Science.gov

Sample records for choice experiment study

  1. Choice experiments

    Treesearch

    Thomas P Holmes; Wiktor L Adamawicz; Fredrik Carlsson

    2017-01-01

    There has been an explosion of interest during the past two decades in a class of nonmarket stated-preference valuation methods known as choice experiments. The overall objective of a choice experiment is to estimate economic values for characteristics (or attributes) of an environmental good that is the subject of policy analysis, where...

  2. Using Blocked Fractional Factorial Designs to Construct Discrete Choice Experiments for Health Care Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jaynes, Jessica; Wong, Weng Kee; Xu, Hongquan

    2016-01-01

    Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are increasingly used for studying and quantifying subjects preferences in a wide variety of health care applications. They provide a rich source of data to assess real-life decision making processes, which involve trade-offs between desirable characteristics pertaining to health and health care, and identification of key attributes affecting health care. The choice of the design for a DCE is critical because it determines which attributes’ effects and their interactions are identifiable. We apply blocked fractional factorial designs to construct DCEs and address some identification issues by utilizing the known structure of blocked fractional factorial designs. Our design techniques can be applied to several situations including DCEs where attributes have different number of levels. We demonstrate our design methodology using two health care studies to evaluate (1) asthma patients’ preferences for symptom-based outcome measures, and (2) patient preference for breast screening services. PMID:26823156

  3. A choice experiment analysis for solid waste disposal option: a case study in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Pek, Chuen-Khee; Jamal, Othman

    2011-11-01

    In Malaysia, most municipal wastes currently are disposed into poorly managed 'controlled tipping' systems with little or no pollution protection measures. This study was undertaken to assist the relevant governmental bodies and service providers to identify an improved waste disposal management strategy. The study applied the choice experiment technique to estimate the nonmarket values for a number of waste disposal technologies. Implicit prices for environmental attributes such as psychological fear, land use, air pollution, and river water quality were estimated. Compensating surplus estimates incorporating distance from the residences of the respondents to the proposed disposal facility were calculated for a number of generic and technology-specific choice sets. The resulting estimates were higher for technology-specific options, and the distance factor was a significant determinant in setting an equitable solid waste management fee. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Patient stories about their dialysis experience biases others' choices regardless of doctor's advice: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Winterbottom, Anna E; Bekker, Hilary L; Conner, Mark; Mooney, Andrew F

    2012-01-01

    Renal services provide resources to support patients in making informed choices about their dialysis modality. Many encourage new patients to talk with those already experiencing dialysis. It is unclear if these stories help or hinder patients' decisions, and few studies have been conducted into their effects. We present two studies comparing the impact of patient and doctor stories on hypothetical dialysis modality choices among an experimental population. In total, 1694 participants viewed online information about haemodialysis and continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis and completed a questionnaire. In Study 1, using actors, treatment information was varied by presenter (Doctor, Patient), order of presenter (Patient first, Doctor first) and mode of delivery (written, video). Information in Study 2 was varied (using actors) by presenter (Doctor, Patient), order of presenter (Patient first, Doctor first), inclusion of a decision table (no table, before story, after story) and sex of the 'patient' (male, female) and 'Doctor' (male, female). Information was controlled to ensure comparable content and comprehensibility. In both studies, participants were more likely to choose the dialysis modality presented by the patient rather than that presented by the doctor. There was no effect for mode of delivery (video versus written) or inclusion of a decision table. As 'new' patients were making choices based on past patient experience of those already on dialysis, we recommend caution to services using patient stories about dialysis to support those new to the dialysis in delivering support to those who are new to the decision making process for dialysis modality.

  5. Built environment affecting visitors' walking choice in commercial areas? - A study with GPS experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahm, Y.; Yoon, H.

    2016-12-01

    Retail location is one of the most critical factors explaining the success of store operations. Store owners prefer to choose locations with high visibility and convenient transportation, which might be likely reasons for higher pedestrian volume, hence larger chance to capture impulse shoppers, resulting in more profits. While researches have focused on discerning relationship between pedestrian route choice and physical environments via indirect measures such as survey questionnaire and interviews, recent technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS) enables collecting direct and precise waking route data. In this study, we investigate the physical environments in which pedestrians prefer to be in commercial district, and further analyze if such locations encompass stores with higher store revenues. The primary method is GPS experiment and travel diary for over hundred visitors of the study site, Hongik University commercial areas in Seoul, South Korea, and statistical analysis, Structural Equation Model (SEM). With SEM, we could assess endogenous latent variables indicating built environments, such as Density, Diversity, Destination Accessibility, Design, and Retail Attraction, and exogenous latent variable, the pedestrian walking choice, based on the observation of pedestrian volume and walking speed. Observed variables include the number of stores, building uses, kind of retail, and pedestrian volume, and walking speed. This research will shed light on planning commercial districts, emphasizing the role of pedestrian walking in the success of retail business, and providing a clue on how to encourage pedestrian visitation by improving physical environment. This work is supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (No. 2015R1C1A2A01055615)

  6. Rationalising the 'irrational': a think aloud study of discrete choice experiment responses.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Mandy; Watson, Verity; Entwistle, Vikki

    2009-03-01

    Stated preference methods assume respondents' preferences are consistent with utility theory, but many empirical studies report evidence of preferences that violate utility theory. This evidence is often derived from quantitative tests that occur naturally within, or are added to, stated preference tasks. In this study, we use qualitative methods to explore three axioms of utility theory: completeness, monotonicity, and continuity. We take a novel approach, adopting a 'think aloud' technique to identify violations of the axioms of utility theory and to consider how well the quantitative tests incorporated within a discrete choice experiment are able to detect these. Results indicate that quantitative tests classify respondents as being 'irrational' when qualitative statements would indicate they are 'rational'. In particular, 'non-monotonic' responses can often be explained by respondents inferring additional information beyond what is presented in the task, and individuals who appear to adopt non-compensatory decision-making strategies do so because they rate particular attributes very highly (they are not attempting to simplify the task). The results also provide evidence of 'cost-based responses': respondents assumed tests with higher costs would be of higher quality. The value of including in-depth qualitative validation techniques in the development of stated preference tasks is shown.

  7. Simulation study to determine the impact of different design features on design efficiency in discrete choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Vanniyasingam, Thuva; Cunningham, Charles E; Foster, Gary; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-07-19

    Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are routinely used to elicit patient preferences to improve health outcomes and healthcare services. While many fractional factorial designs can be created, some are more statistically optimal than others. The objective of this simulation study was to investigate how varying the number of (1) attributes, (2) levels within attributes, (3) alternatives and (4) choice tasks per survey will improve or compromise the statistical efficiency of an experimental design. A total of 3204 DCE designs were created to assess how relative design efficiency (d-efficiency) is influenced by varying the number of choice tasks (2-20), alternatives (2-5), attributes (2-20) and attribute levels (2-5) of a design. Choice tasks were created by randomly allocating attribute and attribute level combinations into alternatives. Relative d-efficiency was used to measure the optimality of each DCE design. DCE design complexity influenced statistical efficiency. Across all designs, relative d-efficiency decreased as the number of attributes and attribute levels increased. It increased for designs with more alternatives. Lastly, relative d-efficiency converges as the number of choice tasks increases, where convergence may not be at 100% statistical optimality. Achieving 100% d-efficiency is heavily dependent on the number of attributes, attribute levels, choice tasks and alternatives. Further exploration of overlaps and block sizes are needed. This study's results are widely applicable for researchers interested in creating optimal DCE designs to elicit individual preferences on health services, programmes, policies and products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Simulation study to determine the impact of different design features on design efficiency in discrete choice experiments

    PubMed Central

    Vanniyasingam, Thuva; Cunningham, Charles E; Foster, Gary; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are routinely used to elicit patient preferences to improve health outcomes and healthcare services. While many fractional factorial designs can be created, some are more statistically optimal than others. The objective of this simulation study was to investigate how varying the number of (1) attributes, (2) levels within attributes, (3) alternatives and (4) choice tasks per survey will improve or compromise the statistical efficiency of an experimental design. Design and methods A total of 3204 DCE designs were created to assess how relative design efficiency (d-efficiency) is influenced by varying the number of choice tasks (2–20), alternatives (2–5), attributes (2–20) and attribute levels (2–5) of a design. Choice tasks were created by randomly allocating attribute and attribute level combinations into alternatives. Outcome Relative d-efficiency was used to measure the optimality of each DCE design. Results DCE design complexity influenced statistical efficiency. Across all designs, relative d-efficiency decreased as the number of attributes and attribute levels increased. It increased for designs with more alternatives. Lastly, relative d-efficiency converges as the number of choice tasks increases, where convergence may not be at 100% statistical optimality. Conclusions Achieving 100% d-efficiency is heavily dependent on the number of attributes, attribute levels, choice tasks and alternatives. Further exploration of overlaps and block sizes are needed. This study's results are widely applicable for researchers interested in creating optimal DCE designs to elicit individual preferences on health services, programmes, policies and products. PMID:27436671

  9. A discrete choice experiment studying students' preferences for scholarships to private medical schools in Japan.

    PubMed

    Goto, Rei; Kakihara, Hiroaki

    2016-02-09

    The shortage of physicians in rural areas and in some specialties is a societal problem in Japan. Expensive tuition in private medical schools limits access to them particularly for students from middle- and low-income families. One way to reduce this barrier and lessen maldistribution is to offer conditional scholarships to private medical schools. A discrete choice experiment is carried out on a total of 374 students considering application to medical schools. The willingness to receive a conditional scholarship program to private medical schools is analyzed. The probability of attending private medical schools significantly decreased because of high tuition, a postgraduate obligation to provide a service in specific specialty areas, and the length of time of this obligation. An obligation to provide a service in rural regions had no significant effect on this probability. To motivate non-applicants to private medical schools to enroll in such schools, a decrease in tuition to around 1.2 million yen (US$ 12,000) or less, which is twice that of public schools, was found to be necessary. Further, it was found that non-applicants to private medical schools choose to apply to such schools even with restrictions if they have tuition support at the public school level. Conditional scholarships for private medical schools may widen access to medical education and simultaneously provide incentives to work in insufficiently served areas.

  10. Connecting High School Physics Experiences, Outcome Expectations, Physics Identity, and Physics Career Choice: A Gender Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Zahra; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how students' physics identities are shaped by their experiences in high school physics classes and by their career outcome expectations. The theoretical framework focuses on physics identity and includes the dimensions of student performance, competence, recognition by others, and interest. Drawing data from the Persistence…

  11. Connecting High School Physics Experiences, Outcome Expectations, Physics Identity, and Physics Career Choice: A Gender Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Zahra; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how students' physics identities are shaped by their experiences in high school physics classes and by their career outcome expectations. The theoretical framework focuses on physics identity and includes the dimensions of student performance, competence, recognition by others, and interest. Drawing data from the Persistence…

  12. Parents' Experience with School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaich, Daniel Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study sought to understand the experiences of a group of parents residing in the Novato Unified School District, Marin County, CA., as they engaged in the process of deciding where to send their children to school as the students matriculated from eighth to ninth grade, or middle school to high school. The four major…

  13. Parents' Experience with School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaich, Daniel Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study sought to understand the experiences of a group of parents residing in the Novato Unified School District, Marin County, CA., as they engaged in the process of deciding where to send their children to school as the students matriculated from eighth to ninth grade, or middle school to high school. The four major…

  14. Increasing the Transparency of Stated Choice Studies for Policy Analysis: Designing Experiments to Produce Raw Response Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sur, Dipika; Cook, Joseph; Chatterjee, Susmita; Deen, Jacqueline; Whittington, Dale

    2007-01-01

    We believe a lack of transparency undermines both the credibility of, and interest in, stated choice studies among policy makers. Unlike articles reporting the results of contingent valuation studies, papers in the stated choice literature rarely present simple tabulations of raw response data (that is, a table or graph showing the percentage of…

  15. Increasing the Transparency of Stated Choice Studies for Policy Analysis: Designing Experiments to Produce Raw Response Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sur, Dipika; Cook, Joseph; Chatterjee, Susmita; Deen, Jacqueline; Whittington, Dale

    2007-01-01

    We believe a lack of transparency undermines both the credibility of, and interest in, stated choice studies among policy makers. Unlike articles reporting the results of contingent valuation studies, papers in the stated choice literature rarely present simple tabulations of raw response data (that is, a table or graph showing the percentage of…

  16. The influence of past experience on wilderness choice

    Treesearch

    Alan E. Watson; Joseph W. Roggenbuck; Daniel R. Williams

    1991-01-01

    A study of Southern Appalachian backcountry hikers tested the hypothesis that recreationists with high experience levels would have greater differentiation of site attribute values when making recreation choices than would individuals with low experience. Contrary to cognitive development theory, a simulated laboratory choice study found that more experienced subjects...

  17. A discrete choice experiment investigating preferences for funding drugs used to treat orphan diseases: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Stefanowska, Patricia; Hurley, Jeremiah

    2011-07-01

    Policy debate about funding criteria for drugs used to treat rare, orphan diseases is gaining prominence. This study presents evidence from a discrete choice experiment using a convenience sample of university students to investigate individual preferences regarding public funding for drugs used to treat rare diseases and common diseases. This pilot study finds that: other things equal, the respondents do not prefer to have the government spend more for drugs used to treat rare diseases; that respondents are not willing to pay more per life year gained for a rare disease than a common disease; and that respondents weigh relevant attributes of the coverage decisions (e.g. costs, disease severity and treatment effectiveness) similarly for both rare and common diseases. The results confirm the importance of severity and treatment effectiveness in preferences for public funding. Although this is the first study of its kind, the results send a cautionary message regarding the special treatment of orphan drugs in coverage decision-making.

  18. Conditions for autonomous choice: a qualitative study of older adults' experience of decision-making in TAVR

    PubMed Central

    Skaar, Elisabeth; Ranhoff, Anette Hylen; Nordrehaug, Jan Erik; Forman, Daniel E; Schaufel, Margrethe Aase

    2017-01-01

    Background Patient autonomy is a leading principle in bioethics and a basis for shared decision making. This study explores conditions for an autonomous choice experienced by older adults who recently underwent trans-catheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Methods Qualitative study entailing semi-structured interviews of a purposive sample of ten older (range 73–89, median 83.5 years) adults after TAVR (median 23 days). The study setting was a cardiac department at a university hospital performing TAVR since 2010. Analysis was by systematic text condensation. Results Even when choice seemed hard or absent, TAVR-patients deliberately took the chance offered them by processing risk assessment, ambivalence and fate. They regarded declining the treatment to be worse than accepting the risk related to the procedure. The experience of being thoroughly advised by their physician formed the basis of an autonomous trust. The trust they felt for the physicians' recommendations mitigated ambivalence about the procedure and risks. TAVR patients expressed feelings consistent with self-empowerment and claimed that it had to be their decision. Even so, choosing the intervention as an obligation to their family or passively accepting it was also reported. Conclusions Older TAVR patients' experience of an autonomous decision may encompass frank tradeoff; deliberate physician dependency as well as a resilient self-view. Physicians should be especially aware of how older adults' subtle cognitive declines and inclinations to preserve their identities which can influence their medical decision making when obtaining informed consent. Cardiologists and other providers may also use these insights to develop new strategies that better respond to such inherent complexities. PMID:28270841

  19. Developing attributes for discrete choice experiments in health: a systematic literature review and case study of alcohol misuse interventions

    PubMed Central

    Helter, Timea Mariann; Boehler, Christian Ernst Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) become increasingly popular to value outcomes for health economic studies and gradually gain acceptance as an input into policy decisions. Developing attributes is a key aspect for the design of DCEs, as their results may misguide decision-makers if they are based on an inappropriate set of attributes. However, the area lacks guidance, and current health-related DCE studies vary considerably in their methods of attribute development, with the consequent danger of providing an unreliable input for policy decisions. The aim of this article is to inform the progress toward a more systematic approach to attribute development for DCE studies in health. A systematic review of the published health-related DCE literature was conducted to lay the foundations for a generic framework which was tested in a case study of alcohol misuse interventions. Four stages of a general attribute development process emerged: (i) raw data collection; (ii) data reduction; (iii) removing inappropriate attributes; and (iv) wording. The case study compared and contrasted a qualitative and mixed-methods approach for the development of attributes for DCEs in the area of alcohol misuse interventions. This article provides a reference point for the design of future DCE experiments in health. PMID:27695386

  20. A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Shireese Redmond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…

  1. A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Shireese Redmond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…

  2. Host choice of Phlebotomus orientalis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in animal baited experiments: a field study in Tahtay Adiyabo district, northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebresilassie, Araya; Yared, Solomon; Aklilu, Essayas; Kirstein, Oscar David; Moncaz, Aviad; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2015-03-31

    Host choice and feeding success of sand fly vectors of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are important factors in understanding the epidemiology and for developing efficient control strategies. The aim of the present study was to determine the host preference of Phlebotomus orientalis in the VL focus of Tahtay Adiyabo district, northern Ethiopia. Two separate experiments were conducted testing attraction of P. orientalis to humans, domestic animals, and small wild animals. The host choice of P. orientalis and other sand fly species was assessed using tent traps baited with seven different animals (human, cow, sheep, goat, donkey, dog and chicken) and a blank control. Baited traps were rotated every night in a Latin square design for two consecutive full rounds totaling 16 trap-nights. The second set of experiments tested attraction to small wild animals including; ground squirrel (Xerus rutilus), hare (Lepus sp.), gerbil (Tatera robusta) and spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus). Animals were caged in standard rodent traps or cylindrical wire-mesh cages. The bait animals were placed in agricultural field and the attracted sand flies were collected using unlit CDC traps for 10 trapping nights. Sand fly specimens collected from each of the experiments were identified to species level and counted. Significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in the attraction and feeding rate of P. orientalis to different baits. In the first experiment, cow-baited tent traps attracted the highest mean number of P. orientalis (mean = 510 flies). The engorgement rate of P. orientalis on donkey was the highest followed by cow, and much lower on goat, sheep, dog and chicken. In the case of smaller wild animals, more numbers of P. orientalis females were attracted to squirrels followed by hares, gerbils and the spiny rat. However, the engorgement rates for P. orientalis in the smaller animals were very low (1.08%) compared with larger domestic animals (30.53%). The tendency of female P

  3. Discrete choice experiments of pharmacy services: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vass, Caroline; Gray, Ewan; Payne, Katherine

    2016-06-01

    Background Two previous systematic reviews have summarised the application of discrete choice experiments to value preferences for pharmacy services. These reviews identified a total of twelve studies and described how discrete choice experiments have been used to value pharmacy services but did not describe or discuss the application of methods used in the design or analysis. Aims (1) To update the most recent systematic review and critically appraise current discrete choice experiments of pharmacy services in line with published reporting criteria and; (2) To provide an overview of key methodological developments in the design and analysis of discrete choice experiments. Methods The review used a comprehensive strategy to identify eligible studies (published between 1990 and 2015) by searching electronic databases for key terms related to discrete choice and best-worst scaling (BWS) experiments. All healthcare choice experiments were then hand-searched for key terms relating to pharmacy. Data were extracted using a published checklist. Results A total of 17 discrete choice experiments eliciting preferences for pharmacy services were identified for inclusion in the review. No BWS studies were identified. The studies elicited preferences from a variety of populations (pharmacists, patients, students) for a range of pharmacy services. Most studies were from a United Kingdom setting, although examples from Europe, Australia and North America were also identified. Discrete choice experiments for pharmacy services tended to include more attributes than non-pharmacy choice experiments. Few studies reported the use of qualitative research methods in the design and interpretation of the experiments (n = 9) or use of new methods of analysis to identify and quantify preference and scale heterogeneity (n = 4). No studies reported the use of Bayesian methods in their experimental design. Conclusion Incorporating more sophisticated methods in the design of pharmacy

  4. [The CHOICE study (Contraceptive Health Research Of Informed Choice Experience)--an educational research program for Polish women planning combined hormonal contraceptives use].

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, Jacek; Paszkowski, Tomasz; Debski, Romuald; Kotarski, Jan; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta; Spaczyński, Robert Z; Pawelczyk, Leszek

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to develop an optimal educational model for contraceptive counseling, to analyze conditions influencing choice of hormonal contraception, to study patients' opinions on present, planned and proposed contraceptive methods and to link these data with socioeconomic and demographic conditions. One thousand eight hundred fifty women (mean age 26.8 +/- 5.9 yrs) willing to use hormonal contraception were presented with essential information on combined hormonal contraception and asked to fill the anonymous questionnaire investigating factors influencing contraceptive choice and patients' opinion on alternative forms of birth regulation. The study was conducted in selected 185 centers in Poland and was a part of a larger survey (CHOICE) conducted on 11 216 women in Europe and Israel. Majority of the studied women were in stable relationship (85,5%), had higher or incomplete higher education (54.8%) and permanent job (54%). The purpose of the visit was to start/change contraception (64.2%), a routine gynecologic check-up (36.7%) or the need for a prescription for the continued contraceptive medication (18.7%). The most commonly used contraceptive methods were oral contraceptive pills (OCP 38.7%) and condom (24.9%). Majority of women highly valued contraceptive counseling and more than 90% were eager to get familiarized with information leaflets. Before the counseling majority of subjects stated that were convinced to use OCP (52.7%; major advantages named: easy to use, favorable bleeding profile, amelioration of menstrual discomfort, comfortable, discrete) and contraceptive patch (22%; major advantages named: applied once a week, comfortable, simple, low risk for noncompliance, favorable bleeding profile). After the counseling there was an increase in proportion of women interested in contraceptive hormonal ring (by 19%; major advantages named: applied once a month, comfortable, very low risk for noncompliance, high efficacy and positive

  5. Choice in the repeated-gambles experiment.

    PubMed

    Silberberg, A; Murray, P; Christensen, J; Asano, T

    1988-09-01

    Humans chose 10 times between two roulette wheels projected on a monitor. During the first trial, the left wheel provided a hypothetical $100 with p = .94, and the right wheel provided $250 with p = .39. A titration procedure adjusted the probability of a $250 win across trials to permit estimation of an indifference point between alternatives. In Experiment 1, intertrial-interval duration (25 vs. 90 s) and whether sessions began with an intertrial interval or a trial were varied in a 2 x 2 design in this risky-choice procedure. Risk aversion (preference for the $100 wheel) increased with intertrial interval but was unaffected by whether sessions began with a trial or an intertrial interval. In Experiment 2, all sessions began with a trial, and subjects were informed that the experiment ended after 10 trials. Intertrial-interval duration had no effect on choice. In Experiment 3, intertrial-interval duration and whether subjects were given $10 or $10,000 before beginning were varied among four groups in a 2 x 2 design. In all other ways, the procedure was unchanged from Experiment 2. Intertrial interval had no effect on choice, but the $10,000 groups showed less risk aversion than the $10 groups. These results can be explained more readily in terms of Kahneman and Tversky's (1984) notion of "framing of the prospect" than in terms of Rachlin, Logue, Gibbon, and Frankel's (1986) behavioral account of risky choice.

  6. Choice in the repeated-gambles experiment

    PubMed Central

    Silberberg, Alan; Murray, Paul; Christensen, Joyce; Asano, Toshio

    1988-01-01

    Humans chose 10 times between two roulette wheels projected on a monitor. During the first trial, the left wheel provided a hypothetical $100 with p = .94, and the right wheel provided $250 with p = .39. A titration procedure adjusted the probability of a $250 win across trials to permit estimation of an indifference point between alternatives. In Experiment 1, intertrial-interval duration (25 vs. 90 s) and whether sessions began with an intertrial interval or a trial were varied in a 2 × 2 design in this risky-choice procedure. Risk aversion (preference for the $100 wheel) increased with intertrial interval but was unaffected by whether sessions began with a trial or an intertrial interval. In Experiment 2, all sessions began with a trial, and subjects were informed that the experiment ended after 10 trials. Intertrial-interval duration had no effect on choice. In Experiment 3, intertrial-interval duration and whether subjects were given $10 or $10,000 before beginning were varied among four groups in a 2 × 2 design. In all other ways, the procedure was unchanged from Experiment 2. Intertrial interval had no effect on choice, but the $10,000 groups showed less risk aversion than the $10 groups. These results can be explained more readily in terms of Kahneman and Tversky's (1984) notion of “framing of the prospect” than in terms of Rachlin, Logue, Gibbon, and Frankel's (1986) behavioral account of risky choice. PMID:16812555

  7. Search, Memory, and Choice Error: An Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Sanjurjo, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Multiple attribute search is a central feature of economic life: we consider much more than price when purchasing a home, and more than wage when choosing a job. An experiment is conducted in order to explore the effects of cognitive limitations on choice in these rich settings, in accordance with the predictions of a new model of search memory load. In each task, subjects are made to search the same information in one of two orders, which differ in predicted memory load. Despite standard models of choice treating such variations in order of acquisition as irrelevant, lower predicted memory load search orders are found to lead to substantially fewer choice errors. An implication of the result for search behavior, more generally, is that in order to reduce memory load (thus choice error) a limited memory searcher ought to deviate from the search path of an unlimited memory searcher in predictable ways-a mechanism that can explain the systematic deviations from optimal sequential search that have recently been discovered in peoples' behavior. Further, as cognitive load is induced endogenously (within the task), and found to affect choice behavior, this result contributes to the cognitive load literature (in which load is induced exogenously), as well as the cognitive ability literature (in which cognitive ability is measured in a separate task). In addition, while the information overload literature has focused on the detrimental effects of the quantity of information on choice, this result suggests that, holding quantity constant, the order that information is observed in is an essential determinant of choice failure. PMID:26121356

  8. Search, Memory, and Choice Error: An Experiment.

    PubMed

    Sanjurjo, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Multiple attribute search is a central feature of economic life: we consider much more than price when purchasing a home, and more than wage when choosing a job. An experiment is conducted in order to explore the effects of cognitive limitations on choice in these rich settings, in accordance with the predictions of a new model of search memory load. In each task, subjects are made to search the same information in one of two orders, which differ in predicted memory load. Despite standard models of choice treating such variations in order of acquisition as irrelevant, lower predicted memory load search orders are found to lead to substantially fewer choice errors. An implication of the result for search behavior, more generally, is that in order to reduce memory load (thus choice error) a limited memory searcher ought to deviate from the search path of an unlimited memory searcher in predictable ways-a mechanism that can explain the systematic deviations from optimal sequential search that have recently been discovered in peoples' behavior. Further, as cognitive load is induced endogenously (within the task), and found to affect choice behavior, this result contributes to the cognitive load literature (in which load is induced exogenously), as well as the cognitive ability literature (in which cognitive ability is measured in a separate task). In addition, while the information overload literature has focused on the detrimental effects of the quantity of information on choice, this result suggests that, holding quantity constant, the order that information is observed in is an essential determinant of choice failure.

  9. Modeling choice and valuation in decision experiments.

    PubMed

    Loomes, Graham

    2010-07-01

    This article develops a parsimonious descriptive model of individual choice and valuation in the kinds of experiments that constitute a substantial part of the literature relating to decision making under risk and uncertainty. It suggests that many of the best known "regularities" observed in those experiments may arise from a tendency for participants to perceive probabilities and payoffs in a particular way. This model organizes more of the data than any other extant model and generates a number of novel testable implications which are examined with new data.

  10. Riverscape and Groundwater Preservation: A Choice Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempesta, T.; Vecchiato, D.

    2013-12-01

    This study presents a quantitative approach to support policy decision making for the preservation of riverscapes, taking into account the EC Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and the EC Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC) concerning the protection of waters against nitrate pollution from agricultural sources. A choice experiment was applied to evaluate the benefits, as perceived by inhabitants, of the implementation of policies aiming to reduce the concentration of nitrates in groundwater, preserve the riverscape by maintaining a minimum water flow and increasing hedges and woods along the Serio River in central northern Italy. Findings suggested that people were particularly concerned about groundwater quality, probably because it is strongly linked to human health. Nevertheless, it was interesting to observe that people expressed a high willingness to pay for actions that affect the riverscape as a whole (such as the minimum water flow maintenance plus reforestation). This is probably due to the close connection between the riverscape and the functions of the river area for recreation, health purposes, and biodiversity preservation.

  11. Student Perceptions of Science Ability, Experiences, Expectations, and Career Choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherney, Michael; Cherney, I.

    2006-12-01

    The decision to study physics or astronomy is affected by many factors, including preferences, motivations, and expectations for success. Differing cognitive profiles contribute to the learning of science through a complex process in which intrinsic capacities are tuned both by everyday experience and by instruction. In an attempt to identify the developmental pathways and intrinsic factors that most strongly influence the choice to study science, we administered an extensive survey to a sample of 400 students. The survey questions were based on Eccles et al.’s model of achievement-related choices and findings showing that previous play experiences, spatial experiences, task beliefs, as well as perceived mathematics ability, motivational and personality characteristics affect mathematics achievement and science career choices. The perceptions of students planning a science career are compared with those planning a career in other areas. Gender differences are also discussed.

  12. Choice.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jay

    2008-09-01

    Understanding how and why analysands make the choices they do is central to both the clinical and the theoretical projects of psychoanalysis. And yet we know very little about the process of choice or about the relationship between choices and motives. A striking parallel is to be found between the ways choice is narrated in ancient Greek texts and the experience of analysts as they observe patients making choices in everyday clinical work. Pursuing this convergence of classical and contemporary sensibilities will illuminate crucial elements of the various meanings of choice, and of the way that these meanings change over the course of psychoanalytic treatment.

  13. 'I'd rather die happy': residents' experiences with food regulations, risk and food choice in residential aged care. A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Andrew; Bailey, Sherryn; Bernoth, Maree

    2017-08-09

    Food regulations exist to protect older people in residential aged care, leading to the restriction of potentially hazardous foods. The impacts of malnutrition, resident centred care and the importance of maintaining individual autonomy for older people are well documented. By contrast, there is scant literature describing residents' perceptions of food regulations and food risks in the residential aged care setting. The aim of this study is to explore resident perceptions of food choice and food restrictions in residential aged care. Using a qualitative, hermeneutic phenomenological design, semi-structured interviews were conducted with six participants recruited from two residential aged care facilities. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. The following key themes emerged in this study: participants were largely unaware of food regulations and risks, yet expressed the desire to make their own choices. Participants provided contradictory accounts of their experiences with food in residential aged care, which emphasises the ongoing challenge of meeting individual preferences. These themes warrant further investigation, particularly in relation to the impact of food regulations on food choice and the meaning of risk to older people in residential aged care. This research provides new insight into the perceptions of residents regarding their individual autonomy and independence against legislated risk minimization strategies. Impact statement This article raises the issue of risk taking and food choices from the perspective of residents in a residential aged care facility.

  14. Using respondent uncertainty to mitigate hypothetical bias in a stated choice experiment

    Treesearch

    Richard C. Ready; Patricia A. Champ; Jennifer L. Lawton

    2010-01-01

    In a choice experiment study, willingness to pay for a public good estimated from hypothetical choices was three times as large as willingness to pay estimated from choices requiring actual payment. This hypothetical bias was related to the stated level of certainty of respondents. We develop protocols to measure respondent certainty in the context of a choice...

  15. Preferred choice of work setting among nurses in Thailand: A discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Kunaviktikul, Wipada; Chitpakdee, Bunpitcha; Srisuphan, Wichit; Bossert, Thomas

    2014-05-08

    The shortage of health personnel and nurses is an important issue in many developed and developing countries. Understanding preferred choice of work setting is an important strategy for retaining nurses in their work. The purpose of this study was to determine choices made by nurses in Thailand relative to their preferences for a work setting. A discrete choice experiment was conducted to elicit attributes and levels of job characteristics expected to contribute to work-place preferences. The sample included 921 nurses and was selected using stratified random sampling. A random effects probit model was used to identify factors contributing to work-setting preferences. The results showed that nurses' first work-place preference was a high level of work setting. The second preference was to work in a hospital in the same province as their families. The results provide information for hospital and nurse administrators and policymakers seeking to address the nursing shortage.

  16. Retail Choice Experiments: Comparing Early-AdopterExperience

    SciTech Connect

    Golove, William

    2003-03-01

    This paper reviews the experience with retail choice of non-residential electricity customers during the period from early 1998 through the first few months of 2000. Key findings include: (1) customers in California received a significantly smaller discount from utility tariffs than customers in other competitive markets; (2) this sample of large commercial/industrial customers believed they were benefiting significantly more from commodity savings from contracts with retail electricity service providers (RESP) than from value-added services; and,(3) market rules appear to be critical to customer experiences with retail competition, yet the relationship between market rules and market development is inadequately understood.

  17. PATIENTS EXPERIENCES OF INVOLVEMENT IN CHOICE OF DIALYSIS MODE.

    PubMed

    Erlang, Anne S; Nielsen, Ida H; Hansen, Helle O B; Finderup, Jeanette

    2015-12-01

    International guidelines recommend that patients choose dialysis mode based on their own values and preferences; thus, involvement is needed in dialysis choice. A literature review indicated a lack of knowledge concerning patient involvement in decision-making, especially concerning patients' experiences of the decision-making process just after making the decision and before starting dialysis. To gather information about how patients experienced involvement in the decision-making process of renal substation therapy just after they have made the decision and before starting dialysis. A qualitative method with a phenomenological and hermeneutic approach. The study was based on individual semi-structured interviews with nine adult patients with chronic kidney disease. A data-driven analysis based on systematic text condensation was used. Patients are a significant part of the decision. Health care professionals contribute to the experience of being involved. Patients keep putting off the final choice. The patients found themselves involved in the choice of dialysis mode and have different views on what is needed to feel being involved. Information, interaction, and advice from health care professionals affect this experience. However, the experience of not having any symptoms caused patients to put off the final choice of dialysis mode. © 2015 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  18. Eliciting preferences for priority setting in genetic testing: a pilot study comparing best-worst scaling and discrete-choice experiments

    PubMed Central

    Severin, Franziska; Schmidtke, Jörg; Mühlbacher, Axel; Rogowski, Wolf H

    2013-01-01

    Given the increasing number of genetic tests available, decisions have to be made on how to allocate limited health-care resources to them. Different criteria have been proposed to guide priority setting. However, their relative importance is unclear. Discrete-choice experiments (DCEs) and best-worst scaling experiments (BWSs) are methods used to identify and weight various criteria that influence orders of priority. This study tests whether these preference eliciting techniques can be used for prioritising genetic tests and compares the empirical findings resulting from these two approaches. Pilot DCE and BWS questionnaires were developed for the same criteria: prevalence, severity, clinical utility, alternatives to genetic testing available, infrastructure for testing and care established, and urgency of care. Interview-style experiments were carried out among different genetics professionals (mainly clinical geneticists, researchers and biologists). A total of 31 respondents completed the DCE and 26 completed the BWS experiment. Weights for the levels of the six attributes were estimated by conditional logit models. Although the results derived from the DCE and BWS experiments differed in detail, we found similar valuation patterns in the DCE and BWS experiments. The respondents attached greatest value to tests with high clinical utility (defined by the availability of treatments that reduce mortality and morbidity) and to testing for highly prevalent conditions. The findings from this study exemplify how decision makers can use quantitative preference eliciting methods to measure aggregated preferences in order to prioritise alternative clinical interventions. Further research is necessary to confirm the survey results. PMID:23486538

  19. "A good career choice for women": female medical students' mentoring experiences: a multi-institutional qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Levine, Rachel B; Mechaber, Hilit F; Reddy, Shalini T; Cayea, Danelle; Harrison, Rebecca A

    2013-04-01

    The career decisions, practice patterns, and approach to patient care of current female students, who make up close to 50% of medical school classes, will have a profound impact on the profession. This study explores the role gender plays in the mentoring experiences of female medical students. In 2011, the authors conducted focus groups with 48 third- and fourth-year female medical students at four U.S. medical schools. Using a template organizing style, they derived themes in an iterative process to explore female medical students' mentoring relationships and the impact of gender on those relationships. The authors identified four major themes: (1) Optimal mentoring relationships are highly relational. Students emphasized shared values, trust, and a personal connection in describing ideal mentoring relationships. (2) Relational mentoring is more important than gender concordance. Students identified a desire for access to female mentors but stated that when a mentor and mentee developed a personal connection, the gender of the mentor was less important. (3) Gender-based assumptions and stereotypes affect mentoring relationships. Students described gender-based assumptions and expectations for themselves and their mentors. (4) Gender-based power dynamics influence students' thinking about mentoring. Students stated that they were concerned about how their mentors might perceive their professional decisions because of their gender, which influenced what they disclosed to male mentors and mentors in positions of power. Gender appears to play a role in female medical students' expectations and experience with mentoring relationships and may influence their decision making around career planning.

  20. Measuring the loss of consumer choice in mandatory health programmes using discrete choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Bonny; Goodall, Stephen; Norman, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Economic evaluation of mandatory health programmes generally do not consider the utility impact of a loss of consumer choice upon implementation, despite evidence suggesting that consumers do value having the ability to choose. The primary aim of this study was to explore whether the utility impact of a loss of consumer choice from implementing mandatory health programmes can be measured using discrete choice experiments (DCEs). Three case studies were used to test the methodology: fortification of bread-making flour with folate, mandatory influenza vaccination of children, and the banning of trans-fats. Attributes and levels were developed from a review of the literature. An orthogonal, fractional factorial design was used to select the profiles presented to respondents to allow estimation of main effects. Overall, each DCE consisted of 64 profiles which were allocated to four versions of 16 profiles. Each choice task compared two profiles, one being voluntary and the other being mandatory, plus a 'no policy' option, thus each respondent was presented with eight choice tasks. For each choice task, respondents were asked which health policy they most preferred and least preferred. Data was analysed using a mixed logit model with correlated coefficients (200 Halton draws). The compensating variation required for introducing a programme on a mandatory basis (versus achieving the same health impacts with a voluntary programme) that holds utility constant was estimated. Responses were provided by 535 participants (a response rate of 83 %). For the influenza vaccination and folate fortification programmes, the results suggested that some level of compensation may be required for introducing the programme on a mandatory basis. Introducing a mandatory influenza vaccination programme required the highest compensation (Australian dollars [A$] 112.75, 95 % CI -60.89 to 286.39) compared with folate fortification (A$18.05, 95 % CI -3.71 to 39.80). No compensation was

  1. Valuing biodiversity attributes and water supply using choice experiments: a case study of La Campana Peñuelas Biosphere Reserve, Chile.

    PubMed

    Cerda, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess public economic preferences for biodiversity conservation and water supply and to analyse the factors influencing those preferences. A survey based on the choice experiment method was carried out at Peñuelas National Reserve, Chile, an area that is threatened by both occasional forest fires and the growing housing market. The input of local administrators was used to define environmental attributes of the area related to biodiversity conservation and water supply. Attributes were selected for analysis by the choice experiment. The selected attributes were the following: existence of endemic orchid species, chances of observing animals with scenic attraction, additional protection for an endemic amphibian, and availability of drinkable water in the future. A monetary variable consisting of an increase in the rate for entry to the area was also incorporated to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) for additional protection for the selected attributes. Three hundred four Chilean visitors to the reserve were randomly selected for interviews. Econometric analysis based on the Theory of Utility Maximization shows that visitors are willing to pay to protect the selected attributes. WTP values for the attributes range from CHP $2,600 ($5.4) to $6,600 ($14) per person per visit. The results of this research provide reserve managers information about tradeoffs that could be used to enhance public support and maximise the social benefits of nature conservation management programmes.

  2. Choice of experimental venue matters in ecotoxicology studies: Comparison of a laboratory-based and an outdoor mesocosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Mikó, Zsanett; Ujszegi, János; Gál, Zoltán; Imrei, Zoltán; Hettyey, Attila

    2015-10-01

    The heavy application of pesticides and its potential effects on natural communities has attracted increasing attention to inadvertent impacts of these chemicals. Toxicologists conventionally use laboratory-based tests to assess lethal concentrations of pesticides. However, these tests often do not take into account indirect, interactive and long-term effects, and tend to ignore different rates of disintegration in the laboratory and under natural conditions. Our aim was to investigate the importance of the experimental venue for ecotoxicology tests. We reared tadpoles of the agile frog (Rana dalmatina) in the laboratory and in outdoor mesocosms and exposed them to three initial concentrations of a glyphosate-based herbicide (0, 2 and 6.5 mg a.e./L glyphosate), and to the presence or absence of caged predators (dragonfly larvae). The type of experimental venue had a large effect on the outcome: The herbicide was less lethal to tadpoles reared in outdoor mesocosms than in the laboratory. Further, while the herbicide had a negative effect on development time and on body mass in the laboratory, tadpoles exposed to the herbicide in mesocosms were larger at metamorphosis and developed faster in comparison to those reared in the absence of the herbicide. The effect of the herbicide on morphological traits of tadpoles also differed between the two venues. Finally, in the presence of the herbicide, tadpoles tended to be more active and to stay closer to the bottom of laboratory containers, while tadpole behaviour shifted in the opposite direction in outdoor mesocosms. Our results demonstrate major discrepancies between results of a classic laboratory-based ecotoxicity test and outcomes of an experiment performed in outdoor mesocosms. Consequently, the use of standard laboratory tests may have to be reconsidered and their benefits carefully weighed against the difficulties of performing experiments under more natural conditions. Tests validating experimentally estimated

  3. The Dependent Poisson Race Model and Modeling Dependence in Conjoint Choice Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruan, Shiling; MacEachern, Steven N.; Otter, Thomas; Dean, Angela M.

    2008-01-01

    Conjoint choice experiments are used widely in marketing to study consumer preferences amongst alternative products. We develop a class of choice models, belonging to the class of Poisson race models, that describe a "random utility" which lends itself to a process-based description of choice. The models incorporate a dependence structure which…

  4. The Dependent Poisson Race Model and Modeling Dependence in Conjoint Choice Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruan, Shiling; MacEachern, Steven N.; Otter, Thomas; Dean, Angela M.

    2008-01-01

    Conjoint choice experiments are used widely in marketing to study consumer preferences amongst alternative products. We develop a class of choice models, belonging to the class of Poisson race models, that describe a "random utility" which lends itself to a process-based description of choice. The models incorporate a dependence structure which…

  5. Using discrete choice experiments to understand preferences in health care.

    PubMed

    Pfarr, Christian; Schmid, Andreas; Schneider, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Whenever processes are reconfigured or new products are designed the needs and preferences of patients and consumers have to be considered. Although at times neglected, this becomes more and more relevant in health care settings: Which modes of health care delivery will be accepted? What are the patients' priorities and what is the willingness to pay? To which degree are patients mobile and for which kind of services are they willing to travel? Preferences, however, are difficult to measure, as they are latent constructs. This becomes even more difficult, when no past choices can be analyzed either as the service or the product is yet to be developed or as in the past there has not been free choice for patients. In such cases, preferences cannot be surveyed directly. Asking individuals openly for their attitudes towards certain services and products, the results are likely biased as individuals are not confronted with budget constraints and trade-offs. For this reason, discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are frequently used to elicit patient preferences. This approach confronts patients with hypothetical scenarios of which only one can be chosen. Over the past few years, this tool to reveal patients' preferences for health care has become very popular in health economics. This contribution aims at introducing the principles of DCEs, highlighting the underlying theory and giving practical guidance for conducting a discrete choice experiment in health economics. Thereby we focus on three major fields of patient demand: designing health insurance, assessing patient utility of new pharmaceuticals and analyzing provider choice. By having a closer look at selected international studies, we discuss the application of this technique for the analysis of the supply and the demand of health care as well as the implications for assessing patient mobility across different health care systems.

  6. Will Choice Hurt? Compared to What? A School Choice Experiment in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Põder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the empirical analysis of the effects of a school choice policy in Estonia. The article shows that relying on markets and giving autonomy to the schools over student selection will produce admission tests, even at the elementary school level. This article's contribution is to show that a school choice policy experiment with…

  7. Will Choice Hurt? Compared to What? A School Choice Experiment in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Põder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the empirical analysis of the effects of a school choice policy in Estonia. The article shows that relying on markets and giving autonomy to the schools over student selection will produce admission tests, even at the elementary school level. This article's contribution is to show that a school choice policy experiment with…

  8. Delayed-Choice Experiments and the Metaphysics of Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egg, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    Delayed-choice experiments in quantum mechanics are often taken to undermine a realistic interpretation of the quantum state. More specifically, Healey has recently argued that the phenomenon of delayed-choice entanglement swapping is incompatible with the view that entanglement is a physical relation between quantum systems. This paper argues against these claims. It first reviews two paradigmatic delayed-choice experiments and analyzes their metaphysical implications. It then applies the results of this analysis to the case of entanglement swapping, showing that such experiments pose no threat to realism about entanglement.

  9. Effects of Experience on Preference between Forced and Free Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Koichi

    2004-01-01

    Preference between forced choice and free choice in concurrent-chain schedules of reinforcement was investigated in pigeons after exposure to particular combinations of terminal links. In Experiment 1, in which terminal links always ended with reinforcers, one of three pairs of terminal links was arranged as preexposure: (a) both terminal links…

  10. Effects of Experience on Preference between Forced and Free Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Koichi

    2004-01-01

    Preference between forced choice and free choice in concurrent-chain schedules of reinforcement was investigated in pigeons after exposure to particular combinations of terminal links. In Experiment 1, in which terminal links always ended with reinforcers, one of three pairs of terminal links was arranged as preexposure: (a) both terminal links…

  11. How Important Is Study Mode in Student University Choice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagel, Pauline; Shaw, Robin N.

