicit attitudes toward chocolate images were collected. During an ostensible taste test, chocolate evaluation and consumption were assessed. Results revealed that compared to participants in the control condition, participants in the experimental condition showed more negative explicit and implicit attitudes toward chocolate images and evaluated chocolate more negatively during the taste test. However, chocolate consumption did not differ between experimental and control conditions. These findings suggest that pairing chocolate with negative stimuli can influence attitudes toward chocolate, though behavioral effects are absent. Intervention applications of EC provide avenues for future research and practices. PMID:28900409

  14. Physicochemical properties of cookies enriched with xylooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Ayyappan, P; Abirami, A; Anbuvahini, N A; Tamil Kumaran, P S; Naresh, M; Malathi, D; Antony, Usha

    2016-07-01

    The growing commercial importance of xylooligosaccharides is based on their beneficial health properties, particularly their ability to stimulate the growth and activity of intestinal bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species. Xylooligosaccharides are less sweet, acid, and heat stable, with low recommended levels of intake compared to other oligosaccharides. In view of the consumer demand for foods with low sugar, low fat, and high fiber contents, they are suitable for incorporation into bakery products. In this study, we have developed wheat-based cookies incorporated with xylooligosaccharides at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels. The nutritive value and physicochemical properties of the cookies changed with xylooligosaccharides incorporation; both crude fiber and dietary fiber contents increased by 14% and 35%, respectively, in the enriched cookies. The moisture levels increased with increase in the percentage of xylooligosaccharides incorporated. Cookies with 5% xylooligosaccharides were found most acceptable, although the color was slightly darker compared to the control, while cookies with 10% and 15% xylooligosaccharides were softer and darker and therefore less acceptable. Enrichment with xylooligosaccharides at 5% provided a product stable for 21 days at room temperature (25 ± 2℃). The storage stability of cookies with higher levels of xylooligosaccharides was less than the 5% xylooligosaccharides cookies and control. The retention of the prebiotic xylooligosaccharides in the products was relatively high (74%). © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Antioxidant activity and polyphenol and procyanidin contents of selected commercially available cocoa-containing and chocolate products in the United States.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kenneth B; Stuart, David A; Smith, Nancy L; Lee, Chang Y; McHale, Nancy L; Flanagan, Judith A; Ou, Boxin; Hurst, W Jeffrey

    2006-05-31

    In the United States, commercially available foods, including cocoa and chocolate, are being marketed with statements referring to the level of antioxidant activity and polyphenols. For cocoa-containing foods, there has been no comprehensive survey of the content of these and other chemistries. A survey of cocoa and chocolate-containing products marketed in the United States was conducted to determine antioxidant activity and polyphenol and procyanidin contents. Commercially available samples consisted of the top market share products in each of the following six categories: natural cocoa, unsweetened baking chocolate, dark chocolate, semisweet baking chips, milk chocolate, and chocolate syrup. Composite samples were characterized using four different methods: oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), vitamin C equivalence antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), total polyphenols, and procyanidins. All composite lots were further characterized for percent nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) and percent fat. Natural cocoas had the highest levels of antioxidant activities, total polyphenols, and procyanidins followed by baking chocolates, dark chocolates and baking chips, and finally milk chocolate and syrups. The results showed a strong linear correlation between NFCS and ORAC (R (2) = 0.9849), total polyphenols (R (2) = 0.9793), and procyanidins (R (2) = 0.946), respectively. On the basis of principal component analysis, 81.4% of the sample set was associated with NFCS, antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, and procyanidins. The results indicated that, regardless of the product category, NFCS were the primary factor contributing to the level of cocoa antioxidants in the products tested. Results further suggested that differences in cocoa bean blends and processing, with the possible exception of Dutching, are minor factors in determining the level of antioxidants in commercially available cocoa-containing products in the United States.

  16. Rheological, physical and sensorial evaluation of cookies supplemented with dairy powders.

    PubMed

    Sert, Durmuş; Demir, M Kürşat; Ertaş, Nilgün

    2016-04-01

    The effect of dairy powders (skim milk powder, butter milk powder, sodium caseinate, yoghurt powder, milk powder and colostrum powder) on cookie quality was studied. Cookies were tested for aw, calorimetric energy, diameter, thickness, spread ratio, breaking strength, colour, dough consistency and sensory evaluation. The lowest aw values were obtained for cookies containing colostrum powder; also the highest calorimetric energy values were obtained from the colostrum powder-added cookies. Diameter values of cookies with the addition of skim milk powder, butter milk powder, yoghurt powder and milk powder were higher than that of sodium caseinate and colostrum powder. The lowest spread ratio was measured in the cookie samples with added skim milk powder. The addition of yoghurt powder gave the highest breaking strength of cookies. Cookies with sodium caseinate addition exhibited the highest lightness (L*) values than the other cookies with different dairy powders. Cookies prepared with butter milk powder received the highest scores for colour, appearance, texture, crispness and overall acceptability. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Effect of mahaleb on cookie quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mahaleb seed has a public use in many areas including bakery industry, especially to soft wheat products to obtain a special odor and texture. In this study, the effect of mahaleb on the cookie quality was investigated in various concentrations. The cookies were evaluated for physical, textural an...

  18. Physical and sensory characteristics of cookies prepared with flaxseed flour.

    PubMed

    Khouryieh, Hanna; Aramouni, Fadi

    2012-08-30

    Flaxseed has many health benefits and is considered a functional food ingredient. Flaxseed flour (0-18%) was used to partially replace wheat flour in cookies and its effects on the physical and sensory characteristics of the cookies were investigated. A correlation analysis was conducted between the instrumental and sensory data. The cookie dough stickiness significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in relation to higher percentages of flaxseed flour. The 18% flaxseed cookies had the firmest texture, darkest color and lowest water activity. The 18% flaxseed cookies had the greatest spread ratio. However, this resulted in cookies of unacceptable quality properties. In consumer acceptance tests, cookies made with 6% and 12% flaxseed flour had the highest rating among all sensory attributes, while the 18% flaxseed cookies had the lowest sensory scores. The flavor attribute was most highly correlated with the overall acceptability (r = 0.90). Results indicated that flaxseed flour can be incorporated in cookies as a partial replacement up to 12% of wheat flour without negatively affecting the physical and sensory quality. The correlation results suggest that the flaxseed flavor attributes best predict consumer preference for overall acceptability, though texture and color attributes also contribute. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Nutritional and functional evaluation of wheat flour cookies supplemented with gram flour.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Ali A; Ahmed, Anwaar; Ahmad, Asif; Hameed, Tabassum; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Hayat, Imran; Khalid, Nauman

    2013-02-01

    Protein-enriched cookies were prepared by supplementing gram flour into wheat flour at levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% and analysed for physicochemical properties. The protein quality of the cookies was assessed by feeding gram flour-supplemented cookies to albino rats for 10 days. The supplementation resulted in a significant increase in protein, fat, crude fibre and ash contents of the cookies. The thickness and spread factor of cookies differ significantly while non-significant effect was observed in the width of the cookies. The protein efficiency ratio, net protein utilization, biological value and true digestibility differed significantly among diets containing cookies with gram flour fed to rats. Cookies with 30% substitution of straight grade flour and gram flour produced acceptable cookies as compared to control. The cookies containing 40-50% gram flour were best regarded as protein bioavailability for rats.

  20. Properties of Cookies Made with Natural Wax-Vegetable Oil Organogels.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hong-Sik; Singh, Mukti; Lee, Suyong

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of cookies in which the conventional margarine is replaced with an organogel of vegetable oil (VO) and natural wax. New cookies from VO organogels contain no trans fats and much less saturated fats than cookies made with a conventional margarine. To understand the effects of different kinds of waxes, organogels were prepared from 4 different waxes including sunflower wax (SW), rice bran wax (RBW), beeswax, and candelilla wax and properties of cookie dough and cookie were evaluated. To investigate the effects of different VOs on the properties of cookies, 3 VOs including olive oil, soybean oil and flaxseed oil representing oils rich in oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2), and linolenic acid (18:3), respectively, were used. Both the wax and VO significantly affected properties of organogel such as firmness and melting behavior shown in differential scanning calorimetry. The highest firmness of organogel was observed with SW and flaxseed oil. Properties of dough such as hardness and melting behavior were also significantly affected by wax and VO while trends were somewhat different from those for organogels. SW and RBW provided greatest hardnesses to cookie dough. However, hardness, spread factor, and fracturability of cookie containing the wax-VO organogel were not significantly affected by different waxes and VOs. Several cookies made with wax-VO organogels showed similar properties to cookies made with a commercial margarine. Therefore, this study shows the high feasibility of utilization of the organogel technology in real foods such as cookies rich in unsaturated fats. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. [Chocolate craving].

    PubMed

    Almada, Ana Luísa; Silva, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Chocolate craving can be defined as an intense, intrusive and irrepressible desire for the consumption of chocolate. It is a fairly unknown clinical reality, for which it is important to raise awareness among health care professionals and other interested people. This paper reviews the pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, complications, treatment and prevention of chocolate craving, based on a systematic review and reading of 57 articles published in the last decades about the subject. This review shows that chocolate craving is associated with many health problems, such as obesity, depression, anxiety and substance misuse. Since there is no specific treatment for chocolate craving, its therapeutic approach is based on psychological strategies and on the therapeutic strategies for addition, obesity and other conditions related to chocolate craving.

  2. Chocolate versions of the Food Cravings Questionnaires. Associations with chocolate exposure-induced salivary flow and ad libitum chocolate consumption.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Hormes, Julia M

    2015-08-01

    The Food Cravings Questionnaires are the most commonly used instruments for the assessment of trait and state food craving. Chocolate is the most frequently craved food in Western societies. In the current studies, the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) and the Food Cravings Questionnaire-State (FCQ-S) were adapted to capture strong urges for chocolate. In study 1, students (n = 492; 81.3% female) completed chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S among other measures online. The FCQ-T-r (α = .94) comprised two subscales representing lack of control (α = .91) and thoughts about chocolate (α = .91). The FCQ-S (α = .87) comprised two subscales representing chocolate craving (α = .90) and hunger (α = .85). FCQ-T-r scores were significantly and positively correlated with self-reported frequency of consuming chocolate and with scores on the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire, indicating good convergent validity. In study 2, students (n = 76; 73.7% female) underwent a chocolate exposure in the laboratory. FCQ-S scores increased during chocolate exposure and increases in momentary chocolate craving were significantly positively correlated with increases in salivary flow. Higher momentary chocolate craving was positively correlated with higher laboratory chocolate consumption. Exploratory analyses revealed that increases in salivary flow were only associated with increased chocolate consumption in participants scoring high, but not low on trait chocolate craving. The chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S represent reliable and valid self-report measures for the assessment of trait and state chocolate craving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Attention bias for chocolate increases chocolate consumption--an attention bias modification study.

    PubMed

    Werthmann, Jessica; Field, Matt; Roefs, Anne; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Jansen, Anita

    2014-03-01

    The current study examined experimentally whether a manipulated attention bias for food cues increases craving, chocolate intake and motivation to search for hidden chocolates. To test the effect of attention for food on subsequent chocolate intake, attention for chocolate was experimentally modified by instructing participants to look at chocolate stimuli ("attend chocolate" group) or at non-food stimuli ("attend shoes" group) during a novel attention bias modification task (antisaccade task). Chocolate consumption, changes in craving and search time for hidden chocolates were assessed. Eye-movement recordings were used to monitor the accuracy during the experimental attention modification task as possible moderator of effects. Regression analyses were conducted to test the effect of attention modification and modification accuracy on chocolate intake, craving and motivation to search for hidden chocolates. Results showed that participants with higher accuracy (+1 SD), ate more chocolate when they had to attend to chocolate and ate less chocolate when they had to attend to non-food stimuli. In contrast, for participants with lower accuracy (-1 SD), the results were exactly reversed. No effects of the experimental attention modification on craving or search time for hidden chocolates were found. We used chocolate as food stimuli so it remains unclear how our findings generalize to other types of food. These findings demonstrate further evidence for a link between attention for food and food intake, and provide an indication about the direction of this relationship. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychoactive effects of tasting chocolate and desire for more chocolate.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Jennifer A; Bradley, Lauren E; Leitzsch, Jessica B; Chohan, Omar; Fasulo, Kristy; Haller, Josie; Jaeger, Kristin; Szulanczyk, Benjamin; Del Parigi, Angelo

    2011-07-25

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychoactive effects of tasting chocolate and to evaluate the contribution of the main chocolate components to the desire to consume more of it. A total of 280 participants, (F-155; M=125) ranging in age from 18-65, completed the study. Participants were randomly assigned to taste 12.5 g of either white chocolate ("control") or one of four chocolate ("cocoa") samples varying in sugar, fat and percent cocoa content, then answered the question: "Do you want more of this chocolate?" and "If yes, how many more pieces of this chocolate would you like to eat?" They completed pre- and post-consumption surveys, consisting of 30 questions derived from the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) subscales, Morphine-Benzedrine Group (MBG), Morphine (M) and Excitement (E). Significant decreases in post-pre consumption changes in MBG subscale were observed between the control sample and the 70% cocoa (p=0.046) or the 85% cocoa sample (p=0.0194). Proportionally more men than women wanted more of the tasted chocolate (p=0.035). Participants were more likely to want more of the tasted chocolate if they displayed a greater change in the MBG scale, and if their chocolate sample had high sugar and cocoa content, as assessed by multiple logistic regression. Our results suggest that multiple characteristics of chocolate, including sugar, cocoa and the drug-like effects experienced, play a role in the desire to consume chocolate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical properties of sugar cookies containing chia-oat composites.

    PubMed

    Inglett, George E; Chen, Diejun; Liu, Sean

    2014-12-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) and soluble β-glucan of oat products are known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing coronary heart disease. Nutrim, oat bran concentrate (OBC), and whole oat flour (WOF) were composited with finely ground chia, and used in cookies at 20% replacement of wheat flour for improved nutritional and physical quality. The objective was to evaluate physical properties of chia-oat composites, dough, and cookies. These composites had improved water-holding capacities compared to the starting materials. The geometrical properties and texture properties of the cookies were not greatly influenced by a 20% flour replacement using chia-OBC or chia-WOF composites. There was a decrease in the cookie diameter, and increases in the height of cookies and dough hardness using 20% Chia- Nutrim composite. These fine-particle chia-oat composites were prepared by a feasible procedure for improved nutritional value and physical properties of foods. The cookies containing chia-oat composites can be considered a health-promoting functional food. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Nonstarch polysaccharides in wheat flour wire-cut cookie making.

    PubMed

    Guttieri, Mary J; Souza, Edward J; Sneller, Clay

    2008-11-26

    Nonstarch polysaccharides in wheat flour have significant capacity to affect the processing quality of wheat flour dough and the finished quality of wheat flour products. Most research has focused on the effects of arabinoxylans (AX) in bread making. This study found that water-extractable AX and arabinogalactan peptides can predict variation in pastry wheat quality as captured by the wire-cut cookie model system. The sum of water-extractable AX plus arabinogalactan was highly predictive of cookie spread factor. The combination of cookie spread factor and the ratio of water-extractable arabinose to xylose predicted peak force of the three-point bend test of cookie texture.

  7. Properties of cookies made with natural wax-vegetable oil organogels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organogels prepared with a natural wax and a vegetable oil were examined as alternatives to a commercial margarine in cookie. To investigate effects of wax and vegetable oil on properties of cookie dough and cookies, organogels prepared from four different waxes including sunflower wax, rice bran wa...

  8. Parliamentary Pastries: Learning Parliamentary Procedure through Cookies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toupence, Rachelle H.

    2008-01-01

    Parliamentary procedure is an integral part of the business of many recreation organizations, but students often perceive it to be difficult and irrelevant to their professional preparation. The activity uses the creation of a cookie recipe to practice the basic meeting business functions in parliamentary procedure. The cookie meeting is an active…

  9. Blueberry by-product used as an ingredient in the development of functional cookies.

    PubMed

    Perez, Claudia; Tagliani, Camila; Arcia, Patricia; Cozzano, Sonia; Curutchet, Ana

    2018-06-01

    A by-product of blueberry juice industries was used as an ingredient to develop fiber-enriched cookies. The blueberry pomace, once ground and dried, was used as an ingredient in cookie formulation. A control cookie was elaborated as reference. Cookies were analyzed for composition and functional properties. The fiber content obtained in the fiber-enriched cookie allows it to be labeled as "high fiber" in the European Union and as a "source of fiber" in MERCOSUR. The fiber-enriched cookie presented highly increased values on the antioxidant capacity and the polyphenol content when compared against the control cookie. Sensory evaluation was performed. Acceptability of the fiber-enriched cookie reached a value of 5.3 in a nine-point hedonic scale. Further strategies should be necessary in order to achieve an acceptable product. Cookies were subjected to an in vitro digestive process. Results show that the cookies' phytochemicals are bioaccessible and potentially bioavailable. Therefore, eating this type of food would represent an increase in the amount of antioxidants ingested and redound to a health benefit. In addition to improving both nutritional and functional properties of cookies, the present development represents an innovative strategy for a more sustainable growth of fruit juice industries.

  10. Chocolate: food for moods.

    PubMed

    Wong, S Y; Lua, P L

    2011-08-01

    Chocolate is a popular food and its consumption has long been associated with enjoyment and pleasure. The effect of chocolate on mood too has long been recognised. Chocolate is thought to have interactions with neurotransmitters which contribute to mood modulation and appetite regulation. However, the evidence in chocolate and mood studies remains highly controversial. As more is known about the influence of chocolate on mood, the reasons for these effects appear increasingly complex and inter-related. We reviewed chocolate's properties and the principal hypotheses addressing its mood altering propensities. The relationship between chocolate and mood are highly complex, combining psychopharmacological components, nutritional and sensory characteristics of the food. Individual and situational differences on chocolate consumption may also exert influence on mood and the mixed results in previous research indicate that the direction of the association remains unclear. The association between chocolate consumption and emotions warrants further multi-prong investigations to substantiate chocolate's mood alterating propensity.

  11. Chocolate equals stop. Chocolate-specific inhibition training reduces chocolate intake and go associations with chocolate.

    PubMed

    Houben, Katrijn; Jansen, Anita

    2015-04-01

    Earlier research has demonstrated that food-specific inhibition training wherein food cues are repeatedly and consistently mapped onto stop signals decreases food intake and bodyweight. The mechanisms underlying these training effects, however, remain unclear. It has been suggested that consistently pairing stimuli with stop signals induces automatic stop associations with those stimuli, thereby facilitating automatic, bottom-up inhibition. This study examined this hypothesis with respect to food-inhibition training. Participants performed a training that consistently paired chocolate with no go cues (chocolate/no-go) or with go cues (chocolate/go). Following training, we measured automatic associations between chocolate and stop versus go, as well as food intake and desire to eat. As expected, food that was consistently mapped onto stopping was indeed more associated with stopping versus going afterwards. In replication of previous results, participants in the no-go condition also showed less desire to eat and reduced food intake relative to the go condition. Together these findings support the idea that food-specific inhibition training prompts the development of automatic inhibition associations, which subsequently facilitate inhibitory control over unwanted food-related urges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chocolate: food or drug?

    PubMed

    Bruinsma, K; Taren, D L

    1999-10-01

    Although addictive behavior is generally associated with drug and alcohol abuse or compulsive sexual activity, chocolate may evoke similar psychopharmacologic and behavioral reactions in susceptible persons. A review of the literature on chocolate cravings indicates that the hedonic appeal of chocolate (fat, sugar, texture, and aroma) is likely to be a predominant factor in such cravings. Other characteristics of chocolate, however, may be equally as important contributors to the phenomena of chocolate cravings. Chocolate may be used by some as a form of self-medication for dietary deficiencies (eg, magnesium) or to balance low levels of neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of mood, food intake, and compulsive behaviors (eg, serotonin and dopamine). Chocolate cravings are often episodic and fluctuate with hormonal changes just before and during the menses, which suggests a hormonal link and confirms the assumed gender-specific nature of chocolate cravings. Chocolate contains several biologically active constituents (methylxanthines, biogenic amines, and cannabinoid-like fatty acids), all of which potentially cause abnormal behaviors and psychological sensations that parallel those of other addictive substances. Most likely, a combination of chocolate's sensory characteristics, nutrient composition, and psychoactive ingredients, compounded with monthly hormonal fluctuations and mood swings among women, will ultimately form the model of chocolate cravings. Dietetics professionals must be aware that chocolate cravings are real. The psychopharmacologic and chemosensory effects of chocolate must be considered when formulating recommendations for overall healthful eating and for treatment of nutritionally related health issues.

  13. The texture, sensory properties and stability of cookies prepared with wax oleogels.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    Shortening is the essential component of high quality baked foods. Its effects on dough structure formation and the desired final product attributes depend mostly on its solid fat content and β' crystalline polymorphs. Saturated and trans fatty acids present in shortening pose some important negative health considerations. Hence, alternative plastic fats with lower or zero quantity of saturated and trans fatty acids are in high demand. Oleogels are gel networks of liquid edible oils with no trans and very low saturated fatty acids. In this study, sunflower wax (SW) and beeswax (BW) oleogels of hazelnut oil were used in cookie preparation against commercial bakery shortening (CBS) as the control, to compare the textural, sensory and stability properties of the cookies. The basic chemical composition, textural properties, and some physical attributes of the cookies were compared. Sensory texture/flavor profile analysis (T/FPA) and consumer hedonic tests were also accomplished. Furthermore, the changes in cookie texture and stability were monitored during 30 day storage at room temperature. It was found out that in almost all properties, the oleogel cookies resembled CBS cookies. T/FPA results present detailed data for literature. Consumer hedonic scores indicated that oleogel cookies were better than CBS cookies and were also well accepted by consumers. Wax oleogels can be used as cookie shortening successfully.

  14. Quality assessment of butter cookies applying multispectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Mette S; Dissing, Bjørn S; Løje, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    A method for characterization of butter cookie quality by assessing the surface browning and water content using multispectral images is presented. Based on evaluations of the browning of butter cookies, cookies were manually divided into groups. From this categorization, reference values were calculated for a statistical prediction model correlating multispectral images with a browning score. The browning score is calculated as a function of oven temperature and baking time. It is presented as a quadratic response surface. The investigated process window was the intervals 4–16 min and 160–200°C in a forced convection electrically heated oven. In addition to the browning score, a model for predicting the average water content based on the same images is presented. This shows how multispectral images of butter cookies may be used for the assessment of different quality parameters. Statistical analysis showed that the most significant wavelengths for browning predictions were in the interval 400–700 nm and the wavelengths significant for water prediction were primarily located in the near-infrared spectrum. The water prediction model was found to correctly estimate the average water content with an absolute error of 0.22%. From the images it was also possible to follow the browning and drying propagation from the cookie edge toward the center. PMID:24804036

  15. Wheat-water chestnut flour blends: effect of baking on antioxidant properties of cookies.

    PubMed

    Shafi, Musarat; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Bazaz, Rafiya

    2016-12-01

    Proximate composition, mineral content, functional, pasting and antioxidant properties of water chestnut flour (WCF) were compared with refined wheat flour. WCF showed higher phenolic (4.25 gGAE/1000 g), flavonoid (1.92 g QE/1000 g) and mineral content (K, Mg, Zn, Cu) than wheat flour. WCF showed greater retrogradation tendency but lower peak viscosity than wheat flour. Wheat flour - WCF blends and cookies were evaluated for water activity, physical & textural properties. Water activity of cookies decreased significantly (0.415-0.311) with increase in level of WCF in wheat flour. Total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity (DPPH• scavenging capacity, FRAP) of WCF - wheat flour blends as well as their cookies was also determined. Baking led to a greater increase in DPPH• scavenging capacity of WCF cookies (33.8%) than WF cookies (25%). Baking had a similar effect on FRAP value. Wheat flour cookies showed a decrease of 51%, and 62% while WCF cookies showed a decrease of 36%, and 34% in TPC and TFC values respectively. WCF cookies thus showed better retention of antioxidant activities suggesting greater stability of WC phenolics than wheat phenolics. Sensory analysis showed cookies made from water chestnut (100%) had fair acceptability due to their characteristic flavor. Thus, water chestnut flour serves both as a gluten free as well as antioxidant rich flour for production of cookies.

  16. Physical properties and consumer liking of cookies prepared by replacing sucrose with tagatose.

    PubMed

    Taylor, T P; Fasina, O; Bell, L N

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of tagatose, a minimally absorbed prebiotic monosaccharide, as a replacement for sucrose in cookies. A sucrose-containing cookie recipe was prepared as the control. Sucrose was replaced with tagatose at various levels ranging from 25% to 100%. Cookies containing fructose were also prepared for comparison due to the structural similarities between tagatose and fructose. The rheological properties of the dough were measured using texture profile analysis. The baked cookies were evaluated for spread, color, and hardness. For tagatose-containing cookies, the extent of likeness was evaluated by 53 untrained panelists using a 9-point hedonic scale. When sucrose was replaced by tagatose, doughs with similar rheological properties to the control resulted. The tagatose-containing cookies were harder and darker with a lower spread than the control. Sensory data indicated that panelists liked the brown color of the 100% tagatose cookies better than the control, but disliked their sweetness. Overall likeness scores of the control and cookies made by replacing half of the sucrose with tagatose were the same. Tagatose appears to be suitable as a partial replacer for sucrose in cookies based on similar dough properties, cookie properties, and likeness scores. Using tagatose to replace sucrose in foods would reduce the amount of metabolizeable sugars in the diet as well as provide the desirable prebiotic effect.

  17. Anticipatory and reactive responses to chocolate restriction in frequent chocolate consumers.

    PubMed

    Keeler, Chelsey L; Mattes, Richard D; Tan, Sze-Yen

    2015-06-01

    Many individuals have difficulty adhering to a weight loss diet. One possible explanation could be that dietary restriction paradoxically contributes to overconsumption. The objective of this study was to examine ingestive behavior under a forced chocolate restriction with a focus on the anticipatory restriction period and the post-restriction period in frequent chocolate consumers. Fifty-six male (N = 18) and female (N = 38) high chocolate consumers with high (N = 25) or low (N = 31) cognitive disinhibition participated. Chocolate snacks were provided for a week each to establish baseline, pre-restriction, and post-restriction consumption, Chocolate snacks were replaced with nonchocolate snacks during a 3-week chocolate restriction period. Highly disinhibited participants felt more guilty and consumed significantly more energy than low disinhibited participants across snack conditions. Low disinhibited participants consumed significantly less in the post-restriction period compared to baseline and the pre-restriction period, while high disinhibited participants consumed the same amount across all conditions. Aggregating the data, high and low disinhibited chocolate consumers ate snacks more frequently in the pre- and post-restriction periods compared to the baseline period. This study suggests that for some individuals, restriction of a preferred food like chocolate may be contraindicated for energy restriction and weight management. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  18. Antioxidant Capacity, Mineral Content and Sensory Properties of Gluten-Free Rice and Buckwheat Cookies

    PubMed Central

    Pestorić, Mladenka; Mišan, Aleksandra; Nedeljković, Nataša; Jambrec, Dubravka; Jovanov, Pavle; Banjac, Vojislav; Torbica, Aleksandra; Hadnađev, Miroslav; Mandić, Anamarija

    2015-01-01

    Summary Light buckwheat flour was used to substitute rice flour at the level of 10, 20 and 30% to produce gluten-free cookies. The substitution of gluten-free cookie formulation with light buckwheat flour contributed to the significantly higher mineral content, especially magnesium, potassium, iron and copper, in comparison with the control rice cookies (p<0.05). Gluten-free cookies made with rice flour and buckwheat flour exhibited significantly higher total phenolic and rutin content, scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•), antioxidant activity and reducing power than the control cookies (p<0.05). Comparing all evaluated sensory properties, cookies containing 20% of light buckwheat flour had the most acceptable sensory properties. The obtained results of principal component analysis showed that the cookies with 20 and 30% buckwheat flour had better antioxidant and sensory properties in comparison with other two cookie samples. PMID:27904330

  19. Licence to eat: Information on energy expended during exercise affects subsequent energy intake.

    PubMed

    McCaig, Duncan C; Hawkins, Lydia A; Rogers, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    An acute bout of exercise, compared with no exercise, appears to have little influence on subsequent energy intake (EI), resulting in short-term negative energy balance. Whereas the labelling of food is evidenced to influence EI, little research has focused on how EI is affected by framing acute exercise in different ways. To explore this, 70 healthy, mostly lean, male and female participants in the current study completed a set amount of exercise (estimated energy expenditure (EE) 120 kcal), but were informed on three occasions before and after the exercise that they had expended either 50 kcal or 265 kcal. An ad libitum test meal, comprising orange juice, tortilla chips and chocolate chip cookies, was then presented after a 10-min break to assess subsequent EI. Measures of hunger and dietary restraint were also completed. Greater EI, primarily driven by chocolate chip cookie consumption (p = 0.015), was observed in participants receiving 265 kcal EE information. Hunger ratings were significantly lower in the 265 kcal EE information group than in the 50 kcal group following the test meal (p = 0.035), but not immediately after the exercise. These results support an interpretation that higher EE information (265 kcal) provides participants with a greater 'licence to eat' when palatable foods are accessible. Tentative evidence for a moderating effect of dietary restraint was observed, indicating a greater influence of EE information in participants with lower restraint. The findings of the current study suggest that the provision of EE information (e.g., through mobile device apps) could be counter-productive to healthy weight management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Loquasto, Joseph R.; Roberts, Robert F.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  1. Inulin and erythritol as sucrose replacers in short-dough cookies: sensory, fracture, and acoustic properties.

    PubMed

    Laguna, Laura; Primo-Martín, Cristina; Salvador, Ana; Sanz, Teresa

    2013-05-01

    The effect of sucrose replacement by erythritol and inulin was studied in short-dough cookies using instrumental and sensory analysis. Two levels of replacement were used (25% and 50% of total sucrose content). Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the sucrose replacement affects visual and texture cookies characteristics, being the differences perceived by mouth greater than by hand. In general, sucrose substitutes produced a less crispy cookie and lower consumer acceptability, with the exception of 25% sucrose replacement by inulin. Matrix aeration attributes such as open and crumbly obtained by trained panel were important properties, and correlated positively with consumer acceptance and negatively with maximum force at break (hardness). Inulin cookies sensory properties were more similar to the control than the erythritol cookies. Also, consumer overall acceptance decreased significantly with sucrose replacement by erythritol. The analysis of texture and sound revealed that inulin cookies were softer whereas erythritol cookies were harder in comparison with control cookies; despite this difference, inulin cookies had similar sound characteristics to erythritol cookies. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Supraventricular tachycardia induced by chocolate: is chocolate too sweet for the heart?

    PubMed

    Parasramka, Saurabh; Dufresne, Alix

    2012-09-01

    Conflicting studies have been published concerning the association between chocolate and cardiovascular diseases. Fewer articles have described the potential arrhythmogenic risk related to chocolate intake. We present a case of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in a woman after consumption of large quantity of chocolate. A 53-year-old woman with no significant medical history presented to us with complaints of palpitations and shortness of breath after consuming large amounts of chocolate. Electrocardiogram showed supraventricular tachycardia at 165 beats per minute, which was restored to sinus rhythm after adenosine bolus injection. Electrophysiology studies showed atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, which was treated with radiofrequency ablation. Chocolate contains caffeine and theobromine, which are methylxanthines and are competitive antagonists of adenosine and can have arrhythmogenic potential. Our case very well describes an episode of tachycardia precipitated by large amount of chocolate consumption in a patient with underlying substrate. There are occasional case reports describing association between chocolate, caffeine, and arrhythmias. A large Danish study, however, did not find any association between amount of daily caffeine consumption and risk of arrhythmia.

  3. Subjective and physiological reactivity to chocolate images in high and low chocolate cravers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Sonia; Fernández, María Carmen; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio; Vila, Jaime

    2005-09-01

    Cue-reactivity to chocolate images was assessed using self-report and physiological measures. From a pre-screening sample of 454, young women were selected and assigned to high and low chocolate craving groups (N = 36/group). The experimental procedure consisted in the elicitation and measurement of the cardiac defense and startle reflexes while viewing chocolate and standard affective images selected from the International Affective Picture System. In response to chocolate images, high cravers reported more pleasure and arousal but less control than low cravers. In high cravers, viewing chocolate images inhibited the cardiac defense but potentiated the startle reflex, as compared to low cravers. The results confirmed at the physiological level that the motivational state that underlies the experience of chocolate craving include both appetitive (inhibition of the defense reflex) and aversive (potentiation of the startle response) components. The findings supported a motivational conflict theory of chocolate craving.

  4. Glycemic index and microstructure analysis of a newly developed fiber enriched cookie.

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Wonik, Jasmin; Bindrich, Ute; Heinemann, Michaela; Kohrs, Heike; Schneider, Inga; Möller, Katharina; Hahn, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) is associated with an elevated risk for obesity or type 2 diabetes. We investigated the GI of a newly-developed fiber enriched cookie and characterized the microstructure of ingredients used. In a study with 26 non-diabetic healthy volunteers it was shown that the fiber enriched cookie has a GI of 58.9 in relation to white bread as reference. Using a conversion factor of 1.4, the GI of the fiber enriched cookie in relation to a glucose-solution is 42.0 and can be classified as a low-GI food. Postprandial insulin concentration was significantly lower after consumption of fiber enriched cookies compared to white bread. Glucose release after in vitro digestion was significantly lower from fiber enriched cookies compared to other cookies tested. In addition to its high percentage of fiber, the cookies' low GI can be attributed to the limited gelatinization potential of the starch granules found in the ingredients used. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy it is shown that starch granule surface area of whole grain barley flour, spelt flour and oat flakes bears cluster-shaped protein-NSPS complexes that preferentially absorb water in conditions of water shortage and thereby prevent starch gelatinization.

  5. Effects of Chocolate Deprivation on Implicit and Explicit Evaluation of Chocolate in High and Low Trait Chocolate Cravers

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Anna; Meule, Adrian; Friese, Malte; Blechert, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Diet failures are often attributed to an increase in cravings for attractive foods. However, accumulating evidence shows that food cravings actually decrease during energy-restricting weight-loss interventions. The current study aimed at elucidating possible mechanisms that may explain how and under which circumstances food cravings in- or decrease during dieting. Specifically, decreases in food cravings during weight-loss diets may be due to effects of energy restriction (homeostatic changes) and to effects of avoiding specific foods (hedonic changes). Thus, we used a selective, hedonic deprivation (i.e., restricting intake of a specific food in the absence of an energy deficit) that precludes homeostatic changes due to energy restriction. Furthermore, interindividual differences in food craving experiences might affect why some individuals are more prone to experience cravings during dieting than others. Thus, we investigated whether a selective deprivation of chocolate would in- or decrease craving and implicit preference for chocolate as a function of trait-level differences in chocolate craving. Participants with high and low trait chocolate craving (HC, LC) refrained from consuming chocolate for 2 weeks but otherwise maintained their usual food intake. Both groups underwent laboratory assessments before and after deprivation, each including explicit (i.e., state chocolate craving) and implicit measures (i.e., Single Category Implicit Association Test, SC-IAT; Affect Misattribution Procedure, AMP). Results showed that hedonic deprivation increased state chocolate craving in HCs only. HCs also showed more positive implicit attitudes toward chocolate than LCs on the SC-IAT and the AMP irrespective of deprivation. Results help to disambiguate previous studies on the effects of dieting on food cravings. Specifically, while previous studies showed that energy-restricting diets appear to decrease food cravings, the current study showed that a selective, hedonic

  6. Effects of Chocolate Deprivation on Implicit and Explicit Evaluation of Chocolate in High and Low Trait Chocolate Cravers.

    PubMed

    Richard, Anna; Meule, Adrian; Friese, Malte; Blechert, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Diet failures are often attributed to an increase in cravings for attractive foods. However, accumulating evidence shows that food cravings actually decrease during energy-restricting weight-loss interventions. The current study aimed at elucidating possible mechanisms that may explain how and under which circumstances food cravings in- or decrease during dieting. Specifically, decreases in food cravings during weight-loss diets may be due to effects of energy restriction (homeostatic changes) and to effects of avoiding specific foods (hedonic changes). Thus, we used a selective, hedonic deprivation (i.e., restricting intake of a specific food in the absence of an energy deficit) that precludes homeostatic changes due to energy restriction. Furthermore, interindividual differences in food craving experiences might affect why some individuals are more prone to experience cravings during dieting than others. Thus, we investigated whether a selective deprivation of chocolate would in- or decrease craving and implicit preference for chocolate as a function of trait-level differences in chocolate craving. Participants with high and low trait chocolate craving (HC, LC) refrained from consuming chocolate for 2 weeks but otherwise maintained their usual food intake. Both groups underwent laboratory assessments before and after deprivation, each including explicit (i.e., state chocolate craving) and implicit measures (i.e., Single Category Implicit Association Test, SC-IAT; Affect Misattribution Procedure, AMP). Results showed that hedonic deprivation increased state chocolate craving in HCs only. HCs also showed more positive implicit attitudes toward chocolate than LCs on the SC-IAT and the AMP irrespective of deprivation. Results help to disambiguate previous studies on the effects of dieting on food cravings. Specifically, while previous studies showed that energy-restricting diets appear to decrease food cravings, the current study showed that a selective, hedonic

  7. Sugar-snap cookie dough setting: the impact of sucrose on gluten functionality.

    PubMed

    Pareyt, Bram; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2009-09-09

    In sugar-snap cookie making, sucrose influences the physicochemical transformations of the flour components and is responsible for both cookie sweetness and texture. Sucrose, together with low moisture levels, raises the starch gelatinization temperature to such an extent that little if any of it gelatinizes during baking. However, there is no agreement on the effects that it has on gluten during cookie making. The present study revealed that increasing sucrose levels in the recipe increasingly delay or inhibit gluten cross-linking, as judged from the loss of sodium dodecyl sulfate-extractable protein. This causes cookies containing higher sucrose levels to set later and to have a larger diameter. Gluten entanglement and/or cross-linking result in resistance to collapse, at the same time, cause setting during baking and, hence, determine cookie diameter.

  8. Survey of commercially available chocolate- and cocoa-containing products in the United States. 2. Comparison of flavan-3-ol content with nonfat cocoa solids, total polyphenols, and percent cacao.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kenneth B; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Flannigan, Nancy; Ou, Boxin; Lee, C Y; Smith, Nancy; Stuart, David A

    2009-10-14

    A survey of a broad range of chocolate- and cocoa-containing products marketed in the United States was conducted to provide a more detailed analysis of flavan-3-ol monomers, oligomers, and polymers, which can be grouped into a class of compounds called procyanidins. Samples consisted of the three or four top-selling products within the following six categories: natural cocoa powder, unsweetened baking chocolate, dark chocolate, semisweet baking chips, milk chocolate, and chocolate syrup. Composite samples were characterized for percent fat (% fat), percent nonfat cocoa solids (% NFCS), antioxidant level by ORAC, total polyphenols, epicatechin, catechin, total monomers, and flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers (procyanidins). On a gram weight basis epicatechin and catechin content of the products follow in decreasing order: cocoa powder > baking chocolate > dark chocolate = baking chips > milk chocolate > chocolate syrup. Analysis of the monomer and oligomer profiles within product categories shows there are two types of profiles: (1) products that have high monomers with decreasing levels of oligomers and (2) products in which the level of dimers is equal to or greater than the monomers. Results show a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.834) of epicatechin to the level of % NFCS and also very good correlations for N = 2-5 oligomers to % NFCS. A weaker correlation was observed for catechin to % NFCS (R(2) = 0.680). Other analyses show a similar high degree of correlation with epicatechin and N = 2-5 oligomers to total polyphenols, with catechin being less well correlated to total polyphenols. A lesser but still good correlation exists between the calculated percent cacao (calcd % cacao) content, a proxy for percent cacao, and these same flavanol measures, with catechin again showing a lesser degree of correlation to calcd % cacao. Principal component analysis (PCA) shows that the products group discretely into five classes: (1) cocoa powder, (2) baking chocolate, (3) dark

  9. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Meriel L; Loquasto, Joseph R; Roberts, Robert F; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  10. How to Succeed in the Cookie Business. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jane

    This teacher's guide introduces kindergarten students to what a business is and how it is managed. Approximate instructional time for the unit is four to six hours. Using a learning center approach, students set up their own cookie factory and manufacture cookies in the classroom. Activities reinforce counting money, writing, putting letters into…

  11. Experimental effects of chocolate deprivation on cravings, mood, and consumption in high and low chocolate-cravers.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Dominguez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Martín, María; Warren, Cortney S

    2012-02-01

    This study examined how deprivation of chocolate affects state-level chocolate cravings, mood, and chocolate consumption in high and low trait-level chocolate-cravers. After identifying high and low chocolate cravers (N=58), half of the participants were instructed not to eat any chocolate for 2weeks. This created four experimental groups: deprived high-cravers (n=14), deprived low-cravers (n=14), non-deprived high-cravers (n=15), and non-deprived low-cravers (n=15). Following 2-week deprivation, state-level food cravings, mood, and chocolate intake were measured in a laboratory setting and compared across groups. Analyses revealed that anxiety increased over time for high-cravers (both deprived and non-deprived); state-level chocolate- and food-craving increased over time for both deprived groups and non-deprived high-cravers; non-deprived high-cravers ate the most chocolate; and, high-cravers were more joyful and guilty than low-cravers after eating chocolate in the laboratory. Theoretically, these results suggest that chocolate consumption may be better explained by trait-level of chocolate craving than by deprivation and highlighted significant differences in mood, state-level cravings, and chocolate intake between cravers and non-cravers following deprivation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Science of Chocolate

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    McShea, Andy

    2011-04-19

    Explore the chemistry of chocolate and how the chemistry relates to the flavor and effects of chocolate on the human body and why, even after 3,400 years of cocoa consumption, chocolate remains somewhat of a mystery.

  13. Physicochemical, rheological and functional properties of fats and oils in relation to cookie quality: a review.

    PubMed

    Devi, Amita; Khatkar, B S

    2016-10-01

    Sincere efforts of researchers are underway to understand the functionality of different fats and oils in relation to cookie quality. The quality of cookie primarily relies upon the functionality of fats and oils in cookie system which ultimately is combined result of their physical, chemical, and rheological properties. Effects of some major fats and oils such as butter, bakery fat, hydrogenated fat, lard, margarine, palm oil, sunflower oil, coconut oil, and soybean oil on the physical and sensory characteristics of cookie have been studied. Previous studies reported that fats and oils had radical contribution in cookie quality and most authors agree on the fact that different fats and oils affect the cookie quality to different extent. Furthermore, it was observed by many researchers that with oils, dough was softer and cookie spread was higher as compared with that of fats. It is important to understand the molecular basis of the difference in technological changes in cookies properties with different fats and oils. This review focuses on the current knowledge of quality determining physical, chemical, thermal, microstructural, and functional properties of fats and oils in relation to cookie dough rheology and cookie quality.

  14. Patterns of chocolate consumption.

    PubMed

    Seligson, F H; Krummel, D A; Apgar, J L

    1994-12-01

    Although consumed in some form since at least 460 AD, cacao (Theobroma cacao) was not used in confectionery until the 19th century when the cocoa press was invented. Per capita consumption of chocolate confectionery in the United States is moderate (approximately 4.6-4.8 kg/y) compared with that of many northern European countries (approximately 7-10 kg/y). Eleven percent of the US population reported consuming chocolate candy on > or = 1 of the 3 d of recorded food intake in the US Department of Agriculture Nationwide Food Consumption Survey 1987-1988; < 1.0% consumed chocolate every day. The Western region of the United States contained the highest proportion of chocolate consumers. More whites than other racial groups were consumers. Chocolate was consumed by more people in the winter than in other seasons and more was consumed at snacks than at meals. The mean amount of chocolate consumed was approximately 30-90 g/d, depending on sex and age group. Chocolate candy was only a minor contributor (0.7-3.4%) to the overall dietary intake of total energy, fat, saturated fatty acids, and stearic acid.

  15. Suppressing images of desire: Neural correlates of chocolate-related thoughts in high and low trait chocolate cravers.

    PubMed

    Miedl, Stephan F; Blechert, Jens; Meule, Adrian; Richard, Anna; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2018-03-05

    Chocolate is the most often craved food in Western societies and many individuals try to resist its temptation due to weight concerns. Suppressing chocolate-related thoughts might, however, lead to paradoxical enhancements of these thoughts and this effect might be more pronounced in individuals with frequent chocolate cravings. In the current study, neural and cognitive correlates of chocolate thought suppression were investigated as a function of trait chocolate craving. Specifically, 20 high and 20 low trait chocolate cravers followed suppression vs. free thinking instructions after being exposed to chocolate and neutral images. Enhanced cue reactivity was evident in high trait chocolate cravers in that they reported more chocolate-related thoughts selectively after chocolate images compared to their low trait craving counterparts. This cue reactivity was mirrored neurally by higher activation in the ventral and dorsal striatum, demonstrating enhanced reward system activity. Unexpectedly, high trait chocolate cravers successfully reduced their elevated chocolate thoughts in the suppression condition. This lends support for the use of thought suppression as a means of regulating unwanted thoughts, cravings and imagery. Whether this thought manipulation is able to curb the elevated cue reactivity and the underlying reward sensitivity in chocolate cravers in applied settings remains to be shown. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Marijuana and chocolate.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1996-10-18

    Three substances in chocolate and cocoa powder may mimic cannabinoid by activating receptors or increasing anandamide levels. Anandamide is a lipid that binds to cannabinoid receptors and mimics the psychoactive effects of the drug. Chocolate is widely believed to enhance the effect of marijuana. A practical implication of this finding is that the amount of marijuana needed for medicinal purposes may be decreased by using it with chocolate, reducing both the risks and cost associated with marijuana.

  17. Mood state effects of chocolate.

    PubMed

    Parker, Gordon; Parker, Isabella; Brotchie, Heather

    2006-06-01

    Chocolate consumption has long been associated with enjoyment and pleasure. Popular claims confer on chocolate the properties of being a stimulant, relaxant, euphoriant, aphrodisiac, tonic and antidepressant. The last claim stimulated this review. We review chocolate's properties and the principal hypotheses addressing its claimed mood altering propensities. We distinguish between food craving and emotional eating, consider their psycho-physiological underpinnings, and examine the likely 'positioning' of any effect of chocolate to each concept. Chocolate can provide its own hedonistic reward by satisfying cravings but, when consumed as a comfort eating or emotional eating strategy, is more likely to be associated with prolongation rather than cessation of a dysphoric mood. This review focuses primarily on clarifying the possibility that, for some people, chocolate consumption may act as an antidepressant self-medication strategy and the processes by which this may occur. Any mood benefits of chocolate consumption are ephemeral.

  18. Neural predictors of chocolate intake following chocolate exposure.

    PubMed

    Frankort, Astrid; Roefs, Anne; Siep, Nicolette; Roebroeck, Alard; Havermans, Remco; Jansen, Anita

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that one's brain response to high-calorie food cues can predict long-term weight gain or weight loss. The neural correlates that predict food intake in the short term have, however, hardly been investigated. This study examined which brain regions' activation predicts chocolate intake after participants had been either exposed to real chocolate or to control stimuli during approximately one hour, with interruptions for fMRI measurements. Further we investigated whether the variance in chocolate intake could be better explained by activated brain regions than by self-reported craving. In total, five brain regions correlated with subsequent chocolate intake. The activation of two reward regions (the right caudate and the left frontopolar cortex) correlated positively with intake in the exposure group. The activation of two regions associated with cognitive control (the left dorsolateral and left mid-dorsolateral PFC) correlated negatively with intake in the control group. When the regression analysis was conducted with the exposure and the control group together, an additional region's activation (the right anterior PFC) correlated positively with chocolate intake. In all analyses, the intake variance explained by neural correlates was above and beyond the variance explained by self-reported craving. These results are in line with neuroimaging research showing that brain responses are a better predictor of subsequent intake than self-reported craving. Therefore, our findings might provide for a missing link by associating brain activation, previously shown to predict weight change, with short-term intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chocolate Maths!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Margaret; Underwood, Val

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a varied day of stimulating mathematics with key stage 2 learners--all revolving around chocolate. They used a variety of stimuli organized around the chocolate theme. A whole day was spent on using and applying mathematics, and the exercise proved to be enjoyable for both staff and pupils. The children…

  20. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the hedonic processing of chocolate images in individuals with and without trait chocolate craving.

    PubMed

    Asmaro, Deyar; Jaspers-Fayer, Fern; Sramko, Valery; Taake, Isabel; Carolan, Patrick; Liotti, Mario

    2012-06-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of the hedonic response to chocolate images was investigated in healthy participants high and low in trait-chocolate craving employing high-density ERPs. There were two sessions: (1) before and (2) after satiety for chocolate. Among cravers, chocolate stimuli evoked a positive amplitude ERP enhancement over the anterior frontal scalp (250-350 ms) that was not modified by satiety and that source localized to the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex. Chocolate stimuli also elicited a later LPP over the posterior scalp (360-560 ms) which was of similar amplitude for high and low chocolate cravers, independent of satiety. Unexpectedly, in non-cravers, chocolate stimuli elicited an earlier (100-250 ms) negative ERP modulation over the frontomedial scalp, which disappeared after eating chocolate to satiety. These results confirm the role of OFC in unrestrained appetitive responses to chocolate in cravers, and suggest top-down influences from cognitive control mechanisms when attempting to restrain the urge to eat chocolate in non-cravers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of co-milled wheat, green gram and barley on the rheological and quality characteristics of cookies.

    PubMed

    Tulse, Siddharth B; V, Reshma; Rajiv, Jyotsna; Sakhare, Suresh D

    2015-10-01

    Studies were carried out on the co-milling of wheat (W), green gram (GG) and barley (BR) grains using a roller milling system. The co-milled straight run flours obtained by varying proportions of wheat, barley and green gram WGGBR-1 (90:5:5), WGGBR-2 (80:10:10) and WGGBR-3 (70:15:15) were used in the cookie baking experiments. As the amount of GG and BR increased in blend, water absorption increased (56.5-58.4%) and dough stability and extensibility values decreased (104-92 mm). Hardness of cookie doughs and spread ratio (7.70-6.00) of cookies decreased and breaking strength values increased from 2900 to 3700 g in cookies made using co-milled blends WGGBR-1, WGGBR-2 and WGGBR-3. The highest breaking strength value (3700 g), large islands, gummy mouth feel and lowest overall quality score of 51.5 were recorded for cookies made with blend WGGBR-3 indicating that the cookies had unacceptable hard texture. The optimum blend for cookies was WGGBR-2 (80:10:10) and the cookies possessed slightly small islands, crisp, light texture and a pleasant taste. These cookies had 12.30 and 8.00% protein and dietary fibre as against the control cookie values of 8 and 4%, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility of the control cookies was 61% and it was 51% for cookies made with WGGBR-2 blend. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Lubrication of chocolate during oral processing.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, S A; Selway, N; Morgenstern, M P; Motoi, L; Stokes, J R; James, B J

    2017-02-22

    The structure of chocolate is drastically transformed during oral processing from a composite solid to an oil/water fluid emulsion. Using two commercial dark chocolates varying in cocoa solids content, this study develops a method to identify the factors that govern lubrication in molten chocolate and saliva's contribution to lubrication following oral processing. In addition to chocolate and its individual components, simulated boluses (molten chocolate and phosphate buffered saline), in vitro boluses (molten chocolate and whole human saliva) and ex vivo boluses (chocolate expectorated after chewing till the point of swallow) were tested. The results reveal that the lubrication of molten chocolate is strongly influenced by the presence of solid sugar particles and cocoa solids. The entrainment of particles into the contact zone between the interacting surfaces reduces friction such that the maximum friction coefficient measured for chocolate boluses is much lower than those for single-phase Newtonian fluids. The addition of whole human saliva or a substitute aqueous phase (PBS) to molten chocolate dissolves sugar and decreases the viscosity of molten chocolate so that thinner films are achieved. However, saliva is more lubricating than PBS, which results in lower friction coefficients for chocolate-saliva mixtures when compared to chocolate-PBS mixtures. A comparison of ex vivo and in vitro boluses also suggests that the quantity of saliva added and uniformity of mixing during oral processing affect bolus structure, which leads to differences in measured friction. It is hypothesized that inhomogeneous mixing in the mouth introduces large air bubbles and regions of non-emulsified fat into the ex vivo boluses, which enhance wetting and lubrication.

  3. Cookies elaborated with oat and common bean flours improved serum markers in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Becerril-Ocampo, Laura J; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía; Herrera, Mayra D; Guzmán-Maldonado, S Horacio; Cruz-Bravo, Raquel K

    2018-02-01

    Common beans have been associated with anti-diabetic effects, due to its high content of bioactive compounds. Nevertheless, its consumption has decreased worldwide. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in the development of novel functional foods elaborated with common beans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic effect of oat-bean flour cookies, and to analyze its bioactive composition, using commercial oat-wheat cookies for comparative purposes. Oat-bean cookies (1.2 g kg -1 ) slightly decreased serum glucose levels (∼1.1-fold) and increased insulin levels (∼1.2-fold) in diabetic rats, reducing the hyperglycemic peak in healthy rats (∼1.1-fold). Oat-bean cookies (0.8 and 1.2 g kg -1 ) exerted a greater hypolipidemic effect than commercial oat-wheat cookies (1.2 g kg -1 ), as observed in decreased serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Furthermore, the supplementation with 1.2 g kg -1 oat-bean cookies decreased atherogenic index and serum C-reactive protein levels, suggesting their cardioprotective potential. The beneficial effect of oat-bean cookies was associated with their high content of dietary fiber and galacto oligosaccharides, as well as chlorogenic acid, rutin, protocatechuic acid, β-sitosterol and soyasaponins. These results suggest that common beans can be used as functional ingredients for the elaboration of cookies with anti-diabetic effects. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Chocolate Hills Rock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-16

    This false-color image, taken by the panoramic camera on NASA rover Opportunity, shows the rock Chocolate Hills, perched on the rim of the 10-meter 33-foot wide Concepcion crater. This rock has a thick, dark-colored coating resembling chocolate.

  5. Consumption of dark chocolate attenuates subsequent food intake compared with milk and white chocolate in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Channa E; Green, Daniel J; Naylor, Louise H; Guelfi, Kym J

    2017-09-01

    Chocolate has a reputation for contributing to weight gain due to its high fat, sugar and calorie content. However, the effect of varying concentrations of cocoa in chocolate on energy intake and appetite is not clear. To compare the acute effect of consuming an isocaloric dose of dark, milk and white chocolate on subsequent energy intake, appetite and mood in postmenopausal women. Fourteen healthy postmenopausal women (57.6 ± 4.8yr) attended an introductory session followed by three experimental trials performed in a counterbalanced order at a standardised time of day, each separated by one week. Ad libitum energy intake, perceived appetite, mood and appetite-related peptides were assessed in response to consumption of 80% cocoa [dark chocolate], 35% cocoa [milk chocolate] and cocoa butter [white chocolate] (2099 kJ), prepared from a single-origin cacao bean. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly lower following dark (1355 ± 750 kJ) compared with both milk (1693 ± 969 kJ; P = 0.008) and white (1842 ± 756 kJ; P = 0.001) chocolate consumption. Blood glucose and insulin concentrations were transiently elevated in response to white and milk chocolate consumption compared with the dark chocolate (P < 0.05), while pancreatic polypeptide was elevated in response to higher cocoa content chocolate (dark and milk) compared with white chocolate (P < 0.05). No differences in active ghrelin or leptin were observed between conditions, nor was mood altered between conditions (P > 0.05). Dark chocolate attenuates subsequent food intake in postmenopausal women, compared to the impact of milk and white chocolate consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Incorporation of buriti endocarp flour in gluten-free whole cookies as potential source of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Becker, Fernanda Salamoni; Damiani, Clarissa; de Melo, Adriane Alexandre Machado; Borges, Paulo Rogério Siriano; Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros Vilas

    2014-12-01

    Cookies were prepared by replacing a mixture of brown rice flour (70%) and corn starch (30%) (BRFCS) by buriti endocarp flour (BEF) (0, 5, 10, 15 or 20%). BEF figured as a potential source of dietary fiber (70.53 g 100 g(-1)), especially of insoluble fiber (67.50 g 100 g(-1)), and gluten-free whole cookies showed increased dietary fiber content by adding 5, 10, 15 and 20% BEF (8.58 to 20.02 g 100 g(-1)) when compared to control cookie (6.91 g 100 g(-1)). The addition of BEF affected diameter, spread ratio, color and texture of cookies. All cookies added with BEF were darker, harder and presented smaller diameter and smaller spread ratio than the control cookie. These difference increased proportionally to level of substitution of BRFSC by BEF. Gluten-free whole cookies with up to 15% BEF were well accepted by consumers. Therefore, the use of BEF in cookies may increase the availability of functional ingredients source of dietary fiber for celiac consumers, add economic value to buriti processing by-products and decrease environmental impacts due to the high amounts of waste generated by buriti processing industries.

  7. 21 CFR 163.135 - Buttermilk chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Buttermilk chocolate. 163.135 Section 163.135 Food... Buttermilk chocolate. (a) Description. Buttermilk chocolate is the food that conforms to the standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in...

  8. 21 CFR 163.135 - Buttermilk chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Buttermilk chocolate. 163.135 Section 163.135 Food... Buttermilk chocolate. (a) Description. Buttermilk chocolate is the food that conforms to the standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in...

  9. 21 CFR 163.135 - Buttermilk chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Buttermilk chocolate. 163.135 Section 163.135 Food... Buttermilk chocolate. (a) Description. Buttermilk chocolate is the food that conforms to the standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in...

  10. 21 CFR 163.135 - Buttermilk chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Buttermilk chocolate. 163.135 Section 163.135 Food... Buttermilk chocolate. (a) Description. Buttermilk chocolate is the food that conforms to the standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in...

  11. 21 CFR 163.135 - Buttermilk chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buttermilk chocolate. 163.135 Section 163.135 Food... Buttermilk chocolate. (a) Description. Buttermilk chocolate is the food that conforms to the standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in...

  12. Investigation of variations in the acrylamide and N(ε) -(carboxymethyl) lysine contents in cookies during baking.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lu; Jin, Cheng; Zhang, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Baking processing is indispensable to determine special sensory prosperities of cookies and induces the formation of some beneficial components such as antioxidants. However, the formation of some Maillard reaction-derived chemical hazards, such as acrylamide (AA) and N(ε) -(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) in cookies is also a significant consequence of baking processing from a food safety standpoint. This study investigated the effects of baking conditions on the formation of AA and CML, as well as the antioxidant activity (AOA) of cookies. Cookies were baked at various baking temperatures (155 to 230 °C) and times (1.5 to 31 min). AA and CML contents were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. The highest level of AA was obtained in the cookies baked at 155 °C/21 min and 205 °C/11 min (328.93 ± 3.10 μg/kg and 329.29 ± 5.29 μg/kg), while the highest level of CML was obtained in the cookies baked at 230 °C/1.5 min (118.05 ± 0.21 mg/kg). AA was prone to form at relatively low temperature range (155 to 205 °C), however, CML at relatively high temperature range (205 to 230 °C). The CML content was much higher than the AA content in the same set of cookies, by about 2 to 3 orders of magnitude. The AOA of cookies increased at more severe baking conditions. According to the AA and CML content, AOA and sensory properties of cookies, the temperature-time regime of 180 °C/16 min might be a compromised selection. However, only optimizing the baking condition was not enough for manufacture of high-quality cookies. Cookies, a kind of widely consumed bakery products in the world, contain some potentially harmful compounds, like acrylamide (AA) and N(ε) -(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML). AA in cookies has led to public health concern and several research efforts. But CML, another Maillard reaction-derived chemical hazard, has been neglected so far, even though its content is much higher than that of AA in cookies. The

  13. Micro-Sugar-Snap and -Wire-Cut Cookie Baking with Trans- and Zero-Trans-Fat Shortenings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of trans- and zero-trans-fat shortenings on cookie-baking performance was evaluated, using the two AACC micro-cookie-baking methods. Regardless of fat type, sugar-snap cookies made with a given flour were larger in diameter, smaller in height, and greater in weight loss during baking tha...

  14. Computerized Fortune Cookies--a Classroom Treat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reissman, Rose

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the use of fortune cookie fortunes in a middle school class combined with computer graphics, desktop publishing, and word processing technology to create writing assignments, games, and discussions. Topics include cultural contexts, and students creating their own fortunes. (LRW)

  15. Improved sample preparation to determine acrylamide in difficult matrixes such as chocolate powder, cocoa, and coffee by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Delatour, Thierry; Périsset, Adrienne; Goldmann, Till; Riediker, Sonja; Stadler, Richard H

    2004-07-28

    An improved sample preparation (extraction and cleanup) is presented that enables the quantification of low levels of acrylamide in difficult matrixes, including soluble chocolate powder, cocoa, coffee, and coffee surrogate. Final analysis is done by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using d3-acrylamide as internal standard. Sample pretreatment essentially encompasses (a) protein precipitation with Carrez I and II solutions, (b) extraction of the analyte into ethyl acetate, and (c) solid-phase extraction on a Multimode cartridge. The stability of acrylamide in final extracts and in certain commercial foods and beverages is also reported. This approach provided good performance in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision. Full validation was conducted in soluble chocolate powder, achieving a decision limit (CCalpha) and detection capability (CCbeta) of 9.2 and 12.5 microg/kg, respectively. The method was extended to the analysis of acrylamide in various foodstuffs such as mashed potatoes, crisp bread, and butter biscuit and cookies. Furthermore, the accuracy of the method is demonstrated by the results obtained in three inter-laboratory proficiency tests. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  16. Effect of Fruit Pomace Addition on Shortbread Cookies to Improve Their Physical and Nutritional Values.

    PubMed

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Roszkowska, Beata; Czaplicki, Sylwester; Borowska, Eulalia Julitta; Bojarska, Justyna; Dąbrowska, Aneta

    2016-09-01

    Fruit pomace remaining after juice extraction is still a source of bioactive compounds. Especially rich in these compounds is the pomace from blackcurrant fruit and from fruits of little-known horticultural plants, like: rowan, rosehip and elderberry. The addition of fruit pomace to bakery and confectionery products, especially to those made of white flour, may significantly enrich their composition with dietary fiber, vitamins and phenolic compounds. This study was aimed at determining the effect of 20 % addition of fruit pomace from rosehip, rowan, blackcurrant and elderberry on the properties of shortbread cookies. The pomace-containing cookies, compared to those without additives, were characterized by a darker color with a higher contribution of yellowness, and by higher hardness. The overall organoleptic assessment was comparable for all types of cookies, however the cookies with pomace were characterized by more perceptible taste and aroma, and were sourer. The extracts from pomace-supplemented cookies had a significantly stronger antioxidant capacity than that from the cookies without pomace, but they were ineffective in inhibiting lipid oxidation. The study showed that fruit pomace could improve the nutritional value of shortbread cookies. Furthermore, non-typical color of such a new product may be attractive to consumers.

  17. The dopamine β-hydroxylase inhibitor, nepicastat, suppresses chocolate self-administration and reinstatement of chocolate seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Zaru, Alessandro; Maccioni, Paola; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2013-10-01

    Craving for chocolate is a common phenomenon, which may evolve to an addictive-like behaviour and contribute to obesity. Nepicastat is a selective dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) inhibitor that suppresses cocaine-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rats. We verified whether nepicastat was able to modify the reinforcing and motivational properties of a chocolate solution and to prevent the reinstatement of chocolate seeking in rats. Nepicastat (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) produced a dose-related inhibition of operant self-administration of the chocolate solution in rats under fixed-ratio 10 (FR10) and progressive-ratio schedules of reinforcement, measures of the reinforcing and motivational properties of the chocolate solution, respectively. The effect of nepicastat on the reinstatement of chocolate seeking was studied in rats in which lever-responding had been extinguished by removing the chocolate solution for approximately 8 d. Nepicastat dose-dependently suppressed the reinstatement of lever-responding triggered by a 'priming' of the chocolate solution together with cues previously associated with the availability of the reward. In a separate group of food-restricted rats trained to lever-respond for regular food pellets, nepicastat reduced FR10 lever-responding with the same potency as for the chocolate solution. Spontaneous locomotor activity was not modified by nepicastat doses that reduced self-administration of the chocolate solution and regular food pellets and suppressed the reinstatement of chocolate seeking. The results indicate that nepicastat reduces motivation to food consumption sustained by appetite or palatability. Moreover, the results suggest that DBH inhibitors may be a new class of pharmacological agents potentially useful in the prevention of relapse to food seeking in human dieters.

  18. Consumer acceptability of gluten-free cookies containing raw cooked and germinated pinto bean flours.

    PubMed

    Simons, Courtney Wayne; Hall, Clifford

    2018-01-01

    Beany and grassy flavors in raw edible bean flours reduce consumer acceptability of bean-based baked products. In order to improve consumer acceptability, beans may be further processed by cooking and germination. However, these operations drive up the cost of end-products. Therefore, it is necessary to develop formulations, using raw edible bean flours that have acceptable sensory attributes. In this study, cooked, germinated, and germinated/steam-blanched (GSB) pinto bean flours were used to make gluten-free cookies, and their sensory characteristics evaluated to determine how their consumer acceptability scores compared. Taste panelists (31) graded cookies made from raw pinto beans with an overall value of 6 on a 9-point hedonic scale ( p  < .05). This rating was not significantly different from cookies formulated with germinated and GSB flours. Therefore, gluten-free cookies can be made using raw pinto bean flours at a 40% inclusion level, with similar sensory characteristics as those prepared with flours treated by cooking and germination. Instrumental measurement of cookie hardness and color showed no significant difference in hardness, but significant differences in color. The germinated bean flour produced cookies with a significantly lower L* value and significantly higher a*, b*, Chroma and hue values compared to the other treatments. There was no significant difference in the cookie spread ratio. Proximate composition, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI) and gelatinization properties of the flour treatments were characterized.

  19. How dark chocolate is processed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This month’s column will continue the theme of “How Is It Processed?” The column will focus on dark chocolate. The botanical name for the cacao tree is Theobroma cacao, which literally means “food of the Gods.” Dark chocolate is both delicious and nutritious. Production of dark chocolate will be des...

  20. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of cookies made from blends of germinated pigeon pea, fermented sorghum, and cocoyam flours.

    PubMed

    Okpala, Laura; Okoli, Eric; Udensi, Emelem

    2013-01-01

    Cookies were produced from germinated pigeon pea, fermented sorghum, and cocoyam flour (CF) blends to determine their potentials in cookie manufacture. Ten flour formulations were produced and they were evaluated for their proximate and functional properties. Protein content ranged from 4.85% to 19.89% with 100% CF (100CF) having the least value, while 100% germinated pigeon pea flour (100GPF) had the highest value. Increase in levels of GPF to the flour blends resulted in increase in protein content of the blends. Cookies made with 100% fermented sorghum flour (100FSF) had the highest ash content of 2.73%, while cookies made with 100GPF had the least ash content. Energy values of the cookies ranged between 369.37 and 376.56 kcal/100 g, with cookie formulation 50%CF:50%FSF having the least value and cookies made with 16.7%CF:16.7%FSF:66.6GPF having the highest value. The control (cookies made with wheat) had the highest spread ratio of 24.13, while cookies made with 100FSF had the least spread ratio of 14.97. Cookies made with 100CF were the least fragile. Sensory ratings revealed that cookies containing up to 50% CF and above, compared favorably with those made with wheat flour.

  1. Flour sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-extractable protein level as a cookie flour quality indicator.

    PubMed

    Pareyt, Bram; Bruneel, Charlotte; Brijs, Kristof; Goesaert, Hans; Delcour, Jan A

    2010-01-13

    Flour characteristics of laboratory-milled flour fractions of two wheat cultivars were related to their cookie-baking performance. Cultivar (cv.) Albatros wheat milling yielded fractions with lower damaged starch (DS) and arabinoxylan levels and higher sodium dodecyl sulfate-extractable protein (SDSEP) levels than did cv. Meunier wheat milling. During baking, cv. Albatros flour doughs spread faster and set later than their cv. Meunier counterparts and, hence, resulted in larger cookie diameters. DS levels negatively affected spread rate during both cv. Albatros (R2=0.68) and cv. Meunier (R2=0.51) cookie baking. SDSEP levels also influenced cookie quality. The use of flour heat-treated to reduce its SDSEP levels to different degrees led to reduction of the set time (R2=0.90). It was deduced that larger gluten polymer sizes limit dough spread time during baking and that, apart from DS level, the SDSEP level is an indicator for cookie flour quality.

  2. The suitability of teff flour in bread, layer cakes, cookies and biscuits.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Jennifer; Abaye, A O; Barbeau, William; Thomason, Wade

    2013-11-01

    A niche market in alternative foods has emerged in response to interest in a health conscientious diet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the baking characteristics of teff to determine whether teff could produce satisfactory baked products. Cakes, cookies, biscuits and bread were made in triplicate from composites of wheat flour with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 100% teff flour. Objective tests on size, shape, color and texture were used to evaluate the quality of the baked products. Increases in percent teff resulted in decreases in bread and cake volume (p > 0.05). The fracture strength of the cookies were not significantly different (p > 0.05) but spread was significantly greater for cookies made with 40% and 100% teff flour (p ≤ 0.05). There was also significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in biscuit height and color among teff treatments. Overall, this study showed that teff flour is best suited for use in cookies and biscuits.

  3. The impact of chocolate on cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Murga, L; Tarín, J J; García-Perez, M A; Cano, A

    2011-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading determinant of mortality and morbidity in women. Functional foods are attracting interest as potential regulators of the susceptibility to disease. Supported by epidemiological evidence, chocolate has emerged as a possible modulator of cardiovascular risk. Chocolate, or cocoa as the natural source, contains flavanols, a subclass of flavonoids. The latter years have witnessed an increasing number of experimental and clinical studies that suggest a protective effect of chocolate against atherogenesis. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial function define three biological mechanisms that have shown sensitivity to chocolate. Moreover, the consumption of chocolate has been involved in the protective modulation of blood pressure, the lipid profile, the activation of platelets, and the sensitivity to insulin. Dark chocolate seems more protective than milk or white chocolate. Despite this array of benefits, there is a lack of well designed clinical studies demonstrating cardiovascular benefit of chocolate. The high caloric content of chocolate, particularly of some less pure forms, imposes caution before recommending uncontrolled consumption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chocolate--A Sweet Conundrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Stephen

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a brief history of manufacturing chocolate and an outline of production methods. Describes laboratory techniques used to monitor liquid chocolate viscosity. Discusses a simple experiment which can be performed in the classroom. (Author/CW)

  5. Chocolate, lifestyle, and health.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Francesco; Bernaert, Herwig; Corti, Roberto; Ferri, Claudio; Heptinstall, Stan; Molinari, Enrico; Poli, Andrea; Serafini, Mauro; Smit, Henk J; Vinson, Joe A; Violi, Francesco; Paoletti, Rodolfo

    2009-04-01

    Interest in the biological activities of cocoa polyphenols is increasing steadily. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa, coupled with its widespread presence in many food items, render this food of particular interest from the nutritional and "pharmacological" viewpoints. This paper summarizes the new findings and developments regarding the effects of cocoa and chocolate consumption on human health as presented at the International Conference "Chocolate, Lifestyle, and Health" (Milan, Italy, March 2, 2007) regarding the effects of cocoa and chocolate consumption on human health.

  6. Greening in sunflower butter cookies as a function of egg replacers and baking temperature.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Amanda; Hahn, Lan; Pham, Vu; Were, Lilian

    2018-04-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) binding to proteins in alkaline conditions results in the production of green trihydroxy benzacradine (TBA) derivatives. The formation of TBA derivatives could decrease product quality due to the potential losses in soluble protein and antioxidants and the production of an undesirable green color. To determine how cookie formulation affected the formation of TBA derivatives in sunflower butter cookies, two egg replacers (chia and banana) and two baking temperatures (162.8 and 190.6 °C) were used. Moisture, greening intensity, CGA content and antioxidant capacity were measured. Cookies made with egg and baked at 162.8 °C had the highest moisture, internal greening intensity, and TBA derivative formation, in addition to lower CGA content and antioxidant capacity. Cookies made with banana baked at 190.6 °C produced the opposite outcome with 35, 4, and 23% less internal greening, moisture, and TBA derivatives, respectively, and 90 and 76% higher CGA and antioxidant capacity. Internal greening was positively correlated with moisture and adduct concentration, and negatively correlated with spread factor and CGA content. Moisture had a significant impact on greening, which indicates that baking temperature and cookie dough formulation can be modified to produce a less green cookie with more unreacted antioxidants and protein.

  7. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of cookies made from blends of germinated pigeon pea, fermented sorghum, and cocoyam flours

    PubMed Central

    Okpala, Laura; Okoli, Eric; Udensi, Emelem

    2013-01-01

    Cookies were produced from germinated pigeon pea, fermented sorghum, and cocoyam flour (CF) blends to determine their potentials in cookie manufacture. Ten flour formulations were produced and they were evaluated for their proximate and functional properties. Protein content ranged from 4.85% to 19.89% with 100% CF (100CF) having the least value, while 100% germinated pigeon pea flour (100GPF) had the highest value. Increase in levels of GPF to the flour blends resulted in increase in protein content of the blends. Cookies made with 100% fermented sorghum flour (100FSF) had the highest ash content of 2.73%, while cookies made with 100GPF had the least ash content. Energy values of the cookies ranged between 369.37 and 376.56 kcal/100 g, with cookie formulation 50%CF:50%FSF having the least value and cookies made with 16.7%CF:16.7%FSF:66.6GPF having the highest value. The control (cookies made with wheat) had the highest spread ratio of 24.13, while cookies made with 100FSF had the least spread ratio of 14.97. Cookies made with 100CF were the least fragile. Sensory ratings revealed that cookies containing up to 50% CF and above, compared favorably with those made with wheat flour. PMID:24804009

  8. Shocking chocolate into shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornes, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    Wouldn't you love chocolate to have less fat but all the taste? Stephen Ornes discovers how the study of electrorheological fluids has led one physicist to a develop a new way to trim the fat from chocolate

  9. Defatted wheat germ application: Influence on cookies' properties with regard to its particle size and dough moisture content.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Jovana; Rakić, Dušan; Fišteš, Aleksandar; Pajin, Biljana; Lončarević, Ivana; Tomović, Vladimir; Zarić, Danica

    2017-10-01

    The introduction of agro-food industry by-products rich in bioactive compounds represents major challenge in food industry sector. The influence of wheat germ particle size (<150 µm, 150-1000 µm, and 800-2000 µm), wheat germ content (5, 10, and 15%), and dough moisture content (20, 22, and 24%) on chemical, textural, and sensory characteristics of cookies was investigated using the Box-Behnken experimental design. The substitution of wheat flour with wheat germ increased the protein, fat, mineral, and fiber content of the cookies. The particle size of wheat germ affected the textural properties of cookies. As the particle size of wheat germ increased, the hardness of cookies decreased. The color of the cookie was most influenced by the interaction of dough moisture content and wheat germ particle size. Wheat germ level up to 15% had no significant effect on the sensory characteristics of cookies. A suitable combination of defatted wheat germ level, its particle size, and dough moisture content can improve the nutritional value of cookies, without causing a negative effect on the cookies' sensory characteristics.

  10. In vitro digestibility of banana starch cookies.

    PubMed

    Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Méndez-Montealvo, Guadalupe; Tovar, Juscelino

    2004-01-01

    Banana starch was isolated and used for preparation of two types of cookies. Chemical composition and digestibility tests were carried out on banana starch and the food products, and these results were compared with corn starch. Ash, protein, and fat levels in banana starch were higher than in corn starch. The high ash amount in banana starch could be due to the potassium content present in this fruit. Proximal analysis was similar between products prepared with banana starch and those based on corn starch. The available starch content of the banana starch preparation was 60% (dmb). The cookies had lower available starch than the starches while banana starch had lower susceptibility to the in vitro alpha-amylolysis reaction. Banana starch and its products had higher resistant starch levels than those made with corn starch.

  11. 21 CFR 163.140 - Skim milk chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Skim milk chocolate. 163.140 Section 163.140 Food... milk chocolate. (a) Description. Skim milk chocolate is the food that conforms to the standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in...

  12. 21 CFR 163.140 - Skim milk chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Skim milk chocolate. 163.140 Section 163.140 Food... milk chocolate. (a) Description. Skim milk chocolate is the food that conforms to the standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in...

  13. 21 CFR 163.140 - Skim milk chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Skim milk chocolate. 163.140 Section 163.140 Food... milk chocolate. (a) Description. Skim milk chocolate is the food that conforms to the standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in...

  14. 21 CFR 163.140 - Skim milk chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Skim milk chocolate. 163.140 Section 163.140 Food... milk chocolate. (a) Description. Skim milk chocolate is the food that conforms to the standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in...

  15. 21 CFR 163.140 - Skim milk chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skim milk chocolate. 163.140 Section 163.140 Food... milk chocolate. (a) Description. Skim milk chocolate is the food that conforms to the standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in...

  16. [Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Juaristi, M; González-Torres, L; Bravo, L; Vaquero, M P; Bastida, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J

    2011-01-01

    Since ancient times, numerous health beneficial effects have been attributed to chocolate, closing up its consumption to a therapeutic use. The present study reviews some relevant studies about chocolate (and its bioactive compounds) on some cardiovascular risk factors and stresses the need of future studies. The consumption of cocoa/ chocolate (i) increases plasma antioxidant capacity, (ii) diminishes platelet function and inflammation, and (iii) decreases diastolic and systolic arterial pressures. Data currently available indicate that daily consumption of cocoa-rich chocolate (rich in polyphenols) may at least partially lower cardiovascular disease risk. Further studies are required in order to establish the bioavailability and mechanisms of action of bioactive compounds in chocolate. The study of the interaction of chocolate and its components with candidate genes will also supply necessary information regarding the individuals best suited to benefit from a potential cardiovascular disease treatment with chocolate.

  17. Attentional bias for craving-related (chocolate) food cues.

    PubMed

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we investigated attentional biases for craving-related food cues. A pictorial dot probe task was used to assess selective attentional processing of one particular highly desired food, namely chocolate, relative to that of other highly desired foods. In Experiment 1, we examined biased processing of chocolate cues in habitual (trait) chocolate cravers, whereas in Experiment 2 we investigated the effect of experimentally induced (state) chocolate cravings on such processing. As predicted, habitual chocolate cravers (Experiment 1) and individuals in whom a craving for chocolate was temporarily induced (Experiment 2) showed speeded detection of probes replacing chocolate-related pictures, demonstrating an attentional bias for chocolate cues. Subsequent examination indicated that in both experiments the observed attentional biases stemmed from difficulty in disengaging attention from chocolate cues rather than from a shift of attention toward such cues. The findings have important theoretical and practical implications.

  18. Effect of steam baking on acrylamide formation and browning kinetics of cookies.

    PubMed

    Isleroglu, Hilal; Kemerli, Tansel; Sakin-Yilmazer, Melike; Guven, Gonul; Ozdestan, Ozgul; Uren, Ali; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2012-10-01

    Effects of baking method and temperature on surface browning and acrylamide concentration of cookies were investigated. Cookies were baked in natural and forced convection and steam-assisted hybrid ovens at 165, 180, and 195 °C and at different times. For all oven types, the acrlyamide concentration and surface color of cookies increased with increasing baking temperature. Significant correlation was observed between acrylamide formation and browning index, BI, which was calculated from Hunter L, a, and b color values, and it showed that the BI may be considered as a reliable indicator of acrylamide concentration in cookies. Acrylamide formation and browning index in cookies were considered as the first-order reaction kinetics and the reaction rate constants, k, were in the range of 0.023 to 0.077 (min(-1) ) and 0.019 to 0.063 (min(-1) ), respectively. The effect of baking temperature on surface color and acrylamide concentration followed the Arrhenius type of equation, with activation energies for acrylamide concentration as 6.87 to 27.84 kJ/mol; for BI value as 19.54 to 35.36 kJ/mol, for all oven types. Steam-assisted baking resulted in lower acrylamide concentration at 165 °C baking temperature and lower surface color for all temperatures. Steam-assisted baking is recommended as a healthy way of cooking providing the reduction of harmful compounds such as acrylamide for bakery goods, at a minimal level, while keeping the physical quality. The kinetics of acrylamide formation and browning of cookies will possibly allow definition of optimum baking temperatures and times at convectional and steam-assisted baking ovens. The kinetic model can be used by developing baking programs that can automatically control especially a new home-scale steam-assisted hybrid oven producing healthy products, for the use of domestic consumers. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Making a chocolate chip: development and evaluation of a 6K SNP array for Theobroma cacao.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Theobroma cacao, the key ingredient in chocolate production, is one of the world's most important tree fruit crops, with ~4,000,000 metric tons produced across 50 countries. To move towards gene discovery and marker-assisted breeding in cacao, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification pr...

  20. Chocolate: A Marvelous Natural Product of Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Ginger

    2004-08-01

    Chocolate is a natural product as ubiquitous as television. Of course, it is eaten, but it is also found in air fresheners, marking pens, flavoring in a multitude of products including soda pop, and as an aroma in "chocolate-dyed" T-shirts. However, most of us are completely unaware of the complex chemical reactions that take place to produce chocolate and the necessary technology that has evolved to produce chocolate and all its byproducts. Processing results in a mixture of many components, an interesting contrast to most of the simple, one-step reactions introduced at the high school level. This article is a survey of chocolate from tree to table. After a brief introduction to the history of chocolate and how and where it is grown, the manufacturing process is examined, and the chemistry is explored. A bit of the jargon used in the industry is mentioned. Cocoa butter is a significant ingredient in chocolate, and an investigation of it introduces triglycerides, fatty acids, polymorphic behavior, and molecular packing of the fats in chocolate and how they affect the tempering process. There is a brief discussion of chocolate's non-Newtonian behavior and the resulting challenges presented in the manufacturing process. See Featured Molecules Featured on the Cover

  1. Rheology, fatty acid profile and storage characteristics of cookies as influenced by flax seed (Linum usitatissimum).

    PubMed

    Rajiv, Jyotsna; Indrani, Dasappa; Prabhasankar, Pichan; Rao, G Venkateswara

    2012-10-01

    Flaxseed is a versatile functional ingredient owing to its unique nutrient profile. Studies on the effect of substitution of roasted and ground flaxseed (RGF) at 5, 10, 15 and 20% level on the wheat flour dough properties showed that amylograph peak viscosity, farinograph dough stability, extensograph resistance to extension and extensibility values decreased with the increase in the substitution of RGF from 0-20%. The cookie baking test showed a marginal decrease in spread ratio but beyond substitution of 15% RGF the texture and flavour of the cookies was adversely affected. The data on storage characteristics of control and cookies with 15% RGF showed no significant change with respect to acidity of extracted fat and peroxide values due to storage of cookies upto 90 days in metallised polyester pouches at ambient conditions. The gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid profile indicated that the control cookies contained negligible linolenic acid and the flaxseed cookies contained 4.75 to 5.31% of linolenic acid which showed a marginal decrease over storage. Hence flaxseed could be used as a source of omega-3-fatty acid.

  2. Resisting chocolate temptation using a brief mindfulness strategy.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Kim T; Tapper, Katy

    2014-09-01

    We examined the effects of two mindfulness-based strategies on chocolate consumption amongst individuals who were trying to reduce the amount of chocolate they consumed. Participants (n = 137) were allocated to one of three conditions and employed either cognitive defusion, acceptance, or relaxation (control) techniques to help them resist chocolate over 5 days. During this period, they carried a bag of chocolates with them and recorded any chocolate or chocolate-related products they consumed. They also completed a questionnaire measure of the extent to which chocolate consumption was automatic, both before and after the 5-day period. Results showed that compared to controls, those in the cognitive defusion group ate significantly less chocolate from the bag (p = .046) and less chocolate according to the diary measure (p = .053). There was evidence that these changes were brought about by reductions in the extent to which chocolate consumption was automatic. There were no differences in chocolate consumption between the acceptance and control groups. Our results point to a promising brief intervention strategy and highlight the importance of disentangling the effects of different mindfulness-based techniques. What is already known on this subject? Multicomponent mindfulness interventions have been successfully applied to a range of health behaviours. Low levels of self-control are associated with weight gain and a higher BMI. What does this study add? The results show that a brief mindfulness strategy (defusion) helps individuals resist chocolate over 5 days. The results suggest this may be brought about by reductions in the extent to which eating chocolate is automatic. A second brief mindfulness strategy (acceptance) failed to help individuals resist chocolate. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Dark chocolate: consumption for pleasure or therapy?

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Franchini, Massimo; Montagnana, Martina; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Targher, Giovanni

    2009-11-01

    Traditional chocolate is derived from the cocoa bean, which is one of the most concentrated sources of flavanols, a subgroup of the natural antioxidant plant compounds called flavonoids. Accumulating evidence from the past 10 years demonstrates that moderate consumption of chocolate, especially dark chocolate, may exert protective effects against the development of cardiovascular disease. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this positive influence, including metabolic, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-thrombotic effects, as well as effects on insulin sensitivity and vascular endothelial function. Should these results be confirmed in randomised, controlled, cross-over, multi-dose trials, then the pleasure associated with chocolate consumption might also be justified from health and psychological perspectives. However, since dark chocolate has substantially higher levels of flavonoids than milk chocolate, and milk proteins may inhibit absorption of flavonoids, it might be preferable to consume dark chocolate than the white (milk) variety.

  4. Feeding Concept, Military Vs Civilian System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Pudding d 3 c Chocolate Pudding w/Whipped Topping d 3 c Cowboy Cookies d 3 c Cream Puffs d 3 c Donuts d...c Fruit Won Tons d 3 c Gelatin Cubes d 3 c Hermits d 3 c Ice Box Cookies d : c Ice Cream d...I c Jelly Bar Spritz d 3 c Jelly Roll d : c Lemon Meringue Pie d : c Lime Gelatin Cubes d : c Oatmeal Cookies

  5. [Fat and fatty acids chosen in chocolates content].

    PubMed

    Tarkowski, Andrzej; Kowalczyk, Magdalena

    2007-01-01

    The objective of present work was to comparison of fat and chosen fatty acid in chocolates with, approachable on national market. In the investigations on fat and fatty acids content in the milk chocolates, there were used 14 chocolates, divided into 3 groups either without, with supplements and stuffing. Crude fat content in the chocolates was determined on Soxhlet automatic apparatus. The saturated ad nsaturated acids content was determined using gas chromatographic method. Content of fat and fatty cids in chocolates were differentiation. The highest crude fat content was finding in chocolates with tuffing (31.8%) and without supplements (28.9%). The sum of saturated fatty acids content in fat above 62%) was highest and low differentiation in the chocolates without supplements. Among of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids depended from kind of chocolates dominated, palmitic, stearic, oleic and, linoleic acids. Supplements of nut in chocolates had on influence of high oleic and linoleic level

  6. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate liquor is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by finely grinding...

  7. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate liquor is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by finely grinding...

  8. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate liquor is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by finely grinding...

  9. Dark chocolate exacerbates acne.

    PubMed

    Vongraviopap, Saivaree; Asawanonda, Pravit

    2016-05-01

    The effects of chocolate on acne exacerbations have recently been reevaluated. For so many years, it was thought that it had no role in worsening acne. To investigate whether 99% dark chocolate, when consumed in regular daily amounts, would cause acne to worsen in acne-prone male subjects, twenty-five acne prone male subjects were asked to consume 25 g of 99% dark chocolate daily for 4 weeks. Assessments which included Leeds revised acne scores as well as lesion counts took place weekly. Food frequency questionnaire was used, and daily activities were recorded. Statistically significant changes of acne scores and numbers of comedones and inflammatory papules were detected as early as 2 weeks into the study. At 4 weeks, the changes remained statistically significant compared to baseline. Dark chocolate when consumed in normal amounts for 4 weeks can exacerbate acne in male subjects with acne-prone skin. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  10. Effect of flour particle size and damaged starch on the quality of cookies.

    PubMed

    Barak, Sheweta; Mudgil, Deepak; Khatkar, B S

    2014-07-01

    Two wheat varieties 'C 306' and 'WH 542' were milled to obtain flour fractions of different particle sizes. Various physicochemical parameters such as wet and dry gluten, falling number, solvent retention capacity (SRC), alkaline water retention capacity (AWRC) and damaged starch content of the flour fractions were analyzed. The damaged starch values ranged from 5.14% to 14.79% for different flour fractions and increased significantly with decrease in particle size. AWRC and SRC of the flour fractions also increased with decrease in particle size. AWRC(r = 0.659) showed positive correlation and cookie spread ratio (r = -0.826) was strongly negatively correlated with the damaged starch levels. Hardness of the cookies in term of compression force showed increasing trend as damaged starch of the flour fractions increased. Spread ratio of the cookies ranged from 6.72 to 10.12. Wheat flour of particle size greater than 150 μm produced cookies with best quality.

  11. The mysterious light of dark chocolate.

    PubMed

    Şentürk, Tunay; Günay, Şeyda

    2015-03-01

    A healthy diet plays a key role in the prevention and management of cardiovascular diseases. Dark chocolate in particular has been shown to improve endothelial functions and lipid profile and to have cardiovascular protective effects via an inhibitory action on platelet functions. Recently, several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of chocolate, primarily on hypertension and other conditions such as coronary artery disease and hyperlipidemia. The present review provides a summary of the ingredients, bioavailability and cardiovascular protective effects of chocolate / cocoa and the published effects of chocolate on a number of cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Better chocolate through genomics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Theobroma cacao, the cacao or chocolate tree, is a tropical understory tree whose seeds are used to make chocolate. And like any important crop, cacao is the subject of much research. On September 15, 2010, scientists publicly released a preliminary sequence of the cacao genome--which contains all o...

  13. A common profile of prefrontal cortical activation following exposure to nicotine- or chocolate-associated contextual cues.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, B E; Binzak, J M; Kelley, A E

    2001-01-01

    Conditioning and learning factors are likely to play key roles in the process of addiction and in relapse to drug use. In nicotine addiction, for example, contextual cues associated with smoking can be powerful determinants of craving and relapse, even after considerable periods of abstinence. Using the detection of the immediate-early gene product, Fos, we examined which regions of the brain are activated by environmental cues associated with nicotine administration, and compared this profile to the pattern induced by cues associated with a natural reward, chocolate. In the first experiment, rats were treated with either nicotine (0.4 mg/ml/kg) or saline once per day for 10 days in a test environment distinct from their home cages. In the second experiment, rats were given access to either a bowl of chocolate chips or an empty bowl in the distinct environment for 10 days. After a 4-day interval, rats were re-introduced to the environment where they previously received either nicotine treatment or chocolate access. Nicotine-associated sensory cues elicited marked and specific activation of Fos expression in prefrontal cortical and limbic regions. Moreover, exposure to cues associated with the natural reward, chocolate, induced a pattern of gene expression that showed many similarities with that elicited by drug cues, particularly in prefrontal regions. These observations support the hypothesis that addictive drugs induce long-term neuroadaptations in brain regions subserving normal learning and memory for motivationally salient stimuli.

  14. Cookie- versus cracker-baking--what's the difference? Flour functionality requirements explored by SRC and alveography.

    PubMed

    Kweon, Meera; Slade, Louise; Levine, Harry; Gannon, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The many differences between cookie- and cracker-baking are discussed and described in terms of the functionality, and functional requirements, of the major biscuit ingredients--flour and sugar. Both types of products are similar in their major ingredients, but different in their formulas and processes. One of the most important and consequential differences between traditional cracker and cookie formulas is sugar (i.e., sucrose) concentration: usually lower than 30% in a typical cracker formula and higher than 30% in a typical cookie formula. Gluten development is facilitated in lower-sugar cracker doughs during mixing and sheeting; this is a critical factor linked to baked-cracker quality. Therefore, soft wheat flours with greater gluten quality and strength are typically preferred for cracker production. In contrast, the concentrated aqueous sugar solutions existing in high-sugar cookie doughs generally act as an antiplasticizer, compared with water alone, so gluten development during dough mixing and starch gelatinization/pasting during baking are delayed or prevented in most cookie systems. Traditional cookies and crackers are low-moisture baked goods, which are desirably made from flours with low water absorption [low water-holding capacity (WHC)], and low levels of damaged starch and water-soluble pentosans (i.e., water-accessible arabinoxylans). Rheological (e.g., alveography) and baking tests are often used to evaluate flour quality for baked-goods applications, but the solvent retention capacity (SRC) method (AACC 56-11) is a better diagnostic tool for predicting the functional contribution of each individual flour functional component, as well as the overall functionality of flours for cookie- and/or cracker-baking.

  15. Effects of intentionally enhanced chocolate on mood.

    PubMed

    Radin, Dean; Hayssen, Gail; Walsh, James

    2007-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled experiment investigated whether chocolate exposed to "good intentions" would enhance mood more than unexposed chocolate. Individuals were assigned to one of four groups and asked to record their mood each day for a week by using the Profile of Mood States. For days three, four and five, each person consumed a half ounce of dark chocolate twice a day at prescribed times. Three groups blindly received chocolate that had been intentionally treated by three different techniques. The intention in each case was that people who ate the chocolate would experience an enhanced sense of energy, vigor, and well-being. The fourth group blindly received untreated chocolate as a placebo control. The hypothesis was that mood reported during the three days of eating chocolate would improve more in the intentional groups than in the control group. Stratified random sampling was used to distribute 62 participants among the four groups, matched for age, gender, and amount of chocolate consumed on average per week. Most participants lived in the same geographic region to reduce mood variations due to changes in weather, and the experiment was conducted during one week to reduce effects of current events on mood fluctuations. On the third day of eating chocolate, mood had improved significantly more in the intention conditions than in the control condition (P = .04). Analysis of a planned subset of individuals who habitually consumed less than the grand mean of 3.2 ounces of chocolate per week showed a stronger improvement in mood (P = .0001). Primary contributors to the mood changes were the factors of declining fatigue (P = .01) and increasing vigor (P = .002). All three intentional techniques contributed to the observed results. The mood-elevating properties of chocolate can be enhanced with intention.

  16. Influence of label information on dark chocolate acceptability.

    PubMed

    Torres-Moreno, M; Tarrega, A; Torrescasana, E; Blanch, C

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to study how the information on product labels influences consumer expectations and their acceptance and purchase intention of dark chocolate. Six samples of dark chocolate, varying in brand (premium and store brand) and in type of product (regular dark chocolate, single cocoa origin dark chocolate and high percentage of cocoa dark chocolate), were evaluated by 109 consumers who scored their liking and purchase intention under three conditions: blind (only tasting the products), expected (observing product label information) and informed (tasting the products together with provision of the label information). In the expected condition, consumer liking was mainly affected by the brand. In the blind condition, differences in liking were due to the type of product; the samples with a high percentage of cocoa were those less preferred by consumers. Under the informed condition, liking of dark chocolates varied depending on both brand and type of product. Premium brand chocolates generated high consumer expectations of chocolate acceptability, which were fulfilled by the sensory characteristics of the products. Store brand chocolates created lower expectations, but when they were tasted they were as acceptable as premium chocolates. Claims of a high percentage of cocoa and single cocoa origin on labels did not generate higher expectations than regular dark chocolates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dark chocolate inhibits platelet aggregation in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Innes, Andrew J; Kennedy, Gwen; McLaren, Margaret; Bancroft, Anne J; Belch, Jill J F

    2003-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in the UK. The flavonoids found in cocoa may produce a cardio-protective role for chocolate with a high cocoa content. Thirty healthy volunteers were randomised to receive 100 g of white, milk or dark chocolate, and assessments of platelet function were undertaken on venous blood samples before and after chocolate consumption. White and milk chocolate had no significant effect on platelets. However dark chocolate inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation in platelet rich plasma. In the future dark chocolate may have a role in prevention of cardiovascular and thromboembolic diseases.

  18. Personality and Social Framing in Privacy Decision-Making: A Study on Cookie Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Coventry, Lynne M; Jeske, Debora; Blythe, John M; Turland, James; Briggs, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Despite their best intentions, people struggle with the realities of privacy protection and will often sacrifice privacy for convenience in their online activities. Individuals show systematic, personality dependent differences in their privacy decision making, which makes it interesting for those who seek to design 'nudges' designed to manipulate privacy behaviors. We explore such effects in a cookie decision task. Two hundred and ninety participants were given an incidental website review task that masked the true aim of the study. At the task outset, they were asked whether they wanted to accept a cookie in a message that either contained a social framing 'nudge' (they were told that either a majority or a minority of users like themselves had accepted the cookie) or contained no information about social norms (control). At the end of the task, participants were asked to complete a range of personality assessments (impulsivity, risk-taking, willingness to self-disclose and sociability). We found social framing to be an effective behavioral nudge, reducing cookie acceptance in the minority social norm condition. Further, we found personality effects in that those scoring highly on risk-taking and impulsivity were significantly more likely to accept the cookie. Finally, we found that the application of a social nudge could attenuate the personality effects of impulsivity and risk-taking. We explore the implications for those working in the privacy-by-design space.

  19. Effects of olfactory sense on chocolate craving.

    PubMed

    Firmin, Michael W; Gillette, Aubrey L; Hobbs, Taylor E; Wu, Di

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effect of the olfactory sense on chocolate craving in college females. Building on previous research by Kemps and Tiggemann (2013), we hypothesized that a fresh scent would decrease one's craving level for chocolate food. While the precursor study only addressed the decrease of chocolate craving, we also hypothesized that a sweet scent would increase one's craving level for chocolate foods. In the present experiment, participants rated their craving levels after viewing images of chocolate foods and inhaling essential oils: one fresh (Slique™ essence), and one sweet (vanilla). Results supported both of the hypotheses: inhaling a fresh scent reduced females' craving levels; similarly, when a sweet scent was inhaled, the participants' craving levels for chocolate food increased. These findings are particularly beneficial for women seeking weight loss and the findings can be applied in contexts such as weight loss programs, therapy, and maintenance programs, even beyond college settings. The results are particularly useful for helping women regarding stimuli that might serve as triggers for chocolate cravings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Toxicity of synthetic flavorings, nature identical and artificial, to hematopoietic tissue cells of rodents.

    PubMed

    Sales, I M S; Silva, J M; Moura, E S R; Alves, F D S; Silva, F C C; Sousa, J M C; Peron, A P

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity to bone marrow cells of mice of nature identical synthetic flavorings, passion fruit and strawberry, and artificial synthetic flavorings, vanilla, chocolate, tutti-frutti and cookie, at doses 0.5; 1.0; 2.0; 5.0 and 10.0 mL/kg. The additives were given to the animals by gavage in a single daily application for seven days. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post Tukey's post hoc test, p <0.05. Animals treated with 2.0; 5.0 and 10.0 mL/Kg of flavorings chocolate, strawberry and cookie, and 5.0 and 10.0 mL/Kg of flavorings vanilla and passion fruit died on the fifth and sixth day of the experiment, respectively. The doses 0.5 and 1.0 mL/Kg of the six additives significantly reduced erythropoiesis in the examined tissue. Also, treatments 0.5 and 1.0 mL/Kg of chocolate, and 1.0 mL/Kg of strawberry and biscuit induced the formation of micronuclei in the bone marrow erythrocytes, at a significant frequency. Therefore, under the study conditions, the six microingredients analyzed were cytotoxic and genotoxic, and additives strawberry, chocolate and cookie were also mutagenic in at least one of the evaluated doses.

  1. The history and science of chocolate.

    PubMed

    Verna, R

    2013-12-01

    This article gives an account of the origins, evolution and properties of chocolate. Chocolate is processed from the pod or cabosside of the cacao plant, grown in the tropical belt. The origins of chocolate are traced back to the Maya people who were probably the first to cultivate the cacao plant. The early chocolate drink, considered a "drink of the Gods" was mixed with cinnamon and pepper, tasting bitter and strong, and was most appreciated for its invigorating and stimulating effects than for its taste. Imported from the Americas, the softened version soon spread in Europe. From the 1800s to the 20th Century, it evolved from a drink to its current pleasurable varieties (such as fondant, Gianduja, milky and white chocolate), gaining much momentum in industry and also made great impact as a romantic item and art form. Important components in chocolate are flavonoids (antioxidants), cocoa butter, caffeine, theobromine and phenylethylamine, whereas the presence of psychoactive substances account for its pleasurable effects. Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine constitutes the methylxanthines, known to enhance the action of cAMP, which plays an important role in the transmission of intracellular signals. Chocolate is noted to have anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects, and improves the bioavailability of nitric oxide, which action improves the pressure, platelet function and fluidity of blood.

  2. Pilot-scale technology development, nutritional and consumer assessment of whole-multigrain cookies as influenced by fructan inclusion.

    PubMed

    Handa, Chanu; Goomer, Sangeeta; Siddhu, Anupa

    2011-04-01

    The benefits of wholegrain finger millet and sorghum were combined with that of fructan in form of fructoligosaccharide in the pilot-scale production (10 kg) of cookies. Complete nutritional analysis of the cookies was carried out to provide nutritional information to the consumers. Whole-multigrain cookies with fructan can be categorized as "High Fiber" as they suffice 21% daily value (DV) of fiber and a "Good Source" of iron as they suffice 12.8% DV of iron. A total of 300 consumers (M=110 and F=190), aged between 8 and 66 y evaluated cookies. The overall acceptability (OAA) score of 300 consumers was 8.0±0.58 on a 9-point hedonic scale. Females rated cookies significantly (P<0.05) higher than males in terms of flavor, texture, appearance, and OAA. Males rated cookies significantly (P<0.05) higher on color attribute than females. Encouraging response of consumers signified ample scope for viability and marketability of cookies at the commercial scale.   Consumers are looking at snack and convenience foods to provide increased fiber in their diet and there is a tremendous interest in low-calorie and low-sugar foods. The demand of whole and multigrain products is also on the rise because of the Government's emphasis. The present study would assist in assessing feasibility of commercial production of such novel health foods. Together with this, it will ascertain the marketability and commercial viability of the product by means of the consumer preference trials. Availability of such cookies in the market would offer consumers "health" with "convenience" and "taste."

  3. 21 CFR 163.145 - Mixed dairy product chocolates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mixed dairy product chocolates. 163.145 Section... § 163.145 Mixed dairy product chocolates. (a) Description. Mixed dairy product chocolates are the foods...; or (iv) Malted milk; and (2) The finished mixed dairy product chocolates shall contain not less than...

  4. 21 CFR 163.145 - Mixed dairy product chocolates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mixed dairy product chocolates. 163.145 Section... § 163.145 Mixed dairy product chocolates. (a) Description. Mixed dairy product chocolates are the foods...; or (iv) Malted milk; and (2) The finished mixed dairy product chocolates shall contain not less than...

  5. 21 CFR 163.145 - Mixed dairy product chocolates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mixed dairy product chocolates. 163.145 Section... § 163.145 Mixed dairy product chocolates. (a) Description. Mixed dairy product chocolates are the foods...; or (iv) Malted milk; and (2) The finished mixed dairy product chocolates shall contain not less than...

  6. 21 CFR 163.145 - Mixed dairy product chocolates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixed dairy product chocolates. 163.145 Section... § 163.145 Mixed dairy product chocolates. (a) Description. Mixed dairy product chocolates are the foods...; or (iv) Malted milk; and (2) The finished mixed dairy product chocolates shall contain not less than...

  7. Casual chocolate consumption and inhibition of platelet function.

    PubMed

    Bordeaux, Bryan; Yanek, Lisa R; Moy, Taryn F; White, Linda W; Becker, Lewis C; Faraday, Nauder; Becker, Diane M

    2007-01-01

    Observational studies have associated reduced cardiovascular mortality with chocolate consumption. Feeding studies of high-dose, flavanol-rich chocolate show antiplatelet effects, but the effect of casual chocolate consumption on platelet function is unknown. Healthy adults (N=1535) were proscribed from consuming foods affecting platelet function, including chocolate, for 48 hours and completed a 24-hour dietary recall before ex vivo platelet testing with the Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA)-100 (Dade Behring, Inc, Deerfield, IL) test and in vivo testing with urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 (Tx-M) measurements. Some participants (n=141) reported ignoring the prohibition of consuming chocolate before platelet testing. Despite having similar baseline characteristics, chocolate consumers had longer PFA closure times (130 vs 123 seconds, P=.005) and decreased Tx-M levels (175 vs 290 ng/mol creatinine, P=.03). Chocolate remained a significant independent predictor of both ex vivo and in vivo platelet function testing after adjusting for confounders. The authors concluded that even consuming modest amounts of commercial chocolate has important antiplatelet effects.

  8. Electrorheology leads to healthier and tastier chocolate.

    PubMed

    Tao, Rongjia; Tang, Hong; Tawhid-Al-Islam, Kazi; Du, Enpeng; Kim, Jeongyoo

    2016-07-05

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. Although this issue was called into attention decades ago, no actual solution was found. To bypass this critical outstanding problem, two manufacturers introduced some low-calorie fats to substitute for cocoa butter. Somehow, their products are not allowed in most countries. Here we show that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matter, especially to the viscosity of liquid suspension and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density. When the concentration of cocoa solid is high, close to the MRJ density, removing a small amount of fat will jam the chocolate flow. Applying unconventional electrorheology to liquid chocolate with applied field in the flow direction, we aggregate the cocoa particles into prolate spheroids in micrometers. This microstructure change breaks the rotational symmetry, reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction, and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are expecting a new class of healthier and tastier chocolate soon.

  9. Characterization of Chilean hazel nut sweet cookies.

    PubMed

    Villarroel, M; Biolley, E; Bravo, S; Carrasco, P; Ríos, P

    1993-05-01

    A series of studies were carried out to test the effect of the incorporation of Chilean hazel nut flour in sweet cookies at the levels of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The proximate chemical analysis of the different flour mixtures showed a regular increase from 7.2 to 12.2%, 14.5% to 18.8% and 1% to 2.2%, respectively, decreasing at the same time with the percentages of water and carbohydrates. Chemical amino acid scores of leucine and threonine in wheat flour improved with the incorporation of Chilean hazel nut flour. The farinographic evaluation made to the different blends showed several changes occurred with the incorporation of Chilean hazel nut flour to wheat flour. These included increase in water absorption, decrease in dough developing time and weakening of the dough. Sensory characteristics such as appearance, texture, flavor and also acceptability improved with the incorporation of Chilean hazel nut flour into the cookie formulas.

  10. Effect of pre-dehydration treatment on the in vitro digestibility of starch in cookie.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Haruna; Tomoda, Yuka; Matsusaki, Keiko; Hagura, Yoshio

    2012-12-01

    In order to understand the effect of pre-dehydration on the in vitro digestibility of cookie starch, cookie dough samples were dehydrated by vacuum treatment, and melting temperature (T(m)) of the crystalline amylopectin in the dough, internal temperature and water content of the dough during baking, and non-hydrolysed starch content of the obtained cookies were investigated. The T(m) of crystalline amylopectin increased with decreased water content of the dough, and the result was described as a T(m)-curve. The internal temperature of non-dehydrated dough surpassed the T(m)-curve during baking. Pre-dehydrated dough, on the other hand, always indicated a lower internal temperature than the T(m)-curve. The non-hydrolysed starch content obtained under a given condition increased significantly with a decrease in the initial water content of cookies. This will be because the melting of crystalline amylopectin was prevented, at least partially, during baking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Personality and Social Framing in Privacy Decision-Making: A Study on Cookie Acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Coventry, Lynne M.; Jeske, Debora; Blythe, John M.; Turland, James; Briggs, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Despite their best intentions, people struggle with the realities of privacy protection and will often sacrifice privacy for convenience in their online activities. Individuals show systematic, personality dependent differences in their privacy decision making, which makes it interesting for those who seek to design ‘nudges’ designed to manipulate privacy behaviors. We explore such effects in a cookie decision task. Two hundred and ninety participants were given an incidental website review task that masked the true aim of the study. At the task outset, they were asked whether they wanted to accept a cookie in a message that either contained a social framing ‘nudge’ (they were told that either a majority or a minority of users like themselves had accepted the cookie) or contained no information about social norms (control). At the end of the task, participants were asked to complete a range of personality assessments (impulsivity, risk-taking, willingness to self-disclose and sociability). We found social framing to be an effective behavioral nudge, reducing cookie acceptance in the minority social norm condition. Further, we found personality effects in that those scoring highly on risk-taking and impulsivity were significantly more likely to accept the cookie. Finally, we found that the application of a social nudge could attenuate the personality effects of impulsivity and risk-taking. We explore the implications for those working in the privacy-by-design space. PMID:27656157

  12. Discovering terroir in the world of chocolate.

    PubMed

    Nesto, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The author investigates the applicability of the word “terroir” to chocolate. As a Master of Wine, wine journalist, and wine educator, the author has tried to understand how “terroir,” the environmental and human factors associated with growing vines and making wine, impacts the flavor of wine. Comparing and contrasting viticulture and winemaking to cacao farming and chocolate manufacture, the author analyzes to what degree terroir could be a concept that informs chocolate appreciation. He notes that the great distances between cacao farms and factories encourage the perception of cacao and chocolate as commodities. He observes that the varietal and origin nomenclature of cacao can be at worst misleading and generally lacks clarity and precision. He shows how the many steps that transform cacao into chocolate threaten the expression of terroir in the final product. Yet he acknowledges that there could be a basis for use of the word in the world of cacao and chocolate.

  13. Chocolate/cocoa and human health: a review.

    PubMed

    Latif, R

    2013-03-01

    Chocolate/cocoa has been known for its good taste and proposed health effects for centuries. Earlier, chocolate used to be criticised for its fat content and its consumption was a sin rather than a remedy, associated with acne, caries, obesity, high blood pressure, coronary artery disease and diabetes. Therefore, many physicians tended to warn patients about the potential health hazards of consuming large amounts of chocolate. However, the recent discovery of biologically active phenolic compounds in cocoa has changed this perception and stimulated research on its effects in ageing, oxidative stress, blood pressure regulation, and atherosclerosis. Today, chocolate is lauded for its tremendous antioxidant potential. However, in many studies, contradictory results and concerns about methodological issues have made it hard for health professionals and the public to understand the available evidence on chocolate's effects on health. The purpose of this review is to interpret research done in the last decade on the benefits and risks of chocolate consumption.

  14. Incorporation of carrot pomace powder in wheat flour: effect on flour, dough and cookie characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mukhtar; Wani, Touseef Ahmed; Wani, S M; Masoodi, F A; Gani, Adil

    2016-10-01

    Carrot pomace powder (CPP) of 72 and 120 mesh sizes was incorporated in wheat flour at 10, 15 and 20 % level and its impact on flour, dough and cookie characteristics was evaluated. Protein content of the flour blends (8.84-7.88 %) decreased and fibre content (4.63-6.68 %) increased upon blending of CPP in wheat flour. Wheat flour containing 120 mesh CPP showed better functional properties [water absorption (1.16-1.47 %), oil absorption (1.11-1.39 %), solubility index (41-50 %) and swelling power (1.34-1.39)] than those containing 72 mesh. Water solvent retention capacity and sucrose solvent retention capacity increased while lactic acid solvent retention capacity and sodium carbonate solvent retention capacity decreased with blending of CPP. Water absorption, dough development time and degree of softening increased whereas, dough stability and mixing tolerance decreased with increasing CPP. The highest decrease in pasting was observed flour containing 72 mesh CPP. Rheology of dough containing 120 mesh CPP closely resembled the control. Color of flour and cookies increased with blending of CPP irrespective of mesh size. Antioxidant activity of cookies was higher than the flour blends. The cookies containing CPP of 72 mesh showed the lowest hardness. However, cookies containing CPP of 120 mesh showed the best sensory properties. Incorporation of 120 mesh CPP produced low gluten cookies with manageable flour and dough characteristics and better antioxidant and sensory properties.

  15. Influence of watermelon seed protein concentrates on dough handling, textural and sensory properties of cookies.

    PubMed

    Wani, Ali Abas; Sogi, D S; Singh, Preeti; Khatkar, B S

    2015-04-01

    Fruit processing wastes contain numerous by products of potential use in food & allied industry. Watermelon seeds represent a major by-product of the processing waste and contain high amount of nutritional proteins. Protein rich cereal based products are in demand due to their health promoting benefits. With this aim, wheat flour was fortified with watermelon seed protein concentrates (2.5 %, 5 %, 7.5 % and 10 % levels) to prepare cookies with desirable physical, nutritional, and textural and sensory properties. Substitution levels of 5 % and 10 % significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased the dough stability and mixing tolerance index, however pasting properties and dough extensibility decreased considerably above 5 % substitution levels. Cookie fracture force (kg) increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) above 5 % fortification levels. Cookie spread factor (W/T) increased from 2.5 % to 7.5 % fortification levels, further increase showed negative impact. Sensory scores of the cookies showed that protein concentrate may be added up to 7.5 % fortification levels. This study revealed that watermelon protein concentrates can be fortified with protein concentrates upto 5-7.5 % levels in cookies to improve their protein quality.

  16. Cardiovascular Benefits of Dark Chocolate?

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, Erin; Taub, Pam R

    2015-12-01

    The use of cacao for health benefits dates back at least 3000 years. Our understanding of cacao has evolved with modern science. It is now felt based on extensive research the main health benefits of cacao stem from epicatechin, a flavanol found in cacao. The process of manufacturing dark chocolate retains epicatechin, whereas milk chocolate does not contain significant amounts of epicatechin. Thus, most of the current research studies are focused on dark chocolate. Both epidemiological and clinical studies suggest a beneficial effect of dark chocolate on blood pressure, lipids, and inflammation. Proposed mechanisms underlying these benefits include enhanced nitric oxide bioavailability and improved mitochondrial structure/function. Ultimately, further studies of this promising compound are needed to elucidate its potential for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases as well as other diseases that have underlying mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction and nitric oxide deficiency.

  17. [Effect of increased protein content on nutritional and sensory quality of cookies].

    PubMed

    Pérez, Santiago Rafael; Osella, Carlos Alberto; Torre, Maria Adela de la; Sánchez, Hugo Diego

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of soy flour and whey protein concentrate (WPC) on cookies quality. An optimal recipe showing improved protein quality and content as well as acceptable sensory quality was defined taking into account the results obtained. Rotary moulded cookie formulation adaptable to lamination and cutting in pilot plant was used. Wheat flour from this formulation was partially replaced by whey protein concentrate and full fat soy flour. Second order models were employed to generate response surfaces for: total protein, lysine by 16 grams of total nitrogen, lysine by 100 grams of sample, loss of lysine during processing and sensory evaluation of cookies. We could obtain an effect on available lysine value when water content was increased in the formulation because a delay in the Maillard reaction. The optimal formulation contains 13% of full fat soy flour, 3% of whey protein concentrate and 23% of water. The results demonstrated that the protein content and the protein quality of the supplemented flours were increased when soy flour was added in the formulation of cookies. On other hand, protein content was increased but protein quality was decreased when WPC was used, because of available lysine loss.

  18. A High Fiber Cookie Made with Resistant Starch Type 4 Reduces Post-Prandial Glucose and Insulin Responses in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Maria L; Zimmer, J Paul

    2017-03-05

    Distarch phosphate is a resistant starch type 4 (RS4) containing phosphodiester cross-links within and between starch molecules. This study examined the glycemic effects of VERSAFIBE 1490™ resistant starch, a distarch phosphate derived from potato, containing 90% total dietary fiber (TDF, AOAC 991.43 method). In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 28 healthy adults consumed a cookie containing 24 g fiber from distarch phosphate (fiber cookie) or a control cookie containing 0.5 g fiber that was matched for fat, protein, and total carbohydrate content. Intravenous blood glucose, intravenous blood insulin, and capillary glucose were measured for two hours after cookie consumption. The fiber cookie reduced the post-prandial blood glucose incremental area under the curve from 0 to 120 minutes (iAUC 0-120min ) by 44% ( p = 0.004) and reduced the maximum glucose concentration (C max0-120min ) by 8% ( p = 0.001) versus the control cookie. Consumption of the fiber cookie resulted in a significant 46% reduction of the post-prandial serum insulin iAUC 0-120min ( p < 0.001) and a 23% reduction in Cmax 0-120min ( p = 0.007) versus the control cookie. This study shows that distarch phosphate RS4 can be incorporated into a cookie and significantly reduce post-prandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy adults.

  19. Chocolate milk consequences: a pilot study evaluating the consequences of banning chocolate milk in school cafeterias.

    PubMed

    Hanks, Andrew S; Just, David R; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk). If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk-which will be referred to as chocolate milk-was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) were compared year to date. Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (p<0.01). Although white milk increased by 161.2 cartons per day (p<0.001), 29.4% of this milk was thrown away. Eliminating chocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more) of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose.

  20. Chocolate Milk Consequences: A Pilot Study Evaluating the Consequences of Banning Chocolate Milk in School Cafeterias

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Andrew S.; Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk). If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? Methods In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk–which will be referred to as chocolate milk–was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) were compared year to date. Results Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (p<0.01). Although white milk increased by 161.2 cartons per day (p<0.001), 29.4% of this milk was thrown away. Eliminating chocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. Conclusions Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more) of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose. PMID:24740451

  1. Chocolate intake and diabetes risk.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, James A

    2015-02-01

    In-vitro and rodent studies, and short-term human trials suggest that compounds in chocolate can enhance insulin sensitivity. Also, a recent prospective Japanese epidemiological analysis found that long-term chocolate consumption was inversely associated with diabetes risk. The objective of the present analysis was to test the epidemiological association between long-term chocolate consumption and diabetes risk in a U.S. cohort. Multivariable prospective Cox Regression analysis with time-dependent covariates was used to examine data from 7802 participants in the prospective Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Cohort. The data included 861 new diabetes cases during 98,543 person-years of follow up (mean = 13.3 years). Compared to participants who ate 1 oz of chocolate less often than monthly, those who ate it 1-4 times/month, 2-6 times/week and ≥ 1 time/day had relative risks of being diagnosed with diabetes that were lower by 13% (95% confidence interval: -2%, 25%), 34% (18%, 47%) and 18% (-10%, 38%). These relative risks applied to participants without evidence of preexisting serious chronic disease that included diabetes, heart attacks, stroke or cancer. In conclusion, the risk of diabetes decreased as the frequency of chocolate intake increased, up to 2-6 servings (1 oz) per week. Consuming ≥ 1 serving per day did not yield significantly lower relative risk. These results suggest that consuming moderate amount of chocolate may reduce the risk of diabetes. Further research is required to confirm and explore these findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute effects of brisk walking on urges to eat chocolate, affect, and responses to a stressor and chocolate cue. An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Adrian H; Oliver, Anita J

    2009-02-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of an acute exercise bout on urges to eat chocolate, affect, and psychological and physiological responses to stress and a chocolate cue. Following 3 days of chocolate abstinence, 25 regular chocolate eaters, took part, on separate days, in two randomly ordered conditions, in a within-subject design: a 15-min brisk semi-self-paced brisk walk or a passive control. Following each, participants completed two tasks: the Stroop colour-word interference task, and unwrapping and handling a chocolate bar. Chocolate urges [State Food Cravings Questionnaire (FCQ-S); Rodríguez, S., Fernández, M. C., Cepeda-Benito, A., & Vila, J. (2005). Subjective and physiological reactivity to chocolate images in high and low chocolate cravers. Biological Psychology, 70, 9-18], affective activation [Felt Arousal Scale; Svebak, S., & Murgatroyd, S. (1985). Metamotivational dominance: a multimethod validation of reversal theory constructs. Journal of Perception and Social Psychology, 48, 107-116], affective pleasure/valence [Feelings Scale; Hardy, C. J., & Rejeski, W. J. (1989). Not what, but how one feels: the measurement of affect during exercise. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 304-317], and systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) were assessed throughout. Exercise reduced chocolate urges and there was a trend towards attenuated urges in response to the chocolate cue. Exercise also attenuated SBP/DBP increases in response to the stressor and chocolate cue. The effects on urges varied across the dimensions of the FCQ-S.

  3. Formulation and physicochemical and sensorial evaluation of biscuit-type cookies supplemented with fruit powders.

    PubMed

    Uchoa, Ana Maria Athayde; Correia da Costa, José Maria; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; Meira, Tatyane Ribeiro; Sousa, Paulo Henrrique Machado; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella

    2009-06-01

    Cashew apple and guava residues from fruit juice industry were prepared as dehydrated fruit powders and used at different levels of wheat flour substitution for cookies formulations. The effects of guava and cashew apple fruit powders supplementation on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of the cookies were evaluated. The pH, fibre and protein content were significantly affected. Biscuits with 15 g and 20 g/100g cashew apple and guava fruit powders showed the highest scores for sensorial attributes, respectively. The supplementation seems to be suited for wheat flour substitution and it is possible to obtain cookies with value-added food ingredient within the standards.