    2010-01-01

    Conjoint analysis was used to model the importance of study mode in students' choice of university. Study mode was proposed as a key choice attribute as universities have diversified their means of delivering education and increased the use of online delivery. Results are reported for two conjoint experiments. The first investigated how…

  12. Technology choices for the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX)

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, M.A.; Celata, C.M.; Lee, E.P.; Sabbi, G.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2002-10-31

    Over the next three years the research program of the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL), a collaboration among LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL, is focused on separate scientific experiments in the injection, transport and focusing of intense heavy ion beams at currents from 100 mA to 1 A. As a next major step in the HIF-VNL program, we aim for a complete ''source-to-target'' experiment, the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). By combining the experience gained in the current separate beam experiments IBX would allow the integrated scientific study of the evolution of a single heavy ion beam at high current ({approx}1 A) through all sections of a possible heavy ion fusion accelerator: the injection, acceleration, compression, and beam focusing. This paper describes the main parameters and technology choices of the planned IBX experiment. IBX will accelerate singly charged potassium or argon ion beams up to 10 MeV final energy and a longitudinal beam compression ratio of 10, resulting in a beam current at target of more than 10 Amperes. Different accelerator cell design options are described in detail: Induction cores incorporating either room temperature pulsed focusing-magnets or superconducting magnets.

  13. Experience and choice shape expected aversive outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sharot, Tali; Shiner, Tamara; Dolan, Raymond J

    2010-07-07

    The value assigned to aversive events is susceptible to contextual influences. Here, we asked whether a change in the valuation of negative events is reflected in an altered neuronal representation of their expected aversive outcome. We show that experiencing an aversive event in the past, and choosing to experience it in the future, reduces its aversive value. This psychological change is mirrored in an altered neural representation of aversive value in the caudate nucleus and anterior cingulate cortex. Our findings indicate that subcortical regions known to track expected value such as the caudate nucleus, together with anterior cingulate cortical regions implicated in emotional modulation, mediate a revaluation in expectancies of aversive states. The results provide a striking example of a contextual sensitivity in how the brain ascribes value to events, in a manner that may foster resilience in the face of adversity.

  14. Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices

    PubMed Central

    De Cosmi, Valentina; Scaglioni, Silvia; Agostoni, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Background. Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Methods. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. Results. Children are predisposed to prefer high-energy, -sugar, and -salt foods, and in pre-school age to reject new foods (food neophobia). While genetically determined individual differences exist, repeated offering of foods can modify innate preferences. Conclusions. Starting in the prenatal period, a varied exposure through amniotic fluid and repeated experiences with novel flavors during breastfeeding and complementary feeding increase children’s willingness to try new foods within a positive social environment. PMID:28165384

  15. Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices.

    PubMed

    De Cosmi, Valentina; Scaglioni, Silvia; Agostoni, Carlo

    2017-02-04

    Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. Children are predisposed to prefer high-energy, -sugar, and -salt foods, and in pre-school age to reject new foods (food neophobia). While genetically determined individual differences exist, repeated offering of foods can modify innate preferences. Starting in the prenatal period, a varied exposure through amniotic fluid and repeated experiences with novel flavors during breastfeeding and complementary feeding increase children's willingness to try new foods within a positive social environment.

  16. How choice ecology influences search in decisions from experience.

    PubMed

    Lejarraga, Tomás; Hertwig, Ralph; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2012-09-01

    Research into human decision-making has often sidestepped the question of search despite its importance across a wide range of domains such as search for food, mates, allies, visual targets or information. Recently, research on decisions from experience has made progress in finding out how individual characteristics shape search for information. Surprisingly little is known, however, about how the properties of the choice ecology shape people's search. To fill this void, we analyzed how two key ecological properties influence search effort: domain of choice (gains vs. losses) and experienced variance (variance vs. no variance). Many people search longer when facing the prospect of losses relative to gains. Moreover, most people search more in options in which they experience variance relative to options they experience as invariant. We conclude that two factors that have been identified as important determinants of choice also influence search of information. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Infant feeding choices: experience, self-identity and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Naomi; Harvey, Kate

    2011-01-01

    In England, 78% of mothers initiate breastfeeding and, in the UK, less than 1% exclusively breastfeed until 6 months, despite World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations to do so. This study investigated women's infant feeding choices using in-depth interviews with 12 mothers of infants aged 7-18 weeks. Using content analysis, four themes emerged: (1) information, knowledge and decision making, (2) physical capability, (3) family and social influences, (4) lifestyle, independence and self-identity. While women were aware of the 'Breast is Best' message, some expressed distrust in this information if they had not been breastfed themselves. Women felt their own infant feeding choice was influenced by the perceived norm among family and friends. Women described how breastfeeding hindered their ability to retain their self-identities beyond motherhood as it limited their independence. Several second-time mothers felt they lacked support from health professionals when breastfeeding their second baby, even if they had previously encountered breastfeeding difficulties. The study indicates that experience of breastfeeding and belief in the health benefits associated with it are important factors for initiation of breastfeeding, while decreased independence and self-identity may influence duration of breastfeeding. Intervention and support schemes should tackle all mothers, not just first-time mothers.

  18. Scenario realism and welfare estimates in choice experiments--a non-market valuation study on the European water framework directive.

    PubMed

    Kataria, M; Bateman, I; Christensen, T; Dubgaard, A; Hasler, B; Hime, S; Ladenburg, J; Levin, G; Martinsen, L; Nissen, C

    2012-02-01

    Using choice experiment data for economic valuation we analyse how disbelief in survey information could affect the retrieved welfare estimates. We distinguish between two types of survey information to the respondents. The first type of information concerns the current environmental status of a water body. This information is provided prior to the valuation questions and the corresponding beliefs in the provided information are also elicited before valuation. The second type of information concerns the proposed improvements in the environmental status of the water body. We find that average welfare measures differ considerably according to whether respondents who disagree with the status quo levels and find proposed scenarios unlikely are included or not.

  19. Experimental realization of Wheeler's delayed-choice gedanken experiment.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Vincent; Wu, E; Grosshans, Frédéric; Treussart, François; Grangier, Philippe; Aspect, Alain; Roch, Jean-François

    2007-02-16

    Wave-particle duality is strikingly illustrated by Wheeler's delayed-choice gedanken experiment, where the configuration of a two-path interferometer is chosen after a single-photon pulse has entered it: Either the interferometer is closed (that is, the two paths are recombined) and the interference is observed, or the interferometer remains open and the path followed by the photon is measured. We report an almost ideal realization of that gedanken experiment with single photons allowing unambiguous which-way measurements. The choice between open and closed configurations, made by a quantum random number generator, is relativistically separated from the entry of the photon into the interferometer.

  20. Subjective Quality Information: Effects of Patient Experience Outcomes and Display Formats on Evaluation and Choice Intentions.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Martin; Renner, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the impact of subjective quality information in the form of aggregate patient experience outcomes on respondent evaluation and intended choice of hospitals. We compared clinical performance-based quality measures (i.e., wound infection rates) with participant evaluations and choice intentions when they were additionally provided with subjective quality information (i.e., patient experience outcomes in different display formats). Results suggest that patient experience outcomes significantly affected the evaluations and choice intentions. Additionally, we found significant effects of subjective information display formats. Limitations, directions for future research, and implications for publishing subjective quality information in health care markets are discussed.

  1. [Woman's experience with the choice of the Billings Ovulation Method].

    PubMed

    de Magalhães, Adriana Cristina; Pereira, Daliane da Silva Alves; Jardim, Danúbia Mariane Barbosa; Caillaux, Michelle; Sales, Vinícius Bernardo Lemos

    2013-01-01

    This is a case study with a qualitative approach, carried out between February and November 2010 with 10 women, mean age of 34 years old, users of this Billings Ovulation Method (MOB) for over than two years, with the objective of understand the experience of women by choosing the MOB. Data was obtained from interviews, and analyzed through content analysis technique. The categories of analysis showed that the reasons for the choices of the MOB were: religion; natural method, and benefits of self-knowledge. It was concluded that women show confidence in carrying out the method, that it brings benefits for users and that there is a need for professional guidance for its correct practice.

  2. Drivers of choice of resuscitation fluid in the intensive care unit: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Colman B; Hammond, Naomi E; Laba, Tracey-Lea; Watts, Nicola; Thompson, Kelly; Saxena, Manoj; Micallef, Sharon; Finfer, Simon; Myburgh, John

    2017-06-01

    To understand the fundamental drivers, and their relative importance, of doctors' and nurses' choice of resuscitation fluid in critically ill patients in Australia and New Zealand. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) administered via an online survey. Respondents were presented with one of four randomly selected DCE choice sets, each including five patient scenarios. The respondent chose between two types of hypothetical resuscitation fluid. The fluid type was characterised by several attributes and each attribute had pre-specified levels. Convenience sample of 367 Australian and New Zealand intensive care unit doctors and nurses. The dependent variable was fluid choice, and a regression equation was used to estimate the effect of each fluid attribute on the probability of observing the sequence of choices made over the five patient scenarios. The relative importance of each of the respective fluid attributes was calculated based on the percentage contribution to overall utility (ie, fluid preference). For doctors, safety concerns, patient type and fluid type were collectively responsible for almost three-quarters of decision-making utility (71%). The volume of intravenous fluid administered was the only clinical parameter not reaching statistical significance as a driver of fluid choice (P = 0.06). For nurses, decision making was influenced to a greater extent by the same three attributes (90%), although other unmeasured attributes may have been driving choice. Doctors and nurses rely on different information when choosing resuscitation fluids, although both cohorts are heavily influenced by safety concerns, patient type and fluid type. This information can be used to modify prescribing behaviour.

  3. Effectiveness and acceptability of parental financial incentives and quasi-mandatory schemes for increasing uptake of vaccinations in preschool children: systematic review, qualitative study and discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jean; Bateman, Belinda; Becker, Frauke; Cresswell, Tricia; Flynn, Darren; McNaughton, Rebekah; Oluboyede, Yemi; Robalino, Shannon; Ternent, Laura; Sood, Benjamin Gardner; Michie, Susan; Shucksmith, Janet; Sniehotta, Falko F; Wigham, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Uptake of preschool vaccinations is less than optimal. Financial incentives and quasi-mandatory policies (restricting access to child care or educational settings to fully vaccinated children) have been used to increase uptake internationally, but not in the UK. OBJECTIVE To provide evidence on the effectiveness, acceptability and economic costs and consequences of parental financial incentives and quasi-mandatory schemes for increasing the uptake of preschool vaccinations. DESIGN Systematic review, qualitative study and discrete choice experiment (DCE) with questionnaire. SETTING Community, health and education settings in England. PARTICIPANTS Qualitative study - parents and carers of preschool children, health and educational professionals. DCE - parents and carers of preschool children identified as 'at high risk' and 'not at high risk' of incompletely vaccinating their children. DATA SOURCES Qualitative study - focus groups and individual interviews. DCE - online questionnaire. REVIEW METHODS The review included studies exploring the effectiveness, acceptability or economic costs and consequences of interventions that offered contingent rewards or penalties with real material value for preschool vaccinations, or quasi-mandatory schemes that restricted access to 'universal' services, compared with usual care or no intervention. Electronic database, reference and citation searches were conducted. RESULTS Systematic review - there was insufficient evidence to conclude that the interventions considered are effective. There was some evidence that the quasi-mandatory interventions were acceptable. There was insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on economic costs and consequences. Qualitative study - there was little appetite for parental financial incentives. Quasi-mandatory schemes were more acceptable. Optimising current services was consistently preferred to the interventions proposed. DCE and questionnaire - universal parental financial incentives

  4. The experience of choice in physical activity contexts for adults with mobility impairments.

    PubMed

    Morphy, Lorraine Y; Goodwin, Donna

    2012-04-01

    This exploratory study described the experiences of choice in physical activity contexts for adults with mobility impairments. The experiences of 3 female and 2 males with mobility impairments between 18 and 23 years of age were described using the interpretive phenomenological methods of individual interviews, written stories, and field notes. Thematic analysis revealed three themes: (a) interpreting the setting described participants' interpretation of the environment, person, and task when making movement choices; (b) alternative selection described how participants actively engaged in analyzing alternatives and choosing among them; and (c) implications of choices made described participants' evaluations of good and bad choices and what was learned. Evidence of effective choice making among adults with physical impairments suggests the potential efficacy of ecological task analysis as a pedagogical tool in physical activity contexts.

  5. Effectiveness and acceptability of parental financial incentives and quasi-mandatory schemes for increasing uptake of vaccinations in preschool children: systematic review, qualitative study and discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jean; Bateman, Belinda; Becker, Frauke; Cresswell, Tricia; Flynn, Darren; McNaughton, Rebekah; Oluboyede, Yemi; Robalino, Shannon; Ternent, Laura; Sood, Benjamin Gardner; Michie, Susan; Shucksmith, Janet; Sniehotta, Falko F; Wigham, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Uptake of preschool vaccinations is less than optimal. Financial incentives and quasi-mandatory policies (restricting access to child care or educational settings to fully vaccinated children) have been used to increase uptake internationally, but not in the UK. To provide evidence on the effectiveness, acceptability and economic costs and consequences of parental financial incentives and quasi-mandatory schemes for increasing the uptake of preschool vaccinations. Systematic review, qualitative study and discrete choice experiment (DCE) with questionnaire. Community, health and education settings in England. Qualitative study - parents and carers of preschool children, health and educational professionals. DCE - parents and carers of preschool children identified as 'at high risk' and 'not at high risk' of incompletely vaccinating their children. Qualitative study - focus groups and individual interviews. DCE - online questionnaire. The review included studies exploring the effectiveness, acceptability or economic costs and consequences of interventions that offered contingent rewards or penalties with real material value for preschool vaccinations, or quasi-mandatory schemes that restricted access to 'universal' services, compared with usual care or no intervention. Electronic database, reference and citation searches were conducted. Systematic review - there was insufficient evidence to conclude that the interventions considered are effective. There was some evidence that the quasi-mandatory interventions were acceptable. There was insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on economic costs and consequences. Qualitative study - there was little appetite for parental financial incentives. Quasi-mandatory schemes were more acceptable. Optimising current services was consistently preferred to the interventions proposed. DCE and questionnaire - universal parental financial incentives were preferred to quasi-mandatory interventions, which were preferred to targeted

  6. Patient preferences regarding prophylactic cranial irradiation: A discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Margot; Gorayski, Peter; Watson, Susanne; Edeling, Desiree; Jackson, James; Whitty, Jennifer

    2016-11-01

    In patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT), prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is not standard practice. This study determined patient preferences for PCI with respect to survival benefit, reduction in brain metastases (BM) and acceptable toxicity. A Discrete Choice Experiment was completed pre- and post-treatment. Patients made 15 hypothetical choices between two alternative PCI treatments described by four attributes: amount of life gained, chance of BM, ability to care for oneself, and loss of memory. Participants also chose between PCI and no PCI. 54 and 46 surveys were completed pre- and post-treatment. The most important attributes pre-treatment were: a survival benefit >6months, of 3-6months, avoiding severe problems with memory and self-care, avoiding quite a bit of difficulty with memory and maximally reducing BM recurrence. Post-treatment, BM reduction became more important. 90% of patients would accept PCI for a survival benefit >6months, with a maximal reduction in BM even if severe memory/self-care problems occurred. With a 10% reduction in BM and mild problems with memory and self-care 70% of patients pre- (90% post-treatment) would accept PCI for a survival benefit of 1-3months, and 52% pre- (78% post-treatment) for no survival benefit. Improvement in survival is the most important attribute of PCI with patients willing to accept significant toxicity for maximum survival and less toxicity for less survival benefit. BM reduction became more important after treatment. The majority of patients would accept PCI for no survival benefit and a reduction in BM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors affecting food choices of older adults from high and low socioeconomic groups: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2015-04-01

    Healthiness, price, and convenience are typically indicated as important motives for food choices; however, it is largely unknown to what extent older adults from high and low socioeconomic groups differ in these underlying motives. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) is an innovative way to elicit implicit motives for food choices. The aim was to investigate differences in food motives between socioeconomic groups by means of a DCE. A DCE was carried out during a face-to-face interview among older adults as part of the Health and Living Conditions in Eindhoven and surrounding cities (GLOBE) cohort study, The Netherlands. Participants (n = 399; mean age: 63.3 y) were offered a series of choice sets about a usual dinner at home and were asked to choose in each choice set between 2 meals and an opt-out choice, with different combinations of attribute levels. We included 5 meal attributes (taste, healthiness, preparation time, travel time to shops, and price) and 3 or 4 levels for each attribute. Data were analyzed by multinomial logit models. Healthiness, taste, price, and travel time to the grocery store proved to significantly influence older adults' meal decisions; preparation time was not significant. Healthiness was the most important attribute for all of the participants. More highly educated participants rated a healthy and less expensive meal to be more important than did less educated participants. Those with a high income rated a meal that was healthy and very tasteful to be more important than did those with a lower income. Healthiness, taste, price, and travel time to grocery shops influenced older adults' meal decisions. Higher socioeconomic groups valued health more than did lower socioeconomic groups. DCEs represent a promising method to gain insight into the relative importance of motives for food choices. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN60293770. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Environmental Factors in the Choice of EGMs: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Rockloff, Matthew J; Moskovsky, Neda; Thorne, Hannah; Browne, Matthew; Bryden, Gabrielle M

    2016-06-09

    EGMs are a form of entertainment, and the gambling environment is an important contributor to the overall experience. Logically, to select a play-environment, EGM gamblers must choose the platform through which to access the EGM (e.g., internet, mobile application or land-based venue), a particular provider (e.g., specific website, app vendor or branded casino), and the game itself (e.g., based on graphical theme or bonus features; Thorne et al. in J Gambl Stud, 2016. doi: 10.1007/s10899-016-9601-2 ). A discrete choice experiment was conducted to identify the features of the platform, provider and game that are most strongly preferred by EGM gamblers. Participants were 245 EGM gamblers from clubs in Victoria, Australia and 7516 EGM gamblers from an Australian online panel. Results indicate that the ideal environment for the average gambler consists of: gambling at a club that is close to home; with a group of friends; in a relatively quiet place that has air conditioning, cheap food and a large space to play in; on a classic game with quality animations and small bet sizes; where you feel safe and secure; and where there is a wide variety of other games to play when you are done. Segmenting these results by problem-gambler status highlights important differences in preferences between problem and non-problem gamblers. Problem gamblers are less likely to give weight to the company they share and have a preference for larger venues. Using a powerful paradigm from marketing research, the present study was able to determine the relative value of different features of the EGM gambling environment, and also contributes important insight towards what constitutes a safer environment for recreational play.

  9. Discrete choice experiments in pharmacy: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Naik-Panvelkar, Pradnya; Armour, Carol; Saini, Bandana

    2013-02-01

    Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) have been widely used to elicit patient preferences for various healthcare services and interventions. The aim of our study was to conduct an in-depth scoping review of the literature and provide a current overview of the progressive application of DCEs within the field of pharmacy. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, ECONLIT) were searched (January 1990-August 2011) to identify published English language studies using DCEs within the pharmacy context. Data were abstracted with respect to DCE methodology and application to pharmacy. Our search identified 12 studies. The DCE methodology was utilised to elicit preferences for different aspects of pharmacy products, therapy or services. Preferences were elicited from either patients or pharmacists, with just two studies incorporating the views of both. Most reviewed studies examined preferences for process-related or provider-related aspects with a lesser focus on health outcomes. Monetary attributes were considered to be important by most patients and pharmacists in the studies reviewed. Logit, probit or multinomial logit models were most commonly employed for estimation. Our study showed that the pharmacy profession has adopted the DCE methodology consistent with the general health DCEs although the number of studies is quite limited. Future studies need to examine preferences of both patients and providers for particular products or disease-state management services. Incorporation of health outcome attributes in the design, testing for external validity and the incorporation of DCE results in economic evaluation framework to inform pharmacy policy remain important areas for future research. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Health system choice: a pilot discrete-choice experiment eliciting the preferences of British and Australian citizens.

    PubMed

    Scuffham, Paul A; Whitty, Jennifer A; Taylor, Matthew; Saxby, Ruth C

    2010-01-01

    Citizen preferences surrounding desirable health system characteristics should be considered when undertaking health system reform. The objective of this study was to pilot test a discrete-choice instrument designed to elicit preference weights surrounding health system attributes. A discrete-choice experiment was designed and administered to two convenience samples (n=50 each) recruited from the UK and Australia. The impact of eight health system attributes representing level of health, equity, responsiveness and healthcare financing on the choice between hypothetical health systems was analysed utilizing mixed logit analysis. All characteristics affected the likelihood a health system would be preferred, with the exception of the additional tax contribution levels required to finance the system. There were very few missing or inconsistent responses. The direction of preferences was consistent with expectations for both samples; that is, an improvement in attributes describing level of health, equity or responsiveness increased the likelihood that a health system would be preferred. A number of potential improvements to the preference instrument are suggested. The discrete-choice technique used in this study offers a feasible method for eliciting health system preferences, and its use in a larger-scale study to elicit and compare the preferences of representative population samples is supported.

  11. Optimal Decision Stimuli for Risky Choice Experiments: An Adaptive Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cavagnaro, Daniel R.; Gonzalez, Richard; Myung, Jay I.; Pitt, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Collecting data to discriminate between models of risky choice requires careful selection of decision stimuli. Models of decision making aim to predict decisions across a wide range of possible stimuli, but practical limitations force experimenters to select only a handful of them for actual testing. Some stimuli are more diagnostic between models than others, so the choice of stimuli is critical. This paper provides the theoretical background and a methodological framework for adaptive selection of optimal stimuli for discriminating among models of risky choice. The approach, called Adaptive Design Optimization (ADO), adapts the stimulus in each experimental trial based on the results of the preceding trials. We demonstrate the validity of the approach with simulation studies aiming to discriminate Expected Utility, Weighted Expected Utility, Original Prospect Theory, and Cumulative Prospect Theory models. PMID:24532856

  12. Preference effects on friendship choice: Evidence from an online field experiment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Siyu; Xie, Yu

    2017-08-01

    Observed friendship choices are constrained by social structures and thus problematic indicators for underlying personal preferences. In this paper, we report on a study demonstrating the causal effects of preference in friendship choice based on an online field experiment. Specifically, we tested two important forces that govern friendship choices: preference for shared group identity (operationalized as the desire to befriend others sharing the same place-of-origin identity) and preference for high status (operationalized as the desire to befriend others from high-status institutions). Using an online field experiment in one of the largest social network service websites in China, we investigated the causal preference effects of these two forces free from structural constraints. The results of our study confirm the preference effects on friendship choice in both of the two dimensions we tested. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Ranking of simultaneously presented choice options in animal preference experiments.

    PubMed

    Halekoh, Ulrich; Jørgensen, Erik; Bak Jensen, Margit; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Studnitz, Merete; Højsgaard, Søren

    2007-08-01

    We considered experiments where animals chose one of all possible simultaneously presented options. The animals might be observed at repeated occasions. In the ethological literature the analysis is often focused on testing the global hypothesis of no difference in preferences by non-parametric methods. This fails to address the estimation of a ranking. Often this approach cannot adequately reflect the experimental setting and the repeated measurement structure. Therefore, we propose to model the choice probabilities for the options with a multinomial logistic model. The correlation induced by repeated measurements is incorporated by animal specific random intercepts. The ranking of the options is taken as the order of the choice probabilities. Adopting a Bayesian approach samples from the posterior distribution of the choice probabilities provide directly samples from the posterior of the rankings. Based on this an estimate of the ranking and description of its variability can be derived. The computation was performed via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling and was implemented using WinBUGS. We illustrate our approach with an experiment to determine the preference of pigs for three different rooting materials. The proposed method allowed deriving an overall ranking for different combinations of the materials and the spatial positioning.

  14. The Role of Qualitative Research Methods in Discrete Choice Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Vass, Caroline; Rigby, Dan; Payne, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Background. The use of qualitative research (QR) methods is recommended as good practice in discrete choice experiments (DCEs). This study investigated the use and reporting of QR to inform the design and/or interpretation of healthcare-related DCEs and explored the perceived usefulness of such methods. Methods. DCEs were identified from a systematic search of the MEDLINE database. Studies were classified by the quantity of QR reported (none, basic, or extensive). Authors (n = 91) of papers reporting the use of QR were invited to complete an online survey eliciting their views about using the methods. Results. A total of 254 healthcare DCEs were included in the review; of these, 111 (44%) did not report using any qualitative methods; 114 (45%) reported “basic” information; and 29 (11%) reported or cited “extensive” use of qualitative methods. Studies reporting the use of qualitative methods used them to select attributes and/or levels (n = 95; 66%) and/or pilot the DCE survey (n = 26; 18%). Popular qualitative methods included focus groups (n = 63; 44%) and interviews (n = 109; 76%). Forty-four studies (31%) reported the analytical approach, with content (n = 10; 7%) and framework analysis (n = 5; 4%) most commonly reported. The survey identified that all responding authors (n = 50; 100%) found that qualitative methods added value to their DCE study, but many (n = 22; 44%) reported that journals were uninterested in the reporting of QR results. Conclusions. Despite recommendations that QR methods be used alongside DCEs, the use of QR methods is not consistently reported. The lack of reporting risks the inference that QR methods are of little use in DCE research, contradicting practitioners’ assessments. Explicit guidelines would enable more clarity and consistency in reporting, and journals should facilitate such reporting via online supplementary materials. PMID:28061040

  15. The Role of Qualitative Research Methods in Discrete Choice Experiments.

    PubMed

    Vass, Caroline; Rigby, Dan; Payne, Katherine

    2017-04-01

    The use of qualitative research (QR) methods is recommended as good practice in discrete choice experiments (DCEs). This study investigated the use and reporting of QR to inform the design and/or interpretation of healthcare-related DCEs and explored the perceived usefulness of such methods. DCEs were identified from a systematic search of the MEDLINE database. Studies were classified by the quantity of QR reported (none, basic, or extensive). Authors ( n = 91) of papers reporting the use of QR were invited to complete an online survey eliciting their views about using the methods. A total of 254 healthcare DCEs were included in the review; of these, 111 (44%) did not report using any qualitative methods; 114 (45%) reported "basic" information; and 29 (11%) reported or cited "extensive" use of qualitative methods. Studies reporting the use of qualitative methods used them to select attributes and/or levels ( n = 95; 66%) and/or pilot the DCE survey ( n = 26; 18%). Popular qualitative methods included focus groups ( n = 63; 44%) and interviews ( n = 109; 76%). Forty-four studies (31%) reported the analytical approach, with content ( n = 10; 7%) and framework analysis ( n = 5; 4%) most commonly reported. The survey identified that all responding authors ( n = 50; 100%) found that qualitative methods added value to their DCE study, but many ( n = 22; 44%) reported that journals were uninterested in the reporting of QR results. Despite recommendations that QR methods be used alongside DCEs, the use of QR methods is not consistently reported. The lack of reporting risks the inference that QR methods are of little use in DCE research, contradicting practitioners' assessments. Explicit guidelines would enable more clarity and consistency in reporting, and journals should facilitate such reporting via online supplementary materials.

  16. Protocol for a qualitative study on promoting dietary change and positive food choices for poor people with low income who experience cardiovascular disease in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Barolia, Rubina Iqbal; Clark, Alexander M; Higginbottom, Gina M A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There is a misconception that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the burden of wealthy nations, but, in fact, it is the leading cause of death and disability-adjusted life worldwide. Healthy diets are an essential factor in the prevention of CVD. However, promoting healthy diet is challenging, particularly for people with low-socioeconomic status (SES), because poverty is linked with many risk behaviours such as smoking, unhealthy eating and obesity. Multiple factors, cultural values and beliefs interact and make healthy eating very challenging. The effects of these factors in the context of low-SES populations with CVD are largely unknown. To address this gap, this study will examine the factors that affect decisions about consuming healthy diet in Pakistanis with low SES who suffer from CVD. Methods and analysis A qualitative method of interpretive description will be used. 25 participants will be selected from two cardiac rehabilitation (CR) centres in Karachi, Pakistan. Face-to-face interviews using a critical realist framework will be used to understand individual and contextual factors in the food choices of people with low SES and CVD. ATLAS.ti qualitative data analysis software will be used to identify themes and patterns in the interview data. Ethics and discussion Ethical approvals were received from the Ethics Review board of University of Alberta, Canada and Aga Khan University, Karachi Pakistan. The findings will generate new knowledge about which and how factors influence the food choices of Pakistanis with CVD and low SES to provide an insight into the development of an operational framework for designing interventions for prevention of CVD. For knowledge-translation purposes, we will publish the findings in highly accessed, peer-reviewed scientific and health policy journals at the national and international level. This research protocol received IRDC (International Development Research Centre) doctoral award from International Development

  17. The impact of gender and working experience on intertemporal choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yang; Zhuang, Xintian

    2014-09-01

    Intertemporal choice has been drawing attention in econophysics and neuroeconomics. In this paper, we experimentally estimate the parameters and AICc (Akaike Information Criterion with small sample correction) of intertemporal choice models (exponential, simple hyperbolic, quasi hyperbolic, and q-exponential) for senior undergraduate students and MBA students, respectively. Our results show that (1) regardless of gender or working experience, q-exponential discount model always generates minimum AICc value, and it is thus the optimal discount model; (2) gender affects the degree of inconsistency and fitness of the discount model. Comparing to female participants, male participants have a higher degree of inconsistency while their discount pattern is better explained by q-exponential discount model; (3) working experience has an interaction effect with gender. For male participants, working experience is inversely related to the degree of inconsistency and the fitness of q-exponential discount model. On the contrary, for female participants, working experience is positively related to the degree of inconsistency and the fitness of q-exponential discount model.

  18. Women and the Choice to Study Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Tisha L. N.; McGoldrick, KimMarie; Mumford, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Underrepresentation of women in economics is documented in many studies. Investigation of its sources at the undergraduate level is examined through students' decisions to persist in economics, either beyond an introductory course or in their major choices. The authors add to the literature by analyzing students' decisions to take their first…

  19. Women and the Choice to Study Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Tisha L. N.; McGoldrick, KimMarie; Mumford, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Underrepresentation of women in economics is documented in many studies. Investigation of its sources at the undergraduate level is examined through students' decisions to persist in economics, either beyond an introductory course or in their major choices. The authors add to the literature by analyzing students' decisions to take their first…

  20. Personality and Field of Study Choice in University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humburg, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that the Big five personality traits (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and emotional stability) measured at age 14 can be linked to field of study choice in university at around age 19. While personality matters less than cognitive skills, such as math ability and verbal ability, for…

  1. Age and experience affect female choice in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Kodric-Brown, A; Nicoletto, P F

    2001-03-01

    Female choices of males, and how these choices are influenced by ecological and social factors, have been studied extensively. However, little is known about the effects of age and breeding experience on female mating decisions. We used video techniques to examine female mate choice in guppies based on the area of carotenoid (orange) pigmentation on the body. Females were presented with paired images of males, one ornamented and the other plain. Visual preference for each male was measured. Age-related changes in the criteria of choice were examined by comparing the responses of the same mature but sexually inexperienced 6-mo-old and 12-mo-old females. Effects of breeding experience on female choice were examined by comparing mate preferences of 12-mo-old female virgins with their preferences after they had mated and produced a brood. Female preferences for ornamented males with large areas of carotenoid pigment changed with age but not with mating experience. Six-month-old virgin females preferred ornamented males, whereas 12-mo-old virgin and postpartum females did not differentiate between males based on orange coloration. The results are discussed in light of life-history theory and have important implications for studies of sexual selection as well as for the design of mate-choice studies.

  2. Preferences for colorectal cancer screening strategies: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Hol, L; de Bekker-Grob, E W; van Dam, L; Donkers, B; Kuipers, E J; Habbema, J D F; Steyerberg, E W; van Leerdam, M E; Essink-Bot, M L

    2010-01-01

    Background: Guidelines underline the role of individual preferences in the selection of a screening test, as insufficient evidence is available to recommend one screening test over another. We conducted a study to determine the preferences of individuals and to predict uptake for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes using various screening tests. Methods: A discrete choice experiment (DCE) questionnaire was distributed among naive subjects, yet to be screened, and previously screened subjects, aged 50–75 years. Subjects were asked to choose between scenarios on the basis of faecal occult blood test (FOBT), flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS), total colonoscopy (TC) with various test-specific screening intervals and mortality reductions, and no screening (opt-out). Results: In total, 489 out of 1498 (33%) screening-naïve subjects (52% male; mean age±s.d. 61±7 years) and 545 out of 769 (71%) previously screened subjects (52% male; mean age±s.d. 61±6 years) returned the questionnaire. The type of screening test, screening interval, and risk reduction of CRC-related mortality influenced subjects' preferences (all P<0.05). Screening-naive and previously screened subjects equally preferred 5-yearly FS and 10-yearly TC (P=0.24; P=0.11), but favoured both strategies to annual FOBT screening (all P-values <0.001) if, based on the literature, realistic risk reduction of CRC-related mortality was applied. Screening-naive and previously screened subjects were willing to undergo a 10-yearly TC instead of a 5-yearly FS to obtain an additional risk reduction of CRC-related mortality of 45% (P<0.001). Conclusion: These data provide insight into the extent by which interval and risk reduction of CRC-related mortality affect preferences for CRC screening tests. Assuming realistic test characteristics, subjects in the target population preferred endoscopic screening over FOBT screening, partly, due to the more favourable risk reduction of CRC-related mortality by endoscopy

  3. A delayed random choice quantum mechanics experiment using light quanta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubowicz, O. G.

    1984-01-01

    Wheeler has often articulated during the past seven years several delayed choice Gendanken experiments which are intended to focus attention on the meaning of the elementary quantum phenomenon. Attempts to realize a delayed choice Gendanken xperiment in the spirit John Wheeler's thinking were undertaken. Short laser pulses attenuated to the single photon detection level are introduced into a Mach-Zehnder interferometer one at a time. There is a very fast completely random choice (yes/no) optical switch in one of the arms. Any photons in that arm would be reflected out and into a photomultiplier (PMT) if the optical switch decided to be closed. And any photon in the other arm would have equal probability of going into either of the PMTs that normally monitor interference. If the optical switch chooses to leave the pathway in its arm clear (open) then the photon must split at the beamsplitter and no photons will be detected in the PMT waiting for reflections out of that arm. Additionally, the phase of the interferometer may be set beforehand so that one PMT monitoring interference will register the photon and the other PMT monitoring interference will have zero probability of photon registration. The results are consistent with conventional quantum mechanics even if the decision to block or unblock one arm of the interferometer occurs after the single photon light pulse has passed the entrance beamsplitter of the interferometer.

  4. Age and choice in health insurance: evidence from a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Becker, Karolin; Zweifel, Peter

    2008-01-01

    experiment was developed using six attributes (deductibles, co-payment, access to alternative medicines, medication choice, access to innovation, and monthly premium) that are currently in debate within the context of Swiss health insurance. These attributes have been shown to be important in the choice of insurance contract. Using statistical design optimization procedures, the number of choice sets was reduced to 27 and randomly split into three groups. One choice was included twice to test for consistency. Two random effects probit models were developed: a simple model where marginal utilities and WTP values were not allowed to vary according to socioeconomic characteristics, and a more complex model where the values were permitted to depend on socioeconomic variables.A representative telephone survey of 1000 people aged >24 years living in the German- and French-speaking parts of Switzerland was conducted. Participants were asked to compare the status quo (i.e. their current insurance contract) with ten hypothetical alternatives. In addition, participants were asked questions concerning utilization of healthcare services; overall satisfaction with the healthcare system, insurer and insurance policy; and a general preference for new elements in the insurance package. Socioeconomic variables surveyed were age, sex, total household income, education (seven categories ranging from primary school to university degree), place of residence, occupation, and marital status. All chosen elements proved relevant for choice in the simple model. Accounting for socioeconomic characteristics in the comprehensive model reveals preference heterogeneity for contract attributes, but also for the propensity to consider deviating from the status quo and choosing an alternative health insurance contract. The findings suggest that while the elderly do exhibit a stronger status quo bias than younger age groups, they require less rather than more specific compensation for selected cutbacks

  5. Delayed choice experiments, the arrow of time, and quantum measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Schulman, L. S.

    2011-11-29

    By a radical modification of statistical mechanics the measurement process of quantum mechanics can be described in terms of pure, unitary time evolution, with no wave function collapse or many-world ideas. The key notion is 'special states', rare microscopic states of a complex system. Recovering the standard probabilities requires of this theory the appearance of Cauchy-distributed noise in some measurement processes. This article treats experimental situations where such noise might be detected and correlated with the need or absence of need for special states. Included in this possibility are 'delayed choice' experiments, in which the correlation contravenes conventional ideas on causality. Background material on all topics is provided.

  6. Determinants of the choice of GP practice registration in England: evidence from a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Lagarde, Mylene; Erens, Bob; Mays, Nicholas

    2015-04-01

    There have been growing concerns that general practitioner (GP) services in England, which are based on registration with a single practice located near the patient's home, are not sufficiently convenient for patients. To inform the decision as to whether to change registration rules allowing patients to register 'out-of-area' and to estimate the demand for this wider choice, we undertook a discrete choice experiment with 1706 respondents. Latent class models were used to analyse preferences for GP practice registration comparing preferences for neighbourhood and non-neighbourhood practices. We find that there is some appetite for registering outside the neighbourhood, but this preference is not uniformly shared across the population. Specifically individuals who are less mobile (e.g. older people and those with caring responsibilities), or satisfied with their local practice are less likely to be interested in registering at a practice outside their neighbourhood. Overall, people feel most strongly about obtaining an appointment with a GP as quickly as possible. Respondents regarded weekend opening as less important than other factors, and particularly less important than extended practice opening hours from Monday to Friday. Assuming a constant demand for GP services, a policy encouraging GP practices to extend their opening hours during the week is likely to decrease the average patient waiting time for an appointment and is likely to be preferred by patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adolescent girls' preferences for HPV vaccines: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Brown, Derek S; Poulos, Christine; Johnson, F Reed; Chamiec-Case, Linda; Messonnier, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    To measure adolescent girls' preferences over features of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in order to provide quantitative estimates of the perceived benefits of vaccination and potential vaccine uptake. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey was developed to measure adolescent girls' preferences over features of HPV vaccines. The survey was fielded to a U.S. sample of 307 girls aged 13-17 years who had not yet received an HPV vaccine in June 2008. In a latent class logit model, two distinct groups were identified--one with strong preferences against vaccination which largely did not differentiate between vaccine features, and another that was receptive to vaccination and had well-defined preferences over vaccine features. Based on the mean estimates over the entire sample, we estimate that girls' valuation of bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines ranged between $400 and $460 in 2008, measured as willingness-to-pay (WTP). The additional value of genital warts protection was $145, although cervical cancer efficacy was the most preferred feature. We estimate maximum uptake of 54-65%, close to the 53% reported for one dose in 2011 surveillance data, but higher than the 35% for three doses in surveillance data. We conclude that adolescent girls do form clear opinions and some place significant value on HPV vaccination, making research on their preferences vital to understanding the determinants of HPV vaccine demand. DCE studies may be used to design more effective vaccine-promotion programs and for reassessing public health recommendations and guidelines as new vaccines are made available.

  8. Managing coastal area resources by stated choice experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Wirtz, Kai W.

    2010-02-01

    In many coastal regions, oil spills can be considered as one of the most important and certainly the most noticeable forms of marine pollution. Efficient contingency management responding to oil spills on waters, which aims at minimizing pollution effects on coastal resources, turns out to be critically important. Such a decision making highly depends on the importance attributed to different coastal economic and ecological resources. Economic uses can, in principal, be addressed by standard measures such as value added. However, there is a missing of market in the real world for natural goods. Coastal resources such as waters and beach cannot be directly measured in money terms, which increases the risk of being neglected in a decision making process. This paper evaluates these natural goods of coastal environment in a hypothetical market by employing stated choice experiments. Oil spill management practice in German North Sea is used as an example. Results from a pilot survey show that during a combat process, beach and eider ducks are of key concerns for households. An environmental friendly combat option has to be a minor cost for households. Moreover, households with less children, higher monthly income and a membership of environmental organization are more likely to state that they are willing to pay for combat option to prevent coastal resources from an oil pollution. Despite that choice experiments require knowledge of designing questionnaire and statistical skills to deal with discrete choices and conducting a survey is time consumed, the results have important implications for oil spill contingency management. Overall, such a stated preference method can offer useful information for decision makers to consider coastal resources into a decision making process and can further contribute to finding a cost-effective oil preventive measure, also has a wide application potential in the field of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM).

  9. Quantum delayed-choice experiment with a single neutral atom.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Tiancai

    2017-10-01

    We present a proposal to implement a quantum delayed-choice (QDC) experiment with a single neutral atom, such as a rubidium or cesium atom. In our proposal, a Ramsey interferometer is adopted to observe the wave-like or particle-like behaviors of a single atom depending on the existence or absence of the second π/2-rotation. A quantum-controlled π/2-rotation on target atom is realized through a Rydberg-Rydberg interaction by another ancilla atom. It shows that a heavy neutral atom can also have a morphing behavior between the particle and the wave. The realization of the QDC experiment with such heavy neutral atoms not only is significant to understand the Bohr's complementarity principle in matter-wave and matter-particle domains but also has great potential on the quantum information process with neutral atoms.

  10. Delayed-choice experiments and the Bohm approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiley, B. J.; Callaghan, R. E.

    2006-09-01

    The delayed-choice experiments of the type introduced by Wheeler and extended by Englert, Scully, Süssmann and Walther (ESSW) (1992 Z. Naturf. a 47 1175-86), and others, have formed a rich area for investigating the puzzling behaviour of particles undergoing quantum interference. The surprise provided by the original delayed-choice experiment led Wheeler to the conclusion that 'no phenomenon is a phenomenon until it is an observed phenomenon', a radical explanation which implied that 'the past has no existence except as it is recorded in the present'. However Bohm et al (1985 Nature 315 294-97) have shown that the Bohm interpretation (BI) gives a straightforward account of the behaviour of the particle without resorting to such a radical explanation. The subsequent modifications of this experiment led both Aharonov and Vaidman (1996 Bohmian Mechanics and Quantum Theory: An Appraisal ed J T Cushing, A Fine and S Goldstein (Dordrecht: Kluwer) pp 141-54) and ESSW to conclude that the resulting Bohm-type trajectories in these new situations produce unacceptable properties. For example, if a cavity is placed in one arm of the interferometer, it will be excited by a particle travelling down the other arm. In other words, it is the particle that does not go through the cavity that gives up its energy! If this analysis is correct, this behaviour would be truly bizarre and could only be explained by an extreme non-local transfer of energy that is even stronger than that required in an Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR)-type process. In this paper, we show that this conclusion is not correct and that if the BI is used correctly, it gives a local explanation, which actually corresponds exactly to the standard quantum mechanics explanation offered by ESSW.

  11. Framing From Experience: Cognitive Processes and Predictions of Risky Choice.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Mehlhorn, Katja

    2016-07-01

    A framing bias shows risk aversion in problems framed as "gains" and risk seeking in problems framed as "losses," even when these are objectively equivalent and probabilities and outcomes values are explicitly provided. We test this framing bias in situations where decision makers rely on their own experience, sampling the problem's options (safe and risky) and seeing the outcomes before making a choice. In Experiment 1, we replicate the framing bias in description-based decisions and find risk indifference in gains and losses in experience-based decisions. Predictions of an Instance-Based Learning model suggest that objective probabilities as well as the number of samples taken are factors that contribute to the lack of framing effect. We test these two factors in Experiment 2 and find no framing effect when a few samples are taken but when large samples are taken, the framing effect appears regardless of the objective probability values. Implications of behavioral results and cognitive modeling are discussed.

  12. The Relationship between Choice of Major and Career, Experience of University and Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willcoxson, Lesley; Wynder, Monte

    2010-01-01

    This study builds on earlier findings that clear choice of major and clarity of career direction is associated with university student retention. Data on business students' experience of university were correlated with data on intention to leave for two distinct major or career groupings--students who had committed themselves to a career-related…

  13. Determinants of College Major Choice: Identification Using an Information Experiment. Working Paper #02-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiswall, Matthew; Zafar, Basit

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of college major choice using a unique "information" experiment embedded in a survey. We first ask respondents their "self" beliefs--beliefs about their own expected earnings and other major-specific outcomes conditional on various majors, their "population" beliefs--beliefs about…

  14. Personal Traits Underlying Environmental Preferences: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Soliño, Mario; Farizo, Begoña A.