  4. Relationship between physicochemical characteristics of flour and sugar-snap cookie quality in Korean wheat cultivar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The relationship of physicochemical properties of flour, including particle size of flour, damaged starch, SDS-sedimentation volume, gluten content and four solvent retention capacity (SRC) values with cookie baking quality, including cookie diameter and thickness was evaluated using 30 Korean wheat...

  5. Chocolate in History: Food, Medicine, Medi-Food

    PubMed Central

    Lippi, Donatella

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, chocolate has been used to treat a wide variety of ailments, and in recent years, multiple studies have found that chocolate can have positive health effects, providing evidence to a centuries-long established use; this acknowledgement, however, did not have a straight course, having been involved in religious, medical and cultural controversies. Christian Europe, in fact, feared the exhilarating effects of new drinks, such as chocolate, coffee and tea. Therefore, these beverages would have been banished, had not doctors and scientists explained that they were good for the body. The scientific debate, which reached its peak in Florence in the 18th century, regarded the therapeutic effectiveness of the various chocolate components: it was necessary to know their properties first, in order to prepare the best cacao concoction for every patient. When Dietetics separated from Medicine, however, chocolate acquired the role of vehicle for easing the administration of bitter medicines, being associated to different health problems. The recent rediscovery of the beneficial use of cacao and chocolate focuses upon its value as supplemental nutrition. Building a bridge to the past may be helpful to detect the areas where the potential health benefits of chocolate are likely to be further explored. PMID:23673608

  6. Chocolate in history: food, medicine, medi-food.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Donatella

    2013-05-14

    Throughout history, chocolate has been used to treat a wide variety of ailments, and in recent years, multiple studies have found that chocolate can have positive health effects, providing evidence to a centuries-long established use; this acknowledgement, however, did not have a straight course, having been involved in religious, medical and cultural controversies. Christian Europe, in fact, feared the exhilarating effects of new drinks, such as chocolate, coffee and tea. Therefore, these beverages would have been banished, had not doctors and scientists explained that they were good for the body. The scientific debate, which reached its peak in Florence in the 18th century, regarded the therapeutic effectiveness of the various chocolate components: it was necessary to know their properties first, in order to prepare the best cacao concoction for every patient. When Dietetics separated from Medicine, however, chocolate acquired the role of vehicle for easing the administration of bitter medicines, being associated to different health problems. The recent rediscovery of the beneficial use of cacao and chocolate focuses upon its value as supplemental nutrition. Building a bridge to the past may be helpful to detect the areas where the potential health benefits of chocolate are likely to be further explored.

  7. Caffeine and theobromine levels in chocolate couverture and coating products.

    PubMed

    Ramli, N; Rahman, S; Hassan, O; Mohd Yatim, A; Said, M; Lim, L; Ng, W

    2000-03-01

    Thirty-two samples of chocolate products were analysed by HPLC for caffeine and theobromine contents. Defatted residues of samples were extracted with 80% aqueous acetone. After extraction into boiling water, the methylxanthines were identified and quantified with the use of μ-Bondapak column and mobile phase of methanol:water:acetic acid (20:79:1). Levels of caffein and theobromine in 32 samples of chocolate products averaged 0.62-1.14 mg/g and 0.026-0.153 mg/g respectively. Mean values for theobromine and caffeine content for chocolate coating were 0.82 and 0.07 mg/g respectively. The chocolate coating made from fat substitute had theobromine and caffeine levels ranging from 0.36-0.70 mg/g and 0.027-0.061 mg/g respectively, with mean values of 0.49 mg theobromine/g and 0.039 mg caffeine/g. In local chocolate, the mean theobromine and caffeine levels respectively were 0.72 mg/g and 0.04 mg/g in milk chocolate, and 0.85 mg/g and 0.06 mg/g in dark chocolate. Meanwhile, for imported chocolate, the mean theobromine and caffeine levels respectively were 1.05 mg/g and 0.12 mg/g in dark chocolate; 0.76 mg/g and 0.04 mg/g in milk chocolate; and 0.74 mg/g and 0.03 mg/g in white chocolate. Compared with the local chocolates, imported chocolates had higher levels of theobromine and caffeine at 1.141 mg/g and 0.1533mg/g. The average theobromine and caffeine concentrations in local chocolate were 0.082mg/g and 0.066mg/g. Theobromine concentration in chocolate samples is within the range of 0.62mg/g-1.141mg/g and the range of caffeine concentration is 0.026mg/g-0.153mg/g respectively. Bittersweet chocolates were found to have higher theobromine and caffeine concentrations than normal sweet chocolates and milk chocolates.

  8. Eating chocolate can significantly protect the skin from UV light.

    PubMed

    Williams, Stefanie; Tamburic, Slobodanka; Lally, Carmel

    2009-09-01

    Cocoa beans fresh from the tree are exceptionally rich in flavanols. Unfortunately, during conventional chocolate making, this high antioxidant capacity is greatly reduced due to manufacturing processes. To evaluate the photoprotective potential of chocolate consumption, comparing a conventional dark chocolate to a specially produced chocolate with preserved high flavanol (HF) levels. A double-blind in vivo study in 30 healthy subjects was conducted. Fifteen subjects each were randomly assigned to either a HF or low flavanol (LF) chocolate group and consumed a 20 g portion of their allocated chocolate daily. The minimal erythema dose (MED) was assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks under standardized conditions. In the HF chocolate group the mean MED more than doubled after 12 weeks of chocolate consumption, while in the LF chocolate group, the MED remained without significant change. Our study demonstrated that regular consumption of a chocolate rich in flavanols confers significant photoprotection and can thus be effective at protecting human skin from harmful UV effects. Conventional chocolate has no such effect.

  9. Methylxanthines are the psycho-pharmacologically active constituents of chocolate.

    PubMed

    Smit, Hendrik J; Gaffan, Elizabeth A; Rogers, Peter J

    2004-11-01

    Liking, cravings and addiction for chocolate ("chocoholism") are often explained through the presence of pharmacologically active compounds. However, mere "presence" does not guarantee psycho-activity. Two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies measured the effects on cognitive performance and mood of the amounts of cocoa powder and methylxanthines found in a 50 g bar of dark chocolate. In study 1, participants ( n=20) completed a test battery once before and twice after treatment administration. Treatments included 11.6 g cocoa powder and a caffeine and theobromine combination (19 and 250 mg, respectively). Study 2 ( n=22) comprised three post-treatment test batteries and investigated the effects of "milk" and "dark" chocolate levels of these methylxanthines. The test battery consisted of a long duration simple reaction time task, a rapid visual information processing task, and a mood questionnaire. Identical improvements on the mood construct "energetic arousal" and cognitive function were found for cocoa powder and the caffeine+theobromine combination versus placebo. In chocolate, both "milk chocolate" and "dark chocolate" methylxanthine doses improved cognitive function compared with "white chocolate". The effects of white chocolate did not differ significantly from those of water. A normal portion of chocolate exhibits psychopharmacological activity. The identical profile of effects exerted by cocoa powder and its methylxanthine constituents shows this activity to be confined to the combination of caffeine and theobromine. Methylxanthines may contribute to the popularity of chocolate; however, other attributes are probably much more important in determining chocolate's special appeal and in explaining related self-reports of chocolate cravings and "chocoholism".

  10. Effect of Sensory, Demographic and Behavioral Data on Consumer Preference of Barley Chocolate Chip Cookies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Health organizations have recommended an increase in consumption of whole grains, total dietary fiber and soluble fiber to help reduce the potential risk factor for the development of type-2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease among others. The purpose of this project was to determine the s...

  11. Chocolate and medicine: dangerous liaisons?

    PubMed

    Lippi, Donatella

    2009-01-01

    According to ancient Mayan texts, cocoa is of divine origin and is considered a gift from the gods. In the Classic period of Mayan civilization (250-900 a.d.), ground cocoa seeds were mixed with seasonings to make a bitter, spicy drink that was believed to be a health-promoting elixir. The Aztecs believed that cocoa pods symbolized life and fertility, and that eating the fruit of the cocoa tree allowed them to acquire wisdom and power. Cocoa was said to have nourishing, fortifying, and aphrodisiac qualities. Pre-Columbian societies were known to use chocolate as medicine, too. The appreciation and popularity of chocolate fluctuated over the centuries since its introduction to Europe from the New World. Now, recent evidence has begun to erase the poor reputation that chocolate had acquired in the past few decades and is restoring its former status. Chocolate is no longer deemed a guilty pleasure, and it may have positive health benefits when eaten in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

  12. Attentional retraining can reduce chocolate consumption.

    PubMed

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Orr, Jenna; Grear, Justine

    2014-03-01

    There is emerging evidence that attentional biases are related to the consumption of substances such as alcohol and tobacco, and that attentional bias modification can reduce unwanted consumption of these substances. We present evidence for the first time to our knowledge that the same logical argument applies in the food and eating domain. We conducted two experiments that used a modified dot probe paradigm to train undergraduate women to direct their attention toward ("attend") or away from ("avoid") food cues (i.e., pictures of chocolate). In Experiment 1, attentional bias for chocolate cues increased in the "attend" group, and decreased in the "avoid" group. Experiment 2 showed that these training effects generalized to novel, previously unseen chocolate pictures. Importantly, attentional retraining affected chocolate consumption and craving. In both experiments, participants in the "avoid" group ate less chocolate in a so-called taste test than did those in the "attend" group. In addition, in Experiment 2, but not in Experiment 1, the "attend" group reported stronger chocolate cravings following training, whereas the "avoid" group reported less intense cravings. The results support predictions of cognitive-motivational models of craving and consumption that attentional biases play a causal role in consumption behavior. Furthermore, they present a promising avenue for tackling unwanted food cravings and (over)eating. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  13. Degree of roasting of carob flour affecting the properties of gluten-free cakes and cookies.

    PubMed

    Román, Laura; González, Ana; Espina, Teresa; Gómez, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Carob flour is a product rich in fibre obtained from by-products of the locust bean gum extraction processing. The flour is commercialised with different degrees of roasting in order to improve its organoleptic characteristics. In this study, carob flour with three different roasting degrees was used to replace rice flour (15%) in gluten-free cakes and cookies. The influence of this replacement was studied on the psychochemical characteristics and acceptability of the final products. The incorporation of carob flour increased the viscosity of cake batters and increased the solid elastic-like behaviour of the cookie doughs, indicating a stronger interaction among the formula ingredients. The inclusion of carob flour, with a low time of roasting, did not lead to any significant differences in the specific volume and hardness of the cakes, but reduced cake staling and the thickness and width of the cookies. Darker colours were obtained when carob flour was incorporated into the product. The acceptability of cakes was only reduced with the addition of highly roasted carob flour, while in the case of cookies there was a decline in the acceptability of all carob flour cookies, which was mostly perceived with the highest roasting degree, something mainly attributed to the bitter taste of the products.

  14. Comparison of chocolate to cacao-free white chocolate in Parkinson's disease: a single-dose, investigator-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Wolz, Martin; Schleiffer, Christine; Klingelhöfer, Lisa; Schneider, Christine; Proft, Florian; Schwanebeck, Uta; Reichmann, Heinz; Riederer, Peter; Storch, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    A previous questionnaire study suggests an increased chocolate consumption in Parkinson's disease (PD). The cacao ingredient contains caffeine analogues and biogenic amines, such as β-phenylethylamine, with assumed antiparkinsonian effects. We thus tested the effects of 200 g of chocolate containing 80 % of cacao on UPDRS motor score after 1 and 3 h in 26 subjects with moderate non-fluctuating PD in a mono-center, single-dose, investigator-blinded crossover study using cacao-free white chocolate as placebo comparator. At 1 h after chocolate intake, mean UPDRS motor scores were mildly decreased compared to baseline in both treatments with significant results only for dark chocolate [-1.3 (95 % CI 0.18-2.52, RMANOVA F = 4.783, p = 0.013¸ Bonferroni p = 0.021 for 1 h values)]. A 2 × 2-cross-over analysis revealed no significant differences between both treatments [-0.54 ± 0.47 (95 % CI -1.50 to 0.42), p = 0.258]. Similar results were obtained at 3 h after intake. β-phenylethylamine blood levels were unaltered. Together, chocolate did not show significant improvement over white cacao-free chocolate in PD motor function.

  15. Fatty acids in some common food items in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, W M; Hollywood, R; O'Grady, E; Pelletier, G

    1993-12-01

    Fat content and fatty acid (FA) composition of 100 common items in 17 food categories from the Canadian retail market were determined. Of these, 52 samples were made from partially hydrogenated fat. Their fat (in parentheses) and trans FA levels were as follows: breads (3.7% fat) 15.7%, hamburger buns (5.5% fat) 26.3%, cakes (8.7-36.7% fat) 10.1-25.7%, candies/chocolates (27.1% fat) 11.1%, cereals (1.3-12.9% fat) 9.2-33.7%, cookies (5.0-40.5% fat) 7.6-38.7%, crackers (9.2-33.0% fat) 13.8-35.4%, donuts (16.6-29.6% fat) 27.7-32.7%, french fries (pre-cooked) (4.3-4.5% fat) 32.8-42.8%, muffins (12.5-23.7% fat) 16.5-24.2%, pizza crusts (6.0-7.2% fat) 22.1-28.8%, shortenings (100% fat) 17.4-20.2%, potato chips (33.2-40.0% fat) 29.7-39.7%, and corn chips (25.0-34.2%) 29.9-33.9%. Generally the sum of saturated and trans FA in the food items made with partially hydrogenated fat was higher than that of the corresponding food items made with unhydrogenated oils. The higher levels of saturates plus trans were at the expense of the essential fatty acids (EFA). The high-fat foods, such as cakes, cookies, crackers, donuts and potato chips, made with partially hydrogenated fat, were substantially lower in EFA and contained relatively higher levels of trans polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In some samples of potato chips and french fries, the level of trans PUFA was almost the same or more than the sum of linoleic and linolenic acids.

  16. Preservation of cocoa antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, flavan-3-ols, and procyanidin content in foods prepared with cocoa powder.

    PubMed

    Stahl, L; Miller, K B; Apgar, J; Sweigart, D S; Stuart, D A; McHale, N; Ou, B; Kondo, M; Hurst, W J

    2009-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of common cooking processes on cocoa flavanols. Antioxidant activity, total polyphenols (TP), flavanol monomers, and procyanidin oligomers were determined in chocolate frosting, a hot cocoa drink, chocolate cookies, and chocolate cake made with natural cocoa powder. Recoveries of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins ranged from 86% to over 100% in the chocolate frosting, hot cocoa drink, and chocolate cookies. Losses were greatest in the chocolate cake with recoveries ranging from 5% for epicatechin to 54% for antioxidant activity. The causes of losses in baked chocolate cakes were investigated by exchanging baking soda with baking powder or combinations of the 2 leavening agents. Use of baking soda as a leavening agent was associated with increased pH and darkening color of cakes. Losses of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins were associated with an increased extractable pH of the baked cakes. Chocolate cakes made with baking powder for leavening resulted in an average extractable pH of 6.2 with essentially complete retention of antioxidant activity and flavanol content, but with reduced cake heights and lighter cake color. Commercially available chocolate cake mixes had final pHs above 8.3 and contained no detectable monomeric flavanols after baking. These results suggest that baking soda causes an increase in pH and subsequent destruction of flavanol compounds and antioxidant activity. Use of an appropriate leavening agent to moderate the final cake pH to approximately 7.25 or less results in both good leavening and preservation of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins.

  17. Evaluation of gluten-free amaranth and navy bean flour blends on quality of sugar cookies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gluten free sugar cookies were made from amaranth (Salvia hispanica L.) and navy bean flours of different ratios. The physical properties of flour blends, dough, and cookies were evaluated. This study found that navy bean and its blends with amaranth had higher water holding capacities (WHC) compare...

  18. Hysteresis in the phase transition of chocolate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Ruilong; Lu, Qunfeng; Lin, Sihua; Dong, Xiaoyan; Fu, Hao; Wu, Shaoyi; Wu, Minghe; Teng, Baohua

    2016-01-01

    We designed an experiment to reproduce the hysteresis phenomenon of chocolate appearing in the heating and cooling process, and then established a model to relate the solidification degree to the order parameter. Based on the Landau-Devonshire theory, our model gave a description of the hysteresis phenomenon in chocolate, which lays the foundations for the study of the phase transition behavior of chocolate.

  19. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)-based cookies development using an experimental mixture design.

    PubMed

    Brito, Isabelle L; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Felex, Suênia Samara Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely; Yamashita, Fábio; Magnani, Marciane

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a gluten-free formulation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)-based cookies using experimental design of mixture to optimize a ternary mixture of quinoa flour, quinoa flakes and corn starch for parameters of colour, specific volume and hardness. Nutritional and sensory aspects of the optimized formulation were also assessed. Corn starch had a positive effect on the lightness of the cookies, but increased amounts of quinoa flour and quinoa flakes in the mixture resulted in darker product. Quinoa flour showed a negative effect on the specific volume, producing less bulky cookies, and quinoa flour and quinoa flakes had a positive synergistic effect on the hardness of the cookies. According the results and considering the desirability profile for colour, hardness and specific volume in gluten-free cookies, the optimized formulation contains 30 % quinoa flour, 25 % quinoa flakes and 45 % corn starch. The quinoa-based cookie obtained was characterized as a product rich in dietary fibre, a good source of essential amino acids, linolenic acid and minerals, with good sensory acceptability. These findings reports for the first time the application of quinoa processed as flour and flakes in mixture with corn starch as an alternative ingredient for formulations of gluten-free cookies-type biscuits.

  20. Influence of debittered, defatted fenugreek seed powder and flaxseed powder on the rheological characteristics of dough and quality of cookies.

    PubMed

    Metwal, Nirmala; Jyotsna, R; Jeyarani, T; Venkateswara Rao, G

    2011-06-01

    A functional ingredient mix (FIM) comprising debittered and defatted fenugreek seed powder (70%) and flaxseed powder (30%) was used in cookies. Ash, fat and protein, dough development time, resistance to extension and peak viscosity values increased as the level of FIM increased from 10 to 30% in the blend. Beyond 20% of FIM substitution, the quality characteristics of cookies were adversely affected. Use of soya lecithin produced a significant improvement in the overall quality of the cookies with 20% FIM. Linolenic acid and total dietary fiber content of the cookies with 20% FIM and lecithin contained four times the amount of linolenic acid (2.3%) and double the amount of dietary fiber (13.04%) when compared with the control cookies (0.5% and 6.22%) respectively. Surface scanning electron microscopy of cookies with different levels of FIM from 10 to 30% showed that there was a disruption in the matrix.

  1. Dark chocolate improves coronary vasomotion and reduces platelet reactivity.

    PubMed

    Flammer, Andreas J; Hermann, Frank; Sudano, Isabella; Spieker, Lukas; Hermann, Matthias; Cooper, Karen A; Serafini, Mauro; Lüscher, Thomas F; Ruschitzka, Frank; Noll, Georg; Corti, Roberto

    2007-11-20

    Dark chocolate has potent antioxidant properties. Coronary atherosclerosis is promoted by impaired endothelial function and increased platelet activation. Traditional risk factors, high oxidative stress, and reduced antioxidant defenses play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, particularly in transplanted hearts. Thus, flavonoid-rich dark chocolate holds the potential to have a beneficial impact on graft atherosclerosis. We assessed the effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate compared with cocoa-free control chocolate on coronary vascular and platelet function in 22 heart transplant recipients in a double-blind, randomized study. Coronary vasomotion was assessed with quantitative coronary angiography and cold pressor testing before and 2 hours after ingestion of 40 g of dark (70% cocoa) chocolate or control chocolate, respectively. Two hours after ingestion of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate, coronary artery diameter was increased significantly (from 2.36+/-0.51 to 2.51+/-0.59 mm, P<0.01), whereas it remained unchanged after control chocolate. Endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion improved significantly after dark chocolate (4.5+/-11.4% versus -4.3+/-11.7% in the placebo group, P=0.01). Platelet adhesion decreased from 4.9+/-1.1% to 3.8+/-0.8% (P=0.04) in the dark chocolate group but remained unchanged in the control group. Dark chocolate induces coronary vasodilation, improves coronary vascular function, and decreases platelet adhesion 2 hours after consumption. These immediate beneficial effects were paralleled by a significant reduction of serum oxidative stress and were positively correlated with changes in serum epicatechin concentration.

  2. Trans fatty acids in the Portuguese food market.

    PubMed

    Costa, Nádia; Cruz, Rebeca; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Casal, Susana

    2016-06-01

    Consistent evidence exist on the harmful health effects of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA). In order to have accurate data on TFA intake and implement adequate measures to reduce their intake, each country should have updated estimates of TFA content in the diet. The objective of the present study was to provide data on the TFA content in food commercialized in the Portuguese market. The results on the TFA content of 268 samples acquired between October and December 2013 are reported. Samples were categorized as margarines and shortenings (n = 16), spreadable chocolate fats (n = 6), fried potatoes and chips (n = 25), industrial bakery (n = 4), breakfast cereals (n = 3), pastry products (n = 120), seasonings (n = 5), instant soups (n = 5), instant desserts (n = 6), chocolate snacks (n = 4), microwave popcorn (n = 4), cookies, biscuits and wafers (n = 53), and fast-food (n = 13), with butter (n = 4) included for comparison purposes. TFA were quantified by gas chromatography. Total TFA content in the fat ranged from 0.06% to 30.2% (average 1.9%), with the highest average values in the "biscuits, wafers and cookies" group (3.4% TFA), followed by the pastry group (2.0%). Fifty samples (19%) had TFA superior to 2% in the fat. These findings highlight there is still much need for improvement in terms of the TFA content in Portuguese foods, particularly in traditional pastry.

  3. Environmental impacts of chocolate production and consumption in the UK.

    PubMed

    Konstantas, Antonios; Jeswani, Harish K; Stamford, Laurence; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluates life cycle environmental impacts associated with chocolate products made and consumed in the UK. The paper focuses on three representative chocolate products occupying 90% of the market: 'moulded chocolate', 'chocolate countlines' and 'chocolates in bag'. The impacts were estimated using life cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool and following the ReCiPe impact assessment method. The water footprint was also considered. For example, the global warming potential ranges between 2.91 and 4.15 kg CO 2 eq., primary energy demand from 30 to 41 MJ and the water footprint, including water stress, from 31 to 63 l per kilogram of chocolate. The raw materials are the major hotspot across all impact categories for all three product types, followed by the chocolate production process and packaging. The raw material impacts are mainly due to milk powder, cocoa derivatives, sugar and palm oil. The sensitivity analysis shows that the results for global warming potential are sensitive to land-use change (LUC) associated with cocoa production, increasing the impact of the chocolate products by three to four times if LUC is involved. The improvement opportunities targeting the key contributing stages suggest that GWP of chocolates could be reduced by 14%-19%. Chocolate countlines have the highest contribution to the total impacts at the UK level (37%-43%), followed by chocolates in bag (28%-33%). Moulded chocolates and other chocolate confectionary make up the rest of the impacts, with a roughly equal share each. Chocolate consumption in the UK contributes 4.7% to the primary energy consumption and 2.4% to the GHG emissions from the whole food and drink sector. The results of this work will be of interest to policy makers, chocolate producers and consumers, helping them to make more informed decisions towards sustainable production and consumption of chocolate products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rejection Thresholds in Chocolate Milk: Evidence for Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Bitterness is generally considered a negative attribute in food, yet many individuals enjoy some bitterness in products like coffee or chocolate. In chocolate, bitterness arises from naturally occurring alkaloids and phenolics found in cacao. Fermentation and roasting help develop typical chocolate flavor and reduce the intense bitterness of raw cacao by modifying these bitter compounds. As it becomes increasingly common to fortify chocolate with `raw' cacao to increase the amount of healthful phytonutrients, it is important to identify the point at which the concentration of bitter compounds becomes objectionable, even to those who enjoy some bitterness. Classical threshold methods focus on the presence or absence of a sensation rather than acceptability or hedonics. A new alternative, the rejection threshold, was recently described in the literature. Here, we sought to quantify and compare differences in Rejection Thresholds (RjT) and Detection Thresholds (DT) in chocolate milk spiked with a food safe bitterant (sucrose octaacetate). In experiment 1, a series of paired preference tests was used to estimate the RjT for bitterness in chocolate milk. In a new group of participants (experiment 2), we determined the RjT and DT using the forced choice ascending method of limits. In both studies, participants were segmented on the basis of self-declared preference for milk or dark solid chocolate. Based on sigmoid fits of the indifference-preference function, the RjT was ~2.3 times higher for those preferring dark chocolate than the RjT for those preferring milk chocolate in both experiments. In contrast, the DT for both groups was functionally identical, suggesting that differential effects of bitterness on liking of chocolate products are not based on the ability to detect bitterness in these products. PMID:22754143

  5. Rejection Thresholds in Chocolate Milk: Evidence for Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Meriel L; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2012-10-01

    Bitterness is generally considered a negative attribute in food, yet many individuals enjoy some bitterness in products like coffee or chocolate. In chocolate, bitterness arises from naturally occurring alkaloids and phenolics found in cacao. Fermentation and roasting help develop typical chocolate flavor and reduce the intense bitterness of raw cacao by modifying these bitter compounds. As it becomes increasingly common to fortify chocolate with `raw' cacao to increase the amount of healthful phytonutrients, it is important to identify the point at which the concentration of bitter compounds becomes objectionable, even to those who enjoy some bitterness. Classical threshold methods focus on the presence or absence of a sensation rather than acceptability or hedonics. A new alternative, the rejection threshold, was recently described in the literature. Here, we sought to quantify and compare differences in Rejection Thresholds (RjT) and Detection Thresholds (DT) in chocolate milk spiked with a food safe bitterant (sucrose octaacetate). In experiment 1, a series of paired preference tests was used to estimate the RjT for bitterness in chocolate milk. In a new group of participants (experiment 2), we determined the RjT and DT using the forced choice ascending method of limits. In both studies, participants were segmented on the basis of self-declared preference for milk or dark solid chocolate. Based on sigmoid fits of the indifference-preference function, the RjT was ~2.3 times higher for those preferring dark chocolate than the RjT for those preferring milk chocolate in both experiments. In contrast, the DT for both groups was functionally identical, suggesting that differential effects of bitterness on liking of chocolate products are not based on the ability to detect bitterness in these products.

  6. Electrorheology leads to healthier and tastier chocolate

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Rongjia; Tang, Hong; Tawhid-Al-Islam, Kazi; Du, Enpeng; Kim, Jeongyoo

    2016-01-01

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. Although this issue was called into attention decades ago, no actual solution was found. To bypass this critical outstanding problem, two manufacturers introduced some low-calorie fats to substitute for cocoa butter. Somehow, their products are not allowed in most countries. Here we show that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matter, especially to the viscosity of liquid suspension and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density. When the concentration of cocoa solid is high, close to the MRJ density, removing a small amount of fat will jam the chocolate flow. Applying unconventional electrorheology to liquid chocolate with applied field in the flow direction, we aggregate the cocoa particles into prolate spheroids in micrometers. This microstructure change breaks the rotational symmetry, reduces liquid chocolate’s viscosity along the flow direction, and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are expecting a new class of healthier and tastier chocolate soon. PMID:27325758

  7. Immediate effects of chocolate on experimentally induced mood states.

    PubMed

    Macht, Michael; Mueller, Jochen

    2007-11-01

    In this work two hypotheses were tested: (1) that eating a piece of chocolate immediately affects negative, but not positive or neutral mood, and (2) that this effect is due to palatability. Experiment 1 (48 normal-weight and healthy women and men) examined the effects of eating a piece of chocolate and drinking water on negative, positive and neutral mood states induced by film clips. Eating chocolate reduced negative mood compared to drinking water, whereas no or only marginal effects were found on neutral and positive moods. Experiment 2 (113 normal-weight and healthy women and men) compared effects of eating palatable and unpalatable chocolate on negative mood, and examined the duration of chocolate-induced mood change. Negative mood was improved after eating palatable chocolate as compared to unpalatable chocolate or nothing. This effect was short lived, i.e., it disappeared after 3 min. In both experiments, chocolate-induced mood improvement was associated with emotional eating. The present studies demonstrate that eating a small amount of sweet food improves an experimentally induced negative mood state immediately and selectively and that this effect of chocolate is due to palatability. It is hypothesized that immediate mood effects of palatable food contribute to the habit of eating to cope with stress.

  8. The medicinal use of chocolate in early North America.

    PubMed

    Pucciarelli, Deanna L; Grivetti, Louis E

    2008-10-01

    The medicinal use of chocolate has a long history in North America dating back to the 16th century. From Mesoamerican Codices and European Treatises scholars have determined that for hundreds of years the beverage called chocolate was administered to the sick and prescribed homeopathically to prevent illness. Yet, little scholarship exists that focuses on medicinal chocolate usage in early North America (18th-19th century). This paper examines medical practices during this era and associated medicinal norms with special attention given to chocolate/cocoa usage. Given the current scientific attention on the relationship between dark chocolate consumption and heart disease attenuation it is timely to investigate and chronicle America's medical forebears' understanding of, and practices related to, the medicinal use of chocolate. Indeed, there is a significant amount of literature to suggest that chocolate was used for wellness and to treat illness.

  9. The Benefits, and Fear, of Cookie Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    "Cookies" are tiny Web browser helpers and are an example of how the useful can get tossed in with the dangerous through the near hysteria brought about by the real threats of computer viruses, hacking, spyware, spam and phishing. This article briefly discusses antispyware legislation by Congress and the pros and cons of past and future…

  10. Bias modification training can alter approach bias and chocolate consumption.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Sophie E; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that bias modification training has potential to reduce cognitive biases for attractive targets and affect health behaviours. The present study investigated whether cognitive bias modification training could be applied to reduce approach bias for chocolate and affect subsequent chocolate consumption. A sample of 120 women (18-27 years) were randomly assigned to an approach-chocolate condition or avoid-chocolate condition, in which they were trained to approach or avoid pictorial chocolate stimuli, respectively. Training had the predicted effect on approach bias, such that participants trained to approach chocolate demonstrated an increased approach bias to chocolate stimuli whereas participants trained to avoid such stimuli showed a reduced bias. Further, participants trained to avoid chocolate ate significantly less of a chocolate muffin in a subsequent taste test than participants trained to approach chocolate. Theoretically, results provide support for the dual process model's conceptualisation of consumption as being driven by implicit processes such as approach bias. In practice, approach bias modification may be a useful component of interventions designed to curb the consumption of unhealthy foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-food odorants reduce chocolate cravings.

    PubMed

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Bettany, Sarah

    2012-06-01

    The present study compared the relative effectiveness of simple, commercially available food and non-food olfactory tasks on chocolate craving reduction. Chocolate cravings were induced by a series of coloured photographs and 67 undergraduate women were asked to smell one of three odours (green apple, jasmine, or water). The non-food odorant (jasmine) significantly reduced chocolate cravings relative to both the food and control odorants. Thus simple non-food odorants offer potential scope as a technique for curbing unwanted food cravings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmacological versus sensory factors in the satiation of chocolate craving.

    PubMed

    Michener, W; Rozin, P

    1994-09-01

    This is the first experimental study directed at differentiating between physiological or sensory accounts of the satiation of nondrug cravings, using chocolate craving, the most common craving in North America. At the onset of craving, chocolate cravers consumed a chocolate bar, the caloric equivalent in "white chocolate" (containing none of the pharmacological components of chocolate), the pharmacological equivalent in cocoa capsules, placebo, and no treatment conditions had virtually no effect. White chocolate produced partial abatement, unchanged by the addition of all the pharmacological factors in cocoa. This result indicates no role for pharmacological effects in the satisfaction of chocolate craving. It also suggests a role for aroma independent of sweetness, texture, and calories.

  13. The role of wheat flour constituents, sugar, and fat in low moisture cereal based products: a review on sugar-snap cookies.

    PubMed

    Pareyt, Bram; Delcour, Jan A

    2008-10-01

    Much research has been done to understand the contribution of different flour constituents to the cookie quality. Most authors agree on the role of starch in cookies, which, although it is the main flour constituent, has a relatively small influence on cookie quality. Flour proteins, which are quantitatively less important than starch, seem to have a more pronounced role in cookie baking. However, in literature, there is no consensus about their role and influence on the product quality. As for starch, there is much more agreement about the role of non-starch polysaccharides and flour lipids. Not only flour, but also other ingredients of the cookie (dough) formula, such as shortening (fat), sugar, and water are important for the quality of the end product. We here provide the different points of view in this area and speculate on the functionality and quality determining properties of flour constituents, sugar, fat, and water and their role and influence during the different stages of cookie baking and on the end quality of sugar-snap cookies.

  14. Development of cookies made with cocoyam, fermented sorghum and germinated pigeon pea flour blends using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Okpala, Laura C; Okoli, Eric C

    2014-10-01

    Cookies were produced from blends of cocoyam, fermented sorghum and germinated pigeon pea flours. The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of varying the proportions of these components on the sensory and protein quality of the cookies. The sensory attributes studied were colour, taste, texture, crispness and general acceptability while the protein quality indices were biological value (BV) and net protein utilization (NPU). Mixture response surface methodology was used to model the sensory and protein quality with single, binary and ternary combinations of germinated pigeon pea, fermented sorghum and cocoyam flours. Results showed that BV and NPU of most of the cookies were above minimum acceptable levels. With the exception of cookies containing high levels of pigeon pea flour, cookies had acceptable sensory scores. Increase in pigeon pea flour resulted in increase in the BV and NPU. Regression equations suggested that the ternary blends produced the highest increase in all the sensory attributes (with the exception of colour).

  15. Astronomy for Extremely ill or Traumatically Injured Children and Their Families - IAU OAD Grant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    This grant funded a program for extremely ill or traumatically injured children, their siblings, and family members rlated to the children’s surgery and medical treatments at nearby hospitals. This grant provided an educational family-learning experience and out-of-this world diversion from the stress of being sick or of having a sick family member hospitalized. The families stayed at the four Ronald McDonald Houses (RMHs) of Chicago. The RMHs provide free or low-cost housing in a comfortable, supportive alternative atmosphere where family members sleep, eat, relax and find support from other families in similar situations. Families are kept united when mutual support is as critical as the medical treatment itself. The ill children and their families may stay for a few days or months because of chemotherapy, dialysis, or rehabilitative therapy. Children from 50 states and 50 countries stay the Chicago RMHs and there are 260 RMHs in the US and 65 worldwide.The RMH staff and volunteers were trained to: use optical and solar telescopes; use the Stellarium program to show the night sky, identify objects, and plan observing sessions; use Sky and Telescope or Astronomy Magazine to selected the best nights for observing; conduct simple family oriented demonstrations; demonstrate citizen science/Zooniverse activities; and provide information about science museums and astronomy clubs near their home. The Chicago Astronomical Society (amateur astronomy club) provides ongoing support.I created an Activity Book with demonstrations and participatory hands-on activities including a toilet plunger sundial, making a sundial, creating a scale model of the Solar System (football field or toilet paper), phases and craters of the Moon (Oreo cookie phases, flour/ cocoa crater formation), eclipses, make constellations from chocolate chips in chocolate-chip cookies, crate your own constellation patterns, stellar temperature (images, demonstrations, candy), order images of the stages of

  16. ["On bitter and sweet"--women and chocolate].

    PubMed

    Rabinerson, David; Melamed, Nir

    2009-08-01

    Chocolate has been known in the Western World since being introduced to Europe in the 16th century by the Spanish Conquistadors who brought it from Mexico. From the beginning, chocolate had an immense power of appeal to people, Leading to craving and addiction especially among women. This appeal lies in its content, texture and aroma, as well as the presence of ingredients that are believed to have psycho-pharmacologic influence. This issue, combined with hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle, is discussed in an attempt to understand women's attraction to chocolate. Despite all existing theories on chocolate having a particular appeal to women, there is no explanation that comprehensively elaborates this well-known phenomenon.

  17. Characterization of cookies made from wheat flour blended with buckwheat flour and effect on antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Jan, Ulfat; Gani, Adil; Ahmad, Mudasir; Shah, Umar; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, F A; Maqsood, Sajid; Gani, Asir; Wani, Idress Ahmed; Wani, S M

    2015-10-01

    Buckwheat flour was incorporated into wheat flour at different levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 %) and the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of the blended flour were studied. This study also investigated the effect of buckwheat on the retention of antioxidant properties of cookies during baking. The results showed significant variation in physicochemical and functional properties of the blended flour. The addition of buckwheat flour into wheat flour also increased the antioxidant properties of blended flour proportionally, but metal chelating properties decreased. The incorporation of buckwheat in wheat flour helped in better retention of antioxidant potential of cookies during baking process as buckwheat cookies (100 % buckwheat) showed greater percentage increase in antioxidant properties than control (100 % wheat). Quality characteristics of cookies such as hardness and spread ratio decreased, while as non-enzymatic browning (NEB) increased significantly with increase in the proportion of buckwheat flour in wheat flour. The Overall acceptability of cookies by sensory analysis was highest at 40 % level of blending. This study concluded that addition of buckwheat in wheat flour, may not only improve the physico-chemical and functional properties of the blended flour but may also enhance the nutraceutical potential of the product prepared from it.

  18. Degradation of free tryptophan in a cookie model system and its application in commercial samples.

    PubMed

    Morales, Francisco J; Açar, Ozge C; Serpen, Arda; Arribas-Lorenzo, Gema; Gökmen, Vural

    2007-08-08

    The stability of free tryptophan (Trp) was examined in five cookie-resembling models at varying baking temperatures and durations. Trp was measured by HPLC coupled with a fluorescent detector. Trp degradation was significantly greater in cookies formulated with glucose compared with sucrose, regardless of the temperatures and durations of baking. A lag period was clearly observed in cookies formulated with sucrose. The type of sugar used in the dough formulation affected not only the thermal destruction kinetics but also the degree of degradation of free Trp. However, the type of leavening agent (ammonium bicarbonate versus sodium bicarbonate) did not affect the rate of Trp destruction as happens in Maillard-driven reactions. In addition, the free Trp content was analyzed in nine different flours and sixty-two commercial cookies, and it was found that free Trp varied from 0.4 to 1287.9 mg/kg for rice and wheat bran, respectively. It was found that free Trp was significantly higher in dietetic commercial samples formulated with wheat bran compared with other flours.

  19. Clinical benefit and preservation of flavonols in dark chocolate manufacturing.

    PubMed

    McShea, Andrew; Ramiro-Puig, Emma; Munro, Sandra B; Casadesus, Gemma; Castell, Margarida; Smith, Mark A

    2008-11-01

    The consumption of high-cacao-content chocolate has been associated with positive health benefits ascribed to flavanol [corrected] antioxidants derived from the ground, fermented cocoa seeds of Theobroma cacao. However, flavanols [corrected] impart a bitter, astringent flavor to foodstuffs, frequently masked in chocolates and confections by aggressive processing and adulteration with other flavors. Recent reports have implied that not all varieties of dark chocolate are created equally, and significant caveats exist regarding its potential health benefits. It is perhaps not surprising that extensive processing, dilution, and the addition of flavor modifiers may improve the palatability of chocolate, but could have negative nutritional and clinical benefits. This article examines the chemical composition of chocolate and the clinical data associated with the consumption of flavonoid-rich cocoa. We review the steps in chocolate manufacturing that directly affect the antioxidant levels in chocolate products, and the caveats associated with claims of health benefits from the consumption of dark chocolate.

  20. Cocoa and chocolate flavonoids: implications for cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Francene M; Bearden, Monica M; Keen, Carl L

    2003-02-01

    This paper offers a review of current scientific research regarding the potential cardiovascular health benefits of flavonoids found in cocoa and chocolate. Recent reports indicate that the main flavonoids found in cocoa, flavan-3-ols and their oligomeric derivatives, procyanidins, have a variety of beneficial actions, including antioxidant protection and modulation of vascular homeostasis. These findings are supported by similar research on other flavonoid-rich foods. Other constituents in cocoa and chocolate that may also influence cardiovascular health are briefly reviewed. The lipid content of chocolate is relatively high; however, one third of the lipid in cocoa butter is composed of the fat stearic acid, which exerts a neutral cholesterolemic response in humans. Cocoa and chocolate contribute to trace mineral intake, which is necessary for optimum functioning of all biologic systems and for vascular tone. Thus, multiple components in chocolate, particularly flavonoids, can contribute to the complex interplay of nutrition and health. Applications of this knowledge include recommendations by health professionals to encourage individuals to consume a wide range of phytochemical-rich foods, which can include dark chocolate in moderate amounts.

  1. Effect of Incorporating Bay Leaves in Cookies on Postprandial Glycemia, Appetite, Palatability, and Gastrointestinal Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran; Shah, Seema; Ahmad, Jamil; Abdullah, Aiman; Johnson, Stuart K

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies of patients with type 2 diabetes showed that capsules containing 1, 2, and 3 g of bay leaves lower fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol concentrations after 30 days of treatment. However, the acute effect of bay leaves on postprandial glycemic and appetite responses has not yet been determined. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of cookies containing different doses of bay leaves on postprandial glycemia, appetite, palatability, and gastrointestinal well-being in healthy subjects. In a randomized crossover study, 20 subjects consumed 3 test foods each providing 50 g of available carbohydrates. The test foods were provided as breakfast, 1-2 weeks apart, and were control cookies (CC) made from 100% wheat flour, cookies containing 3% (w/w) bay leaf powder (B3), and cookies containing 6% (w/w) bay leaf powder (B6). Blood glucose, subjective appetite, and gastrointestinal well-being were assessed at fasting and postprandially for 2 hours. Palatability of the test cookies was measured using 9-point hedonic scale. There was a significant effect of time (p < 0.001), treatment (p = 0.033), and Time × Treatment interaction (p = 0.001) on postprandial blood glucose concentrations. Post hoc pairwise comparison showed that blood glucose concentration was significantly reduced by B6 compared to CC at 30 and 45 minutes (p = 0.014 and p = 0.010, respectively). However, there were no significant differences (p = 0.411) in blood glucose incremental areas under the curves (iAUCs) among the treatments. No significant effect on any of the appetite parameters was observed among the treatments. All of the cookies were rated as acceptable and subjects did not report any gastrointestinal discomfort. In conclusion, the results indicate that cookies containing bay leaf powder at 6% (w/w) incorporation level provides a palatable product that induces a reduced glycemic response.

  2. 33 CFR 117.959 - Chocolate Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chocolate Bayou. 117.959 Section 117.959 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.959 Chocolate Bayou. The draw of the Union...

  3. 33 CFR 117.959 - Chocolate Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chocolate Bayou. 117.959 Section 117.959 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.959 Chocolate Bayou. The draw of the Union...

  4. 33 CFR 117.959 - Chocolate Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chocolate Bayou. 117.959 Section 117.959 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.959 Chocolate Bayou. The draw of the Union...

  5. 33 CFR 117.959 - Chocolate Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chocolate Bayou. 117.959 Section 117.959 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.959 Chocolate Bayou. The draw of the Union...

  6. 33 CFR 117.959 - Chocolate Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chocolate Bayou. 117.959 Section 117.959 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.959 Chocolate Bayou. The draw of the Union...

  7. Chip-olate’ and dry-film resists for efficient fabrication, singulation and sealing of microfluidic chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temiz, Yuksel; Delamarche, Emmanuel

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes a technique for high-throughput fabrication and efficient singulation of chips having closed microfluidic structures and takes advantage of dry-film resists (DFRs) for efficient sealing of capillary systems. The technique is illustrated using 4-inch Si/SiO2 wafers. Wafers carrying open microfluidic structures are partially diced to about half of their thickness. Treatments such as surface cleaning are done at wafer-level, then the structures are sealed using low-temperature (45 °C) lamination of a DFR that is pre-patterned using a craft cutter, and ready-to-use chips are finally separated manually like a chocolate bar by applying a small force (≤ 4 N). We further show that some DFRs have low auto-fluorescence at wavelengths typically used for common fluorescent dyes and that mechanical properties of some DFRs allow for the lamination of 200 μm wide microfluidic structures with negligible sagging (~1 μm). The hydrophilicity (advancing contact angle of ~60°) of the DFR supports autonomous capillary-driven flow without the need for additional surface treatment of the microfluidic chips. Flow rates from 1 to 5 µL min-1 are generated using different geometries of channels and capillary pumps. In addition, the ‘chip-olate’ technique is compatible with the patterning of capture antibodies on DFR for use in immunoassays. We believe this technique to be applicable to the fabrication of a wide range of microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip devices and to offer a viable alternative to many labor-intensive processes that are currently based on wafer bonding techniques or on the molding of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) layers.

  8. Changes in dark chocolate volatiles during storage.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Lia M; Cadwallader, Keith R; Engeseth, Nicki J

    2012-05-09

    Chocolate storage is critical to the quality of the final product. Inadequate storage, especially with temperature fluctuations, may lead to a change in crystal structure, which may eventually cause fat bloom. Bloom is the main cause of quality loss in the chocolate industry. The impact of various storage conditions on the flavor quality of dark chocolate was determined. Dark chocolate was stored in different conditions leading to either fat or sugar bloom and analyzed at 0, 4, and 8 weeks of storage. Changes in chocolate flavor were determined by volatile analysis and descriptive sensory evaluation. Results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), cluster analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and linear partial least-squares regression analysis (PLS). Volatile concentration and loss were significantly affected by storage conditions. Chocolates stored at high temperature were the most visually and texturally compromised, but volatile concentrations were affected the least, whereas samples stored at ambient, frozen, and high relative humidity conditions had significant volatile loss during storage. It was determined that high-temperature storage caused a change in crystal state due to the polymorphic shift to form VI, leading to an increase in sample hardness. Decreased solid fat content (SFC) during high-temperature storage increased instrumentally determined volatile retention, although no difference was detected in chocolate flavor during sensory analysis, possibly due to instrumental and sensory sampling techniques. When all instrumental and sensory data had been taken into account, the storage condition that had the least impact on texture, surface roughness, grain size, lipid polymorphism, fat bloom formation, volatile concentrations, and sensory attributes was storage at constant temperature and 75% relative humidity.

  9. Effects of dark chocolate on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mee Young; Nulton, Emily; Shelechi, Mahshid; Hernández, Lisa M; Nemoseck, Tricia

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence supports that diets rich in polyphenols promote health and may delay the onset of colon cancer. Cocoa and chocolate products have some of the highest polyphenolic concentrations compared to other polyphenolic food sources. This study tested the hypothesis that a diet including dark chocolate can protect against colon cancer by inhibiting aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation, downregulating gene expression of inflammatory mediators, and favorably altering cell kinetics. We also investigated whether bloomed dark chocolate retains the antioxidant capacity and protects against colon cancer. Forty-eight rats received either a diet containing control (no chocolate), regular dark chocolate, or bloomed dark chocolate and were injected subcutaneously with saline or azoxymethane. Relative to control, both regular and bloomed dark chocolate diets lowered the total number of ACF (P = 0.022). Chocolate diet-fed animals downregulated transcription levels of COX-2 (P = 0.035) and RelA (P = 0.045). Both chocolate diets lowered the proliferation index (P = 0.001). These results suggest that a diet including dark chocolate can reduce cell proliferation and some gene expression involving inflammation, which may explain the lower number of early preneoplastic lesions. These results provide new insight on polyphenol-rich chocolate foods and colon cancer prevention.

  10. 21 CFR 163.153 - Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.153... § 163.153 Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat... requirements for label declaration of ingredients for sweet chocolate in § 163.123, except that one or more...

  11. 21 CFR 163.153 - Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.153... § 163.153 Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat... requirements for label declaration of ingredients for sweet chocolate in § 163.123, except that one or more...

  12. Sin and pleasure: the history of chocolate in medicine.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Donatella

    2015-11-18

    In ancient Mayan texts cocoa is considered a gift of the gods: Pre-Columbian populations used chocolate as medicine, too. After the discovery of America, chocolate was introduced in Europe, but Christian Europe looked to this new exhilarating drink with extreme suspiciousness and criticism. From this reaction, the necessity derived to appeal to the reasons of health, with which doctors and scientists committed themselves to explain that chocolate was good for the body. However, during the Enlightment, the road of therapy separated from that of taste, and chocolate mainly maintained its leading role of excipient, bearing the burden, over time, of a negative valence, being associated with obesity, dental problems, unhealthy lifestyle, and so forth. The rehabilitation of chocolate has arisen only in recent times, re-establishing that value that Linnaeus himself credited to chocolate, calling the generous plant Theobroma cacao, food of the gods.

  13. Quality characteristics of bread and cookies enriched with debittered Moringa oleifera seed flour.

    PubMed

    Ogunsina, B S; Radha, C; Indrani, D

    2011-03-01

    The effects of replacing wheat flour with 0-15% debittered moringa seed (DBMS) flour on the dough rheology of wheat flour and physical, sensory and chemical properties of bread were studied. Incorporation of an increasing amount of DBMS from 0 to 15% decreased farinograph water absorption, dough stability, amylograph peak viscosity and overall quality of bread. The bread with 10% DBMS had a typical moringa seed taste and was acceptable. Addition of combination of additives improved the dough strength and quality of bread with 10% DBMS flour. Replacement of wheat flour with 10%, 20% and 30% DBMS grits was found to affect cookies quality. Cookies with 20% DBMS grits had the nutty taste of moringa seeds and were acceptable. Bread with 10% DBMS flour and cookies with 20% DBMS grits had more protein, iron and calcium. Incorporating moringa seeds in baked foods may be exploited as a means of boosting nutrition in Africa and Asia where malnutrition is prevalent.

  14. Effect of plant essential oils against foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in raw cookie dough

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cookie dough can be contaminated by raw ingredients, mishandling, package contamination, etc. Considering the recent outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 with commercial raw cookie dough, the ability of E. coli O157:H7 to survive in the raw cookie dough production and processing environments, it raised conce...

  15. Rejection thresholds in solid chocolate-flavored compound coating.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Meriel L; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2012-10-01

    Classical detection thresholds do not predict liking, as they focus on the presence or absence of a sensation. Recently however, Prescott and colleagues described a new method, the rejection threshold, where a series of forced choice preference tasks are used to generate a dose-response function to determine hedonically acceptable concentrations. That is, how much is too much? To date, this approach has been used exclusively in liquid foods. Here, we determined group rejection thresholds in solid chocolate-flavored compound coating for bitterness. The influences of self-identified preferences for milk or dark chocolate, as well as eating style (chewers compared to melters) on rejection thresholds were investigated. Stimuli included milk chocolate-flavored compound coating spiked with increasing amounts of sucrose octaacetate, a bitter and generally recognized as safe additive. Paired preference tests (blank compared to spike) were used to determine the proportion of the group that preferred the blank. Across pairs, spiked samples were presented in ascending concentration. We were able to quantify and compare differences between 2 self-identified market segments. The rejection threshold for the dark chocolate preferring group was significantly higher than the milk chocolate preferring group (P= 0.01). Conversely, eating style did not affect group rejection thresholds (P= 0.14), although this may reflect the amount of chocolate given to participants. Additionally, there was no association between chocolate preference and eating style (P= 0.36). Present work supports the contention that this method can be used to examine preferences within specific market segments and potentially individual differences as they relate to ingestive behavior. This work makes use of the rejection threshold method to study market segmentation, extending its use to solid foods. We believe this method has broad applicability to the sensory specialist and product developer by providing a

  16. Conching Chocolate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Gary L.; Chaikin, Paul; Blanco, Elena; Poon, Wilson

    2014-03-01

    ``Conching'' is an intermediate step in the processing of chocolate where hydrophilic solid particles, such as sugar and milk proteins, are aggressively mixed into a fatty, fluid phase containing emulsifier, e.g. molten cocoa butter with lecithin. During conching, the system evolves from a fine powder to a coarser granulated material and ultimately into a thick cohesive paste. Our goal is to better understand the evolution of chocolate during conching and the transition from an effectively dry to a wet or immersed granular material. In particular, we focus on how mixing times change in response to variations in solid particle volume fractions and emulsifier concentration. As a function of volume fraction, mixing times are well-described by a conventional form that diverges at a finite volume fraction. Furthermore, mixing times can be collapsed onto a universal curve as a function of mixing speed and emulsifier concentration.

  17. Fortification of dark chocolate with microencapsulated phytosterols: chemical and sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tolve, Roberta; Condelli, Nicola; Caruso, Marisa Carmela; Barletta, Diego; Favati, Fabio; Galgano, Fernanda

    2018-02-21

    Chocolate is one of the most consumed delicacies in the world. Nowadays high-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolates, probiotic chocolates, and prebiotic chocolates are getting more attention. In light of this, dark chocolate containing microencapsulated phytosterols (MPs) has been developed to reduce cholesterol in individuals. In particular, different dark chocolates containing 64, 72 and 85% of cocoa, fortified with 0, 5, 10 and 15% MP have been produced. The obtained chocolates were characterized by a particle size distribution lower than 30 μm and were stable from a chemical point of view. Specifically, peroxide values were always lower than 2 meq O 2 per kg of fat, also after three months of storage. The bioaccessibility of phytosterols was comparable with literature values and the antioxidant activity reached a value of 92 μg trolox per g chocolate for samples obtained from 85% of cocoa. Moreover, sensory evaluation demonstrated a positive effect on the acceptability of the functional chocolate produced and a significant effect of the information on the final sample acceptability.

  18. Dark chocolate acceptability: influence of cocoa origin and processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Torres-Moreno, Miriam; Tarrega, Amparo; Costell, Elvira; Blanch, Consol

    2012-01-30

    Chocolate properties can vary depending on cocoa origin, composition and manufacturing procedure, which affect consumer acceptability. The aim of this work was to study the effect of two cocoa origins (Ghana and Ecuador) and two processing conditions (roasting time and conching time) on dark chocolate acceptability. Overall acceptability and acceptability for different attributes (colour, flavour, odour and texture) were evaluated by 95 consumers. Differences in acceptability among dark chocolates were mainly related to differences in flavour acceptability. The use of a long roasting time lowered chocolate acceptability in Ghanaian samples while it had no effect on acceptability of Ecuadorian chocolates. This response was observed for most consumers (two subgroups with different frequency consumption of dark chocolate). However, for a third group of consumers identified as distinguishers, the most acceptable dark chocolate samples were those produced with specific combinations of roasting time and conching time for each of the cocoa geographical origin considered. To produce dark chocolates from a single origin it is important to know the target market preferences and to select the appropriate roasting and conching conditions. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Influence of packaging information on consumer liking of chocolate milk.

    PubMed

    Kim, M K; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate milk varies widely in flavor, color, and viscosity, and liking is influenced by these properties. Additionally, package labels (declared fat content) and brand are some of the extrinsic factors that may influence consumer perception. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of packaging labels and brand name on consumer liking and purchase intent of chocolate milk. A consumer acceptance test, conjoint analysis survey, and Kano analysis were conducted. One hundred eight consumers evaluated 7 chocolate milks with and without brand or package information in a 2-d crossover design. A conjoint analysis survey and Kano analysis were conducted after the consumer acceptance test. Results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Declared fat content and brand influenced overall liking and purchase intent for chocolate milks to differing degrees. A subsequent conjoint analysis (n=250) revealed that fat content was a driver of choice for purchasing chocolate milk followed by sugar content and brand. Brand name was less important for purchase intent of chocolate milk than fat or sugar content. Among fat content of chocolate milk, 2 and 1% fat level were most appealing to consumers, and reduced sugar and regular sugar were equally important for purchase intent. Kano analysis confirmed that fat content (whole milk, 1, or 2% fat chocolate milk) was an attractive attribute for consumer satisfaction, more so than brand. Organic labeling did not affect the purchase decision of chocolate milk; however, Kano results revealed that having an organic label on a package positively influenced consumer satisfaction. Findings from this study can help chocolate milk producers as well as food marketers better target their product labels with attributes that drive consumer choice of chocolate milk. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of protein concentrates, emulsifiers on textural and sensory characteristics of gluten free cookies and its immunochemical validation.

    PubMed

    Sarabhai, Swati; Indrani, D; Vijaykrishnaraj, M; Milind; Arun Kumar, V; Prabhasankar, P

    2015-06-01

    The effect of 5, 7.5 and 10 % protein concentrates namely soya protein isolate (SPI), whey protein concentrate (WPC) and addition of 0.5 % emulsifiers such as glycerol monostearate (GMS), sodium stearoyl- 2- lactylate (SSL) and lecithin (LEC) on the rheological, sensory and textural characteristics of cookies with rice flour and its immunochemical validation was studied. The results showed that the use of 7.5 % SPI/WPC along with GMS significantly improved the quality characteristics of cookies with rice flour. Dot-Blot and Western-blot studies of cookies with 7.5 % of SPI or WPC confirmed that the anti-gliadin did not recognize these proteins. Carry- through process using ELISA kit confirmed that gluten was within the permissible limit in all the stages of processing and hence these cookies can be consumed by people suffering from celiac disease.

  1. "Split Them!" Smaller Item Sizes of Cookies Lead to a Decrease in Energy Intake in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the influence of altering the size of snack food (ie, small vs large cookies) on short-term energy intake. Methods: First- and sixth-graders (n = 77) participated in a between-subjects experimental design. All participants were offered the same gram weight of cookies during an afternoon tea at their school. For half of the…

  2. Investigation into the Microstructure, Texture and Rheological Properties of Chocolate Ganache.

    PubMed

    McGill, Jade; Hartel, Rich W

    2018-03-01

    Ganache is a mixture of chocolate and dairy. Although a popular confection, little is known about how it functions as a system. Objectives were to (1) determine if dairy fats and cocoa butter mix in ganache, (2) characterize ganache microstructure, and how structure affects texture and rheology, and (3) identify how changes in chocolate composition alter ganache. Textural analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, stress sweep tests, and microscopy were used to examine ganache formulations that varied in dairy source (cream or butter) or in solid fat content (SFC), composition or type of chocolate. Melting temperatures for all ganache formulations were lower than for chocolate, indicating that cream milk fat globules rupture during processing, and mix with cocoa butter. Altering the SFC of chocolate affected ganache hardness, spreadability, melting enthalpy, and resistance to deformation. Chocolate systems made with constant fat content and greater amounts of defatted cocoa powder relative to sugar or nonfat milk powder yielded ganache that was harder, less spreadable, and more resistant to deformation. Ganache made with commercially produced dark, milk, and white chocolates behaved similarly to model chocolate systems. Ganache attributes are affected by chocolate crystalline fat content in addition to particle phase volume-greater levels of cocoa powder, which is mostly insoluble, strengthens ganache structure, producing a firmer product, whereas greater levels of milk powder and sugar, which dissolve in the aqueous cream component, produce a softer ganache. Understanding how ganache functions as a system and how differences in chocolate composition affect its textural and rheological properties may allow for greater control over the desired characteristics of the final product. For example, this research shows how changing cocoa content of the chocolate affects ganache, which is useful when developing formulations involving chocolates with different cocoa

  3. Acute effect of oral flavonoid-rich dark chocolate intake on coronary circulation, as compared with non-flavonoid white chocolate, by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Shiina, Yumi; Funabashi, Nobusada; Lee, Kwangho; Murayama, Taichi; Nakamura, Koki; Wakatsuki, Yu; Daimon, Masao; Komuro, Issei

    2009-01-24

    To assess the effects of the oral intake of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on coronary circulation, we measured coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) by noninvasive transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE) in healthy adult subjects. The study was a randomized, single-blind design conducted for 2 weeks in 39 healthy men (mean age 29.7+/-3.9 years, range 23-40 years). Subjects were randomly assigned a daily intake of either flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (Meiji Black Chocolate 45 g, Meiji Seika kaisya Ltd, including cacao polyphenol 550 mg/day, 200 kcal) or non-flavonoid white chocolate (Meiji White Chocolate 35 g, Meiji Seika kaisya Ltd, including cacao polyphenol 0 mg/day, 140 kcal) as a control. CFVR was recorded by TTDE, and assessed before and after 2 weeks of intake. At the same time, we also assessed serum asymmetric dimethylarginine, 8-isoprostanes, and malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) as markers of oxidative stress. Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate consumption significantly improved CFVR (3.38+/-0.49 before intake, 4.28+/-0.85 after intake; p<0.01), whereas non-flavonoid white chocolate consumption did not (3.28+/-0.49 before intake, 3.16+/-0.49 after intake; p=0.44). All predictor variables were used as dependent variables in a multiple regression model of the incremental change in CFVR after 2 weeks of chocolate intake. Intake of dark (but not white) chocolate, MDA-LDL, triglyceride (TG) and heart rate (HR) significantly influenced the change of CFVR after 2 weeks of intake (p<0.01) according to the multiple regression formula: Y=1.01X(1)-0.005X(2)-0.003X(3)-0.017X4 (Y=change in CFVR after 2 weeks of chocolate intake, X1=intake of dark (but not white) chocolate, X2=MDA-LDL, X3=TG, X4=HR). Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate intake significantly improved coronary circulation in healthy adults, independent of changes in oxidative stress parameters, blood pressure and lipid profile, whereas non-flavonoid white chocolate had no such effects.

  4. Rejection Thresholds in Solid Chocolate-Flavored Compound Coating

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Classical detection thresholds do not predict liking, as they focus on the presence or absence of a sensation. Recently however, Prescott and colleagues described a new method, the rejection threshold, where a series of forced choice preference tasks are used to generate a dose-response function to determine hedonically acceptable concentrations. That is, how much is too much? To date, this approach has been used exclusively in liquid foods. Here, we determined group rejection thresholds in solid chocolate-flavored compound coating for bitterness. The influences of self-identified preferences for milk or dark chocolate, as well as eating style (chewers versus melters) on rejection thresholds were investigated. Stimuli included milk chocolate-flavored compound coating spiked with increasing amounts of sucrose octaacetate (SOA), a bitter GRAS additive. Paired preference tests (blank vs. spike) were used to determine the proportion of the group that preferred the blank. Across pairs, spiked samples were presented in ascending concentration. We were able to quantify and compare differences between two self-identified market segments. The rejection threshold for the dark chocolate preferring group was significantly higher than the milk chocolate preferring group (p = 0.01). Conversely, eating style did not affect group rejection thresholds (p = 0.14), although this may reflect the amount of chocolate given to participants. Additionally, there was no association between chocolate preference and eating style (p = 0.36). Present work supports the contention that this method can be used to examine preferences within specific market segments and potentially individual differences as they relate to ingestive behavior. PMID:22924788

  5. Mineral essential elements for nutrition in different chocolate products.

    PubMed

    Cinquanta, Luciano; Di Cesare, Cinzia; Manoni, Remo; Piano, Angela; Roberti, Piero; Salvatori, Giancarlo

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the essential mineral nutritional elements in cocoa beans, in chocolates at different cocoa percentage (60,70,80 and 90%) and in milk chocolate are evaluated. Dark chocolates are confirmed as an excellent source of magnesium (252.2 mg/100 g) and iron (10.9 mg/100 g): in chocolate containing 90% cocoa, their content corresponds to, respectively, 67.0% and 80.3 of Nutrient Reference Values (NRV) in the European Union. The chocolate containing 90% cocoa is also a good source of zinc (3.5 mg/100 g), which is important for the immune system, and selenium (0.1 mg/100 g). Three main components suitable to explain the mineral concentrations are analyzed by factor analysis. The component 1 can be interpreted as the contribution from the cocoa beans, owing to the mineral characteristics of the soil in which they have grown; the component 2 is mainly due to the manipulation and transformation of the cocoa in chocolate, while the component 3 represents the milk powder.

  6. International outbreak of Salmonella Eastbourne infection traced to contaminated chocolate.

    PubMed

    Craven, P C; Mackel, D C; Baine, W B; Barker, W H; Gangarosa, E J

    1975-04-05

    Between Dec. 4, 1973, and Feb. 15, 1974, 80 cases of infection due to Salmonella eastbourne, previously a rare isolated serotype in the United States, were reported from twenty-three States. An additional 39 cases were reported from seven Provinces in Canada during a similar period. A telephone case-control study implicated Christmas-wrapped chocolate balls manufactured by a Canadian company as the vehicle of transmission. S. eastbourne was subsequently isolated from several samples of leftover chocolate balls obtained from homes where cases occurred. Investigation of the factory revealed that the contaminated Christmas and Easter chocolates, and a few chocolate items for year-round sale, had been produced between May and October, 1973. Bacteriological testing of samples taken at the plant implicated cocoa beans as the probable source of the salmonella organisms which, in the low-moisture chocolate, were able to survive heating during production. This outbreak and the finding of salmonella of other serotypes in chocolates produced by another manufacturer suggest that chocolate-related salmonellosis may be a significant public-health problem.

  7. Funtionality of Sucralose/Maltodextrin: Isomalt blends in Oatmeal Cookies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Functionality of Sucralose/Maltodextrin:Isomalt blends in Oatmeal Cookies Ruthann B. Swanson1, Rebecca McKemie1, Elizabeth M. Savage2 and Hong Zhuang2 1University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605; 2ARS-USDA, Athens, GA 30605 Availability of reduced-in-sugar baked products with quality characteristics...

  8. Effects of fatty acids composition and microstructure properties of fats and oils on textural properties of dough and cookie quality.

    PubMed

    Devi, Amita; Khatkar, B S

    2018-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of fatty acid composition and microstructure properties of fats and oils on the textural properties of cookie dough and quality attributes of cookies. Fatty acid composition and microstructure properties of six fats and oils (butter, hydrogenated fat, palm oil, coconut oil, groundnut oil, and sunflower oil) were analyzed. Sunflower oil was found to be the most unsaturated oil with 88.39% unsaturated fatty acid content. Coconut oil and palm oil differed from other fats and oils by having an appreciable amount of lauric acid (59.36%) and palmitic acid (42.14%), respectively. Microstructure size of all fats and oils ranged from 1 to 20 μm being the largest for coconut oil and the smallest for palm oil. In palm oil, small rod-shaped and randomly arranged microstructures were observed, whereas sunflower oil and groundnut oil possessed large, scattered ovule shaped microstructures. It was reported that sunflower oil produced the softest dough, the largest cookie spread and the hardest cookie texture, whereas hydrogenated fat produced the stiffest dough, the lowest spread and most tender cookies. Statistical analysis depicted that palmitic acid and oleic acid demonstrated a positive correlation with dough hardness. Linoleic acid exhibited positive link with cookie spread ratio (r = 0.836**) and breaking strength (r = 0.792**). Microstructure size showed a significant positive relationship with dough density (r = 0.792**), cookie density (r = 0.386*), spread ratio (r = 0.312*), and breaking strength (r = 0.303*).

  9. Fitting mathematical models to describe the rheological behaviour of chocolate pastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Carla; Diogo, Filipa; Alves, M. Rui

    2016-06-01

    The flow behavior is of utmost importance for the chocolate industry. The objective of this work was to study two mathematical models, Casson and Windhab models that can be used to fit chocolate rheological data and evaluate which better infers or previews the rheological behaviour of different chocolate pastes. Rheological properties (viscosity, shear stress and shear rates) were obtained with a rotational viscometer equipped with a concentric cylinder. The chocolate samples were white chocolate and chocolate with varying percentages in cacao (55%, 70% and 83%). The results showed that the Windhab model was the best to describe the flow behaviour of all the studied samples with higher determination coefficients (r2 > 0.9).

  10. Cadmium and lead in chocolates commercialized in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Villa, Javier E L; Peixoto, Rafaella R A; Cadore, Solange

    2014-08-27

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations and their relationship to the cocoa content of chocolates commercialized in Brazil were evaluated by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) after microwave-assisted acid digestion. Several chemical modifiers were tested during method development, and analytical parameters, including the limits of detection and quantification as well as the accuracy and precision of the overall procedure, were assessed. The study examined 30 chocolate samples, and the concentrations of Cd and Pb were in the range of <1.7-107.6 and <21-138.4 ng/g, respectively. The results indicated that dark chocolates have higher concentrations of Cd and Pb than milk and white chocolates. Furthermore, samples with five different cocoa contents (ranging from 34 to 85%) from the same brand were analyzed, and linear correlations between the cocoa content and the concentrations of Cd (R(2) = 0.907) and Pb (R(2) = 0.955) were observed. The results showed that chocolate might be a significant source of Cd and Pb ingestion, particularly for children.

  11. Chocolate consumption in pregnancy and reduced likelihood of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Triche, Elizabeth W; Grosso, Laura M; Belanger, Kathleen; Darefsky, Amy S; Benowitz, Neal L; Bracken, Michael B

    2008-05-01

    Preeclampsia is a major pregnancy complication with cardiovascular manifestations. Recent studies suggest that chocolate consumption may benefit cardiovascular health. We studied the association of chocolate consumption with risk of preeclampsia in a prospective cohort study of 2291 pregnant women who delivered a singleton livebirth between September 1996 and January 2000. Chocolate consumption was measured by self report in the first and third trimesters, and by umbilical cord serum concentrations of theobromine, the major methylxanthine component of chocolate. Preeclampsia was assessed by detailed medical record review for 1943 of the women. We derived adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from logistic regression models controlling for potential confounders. Preeclampsia developed in 3.7% (n = 63) of 1681 women. Cord serum theobromine concentrations were negatively associated with preeclampsia (aOR = 0.31; CI = 0.11-0.87 for highest compared with lowest quartile). Self-reported chocolate consumption estimates also were inversely associated with preeclampsia. Compared with women consuming under 1 serving of chocolate weekly, women consuming 5+ servings per week had decreased risk: aOR = 0.81 with consumption in the first 3 months of pregnancy (CI = 0.37-1.79) and 0.60 in the last 3 months (0.30-1.24). Our results suggest that chocolate consumption during pregnancy may lower risk of preeclampsia. However, reverse causality may also contribute to these findings.

  12. 7 CFR 58.935 - Chocolate and cocoa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chocolate and cocoa. 58.935 Section 58.935 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.935 Chocolate and cocoa. Such products used as flavor ingredients shall meet the requirements...

  13. 7 CFR 58.935 - Chocolate and cocoa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chocolate and cocoa. 58.935 Section 58.935 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.935 Chocolate and cocoa. Such products used as flavor ingredients shall meet the requirements...

  14. 7 CFR 58.935 - Chocolate and cocoa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chocolate and cocoa. 58.935 Section 58.935 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.935 Chocolate and cocoa. Such products used as flavor ingredients shall meet the requirements...

  15. 7 CFR 58.935 - Chocolate and cocoa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chocolate and cocoa. 58.935 Section 58.935 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.935 Chocolate and cocoa. Such products used as flavor ingredients shall meet the requirements...

  16. Chocolate: A Marvelous Natural Product of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Ginger

    2004-01-01

    The study of chocolate, a natural product, can be beneficial for the chemistry students as they ask frequently about the relevancy of their chemistry classes. The history of chocolate, its chemical and physical changes during processing, its composition, different crystalline forms, tempering and its viscosity are discussed.

  17. [The pharmacist Ludovic Dardenne and his chocolate hundred-years-old].

    PubMed

    Raynal, Cécile; Lefebvre, Thierry

    2010-07-01

    Launched in 1910, the brand "Yo-Yo" made the fame of the chocolate factory of the pharmacist Ludovic Dardenne for Luchon. It was then replaced by a "chocolate of regime" still marketed nowadays. The authors present three elements susceptible to inform this transformation: the first presentation of the chocolate Yo-Yo, its patent of manufacturing such as it was registred in 1911, and two typographic patches praising the merits of the chocolate of regime in the 60's.

  18. Diabetes and chocolate: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Mellor, Duane D; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Kilpatrick, Eric S; Atkin, Stephen L

    2015-11-18

    Polyphenols and other compounds found in cocoa and chocolate have therapeutic potential in the management of diabetes in humans. Polyphenol benefits have been proposed supported by in vitro studies, animal work, and clinical trials, which have been conducted mostly in healthy volunteers. The energy-dense formulations of many cocoa and chocolate products, which can be up to 50% sugar by weight, have given the perception that chocolate may be harmful through its contribution to obesity. A review of both clinical trial databases and published literature yielded 15 registered trials and 7 published studies. The published data interventions reported are diverse and vary widely in quality, including poor selection of control products or inadequate blinding procedures. There are also inconsistencies in reporting of data with limited information on the effect of cocoa and chocolate supplementation on weight and glycemic control despite the potential benefits reported with respect to the cardiovascular risk factors of endothelial function and lipids. More studies are required powered for primary clinical outcomes together with the development of standardized product formulations that optimize the dose of polyphenols within a palatable and energy-restricted product.

  19. Impact of storage on dark chocolate: texture and polymorphic changes.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Lia M; Lee, Soo-Yeun; Engeseth, Nicki J

    2011-01-01

    Chocolate storage is critical to final product quality. Inadequate storage, especially with temperature fluctuations, may lead to rearrangement of triglycerides that make up the bulk of the chocolate matrix; this rearrangement may lead to fat bloom. Bloom is the main cause of quality loss in the chocolate industry. The effect of storage conditions leading to bloom formation on texture and flavor attributes by human and instrumental measures has yet to be reported. Therefore, the impact of storage conditions on the quality of dark chocolate by sensory and instrumental measurements was determined. Dark chocolate was kept under various conditions and analyzed at 0, 4, and 8 wk of storage. Ten members of a descriptive panel analyzed texture and flavor. Instrumental methods included texture analysis, color measurement, lipid polymorphism by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, triglyceride concentration by gas chromatography, and surface properties by atomic force microscopy. Results were treated by analysis of variance, cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and linear partial least squares regression analysis. Chocolate stored 8 wk at high temperature without fluctuations and 4 wk with fluctuations transitioned from form V to VI. Chocolates stored at high temperature with and without fluctuations were harder, more fracturable, more toothpacking, had longer melt time, were less sweet, and had less cream flavor. These samples had rougher surfaces, fewer but larger grains, and a heterogeneous surface. Overall, all stored dark chocolate experienced instrumental or perceptual changes attributed to storage condition. Chocolates stored at high temperature with and without fluctuations were most visually and texturally compromised. Practical Application: Many large chocolate companies do their own "in-house" unpublished research and smaller confectionery facilities do not have the means to conduct their own research. Therefore, this study relating

  20. Cocoa, chocolate and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I.; Fraga, Cesar G.

    2009-01-01

    A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruit and vegetables promote health, and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in the last years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to CVD. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanoles and related compounds. PMID:19701098

  1. Cocoa, chocolate, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I; Fraga, Cesar G

    2009-12-01

    A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables promote health and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in past years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components, providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However, the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanols and related compounds.

  2. Trace elements in cocoa solids and chocolate: an ICPMS study.

    PubMed

    Yanus, Rinat Levi; Sela, Hagit; Borojovich, Eitan J C; Zakon, Yevgeni; Saphier, Magal; Nikolski, Andrey; Gutflais, Efi; Lorber, Avraham; Karpas, Zeev

    2014-02-01

    The concentrations of eight trace elements: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), arsenic (As), bismuth (Bi) and molybdenum (Mo), in chocolate, cocoa beans and products were studied by ICPMS. The study examined chocolate samples from different brands and countries with different concentrations of cocoa solids from each brand. The samples were digested and filtered to remove lipids and indium was used as an internal standard to correct matrix effects. A linear correlation was found between the level of several trace elements in chocolate and the cocoa solids content. Significant levels of Bi and As were found in the cocoa bean shells but not in the cocoa bean and chocolate. This may be attributed to environmental contamination. The presence of other elements was attributed to the manufacturing processes of cocoa and chocolate products. Children, who are big consumers of chocolates, may be at risk of exceeding the daily limit of lead; whereas one 10 g cube of dark chocolate may contain as much as 20% of the daily lead oral limit. Moreover chocolate may not be the only source of lead in their nutrition. For adults there is almost no risk of exceeding daily limits for trace metals ingestion because their digestive absorption of metals is very poor. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The Effect of Astaxanthin-Rich Microalgae "Haematococcus pluvialis" and Wholemeal Flours Incorporation in Improving the Physical and Functional Properties of Cookies.

    PubMed

    Hossain, A K M Mofasser; Brennan, Margaret A; Mason, Susan L; Guo, Xinbo; Zeng, Xin An; Brennan, Charles S

    2017-07-26

    Marine-based food supplements can improve human nutrition. In an effort to modulate glycaemic response and enhance nutritional aspects, marine-derived algal food rich in astaxanthin was used in the formulation of a model food (wholemeal cookie). Astaxanthin substitution of cookies made from three flours (wheat, barley and oat) demonstrated a significant reduction in the rate of glucose released during in vitro digestion together with an increase in the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity of the food. The significantly ( p < 0.005) lower free glucose release was observed from cookies with 15% astaxanthin, followed by 10% and then 5% astaxanthin in comparison with control cookies of each flour. Total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) value also notably increased with increase in astaxanthin content. The results evidence the potential use of microalgae to enhance the bioactive compounds and lower the glycaemic response of wholemeal flour cookie.

  4. A brisk walk, compared with being sedentary, reduces attentional bias and chocolate cravings among regular chocolate eaters with different body mass.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hwajung; Taylor, Adrian H

    2013-12-01

    Poor self-regulation of high energy snacking has been linked to weight gain. Physical activity can acutely reduce chocolate consumption and cravings but the effects on attentional bias (AB) are unknown. The study aimed to test the effects of exercise among normal and overweight/obese individuals during temporary and longer abstinence. Participants were 20 normal and 21 overweight regular female chocolate eaters (after 24 h abstinence), and 17 females (after ≥1 week abstinence during Lent). They were randomly assigned to engage in 15 min brisk walking or rest, on separate days. AB was assessed using an adapted dot probe task pre and post-treatment at each session, with chocolate/neutral paired images presented for 200 ms (initial AB; IAB) or 1000 ms (maintained AB; MAB). Chocolate craving was assessed pre, during, immediately after, and 5 min and 10 min after treatment, using a 0-100 visual analogue score. Three-way mixed ANOVAs revealed that there was no significant interaction effect between group (i.e., BMI status, or abstinence status) and condition × time for craving and AB to chocolate cues. Fully repeated 2-way ANOVAS revealed a significant condition × time interaction for IAB (F(1,57)=6.39) and chocolate craving (F(2.34,133.19)=14.44). After exercise IAB (t(57)=2.78, p<0.01) was significantly lower than after the rest condition. Craving was significantly lower than the rest condition at all assessments post-baseline. A short bout of physical activity reduces cravings and AB to chocolate cues, relative to control, irrespective of BMI or abstinence period. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chocolate agar, a differential medium for gram-positive cocci.

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, B A

    1984-01-01

    Reactions incurred on chocolate agar by gram-positive cocci were correlated with species identity. Darkening and clearing of the medium was usually associated with the species Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus simulans, and Streptococcus faecalis. Yellowing of chocolate agar was associated with alpha-hemolytic species of Streptococcus. The study demonstrated that reactions occurring on chocolate agar are useful in identifying gram-positive cocci. PMID:6490866

  6. 7 CFR 58.935 - Chocolate and cocoa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Materials § 58.935 Chocolate and cocoa. Such products used as flavor ingredients shall meet the requirements of the Food and Drug Administration, “Definitions and Standards of Identity for Cocoa Products... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chocolate and cocoa. 58.935 Section 58.935 Agriculture...

  7. Chocolate: a flavor and texture unlike any other.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J

    1994-12-01

    Cocoa butter is unique. The tree and flower from which it grows, the pod and its seed, as well as its postharvest handling are all different from those for any other food ingredient. Cocoa butter is the most critical raw material for chocolate, a foodstuff recognized long ago as having exceptional value. The triglyceride structure of cocoa butter gives cocoa butter unique solidification and liquefying properties, which give the chocolate manufacturer the opportunity to work with chocolate in ways that no other foods permit.

  8. From Cocoa to Chocolate: The Impact of Processing on In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and the Effects of Chocolate on Antioxidant Markers In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Di Mattia, Carla D.; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Mastrocola, Dino; Serafini, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate is a product processed from cocoa rich in flavonoids, antioxidant compounds, and bioactive ingredients that have been associated with both its healthy and sensory properties. Chocolate production consists of a multistep process which, starting from cocoa beans, involves fermentation, drying, roasting, nib grinding and refining, conching, and tempering. During cocoa processing, the naturally occurring antioxidants (flavonoids) are lost, while others, such as Maillard reaction products, are formed. The final content of antioxidant compounds and the antioxidant activity of chocolate is a function of several variables, some related to the raw material and others related to processing and formulation. The aim of this mini-review is to revise the literature on the impact of full processing on the in vitro antioxidant activity of chocolate, providing a critical analysis of the implications of processing on the evaluation of the antioxidant effect of chocolate in in vivo studies in humans. PMID:29033932

  9. From Cocoa to Chocolate: The Impact of Processing on In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and the Effects of Chocolate on Antioxidant Markers In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Di Mattia, Carla D; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Mastrocola, Dino; Serafini, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate is a product processed from cocoa rich in flavonoids, antioxidant compounds, and bioactive ingredients that have been associated with both its healthy and sensory properties. Chocolate production consists of a multistep process which, starting from cocoa beans, involves fermentation, drying, roasting, nib grinding and refining, conching, and tempering. During cocoa processing, the naturally occurring antioxidants (flavonoids) are lost, while others, such as Maillard reaction products, are formed. The final content of antioxidant compounds and the antioxidant activity of chocolate is a function of several variables, some related to the raw material and others related to processing and formulation. The aim of this mini-review is to revise the literature on the impact of full processing on the in vitro antioxidant activity of chocolate, providing a critical analysis of the implications of processing on the evaluation of the antioxidant effect of chocolate in in vivo studies in humans.

  10. Chocolate and migraine: the history of an ambiguous association.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2014-12-17

    Migraine is a highly prevalent condition and an important cause of disability. Although the pathogenesis of this condition is complex and multifaceted, several environmental factors have been associated with development and aggravation of headache attacks. Among the various foods that have been implicated in migraine, chocolate has been regarded as detrimental on the basis of old and mostly anecdotal evidence. Therefore, this article is aimed to provide an overview on the current scientific evidence about the relationship between chocolate and migraine. Taken together, the information gathered from epidemiological and provocative studies attests that the potential causal association between chocolate and migraine remains largely enigmatic. The analysis of epidemiological surveys reveals a highly heterogeneous picture, with frequency of migraine episodes attributable to chocolate ranging from 0 to 22.5%. Even in those studies reporting a more convincing association, the risk of migraine after chocolate ingestion was found to be 2- to 3-fold lower than that reported for exposure to other conventional triggers such as stress, fasting, lack of sleep and alcohol beverages. The results of the double-blind studies are instead unequivocal, and clearly demonstrate that the risk of developing a headache attack after ingestion of chocolate is as likely as administering placebo in patients with migraine. It can hence be concluded that the widespread belief that chocolate and cocoacontaining foods should be absolutely avoided by migraine patients lacks of a reliable scientific basis.

  11. Chocolate Consumption in Pregnancy and Reduced Likelihood of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Triche, Elizabeth W.; Grosso, Laura M.; Belanger, Kathleen; Darefsky, Amy S.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Bracken, Michael B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia is a major pregnancy complication with cardiovascular manifestations. Recent studies suggest that chocolate consumption may benefit cardiovascular health. Methods We studied the association of chocolate consumption with risk of preeclampsia in a prospective cohort study of 2291 pregnant women who delivered a singleton livebirth between September 1996 and January 2000. Chocolate consumption was measured by self report in the first and third trimesters, and by umbilical cord serum concentrations of theobromine, the major methylxanthine component of chocolate. Preeclampsia was assessed by detailed medical record review for 1943 of the women. We derived adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from logistic regression models controlling for potential confounders. Results Preeclampsia developed in 3.7% (n = 63) of 1681 women. Cord serum theobromine concentrations were negatively associated with preeclampsia (aOR = 0.31; CI = 0.11–0.87 for highest compared with lowest quartile). Self-reported chocolate consumption estimates also were inversely associated with preeclampsia. Compared with women consuming under 1 serving of chocolate weekly, women consuming 5+ servings per week had decreased risk: aOR = 0.81 with consumption in the first 3 months of pregnancy (CI = 0.37–1.79) and 0.60 in the last 3 months (0.30–1.24). Conclusions Our results suggest that chocolate consumption during pregnancy may lower risk of preeclampsia. However, reverse causality may also contribute to these findings. PMID:18379424

  12. Extrinsic attributes that influence parents' purchase of chocolate milk for their children.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomeng E; Lopetcharat, Kannapon; Drake, MaryAnne

    2014-07-01

    The consumption of milk is essential for children's heath; and flavored milk, especially chocolate milk, is often purchased to increase children's milk consumption. However, the sugar content of chocolate milk has raised health concerns. As such, it is important to understand chocolate milk extrinsic attributes that influence parents' purchase decisions when they are purchasing chocolate milk for their children. The objective of this study was to determine the key extrinsic attributes for parents when they purchase chocolate milk for their children. An online survey with a conjoint analysis design, emotions questions, and Kano questionnaire that focused on chocolate milk was conducted targeting parents. Three hundred and twelve parents participated in the survey. Parents reported positive emotions including good, good natured, happy, loving, and satisfied when purchasing chocolate milk for their kids. Three segments of parents were identified with subtle but distinct differences in their key preferences for chocolate milk attributes for their children. Type of sweetener was the primary driver of choice for purchasing chocolate milk for children followed by fat content. Among sweetener types, natural noncaloric/nonnutritive sweeteners or sucrose were preferred over artificial sweeteners, and reduced fat was preferred over full fat or skim milk. Kano results revealed that reduced fat and sugar with an all natural label and added vitamins, minerals, and protein were attractive to the majority of parents when purchasing chocolate milk for their kids. Understanding the driving extrinsic attributes for parents when they purchase chocolate milk for their children will assist manufacturers to target extrinsic attributes that are attractive to parents for chocolate milk. This study established that sweetener type and fat content are the primary extrinsic attributes affecting parents purchase decisions when choosing chocolate milk for their children. Different segments of

  13. Differentiation of chocolates according to the cocoa's geographical origin using chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Cambrai, Amandine; Marcic, Christophe; Morville, Stéphane; Sae Houer, Pierre; Bindler, Françoise; Marchioni, Eric

    2010-02-10

    The determination of the geographical origin of cocoa used to produce chocolate has been assessed through the analysis of the volatile compounds of chocolate samples. The analysis of the volatile content and their statistical processing by multivariate analyses tended to form independent groups for both Africa and Madagascar, even if some of the chocolate samples analyzed appeared in a mixed zone together with those from America. This analysis also allowed a clear separation between Caribbean chocolates and those from other origins. Height compounds (such as linalool or (E,E)-2,4-decadienal) characteristic of chocolate's different geographical origins were also identified. The method described in this work (hydrodistillation, GC analysis, and statistic treatment) may improve the control of the geographical origin of chocolate during its long production process.

  14. Chocolate consumption is increased in Parkinson's disease. Results from a self-questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Wolz, Martin; Kaminsky, Alice; Löhle, Matthias; Koch, Rainer; Storch, Alexander; Reichmann, Heinz

    2009-03-01

    Clinical observations in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients suggested an increased chocolate consumption. Chocolate contains high contents of various biogenic amines potentially influencing brain monoamine metabolism. 498 PD patients and their partners were evaluated by a structured self-questionnaire asking for consumption of chocolate and non-chocolate sweets, changes in chocolate consumption during the disease course, and depressive symptoms. Questionnaires from 274 patients (55 %) and 234 controls were eligible for further analysis. Consumption of chocolate was significantly higher in PD patients compared to controls, while consumption of non-chocolate sweets was similar in both groups. Our study suggests that chocolate consumption is increased in PD independent of concomitant depressive symptoms measured by BDI-1. Although reasons for increased chocolate consumption in PD remain elusive, it may hypothetically be a consequence of the high content of various biogenic amines and/or caffeine analogues with potential antiparkinsonian effects.

  15. 21 CFR 163.153 - Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.153... § 163.153 Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat... specified dairy ingredient. (b) Optional ingredients. (1) Safe and suitable vegetable derived fats, oils...

  16. 21 CFR 163.153 - Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.153... § 163.153 Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat... specified dairy ingredient. (b) Optional ingredients. (1) Safe and suitable vegetable derived fats, oils...

  17. 21 CFR 163.153 - Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.153... § 163.153 Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat... specified dairy ingredient. (b) Optional ingredients. (1) Safe and suitable vegetable derived fats, oils...

  18. Computerized Analysis of Nutrients (CAN) System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    1 H 24.02 PEANUT BUTTER BARS (Sugar Cookie Mix) 3.1 1 PIE CRUST 3 I 1.01. PIE CRUST ( Dough Rolling Method) 3 I 1.02 PIE CRUST (Manual Method) 3 I 2... COOKIES -CHOC COV MR6801 6 .0 .0 99.0 PEANUT BUTTER MRE & MR6906 6 .0 .0 99.0 SOUR CREAM 801056 5 .0 .0 99.0 PINEAPPLE CANNED IN 809268 5 .0 .0 99.1...CHOCOLATE CO MR6803 3 .0 .0 99.6 CAKE-CHERRY NUT MR6804 3 .0 .0 99.6 COOKIES , OREO OREO 3 .0 .0 99.7 SODA FRUIT 004060 2 .0 .0 99.7 OLIVE-GREEN 014060

  19. Postprandial administration of intranasal insulin intensifies satiety and reduces intake of palatable snacks in women.

    PubMed

    Hallschmid, Manfred; Higgs, Suzanne; Thienel, Matthias; Ott, Volker; Lehnert, Hendrik

    2012-04-01

    The role of brain insulin signaling in the control of food intake in humans has not been thoroughly defined. We hypothesized that the hormone contributes to the postprandial regulation of appetite for palatable food, and assessed the effects on appetite and snack intake of postprandial versus fasted intranasal insulin administration to the brain in healthy women. Two groups of subjects were intranasally administered 160 IU insulin or vehicle after lunch. Two hours later, consumption of cookies of varying palatability was measured under the pretext of a taste test. In a control study, the effects of intranasal insulin administered to fasted female subjects were assessed. Compared with placebo, insulin administration in the postprandial but not in the fasted state decreased appetite as well as intake and rated palatability of chocolate chip cookies (the most palatable snack offered). In both experiments, intranasal insulin induced a slight decrease in plasma glucose but did not affect serum insulin concentrations. Data indicate that brain insulin acts as a relevant satiety signal during the postprandial period, in particular reducing the intake of highly palatable food, and impacts peripheral glucose homeostasis. Postprandial intranasal insulin administration might be useful in curtailing overconsumption of snacks with accentuated rewarding value.

  20. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155... § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Milk chocolate and vegetable fat...) Safe and suitable vegetable derived oils, fats, and stearins other than cacao fat. The oils, fats, and...

  1. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155... § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Milk chocolate and vegetable fat...) Safe and suitable vegetable derived oils, fats, and stearins other than cacao fat. The oils, fats, and...

  2. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155... § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Milk chocolate and vegetable fat...) Safe and suitable vegetable derived oils, fats, and stearins other than cacao fat. The oils, fats, and...

  3. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155 Section 163.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Milk chocolate and vegetable fat...

  4. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155 Section 163.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Milk chocolate and vegetable fat...

  5. Effects of chocolate on cognitive function and mood: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Scholey, Andrew; Owen, Lauren

    2013-10-01

    A systematic review was conducted to evaluate whether chocolate or its constituents were capable of influencing cognitive function and/or mood. Studies investigating potentially psychoactive fractions of chocolate were also included. Eight studies (in six articles) met the inclusion criteria for assessment of chocolate or its components on mood, of which five showed either an improvement in mood state or an attenuation of negative mood. Regarding cognitive function, eight studies (in six articles) met the criteria for inclusion, of which three revealed clear evidence of cognitive enhancement (following cocoa flavanols and methylxanthine). Two studies failed to demonstrate behavioral benefits but did identify significant alterations in brain activation patterns. It is unclear whether the effects of chocolate on mood are due to the orosensory characteristics of chocolate or to the pharmacological actions of chocolate constituents. Two studies have reported acute cognitive effects of supplementation with cocoa polyphenols. Further exploration of the effect of chocolate on cognitive facilitation is recommended, along with substantiation of functional brain changes associated with the components of cocoa.

  6. The sweet life: The effect of mindful chocolate consumption on mood.

    PubMed

    Meier, Brian P; Noll, Sabrina W; Molokwu, Oluwatobi J

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate consumption is anecdotally associated with an increase in happiness, but little experimental work has examined this effect. We combined a food type manipulation (chocolate vs. crackers) with a mindfulness manipulation (mindful consumption vs. non-mindful consumption) and examined the impact on positive mood. Participants (N = 258) were randomly assigned to eat a small portion (75 calories) of chocolate or a control food (crackers) in a mindful or non-mindful way. Participants who were instructed to mindfully eat chocolate had a greater increase in positive mood compared to participants who were instructed to eat chocolate non-mindfully or crackers either mindfully or non-mindfully. Additional analyses revealed that self-reported liking of the food partially mediated this effect. Chocolate appears to increase positive mood, but particularly when it is eaten mindfully. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Functionality of Inulin as a Sucrose Replacer in Cookie Baking

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inulin was evaluated as a sucrose replacer for healthy cookie production with benefits of low glycemic impact and prebiotic soluble fiber. Sucrose (as a reference) and three inulin products of different concentrations (as soluble fibers) were used to explore the effects of sugar-replacer type on so...

  8. The Effect of Astaxanthin-Rich Microalgae “Haematococcus pluvialis” and Wholemeal Flours Incorporation in Improving the Physical and Functional Properties of Cookies

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, A. K. M. Mofasser; Brennan, Margaret A.; Mason, Susan L.; Guo, Xinbo; Zeng, Xin An

    2017-01-01

    Marine-based food supplements can improve human nutrition. In an effort to modulate glycaemic response and enhance nutritional aspects, marine-derived algal food rich in astaxanthin was used in the formulation of a model food (wholemeal cookie). Astaxanthin substitution of cookies made from three flours (wheat, barley and oat) demonstrated a significant reduction in the rate of glucose released during in vitro digestion together with an increase in the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity of the food. The significantly (p < 0.005) lower free glucose release was observed from cookies with 15% astaxanthin, followed by 10% and then 5% astaxanthin in comparison with control cookies of each flour. Total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) value also notably increased with increase in astaxanthin content. The results evidence the potential use of microalgae to enhance the bioactive compounds and lower the glycaemic response of wholemeal flour cookie. PMID:28933728

  9. A clinical trial gone awry: the Chocolate Happiness Undergoing More Pleasantness (CHUMP) study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kevin

    2007-12-04

    The randomized controlled trial is the "gold standard" for evaluating the benefits and harms of interventions. The Chocolate Happiness Undergoing More Pleasantness (CHUMP) study was designed to compare the effects of dark chocolate, milk chocolate and normal chocolate consumption on happiness. Although the intention-to-treat analysis showed that participants who received either dark or milk chocolate were happier than those who received no additional chocolate, the actual-consumption analysis showed that there were no differences between any of the groups. The reason for this result is that many participants switched groups mid-study because of their personal chocolate preferences. Although the CHUMP study was pleasurable, it demonstrated the difficulties associated with performing a truly blinded clinical trial.

  10. Maternal and fetal effects of chocolate consumption during pregnancy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Latif, Rabia

    2018-03-13

    The purpose of this review is to explore the effects of chocolate consumption during pregnancy on fetus and mother herself. Randomized controlled trials/quasi-experimental/observational/controlled before and after studies involving chocolate/cocoa/cacao consumption (irrespective of type or dose, composition, exposure period, and method of administration) among pregnant women/animals; and measuring any outcome (beneficial or harmful) related to fetus or mother after chocolate exposure were included. Databases searched were PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus; between April and May 2017. Risk of bias within each human randomized controlled trial (RCT) and animals' experimental studies was evaluated by "The Cochrane Collaboration's tool" and SYRCLE's tool respectively. Fourteen human studies including a total of 6639 participants and nine animal studies were selected. Outcome variables investigated in human studies were maternal blood pressure, fetal heart rate, and striae gravidarum. Animal studies explored chocolate-induced teratogenicity and fetal metabolic derangements. Ten out of these 23 studies reported chocolate to be "beneficial"; five studies reported adverse effects, whereas eight studies declared chocolate as "neutral". Maternal chocolate intake has acute stimulatory effects on fetal reactivity and chronic blood pressure reducing effect in mothers. Chocolate is nonteratogenic and does not affect reproductive indices. Metabolic derangements in offsprings born to chocolate fed dams have been reported. Pregnant females must be careful about consumption of cocoa and chocolate. Future studies should be planned, keeping in view heterogeneities identified across the selected studies in this review.

  11. A clinical trial gone awry: the Chocolate Happiness Undergoing More Pleasantness (CHUMP) study

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The randomized controlled trial is the “gold standard” for evaluating the benefits and harms of interventions. The Chocolate Happiness Undergoing More Pleasantness (CHUMP) study was designed to compare the effects of dark chocolate, milk chocolate and normal chocolate consumption on happiness. Although the intention-to-treat analysis showed that participants who received either dark or milk chocolate were happier than those who received no additional chocolate, the actual-consumption analysis showed that there were no differences between any of the groups. The reason for this result is that many participants switched groups mid-study because of their personal chocolate preferences. Although the CHUMP study was pleasurable, it demonstrated the difficulties associated with performing a truly blinded clinical trial. PMID:18056618

  12. [Sexuality, heart and chocolate].

    PubMed

    Bianchi-Demicheli, F; Sekoranja, L; Pechère-Bertschi, A

    2013-03-20

    All along the history, many kinds of magic and aphrodisiac properties were attributed to the chocolate. Because of the presence of certain active substances, cacao and chocolate are supposed to have some potentially beneficial effects on human health, particularly on cardiovascular system. Containing flavoniods, cacao and its products have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombotic, antihypertensive and neuroprotective effects, as well as influence on insulin sensitivity, vascular endothelial function, and activation of nitric oxide. Other molecules, like methyxantin, biogenic amines and cannabinoid-like fatty acids, may have a psychoactive action. Synergic effect of all these substances could have a positive direct and indirect influence on sexual health and function. Nevertheless, randomized studies are needed to confirm these hypotheses and to elaborate recommendations about cacao consumption.

  13. Bacteria and chocolate: a successful combination for probiotic delivery.

    PubMed

    Possemiers, S; Marzorati, M; Verstraete, W; Van de Wiele, T

    2010-06-30

    In this work, chocolate has been evaluated as a potential protective carrier for oral delivery of a microencapsulated mixture of Lactobacillus helveticus CNCM I-1722 and Bifidobacterium longum CNCM I-3470. A sequential in vitro setup was used to evaluate the protection of the probiotics during passage through the stomach and small intestine, when embedded in dark and milk chocolate or liquid milk. Both chocolates offered superior protection (91% and 80% survival in milk chocolate for L. helveticus and B. longum, respectively compared to 20% and 31% found in milk). To simulate long-term administration, the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) was used. Plate counts, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and quantitative PCR showed that the two probiotics successfully reached the simulated colon compartments. This led to an increase in lactobacilli and bifidobacteria counts and the appearance of additional species in the fingerprints. These data indicate that the coating of the probiotics in chocolate is an excellent solution to protect them from environmental stress conditions and for optimal delivery. The simulation with our gastrointestinal model showed that the formulation of a probiotic strain in a specific food matrix could offer superior protection for the delivery of the bacterium into the colon. The chocolate example could act as a trigger for new research to identify new balanced matrices. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chocolate and prevention of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ding, Eric L; Hutfless, Susan M; Ding, Xin; Girotra, Saket

    2006-01-03

    Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke). A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71-0.92) comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long-term cardiovascular outcomes.

  15. Chocolate craving and disordered eating. Beyond the gender divide?

    PubMed

    Hormes, Julia M; Orloff, Natalia C; Timko, C Alix

    2014-12-01

    Chocolate craving in women has previously been linked to disordered eating behaviors. A relatively higher prevalence of eating disorder pathology may account for the fact that chocolate craving is significantly more common in women in North America, compared to many other countries. While support for a causal role of disordered eating in the etiology of craving in women is growing, little is known about the extent to which food cravings are associated with disordered eating behaviors in men. This study was designed to systematically assess the impact of gender and chocolate craving on measures of attitudes to chocolate, responsiveness to food cues in the environment, body shape dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and eating disorder and general pathology. Undergraduate men and women (n = 645, 37.2% male) were invited to complete self-report questionnaires assessing demographics, height and weight, food cravings, dietary attitudes and behaviors, along with eating disorder and general pathology. Data suggest that the relationship between chocolate craving and disordered eating behaviors in men is the opposite of what has previously been observed in women: compared to non-cravers, male chocolate cravers reported significantly more guilt related to craving, but were significantly less likely to diet and reported lower levels of dietary restraint, less frequent weight fluctuations, and fewer symptoms of eating disorders. Findings indicate that a positive relationship between disordered eating behaviors and chocolate craving may be unique to women (and potentially women in North America). Findings have important implications for our understanding of cultural and psychosocial factors involved in the etiology of food cravings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. International outbreak of Salmonella Oranienburg due to German chocolate.

    PubMed

    Werber, Dirk; Dreesman, Johannes; Feil, Fabian; van Treeck, Ulrich; Fell, Gerhard; Ethelberg, Steen; Hauri, Anja M; Roggentin, Peter; Prager, Rita; Fisher, Ian S T; Behnke, Susanne C; Bartelt, Edda; Weise, Ekkehard; Ellis, Andrea; Siitonen, Anja; Andersson, Yvonne; Tschäpe, Helmut; Kramer, Michael H; Ammon, Andrea

    2005-02-03

    This report describes a large international chocolate-associated Salmonella outbreak originating from Germany. We conducted epidemiologic investigations including a case-control study, and food safety investigations. Salmonella (S.) Oranienburg isolates were subtyped by the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From 1 October 2001 through 24 March 2002, an estimated excess of 439 S. Oranienburg notifications was registered in Germany. Simultaneously, an increase in S. Oranienburg infections was noted in other European countries in the Enter-net surveillance network. In a multistate matched case-control study in Germany, daily consumption of chocolate (matched odds ratio [MOR]: 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-26.5), having shopped at a large chain of discount grocery stores (MOR: 4.2; CI: 1.2-23.0), and consumption of chocolate purchased there (MOR: 5.0; CI: 1.1-47.0) were associated with illness. Subsequently, two brands from the same company, one exclusively produced for that chain, tested positive for S. Oranienburg. In two other European countries and in Canada chocolate from company A was ascertained that also contained S. Oranienburg. Isolates from humans and from chocolates had indistinguishable PFGE profiles. No source or point of contamination was identified. Epidemiological identification of chocolate as a vehicle of infections required two months, and was facilitated by proxy measures. Despite the use of improved production technologies, the chocolate industry continues to carry a small risk of manufacturing Salmonella-containing products. Particularly in diffuse outbreak-settings, clear associations with surrogates of exposure should suffice to trigger public health action. Networks such as Enter-net have become invaluable for facilitating rapid and appropriate management of international outbreaks.

  17. Cocoa content influences chocolate molecular profile investigated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bonatto, Cínthia C; Silva, Luciano P

    2015-06-01

    Chocolate authentication is a key aspect of quality control and safety. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been demonstrated to be useful for molecular profiling of cells, tissues, and even food. The present study evaluated if MALDI-TOF MS analysis on low molecular mass profile may classify chocolate samples according to the cocoa content. The molecular profiles of seven processed commercial chocolate samples were compared by using MALDI-TOF MS. Some ions detected exclusively in chocolate samples corresponded to the metabolites of cocoa or other constituents. This method showed the presence of three distinct clusters according to confectionery and sensorial features of the chocolates and was used to establish a mass spectra database. Also, novel chocolate samples were evaluated in order to check the validity of the method and to challenge the database created with the mass spectra of the primary samples. Thus, the method was shown to be reliable for clustering unknown samples into the main chocolate categories. Simple sample preparation of the MALDI-TOF MS approach described will allow the surveillance and monitoring of constituents during the molecular profiling of chocolates. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Time to B. cereus about hot chocolate.

    PubMed

    Nelms, P K; Larson, O; Barnes-Josiah, D

    1997-01-01

    To determine the cause of illnesses experienced by employees of a Minneapolis manufacturing plant after drinking hot chocolate bought from a vending machine and to explore the prevalence of similar vending machine-related illnesses. The authors inspected the vending machines at the manufacturing plant where employees reported illnesses and at other locations in the city where hot chocolate beverages were sold in machines. Tests were performed on dry mix, water, and beverage samples and on machine parts. Laboratory analyses confirmed the presence of B. cereus in dispensed beverages at a concentration capable of causing illness (170,000 count/gm). In citywide testing of vending machines dispensing hot chocolate, 7 of the 39 licensed machines were found to be contaminated, with two contaminated machines having B. cereus levels capable of causing illness. Hot chocolate sold in vending machines may contain organisms capable of producing toxins that under favorable conditions, can induce illness. Such illnesses are likely to be underreported. Even low concentrations of B. cereus may be dangerous for vulnerable populations such as the aged or immunosuppressed. Periodic testing of vending machines is thus warranted. The relationship between cleaning practices and B. cereus contamination is an issue for further study.

  19. Procyanidin and catechin contents and antioxidant capacity of cocoa and chocolate products.

    PubMed

    Gu, Liwei; House, Suzanne E; Wu, Xianli; Ou, Boxin; Prior, Ronald L

    2006-05-31

    Cocoa and chocolate products from major brands were analyzed blind for total antioxidant capacity (AOC) (lipophilic and hydrophilic ORAC(FL)), catechins, and procyanidins (monomer through polymers). Accuracy of analyses was ascertained by comparing analyses on a NIST standard reference chocolate with NIST certified values. Procyanidin (PC) content was related to the nonfat cocoa solid (NFCS) content. The natural cocoa powders (average 87% of NFCS) contained the highest levels of AOC (826 +/- 103 micromol of TE/g) and PCs (40.8 +/- 8.3 mg/g). Alkalized cocoa (Dutched powders, average 80% NFCS) contained lower AOC (402 +/- 6 micromol of TE /g) and PCs (8.9 +/- 2.7 mg/g). Unsweetened chocolates or chocolate liquor (50% NFCS) contained 496 +/- 40 micromol of TE /g of AOC and 22.3 +/- 2.9 mg/g of PCs. Milk chocolates, which contain the least amount of NFCS (7.1%), had the lowest concentrations of AOC (80 +/- 10 micromol of TE /g) and PCs (2.7 +/- 0.5 mg/g). One serving of cocoa (5 g) or chocolate (15 or 40 g, depending upon the type of chocolate) provides 2000-9100 micromol of TE of AOC and 45-517 mg of PCs, amounts that exceed the amount in a serving of the majority of foods consumed in America. The monomers through trimers, which are thought to be directly bioavailable, contributed 30% of the total PCs in chocolates. Hydrophilic antioxidant capacity contributed >90% of AOC in all products. The correlation coefficient between AOC and PCs in chocolates was 0.92, suggesting that PCs are the dominant antioxidants in cocoa and chocolates. These results indicate that NFCS is correlated with AOC and PC in cocoa and chocolate products. Alkalizing dramatically decreased both the procyanidin content and antioxidant capacity, although not to the same extent.

  20. Mood food: chocolate and depressive symptoms in a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Rose, Natalie; Koperski, Sabrina; Golomb, Beatrice A

    2010-04-26

    Much lore but few studies describe a relation of chocolate to mood. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of chocolate consumption with depressed mood in adult men and women. A sample of 1018 adults (694 men and 324 women) from San Diego, California, without diabetes or known coronary artery disease was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. The 931 subjects who were not using antidepressant medications and provided chocolate consumption information were the focus of the analysis. Mood was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Cut points signaling a positive depression screen result (CES-D score, >or=16) and probable major depression (CES-D score, >or=22) were used. Chocolate servings per week were provided by 1009 subjects. Chocolate consumption frequency and rate data from the Fred Hutchinson Food Frequency Questionnaire were also available for 839 subjects. Chocolate consumption was compared for those with lower vs higher CES-D scores. In addition, a test of trend was performed. Those screening positive for possible depression (CES-D score >or=16) had higher chocolate consumption (8.4 servings per month) than those not screening positive (5.4 servings per month) (P = .004); those with still higher CES-D scores (>or=22) had still higher chocolate consumption (11.8 servings per month) (P value for trend, <.01). These associations extended to both men and women. These findings did not appear to be explained by a general increase in fat, carbohydrate, or energy intake. Higher CES-D depression scores were associated with greater chocolate consumption. Whether there is a causal connection, and if so in which direction, is a matter for future prospective study.

  1. From the children's perspective: What are candy, snacks, and meals?

    PubMed

    Adams, Elizabeth L; Savage, Jennifer S

    2017-09-01

    There remains a lack of consensus on what distinguishes candy (i.e. features sugar as a principal ingredient, also called sweets or lollies), snack foods, and foods served at meals; therefore, this study examined characteristics elementary-aged children use to distinguish between these food categories. Participants were children aged 5-8 years (N = 41). Children were given 39 cards, each containing an image of a common American food (e.g. ice cream, fruit). Children sorted each card into either a "snack" or "candy" pile followed by a semi-structured one-on-one interview to identify children's perceptions of candy, snack foods, and foods served at meals. Verbatim transcripts were coded using a grounded theory approach to derive major themes. All children classified foods such as crackers and dry cereal as snacks; all children classified foods such as skittles and solid chocolate as candy. There was less agreement for "dessert like foods," such as cookies and ice cream, whereby some children classified these foods as candy and others as snacks. Specifically, more children categorized ice cream and chocolate chip cookies as candy (61% and 63%, respectively), than children who categorized these as snack foods (39% and 36%, respectively). Qualitative interviews revealed 4 overarching themes that distinguished among candy, snack foods, and food served at meals: (1) taste, texture, and type; (2) portion size; (3) perception of health; and (4) time of day. Children categorized a variety of foods as both a candy and a snack. Accurate measurement of candy and snack consumption is needed through the use of clear, consistent terminology and comprehensive diet assessment tools. Intervention messaging should clearly distinguish between candy, snack foods, and foods served at meals to improve children's eating behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced affective brain representations of chocolate in cravers vs. non-cravers.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Edmund T; McCabe, Ciara

    2007-08-01

    To examine the neural circuitry involved in food craving, in making food particularly appetitive and thus in driving wanting and eating, we used fMRI to measure the response to the flavour of chocolate, the sight of chocolate and their combination in cravers vs. non-cravers. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analyses showed that the sight of chocolate produced more activation in chocolate cravers than non-cravers in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum. For cravers vs. non-cravers, a combination of a picture of chocolate with chocolate in the mouth produced a greater effect than the sum of the components (i.e. supralinearity) in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and pregenual cingulate cortex. Furthermore, the pleasantness ratings of the chocolate and chocolate-related stimuli had higher positive correlations with the fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent signals in the pregenual cingulate cortex and medial orbitofrontal cortex in the cravers than in the non-cravers. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that there are differences between cravers and non-cravers in their responses to the sensory components of a craved food in the orbitofrontal cortex, ventral striatum and pregenual cingulate cortex, and that in some of these regions the differences are related to the subjective pleasantness of the craved foods. Understanding individual differences in brain responses to very pleasant foods helps in the understanding of the mechanisms that drive the liking for specific foods and thus intake of those foods.

  3. Predictive relationship between polyphenol and nonfat cocoa solids content of chocolate.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Karen A; Campos-Giménez, Esther; Jiménez Alvarez, Diego; Rytz, Andreas; Nagy, Kornél; Williamson, Gary

    2008-01-09

    Chocolate is often labeled with percent cocoa solids content. It is assumed that higher cocoa solids contents are indicative of higher polyphenol concentrations, which have potential health benefits. However, cocoa solids include polyphenol-free cocoa butter and polyphenol-rich nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS). In this study the strength of the relationship between NFCS content (estimated by theobromine as a proxy) and polyphenol content was tested in chocolate samples with labeled cocoa solids contents in the range of 20-100%, grouped as dark (n = 46), milk (n = 8), and those chocolates containing inclusions such as wafers or nuts (n = 15). The relationship was calculated with regard to both total polyphenol content and individual polyphenols. In dark chocolates, NFCS is linearly related to total polyphenols (r2 = 0.73). Total polyphenol content appears to be systematically slightly higher for milk chocolates than estimated by the dark chocolate model, whereas for chocolates containing other ingredients, the estimates fall close to or slightly below the model results. This shows that extra components such as milk, wafers, or nuts might influence the measurements of both theobromine and polyphenol contents. For each of the six main polyphenols (as well as their sum), the relationship with the estimated NFCS was much lower than for total polyphenols (r2 < 0.40), but these relationships were independent of the nature of the chocolate type, indicating that they might still have some predictive capabilities.

  4. SSMILes: School Science and Mathematics Integrated Lessons: Chocolate Chip Cookies: A Consumer Unit, Part III: Investigating Snacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearlman, Susan; Pericak-Spector, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    Gives lesson plans for activities integrating mathematics and science in which students collect data on the nutritional makeup of a number of snack foods and relate this information to the recommendations of the food guide pyramid. (MKR)

  5. Chocolate and coronary heart disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Owais; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2011-12-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. The high content of polyphenols and flavonoids present in cocoa has been reported to play an important protective role in the development of CHD. Although studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of chocolate on endothelial function, blood pressure, serum lipids, insulin resistance, and platelet function, it is unclear whether chocolate consumption influences the risk of CHD. This article reviews current evidence on the effects of cocoa/chocolate on clinical and subclinical CHD, CHD risk factors, and potential biologic mechanisms. It also discusses major limitations of currently available data and future directions in the field.

  6. Dark chocolate consumption improves leukocyte adhesion factors and vascular function in overweight men.

    PubMed

    Esser, Diederik; Mars, Monica; Oosterink, Els; Stalmach, Angelique; Müller, Michael; Afman, Lydia A

    2014-03-01

    Flavanol-enriched chocolate consumption increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Most research so far has focused on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) only; the effects on other factors relevant to endothelial health, such as inflammation and leukocyte adhesion, have hardly been addressed. We investigated whether consumption of regular dark chocolate also affects other markers of endothelial health, and whether chocolate enrichment with flavanols has additional benefits. In a randomized double-blind crossover study, the effects of acute and of 4 wk daily consumption of high flavanol chocolate (HFC) and normal flavanol chocolate (NFC) on FMD, augmentation index (AIX), leukocyte count, plasma cytokines, and leukocyte cell surface molecules in overweight men (age 45-70 yr) were investigated. Sensory profiles and motivation scores to eat chocolate were also collected. Findings showed that a 4 wk chocolate intake increased FMD by 1%, which was paralleled by a decreased AIX of 1%, decreased leukocyte cell count, decreased plasma sICAM1 and sICAM3, and decreased leukocyte adhesion marker expression (P<0.05 for time effect), with no difference between HFC and NFC consumption. Flavanol enrichment did affect taste and negatively affected motivation to consume chocolate. This study provides new insights on how chocolate affects endothelial health by demonstrating that chocolate consumption, besides improving vascular function, also lowers the adherence capacity of leukocytes in the circulation.

  7. 21 CFR 163.145 - Mixed dairy product chocolates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 163.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ingredients for milk chocolate in § 163.130, except that: (1) The optional dairy ingredients for each of the...; or (iv) Malted milk; and (2) The finished mixed dairy product chocolates shall contain not less than...

  8. Comparative gastrointestinal tolerance of sucrose, lactitol, or D-tagatose in chocolate.

    PubMed

    Lee, A; Storey, D M

    1999-04-01

    D-tagatose is a potential new sugar substitute. Ingested D-tagatose is incompletely absorbed from the small intestine; unabsorbed D-tagatose reaches the colon where it is completely fermented. In a double-blind, controlled crossover study, the gastrointestinal effects were compared following acute consumption of 40 g plain chocolates containing 20 g of sucrose, lactitol, or D-tagatose by 50 healthy adults ages 18 to 24 years. Consumption of D-tagatose was not associated with a significant increase in the frequency of passing feces, or in the number of subjects passing watery feces. However, lactitol consumption was associated with an increase in both of these occurrences. Consumption of chocolate containing D-tagatose and lactitol resulted in significant increases in colic, flatulence, borborygmi, and bloating compared to consumption of the sucrose-containing chocolate, but the majority of symptoms were described as only "slightly more than usual." D-tagatose-containing chocolate did not provoke significantly more of these symptoms than lactitol-containing chocolate. A significant number of subjects reported nausea following consumption of D-tagatose chocolate compared to the sucrose chocolate control, and multiple symptoms occurred in some subjects. Overall, these results demonstrate that a 20-g dose of D-tagatose is tolerated well in comparison to lactitol. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  9. Chocolate and Health-Related Quality of Life: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Balboa-Castillo, Teresa; López-García, Esther; León-Muñoz, Luz M.; Pérez-Tasigchana, Raúl F.; Banegas, José Ramón; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Background Chocolate consumption has been associated with a short-term reduction in blood pressure and cholesterol, and improvement of insulin sensitivity; however, participants could not be aware of presenting hypertension or hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, the effect of chocolate on mental health is uncertain. This study assessed the association of regular chocolate consumption with the physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) components of health-related quality of life (HRQL). Materials and methods We analyzed data from a cohort of 4599 individuals recruited in 2008–2010 and followed-up once prospectively to January 2013 (follow-up mean: 3.5 years). Regular chocolate consumption was assessed at baseline with a validated diet history. HRQL was assessed with the SF-12 v.2 at baseline and at follow-up. Analyses were performed with linear regression and adjusted for the main confounders, including HRQL at baseline. Results At baseline, 72% of the study participants did not consume chocolate, 11% consumed ≤10 g/day and 17% >10 g/day. Chocolate consumption at baseline did not show an association with PCS and MCS of the SF-12 measured three years later. Compared to those who did not consume chocolate, the PCS scores were similar in those who consumed ≤10g/day (beta: -0.07; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): -0.94 to 0.80) and in those who consumed >10g/day (beta: 0.02; 95% CI:-0.71 to 0.75); corresponding figures for the MCS were 0.29; 95% CI: -0.67 to 1.26, and -0.57; 95%CI: -1.37 to 0.23. Similar results were found for sex, regardless of obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes or depression. Conclusions No evidence was found of an association between chocolate intake and the physical or mental components of HRQL. PMID:25901348

  10. Synchrotron x-ray microtomography of the interior microstructure of chocolate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lügger, Svenja K.; Wilde, Fabian; Dülger, Nihan; Reinke, Lennart M.; Kozhar, Sergii; Beckmann, Felix; Greving, Imke; Vieira, Josélio; Heinrich, Stefan; Palzer, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    The structure of chocolate, a multicomponent food product, was analyzed using microtomography. Chocolate consists of a semi-solid cocoa butter matrix and a dense network of suspended particles. A detailed analysis of the microstructure is needed to understand mass transport phenomena. Transport of lipids from e.g. a filling or liquid cocoa butter is responsible for major problems in the confectionery industry such as formation of chocolate bloom, which is the formation of visible white spots or a grayish haze on the chocolate surface and leads to consumer rejections and thus large sales losses for the confectionery industry. In this study it was possible to visualize the inner structure of chocolate and clearly distinguish the particles from the continuous phase by taking advantage of the high density contrast of synchrotron radiation. Consequently, particle arrangement and cracks within the sample were made visible. The cracks are several micrometers thick and propagate throughout the entire sample. Images of pure cocoa butter, chocolate without any particles, did not show any cracks and thus confirmed that cracks are a result of embedded particles. They arise during the manufacturing process. Thus, the solidification process, a critical manufacturing step, was simulated with finite element methods in order to understand crack formation during this step. The simulation showed that cracks arise because of significant contraction of cocoa butter, the matrix phase, without any major change of volume of the suspended particles. Tempering of the chocolate mass prior to solidification is another critical step for a good product quality. We found that samples which solidified in an uncontrolled manner are less homogeneous than tempered samples. In summary, our study visualized for the first time the inner microstructure of tempered and untempered cocoa butter as well as chocolate without sample destruction and revealed cracks, which might act as transport pathways.