    2014-01-01

    Personality plays a role in human behavior, and thus can influence consumer decisions on environmental goods and services. This paper analyses the influence of the big five personality dimensions (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness) in a discrete choice experiment dealing with preferences for the development of an environmental program for forest management in Spain. For this purpose, a reduced version of the Big Five Inventory survey (the BFI-10) is implemented. Results show a positive effect of openness and extraversion and a negative effect of agreeableness and neuroticism in consumers' preferences for this environmental program. Moreover, results from a latent class model show that personal traits help to explain preference heterogeneity. PMID:24586905

  15. Segmenting patients and physicians using preferences from discrete choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Deal, Ken

    2014-01-01

    People often form groups or segments that have similar interests and needs and seek similar benefits from health providers. Health organizations need to understand whether the same health treatments, prevention programs, services, and products should be applied to everyone in the relevant population or whether different treatments need to be provided to each of several segments that are relatively homogeneous internally but heterogeneous among segments. Our objective was to explain the purposes, benefits, and methods of segmentation for health organizations, and to illustrate the process of segmenting health populations based on preference coefficients from a discrete choice conjoint experiment (DCE) using an example study of prevention of cyberbullying among university students. We followed a two-level procedure for investigating segmentation incorporating several methods for forming segments in Level 1 using DCE preference coefficients and testing their quality, reproducibility, and usability by health decision makers. Covariates (demographic, behavioral, lifestyle, and health state variables) were included in Level 2 to further evaluate quality and to support the scoring of large databases and developing typing tools for assigning those in the relevant population, but not in the sample, to the segments. Several segmentation solution candidates were found during the Level 1 analysis, and the relationship of the preference coefficients to the segments was investigated using predictive methods. Those segmentations were tested for their quality and reproducibility and three were found to be very close in quality. While one seemed better than others in the Level 1 analysis, another was very similar in quality and proved ultimately better in predicting segment membership using covariates in Level 2. The two segments in the final solution were profiled for attributes that would support the development and acceptance of cyberbullying prevention programs among university

  16. Patients' valuation of the prescribing nurse in primary care: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Gerard, Karen; Tinelli, Michela; Latter, Sue; Smith, Alesha; Blenkinsopp, Alison

    2015-12-01

    Recently, primary care in the United Kingdom has undergone substantial changes in skill mix. Non-medical prescribing was introduced to improve patient access to medicines, make better use of different health practitioners' skills and increase patient choice. There is little evidence about value-based patient preferences for 'prescribing nurse' in a general practice setting. To quantify value-based patient preferences for the profession of prescriber and other factors that influence choice of consultation for managing a minor illness. Discrete choice experiment patient survey. Five general practices in England with non-medical prescribing services, questionnaires completed by 451 patients. Stated choice of consultation. There was a strong general preference for consulting 'own doctor' for minor illness. However, a consultation with a nurse prescriber with positive patient-focused attributes can be more acceptable to patients than a consultation provided by a doctor. Attributes 'professional's attention to Patients' views' and extent of 'help offered' were pivotal. Past experience influenced preference. Respondents demonstrated valid preferences. Preferences for consulting a doctor remained strong, but many were happy to consult with a nurse if other aspects of the consultation were improved. Findings show who to consult is not the only valued factor in choice of consultation for minor illness. The 'prescribing nurse' role has potential to offer consultation styles that patients value. Within the study's limitations, these findings can inform delivery of primary care to enhance patient experience and substitute appropriate nurse prescribing consultations for medical prescribing consultations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Inclusion and Healthcare Choices: The Experiences of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Morag; Jarrett, Dominic; Terras, Melody

    2011-01-01

    People with learning disabilities have fewer choice opportunities than the general population. Existing research provides some insight, but the choice-making experiences of those who do not always utilise available healthcare remains under-explored. This research explored the choice-making experiences of two groups of individuals with a learning…

  18. Inclusion and Healthcare Choices: The Experiences of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Morag; Jarrett, Dominic; Terras, Melody

    2011-01-01

    People with learning disabilities have fewer choice opportunities than the general population. Existing research provides some insight, but the choice-making experiences of those who do not always utilise available healthcare remains under-explored. This research explored the choice-making experiences of two groups of individuals with a learning…

  19. User Choice: The Experience since 1998. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Chris Selby; Ferrier, Fran

    Australia introduced User Choice nationally in January 1998 to develop a national training system that is more responsive to clients' needs. User Choice is based on nine principles, including the following: (1) clients can negotiate their publicly funded training needs; (2) User Choice operates in a national training market not limited by state or…

  20. Applying choice experiments to valuing the different types of environmental issues in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Jun; Aramaki, Toshiya; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2007-08-01

    In this study, improvements of different types of environmental issues in Japan, (i) reduction of mortality risk due to exposure to suspended particulate matter (SPM), (ii) improvement of the water quality of an urban river, and (iii) protection of goshawks, were evaluated in monetary terms using choice experiments. It was found that the reduction of mortality risk and the improvement of the water quality were highly valued, while residents did not place high value on the protection of goshawks. However, scope sensitivity was not observed in the evaluation of each issue and the presence of moral satisfaction was revealed. Excluding the effect of lexicographic choices could partly solve the problem concerning scope sensitivity. The results suggested that non-scope sensitive values that were unrelated to or inconsistent with the level of environmental improvement could be estimated through choice experiments in this research.

  1. A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment to Evaluate Parent Preferences for Treatment of Young, Medication Naive Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Rimas, Heather L.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waxmonsky, James; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Robb, Jessica A.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Scime, Mindy; Hoffman, Martin T.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined treatment preferences of 183 parents of young (average age = 5.8 years, SD = 0.6), medication naive children with ADHD. Preferences were evaluated using a discrete choice experiment in which parents made choices between different combinations of treatment characteristics, outcomes, and costs. Latent class analysis…

  2. A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment to Evaluate Parent Preferences for Treatment of Young, Medication Naive Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Rimas, Heather L.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waxmonsky, James; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Robb, Jessica A.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Scime, Mindy; Hoffman, Martin T.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined treatment preferences of 183 parents of young (average age = 5.8 years, SD = 0.6), medication naive children with ADHD. Preferences were evaluated using a discrete choice experiment in which parents made choices between different combinations of treatment characteristics, outcomes, and costs. Latent class analysis…

  3. Chronic pain patients' treatment preferences: a discrete-choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Junker, Uwe; Juhnke, Christin; Stemmler, Edgar; Kohlmann, Thomas; Leverkus, Friedhelm; Nübling, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify, document, and weight attributes of a pain medication that are relevant from the perspective of patients with chronic pain. Within the sub-population of patients suffering from "chronic neuropathic pain", three groups were analyzed in depth: patients with neuropathic back pain, patients with painful diabetic polyneuropathy, and patients suffering from pain due to post-herpetic neuralgia. The central question was: "On which features do patients base their assessment of pain medications and which features are most useful in the process of evaluating and selecting possible therapies?" A detailed literature review, focus groups with patients, and face-to-face interviews with widely recognized experts for pain treatment were conducted to identify relevant treatment attributes of a pain medication. A pre-test was conducted to verify the structure of relevant and dominant attributes using factor analyses by evaluating the most frequently mentioned representatives of each factor. The Discrete-Choice Experiment (DCE) used a survey based on self-reported patient data including socio-demographics and specific parameters concerning pain treatment. Furthermore, the neuropathic pain component was determined in all patients based on their scoring in the painDETECT(®) questionnaire. For statistical data analysis of the DCE, a random effect logit model was used and coefficients were presented. A total of 1,324 German patients participated in the survey, of whom 44 % suffered from neuropathic back pain (including mixed pain syndrome), 10 % complained about diabetic polyneuropathy, and 4 % reported pain due to post-herpetic neuralgia. A total of 36 single quality aspects of pain treatment, detected in the qualitative survey, were grouped in 7 dimensions by factor analysis. These 7 dimensions were used as attributes for the DCE. The DCE model resulted in the following ranking of relevant attributes for treatment decision: "no character

  4. A Case Study of Technology Choices by High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens-Hartman, Amy R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine student technology choices when given the freedom to choose technology devices to complete a project-based learning activity in a content area of study. The study also analyzed factors affecting technology choice as well as how technology proficiency scores aligned to technology choices. Patterns and…

  5. A Case Study of Technology Choices by High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens-Hartman, Amy R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine student technology choices when given the freedom to choose technology devices to complete a project-based learning activity in a content area of study. The study also analyzed factors affecting technology choice as well as how technology proficiency scores aligned to technology choices. Patterns and…

  6. A review of the application and contribution of discrete choice experiments to inform human resources policy interventions.

    PubMed

    Lagarde, Mylene; Blaauw, Duane

    2009-07-24

    Although the factors influencing the shortage and maldistribution of health workers have been well-documented by cross-sectional surveys, there is less evidence on the relative determinants of health workers' job choices, or on the effects of policies designed to address these human resources problems. Recently, a few studies have adopted an innovative approach to studying the determinants of health workers' job preferences. In the absence of longitudinal datasets to analyse the decisions that health workers have actually made, authors have drawn on methods from marketing research and transport economics and used Discrete Choice Experiments to analyse stated preferences of health care providers for different job characteristics. We carried out a literature review of studies using discrete choice experiments to investigate human resources issues related to health workers, both in developed and developing countries. Several economic and health systems bibliographic databases were used, and contacts were made with practitioners in the field to identify published and grey literature. Ten studies were found that used discrete choice experiments to investigate the job preferences of health care providers. The use of discrete choice experiments techniques enabled researchers to determine the relative importance of different factors influencing health workers' choices. The studies showed that non-pecuniary incentives are significant determinants, sometimes more powerful than financial ones. The identified studies also emphasized the importance of investigating the preferences of different subgroups of health workers. Discrete choice experiments are a valuable tool for informing decision-makers on how to design strategies to address human resources problems. As they are relatively quick and cheap survey instruments, discrete choice experiments present various advantages for informing policies in developing countries, where longitudinal labour market data are seldom

  7. A review of the application and contribution of discrete choice experiments to inform human resources policy interventions

    PubMed Central

    Lagarde, Mylene; Blaauw, Duane

    2009-01-01

    Although the factors influencing the shortage and maldistribution of health workers have been well-documented by cross-sectional surveys, there is less evidence on the relative determinants of health workers' job choices, or on the effects of policies designed to address these human resources problems. Recently, a few studies have adopted an innovative approach to studying the determinants of health workers' job preferences. In the absence of longitudinal datasets to analyse the decisions that health workers have actually made, authors have drawn on methods from marketing research and transport economics and used Discrete Choice Experiments to analyse stated preferences of health care providers for different job characteristics. We carried out a literature review of studies using discrete choice experiments to investigate human resources issues related to health workers, both in developed and developing countries. Several economic and health systems bibliographic databases were used, and contacts were made with practitioners in the field to identify published and grey literature. Ten studies were found that used discrete choice experiments to investigate the job preferences of health care providers. The use of discrete choice experiments techniques enabled researchers to determine the relative importance of different factors influencing health workers' choices. The studies showed that non-pecuniary incentives are significant determinants, sometimes more powerful than financial ones. The identified studies also emphasized the importance of investigating the preferences of different subgroups of health workers. Discrete choice experiments are a valuable tool for informing decision-makers on how to design strategies to address human resources problems. As they are relatively quick and cheap survey instruments, discrete choice experiments present various advantages for informing policies in developing countries, where longitudinal labour market data are seldom

  8. Discrete choice experiment of smoking cessation behaviour in Japan.

    PubMed

    Goto, Rei; Nishimura, Shuzo; Ida, Takanori

    2007-10-01

    In spite of gradual increases in tobacco price and the introduction of laws supporting various anti-tobacco measures, the proportion of smokers in Japan's population is still higher than in other developed nations. To understand what information and individual characteristics drive smokers to attempt to quit smoking. These determinants will help to realise effective tobacco control policy as a base for understanding of cessation behaviour. Discrete choice experiments on a total of 616 respondents registered at a consumer monitoring investigative company. The effect of price is greater on smokers with lower nicotine dependence. For smokers of moderate and low dependency, short term health risks and health risks caused by passive smoking have a strong impact, though the existence of penalties and long term health risks have little influence on smokers' decisions to quit. For highly dependent smokers, non-price attributes have little impact. Furthermore, the effects of age, sex and knowledge are also not uniform in accounting for smoking cessation. Determinants of smoking cessation vary among levels of nicotine dependency. Therefore, how and what information is provided needs to be carefully considered when counselling smokers to help them to quit.

  9. Attitudes towards honey among Italian consumers: A choice experiment approach.

    PubMed

    Cosmina, Marta; Gallenti, Gianluigi; Marangon, Francesco; Troiano, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Honey is becoming increasingly popular with consumers for its nutritional benefits as well as many other functions. The objective of this article is to determine which factors influence consumers' purchase intentions and to assess the importance of certain honey characteristics to enable identification of the constituents of an ideal honey profile. This information will lead to satisfaction of consumers' preferences and formulation of marketing strategies that support honey makers. We applied a choice experiment to the Italian honey market to define the preferences and the willingness to pay for key characteristics of the product. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014 (January-July) among Italian consumers; it was completed by 427 respondents. A latent class model was estimated and four classes were identified, with different preferences, illustrating that respondents seem to be heterogeneous honey consumers. Results suggest the "organic" attribute was more important than others factors, such as the place where the honey was produced (landscape), but less important than the country of origin; local Italian honey was preferred to foreign honey. Respondents showed a higher willingness to pay (WTP) for honey from their country of origin versus the production method used. Our results suggest that while organic beekeeping might be an important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication is not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by consumers.

  10. Reconceptualising the external validity of discrete choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Lancsar, Emily; Swait, Joffre

    2014-10-01

    External validity is a crucial but under-researched topic when considering using discrete choice experiment (DCE) results to inform decision making in clinical, commercial or policy contexts. We present the theory and tests traditionally used to explore external validity that focus on a comparison of final outcomes and review how this traditional definition has been empirically tested in health economics and other sectors (such as transport, environment and marketing) in which DCE methods are applied. While an important component, we argue that the investigation of external validity should be much broader than a comparison of final outcomes. In doing so, we introduce a new and more comprehensive conceptualisation of external validity, closely linked to process validity, that moves us from the simple characterisation of a model as being or not being externally valid on the basis of predictive performance, to the concept that external validity should be an objective pursued from the initial conceptualisation and design of any DCE. We discuss how such a broader definition of external validity can be fruitfully used and suggest innovative ways in which it can be explored in practice.

  11. Privatizing Education and Educational Choice: Concepts, Plans, and Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakim, Simon, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains articles by educational researchers who examine the issues surrounding educational choice in public school systems and the voucher system for private schools. They discuss when choice should be considered, methods of implementation, and the extent to which government should be involved. Descriptions and evaluations of choice…

  12. Efficient and Flexible Strategy Use on Multi-Digit Sums: A Choice/No-Choice Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbeyns, Joke; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed children's use of mental computation strategies and standard written algorithms in the domain of multi-digit addition and subtraction, using the choice/no-choice method. Twenty-one Flemish fourth-graders (M[subscript Age] =9y10m) solved problem-items that either stimulated the use of mental computation strategies or a standard…

  13. Efficient and Flexible Strategy Use on Multi-Digit Sums: A Choice/No-Choice Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbeyns, Joke; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed children's use of mental computation strategies and standard written algorithms in the domain of multi-digit addition and subtraction, using the choice/no-choice method. Twenty-one Flemish fourth-graders (M[subscript Age] =9y10m) solved problem-items that either stimulated the use of mental computation strategies or a standard…

  14. Does Choose & Book fail to deliver the expected choice to patients? A survey of patients' experience of outpatient appointment booking.

    PubMed

    Green, Judith; McDowall, Zoe; Potts, Henry W W

    2008-08-01

    Choose and Book is a central part of the UK Government patient choice agenda that seeks to provide patients with a choice over the time, date and place of their first outpatient appointment. This is done through the use of a computerised booking system. After a 2004 pilot study, Choose and Book was formally launched in January 2006. This is the first study of patient experience of Choose and Book since then. A questionnaire survey of reported experience of choice over the time, data and place of appointment, carried out in a National Health Service hospital in London. 104 patients at their first outpatient appointment completed the questionnaire, consisting of a consecutive series of patients referred through Choose and Book and a sample referred through the conventional booking system. Among the Choose and Book patients, 66% (31/47; 95% CI 52 to 78%) reported not being given a choice of appointment date, 66% (31/47; 95% CI 52 to 78%) reported not being given a choice of appointment time, 86% (37/43; 95% CI 74 to 94%) reported being given a choice of fewer than four hospitals in total and 32% (15/47; 95% CI 20 to 46%) reported not being given any choice of hospital. In this study, patients did not experience the degree of choice that Choose and Book was designed to deliver.

  15. Patient preferences for managing asthma: results from a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    King, Madeleine T; Hall, Jane; Lancsar, Emily; Fiebig, Denzil; Hossain, Ishrat; Louviere, Jordan; Reddel, Helen K; Jenkins, Christine R

    2007-07-01

    Effective control of asthma requires regular preventive medication. Poor medication adherence suggests that patient preferences for medications may differ from the concerns of the prescribing clinicians. This study investigated patient preferences for preventive medications across symptom control, daily activities, medication side-effects, convenience and costs, using a discrete choice experiment embedded in a randomized clinical trial involving patients with mild-moderate persistent asthma. The present data were collected after patients had received 6 weeks' treatment with one of two drugs. Three choice options were presented, to continue with the current drug, to change to an alternative, hypothetical drug, or to take no preventive medication. Analysis used random parameter multinomial logit. Most respondents chose to continue with their current drug in most choice situations but this tendency differed depending on which medication they had been allocated. Respondents valued their ability to participate in usual daily activities and sport, preferred minimal symptoms, and were less likely to choose drugs with side-effects. Cost was also significant, but other convenience attributes were not. Demographic characteristics did not improve the model fit. This study illustrates how discrete choice experiments may be embedded in a clinical trial to provide insights into patient preferences.

  16. Acceptance of vaccinations in pandemic outbreaks: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Determann, Domino; Korfage, Ida J; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Bliemer, Michiel; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Steyerberg, Ewout W; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W

    2014-01-01

    Preventive measures are essential to limit the spread of new viruses; their uptake is key to their success. However, the vaccination uptake in pandemic outbreaks is often low. We aim to elicit how disease and vaccination characteristics determine preferences of the general public for new pandemic vaccinations. In an internet-based discrete choice experiment (DCE) a representative sample of 536 participants (49% participation rate) from the Dutch population was asked for their preference for vaccination programs in hypothetical communicable disease outbreaks. We used scenarios based on two disease characteristics (susceptibility to and severity of the disease) and five vaccination program characteristics (effectiveness, safety, advice regarding vaccination, media attention, and out-of-pocket costs). The DCE design was based on a literature review, expert interviews and focus group discussions. A panel latent class logit model was used to estimate which trade-offs individuals were willing to make. All above mentioned characteristics proved to influence respondents' preferences for vaccination. Preference heterogeneity was substantial. Females who stated that they were never in favor of vaccination made different trade-offs than males who stated that they were (possibly) willing to get vaccinated. As expected, respondents preferred and were willing to pay more for more effective vaccines, especially if the outbreak was more serious (€6-€39 for a 10% more effective vaccine). Changes in effectiveness, out-of-pocket costs and in the body that advises the vaccine all substantially influenced the predicted uptake. We conclude that various disease and vaccination program characteristics influence respondents' preferences for pandemic vaccination programs. Agencies responsible for preventive measures during pandemics can use the knowledge that out-of-pocket costs and the way advice is given affect vaccination uptake to improve their plans for future pandemic outbreaks

  17. Acceptance of Vaccinations in Pandemic Outbreaks: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Determann, Domino; Korfage, Ida J.; Lambooij, Mattijs S.; Bliemer, Michiel; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preventive measures are essential to limit the spread of new viruses; their uptake is key to their success. However, the vaccination uptake in pandemic outbreaks is often low. We aim to elicit how disease and vaccination characteristics determine preferences of the general public for new pandemic vaccinations. Methods In an internet-based discrete choice experiment (DCE) a representative sample of 536 participants (49% participation rate) from the Dutch population was asked for their preference for vaccination programs in hypothetical communicable disease outbreaks. We used scenarios based on two disease characteristics (susceptibility to and severity of the disease) and five vaccination program characteristics (effectiveness, safety, advice regarding vaccination, media attention, and out-of-pocket costs). The DCE design was based on a literature review, expert interviews and focus group discussions. A panel latent class logit model was used to estimate which trade-offs individuals were willing to make. Results All above mentioned characteristics proved to influence respondents’ preferences for vaccination. Preference heterogeneity was substantial. Females who stated that they were never in favor of vaccination made different trade-offs than males who stated that they were (possibly) willing to get vaccinated. As expected, respondents preferred and were willing to pay more for more effective vaccines, especially if the outbreak was more serious (€6–€39 for a 10% more effective vaccine). Changes in effectiveness, out-of-pocket costs and in the body that advises the vaccine all substantially influenced the predicted uptake. Conclusions We conclude that various disease and vaccination program characteristics influence respondents’ preferences for pandemic vaccination programs. Agencies responsible for preventive measures during pandemics can use the knowledge that out-of-pocket costs and the way advice is given affect vaccination uptake to improve

  18. Men's preferences for prostate cancer screening: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    de Bekker-Grob, E W; Rose, J M; Donkers, B; Essink-Bot, M-L; Bangma, C H; Steyerberg, E W

    2013-01-01

    Background: Screening for prostate cancer (PC) may save lives, but overdiagnosis and overtreatment are serious drawbacks. We aimed to determine men's preferences for PC screening, and to elicit the trade-offs they make. Methods: A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted among a population-based random sample of 1000 elderly men (55–75-years-old). Trade-offs were quantified with a panel latent class model between five PC screening aspects: risk reduction of PC-related death, screening interval, risk of unnecessary biopsies, risk of unnecessary treatments, and out-of-pocket costs. Results: The response rate was 46% (459/1000). Men were willing to trade-off 2.0% (CI: 1.6%–2.4%) or 1.8% (CI: 1.3%–2.3%) risk reduction of PC-related death to decrease their risk of unnecessary treatment or biopsy with 10%, respectively. They were willing to pay €188 per year (CI: €141–€258) to reduce their relative risk of PC-related death with 10%. Preference heterogeneity was substantial, with men with higher educational levels having a lower probability to opt for PC screening than men with lower educational levels. Conclusion: Men were willing to trade-off some risk reduction of PC-related death to be relieved of the burden of biopsies or unnecessary treatments. Increasing knowledge on overdiagnosis and overtreatment, especially for men with lower educational levels, is warranted to prevent unrealistic expectations from PC screening. PMID:23361056

  19. Eliciting preferences for medical devices in South Korea: A discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Jae; Bae, Eun-Young

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to identify the attributes that contribute to the value of medical devices and quantify the relative importance of them using a discrete choice experiment. Based on a literature review and expert consultation, seven attributes and their levels were identified-severity of disease (2), availability of substitutes (2), improvement in procedure (3), improvement in clinical outcomes (2), increase in survival (2), improvement in quality of life (3), and cost (4). Among 576 hypothetical profiles, optimal choice sets with 20 choices were developed and experts experienced in health technology assessment and reimbursement decision making in South Korea were surveyed. A total of 102 respondents participated in the survey. The results of the random-effect probit model showed that among the seven attributes, six, except for improvement in procedure, had a significant impact on respondents' choices on medical devices. Respondents were willing to pay the highest amount for devices that provided substantial improvements in quality of life, followed by increased survival, improved clinical outcome, treatment without substitutes, and technology for treating severe diseases. The findings of this experiment will inform decision-makers of the relative importance of the criteria and help them in reimbursement decision making of medical devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Power and control choice in aquatic experiments with solvents.

    PubMed

    Green, John W

    2014-04-01

    Aquatic toxicology experiments to determine the effects of chemicals sometimes require the use of a carrier solvent. Such experiments typically include both a negative (water) control group and a solvent control group. False positive rates and power to detect treatment effects in such experiments are compared for six possible strategies for deciding the appropriate control or controls for comparison. The main purpose of the present study is to determine the best use of the two controls in statistical analysis. A secondary purpose is to determine purely on statistical grounds whether both controls are actually needed. The evidence supports using either the solvent control only in all cases or a sequential strategy of combining the water and solvent controls unless the two controls are found to be statistically significantly different, in which case only the solvent control should be used. These results extend, and in some ways contradict, a recently published simulation study.

  1. 'Mom by choice, single by life's circumstance...' Findings from a large scale survey of the experiences of single mothers by choice.

    PubMed

    Jadva, V; Badger, S; Morrissette, M; Golombok, S

    2009-12-01

    There has been a rise in recent years in the number of women choosing to have a child without the involvement of a partner. These women, often referred to as 'single mothers by choice' or 'choice mothers' differ from single mothers who find themselves parenting alone following divorce or separation. The present study collected data on the motivations and experiences of 291 single mothers by choice using online questionnaires. The findings showed that women often sought advice from others and made practical changes before becoming choice mothers. The most common method used to have a child was sperm donation with most opting for an anonymous donor. The majority felt that it was important for their child to have a male role model, and most ensured that their child had a male figure in their lives. Many choice mothers expressed some concern about their child of growing up without a father, although this did not necessarily mean that they wished to form a relationship in the future. Single mothers by choice are a distinct group of single mothers and more detailed studies are required to focus on issues that are of most relevance to them.

  2. Foreign Travel Experience and Cultural Intelligence: Does Country Choice Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Robert L.; Nash, Briana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which a specific time-based country experience outside of the subject's native regional cultural cluster, would be able to explain the subject's level of cultural intelligence. Using a sample of 143 subjects, the results suggest individuals who have identified the country within which they…

  3. Foreign Travel Experience and Cultural Intelligence: Does Country Choice Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Robert L.; Nash, Briana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which a specific time-based country experience outside of the subject's native regional cultural cluster, would be able to explain the subject's level of cultural intelligence. Using a sample of 143 subjects, the results suggest individuals who have identified the country within which they…

  4. Valuing algal bloom in the Black Sea Coast of Bulgaria: a choice experiments approach.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Tim; Longo, Alberto

    2010-10-01

    Increased interest in water quality in coastal and marine areas stemming from the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive has led to important questions in relation to policies that address nutrient loadings. This paper presents the results from a choice experiment study to assess the recreational damage associated with algal blooms caused by nutrients flows into Varna Bay, Bulgaria. Varna Bay is an important beach destination on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria. Algal bloom events have been experienced frequently in the area. A choice experiment questionnaire was developed and applied in the Varna Bay area to assess the extent to which the quantity of algal blooms and the duration of the bloom affect recreational activities. The amount of bloom was found to be important, as respondents were on average willing to pay a one off tax of 18.97 Leva (9.73 euro) for a program that provides beaches free from algal blooms.

  5. Estimating willingness to accept using paired comparison choice experiments: tests of robustness

    Treesearch

    David C. Kingsley; Thomas C. Brown

    2013-01-01

    Paired comparison (PC) choice experiments offer researchers and policy-makers an alternative nonmarket valuation method particularly apt when a ranking of the public's priorities across policy alternatives is paramount. Similar to contingent valuation, PC choice experiments estimate the total value associated with a specific environmental good or service. Similar...

  6. Motivation of Pharmacy Undergraduates in Curricular Choice: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Joseph L., III; Smith, Harry A.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of BS and PharmD students at the University of Kentucky examined factors affecting their program choice. BS students' major career goal was community pharmacy. Ownership, time factors, desire for experience, and cost are primary motivations. (MSE)

  7. Best-worst scaling vs. discrete choice experiments: an empirical comparison using social care data.

    PubMed

    Potoglou, Dimitris; Burge, Peter; Flynn, Terry; Netten, Ann; Malley, Juliette; Forder, Julien; Brazier, John E

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents empirical findings from the comparison between two principal preference elicitation techniques: discrete choice experiments and profile-based best-worst scaling. Best-worst scaling involves less cognitive burden for respondents and provides more information than traditional "pick-one" tasks asked in discrete choice experiments. However, there is lack of empirical evidence on how best-worst scaling compares to discrete choice experiments. This empirical comparison between discrete choice experiments and best-worst scaling was undertaken as part of the Outcomes of Social Care for Adults project, England, which aims to develop a weighted measure of social care outcomes. The findings show that preference weights from best-worst scaling and discrete choice experiments do reveal similar patterns in preferences and in the majority of cases preference weights--when normalised/rescaled--are not significantly different.

  8. Modeling improvements in booster seat use: a discrete choice conjoint experiment.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Charles E; Bruce, Beth S; Snowdon, Anne W; Chen, Yvonne; Kolga, Carol; Piotrowski, Caroline; Warda, Lynne; Correale, Heather; Clark, Erica; Barwick, Melanie

    2011-11-01

    Automobile crashes are the leading cause of death in children aged 1-14 years. Many children, however, are not properly restrained in safety seats that reduce serious injury and death. This study used a discrete choice conjoint experiment to study factors influencing the decision to use booster seats. Parents of 1714 children aged 4-9 years from nine Canadian provinces completed choice tasks presenting experimentally varied combinations of 15 4-level booster seat promotion attributes. Latent class analysis yielded three segments of parents. The choices of the Benefit Sensitive segment (50%) were most sensitive to the injury prevention benefits of booster seats. The choices of parents in the Context Sensitive segment (33.5%) were more likely to be influenced by installation complexity, oppositional behavior, and the prospect that their child may be teased for riding in booster seats. Parents in the High Risk segment (16.5%) were younger, less educated, and less knowledgeable about vehicle safety legislation. They anticipated fewer benefits, expected more barriers and were less likely to use booster seats. Simulations suggest that consistent enforcement coupled with advertising focusing on injury prevention and the use of booster seats by other parents would increase adoption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Can Decision Biases Improve Insurance Outcomes? An Experiment on Status Quo Bias in Health Insurance Choice

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Miriam; Felder, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Rather than conforming to the assumption of perfect rationality in neoclassical economic theory, decision behavior has been shown to display a host of systematic biases. Properly understood, these patterns can be instrumentalized to improve outcomes in the public realm. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study whether decisions over health insurance policies are subject to status quo bias and, if so, whether experience mitigates this framing effect. Choices in two treatment groups with status quo defaults are compared to choices in a neutrally framed control group. A two-step design features sorting of subjects into the groups, allowing us to control for selection effects due to risk preferences. The results confirm the presence of a status quo bias in consumer choices over health insurance policies. However, this effect of the default framing does not persist as subjects repeat this decision in later periods of the experiment. Our results have implications for health care policy, for example suggesting that the use of non-binding defaults in health insurance can facilitate the spread of co-insurance policies and thereby help contain health care expenditure. PMID:23783222

  10. Benefit-risk assessment of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins): a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Wanishayakorn, Tanatape; Sornlertlumvanich, Korn; Ngorsuraches, Surachat

    2016-02-25

    To conduct the benefit-risk assessment of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG) coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) using a discrete choice experiment, based on 3 major stakeholders' perspectives including patients, experts and policymakers in Thailand. A discrete choice experiment questionnaire survey in three stakeholders' perspectives. Public hospitals in Thailand. A total of 353 policymakers, experts and patients. Stakeholders' preferences for assessment criteria (stroke reduction, myocardial infarction reduction, myalgia and hepatotoxicity). Statins' ranking and maximum acceptable risk in all perspectives were also calculated. For any perspective, the most and least important criteria were the risk of hepatotoxicity and the benefit of myocardial infarction reduction, respectively. Patients and experts agreed on the order of importance for myalgia and stroke reduction, but policymakers had different order of importance in these criteria. Overall, results showed that the highest and lowest chances of being chosen were atorvastatin and rosuvastatin, respectively. Only patients' ranking order was different from others. Maximum acceptable risk of hepatotoxicity was lower than that of myalgia, reflecting the greater concern of all perspectives to statin consequence on liver. The results of benefit-risk assessment from every perspective were somewhat consistent. This study demonstrated the feasibility of applying a discrete choice experiment in the benefit-risk assessment of drugs and encouraged the engagement of multiple stakeholders in the decision-making process. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Can decision biases improve insurance outcomes? An experiment on status quo bias in health insurance choice.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Miriam; Felder, Stefan

    2013-06-19

    Rather than conforming to the assumption of perfect rationality in neoclassical economic theory, decision behavior has been shown to display a host of systematic biases. Properly understood, these patterns can be instrumentalized to improve outcomes in the public realm. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study whether decisions over health insurance policies are subject to status quo bias and, if so, whether experience mitigates this framing effect. Choices in two treatment groups with status quo defaults are compared to choices in a neutrally framed control group. A two-step design features sorting of subjects into the groups, allowing us to control for selection effects due to risk preferences. The results confirm the presence of a status quo bias in consumer choices over health insurance policies. However, this effect of the default framing does not persist as subjects repeat this decision in later periods of the experiment. Our results have implications for health care policy, for example suggesting that the use of non-binding defaults in health insurance can facilitate the spread of co-insurance policies and thereby help contain health care expenditure.

  12. Benefit–risk assessment of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins): a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Sornlertlumvanich, Korn; Ngorsuraches, Surachat

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To conduct the benefit–risk assessment of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG) coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) using a discrete choice experiment, based on 3 major stakeholders’ perspectives including patients, experts and policymakers in Thailand. Design A discrete choice experiment questionnaire survey in three stakeholders’ perspectives. Setting Public hospitals in Thailand. Participants A total of 353 policymakers, experts and patients. Outcomes Stakeholders’ preferences for assessment criteria (stroke reduction, myocardial infarction reduction, myalgia and hepatotoxicity). Statins’ ranking and maximum acceptable risk in all perspectives were also calculated. Results For any perspective, the most and least important criteria were the risk of hepatotoxicity and the benefit of myocardial infarction reduction, respectively. Patients and experts agreed on the order of importance for myalgia and stroke reduction, but policymakers had different order of importance in these criteria. Overall, results showed that the highest and lowest chances of being chosen were atorvastatin and rosuvastatin, respectively. Only patients’ ranking order was different from others. Maximum acceptable risk of hepatotoxicity was lower than that of myalgia, reflecting the greater concern of all perspectives to statin consequence on liver. Conclusions The results of benefit–risk assessment from every perspective were somewhat consistent. This study demonstrated the feasibility of applying a discrete choice experiment in the benefit–risk assessment of drugs and encouraged the engagement of multiple stakeholders in the decision-making process. PMID:26916689

  13. Undergraduate female science-related career choices: A phenomenological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Kathy S.

    This qualitative phenomenological study used a modified Groenewald's five steps method with semi-structured, recorded, and transcribed interviews to focus on the underrepresentation of females in science-related careers. The study explored the lived experiences of a purposive sample of 25 senior female college students attending a college in Macon, Georgia. Ten major themes emerged from the research study that included (a) journey to a science-related career; (b) realization of career interest; (c) family support (d) society's role; (e) professors' treatment of students; (f) lack of mentors and models; (g) gender and career success; (h) females and other disadvantages in science-related careers; (i) rewards of the journey; and (j) advice for the journey. The three minor themes identified were (a) decision-making; (b) career awareness; and (c) guidance. The key findings revealed that females pursuing a science degree or subsequent science-related career, shared their experience with other females interested in science as a career choice, dealt with barriers standing in the way of their personal goals, lack role models, and received little or no support from family and friends. The study findings may offer information to female college students interested in pursuing science-related careers and further foundational research on gender disparities in career choice.

  14. The impact of childhood experiences and family members outside the household on residential environment choices.

    PubMed

    Blaauboer, Marjolein

    2011-01-01

    Choices of urban, suburban or rural residential environments have often been studied from a life-course perspective. In this paper, an examination is made of the influence of childhood experiences and of residential environment choices of family members outside the household. It is argued that socialisation, location-specific capital and the wish to maintain close family ties may result in living in a similar residential environment later in life and in similar environments to siblings and parents. Results of multinomial logistic regression analyses of data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study show that the residential environment during childhood is indeed strongly associated with the current residential environment. Moreover, individuals show a strong similarity to their parents and siblings in their residential environment, even after accounting for residential inertia and return migration.

  15. Accounting for substitution and spatial heterogeneity in a labelled choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Lizin, S; Brouwer, R; Liekens, I; Broeckx, S

    2016-10-01

    Many environmental valuation studies using stated preferences techniques are single-site studies that ignore essential spatial aspects, including possible substitution effects. In this paper substitution effects are captured explicitly in the design of a labelled choice experiment and the inclusion of different distance variables in the choice model specification. We test the effect of spatial heterogeneity on welfare estimates and transfer errors for minor and major river restoration works, and the transferability of river specific utility functions, accounting for key variables such as site visitation, spatial clustering and income. River specific utility functions appear to be transferable, resulting in low transfer errors. However, ignoring spatial heterogeneity increases transfer errors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Attention mediates the effect of nutrition label information on consumers' choice. Evidence from a choice experiment involving eye-tracking.

    PubMed

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Grunert, Klaus G; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Wasowicz-Kirylo, Grazyna; Stysko-Kunkowska, Malgorzata; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-05-01

    In two eye-tracking studies, we explored whether and how attention to nutrition information mediates consumers' choice. Consumers had to select either the healthiest option or a product of their preference within an assortment. On each product a particular label (Choices logo, monochrome GDA label, or color-coded GDA label) communicated the product's nutrient profile. In study 1, participants had to select from 4 products differentiated, in addition to the nutrition information, by flavor (strawberry, muesli, apple, chocolate; varied within participants) and brand (local vs. global, varied between participants). Study 2 further explored brand effect within-participants, and thus only 2 flavors (strawberry, chocolate) were presented within an assortment. Actual choice made, response time and eye movements were recorded. Respondents fixated longer and more often on products with color-coded GDAs label than on products with monochrome GDAs or Choices logo. A health goal resulted in longer and more frequent fixations in comparison to a preference goal. Products with color-coded and monochrome GDAs had the highest likelihood of being chosen, and this effect was related to the attention-getting property of the label (irrespective of brand and flavor effects). The product fixated most had the highest likelihood of being chosen. These results suggest that attention mediates the effect of nutrition labels on choice.

  17. Non-Market Values in a Cost-Benefit World: Evidence from a Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Eppink, Florian V.; Winden, Matthew; Wright, Will C. C.; Greenhalgh, Suzie

    2016-01-01

    In support of natural resource and ecosystem service policy, monetary value estimates are often presented to decision makers along with other types of information. There is some evidence that, presented with such ‘mixed’ information, people prioritise monetary over non-monetary information. We conduct a discrete choice experiment among New Zealand decision makers in which we manipulate the information presented to participants. We find that providing explicit monetary information strengthens the pursuit of economic benefits as well as the avoidance of environmental damage. Cultural impacts, of which we provided only qualitative descriptions, did not affect respondents’ choices. Our study provides further evidence that concerns regarding the use of monetary information in decisions with complex, multi-value impacts are valid. Further research is needed to validate our results and find ways to reduce any bias in monetary and non-market information. PMID:27783657

  18. Discrete-choice experiments versus rating scale exercises to evaluate the importance of attributes.

    PubMed

    Wijnen, Ben Fm; van der Putten, Inge M; Groothuis, Siebren; de Kinderen, Reina Ja; Noben, Cindy Yg; Paulus, Aggie Tg; Ramaekers, Bram Lt; Vogel, Gaston Cwm; Hiligsmann, Mickael

    2015-01-01

    To examine the difference between discrete-choice experiments (DCE) and rating scale exercises (RSE) in determining the most important attributes using a case study. Undergraduate health sciences students were asked to complete a DCE and a RSE. Six potentially important attributes were identified in focus groups. Fourteen unlabelled choice tasks were constructed using a statistically efficient design. Mixed multinomial logistic regression analysis was used for DCE data analysis. In total, 254 undergraduate students filled out the questionnaire. In the DCE, only four attributes were statistically significant, whereas in the RSE, all attributes except one were rated four or higher. Attribute importance differs between DCE and RSE. The DCE had a differentiating effect on the relative importance of the attributes; however, determining relative importance using DCE should be done with caution as a lack of statistically significant difference between levels does not necessarily imply that the attribute is not important.

  19. Non-Market Values in a Cost-Benefit World: Evidence from a Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Eppink, Florian V; Winden, Matthew; Wright, Will C C; Greenhalgh, Suzie

    2016-01-01

    In support of natural resource and ecosystem service policy, monetary value estimates are often presented to decision makers along with other types of information. There is some evidence that, presented with such 'mixed' information, people prioritise monetary over non-monetary information. We conduct a discrete choice experiment among New Zealand decision makers in which we manipulate the information presented to participants. We find that providing explicit monetary information strengthens the pursuit of economic benefits as well as the avoidance of environmental damage. Cultural impacts, of which we provided only qualitative descriptions, did not affect respondents' choices. Our study provides further evidence that concerns regarding the use of monetary information in decisions with complex, multi-value impacts are valid. Further research is needed to validate our results and find ways to reduce any bias in monetary and non-market information.

  20. Food choice by people with intellectual disabilities at day centres: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Luke; Reid, Marie; Hammersley, Richard; Blackburn, Chrissie; Glover, Lesley

    2015-06-01

    People with intellectual disabilities experience a range of health inequalities. It is important to investigate possible contributory factors that may lead to these inequalities. This qualitative study identified some difficulties for healthy eating in day centres. (1) Service users and their family carers were aware of healthy food choices but framed these as diets for weight loss rather than as everyday eating. (2) Paid carers and managers regarded the principle of service user autonomy and choice as paramount, which meant that they felt limited in their capacity to influence food choices, which they attributed to the home environment. (3) Carers used food as a treat, a reward and for social bonding with service users. (4) Service users' food choices modelled other service users' and carers' choices at the time. It is suggested that healthy eating should be made more of a priority in day care, with a view to promoting exemplarily behaviour that might influence food choice at home.

  1. Preferences for policy options for cannabis in an Australian general population: A discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Marian; Gerard, Karen; Ritter, Alison

    2014-07-01

    Policy choices for illicit drugs such as cannabis entail consideration of competing factors such as individual health, societal views about pleasure, and criminal justice impacts. Society must weigh up these factors in determining the preferred cannabis policy; although often cast as a contest between legalisation of cannabis or full prohibition the actual policy choices are not so black and white. This study assessed societal preferences for different cannabis policies and multiple consequences. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) quantified value-based preferences for alternative cannabis policies described by the five key attributes legal status, health harms, criminal justice service costs, rates of cannabis use and purchase location. An online survey was conducted on a population sample of 1020 Australians. The analytical model was based on stated choices for Policy A, B or Current Policy. The results revealed a strong general preference for either civil penalties or legalisation compared to cannabis cautioning (Current Policy) and a strong dislike of criminalising possession and use of cannabis. Results also demonstrate difference in preferences among those with different demographics and beliefs. Understanding these nuances help to quantify the range of preferences held within the population and can be used to inform policy. This is the first known DCE survey applied to the area of illicit drugs policy. It demonstrates the public hold disparate views on the most appropriate status for cannabis offences and they are able to make trade-offs between policy choices and outcomes in complex areas of social policy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Making choices about medical interventions: the experience of disabled young people with degenerative conditions.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Wendy A

    2014-04-01

    Current western policy, including the UK, advocates choice for service users and their families, taking greater control and being more involved in decision making. However, children's role in health decision making, especially from their own perspective, has received less research attention compared to doctors and parents' perspectives. To explore the perspective and experiences of disabled young people with degenerative conditions as they face significant medical interventions and engage in decision-making processes. Findings from a longitudinal qualitative study of 10 young people (13-22 years) with degenerative conditions are reported. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants over 3 years (2007-2010); the paper reports data from all three interview rounds. Interviews focused on medical intervention choices the young people identified as significant. Although the young people in this study felt involved in the medical intervention choices discussed, findings demonstrate a complex and diverse picture of decision making. Results highlighted different decisional roles adopted by the young people, the importance of information heuristics and working with other people whilst engaging in complex processes weighing up different decisional factors. Young people's experiences demonstrate the importance of moving beyond viewing health choices as technical or rational decisions. How each young person framed their decision was important. Recognizing this diversity and the importance of emerging themes, such as living a normal life, independence, fear of decisions viewed as 'irreversible' and the role of parents and peers in decision making highlights that, there are clear practice implications including, active practitioner listening, sensitivity and continued holistic family working. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Patients' preferences for primary health care - a systematic literature review of discrete choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Kleij, Kim-Sarah; Tangermann, Ulla; Amelung, Volker E; Krauth, Christian

    2017-07-11

    Primary care is a key element of health care systems and addresses the main health problems of the population. Due to the demographic change, primary care even gains in importance. The knowledge of the patients' preferences can help policy makers as well as physicians to set priorities in their effort to make health care delivery more responsive to patients' needs. Our objective was to describe which aspects of primary care were included in preference studies and which of them were the most preferred aspects. In order to elicit the preferences for primary care, a systematic literature search was conducted. Two researchers searched three electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO) and conducted a narrative synthesis. Inclusion criteria were: focus on primary health care delivery, discrete choice experiment as elicitation method, and studies published between 2006 and 2015 in English language. We identified 18 studies that elicited either the patients' or the population's preferences for primary care based on a discrete choice experiment. Altogether the studies used 16 structure attributes, ten process attributes and four outcome attributes. The most commonly applied structure attribute was "Waiting time till appointment", the most frequently used process attribute was "Shared decision making / professional's attention paid to your views". "Receiving the 'best' treatment" was the most commonly applied outcome attribute. Process attributes were most often the ones of highest importance for patients or the population. The attributes and attribute levels used in the discrete choice experiments were identified by literature research, qualitative research, expert interviews, or the analysis of policy documents. The results of the DCE studies show different preferences for primary health care. The diversity of the results may have several reasons, such as the method of analysis, the selection procedure of the attributes and their levels or the specific research

  4. Communicating food safety, authenticity and consumer choice. Field experiences.

    PubMed

    Syntesa, Heiner Lehr

    2013-04-01

    The paper reviews patented and non-patented technologies, methods and solutions in the area of food traceability. It pays special attention to the communication of food safety, authenticity and consumer choice. Twenty eight recent patents are reviewed in the areas of (secure) identification, product freshness indicators, meat traceability, (secure) transport of information along the supply chain, country/region/place of origin, automated authentication, supply chain management systems, consumer interaction systems. In addition, solutions and pilot projects are described in the areas of Halal traceability, traceability of bird's nests, cold chain management, general food traceability and other areas.