  11. Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Sanderson, Jean; Johnson, Laura; Warnakula, Samantha; Wood, Angela; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of chocolate consumption with the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, IPA, Web of Science, Scopus, Pascal, reference lists of relevant studies to October 2010, and email contact with authors. Study selection Randomised trials and cohort, case-control, and cross sectional studies carried out in human adults, in which the association between chocolate consumption and the risk of outcomes related to cardiometabolic disorders were reported. Data extraction Data were extracted by two independent investigators, and a consensus was reached with the involvement of a third. The primary outcome was cardiometabolic disorders, including cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease and stroke), diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. A meta-analysis assessed the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders by comparing the highest and lowest level of chocolate consumption. Results From 4576 references seven studies met the inclusion criteria (including 114 009 participants). None of the studies was a randomised trial, six were cohort studies, and one a cross sectional study. Large variation was observed between these seven studies for measurement of chocolate consumption, methods, and outcomes evaluated. Five of the seven studies reported a beneficial association between higher levels of chocolate consumption and the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. The highest levels of chocolate consumption were associated with a 37% reduction in cardiovascular disease (relative risk 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.90)) and a 29% reduction in stroke compared with the lowest levels. Conclusions Based on observational evidence, levels of chocolate consumption seem to be associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Further experimental

  12. Chocolate and health-related quality of life: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Balboa-Castillo, Teresa; López-García, Esther; León-Muñoz, Luz M; Pérez-Tasigchana, Raúl F; Banegas, José Ramón; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate consumption has been associated with a short-term reduction in blood pressure and cholesterol, and improvement of insulin sensitivity; however, participants could not be aware of presenting hypertension or hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, the effect of chocolate on mental health is uncertain. This study assessed the association of regular chocolate consumption with the physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) components of health-related quality of life (HRQL). We analyzed data from a cohort of 4599 individuals recruited in 2008-2010 and followed-up once prospectively to January 2013 (follow-up mean: 3.5 years). Regular chocolate consumption was assessed at baseline with a validated diet history. HRQL was assessed with the SF-12 v.2 at baseline and at follow-up. Analyses were performed with linear regression and adjusted for the main confounders, including HRQL at baseline. At baseline, 72% of the study participants did not consume chocolate, 11% consumed ≤10 g/day and 17% >10 g/day. Chocolate consumption at baseline did not show an association with PCS and MCS of the SF-12 measured three years later. Compared to those who did not consume chocolate, the PCS scores were similar in those who consumed ≤10 g/day (beta: -0.07; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): -0.94 to 0.80) and in those who consumed >10 g/day (beta: 0.02; 95% CI:-0.71 to 0.75); corresponding figures for the MCS were 0.29; 95% CI: -0.67 to 1.26, and -0.57; 95%CI: -1.37 to 0.23. Similar results were found for sex, regardless of obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes or depression. No evidence was found of an association between chocolate intake and the physical or mental components of HRQL.

  13. Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Sanderson, Jean; Johnson, Laura; Warnakula, Samantha; Wood, Angela; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Franco, Oscar H

    2011-08-26

    To evaluate the association of chocolate consumption with the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, IPA, Web of Science, Scopus, Pascal, reference lists of relevant studies to October 2010, and email contact with authors. Randomised trials and cohort, case-control, and cross sectional studies carried out in human adults, in which the association between chocolate consumption and the risk of outcomes related to cardiometabolic disorders were reported. Data were extracted by two independent investigators, and a consensus was reached with the involvement of a third. The primary outcome was cardiometabolic disorders, including cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease and stroke), diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. A meta-analysis assessed the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders by comparing the highest and lowest level of chocolate consumption. From 4576 references seven studies met the inclusion criteria (including 114,009 participants). None of the studies was a randomised trial, six were cohort studies, and one a cross sectional study. Large variation was observed between these seven studies for measurement of chocolate consumption, methods, and outcomes evaluated. Five of the seven studies reported a beneficial association between higher levels of chocolate consumption and the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. The highest levels of chocolate consumption were associated with a 37% reduction in cardiovascular disease (relative risk 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.90)) and a 29% reduction in stroke compared with the lowest levels. Based on observational evidence, levels of chocolate consumption seem to be associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Further experimental studies are required to confirm a potentially beneficial effect of chocolate consumption.

  14. Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Eric L; Hutfless, Susan M; Ding, Xin; Girotra, Saket

    2006-01-01

    Background Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. Methods We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke). A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. Results The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71–0.92) comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Conclusion Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long-term cardiovascular outcomes

  15. International outbreak of Salmonella Oranienburg due to German chocolate

    PubMed Central

    Werber, Dirk; Dreesman, Johannes; Feil, Fabian; van Treeck, Ulrich; Fell, Gerhard; Ethelberg, Steen; Hauri, Anja M; Roggentin, Peter; Prager, Rita; Fisher, Ian ST; Behnke, Susanne C; Bartelt, Edda; Weise, Ekkehard; Ellis, Andrea; Siitonen, Anja; Andersson, Yvonne; Tschäpe, Helmut; Kramer, Michael H; Ammon, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Background This report describes a large international chocolate-associated Salmonella outbreak originating from Germany. Methods We conducted epidemiologic investigations including a case-control study, and food safety investigations. Salmonella (S.) Oranienburg isolates were subtyped by the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results From 1 October 2001 through 24 March 2002, an estimated excess of 439 S. Oranienburg notifications was registered in Germany. Simultaneously, an increase in S. Oranienburg infections was noted in other European countries in the Enter-net surveillance network. In a multistate matched case-control study in Germany, daily consumption of chocolate (matched odds ratio [MOR]: 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3–26.5), having shopped at a large chain of discount grocery stores (MOR: 4.2; CI: 1.2–23.0), and consumption of chocolate purchased there (MOR: 5.0; CI: 1.1–47.0) were associated with illness. Subsequently, two brands from the same company, one exclusively produced for that chain, tested positive for S. Oranienburg. In two other European countries and in Canada chocolate from company A was ascertained that also contained S. Oranienburg. Isolates from humans and from chocolates had indistinguishable PFGE profiles. No source or point of contamination was identified. Epidemiological identification of chocolate as a vehicle of infections required two months, and was facilitated by proxy measures. Conclusions Despite the use of improved production technologies, the chocolate industry continues to carry a small risk of manufacturing Salmonella-containing products. Particularly in diffuse outbreak-settings, clear associations with surrogates of exposure should suffice to trigger public health action. Networks such as Enter-net have become invaluable for facilitating rapid and appropriate management of international outbreaks. PMID:15691371

  16. Everyday mood and emotions after eating a chocolate bar or an apple.

    PubMed

    Macht, Michael; Dettmer, Dorothee

    2006-05-01

    Emotional changes after eating chocolate were examined in everyday life. Thirty-seven healthy, normal-weight women ate a chocolate bar, an apple or nothing and rated their subjective state 5, 30, 60 and 90min after eating. Both chocolate and the apple reduced hunger, elevated mood and increased activation, but the effects of the chocolate were stronger. Eating chocolate was also followed by joy and, in some women, by guilt. Guilt responders experienced less intense positive emotions. Whereas positive emotional responses appear to be due to sensory pleasure and it's anticipation and may also be related to reduced hunger, guilt responses are probably induced by negative food-related cognitions.

  17. Rapid and non-destructive determination of rancidity levels in butter cookies by multi-spectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qing; Liu, Changhong; Liu, Jinxia; Pan, Wenjuan; Lu, Xuzhong; Yang, Jianbo; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Lei

    2016-03-30

    Rancidity is an important attribute for quality assessment of butter cookies, while traditional methods for rancidity measurement are usually laborious, destructive and prone to operational error. In the present paper, the potential of applying multi-spectral imaging (MSI) technology with 19 wavelengths in the range of 405-970 nm to evaluate the rancidity in butter cookies was investigated. Moisture content, acid value and peroxide value were determined by traditional methods and then related with the spectral information by partial least squares regression (PLSR) and back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN). The optimal models for predicting moisture content, acid value and peroxide value were obtained by PLSR. The correlation coefficient (r) obtained by PLSR models revealed that MSI had a perfect ability to predict moisture content (r = 0.909), acid value (r = 0.944) and peroxide value (r = 0.971). The study demonstrated that the rancidity level of butter cookies can be continuously monitored and evaluated in real-time by the multi-spectral imaging, which is of great significance for developing online food safety monitoring solutions. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Efforts to Improve School Lunch Programs--Are They Paying Off?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-09

    ingredients than other districts that purchase more ready-made lunch components. --The amount of special equipment (warming lights, dough mixers, bun slicers...components such as burritos, pizza, or peanut butter cookies . Very few lunch components were significantly short weight and, in all cases, shortages were...fruit and/or juice; potato chips, corn chips, or cookie ; and milk. All food served in the lunch program is prepared in the cafeterias. Nutrient-based

  19. Acute Consumption of Flavan-3-ol-Enriched Dark Chocolate Affects Human Endogenous Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ostertag, Luisa M; Philo, Mark; Colquhoun, Ian J; Tapp, Henri S; Saha, Shikha; Duthie, Garry G; Kemsley, E Kate; de Roos, Baukje; Kroon, Paul A; Le Gall, Gwénaëlle

    2017-07-07

    Flavan-3-ols and methylxanthines have potential beneficial effects on human health including reducing cardiovascular risk. We performed a randomized controlled crossover intervention trial to assess the acute effects of consumption of flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate, compared with standard dark chocolate and white chocolate, on the human metabolome. We assessed the metabolome in urine and blood plasma samples collected before and at 2 and 6 h after consumption of chocolates in 42 healthy volunteers using a nontargeted metabolomics approach. Plasma samples were assessed and showed differentiation between time points with no further separation among the three chocolate treatments. Multivariate statistics applied to urine samples could readily separate the postprandial time points and distinguish between the treatments. Most of the markers responsible for the multivariate discrimination between the chocolates were of dietary origin. Interestingly, small but significant level changes were also observed for a subset of endogenous metabolites. 1 H NMR revealed that flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate and standard dark chocolate reduced urinary levels of creatinine, lactate, some amino acids, and related degradation products and increased the levels of pyruvate and 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, a phenolic compound of bacterial origin. This study demonstrates that an acute chocolate intervention can significantly affect human metabolism.

  20. Using Cocoa and Chocolate to Teach Human Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberts, Heike C.

    2010-01-01

    Food topics are uniquely suited to increase students' interest in human geography. A highly processed food like chocolate can be studied in a variety of different ways, making it possible to include chocolate examples and activities at various points in a human geography class. The goals of this article are to provide sufficient background…

  1. Effects of chocolate intake on Perceived Stress; a Controlled Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Al Sunni, Ahmed; Latif, Rabia

    2014-10-01

    Cocoa polyphenols have been shown to reduce stress in highly stressed, as well as normal healthy individuals, we wondered whether commercially available chocolate could reduce perceived stress in medical students or not, so we decided to conduct this study. Sixty students were divided into 3 groups (10 males + 10 females/group): i) Dark chocolate (DC) ii) Milk chocolate (MC) iii) White chocolate (WC). Subjects answered a PSS-10 (Perceived Stress Scale) questionnaire at baseline and after consumption of chocolate (40 g/day) for 2 weeks. Data were analyzed by using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 20. Descriptive analyses were conducted. Means were compared across the study groups by One-Way ANOVA and within the same group by paired 't' test. Mean stress scores compared between the groups by ANOVA revealed statistically not significant differences before (F =0.505; P=0.606) and after chocolate consumption (F=0.188; P=0.829). Paired 't' test compared stress scores means before and after chocolate supplementation within the same group and exhibited statistically significant decrease in DC (t = 2.341; p value = 0.03) and MC (t = 3.302; p value = 0.004) groups. Mean stress scores decreased, on average, by approximately 2 and 3 points in DC and MC groups, respectively, at 95% Confidence Interval. The difference was more evident and statistically significant in female students as compared to the males. Consumption of 40 g of Dark and Milk chocolate daily during a period of 2 weeks appear to be an effective way to reduce perceived stress in females.

  2. Dark chocolate for children's blood pressure: randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Chan, Eunice K; Quach, Jon; Mensah, Fiona K; Sung, Valerie; Cheung, Michael; Wake, Melissa

    2012-07-01

    Higher adult blood pressure, even without hypertension, predicts cardiovascular outcomes, and is predicted by childhood blood pressure. Regular dark chocolate intake lowers blood pressure in adults, but effects in children are unknown. To examine the feasibility of school-based provision of dark chocolate and its short-term efficacy in reducing mean group blood pressure. 194 children (aged 10-12 years) were randomised by class to intervention (7 g dark chocolate daily for 7 weeks, n=124) or control (n=70) groups; 98% and 93% provided baseline and follow-up measurements, respectively. Intervention and control students had similar systolic (mean difference 1.7 mm Hg, 95% CI -0.6 to 4.1) and diastolic (-1.2 mm Hg, 95% CI -3.6 to 1.3) blood pressure, anthropometry and well-being at outcome. Results show that providing dark chocolate is feasible and acceptable in the school setting. For a definitive trial, the authors recommend a larger sample, endovascular function measures, and consideration of higher antioxidant 'dose' by virtue of duration and/or content.

  3. Can airborne ultrasound monitor bubble size in chocolate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, N.; Hazlehurst, T.; Povey, M.; Vieira, J.; Sundara, R.; Sandoz, J.-P.

    2014-04-01

    Aerated chocolate products consist of solid chocolate with the inclusion of bubbles and are a popular consumer product in many countries. The volume fraction and size distribution of the bubbles has an effect on their sensory properties and manufacturing cost. For these reasons it is important to have an online real time process monitoring system capable of measuring their bubble size distribution. As these products are eaten by consumers it is desirable that the monitoring system is non contact to avoid food contaminations. In this work we assess the feasibility of using an airborne ultrasound system to monitor the bubble size distribution in aerated chocolate bars. The experimental results from the airborne acoustic experiments were compared with theoretical results for known bubble size distributions using COMSOL Multiphysics. This combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to develop a greater understanding of how ultrasound propagates through aerated chocolate and to assess the feasibility of using airborne ultrasound to monitor bubble size distribution in these systems. The results indicated that a smaller bubble size distribution would result in an increase in attenuation through the product.

  4. [How does chocolate impact vascular function?].

    PubMed

    Flammer, Andreas J; Sudano, Isabella

    2014-11-12

    For thousands of years, cocoa have been a very popular food and has been linked to various beneficial health effects. Observational and epidemiological studies point towards a beneficial effect of dark chocolate on cardiovascular morbidity. Several small, albeit controlled studies indeed demonstrate an amelioration of endothelial dysfunction - the dysfunction of the inner layer of the vessels - after intake of dark, flavanol-rich chocolate. This is important, as endothelial dysfunction is an important marker of the development of atherosclerosis and an important prognosticator of future cardiovascular events. This article summarizes the actual literature in this respect.

  5. Dark chocolate inhibits platelet isoprostanes via NOX2 down-regulation in smokers.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, R; Loffredo, L; Pignatelli, P; Nocella, C; Bartimoccia, S; Di Santo, S; Martino, F; Catasca, E; Perri, L; Violi, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Dark chocolate is reported to decrease platelet activation but the underlying mechanism is still undefined. Dark chocolate is rich in polyphenols that could exert an antiplatelet action via inhibition of oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to assess if dark chocolate inhibits platelet reactive oxidant species (ROS) formation and platelet activation. Twenty healthy subjects (HS) and 20 smokers were randomly allocated to receive 40 g of dark (cocoa > 85%) or milk chocolate (cocoa < 35%) in a cross-over, single-blind study. There was an interval of 7 days between the two phases of the study. At baseline and 2 h after chocolate ingestion, platelet recruitment (PR), platelet ROS, platelet isoprostane 8-ISO-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), Thromboxane (TxA2) and platelet activation of NOX2, the catalytic sub-unit of NADPH oxidase, and serum epicatechin were measured. Compared with HS, smokers showed enhanced PR, platelet formation of ROS and eicosanoids and NOX2 activation. After dark chocolate, platelet ROS (-48%, P < 0.001), 8-iso-PGF2α (-10%, P < 0.001) and NOX2 activation (-22%, P < 0.001) significantly decreased; dark chocolate did not affect platelet variables in HS. No effect of milk chocolate was detected in both groups. Serum epicatechin increased after dark chocolate in HS (from 0.454 ± 0.3 nm to 118.3 ± 53.7 nm) and smokers (from 0.5 ± 0.28 nm to 120.9 ± 54.2 nm). Platelet incubation with 0.1-10 μm catechin significantly reduced PR, platelet 8-iso-PGF2α and ROS formation and NOX2 activation only in platelets from smokers. Dark chocolate inhibits platelet function by lowering oxidative stress only in smokers; this effect seems to be dependent on its polyphenolic content. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  6. Time to B. cereus about hot chocolate.

    PubMed Central

    Nelms, P K; Larson, O; Barnes-Josiah, D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the cause of illnesses experienced by employees of a Minneapolis manufacturing plant after drinking hot chocolate bought from a vending machine and to explore the prevalence of similar vending machine-related illnesses. METHODS: The authors inspected the vending machines at the manufacturing plant where employees reported illnesses and at other locations in the city where hot chocolate beverages were sold in machines. Tests were performed on dry mix, water, and beverage samples and on machine parts. RESULTS: Laboratory analyses confirmed the presence of B. cereus in dispensed beverages at a concentration capable of causing illness (170,000 count/gm). In citywide testing of vending machines dispensing hot chocolate, 7 of the 39 licensed machines were found to be contaminated, with two contaminated machines having B. cereus levels capable of causing illness. CONCLUSIONS: Hot chocolate sold in vending machines may contain organisms capable of producing toxins that under favorable conditions, can induce illness. Such illnesses are likely to be underreported. Even low concentrations of B. cereus may be dangerous for vulnerable populations such as the aged or immunosuppressed. Periodic testing of vending machines is thus warranted. The relationship between cleaning practices and B. cereus contamination is an issue for further study. PMID:9160059

  7. Impact of chocolate liquor on vascular lesions in apoE-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yazdekhasti, Narges; Brandsch, Corinna; Hirche, Frank; Kühn, Julia; Schloesser, Anke; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Huebbe, Patricia; Wolffram, Siegfried; Rimbach, Gerald; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2017-10-15

    Cocoa polyphenols are thought to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, cocoa-containing foods may have significant health benefits. Here, we studied the impact of chocolate liquor on vascular lesion development and plaque composition in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E (apoE)-knockout mice were assigned to two groups and fed a Western diet that contained 250 g/kg of either chocolate liquor or a polyphenol-free isoenergetic control paste for 16 weeks. In addition to fat, protein, and fibers, the chocolate liquor contained 2 g/kg of polyphenols. Compared with the control group, mice fed the chocolate liquor had larger plaque areas in the descending aorta and aortic root, which were attributed to a higher mass of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and collagen. Vascular lipid deposits and calcification areas did not differ between the two groups. The aortic tissue level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA was 5-fold higher in the mice fed chocolate liquor than in the control mice. Chocolate-fed mice exhibited an increased hepatic saturated to polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio than the controls. Although the chocolate liquor contained 14 µg/kg of vitamin D 2 , the chocolate liquor-fed mice did not have measurable 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 in the serum. These mice even showed a 25% reduction in the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 compared with the control mice. Overall, present data may contribute to our understanding how chocolate constituents can impact vascular lesion development. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  8. Cycling Time Trial Performance 4 Hours After Glycogen-Lowering Exercise Is Similarly Enhanced by Recovery Nondairy Chocolate Beverages Versus Chocolate Milk.

    PubMed

    Upshaw, Adam U; Wong, Tiffany S; Bandegan, Arash; Lemon, Peter W

    2016-02-01

    Postexercise chocolate milk ingestion has been shown to enhance both glycogen resynthesis and subsequent exercise performance. To assess whether nondairy chocolate beverage ingestion post-glycogen-lowering exercise can enhance 20-km cycling time trial performance 4 hr later, eight healthy trained male cyclists (21.8 ± 2.3y, VO2max = 61.2 ± 1.4 ml·kg-1·min-1; M ± SD) completed a series of intense cycling intervals designed to lower muscle glycogen (Jentjens & Jeukendrup, 2003) followed by 4 hr of recovery and a subsequent 20-km cycling time trial. During the first 2 hr of recovery, participants ingested chocolate dairy milk (DAIRYCHOC), chocolate soy beverage (SOYCHOC), chocolate hemp beverage (HEMPCHOC), low-fat dairy milk (MILK), or a low-energy artificially sweetened, flavored beverage (PLACEBO) at 30-min intervals in a double-blind, counterbalanced repeated-measures design. All drinks, except the PLACEBO (247 kJ) were isoenergetic (2,107 kJ), and all chocolate-flavored drinks provided 1-g CHO·kg body mass-1·h-1. Fluid intake across treatments was equalized (2,262 ± 148 ml) by ingesting appropriate quantities of water based on drink intake. The CHO:PRO ratio was 4:1, 1.5:1, 4:1, and 6:1 for DAIRYCHOC, MILK, SOYCHOC, and HEMPCHOC, respectively. One-way analysis of variance with repeated measures showed time trial performance (DAIRYCHOC = 34.58 ± 2.5 min, SOYCHOC = 34.83 ± 2.2 min, HEMPCHOC = 34.88 ± 1.1 min, MILK = 34.47 ± 1.7 min) was enhanced similarly vs PLACEBO (37.85 ± 2.1) for all treatments (p = .019) These data suggest that postexercise macronutrient and total energy intake are more important for same-day 20-km cycling time trial performance after glycogen-lowering exercise than protein type or protein-to-carbohydrate ratio.

  9. Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting) that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder. PMID:23792967

  10. Tolerance for high flavanol cocoa powder in semisweet chocolate.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Meriel L; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-06-21

    Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting) that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder.

  11. Chocolate eating in healthy men during experimentally induced sadness and joy.

    PubMed

    Macht, M; Roth, S; Ellgring, H

    2002-10-01

    The study compared influences of qualitatively different emotions on eating. Motivation to eat, affective responses to chocolate and chewing of chocolate were investigated in healthy normal weight males during experimentally induced emotions. Subjects abstained from eating 2 h (n = 24) or 8 h (n = 24) before testing. They received pieces of chocolate after viewing film clips presented to induce anger, fear, sadness and joy. Motivation to eat and most affective responses to eating chocolate were higher after 8 h than after 2 h of deprivation. Sadness and joy affected motivation to eat in opposite directions: joy increased and sadness decreased appetite (p < 0.001). In joy, a higher tendency to eat more chocolate was reported (p < 0.001), and chocolate tasted more pleasant (p < 0.001) and was experienced as more "stimulating" than in sadness (p < 0.01). No effects of deprivation could be found for chewing time and number of chews. Results indicate that the quality of emotions can affect motivation to eat and affective responses to eating chocolate. Our findings on decreased eating responses to sadness in healthy males and the contradictory increased eating responses to sadness reported by others supports two types of emotion-induced changes of eating: emotion-congruent modulation of eating and eating to regulate emotions. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  12. Mood modulation by food: an exploration of affect and cravings in 'chocolate addicts'.

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, J I; Hetherington, M M

    1995-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that some foods are eaten to alter mood, the relationship between mood and intake of chocolate was investigated in 40 women. Twenty self-identified chocolate 'addicts' and 20 controls rated hunger, mood, intensity of craving and amount of chocolate eaten in a diary for seven consecutive days. The 'addicts' reported a significantly greater number of eating episodes and consumed a larger amount of chocolate than controls. 'Addicts' also rated depression, guilt and craving higher and feeling content and relaxed as lower before eating than controls. However, eating chocolate resulted in increased feelings of guilt in the 'addicts' and no significant changes in feeling depressed or relaxed. On indices of disordered eating and depression, 'addicts' scored significantly higher than controls; however, eating chocolate did not improve mood. Although chocolate is a food which provides pleasure, for those who consider intake of this food to be excessive, any pleasure experienced is short lived and accompanied by feelings of guilt.

  13. The development of low glycemic index cookie bars from foxtail millet (Setaria italica), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) flour, and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Lestari, Lily Arsanti; Huriyati, Emy; Marsono, Yustinus

    2017-05-01

    Wholegrain foods are becoming increasingly popular as a high fiber dietary supplement recommended for people with diabetes. In Indonesia, the incidence of diabetes mellitus has almost doubled recently and poses a significant health risk with the high prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular diseases. The present research aimed to develop cookie bars from foxtail millet, arrowroot flour, and kidney beans. The physical, chemical, and sensory properties were evaluated by selecting the best formula to test the glycemic index. Three formulae of cookie bars, which had different percentages of foxtail millet, kidney beans, and arrowroot flour were evaluated. The results showed that the three formulae (F1, F2, F3) had °Hue values of 53.77, 58.46, and 58.31, and breaking force of 8.37, 10.12, and 5.87 N, respectively. While all other nutritional content were significantly different between formulae, the total crude fat was not. The F2 cookie bar was selected and evaluated for the glycemic index because it has the best sensory properties, lowest total sugar and available carbohydrate content. F2 cookie bars that contain 15% foxtail millet, 15% arrowroot flour, and 30% of kidney beans have a glycemic index of 37.6 hence it could be classified as a low glycemic index cookie bar. In conclusion, our findings indicated that F2 cookie bars can be further developed as a suitable diabetic food since it has the best physico-chemical properties, sensory properties, and low glycemic index.

  14. Flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate and white chocolate improve acute measures of platelet function in a gender-specific way--a randomized-controlled human intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Ostertag, Luisa M; Kroon, Paul A; Wood, Sharon; Horgan, Graham W; Cienfuegos-Jovellanos, Elena; Saha, Shikha; Duthie, Garry G; de Roos, Baukje

    2013-02-01

    We examined whether flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate, compared with standard dark and white chocolate, beneficially affects platelet function in healthy subjects, and whether this relates to flavan-3-ol bioavailability. A total of 42 healthy subjects received an acute dose of flavan-3-ol-enriched dark, standard dark or white chocolate, in random order. Blood and urine samples were obtained just before and 2 and 6 h after consumption for measurements of platelet function, and bioavailability and excretion of flavan-3-ols. Flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate significantly decreased adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation and P-selectin expression in men (all p ≤ 0.020), decreased thrombin receptor-activating peptide-induced platelet aggregation and increased thrombin receptor-activating peptide-induced fibrinogen binding in women (both p ≤ 0.041), and increased collagen/epinephrine-induced ex vivo bleeding time in men and women (p ≤ 0.042). White chocolate significantly decreased adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet P-selectin expression (p = 0.002) and increased collagen/epinephrine-induced ex vivo bleeding time (p = 0.042) in men only. Differences in efficacy by which flavan-3-ols affect platelet function were only partially explained by concentrations of flavan-3-ols and their metabolites in plasma or urine. Flavan-3-ols in dark chocolate, but also compounds in white chocolate, can improve platelet function, dependent on gender, and may thus beneficially affect atherogenesis. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Ochratoxin A in cocoa and chocolate sampled in Canada.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, A-M; Scott, P M

    2011-06-01

    In order to determine the levels of ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa and cocoa products available in Canada, a previously published analytical method, with minor modifications to the extraction and immunoaffinity clean-up and inclusion of an evaporation step, was initially used (Method I). To improve the low method recoveries (46-61%), 40% methanol was then included in the aqueous sodium bicarbonate extraction solvent (pH 7.8) (Method II). Clean-up was on an Ochratest™ immunoaffinity column and OTA was determined by liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection. Recoveries of OTA from spiked cocoa powder (0.5 and 5 ng g(-1)) were 75-84%; while recoveries from chocolate were 93-94%. The optimized method was sensitive (limit of quantification (LOQ) = 0.07-0.08 ng g(-1)), accurate (recovery = 75-94%) and precise (coefficient of variation (CV) < 5%). It is applicable to cocoa and chocolate. Analysis of 32 samples of cocoa powder (16 alkalized and 16 natural) for OTA showed an incidence of 100%, with concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 7.8 ng g(-1); in six samples the OTA level exceeded 2 ng g(-1), the previously considered European Union limit for cocoa. The frequency of detection of OTA in 28 chocolate samples (21 dark or baking chocolate and seven milk chocolate) was also 100% with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1.4 ng g(-1); one sample had a level higher than the previously considered European Union limit for chocolate (1 ng g(-1)).

  16. Association between chocolate consumption and fatness in European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Castillo, Manuel J

    2014-02-01

    There is a substantial interest in the potential role of chocolate in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. It has been recently reported that a higher frequency of chocolate intake is linked to lower body mass index (BMI) in adults. The aim of the present study was to determine if higher chocolate consumption also is associated with lower BMI, as well as other markers of total and central body fat, in adolescents. This study comprised 1458 adolescents (ages 12.5-17.5 y) participating in HELENA-CSS (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study). Dietary intake was self-registered using a computer-based tool for 24-h dietary recall on 2 non-consecutive days. Weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated. Adiposity was estimated using skinfolds (Slaughter's equation) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Waist circumference was measured. Sexual maturation also was recorded. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry. Higher chocolate consumption was associated with lower levels of total and central fatness, as estimated by BMI, body fat estimated from skinfolds and BIA, and waist circumference, regardless of potential confounders (P ≤ 0.01). Our results demonstrate that a higher chocolate consumption was associated with lower total and central fatness in European adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of mahlep on molecular weight distribution of cookie flour gluten proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Size Exclusion-High performance Chromatography (SE-HPLC) has been extensively used in molecular weight distribution analysis of wheat proteins. In this study the protein analysis was conducted on different cookie dough blends with different percentages of some ingredients. The mean chromatography ...

  18. Dark chocolate and blood pressure: a novel study from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Safi, Saafan A; Ayoub, Nehad M; Al-Doghim, Imad; Aboul-Enein, Faisal H

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of dark chocolate intake on cardiovascular parameters like blood pressure and heart rate values in a normotensive population. This is a randomized cross-sectional study involving a total of 14,310 adults that were selected from various regions of Jordan. Well-trained pharmacy students interviewed participants in the outpatient settings. Participants reported their weekly intake of dark chocolate that has been further classified into mild (1-2 bars/week), moderate (3-4 bars/week), and high intake ( > 4 bars/week). For each participant, the systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate were measured three times with (10-15) minute intervals in the sitting position and the resting state. The arterial blood pressure (ABP) was calculated from the measured SBP and DBP values. All measured blood pressure values were significantly decreased for participants who reported higher dark chocolate consumption. Our results showed that heart rate values were not affected by variable intake of dark chocolate. In addition, increasing dark chocolate intake was associated with a significant decrease of blood pressure values in participants irrespective of the family history of hypertension or the age of the individual. However, heart rate values were unaffected. Higher intake of dark chocolate can be associated with lower values of blood pressure, while its effect on heart rate values was not consistent.

  19. Effects of chocolate intake on Perceived Stress; a Controlled Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Al Sunni, Ahmed; Latif, Rabia

    2014-01-01

    Background Cocoa polyphenols have been shown to reduce stress in highly stressed, as well as normal healthy individuals, we wondered whether commercially available chocolate could reduce perceived stress in medical students or not, so we decided to conduct this study. Methods Sixty students were divided into 3 groups (10 males + 10 females/group): i) Dark chocolate (DC) ii) Milk chocolate (MC) iii) White chocolate (WC). Subjects answered a PSS-10 (Perceived Stress Scale) questionnaire at baseline and after consumption of chocolate (40 g/day) for 2 weeks. Data were analyzed by using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 20. Descriptive analyses were conducted. Means were compared across the study groups by One-Way ANOVA and within the same group by paired ‘t’ test. Results Mean stress scores compared between the groups by ANOVA revealed statistically not significant differences before (F =0.505; P=0.606) and after chocolate consumption (F=0.188; P=0.829). Paired ‘t’ test compared stress scores means before and after chocolate supplementation within the same group and exhibited statistically significant decrease in DC (t = 2.341; p value = 0.03) and MC (t = 3.302; p value = 0.004) groups. Mean stress scores decreased, on average, by approximately 2 and 3 points in DC and MC groups, respectively, at 95% Confidence Interval. The difference was more evident and statistically significant in female students as compared to the males. Conclusion Consumption of 40 g of Dark and Milk chocolate daily during a period of 2 weeks appear to be an effective way to reduce perceived stress in females. PMID:25780358

  20. Study on evaluation of starch, dietary fiber and mineral composition of cookies developed from 12 sorghum cultivars.

    PubMed

    Rao, B Dayakar; Kulkarni, Dhanashri B; C, Kavitha

    2018-01-01

    The study aimed to identify best cultivars suitable for sorghum cookies accordingly nutrient and mineral compositions were evaluated. Protein and fat content of cookies were ranged from 5.89±0.04 to 8.27±0.21% and 21.03±0.01 to 23.08±0.03% respectively. The starch content of cookie ranged between 47.06±0.01 and 42.15±0.03% and dietary fiber was reported highest in CSH14 (9.27±0.01%). The highest Mg (56.24±0.03mg/100g) P (255.54±0.03mg/100g), and K (124.26±0.02mg/100g) content were found in C43 cultivar. CSV18R was reported highest iron content (1.23±0.01mg/100g). The sensory scores for overall acceptability of cookies were highest in CSH23, CSH13R and CSV18R cultivars which are rich in dietary fiber and minerals. Normally the hybrids are high yielders and the grain price/qt is 20% lower than varieties. It is implied the raw material costs of two identified cultivars (CSH23 & CSH13R) would help the industry to reduce overall cost of production and offer a better profit margins over the varieties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationships of flour solvent retention capacity, secondary structure and rheological properties with the cookie making characteristics of wheat cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Seeratpreet; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2014-09-01

    The relationships of grain, flour solvent retention capacity (SRC) and dough rheological properties with the cookie making properties of wheat cultivars were evaluated. Cultivars with higher proportion of intermolecular-β-sheets+antiparallel β sheets and lower α-helix had greater gluten strength. The grain weight and diameter positively correlated with the proportion of fine particles and the cookie spread factor (SF) and negatively to the grain hardness (GH) and Na2CO3 SRC. The SF was higher in the flour with a higher amount of fine particle and with a lower Na2CO3 SRC and dough stability (DS). The breaking strength (BS) of cookies was positively correlated to lactic acid (LA) SRC, DS, peak time, sedimentation value (SV), G' and G″. Na2CO3 SRC and GH were strongly correlated. The gluten performance index showed a strong positive correlation with SV, DS, G' and G″. The water absorption had a significant positive correlation with sucrose SRC and LASRC. Cultivars with higher GH produced higher amount of coarse particles in flours that had higher Na2CO3 SRC and lower cookie SF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gluten-free breads and cookies of raw and popped amaranth flours with attractive technological and nutritional qualities.

    PubMed

    de la Barca, Ana María Calderón; Rojas-Martínez, María Elvira; Islas-Rubio, Alma Rosa; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco

    2010-09-01

    Gluten-free bakery foodstuffs are a challenge for technologists and nutritionists since alternative ingredients used in their formulations have poor functional and nutritional properties. Therefore, gluten-free bread and cookies using raw and popped amaranth, a grain with high quality nutrients and promising functional properties, were formulated looking for the best combinations. The best formulation for bread included 60-70% popped amaranth flour and 30-40% raw amaranth flour which produced loaves with homogeneous crumb and higher specific volume (3.5 ml/g) than with other gluten-free breads. The best cookies recipe had 20% of popped amaranth flour and 13% of whole-grain popped amaranth. The expansion factor was similar to starch-based controls and the hardness was similar (10.88 N) to other gluten-free cookies. Gluten content of the final products was around 12 ppm. The functionality of amaranth-based doughs was acceptable although hydrocolloids were not added and the final gluten-free products had a high nutritional value.

  3. Studies on samh seeds (Mesembryanthemum forsskalei Hochst) growing in Saudi Arabia: 3. Utilization of samh seeds in bakery products.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, A I; Al-Jassir, M S; Nawawy, M A; Ahmed, S E

    1995-12-01

    Samh seeds obtained from Al-Jouf area were ground into flour analyzed and used as a replacement for wheat in the ratio of 10, 20 and 30% for bread and 30, 60 100% for cookies. The rheological effect of the Samh flour on Saudi wheat flour was also studied. The bread and cookies obtained were evaluated physically and by sensory evaluation. The results obtained indicated that samh flour has high protein content and could be used as a replacement for wheat flour upto 30% without adversely affecting the bread specific volume much. Samh flour has improved the cookies appearance specially the colour (chocolate colour) and spreading ratio. The results also revealed that it is possible to make cookies from 100% samh flour. Due to the high protein content of the samh seeds the nutritional value of the bread and cookies made with samh flour will be improved. The results of the sensory evaluation of the bread and cookies indicated that the bread made with samh flour upto 30% has similar characters except for the crumb color and the overall acceptability which were rated as significantly inferior. The sensory evaluation of the cookies showed that the cookies made with samh flour upto 100% were significantly superior (p < 0.05) to the cookies made with 100% wheat flour (control).

  4. Shelf-life of almond pastry cookies with different types of packaging and levels of temperature.

    PubMed

    Romeo, F V; De Luca, S; Piscopo, A; Santisi, V; Poiana, M

    2010-06-01

    Almond pastries are typical cookies of the south of Italy. Introduction of new packaging for this kind of cookies requires shelf-life assessments. This study, related to different types of packaging under various storage conditions of time and temperature, identifies critical parameters, as color and texture, to track during storage studies and to extend the shelf-life. The cookies were packed in three different ways and stored at two different temperatures. The pastries were separately stored: (1) in polyvinylchloride film; (2) in aluminum foil (ALL); (3) with modified atmosphere (MAP) in plastic vessels sealed into a polyamide/ polyethylene film; and (4) in vessels without any polymeric film. The storage temperatures were 20 and 30 °C. Evolution of texture, water activity, dry matter and color was assessed. Texture was evaluated by a texture analyzer with a puncturing test. Indices for hardening were the area under the curve (N × mm) up to 10 mm of distance, and the maximum force (N) corresponding to the crust fracture. The best results were obtained with ALL packaging and MAP condition, and above all, in all the trials a temperature of 30 °C reduced the crust hardness.

  5. Measuring and modelling the structure of chocolate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Révérend, Benjamin J. D.; Fryer, Peter J.; Smart, Ian; Bakalis, Serafim

    2015-01-01

    The cocoa butter present in chocolate exists as six different polymorphs. To achieve the desired crystal form (βV), traditional chocolate manufacturers use relatively slow cooling (<2°C/min). A newer generation of rapid cooling systems has been suggested requiring further understanding of fat crystallisation. To allow better control and understanding of these processes and newer rapid cooling processes, it is necessary to understand both heat transfer and crystallization kinetics. The proposed model aims to predict the temperature in the chocolate products during processing as well as the crystal structure of cocoa butter throughout the process. A set of ordinary differential equations describes the kinetics of fat crystallisation. The parameters were obtained by fitting the model to a set of DSC curves. The heat transfer equations were coupled to the kinetic model and solved using commercially available CFD software. A method using single crystal XRD was developed using a novel subtraction method to quantify the cocoa butter structure in chocolate directly and results were compared to the ones predicted from the model. The model was proven to predict phase change temperature during processing accurately (±1°C). Furthermore, it was possible to correctly predict phase changes and polymorphous transitions. The good agreement between the model and experimental data on the model geometry allows a better design and control of industrial processes.

  6. Claims about Cocoa: Can Chocolate Really Be Good for You?

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects. These compounds are also found in tea, wine, fruits and vegetables. Different chocolates can vary greatly ... chocolate. You won’t get any of the benefit. It’s just going to be unneeded calories.” But ...

  7. Interactive effects of emotional and restrained eating on responses to chocolate and affect.

    PubMed

    Macht, Michael; Mueller, Jochen

    2007-12-01

    To examine differences and interactions between emotional and restrained-eating healthy adults (56 women, 53 men) were classified into emotional or restrained eaters, and persons scoring high or low on both dimensions. Participants tasted different types of chocolate (with 30, 70, 85, or 99% cocoa content) and completed questionnaires on affect and attitudes towards chocolate. Emotional eaters reported increased craving for and increased consumption of chocolate, whereas restrained eaters experienced chocolate-related guilt. However, restrained eaters rated plain chocolate (70% and 85% cocoa) as more pleasant than other groups. Persons scoring high on both dimensions showed heightened negative affect and may be prone to disturbances of eating and affect.

  8. Chocolate Classification by an Electronic Nose with Pressure Controlled Generated Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Luis F.; Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we will analyze the response of a Metal Oxide Gas Sensor (MOGS) array to a flow controlled stimulus generated in a pressure controlled canister produced by a homemade olfactometer to build an E-nose. The built E-nose is capable of chocolate identification between the 26 analyzed chocolate bar samples and four features recognition (chocolate type, extra ingredient, sweetener and expiration date status). The data analysis tools used were Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The chocolate identification E-nose average classification rate was of 81.3% with 0.99 accuracy (Acc), 0.86 precision (Prc), 0.84 sensitivity (Sen) and 0.99 specificity (Spe) for test. The chocolate feature recognition E-nose gives a classification rate of 85.36% with 0.96 Acc, 0.86 Prc, 0.85 Sen and 0.96 Spe. In addition, a preliminary sample aging analysis was made. The results prove the pressure controlled generated stimulus is reliable for this type of studies. PMID:27775628

  9. Chocolate Classification by an Electronic Nose with Pressure Controlled Generated Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Luis F; Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel

    2016-10-20

    In this work, we will analyze the response of a Metal Oxide Gas Sensor (MOGS) array to a flow controlled stimulus generated in a pressure controlled canister produced by a homemade olfactometer to build an E-nose. The built E-nose is capable of chocolate identification between the 26 analyzed chocolate bar samples and four features recognition (chocolate type, extra ingredient, sweetener and expiration date status). The data analysis tools used were Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The chocolate identification E-nose average classification rate was of 81.3% with 0.99 accuracy (Acc), 0.86 precision (Prc), 0.84 sensitivity (Sen) and 0.99 specificity (Spe) for test. The chocolate feature recognition E-nose gives a classification rate of 85.36% with 0.96 Acc, 0.86 Prc, 0.85 Sen and 0.96 Spe. In addition, a preliminary sample aging analysis was made. The results prove the pressure controlled generated stimulus is reliable for this type of studies.

  10. Understanding the structure of chocolate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, H.; Peschar, R.

    2004-10-01

    Crystallization of cocoa-butter in the β phase from the melt under static conditions is only possible using the memory effect of cocoa-butter. Under all other conditions polymorphs with lower melting temperatures develop, whereas the β phase is the preferred one in chocolate. SAXS experiments proved 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol seeds with triple chain-length packing initiate the β-crystallization. Models for the different phases may be based on the crystal structure determinations of triacylglycerols. A new, patented, way of chocolate making is in development in which the traditional tempering process is replaced by another pre-crystallization process. The process is based on the use of seed crystals in the liquid phase and driven by a feedback system.

  11. Increasing the maximally random jammed density with electric field to reduce the fat level in chocolate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.; Tang, H.

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. For example, a typical molding chocolate has various fat up to 40% in total and chocolate for covering ice cream has fat 50 -60%. Especially, as children are the leading chocolate consumers, reducing the fat level in chocolate products to make them healthier is important and urgent. While this issue was called into attention and elaborated in articles and books decades ago and led to some patent applications, no actual solution was found unfortunately. Why is reducing fat in chocolate so difficult? What is the underlying physical mechanism? We have found that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matters, especially to their viscosity and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density φx. All chocolate productions are handling liquid chocolate, a suspension with cocoa solid particles in melted fat, mainly cocoa butter. The fat level cannot be lower than 1-φxin order to have liquid chocolate to flow. Here we show that that with application of an electric field to liquid chocolate, we can aggregate the suspended particles into prolate spheroids. This microstructure change reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are looking forward to a new class of healthier and tasteful chocolate coming to the market soon. Dept. of Physics, Temple Univ, Philadelphia, PA 19122.

  12. Dark chocolate added with high oleic peanut oil microcapsule.

    PubMed

    Agibert, Silvia A C; Lannes, Suzana C da S

    2018-04-26

    On the way of market demand for healthier indulgent food products, the aim of this study was to develop the industrial production viability for dark chocolate with microcapsules of high oleic peanut oil. The microcapsules of high oleic peanut oil were added to a control formulation using variations of mixing time. The chocolates presented rheology characterized by pseudoplastic behavior adjusted to the Casson model (r> 0.98) and calorimetric behavior indicating melting onset (21°C), peak melting (32°C) and melting end (41°C); caramelization peak (183°C); carbonization peak (237°C), being considered thermal stable. The mixing time and the amount of microcapsules added to the control chocolate did not significantly influence the flow limit (11.09 ± 1.73 Pa) and the physical characteristics of the chocolate: pH (6.74 ± 0.14), maximum particle size (0.019 ± 0.001 mm), water activity (0.358 ± 0.023) and brittleness (18.61 ± 3.74 N). However, an addition of microcapsules of high oleic peanut oil significantly increased the chocolate whiteness index, thixotropy and Casson's plastic viscosity, although it did not have a significant influence of the mixing time. The products obtained have a desired quality and physical properties, being suitable for industrial production. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Mood Components in Cocoa and Chocolate: The Mood Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Tuenter, Emmy; Foubert, Kenn; Pieters, Luc

    2018-03-14

    Cocoa and chocolate, prepared from cocoa beans that originate from the fruits of the cocoa tree Theobroma cacao , have a long-standing reputation as healthy food, including mood-enhancing effects. In spite of many clinical trials with chocolate, cocoa, or its constituents, the mechanisms of action on mood and cognition remain unclear. More in particular, it is still controversial which constituents may contribute to the psychopharmacological activities, ranging from the major cacao flavanols and methylxanthines to the minor amines, amides, and alkaloids. In this review a critical appraisal is made of recent studies on mood and cognition, with a special emphasis on analytical characterization of the test samples. It is concluded that the mood and cognition-enhancing effects of cocoa and chocolate can be ranked from more general activities associated with flavanols and methylxanthines, to more specific activities related to minor constituents such as salsolinol, with on top the orosensory properties of chocolate. Therefore, the "mood pyramid" of cocoa and chocolate is proposed as a new concept. To understand the role and interactions of the different major and minor constituents of cocoa, it is recommended that all test samples used in future in vitro, in vivo , or human studies should be phytochemically characterized in much more detail than is common practice today. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Experimentally induced chocolate craving leads to an attentional bias in increased distraction but not in speeded detection.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Elke; Roefs, Anne; Jansen, Anita

    2009-12-01

    In the present study, the causal influence of chocolate craving on attentional bias for chocolate-related information was examined by experimentally inducing chocolate craving in a sample of high trait chocolate cravers vs. low trait chocolate cravers. A sample of 35 high trait chocoholics and 33 low trait chocolate cravers were randomly assigned to either the exposure condition in which craving was manipulated or the non-exposure condition. To measure attentional bias, a pictorial version of the visual search paradigm [Smeets, E., Roefs, A., van Furth, E., & Jansen, A. (2008). Attentional bias for body and food in eating disorders: increased distraction, speeded detection, or both? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 229-238] was used, assessing two components: distraction and detection. It was found that experimentally induced chocolate craving led to increased distraction by chocolate pictures in the high trait chocolate cravers, in comparison to the low trait chocolate cravers. Moreover, this measure of distraction correlated strongly with self-reported craving, but only in the chocoholics and in the exposure condition. In the non-exposure condition, high trait chocolate cravers showed speeded detection of chocolate pictures relative to non-chocoholics, but this component did not correlate with self-reported craving. It is concluded that experimentally induced craving for chocolate causes a bias in, specifically the increased distraction component of attention in high trait chocolate cravers.

  15. Acute dark chocolate ingestion is beneficial for hemodynamics via enhancement of erythrocyte deformability in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Radosinska, Jana; Horvathova, Martina; Frimmel, Karel; Muchova, Jana; Vidosovicova, Maria; Vazan, Rastislav; Bernatova, Iveta

    2017-03-01

    Erythrocyte deformability is an important property of erythrocytes that considerably affects blood flow and hemodynamics. The high content of polyphenols present in dark chocolate has been reported to play a protective role in functionality of erythrocytes. We hypothesized that chocolate might influence erythrocytes not only after repeated chronic intake, but also immediately after its ingestion. Thus, we determined the acute effect of dark chocolate and milk (with lower content of biologically active substances) chocolate intake on erythrocyte deformability. We also focused on selected factors that may affect erythrocyte deformability, specifically nitric oxide production in erythrocytes and total antioxidant capacity of plasma. We determined posttreatment changes in the mentioned parameters 2hours after consumption of chocolate compared with their levels before consumption of chocolate. In contrast to milk chocolate intake, the dark chocolate led to a significantly higher increase in erythrocyte deformability. Nitric oxide production in erythrocytes was not changed after dark chocolate intake, but significantly decreased after milk chocolate. The plasma total antioxidant capacity remained unaffected after ingestion of both chocolates. We conclude that our hypothesis was confirmed. Single ingestion of dark chocolate improved erythrocyte deformability despite unchanged nitric oxide production and antioxidant capacity of plasma. Increased deformability of erythrocytes may considerably improve rheological properties of blood and thus hemodynamics in humans, resulting in better tissue oxygenation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Everyday eating experiences of chocolate and non-chocolate snacks impact postprandial anxiety, energy and emotional states.

    PubMed

    Martin, François-Pierre J; Antille, Nicolas; Rezzi, Serge; Kochhar, Sunil

    2012-06-01

    Social and psychological stressors are both a part of daily life and are increasingly recognized as contributors to individual susceptibility to develop diseases and metabolic disorders. The present study investigated how snacks differing in sensory properties and presentation can influence ratings of affect in consumers with different levels of dispositional anxiety. This study examines the relationships between a pre-disposition to anxiety and food using a repeated exposures design with three interspersed test days over a period of two weeks. The study was conducted on ninety free-living male (n = 28) and female (n = 62) Dutch participants aged between 18 and 35 years old, with a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2) and different anxiety trait levels assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory tests. The study was randomized by age, gender, anxiety trait score, and followed a parallel open design. Three test products: dark chocolate, a milk chocolate snack and crackers with cheese spread (control), which differed in composition, sensory properties and presentation, were evaluated. Changes in self-reported anxiety, emotion, and energetic states were assessed as a function of eating the snacks just after consumption and up to one hour. The repeated exposure design over a period of two weeks enabled the investigations of potential cumulative effects of regular consumption of the food products. The milk chocolate snack resulted in the decrease of anxiety in high anxiety trait subjects, whereas dark chocolate and cheese and crackers respectively improved the anxiety level and the energetic state of low anxiety trait participants. The mood effects were not altered with repeated exposure, and the magnitude of changes was similar on each test day, which illustrates the repeatability of the effects of the food on subjective measures of postprandial wellness.

  17. Everyday Eating Experiences of Chocolate and Non-Chocolate Snacks Impact Postprandial Anxiety, Energy and Emotional States

    PubMed Central

    Martin, François-Pierre J.; Antille, Nicolas; Rezzi, Serge; Kochhar, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Social and psychological stressors are both a part of daily life and are increasingly recognized as contributors to individual susceptibility to develop diseases and metabolic disorders. The present study investigated how snacks differing in sensory properties and presentation can influence ratings of affect in consumers with different levels of dispositional anxiety. This study examines the relationships between a pre-disposition to anxiety and food using a repeated exposures design with three interspersed test days over a period of two weeks. The study was conducted on ninety free-living male (n = 28) and female (n = 62) Dutch participants aged between 18 and 35 years old, with a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m2 and different anxiety trait levels assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory tests. The study was randomized by age, gender, anxiety trait score, and followed a parallel open design. Three test products: dark chocolate, a milk chocolate snack and crackers with cheese spread (control), which differed in composition, sensory properties and presentation, were evaluated. Changes in self-reported anxiety, emotion, and energetic states were assessed as a function of eating the snacks just after consumption and up to one hour. The repeated exposure design over a period of two weeks enabled the investigations of potential cumulative effects of regular consumption of the food products. The milk chocolate snack resulted in the decrease of anxiety in high anxiety trait subjects, whereas dark chocolate and cheese and crackers respectively improved the anxiety level and the energetic state of low anxiety trait participants. The mood effects were not altered with repeated exposure, and the magnitude of changes was similar on each test day, which illustrates the repeatability of the effects of the food on subjective measures of postprandial wellness. PMID:22822453

  18. The cardiovascular benefits of dark chocolate.

    PubMed

    Kerimi, Asimina; Williamson, Gary

    2015-08-01

    Dark chocolate contains many biologically active components, such as catechins, procyanidins and theobromine from cocoa, together with added sucrose and lipids. All of these can directly or indirectly affect the cardiovascular system by multiple mechanisms. Intervention studies on healthy and metabolically-dysfunctional volunteers have suggested that cocoa improves blood pressure, platelet aggregation and endothelial function. The effect of chocolate is more convoluted since the sucrose and lipid may transiently and negatively impact on endothelial function, partly through insulin signalling and nitric oxide bioavailability. However, few studies have attempted to dissect out the role of the individual components and have not explored their possible interactions. For intervention studies, the situation is complex since suitable placebos are often not available, and some benefits may only be observed in individuals showing mild metabolic dysfunction. For chocolate, the effects of some of the components, such as sugar and epicatechin on FMD, may oppose each other, or alternatively in some cases may act together, such as theobromine and epicatechin. Although clearly cocoa provides some cardiovascular benefits according to many human intervention studies, the exact components, their interactions and molecular mechanisms are still under debate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Controlling the Maillard reaction by reactant encapsulation: sodium chloride in cookies.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Alberto; Troise, Antonio Dario; Ataç Mogol, Burçe; Roullier, Victor; Gourdon, Anthony; El Mafadi Jian, Samira; Hamzalioğlu, Berat Aytül; Gökmen, Vural; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2012-10-31

    Formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and acrylamide has been an intensive area of research in recent decades. The presence of reactants such as sodium chloride may influence the Maillard reaction (MR) pathways through the dehydration of various key intermediates. The aim of this work was to test the potential of ingredient encapsulation to mitigate the MR by investigating the case of sodium chloride encapsulation on the HMF formation in cookies. Thirteen cookies were prepared with recipes containing free or encapsulated NaCl. Increasing NaCl concentration from 0 to 0.65% increases HMF concentration up to 75%, whereas in the presence of encapsulated NaCl the reduction of HMF varied from 18 to 61% due to the inhibition of sucrose pyrolytic decomposition and the fructofuranosyl cation formation. Data demonstrated that the more heat-resistant the lipid-based coating was, the more pronounced the reduction of HMF formation. The results showed that encapsulation represents a useful approach to prevent the formation of potentially harmful compounds in thermally processed foods.

  20. Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation (From the Physicians' Health Study)

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Owais; Petrone, Andrew B; Kanjwal, Yousuf; Gaziano, John Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate consumption has been shown to protect against various cardiovascular endpoints, however little is known about the association between chocolate consumption and incident atrial fibrillation (AF). Therefore, we prospectively examined the association between chocolate consumption and incident AF in a cohort of 18,819 US male physicians. Chocolate consumption was ascertained between 1999 and 2002 via a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Incident AF was ascertained through yearly follow-up questionnaires. Cox regression was used to estimate relative risks of AF. The average age at baseline was 66 (±9.1) years. During a mean follow up of 9.0 (±3.0) years, 2,092 cases of AF occurred. Using <1/month of chocolate consumption as the reference group, multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for AF were 1.04 (0.93-1.18), 1.10 (0.96-1.25), 1.14 (0.99-1.31), and 1.05 (0.89-1.25) for chocolate intake of 1-3/month, 1/week, 2-4/week, and ≥5/week (p for trend 0.25), respectively. In a secondary analysis, there was no evidence of effect modification by adiposity (p interaction = 0.71) or age (p interaction = 0.26). In conclusion, our data did not support an association between chocolate consumption and risk of AF among US male physicians. PMID:26076989

  1. X-ray phase Identification of Chocolate is Possible

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Guthrie,S.; Mazzanti, G.; Idziak, S.

    2005-01-01

    When examining chocolate samples by means of X-ray diffraction, it has become common practice for any sugar to be removed through repeated rinsing in cold water. While necessary in some cases, we show that it is possible to determine the phase of certain dark chocolate samples without sugar removal, through examination of distinctive X-ray diffraction peaks corresponding to lattice spacings of 3.98 and 3.70 Angstroms.

  2. Matrix-normalised quantification of species by threshold-calibrated competitive real-time PCR: allergenic peanut in food as one example.

    PubMed

    Holzhauser, Thomas; Kleiner, Kornelia; Janise, Annabella; Röder, Martin

    2014-11-15

    A novel method to quantify species or DNA on the basis of a competitive quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (cqPCR) was developed. Potentially allergenic peanut in food served as one example. Based on an internal competitive DNA sequence for normalisation of DNA extraction and amplification, the cqPCR was threshold-calibrated against 100mg/kg incurred peanut in milk chocolate. No external standards were necessary. The competitive molecule successfully served as calibrator for quantification, matrix normalisation, and inhibition control. Although designed for verification of a virtual threshold of 100mg/kg, the method allowed quantification of 10-1,000 mg/kg peanut incurred in various food matrices and without further matrix adaption: On the basis of four PCR replicates per sample, mean recovery of 10-1,000 mg/kg peanut in chocolate, vanilla ice cream, cookie dough, cookie, and muesli was 87% (range: 39-147%) in comparison to 199% (range: 114-237%) by three commercial ELISA kits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Startling sweet temptations: hedonic chocolate deprivation modulates experience, eating behavior, and eyeblink startle.

    PubMed

    Blechert, Jens; Naumann, Eva; Schmitz, Julian; Herbert, Beate M; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2014-01-01

    Many individuals restrict their food intake to prevent weight gain. This restriction has both homeostatic and hedonic effects but their relative contribution is currently unclear. To isolate hedonic effects of food restriction, we exposed regular chocolate eaters to one week of chocolate deprivation but otherwise regular eating. Before and after this hedonic deprivation, participants viewed images of chocolate and images of high-calorie but non-chocolate containing foods, while experiential, behavioral and eyeblink startle responses were measured. Compared to satiety, hedonic deprivation triggered increased chocolate wanting, liking, and chocolate consumption but also feelings of frustration and startle potentiation during the intertrial intervals. Deprivation was further characterized by startle inhibition during both chocolate and food images relative to the intertrial intervals. Individuals who responded with frustration to the manipulation and those who scored high on a questionnaire of impulsivity showed more relative startle inhibition. The results reveal the profound effects of hedonic deprivation on experiential, behavioral and attentional/appetitive response systems and underscore the role of individual differences and state variables for startle modulation. Implications for dieting research and practice as well as for eating and weight disorders are discussed.

  4. Chocolate intake is associated with better cognitive function: The Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2016-05-01

    Chocolate and cocoa flavanols have been associated with improvements in a range of health complaints dating from ancient times, and has established cardiovascular benefits. Less is known about the effects of chocolate on neurocognition and behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chocolate intake was associated with cognitive function, with adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on 968 community-dwelling participants, aged 23-98 years, from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intake was related to cognitive performance, measured with an extensive battery of neuropsychological tests. More frequent chocolate consumption was significantly associated with better performance on the Global Composite score, Visual-Spatial Memory and Organization, Working Memory, Scanning and Tracking, Abstract Reasoning, and the Mini-Mental State Examination. With the exception of Working Memory, these relations were not attenuated with statistical control for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Prospective analyses revealed no association between cognitive function and chocolate intake measured up to 18 years later. Further intervention trials and longitudinal studies are needed to explore relations between chocolate, cocoa flavanols and cognition, and the underlying causal mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Startling Sweet Temptations: Hedonic Chocolate Deprivation Modulates Experience, Eating Behavior, and Eyeblink Startle

    PubMed Central

    Blechert, Jens; Naumann, Eva; Schmitz, Julian; Herbert, Beate M.; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2014-01-01

    Many individuals restrict their food intake to prevent weight gain. This restriction has both homeostatic and hedonic effects but their relative contribution is currently unclear. To isolate hedonic effects of food restriction, we exposed regular chocolate eaters to one week of chocolate deprivation but otherwise regular eating. Before and after this hedonic deprivation, participants viewed images of chocolate and images of high-calorie but non-chocolate containing foods, while experiential, behavioral and eyeblink startle responses were measured. Compared to satiety, hedonic deprivation triggered increased chocolate wanting, liking, and chocolate consumption but also feelings of frustration and startle potentiation during the intertrial intervals. Deprivation was further characterized by startle inhibition during both chocolate and food images relative to the intertrial intervals. Individuals who responded with frustration to the manipulation and those who scored high on a questionnaire of impulsivity showed more relative startle inhibition. The results reveal the profound effects of hedonic deprivation on experiential, behavioral and attentional/appetitive response systems and underscore the role of individual differences and state variables for startle modulation. Implications for dieting research and practice as well as for eating and weight disorders are discussed. PMID:24416437

  6. Chocolate: A Heart-healthy Food? Show Me the Science!

    PubMed

    Hannum, Sandra M.; Schmitz, Harold H.; Keen, Carl L.

    2002-01-01

    Cocoa and chocolate foods produced by appropriate methods can contribute significant amounts of heart-healthy flavanols to the diet. These flavanols may enhance cardiovascular health by delaying blood clotting, improving vascular endothelial function, and helping to moderate inflammation. The benefits of chocolate can be enjoyed without guilt as part of a healthful balanced diet.

  7. Specific dietary preferences are linked to differing gut microbial metabolic activity in response to dark chocolate intake.

    PubMed

    Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Montoliu, Ivan; Nagy, Kornél; Moco, Sofia; Collino, Sebastiano; Guy, Philippe; Redeuil, Karine; Scherer, Max; Rezzi, Serge; Kochhar, Sunil

    2012-12-07

    Systems biology approaches are providing novel insights into the role of nutrition for the management of health and disease. In the present study, we investigated if dietary preference for dark chocolate in healthy subjects may lead to different metabolic response to daily chocolate consumption. Using NMR- and MS-based metabolic profiling of blood plasma and urine, we monitored the metabolic response of 10 participants stratified as chocolate desiring and eating regularly dark chocolate (CD) and 10 participants stratified as chocolate indifferent and eating rarely dark chocolate (CI) to a daily consumption of 50 g of dark chocolate as part of a standardized diet over a one week period. We demonstrated that preference for chocolate leads to different metabolic response to chocolate consumption. Daily intake of dark chocolate significantly increased HDL cholesterol by 6% and decreased polyunsaturated acyl ether phospholipids. Dark chocolate intake could also induce an improvement in the metabolism of long chain fatty acid, as noted by a compositional change in plasma fatty acyl carnitines. Moreover, a relationship between regular long-term dietary exposure to a small amount of dark chocolate, gut microbiota, and phenolics was highlighted, providing novel insights into biological processes associated with cocoa bioactives.

  8. Relation of Habitual Chocolate Consumption to Arterial Stiffness in a Community-Based Sample: Preliminary Findings.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Stranges, Saverio; Abhayaratna, Walter P

    2016-07-01

    The consumption of chocolate and cocoa has established cardiovascular benefits. Less is known about the effects of chocolate on arterial stiffness, a marker of subclinical cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chocolate intakes are independently associated with pulse wave velocity (PWV), after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Prospective analyses were undertaken on 508 community-dwelling participants (mean age 61 years, 60% women) from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intakes, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, were related to PWV, measured approximately 5 years later. Chocolate intake was significantly associated with PWV in a non-linear fashion with the highest levels of PWV in those who never or rarely ate chocolate and lowest levels in those who consumed chocolate once a week. This pattern of results remained and was not attenuated after multivariate adjustment for diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors and dietary variables (p = 0.002). Weekly chocolate intake may be of benefit to arterial stiffness. Further studies are needed to explore the underlying mechanisms that may mediate the observed effects of habitual chocolate consumption on arterial stiffness.

  9. Relation of Habitual Chocolate Consumption to Arterial Stiffness in a Community-Based Sample: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Georgina E.; Elias, Merrill F.; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Stranges, Saverio; Abhayaratna, Walter P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The consumption of chocolate and cocoa has established cardiovascular benefits. Less is known about the effects of chocolate on arterial stiffness, a marker of subclinical cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chocolate intakes are independently associated with pulse wave velocity (PWV), after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Methods Prospective analyses were undertaken on 508 community-dwelling participants (mean age 61 years, 60% women) from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intakes, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, were related to PWV, measured approximately 5 years later. Results Chocolate intake was significantly associated with PWV in a non-linear fashion with the highest levels of PWV in those who never or rarely ate chocolate and lowest levels in those who consumed chocolate once a week. This pattern of results remained and was not attenuated after multivariate adjustment for diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors and dietary variables (p = 0.002). Conclusions Weekly chocolate intake may be of benefit to arterial stiffness. Further studies are needed to explore the underlying mechanisms that may mediate the observed effects of habitual chocolate consumption on arterial stiffness. PMID:27493901

  10. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A

    2011-12-05

    To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ad libitum meal was served 2 h after the test meal had been consumed. The participants felt more satiated, less hungry, and had lower ratings of prospective food consumption after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, fatty or savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate. Energy intake at the ad libitum meal was 17% lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate (P=0.002). If the energy provided by the chocolate is included in the calculation, the energy intake after consumption of the dark chocolate was still 8% lower than after the milk chocolate (P=0.01). The dark chocolate load resulted in an overall energy difference of -584 kJ (95% confidence interval (-1027;-141)) during the test period. In the present study, dark chocolate promotes satiety, lowers the desire to eat something sweet, and suppresses energy intake compared with milk chocolate.

  11. Evolution of the Chocolate Bar: A Creative Approach to Teaching Phylogenetic Relationships within Evolutionary Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burks, Romi L.; Boles, Larry C.

    2007-01-01

    Chocolate calms the mind, yet excites the senses. Chocolate also unites cultures. "Chocolat" (2000), a movie about a small town French chocolate shop, made millions internationally. Starring actors contributed partly to the film's success, but the film also drew salivating viewers worldwide to the multiple applications of chocolate. With its…

  12. Chocolate milk: a post-exercise recovery beverage for endurance sports.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, Kelly; Pritchett, Robert

    2012-01-01

    An optimal post-exercise nutrition regimen is fundamental for ensuring recovery. Therefore, research has aimed to examine post-exercise nutritional strategies for enhanced training stimuli. Chocolate milk has become an affordable recovery beverage for many athletes, taking the place of more expensive commercially available recovery beverages. Low-fat chocolate milk consists of a 4:1 carbohydrate:protein ratio (similar to many commercial recovery beverages) and provides fluids and sodium to aid in post-workout recovery. Consuming chocolate milk (1.0-1.5•g•kg(-1) h(-1)) immediately after exercise and again at 2 h post-exercise appears to be optimal for exercise recovery and may attenuate indices of muscle damage. Future research should examine the optimal amount, timing, and frequency of ingestion of chocolate milk on post-exercise recovery measures including performance, indices of muscle damage, and muscle glycogen resynthesis. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Chocolate, well-being and health among elderly men.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, T E; Strandberg, A Y; Pitkälä, K; Salomaa, V V; Tilvis, R S; Miettinen, T A

    2008-02-01

    We hypothesized that chocolate preference would be related to health and psychological well-being in old men. We have followed up a socio-economically homogenous group of men, born in 1919-1934, since the 1960s. In 2002-2003, a mailed questionnaire was used to assess the health and well-being (including questions related to positive life orientation, visual analogue scales and the Zung depression score) of survivors. In addition, candy preference was inquired. Those men who reported no candy consumption (n=108) were excluded from the analyses. Psychological well-being in old age. The response rate was 69% (1367 of 1991). Of the respondents, 860 and 399 preferred chocolate and other type of candy, respectively. The average age in both candy groups was 76 years. Of the respondents, 99% were home-dwelling, 96% were retired and 87% were presently married, without differences between the candy groups. Men preferring chocolate had lower body mass index and waist circumference, and they also reported more exercise and better subjective health (P=0.008) than other candy consumers. Variables related to psychological well-being were consistently better in those preferring chocolate. The differences were statistically significant in feeling of loneliness (P=0.01), feeling of happiness (P=0.01), having plans for the future (P=0.0002) and the Zung depression score (P=0.02). In this socioeconomically homogenous male cohort, chocolate preference in old age was associated with better health, optimism and better psychological well-being. The Academy of Finland, the Päivikki and Sakari Sohlberg Foundation, the Helsinki University Central Hospital and the Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research.

  14. Chocolate and other cocoa products: effects on human reproduction and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Brillo, Eleonora; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo

    2015-11-18

    Chocolate and other cocoa products are not all alike. They differ between themselves in term of nutrients, calories, and bioactive constituents. Therefore, some of them are unhealthy foods, whereas others do not affect health and still others are healthy foods. One wonders which chocolate and other cocoa derivatives can be considered as biofunctional food products. This review explores the constituents of cocoa and chocolate and summarizes evidence about the role of cocoa and chocolate components on human health and particularly on reproduction. On the basis of the literature review, it can be asserted that some kinds of cocoa products have favorable effects on human health at different stages of life. Women seem to be particularly favored by consuming of cocoa products, and chocolate with specific features can also be a good supplementary source of energy for pregnant woman. However, many aspects remain to be investigated and others are still to be clarified. Future studies and systematic reviews will shed light on some preventive effects and health benefits of cocoa products.

  15. Changes in brain activity related to eating chocolate: from pleasure to aversion.

    PubMed

    Small, D M; Zatorre, R J; Dagher, A; Evans, A C; Jones-Gotman, M

    2001-09-01

    We performed successive H(2)(15)O-PET scans on volunteers as they ate chocolate to beyond satiety. Thus, the sensory stimulus and act (eating) were held constant while the reward value of the chocolate and motivation of the subject to eat were manipulated by feeding. Non-specific effects of satiety (such as feelings of fullness and autonomic changes) were also present and probably contributed to the modulation of brain activity. After eating each piece of chocolate, subjects gave ratings of how pleasant/unpleasant the chocolate was and of how much they did or did not want another piece of chocolate. Regional cerebral blood flow was then regressed against subjects' ratings. Different groups of structures were recruited selectively depending on whether subjects were eating chocolate when they were highly motivated to eat and rated the chocolate as very pleasant [subcallosal region, caudomedial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insula/operculum, striatum and midbrain] or whether they ate chocolate despite being satiated (parahippocampal gyrus, caudolateral OFC and prefrontal regions). As predicted, modulation was observed in cortical chemosensory areas, including the insula and caudomedial and caudolateral OFC, suggesting that the reward value of food is represented here. Of particular interest, the medial and lateral caudal OFC showed opposite patterns of activity. This pattern of activity indicates that there may be a functional segregation of the neural representation of reward and punishment within this region. The only brain region that was active during both positive and negative compared with neutral conditions was the posterior cingulate cortex. Therefore, these results support the hypothesis that there are two separate motivational systems: one orchestrating approach and another avoidance behaviours.

  16. pH modulation and salivary sugar clearance of different chocolates in children: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Nirmala, Svsg; Quadar, Mohammed Akhil; Veluru, Sindhuri

    2016-01-01

    Sugars that occur naturally in foods and those added in processed foods may act as the source for fermentable carbohydrates and may initiate caries process. Among all the foods consumed by children, chocolates form an important constituent. A wide variety of chocolates are available in the Indian market and very few studies have compared their acidogenicity and salivary sugar clearance. To compare the acidogenicity and salivary sugar clearance of 6 different commercially available chocolates in the Indian market. Thirty subjects aged 10-15 years were selected randomly from one of the available public schools in Nellore city. Six commercially available chocolates in the Indian market were divided into three groups, unfilled (dark and milk chocolate), filled (wafer and fruit and nuts chocolate), and candy (hard milk and mango-flavored candy) groups. Plaque pH values and salivary sugar clearance rates are assessed at baseline, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min after consumption. All the data obtained were statistically evaluated using independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA for multiple group comparisons. Mango-flavored candy had maximum fall in plaque pH and least fall in plaque pH was recorded with milk chocolate. Fruit and nuts chocolate had a maximum clearance of salivary sugar and least fall in the salivary sugar clearance was recorded with dark chocolate. When the plaque pH and salivary sugar clearance of all the chocolates were assessed, it was seen that the values were statistically significant at all the time intervals (P < 0.05). Dark chocolate had a high fall in pH and milk chocolate had low salivary sugar clearance which signifies that unfilled chocolates are more cariogenic than other chocolates. Even though mango-flavored candy had maximum fall in plaque pH, its salivary sugar clearance was high.

  17. Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Magrone, Thea; Russo, Matteo Antonio; Jirillo, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO) through activation of endothelial NO synthase which, in turn, accounts for vasodilation and cardioprotective effects. In the light of the above described properties, a number of clinical trials based on the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate have been conducted in healthy subjects as well as in different categories of patients, such as those affected by cardiovascular, neurological, intestinal, and metabolic pathologies. Even if data are not always concordant, modifications of biomarkers of disease are frequently associated to improvement of clinical manifestations. Quite interestingly, following cocoa and dark chocolate ingestion, cocoa polyphenols also modulate intestinal microbiota, thus leading to the growth of bacteria that trigger a tolerogenic anti-inflammatory pathway in the host. Finally, many evidences encourage the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate by aged people for the recovery of the neurovascular unit. PMID:28649251

  18. Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Magrone, Thea; Russo, Matteo Antonio; Jirillo, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO) through activation of endothelial NO synthase which, in turn, accounts for vasodilation and cardioprotective effects. In the light of the above described properties, a number of clinical trials based on the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate have been conducted in healthy subjects as well as in different categories of patients, such as those affected by cardiovascular, neurological, intestinal, and metabolic pathologies. Even if data are not always concordant, modifications of biomarkers of disease are frequently associated to improvement of clinical manifestations. Quite interestingly, following cocoa and dark chocolate ingestion, cocoa polyphenols also modulate intestinal microbiota, thus leading to the growth of bacteria that trigger a tolerogenic anti-inflammatory pathway in the host. Finally, many evidences encourage the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate by aged people for the recovery of the neurovascular unit.

  19. Exploitation of alfalfa seed (Medicago sativa L.) flour into gluten-free rice cookies: Nutritional, antioxidant and quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Giuberti, Gianluca; Rocchetti, Gabriele; Sigolo, Samantha; Fortunati, Paola; Lucini, Luigi; Gallo, Antonio

    2018-01-15

    In an effort to increase the nutritional value of common gluten-free (GF) cereal-based foods, GF cookies using alfalfa seed flour (ASF), at different substitution levels to common rice flour (0% as control, 15%, 30% and 45% w/w), were produced. Crude protein, total dietary fibre, total polyunsaturated, total n-3 and n-6 fatty acid contents increased linearly (p<0.05) by raising the substitution levels of rice with ASF. The hardness, the total phenolic content, the in vitro antioxidant capacity and the resistant starch increased linearly (p<0.05), whereas the starch hydrolysis index decreased linearly (p<0.05) by raising the substitution levels of rice flour with ASF. Despite the fact that ASF-substituted GF cookies had inferior sensory attributes compared to the control, the score given by the panellists remained at fairly good levels for all tested parameters, showing acceptability of the substituted GF cookies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. Subjects/methods: A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ad libitum meal was served 2 h after the test meal had been consumed. Results: The participants felt more satiated, less hungry, and had lower ratings of prospective food consumption after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, fatty or savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate. Energy intake at the ad libitum meal was 17% lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate (P=0.002). If the energy provided by the chocolate is included in the calculation, the energy intake after consumption of the dark chocolate was still 8% lower than after the milk chocolate (P=0.01). The dark chocolate load resulted in an overall energy difference of −584 kJ (95% confidence interval (−1027;−141)) during the test period. Conclusion: In the present study, dark chocolate promotes satiety, lowers the desire to eat something sweet, and suppresses energy intake compared with milk chocolate. PMID:23455041

  1. Dark chocolate acutely improves walking autonomy in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Loffredo, Lorenzo; Perri, Ludovica; Catasca, Elisa; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Brancorsini, Monica; Nocella, Cristina; De Falco, Elena; Bartimoccia, Simona; Frati, Giacomo; Carnevale, Roberto; Violi, Francesco

    2014-07-02

    NOX-2, the catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase, has a key role in the formation of reactive oxidant species and is implicated in impairing flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Dark chocolate exerts artery dilatation via down-regulating NOX2-mediated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dark chocolate improves walking autonomy in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients via an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism. FMD, serum levels of isoprostanes, nitrite/nitrate (NOx) and sNOX2-dp, a marker of blood NOX2 activity, maximal walking distance (MWD) and maximal walking time (MWT) were studied in 20 PAD patients (14 males and 6 females, mean age: 69±9 years) randomly allocated to 40 g of dark chocolate (>85% cocoa) or 40 g of milk chocolate (≤35% cocoa) in a single blind, cross-over design. The above variables were assessed at baseline and 2 hours after chocolate ingestion. Dark chocolate intake significantly increased MWD (+11%; P<0.001), MWT (+15%; P<0.001), serum NOx (+57%; P<0.001) and decreased serum isoprostanes (-23%; P=0.01) and sNOX2-dp (-37%; P<0.001); no changes of the above variables were observed after milk chocolate intake. Serum epicatechin and its methylated metabolite significantly increased only after dark chocolate ingestion. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that Δ of MWD was independently associated with Δ of MWT (P<0.001) and Δ of NOx (P=0.018). In vitro study demonstrated that HUVEC incubated with a mixture of polyphenols significantly increased nitric oxide (P<0.001) and decreased E-selectin (P<0.001) and VCAM1 (P<0.001). In PAD patients dark but not milk chocolate acutely improves walking autonomy with a mechanism possibly related to an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism involving NOX2 regulation. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01947712. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  2. Dark Chocolate Acutely Improves Walking Autonomy in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Loffredo, Lorenzo; Perri, Ludovica; Catasca, Elisa; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Brancorsini, Monica; Nocella, Cristina; De Falco, Elena; Bartimoccia, Simona; Frati, Giacomo; Carnevale, Roberto; Violi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Background NOX‐2, the catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase, has a key role in the formation of reactive oxidant species and is implicated in impairing flow‐mediated dilation (FMD). Dark chocolate exerts artery dilatation via down‐regulating NOX2‐mediated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dark chocolate improves walking autonomy in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients via an oxidative stress‐mediated mechanism. Methods and Results FMD, serum levels of isoprostanes, nitrite/nitrate (NOx) and sNOX2‐dp, a marker of blood NOX2 activity, maximal walking distance (MWD) and maximal walking time (MWT) were studied in 20 PAD patients (14 males and 6 females, mean age: 69±9 years) randomly allocated to 40 g of dark chocolate (>85% cocoa) or 40 g of milk chocolate (≤35% cocoa) in a single blind, cross‐over design. The above variables were assessed at baseline and 2 hours after chocolate ingestion. Dark chocolate intake significantly increased MWD (+11%; P<0.001), MWT (+15%; P<0.001), serum NOx (+57%; P<0.001) and decreased serum isoprostanes (−23%; P=0.01) and sNOX2‐dp (−37%; P<0.001); no changes of the above variables were observed after milk chocolate intake. Serum epicatechin and its methylated metabolite significantly increased only after dark chocolate ingestion. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that Δ of MWD was independently associated with Δ of MWT (P<0.001) and Δ of NOx (P=0.018). In vitro study demonstrated that HUVEC incubated with a mixture of polyphenols significantly increased nitric oxide (P<0.001) and decreased E‐selectin (P<0.001) and VCAM1 (P<0.001). Conclusion In PAD patients dark but not milk chocolate acutely improves walking autonomy with a mechanism possibly related to an oxidative stress‐mediated mechanism involving NOX2 regulation. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01947712. PMID:24990275

  3. Habitual Chocolate Consumption May Increase Body Weight in a Dose-Response Manner

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, James A.; Buijsse, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objective Habitual chocolate intake was recently found to be associated with lower body weight in three cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Our objective was to assess whether these cross-sectional results hold up in a more rigorous prospective analysis. Methods We used data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. Usual dietary intake was assessed by questionnaire at baseline (1987–98), and after six years. Participants reported usual chocolate intake as the frequency of eating a 1-oz (∼28 g) serving. Body weight and height were measured at the two visits. Missing data were replaced by multiple imputation. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate cross-sectional and prospective associations between chocolate intake and adiposity. Results Data were from 15,732 and 12,830 participants at the first and second visit, respectively. More frequent chocolate consumption was associated with a significantly greater prospective weight gain over time, in a dose-response manner. For instance, compared to participants who ate a chocolate serving less often than monthly, those who ate it 1–4 times a month and at least weekly experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (kg/m2) of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08, 0.44) and 0.39 (0.23, 0.55), respectively, during the six-year study period. In cross-sectional analyses the frequency of chocolate consumption was inversely associated with body weight. This inverse association was attenuated after excluding participants with preexisting obesity-related illness. Compared to participants without such illness, those with it had higher BMI and reported less frequent chocolate intake, lower caloric intake, and diets richer in fruits and vegetables. They tended to make these dietary changes after becoming ill. Conclusions Our prospective analysis found that a chocolate habit was associated with long-term weight gain, in a dose-response manner. Our cross-sectional finding that chocolate intake was associated with lower body

  4. Habitual chocolate consumption may increase body weight in a dose-response manner.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, James A; Buijsse, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Habitual chocolate intake was recently found to be associated with lower body weight in three cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Our objective was to assess whether these cross-sectional results hold up in a more rigorous prospective analysis. We used data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. Usual dietary intake was assessed by questionnaire at baseline (1987-98), and after six years. Participants reported usual chocolate intake as the frequency of eating a 1-oz (~28 g) serving. Body weight and height were measured at the two visits. Missing data were replaced by multiple imputation. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate cross-sectional and prospective associations between chocolate intake and adiposity. Data were from 15,732 and 12,830 participants at the first and second visit, respectively. More frequent chocolate consumption was associated with a significantly greater prospective weight gain over time, in a dose-response manner. For instance, compared to participants who ate a chocolate serving less often than monthly, those who ate it 1-4 times a month and at least weekly experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (kg/m2) of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08, 0.44) and 0.39 (0.23, 0.55), respectively, during the six-year study period. In cross-sectional analyses the frequency of chocolate consumption was inversely associated with body weight. This inverse association was attenuated after excluding participants with preexisting obesity-related illness. Compared to participants without such illness, those with it had higher BMI and reported less frequent chocolate intake, lower caloric intake, and diets richer in fruits and vegetables. They tended to make these dietary changes after becoming ill. Our prospective analysis found that a chocolate habit was associated with long-term weight gain, in a dose-response manner. Our cross-sectional finding that chocolate intake was associated with lower body weight did not apply to participants without

  5. Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation (from the Physicians' Health Study).

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Owais; Petrone, Andrew B; Kanjwal, Yousuf; Gaziano, John M; Djoussé, Luc

    2015-08-15

    Chocolate consumption has been shown to protect against various cardiovascular end points; however, little is known about the association between chocolate consumption and incident atrial fibrillation (AF). Therefore, we prospectively examined the association between chocolate consumption and incident AF in a cohort of 18,819 US male physicians. Chocolate consumption was ascertained from 1999 to 2002 through a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Incident AF was ascertained through yearly follow-up questionnaires. Cox regression was used to estimate relative risks of AF. The average age at baseline was 66 years (±9.1). During a mean follow-up of 9.0 years (±3.0), 2,092 cases of AF occurred. Using <1 per month of chocolate consumption as the reference group, multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for AF were 1.04 (0.93 to 1.18), 1.10 (0.96 to 1.25), 1.14 (0.99 to 1.31), and 1.05 (0.89 to 1.25) for chocolate intake of 1 to 3 per month and 1, 2 to 4, and ≥5 per week (p for trend 0.25), respectively. In a secondary analysis, there was no evidence of effect modification by adiposity (p interaction = 0.71) or age (p interaction = 0.26). In conclusion, our data did not support an association between chocolate consumption and risk of AF in US male physicians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chocolate consumption and risk of diabetes mellitus in the Physicians' Health Study.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Chisa; Petrone, Andrew B; Sesso, Howard D; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies reported beneficial effects of cocoa or chocolate on insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation, which are important risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). However, it is unclear whether chocolate consumption is associated with risk of DM. We tested the hypothesis that chocolate consumption is inversely associated with incident DM in the Physicians' Health Study (PHS). We prospectively analyzed data on 18,235 PHS participants who were free of DM at baseline (1997-2001). Chocolate consumption was obtained from a baseline food-frequency questionnaire. Incident DM was ascertained via annual follow-up questionnaires and validated in a subsample by a review of medical records. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and 95% CIs of DM. The mean (±SD) age at baseline was 66.3 ± 9.2 y. During a mean follow up of 9.2 y, 1123 men (6.2%) developed DM. For self-reported chocolate consumption of none, 1-3 servings/mo, 1 serving/wk, and ≥2 servings/wk, multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of DM adjusted for lifestyle, clinical, and dietary risk factors including total energy intake were 1.00 (referent), 0.93 (0.79, 1.09), 0.86 (0.72, 1.04), and 0.83 (0.69, 0.99), respectively (P-trend = 0.047). In secondary analyses, the inverse association of chocolate consumption and risk of DM was slightly stronger in subjects without a history of cardiovascular disease or heart failure (P-trend = 0.023). In addition, both age and BMI modified the chocolate-DM relation (P < 0.05 each). Our data support an inverse relation of chocolate intake with incident DM, which appears only to apply in younger and normal-body weight men after controlling for comprehensive life styles including total energy consumption. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Effect of dark chocolate on arterial function in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Aznaouridis, Konstantinos; Alexopoulos, Nikolaos; Economou, Emmanuel; Andreadou, Ioanna; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2005-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that high flavonoid intake confers a benefit on cardiovascular outcome. Endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and wave reflections are important determinants of cardiovascular performance and are predictors of cardiovascular risk. The effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (100 g) on endothelial function, aortic stiffness, wave reflections, and oxidant status were studied for 3 h in 17 young healthy volunteers according to a randomized, single-blind, sham procedure-controlled, cross-over protocol. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, aortic augmentation index (AIx), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) were used as measures of endothelial function, wave reflections, and aortic stiffness, respectively. Plasma oxidant status was evaluated with measurement of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Chocolate led to a significant increase in resting and hyperemic brachial artery diameter throughout the study (maximum increase by 0.15 mm and 0.18 mm, respectively, P < .001 for both). The FMD increased significantly at 60 min (absolute increase 1.43%, P < .05). The AIx was significantly decreased with chocolate throughout the study (maximum absolute decrease 7.8%, P < .001), indicating a decrease in wave reflections, whereas PWV did not change to a significant extent. Plasma MDA and TAC did not change after chocolate, indicating no alterations in plasma oxidant status. Our study shows for the first time that consumption of dark chocolate acutely decreases wave reflections, that it does not affect aortic stiffness, and that it may exert a beneficial effect on endothelial function in healthy adults. Chocolate consumption may exert a protective effect on the cardiovascular system; further studies are warranted to assess any long-term effects.

  8. Brisk walking reduces ad libitum snacking in regular chocolate eaters during a workplace simulation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hwajung; Taylor, Adrian H

    2012-02-01

    Workplace snacking can contribute to obesity. Exercise reduces chocolate cravings but effects on chocolate consumption are unknown. This study investigated the effect of brief exercise on ad libitum consumption during breaks in a computerised task. Seventy-eight regular chocolate eaters, age: 24.90±8.15 years, BMI: 23.56±3.78 kg/m(2) abstained for 2 days. They were randomly assigned to one of four conditions, in a 2 × 2 factorial design, involving either a 15 min brisk walk or quiet rest, and then computerised Stroop tasks with low or high demanding conditions, in three 180 s blocks with a 90 s interval. Throughout, a pre-weighed bowl of chocolates was available for ad libitum eating. A two-way ANOVA revealed no interaction effect of exercise and stress on total chocolate consumption, or main effect of stress, but a main effect of exercise [F(1, 74)=7.12, p<.01]. Mean (SD) chocolate consumption was less (t(73.5)=2.69, 95% CI for difference 3.4-22.9, ES=0.61) for the exercise (15.6 g) than control (28.8 g) group. Exercise also increased affective activation, but there was no mediating effect of change in affect on chocolate consumption. A brief walk may help to reduce ad libitum snacking in regular chocolate eaters. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Olivas with Chocolate on MDDK

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-06

    S128-E-007771 (6 Sept. 2009) --- NASA astronaut John “Danny” Olivas, STS-128 mission specialist, is pictured on the middeck of Space Shuttle Discovery with a floating piece of chocolate while docked with the International Space Station.

  10. Physical properties of gluten free sugar cookies containing teff and functional oat products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Teff-oat composites were developed using gluten free teff flour containing essential 15 amino acids with oat products containing ß-glucan, known for lowering blood cholesterol and improving texture. The teff-oat composites were used in sugar cookies for improving nutritional and physical properties....

  11. A prospective, multi-center study of the chocolate balloon in femoropopliteal peripheral artery disease: The Chocolate BAR registry.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, Jihad A; Lansky, Alexandra; Shishehbor, Mehdi; Miles McClure, John; Johnson, Sarah; Davis, Thomas; Makam, Prakash; Crowder, William; Konstantino, Eitan; Attaran, Robert R

    2018-05-01

    The Chocolate BAR study is a prospective multicenter post-market registry designed to evaluate the safety and performance of the Chocolate percutaneous transluminal angioplasty balloon catheter in a broad population with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. The primary endpoint is acute procedural success (defined as ≤30% residual stenosis without flow-limiting dissection); secondary long-term outcomes include freedom from target lesion revascularization (TLR), major unplanned amputation, survival, and patency. A total of 262 patients (290 femoropopliteal lesions) were enrolled at 30 US centers between 2012 and 2014. The primary endpoint of procedure success was achieved in 85.1% of cases, and freedom from stenting occurred in 93.1%. Bail out stenting by independent adjudication occurred in 1.6% of cases and there were no flow limiting dissections. There was mean improvement of 2.1 Rutherford classes (±1.5) at 12-months, with 78.5% freedom from TLR, 97.2% freedom from major amputation, and 93.3% freedom from all-cause mortality. Core Lab adjudicated patency was 64.1% at 12 months. Use of the Chocolate balloon in an "all-comers" population achieved excellent procedural outcomes with low dissection rates and bailout stent use. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-bake cookie dough by gamma and electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seul-Gi; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of gamma and electron beam irradiation to inactivate foodborne pathogens in ready-to-bake cookie dough and to determine the effect on quality by measuring color and texture changes. Cookie dough inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, or Listeria monocytogenes was subjected to gamma and electron beam irradiation, with doses ranging from 0 to 3 kGy. As the radiation dose increased, the inactivation effect increased among all tested pathogens. After 3.0 kGy of gamma and electron beam irradiation, numbers of inoculated pathogens were reduced to below the detection limit (1 log CFU/g). The D 10 -values of E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes in cookie dough treated with gamma rays were 0.53, 0.51, and 0.71 kGy, respectively, which were similar to those treated by electron beam with the same dose. Based on the D 10 -value of pathogens in cookie dough, L. monocytogenes showed more resistance to both treatments than did E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium. Color values and textural characteristics of irradiated cookie dough were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the control. These results suggest that irradiation can be applied to control pathogens in ready-to-bake cookie dough products without affecting quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in Cacao and Chocolate

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Rafael; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva

    2013-01-01

    One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption. PMID:24145871

  14. Health benefits of methylxanthines in cacao and chocolate.

    PubMed

    Franco, Rafael; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva

    2013-10-18

    One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption.

  15. Fat and sugar levels are high in snacks purchased from student stores in middle schools.

    PubMed

    Wildey, M B; Pampalone, S Z; Pelletier, R L; Zive, M M; Elder, J P; Sallis, J F

    2000-03-01

    Children consume about one third of their daily energy at school, mostly from cafeteria food and bag lunches. Students also shop at student-run stores that generate revenue for extracurricular activities; yet the nutritional value of snacks sold at student stores has not been documented to our knowledge. Cross-sectional study of foods sold at student stores in middle schools. Twenty-four San Diego County (Calif) public middle schools, grades 6 through 8 (age 11 to 13), from 9 school districts. The schools represent a diversity of ethnic groups and socioeconomic levels. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlations, analysis of variance. Snacks averaged 8.7 g fat and 23.0 g sugar. Overall, 88.5% of store inventory was high in fat and/or high in sugar. Sugar candy accounted for one third of store sales. Chocolate candy was highest in fat content: 15.7 g. Fourteen of the 24 schools had stores that sold food and were run by student organizations. Stores were open daily for about 90 minutes; half sold food during lunch. Adolescents need opportunities to supplement main meals; however, student stores in middle schools sell primarily high-fat, high-sugar snacks. Key intervention possibilities include limiting sales of chocolate candy and substituting low-fat varieties of cakes, cookies, chips, and crackers. Competition with cafeterias for sales at lunchtime should be addressed.

  16. Dark chocolate reduces endothelial dysfunction after successive breath-hold dives in cool water.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Sigrid; Schumacker, Julie; Guerrero, François; Tillmans, Frauke; Boutros, Antoine; Lambrechts, Kate; Mazur, Aleksandra; Pieri, Massimo; Germonpré, Peter; Balestra, Costantino

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to observe the effects of dark chocolate on endothelial function after a series of successive apnea dives in non-thermoneutral water. Twenty breath-hold divers were divided into two groups: a control group (8 males and 2 females) and a chocolate group (9 males and 1 female). The control group was asked to perform a series of dives to 20 m adding up to 20 min in the quiet diving pool of Conflans-Ste-Honorine (Paris, France), water temperature was 27 °C. The chocolate group performed the dives 1 h after ingestion of 30 g of dark chocolate. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), digital photoplethysmography, nitric oxide (NO), and peroxynitrite ONOO−) levels were measured before and after each series of breath-hold dives. A significant decrease in FMD was observed in the control group after the dives (95.28 ± 2.9 % of pre-dive values, p < 0.001) while it was increased in the chocolate group (104.1 ± 2.9 % of pre-dive values, p < 0.01). A decrease in the NO level was observed in the control group (86.76 ± 15.57 %, p < 0.05) whereas no difference was shown in the chocolate group (98.44 ± 31.86 %, p > 0.05). No differences in digital photoplethysmography and peroxynitrites were observed between before and after the dives. Antioxidants contained in dark chocolate scavenge free radicals produced during breath-hold diving. Ingestion of 30 g of dark chocolate 1 h before the dive can thus prevent endothelial dysfunction which can be observed after a series of breath-hold dives.

  17. [Influence of habitual chocolate consumption over the Mini-Mental State Examination in Spanish older adults].

    PubMed

    Orozco Arbelaez, Edilbeto; Banegas, José Ramón; Rodríguez Artalejo, Fernando; López García, Esther

    2017-07-28

    There are associations described between dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and foods with a high content of polyphenols. To assess the infl uence of habitual chocolate consumption over the MMSE in Spanish older adults. Cross-sectional study, using data of the follow-up of the Seniors-Study on Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk in Spain (ENRICA) cohort. Habitual chocolate consumption in the last year was assessed with a computerized dietary history; differences between dark chocolate and milk chocolate were recorded. Chocolate intake was classified into the following categories: no consumption, < 10 g/day, and ≥ 10 g/day. Validated MMSE scores for Spain were obtained during an interview and different cutoff points were used to define ≤ 25, ≤ 24 and ≤ 23. Linear and logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted beta coefficients and odds ratios (OR). Compared to non-consumers, participants with a habitual chocolate consumption of ≥ 10 g/d had a better MMSE score (adjusted beta coefficient and 95% confidence interval: 0.26 (0.02-0.50; p trend = 0.05); for dark chocolate, the results were also statistically significant (0.48 [0.18-0.78]; p trend < 0.001). Total chocolate consumption was not associated with higher likelihood of having MCI. However, dark chocolate consumption was associated with less likelihood of MCI (OR and 95%CI for MMSE ≤ 25: 0.39 [0.20-0.77]; for MMSE ≤ 24: 0.26 [0.10-0.67]; and for MMSE ≤ 23: 0.25 [0.07-0.82]). Our results suggest that habitual dark chocolate consumption might improve cognitive function among the older population.

  18. Impact of a Microbial Cocktail Used as a Starter Culture on Cocoa Fermentation and Chocolate Flavor.

    PubMed

    Magalhães da Veiga Moreira, Igor; de Figueiredo Vilela, Leonardo; da Cruz Pedroso Miguel, Maria Gabriela; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson; Freitas Schwan, Rosane

    2017-05-09

    Chocolate production suffered a vast impact with the emergence of the "witches' broom" disease in cocoa plants. To recover cocoa production, many disease-resistant hybrid plants have been developed. However, some different cocoa hybrids produce cocoa beans that generate chocolate with variable quality. Fermentation of cocoa beans is a microbiological process that can be applied for the production of chocolate flavor precursors, leading to overcoming the problem of variable chocolate quality. The aim of this work was to use a cocktail of microorganisms as a starter culture on the fermentation of the ripe cocoa pods from PH15 cocoa hybrid, and evaluate its influence on the microbial communities present on the fermentative process on the compounds involved during the fermentation, and to perform the chocolate sensorial characterization. According to the results obtained, different volatile compounds were identified in fermented beans and in the chocolate produced. Bitterness was the dominant taste found in non-inoculated chocolate, while chocolate made with inoculated beans showed bitter, sweet, and cocoa tastes. 2,3-Butanediol and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine were considered as volatile compounds making the difference on the flavor of both chocolates. Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA CCMA 0200, Lactobacillus plantarum CCMA 0238, and Acetobacter pasteurianus CCMA 0241 are proposed as starter cultures for cocoa fermentation.

  19. The Sweetest Chocolate Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Kristie J.

    2010-01-01

    Using a nonroutine problem can be an effective way to encourage students to draw on prior knowledge, work together, and reach important conclusions about the mathematics they are learning. This article discusses a problem on the mathematical preparation of chocolate milk which was adapted from an old book of puzzles (Linn 1969) and has been used…

  20. Modification of ginseng flavors by bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee.

    PubMed

    Sook Chung, Hee; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2012-06-01

    Ginseng is not widely accepted by U.S. consumers due to its unfamiliar flavors, despite its numerous health benefits. Previous studies have suggested that the bitter compounds in chocolate and coffee may mask the off-flavors of ginseng. The objectives of this study were to: (1) profile sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution, caffeine solution, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val) solution, theobromine solution, and 2 model solutions simulating chocolate bitterness; and (2) determine the changes in the sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution by the addition of the bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee. Thirteen solutions were prepared in concentrations similar to the levels of the bitter compounds found in coffee and chocolate products. Twelve panelists participated in a descriptive analysis panel which included time-intensity ratings. Ginseng extract was characterized as sweeter, starchier, and more green tea than the other sample solutions. Those characteristics of ginseng extract were effectively modified by the addition of caffeine, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val), and 2 model solutions. A model solution simulating dark chocolate bitterness was the least influenced in intensities of bitterness by the addition of ginseng extract. Results from time-intensity ratings show that the addition of ginseng extract increased duration time in certain bitterness of the 2 model solutions. Bitter compounds found in dark chocolate could be proposed to effectively mask the unique flavors of ginseng. Future studies blending aroma compounds of chocolate and coffee into such model solutions may be conducted to investigate the influence on the perception of the unique flavors through the congruent flavors. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Sensory Attributes and Preliminary Characterization of Milk Chocolate Bar Enriched with Cinnamon Essential Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilmi, A.; Praseptiangga, D.; Muhammad, D. R. A.

    2017-04-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is one of Indonesia's main commodities with annually increasing production. Chocolates are semi-solid suspensions of fine solid particles in a continuous fat phase. Primary chocolate categories are dark, milk, and white that differs in content of cocoa solid, milk fat, and cocoa butter. Milk chocolate bar is one of the most popular processed cocoa products in Indonesia. Widely cultivated in Indonesia, cinnamon is potential to be developed and is expected to add flavor and taste as well as enhance functional properties of milk chocolate, since it is well-known of its high antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cinnamon essential oil addition on the sensory attributes and physicochemical properties of milk chocolate bar. Three formulas of milk chocolate bar with an addition of cinnamon essential oil (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%) were evaluated in this study. Panelists acceptance level decreased with increasing concentrations of cinnamon essential oil added, while moisture content and color analysis results did not show any significantly different for each formula, suggesting that milk chocolate bar with the addition of 0.1% of cinnamon essential oil had the highest level of acceptance and preferences for some of properties evaluated.

  2. Short-term effect of dark chocolate consumption on routine haemostasis testing.

    PubMed

    Montagnana, Martina; Danese, Elisa; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    This experimental study was designed to investigate the sort-term impact of dark chocolate ingestion on routine haemostasis tests in healthy volunteers. The study population consisted in 15 healthy male volunteers who ingested 50 g of 90% cocoa chocolate within 3-5 min. Blood was drawn early in the morning, immediately before chocolate ingestion and 4 h afterwards, for assessment of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and fibrinogen. A significant increase of triglycerides (1.4 ± 0.6 versus 1.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L; p < .001), APTT (32.1 ± 2.2 versus 31.1 ± 2.0 s; p < .001) and PT (9.8 ± 0.5 versus 9.7 ± 0.4 s; p = .008) was observed 4 h after ingestion of dark chocolate, whereas fibrinogen values remained unchanged (2.6 ± 0.5 versus 2.5 ± 0.5 g/L; p = .063). Overall, we observed a mean percentage increase of 3.1% for APTT and 1.2% for PT. These results suggest that dark chocolate intake may have an impact on secondary haemostasis.

  3. Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Heart Failure: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.

    PubMed

    Gong, Fei; Yao, Shuyuan; Wan, Jing; Gan, Xuedong

    2017-04-20

    Epidemiological studies have shown inconsistent findings on the association between chocolate consumption and risk of heart failure (HF). We, therefore, performed a meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the role of chocolate intake in the prevention of HF. We searched databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus through December 2016 and scrutinized the reference lists of relevant literatures to identify eligible studies. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were aggregated using random effect models. The dose-response relationship between chocolate consumption and incident HF was also assessed. This meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42017054230. Five prospective studies with 106,109 participants were finally included. Compared to no consumption of chocolate, the pooled HRs (95% CIs) of HF were 0.86 (0.82-0.91) for low-to-moderate consumption (<7 servings/week) and 0.94 (0.80-1.09) for high consumption (≥7 servings/week). In dose-response meta-analysis, we detected a curve linear relationship between chocolate consumption and risk of HF ( p for nonlinearity = 0.005). Compared with non-consumption, the HRs (95% CIs) of HF across chocolate consumption levels were 0.92 (0.88-0.97), 0.86 (0.78-0.94), 0.93 (0.85-1.03), and 1.07 (0.92-1.23) for 1, 3, 7, and 10 servings/week, respectively. In conclusion, chocolate consumption in moderation may be associated with a decreased risk of HF.

  4. 21 CFR 163.123 - Sweet chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... chocolate liquor with one or more optional nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, and may contain one or more of... following safe and suitable ingredients may be used: (1) Cacao fat; (2) Nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners...

  5. 21 CFR 163.123 - Sweet chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... chocolate liquor with one or more optional nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, and may contain one or more of... following safe and suitable ingredients may be used: (1) Cacao fat; (2) Nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners...

  6. 21 CFR 163.123 - Sweet chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... chocolate liquor with one or more optional nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, and may contain one or more of... following safe and suitable ingredients may be used: (1) Cacao fat; (2) Nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners...

  7. Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ried, Karin; Sullivan, Thomas; Fakler, Peter; Frank, Oliver R; Stocks, Nigel P

    2010-06-28

    Dark chocolate and flavanol-rich cocoa products have attracted interest as an alternative treatment option for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently, several additional trials have been conducted with conflicting results. Our study summarises current evidence on the effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals. We searched Medline, Cochrane and international trial registries between 1955 and 2009 for randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of cocoa as food or drink compared with placebo on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted random effects meta-analysis of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, as well as subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive). Meta-regression analysis explored the association between type of treatment, dosage, duration or baseline blood pressure and blood pressure outcome. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Fifteen trial arms of 13 assessed studies met the inclusion criteria. Pooled meta-analysis of all trials revealed a significant blood pressure-reducing effect of cocoa-chocolate compared with control (mean BP change +/- SE: SBP: -3.2 +/- 1.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; DBP: -2.0 +/- 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.003). However, subgroup meta-analysis was significant only for the hypertensive or prehypertensive subgroups (SBP: -5.0 +/- 3.0 mmHg; P = 0.0009; DBP: -2.7 +/- 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.01), while BP was not significantly reduced in the normotensive subgroups (SBP: -1.6 +/- 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.17; DBP: -1.3 +/- 1.6 mmHg, P = 0.12). Nine trials used chocolate containing 50% to 70% cocoa compared with white chocolate or other cocoa-free controls, while six trials compared high- with low-flavanol cocoa products. Daily flavanol dosages ranged from 30 mg to 1000 mg in the active treatment

  8. Cadmium and lead in cocoa powder and chocolate products in the US Market.

    PubMed

    Abt, Eileen; Fong Sam, Jennifer; Gray, Patrick; Robin, Lauren Posnick

    2018-06-01

    Cocoa powder and chocolate products are known to sometimes contain cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) from environmental origins. A convenience sample of cocoa powder, dark chocolate, milk chocolate, and cocoa nib products was purchased at retail in the US and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to assess Cd and Pb concentrations. Cd and Pb were evaluated in relation to the percent cocoa solids and to the reported origin of the cocoa powder and chocolate products. Cd ranged from 0.004 to 3.15 mg/kg and Pb ranged from chocolate products.

  9. How visual images of chocolate affect the craving and guilt of female dieters.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Ben C; Pine, Karen J; Woodbridge, Zoe; Nash, Avril

    2007-03-01

    This study asks whether exposure to images of chocolate induces cravings and guilty feelings in females. A further aim was to examine whether these effects are heightened in the case of dieters. The participants, 85 females, saw a series of enticing media images, either of chocolate or of non-food products. Two thirds of the sample were dieting or had dieted in the past; 15% had been on seven or more diets. After viewing the images all participants completed the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire (ACQ) [Benton, Greenfield, & Morgan (1998). The development of the attitudes to chocolate questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differences, 24(4), 513-520]. The different conditions affected only those who dieted. Dieters had significantly higher ACQ scores after viewing the chocolate images than the non-dieters. It is suggested that dietary restriction increases desire for forbidden foods, in the form of craving, and may induce negative affect such as guilt, anxiety and depression.

  10. Chocolate consumption and risk of diabetes mellitus in the Physicians’ Health Study1234

    PubMed Central

    Petrone, Andrew B; Sesso, Howard D; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies reported beneficial effects of cocoa or chocolate on insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation, which are important risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). However, it is unclear whether chocolate consumption is associated with risk of DM. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that chocolate consumption is inversely associated with incident DM in the Physicians’ Health Study (PHS). Design: We prospectively analyzed data on 18,235 PHS participants who were free of DM at baseline (1997–2001). Chocolate consumption was obtained from a baseline food-frequency questionnaire. Incident DM was ascertained via annual follow-up questionnaires and validated in a subsample by a review of medical records. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and 95% CIs of DM. Results: The mean (±SD) age at baseline was 66.3 ± 9.2 y. During a mean follow up of 9.2 y, 1123 men (6.2%) developed DM. For self-reported chocolate consumption of none, 1–3 servings/mo, 1 serving/wk, and ≥2 servings/wk, multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of DM adjusted for lifestyle, clinical, and dietary risk factors including total energy intake were 1.00 (referent), 0.93 (0.79, 1.09), 0.86 (0.72, 1.04), and 0.83 (0.69, 0.99), respectively (P-trend = 0.047). In secondary analyses, the inverse association of chocolate consumption and risk of DM was slightly stronger in subjects without a history of cardiovascular disease or heart failure (P-trend = 0.023). In addition, both age and BMI modified the chocolate-DM relation (P < 0.05 each). Conclusion: Our data support an inverse relation of chocolate intake with incident DM, which appears only to apply in younger and normal–body weight men after controlling for comprehensive life styles including total energy consumption. PMID:25646334

  11. Minimizing the Negative Flavor Attributes and Evaluating Consumer Acceptance of Chocolate Fortified with Peanut Skin Extracts.

    PubMed

    Dean, L L; Klevorn, C M; Hess, B J

    2016-10-13

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in antioxidant-rich products by consumers wanting to enhance the health benefits of their diet. Chocolate has been identified as a natural source of antioxidant compounds, which resulted in the development of polyphenol-enriched chocolate products that are now available commercially. This study investigated the use of phenolic compounds extracted from peanut skins as a novel antioxidant source for the enrichment of milk chocolate. The extracts were encapsulated with maltodextrin to lessen their bitterness. Antioxidant potential of the encapsulated peanut skin extracts was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazl radical quenching assay. Encapsulated peanut skins were found to have a corrected Trolox equivalency of 31.1 μmol/g of chocolate up to 0.8% (w/w). To produce a product with an antioxidant content similar to that of dark chocolate yet which maintained the milder flavor of milk chocolate, the best estimate threshold of encapsulated peanut skin extract in chocolate was 0.9 % (w/w) based on the standard method (American Society of Testing Materials; ASTM E-679). Consumer liking of milk chocolate enhanced by adding subthreshold (0.8 % (w/w)) inclusion levels of encapsulated peanut skin extract was found to be at parity with milk chocolate as a control. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Does dark chocolate have a role in the prevention and management of hypertension?: commentary on the evidence.

    PubMed

    Egan, Brent M; Laken, Marilyn A; Donovan, Jennifer L; Woolson, Robert F

    2010-06-01

    The notion that eating chocolate would prevent or treat hypertension is appealing to many who produce and enjoy chocolate. Several studies have documented beneficial effects of dark chocolate on insulin action and endothelial function. However, the published studies on chocolate and blood pressure include a relatively small number of subjects, and results are conflicting. In addition, because of secrecy surrounding the production of chocolate and the unique sociocultural context of this popular food, research on efficacy and effectiveness is complex. This commentary summarizes 13 peer-reviewed studies on dark chocolate and blood pressure and raises questions relevant to its future as an evidence-based lifestyle intervention.

  13. Expectancy for food or expectancy for chocolate reveals timing systems for metabolism and reward.

    PubMed

    Angeles-Castellanos, M; Salgado-Delgado, R; Rodríguez, K; Buijs, R M; Escobar, C

    2008-07-31

    The clock gene protein Per 1 (PER1) is expressed in several brain structures and oscillates associated with the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Restricted feeding schedules (RFS) induce anticipatory activity and impose daily oscillations of c-Fos and clock proteins in brain structures. Daily access to a palatable treat (chocolate) also elicits anticipatory activity and induces c-Fos expression mainly in corticolimbic structures. Here the influence of daily access to food or chocolate was explored by the analysis of the oscillatory patterns of PER1 in hypothalamic and corticolimbic structures. Wistar rats were exposed to RFS or to daily access to chocolate for 3 weeks. Persistence of food or chocolate entrained rhythms was determined 8 days after cessation of the feeding protocols. RFS and chocolate induced a phase shift in PER1 rhythmicity in corticolimbic structures with peak values at zeitgeber time 12 and a higher amplitude in the chocolate group. Both RFS and chocolate groups showed an upregulation of PER1 in the SCN. Food and chocolate entrained rhythms persisted for 8 days in behavior and in PER1 expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, accumbens, prefrontal cortex and central amygdala. The present data demonstrate the existence of different oscillatory systems in the brain that can be activated by entrainment to metabolic stimuli or to reward and suggest the participation of PER1 in both entraining pathways. Persistence and amplification of PER1 oscillations in structures associated with reward suggest that this oscillatory process is fundamental to food addictive behavior.

  14. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women.

    PubMed

    Massolt, Elske T; van Haard, Paul M; Rehfeld, Jens F; Posthuma, Eduardus F; van der Veer, Eveline; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2010-04-09

    Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa, 12.5 g of sugar per 100g product). Twelve female residents (BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2)) all participated in two 60-minute study sessions. In the first session, all 12 women ate chocolate; for the second session, they were randomized either to smell chocolate (n=6) or to serve as a control (no eating or smelling; n=6). At the start of the sessions, levels of insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK), but not glucose, correlated with appetite scored on a visual analogue scale (VAS). In contrast, ghrelin levels correlated inversely with scored appetite. Chocolate eating and smelling both induced a similar appetite suppression with a disappearance of correlations between VAS scores and insulin, GLP-1 and CCK levels. However, while the correlation between VAS score and ghrelin disappeared completely after chocolate eating, it reversed after chocolate smelling, that is, olfactory stimulation with dark chocolate (85%) resulted in a satiation response that correlated inversely with ghrelin levels. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Blooming reduces the antioxidant capacity of dark chocolate in rats without lowering its capacity to improve lipid profiles.

    PubMed

    Shadwell, Naomi; Villalobos, Fatima; Kern, Mark; Hong, Mee Young

    2013-05-01

    Dark chocolate contains high levels of antioxidants which are linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Chocolate blooming occurs after exposure to high temperatures. Although bloomed chocolate is safe for human consumption, it is not known whether or not the biological function of bloomed chocolate is affected. We hypothesized that bloomed chocolate would reduce the antioxidant potential and lipid-lowering properties of chocolate through altered expression of related genes. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups and fed either the control (CON), regular dark chocolate (RDC), or bloomed dark chocolate (BDC) diet. After 3 weeks, serum lipid levels and antioxidant capacity were measured. Hepatic expression of key genes was determined by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sensory characteristics of bloomed versus regular chocolate were assessed in 28 semi-trained panelists. Rats fed RDC exhibited greater serum antioxidant capacities compared to the CON (P < .05). Antioxidant levels of BDC were not different from RDC or CON. Both RDC and BDC lowered TG compared to CON (P < .05). The rats fed RDC had higher high-density lipoprotein levels compared to the CON (P < .05). In rats given RDC, fatty acid synthase gene expression was down-regulated and low-density lipoprotein receptor transcription was up-regulated (P < .05). Sensory panelists preferred the appearance and surface smoothness of the regular chocolate compared to bloomed chocolate (P < .001). Although blooming blunted the robust antioxidant response produced by regular dark chocolate, these results suggest that bloomed dark chocolate yields similarly beneficial effects on most blood lipid parameters or biomarkers. However, regular dark chocolate may be more beneficial for the improvement of antioxidant status and modulation of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism and promoted greater sensory ratings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Protective effects of flavanol-rich dark chocolate on endothelial function and wave reflection during acute hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Davide; Desideri, Giovambattista; Necozione, Stefano; Ruggieri, Fabrizio; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Stornello, Michele; Ferri, Claudio

    2012-09-01

    Nitric oxide plays a pivotal role in regulating vascular tone. Different studies show endothelial function is impaired during hyperglycemia. Dark chocolate increases flow-mediated dilation in healthy and hypertensive subjects with and without glucose intolerance; however, the effect of pretreatment with dark chocolate on endothelial function and other vascular responses to hyperglycemia has not been examined. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of flavanol-rich dark chocolate administration on (1) flow-mediated dilation and wave reflections; (2) blood pressure, endothelin-1 and oxidative stress, before and after oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Twelve healthy volunteers (5 males, 28.2±2.7 years) randomly received either 100 g/d dark chocolate or flavanol-free white chocolate for 3 days. After 7 days washout period, volunteers were switched to the other treatment. Flow-mediated dilation, stiffness index, reflection index, peak-to-peak time, blood pressure, endothelin-1 and 8-iso-PGF(2α) were evaluated after each treatment phase and OGTT. Compared with white chocolate, dark chocolate ingestion improved flow-mediated dilation (P=0.03), wave reflections, endothelin-1 and 8-iso-PGF(2α) (P<0.05). After white chocolate ingestion, flow-mediated dilation was reduced after OGTT from 7.88±0.68 to 6.07±0.76 (P=0.027), 6.74±0.51 (P=0.046) at 1 and 2 h after the glucose load, respectively. Similarly, after white chocolate but not after dark chocolate, wave reflections, blood pressure, and endothelin-1 and 8-iso-PGF(2α) increased after OGTT. OGTT causes acute, transient impairment of endothelial function and oxidative stress, which is attenuated by flavanol-rich dark chocolate. These results suggest cocoa flavanols may contribute to vascular health by reducing the postprandial impairment of arterial function associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  17. Exploring Measurement Error with Cookies: A Real and Virtual Approach via Interactive Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinex, Scott A; Gage, Barbara A.; Beck, Peggy J.

    2007-01-01

    A simple, guided-inquiry investigation using stacked sandwich cookies is employed to develop a simple linear mathematical model and to explore measurement error by incorporating errors as part of the investigation. Both random and systematic errors are presented. The model and errors are then investigated further by engaging with an interactive…

  18. High-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate improves HDL cholesterol in Type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Mellor, D D; Sathyapalan, T; Kilpatrick, E S; Beckett, S; Atkin, S L

    2010-11-01

    To examine the effects of chocolate on lipid profiles, weight and glycaemic control in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Twelve individuals with Type 2 diabetes on stable medication were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study. Subjects were randomized to 45 g chocolate with or without a high polyphenol content for 8 weeks and then crossed over after a 4-week washout period. Changes in weight, glycaemic control, lipid profile and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured at the beginning and at the end of each intervention. HDL cholesterol increased significantly with high polyphenol chocolate (1.16 ± 0.08 vs. 1.26 ± 0.08 mmol/l, P = 0.05) with a decrease in the total cholesterol: HDL ratio (4.4 ± 0.4 vs. 4.1 ± 0.4 mmol/l, P = 0.04). No changes were seen with the low polyphenol chocolate in any parameters. Over the course of 16 weeks of daily chocolate consumption neither weight nor glycaemic control altered from baseline. High polyphenol chocolate is effective in improving the atherosclerotic cholesterol profile in patients with diabetes by increasing HDL cholesterol and improving the cholesterol:HDL ratio without affecting weight, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance or glycaemic control.

  19. The effects of low fat chocolate milk on postexercise recovery in collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Spaccarotella, Kim J; Andzel, Walter D

    2011-12-01

    Spaccarotella, KJ and Andzel, WD. The effects of low fat chocolate milk on postexercise recovery in collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3456-3460, 2011-Drinking chocolate milk between exercise sessions may improve recovery. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of low fat chocolate milk vs. a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage (CE) on recovery between preseason practice sessions among 5 male and 8 female Division III soccer players. The study used a randomized crossover design: between morning and afternoon practices, athletes received either an amount of chocolate milk that provided 1 g carbohydrate per kilogram body weight or an equal volume of CE (mean volume of 615 ± 101 ml). After their afternoon practice, they completed a shuttle run to fatigue. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon paired rank-sign test (for shuttle run time) and the paired samples t-test (for dietary intake). No significant differences in run time were reported for the group. For the men only, there was a trend of increased time to fatigue with chocolate milk compared with the CE (exact p = 0.03). Low fat chocolate milk may therefore be as good as a CE at promoting recovery between training sessions during preseason.

  20. The effectiveness of chocolate milk as a post-climbing recovery aid.

    PubMed

    Potter, J; Fuller, B

    2015-12-01

    Recovery is essential to effective performance in climbing competitions which often involve repeated bouts, and sport climbing where climbers may work a route over a number of days prior to a complete ascent. This study employed a cross-over design to compare water with chocolate milk as recovery aids following an exhaustive bout of high intensity endurance climbing. Ten male climbers (age: 22±1 years; height: 178.5±7.9 cm; mass: 74.7±11.3 kg) climbed a Tredwall (Brewer Ledge M6) until volitional exhaustion. The participants consumed either water or chocolate milk 20 minutes after the climb and then again with their evening meal. The exercise protocol was repeated 24 hours after the original climb. The second condition was completed 7 days later. Workload indicators of heart rate, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate and muscle soreness scores were recorded alongside climbing performance measures of duration and distance of the climb. A improved performance was found after the consumption of chocolate milk, with both a greater distance climbed (F(1,9)=11.704, P=0.008) and duration (F(1,9) =10.922, P=0.009), there were no differences in end of climb heart rate or RPE. Muscle soreness scores were lower three days after exercise following chocolate milk (t(8)=3.773, P=0.005). Chocolate milk as a recovery drink resulted in further sustained climbing, a decrease in muscle soreness, compared to water. It may be pertinent for climbers to consider its use as a recovery aid during repeated climbing bouts. Chocolate milk is a relatively unexplored recovery aid and warrants further attention.

  1. NOX2-mediated arterial dysfunction in smokers: acute effect of dark chocolate.

    PubMed

    Loffredo, Lorenzo; Carnevale, Roberto; Perri, Ludovica; Catasca, Elisa; Augelletti, Teresa; Cangemi, Roberto; Albanese, Fabiana; Piccheri, Cristina; Nocella, Cristina; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Violi, Francesco

    2011-11-01

    Cocoa seems to exert artery dilatation via oxidative stress inhibition but the mechanism is still unclear. To investigate whether in smokers, dark chocolate elicits artery dilatation via down-regulation of NOX2, the catalytic core of NADPH oxidase. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), oxidative stress (as assessed by urinary isoprostanes excretion), nitric oxide generation (as assessed by serum levels of nitrite/nitrate (NOx)), NOX2 activity (as assessed by blood levels of soluble NOX2 derived peptide (sNOX2-dp)) and serum epicatechin were studied in 20 smokers and 20 healthy subjects (HS) in a crossover, single-blind study. Patients were randomly allocated to 40 g dark chocolate (>85% cocoa) or 40 g of milk chocolate (≤35% cocoa). FMD, urinary isoprostanes, NOx and sNOX2-dp were assessed at baseline and 2 h after chocolate ingestion. Smokers had lower FMD and NOx and higher sNOX2-dp compared to HS. After dark chocolate intake, urinary isoprostanes and sNOX2-dp significantly decreased and FMD and NOx significantly increased in smokers but not in HS. No changes of the above variables were observed after milk chocolate intake. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that in smokers the only independent predictive variable associated with a change in FMD was a change in sNOX2-dp. Serum epicatechin increased in either group only after dark chocolate intake, reaching values higher than 0.1 μM. Platelets from smokers (n=5), but not from HS (n=5), showed lower p47(phox) translocation to platelet membrane and higher NOx when incubated with 0.1-10 μM epicatechin. Results suggest that in smokers, cocoa enhances artery dilatation by lowering of NOX2 activation.