  5. Lemming winter habitat choice: a snow-fencing experiment.

    PubMed

    Reid, Donald G; Bilodeau, Frédéric; Krebs, Charles J; Gauthier, Gilles; Kenney, Alice J; Gilbert, B Scott; Leung, Maria C-Y; Duchesne, David; Hofer, Elizabeth

    2012-04-01

    The insulative value of early and deep winter snow is thought to enhance winter reproduction and survival by arctic lemmings (Lemmus and Dicrostonyx spp). This leads to the general hypothesis that landscapes with persistently low lemming population densities, or low amplitude population fluctuations, have a low proportion of the land base with deep snow. We experimentally tested a component of this hypothesis, that snow depth influences habitat choice, at three Canadian Arctic sites: Bylot Island, Nunavut; Herschel Island, Yukon; Komakuk Beach, Yukon. We used snow fencing to enhance snow depth on 9-ha tundra habitats, and measured the intensity of winter use of these and control areas by counting rodent winter nests in spring. At all three sites, the density of winter nests increased in treated areas compared to control areas after the treatment, and remained higher on treated areas during the treatment. The treatment was relaxed at one site, and winter nest density returned to pre-treatment levels. The rodents' proportional use of treated areas compared to adjacent control areas increased and remained higher during the treatment. At two of three sites, lemmings and voles showed significant attraction to the areas of deepest snow accumulation closest to the fences. The strength of the treatment effect appeared to depend on how quickly the ground level temperature regime became stable in autumn, coincident with snow depths near the hiemal threshold. Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that snow depth is a primary determinant of winter habitat choice by tundra lemmings and voles.

  6. Complexity of Choice: Teachers' and Students' Experiences Implementing a Choice-Based Comprehensive School Health Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulz, Lauren; Gibbons, Sandra; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Wharf Higgins, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive School Health models offer a promising strategy to elicit changes in student health behaviours. To maximise the effect of such models, the active involvement of teachers and students in the change process is recommended. Objective: The goal of this project was to gain insight into the experiences and motivations of…

  7. Complexity of Choice: Teachers' and Students' Experiences Implementing a Choice-Based Comprehensive School Health Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulz, Lauren; Gibbons, Sandra; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Wharf Higgins, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive School Health models offer a promising strategy to elicit changes in student health behaviours. To maximise the effect of such models, the active involvement of teachers and students in the change process is recommended. Objective: The goal of this project was to gain insight into the experiences and motivations of…

  8. A twofold quantum delayed-choice experiment in a superconducting circuit

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Weiting; Zheng, Shi-Biao; Roy, Tanay; Kundu, Suman; Chand, Madhavi; Ranadive, Arpit; Vijay, Rajamani; Song, Yipu; Duan, Luming; Sun, Luyan

    2017-01-01

    Wave-particle complementarity lies at the heart of quantum mechanics. To illustrate this mysterious feature, Wheeler proposed the delayed-choice experiment, where a quantum system manifests the wave- or particle-like attribute, depending on the experimental arrangement, which is made after the system has entered the interferometer. In recent quantum delayed-choice experiments, these two complementary behaviors were simultaneously observed with a quantum interferometer in a superposition of being closed and open. We suggest and implement a conceptually different quantum delayed-choice experiment by introducing a which-path detector (WPD) that can simultaneously record and neglect the system’s path information, but where the interferometer itself is classical. Our experiment is realized with a superconducting circuit, where a cavity acts as the WPD for an interfering qubit. Using this setup, we implement the first twofold delayed-choice experiment, which demonstrates that the system’s behavior depends not only on the measuring device’s configuration that can be chosen even after the system has been detected but also on whether we a posteriori erase or mark the which-path information, the latter of which cannot be revealed by previous quantum delayed-choice experiments. Our results represent the first demonstration of both counterintuitive features with the same experimental setup, significantly extending the concept of quantum delayed-choice experiment. PMID:28508079

  9. A twofold quantum delayed-choice experiment in a superconducting circuit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ke; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Weiting; Zheng, Shi-Biao; Roy, Tanay; Kundu, Suman; Chand, Madhavi; Ranadive, Arpit; Vijay, Rajamani; Song, Yipu; Duan, Luming; Sun, Luyan

    2017-05-01

    Wave-particle complementarity lies at the heart of quantum mechanics. To illustrate this mysterious feature, Wheeler proposed the delayed-choice experiment, where a quantum system manifests the wave- or particle-like attribute, depending on the experimental arrangement, which is made after the system has entered the interferometer. In recent quantum delayed-choice experiments, these two complementary behaviors were simultaneously observed with a quantum interferometer in a superposition of being closed and open. We suggest and implement a conceptually different quantum delayed-choice experiment by introducing a which-path detector (WPD) that can simultaneously record and neglect the system's path information, but where the interferometer itself is classical. Our experiment is realized with a superconducting circuit, where a cavity acts as the WPD for an interfering qubit. Using this setup, we implement the first twofold delayed-choice experiment, which demonstrates that the system's behavior depends not only on the measuring device's configuration that can be chosen even after the system has been detected but also on whether we a posteriori erase or mark the which-path information, the latter of which cannot be revealed by previous quantum delayed-choice experiments. Our results represent the first demonstration of both counterintuitive features with the same experimental setup, significantly extending the concept of quantum delayed-choice experiment.

  10. Optical proposals for controlled delayed-choice experiment based on weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Li; Lin, Yan-Fang; Li, Qing-Yang; Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Dong, Hai-Kuan; Gao, Ya-Jun

    2017-05-01

    Employing polarization modes of a photon, we propose two theoretical proposals to exhibit the wave-particle duality of the photon with the assistance of weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities. The first proposal is a classical controlled delayed-choice experiment (that is, Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment), where we can observe selectively wave property or particle property of the photon relying on the experimenter's selection, whereas the second proposal is a quantum controlled delayed-choice experiment, by which the mixture phenomenon of a wave and a particle will be exhibited. Both of them can be realized with near-unity probability and embody the charming characteristics of quantum mechanics. The employment of the mature techniques and simple operations (e.g., Homodyne measurement, classical feed forward, and single-photon transformations) provides the feasibility of the delayed-choice experiment proposals presented here.

  11. Investigating consumers' and informal carers' views and preferences for consumer directed care: A discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Kaambwa, Billingsley; Lancsar, Emily; McCaffrey, Nicola; Chen, Gang; Gill, Liz; Cameron, Ian D; Crotty, Maria; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2015-09-01

    Consumer directed care (CDC) is currently being embraced internationally as a means to promote autonomy and choice for consumers (people aged 65 and over) receiving community aged care services (CACSs). CDC involves giving CACS clients (consumers and informal carers of consumers) control over how CACSs are administered. However, CDC models have largely developed in the absence of evidence on clients' views and preferences. We explored CACS clients' preferences for a variety of CDC attributes and identified factors that may influence these preferences and potentially inform improved design of future CDC models. Study participants were clients of CACSs delivered by five Australian providers. Using a discrete choice experiment (DCE) approach undertaken in a group setting between June and December 2013, we investigated the relative importance to CACS consumers and informal (family) carers of gradations relating to six salient features of CDC (choice of service provider(s), budget management, saving unused/unspent funds, choice of support/care worker(s), support-worker flexibility and level of contact with service coordinator). The DCE data were analysed using conditional, mixed and generalised logit regression models, accounting for preference and scale heterogeneity. Mean ages for 117 study participants were 80 years (87 consumers) and 74 years (30 informal carers). All participants preferred a CDC approach that allowed them to: save unused funds from a CACS package for future use; have support workers that were flexible in terms of changing activities within their CACS care plan and; choose the support workers that provide their day-to-day CACSs. The CDC attributes found to be important to both consumers and informal carers receiving CACSs will inform the design of future CDC models of service delivery. The DCE approach used in this study has the potential for wide applicability and facilitates the assessment of preferences for elements of potential future aged care

  12. How Choice Changes the Education System: A Michigan Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, David; Sykes, Gary

    1999-11-01

    In countries around the world policy makers propose that parents should exercise more control over the choice of schools that their children attend. This paper considers the ways in which the introduction of new opportunities for school choice changes the education system. It argues that choice affects the education system as a whole by introducing new actors into the system, by changing the terms of relationships among existing actors, and by creating new pressures within the system that require new responses. The nature, magnitude, and consequences of these effects cannot be predicted in advance, as they depend on a number of factors including the social and economic context. The empirical basis for this paper derives from a case study of the implementation of choice policies in the state of Michigan in the US, but the conceptual issues raised have important implications for the study of school choice wherever such policies are adopted.

  13. The Composition of Consideration and Choice Sets in Undergraduate University Choice: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Philip L.; Brown, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    We examine university choice as a case of consumer decision making and adopt a brand elimination framework. This approach is predicated on the grounds that a large amount of research in consumer behavior has shown that in markets where there are many alternative brands, consumers use phased-decision strategies. In these research studies, the…

  14. The Composition of Consideration and Choice Sets in Undergraduate University Choice: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Philip L.; Brown, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    We examine university choice as a case of consumer decision making and adopt a brand elimination framework. This approach is predicated on the grounds that a large amount of research in consumer behavior has shown that in markets where there are many alternative brands, consumers use phased-decision strategies. In these research studies, the…

  15. Performing a Choice-Narrative: A Qualitative Study of the Patterns in Stem Students' Higher Education Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup

    2015-01-01

    Students' science choices have long attracted attention in both public and research. Recently there has been a call for qualitative studies to explore how choices create a sense of fit for individual students. Therefore, this paper aims to study how science students' choices of higher education are performed and to uncover the patterns of…

  16. Performing a Choice-Narrative: A Qualitative Study of the Patterns in Stem Students' Higher Education Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup

    2015-01-01

    Students' science choices have long attracted attention in both public and research. Recently there has been a call for qualitative studies to explore how choices create a sense of fit for individual students. Therefore, this paper aims to study how science students' choices of higher education are performed and to uncover the patterns of…

  17. Consumer preferences for electronic cigarettes: results from a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Czoli, Christine D; Goniewicz, Maciej; Islam, Towhidul; Kotnowski, Kathy; Hammond, David

    2016-04-01

    E-cigarettes present a formidable challenge to regulators given their variety and the rapidly evolving nicotine market. The current study sought to examine the influence of e-cigarette product characteristics on consumer perceptions and trial intentions among Canadians. An online discrete choice experiment was conducted with 915 Canadians aged 16 years and older in November 2013. An online commercial panel was used to sample 3 distinct subpopulations: (1) non-smoking youth and young adults (n=279); (2) smoking youth and young adults (n=264) and (3) smoking adults (n=372). Participants completed a series of stated-preference tasks, in which they viewed choice sets with e-cigarette product images that featured different combinations of attributes: flavour, nicotine content, health warnings and price. For each choice set, participants were asked to select one of the products or indicate 'none of the above' with respect to the following outcomes: interest in trying, less harm and usefulness in quitting smoking. The attributes' impact on consumer choice for each outcome was analysed using multinomial logit regression. Health warning was the most important attribute influencing participants' intentions to try e-cigarettes (42%) and perceived efficacy as a quit aid (39%). Both flavour (36%) and health warnings (35%) significantly predicted perceptions of product harm. The findings indicate that consumers make trade-offs with respect to e-cigarette product characteristics, and that these trade-offs vary across different subpopulations. Given that health warnings and flavour were weighted most important by consumers in this study, these may represent good targets for e-cigarette regulatory frameworks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Patient Preferences for Features of Health Care Delivery Systems: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Bethge, Susanne; Reed, Shelby D; Schulman, Kevin A

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the relative importance of organizational-, procedural-, and interpersonal-level features of health care delivery systems from the patient perspective. We designed four discrete choice experiments (DCEs) to measure patient preferences for 21 health system attributes. Participants were recruited through the online patient portal of a large health system. We analyzed the DCE data using random effects logit models. DCEs were performed in which respondents were provided with descriptions of alternative scenarios and asked to indicate which scenario they prefer. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of the three possible health scenarios (current health, new lung cancer diagnosis, or diabetes) and asked to complete 15 choice tasks. Each choice task included an annual out-of-pocket cost attribute. A total of 3,900 respondents completed the survey. The out-of-pocket cost attribute was considered the most important across the four different DCEs. Following the cost attribute, trust and respect, multidisciplinary care, and shared decision making were judged as most important. The relative importance of out-of-pocket cost was consistently lower in the hypothetical context of a new lung cancer diagnosis compared with diabetes or the patient's current health. This study demonstrates the complexity of patient decision making processes regarding features of health care delivery systems. Our findings suggest the importance of these features may change as a function of an individual's medical conditions. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. Developing a discrete choice experiment in Malawi: eliciting preferences for breast cancer early detection services.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Racquel E; Lee, Clara N; Gopal, Satish; Reeve, Bryce B; Weiner, Bryan J; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2015-01-01

    In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women's preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment. To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women's preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare. We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs. Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants' responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes, comprehension of choice tasks, and women's abilities to make trade-offs. Applying a discrete choice experiment for breast cancer early detection was feasible with appropriate tailoring for a low-income, low-literacy African setting.

  20. Quantum Delayed-Choice Experiment with a Beam Splitter in a Quantum Superposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shi-Biao; Zhong, You-Peng; Xu, Kai; Wang, Qi-Jue; Wang, H.; Shen, Li-Tuo; Yang, Chui-Ping; Martinis, John M.; Cleland, A. N.; Han, Si-Yuan

    2015-12-01

    A quantum system can behave as a wave or as a particle, depending on the experimental arrangement. When, for example, measuring a photon using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the photon acts as a wave if the second beam splitter is inserted, but as a particle if this beam splitter is omitted. The decision of whether or not to insert this beam splitter can be made after the photon has entered the interferometer, as in Wheeler's famous delayed-choice thought experiment. In recent quantum versions of this experiment, this decision is controlled by a quantum ancilla, while the beam splitter is itself still a classical object. Here, we propose and realize a variant of the quantum delayed-choice experiment. We configure a superconducting quantum circuit as a Ramsey interferometer, where the element that acts as the first beam splitter can be put in a quantum superposition of its active and inactive states, as verified by the negative values of its Wigner function. We show that this enables the wave and particle aspects of the system to be observed with a single setup, without involving an ancilla that is not itself a part of the interferometer. We also study the transition of this quantum beam splitter from a quantum to a classical object due to decoherence, as observed by monitoring the interferometer output.

  1. Does recruitment lead to retention? Rural Clinical School training experiences and subsequent intern choices.

    PubMed

    Eley, D; Baker, P

    2006-01-01

    and subsequent recruitment and retention of junior medical personnel within local rural hospitals. The Year 4 Exit Survey contained 63 questions and was a combination of open-ended and forced answer items. The survey was divided into the following sections: demographics, career interests, experience of rural living, interest in rural medical practice, perceptions of rural communities, perceptions of the RCD, rating of their medical training, the impact of the RCD on their desire to practice medicine in a rural area, their opinions on the most and least valuable study experiences at either site and their suggestions on how that experience might be improved. A final question asked them their choice of internship location and the reasons why they were or were not staying at their present RCD site. Overall there was a high degree of student satisfaction with all aspects of their medical education. However there was a discrepancy between these findings and subsequent internship choices. Reasons for this discrepancy were associated with the students' adverse perceptions of their future workforce environment and professional support. Provision of positive rural training experiences and quality medical education has been shown to increase interest in rural medicine and encourage a desire to pursue a medical career in a rural area. However a quality undergraduate rural medical education does not guarantee immediate transition to rural internship. If the ultimate goal of improving the rural medical workforce is to be achieved, the present high levels of recruitment by the Rural Clinical Schools and their provision of a positive rural training experience must be matched by a supportive clinical workplace environment. Studies are needed to look more closely at the transition period between medical graduate and intern.

  2. Hospital preferences of nursing students in Korea: a discrete choice experiment approach.

    PubMed

    Park, Bo-Hyun; Ko, YuKyung

    2016-09-29

    DCE was applied to investigate nursing students' preferred hospital choice criteria and to investigate the trends in the trade-offs by calculating the marginal rate of substitution between these criteria. This study identified the properties of the hospitals primarily selected by nursing students, and aims to estimate the monetary value of each attribute. Based on discussions and in-depth interviews with nursing students' focus groups and a literature review, we created a discrete choice experiment (DCE) that assessed how students' stated preference for a certain hospital choice was influenced by various job attributes: higher salary, location, hospital type, salary per year, provision of a dormitory, etc. We applied this DCE to nursing students in South Korea using a brief structured questionnaire, and we used conditional logit models to estimate the utility of each job's attributes. Willingness to pay (WTP) was estimated as the ratio of the value of the coefficient of interest to the negative of the cost attribute. Complete data for the DCE analysis were available for 702 nursing students. In the main effect mixed logit model, the welfare system and organizational culture were most strongly associated with job preference. Location, hospital type, and opportunity to upgrade qualifications had a negative influence on hospital choice. The WTP threshold was 7,043,000 KRW for the welfare system and 9,928,000 KRW for the organizational culture (relation-oriented). Better nursing working conditions, such as a positive organizational culture and the provision of a welfare system, can improve the motivation and applications for hospitals in rural areas.

  3. A discrete choice experiment to determine patient preferences for injection devices in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Shingler, S L; Swinburn, P; Ali, S; Perard, R; Lloyd, A J

    2013-08-01

    Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) is usually managed with disease modifying drugs (DMDs), most commonly administered via self-injection. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence that different treatment-related attributes have for MS patients on their choice of MS DMD device. By establishing the relative importance of these characteristics for patients it should be possible to better understand the acceptability of a given device and to optimize the development of future devices. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey was developed on the basis of a review of published literature. Attributes identified for inclusion in the survey were: ease of use; comfort of use; presence of additional functions, needle visibility; practicality and efficacy. Choice sets were presented as pairs of hypothetical treatments based upon a fractional factorial design. One-hundred device-using MS patients completed the survey online. Analysis was conducted using a mixed-logit approach. Analysis of the DCE data revealed that all attributes significantly predicted treatment choice. Efficacy exhibited the largest effect on treatment selection and this provided context for understanding the magnitude of impact for the other attributes. Reducing the discomfort associated with device use and eliminating the necessity for assembly or drug reconstitution were highly valued. The addition of reminder and time-stamping functions, improved needlestick injury prevention, and reduction in device size were secondary concerns but still deemed desirable. Efficacy is of primary importance to MS patients, but characteristics of drug delivery devices can play an important role in treatment decision-making. Not all device characteristics could be included, and results are based upon 100 participants only. Findings suggest there is significant potential value in developing self-injection devices that are not only efficacious but also convenient and comfortable to use. Reducing barriers

  4. Child and adolescent fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labeling: a natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    Elbel, B; Gyamfi, J; Kersh, R

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is an enormous public health problem and children have been particularly highlighted for intervention. Of notable concern is the fast-food consumption of children. However, we know very little about how children or their parents make fast-food choices, including how they respond to mandatory calorie labeling. We examined children’s and adolescents’ fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labels in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) and in a comparison city (Newark, NJ). Design Natural experiment: Survey and receipt data were collected from low-income areas in NYC, and Newark, NJ (as a comparison city), before and after mandatory labeling began in NYC. Study restaurants included four of the largest chains located in NYC and Newark: McDonald’s, Burger King, Wendy’s and Kentucky Fried Chicken. Subjects A total of 349 children and adolescents aged 1–17 years who visited the restaurants with their parents (69%) or alone (31%) before or after labeling was introduced. In total, 90% were from racial or ethnic minority groups. Results We found no statistically significant differences in calories purchased before and after labeling; many adolescents reported noticing calorie labels after their introduction (57% in NYC) and a few considered the information when ordering (9%). Approximately 35% of adolescents ate fast food six or more times per week and 72% of adolescents reported that taste was the most important factor in their meal selection. Adolescents in our sample reported that parents have some influence on their meal selection. Conclusions Adolescents in low-income communities notice calorie information at similar rates as adults, although they report being slightly less responsive to it than adults. We did not find evidence that labeling influenced adolescent food choice or parental food choices for children in this population. PMID:21326209

  5. Child and adolescent fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labeling: a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Elbel, B; Gyamfi, J; Kersh, R

    2011-04-01

    Obesity is an enormous public health problem and children have been particularly highlighted for intervention. Of notable concern is the fast-food consumption of children . However, we know very little about how children or their parents make fast-food choices, including how they respond to mandatory calorie labeling. We examined children's and adolescents' fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labels in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) and in a comparison city (Newark, NJ). Natural experiment: Survey and receipt data were collected from low-income areas in NYC, and Newark, NJ (as a comparison city), before and after mandatory labeling began in NYC. Study restaurants included four of the largest chains located in NYC and Newark: McDonald's, Burger King, Wendy's and Kentucky Fried Chicken. A total of 349 children and adolescents aged 1-17 years, who visited the restaurants with their parents (69%) or alone (31%) before or after labeling was introduced. In total, 90% were from racial or ethnic minority groups. We found no statistically significant differences in calories purchased before and after labeling; many adolescents reported noticing calorie labels after their introduction (57% in NYC) and a few considered the information when ordering (9%). Approximately 35% of adolescents ate fast food six or more times per week and 72% of adolescents reported that taste was the most important factor in their meal selection. Adolescents in our sample reported that parents have some influence on their meal selection. Adolescents in low-income communities notice calorie information at similar rates as adults, although they report being slightly less responsive to it than adults. We did not find evidence that labeling influenced adolescent food choice or parental food choices for children in this population.

  6. Preferences for treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Rudolph, Ina; Lincke, Hans-Joachim; Nübling, Matthias

    2009-08-13

    While there is an increasing emphasis on patient empowerment and shared decision-making, subjective values for attributes associated with their treatment still need to be measured and considered. This contribution seeks to define properties of an ideal drug treatment of individuals concerned with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Because of the lack of information on patient needs in the decision-makers assessment of health services, the individuals' preferences often play a subordinate role at present. Discrete Choice Experiments offer strategies for eliciting subjective values and making them accessible for physicians and other health care professionals. The evidence comes from a Discrete Choice Experiments (DCE) performed in 2007. After reviewing the literature about preferences of ADHS we conducted a qualitative study with four focus groups consisting of five to eleven ADHS-patients each. In order to achieve content validity, we aimed at collecting all relevant factors for an ideal ADHS treatment. In a subsequent quantitative study phase (n = 219), data was collected in an online or paper-pencil self-completed questionnaire. It included sociodemographic data, health status and patients' preferences of therapy characteristics using direct measurement (23 items on a five-point Likert-scale) as well as a Discrete-Choice-Experiment (DCE, six factors in a fold-over design). Those concerned were capable of clearly defining success criteria and expectations. In the direct assessment and the DCE, respondents attached special significance to the improvement of their social situation and emotional state (relative importance 40%). Another essential factor was the desire for drugs with a long-lasting effect over the day (relative importance 18%). Other criteria, such as flexibility and discretion, were less important to the respondents (6% and 9%, respectively). Results point out that ADHD patients and their family members have clear ideas of their needs

  7. How Choice Ecology Influences Search in Decisions from Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejarraga, Tomas; Hertwig, Ralph; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2012-01-01

    Research into human decision-making has often sidestepped the question of search despite its importance across a wide range of domains such as search for food, mates, allies, visual targets or information. Recently, research on decisions from experience has made progress in finding out how individual characteristics shape search for information.…

  8. Brand placement and consumer choice: an in-store experiment.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Saevarsson, Hugi; Foxall, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An in-store experiment was performed to investigate the effects of shelf placement (high, middle, low) on consumers' purchases of potato chips. Placement of potato chips on the middle shelf was associated with the highest percentage of purchases. The results confirm the importance of item placement as a factor in consumers' buying behavior.

  9. Brand Placement and Consumer Choice: An in-Store Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Saevarsson, Hugi; Foxall, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An in-store experiment was performed to investigate the effects of shelf placement (high, middle, low) on consumers' purchases of potato chips. Placement of potato chips on the middle shelf was associated with the highest percentage of purchases. The results confirm the importance of item placement as a factor in consumers' buying behavior.…

  10. How Choice Ecology Influences Search in Decisions from Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejarraga, Tomas; Hertwig, Ralph; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2012-01-01

    Research into human decision-making has often sidestepped the question of search despite its importance across a wide range of domains such as search for food, mates, allies, visual targets or information. Recently, research on decisions from experience has made progress in finding out how individual characteristics shape search for information.…

  11. BRAND PLACEMENT AND CONSUMER CHOICE: AN IN-STORE EXPERIMENT

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Saevarsson, Hugi; Foxall, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An in-store experiment was performed to investigate the effects of shelf placement (high, middle, low) on consumers' purchases of potato chips. Placement of potato chips on the middle shelf was associated with the highest percentage of purchases. The results confirm the importance of item placement as a factor in consumers' buying behavior. PMID:20190939

  12. Does Early Research Experience Affect Subsequent Career Choice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pechmann, Connie A.; Pichert, James W.

    The Vanderbilt Summer Research Program in diabetes, which was designed to interest medical students in research careers and diabetes care, was evaluated. The program provides stipends to 20 sophomore and junior medical students for 12 weeks of preceptor-supervised laboratory research work, clinical experience, and classroom instruction. The…

  13. Calculating Preference Weights for the Labor and Delivery Index: A Discrete Choice Experiment on Women's Birth Experiences.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Fania R; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Rijnders, Marlies E; Freeman, Liv M; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; de Miranda, Esteriek; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate preference weights for the Labor and Delivery Index (LADY-X) to make it suitable as a utility measure for perinatal care studies. In an online discrete choice experiment, 18 pairs of hypothetical scenarios were presented to respondents, from which they had to choose a preferred option. The scenarios describe the birth experience in terms of the seven LADY-X attributes. A D-efficient discrete choice experiment design with priors based on a small sample (N = 110) was applied. Two samples were gathered, women who had recently given birth and subjects from the general population. Both samples were analyzed separately using a panel mixed logit (MMNL) model. Using the panel mixed multinomial logit (MMNL) model results and accounting for preference heterogeneity, we calculated the average preference weights for LADY-X attribute levels. These were transformed to represent a utility score between 0 and 1, with 0 representing the worst and 1 representing the best birth experience. In total, 1097 women who had recently given birth and 367 subjects from the general population participated. Greater value was placed on differences between bottom and middle attribute levels than on differences between middle and top levels. The attributes that resulted in larger utility increases than the other attributes were "feeling of safety" in the sample of women who had recently given birth and "feeling of safety" and "availability of professionals" in the general population sample. By using the derived preference weights, LADY-X has the potential to be used as a utility measure for perinatal (cost-) effectiveness studies. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Individual Choices in Dynamic Networks: An Experiment on Social Preferences

    PubMed Central

    van Dolder, Dennie; Buskens, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Game-theoretic models of network formation typically assume that people create relations so as to maximize their own outcome in the network. Recent experiments on network formation suggest that the assumption of self-interest might be unwarranted and that social preferences, such as altruism and inequality aversion, play a role in the formation of social networks. We developed an experiment to systematically investigate whether people show preferences for outcomes of others during network formation. We find that such preferences play a role when network decisions degenerate to simple two-person decision tasks. In more complex environments, however, we find little evidence for social preferences as a significant decision criterion. Furthermore, we find some evidence for farsighted behavior in network formation. PMID:24732665

  15. Individual choices in dynamic networks: an experiment on social preferences.

    PubMed

    van Dolder, Dennie; Buskens, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Game-theoretic models of network formation typically assume that people create relations so as to maximize their own outcome in the network. Recent experiments on network formation suggest that the assumption of self-interest might be unwarranted and that social preferences, such as altruism and inequality aversion, play a role in the formation of social networks. We developed an experiment to systematically investigate whether people show preferences for outcomes of others during network formation. We find that such preferences play a role when network decisions degenerate to simple two-person decision tasks. In more complex environments, however, we find little evidence for social preferences as a significant decision criterion. Furthermore, we find some evidence for farsighted behavior in network formation.

  16. Practical Choices for Infobutton Customization: Experience from Four Sites

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, James J.; Overby, Casey L.; Devine, Emily B.; Hulse, Nathan C.; Jing, Xia; Maviglia, Saverio M.; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2013-01-01

    Context-aware links between electronic health records (EHRs) and online knowledge resources, commonly called “infobuttons” are being used increasingly as part of EHR “meaningful use” requirements. While an HL7 standard exists for specifying how the links should be constructed, there is no guidance on what links to construct. Collectively, the authors manage four infobutton systems that serve 16 institutions. The purpose of this paper is to publish our experience with linking various resources and specifying particular criteria that can be used by infobutton managers to select resources that are most relevant for a given situation. This experience can be used directly by those wishing to customize their own EHRs, for example by using the OpenInfobutton infobutton manager and its configuration tool, the Librarian Infobutton Tailoring Environment. PMID:24551334

  17. District nurses' experiences with the free-choice system in Swedish primary care.

    PubMed

    Hollman, Djana; Lennartsson, Sandra; Rosengren, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to describe the experiences of district nurses regarding their work situation after the free-choice system in primary care in Sweden was implemented. The study comprised a total of 17 semi-structured narratives with district nurses. The narratives were analysed using manifest qualitative content analysis. One category,'being an underused resource', and three subcategories, 'being financially aware','being flexible' and 'being appealing', were identified. A focus on economic benefit can limit the cooperation and exchange of experiences within and between different care units, which could have a negative impact on the quality of care due to competition between different care providers. Underused resources and restrictions in terms of improvement skills have an impact on job satisfaction and the working environment, and affect the quality of care as a result.

  18. The evolution of mate choice: a dialogue between theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Roff, Derek A

    2015-12-01

    Research on the evolution of mate choice has followed three avenues of investigation: (1) theoretical models of the evolution of preference and the preferred trait; (2) proposed models of mate choice; and (3) experiments and observations on mate choice, both in the laboratory and with free-ranging animals. However, there has been relatively little dialogue among these three areas. Most attempts to account for observations of mate choice using theoretical mate-choice models have focused only upon a subset of particular models and have generally failed to consider the difference between probabilistic and deterministic models. In this review, I outline the underlying reasoning of the commonly cited mate-choice models and review the conclusions of the empirical investigations. I present a brief outline of how one might go about testing these models. It remains uncertain if, in general, mate-choice models can be realistically analyzed. Although it is clear that females frequently discriminate among males, data also suggest that females may typically have a very limited number of males from which to choose. The extent to which female choice under natural conditions is relatively random because of limited opportunities remains an open question for the majority of species. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Extending Science beyond the Classroom Door: Learning from Students' Experiences with the "Choice, Control and Change" (C3) Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallya, Aarti; Mensah, Felicia Moore; Contento, Isobel R.; Koch, Pamela A.; Barton, Angela Calabrese

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of seventh-grade students living in high poverty areas of New York City who participated in the "Choice, Control and Change" (C3) science curriculum. Data were collected from eight case study students in the form of individual interviews, classroom observations, and student artifacts. Analysis of…

  20. A Qualitative Investigation of the College Choice Experiences and Reentry Expectations of U.S. American Third Culture Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston-Gonzalez, Sara J.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this qualitative study is on U.S. third culture kids (TCKs), youth who have grown up abroad because of their parent's work, and their college choice experiences and reentry expectations. Through a background questionnaire and personal interviews with eleven students transitioning from two international secondary schools in a…

  1. "Pente" or Slope? Using Student Voices to Explore Program Choice and Experiences in Secondary French Immersion Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culligan, Karla

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores students' decision-making about whether to remain in an optional French immersion (FI) mathematics course in Grade 11, as well as students' subsequent experiences in their mathematics course of choice. Interview data were collected from 10 students who remained in FI mathematics and from six students who did…

  2. "Pente" or Slope? Using Student Voices to Explore Program Choice and Experiences in Secondary French Immersion Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culligan, Karla

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores students' decision-making about whether to remain in an optional French immersion (FI) mathematics course in Grade 11, as well as students' subsequent experiences in their mathematics course of choice. Interview data were collected from 10 students who remained in FI mathematics and from six students who did…

  3. Extending Science beyond the Classroom Door: Learning from Students' Experiences with the "Choice, Control and Change" (C3) Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallya, Aarti; Mensah, Felicia Moore; Contento, Isobel R.; Koch, Pamela A.; Barton, Angela Calabrese

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of seventh-grade students living in high poverty areas of New York City who participated in the "Choice, Control and Change" (C3) science curriculum. Data were collected from eight case study students in the form of individual interviews, classroom observations, and student artifacts. Analysis of…

  4. Valuing health risk in agriculture: a choice experiment approach to pesticide use in China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jianjun; Wang, Wenyu; He, Rui; Gong, Haozhou

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a choice experiment approach to investigate farmers' valuations for health risk changes associated with pesticide use in Anqiu County, China. An empirical comparison on the disparity between farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a health risk reduction and willingness to accept (WTA) for the same risk increase is also conducted. Respondents were randomly assigned into the WTP group or the WTA group. Four attributes (health consequence, baseline risk, risk change size, and price) were identified and included. The results show that cancer consequence due to pesticide use decreases the utility of the farmer. A higher baseline risk has a higher WTP to reduce the risk and a higher probability of receiving compensation. If the health risk change size is bigger, it will result in a higher WTP and higher compensation. Household income, education, and age have significant and positive impacts on farmers' WTP. Farmers who are more educated or female are more likely to accept the compensation scheme if health risks increase. The marginal WTA for the same risk change is about two times higher than the marginal WTP. The findings of this study can contribute to the literature comparing people's WTP and WTA in a discrete choice experiment on valuing health risk changes associated with pesticide use.

  5. Deleting 'irrational' responses from discrete choice experiments: a case of investigating or imposing preferences?

    PubMed

    Lancsar, Emily; Louviere, Jordan

    2006-08-01

    Investigation of the 'rationality' of responses to discrete choice experiments (DCEs) has been a theme of research in health economics. Responses have been deleted from DCEs where they have been deemed by researchers to (a) be 'irrational', defined by such studies as failing tests for non-satiation, or (b) represent lexicographic preferences. This paper outlines a number of reasons why deleting responses from DCEs may be inappropriate after first reviewing the theory underpinning rationality, highlighting that the importance placed on rationality depends on the approach to consumer theory to which one ascribes. The aim of this paper is not to suggest that all preferences elicited via DCEs are rational. Instead, it is to suggest a number of reasons why it may not be the case that all preferences labelled as 'irrational' are indeed so. Hence, deleting responses may result in the removal of valid preferences; induce sample selection bias; and reduce the statistical efficiency and power of the estimated choice models. Further, evidence suggests random utility theory may be able to cope with such preferences. Finally, we discuss a number of implications for the design, implementation and interpretation of DCEs and recommend caution regarding the deletion of preferences from stated preference experiments. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Insurees' preferences in hospital choice-A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Schuldt, Johannes; Doktor, Anna; Lichters, Marcel; Vogt, Bodo; Robra, Bernt-Peter

    2017-08-10

    In Germany, the patient himself makes the choice for or against a health service provider. Hospital comparison websites offer him possibilities to inform himself before choosing. However, it remains unclear, how health care consumers use those websites, and there is little information about how preferences in hospital choice differ interpersonally. We conducted a Discrete-Choice-Experiment (DCE) on hospital choice with 1500 randomly selected participants (age 40-70) in three different German cities selecting four attributes for hospital vignettes. The analysis of the study draws on multilevel mixed effects logit regression analyses with the dependent variables: "chance to select a hospital" and "choice confidence". Subsequently, we performed a Latent-Class-Analysis to uncover consumer segments with distinct preferences. 590 of the questionnaires were evaluable. All four attributes of the hospital vignettes have a significant impact on hospital choice. The attribute "complication rate" exerts the highest impact on consumers' decisions and reported choice confidence. Latent-Class-Analysis results in one dominant consumer segment that considered the complication rate the most important decision criterion. Using DCE, we were able to show that the complication rate is an important trusted criterion in hospital choice to a large group of consumers. Our study supports current governmental efforts in Germany to concentrate the provision of specialized health care services. We suggest further national and cross-national research on the topic. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Measuring Choice to Participate in Optional Science Learning Experiences during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sha, Li; Schunn, Christian; Bathgate, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Cumulatively, participation in optional science learning experiences in school, after school, at home, and in the community may have a large impact on student interest in and knowledge of science. Therefore, interventions can have large long-term effects if they change student choice preferences for such optional science learning experiences. To…

  8. Measuring Choice to Participate in Optional Science Learning Experiences during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sha, Li; Schunn, Christian; Bathgate, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Cumulatively, participation in optional science learning experiences in school, after school, at home, and in the community may have a large impact on student interest in and knowledge of science. Therefore, interventions can have large long-term effects if they change student choice preferences for such optional science learning experiences. To…

  9. Turkish Students' Career Choices in Engineering: Experiences from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavas, Bulent; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cavas, Pinar; Ertepinar, Hamide

    2011-01-01

    The shortfall of young people, particularly women, in the field of Science, Mathematics and Engineering (SME) has been shown in many national studies. Schreiner and Sjoberg (2007) indicated that boys outnumber girls in physics and engineering studies, while the gender balance is shifted towards the girls in studies including medicine, veterinary…

  10. A discrete-choice experiment to determine patient preferences for injectable multiple sclerosis treatments in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Poulos, Christine; Kinter, Elizabeth; Yang, Jui-Chen; Bridges, John F. P.; Posner, Joshua; Gleißner, Erika; Mühlbacher, Axel; Kieseier, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the relative importance of features of a hypothetical injectable disease-modifying treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis using a discrete-choice experiment. Methods: German residents at least 18 years of age with a self-reported physician diagnosis of multiple sclerosis completed a 25–30 minute online discrete-choice experiment. Patients were asked to choose one of two hypothetical injectable treatments for multiple sclerosis, defined by different levels of six attributes (disability progression, the number of relapses in the next 4 years, injection time, frequency of injections, presence of flu-like symptoms, and presence of injection-site reactions). The data were analyzed using a random-parameters logit model. Results: Of 202 adults who completed the survey, results from 189 were used in the analysis. Approximately 50% of all patients reported a diagnosis of relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis, and 31% reported secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Approximately 71% of patients had current or prior experience with injectable multiple sclerosis medication. Approximately 53% had experienced flu-like symptoms caused by their medication, and 47% had experienced mild injection-site reactions. At least one significant difference was seen between levels in all attributes, except injection time. The greatest change in relative importance between levels of an attribute was years until symptoms get worse from 1 to 4 years. The magnitude of this difference was about twice that of relapses in the next 4 years, frequency of injections, and flu-like symptoms. Conclusions: Most attributes examined in this experiment had an influence on patient preference. Patients placed a significant value on improvements in the frequency of dosing and disability progression. Results suggest that changes in injection frequency can be as important as changes in efficacy and safety attributes. Understanding which attributes of

  11. A discrete-choice experiment to determine patient preferences for injectable multiple sclerosis treatments in Germany.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Christine; Kinter, Elizabeth; Yang, Jui-Chen; Bridges, John F P; Posner, Joshua; Gleißner, Erika; Mühlbacher, Axel; Kieseier, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relative importance of features of a hypothetical injectable disease-modifying treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis using a discrete-choice experiment. German residents at least 18 years of age with a self-reported physician diagnosis of multiple sclerosis completed a 25-30 minute online discrete-choice experiment. Patients were asked to choose one of two hypothetical injectable treatments for multiple sclerosis, defined by different levels of six attributes (disability progression, the number of relapses in the next 4 years, injection time, frequency of injections, presence of flu-like symptoms, and presence of injection-site reactions). The data were analyzed using a random-parameters logit model. Of 202 adults who completed the survey, results from 189 were used in the analysis. Approximately 50% of all patients reported a diagnosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and 31% reported secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Approximately 71% of patients had current or prior experience with injectable multiple sclerosis medication. Approximately 53% had experienced flu-like symptoms caused by their medication, and 47% had experienced mild injection-site reactions. At least one significant difference was seen between levels in all attributes, except injection time. The greatest change in relative importance between levels of an attribute was years until symptoms get worse from 1 to 4 years. The magnitude of this difference was about twice that of relapses in the next 4 years, frequency of injections, and flu-like symptoms. Most attributes examined in this experiment had an influence on patient preference. Patients placed a significant value on improvements in the frequency of dosing and disability progression. Results suggest that changes in injection frequency can be as important as changes in efficacy and safety attributes. Understanding which attributes of injectable therapies influence patient

  12. The specialty choice of medical students in China: a stated preference experiment.

    PubMed

    Liang, Dong; Tang, Cheng-Xiang

    2016-04-12

    Primary Care Providers (PCPs), such as internists and general practitioners, have been deemed a way of delivering cost-effective care in an equitable way because PCPs are responsible for providing accessible basic medical care for the general population. This study aims to examine medical students' preferences for PCP-based specialty choices in the context of an ageing population in China. We implemented a Best-Worst Scaling (BWS) experiment, a recently developed preference elicitation method based on random utility theory. Three hundred and fifty graduating medical students from three medical colleges were randomly recruited to evaluate 11 common medical specialties in China. A counting approach, a conditional logit model, and K-means clustering have been used to analyse the relative importance of items and preference heterogeneity among medical students. One hundred and ninety of 350 students completed valid questionnaires. General surgery was identified as the most preferred specialty among the overall sample, yet internal medicine shares the same importance as surgery. Both geriatric medicine and psychiatric medicine were found to be the least selected specialties. Finally, the K-means clustering further suggested there was preference heterogeneity across our sample. Two aims were fulfilled in this study. First, through our experimental approach the results provide a better understanding of the career desires of medical students in China. Second, the results of this study indicate that despite the fact a non-PCP-based specialty is the most popular among the sampled students; a PCP-based specialty is still an important alternative choice.

  13. Valuing environmental impacts of large dam construction in Korea: An application of choice experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Sang-Yong Kwak, Seung-Jun Yoo, Seung-Hoon

    2008-05-15

    This paper measures economic value of multiple environmental impacts of large dam construction as a case study of Korea, using a choice experiment approach. The choice works which consider trade-offs between price and environmental attributes for selecting a preferred option were within respondents' ability, and the marginal willingness-to-pay estimates across the two models were statistically significant. Especially, adding covariates does not significantly change the marginal willingness-to-pay estimates for each attribute. Monthly willingness-to-pay of the typical household for mitigating environmental impacts by large dam construction from the status quo to the highest attribute level is calculated as about 2542 Korean Won (US $ 2.12) and the total willingness-to-pay for the entire population of the study area is annually about 209.9 billion Korean Won (US $ 174.9 million). This study allows us to provide policy-makers with quantitative information that can be useful in the cost-benefit analysis related to large dam construction projects.

  14. Choice of Antiepileptic Drugs in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy: UAE Experience.

    PubMed

    Alsaadi, Taoufik; Taha, Haytham; Al Hammadi, Fatema

    2015-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the electroencephalogram (EEG) reports of patients at our EEG lab from the years 2005-2010 to identify patients referred from the epilepsy clinic, with a confirmed diagnosis of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) by EEG criteria. We sought to report our experience in UAE of how often patients with IGE are placed on nonspecific antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) before being evaluated at an epilepsy referral clinic. 109 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of IGE based on EEG criteria were identified. When initially seen, 32.11% were taking a broad-spectrum (specific) AED only, 25.69% were taking a narrow-spectrum (nonspecific) AED, and 15.59% were placed on various combinations. Of the total patients who were receiving nonspecific AEDs, 35.71% were seizure-free and 64.28% were poorly controlled accounting for "pseudointractability status." When converted to broad-spectrum (specific) AEDs, 50% became well controlled. Furthermore, 26.6% of patients, who were previously on no AED prior to the clinic visit, became well controlled once placed on specific AED.