  2. "Smooth operator": Music modulates the perceived creaminess, sweetness, and bitterness of chocolate.

    PubMed

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Wang, Qian Janice; van Ee, Raymond; Persoone, Dominique; Spence, Charles

    2017-01-01

    There has been a recent growth of interest in determining whether sound (specifically music and soundscapes) can enhance not only the basic taste attributes associated with food and beverage items (such as sweetness, bitterness, sourness, etc.), but also other important components of the tasting experience, such as, for instance, crunchiness, creaminess, and/or carbonation. In the present study, participants evaluated the perceived creaminess of chocolate. Two contrasting soundtracks were produced with such texture-correspondences in mind, and validated by means of a pre-test. The participants tasted the same chocolate twice (without knowing that the chocolates were identical), each time listening to one of the soundtracks. The 'creamy' soundtrack enhanced the perceived creaminess and sweetness of the chocolates, as compared to the ratings given while listening to the 'rough' soundtrack. Moreover, while the participants preferred the creamy soundtrack, this difference did not appear to affect their overall enjoyment of the chocolates. Interestingly, and in contrast with previous similar studies, these results demonstrate that in certain cases, sounds can have a perceptual effect on gustatory food attributes without necessarily altering the hedonic experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rheological Modification of Reduced Fat Chocolate Induced by the Addition of Limonene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, T.-A. Line; Vieira, Joselio; Hargreaves, Jeremy; Wolf, Bettina; Mitchell, John

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to understand how the addition of limonene, a low molecular weight hydrophobic compound, to chocolate, leads to a decrease in the viscosity of molten chocolate. Chocolate is a fat (cocoa butter) based dispersion of solids (sugar, cocoa and milk solids). We showed that, by mixing with cocoa butter, limonene decreases the viscosity of chocolate by decreasing the viscosity of its continuous phase, liquid cocoa butter. To understand the functionality of limonene in decreasing the viscosity of cocoa butter (triacylglyceride melt), additional mixtures of cocoa butter and limonene were prepared and their viscosity was measured. The dependence of the viscosity on the ratio of cocoa butter to limonene analyzed using Kay's equation seems to indicate that limonene mixes with and within the cocoa butter triacylglycerides, diluting the fat and leading to a decrease in the overall fat viscosity.

  4. Chocolate consumption and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the NHLBI Family Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Tokede, Oluwabunmi A; Ellison, Curtis R; Pankow, James S; North, Kari E; Hunt, Steven C; Kraja, Aldi T; Arnett, Donna K; Djoussé, Luc

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that cocoa products, which are rich sources of flavonoids, may lower blood pressure, serum cholesterol, fasting blood glucose and improve endothelial function. However, it is unclear whether consumption of cocoa products including chocolate influences the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). In a cross-sectional design, we sought to examine the association between chocolate consumption and the prevalence of MetS. We studied 4098 participants from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Family Heart Study aged 25-93 years. Chocolate consumption was assessed using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. MetS was defined using the NCEP III criteria. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate prevalence odds ratios of MetS according to frequency of chocolate intake. Of the 4098 participants (mean age 51.7 y) included in the analyses, 2206 (53.8%) were female. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our population was 30.2%. Compared with those who did not consume any chocolate, multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for MetS were 1.26 (0.94, 1.69), 1.15 (0.85, 1.55), and 0.99 (0.66, 1.51) among women who reported chocolate consumption of 1-3 times/ month, 1-4 times/week, and 5+ times/week, respectively. Corresponding values for men were: 1.13 (0.82, 1.57), 1.02 (0.74, 1.39), and 1.21 (0.79, 1.85). These data do not support an association between chocolate intake and the prevalence of MetS in US adult men and women.

  5. Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Heart Failure: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Fei; Yao, Shuyuan; Wan, Jing; Gan, Xuedong

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown inconsistent findings on the association between chocolate consumption and risk of heart failure (HF). We, therefore, performed a meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the role of chocolate intake in the prevention of HF. We searched databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus through December 2016 and scrutinized the reference lists of relevant literatures to identify eligible studies. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were aggregated using random effect models. The dose–response relationship between chocolate consumption and incident HF was also assessed. This meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42017054230. Five prospective studies with 106,109 participants were finally included. Compared to no consumption of chocolate, the pooled HRs (95% CIs) of HF were 0.86 (0.82–0.91) for low-to-moderate consumption (<7 servings/week) and 0.94 (0.80–1.09) for high consumption (≥7 servings/week). In dose–response meta-analysis, we detected a curve linear relationship between chocolate consumption and risk of HF (p for nonlinearity = 0.005). Compared with non-consumption, the HRs (95% CIs) of HF across chocolate consumption levels were 0.92 (0.88–0.97), 0.86 (0.78–0.94), 0.93 (0.85–1.03), and 1.07 (0.92–1.23) for 1, 3, 7, and 10 servings/week, respectively. In conclusion, chocolate consumption in moderation may be associated with a decreased risk of HF. PMID:28425931

  6. Flavor formation and character in cocoa and chocolate: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Paterson, Alistair; Fowler, Mark; Ryan, Angela

    2008-10-01

    Chocolate characters not only originate in flavor precursors present in cocoa beans, but are generated during post-harvest treatments and transformed into desirable odor notes in the manufacturing processes. Complex biochemical modifications of bean constituents are further altered by thermal reactions in roasting and conching and in alkalization. However, the extent to which the inherent bean constituents from the cocoa genotype, environmental factors, post-harvest treatment, and processing technologies influence chocolate flavor formation and relationships with final flavor quality, has not been clear. With increasing speciality niche products in chocolate confectionery, greater understanding of factors contributing to the variations in flavor character would have significant commercial implications.

  7. Dark chocolate or tomato extract for prehypertension: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ried, Karin; Frank, Oliver R; Stocks, Nigel P

    2009-07-08

    Flavanol-rich chocolate and lycopene-rich tomato extract have attracted interest as potential alternative treatment options for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Treatment of prehypertension (SBP 120-139/DBP 80-89 mmHg) may forestall progression to hypertension. However, there has been only limited research into non-pharmacological treatment options for prehypertension. We investigated the effect of dark chocolate or tomato extract on blood pressure, and their acceptability as an ongoing treatment option in a prehypertensive population. Our trial consisted of two phases: a randomised controlled three-group-parallel trial over 12 weeks (phase 1) followed by a crossover of the two active treatment arms over an additional 12-week period (phase 2). Group 1 received a 50 g daily dose of dark chocolate with 70% cocoa containing 750 mg polyphenols, group 2 were allocated one tomato extract capsule containing 15 mg lycopene per day, and group 3 received one placebo capsule daily over 8 weeks followed by a 4-week washout period. In phase 2 the active treatment groups were crossed over to receive the alternative treatment. Median blood pressure, weight, and abdominal circumference were measured 4-weekly, and other characteristics including physical activity, general health, energy, mood, and acceptability of treatment were assessed by questionnaire at 0, 8 and 20 weeks. We analysed changes over time using a linear mixed model, and one time point differences using Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher's-Exact, or t-tests. Thirty-six prehypertensive healthy adult volunteers completed the 6-month trial. Blood pressure changes over time within groups and between groups were not significant and independent of treatment. Weight and other characteristics did not change significantly during the trial. However, a marked difference in acceptability between the two treatment forms (chocolate or capsule) was revealed (p < 0.0001). Half of the participants

  8. Dark chocolate or tomato extract for prehypertension: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ried, Karin; Frank, Oliver R; Stocks, Nigel P

    2009-01-01

    Background Flavanol-rich chocolate and lycopene-rich tomato extract have attracted interest as potential alternative treatment options for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Treatment of prehypertension (SBP 120–139/DBP 80–89 mmHg) may forestall progression to hypertension. However, there has been only limited research into non-pharmacological treatment options for prehypertension. We investigated the effect of dark chocolate or tomato extract on blood pressure, and their acceptability as an ongoing treatment option in a prehypertensive population. Methods Our trial consisted of two phases: a randomised controlled three-group-parallel trial over 12 weeks (phase 1) followed by a crossover of the two active treatment arms over an additional 12-week period (phase 2). Group 1 received a 50 g daily dose of dark chocolate with 70% cocoa containing 750 mg polyphenols, group 2 were allocated one tomato extract capsule containing 15 mg lycopene per day, and group 3 received one placebo capsule daily over 8 weeks followed by a 4-week washout period. In phase 2 the active treatment groups were crossed over to receive the alternative treatment. Median blood pressure, weight, and abdominal circumference were measured 4-weekly, and other characteristics including physical activity, general health, energy, mood, and acceptability of treatment were assessed by questionnaire at 0, 8 and 20 weeks. We analysed changes over time using a linear mixed model, and one time point differences using Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher's-Exact, or t-tests. Results Thirty-six prehypertensive healthy adult volunteers completed the 6-month trial. Blood pressure changes over time within groups and between groups were not significant and independent of treatment. Weight and other characteristics did not change significantly during the trial. However, a marked difference in acceptability between the two treatment forms (chocolate or capsule) was revealed (p < 0

  9. Short-term effects of a low glycemic index carob-containing snack on energy intake, satiety, and glycemic response in normal-weight, healthy adults: Results from two randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Papakonstantinou, Emilia; Orfanakos, Nickolaos; Farajian, Paul; Kapetanakou, Anastasia E; Makariti, Ifigenia P; Grivokostopoulos, Nikolaos; Ha, Marie-Ann; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2017-10-01

    The potential positive health effects of carob-containing snacks are largely unknown. Therefore, the aims of these studies were to determine the glycemic index (GI) of a carob snack compared with chocolate cookie containing equal amounts of available carbohydrates and to compare the effects of a carob versus chocolate cookie preload consumed as snack before a meal on (a) short-term satiety response measured by subsequent ad libitum meal intake, (b) subjective satiety as assessed by visual analog scales and (c) postprandial glycemic response. Ten healthy, normal-weight volunteers participated in GI investigation. Then, 50 healthy, normal-weight individuals consumed, crossover, in random order, the preloads as snack, with 1-wk washout period. Ad libitum meal (lunch and dessert) was offered. Capillary blood glucose samples were collected at baseline, 2 h after breakfast, just before preload consumption, 2 h after preload, 3 h after preload, just before meal (lunch and dessert), 1 h after meal, and 2 h after meal consumption. The carob snack was a low GI food, whereas the chocolate cookie was a high GI food (40 versus 78, respectively, on glucose scale). Consumption of the carob preload decreased the glycemic response to a following meal and to the individual's feelings of hunger, desire to eat, preoccupation with food, and thirst between snack and meal, as assessed with the use of visual analog scales. Subsequently, participants consumed less amounts of food (g) and had lower total energy intake at mealtimes. The carob snack led to increased satiety, lower energy intake at meal, and decreased postmeal glycemic response possibly due to its low GI value. Identifying foods that promote satiety and decrease glycemic response without increasing the overall energy intake may offer advantages to body weight and glycemic control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Chocolate intake and diabetes risk in postmenopausal American women.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J A; Manson, J E; Tinker, L; Neuhouser, M L; Garcia, L; Vitolins, M Z; Phillips, L S

    2017-09-01

    Recent long-term prospective cohort studies found inverse associations between chocolate consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes, but provided conflicting evidence on the nature of the association among women. To assess this association in a large cohort of American women. Multivariable Cox regression was used with the data from 92 678 postmenopausal women in the prospective Women's Health Initiative study. Chocolate intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Incidence of type 2 diabetes was determined by self-report of the first treatment with oral medication or insulin. Among women free of diabetes at baseline, there were 10 804 cases, representing an incidence rate of 11.7% during 13.1 years and 1 164 498 person-years of follow-up. There was no significant linear association between long-term chocolate intake and type 2 diabetes risk, but there was significantly reduced risk at moderate levels of intake. Compared to women who ate 1 oz. of chocolate <1 time per month, those who ate this amount 1-<1.5 times per month, 1.5-<3.5 times per month, 3.5 times per month to <3 times per week and ⩾3 times per week had hazard ratios of 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.92, 1.04), 0.92 (0.87, 0.98), 0.93 (0.88, 0.98) and 0.98 (0.92, 1.04) (P for linear trend=0.79). There was only evidence of such inverse associations for women with below-median physical activity (P for interaction <0.0001) and those with age<65 years (P=0.01). We only found an inverse association between chocolate consumption and type 2 diabetes at moderate levels of consumption in two subgroups of postmenopausal women in the Women's Health initiative cohort.

  11. A comparative study of aroma-active compounds between dark and milk chocolate: relationship to sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianbin; Liu, Mengya; He, Congcong; Song, Huanlu; Guo, Jia; Wang, Ye; Yang, Haiying; Su, Xiaoxia

    2015-04-01

    The most important aroma-active compounds of two types of chocolate and cocoa liquor used for their production were analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Furthermore, the relationship between odorants and sensory perception of chocolate was measured by quantitative analysis, sensory evaluation and correlation analysis. In addition, some chemicals were added to the original dark or milk chocolate to validate their roles in the aroma property of chocolate. A total of 32 major aroma-active compounds were identified in the chocolate with the flavour dilution factors of 27-729 by AEDA, including seven aldehydes, six pyrazines, three pyrroles, four carboxylic acids, four lactones, two alcohols, two ketones, one ester, one pyrone, one furan and one sulfur-containing compound. Further quantitative analysis showed that dark chocolate had higher contents of pyrazine, pyrrole, carboxylic acids, alcohols and Strecker aldehydes, whereas the concentration of lactones, esters, long chain aldehydes and ketones were higher in the milk type. Differences in volatile composition and descriptive flavour attributes between the dark and milk chocolate were observed. The relationship between aroma-active compounds and sensory perception in the chocolate was verified. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Easy Extraction Method To Evaluate δ13C Vanillin by Liquid Chromatography-Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry in Chocolate Bars and Chocolate Snack Foods.

    PubMed

    Bononi, Monica; Quaglia, Giancarlo; Tateo, Fernando

    2015-05-20

    An easy extraction method that permits the use of a liquid chromatography-isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS) system to evaluate δ(13)C of vanillin in chocolate products and industrial flavorings is presented. The method applies the determination of stable isotopes of carbon to discriminate between natural vanillin from vanilla beans and vanillin from other sources (mixtures from beans, synthesis, or biotechnology). A series of 13 chocolate bars and chocolate snack foods available on the Italian market and 8 vanilla flavorings derived from industrial quality control processes were analyzed. Only 30% of products considered in this work that declared "vanilla" on the label showed data that permitted the declaration "vanilla" according to European Union (EU) Regulation 1334/2008. All samples not citing "vanilla" or "natural flavoring" on the label gave the correct declaration. The extraction method is presented with data useful for statistical evaluation.

  13. Dark chocolate and vascular function in patients with peripheral artery disease: a randomized, controlled cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Alexandra; Koppensteiner, Renate; Steiner, Sabine; Niessner, Alexander; Goliasch, Georg; Gschwandtner, Michael; Hoke, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate has positive effects on vascular function in healthy subjects and in patients at risk of atherosclerosis. The impact of dark chocolate on endothelial and microvascular function in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) has not been investigated so far. In an investigator blinded, randomized, controlled, cross-over trial we assessed the effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate and cocoa-free control chocolate on flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery and on microvascular function (assessed by Laser Doppler fluxmetry) in 21 patients with symptomatic (Fontaine stage II) PAD. Measurements were done in each patient on 2 single days, with an interval of 7 days, at baseline and at 2 hours after ingestion of 50 g dark chocolate or 50 g white chocolate, respectively. FMD remained unchanged after intake of dark chocolate (baseline and 2 hours after ingestion, %: 5.1 [IQR 4.4 to 7.3] and 5.5 [IQR 3.9 to 10.4]; p = 0.57, and after intake of white chocolate (baseline and 2 hours after ingestion, %: 6.4 [IQR 4.5 to 11.4] and 4.4 [IQR 2.6 to 8.7]; p = 0.14. Similarly, microcirculatory parameters were not significantly altered after intake of any chocolate compared with the respective baseline values. In conclusion, a single consumption of 50 g dark chocolate has no effect on endothelial and microvascular function in patients with symptomatic PAD.

  14. Chocolate consumption and mortality following a first acute myocardial infarction: the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program.

    PubMed

    Janszky, I; Mukamal, K J; Ljung, R; Ahnve, S; Ahlbom, A; Hallqvist, J

    2009-09-01

    To assess the long-term effects of chocolate consumption amongst patients with established coronary heart disease. In a population-based inception cohort study, we followed 1169 non-diabetic patients hospitalized with a confirmed first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between 1992 and 1994 in Stockholm County, Sweden, as part of the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program. Participants self-reported usual chocolate consumption over the preceding 12 months with a standardized questionnaire distributed during hospitalization and underwent a health examination 3 months after discharge. Participants were followed for hospitalizations and mortality with national registries for 8 years. Chocolate consumption had a strong inverse association with cardiac mortality. When compared with those never eating chocolate, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were 0.73 (95% confidence interval, 0.41-1.31), 0.56 (0.32-0.99) and 0.34 (0.17-0.70) for those consuming chocolate less than once per month, up to once per week and twice or more per week respectively. Chocolate consumption generally had an inverse but weak association with total mortality and nonfatal outcomes. In contrast, intake of other sweets was not associated with cardiac or total mortality. Chocolate consumption was associated with lower cardiac mortality in a dose dependent manner in patients free of diabetes surviving their first AMI. Although our findings support increasing evidence that chocolate is a rich source of beneficial bioactive compounds, confirmation of this strong inverse relationship from other observational studies or large-scale, long-term, controlled randomized trials is needed.

  15. Comparison of different methods to quantify fat classes in bakery products.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae-Min; Hwang, Young-Ok; Tu, Ock-Ju; Jo, Han-Bin; Kim, Jung-Hun; Chae, Young-Zoo; Rhu, Kyung-Hun; Park, Seung-Kook

    2013-01-15

    The definition of fat differs in different countries; thus whether fat is listed on food labels depends on the country. Some countries list crude fat content in the 'Fat' section on the food label, whereas other countries list total fat. In this study, three methods were used for determining fat classes and content in bakery products: the Folch method, the automated Soxhlet method, and the AOAC 996.06 method. The results using these methods were compared. Fat (crude) extracted by the Folch and Soxhlet methods was gravimetrically determined and assessed by fat class using capillary gas chromatography (GC). In most samples, fat (total) content determined by the AOAC 996.06 method was lower than the fat (crude) content determined by the Folch or automated Soxhlet methods. Furthermore, monounsaturated fat or saturated fat content determined by the AOAC 996.06 method was lowest. Almost no difference was observed between fat (crude) content determined by the Folch method and that determined by the automated Soxhlet method for nearly all samples. In three samples (wheat biscuits, butter cookies-1, and chocolate chip cookies), monounsaturated fat, saturated fat, and trans fat content obtained by the automated Soxhlet method was higher than that obtained by the Folch method. The polyunsaturated fat content obtained by the automated Soxhlet method was not higher than that obtained by the Folch method in any sample. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Limited Survey of Dark Chocolate Bars Obtained in the United States for Undeclared Milk and Peanut Allergens.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Binaifer; Yu, Ye; Wang, Xue; Garber, Eric A E; Jackson, Lauren S

    2017-04-01

    Undeclared allergens in chocolate products have been responsible for numerous allergen-related recalls in the United States. A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of undeclared milk and peanut in 88 and 78 dark chocolate bars, respectively. Concentrations of milk (as nonfat dry milk) or peanut in three samples of each chocolate product were determined with two milk- or peanut-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. In 75% of the chocolate bar products with a milk advisory statement, milk concentrations were above the limit of quantitation (2.5 μg/g [ppm]), with the majority having concentrations >1,000 ppm. An additional 67% of chocolate bars with a "traces of milk" statement contained 3 to 6,700 ppm of milk. Fifteen percent of chocolates labeled dairy free or lactose free and 25% labeled vegan were positive for milk, all with concentrations >1,000 ppm. Even for chocolates with no reference to milk on the label, 33% of these products contained 60 to 3,400 ppm of milk. The survey of chocolate products for peanuts revealed that 8% of products with an advisory statement contained peanut, with the highest concentration of 550 ppm. All nine chocolates bearing the peanut-free or allergen-free statement were negative for peanut, but 17% of chocolates with no label statement for peanut were positive for peanut at concentrations of 9 to 170 ppm. Evaluation of multiple lots of four chocolate products revealed that milk was consistently present or absent for the products investigated, but mixed results were obtained when multiple lots were tested for peanut. This study indicates that a large proportion of dark chocolate bars contain undeclared milk. The type of advisory statement or the absence of a milk advisory statement on products did not predict the amount or absence of milk protein. In contrast, a lower proportion of chocolates containing undeclared peanut was found. Consumers with food allergies should be cautious when purchasing dark chocolate

  17. Effect of satiety on brain activation during chocolate tasting in men and women.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Paul A M; de Graaf, Cees; Stafleu, Annette; van Osch, Matthias J P; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2006-06-01

    The brain plays a crucial role in the decision to eat, integrating multiple hormonal and neural signals. A key factor controlling food intake is selective satiety, ie, the phenomenon that the motivation to eat more of a food decreases more than does the motivation to eat foods not eaten. We investigated the effect of satiation with chocolate on the brain activation associated with chocolate taste in men and women. Twelve men and 12 women participated. Subjects fasted overnight and were scanned by use of functional magnetic resonance imaging while tasting chocolate milk, before and after eating chocolate until they were satiated. In men, chocolate satiation was associated with increased taste activation in the ventral striatum, insula, and orbitofrontal and medial orbitofrontal cortex and with decreased taste activation in somatosensory areas. Women showed increased taste activation in the precentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and putamen and decreased taste activation in the hypothalamus and amygdala. Sex differences in the effect of chocolate satiation were found in the hypothalamus, ventral striatum, and medial prefrontal cortex (all P < 0.005). Our results indicate that men and women differ in their response to satiation and suggest that the regulation of food intake by the brain may vary between the sexes. Therefore, sex differences are a covariate of interest in studies of the brain's responses to food.

  18. Consumption of chocolate in pregnant women and risk of preeclampsia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mogollon, Jaime Andres; Boivin, Catherine; Philippe, Kadhel; Turcotte, Stéphane; Lemieux, Simone; Blanchet, Claudine; Bujold, Emmanuel; Dodin, Sylvie

    2013-12-20

    Previous studies have been limited in reporting the association between chocolate consumption, measured by interviewer-administered questionnaire or serum theobromine, a biomarker for cocoa, and risk of preeclampsia, and have showed somewhat conflicting results. A systematic review of observational and experimental studies will be carried out. We will examine PubMed, Embase, and the entire Cochrane Library. Studies of chocolate consumption compared or not with placebo or low flavanol chocolate during pregnancy will be evaluated to investigate the effect of chocolate consumption in pregnant women on the risk of preeclampsia or pregnancy-induced hypertension. Screening for inclusion, data extraction, and quality assessment will be performed independently by two reviewers in consultation with a third reviewer. Validity of the studies will be ascertained by using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Relative risk of preeclampsia will be the primary measure of treatment effect. Heterogeneity will be explored by subgroup analysis according to confounding factors and bias. This systematic review will contribute to establish the current state of knowledge concerning the possible association between chocolate consumption and prevention of preeclampsia. Furthermore, it will justify if additional experimental trials are necessary to better evaluate the benefits of chocolate consumption on the risk of preeclampsia. This systematic review has been registered in the PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews. The registration number is: CRD42013005338.

  19. Chocolate consumption and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the NHLBI Family Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Tokede, Oluwabunmi A.; Ellison, Curtis R.; Pankow, James S.; North, Kari E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Arnett, Donna K.; Djoussé, Luc

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Background & aims Previous studies have suggested that cocoa products, which are rich sources of flavonoids, may lower blood pressure, serum cholesterol, fasting blood glucose and improve endothelial function. However, it is unclear whether consumption of cocoa products including chocolate influences the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). In a cross-sectional design, we sought to examine the association between chocolate consumption and the prevalence of MetS. Methods We studied 4098 participants from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Family Heart Study aged 25–93 years. Chocolate consumption was assessed using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. MetS was defined using the NCEP III criteria. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate prevalence odds ratios of MetS according to frequency of chocolate intake. Results Of the 4098 participants (mean age 51.7 y) included in the analyses, 2206 (53.8%) were female. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our population was 30.2%. Compared with those who did not consume any chocolate, multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for MetS were 1.26 (0.94, 1.69), 1.15 (0.85, 1.55), and 0.99 (0.66, 1.51) among women who reported chocolate consumption of 1–3 times/ month, 1–4 times/week, and 5+ times/week, respectively. Corresponding values for men were: 1.13 (0.82, 1.57), 1.02 (0.74, 1.39), and 1.21 (0.79, 1.85). Conclusion These data do not support an association between chocolate intake and the prevalence of MetS in US adult men and women. PMID:25126517

  20. The addition effect of Tunisian date seed fibers on the quality of chocolate spreads.

    PubMed

    Bouaziz, Mohamed Ali; Abbes, Fatma; Mokni, Abir; Blecker, Christophe; Attia, Hamadi; Besbes, Souhail

    2017-04-01

    Novel chocolate spreads were enriched by soluble and insoluble dietary fibers from Tunisian Deglet Nour date seeds at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% levels in the conventional chocolate spread. Defatted Deglet Nour date seeds, date seed soluble fiber concentrate (DSSFC) and date seed insoluble fiber concentrate (DSIFC) were characterized by high levels of dietary fibers (80-90%). Chocolate spread enriched with 5% of DSSFC presented the highest oil binding capacity (304.62%) compared to the control (102%). Whatever the DSIFC and DSSFC incorporation levels, no significant difference was recorded between the firmness, chewiness, and adhesiveness of prepared chocolate spreads compared to the control (p < .05). Sensory evaluation revealed that all prepared chocolate spreads enriched by DSIFC and DSSFC were accepted by panelists. These results indicated the value of date seeds as new source of dietary fibers to develop chocolate spread and could also improve health benefits and functional properties. Tunisia is considered to be one of the dates-producing countries. The mean annual yield of date fruits is about 200,000 tons. From this, around 20,000 tons of date seeds could be collected. This by-product of date processing industries could be regarded as an excellent source of dietary fiber with interesting technological functionality and many beneficial effects on human health. Then, date seeds could present a value addition by extraction and use of date seed fiber concentrate in chocolate spread formulation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Chocolate consumption and risk of atrial fibrillation: Two cohort studies and a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Susanna C; Drca, Nikola; Jensen-Urstad, Mats; Wolk, Alicja

    2018-01-01

    Chocolate consumption has been inconsistently associated with risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). We investigated the association between chocolate consumption and risk of AF in Swedish adults from two cohort studies and conducted a meta-analysis to summarize available evidence from cohort studies on this topic. Our study population comprised 40,009 men from the Cohort of Swedish Men and 32,486 women from the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Incident AF cases were ascertained through linkage with the Swedish National Patient Register. Published cohort studies of chocolate consumption in relation to risk of AF were identified by a PubMed search through September 14, 2017. During a mean follow-up of 14.6 years, AF was diagnosed in 9978 Swedish men and women. Compared with non-consumers, the multivariable hazard ratio of AF for those in the highest category of chocolate consumption (≥3-4 servings/week) was 0.96 (95% CI 0.88-1.04). In a random-effects meta-analysis of 5 cohort studies, including 180,454 participants and 16,356 AF cases, the hazard ratios of AF were 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-1.01) per 2 servings/week increase in chocolate consumption and 0.96 (95% CI 0.90-1.03) for the highest versus lowest category of chocolate consumption. Available data provide no evidence of an association of chocolate consumption with risk of AF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Chocolate consumption and risk of stroke: a prospective cohort of men and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Susanna C; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wolk, Alicja

    2012-09-18

    To investigate the association between chocolate consumption and risk of stroke in men and conduct a meta-analysis to summarize available evidence from prospective studies of chocolate consumption and stroke. We prospectively followed 37,103 men in the Cohort of Swedish Men. Chocolate consumption was assessed at baseline using a food-frequency questionnaire. Cases of first stroke were ascertained from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Registry. For the meta-analysis, pertinent studies were identified by searching the PubMed and EMBASE databases through January 13, 2012. Study-specific results were combined using a random-effects model. During 10.2 years of follow-up, we ascertained 1,995 incident stroke cases, including 1,511 cerebral infarctions, 321 hemorrhagic strokes, and 163 unspecified strokes. High chocolate consumption was associated with a lower risk of stroke. The multivariable relative risk of stroke comparing the highest quartile of chocolate consumption (median 62.9 g/week) with the lowest quartile (median 0 g/week) was 0.83 (95 % CI 0.70-0.99). The association did not differ by stroke subtypes. In a meta-analysis of 5 studies, with a total of 4,260 stroke cases, the overall relative risk of stroke for the highest vs lowest category of chocolate consumption was 0.81 (95% CI 0.73-0.90), without heterogeneity among studies (p = 0.47). These findings suggest that moderate chocolate consumption may lower the risk of stroke.

  3. Bronchiolitis associated with exposure to artificial butter flavoring in workers at a cookie factory in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Zaida do Rego; Albuquerque Filho, Alfredo Pereira Leite de; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro; Coletta, Ester Nei Aparecida Martins

    2012-01-01

    To report the cases of four patients with bronchiolitis caused by exposure to artificial butter flavoring at a cookie factory in Brazil. We described the clinical, tomographic, and spirometric findings in the four patients, as well as the lung biopsy findings in one of the patients. All four patients were young male nonsmokers and developed persistent airflow obstruction (reduced FEV1/FVC ratio and FEV1 at 25-44% of predicted) after 1-3 years of exposure to diacetyl, without the use of personal protective equipment, at a cookie factory. The HRCT findings were indicative of bronchiolitis. In one patient, the surgical lung biopsy revealed bronchiolitis obliterans accompanied by giant cells. Bronchiolitis resulting from exposure to artificial flavoring agents should be included in the differential diagnosis of airflow obstruction in workers in Brazil.

  4. Flavanols and methylxanthines in commercially available dark chocolate: a study of the correlation with nonfat cocoa solids.

    PubMed

    Langer, Swen; Marshall, Lisa J; Day, Andrea J; Morgan, Michael R A

    2011-08-10

    Intake of flavanols, a subgroup of dietary polyphenols present in many fruits and vegetables, may be associated with health benefits, particularly with reducing the risk of coronary diseases. Cocoa and chocolate products are rich in flavanol monomers, oligomers, and polymers (procyanidins). This study used normal phase HPLC to detect, identify, and quantify epicatechin, catechin, total monomers, procyanidin oligomers and polymers in 14 commercially available chocolate bars. In addition, methylxanthines (theobromine and caffeine) were also quantified. Nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) were determined both gravimetrically and by calculation from theobromine contents. The flavanol levels of 12 commonly consumed brands of dark chocolate have been quantified and correlated with % theobromine and % NFCS. Epicatechin comprised the largest fraction of total chocolate flavonoids, with the remainder being catechin and procyanidins. Calculated NFCS did not reflect epicatechin (R(2) = 0.41) or total flavanol contents (R(2) = 0.49). Epicatechin (R(2) = 0.96) was a reliable marker of total flavanols, catechin (R(2) = 0.67) to a lesser extent. All dark chocolate tested contained higher levels of total flavanols (93.5-651.1 mg of epicatechin equiv/100 g of product) than a milk or a white "chocolate" (40.6 and 0.0 mg of epicatechin equiv/100 g, respectively). The amount and integrity of procyanidins often suffer in the manufacturing of chocolate, chiefly due to oxidation and alkalinization. In this study, the labeled cocoa content of the chocolate did not always reflect analyzed levels of flavonoids. Increasingly, high % NFCS is being used commercially to reflect chocolate quality. If the flavanol content of chocolate is accepted to be a key determinant of health benefits, then continued monitoring of flavanol levels in commercially available chocolate products may be essential for consumer assurance.

  5. Dark chocolate attenuates intracellular pro-inflammatory reactivity to acute psychosocial stress in men: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kuebler, Ulrike; Arpagaus, Angela; Meister, Rebecca E; von Känel, Roland; Huber, Susanne; Ehlert, Ulrike; Wirtz, Petra H

    2016-10-01

    Flavanol-rich dark chocolate consumption relates to lower risk of cardiovascular mortality, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the effect of acute dark chocolate consumption on inflammatory measures before and after stress. Healthy men, aged 20-50years, were randomly assigned to a single intake of either 50g of flavanol-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50g of optically identical flavanol-free placebo-chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate intake, both groups underwent the 15-min Trier Social Stress Test. We measured DNA-binding-activity of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB (NF-κB-BA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, as well as plasma and whole blood mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, prior to chocolate intake as well as before and several times after stress. We also repeatedly measured the flavanol epicatechin and the stress hormones epinephrine and cortisol in plasma and saliva, respectively. Compared to the placebo-chocolate-group, the dark-chocolate-group revealed a marginal increase in IL-10 mRNA prior to stress (p=0.065), and a significantly blunted stress reactivity of NF-κB-BA, IL-1β mRNA, and IL-6 mRNA (p's⩽0.036) with higher epicatechin levels relating to lower pro-inflammatory stress reactivity (p's⩽0.033). Stress hormone changes to stress were controlled. None of the other measures showed a significant chocolate effect (p's⩾0.19). Our findings indicate that acute flavanol-rich dark chocolate exerts anti-inflammatory effects both by increasing mRNA expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and by attenuating the intracellular pro-inflammatory stress response. This mechanism may add to beneficial effects of dark chocolate on cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. β-Glucan and dark chocolate: a randomized crossover study on short-term satiety and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Asli; Dasgin, Halil; Ayaz, Aylin; Buyuktuncer, Zehra; Besler, H Tanju

    2014-09-23

    The aims of this study were to adapt a traditional recipe into a healthier form by adding 3 g of oat β-glucan, substituting milk chocolate to dark chocolate with 70% cocoa, and to examine the effect of these alterations on short-term satiety and energy intake. Study subjects (n = 25) were tested in a randomized, crossover design with four products closely matched for energy content. Four different versions of a traditional recipe including milk chocolate-control (CON), oat β-glucan (B-GLU), dark chocolate (DARK) or oat β-glucan and dark chocolate (B-GLU + DARK) were given to subjects on different test days. After subjects were asked to report visual analog scale (VAS) scores on sensory outcomes and related satiety for four hours ad libitum, lunch was served and energy intake of individuals was measured. VAS scores indicated that none of the test foods exerted an improved effect on satiety feelings. However, energy intake of individuals during ad libitum lunch was significantly lower in dark chocolate groups (CON: 849.46 ± 47.45 kcal versus DARK: 677.69 ± 48.45 kcal and B-GLU + DARK: 691.08 ± 47.45 kcal, p = 0.014). The study demonstrated that substituting dark chocolate for milk chocolate is more effective in inducing satiety during subsequent food intake in healthy subjects.

  7. β-Glucan and Dark Chocolate: A Randomized Crossover Study on Short-Term Satiety and Energy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Akyol, Asli; Dasgin, Halil; Ayaz, Aylin; Buyuktuncer, Zehra; Besler, H. Tanju

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aims of this study were to adapt a traditional recipe into a healthier form by adding 3 g of oat β-glucan, substituting milk chocolate to dark chocolate with 70% cocoa, and to examine the effect of these alterations on short-term satiety and energy intake. Materials and Methods: Study subjects (n = 25) were tested in a randomized, crossover design with four products closely matched for energy content. Four different versions of a traditional recipe including milk chocolate-control (CON), oat β-glucan (B-GLU), dark chocolate (DARK) or oat β-glucan and dark chocolate (B-GLU + DARK) were given to subjects on different test days. After subjects were asked to report visual analog scale (VAS) scores on sensory outcomes and related satiety for four hours ad libitum, lunch was served and energy intake of individuals was measured. Results: VAS scores indicated that none of the test foods exerted an improved effect on satiety feelings. However, energy intake of individuals during ad libitum lunch was significantly lower in dark chocolate groups (CON: 849.46 ± 47.45 kcal versus DARK: 677.69 ± 48.45 kcal and B-GLU + DARK: 691.08 ± 47.45 kcal, p = 0.014). Conclusion: The study demonstrated that substituting dark chocolate for milk chocolate is more effective in inducing satiety during subsequent food intake in healthy subjects. PMID:25251294

  8. Mixed selection. Effects of body images, dietary restraint, and persuasive messages on females' orientations towards chocolate.

    PubMed

    Durkin, Kevin; Hendry, Alana; Stritzke, Werner G K

    2013-01-01

    Many women experience ambivalent reactions to chocolate: craving it but also wary of its impact on weight and health. Chocolate advertisements often use thin ideal models and previous research indicates that this exacerbates ambivalence. This experiment compared attitudes to, and consumption of, chocolate following exposure to images containing thin or overweight models together with written messages that were either positive or negative about eating chocolate. Participants (all female) were categorised as either low- or high-restraint. Approach, avoidance and guilt motives towards chocolate were measured and the participants had an opportunity to consume chocolate. Exposure to thin ideal models led to higher approach motives and this effect was most marked among the high restraint participants. Avoidance and guilt scores did not vary as a function of model size or message, but there were clear differences between the restraint groups, with the high restraint participants scoring substantially higher than low restraint participants on both of these measures. When the participants were provided with an opportunity to eat some chocolate, those with high restraint who had been exposed to the thin models consumed the most. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A new food frequency questionnaire to assess chocolate and cocoa consumption.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Filipa; Saldaña-Ruíz, Sandra; Rabanal, Manel; Rodríguez-Lagunas, María J; Pereira, Paula; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castell, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa has been highlighted as a food with potential benefits to human health because of its polyphenol content. However, few studies show the contribution of cocoa and chocolate products in polyphenol intake. The aim of this work was to develop a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for evaluating the intake of food products containing cocoa (C-FFQ). A sample of 50 university students was recruited to complete the 90-item questionnaire, a validated questionnaire (called here European Food Safety Authority [EFSA]-Q) as well as a 24-hour dietary recall (24 HDR). Spearman correlation test, Bland-Altman plots, and quintile classification analysis were conducted together with the Wilcoxon test and descriptive statistics. Significant correlations between the C-FFQ and the EFSA-Q for the most common cocoa/chocolate products were observed (P < 0.05), as well as between data from the C-FFQ and 24 HDR (P < 0.05). However, a number of cocoa/chocolate products frequently consumed by the participants were detected by the C-FFQ and 24 HDR which were not included in the EFSA-Q. According to the C-FFQ, chocolate bars were the main source of cocoa in university students, but dairy products also provided an important amount of cocoa. The developed C-FFQ questionnaire can be considered as a valid option for assessing the consumption frequency of cocoa/chocolate-derived products, thereby allowing the evaluation of cocoa polyphenol intake in further studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural evidence for northeastward movement on the Chocolate Mountains Thrust, southeasternmost California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, J.T.; Haxel, G.B.; Tosdal, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Late Cretaceous Chocolate Mountains Thrust of southeastern California and southwestern Arizona places a block of Proterozoic and Mesozoic continental crust over the late Mesozoic continental margin oceanic sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Orocopia Schist. The Chocolate Mountains Thrust is interpreted as a thrust (burial, subduction) fault rather than a low-angle normal fault. An important parameter required to understand the tectonic significance of the Chocolate Mountains and related thrusts is their sense of movement. The only sense of movement consistent with collective asymmetry of the thrust zone folds is top to the northeast. Asymmetric microstructures studied at several localities also indicate top to the northeast movement. Paleomagnetic data suggest that the original sense of thrusting, prior to Neogene vertical axis tectonic rotation related to the San Andreas fault system, was northward. Movement of the upper plate of the chocolate Mountains thrust evidently was continentward. Continentward thrusting suggests a tectonic scenario in which an insular or peninsular microcontinental fragment collided with mainland southern California. -from Authors

  11. Oxidative stability of a heme iron-fortified bakery product: Effectiveness of ascorbyl palmitate and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate.

    PubMed

    Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Tres, Alba; Polo, Javier; Codony, Rafael; Guardiola, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Fortification of food products with iron is a common strategy to prevent or overcome iron deficiency. However, any form of iron is a pro-oxidant and its addition will cause off-flavours and reduce a product's shelf life. A highly bioavailable heme iron ingredient was selected to fortify a chocolate cream used to fill sandwich-type cookies. Two different strategies were assessed for avoiding the heme iron catalytic effect on lipid oxidation: ascorbyl palmitate addition and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate. Oxidation development and sensory acceptability were monitored in the cookies over one-year of storage at room temperature in the dark. The addition of ascorbyl palmitate provided protection against oxidation and loss of tocopherols and tocotrienols during the preparation of cookies. In general, ascorbyl palmitate, either alone or in combination with the co-spray-dried heme iron, prevented primary oxidation and hexanal formation during storage. The combination of both strategies resulted in cookies that were acceptable from a sensory point of view after 1year of storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chip, Chip, Hooray!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a science laboratory using different brands of potato chips in which students test their oiliness, size, thickness, saltiness, quality, and cost, then analyze the results to determine the best chip. Gives a brief history of potato chips. (YDS)

  13. Habitual chocolate consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease among healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Chun Shing; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Loke, Yoon K; Luben, Robert N; Yeong, Jessica K; Wareham, Nicholas J; Myint, Phyo K; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-08-01

    To examine the association between chocolate intake and the risk of future cardiovascular events. We conducted a prospective study using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort. Habitual chocolate intake was quantified using the baseline food frequency questionnaire (1993-1997) and cardiovascular end points were ascertained up to March 2008. A systematic review was performed to evaluate chocolate consumption and cardiovascular outcomes. A total of 20,951 men and women were included in EPIC-Norfolk analysis (mean follow-up 11.3±2.8 years, median 11.9 years). The percentage of participants with coronary heart disease (CHD) in the highest and lowest quintile of chocolate consumption was 9.7% and 13.8%, and the respective rates for stroke were 3.1% and 5.4%. The multivariate-adjusted HR for CHD was 0.88 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.01) for those in the top quintile of chocolate consumption (16-99 g/day) versus non-consumers of chocolate intake. The corresponding HR for stroke and cardiovascular disease (cardiovascular disease defined by the sum of CHD and stroke) were 0.77 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.97) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.97). The propensity score matched estimates showed a similar trend. A total of nine studies with 157,809 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Higher compared to lower chocolate consumption was associated with significantly lower CHD risk (five studies; pooled RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.92), stroke (five studies; pooled RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.87), composite cardiovascular adverse outcome (two studies; pooled RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.05), and cardiovascular mortality (three studies; pooled RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83). Cumulative evidence suggests that higher chocolate intake is associated with a lower risk of future cardiovascular events, although residual confounding cannot be excluded. There does not appear to be any evidence to say that chocolate should be avoided in those who are concerned about

  14. Making a chocolate chip: development and evaluation of a 6K SNP array for Theobroma cacao

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, Donald; Royaert, Stefan; Stack, Conrad; Mockaitis, Keithanne; May, Greg; Farmer, Andrew; Saski, Christopher; Schnell, Ray; Kuhn, David; Motamayor, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Theobroma cacao, the key ingredient in chocolate production, is one of the world's most important tree fruit crops, with ∼4,000,000 metric tons produced across 50 countries. To move towards gene discovery and marker-assisted breeding in cacao, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification project was undertaken using RNAseq data from 16 diverse cacao cultivars. RNA sequences were aligned to the assembled transcriptome of the cultivar Matina 1-6, and 330,000 SNPs within coding regions were identified. From these SNPs, a subset of 6,000 high-quality SNPs were selected for inclusion on an Illumina Infinium SNP array: the Cacao6kSNP array. Using Cacao6KSNP array data from over 1,000 cacao samples, we demonstrate that our custom array produces a saturated genetic map and can be used to distinguish among even closely related genotypes. Our study enhances and expands the genetic resources available to the cacao research community, and provides the genome-scale set of tools that are critical for advancing breeding with molecular markers in an agricultural species with high genetic diversity. PMID:26070980

  15. Chocolate consumption and risk of myocardial infarction: a prospective study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Susanna C; Åkesson, Agneta; Gigante, Bruna; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-07-01

    To examine whether chocolate consumption is associated with a reduced risk of ischaemic heart disease, we used data from a prospective study of Swedish adults and we performed a meta-analysis of available prospective data. The Swedish prospective study included 67 640 women and men from the Cohort of Swedish Men and the Swedish Mammography Cohort who had completed a food-frequency questionnaire and were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. Myocardial infarction (MI) cases were ascertained through linkage with the Swedish National Patient and Cause of Death Registers. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched from inception until 4 February 2016 to identify prospective studies on chocolate consumption and risk of ischaemic heart disease. The results from eligible studies were combined using a random-effects model. During follow-up (1998-2010), 4417 MI cases were ascertained in the Swedish study. Chocolate consumption was inversely associated with MI risk. Compared with non-consumers, the multivariable relative risk for those who consumed ≥3-4 servings/week of chocolate was 0.87 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.98; p for trend =0.04). Five prospective studies on chocolate consumption and ischaemic heart disease were identified. Together with the Swedish study, the meta-analysis included six studies with a total of 6851 ischaemic heart disease cases. The overall relative risk for the highest versus lowest category of chocolate consumption was 0.90 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.97), with little heterogeneity among studies (I(2)=24.3%). Chocolate consumption is associated with lower risk of MI and ischaemic heart disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Does Chocolate Intake During Pregnancy Reduce the Risks of Preeclampsia and Gestational Hypertension?

    PubMed Central

    Saftlas, Audrey F.; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Beydoun, Hind; Bracken, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Chocolate consumption is associated with favorable levels of blood pressure and other cardiovascular disease risk markers. We analyzed a prospective cohort study to determine if regular chocolate intake during pregnancy is associated with reduced risks of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension (GH). Methods Subjects were recruited from 13 prenatal care practices in Connecticut (1988-1991). In-person interviews were administered at <16 weeks gestation to ascertain risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Hospital delivery and prenatal records were abstracted to classify preeclampsia (n=58), GH (n=158), and normotensive pregnancies (n=2351). Chocolate consumption (servings/week) during the 1st and 3rd trimesters was ascertained at initial interview and immediately postpartum, respectively. Consumers of <1 serving/week comprised the referent group. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were estimated using logistic regression. Results Chocolate intake was more frequent among normotensives (80.7%) than preeclamptics (62.5%) or GH women (75.8%), and associated with reduced odds of preeclampsia (1st trimester: aOR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.32-0.95; 3rd trimester: aOR=0.56, 95% CI: 0.32-0.97). Only 1st trimester intake was associated with reduced odds of GH (aOR=0.65, 95% CI: 0.45-0.87). Conclusions These findings provide additional evidence of the benefits of chocolate. Prospective studies are needed to confirm and delineate protective effects of chocolate intake on risk of preeclampsia. PMID:20609337

  17. Does chocolate intake during pregnancy reduce the risks of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension?

    PubMed

    Saftlas, Audrey F; Triche, Elizabeth W; Beydoun, Hind; Bracken, Michael B

    2010-08-01

    Chocolate consumption is associated with favorable levels of blood pressure and other cardiovascular disease risk markers. We analyzed a prospective cohort study to determine whether regular chocolate intake during pregnancy is associated with reduced risks of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension (GH). Subjects were recruited from 13 prenatal care practices in Connecticut (1988-1991). In-person interviews were administered at <16 weeks' gestation to ascertain risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Hospital delivery and prenatal records were abstracted to classify preeclampsia (n = 58), GH (n = 158), and normotensive pregnancies (n = 2351). Chocolate consumption (servings/week) during the first and third trimesters was ascertained at initial interview and immediately postpartum, respectively. Consumers of less than 1 serving/week comprised the referent group. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were estimated by the use of logistic regression. Chocolate intake was more frequent among normotensive (80.7%) than preeclamptic (62.5%) or GH women (75.8%), and associated with reduced odds of preeclampsia (first trimester: aOR, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.32-0.95; third trimester: aOR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.32-0.97). Only first trimester intake was associated with reduced odds of GH (aOR,0.65; 95% CI, 0.45-0.87). These findings provide additional evidence of the benefits of chocolate. Prospective studies are needed to confirm and delineate protective effects of chocolate intake on risk of preeclampsia. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire: psychometric properties and relationship to dimensions of eating.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jochen; Dettmer, Dorothee; Macht, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire (ACQ). We analyzed the factor structure of the ACQ by conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of healthy adults and a sample of dietician students. Further, the relationship between the resulting ACQ factors and dimensions of eating behavior, personality, emotionality, and tests of the pleasantness, sweetness, and intensity of sugar and chocolate was examined. The results yielded a clear two-factor structure of the ACQ: The first factor (guilt) was composed of items concerning negative consequences of chocolate eating including the feeling of guilt. The second factor (craving) comprised items related to craving and emotional chocolate eating. Guilt correlated significantly with "emotional eating", "restrained eating", and with neuroticism. Craving correlated significantly with "emotional eating" and "external eating", with neuroticism, and with the "difficulty identifying feelings" facet of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale; further, it correlated highly with the average reported chocolate consumption and with the ratings of the intensity of taste of sugar. In conclusion, results support the validity of the German version of the ACQ and showed a stable factor structure and a good internal consistency.

  19. A comparison of two low-calorie sweeteners and sugar in dark chocolate on sensory attributes and emotional conceptualisations.

    PubMed

    Lagast, Sofie; De Steur, Hans; Schouteten, Joachim J; Gellynck, Xavier

    2018-05-01

    Reducing sugar consumption is an important aspect in the prevention of and fight against obesity. A broader understanding of consumers' perceptions of low-calorie sweeteners is needed. This study examined two low-calorie sweeteners, tagatose and stevia, in comparison to sugar in dark chocolate. A total of 219 consumers participated in this study and rated overall liking and sensory attributes. Participants also listed their emotional conceptualisations upon consumption and were assessed on emotional eating behaviour and health and taste attitudes. The chocolate with tagatose was perceived as more similar to the chocolate with sugar than with stevia on overall liking, texture, bitterness, duration of aftertaste and intensity of aftertaste. Furthermore, chocolate with sugar and chocolate with tagatose both elicited positive emotional conceptualisations whereas chocolate with stevia elicited negative emotional conceptualisations. In conclusion, dark chocolate with tagatose did not significantly differ from sugar in overall liking, most sensory attributes and emotional conceptualisation.

  20. Effects of cocoa products/dark chocolate on serum lipids: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tokede, O A; Gaziano, J M; Djoussé, L

    2011-08-01

    Cocoa products, which are rich sources of flavonoids, have been shown to reduce blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Dark chocolate contains saturated fat and is a source of dietary calories; consequently, it is important to determine whether consumption of dark chocolate adversely affects the blood lipid profile. The objective was to examine the effects of dark chocolate/cocoa product consumption on the lipid profile using published trials. A detailed literature search was conducted via MEDLINE (from 1966 to May 2010), CENTRAL and ClinicalTrials.gov for randomized controlled clinical trials assessing the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa products or dark chocolate on lipid profile. The primary effect measure was the difference in means of the final measurements between the intervention and control groups. In all, 10 clinical trials consisting of 320 participants were included in the analysis. Treatment duration ranged from 2 to 12 weeks. Intervention with dark chocolate/cocoa products significantly reduced serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol (TC) levels (differences in means (95% CI) were -5.90 mg/dl (-10.47, -1.32 mg/dl) and -6.23 mg/dl (-11.60, -0.85 mg/dl), respectively). No statistically significant effects were observed for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (difference in means (95% CI): -0.76 mg/dl (-3.02 to 1.51 mg/dl)) and triglyceride (TG) (-5.06 mg/dl (-13.45 to 3.32 mg/dl)). These data are consistent with beneficial effects of dark chocolate/cocoa products on total and LDL cholesterol and no major effects on HDL and TG in short-term intervention trials.

  1. The effect of pre-dive ingestion of dark chocolate on endothelial function after a scuba dive.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Sigrid; Balestra, Costantino; Boutros, Antoine; De Bels, David; Guerrero, François; Germonpré, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to observe the effects of dark chocolate on endothelial function after scuba diving. Forty-two male scuba divers were divided into two groups: a control (n=21) and a chocolate group (n=21). They performed a 33-metres deep scuba-air dive for 20 minutes in a diving pool (Nemo 33, Brussels). Water temperature was 33⁰C. The chocolate group ingested 30 g of dark chocolate (86% cocoa) 90 minutes before the dive. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), digital photoplethysmography and nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrites (ONOO-) levels were measured before and after the scuba dive in both groups. A significant decrease in FMD was observed in the control group after the dive (91±7% (mean±95% confidence interval) of pre-dive values; P<0.001) while it was increased in the chocolate group (105±5% of pre-dive values; P<0.001). No difference in digital photoplethysmography was observed between before and after the dives. No variation of circulating NO level was observed in the control group whereas an increase was shown in the chocolate group (154±73% of pre-dive values; P=0.04). A significant reduction in ONOO- was observed in the control group (84±12% of pre-dive values; P=0.003) whereas no variation was shown after the dive with chocolate intake (100±28% of pre-dive values; ns). Ingestion of 30 g of dark chocolate 90 minutes before scuba diving prevented post-dive endothelial dysfunction, as the antioxidants contained in dark chocolate probably scavenge free radicals.

  2. Effects of dark chocolate consumption on the prothrombotic response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men.

    PubMed

    von Känel, R; Meister, R E; Stutz, M; Kummer, P; Arpagaus, A; Huber, S; Ehlert, U; Wirtz, P H

    2014-12-01

    Flavanoid-rich dark chocolate consumption benefits cardiovascular health, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the acute effect of dark chocolate on the reactivity of prothrombotic measures to psychosocial stress. Healthy men aged 20-50 years (mean ± SD: 35.7 ± 8.8) were assigned to a single serving of either 50 g of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50 g of optically identical flavonoid-free placebo chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate consumption, both groups underwent an acute standardised psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic. We determined plasma levels of four stress-responsive prothrombotic measures (i. e., fibrinogen, clotting factor VIII activity, von Willebrand Factor antigen, fibrin D-dimer) prior to chocolate consumption, immediately before and after stress, and at 10 minutes and 20 minutes after stress cessation. We also measured the flavonoid epicatechin, and the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma. The dark chocolate group showed a significantly attenuated stress reactivity of the hypercoagulability marker D-dimer (F=3.87, p=0.017) relative to the placebo chocolate group. Moreover, the blunted D-dimer stress reactivity related to higher plasma levels of the flavonoid epicatechin assessed before stress (F=3.32, p = 0.031) but not to stress-induced changes in catecholamines (p's=0.35). There were no significant group differences in the other coagulation measures (p's≥0.87). Adjustments for covariates did not alter these findings. In conclusion, our findings indicate that a single consumption of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate blunted the acute prothrombotic response to psychosocial stress, thereby perhaps mitigating the risk of acute coronary syndromes triggered by emotional stress.

  3. [Household purchase of sodas and cookies reduces the effect of an intervention to promote the consumption of fruits and vegetables].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Fabio da Silva; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo E; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de

    2017-04-03

    This study examines the influence of increasing household availability of sodas and cookies on the effects of an intervention to promote the consumption of fruits and vegetables. The study analyzed data from 70 families living in low-income communities in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, selected in a stratified probabilistic sample, and who completed a 30-day food record before and after the intervention. The intervention contributed to a significant increase in the household availability of fruit and vegetables (+2.7 p.p.; 95%CI: 1.5; 4.0), contrary to the trend towards stagnation of such availability in the general population in Brazil. Meanwhile, the purchase of sodas and cookies, which was not the intervention's target, mirrored the upward trend in the consumption of these products (+5.8 p.p.; 95%CI: 3.3; 8.4). Families that increased their purchase of sodas and cookies showed lower increases, or even decreases, in the purchase of fruits and vegetables (p < 0.05), and had nearly fourfold lower odds of experiencing any increase in the household availability of fruits and vegetables.

  4. The amelioration of plasma lipids by Korean traditional confectionery in middle-aged women: A cross-over study with western cookie

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sun Hee; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Noh, Jeong Sook; Lee, JaeHwan; Chung, Lana

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to examine whether plasma lipid profiles are affected differently by snack kinds with equal calorific values. SUBJECTS/METHODS We compared a Korean traditional confectionery (dasik) with Western confectionery (cookie) in this regard. Controlled cross-over study consisted of two 3-week snack intake phases and for separating, a 2-week washout period (3–2–3) was carried out with 30 healthy women aged between 40-59 years old. Brown rice based Korean traditional confectionery and wheat flour based Western confectionery were used. The participants consumed either dasik or cookie every day for 3 weeks, providing 93 kcal a day. RESULTS The total cholesterol (TC) in the dasik group had decreased significantly after 3 weeks (P < 0.05). Furthermore, in the dasik group, reduction in TC and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were greater than those in the cookie group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Prioritizing functional snacks like dasik improves plasma lipid profiles; this may be useful information for individuals who cannot refrain from snacking. PMID:27909556

  5. Does epicatechin contribute to the acute vascular function effects of dark chocolate? A randomized, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Dower, James I; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Kroon, Paul A; Philo, Mark; Mensink, Marco; Kromhout, Daan; Hollman, Peter C H

    2016-11-01

    Cocoa, rich in flavan-3-ols, improves vascular function, but the contribution of specific flavan-3-ols is unknown. We compared the effects of pure epicatechin, a major cocoa flavan-3-ol, and chocolate. In a randomized crossover study, twenty healthy men (40-80 years) were supplemented with: (1) 70g dark chocolate (150 mg epicatechin) with placebo capsules; (2) pure epicatechin capsules (2 × 50 mg epicatechin) with 75g white chocolate; and (3) placebo capsules with 75 g white chocolate (0 mg epicatechin). Vascular function (flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and augmentation index (AIx)) were measured before and 2 hours after interventions. Epicatechin metabolites time-profiles were measured in blood to calculate the bioavailability. Pure epicatechin did not significantly improve FMD (+0.75%; p = 0.10) or AIx (-2.2%; p = 0.23) compared to placebo. Dark chocolate significantly improved FMD (+0.96%; p = 0.04) and AIx (-4.6%; p = 0.02). Differences in improvements in FMD (+ 0.21%; p = 0.65) or Aix (-2.4%; p = 0.20) between pure epicatechin and dark chocolate were not significant. The bioavailability of epicatechin did not differ between pure epicatechin and dark chocolate (p = 0.14). Despite differences in epicatechin dose, improvements in vascular function after pure epicatechin and chocolate were similar and the bioavailability did not differ, suggesting a role for epicatechin. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Bleu Ribbon Chocolates: How Can Small Businesses Adapt to a Changing Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeter-Schmelz, Dawn R.; Ramsey, Rosemary P.; Gassenheimer, Jule B.

    2011-01-01

    Bleu Ribbon Chocolates is a small regional manufacturer of high-quality chocolate that sells its products via trade accounts, corporate-owned stores, and online/mail. Historically, the company has not engaged in strategic planning, as demand was greater than manufacturing capabilities. The trend toward healthier foods and the poor economy,…

  7. Chocolate tablet aspects of cytherean Meshkenet Tessera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raitala, J.

    1993-01-01

    Meshkenet Tessera structures were mapped from Magellan data and several resemblances to chocolate tablet boudinage were found. The complex fault sets display polyphase tectonic sequences of a few main deformation phases. Shear and tension have contributed to the areal deformation. Main faults cut the 1600-km long Meshkenet Tessera highland into bar-like blocks which have ridge and groove pattern oriented along or at high angles to the faults. The first approach to the surface block deformation is an assumption of initial parallel shear faulting followed by a chocolate tablet boudinage. Major faults which cut Meshkenet Tessera into rectangular blocks have been active repetitively while two progressive or superposed boudinage set formations have taken place at high angles during the relaxational or flattening type deformation of the area. Chocolate tablet boudinage is caused by a layer-parallel two-dimensional extension resulting in fracturing of the competent layer. Such structures, defined by two sets of boudin neck lines at right angles to each other, have been described by a number of authors. They develop in a flattening type of bulk deformation or during superposed deformation where the rock is elongated in two dimensions parallel to the surface. This is an attempt to describe and understand the formation and development of structures of Meshkenet Tessera which has complicated fault structures.