  15. Predicting the Influence of Demographic Differences and Schooling Experience in Adolescence on Occupational Choice in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Edward C., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict occupational choices based on demographic variables and high school curriculum tracks. Based on an analysis of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data set that examined high school graduates' occupational choices in 2006, findings indicated that CTE graduates were 2.7 times more likely to…

  16. Rural clinician scarcity and job preferences of doctors and nurses in India: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Rao, Krishna D; Ryan, Mandy; Shroff, Zubin; Vujicic, Marko; Ramani, Sudha; Berman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The scarcity of rural doctors has undermined the ability of health systems in low and middle-income countries like India to provide quality services to rural populations. This study examines job preferences of doctors and nurses to inform what works in terms of rural recruitment strategies. Job acceptance of different strategies was compared to identify policy options for increasing the availability of clinical providers in rural areas. In 2010 a Discrete Choice Experiment was conducted in India. The study sample included final year medical and nursing students, and in-service doctors and nurses serving at Primary Health Centers. Eight job attributes were identified and a D-efficient fractional factorial design was used to construct pairs of job choices. Respondent acceptance of job choices was analyzed using multi-level logistic regression. Location mattered; jobs in areas offering urban amenities had a high likelihood of being accepted. Higher salary had small effect on doctor, but large effect on nurse, acceptance of rural jobs. At five times current salary levels, 13% (31%) of medical students (doctors) were willing to accept rural jobs. At half this level, 61% (52%) of nursing students (nurses) accepted a rural job. The strategy of reserving seats for specialist training in exchange for rural service had a large effect on job acceptance among doctors, nurses and nursing students. For doctors and nurses, properly staffed and equipped health facilities, and housing had small effects on job acceptance. Rural upbringing was not associated with rural job acceptance. Incentivizing doctors for rural service is expensive. A broader strategy of substantial salary increases with improved living, working environment, and education incentives is necessary. For both doctors and nurses, the usual strategies of moderate salary increases, good facility infrastructure, and housing will not be effective. Non-physician clinicians like nurse-practitioners offer an affordable

  17. Rural Clinician Scarcity and Job Preferences of Doctors and Nurses in India: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Krishna D.; Ryan, Mandy; Shroff, Zubin; Vujicic, Marko; Ramani, Sudha; Berman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The scarcity of rural doctors has undermined the ability of health systems in low and middle-income countries like India to provide quality services to rural populations. This study examines job preferences of doctors and nurses to inform what works in terms of rural recruitment strategies. Job acceptance of different strategies was compared to identify policy options for increasing the availability of clinical providers in rural areas. In 2010 a Discrete Choice Experiment was conducted in India. The study sample included final year medical and nursing students, and in-service doctors and nurses serving at Primary Health Centers. Eight job attributes were identified and a D-efficient fractional factorial design was used to construct pairs of job choices. Respondent acceptance of job choices was analyzed using multi-level logistic regression. Location mattered; jobs in areas offering urban amenities had a high likelihood of being accepted. Higher salary had small effect on doctor, but large effect on nurse, acceptance of rural jobs. At five times current salary levels, 13% (31%) of medical students (doctors) were willing to accept rural jobs. At half this level, 61% (52%) of nursing students (nurses) accepted a rural job. The strategy of reserving seats for specialist training in exchange for rural service had a large effect on job acceptance among doctors, nurses and nursing students. For doctors and nurses, properly staffed and equipped health facilities, and housing had small effects on job acceptance. Rural upbringing was not associated with rural job acceptance. Incentivizing doctors for rural service is expensive. A broader strategy of substantial salary increases with improved living, working environment, and education incentives is necessary. For both doctors and nurses, the usual strategies of moderate salary increases, good facility infrastructure, and housing will not be effective. Non-physician clinicians like nurse-practitioners offer an affordable

  18. Modeling the Mental Health Practice Change Preferences of Educators: A Discrete-Choice Conjoint Experiment.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Charles E; Barwick, Melanie; Short, Kathy; Chen, Yvonne; Rimas, Heather; Ratcliffe, Jenna; Mielko, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Schools are sometimes slow to adopt evidence-based strategies for improving the mental health outcomes of students. This study used a discrete-choice conjoint experiment to model factors influencing the decision of educators to adopt strategies for improving children's mental health outcomes. A sample of 1,010 educators made choices between hypothetical mental health practice change strategies composed by systematically varying the four levels of 16 practice change attributes. Latent class analysis yielded two segments with different practice change preferences. Both segments preferred small-group workshops, conducted by engaging experts, teaching skills applicable to all students. Participants expressed little interest in Internet options. The support of colleagues, administrators, and unions exerted a strong influence on the practice change choices of both segments. The Change Ready segment, 77.1 % of the sample, was more intent on adopting new strategies to improve the mental health of students. They preferred that schools, rather than the provincial ministry of education, make practice change decisions, coaching was provided to all participants, and participants received post-training follow-up sessions. The Demand Sensitive segment (22.9 %) was less intent on practice change. They preferred that individual teachers make practice change decisions, recommended discretionary coaching, and chose no post-training follow-up support. This study emphasizes the complex social, organizational, and policy context within which educators make practice change decisions. Efforts to disseminate strategies to improve the mental health outcomes of students need to be informed by the preferences of segments of educators who are sensitive to different dimensions of the practice change process. In the absence of a broad consensus of educators, administrators, and unions, potentially successful practice changes are unlikely to be adopted.

  19. Making pragmatic choices: women's experiences of delivery care in Northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrehiwot, Tesfay; Goicolea, Isabel; Edin, Kerstin; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2012-10-19

    In 2003, the Ethiopian Ministry of Health launched the Health Extension Programme (HEP), which was intended to increase access to reproductive health care. Despite enormous effort, utilization of maternal health services remains limited, and the reasons for the low utilization of the services offered through the HEP previously have not been explored in depth.This study explores women's experiences and perceptions regarding delivery care in Tigray, a northern region of Ethiopia, and enables us to make suggestions for better implementation of maternal health care services in this setting. We used six focus group discussions with 51 women to explore perceptions and experiences regarding delivery care. The data were analysed by means of grounded theory. One core category emerged, 'making pragmatic choices', which connected the categories 'aiming for safer deliveries', 'embedded in tradition', and 'medical knowledge under constrained circumstances'. In this setting, women - aiming for safer deliveries - made choices pragmatically between the two available models of childbirth. On the one hand, choice of home delivery, represented by the category 'embedded in tradition', was related to their faith, the ascendancy of elderly women, the advantages of staying at home and the custom of traditional birth attendants (TBAs). On the other, institutional delivery, represented by the category 'medical knowledge under constrained circumstances', and linked to how women appreciated medical resources and the support of health extension workers (HEWs) but were uncertain about the quality of care, emphasized the barriers to transportation.In Tigray women made choices pragmatically and seemed to not feel any conflict between the two available models, being supported by traditional birth attendants, HEWs and husbands in their decision-making. Representatives of the two models were not as open to collaboration as the women themselves, however. Although women did not see any conflict

  20. Investigating attribute non-attendance and its consequences in choice experiments with latent class models.

    PubMed

    Lagarde, Mylene

    2013-05-01

    A growing literature, mainly from transport and environment economics, has started to explore whether respondents violate some of the axioms about individuals' preferences in Discrete Choice Experiments (DCEs) and use simple strategies to make their choices. One of these strategies, termed attribute non-attendance (ANA), consists in ignoring one or more attributes. Using data from a DCE administered to healthcare providers in Ghana to evaluate their potential resistance to changes in clinical guidelines, this study illustrates how latent class models can be used in a step-wise approach to account for all possible ANA strategies used by respondents and explore the consequences of such behaviours. Results show that less than 3% of respondents considered all attributes when choosing between the two hypothetical scenarios proposed, with a majority looking at only one or two attributes. Accounting for ANA strategies improved the goodness-of-fit of the model and affected the magnitude of some of the coefficient and willingness-to-pay estimates. However, there was no difference in the predicted probabilities of the model taking into account ANA and the standard approach. Although the latter result is reassuring about the ability of DCEs to produce unbiased policy guidance, it should be confirmed by other studies.

  1. Experiences that influence a student's choice on majoring in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbin, Donya Rae

    Currently the production of college graduates with science and engineering degrees is insufficient to fill the increasing number of jobs requiring these skills. This study focuses on physics majors with an in-depth examination of student transitions from high school to college. Many different areas of influence could affect a student's decision to major in physics. The first phase of this study addresses all of the potential areas of influence identified from the literature. The goal was to identify common influences that might be used to increase students' interest in majoring in physics. Subjects (N=35) from the first phase were recruited from physics majors at diverse Michigan colleges and universities. The second phase of this study explored, in more depth, important areas of influence identified in the first phase of the study. Subjects (N=94) from the second phase were recruited from diverse colleges and universities in Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio. The interviews were also conducted via email. Approximately half of the students in the study decided to major in physics while still in high school. Their reasons relate to many of the areas of influence. For example, high school physics teachers were cited as a strong influence in many students' decisions to major in physics. Influential physics teachers were described as being helpful, encouraging and interesting. The teachers also need to be their students' number one cheerleader and not their number one critic. Some areas of influence were found to be different for males vs. females. A high percentage of all physics majors had influential adults with careers in physical or biological science fields. This percentage was even larger for female physics majors. Female students also showed a greater initial interest in astronomy than the male students. Thus, high school and college physics teachers should seek to expose students to science-related careers and adults with these careers. Astronomy is also an

  2. Emerging markets for imported beef in China: Results from a consumer choice experiment in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Ortega, David L; Hong, Soo Jeong; Wang, H Holly; Wu, Laping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore emerging markets for imported beef in China by assessing Beijing consumer demand for quality attributes. This study utilizes data from an in-store choice experiment to evaluate consumer willingness-to-pay for select food quality attributes (food safety, animal welfare, Green Food and Organic certification) taking into account country-of-origin information. Our results show that Beijing consumers value food safety information the most, and are willing to pay more for Australian beef products than for US or domestic (Chinese) beef. We explore the various relationships between the quality attributes, find evidence of preference heterogeneity and discuss agribusiness and marketing implications of our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Framework for Instrument Development of a Choice Experiment: An Application to Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ellen M; Segal, Jodi B; Bridges, John F P

    2016-10-01

    Choice experiments are increasingly used to obtain patient preference information for regulatory benefit-risk assessments. Despite the importance of instrument design, there remains a paucity of literature applying good research principles. We applied a novel framework for instrument development of a choice experiment to measure type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment preferences. Applying the framework, we used evidence synthesis, expert consultation, stakeholder engagement, pretest interviews, and pilot testing to develop a best-worst scaling (BWS) and discrete choice experiment (DCE). We synthesized attributes from published DCEs for type 2 diabetes, consulted clinical experts, engaged a national advisory board, conducted local cognitive interviews, and pilot tested a national survey. From published DCEs (n = 17), ten attribute categories were extracted with cost (n = 11) having the highest relative attribute importance (RAI) (range 6-10). Clinical consultation and stakeholder engagement identified six attributes for inclusion. Cognitive pretesting with local diabetes patients (n = 25) ensured comprehension of the choice experiment. Pilot testing with patients from a national sample (n = 50) identified nausea as most important (RAI for DCE: 10 [95 % CI 8.5-11.5]; RAI for BWS: 10 [95 % CI 8.9-11.1]). The developed choice experiment contained five attributes (A1c decrease, blood glucose stability, low blood glucose, nausea, additional medicine, and cost). The framework for instrument development of a choice experiment included five stages of development and incorporated multiple stakeholder perspectives. Further comparisons of instrument development approaches are needed to identify best practices. To facilitate comparisons, researchers need to be encouraged to publish or discuss their instrument development strategies and findings.

  4. Choices Between... Community Study Unit, Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    Because of its geographical location, topography, and climate, South Florida has unique water problems. When the rainfall situation is combined with changing land use patterns and increasing population growth rates, the result is often water shortages in some areas and floods in others. This study unit looks at some of the reasons for the present…

  5. Choices Between... Community Study Unit, Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    Because of its geographical location, topography, and climate, South Florida has unique water problems. When the rainfall situation is combined with changing land use patterns and increasing population growth rates, the result is often water shortages in some areas and floods in others. This study unit looks at some of the reasons for the present…

  6. Do Choice Experiments Generate Reliable Willingness to Pay Estimates Theory and Experimental Evidence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    predictions of voting theory combined with the theoretical model from Part II? A. Experiment 2 Design 15 Experiment 2 is designed to create a...the choice set design methodologies. The experiment took 40-45 minutes to complete, and average experimental earnings were in the range of $ 15 -$20.6...student take-home pay ranges from $65-$100. Thus, an additional $ 15 -$20 for 45 minutes to one hour of time represents a significant addition to a

  7. Conducting discrete choice experiments to inform healthcare decision making: a user's guide.

    PubMed

    Lancsar, Emily; Louviere, Jordan

    2008-01-01

    Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are regularly used in health economics to elicit preferences for healthcare products and programmes. There is growing recognition that DCEs can provide more than information on preferences and, in particular, they have the potential to contribute more directly to outcome measurement for use in economic evaluation. Almost uniquely, DCEs could potentially contribute to outcome measurement for use in both cost-benefit and cost-utility analysis. Within this expanding remit, our intention is to provide a resource for current practitioners as well as those considering undertaking a DCE, using DCE results in a policy/commercial context, or reviewing a DCE. We present the fundamental principles and theory underlying DCEs. To aid in undertaking and assessing the quality of DCEs, we discuss the process of carrying out a choice study and have developed a checklist covering conceptualizing the choice process, selecting attributes and levels, experimental design, questionnaire design, pilot testing, sampling and sample size, data collection, coding of data, econometric analysis, validity, interpretation and welfare and policy analysis. In this fast-moving area, a number of issues remain on the research frontier. We therefore outline potentially fruitful areas for future research associated both with DCEs in general, and with health applications specifically, paying attention to how the results of DCEs can be used in economic evaluation. We also discuss emerging research trends. We conclude that if appropriately designed, implemented, analysed and interpreted, DCEs offer several advantages in the health sector, the most important of which is that they provide rich data sources for economic evaluation and decision making, allowing investigation of many types of questions, some of which otherwise would be intractable analytically. Thus, they offer viable alternatives and complements to existing methods of valuation and preference elicitation.

  8. Eliciting preferences for waterpipe tobacco smoking using a discrete choice experiment: implications for product regulation.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Maziak, Wasim; Hammond, David; Nakkash, Rima; Islam, Farahnaz; Cheng, Xi; Thrasher, James F

    2015-09-09

    Waterpipe smoking is highly prevalent among university students, and has been increasing in popularity despite mounting evidence showing it is harmful to health. The aim of this study was to measure preferences for waterpipe smoking and determine which product characteristics are most important to smokers. A large university in the Southeastern USA. Adult waterpipe smokers attending the university (N=367). Participants completed an Internet-based discrete choice experiment to reveal their preferences for, and trade-offs between, the attributes of hypothetical waterpipe smoking sessions. Participants were presented with waterpipe lounge menus, each with three fruit-flavoured options and one tobacco flavoured option, in addition to an opt out option. Nicotine content and price were provided for each choice. Participants were randomised to either receive menus with a text-only health-warning message or no message. Multinomial and nested logit models were used to estimate the impact on consumer choice of attributes and between-subject assignment of health warnings respectively. On average, participants preferred fruit-flavoured varieties to tobacco flavour. They were averse to options labelled with higher nicotine content. Females and non-smokers of cigarettes were more likely than their counterparts to prefer flavoured and nicotine-free varieties. Participants exposed to a health warning were more likely to opt out. Fruit-flavoured tobacco and lower nicotine content labels, two strategies widely used by the industry, increase the demand for waterpipe smoking among young adults. Waterpipe-specific regulation should limit the availability of flavoured waterpipe tobacco and require accurate labelling of constituents. Waterpipe-specific tobacco control regulation, along with research to inform policy, is required to curb this emerging public health threat. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  9. Eliciting preferences for waterpipe tobacco smoking using a discrete choice experiment: implications for product regulation

    PubMed Central

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Maziak, Wasim; Hammond, David; Nakkash, Rima; Islam, Farahnaz; Cheng, Xi; Thrasher, James F

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Waterpipe smoking is highly prevalent among university students, and has been increasing in popularity despite mounting evidence showing it is harmful to health. The aim of this study was to measure preferences for waterpipe smoking and determine which product characteristics are most important to smokers. Setting A large university in the Southeastern USA. Participants Adult waterpipe smokers attending the university (N=367). Design Participants completed an Internet-based discrete choice experiment to reveal their preferences for, and trade-offs between, the attributes of hypothetical waterpipe smoking sessions. Participants were presented with waterpipe lounge menus, each with three fruit-flavoured options and one tobacco flavoured option, in addition to an opt out option. Nicotine content and price were provided for each choice. Participants were randomised to either receive menus with a text-only health-warning message or no message. Outcome measures Multinomial and nested logit models were used to estimate the impact on consumer choice of attributes and between-subject assignment of health warnings respectively. Results On average, participants preferred fruit-flavoured varieties to tobacco flavour. They were averse to options labelled with higher nicotine content. Females and non-smokers of cigarettes were more likely than their counterparts to prefer flavoured and nicotine-free varieties. Participants exposed to a health warning were more likely to opt out. Conclusions Fruit-flavoured tobacco and lower nicotine content labels, two strategies widely used by the industry, increase the demand for waterpipe smoking among young adults. Waterpipe-specific regulation should limit the availability of flavoured waterpipe tobacco and require accurate labelling of constituents. Waterpipe-specific tobacco control regulation, along with research to inform policy, is required to curb this emerging public health threat. PMID:26353876

  10. Career choices for cardiology: cohort studies of UK medical graduates.

    PubMed

    Smith, Fay; Lambert, Trevor W; Pitcher, Alex; Goldacre, Michael J

    2013-01-25

    Cardiology is one of the most popular of the hospital medical specialties in the UK. It is also a highly competitive specialty in respect of the availability of higher specialty training posts. Our aims are to describe doctors' early intentions about seeking careers in cardiology, to report on when decisions about seeking a career in cardiology are made, to compare differences between men and women doctors in the choice of cardiology, and to compare early career choices with later specialty destinations. Questionnaire surveys were sent to all UK medical graduates in selected qualification years from 1974-2009, at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 years after graduation. One year after graduation, the percentage of doctors specifying cardiology as their first choice of long-term career rose from the mid-1990s from 2.4% (1993 cohort) to 4.2% (2005 cohort) but then fell back to 2.7% (2009 cohort). Men were more likely to give cardiology as their first choice than women (eg 4.1% of men and 1.9% of women in the 2009 cohort). The percentage of doctors who gave cardiology as their first choice of career declined between years one and five after qualification: the fall was more marked for women. 34% of respondents who specified cardiology as their sole first choice of career one year post-graduation were later working in cardiology. 24% of doctors practising as cardiologists several years after qualification had given cardiology as their sole first choice in year one. The doctors' 'domestic circumstances' were a relatively unimportant influence on specialty choice for aspiring cardiologists, while 'enthusiasm/commitment', 'financial prospects', 'experiences of the job so far' and 'a particular teacher/department' were important. Cardiology grew as a first preference one year after graduation to 2005 but is now falling. It consistently attracts a higher percentage of men than women doctors. The correspondence between early choice and later destination was not particularly strong for

  11. Career choices for cardiology: cohort studies of UK medical graduates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiology is one of the most popular of the hospital medical specialties in the UK. It is also a highly competitive specialty in respect of the availability of higher specialty training posts. Our aims are to describe doctors’ early intentions about seeking careers in cardiology, to report on when decisions about seeking a career in cardiology are made, to compare differences between men and women doctors in the choice of cardiology, and to compare early career choices with later specialty destinations. Methods Questionnaire surveys were sent to all UK medical graduates in selected qualification years from 1974–2009, at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 years after graduation. Results One year after graduation, the percentage of doctors specifying cardiology as their first choice of long-term career rose from the mid-1990s from 2.4% (1993 cohort) to 4.2% (2005 cohort) but then fell back to 2.7% (2009 cohort). Men were more likely to give cardiology as their first choice than women (eg 4.1% of men and 1.9% of women in the 2009 cohort). The percentage of doctors who gave cardiology as their first choice of career declined between years one and five after qualification: the fall was more marked for women. 34% of respondents who specified cardiology as their sole first choice of career one year post-graduation were later working in cardiology. 24% of doctors practising as cardiologists several years after qualification had given cardiology as their sole first choice in year one. The doctors’ ‘domestic circumstances’ were a relatively unimportant influence on specialty choice for aspiring cardiologists, while ‘enthusiasm/commitment’, ‘financial prospects’, ‘experiences of the job so far’ and ‘a particular teacher/department’ were important. Conclusions Cardiology grew as a first preference one year after graduation to 2005 but is now falling. It consistently attracts a higher percentage of men than women doctors. The correspondence between early

  12. College students' choices of study strategies.

    PubMed

    Carrier, L Mark

    2003-02-01

    For a closed-book examination, study strategies that could promote deep processing correlated positively with scores but were not likely to be used by the 46 students. For an open-book, open-note examination, strategies that might have led to confusion regarding the locations of material in the textbook and lecture notes correlated negatively with scores, although they were not likely to be used by the 58 students.

  13. Improving Chinese primary care providers' recruitment and retention: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Song, Kuimeng; Scott, Anthony; Sivey, Peter; Meng, Qingyue

    2015-02-01

    Local primary care facilities in China struggle to recruit and retain doctors and nurses. Implementing policies to address this issue requires detailed knowledge of the preferences of primary care workers. The aim of this study is to find out which job attributes affect Chinese primary care providers' choice of job and whether there are any differences in these job preferences between doctors and nurses. A discrete choice experiment was used to analyse the job preferences of 517 primary care providers, including 282 doctors and 235 nurses. Chinese primary care providers in Community Health Organizations (CHOs) considered monetary factors and non-monetary factors when choosing a job. Doctors' and nurses' preferences over job attributes were similar. Though income was important, Chinese primary care providers had strongest preferences for sufficient welfare benefits, sufficient essential equipment and respect from the community. Younger primary care providers were more likely to value training and career development opportunities. In order to retain skilled primary care providers to work in CHOs, policymakers in China need to improve primary care providers' income, benefits and working conditions to fulfil their basic needs. Policymakers also need to invest in CHOs' infrastructure and strengthen training programmes for primary care providers in order to raise the community's confidence in the services provided by CHOs. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  14. Accounting for Attribute-Level Non-Attendance in a Health Choice Experiment: Does it Matter?

    PubMed

    Erdem, Seda; Campbell, Danny; Hole, Arne Risa

    2015-07-01

    An extensive literature has established that it is common for respondents to ignore attributes of the alternatives within choice experiments. In most of the studies on attribute non-attendance, it is assumed that respondents consciously (or unconsciously) ignore one or more attributes of the alternatives, regardless of their levels. In this paper, we present a new line of enquiry and approach for modelling non-attendance in the context of investigating preferences for health service innovations. This approach recognises that non-attendance may not just be associated with attributes but may also apply to the attribute's levels. Our results show that respondents process each level of an attribute differently: while attending to the attribute, they ignore a subset of the attribute's levels. In such cases, the usual approach of assuming that respondents either attend to the attribute or not, irrespective of its levels, is erroneous and could lead to misguided policy recommendations. Our results indicate that allowing for attribute-level non-attendance leads to substantial improvements in the model fit and has an impact on estimated marginal willingness to pay and choice predictions.

  15. A likelihood-based biostatistical model for analyzing consumer movement in simultaneous choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Zeilinger, Adam R; Olson, Dawn M; Andow, David A

    2014-08-01

    Consumer feeding preference among resource choices has critical implications for basic ecological and evolutionary processes, and can be highly relevant to applied problems such as ecological risk assessment and invasion biology. Within consumer choice experiments, also known as feeding preference or cafeteria experiments, measures of relative consumption and measures of consumer movement can provide distinct and complementary insights into the strength, causes, and consequences of preference. Despite the distinct value of inferring preference from measures of consumer movement, rigorous and biologically relevant analytical methods are lacking. We describe a simple, likelihood-based, biostatistical model for analyzing the transient dynamics of consumer movement in a paired-choice experiment. With experimental data consisting of repeated discrete measures of consumer location, the model can be used to estimate constant consumer attraction and leaving rates for two food choices, and differences in choice-specific attraction and leaving rates can be tested using model selection. The model enables calculation of transient and equilibrial probabilities of consumer-resource association, which could be incorporated into larger scale movement models. We explore the effect of experimental design on parameter estimation through stochastic simulation and describe methods to check that data meet model assumptions. Using a dataset of modest sample size, we illustrate the use of the model to draw inferences on consumer preference as well as underlying behavioral mechanisms. Finally, we include a user's guide and computer code scripts in R to facilitate use of the model by other researchers.

  16. Regret and its avoidance: a neuroimaging study of choice behavior.

    PubMed

    Coricelli, Giorgio; Critchley, Hugo D; Joffily, Mateus; O'Doherty, John P; Sirigu, Angela; Dolan, Raymond J

    2005-09-01

    Human decisions can be shaped by predictions of emotions that ensue after choosing advantageously or disadvantageously. Indeed, anticipating regret is a powerful predictor of future choices. We measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while subjects selected between two gambles wherein regret was induced by providing information about the outcome of the unchosen gamble. Increasing regret enhanced activity in the medial orbitofrontal region, the anterior cingulate cortex and the hippocampus. Notably, across the experiment, subjects became increasingly regret-aversive, a cumulative effect reflected in enhanced activity within medial orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. This pattern of activity reoccurred just before making a choice, suggesting that the same neural circuitry mediates direct experience of regret and its anticipation. These results demonstrate that medial orbitofrontal cortex modulates the gain of adaptive emotions in a manner that may provide a substrate for the influence of high-level emotions on decision making.

  17. From valuation to governance: using choice experiment to value street trees.

    PubMed

    Giergiczny, Marek; Kronenberg, Jakub

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports a choice experiment used to estimate the value of street trees in the city center of Lodz, Poland, and the broader context of how valuation results helped to improve governance of urban ecosystem services in this city. Based on a simplified inventory of trees, we prepared a set of hypothetical programs which put varying emphasis on the different ways to increase the numbers of trees, along with different levels of a hypothetical tax that would have to be paid by respondents to implement a given program. Our study indicated that the 351 surveyed Lodz residents were willing to pay the highest price for greening those streets where currently there are few or no trees and confirmed the general importance of planting trees. The results provided an argument in the debate on the new development strategy for the city and helped to promote the concept of ecosystem services.

  18. Assessing the impact of a Christmas advertisement campaign on Catalan wine preference using Choice Experiments.

    PubMed

    Kallas, Zein; Escobar, Cristina; Gil, José Maria

    2012-02-01

    Our paper seeks to assess the impact of information and advertisement on consumers' preference for wines in special occasions (Christmas) in Catalonia (Spain). We apply the Choice Experiments method to study the relative importance of attributes that describe consumers' decision to purchase wine by using the Heteroskedastic Extreme Value (HEV) model. Data were obtained from two questionnaires applied to a pre and post spot samples formed by 299 and 400 individuals, respectively. Results suggest that the proposed spot does not affect the ranking of the preferred attributes, nevertheless this preference is heterogeneous. After advertising preferences scores have revealed significant differences. The relative importance of the "Catalan" wine has increased compared to the "Spanish" wine. The most preferred product is a Catalan wine made from the "Cabernet Sauvignon" variety. Wines that have been previously tasted by the consumer seem to be preferred over recommended or prestigious wines. However, advertising increases the relative importance of prestigious wines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimating health state utility values from discrete choice experiments--a QALY space model approach.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yuanyuan; Norman, Richard; Viney, Rosalie

    2014-09-01

    Using discrete choice experiments (DCEs) to estimate health state utility values has become an important alternative to the conventional methods of Time Trade-Off and Standard Gamble. Studies using DCEs have typically used the conditional logit to estimate the underlying utility function. The conditional logit is known for several limitations. In this paper, we propose two types of models based on the mixed logit: one using preference space and the other using quality-adjusted life year (QALY) space, a concept adapted from the willingness-to-pay literature. These methods are applied to a dataset collected using the EQ-5D. The results showcase the advantages of using QALY space and demonstrate that the preferred QALY space model provides lower estimates of the utility values than the conditional logit, with the divergence increasing with worsening health states. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Perceptibility and the "Choice Experience": User Sensory Perceptions and Experiences Inform Vaginal Prevention Product Design.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Kate Morrow; Dunsiger, Shira; Vargas, Sara E; Fava, Joseph L; Shaw, Julia G; Rosen, Rochelle K; Kiser, Patrick F; Kojic, E Milu; Friend, David R; Katz, David F

    The development of pericoital (on demand) vaginal HIV prevention technologies remains a global health priority. Clinical trials to date have been challenged by nonadherence, leading to an inability to demonstrate product efficacy. The work here provides new methodology and results to begin to address this limitation. We created validated scales that allow users to characterize sensory perceptions and experiences when using vaginal gel formulations. In this study, we sought to understand the user sensory perceptions and experiences (USPEs) that characterize the preferred product experience for each participant. Two hundred four women evaluated four semisolid vaginal formulations using the USPE scales at four randomly ordered formulation evaluation visits. Women were asked to select their preferred formulation experience for HIV prevention among the four formulations evaluated. The scale scores on the Sex-associated USPE scales (e.g., Initial Penetration and Leakage) for each participant's selected formulation were used in a latent class model analysis. Four classes of preferred formulation experiences were identified. Sociodemographic and sexual history variables did not predict class membership; however, four specific scales were significantly related to class: Initial Penetration, Perceived Wetness, Messiness, and Leakage. The range of preferred user experiences represented by the scale scores creates a potential target range for product development, such that products that elicit scale scores that fall within the preferred range may be more acceptable, or tolerable, to the population under study. It is recommended that similar analyses should be conducted with other semisolid vaginal formulations, and in other cultures, to determine product property and development targets.

  1. Patients’ preferences for osteoporosis drug treatment: a discrete-choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The patient’s perspective is becoming increasingly important in clinical and policy decisions. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the preferences of patients with, or at risk of, osteoporosis for medication attributes, and to establish how patients trade between these attributes. Methods A discrete choice experiment survey was designed and patients were asked to choose between two hypothetical unlabelled drug treatments (and an opt-out option) that vary in five attributes: efficacy in reducing the risk of fracture, type of potential common side-effects, mode and frequency of administration and out-of-pocket costs. An efficient experimental design was used to construct the treatment option choice sets and a mixed logit panel data model was used to estimate patients’ preferences and trade-offs between attributes. Results A total of 257 patients with, or at risk of, osteoporosis completed the experiment. As expected, patients preferred treatment with higher effectiveness and lower cost. They also preferred either an oral monthly tablet or 6-month subcutaneous injection above weekly oral tablets, 3-month subcutaneous, 3-month intravenous or yearly intravenous injections. Patients disliked being at risk of gastro-intestinal disorders more than being at risk of skin reactions and flu-like symptoms. There was significant variation in preferences across the sample for all attributes except subcutaneous injection. Conclusions This study revealed that osteoporotic patients preferred 6-month subcutaneous injection and oral monthly tablet, and disliked gastro-intestinal disorders. Moreover, patients were willing to pay a personal contribution or to trade treatment efficacy for better levels of other attributes. Preferences for treatment attributes varied across patients and this highlights the importance of clinical decision-making taking individual preferences into account to improve osteoporosis care. PMID:24479410

  2. Societal preferences for rheumatoid arthritis treatments: evidence from a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Mark; Marra, Carlo; Shojania, Kam; Bansback, Nick

    2015-10-01

    There is a concern that cost-effectiveness analysis using quality-adjusted life years does not capture all valuable benefits of treatments. The objective of this study was to determine the value society places on aspects of RA treatment to inform policymaking. A discrete choice experiment was administered to a representative sample of the Canadian general population. The discrete choice experiment, developed using focus groups, had seven attributes (route and frequency of administration, chance of benefit, chance of serious and minor side effects, confidence in evidence and life expectancy). A conditional logit regression model was used to estimate the significance and relative importance of attributes in influencing preferences on the quality-adjusted life years scale. Responses from 733 respondents who provided rational responses were analysed. Six attribute levels within four attributes significantly influenced preferences for treatments: a willingness to trade a year of life expectancy over a 10-year period to increase the probability of benefiting from treatment, or two-thirds of a year to reduce minor or serious side effects to the lowest level or improve the confidence in benefit/side-effect estimates. There was also some evidence of a preference for oral drug delivery, though a subgroup analysis suggested this preference was restricted to injection-naive respondents. Our results suggest society values the degree of confidence in the estimates of risks and benefits of RA treatments and the route of administration, as well as benefits and side effects. This study provides important evidence to policymakers determining the cost-effectiveness of treatments in arthritis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Eliciting community preferences for complementary micro health insurance: a discrete choice experiment in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Abiiro, Gilbert Abotisem; Torbica, Aleksandra; Kwalamasa, Kassim; De Allegri, Manuela

    2014-11-01

    There is a limited understanding of preferences for micro health insurance (MHI) as a strategy for moving towards universal health coverage. Using a discrete choice experiment (DCE), we explored community preferences for the attributes and attribute-levels of a prospective MHI scheme, aimed at filling health coverage gaps in Malawi. Through a qualitative study informed by a literature review, we identified six MHI attributes (and attribute-levels): unit of enrollment, management structure, health service benefit package, copayment levels, transportation coverage, and monthly premium per person. Qualitative data was collected from 12 focus group discussions and 8 interviews in August-September, 2012. We constructed a D-efficient design of eighteen choice-sets, each comprising two MHI choice alternatives and an opt-out. Using pictorial images, trained interviewers administered the DCE in March-May, 2013, to 814 household heads and/or their spouse(s) in two rural districts. We estimated preferences for attribute-levels and relative importance of attributes using conditional and nested logit models. The results showed that all attribute-levels except management by external NGO significantly influenced respondents' choice behavior (P<0.05). These included: enrollment as core nuclear family (odds ratio (OR)=1.1574), extended family (OR=1.1132), compared to individual; management by community committee (OR=0.9494) compared to local micro finance institution; comprehensive health service package (OR=1.4621), medium service package (OR=1.2761), compared to basic service package; no copayment (OR=1.1347), 25% copayment (OR=1.1090), compared to 50% copayment; coverage of all transport (OR=1.5841), referral and emergency transport (OR=1.2610), compared to no transport; and premium (OR=0.9994). The relative importance of attributes is ordered as: transport, health services benefits, enrollment unit, premium, copayment, and management. To maximize consumer utility and encourage

  4. Factors That Inform Students' Choice of Study and Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theresa, Lawer Dede

    2015-01-01

    The research was conducted to find out factors that informed second cycle students' choices of programmes of study and career in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana. The descriptive survey was used for the study, and both questionnaire and interview guide were used in gathering the data. The questionnaire was administered on the students while the…

  5. The Influence of First-Year Chemistry Students' Learning Experiences on Their Educational Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgety, Jacinta; Coll, Richard K.

    2006-01-01

    The research reported here examined factors that influence student tertiary level chemistry enrolment choices. Students enrolled in a first-year chemistry class were surveyed, using the Chemistry Attitudes and Experiences Questionnaire (CAEQ), three times throughout their academic year: at the start of the year (n=126), the end of the first…

  6. Not Read, but Nevertheless Solved? Three Experiments on PIRLS Multiple Choice Reading Comprehension Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Kimmel, Rumena; Lowenkamp, Lena; Steingraber, Antje; Rost, Detlef H.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple-choice (MC) reading comprehension test items comprise three components: text passage, questions about the text, and MC answers. The construct validity of this format has been repeatedly criticized. In three between-subjects experiments, fourth graders (N[subscript 1] = 230, N[subscript 2] = 340, N[subscript 3] = 194) worked on three…

  7. Modelling the Preferences of Students for Alternative Assignment Designs Using the Discrete Choice Experiment Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennelly, Brendan; Flannery, Darragh; Considine, John; Doherty, Edel; Hynes, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines how a discrete choice experiment (DCE) can be used to learn more about how students are willing to trade off various features of assignments such as the nature and timing of feedback and the method used to submit assignments. A DCE identifies plausible levels of the key attributes of a good or service and then presents the…

  8. Modelling the Preferences of Students for Alternative Assignment Designs Using the Discrete Choice Experiment Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennelly, Brendan; Flannery, Darragh; Considine, John; Doherty, Edel; Hynes, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines how a discrete choice experiment (DCE) can be used to learn more about how students are willing to trade off various features of assignments such as the nature and timing of feedback and the method used to submit assignments. A DCE identifies plausible levels of the key attributes of a good or service and then presents the…

  9. The effect of personal experience on choice-based preferences for wildfire protection programs

    Treesearch

    Tom Holmes; Armando Gonzalez-Caban; John Loomis; Jose Sanchez

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate homeowner preferences and willingness to pay for wildfire protection programs using a choice experiment with three attributes: risk, loss and cost. Preference heterogeneity among survey respondents was examined using three econometric models and risk preferences were evaluated by comparing willingness to pay for wildfire protection...

  10. Does personal experience affect choice-based preferences for wildfire protection programs?

    Treesearch

    Armando González-Cabán; Thomas P. Holmes; John B. Loomis; José J. Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate homeowner preferences and willingness to pay for wildfire protection programs using a choice experiment with three attributes: risk, loss, and cost. A phone-mail-phone survey was used to collect data from homeowners predominantly living in medium and high wildfire risk communities in Florida. We tested three hypotheses: (1) homeowner...

  11. Prioritising patients for bariatric surgery: building public preferences from a discrete choice experiment into public policy.

    PubMed

    Whitty, Jennifer A; Ratcliffe, Julie; Kendall, Elizabeth; Burton, Paul; Wilson, Andrew; Littlejohns, Peter; Harris, Paul; Krinks, Rachael; Scuffham, Paul A

    2015-10-15

    To derive priority weights for access to bariatric surgery for obese adults, from the perspective of the public. Australian public hospital system. Adults (N=1994), reflecting the age and gender distribution of Queensland and South Australia. A discrete choice experiment in which respondents indicated which of two individuals with different characteristics should be prioritised for surgery in repeated hypothetical choices. Potential surgery recipients were described by seven key characteristics or attributes: body mass index (BMI), presence of comorbid conditions, age, family history, commitment to lifestyle change, time on the surgical wait list and chance of maintaining weight loss following surgery. A multinomial logit model was used to evaluate preferences and derive priority weights (primary analysis), with a latent class model used to explore respondent characteristics that were associated with variation in preference across the sample (see online supplementary analysis). A preference was observed to prioritise individuals who demonstrated a strong commitment to maintaining a healthy lifestyle as well as individuals categorised with very severe (BMI≥50 kg/m2) or (to a lesser extent) severe (BMI≥40 kg/m2) obesity, those who already have obesity-related comorbidity, with a family history of obesity, with a greater chance of maintaining weight loss or who had spent a longer time on the wait list. Lifestyle commitment was considered to be more than twice as important as any other criterion. There was little tendency to prioritise according to the age of the recipient. Respondent preferences were dependent on their BMI, previous experience with weight management surgery, current health state and education level. This study extends our understanding of the publics' preferences for priority setting to the context of bariatric surgery, and derives priority weights that could be used to assist bodies responsible for commissioning bariatric services. Published

  12. Perceived Risks Contra Benefits of Using Biosimilar Drugs in Ulcerative Colitis: Discrete Choice Experiment among Gastroenterologists.

    PubMed

    Baji, Petra; Gulácsi, László; Golovics, Petra A; Lovász, Barbara D; Péntek, Márta; Brodszky, Valentin; Rencz, Fanni; Lakatos, Péter L

    2016-09-01

    In middle-income countries, access to biological therapy is limited in ulcerative colitis in terms of the number of patients and the length of therapy. Because of their cost advantages, biosimilars have the potential to improve access to therapy, but physicians have concerns toward their use because of the lack of evidence from randomized clinical trials. To explore the preferences of gastroenterologists for biosimilar drugs in ulcerative colitis as well as to compare our results with results of previous studies on gastroenterologists' preferences toward biosimilars. A discrete choice experiment was carried out involving 51 Hungarian gastroenterologists treating patients with inflammatory bowel disease in May 2014 with the following attributes: type of treatment (biosimilar/originator), severity of disease, availability of continuous medicine supply, and the stopping rule (whether the treatment is covered after 12 months). A conditional logit model was used to estimate the probabilities of choosing a given profile. According to the results, the stopping rule was the most important attribute. The type of treatment mattered only for patients already on biologicals. The probabilities of choosing the biosimilar option with all the benefits offered in the discrete choice experiment over the originator option under the present reimbursement conditions are 85% for new patients and 63% for patients already treated. Most gastroenterologists have concerns about using biosimilars. They, however, are willing to consider the use of biosimilars if they could reallocate the potential savings to provide their patients better access to biological treatment. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating midwife-led antenatal care: choice, experience, effectiveness, and preparation for pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michelle M; Sheehy, Lucille; Kington, Mary Maureen; Walsh, Maura C; Brosnan, Mary C; Murphy, Martina; Naughton, Corina; Drennan, Jonathan; Barry, Theresa

    2015-04-01

    to evaluate midwife-led care (MLC) antenatal care compared with antenatal care provided in traditional obstetric-led hospital antenatal clinics (usual care). a mixed methods approach involving a chart audit, postal survey, focus group and in-depth interviews. data were collected at a large maternity hospital and satellite clinics in Dublin from women attending for antenatal care between June 2011 and May 2012. 300 women with low-risk pregnancy who attended midwife-led antenatal care or usual clinics during the study period were randomly selected to participate. data were collected from 292 women׳s charts and from 186 survey participants (63% response rate). Nine women participated in in-depth interviews and a focus group. MLC was as effective as usual care in relation to number of antenatal visits and ultrasound scans, referral to other clinicians, women׳s health in pregnancy, gestation at childbirth, and birth weight. Women attending MLC booked significantly earlier, fewer women attending MLC were admitted to hospital antenatally and more women breast fed their infant. Women attending MLC reported better choice and that shorter waiting times and having more time for discussion were important reasons for choosing MLC. Women attending MLC reported a better experience overall, and recorded better outcomes in relation to how they were treated, along with easier access to antenatal care and shorter waiting times to see a midwife. Although women attending MLC clinics reported higher satisfaction with the information that they received, they also identified that antenatal education could be improved in relation to labour, breast-feeding, depression and emotional well-being, and caring for the infant. midwife-led antenatal care was as effective as usual care for women with low-risk pregnancy and better in relation to choice, breast feeding and women׳s experience of care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Making pragmatic choices: women’s experiences of delivery care in Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2003, the Ethiopian Ministry of Health launched the Health Extension Programme (HEP), which was intended to increase access to reproductive health care. Despite enormous effort, utilization of maternal health services remains limited, and the reasons for the low utilization of the services offered through the HEP previously have not been explored in depth. This study explores women’s experiences and perceptions regarding delivery care in Tigray, a northern region of Ethiopia, and enables us to make suggestions for better implementation of maternal health care services in this setting. Methods We used six focus group discussions with 51 women to explore perceptions and experiences regarding delivery care. The data were analysed by means of grounded theory. Results One core category emerged, ‘making pragmatic choices’, which connected the categories ‘aiming for safer deliveries’, ‘embedded in tradition’, and ‘medical knowledge under constrained circumstances’. In this setting, women – aiming for safer deliveries – made choices pragmatically between the two available models of childbirth. On the one hand, choice of home delivery, represented by the category ‘embedded in tradition’, was related to their faith, the ascendancy of elderly women, the advantages of staying at home and the custom of traditional birth attendants (TBAs). On the other, institutional delivery, represented by the category ‘medical knowledge under constrained circumstances’, and linked to how women appreciated medical resources and the support of health extension workers (HEWs) but were uncertain about the quality of care, emphasized the barriers to transportation. In Tigray women made choices pragmatically and seemed to not feel any conflict between the two available models, being supported by traditional birth attendants, HEWs and husbands in their decision-making. Representatives of the two models were not as open to collaboration as the women

  15. Organizational Culture, Performance and Career Choices of Ph.D.s: A Case Study of Dutch Medical Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Weijden, Inge; de Gilder, Dick; Groenewegen, Peter; Geerling, Maaike

    2008-01-01

    Increasing demands for accountability and applicability raise the question of how organizational factors affect researchers' performance and career choices. In a study of Dutch medical Ph.D. student's experiences, organizational culture and climate and attitudes towards research quality are related to performance and career choices. Ph.D.s who…

  16. Organizational Culture, Performance and Career Choices of Ph.D.s: A Case Study of Dutch Medical Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Weijden, Inge; de Gilder, Dick; Groenewegen, Peter; Geerling, Maaike

    2008-01-01

    Increasing demands for accountability and applicability raise the question of how organizational factors affect researchers' performance and career choices. In a study of Dutch medical Ph.D. student's experiences, organizational culture and climate and attitudes towards research quality are related to performance and career choices. Ph.D.s who…

  17. Ordering effect and price sensitivity in discrete choice experiments: need we worry?

    PubMed

    Kjaer, Trine; Bech, Mickael; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Hart-Hansen, Kristian

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the impact that attribute ordering has on the relative importance of the price attribute. A discrete choice experiment was performed in order to elicit psoriasis patients' preferences for treatment. We tested for ordering effect with respect to the price attribute, and disclosed noticeable higher price sensitivity when the price attribute was placed at the end of the program description. Our results indicate that preferences are context dependent and that heuristics may be used in the choice process. Our result does not, however, suggest that ordering effect is a symptom of lexicographic ordering. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Implementing Academic Choice: A Self-Study in Evolving Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katrina E.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research is to examine how implementing a new pedagogical structure, Academic Choice, informs my understanding of my students as learners and individuals. Using a self-study methodology over the course of eight working sessions in my Kindergarten classroom, I collected multiple forms of qualitative data, including student work…

  19. Factors Influencing Student Choice of College and Course of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snelling, W. Rodman; Boruch, Robert

    1970-01-01

    Relates results of a longitudinal study (1958-67) of 16,395 science majors, revealing what grade level (prior to 9th grade through college-6th year) science was chosen as their major interest, when final major was selected, and when highest degree aspiration was decided. Presents discussion of factors influencing students' choice of liberal arts…

  20. Implementing Academic Choice: A Self-Study in Evolving Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katrina E.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research is to examine how implementing a new pedagogical structure, Academic Choice, informs my understanding of my students as learners and individuals. Using a self-study methodology over the course of eight working sessions in my Kindergarten classroom, I collected multiple forms of qualitative data, including student work…

  1. Entering Student Affairs: A Comparative Study of Graduate School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Norma; Eckman, Ellen; Strayhorn, Terrell

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the college choice process of graduate students in College Student Personnel programs at a public university and a private religiously affiliated university. Despite differences in size, mission, and location of the two institutions studied, the research findings show that respondent populations were similar demographically…

  2. Inter-reader variability in alternate forced choice studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, W.; Ogden, K. M.; Samei, E.; Scalzetti, E. M.; Lavallee, R. L.; Roskopf, M. L.

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we investigated differences in detection performance for twelve observers who each generated a CT contrast detail curve. An anthropomorphic newborn phantom's abdomen was imaged using a GE Light Speed CT scanner (4-slice). Alternate Forced Choice (AFC) experiments were performed with lesions sizes ranging from 2.5 to 12.5 mm to determine the intensity needed to achieve 92% correct (I 92%). Following training, twelve readers consisting of (2 technologists, 4 college students, 4 medical students, and 2 radiology residents) generated a single contrast detail curve. Eight readers produced approximately linear contrast detail curves while the remaining four readers required a second order polynomial fit because of reduced performance when detecting the largest (i.e., 12.5 mm) lesion. For the three smallest lesions, the coefficient of variation between the twelve readers was ~12%, which increases with increasing lesion size to ~23% for 12.5 mm lesion size. The ratio of the maximum I 92% to minimum I 92% values was ~1.6 for the smallest lesions, which increased to a factor of ~2.1 for the 12.5 mm lesion. Our results show that minimizing inter-reader variability in our AFC experiments could be achieved by eliminating the largest lesion that cause detection problems in one third of observers. The combined experimental data showed that the slope of the contrast detail curve was -0.42, lower than the value of -1.0 predicted by the Rose model, suggesting that the noise texture in CT associated with both quantum mottle and anatomic structure is an important factor affecting detection of these lesions.

  3. Food Choice by People with Intellectual Disabilities at Day Centres: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Luke; Reid, Marie; Hammersley, Richard; Blackburn, Chrissie; Glover, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities experience a range of health inequalities. It is important to investigate possible contributory factors that may lead to these inequalities. This qualitative study identified some difficulties for healthy eating in day centres. (1) Service users and their family carers were aware of healthy food choices but…

  4. Food Choice by People with Intellectual Disabilities at Day Centres: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Luke; Reid, Marie; Hammersley, Richard; Blackburn, Chrissie; Glover, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities experience a range of health inequalities. It is important to investigate possible contributory factors that may lead to these inequalities. This qualitative study identified some difficulties for healthy eating in day centres. (1) Service users and their family carers were aware of healthy food choices but…

  5. Concurrent-Chains Schedules as a Method to Study Choice between Alcohol-Associated Conditioned Reinforcers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    An extensive body of research using concurrent-chains schedules of reinforcement has shown that choice for one of two differentially valued food-associated stimuli is dependent upon the overall temporal context in which those stimuli are embedded. The present experiments examined whether the concurrent chains procedure was useful for the study of…

  6. Concurrent-Chains Schedules as a Method to Study Choice between Alcohol-Associated Conditioned Reinforcers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    An extensive body of research using concurrent-chains schedules of reinforcement has shown that choice for one of two differentially valued food-associated stimuli is dependent upon the overall temporal context in which those stimuli are embedded. The present experiments examined whether the concurrent chains procedure was useful for the study of…

  7. The User Choice Experience of Australian Firms: A Further Investigation. Project 2000-10: User Choice. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrier, Fran; Smith, Chris Selby

    This document focuses on investigations of three main issues of "User Choice," which has been applied to New Apprenticeships since 1998. The issues are as follows: (1) why some firms do not access User Choice when arranging training for their trainees and apprentices; (2) whether the size of the firm has a significant impact on User…

  8. Corpuscular event-by-event simulation of quantum optics experiments: application to a quantum-controlled delayed-choice experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Raedt, Hans; Delina, M.; Jin, Fengping; Michielsen, Kristel

    2012-11-01

    A corpuscular simulation model of optical phenomena that does not require knowledge of the solution of a wave equation of the whole system and reproduces the results of Maxwell's theory by generating detection events one by one is discussed. The event-based corpuscular model gives a unified description of multiple-beam fringes of a plane parallel plate and a single-photon Mach-Zehnder interferometer, Wheeler's delayed choice, photon tunneling, quantum eraser, two-beam interference, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm and Hanbury Brown-Twiss experiments. The approach is illustrated by applying it to a recent proposal for a quantum-controlled delayed choice experiment, demonstrating that also this thought experiment can be understood in terms of particle processes only.

  9. Reduce mortality risk above all else: a discrete-choice experiment in acute coronary syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Bethge, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death in Germany and other industrialized countries. However, until now, little has been known about how people with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) value aspects of their medical treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate patients' preferences regarding different antiplatelet medication options following an ACS. After identification of patient-relevant treatment attributes (a literature review and qualitative interviews), a discrete-choice experiment (DCE) including five patient-relevant attributes was conducted. The DCE used a forced-choice approach in which no "opt out" was present, as no treatment is not an option after ACS. The attribute and level combinations were created using a fractional-factorial NGene design with priors. Data analysis was performed using a random-effects logit model. An additional generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM) analysis was performed to evaluate subgroup differences. ACS patients (N = 683) participated in computer-assisted personal interviews. Preference analysis showed a clear dominance of the attribute "mortality risk" (coefficient: 0.803). Ranked second was "side effect: dyspnea" (coefficient: 0.550) followed by "risk of a new myocardial infarction" (coefficient: 0.464) and "side effect: bleeding" (coefficient: 0.400). "Frequency of intake" was less important (coefficient: 0.025). Within the 3-class GLLAMM, the variables "marital status" (p = 0.008), "highest level of education" (p = 0.003), and "body-mass index" (according to World Health Organization cluster; p = 0.014) showed a significant impact on the estimated class probabilities. Our study found "mortality risk" to be of the highest value for patients. Patient-centered care and decision making requires consideration of patient preferences; moreover, the information on preferences can be used to develop effective therapies after an ACS. The data generated will enable healthcare decision makers and

  10. Rural practice preferences among medical students in Ghana: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jennifer C; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Asabir, Kwesi; Kotha, S Rani; Kwansah, Janet; Nakua, Emmanuel; Snow, Rachel C; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine how specific job attributes influenced fourth year medical students’ stated preference for hypothetical rural job postings in Ghana. Methods Based on discussions with medical student focus groups and physicians in practice and in the Ministry of Health, we created a discrete choice experiment (DCE) that assessed how students’ stated preference for certain rural postings was influenced by various job attributes: a higher salary, free superior housing, an educational allowance for children, improved equipment, supportive management, shorter contracts before study leave and a car. We conducted the DCE among all fourth year medical students in Ghana using a brief structured questionnaire and used mixed logit models to estimate the utility of each job attribute. Findings Complete data for DCE analysis were available for 302 of 310 (97%) students. All attribute parameter estimates differed significantly from zero and had the expected signs. In the main effects mixed logit model, improved equipment and supportive management were most strongly associated with job preference (β = 1.42; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.17 to 1.66, and β = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.96 to 1.39, respectively), although shorter contracts and salary bonuses were also associated. Discontinuing the provision of basic housing had a large negative influence (β = −1.59; 95% CI: −1.88 to −1.31). In models including gender interaction terms, women’s preferences were more influenced by supportive management and men’s preferences by superior housing. Conclusion Better working conditions were strongly associated with the stated choice of hypothetical rural postings among fourth year Ghanaian medical students. Studies are needed to find out whether job attributes determine the actual uptake of rural jobs by graduating physicians. PMID:20458371

  11. Effect of Medication Label Units of Measure on Parent Choice of Dosing Tool: A Randomized Experiment.

    PubMed

    Yin, H Shonna; Parker, Ruth M; Sanders, Lee M; Dreyer, Benard P; Mendelsohn, Alan; Bailey, Stacy; Patel, Deesha A; Jimenez, Jessica J; Kim, Kwang-Youn A; Jacobson, Kara; Hedlund, Laurie; Landa, Rosa; Maness, Leslie; Tailor Raythatha, Purvi; McFadden, Terri; Wolf, Michael S

    Some experts recommend eliminating "teaspoon" and "tablespoon" terms from pediatric medication dosing instructions, because these terms could inadvertently encourage use of nonstandard tools (ie, kitchen spoons), which are associated with dosing errors. We examined whether use of "teaspoon" or "tsp" on prescription labels affects parents' choice of dosing tools, and the role of health literacy and language. Analysis of data collected as part of a controlled experiment (SAFE Rx for Kids [Safe Administration For Every Prescription for Kids] study), which randomized English- and Spanish-speaking parents (n = 2110) of children 8 years of age and younger to 1 of 5 groups, which varied in unit of measurement pairings on medication labels and dosing tools. Outcome assessed was parent self-reported choice of dosing tool. Parent health literacy was measured using the Newest Vital Sign. Seventy-seven percent had limited health literacy (36.0% low, 41.0% marginal); 35.0% completed assessments in Spanish. Overall, 27.7% who viewed labels containing either "tsp" or "teaspoon" units (alone or with "mL") chose nonstandard dosing tools (ie, kitchen teaspoon, kitchen tablespoon), compared with 8.3% who viewed "mL"-only labels (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.4 [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.3-5.8]). Odds varied based on whether "teaspoon" was spelled out or abbreviated ("teaspoon"-alone: AOR = 5.3 [95% CI, 3.8-7.3]); "teaspoon" with mL: AOR = 4.7 [95% CI, 3.3-6.5]; "tsp" with mL: AOR = 3.3 [95% CI, 2.4-4.7]; P < .001). Similar findings were noted across health literacy and language groups. Use of teaspoon units ("teaspoon" or "tsp") on prescription labels is associated with increased likelihood of parent choice of nonstandard dosing tools. Future studies might be helpful to examine the real-world effect of eliminating teaspoon units from medication labels, and identify additional strategies to promote the safe use of pediatric liquid medications. Copyright © 2016

  12. Estimating Economic Value of Stream Restoration for Urban Watershed Using Choice Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, J.; Lee, K. S.; Yoo, J.; Kong, K.; Seoul National University; Chungbuk National University

    2010-12-01

    Since the Yangjaecheon and the Cheonggyecheon project by Seoul city is recognized as starting point of stream restoration project in Korea, many streams having a straight corridor and covered by concrete in an urban watershed have been projected to restore its natural appearance. In some of local autonomous entities the objective of the stream restoration project only deals with improvements in a function of environment which is recreation and amenity for a citizen. Therefore, this study uses the choice experiments based on a citizen’s preference to estimate economic benefits from stream restoration in an urban watershed. The study area is the downstream section (4.5 km from outlet) of the Mokgamcheon, which had been implementing the restoration project. To apply the choice experiments, 5 attributes are chosen as status-quo of the study area. In an attribute of flood control, Potential Flood Damage (PFD) is estimated. A result of comparison between a maintenance flow and a flow duration curve using PCSWMM model is used to achieve an attribute of water utilization. In an attribute of environment, Assessment of Stream Naturalness considering Physical, Biological, Chemical factors (ASNPBC) is applied to get physical stream appearance, and biological, chemical water quality and Use Index of Stream space for Citizen (UISC) is used to survey how facilities for rest, exercise, amenity and view are distributed in the stream space. The results of an assessment for all attributes are estimated to be the 3rd grade. All the attributes introduced above have 4 level grading systems. The attribute described willingness to pay has 3 levels estimated through a survey from a specialist group. An orthogonal plan is used to avoid collinearity between levels of attributes, and a preliminary survey, which is questioned to students and citizens living in the study area is built to modify survey errors and obtain reasonable results. The population of the main survey is citizens living

  13. Not choosing nursing: work experience and career choice of high academic achieving school leavers.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Gavin R; McNally, James G

    2010-01-01

    Work experience has been a feature of the secondary school curriculum in the United Kingdom for a number of years. Usually requested by the pupil, it aims to provide opportunities for school pupils to enhance their knowledge and understanding of an occupation. The main benefits are claimed to be that it can help pupils develop an insight into the skills and attitudes required for an occupation and an awareness of career opportunities. However the quality and choice of placements are considered to be of great importance in this process and in influencing career choice [Department for Education and Skills (DfES), 2002a. Work Experience: A Guide for Employers. Department for Education and Skills, London]. As university departments of nursing experience a decline in the number of school pupils entering student nurse education programmes, and with the competition for school leavers becoming even greater, it is important to consider whether school pupils have access to appropriate work placements in nursing and what influence their experience has on pursuing nursing as a career choice. This paper is based on interview data from 20 high academic achieving fifth and sixth year school pupils in Scotland, paradigmatic cases from a larger survey sample (n=1062), who had considered nursing as a possible career choice within their career preference cluster, but then later disregarded nursing and decided to pursue medicine or another health care profession. This was partly reported by Neilson and Lauder [Neilson, G.R., Lauder, W., 2008. What do high academic achieving school pupils really think about a career in nursing: analysis of the narrative from paradigmatic case interviews. Nurse Education Today 28(6), 680-690] which examined what high academic achieving school pupils really thought about a career in nursing. However, the data was particularly striking in revealing the poor quality of nursing work experience for the pupils, and also their proposal that there was a need

  14. Pro-sustainability choices and child deaths averted: from project experience to investment strategy.

    PubMed

    Sarriot, Eric G; Swedberg, Eric A; Ricca, James G

    2011-05-01

    The pursuit of the Millennium Development Goals and advancing the 'global health agenda' demand the achievement of health impact at scale through efficient investments. We have previously offered that sustainability-a necessary condition for successful expansion of programmes-can be addressed in practical terms. Based on benchmarks from actual child survival projects, we assess the expected impact of translating pro-sustainability choices into investment strategies. We review the experience of Save the Children US in Guinea in terms of investment, approach to sustainability and impact. It offers three benchmarks for impact: Entry project (21 lives saved of children under age five per US$100 000), Expansion project (37 LS/US$100k), and Continuation project (100 LS/US$100k). Extrapolating this experience, we model the impact of a traditional investment scenario against a pro-sustainability scenario and compare the deaths averted per dollar spent over five project cycles. The impact per dollar spent on a pro-sustainability strategy is 3.4 times that of a traditional one over the long run (range from 2.2 to 5.7 times in a sensitivity analysis). This large efficiency differential between two investment approaches offers a testable hypothesis for large-scale/long-term studies. The 'bang for the buck' of health programmes could be greatly increased by following a pro-sustainability investment strategy.

  15. A Robotics-Based Approach to Modeling of Choice Reaching Experiments on Visual Attention

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Soeren; Heinke, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a robotics-based model for choice reaching experiments on visual attention. In these experiments participants were asked to make rapid reach movements toward a target in an odd-color search task, i.e., reaching for a green square among red squares and vice versa (e.g., Song and Nakayama, 2008). Interestingly these studies found that in a high number of trials movements were initially directed toward a distractor and only later were adjusted toward the target. These “curved” trajectories occurred particularly frequently when the target in the directly preceding trial had a different color (priming effect). Our model is embedded in a closed-loop control of a LEGO robot arm aiming to mimic these reach movements. The model is based on our earlier work which suggests that target selection in visual search is implemented through parallel interactions between competitive and cooperative processes in the brain (Heinke and Humphreys, 2003; Heinke and Backhaus, 2011). To link this model with the control of the robot arm we implemented a topological representation of movement parameters following the dynamic field theory (Erlhagen and Schoener, 2002). The robot arm is able to mimic the results of the odd-color search task including the priming effect and also generates human-like trajectories with a bell-shaped velocity profile. Theoretical implications and predictions are discussed in the paper. PMID:22529827

  16. Patients’ experiences of the choice of GP practice pilot, 2012/2013: a mixed methods evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Stefanie; Erens, Bob; Wright, Michael; Mays, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate patients’ experiences of the choice of general practitioner (GP) practice pilot. Design Mixed-method, cross-sectional study. Setting Patients in the UK National Health Service (NHS) register with a general practice responsible for their primary medical care and practices set geographic boundaries. In 2012/2013, 43 volunteer general practices in four English NHS primary care trusts (PCTs) piloted a scheme allowing patients living outside practice boundaries to register as an out of area patient or be seen as a day patient. Participants Analysis of routine data for 1108 out of area registered patients and 250 day patients; postal survey of out of area registered (315/886, 36%) and day (64/188, 34%) patients over 18 years of age, with a UK mailing address; comparison with General Practice Patient Survey (GPPS); semistructured interviews with 24 pilot patients. Results Pilot patients were younger and more likely to be working than non-pilot patients at the same practices and reported generally more or at least as positive experiences than patients registered at the same practices, practices in the same PCT and nationally, despite belonging to subgroups of the population who typically report poorer than average experiences. Out of area patients who joined a pilot practice did so: after moving house and not wanting to change practice (26.2%); for convenience (32.6%); as newcomers to an area who selected a practice although they lived outside its boundary (23.6%); because of dissatisfaction with their previous practice (13.9%). Day patients attended primarily on grounds of convenience (68.8%); 51.6% of the day patient visits were for acute infections, most commonly upper respiratory infections (20.4%). Sixty-six per cent of day patients received a prescription during their visit. Conclusions Though the 12-month pilot was too brief to identify all costs and benefits, the scheme provided a positive experience for participating patients and

  17. Characterizing outcome preferences in patients with psychotic disorders: a discrete choice conjoint experiment.

    PubMed

    Zipursky, Robert B; Cunningham, Charles E; Stewart, Bailey; Rimas, Heather; Cole, Emily; Vaz, Stephanie McDermid

    2017-07-01

    The majority of individuals with schizophrenia will achieve a remission of psychotic symptoms, but few will meet criteria for recovery. Little is known about what outcomes are important to patients. We carried out a discrete choice experiment to characterize the outcome preferences of patients with psychotic disorders. Participants (N=300) were recruited from two clinics specializing in psychotic disorders. Twelve outcomes were each defined at three levels and incorporated into a computerized survey with 15 choice tasks. Utility values and importance scores were calculated for each outcome level. Latent class analysis was carried out to determine whether participants were distributed into segments with different preferences. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify predictors of segment membership. Latent class analysis revealed three segments of respondents. The first segment (48%), which we labeled "Achievement-focused," preferred to have a full-time job, to live independently, to be in a long-term relationship, and to have no psychotic symptoms. The second segment (29%), labeled "Stability-focused," preferred to not have a job, to live independently, and to have some ongoing psychotic symptoms. The third segment (23%), labeled "Health-focused," preferred to not have a job, to live in supervised housing, and to have no psychotic symptoms. Segment membership was predicted by education, socioeconomic status, psychotic symptom severity, and work status. This study has revealed that patients with psychotic disorders are distributed between segments with different outcome preferences. New approaches to improve outcomes for patients with psychotic disorders should be informed by a greater understanding of patient preferences and priorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The use of specialty training to retain doctors in Malawi: A discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Mandeville, Kate L; Ulaya, Godwin; Lagarde, Mylène; Muula, Adamson S; Dzowela, Titha; Hanson, Kara

    2016-11-01

    Emigration has contributed to a shortage of doctors in many sub-Saharan African countries. Specialty training is highly valued by doctors and a potential tool for retention. Yet not all types of training may be valued equally. In the first study to examine preferences for postgraduate training in depth, we carried out a discrete choice experiment as part of a cross-sectional survey of all Malawian doctors within seven years of graduation and not yet in specialty training. Over August 2012 to March 2013, 148 doctors took part out of 153 eligible in Malawi. Despite evidence that specialty training is highly sought after, Malawian junior doctors would not accept all types of training. Doctors preferred timely training outside of Malawi in core specialties (internal medicine, general surgery, paediatrics, obstetrics & gynaecology). Specialty preferences are particularly strong, with most junior doctors requiring nearly double their monthly salary to accept training all in Malawi and over six-fold to accept training in ophthalmology (representing a bundle of unpopular but priority specialties). In contrast, the location of work before training did not significantly influence most doctors' choices when guaranteed specialty training. Using a latent class model, we identified four subgroups of junior doctors with distinct preferences. Policy simulations showed that these preferences could be leveraged by policymakers to improve retention in exchange for guaranteed specialty training, however incentivising the uptake of training in priority specialties will only be effective in those with more flexible preferences. These results indicate that indiscriminate expansion of postgraduate training to slow emigration of doctors from sub-Saharan African countries may not be effective unless doctors' preferences are taken into account.

  19. Preferences of overweight and obese patients for weight loss programmes: a discrete-choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mühlbacher, Axel; Bethge, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality and also appears to have an adverse effect on health-related quality of life. Though advances in obesity therapy and rehabilitation can be observed, the long-lasting outcome is dissatisfying to most of the patients and, therefore, the whole health care system. Theory and methodology The study aims to identify key attributes of coordinated weight loss programmes and elicit patients’ preferences for overweight and obesity therapy in rehabilitation programmes. A self-administered survey measuring attitudes and preferences was conducted in Germany in 2009. Discrete-choice experiment scenarios were developed using a fractional factorial design and results analysed using a random effects logit model. Results N=110 patients completed the questionnaire, 51.82% of these were male, the mean age was 53.05 years and mean body mass index was 33.54 kg/m2 (SD 7.73). A total of 823 choices could be included in the final estimation. The most important aspects for the respondents’ selection were care coordination (coefficient 1.473; SE 0.185) and individual therapy (coefficient 1.446; SE 0.188). The aspect ‘infrastructure of care’ (coefficient 0.570; SE 0.175) was less relevant. All attributes led to significant coefficients. Conclusion Patients value coordination of care and individual therapy most highly. So weight reduction therapy should enable patients to receive a structured, coordinated and interpersonal therapy that is tailored to their personal needs, behaviour and circumstances. Patients are willing to forego infrastructure quality in favour of better coordination and structure in their therapy. PMID:24179457

  20. Evaluating health workers' potential resistance to new interventions: a role for discrete choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Lagarde, Mylene; Smith Paintain, Lucy; Antwi, Gifti; Jones, Caroline; Greenwood, Brian; Chandramohan, Daniel; Tagbor, Harry; Webster, Jayne

    2011-01-01

    The currently recommended approach for preventing malaria in pregnancy (MiP), intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP-IPT), has been questioned due to the spread of resistance to SP. Whilst trials are underway to test the efficacy of future alternative approaches, it is important to start exploring the feasibility of their implementation. This study uses a discrete choice experiment (DCE) method to assess the potential resistance of health workers to changing strategies for control of MiP. In Ashanti region in Ghana, 133 antenatal clinic health workers were presented with 16 choice sets of two alternative policy options, each consisting of a bundle of six attributes representing certain clinical guidelines for controlling MiP (type of approach and drug used), possible associated maternal and neo-natal outcomes, workload and financial incentives. The data were analysed using a random effects logit model. Overall, staff showed a preference for a curative approach with pregnant women tested for malaria parasites and treated only if positive, compared to a preventive approach (OR 1.6; p = 0.001). Increasing the incidence of low birth weight or severe anaemia by 1% would reduce the odds of preferring an approach by 18% and 10% respectively. Midwives were more resistant to potential changes to current guidelines than lower-level cadres. In Ashanti Region, resistance to change by antenatal clinic workers from a policy of SP-IPT to IST would generally be low, and it would disappear amongst midwives if health outcomes for the mother and baby were improved by the new strategy. DCEs are a promising approach to identifying factors that will increase the likelihood of effective implementation of new interventions immediately after their efficacy has been proven.

  1. Modeling the hospital safety partnership preferences of patients and their families: a discrete choice conjoint experiment

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Charles E; Hutchings, Tracy; Henderson, Jennifer; Rimas, Heather; Chen, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients and their families play an important role in efforts to improve health service safety. Objective The objective of this study is to understand the safety partnership preferences of patients and their families. Method We used a discrete choice conjoint experiment to model the safety partnership preferences of 1,084 patients or those such as parents acting on their behalf. Participants made choices between hypothetical safety partnerships composed by experimentally varying 15 four-level partnership design attributes. Results Participants preferred an approach to safety based on partnerships between patients and staff rather than a model delegating responsibility for safety to hospital staff. They valued the opportunity to participate in point of service safety partnerships, such as identity and medication double checks, that might afford an immediate risk reduction. Latent class analysis yielded two segments. Actively engaged participants (73.3%) comprised outpatients with higher education, who anticipated more benefits to safety partnerships, were more confident in their ability to contribute, and were more intent on participating. They were more likely to prefer a personal engagement strategy, valued scientific evidence, preferred a more active approach to safety education, and advocated disclosure of errors. The passively engaged segment (26.7%) anticipated fewer benefits, were less confident in their ability to contribute, and were less intent on participating. They were more likely to prefer an engagement strategy based on signage. They preferred that staff explain why they thought patients should help make care safer and decide whether errors were disclosed. Inpatients, those with immigrant backgrounds, and those with less education were more likely to be in this segment. Conclusion Health services need to communicate information regarding risks, ask about partnership preferences, create opportunities respecting individual differences, and

  2. Modeling the hospital safety partnership preferences of patients and their families: a discrete choice conjoint experiment.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Charles E; Hutchings, Tracy; Henderson, Jennifer; Rimas, Heather; Chen, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Patients and their families play an important role in efforts to improve health service safety. The objective of this study is to understand the safety partnership preferences of patients and their families. We used a discrete choice conjoint experiment to model the safety partnership preferences of 1,084 patients or those such as parents acting on their behalf. Participants made choices between hypothetical safety partnerships composed by experimentally varying 15 four-level partnership design attributes. Participants preferred an approach to safety based on partnerships between patients and staff rather than a model delegating responsibility for safety to hospital staff. They valued the opportunity to participate in point of service safety partnerships, such as identity and medication double checks, that might afford an immediate risk reduction. Latent class analysis yielded two segments. Actively engaged participants (73.3%) comprised outpatients with higher education, who anticipated more benefits to safety partnerships, were more confident in their ability to contribute, and were more intent on participating. They were more likely to prefer a personal engagement strategy, valued scientific evidence, preferred a more active approach to safety education, and advocated disclosure of errors. The passively engaged segment (26.7%) anticipated fewer benefits, were less confident in their ability to contribute, and were less intent on participating. They were more likely to prefer an engagement strategy based on signage. They preferred that staff explain why they thought patients should help make care safer and decide whether errors were disclosed. Inpatients, those with immigrant backgrounds, and those with less education were more likely to be in this segment. Health services need to communicate information regarding risks, ask about partnership preferences, create opportunities respecting individual differences, and ensure a positive response when patients raise

  3. An experimental field study of weight salience and food choice.

    PubMed

    Incollingo Rodriguez, Angela C; Finch, Laura E; Buss, Julia; Guardino, Christine M; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory research has found that individuals will consume more calories and make unhealthy food choices when in the presence of an overweight individual, sometimes even regardless of what that individual is eating. This study expanded these laboratory paradigms to the field to examine how weight salience influences eating in the real world. More specifically, we tested the threshold of the effect of weight salience of food choice to see if a more subtle weight cue (e.g., images) would be sufficient to affect food choice. Attendees (N = 262) at Obesity Week 2013, a weight-salient environment, viewed slideshows containing an image of an overweight individual, an image of a thin individual, or no image (text only), and then selected from complimentary snacks. Results of ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that participants who viewed the image of the overweight individual had higher odds of selecting the higher calorie snack compared to those who viewed the image of the thin individual (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = [1.04, 3.04]), or no image (OR = 2.42, 95% CI = [1.29, 4.54]). Perceiver BMI category did not moderate the influence of image on food choice, as these results occurred regardless of participant BMI. These findings suggest that in the context of societal weight salience, weight-related cues alone may promote unhealthy eating in the general public.

  4. The specialty choices of graduates from Brighton and Sussex Medical School: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Katherine; Elton, Caroline; Newport, Melanie

    2015-03-13

    Since 2007 junior doctors in the UK have had to make major career decisions at a point when previously many had not yet chosen a specialty. This study examined when doctors in this new system make specialty choices, which factors influence choices, and whether doctors who choose a specialty they were interested in at medical school are more confident in their choice than those doctors whose interests change post-graduation. Two cohorts of students in their penultimate year at one medical school (n = 227/239) were asked which specialty interested them as a career. Two years later, 210/227 were sent a questionnaire measuring actual specialty chosen, confidence, influence of perceptions of the specialty and experiences on choice, satisfaction with medicine, personality, self-efficacy, and demographics. Medical school and post-graduation choices in the same category were deemed 'stable'. Predictors of stability, and of not having chosen a specialty, were calculated using bootstrapped logistic regression. Differences between specialties on questionnaire factors were analysed. 50% responded (n = 105/277; 44% of the 239 Year 4 students). 65% specialty choices were 'stable'. Factors univariately associated with stability were specialty chosen, having enjoyed the specialty at medical school or since starting work, having first considered the specialty earlier. A regression found doctors who chose psychiatry were more likely to have changed choice than those who chose general practice. Confidence in the choice was not associated with stability. Those who chose general practice valued lifestyle factors. A psychiatry choice was associated with needing a job and using one's intellect to help others. The decision to choose surgical training tended to be made early. Not having applied for specialty training was associated with being lower on agreeableness and conscientiousness. Medical school experiences are important in specialty choice but experiences post-graduation remain

  5. Evaluating patients' preferences for multiple myeloma therapy, a Discrete-Choice-Experiment.

    PubMed

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Lincke, Hans-Joachim; Nübling, Matthias

    2008-12-19

    While there is an increasing emphasis on patient empowerment and shared decision making, patients' preferences for attributes associated with their treatment still need to be measured and considered. In the present study, patients' preferences regarding treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) were explored using direct assessment and a Discrete-Choice-Experiment (DCE). After reviewing the literature about preferences of myeloma patients we conducted a qualitative study with three focus groups consisting of six to eight MM-patients each. In order to achieve content validity, we aimed at collecting all relevant factors for an ideal MM-treatment. In a subsequent quantitative study phase, data was collected in an online or paper-pencil self-completed questionnaire. It included sociodemographic data, self-rated health (SF12v2 variation) and patients preferences of therapy characteristics using direct measurement (16 items on a five-point Likert-scale) as well as a Discrete-Choice-Experiment (DCE, eight pairs with eight characteristics). 282 patients answered the questionnaire; 46% female, age: mean 62 yrs (SD=10 years), duration of MM: 5 yrs (SD=3.8 years). Direct measurement showed effectiveness aspects (i.e. high effectiveness, long lasting effects, max. prolonged life expectancy) and further treatment options in the first places, followed by maximal prolonged life expectancy, minor side effects and therapy-free-intervals. In the DCE, alternatives with further treatment options, longer life expectancy, "not always think of the disease" and therapy-free-intervals were more likely to be chosen, giving thus similar results. Besides prolongation of life expectancy and effectiveness of treatment, further treatment options are of foremost importance to multiple myeloma patients. In addition, therapy-free intervals as well as an improved emotional quality of life ("Not always think of the disease") are valued as very important. The combination of direct assessment of importance

  6. Using a choice experiment to measure the environmental costs of air pollution impacts in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Kwak, Seung-Jun; Lee, Joo-Suk

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution, a by-product of economic growth, has been incurring extensive environmental costs in Seoul, Korea. Unfortunately, air pollution impacts are not treated as a commercial item, and thus it is difficult to measure the environmental costs arising from air pollution. There is an imminent need to find a way to measure air pollution impacts so that appropriate actions can be taken to control air pollution. Therefore, this study attempts to apply a choice experiment to quantifying the environmental costs of four air pollution impacts (mortality, morbidity, soiling damage, and poor visibility), using a specific case study of Seoul. We consider the trade-offs between price and attributes of air pollution impacts for selecting a preferred alternative and derive the marginal willingness to pay (WTP) estimate for each attribute. According to the results, the households' monthly WTP for a 10% reduction in the concentrations of major pollutants in Seoul was found to be approximately 5494 Korean won (USD 4.6) and the total annual WTP for the entire population of Seoul was about 203.4 billion Korean won (USD 169.5 million). This study is expected to provide policy-makers with useful information for evaluating and planning environmental policies relating specifically to air pollution.

  7. How to attract health students to remote areas in Indonesia: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Efendi, Ferry; Chen, Ching-Min; Nursalam, Nursalam; Andriyani, Nurul Wachyu Fitriyah; Kurniati, Anna; Nancarrow, Susan Alison

    2016-10-01

    Remote areas of Indonesia lack sufficient health workers to meet the health-care needs of the population. There is an urgent need for evidence regarding interventions to attract health workers and specifically health students to serve in remote areas. The aim of this research was to analyze the job preferences of health students to develop effective policies to improve the recruitment and retention of health students in remote areas. A discrete choice experiment was conducted to investigate health students' preferences regarding job characteristics. This study was conducted in three different regions of Indonesia, with a total included 400 health students. Mixed logit models were used to explore the stated preferences for each attribute. Data were collected from 150 medical, 150 nursing and 100 midwifery students. Medical students gave the highest preference for receiving study assistance, while nursing students viewed salary as the most important. Midwifery students valued advanced quality facilities as an important attribute. This study confirmed the importance of combination interventions in attracting and retaining health workers in remote areas of Indonesia. Money is not the only factor affecting student preferences to take up a rural post; good management and better facilities were viewed as important by all health students. Addressing health student preferences, which are the candidate of future health workforce, would help the nation solve the recruitment and retention issues. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Using choice experiments to assess people's preferences for railway transports of hazardous materials.

    PubMed

    Winslott Hiselius, Lena

    2005-10-01

    This article investigates whether the choice experiment approach can be used to assess people's preferences and the determinants of these preferences in order to estimate the costs and benefits of different configurations of the transport of hazardous materials by rail. Changes in the exposure to hazardous materials that people are subjected to are used rather than changes in accident risk. To the best knowledge of the author, this has not been done before in a study of people's preferences toward hazardous materials. A mail survey, carried out in two cities in Sweden, is used to obtain tentative estimates of the willingness to pay for a reduction in exposure as well as the willingness to accept an increase in exposure. Special attention is given to viability, since the complexity of the activity studied, transport of hazardous materials, and the method used pose particular challenges. The response rate and tests of validity and consistency indicate that this method can be applied. Moreover, the results suggest that studies of this kind may provide guidance on changes in the transport of hazardous materials, especially because policymakers may influence the attributes presented here. Referring to the exposure of hazardous materials highlights the importance of providing the respondents with adequate information regarding hazardous transports. An important finding is that the amount of background information may have some effect on the stated preferences.

  9. The influence of past experience on wasp choice related to foraging behavior.

    PubMed

    Sabrina, Moreyra; D'Adamo, Paola; Lozada, Mariana

    2014-12-01

    Memory has been little studied in social wasps. Vespula germanica (Fab.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) frequently revisits nondepleted food sources, making several trips between the resource and the nest. In this study, we analyzed this relocating behavior in order to evaluate whether this species is capable of remembering an established association after 1 h. To this end, we trained wasps to feed from a certain array. Then it was removed, setting it up again 1 h later, but this time 2 baited feeders were put in place, one at the original feeding site and the other opposite the first. We recorded the proportion of returning foragers, and their choice of feeder, after either 1 or 4 feeding trials. After 1 h, 78% of wasps trained with 4 feeding trials and 65% trained with 1, returned to the experimental area. Furthermore, during the testing phase, wasps trained with 4 feeding trials collected food from the previously learned feeder significantly more frequently than from the nonlearned one (P < 0.05). In contrast, wasps that had been trained only once chose both feeders equally. Thus, memory retrieval could be observed 1 h after wasps had collected food on 4 consecutive occasions, but not after only 1. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that V. germanica is capable of remembering an association 1 h after the last associative event, demonstrating that 1 h does not impair memory retention if 4 feeding experiences have occurred. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Performing a Choice-Narrative: A qualitative study of the patterns in STEM students' higher education choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstrup Holmegaard, Henriette

    2015-06-01

    Students' science choices have long attracted attention in both public and research. Recently there has been a call for qualitative studies to explore how choices create a sense of fit for individual students. Therefore, this paper aims to study how science students' choices of higher education are performed and to uncover the patterns of students' construction of their choice-narratives. The paper is based on a qualitative study among 38 Danish upper secondary school students. The theoretical framework is narrative psychology combined with post-structural thinking. The study shows that constructing a choice-narrative is complicated identity-work. First, the students felt encouraged to identify their interests, not only the ones related to the subject matter, but also various interests that were equally negotiated in relation to each other. Second, the choice-narratives were personalised; on the one side articulated as not too predictable, and on the other side appearing realistic and adjusted to the students' sense of self. Third, the choice-narratives were informed, validated and adjusted in the students' social network providing the students with a repertoire of viable pathways. The study demonstrates how cultural discourses about how a proper choice is made set the scene for the students' choices. The study raises some concerns for science education. Improving students' interests in science alone might not lead to increased admission as several interests equally intervene. To attract more students to science, we must consider how to actively engage them in crafting their own education, as a way to support them in making personal sense.

  11. The effects of nutrition labeling on consumer food choice: a psychological experiment and computational model.

    PubMed

    Helfer, Peter; Shultz, Thomas R

    2014-12-01

    The widespread availability of calorie-dense food is believed to be a contributing cause of an epidemic of obesity and associated diseases throughout the world. One possible countermeasure is to empower consumers to make healthier food choices with useful nutrition labeling. An important part of this endeavor is to determine the usability of existing and proposed labeling schemes. Here, we report an experiment on how four different labeling schemes affect the speed and nutritional value of food choices. We then apply decision field theory, a leading computational model of human decision making, to simulate the experimental results. The psychology experiment shows that quantitative, single-attribute labeling schemes have greater usability than multiattribute and binary ones, and that they remain effective under moderate time pressure. The computational model simulates these psychological results and provides explanatory insights into them. This work shows how experimental psychology and computational modeling can contribute to the evaluation and improvement of nutrition-labeling schemes.

  12. Managing Minor Ailments; The Public's Preferences for Attributes of Community Pharmacies. A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Porteous, Terry; Ryan, Mandy; Bond, Christine; Watson, Margaret; Watson, Verity

    2016-01-01

    Demand for health services continues to rise. Greater use of community pharmacy services instead of medical services for minor ailments could help relieve pressure on healthcare providers in high-cost settings. Community pharmacies are recognised sources of treatment and advice for people wishing to manage these ailments. However, increasing the public's use of pharmacy services may depend on attributes of pharmacies and their staff. This study aimed to determine the general public's relative preferences for community pharmacy attributes using a discrete choice experiment (DCE). A UK-wide DCE survey of the general public was conducted using face-to-face computer-assisted personal interviews. Attributes and levels for the DCE were informed by a literature review and a cohort study of community pharmacy customers. The context for the experiment was a minor ailment scenario describing flu-like symptoms. The DCE choice sets described two hypothetical community pharmacy services; respondents were asked to choose which (if either) of the two pharmacies they would prefer to help them manage symptoms. Data from 1,049 interviews were analysed using an error components logit model. Willingness to pay (WTP), a monetary measure of benefit, was estimated for the different attribute levels. When seeking help or treatment for flu-like symptoms, respondents most valued a pharmacy service that would improve their understanding and management of symptoms (WTP = £6.28), provided by staff who are trained (WTP (pharmacist) = £2.63: WTP(trained assistant) = £3.22), friendly and approachable (WTP = £3.38). Waiting time, pharmacy location and availability of parking also contributed to respondents' preferences. WTP for a service comprising the best possible combination of attributes and levels was calculated as £55.43. Attributes of a community pharmacy and its staff may influence people's decisions about which pharmacy they would visit to access treatment and advice for minor

  13. Choice of hunting site as a consequence of experience in late-instar crab spiders.

    PubMed

    Morse, Douglass H

    1999-08-01

    Earlier experiences may play an important role in the choice of hunting sites, but their effects on the foraging repertoire of most animals remain poorly understood. I tested the role of previous flower choices (hunting sites) by penultimate-instar female crab spiders Misumena vatia in making subsequent patch-choice decisions. M. vatia is a sit-and-wait predator, and the two flower species used, ox-eye daisy Chrysanthemum leucanthemum and common buttercup Ranunculus acris, are important hunting sites. Spiders with different immediate experience showed similar short-term (<1 day) giving-up times on the two flower species, independent of their previous substrate. However, four-fifths of the individuals that remained a day or longer tended to leave buttercups sooner than daisies, especially if they had previously occupied daisies. Thus they may directly assess the quality of a potential hunting site, perhaps in response to prey abundance, but previous experience may play a minor role as well. Of spiders that made several consecutive choices of hunting sites, those on daisies often confined these runs to daisies (one of two years); those on buttercups did not exhibit comparable fidelity. Spiders molting into the adult stage almost always subsequently chose the same flower species (either daisy or buttercup) as the one on which they molted. Thus, juvenile experiences may influence adults, the critical stage when virtually all of the spiders' reproductive resources are gathered, even if this resulted from imprinting on their molt sites rather than carrying information over the molt.

  14. Understanding HIV-positive patients' preferences for healthcare services: a protocol for a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Elaney; Cooper, Vanessa; Miners, Alec; Llewellyn, Carrie; Pollard, Alex; Lagarde, Mylene; Sachikonye, Memory; Sabin, Caroline; Foreman, Claire; Perry, Nicky; Nixon, Eileen; Fisher, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While the care of HIV-positive patients, including the detection and management of comorbidities, has historically been provided in HIV specialist outpatient clinics, recent years have seen a greater involvement of non-HIV specialists and general practitioners (GPs). The aim of this study is to determine whether patients would prefer to see their GP or HIV physician given general symptoms, and to understand what aspects of care influence their preferences. Methods/analysis We have developed and piloted a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to better understand patients' preferences for care of non-HIV-related acute symptoms. The design of the DCE was informed by our exploratory research, including the findings of a systematic literature review and a qualitative study. Additional questionnaire items have been included to measure demographics, service use and experience of non-HIV illnesses and quality of life (EQ5D). We plan to recruit 1000 patients from 14 HIV clinics across South East England. Data will be analysed using random-effects logistic regression and latent class analysis. ORs and 95% CIs will be used to estimate the relative importance of each of the attribute levels. Latent class analysis will identify whether particular groups of people value the service attribute levels differently. Ethics/dissemination Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Newcastle and North Tyneside Research Ethics Committee (reference number 14/NE/1193). The results will be disseminated at national and international conferences and peer-reviewed publications. A study report, written in plain English, will be made available to all participants. The Patient Advisory Group will develop a strategy for wider dissemination of the findings to patients and the public. PMID:27431895

  15. Do patients prefer mesh or anterior colporrhaphy for primary correction of anterior vaginal wall prolapse: a labelled discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Notten, K J B; Essers, B A; Weemhoff, M; Rutten, A G H; Donners, J J A E; van Gestel, I; Kruitwagen, R F P M; Roovers, J P W R; Dirksen, C D

    2015-05-01

    We investigated patients' preferences for anterior colporrhaphy or mesh surgery as surgical correction of anterior vaginal wall prolapse. Labelled discrete choice experiment. Three Dutch teaching hospitals. Women with anterior vaginal wall prolapse Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification stage 2 or more, indicated for anterior colporrhaphy (n = 100). Discrete choice experiments are an attribute-based survey method for measuring preferences. In this experiment, women were asked to choose between two treatment scenarios, mesh surgery or anterior colporrhaphy. These surgical treatments differed in four treatment attributes: (i) recurrence rate, (ii) exposure rate, (iii) infection rate, (iv) dyspareunia. Data were analysed using a multinomial logit model. Women's preferences for anterior colporrhaphy or mesh surgery for the repair of vaginal wall prolapse. All treatment attributes, i.e. recurrence, exposure, infection and dyspareunia, proved to be significant in the woman's decision to choose mesh surgery (P < 0.001), while only two attributes out of three, recurrence and infection, were significant for anterior colporrhaphy (P < 0.001). The relative importance data showed that with regards to the four statistically significant attributes for mesh, dyspareunia was the most important attribute, and of the two significant attributes for anterior colporrhaphy, the risk of infection. Based on the attributes and levels in our discrete choice experiment, anterior colporrhaphy was preferred in 74% as a primary correction of anterior vaginal wall prolapse, followed by a preference for mesh in 26% of all choices. This study showed that next to the risk of recurrence, other aspects like risk of infection, dyspareunia and exposure play a role in the woman's preference for a surgical treatment. In addition, our results indicate that anterior colporrhaphy is preferred in the majority of the choices, followed by a preference for mesh surgery in a quarter of all choice sets. However

  16. Trust, choice and power in mental health care: experiences of patients with psychosis.

    PubMed

    Laugharne, Richard; Priebe, Stefan; McCabe, Rose; Garland, Natasha; Clifford, Damian

    2012-09-01

    Trust, choice and power are critical issues in clinical practice, public policies and a post-modern understanding of mental health care. We aimed to investigate the experiences and attitudes of patients with psychosis in relation to trust, choice and power. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with patients with psychotic disorders in care of NHS services. The interviews were subjected to thematic analysis. Patients discussed aspects of their care in terms of dimensions that enhance or undermine trust, choice and power. Two interpretive themes emerged from this data. First, patients perceive the need for a shifting balance of power, according to the severity of their illness and their own experience of care, but feel that threats of coercion and neglect disable them. Second, they appreciate the expertise of clinicians, but particularly value 'the personal touch' that goes beyond this expertise, including personal disclosure about their own lives, common acts of kindness and conversation outside clinical matters. Patients view trust as a two-way process with responsibility shared between patient and clinician. The active involvement of patients with psychosis in their individual care may be strengthened, particularly when they are not acutely ill and have more experience of their illness. While patients value expertise and respect in interactions with clinicians, they also appreciate a 'personal touch', which may go beyond current notions of professionalism.