  8. Parental restriction and children's diets. The chocolate coin and Easter egg experiments.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jane; Cordey, Phillipa; Cutler, Laura; Thomas, Hayley

    2013-02-01

    Two naturalistic experiments are reported exploring the impact of parental restriction on children's diets. For study 1, 53 parents gave 75 g of chocolate coins to their child over a weekend. For study 2, 86 parents were recruited prior to the 2 week Easter break when their children would be receiving chocolate Easter eggs. For both studies, parents were randomly allocated to either the non-restriction or restriction conditions and rated their child's preoccupation with the target food and other sweet foods (demanding and eating) at the start and end of the interventions. Perceived and actual food intake was assessed. Children in the restriction conditions consumed fewer chocolate coins and Easter eggs. All children showed decreased preoccupation with chocolate coins or Easter eggs over the course of the studies yet by the end the restriction group were more preoccupied with the target food. In contrast, all children showed an increased preoccupation with other sweet foods as the studies progressed which was greater in the non-restriction group for the chocolate coins study. Overall, restriction resulted in reduced intake but relative increased preoccupation with the food being restricted. Non-restriction resulted in a greater preoccupation with other sweet foods once the target foods had been consumed. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Science of Chocolate: Interactive Activities on Phase Transitions, Emulsification, and Nucleation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowat, Amy C.; Hollar, Kathryn A.; Stone, Howard A.; Rosenberg, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Nearly everyone loves chocolate, which makes this an excellent topic for communicating scientific concepts to the general public and to students in the classroom. Here we present the outline and activities for an interactive presentation on the science of chocolate for nonspecialists and their children ages 6 and up. We design the presentation…

  10. Dark Chocolate Intake Acutely Enhances Neutrophil Count in Peripheral Venous Blood.

    PubMed

    Montagnana, Martina; Danese, Elisa; Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Beside the well-established impact on decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases (1), recent attention has been paid to the relationship between cocoa-containing foods and the immune system (2), showing that dark chocolate consumption enhances the systemic defense against bacterial (3) and viral (4) infections. Hence, the current study aimed at investigating the acute effect of dark chocolate intake on peripheral blood leukocytes.

  11. Dark Chocolate Intake Acutely Enhances Neutrophil Count in Peripheral Venous Blood

    PubMed Central

    Montagnana, Martina; Danese, Elisa; Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Beside the well-established impact on decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases (1), recent attention has been paid to the relationship between cocoa-containing foods and the immune system (2), showing that dark chocolate consumption enhances the systemic defense against bacterial (3) and viral (4) infections. Hence, the current study aimed at investigating the acute effect of dark chocolate intake on peripheral blood leukocytes. PMID:29531561

  12. Habitual chocolate intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study: (1975-2010): Prospective observations.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Dearborn, Peter; Robbins, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Compounds in cocoa and chocolate have established cardiovascular benefits, including beneficial effects on insulin resistance, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aims of this study was to investigate relations between habitual chocolate intakes and diabetes mellitus. Cross-sectional and prospective analyses were undertaken on 953 community-dwelling participants (mean age 62 years, 59% women) from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intakes, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, were related to prevalence of diabetes mellitus (cross-sectionally) and with risk of diabetes measured approximately five years later (prospectively). We also examined the relation between diabetes (the predictor) and chocolate consumption (the outcome) up to 30 years later. Chocolate intake was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes. Compared to participants who consumed chocolate more than once per week, those who never or rarely ate chocolate exhibited a significantly higher odds of having type 2 diabetes 5 years later (OR: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.03, 3.55, p = 0.04), after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors including other polyphenol-rich beverages. However, individuals diagnosed with diabetes prior to the nutritional assessment consumed lower amounts of chocolate at the time of the dietary assessment. Our findings suggest that relations between chocolate and type 2 diabetes may be bi-directional. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High cocoa polyphenol rich chocolate may reduce the burden of the symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chocolate is rich in flavonoids that have been shown to be of benefit in disparate conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The effect of polyphenol rich chocolate in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been studied previously. Methods We conducted a double blinded, randomised, clinical pilot crossover study comparing high cocoa liquor/polyphenol rich chocolate (HCL/PR) in comparison to simulated iso-calorific chocolate (cocoa liquor free/low polyphenols(CLF/LP)) on fatigue and residual function in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome. Subjects with CFS having severe fatigue of at least 10 out of 11 on the Chalder Fatigue Scale were enrolled. Subjects had either 8 weeks of intervention in the form of HCL/PR or CLF/LP, with a 2 week wash out period followed by 8 weeks of intervention with the other chocolate. Results Ten subjects were enrolled in the study. The Chalder Fatigue Scale score improved significantly after 8 weeks of the HCL/PR chocolate arm [median (range) Exact Sig. (2-tailed)] [33 (25 - 38) vs. 21.5 (6 - 35) 0.01], but that deteriorated significantly when subjects were given simulated iso-calorific chocolate (CLF/CP) [ 28.5 (17 - 20) vs. 34.5 (13-26) 0.03]. The residual function, as assessed by the London Handicap scale, also improved significantly after the HCL/PR arm [0.49 (0.33 - 0.62) vs. 0.64 (0.44 - 0.83) 0.01] and deteriorated after iso-calorific chocolate [00.44 (0.43 - 0.68) vs. 0.36 (0.33 - 0.62)0.03]. Likewise the Hospital Anxiety and Depression score also improved after the HCL/PR arm, but deteriorated after CLF/CP. Mean weight remained unchanged throughout the trial. Conclusion This study suggests that HCL/PR chocolate may improve symptoms in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome. PMID:21092175

  14. High cocoa polyphenol rich chocolate may reduce the burden of the symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Beckett, Stephen; Rigby, Alan S; Mellor, Duane D; Atkin, Stephen L

    2010-11-22

    Chocolate is rich in flavonoids that have been shown to be of benefit in disparate conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The effect of polyphenol rich chocolate in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been studied previously. We conducted a double blinded, randomised, clinical pilot crossover study comparing high cocoa liquor/polyphenol rich chocolate (HCL/PR) in comparison to simulated iso-calorific chocolate (cocoa liquor free/low polyphenols(CLF/LP)) on fatigue and residual function in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome. Subjects with CFS having severe fatigue of at least 10 out of 11 on the Chalder Fatigue Scale were enrolled. Subjects had either 8 weeks of intervention in the form of HCL/PR or CLF/LP, with a 2 week wash out period followed by 8 weeks of intervention with the other chocolate. Ten subjects were enrolled in the study. The Chalder Fatigue Scale score improved significantly after 8 weeks of the HCL/PR chocolate arm [median (range) Exact Sig. (2-tailed)] [33 (25 - 38) vs. 21.5 (6 - 35) 0.01], but that deteriorated significantly when subjects were given simulated iso-calorific chocolate (CLF/CP) [ 28.5 (17 - 20) vs. 34.5 (13-26) 0.03]. The residual function, as assessed by the London Handicap scale, also improved significantly after the HCL/PR arm [0.49 (0.33 - 0.62) vs. 0.64 (0.44 - 0.83) 0.01] and deteriorated after iso-calorific chocolate [00.44 (0.43 - 0.68) vs. 0.36 (0.33 - 0.62)0.03]. Likewise the Hospital Anxiety and Depression score also improved after the HCL/PR arm, but deteriorated after CLF/CP. Mean weight remained unchanged throughout the trial. This study suggests that HCL/PR chocolate may improve symptoms in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome.

  15. Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Sheng; Li, Xia; Jin, Yalei; Lu, Jinping

    2017-01-01

    Although epidemiological studies have examined the role of chocolate in preventing cardiometabolic disease, the results remain inconsistent. Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the association between chocolate intake and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and diabetes. A systematical search in PubMed and Embase through March 2017, together with reference scrutiny of relevant literatures, was performed to identify eligible studies. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using random effect models. Fourteen prospective studies of primary prevention with 508,705 participants were finally included, with follow-up durations ranging from 5 to 16 years. The summary RRs for the highest versus lowest chocolate consumption were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82–0.97; n = 6) for CHD, 0.84 (95% CI: 0.78–0.90; n = 7) for stroke, and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.70–0.96; n = 5) for diabetes. Dose–response meta-analysis suggested a nonlinear association of chocolate consumption with all outcomes. For both CHD and stroke, there was little additional risk reduction when consuming chocolate ≥3 servings/week (one serving was defined as 30 g of chocolate). For diabetes, the peak protective effect of chocolate emerged at 2 servings/week (RR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.63–0.89), with no benefit observed when increasing consumption above 6 servings/week. In conclusion, chocolate intake is associated with decreased risks of CHD, stroke, and diabetes. Consuming chocolate in moderation (≤6 servings/week) may be optimal for preventing these disorders. PMID:28671591

  16. Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Sheng; Li, Xia; Jin, Yalei; Lu, Jinping

    2017-07-02

    Although epidemiological studies have examined the role of chocolate in preventing cardiometabolic disease, the results remain inconsistent. Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the association between chocolate intake and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and diabetes. A systematical search in PubMed and Embase through March 2017, together with reference scrutiny of relevant literatures, was performed to identify eligible studies. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using random effect models. Fourteen prospective studies of primary prevention with 508,705 participants were finally included, with follow-up durations ranging from 5 to 16 years. The summary RRs for the highest versus lowest chocolate consumption were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82-0.97; n = 6) for CHD, 0.84 (95% CI: 0.78-0.90; n = 7) for stroke, and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.70-0.96; n = 5) for diabetes. Dose-response meta-analysis suggested a nonlinear association of chocolate consumption with all outcomes. For both CHD and stroke, there was little additional risk reduction when consuming chocolate ≥3 servings/week (one serving was defined as 30 g of chocolate). For diabetes, the peak protective effect of chocolate emerged at 2 servings/week (RR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.63-0.89), with no benefit observed when increasing consumption above 6 servings/week. In conclusion, chocolate intake is associated with decreased risks of CHD, stroke, and diabetes. Consuming chocolate in moderation (≤6 servings/week) may be optimal for preventing these disorders.

  17. False beliefs about fattening foods can have healthy consequences

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Laney, Cara; Morris, Erin K.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2005-01-01

    We suggested to 228 subjects in two experiments that, as children, they had had negative experiences with a fattening food. An additional 107 subjects received no such suggestion and served as controls. In Experiment 1, a minority of subjects came to believe that they had felt ill after eating strawberry ice cream as children, and these subjects were more likely to indicate not wanting to eat strawberry ice cream now. In contrast, we were unable to obtain these effects when the critical item was a more commonly eaten treat (chocolate chip cookie). In Experiment 2, we replicated and extended the strawberry ice cream results. Two different ways of processing the false suggestion succeeded in planting the false belief and producing avoidance of the food. These findings show that it is possible to convince people that, as children, they experienced a negative event involving a fattening food and that this false belief results in avoidance of that food in adulthood. More broadly, these results indicate that we can, through suggestion, manipulate nutritional selection and possibly even improve health. PMID:16079200

  18. False beliefs about fattening foods can have healthy consequences.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Daniel M; Laney, Cara; Morris, Erin K; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2005-09-27

    We suggested to 228 subjects in two experiments that, as children, they had had negative experiences with a fattening food. An additional 107 subjects received no such suggestion and served as controls. In Experiment 1, a minority of subjects came to believe that they had felt ill after eating strawberry ice cream as children, and these subjects were more likely to indicate not wanting to eat strawberry ice cream now. In contrast, we were unable to obtain these effects when the critical item was a more commonly eaten treat (chocolate chip cookie). In Experiment 2, we replicated and extended the strawberry ice cream results. Two different ways of processing the false suggestion succeeded in planting the false belief and producing avoidance of the food. These findings show that it is possible to convince people that, as children, they experienced a negative event involving a fattening food and that this false belief results in avoidance of that food in adulthood. More broadly, these results indicate that we can, through suggestion, manipulate nutritional selection and possibly even improve health.

  19. Solubilized wheat protein isolate: functional properties and potential food applications.

    PubMed

    Ahmedna, M; Prinyawiwatkul, W; Rao, R M

    1999-04-01

    Solubility, foaming capacity/stability, water holding and fat absorption capacities, and emulsifying capacity/stability of a solubilized wheat protein isolate (SWPI) were compared with those of commercial protein, that is, sodium caseinate (NaCAS), dried egg white (DEW), nonfat dry milk (NFDM), and soy protein isolate (SPI). SWPI was highly soluble at pH 6.5-8.5. Foaming capacity of SWPI was superior to those of SPI, NFDM, and DEW, and its foaming stability was similar to those of the commercial proteins. Foaming properties of SWPI were greatly improved in the presence of 0.5% (w/v) CaCl(2). Water holding capacity of SWPI was greater than that of NaCAS, NFDM, and DEW, whereas its fat absorption capacity was comparable to that of SPI, NaCAS, and DEW. SWPI exhibited emulsifying properties similar to those of SPI. SWPI was incorporated at 5, 10, 15, or 20% into ice cream, chocolate chip cookies, banana nut muffins, and hamburger patties. Products containing <5% SWPI were acceptable to consumers.

  20. How do people define moderation?

    PubMed

    vanDellen, Michelle R; Isherwood, Jennifer C; Delose, Julie E

    2016-06-01

    Eating in moderation is considered to be sound and practical advice for weight maintenance or prevention of weight gain. However, the concept of moderation is ambiguous, and the effect of moderation messages on consumption has yet to be empirically examined. The present manuscript examines how people define moderate consumption. We expected that people would define moderate consumption in ways that justified their current or desired consumption rather than view moderation as an objective standard. In Studies 1 and 2, moderate consumption was perceived to involve greater quantities of an unhealthy food (chocolate chip cookies, gummy candies) than perceptions of how much one should consume. In Study 3, participants generally perceived themselves to eat in moderation and defined moderate consumption as greater than their personal consumption. Furthermore, definitions of moderate consumption were related to personal consumption behaviors. Results suggest that the endorsement of moderation messages allows for a wide range of interpretations of moderate consumption. Thus, we conclude that moderation messages are unlikely to be effective messages for helping people maintain or lose weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of storage conditions on quality of prebiotic dark chocolate.

    PubMed

    Norhayati, H; Rasma, Suzielawanis I; Mohd, Khan A

    2013-04-01

    A prebiotic such as inulin is a well-known functional plant food ingredient. It is capable of stimulating growth of beneficial bifidobacteria in the intestine thus protecting against intestinal infections, preventing constipation, increasing mineral absorption, reducing the incidence of colon cancer, and producing B vitamins. Inulin added to food therefore has to be stable during food processing especially against heat treatment, low pH and Maillard reaction. Newly developed dark chocolate, DC-1, containing inulin (replacing sugar component) as an added value, was stored at 18 degrees C, 60% relative humidity and 25 degrees C, 80% relative humidity (RH) to determine shelf life stability compared to control dark chocolate, DC-0 (with high content of sugar). Sensory evaluation (quantitative descriptive analysis), water activity (a(w)), microbiological content and presence of inulin after storage of the prebiotic chocolate under both conditions were evaluated to determine shelf life. The DC-1 chocolate had at least 12 months of shelf life at 18 degrees C, 60% RH with better acceptance than DC-0; moreover, it did not experience microbiological and inulin content changes. At 25 degrees C, 80% RH, the growth of Aspergillus sp. was observed on the surface of both DC-0 and DC-1 with a(w) > 0.50 after a 2-month storage. Shelf life stability of DC-1 is almost similar to DC-0.

  2. Acute dark chocolate and cocoa ingestion and endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Faridi, Zubaida; Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Dutta, Suparna; Ali, Ather; Katz, David L

    2008-07-01

    Studies suggest cardioprotective benefits of dark chocolate containing cocoa. This study examines the acute effects of solid dark chocolate and liquid cocoa intake on endothelial function and blood pressure in overweight adults. Randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind crossover trial of 45 healthy adults [mean age: 53 y; mean body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 30]. In phase 1, subjects were randomly assigned to consume a solid dark chocolate bar (containing 22 g cocoa powder) or a cocoa-free placebo bar (containing 0 g cocoa powder). In phase 2, subjects were randomly assigned to consume sugar-free cocoa (containing 22 g cocoa powder), sugared cocoa (containing 22 g cocoa powder), or a placebo (containing 0 g cocoa powder). Solid dark chocolate and liquid cocoa ingestion improved endothelial function (measured as flow-mediated dilatation) compared with placebo (dark chocolate: 4.3 +/- 3.4% compared with -1.8 +/- 3.3%; P < 0.001; sugar-free and sugared cocoa: 5.7 +/- 2.6% and 2.0 +/- 1.8% compared with -1.5 +/- 2.8%; P < 0.001). Blood pressure decreased after the ingestion of dark chocolate and sugar-free cocoa compared with placebo (dark chocolate: systolic, -3.2 +/- 5.8 mm Hg compared with 2.7 +/- 6.6 mm Hg; P < 0.001; and diastolic, -1.4 +/- 3.9 mm Hg compared with 2.7 +/- 6.4 mm Hg; P = 0.01; sugar-free cocoa: systolic, -2.1 +/- 7.0 mm Hg compared with 3.2 +/- 5.6 mm Hg; P < 0.001; and diastolic: -1.2 +/- 8.7 mm Hg compared with 2.8 +/- 5.6 mm Hg; P = 0.014). Endothelial function improved significantly more with sugar-free than with regular cocoa (5.7 +/- 2.6% compared with 2.0 +/- 1.8%; P < 0.001). The acute ingestion of both solid dark chocolate and liquid cocoa improved endothelial function and lowered blood pressure in overweight adults. Sugar content may attenuate these effects, and sugar-free preparations may augment them.

  3. Does culture create craving? Evidence from the case of menstrual chocolate craving

    PubMed Central

    Niemiec, Martha A.

    2017-01-01

    Craving is considered a key characteristic of diverse pathologies, but evidence suggests it may be a culture-bound construct. Almost 50% of American women crave chocolate specifically around the onset of menstruation. Research does not support popular accounts implicating physiological factors in menstrual chocolate craving etiology. We tested the novel hypothesis that greater menstrual craving prevalence in the U.S. is the product of internalized cultural norms. Women of diverse backgrounds (n = 275) reported on craving frequency and triggers and completed validated measures of acculturation. Foreign-born women were significantly less likely to endorse menstrual chocolate craving (17.3%), compared to women born to U.S.-born parents (32.7%, p = .03) and second generation immigrants (40.9%, p = .001). Second generation immigrant and foreign-born women endorsing menstrual chocolate craving reported significantly greater U.S. acculturation and lower identification with their native culture than non-menstrual cravers (all p < .001). Findings inform our understanding of food cravings, with important implications for the study of cravings in other domains. PMID:28723930

  4. Does culture create craving? Evidence from the case of menstrual chocolate craving.

    PubMed

    Hormes, Julia M; Niemiec, Martha A

    2017-01-01

    Craving is considered a key characteristic of diverse pathologies, but evidence suggests it may be a culture-bound construct. Almost 50% of American women crave chocolate specifically around the onset of menstruation. Research does not support popular accounts implicating physiological factors in menstrual chocolate craving etiology. We tested the novel hypothesis that greater menstrual craving prevalence in the U.S. is the product of internalized cultural norms. Women of diverse backgrounds (n = 275) reported on craving frequency and triggers and completed validated measures of acculturation. Foreign-born women were significantly less likely to endorse menstrual chocolate craving (17.3%), compared to women born to U.S.-born parents (32.7%, p = .03) and second generation immigrants (40.9%, p = .001). Second generation immigrant and foreign-born women endorsing menstrual chocolate craving reported significantly greater U.S. acculturation and lower identification with their native culture than non-menstrual cravers (all p < .001). Findings inform our understanding of food cravings, with important implications for the study of cravings in other domains.

  5. Effect of chocolate and Propolfenol on rabbit spermatogenesis and sperm quality following bacterial lipopolysaccharide treatment.

    PubMed

    Collodel, Giulia; Moretti, Elena; Del Vecchio, Maria Teresa; Biagi, Marco; Cardinali, Raffaella; Mazzi, Lucia; Brecchia, Gabriele; Maranesi, Margherita; Manca, Daniela; Castellini, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the effects of chocolate and propolis-enriched diets on rabbit spermatogenesis, sperm motility, and ultrastructure following bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. Thirty-two New Zealand White rabbits were divided into four groups. The LPS-Propolfenol(®) group received propolis (500 mg/kg/day) in their diet for 15 days, while the LPS-chocolate group was fed 70% cacao chocolate (1 g/1 kg/day) for the same period. Following the diet treatments, rabbits in the LPS-Propolfenol(®) and LPS-chocolate groups, and an LPS group received a single intraperitoneal dose of 50 μg/kg LPS, and the control group received only saline. Kinematic sperm traits were evaluated with a computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA) system, and ultrastructural characteristics were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Testicular and epididymal tissues were observed by light microscopy and TEM and multiplex real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was used to detect and quantify toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) gene expression. The values of the analyzed semen parameters of rabbits treated with LPS-Propolfenol(®) and LPS-chocolate did not show any variations compared with the control group, but they were lower in rabbits treated only with LPS. Alterations observed in the testicular tissue of LPS treated-rabbits were not detected in specimens from the LPS-chocolate and LPS-Propolfenol(®) groups, which showed normal spermatogenesis. The TLR-4 mRNA expression was similar in controls, in LPS treated, and in LPS-chocolate groups, but it was significantly (p < 0.01) decreased in LPS-Propolfenol(®) rabbits. In conclusion, a chocolate and propolis-enriched diet showed a protective effect on the spermatogenetic process of buck rabbits following LPS treatment.

  6. Quantification of the predominant monomeric catechins in baking chocolate standard reference material by LC/APCI-MS.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Bryant C; Sharpless, Katherine E

    2003-01-29

    Catechins are polyphenolic plant compounds (flavonoids) that may offer significant health benefits to humans. These benefits stem largely from their anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, and antimutagenic properties. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that the consumption of flavonoid-containing foods is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Chocolate is a natural cocoa bean-based product that reportedly contains high levels of monomeric, oligomeric, and polymeric catechins. We have applied solid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry to the identification and determination of the predominant monomeric catechins, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, in a baking chocolate Standard Reference Material (NIST Standard Reference Material 2384). (+)-Catechin and (-)-epicatechin are detected and quantified in chocolate extracts on the basis of selected-ion monitoring of their protonated [M + H](+) molecular ions. Tryptophan methyl ester is used as an internal standard. The developed method has the capacity to accurately quantify as little as 0.1 microg/mL (0.01 mg of catechin/g of chocolate) of either catechin in chocolate extracts, and the method has additionally been used to certify (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin levels in the baking chocolate Standard Reference Material. This is the first reported use of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the quantitative determination of monomeric catechins in chocolate and the only report certifying monomeric catechin levels in a food-based Standard Reference Material.

  7. Patterns of Food Utilization in the DOD. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    DOD .on .213 81.540 ROLLS faROWN/SERVE DOD .014 .213 81.752 COOKIES VANILLA WAFER DOD .014 .210 81.963 SWEET DOUGH MIX DOD .014 .209 82.172 PEACHES...ROASTED COOKIE MIX OATiEAL SERVICE USACVRATION DOD .0C2 DOD .003 DOD .00307 DOD .00002 DOD .008 DOD .001 DO" .005 POD .0004 DOD .002 DOD .001...M.,lin.mtm^.,m,mtff»m. -~——-^.-P-~—~ iwmmm^* m u ITEM COOKIES V’MILL» WAFER CCRN BREAD MIX CORN CHIPS CORN CREAM STYLE CND CORK

  8. Dark chocolate and reduced snack consumption in mildly hypertensive adults: an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Koli, Raika; Köhler, Klaus; Tonteri, Elina; Peltonen, Juha; Tikkanen, Heikki; Fogelholm, Mikael

    2015-08-22

    Several studies have shown that cocoa and cocoa-containing foods have the potential to lower blood pressure and improve endothelial function. Most of the studies reporting the beneficial effects of dark chocolate on blood pressure have been short (≤ 4 weeks). The aim of the present 8-wks (weeks) study was to assess the effects of regular consumption of dark chocolate during a reduced snack consumption intervention on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in mildly hypertensive individuals. This was a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial involving 22 adults (8 women, 14 men), aged 33-64 y, BMI 27.7 ± 3.7 kg/m(2) with mild hypertension. During the intervention period (8-wks) the participants reduced the intake of habitual snacks and replaced them with dark chocolate (49 g/day). In the control period, they only reduced the snacks without any added chocolate. Data (blood lipid profile, glucose, insulin, 24 h blood pressure) was collected in the beginning and end of both periods (intervention and control), and some variables also in the run-in and run-out periods (weight, body fat percentage, blood pressure, arterial stiffness index, diet and physical activity). Daily consumption of dark chocolate had no effects on 24 h blood pressure, resting blood pressure (mean ± SD, pre 142 ± 11.5/89 ± 8.4 mmHg vs. post 142 ± 14.2/88 ± 9.4 mmHg in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively) or arterial stiffness (mean ± SD, pre 7.68 ± 0.88 vs. post 7.76 ± 0.89). Weight was reduced by 1.0 ± 2.2 kg during the control (reduced snack only) period, but was unchanged while eating chocolate (p < 0.027 between the treatments). The data collected in this study indicates that inclusion of dark chocolate daily in the diet had no significant effects on blood pressure or other cardiovascular risk factors during a reduced snack period. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02130141.

  9. High-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate improves blood pressure in patients with diabetes and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Ali; Khalili, Mohammad; Haghighat, Neda; Eghtesadi, Shahryar; Shidfar, Farzad; Heidari, Iraj; Ebrahimpour-Koujan, Soraiya; Eghtesadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to examine the effects of high-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate on lipid profiles, weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, and inflammation in individuals with Type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Sixty individuals [32 in dark chocolate group (DCG) and 28 in white chocolate group (WCG)] with Type 2 diabetes on stable medication were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study. Subjects were randomized to consume 25 g DCG or WCG for 8 weeks. Changes in weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, lipid profile, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured at the beginning and end of the intervention. This clinical trial was registered at the Iranian registry of clinical trials. In DCC group, compared with baseline, serum levels of Apo A-1 (P = 0.045) was increased and fasting blood sugar (FBS) (P = 0.027), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (P = 0.025), Apo B (P = 0.012) and Log of hsCRP (P = 0.043) levels were decreased at the end of study. No changes were seen within the WCG in studied parameters. High polyphenol chocolate consumption compared to white chocolate resulted in significant decrease in of systolic (-5.93 ± 6.25 vs. -1.07 ± 7.97 mmHg, P = 0.004) and diastolic blood pressure (-6.4 ± 6.25 vs. 0.17 ± 7.9 mmHg, P = 0.002), FBS (-7.84 ± 19.15 vs. 4.00 ± 20.58 mg/dl, P = 0.019) over the course of 8 weeks of daily chocolate consumption neither weight nor body mass index and TG levels altered from baseline. High polyphenol chocolate is effective in improving TG levels in hypertensive patients with diabetes and decreasing blood pressure and FBS without affecting weight, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance or glycemic control.

  10. Effect of Popping Chocolate and Candy on Enamel Microhardness of Primary and Permanent Teeth.

    PubMed

    Tabari, Mitra; Alaghemand, Homayoon; Qujeq, Durdi; Mohammadi, Elahe

    2017-01-01

    Dental erosion is a common disease in children. Food diets, due to high amounts of juice, soft drinks, chewing gum, and acidic chocolate, are one of the most important risk factors in erosive processes among children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of candy and chocolate on the microhardness of tooth enamel. Two types of popping candy and one type of popping chocolate were used in this study. Thirty-three healthy permanent premolar teeth and 33 primary incisor teeth (A or B) were selected. Five grams of each popping chocolate or candy was dissolved with 2 ml of artificial saliva. Subsequently, their pH and titrable acidity (TA) as well as microhardness and surface roughness of enamel were examined in the laboratory. Data were analyzed and evaluated Released 2011. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. Armonk, NY through independent t -test, paired t -test, Tukey test, and ANOVA. The results of this study showed that only the pH of the candies was below the critical pH of the enamel (5.5) and their TA was B = 0.20 and C = 0.21. The most significant effect on the enamel microhardness of the permanent and primary teeth was by the following types of candy: orange flavor (C), strawberry flavor (B), and chocolate (A), respectively. This difference was significant ( P < 0.001) and the surface roughness increased after exposure. This study showed that popping chocolate and candy reduces microhardness of enamel.

  11. Chocolate Consumption is Associated with a Lower Risk of Cognitive Decline.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Afonso; Diógenes, Maria José; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Lunet, Nuno; Barros, Henrique

    2016-05-06

    Cocoa-related products like chocolate have taken an important place in our food habits and culture. In this work, we aim to examine the relationship between chocolate consumption and cognitive decline in an elderly cognitively healthy population. In the present longitudinal prospective study, a cohort of 531 participants aged 65 and over with normal Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; median 28) was selected. The median follow-up was 48 months. Dietary habits were evaluated at baseline. The MMSE was used to assess global cognitive function at baseline and at follow-up. Cognitive decline was defined by a decrease ≥ 2 points in the MMSE score between evaluations. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) estimates were adjusted for age, education, smoking, alcohol drinking, body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes. Chocolate intake was associated with a lower risk of cognitive decline (RR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.38-0.92). This protective effect was observed only among subjects with an average daily consumption of caffeine lower than 75 mg (69% of the participants; RR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.82). To our knowledge, this is the first prospective cohort study to show an inverse association between regular long-term chocolate consumption and cognitive decline in humans.

  12. Presence of undeclared peanut protein in chocolate bars imported from Europe.

    PubMed

    Vadas, Peter; Perelman, Boris

    2003-10-01

    Peanut allergens are both stable and potent and are capable of inducing anaphylactic reactions at low concentrations. Consequently, the consumption of peanuts remains the most common cause of food-induced anaphylactic death. Since accidental exposure to peanuts is a common cause of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in peanut-allergic individuals, we tested for the presence of peanut protein in chocolate bars produced in Europe and North America that did not list peanuts as an ingredient. Ninety-two chocolate bars, of which 32 were manufactured in North America and 60 were imported from Europe, were tested by the Veratox assay. None of the 32 North American chocolate products, including 19 with precautionary labeling, contained detectable peanut protein. In contrast, 30.8% of products from western Europe without precautionary labeling contained detectable levels of peanut protein. Sixty-two percent of products from eastern Europe without precautionary labeling contained detectable peanut protein at levels of up to 245 ppm. The absence of precautionary labeling and the absence of the declaration of "peanut" as an ingredient in chocolate bars made in eastern and central Europe were not found to guarantee that these products were actually free of contaminating peanut protein. In contrast, North American manufacturers have attained a consistent level of safety and reliability for peanut-allergic consumers.

  13. Evaluation of two local cowpea species for nutrient, antinutrient, and phytochemical compositions and organoleptic attributes of their wheat-based cookies

    PubMed Central

    Ayogu, Rufina N. B.; Nnam, Ngozi M.; Mbah, Mirabel

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood and adolescent malnutrition is a function of inadequate intake. Cookies are favourite snacks of children and adolescents. Objective This work determined the nutrient, antinutrient, and phytochemical compositions of two local cowpea (oraludi and apama) flours and evaluated the organoleptic properties of their wheat-based cookies. Design The two local cowpea species were processed into flours separately and blended with wheat on a 56-g protein basis. Chemical compositions of the processed cowpea flours were analysed using standard methods. Organoleptic attributes were evaluated with a nine-point Hedonic scale. Statistical analysis, which involved mean and standard deviations, were computed by analysis of variance, and Duncan's new multiple range tests were used to separate and compare group means of sensory evaluation data, with significance accepted at P<0.05. Results The results revealed that oraludi had superior percentage values compared to apama in protein (26.22 and 20.88), fat (7.98 and 6.65), and ash (3.81 and 3.13), while apama proved superior in moisture (9.76 and 7.82), crude fibre (5.49 and 4.91), and carbohydrate (54.09 and 49.26). The values were higher for oraludi than apama in iron (8.62 and 6.49 mg), zinc (1.61 and 0.95 mg), and beta-carotene (223.24 and 190.63 mg) but lower in sodium (34.79 and 56.72 mg), potassium (25.73 and 30.65 mg), phosphorus (13.35 and 18.26 mg), thiamine (5.33 and 9.41 mg), vitamin C (16.63 and 21.09 mg), and vitamin E (0.51 and 0.67 mg). Apama had 0.06 mg phytate, 0.09 mg oxalate, 15.22 mg tannins, 3.59 mg flavonoids, and 0.19 mg saponin. Oraludi had 0.03 mg phytate, 0.32 mg oxalate, 15.94 mg tannins, 3.14 mg flavonoid, and 0.13 mg saponin. Mean scores of general acceptability for wheat:apama (80:20) and wheat:oraludi:apama (60:20:20) cookies (7.71 and 7.41) were superior (P<0.05) to others. Conclusions Oraludi and apama proved nutrient dense. Their use improved the acceptability of some of the wheat

  14. Making a chocolate chip: development and evaluation of a 6K SNP array for Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Donald; Royaert, Stefan; Stack, Conrad; Mockaitis, Keithanne; May, Greg; Farmer, Andrew; Saski, Christopher; Schnell, Ray; Kuhn, David; Motamayor, Juan Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Theobroma cacao, the key ingredient in chocolate production, is one of the world's most important tree fruit crops, with ∼4,000,000 metric tons produced across 50 countries. To move towards gene discovery and marker-assisted breeding in cacao, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification project was undertaken using RNAseq data from 16 diverse cacao cultivars. RNA sequences were aligned to the assembled transcriptome of the cultivar Matina 1-6, and 330,000 SNPs within coding regions were identified. From these SNPs, a subset of 6,000 high-quality SNPs were selected for inclusion on an Illumina Infinium SNP array: the Cacao6kSNP array. Using Cacao6KSNP array data from over 1,000 cacao samples, we demonstrate that our custom array produces a saturated genetic map and can be used to distinguish among even closely related genotypes. Our study enhances and expands the genetic resources available to the cacao research community, and provides the genome-scale set of tools that are critical for advancing breeding with molecular markers in an agricultural species with high genetic diversity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  15. Effects of Milk vs Dark Chocolate Consumption on Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity Within 2 Hours: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Jeff C; Karunathilake, Nirmani; Patrizi, Korey

    2018-04-26

    Consumption of dark chocolate can improve blood flow, mood, and cognition in the short term, but little is known about the possible effects of dark chocolate on visual performance. To compare the short-term effects of consumption of dark chocolate with those of milk chocolate on visual acuity and large- and small-letter contrast sensitivity. A randomized, single-masked crossover design was used to assess short-term visual performance after consumption of a dark or a milk chocolate bar. Thirty participants without pathologic eye disease each consumed dark and milk chocolate in separate sessions, and within-participant paired comparisons were used to assess outcomes. Testing was conducted at the Rosenberg School of Optometry from June 25 to August 15, 2017. Visual acuity (in logMAR units) and large- and small-letter contrast sensitivity (in the log of the inverse of the minimum detectable contrast [logCS units]) were measured 1.75 hours after consumption of dark and milk chocolate bars. Among the 30 participants (9 men and 21 women; mean [SD] age, 26 [5] years), small-letter contrast sensitivity was significantly higher after consumption of dark chocolate (mean [SE], 1.45 [0.04] logCS) vs milk chocolate (mean [SE], 1.30 [0.05] logCS; mean improvement, 0.15 logCS [95% CI, 0.08-0.22 logCS]; P < .001). Large-letter contrast sensitivity was slightly higher after consumption of dark chocolate (mean [SE], 2.05 [0.02] logCS) vs milk chocolate (mean [SE], 2.00 [0.02] logCS; mean improvement, 0.05 logCS [95% CI, 0.00-0.10 logCS]; P = .07). Visual acuity improved slightly after consumption of dark chocolate (mean [SE], -0.22 [0.01] logMAR; visual acuity, approximately 20/12) and milk chocolate (mean [SE], -0.18 [0.01] logMAR; visual acuity, approximately 20/15; mean improvement, 0.04 logMAR [95% CI, 0.02-0.06 logMAR]; P = .05). Composite scores combining results from all tests showed significant improvement after consumption of dark compared with milk chocolate

  16. Impact of the Skim Milk Powder Manufacturing Process on the Flavor of Model White Chocolate.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ashleigh; Grandison, Alistair S; Ryan, Angela; Festring, Daniel; Methven, Lisa; Parker, Jane K

    2017-02-15

    Milk powder is an important ingredient in the confectionery industry, but its variable nature has consequences for the quality of the final confectionary product. This paper demonstrates that skim milk powders (SMP) produced using different (but typical) manufacturing processes, when used as ingredients in the manufacture of model white chocolates, had a significant impact on the sensory and volatile profiles of the chocolate. SMP was produced from raw bovine milk using either low or high heat treatment, and a model white chocolate was prepared from each SMP. A directional discrimination test with naïve panelists showed that the chocolate prepared from the high heat SMP had more caramel/fudge character (p < 0.0001), and sensory profiling with an expert panel showed an increase in both fudge (p < 0.05) and condensed milk (p < 0.05) flavor. Gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry and GC-olfactometry of both the SMPs and the model chocolates showed a concomitant increase in Maillard-derived volatiles which are likely to account for this change in flavor.

  17. Testing the Fracture Behaviour of Chocolate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, L. B.; Goodall, R.

    2011-01-01

    In teaching the materials science aspects of physics, mechanical behaviour is important due to its relevance to many practical applications. This article presents a method for experimentally examining the toughness of chocolate, including a design for a simple test rig, and a number of experiments that can be performed in the classroom. Typical…

  18. Effect of Popping Chocolate and Candy on Enamel Microhardness of Primary and Permanent Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Tabari, Mitra; Alaghemand, Homayoon; Qujeq, Durdi; Mohammadi, Elahe

    2017-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Dental erosion is a common disease in children. Food diets, due to high amounts of juice, soft drinks, chewing gum, and acidic chocolate, are one of the most important risk factors in erosive processes among children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of candy and chocolate on the microhardness of tooth enamel. Materials and Methods: Two types of popping candy and one type of popping chocolate were used in this study. Thirty-three healthy permanent premolar teeth and 33 primary incisor teeth (A or B) were selected. Five grams of each popping chocolate or candy was dissolved with 2 ml of artificial saliva. Subsequently, their pH and titrable acidity (TA) as well as microhardness and surface roughness of enamel were examined in the laboratory. Data were analyzed and evaluated Released 2011. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. Armonk, NY through independent t-test, paired t-test, Tukey test, and ANOVA. Results: The results of this study showed that only the pH of the candies was below the critical pH of the enamel (5.5) and their TA was B = 0.20 and C = 0.21. The most significant effect on the enamel microhardness of the permanent and primary teeth was by the following types of candy: orange flavor (C), strawberry flavor (B), and chocolate (A), respectively. This difference was significant (P < 0.001) and the surface roughness increased after exposure. Conclusions: This study showed that popping chocolate and candy reduces microhardness of enamel. PMID:29387623

  19. Effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters in ApoE3L mice fed a high-cholesterol atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Yakala, Gopala K; Wielinga, Peter Y; Suarez, Manuel; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Golde, Jolanda M; Arola, Lluis; Keijer, Jaap; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; Heeringa, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Dietary intake of cocoa and/or chocolate has been suggested to exhibit protective cardiovascular effects although this is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. Four groups of ApoE*3Leiden mice were exposed to the following diet regimens. Group 1: cholesterol-free control diet (CO). Group 2: high-dose (1.0% w/w) control cholesterol (CC). Group 3: CC supplemented chocolate A (CCA) and Group 4: CC supplemented chocolate B (CCB). Both chocolates differed in polyphenol and fiber content, CCA had a relatively high-polyphenol and low-fiber content compared to CCB. Mice fed a high-cholesterol diet showed increased plasma-cholesterol and developed atherosclerosis. Both chocolate treatments, particularly CCA, further increased plasma-cholesterol and increased atherosclerotic plaque formation. Moreover, compared to mice fed a high-cholesterol diet, both chocolate-treated groups displayed increased liver injury. Mice on high-cholesterol diet had elevated plasma levels of sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and SAA, which was further increased in the CCB group. Similar effects were observed for renal inflammation markers. The two chocolate preparations showed unfavorable, but different effects on cardiometabolic health in E3L mice, which dissimilarities may be related to differences in chocolate composition. We conclude that discrepancies reported on the effects of chocolate on cardiometabolic health may at least partly be due to differences in chocolate composition. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Improving chocolate flavor in poor-quality cocoa almonds by enzymatic treatment.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Hilana Salete Silva; Mamede, Maria Eugênia Oliveira; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles; Koblitz, Maria Gabriela Bello

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to enzymatically treat poor-quality cocoa almonds (known as "slate") to ensure the formation of chocolate flavor precursors. The production of flavor precursors improves the quality of these almonds, which are usually responsible for the low quality of the liquor produced. Proteases and carboxypeptidases from different sources were tested under various conditions. The different treatments were evaluated by chemical analysis (hydrolysis efficiency) and sensory analysis of the treated material compared to good-quality cocoa almonds. The results show that it is possible, through the use of microbial enzymes, to generate the mixture of compounds that will release, after roasting, the characteristic chocolate flavor in poor-quality almonds. However, it is necessary to optimize the conditions of enzymatic treatment to obtain better results and thus establish a process that can be used for industrial purposes for manufacturing cocoa and chocolate. The basidiomycete Moniliophtora perniciosa is the causative agent of witches' broom disease (WBD) of the cocoa tree, whose seeds are the source of chocolate. It is the most important phytopathological problem of cocoa-producing areas of the American continent, and has decimated the Brazilian cocoa industry. In Bahia (Brazil), M. perniciosa was identified in 1989 and, as a consequence of its spreading, the annual production of cocoa almonds dropped from 450,000 to 90,000 tons within 12 y, reducing export values from an all-time high of about US$ 1 billion to 110 million. The high incidence of WBD incapacitates Brazil to produce enough cocoa almonds even for the internal market, leading the country to import low-quality cocoa almonds mainly from African countries. Our work proposes an enzymatic treatment to increase the quality of that cocoa almonds and, consequently, to improve the quality of the chocolate produced and consumed in the country. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Chocolate: Reading across the Five C's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Jody

    2007-01-01

    The reading and literacy focus of a unit that centers on chocolate can provide a context for using the interpretive mode of the communication standard from the "National Standards in Foreign Language Education." This article presents a thematic unit that is applicable to all languages and adaptable to any level. Inspired by Woodlands'…

  2. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments

    PubMed Central

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people’s attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties—namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased—but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception. PMID:27725715

  3. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments.

    PubMed

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-10-11

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people's attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties-namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased-but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception.

  4. Mycobiota of cocoa: from farm to chocolate.

    PubMed

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Frisvad, Jens C; Pereira, José L; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2011-12-01

    The present work was carried out to study the mycobiota of cocoa beans from farm to chocolate. Four hundred and ninety-four samples were analyzed at various stages of cocoa processing: (i) primary stage at the farm (fermentation, drying, and storage), (ii) secondary stage at processing (testa, nibs, liquor, butter, cake and powder) and (iii) the final chocolate product (dark, milk, white and powdered) collected from retail outlets. Direct plating or dilution plating on Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar were used for cocoa beans and processed product analyses, respectively. Fungi were isolated and identified using different keys of identification. The largest numbers and diversity of fungi were observed in the samples collected at the farm, especially during drying and storage. The species with the highest occurrence among samples were: Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus sp. nov., A. flavus, Penicillium paneum and yeasts. A total of 1132 potentially toxigenic fungi were isolated from the following species or species groups: A. flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus nomius, Aspergillus niger group, Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus group. The highest percentage of toxigenic fungi was found at the drying and storage stages. The industrial processing reduced the fungal contamination in all fractions and no fungi were found in the final chocolate products. The knowledge of which fungi are dominant at each processing stage of cocoa provides important data about their ecology. This understanding leads to a reduction in fungal spoilage and mycotoxin production in this product. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Operational Rations Current and Future of the Department of Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    with Spiced Sauce Beefsteak Chicken and Noodles Chicken or Turkey, Boned Apricots Peaches Chocolate Nut Roll Cookies Grape MEATS Ham and...Sauce Tuna Fish Turkey Loaf Fruit Cocktail Peacan Cake Roll Pound Cake Orange Tomato 16 ACCESSORY ITEMS Instant Coffee Instant Tea or Tea... INSTANT ACCESSORY PACKET FOOD PACKET, IN-FLIGHT INDIVIDUAL SPOON EARLY VERSION VI FOOD PACKET, LONG-RANGE Designed for troops in operations

  6. Chemical and sensory evaluation of dark chocolate with addition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Andrea B; Brandelli, Adriano; Macedo, Fernanda C; Pieta, Luiza; Klug, Tâmmila V; de Jong, Erna V

    2010-03-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a good source of vitamin E containing high quality protein. A dark chocolate with the addition of 12, 16 or 20% quinoa was developed. The protein concentration of the products increased as the percentage of quinoa increased. The product containing 20% quinoa showed only 9% increase in vitamin E, while the quantity of polyphenols decreased from 23.5 to 18 μmol pirocatechin/g. The amount of essential amino acids was improved in samples containing quinoa. Cysteine, tyrosine and methionine increased by 104, 72, 70%, respectively in chocolate containing 20% quinoa. The amino acid pattern was as per WHO standards, which was adequate to human needs. The chocolate with quinoa was approved by 92% of the sensory panel. All the samples showed an index of acceptance above 70%. Quinoa could be used at the levels evaluated in this study adding its potential health benefit to the dark chocolate.

  7. High internal phase agar hydrogel dispersions in cocoa butter and chocolate as a route towards reducing fat content.

    PubMed

    Skelhon, Thomas S; Olsson, Patrik K A; Morgan, Adam R; Bon, Stefan A F

    2013-09-01

    Reducing the fat content of chocolate formulations is a major challenge for the confectionery industry. We report the suspension of aqueous microgel agar particles of up to 80% v/v within sunflower oil, cocoa butter, and ultimately chocolate. The optimised emulsification process involves a shear-cooling step. We demonstrate the versatility of our method when applied to white, milk, and dark chocolate formulations, whilst preserving the desired polymorph V of the cocoa butter matrix. In addition, we show that this technology can be used as a strategy to disperse alcoholic beverages into chocolate confectionery.

  8. 21 CFR 163.124 - White chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... exceed 1.5 percent by weight; (4) Spices, natural and artificial flavorings, ground whole nut meats.... The name of the food is “white chocolate” or “white chocolate coating.” When one or more of the spices... appropriate statement, e.g., “Spice added”, “Flavored with ___ ”, or “With ___ added”, the blank being filled...

  9. 21 CFR 163.124 - White chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... exceed 1.5 percent by weight; (4) Spices, natural and artificial flavorings, ground whole nut meats.... The name of the food is “white chocolate” or “white chocolate coating.” When one or more of the spices... appropriate statement, e.g., “Spice added”, “Flavored with ___ ”, or “With ___ added”, the blank being filled...

  10. High-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate improves blood pressure in patients with diabetes and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Ali; Khalili, Mohammad; Haghighat, Neda; Eghtesadi, Shahryar; Shidfar, Farzad; Heidari, Iraj; Ebrahimpour-Koujan, Soraiya; Eghtesadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim was to examine the effects of high-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate on lipid profiles, weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, and inflammation in individuals with Type 2 diabetes and hypertension. METHODS Sixty individuals [32 in dark chocolate group (DCG) and 28 in white chocolate group (WCG)] with Type 2 diabetes on stable medication were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study. Subjects were randomized to consume 25 g DCG or WCG for 8 weeks. Changes in weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, lipid profile, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured at the beginning and end of the intervention. This clinical trial was registered at the Iranian registry of clinical trials. RESULTS In DCC group, compared with baseline, serum levels of Apo A-1 (P = 0.045) was increased and fasting blood sugar (FBS) (P = 0.027), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (P = 0.025), Apo B (P = 0.012) and Log of hsCRP (P = 0.043) levels were decreased at the end of study. No changes were seen within the WCG in studied parameters. High polyphenol chocolate consumption compared to white chocolate resulted in significant decrease in of systolic (−5.93 ± 6.25 vs. −1.07 ± 7.97 mmHg, P = 0.004) and diastolic blood pressure (−6.4 ± 6.25 vs. 0.17 ± 7.9 mmHg, P = 0.002), FBS (−7.84 ± 19.15 vs. 4.00 ± 20.58 mg/dl, P = 0.019) over the course of 8 weeks of daily chocolate consumption neither weight nor body mass index and TG levels altered from baseline. CONCLUSION High polyphenol chocolate is effective in improving TG levels in hypertensive patients with diabetes and decreasing blood pressure and FBS without affecting weight, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance or glycemic control. PMID:26089927

  11. Chocolate-candy consumption and three-year weight gain among postmenopausal U.S. women

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, James A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buijsse, Brian; Wang, Lu; Allison, Matthew A.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Tinker, Lesley; Waring, Molly E.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Martin, Lisa W.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that greater chocolate-candy intake is associated with more weight gain in postmenopausal women. DESIGN AND METHODS Prospective cohort study involving 107,243 post-menopausal American women aged 50–79 years (mean=60.7) at enrolment in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), with three-year follow up. Chocolate-candy consumption was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and body weight was measured. Linear mixed models, adjusted for demographic, socio-economic, anthropomorphic and behavioral variables, were used to test our main hypotheses. RESULTS Compared to women who ate a 1 oz (~28 g) serving of chocolate candy <1 per month, those who ate this amount 1 per month to <1 per week, 1 per week to < 3 per week and ≥3 per week showed greater three-year prospective weight gains (kg) of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.85), 0.95 (0.84, 1.06) and 1.40 (1.27, 1.53), respectively, (p for linear trend<0.0001). Each additional 1 oz/day was associated with a greater three-year weight gain (kg) of 0.92 (0.80, 1.05). The weight gain in each chocolate-candy intake level increased as BMI increased above the normal range (18.5–25 kg/m2), and as age decreased. CONCLUSIONS Greater chocolate-candy intake was associated with greater prospective weight gain in this cohort of post-menopausal women. PMID:25644711

  12. Chocolate-candy consumption and 3-year weight gain among postmenopausal U.S. women.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, James A; Manson, JoAnn E; Buijsse, Brian; Wang, Lu; Allison, Matthew A; Neuhouser, Marian L; Tinker, Lesley; Waring, Molly E; Isasi, Carmen R; Martin, Lisa W; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2015-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that greater chocolate-candy intake is associated with more weight gain in postmenopausal women. A prospective cohort study involved 107,243 postmenopausal American women aged 50-79 years (mean = 60.7) at enrollment in the Women's Health Initiative, with 3-year follow-up. Chocolate-candy consumption was assessed by food frequency questionnaire, and body weight was measured. Linear mixed models, adjusted for demographic, socio economic, anthropomorphic, and behavioral variables, were used to test our main hypotheses. Compared with women who ate a 1 oz (∼28 g) serving of chocolate candy <1 per month, those who ate this amount 1 per month to <1 per week, 1 per week to < 3 per week and ≥3 per week showed greater 3-year prospective weight gains (kg) of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.85), 0.95 (0.84, 1.06), and 1.40 (1.27, 1.53), respectively, (P for linear trend<0.0001). Each additional 1 oz/day was associated with a greater 3-year weight gain (kg) of 0.92 (0.80, 1.05). The weight gain in each chocolate-candy intake level increased as BMI increased above the normal range (18.5-25 kg/m(2)), and was inversely associated with age. Greater chocolate-candy intake was associated with greater prospective weight gain in this cohort of postmenopausal women. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  13. The short-term effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on retinal vessel diameter in glaucoma patients and age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Terai, Naim; Gedenk, Alexandra; Spoerl, Eberhard; Pillunat, Lutz E; Stodtmeister, Richard

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate and non-flavonoid-rich white chocolate on retinal vessel diameter in glaucoma patients and age-matched controls. Thirty glaucoma patients and 30 age-matched subjects were assigned to dark or white chocolate by randomization with forced equal distribution. The number in each of the four groups was 15. Measured parameters included systemic blood pressure (BP), blood glucose levels, static retinal vessel analysis, as measured by central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE) (which relates to the diameter of the central retinal artery), central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE) (which relates to the diameter of central retinal vein) and the arterio-venous ratio (AVR), which represents the CRAE/CRVE ratio, dynamic retinal vessel analysis as measured by the change in vessel diameter in response to flicker light stimulation. Three recording cycles from each were averaged. Blood pressure parameters (systolic BP, diastolic BP and pulse), IOP and blood glucose levels did not differ significantly between both groups before and after consumption of white or dark chocolate. Static vessel analysis did not show any significant changes in CRAE, CRVE or AVR before and after dark or white chocolate in both groups (p > 0.05). Mean dilatation of the venules in the control group was 3.2 ± 0.9 % before dark chocolate and 4.2 ± 1.4 % after dark chocolate intake, which was statistically significantly different (p = 0.01). Mean dilatation of the arterioles in the control group was 2.8 ± 1.8 % before dark chocolate and 3.5 ± 1.8 % after dark chocolate intake with a trend to statistical significance (p = 0.14), but not reaching the significance level. Mean diameter changes in the glaucoma group did not show any significant differences after dark chocolate consumption. The present study showed a significant improvement of venous vasodilatation 2 hr after dark chocolate intake in the control group, but not in the glaucoma group. This

  14. If You Give a Nurse a Cookie: Sharing Teaching Strategies for Nurse Educator Development.

    PubMed

    Wingo, Nancy P

    2017-01-01

    Nurse educators often do not have time or a space to discuss ideas about effective teaching. To address this issue, an instructor at one school of nursing initiated Cookie Swap, a bimonthly, school-wide e-mail featuring stories about teaching strategies and tools used in face-to-face, online, and clinical courses. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(1):12-13. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Impact of the two different iron fortified cookies on treatment of anemia in preschool children in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Landim, Liejy Agnes; Pessoa, Marcia Luiza Dos Santos Beserra; Brandão, Amanda de Castro Amorim Serpa; Morgano, Marcelo Antonio; Marcos Antônio de Mota Araújo, Marcos Antônio De Mota Araújo; Rocha, Maurisrael De Moura; Arêas, José Alfredo Gomes; Moreira-Araújo, Regilda Saraiva Dos Reis

    2016-09-20

    Nutritional intervention in pre-school children using cookies prepared with wheat flour enriched with iron and folic acid (CWFFeFA) and cookies prepared with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) flour fortified with iron and zinc and wheat flour enriched with iron and folic acid (CCFFeZn + WFFeFA). To assess the impact of the ingestion of CWFFeFA and CCFFeZn + WFFeFA by pre-school children, using the cowpea variety BRS-Xiquexique, to control iron-deficiency anaemia. Nutritional intervention was conducted in municipal day care centres selected at random (n = 262) involving pre-school children aged 2 to 5 years living in Teresina, state of Piauí, Brazil. To assess the socioeconomic data, BMI-for-age, haemoglobin levels before and after intervention, and dietary intake, the children were divided into group 1 (G1), which received CWFFeFA (30 g), and group 2 (G2), which received CCFFeZn + WFFeFA (30 g). Food acceptance was evaluated daily. The prevalence of anaemia in G1 and G2 before the nutritional intervention was 12.2% (n = 18) and 11.5% (n = 30), respectively. After intervention, the prevalence decreased to 1.4% in G1 (n = 2) and to 4.2% in G2 (n = 11). Food acceptance by pre-school children in G1 and G2 was 97.4% and 94.3%, respectively. The use of both types of cookie formulations decreased the prevalence of anaemia among pre-school children, and CCFFeZn + WFFeFA yielded the greatest decrease.

  16. Effects of high flavanol dark chocolate on cardiovascular function and platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Rull, Gurvinder; Mohd-Zain, Zetty N; Shiel, Julian; Lundberg, Martina H; Collier, David J; Johnston, Atholl; Warner, Timothy D; Corder, Roger

    2015-08-01

    Regular consumption of chocolate and cocoa products has been linked to reduced cardiovascular mortality. This study compared the effects of high flavanol dark chocolate (HFDC; 1064mg flavanols/day for 6weeks) and low flavanol dark chocolate (LFDC; 88mg flavanols/day for 6weeks) on blood pressure, heart rate, vascular function and platelet aggregation in men with pre-hypertension or mild hypertension. Vascular function was assessed by pulse wave analysis using radial artery applanation tonometry in combination with inhaled salbutamol (0.4mg) to assess changes due to endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. HFDC did not significantly reduce blood pressure compared to baseline or LFDC. Heart rate was increased by LFDC compared to baseline, but not by HFDC. Vascular responses to salbutamol tended to be greater after HFDC. Platelet aggregation induced by collagen or the thromboxane analogue U46619 was unchanged after LFDC or HFDC, whereas both chocolates reduced responses to ADP and the thrombin receptor activator peptide, SFLLRNamide (TRAP6), relative to baseline. Pre-incubation of platelets with theobromine also attenuated platelet aggregation induced by ADP or TRAP6. We conclude that consumption of HFDC confers modest improvements in cardiovascular function. Platelet aggregation is modulated by a flavanol-independent mechanism that is likely due to theobromine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Coffee and chocolate in danger.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2014-06-02

    As a rapidly growing global consumer base appreciates the pleasures of coffee and chocolate and health warnings are being replaced by more encouraging sounds from medical experts, their supply is under threat from climate change, pests and financial problems. Coffee farmers in Central America, in particular, are highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change, made worse by financial insecurity. Michael Gross reports. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chocolate consumption is inversely associated with prevalent coronary heart disease: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Djoussé, Luc; Hopkins, Paul N; North, Kari E; Pankow, James S; Arnett, Donna K; Ellison, R Curtis

    2011-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested beneficial effects of flavonoids on cardiovascular disease. Cocoa and particularly dark chocolate are rich in flavonoids and recent studies have demonstrated blood pressure lowering effects of dark chocolate. However, limited data are available on the association of chocolate consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We sought to examine the association between chocolate consumption and prevalent CHD. We studied in a cross-sectional design 4970 participants aged 25-93 years who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Family Heart Study. Chocolate intake was assessed through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate adjusted odds ratios. Compared to subjects who did not report any chocolate intake, odds ratios (95% CI) for CHD were 1.01 (0.76-1.37), 0.74 (0.56-0.98), and 0.43 (0.28-0.67) for subjects consuming 1-3 times/month, 1-4 times/week, and 5+ times/week, respectively (p for trend <0.0001) adjusting for age, sex, family CHD risk group, energy intake, education, non-chocolate candy intake, linolenic acid intake, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, and fruit and vegetables. Consumption of non-chocolate candy was associated with a 49% higher prevalence of CHD comparing 5+/week vs. 0/week [OR = 1.49 (0.96-2.32)]. These data suggest that consumption of chocolate is inversely related with prevalent CHD in a general United States population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. A Larger Chocolate Chip-Development of a 15K Theobroma cacao L. SNP Array to Create High-Density Linkage Maps.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Donald; Stack, Conrad; Mustiga, Guiliana M; Rodezno, Dayana C; Suarez, Carmen; Amores, Freddy; Feltus, Frank A; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Cornejo, Omar E; Motamayor, Juan C

    2017-01-01

    Cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) is an important cash crop in tropical regions around the world and has a rich agronomic history in South America. As a key component in the cosmetic and confectionary industries, millions of people worldwide use products made from cacao, ranging from shampoo to chocolate. An Illumina Infinity II array was created using 13,530 SNPs identified within a small diversity panel of cacao. Of these SNPs, 12,643 derive from variation within annotated cacao genes. The genotypes of 3,072 trees were obtained, including two mapping populations from Ecuador. High-density linkage maps for these two populations were generated and compared to the cacao genome assembly. Phenotypic data from these populations were combined with the linkage maps to identify the QTLs for yield and disease resistance.

  20. Acceptance- and imagery-based strategies can reduce chocolate cravings: A test of the elaborated-intrusion theory of desire.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Sophie; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2017-06-01

    The elaborated-intrusion theory of desire proposes that craving is a two-stage process whereby initial intrusions about a desired target are subsequently elaborated with mental imagery. The present study tested whether the craving reduction strategies of cognitive defusion and guided imagery could differentially target the intrusion and elaboration stages, respectively, and thus differentially impact the craving process. Participants were randomly assigned to a cognitive defusion, a guided imagery or a mind-wandering control condition. Pre- and post-intervention chocolate-related thoughts, intrusiveness of thoughts, vividness of imagery, craving intensity, and chocolate consumption were compared. Experiment 1 recruited a general sample of young women (n = 94), whereas Experiment 2 recruited a sample of chocolate cravers who wanted to reduce their chocolate consumption (n = 97). Across both experiments, cognitive defusion lowered intrusiveness of thoughts, vividness of imagery and craving intensity. Guided imagery reduced chocolate-related thoughts, intrusiveness, vividness and craving intensity for chocolate cravers (Experiment 2), but not for the general sample (Experiment 1). There were no group differences in chocolate consumption in either experiment. Results add to existing evidence supporting the elaborated-intrusion theory of desire in the food domain, and suggest that acceptance- and imagery-based techniques have potential for use in combatting problematic cravings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.