  17. Residents’ Preferences for Household Kitchen Waste Source Separation Services in Beijing: A Choice Experiment Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yalin; Yabe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    A source separation program for household kitchen waste has been in place in Beijing since 2010. However, the participation rate of residents is far from satisfactory. This study was carried out to identify residents’ preferences based on an improved management strategy for household kitchen waste source separation. We determine the preferences of residents in an ad hoc sample, according to their age level, for source separation services and their marginal willingness to accept compensation for the service attributes. We used a multinomial logit model to analyze the data, collected from 394 residents in Haidian and Dongcheng districts of Beijing City through a choice experiment. The results show there are differences of preferences on the services attributes between young, middle, and old age residents. Low compensation is not a major factor to promote young and middle age residents accept the proposed separation services. However, on average, most of them prefer services with frequent, evening, plastic bag attributes and without instructor. This study indicates that there is a potential for local government to improve the current separation services accordingly. PMID:25546279

  18. Residents' preferences for household kitchen waste source separation services in Beijing: a choice experiment approach.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yalin; Yabe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-12-23

    A source separation program for household kitchen waste has been in place in Beijing since 2010. However, the participation rate of residents is far from satisfactory. This study was carried out to identify residents' preferences based on an improved management strategy for household kitchen waste source separation. We determine the preferences of residents in an ad hoc sample, according to their age level, for source separation services and their marginal willingness to accept compensation for the service attributes. We used a multinomial logit model to analyze the data, collected from 394 residents in Haidian and Dongcheng districts of Beijing City through a choice experiment. The results show there are differences of preferences on the services attributes between young, middle, and old age residents. Low compensation is not a major factor to promote young and middle age residents accept the proposed separation services. However, on average, most of them prefer services with frequent, evening, plastic bag attributes and without instructor. This study indicates that there is a potential for local government to improve the current separation services accordingly.

  19. Valuing QALYs in Relation to Equity Considerations Using a Discrete Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    van de Wetering, Liesbet; van Exel, Job; Bobinac, Ana; Brouwer, Werner B F

    2015-12-01

    To judge whether an intervention offers value for money, the incremental costs per gained quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) need to be compared with some relevant threshold, which ideally reflects the monetary value of health gains. Literature suggests that this value may depend on the equity context in which health gains are produced, but the value of a QALY in relation to equity considerations has remained largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to estimate the social marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for QALY gains in different equity subgroups, using a discrete choice experiment (DCE). Both severity of illness (operationalized as proportional shortfall) and fair innings (operationalized as age) were considered as grounds for differentiating the value of health gains. We obtained a sample of 1205 respondents, representative of the adult population of the Netherlands. The data was analysed using panel mixed multinomial logit (MMNL) and latent class models. The panel MMNL models showed counterintuitive results, with more severe health states reducing the probability of receiving treatment. The latent class models revealed distinct preference patterns in the data. MWTP per QALY was sensitive to severity of disease among a substantial proportion of the public, but not to the age of care recipients. These findings emphasize the importance of accounting for preference heterogeneity among the public on value-laden issues such as prioritizing health care, both in research and decision making. This study emphasises the need to further explore the monetary value of a QALY in relation to equity considerations.

  20. Value judgments for priority setting criteria in genetic testing: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Severin, Franziska; Hess, Wolfgang; Schmidtke, Jörg; Mühlbacher, Axel; Rogowski, Wolf

    2015-02-01

    As our understanding of genetics has increased, so has the number of genetic tests that have entered clinical practice. Given the need of many European health care systems to contain costs, the question of how to prioritise genetic tests fairly has become an emerging concern. This study uses a discrete-choice experiment to assess the value judgements of clinical geneticists, patient representatives and other stakeholders regarding the prioritisation of genetic tests. The respondents chose between two hypothetical scenarios that differed in severity of the disease, risk of the disease, aim of the test, medical benefit of the test, and costs of the test. Standard logit models and mixed effects models were used to estimate the weights different stakeholders attached to attribute levels. Responses from 594 participants were analysed. The most highly valued attribute levels were a proven medical benefit of the test, high risk of having the disease and low costs of the test. Results also showed that rankings differ between clinical geneticists and other stakeholders. The priority weights determined within this study can inform the policy debate and improve the consistency of prioritisation in genetics. Further stakeholder deliberation is needed to explore their most appropriate use in decision practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Which factors decided general practitioners' choice of hospital on behalf of their patients in an area with free choice of public hospital? A questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Birk, Hans O; Henriksen, Lars O

    2012-05-25

    Parts of New Public Management-reforms of the public sector depend on introduction of market-like mechanisms to manage the sector, like free choice of hospital. However, patients may delegate the choice of hospital to agents like general practitioners (GPs). We have investigated which factors Danish GPs reported as decisive for their choice of hospital on behalf of patients, and their utilisation of formal and informal data sources when they chose a hospital on behalf of patients. Retrospective questionnaire study of all of the 474 GPs practising in three counties which constituted a single uptake area. Patients were free to choose a hospital in another county in the country. The GPs were asked about responsibility for choice of the latest three patients referred by the GP to hospital; which of 16 factors influenced the choice of hospital; which of 15 sources of information about clinical quality at various hospitals/departments were considered relevant, and how often were six sources of information about waiting time utilised. Fifty-one percent (240 GPs) filled in and returned the questionnaire. One hundred and eighty-three GPs (76%) reported that they perceived that they chose the hospital on behalf of the latest referred patient. Short distance to hospital was the most common reason for choice of hospital.The most frequently used source of information about quality at hospital departments was anecdotal reports from patients referred previously, and the most important source of information about waiting time was the hospitals' letters of confirmation of referrals. In an area with free choice of public hospital most GPs perceived that they chose the hospital on behalf of patients. Short distance to hospital was the factor which most often decided the GPs' choice of hospital on behalf of patients. GPs attached little weight to official information on quality and service (waiting time) at hospitals or departments, focusing instead on informal sources like feedback

  2. Decision-Making Training for Occupational Choice and Early Turnover: A Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pazy, Asya; Ganzach, Yoav; Davidov, Yariv

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The study seeks to examine how a short intervention, aimed at enhancing occupational choice skills, influences turnover during the early stages of organizational membership. It seeks to explore two theoretical rationales for this effect: social exchange and self-determination. Design/methodology/approach: The study is a "constructive…

  3. Women and their partners' preferences for Down's syndrome screening tests: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Fran E; Al-Janabi, Hareth; Flynn, Terry; Montgomery, Alan A

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to determine quantitatively the attributes of such screening tests that couples placed most value on. A stated preference discrete choice experiment was conducted among a sample of pregnant women and their male partners. One four-level attribute (cost) and three two-level attributes (detection rate, gestation and time to wait for results) were used to generate eight hypothetical pairs of tests. A total of 103 participants fully completed the questionnaire (63 women, 40 men). Overall, the sample was most concerned with test cost. However, latent class analysis showed three groups of participants whose concern for attributes differed, with cost, detection rate and delay in receiving results being the most important to each. Willingness to pay calculations showed that participants who were most concerned with detection rate were prepared to pay more than four times the amount than those most cost-sensitive would pay for the 'best test' option as compared with the 'worst test'. Overall, couples were sensitive to the price of the screening test, but explicit subgroups are also shown that would pay large amounts for improvements in other attributes, particularly detection rates. This could provide important information to policymakers and practitioners in antenatal care, specifically in relation to the trade-offs made when couples decide about antenatal screening tests. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Using discrete choice experiments to value informal care tasks: exploring preference heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Ryan, Mandy; McNamee, Paul

    2011-08-01

    While informal care is a significant part of non-market economic activity, its value is rarely acknowledged, perhaps reflecting a lack of market data. Traditional methods to value such care include opportunity and replacement cost. This study is the first to employ the discrete choice experiment methodology to value informal care tasks. A monetary value is estimated for three tasks (personal care, supervising and household tasks). The relationship between time spent on formal and informal care is also modelled and preference heterogeneity investigated using the Latent Class Model. Complementarity between supervising tasks and formal care is observed. Monetary compensation is important, with willingness to accept per hour values ranging from £0.38 to £0.83 for personal care, £0.75 for supervising and £0.31 to £0.6 for household tasks. Heterogeneity in preferences is observed, with monetary compensation being important for younger people, but insignificant for older individuals. Such heterogeneity is important at the policy level. Values are lower than those generated by opportunity cost and replacement cost methods, perhaps because of the limited ability of revealed preference methods to capture broader aspect of utility. Differences with contingent valuation methods are also observed, suggesting future research should investigate the external validity of the different methods.

  5. Residential preferences for river network improvement: an exploration of choice experiments in Zhujiajiao, Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Che, Yue; Li, Wen; Shang, Zhaoyi; Liu, Chen; Yang, Kai

    2014-09-01

    River networks have both ecological and social benefits for urban development. However, river networks have suffered extensive destruction as a result of urbanization and industrialization, especially in China. River restoration is a growth business but suffers poor efficiency due to a lack of social understanding. Assessing the benefits of river system restoration and recognizing public preferences are critical for effective river ecosystem restoration and sustainable river management. This study used a choice experiment with a multinomial logit model and a random parameter logit model to assess respondents' cognitive preferences regarding attributes of river networks, and their possible sources of heterogeneity. Results showed that riverfront condition was the attribute most preferred by respondents, while stream morphology was the least preferred. Results also illustrated that the current status of each of three river network attributes was not desirable, and respondents would prefer a river network with a "branch pattern," that is "limpid with no odor," and "accessible with vegetation." Estimated willingness to pay was mainly affected by household monthly income, residential location, and whether respondents had household members engaged in a water protection career. The assessment results can provide guidance and a reference for managers, sponsors, and researchers.

  6. Policy interventions to improve rural retention among neurosurgeons in Iran: A discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Sima; Arab, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health workforce shortages in rural and remote areas are a global challenge that almost every health system has to deal with. This study aimed to discover neurosurgeons’ job preferences and propose policy interventions that could possibly increase their retention in rural, remote, or underserved areas. Methods: A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted in November 2014 with a sample of Iranian neurosurgeons selected from five contrary’s provinces representing the geographical diversity. Job attributes included income, dual practice opportunities, workload, proximity to family, clinical infrastructure, housing, educational facilities, and work location. Probit regression model was used to estimate the importance of different job attributes and examine the extent to which neurosurgeons were willing to tradeoff between monetary and nonmonetary attributes. Results: Findings indicated that increased salary, permission to undertake dual practice and access to adequate clinical infrastructure were the most important retention policies. Provision of subsidized housing and educational facilities also increased neurosurgeons’ attraction and retention in rural areas. Conclusion: A range of policy interventions focusing on both monetary and nonmonetary incentives are required to increase neurosurgeons’ retention in rural, remote, or underserved areas. PMID:26885340

  7. Residential Preferences for River Network Improvement: An Exploration of Choice Experiments in Zhujiajiao, Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Yue; Li, Wen; Shang, Zhaoyi; Liu, Chen; Yang, Kai

    2014-09-01

    River networks have both ecological and social benefits for urban development. However, river networks have suffered extensive destruction as a result of urbanization and industrialization, especially in China. River restoration is a growth business but suffers poor efficiency due to a lack of social understanding. Assessing the benefits of river system restoration and recognizing public preferences are critical for effective river ecosystem restoration and sustainable river management. This study used a choice experiment with a multinomial logit model and a random parameter logit model to assess respondents' cognitive preferences regarding attributes of river networks, and their possible sources of heterogeneity. Results showed that riverfront condition was the attribute most preferred by respondents, while stream morphology was the least preferred. Results also illustrated that the current status of each of three river network attributes was not desirable, and respondents would prefer a river network with a "branch pattern," that is "limpid with no odor," and "accessible with vegetation." Estimated willingness to pay was mainly affected by household monthly income, residential location, and whether respondents had household members engaged in a water protection career. The assessment results can provide guidance and a reference for managers, sponsors, and researchers.

  8. Willingness-To-Accept Pharmaceutical Retail Inconvenience: Evidence from a Contingent Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, Keith; Stoecker, Charles; Cunningham, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Restrictions on retail purchases of pseudoephedrine are one regulatory approach to reduce the social costs of methamphetamine production and use, but may impose costs on legitimate users of nasal decongestants. This is the first study to evaluate the costs of restricting access to medications on consumer welfare. Our objective was to measure the inconvenience cost consumers place on restrictions for cold medication purchases including identification requirements, purchase limits, over-the-counter availability, prescription requirements, and the active ingredient. Methods We conducted a contingent choice experiment with Amazon Mechanical Turk workers that presented participants with randomized, hypothetical product prices and combinations of restrictions that reflect the range of public policies. We used a conditional logit model to calculate willingness-to-accept each restriction. Results Respondents’ willingness-to-accept prescription requirements was $14.17 ($9.76–$18.58) and behind-the-counter restrictions was $9.68 ($7.03–$12.33) per box of pseudoephedrine product. Participants were willing to pay $4.09 ($1.66–$6.52) per box to purchase pseudoephedrine-based products over phenylephrine-based products. Conclusions Restricting access to medicines as a means of reducing the social costs of non-medical use can imply large inconvenience costs for legitimate consumers. These results are relevant to discussions of retail access restrictions on other medications. PMID:26024444

  9. Policy interventions to improve rural retention among neurosurgeons in Iran: A discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Rafiei, Sima; Arab, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2015-10-07

    Health workforce shortages in rural and remote areas are a global challenge that almost every health system has to deal with. This study aimed to discover neurosurgeons' job preferences and propose policy interventions that could possibly increase their retention in rural, remote, or underserved areas. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted in November 2014 with a sample of Iranian neurosurgeons selected from five contrary's provinces representing the geographical diversity. Job attributes included income, dual practice opportunities, workload, proximity to family, clinical infrastructure, housing, educational facilities, and work location. Probit regression model was used to estimate the importance of different job attributes and examine the extent to which neurosurgeons were willing to tradeoff between monetary and nonmonetary attributes. Findings indicated that increased salary, permission to undertake dual practice and access to adequate clinical infrastructure were the most important retention policies. Provision of subsidized housing and educational facilities also increased neurosurgeons' attraction and retention in rural areas. A range of policy interventions focusing on both monetary and nonmonetary incentives are required to increase neurosurgeons' retention in rural, remote, or underserved areas.

  10. A discrete choice experiment to determine UK patient preference for attributes of disease modifying treatments in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bottomley, Catherine; Lloyd, Andrew; Bennett, Gary; Adlard, Nicholas

    2017-08-01

    The recent licensing of Disease Modifying Treatments (DMTs) for Multiple Sclerosis (MS) has increased available treatment options. The aim of this study was to explore MS patients' preference for the different attributes of DMTs in the UK. Attributes (treatment characteristics) for inclusion in the discrete choice experiment (DCE) were determined through published literature and interviews with 12 people with MS. Seven attributes were selected. Participants were presented with three hypothetical treatment options sampled from included attributes and asked for their most/least preferred options. The influence of patient characteristics and demographics on patient preference was also investigated. The DCE was completed by 350 people with MS (81% female, mean age = 39). Results showed that method of taking medication was the strongest determinant of preference (27%; relative importance out of 100%), followed by relapse free rate (21%) and symptom progression (14%). Risk of fatigue (8%) and type of monitoring (6%) were the weakest determinants of preference. Once-daily oral treatment was preferred over all other methods of administration. Participant characteristics did not influence data on strength of preference. This study assumed adequate participant understanding of the discrete choice experiment task, and recruitment targeted those with access to the internet. These results, derived from people with MS in the UK, should be used to inform individual discussions with patients about DMT choices.

  11. Choosing Choice: School Choice in International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plank, David N., Ed.; Sykes, Gary, Ed.

    The chapters in this book originated as papers for a conference, School Choice and Educational Change, held in March 2000 at Michigan State University. An introductory chapter provides a comparative analysis of the lessons learned from international experience with school-choice policies, based on a review of case studies in several countries. The…

  12. Choosing Choice: School Choice in International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plank, David N., Ed.; Sykes, Gary, Ed.

    The chapters in this book originated as papers for a conference, School Choice and Educational Change, held in March 2000 at Michigan State University. An introductory chapter provides a comparative analysis of the lessons learned from international experience with school-choice policies, based on a review of case studies in several countries. The…

  13. Women's Preferences for Place of Delivery in Rural Tanzania: A Population-Based Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Paczkowski, Magdalena; Mbaruku, Godfrey; de Pinho, Helen; Galea, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We fielded a population-based discrete choice experiment (DCE) in rural western Tanzania, where only one third of women deliver children in a health facility, to evaluate health-system factors that influence women's delivery decisions. Methods. Women were shown choice cards that described 2 hypothetical health centers by means of 6 attributes (distance, cost, type of provider, attitude of provider, drugs and equipment, free transport). The women were then asked to indicate which of the 2 facilities they would prefer to use for a future delivery. We used a hierarchical Bayes procedure to estimate individual and mean utility parameters. Results. A total of 1203 women completed the DCE. The model showed good predictive validity for actual facility choice. The most important facility attributes were a respectful provider attitude and availability of drugs and medical equipment. Policy simulations suggested that if these attributes were improved at existing facilities, the proportion of women preferring facility delivery would rise from 43% to 88%. Conclusions. In regions in which attended delivery rates are low despite availability of primary care facilities, policy experiments should test the effect of targeted quality improvements on facility use. PMID:19608959

  14. Women's preferences for place of delivery in rural Tanzania: a population-based discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Margaret E; Paczkowski, Magdalena; Mbaruku, Godfrey; de Pinho, Helen; Galea, Sandro

    2009-09-01

    We fielded a population-based discrete choice experiment (DCE) in rural western Tanzania, where only one third of women deliver children in a health facility, to evaluate health-system factors that influence women's delivery decisions. Women were shown choice cards that described 2 hypothetical health centers by means of 6 attributes (distance, cost, type of provider, attitude of provider, drugs and equipment, free transport). The women were then asked to indicate which of the 2 facilities they would prefer to use for a future delivery. We used a hierarchical Bayes procedure to estimate individual and mean utility parameters. A total of 1203 women completed the DCE. The model showed good predictive validity for actual facility choice. The most important facility attributes were a respectful provider attitude and availability of drugs and medical equipment. Policy simulations suggested that if these attributes were improved at existing facilities, the proportion of women preferring facility delivery would rise from 43% to 88%. In regions in which attended delivery rates are low despite availability of primary care facilities, policy experiments should test the effect of targeted quality improvements on facility use.

  15. Personal health records in the Netherlands: potential user preferences quantified by a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Determann, Domino; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Heldoorn, Marcel; Pedersen, Line Bjørnskov; de Wit, G Ardine

    2017-05-01

    To identify groups of potential users based on their preferences for characteristics of personal health records (PHRs) and to estimate potential PHR uptake. We performed a discrete choice experiment, which consisted of 12 choice scenarios, each comprising 2 hypothetical PHR alternatives and an opt-out. The alternatives differed based on 5 characteristics. The survey was administered to Internet panel members of the Dutch Federation of Patients and Consumer Organizations. We used latent class models to analyze the data. A total of 1,443 potential PHR users completed the discrete choice experiment. We identified 3 latent classes: "refusers" (class probability 43%), "eager adopters" (37%), and "reluctant adopters" (20%). The predicted uptake for the reluctant adopters ranged from 4% in the case of a PHR with the worst attribute levels to 68% in the best case. Those with 1 or more chronic diseases were significantly more likely to belong to the eager adopter class. The data storage provider was the most decisive aspect for the eager and reluctant adopters, while cost was most decisive for the refusers. Across all classes, health care providers and independent organizations were the most preferred data storage providers. We identified 3 groups, of which 1 group (more than one-third of potential PHR users) indicated great interest in a PHR irrespective of PHR characteristics. Policymakers who aim to expand the use of PHRs will be most successful when health care providers and health facilities or independent organizations store PHR data while refraining from including market parties.

  16. Seeking Restorative Experiences: Elementary School Teachers' Choices for Places that Enable Coping with Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulwadi, Gowri Betrabet

    2006-01-01

    Teacher stress and coping research and restorative environments research were converged in this study to explore how elementary school teachers in Chicago seek out everyday places in their milieu to implement restorative coping strategies. Seventy-one survey responses revealed that teachers' spontaneous place choices are related to sources of…

  17. Jumping through Hoops: College Choice Experiences of African American Male Community College Club Basketball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Kimberly Carlotta

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to learn what factors influenced the college choice decision-making process of African American male club basketball players in the community college. To understand how the participants determined their educational path, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 African American male students who were enrolled in at least six…

  18. Incentives and children's dietary choices: A field experiment in primary schools.

    PubMed

    Belot, Michèle; James, Jonathan; Nolen, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    We conduct a field experiment in 31 primary schools in England to test the effectiveness of different temporary incentives on increasing choice and consumption of fruit and vegetables at lunchtime. In each treatment, pupils received a sticker for choosing a fruit or vegetable at lunch. They were eligible for an additional reward at the end of the week depending on the number of stickers accumulated, either individually (individual scheme) or in comparison to others (competition). Overall, we find no significant effect of the individual scheme, but positive effects of competition. For children who had margin to increase their consumption, competition increases choice of fruit and vegetables by 33% and consumption by 48%. These positive effects generally carry over to the week immediately following the treatment, but are not sustained effects six months later. We also find large differences in effectiveness across demographic characteristics such as age and gender. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Women's preferences for aspects of labor management: results from a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Scotland, Graham S; McNamee, Paul; Cheyne, Helen; Hundley, Vanora; Barnett, Carol

    2011-03-01

    The latent phase of labor can vary greatly in duration, and many women are uncertain about when to contact the maternity unit. The aim of this study was to elicit and value women's preferences for some aspects of labor management. A questionnaire was sent to 1,251 women who had recently given birth to their first child at one of 14 maternity units in Scotland. Discrete choice questions were used to measure women's preferences for five attributes of care: number of visits (assessments) before admission to the labor ward, time spent on the labor ward before delivery, mobility during labor, pain relief required, and mode of delivery. Responses were analyzed for the sample as a whole and for subgroups defined by recent experiences of labor. A total of 730 (58.4%) questionnaires were returned and analyzed. Women expressed a preference for fewer visits before admission, shorter times on the labor ward before delivery, mobility during labor, normal vaginal deliveries, and moderate forms of pain relief (Entonox and opiates). Subgroup analysis suggests that women's preferences for pain relief are influenced by their recent labor experience. The elicited preference values provide a means for estimating the tradeoffs women are willing to make between attributes of labor management. Women appear to dislike being turned away from the labor ward before admission for delivery. Extra visits before admission only appear to be a price worth paying if they result in reductions in the duration of time spent on the labor ward, reductions in the chance of being immobilized in hospital during labor, or a lower chance of requiring an instrumental or operative delivery. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Job preferences among clinical officers in public sector facilities in rural Kenya: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Toshio; Kielmann, Karina; Blaauw, Duane

    2016-01-08

    Clinical officers (COs), a mid-level cadre of health worker, are the backbone of healthcare provision in rural Kenya. However, the vacancy rate for COs in rural primary healthcare facilities is high. Little is known about factors motivating COs' preferences for rural postings. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) questionnaire was used with 57 COs at public health facilities in nine districts of Nyanza Province, Kenya. The questionnaire was developed on the basis of formative qualitative interviews with COs (n = 5) and examined how five selected job attributes influenced COs' preferences for working in rural areas. Conditional logit models were employed to examine the relative importance of different job attributes. Analysis of the qualitative data revealed five important job attributes influencing COs' preferences: quality of the facility, educational opportunities, housing, monthly salary and promotion. Analysis of the DCE indicated that a 1-year guaranteed study leave after 3 years of service would have the greatest impact on retention, followed by good quality health facility infrastructure and equipment and a 30% salary increase. Sub-group analysis shows that younger COs demonstrated a significantly stronger preference for study leave than older COs. Female COs placed significantly higher value on promotion than male COs. Although both financial incentives and non-financial incentives were effective in motivating COs to stay in post, the study leave intervention was shown to have the strongest impact on COs' retention in our study. Further research is required to examine appropriate interventions at each career stage that might boost COs' professional identity and status but without leading to larger deficits in the availability of generalist COs.

  1. The influence student placement experience can have on the employment choices of graduates: A paediatric nursing context.

    PubMed

    Boyd-Turner, Danni; Bell, Elaine; Russell, Alison

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how the student placement experience may influence employment choices in the context of paediatric nursing. A qualitative research methodology was used. Data was collected using semi structured interviews at a tertiary teaching hospital. The sample group comprised of six newly qualified nurses who had completed their Bachelor of Nursing less than 12 months before the interview. They had completed at least one clinical placement at the site of data collection in their 2nd or 3rd year of undergraduate nursing studies. The main themes contributing to the student nurse experience within the context of paediatric nursing included the wish to work with children, a job being available, support during clinical placements and assistance with future career planning while on placement. The support experienced by student nurses during their clinical placement was seen to have a very positive influence on their future employment choices. Group de-briefing to support mutual understanding and sharing was seen to be a highly positive aspect of a clinical placement. Also how students were treated by clinical staff was a key factor that influenced future employment choices.

  2. Consumer preferences for sustainable aquaculture products: Evidence from in-depth interviews, think aloud protocols and choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Risius, Antje; Janssen, Meike; Hamm, Ulrich

    2017-02-20

    Fish from aquaculture is becoming more important for human consumption. Sustainable aquaculture procedures were developed as an alternative to overcome the negative environmental impacts of conventional aquaculture procedures and wild fisheries. The objective of this contribution is to determine what consumers expect from sustainable aquaculture and whether they prefer sustainable aquaculture products. A combination of qualitative research methods, with think aloud protocols and in-depth interviews, as well as quantitative methods, using choice experiments and face-to-face interviews, was applied. Data was collected in three different cities of Germany. Results revealed that sustainable aquaculture was associated with natural, traditional, local, and small scale production systems with high animal welfare standards. Overall, participants paid a lot of attention to the declaration of origin; in particular fish products from Germany and Denmark were preferred along with local products. Frequently used sustainability claims for aquaculture products were mostly criticized as being imprecise by the participants of the qualitative study; even though two claims tested in the choice experiments had a significant positive impact on the choice of purchase. Similarly, existing aquaculture-specific labels for certified sustainable aquaculture had an impact on the buying decision, but were not well recognized and even less trusted. Overall, consumers had a positive attitude towards sustainable aquaculture. However, communication measures and labelling schemes should be improved to increase consumer acceptance and make a decisive impact on consumers' buying behavior.

  3. Determination of informed choice and pathways leading to selection of the Environmental Studies major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierberger, Betsy S.

    The reasons why students select the Environmental Studies (ES) major at the University of Nebraska were investigated. A survey was used to determine factors of influence and career awareness as measures for making an informed choice in selection of a major. In addition, pathways of selection of the ES major were determined. Thirty-five students with ES majors and 14 faculty advisors completed the survey. Seven students participated in interviews. Student interviews were conducted to determine the "life-world" of the students during the decision making process leading to the selection of major. Interest in environmental issues, the challenge of solving environmental problems and a desire to make a difference in the environment were factors identified as positively influencing selection of this major. Environmental career attributes which influenced choice of major were variety of tasks and use of science skills. Faculty advisor perception of careers and advisor understanding of why students select the ES major were explored. Faculty advisors recommended selection of the ES major to students who demonstrated a clear interest in natural resources. Faculty advisors and students selected career categories appropriate to the ES curriculum indicating an awareness of career and job requirements. Informed choice was defined as evidence of student self-knowledge of interests, abilities and aptitudes and evidence of awareness of career opportunities in environmentally related areas. Students expressed self- knowledge of factors influential in major selection and career awareness. Therefore, the students did make informed decisions for selection of the ES major. Interview themes suggested three pathways for the selection of the ES major: (1) Direct Choice, (2) Focused Choice, and (3) Delayed Choice. Direct Choice occurs Men a student with ES interest selects the major and enrolls as a new student. Focused Choice occurs when students have life or school experiences that narrow

  4. Free choice and career choice: Clerkship electives in medical education.

    PubMed

    Mihalynuk, Tanis; Leung, Gentson; Fraser, Joan; Bates, Joanna; Snadden, David

    2006-11-01

    Medical education experiences, particularly in clinical years, are reported determinants of career choice. Less is known about features of clinical education experiences including length, discipline, setting and choice, which may serve as landmarks in career choice decisions. This study's purpose was to explore the benefits of a free choice clerkship elective, and more specifically, its role in clarifying career choice. Using framework and content analysis methodology, we analysed University of British Columbia, third-year medical student anonymised assignments regarding free choice and 2-week clerkship elective experiences. This clerkship was designed to provide students with clerkship experiences outside the conventional curricular model, while encouraging student choice of ambulatory and community settings. Assignment questions included: reasons for choosing elective; whether learning objectives were met; influence of elective on career choice; and unique elective experiences. Iterative review, coding, analysis and indexing of assignments were carried out to identify themes and corroborate findings. Emergent themes included: positive views of experience; transferable knowledge and skills; and influencer of future education and career choices. Although students were encouraged to choose clerkship experiences outside the conventional curricular model, most students chose the elective to clarify future career decisions. This qualitative descriptive study highlights the influence of highly regarded, free choice clerkship elective experiences in the career decision making process in medical education. Further examination of the details of clerkship elective experiences which influence career choice is recommended.

  5. Study of the Voluntary Public School Choice Program. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Ahonen, Pirkko S.

    2008-01-01

    The Voluntary Public School Choice (VPSC) Program supports the emergence and growth of choice initiatives across the country, by assisting states and local school districts in developing innovative strategies to expand public school choice options for students. This report contains the final assessment of the first five years of the VPSC Program…

  6. The School Choice Market in China: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoxin

    2013-01-01

    Background: In contrast to the top-down government-designated school choice programmes in many countries, e.g. in the UK and USA in particular, school choice in the Chinese context is a bottom-up movement initiated by parents and is characterised by the payment of a substantial "choice fee" to the preferred school, and by competition by…

  7. The School Choice Market in China: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoxin

    2013-01-01

    Background: In contrast to the top-down government-designated school choice programmes in many countries, e.g. in the UK and USA in particular, school choice in the Chinese context is a bottom-up movement initiated by parents and is characterised by the payment of a substantial "choice fee" to the preferred school, and by competition by…

  8. Remote rural women's choice of birthplace and transfer experiences in rural Otago and Southland New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jean; Foureur, Maralyn; Skinner, Joan

    2017-09-01

    Birth in primary midwife-led maternity units has been demonstrated to be a safe choice for well women anticipating a normal birth. The incidence of serious perinatal outcomes for these women is comparable to similarly low risk women, who choose to birth in hospital. New Zealand women have a choice of Lead Maternity Carer (LMC) and birthplace; home, primary birthing unit, or a base hospital, though not all women may have all these choices available locally. Women in rural and rural remote areas can also choose to birth in their rural primary maternity unit. A percentage of these women (approx. 15-17%) will require transfer during labour, an event which can cause distress and often loss of midwifery continuity of care. To explore retrospectively the choice of birth place decisions and the labour and birth experiences of a sample of women resident in remotely zoned, rural areas of the lower South Island of New Zealand. A purposive sample of women living in remote rural areas, recruited by advertising in local newspapers and flyers. Individual semi-structured interviews were digitally recorded using a pragmatic interpretive approach. The data (transcripts and field notes) were analysed using thematic and content analysis. Ethical approval was obtained from the Health and Disability Ethics Committee (HEDC) MEC/06/05/045. Thirteen women consented to participate. Each was resident in a remote rural area having given birth in the previous 18 months. The women had been well during their pregnancies and at the onset of labour had anticipated a spontaneous vaginal birth. Rural remote zoned areas in Otago and Southland in the South Island of New Zealand FINDINGS: Five women planned to birth in a regional hospital and eight chose their nearest rural primary maternity unit. All of the women were aware of the possibility of transfer and had made their decision about their birthplace based on their perception of their personal safety, and in consideration of their distance from

  9. Prioritising health service innovation investments using public preferences: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Seda; Thompson, Carl

    2014-08-28

    Prioritising scarce resources for investment in innovation by publically funded health systems is unavoidable. Many healthcare systems wish to foster transparency and accountability in the decisions they make by incorporating the public in decision-making processes. This paper presents a unique conceptual approach exploring the public's preferences for health service innovations by viewing healthcare innovations as 'bundles' of characteristics. This decompositional approach allows policy-makers to compare numerous competing health service innovations without repeatedly administering surveys for specific innovation choices. A Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) was used to elicit preferences. Individuals chose from presented innovation options that they believe the UK National Health Service (NHS) should invest the most in. Innovations differed according to: (i) target population; (ii) target age; (iii) implementation time; (iv) uncertainty associated with their likely effects; (v) potential health benefits; and, (vi) cost to a taxpayer. This approach fosters multidimensional decision-making, rather than imposing a single decision criterion (e.g., cost, target age) in prioritisation. Choice data was then analysed using scale-adjusted Latent Class models to investigate variability in preferences and scale and valuations amongst respondents. Three latent classes with considerable heterogeneity in the preferences were present. Each latent class is composed of two consumer subgroups varying in the level of certainty in their choices. All groups preferred scientifically proven innovations, those with potential health benefits that cost less. There were, however, some important differences in their preferences for innovation investment choices: Class-1 (54%) prefers innovations benefitting adults and young people and does not prefer innovations targeting people with 'drug addiction' and 'obesity'. Class- 2 (34%) prefers innovations targeting 'cancer' patients only and has

  10. Investigating Choice Experiments for Preferences of Older People (ICEPOP): evaluative spaces in health economics.

    PubMed

    Coast, Joanna; Flynn, Terry; Sutton, Eileen; Al-Janabi, Hareth; Vosper, Jane; Lavender, Sarita; Louviere, Jordan; Peters, Tim

    2008-10-01

    This paper deals with three concerns about the evaluative framework that is currently dominant within health economics. These concerns are: that the evaluative framework is concerned entirely with health; that the evaluative framework has an individualistic focus on patients alone; and that the methods used to estimate 'health' within the current evaluative framework could be improved both in terms of the generation of descriptive systems and in using valuation methods that rely less on people's ability to express their preferences on a cardinal scale. In exploring these issues the Investigating Choice Experiments for Preferences of Older People (ICEPOP) programme has explicitly focused on both the topic of older people and the methods of discrete choice experiments. A capability index has been developed and attributes for an economic measure of end-of-life care are currently being generated, providing the possibility of extending the evaluative framework beyond health alone. A measure of carer's experience and a framework for extending measurement in end-of-life care to loved ones are both also in development, thus extending the evaluative framework beyond the patient alone. Rigorous qualitative methods employing an iterative approach have been developed for use in constructing attributes, and best-worst scaling has been utilized to reduce task complexity and provide insights into heterogeneity. There are a number of avenues for further research in all these areas, but in particular there is need for greater attention to be paid to the theory underlying the evaluative framework within health economics.

  11. Understanding consumer preferences in the context of managed competition: evidence from a choice experiment in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Antonio J; Ruiz, Fernando; Bridges, John F P; Amaya, Jeannette L; Buttorff, Christine; Quiroga, Angélica M

    2012-03-01

    In many countries, health insurance coverage is the primary way for individuals to access care. Governments can support access through social insurance programmes; however, after a certain period, governments struggle to achieve universal coverage. Evidence suggests that complex individual behaviour may play a role. Using a choice experiment, this research explored consumer preferences for health insurance in Colombia. We also evaluated whether preferences differed across consumers with differing demographic and health status factors. A household field experiment was conducted in Bogotá in 2010. The sample consisted of 109 uninsured and 133 low-income insured individuals. Each individual evaluated 12 pair-wise comparisons of hypothetical health plans. We focused on six characteristics of health insurance: premium, out-of-pocket expenditure, chronic condition coverage, quality of care, family coverage and sick leave. A main effects orthogonal design was used to derive the 72 scenarios used in the choice experiment. Parameters were estimated using conditional logit models. Since price data were included, we estimated respondents' willingness to pay for characteristics. Consumers valued health benefits and family coverage more than other attributes. Additionally, differences in preferences can be exploited to increase coverage. The willingness to pay for benefits may partially cover the average cost of providing them. Policy makers might be able to encourage those insured via the subsidized system to enrol in the next level of the social health insurance scheme through expanding benefits to family members and expanding the level of chronic condition coverage.

  12. Farmers' Preferences for PES Contracts to Adopt Silvopastoral Systems in Southern Ecuador, Revealed Through a Choice Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raes, Leander; Speelman, Stijn; Aguirre, Nikolay

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates farmers' preferences to participate in payment contracts to adopt silvopastoral systems in Ecuador. A choice experiment was used to elicit preferences between different contract attributes, including differing payment amounts and land management requirements. The research was carried out in the buffer zone of Podocarpus National Park in Southern Ecuador, an area where most land is dedicated to cattle husbandry. A choice experiment was conducted to measure farmers' interest in different types of contracts. Based on existing incentive programs, contract choices varied with respect to the type of silvopastoral system, extra land-use requirements, payment levels and contract duration. In addition, contracts differed with regards to access by cattle to streams. Although the farmers did not show strong preferences for every contract attribute, the majority of farmers in the area showed interest in the proposed contracts. A latent class model identified three classes of respondents, based on their preferences for different contracts attributes or the "business as usual" option. The results suggest that farmland area, agricultural income, and landowners' perceptions of environmental problems provide a partial explanation for the heterogeneity observed in the choices for specific contracts. Participation might increase if contracts were targeted at specific groups of farmers, such as those identified through our latent class model. Offering flexible contracts with varying additional requirements within the same scheme, involving farmers from the start in payments for environmental services design, and combining payments for environmental services with integrated conservation and development projects may be a better way to convince more farmers to adopt silvopastoral systems.

  13. Farmers' Preferences for PES Contracts to Adopt Silvopastoral Systems in Southern Ecuador, Revealed Through a Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Raes, Leander; Speelman, Stijn; Aguirre, Nikolay

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates farmers' preferences to participate in payment contracts to adopt silvopastoral systems in Ecuador. A choice experiment was used to elicit preferences between different contract attributes, including differing payment amounts and land management requirements. The research was carried out in the buffer zone of Podocarpus National Park in Southern Ecuador, an area where most land is dedicated to cattle husbandry. A choice experiment was conducted to measure farmers' interest in different types of contracts. Based on existing incentive programs, contract choices varied with respect to the type of silvopastoral system, extra land-use requirements, payment levels and contract duration. In addition, contracts differed with regards to access by cattle to streams. Although the farmers did not show strong preferences for every contract attribute, the majority of farmers in the area showed interest in the proposed contracts. A latent class model identified three classes of respondents, based on their preferences for different contracts attributes or the "business as usual" option. The results suggest that farmland area, agricultural income, and landowners' perceptions of environmental problems provide a partial explanation for the heterogeneity observed in the choices for specific contracts. Participation might increase if contracts were targeted at specific groups of farmers, such as those identified through our latent class model. Offering flexible contracts with varying additional requirements within the same scheme, involving farmers from the start in payments for environmental services design, and combining payments for environmental services with integrated conservation and development projects may be a better way to convince more farmers to adopt silvopastoral systems.

  14. Qualitative Assessment of the Application of a Discrete Choice Experiment With Community Health Workers in Uganda: Aligning Incentives With Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Brunie, Aurélie; Chen, Mario; Akol, Angela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Maximizing the benefits of community health worker (CHW) programs requires strategies for improving motivation, performance, and retention. Discrete choice experiments (DCE) are increasingly used to inform policy response to health workforce shortages in rural areas, and may be of value in the context of CHW programs. Participants are presented with pairs of hypothetical jobs that are described by job attributes with varying levels and are asked what their preferred job is within each pair. Responses are then analyzed quantitatively to obtain information on what attributes are important to participants. We conducted a qualitative assessment to examine the appropriateness and validity of applying a DCE to a new population of CHWs with lower literacy. Methods: In 2011, we conducted a mixed-method study with CHWs in Uganda, consisting of 183 surveys and 43 in-depth interviews (IDIs). The DCE was administered to both survey and IDI participants. This article reports on the qualitative assessment of the implementation of the DCE. We compare DCE responses between survey and IDI participants to determine whether administering the DCE in a qualitative (IDI) context altered responses. We then present additional information collected on CHWs' decision-making processes and their experiences with the DCE in the IDIs. Results: Choices made by IDI participants were consistent with the choices made by survey participants. In-depth exploration of CHWs' observations in answering the DCE suggest that, overall, CHWs comprehended the DCE exercise and made reasoned choices. However, the data revealed some level of cognitive difficulty and highlighted some design and implementation challenges that are important to consider, particularly when applying a DCE to populations with lower literacy. These include the need to keep the number of attributes small; to choose levels that are realistic yet show sufficient range; and to clearly define attributes and their levels

  15. Qualitative Assessment of the Application of a Discrete Choice Experiment With Community Health Workers in Uganda: Aligning Incentives With Preferences.

    PubMed

    Brunie, Aurélie; Chen, Mario; Akol, Angela

    2016-12-23

    Maximizing the benefits of community health worker (CHW) programs requires strategies for improving motivation, performance, and retention. Discrete choice experiments (DCE) are increasingly used to inform policy response to health workforce shortages in rural areas, and may be of value in the context of CHW programs. Participants are presented with pairs of hypothetical jobs that are described by job attributes with varying levels and are asked what their preferred job is within each pair. Responses are then analyzed quantitatively to obtain information on what attributes are important to participants. We conducted a qualitative assessment to examine the appropriateness and validity of applying a DCE to a new population of CHWs with lower literacy. In 2011, we conducted a mixed-method study with CHWs in Uganda, consisting of 183 surveys and 43 in-depth interviews (IDIs). The DCE was administered to both survey and IDI participants. This article reports on the qualitative assessment of the implementation of the DCE. We compare DCE responses between survey and IDI participants to determine whether administering the DCE in a qualitative (IDI) context altered responses. We then present additional information collected on CHWs' decision-making processes and their experiences with the DCE in the IDIs. Choices made by IDI participants were consistent with the choices made by survey participants. In-depth exploration of CHWs' observations in answering the DCE suggest that, overall, CHWs comprehended the DCE exercise and made reasoned choices. However, the data revealed some level of cognitive difficulty and highlighted some design and implementation challenges that are important to consider, particularly when applying a DCE to populations with lower literacy. These include the need to keep the number of attributes small; to choose levels that are realistic yet show sufficient range; and to clearly define attributes and their levels. DCEs can be an appropriate approach

  16. What do UK doctors in training value in a post? A discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Jennifer; Johnston, Peter; Watson, Verity; Krucien, Nicolas; Skåtun, Diane

    2016-02-01

    Many individual and job-related factors are known to influence medical careers decision making. Medical trainees' (residents) views of which characteristics of a training post are important to them have been extensively studied but how they trade-off these characteristics is under-researched. Such information is crucial for the development of effective policies to enhance recruitment and retention. Our aim was to investigate the strength of UK foundation doctors' and trainees' preferences for training post characteristics in terms of monetary value. We used an online questionnaire study incorporating a discrete choice experiment (DCE), distributed to foundation programme doctors and doctors in training across all specialty groups within three UK regions, in August-October 2013. The main outcome measures were monetary values for training-post characteristics, based on willingness to forgo and willingness to accept extra income for a change in each job characteristic, calculated from regression coefficients. The questionnaire was answered by 1323 trainees. Good working conditions were the most influential characteristics of a training position. Trainee doctors would need to be compensated by an additional 49.8% above the average earnings within their specialty to move from a post with good working conditions to one with poor working conditions. A training post with limited rather than good opportunities for one's spouse or partner would require compensation of 38.4% above the average earnings within their specialty. Trainees would require compensation of 30.8% above the average earnings within their specialty to move from a desirable to a less desirable locality. These preferences varied only to a limited extent according to individual characteristics. Trainees place most value on good working conditions, good opportunities for their partners and desirable geographical location when making career-related decisions. This intelligence can be used to develop alternative

  17. Factors that influence midwifery students in Ghana when deciding where to practice: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Ageyi-Baffour, Peter; Rominski, Sarah; Nakua, Emmanuel; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Lori, Jody R

    2013-05-04

    Mal-distribution of the health workforce with a strong bias for urban living is a major constraint to expanding midwifery services in Ghana. According to the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDG) report, the high risk of dying in pregnancy or childbirth continues in Africa. Maternal death is currently estimated at 350 per 100,000, partially a reflection of the low rates of professional support during birth. Many women in rural areas of Ghana give birth alone or with a non-skilled attendant. Midwives are key healthcare providers in achieving the MDGs, specifically in reducing maternal mortality by three-quarters and reducing by two-thirds the under 5 child mortality rate by 2015. This quantitative research study used a computerized structured survey containing a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to quantify the importance of different incentives and policies to encourage service to deprived, rural and remote areas by upper-year midwifery students following graduation. Using a hierarchical Bayes procedure we estimated individual and mean utility parameters for two hundred and ninety eight third year midwifery students from two of the largest midwifery training schools in Ghana. Midwifery students in our sample identified: 1) study leave after two years of rural service; 2) an advanced work environment with reliable electricity, appropriate technology and a constant drug supply; and 3) superior housing (2 bedroom, 1 bathroom, kitchen, living room, not shared) as the top three motivating factors to accept a rural posting. Addressing the motivating factors for rural postings among midwifery students who are about to graduate and enter the workforce could significantly contribute to the current mal-distribution of the health workforce.

  18. Adolescent values for immunisation programs in Australia: A discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Chen, Gang; Ratcliffe, Julie; Afzali, Hossein Haji Ali; Giles, Lynne; Marshall, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The importance of adolescent engagement in health decisions and public health programs such as immunisation is becoming increasingly recognised. Understanding adolescent preferences and further identifying barriers and facilitators for immunisation acceptance is critical to the success of adolescent immunisation programs. This study applied a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to assess vaccination preferences in adolescents. This study was conducted as a cross-sectional, national online survey in Australian adolescents. The DCE survey evaluated adolescent vaccination preferences. Six attributes were assessed including disease severity, target for protection, price, location of vaccination provision, potential side effects and vaccine delivery method. A mixed logit model was used to analyse DCE data. This survey was conducted between December 2014 and January 2015. Of 800 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years, stronger preferences were observed overall for: vaccination in the case of a life threatening illness (p<0.001), lower price vaccinations (p<0.001), mild but common side effects (p = 0.004), delivery via a skin patch (p<0.001) and being administered by a family practitioner (p<0.001). Participants suggested that they and their families would be willing to pay AU$394.28 (95%CI: AU$348.40 to AU$446.92) more for a vaccine targeting a life threatening illness than a mild-moderate illness, AU$37.94 (95%CI: AU$19.22 to AU$57.39) more for being vaccinated at a family practitioner clinic than a council immunisation clinic, AU$23.01 (95%CI: AU$7.12 to AU$39.24) more for common but mild and resolving side effects compared to rare but serious side effects, and AU$51.80 (95%CI: AU$30.42 to AU$73.70) more for delivery via a skin patch than injection. Consideration of adolescent preferences may result in improved acceptance of, engagement in and uptake of immunisation programs targeted for this age group.

  19. Contraceptive preferences and use among auto artisanal workers in the informal sector of Kumasi, Ghana: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Boahemaa, Mary Yaa; Addy, Ernestine A

    2015-04-12

    Contraceptive uptake in Ghana, especially in the Ashanti region remains low. This may be partly due to products' characteristics and choice which are influenced by attribute utility trade-offs by consumers in determining which method offers the optimal combinations, given the needs and desires of the individuals making the choice. The study sought to determine how specific attributes of contraceptives influence artisanal auto mechanics' stated preferences for a hypothetical contraceptive use in the Tafo-Suame industrial area of Kumasi, Ghana. A discrete choice experiment was conducted with artisanal auto mechanics in the study area from May to September 2011. Based on the summary of the attributes from the focus group discussion and in-depth interviews preceded administration of structured questionnaire, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) was created. The attributes used were; side effects, reversibility, ease of use, ability to prevent both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI's), price and privacy in acquiring and attractiveness of the method. A total of 340 consented respondents aged 15 to 49 years participated in the study. Data were entered in Access and Sawtooth software SSI Web CAPi module and then exported to Stata for analysis. The study showed a universal (99.4%) knowledge on contraception, ever used 87% and currently using a method, 58%. The study revealed that methods' reversibility (β = 21.74; 95% CI: 20.17, 23.3), minimal allergic reaction (β = 13.93; 95% CI: 12.8, 15.05) and no effect on blood pressure (β = 12.71; 95% CI: 11.62, 13.79), were strongly associated with contraceptive preference and use. While contraceptives' ability to prevent "only pregnancy", (β = -15.13: 95% CI: -16.2, -14.02; "only STI's") (β = -11.65; 95% CI: -11.84, -11.46); and interrupt during sexual activity (β = -4.26; 95% CI: -5.19, -3.34), had large negative influence on contraceptive preference and use. The study has documented the

  20. Order of Presentation of Dimensions Does Not Systematically Bias Utility Weights from a Discrete Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Norman, Richard; Kemmler, Georg; Viney, Rosalie; Pickard, A Simon; Gamper, Eva; Holzner, Bernhard; Nerich, Virginie; King, Madeleine

    2016-12-01

    Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are increasingly used to value aspects of health. An issue with their adoption is that results may be sensitive to the order in which dimensions of health are presented in the valuation task. Findings in the literature regarding order effects are discordant at present. To quantify the magnitude of order effect of quality-of-life (QOL) dimensions within the context of a DCE designed to produce country-specific value sets for the EORTC Quality of Life Utility Measure-Core 10 dimensions (QLU-C10D), a new utility instrument derived from the widely used cancer-specific QOL questionnaire, the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30. The DCE comprised 960 choice sets, divided into 60 versions of 16 choice sets, with each respondent assigned to a version. Within each version, the order of QLU-C10D QOL dimensions was randomized, followed by life duration in the last position. The DCE was completed online by 2053 individuals in France and Germany. We analyzed the data with a series of conditional logit models, adjusted for repeated choices within respondent. We used F tests to assess order effects, correcting for multiple hypothesis testing. Each F test failed to reject the null hypothesis of no position effect: 1) all QOL order positions considered jointly; 2) last QOL position only; 3) first QOL position only. Furthermore, the order coefficients were small relative to those of the QLU-C10D QOL dimension levels. The order of presentation of QOL dimensions within a DCE designed to provide utility weights for the QLU-C10D had little effect on level coefficients of those QOL dimensions. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Demand and willingness-to-pay for bed nets in Tanzania: results from a choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Gingrich, Chris D; Ricotta, Emily; Kahwa, Amos; Kahabuka, Catherine; Koenker, Hannah

    2017-07-14

    Universal coverage campaigns for long-lasting insecticide-treated nets do not always reach the goal of one net for every two household members, and even when ownership of at least one net per household is high, many households may not own enough nets. The retail market provides these households options for replacing or increasing the number of nets they own with products that best fit their needs since a variety of net shapes, sizes, and colours are available. Hence, it is important to understand the factors affecting private net demand. This study explores private demand for nets in Tanzania using a discrete choice experiment. The experiment provides participants the option to buy nets with their own money, and thus should prove more accurate than a hypothetical survey of net preferences. Nearly 800 participants sampled in two regions showed an overall strong demand for nets, with 40% choosing to buy a net across all seven combinations of net prices and characteristics such as size, shape, and insecticide treatment. Only 8% of all participants chose not to buy a single net. A key factor influencing demand was whether a participant's household currently owned sufficient nets for all members, with rural participants showing lower net coverage and greater demand than urban participants. Both poor and less poor households showed strong evidence of making purchase decisions based on more than price alone. Mean willingness-to-pay values for a net started at US$1.10 and grew by US$0.50-1.40 for various attributes such as rectangular shape, large size, and insecticide treatment. The impact of price on demand was negative but small, with elasticity values between -0.25 and -0.45. The results suggest that private demand for nets in Tanzania could potentially supplement future coverage campaigns. Net manufacturers and retailers should advertise and promote consumers' preferred net attributes to improve sales and further expand net access and coverage. To overcome household

  2. Becoming a nurse: a meta-study of early professional socialization and career choice in nursing.

    PubMed

    Price, Sheri L

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a report of a meta-study of early professional socialization and career choice in nursing. The current and growing shortage of nurses is a global issue, and nursing recruitment and retention are recognized priorities internationally. The future of nursing will lie in the ability to recruit and retain the next generation to the profession. Studies were identified through a search of the CINAHL, PsycInfo, Sociological Abstracts, PubMed; Medline and Embase databases from 1990 to 2007. Studies were included if they gave insight into the experience of choosing nursing as a career, used qualitative methodology and methods, and were published in English. Analysis was undertaken using Paterson et al.'s framework for qualitative meta-synthesis. Ten primary studies were included in the review. Their methodologies included: ethnography (4); descriptive qualitative (3); grounded theory (2); and phenomenology (1). The location of the research was Canada (3), United Kingdom (2), United States of America (2), Australia (1), Japan (1) and Sweden (1). Three main themes were identified: influence of ideals; paradox of caring and role of others. Career choice and early professional socialization are influenced by multiple factors. In future recruitment and retention strategies to address the critical nursing shortage, it is important to consider the role of mentors, peers and role models in the formulation of career expectations, and career choice decisions. It is also necessary to consider the role of mentors, peers and role models in the formulation of career expectations, and career choice decisions.

  3. Designing a Weight Gain Prevention Trial for Young Adults: The CHOICES Study

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Moe, Stacey G.; Nanney, M. Susie; Laska, Melissa N.; Linde, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Young adults are at risk for weight gain. Little is known about how to design weight control programs to meet the needs of young adults and few theory-based interventions have been evaluated in a randomized control trial. The Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings (CHOICES) study was funded to create a technology-based program for 2-year community college students to help prevent unhealthy weight gain. The purpose of this paper is to: 1) provide a brief background on weight-related interventions in young adults; 2) describe the study design for the CHOICES study, the conceptual model guiding the research and the CHOICES intervention; and 3) discuss implications of this research for health educators. Translation to Health Education Practice Our experiences from the CHOICES study will be useful in suggesting other theory-based models and intervention strategies that might be helpful in programs attempting to prevent unhealthy weight gain in young adults. In addition, this paper discusses important considerations for working with 2-year colleges on this type of health promotion work. PMID:24910855

  4. Influence of disease activity on RA treatment choices in countries with restricted access to expensive, innovative drugs: a discrete choice experiment among rheumatologists.

    PubMed

    Hifinger, Monika; Hiligsmann, Mickael; Ramiro, Sofia; Watson, Verity; Berghea, Florian; Péntek, Márta; Keat, Andrew; Severens, Johan L; Fautrel, Bruno; Boonen, Annelies

    2017-01-01

    To assess the influence of disease activity of patients with rheumatoid arthritis on treatment choices of rheumatologists in countries with restricted access to expensive, innovative drugs. Rheumatologists from Hungary, Romania and UK were invited to complete two consecutive discrete choice experiments with hypothetical drug treatments for two different patient profiles: high and moderate disease activity. Rheumatologists were asked to choose repeatedly between two unlabelled treatment options that differed in five attributes: efficacy (expected improvement and achieved disease activity state), safety (probability of serious adverse events), patient's preference (level of agreement), total medication costs and cost-effectiveness. A heteroscedastic discrete choice model using interaction terms between attribute levels and patient profiles (binary variable) was used to assess the preferences of rheumatologists towards each attribute and the influence of the patient profile. Overall, 148 rheumatologists completed the survey (46% females, mean age 49 years, 49% academic). For both patient profiles, efficacy dominated the treatment choice over patient's preference, safety and economic aspects. However, for patients with high compared with moderate disease activity, the importance of drug efficacy significantly increased (from 48% for moderate to 57% for high disease activity), whereas the importance of patient's preference significantly decreased (from 15% to 11%). No significant differences were observed for economic and safety considerations. Rheumatologists were willing to give up some efficacy to account for patient's preference when choosing treatments for patients with moderate compared to high disease activity. Disease activity however did not influence importance of economic aspects in treatment choices.

  5. Influence of disease activity on RA treatment choices in countries with restricted access to expensive, innovative drugs: a discrete choice experiment among rheumatologists

    PubMed Central

    Hifinger, Monika; Hiligsmann, Mickael; Ramiro, Sofia; Watson, Verity; Berghea, Florian; Péntek, Márta; Keat, Andrew; Severens, Johan L; Fautrel, Bruno; Boonen, Annelies

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the influence of disease activity of patients with rheumatoid arthritis on treatment choices of rheumatologists in countries with restricted access to expensive, innovative drugs. Methods Rheumatologists from Hungary, Romania and UK were invited to complete two consecutive discrete choice experiments with hypothetical drug treatments for two different patient profiles: high and moderate disease activity. Rheumatologists were asked to choose repeatedly between two unlabelled treatment options that differed in five attributes: efficacy (expected improvement and achieved disease activity state), safety (probability of serious adverse events), patient's preference (level of agreement), total medication costs and cost-effectiveness. A heteroscedastic discrete choice model using interaction terms between attribute levels and patient profiles (binary variable) was used to assess the preferences of rheumatologists towards each attribute and the influence of the patient profile. Results Overall, 148 rheumatologists completed the survey (46% females, mean age 49 years, 49% academic). For both patient profiles, efficacy dominated the treatment choice over patient's preference, safety and economic aspects. However, for patients with high compared with moderate disease activity, the importance of drug efficacy significantly increased (from 48% for moderate to 57% for high disease activity), whereas the importance of patient's preference significantly decreased (from 15% to 11%). No significant differences were observed for economic and safety considerations. Conclusion Rheumatologists were willing to give up some efficacy to account for patient's preference when choosing treatments for patients with moderate compared to high disease activity. Disease activity however did not influence importance of economic aspects in treatment choices. PMID:28912960

  6. Impact of Survey Administration Mode on the Results of a Health-Related Discrete Choice Experiment: Online and Paper Comparison.

    PubMed

    Determann, Domino; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Steyerberg, Ewout W; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; de Wit, G Ardine

    Electronic data collection is increasingly being used for discrete choice experiments (DCEs). To study whether paper or electronic administration results in measurement effects. Respondents were drawn from the same sample frame (an Internet panel) and completed a nearly identical DCE survey either online or on paper during the same period. A DCE on preferences for basic health insurance served as a case study. We used panel mixed logit models for the analysis. In total, 898 respondents completed the survey: 533 respondents completed the survey online, whereas 365 respondents returned the paper survey. There were no significant differences with respect to sociodemographic characteristics between the respondents in both samples. The median response time was shorter for the online sample than for the paper sample, and a smaller proportion of respondents from the online sample were satisfied with the number of choice sets. Although some willingness- to-pay estimates were higher for the online sample, the elicited preferences for basic health insurance characteristics were similar between both modes of administration. We find no indication that online surveys yield inferior results compared with paper-based surveys, whereas the price per respondent is lower for online surveys. Researchers might want to include fewer choice sets per respondent when collecting DCE data online. Because our findings are based on a nonrandomized DCE that covers one health domain only, research in other domains is needed to support our findings. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding women's choices to enroll in engineering: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eileen

    The underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) college programs is a troublesome local, national and global phenomenon. The topic of this doctoral thesis specifically focused on the underrepresentation of women in the field of engineering and more specifically on the factors that women may perceive as chiefly motivating them to choose engineering as a college major. By not choosing to major in engineering, women forego intellectual opportunities and the financial rewards that engineering careers can provide. Their absence means that the field of engineering also suffers from the lack of contributions from a diverse workforce. Women who graduated from a specific community college's engineering program in the United States were the focus of this qualitative study. Grounded in achievement motivation theory, and in particular expectancy-value theory of academic and career choice, this research was guided by two questions: How do women perceive their academic self-efficacies and expectations for success as influencing their decisions to enroll in engineering? How do women perceive their subjective task values as influencing their decisions to enroll in engineering? This single, holistic case study with one main unit of analysis incorporated a written questionnaire, individual interviews and a focus group meeting as the three instruments used to collect data. The qualitative data, cyclically coded, shed light on the complex mechanisms of academic and career choice.

  8. Experiences of pathways, outcomes and choice after severe traumatic brain injury under no-fault versus fault-based motor accident insurance.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Rosamund; Foster, Michele; Fleming, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    To explore experiences of pathways, outcomes and choice after motor vehicle accident (MVA) acquired severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) under fault-based vs no-fault motor accident insurance (MAI). In-depth qualitative interviews with 10 adults with sTBI and 17 family members examined experiences of pathways, outcomes and choice and how these were shaped by both compensable status and interactions with service providers and service funders under a no-fault and a fault-based MAI scheme. Participants were sampled to provide variation in compensable status, injury severity, time post-injury and metropolitan vs regional residency. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed to identify dominant themes under each scheme. Dominant themes emerging under the no-fault scheme included: (a) rehabilitation-focused pathways; (b) a sense of security; and (c) bounded choices. Dominant themes under the fault-based scheme included: (a) resource-rationed pathways; (b) pressured lives; and (c) unknown choices. Participants under the no-fault scheme experienced superior access to specialist rehabilitation services, greater surety of support and more choice over how rehabilitation and life-time care needs were met. This study provides valuable insights into individual experiences under fault-based vs no-fault MAI. Implications for an injury insurance scheme design to optimize pathways, outcomes and choice after sTBI are discussed.

  9. Using discrete choice experiments to go beyond clinical outcomes when evaluating clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Mandy; Major, Kirsten; Skåtun, Diane

    2005-08-01

    This study builds on the results of a randomized controlled trial concerned with examining the effect of reducing waiting times on the health status of patients referred for non-urgent rheumatology opinion. No difference in clinical outcomes was found between a 'fast-track' and 'ordinary' appointment system. This suggests that rationing by waiting times is not detrimental to health. However, such an approach ignores the value patients attach to reducing waiting time. To estimate the monetary value of reducing waiting time, as well as changes in duration of appointment and the introduction of a pain management service, in the provision of rheumatology services. Discrete choice experiment (DCE). The main outpatient clinic of the rheumatology service for the Lothian and Borders region. 262 patients who had received a specialist rheumatology opinion--73 had received fast-track treatment, 65 standard care and 124 were non-trial patients. A response rate of 71% was achieved. Patients valued a 9-week reduction in waiting time at 131 pounds sterling. However, the introduction of a pain management service was valued at 209 pounds sterling. Thus, the latter is of more value to respondents. Evidence was also found of the internal consistency and theoretical validity of the DCE approach. The reduction of waiting times is a central plank of NHS policy. Whilst a reduction in waiting time is of value, a pain management service is of more benefit than a 9-week reduction in waiting time. DCE were shown to be a potentially useful technique for valuing different aspects of health care interventions.

  10. Public acceptability of population-level interventions to reduce alcohol consumption: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Pechey, Rachel; Burge, Peter; Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Suhrcke, Marc; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-07-01

    Public acceptability influences policy action, but the most acceptable policies are not always the most effective. This discrete choice experiment provides a novel investigation of the acceptability of different interventions to reduce alcohol consumption and the effect of information on expected effectiveness, using a UK general population sample of 1202 adults. Policy options included high, medium and low intensity versions of: Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) for alcohol; reducing numbers of alcohol retail outlets; and regulating alcohol advertising. Outcomes of interventions were predicted for: alcohol-related crimes; alcohol-related hospital admissions; and heavy drinkers. First, the models obtained were used to predict preferences if expected outcomes of interventions were not taken into account. In such models around half of participants or more were predicted to prefer the status quo over implementing outlet reductions or higher intensity MUP. Second, preferences were predicted when information on expected outcomes was considered, with most participants now choosing any given intervention over the status quo. Acceptability of MUP interventions increased by the greatest extent: from 43% to 63% preferring MUP of £1 to the status quo. Respondents' own drinking behaviour also influenced preferences, with around 90% of non-drinkers being predicted to choose all interventions over the status quo, and with more moderate than heavy drinkers favouring a given policy over the status quo. Importantly, the study findings suggest public acceptability of alcohol interventions is dependent on both the nature of the policy and its expected effectiveness. Policy-makers struggling to mobilise support for hitherto unpopular but promising policies should consider giving greater prominence to their expected outcomes.

  11. Acceptability of Financial Incentives for Health Behaviours: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Emma L.; Becker, Frauke; Ternent, Laura; Sniehotta, Falko F.; McColl, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy behaviours are important determinants of health and disease, but many people find it difficult to perform these behaviours. Systematic reviews support the use of personal financial incentives to encourage healthy behaviours. There is concern that financial incentives may be unacceptable to the public, those delivering services and policymakers, but this has been poorly studied. Without widespread acceptability, financial incentives are unlikely to be widely implemented. We sought to answer two questions: what are the relative preferences of UK adults for attributes of financial incentives for healthy behaviours? Do preferences vary according to the respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics? Methods We conducted an online discrete choice experiment. Participants were adult members of a market research panel living in the UK selected using quota sampling. Preferences were examined for financial incentives for: smoking cessation, regular physical activity, attendance for vaccination, and attendance for screening. Attributes of interest (and their levels) were: type of incentive (none, cash, shopping vouchers or lottery tickets); value of incentive (a continuous variable); schedule of incentive (same value each week, or value increases as behaviour change is sustained); other information provided (none, written information, face-to-face discussion, or both); and recipients (all eligible individuals, people living in low-income households, or pregnant women). Results Cash or shopping voucher incentives were preferred as much as, or more than, no incentive in all cases. Lower value incentives and those offered to all eligible individuals were preferred. Preferences for additional information provided alongside incentives varied between behaviours. Younger participants and men were more likely to prefer incentives. There were no clear differences in preference according to educational attainment. Conclusions Cash or shopping voucher

  12. Acceptability of Financial Incentives for Health Behaviours: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Giles, Emma L; Becker, Frauke; Ternent, Laura; Sniehotta, Falko F; McColl, Elaine; Adams, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Healthy behaviours are important determinants of health and disease, but many people find it difficult to perform these behaviours. Systematic reviews support the use of personal financial incentives to encourage healthy behaviours. There is concern that financial incentives may be unacceptable to the public, those delivering services and policymakers, but this has been poorly studied. Without widespread acceptability, financial incentives are unlikely to be widely implemented. We sought to answer two questions: what are the relative preferences of UK adults for attributes of financial incentives for healthy behaviours? Do preferences vary according to the respondents' socio-demographic characteristics? We conducted an online discrete choice experiment. Participants were adult members of a market research panel living in the UK selected using quota sampling. Preferences were examined for financial incentives for: smoking cessation, regular physical activity, attendance for vaccination, and attendance for screening. Attributes of interest (and their levels) were: type of incentive (none, cash, shopping vouchers or lottery tickets); value of incentive (a continuous variable); schedule of incentive (same value each week, or value increases as behaviour change is sustained); other information provided (none, written information, face-to-face discussion, or both); and recipients (all eligible individuals, people living in low-income households, or pregnant women). Cash or shopping voucher incentives were preferred as much as, or more than, no incentive in all cases. Lower value incentives and those offered to all eligible individuals were preferred. Preferences for additional information provided alongside incentives varied between behaviours. Younger participants and men were more likely to prefer incentives. There were no clear differences in preference according to educational attainment. Cash or shopping voucher-type financial incentives for healthy behaviours are

  13. Public acceptability of population-level interventions to reduce alcohol consumption: A discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Pechey, Rachel; Burge, Peter; Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Suhrcke, Marc; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2014-01-01

    Public acceptability influences policy action, but the most acceptable policies are not always the most effective. This discrete choice experiment provides a novel investigation of the acceptability of different interventions to reduce alcohol consumption and the effect of information on expected effectiveness, using a UK general population sample of 1202 adults. Policy options included high, medium and low intensity versions of: Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) for alcohol; reducing numbers of alcohol retail outlets; and regulating alcohol advertising. Outcomes of interventions were predicted for: alcohol-related crimes; alcohol-related hospital admissions; and heavy drinkers. First, the models obtained were used to predict preferences if expected outcomes of interventions were not taken into account. In such models around half of participants or more were predicted to prefer the status quo over implementing outlet reductions or higher intensity MUP. Second, preferences were predicted when information on expected outcomes was considered, with most participants now choosing any given intervention over the status quo. Acceptability of MUP interventions increased by the greatest extent: from 43% to 63% preferring MUP of £1 to the status quo. Respondents' own drinking behaviour also influenced preferences, with around 90% of non-drinkers being predicted to choose all interventions over the status quo, and with more moderate than heavy drinkers favouring a given policy over the status quo. Importantly, the study findings suggest public acceptability of alcohol interventions is dependent on both the nature of the policy and its expected effectiveness. Policy-makers struggling to mobilise support for hitherto unpopular but promising policies should consider giving greater prominence to their expected outcomes. PMID:24858928

  14. Parental preferences for rotavirus vaccination in young children: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Bruijning-Verhagen, Patricia C J; Smit, Henriette A; de Wit, G Ardine

    2014-10-29

    This study aimed to identify characteristics that affect parental decisions about rotavirus vaccination, to determine the relative importance of those characteristics and subsequently to estimate vaccination coverage for different implementation strategies. A Discrete choice experiment (DCE) questionnaire was sent to the parents of 1250 newborns aged 6 weeks (response rate 37.3%). Mixed-logit models were used to estimate the relative importance of the five included rotavirus vaccine and implementation characteristics; vaccine effectiveness, frequency of severe side effects, protection duration, the healthcare facility that administrates vaccination and out-of-pocket costs. Based on the utility functions of the mixed-logit model, the potential vaccination coverage was estimated for different vaccine scenarios and implementation strategies. All characteristics, except for healthcare facility that administrates vaccination, influenced parental willingness to vaccinate their newborn against rotavirus. Parents were willing to trade 20.2 percentage points vaccine effectiveness for the lowest frequency of severe side effects (i.e., 1 in 1,000,000) or 20.8 percentage points for a higher protection duration. Potential vaccination coverage ranged between 22.7 and 86.2%, depending on vaccine scenario (i.e., vaccine effectiveness and protection duration) and implementation strategy (i.e., out-of-pocket costs and healthcare facility that administrates vaccination). When deciding about vaccination against rotavirus, parents are mostly driven by the out-of-pocket costs, vaccine effectiveness, protection duration, and frequency of severe side effects. The highest vaccination coverage is expected for a vaccine with high effectiveness and protection duration that is implemented within the current National Immunization Program context. Implementation of the same rotavirus vaccine in the free market will result in lowest coverage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using Discrete Choice Experiments to Inform the Benefit-Risk Assessment of Medicines: Are We Ready Yet?

    PubMed

    Vass, Caroline M; Payne, Katherine

    2017-05-23

    There is emerging interest in the use of discrete choice experiments as a means of quantifying the perceived balance between benefits and risks (quantitative benefit-risk assessment) of new healthcare interventions, such as medicines, under assessment by regulatory agencies. For stated preference data on benefit-risk assessment to be used in regulatory decision making, the methods to generate these data must be valid, reliable and capable of producing meaningful estimates understood by decision makers. Some reporting guidelines exist for discrete choice experiments, and for related methods such as conjoint analysis. However, existing guidelines focus on reporting standards, are general in focus and do not consider the requirements for using discrete choice experiments specifically for quantifying benefit-risk assessments in the context of regulatory decision making. This opinion piece outlines the current state of play in using discrete choice experiments for benefit-risk assessment and proposes key areas needing to be addressed to demonstrate that discrete choice experiments are an appropriate and valid stated preference elicitation method in this context. Methodological research is required to establish: how robust the results of discrete choice experiments are to formats and methods of risk communication; how information in the discrete choice experiment can be presented effectually to respondents; whose preferences should be elicited; the correct underlying utility function and analytical model; the impact of heterogeneity in preferences; and the generalisability of the results. We believe these methodological issues should be addressed, alongside developing a 'reference case', before agencies can safely and confidently use discrete choice experiments for quantitative benefit-risk assessment in the context of regulatory decision making for new medicines and healthcare products.

  16. Young People's Preferences for Family Planning Service Providers in Rural Malawi: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Michaels-Igbokwe, Christine; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Lagarde, Mylene; Chipeta, Effie; Cairns, John

    2015-01-01

    To quantify the impact of service provider characteristics on young people's choice of family planning (FP) service provider in rural Malawi in order to identify strategies for increasing access and uptake of FP among youth. A discrete choice experiment was developed to assess the relative impact of service characteristics on preferences for FP service providers among young people (aged 15-24). Four alternative providers were included (government facility, private facility, outreach and community based distribution of FP) and described by six attributes (the distance between participants' home and the service delivery point, frequency of service delivery, waiting time at the facility, service providers' attitude, availability of FP commodities and price). A random parameters logit model was used to estimate preferences for service providers and the likely uptake of services following the expansion of outreach and community based distribution (CBDA) services. In the choice experiment young people were twice as likely to choose a friendly provider (government service odds ratio [OR] = 2.45, p<0.01; private service OR = 1.99, p<0.01; CBDA OR = 1.88, p<0.01) and more than two to three times more likely to choose a provider with an adequate supply of FP commodities (government service OR = 2.48, p<0.01; private service OR = 2.33, p<0.01; CBDA = 3.85, p<0.01). Uptake of community based services was greater than facility based services across a variety of simulated service scenarios indicating that such services may be an effective means of expanding access for youth in rural areas and an important tool for increasing service uptake among youth. Ensuring that services are acceptable to young people may require additional training for service providers in order to ensure that all providers are friendly and non-judgemental when dealing with younger clients and to ensure that supplies are consistently available.

  17. Rescaling quality of life values from discrete choice experiments for use as QALYs: a cautionary tale

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Terry N; Louviere, Jordan J; Marley, Anthony AJ; Coast, Joanna; Peters, Tim J

    2008-01-01

    Background Researchers are increasingly investigating the potential for ordinal tasks such as ranking and discrete choice experiments to estimate QALY health state values. However, the assumptions of random utility theory, which underpin the statistical models used to provide these estimates, have received insufficient attention. In particular, the assumptions made about the decisions between living states and the death state are not satisfied, at least for some people. Estimated values are likely to be incorrectly anchored with respect to death (zero) in such circumstances. Methods Data from the Investigating Choice Experiments for the preferences of older people CAPability instrument (ICECAP) valuation exercise were analysed. The values (previously anchored to the worst possible state) were rescaled using an ordinal model proposed previously to estimate QALY-like values. Bootstrapping was conducted to vary artificially the proportion of people who conformed to the conventional random utility model underpinning the analyses. Results Only 26% of respondents conformed unequivocally to the assumptions of conventional random utility theory. At least 14% of respondents unequivocally violated the assumptions. Varying the relative proportions of conforming respondents in sensitivity analyses led to large changes in the estimated QALY values, particularly for lower-valued states. As a result these values could be either positive (considered to be better than death) or negative (considered to be worse than death). Conclusion Use of a statistical model such as conditional (multinomial) regression to anchor quality of life values from ordinal data to death is inappropriate in the presence of respondents who do not conform to the assumptions of conventional random utility theory. This is clearest when estimating values for that group of respondents observed in valuation samples who refuse to consider any living state to be worse than death: in such circumstances the model

  18. Proposal for a quantum delayed-choice experiment with a spin-mechanical setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng-Bo; Li, Fu-Li

    2016-10-01

    We describe an experimentally feasible protocol for performing a variant of the quantum delayed-choice experiment with massive objects. In this scheme, a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond driven by microwave fields is dispersively coupled to a massive mechanical resonator. A double-pulse Ramsey interferometer can be implemented with the spin-mechanical setup, where the second Ramsey microwave pulse drives the spin conditioned on the number states of the resonator. The probability for finding the NV center in definite spin states exhibits interference fringes when the mechanical resonator is prepared in a specific number state. On the other hand, the interference is destroyed if the mechanical resonator stays in some other number states. The wavelike and particlelike behavior of the NV spin can be superposed by preparing the mechanical resonator in a superposition of two distinct number states. Thus a quantum version of Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment could be implemented, allowing fundamental tests of quantum mechanics on a macroscopic scale.

  19. The best laid plans? Women's choices, expectations and experiences in childbirth.

    PubMed

    Malacrida, Claudia; Boulton, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    The past decades have seen a drastic increase in the medicalization of childbirth, evidenced by increasing Caesarean section rates in many Western countries. In a rare moment of congruence, alternative health-care providers, feminist advocates for women's health and, most recently, mainstream medical service providers have all expressed serious concerns about the rise in Caesarean section rates and women's roles in medicalization. These concerns stem from divergent philosophical positions as well as differing assumptions about the causes for increasing medicalization. Drawing on this debate, and using a feminist and governmentality framing of the problem, we interviewed 22 women who have recently had children about their birthing choices, their expectations and their birth experiences. The women's narratives revealed a disjuncture between their expectations of choosing, planning and achieving as natural a birth as possible, and their lived experiences of births that did not typically go to plan. They also reveal the disciplining qualities of both natural and medical discourses about birth and choice. Furthermore, their narratives counter assumptions that women, as ideal patient consumers, are driving medicalization.

  20. Similar preferences for ornamentation in opposite- and same-sex choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, G C; Leitão, A V; Funghi, C; Batalha, H R; Lopes, R J; Mota, P G

    2014-12-01

    Selection due to social interactions comprises competition over matings (sexual selection stricto sensu) plus other forms of social competition and cooperation. Sexual selection explains sex differences in ornamentation and in various other phenotypes, but does not easily explain cases where those phenotypes are similar in males and females. Understanding such similarities requires knowing how phenotypes influence nonsexual social interactions as well, which can be very important in gregarious animals, but whose role for phenotypic evolution has been overlooked. For example, 'mate choice' experiments often found preferences for ornamentation, but have not assessed whether those are strictly sexual or are general social preferences. Using choice experiments with a gregarious and mutually ornamented finch, the common waxbill (Estrilda astrild), we show that preferences for ornamentation in the opposite-sex also extend to same-sex interactions. Waxbills discriminated between opposite- and same-sex individuals, but most preferences for colour traits were similar when interacting with either sex. Similar preferences in sexual and nonsexual associations may be widespread in nature, either as social adaptations or as by-product of mate preferences. In either case, such preferences may set the stage for the evolution of mutual ornamentation and of various other similarities between the sexes.

  1. [Family and psychosocial variables in the choice of university studies].

    PubMed

    González-Pinto Arrillaga, A; Yllá Segura, L; Ortiz Jáuregi, A; Zupiria Gorostidi, X

    2003-01-01

    Family order of the children and family size as well as other psychosocial variables on University of the Basque Country (UBC) students are compared in order to relate these data with the choice of type of university studies. As a sample, we studied 6,013 students from the UBC in different careers and courses. Mean age was 20.26 years. The following instruments were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Scale and Yllá Alexithymia Scale. All them were validated for our country. The presence of women was greater in all the career studies except for engineering where the proportion of men was greater. The data verify the relationship between being the youngest or intermediate child of a family of three or more children and studying Journalism and Fine Arts and that the first born of families of two or more children are more represented in Engineering. It is interesting that there are fewer only children in Medicine where children of families of three or more, both first-born as well as intermediate, go. These variables, as well as extraversion, neuroticism and alexithymia, were different in the different career studies. It was also observed that the female university students scored higher in the neuroticism scale and that the levels of Alexithymia were higher among the men. Further, relations were found between child birth order and family size and personality, in the sense that the Medical and Odontology careers presented lower scores in Alexithymia while the more technical careers such as Engineering are those that present a higher alexithymia. Medicine and Odontology, followed by Mathematics and Journalism, obtained the highest scores in neuroticism. Engineering students obtain the lowest neuroticism. The most extroverted students are those from Journalism, Chemistry, Economics and Odontology. The choice of university studies is associated to gender, birth order, family size and personality patterns. Personality variables are related to

  2. The use of alternative preference elicitation methods in complex discrete choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hong Il; Doiron, Denise

    2013-12-01

    We analyse stated preference data over nursing jobs collected from two different discrete choice experiments: a multi-profile case best-worst scaling experiment (BWS) prompting selection of the best and worst among alternative jobs, and a profile case BWS wherein the respondents choose the best and worst job attributes. The latter allows identification of additional utility parameters and is believed to be cognitively easier. Results suggest that respondents place greater value on pecuniary over non-pecuniary gains in the multi-profile case. There is little evidence that this discrepancy is induced by the extra cognitive burden of processing several profiles at once in the multi-profile case. We offer thoughts on other likely mechanisms.

  3. The Australian public's preferences for emergency care alternatives and the influence of the presenting context: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Paul; Whitty, Jennifer A; Kendall, Elizabeth; Ratcliffe, Julie; Wilson, Andrew; Littlejohns, Peter; Scuffham, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The current study seeks to quantify the Australian public's preferences for emergency care alternatives and determine if preferences differ depending on presenting circumstances. Setting Increasing presentations to emergency departments have led to overcrowding, long waiting times and suboptimal health system performance. Accordingly, new service models involving the provision of care in alternative settings and delivered by other practitioners continue to be developed. Participants A stratified sample of Australian adults (n=1838), 1382 from Queensland and 456 from South Australia, completed the survey. This included 951 females and 887 males from the 2045 people who met the screening criteria out of the 4354 people who accepted the survey invitation. Interventions A discrete choice experiment was used to elicit preferences in the context of one of four hypothetical scenarios: a possible concussion, a rash/asthma-related problem involving oneself or one's child and an anxiety-related presentation. Mixed logit regression was used to analyse the dependent variable choice and identify the relative importance of care attributes and the propensity to access care in each context. Results Results indicated a preference for treatment by an emergency physician in hospital for possible concussion and treatment by a doctor in ambulatory settings for rash/asthma-related and anxiety-related problems. Participants were consistently willing to wait longer before making trade-offs in the context of the rash/asthma-related scenario compared with when the same problem affected their child. Results suggest a clear preference for lower costs, shorter wait times and strong emphasis on quality care; however, significant preference heterogeneity was observed. Conclusions This study has increased awareness that the public's emergency care choices will differ depending on the presenting context. It has further demonstrated the importance of service quality as a determinant of

  4. Subadult experience influences adult mate choice in an arthropod: Exposed female wolf spiders prefer males of a familiar phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Hebets, Eileen A.

    2003-01-01

    Current sexual selection theory proposes several potential mechanisms driving the evolution of female mating preferences, few of which involve social interactions. Although vertebrate examples of socially influenced mating preferences do exist, the invertebrate examples are virtually nonexistent. Here I demonstrate that the mating preferences of female wolf spiders can be acquired through exposure as subadults to unrelated, sexually active adult males. I first conducted exposure trials during which subadult females of the wolf spider Schizocosa uetzi were allowed to interact with mature males of an experimentally manipulated phenotype (either black or brown forelegs). After maturation, these previously exposed females were paired with a male of either a familiar or unfamiliar manipulated phenotype for mate-choice trials. Subadult females that were exposed to directed courtship by mature males of a particular morphological phenotype were subsequently more likely to mate with a male of a familiar phenotype as adults. Furthermore, females that were exposed as subadults were more likely, as adults, to cannibalize a courting male with an unfamiliar phenotype. Unexposed females did not distinguish between phenotypes in either mate choice or cannibalism frequency. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism influencing the origin of female mating preferences and ultimately the evolution of male traits: subadult experience. This study also stresses the potential importance of learning and memory on adult mate choice in an arthropod. PMID:14597702

  5. Subadult experience influences adult mate choice in an arthropod: exposed female wolf spiders prefer males of a familiar phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hebets, Eileen A

    2003-11-11

    Current sexual selection theory proposes several potential mechanisms driving the evolution of female mating preferences, few of which involve social interactions. Although vertebrate examples of socially influenced mating preferences do exist, the invertebrate examples are virtually nonexistent. Here I demonstrate that the mating preferences of female wolf spiders can be acquired through exposure as subadults to unrelated, sexually active adult males. I first conducted exposure trials during which subadult females of the wolf spider Schizocosa uetzi were allowed to interact with mature males of an experimentally manipulated phenotype (either black or brown forelegs). After maturation, these previously exposed females were paired with a male of either a familiar or unfamiliar manipulated phenotype for mate-choice trials. Subadult females that were exposed to directed courtship by mature males of a particular morphological phenotype were subsequently more likely to mate with a male of a familiar phenotype as adults. Furthermore, females that were exposed as subadults were more likely, as adults, to cannibalize a courting male with an unfamiliar phenotype. Unexposed females did not distinguish between phenotypes in either mate choice or cannibalism frequency. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism influencing the origin of female mating preferences and ultimately the evolution of male traits: subadult experience. This study also stresses the potential importance of learning and memory on adult mate choice in an arthropod.

  6. Restrictive Food Intake As A Choice – A Paradigm for Study

    PubMed Central

    Steinglass, Joanna; Foerde, Karin; Kostro, Katrina; Shohamy, Daphna; Timothy Walsh, B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Inadequate intake and preference for low-calorie foods are salient behavioral features of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). The neurocognitive mechanisms underlying pathological food choice have not been characterized. This study aimed to develop a new paradigm for experimentally modeling maladaptive food choice in AN. Method: Individuals with AN (n=22) and healthy controls (HC, n=20) participated in a computer-based Food Choice Task, adapted for individuals with eating disorders. Participants first rated 43 food images (including high-fat and low-fat items) for Healthiness and Tastiness; an item rated neutral on both blocks was then selected as the Reference item. On each of 42 subsequent trials participants were asked to choose between the food item presented and the Reference item. Results: The AN group was less likely to choose high-fat foods relative to HC, as evidenced both in multilevel logistic regression (z=2.59, p=0.009) and ANOVA (F(1,39)=7.80, p=0.008) analyses. Health ratings influenced choice significantly more in AN relative to HC (z=2.7, p=0.006), and were more related to Taste among AN (χ2=4.10, p=0.04). Additionally, Taste ratings declined with duration of illness(r=−0.50, p=0.02). Conclusions: The Food Choice Task captures the preference for low-fat foods among individuals with AN. The findings suggest that the experience of tastiness changes over time and may contribute to perpetuation of illness. By providing an experimental quantitative measure of food restriction, this task opens the door to new experimental investigations into the cognitive, affective and neural factors contributing to maladaptive food choices characteristic of AN. PMID:25130380

  7. Restrictive food intake as a choice--a paradigm for study.

    PubMed

    Steinglass, Joanna; Foerde, Karin; Kostro, Katrina; Shohamy, Daphna; Walsh, B Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate intake and preference for low-calorie foods are salient behavioral features of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). The neurocognitive mechanisms underlying pathological food choice have not been characterized. This study aimed to develop a new paradigm for experimentally modeling maladaptive food choice in AN. Individuals with AN (n = 22) and healthy controls (HC, n = 20) participated in a computer-based Food Choice Task, adapted for individuals with eating disorders. Participants first rated 43 food images (including high-fat and low-fat items) for Healthiness and Tastiness; an item rated neutral on both blocks was then selected as the Reference item. On each of 42 subsequent trials participants were asked to choose between the food item presented and the Reference item. The AN group was less likely to choose high-fat foods relative to HC, as evidenced both in multilevel logistic regression (z = 2.59, p = .009) and ANOVA (F(1,39) = 7.80, p = .008) analyses. Health ratings influenced choice significantly more in AN relative to HC (z = 2.7, p = .006), and were more related to Taste among AN (χ(2) = 4.10, p = .04). Additionally, taste ratings declined with duration of illness (r = -.50, p = .02). The Food Choice Task captures the preference for low-fat foods among individuals with AN. The findings suggest that the experience of tastiness changes over time and may contribute to perpetuation of illness. By providing an experimental quantitative measure of food restriction, this task opens the door to new experimental investigations into the cognitive, affective, and neural factors contributing to maladaptive food choices characteristic of AN. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Who's choosing whom? A sociological study of the specialty choices in a Danish context

    PubMed Central

    Eika, Berit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate if habitus, the unconscious and embodied mental structures founded early in life, can contribute to our understanding of how individuals choose a medical specialty. Methods A qualitative approach was employed using standardized open-ended interviews. In the present research, sampling was purposive, with an aim to illuminating the study objective. A sample of six juniors and three senior doctors were recruited from gynecology and obstetrics, vascular surgery and general practice via a snowball method. The interview guide and the subsequent analysis were based on Bourdieu’s sociological theory. Results Three central themes emerged, labeled as “the use of distinctions and dichotomies”, “the shaping of habitus” and “consequences of the shaping of habitus”. These represent values and preferences developed through childhood education and experiences which may contribute to explaining specialty choices. Participants distinguished between specialties by referring to dichotomous characteristics of the specialty (such as sick/healthy patients; young/elderly patients; fine/coarse surgery). Conclusions Bourdieu’s theory is useful for broadening our understanding of specialty choice, as his central concept, habitus, was found to direct the choice of specialty and constrain the number of possible specialties for the individual doctor. Research is needed to better understand how various factors affect the specialty choices of medical school graduates.

  9. Classification image analysis: estimation and statistical inference for two-alternative forced-choice experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Eckstein, Miguel P.

    2002-01-01

    We consider estimation and statistical hypothesis testing on classification images obtained from the two-alternative forced-choice experimental paradigm. We begin with a probabilistic model of task performance for simple forced-choice detection and discrimination tasks. Particular attention is paid to general linear filter models because these models lead to a direct interpretation of the classification image as an estimate of the filter weights. We then describe an estimation procedure for obtaining classification images from observer data. A number of statistical tests are presented for testing various hypotheses from classification images based on some more compact set of features derived from them. As an example of how the methods we describe can be used, we present a case study investigating detection of a Gaussian bump profile.

  10. Classification image analysis: estimation and statistical inference for two-alternative forced-choice experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Eckstein, Miguel P.

    2002-01-01

    We consider estimation and statistical hypothesis testing on classification images obtained from the two-alternative forced-choice experimental paradigm. We begin with a probabilistic model of task performance for simple forced-choice detection and discrimination tasks. Particular attention is paid to general linear filter models because these models lead to a direct interpretation of the classification image as an estimate of the filter weights. We then describe an estimation procedure for obtaining classification images from observer data. A number of statistical tests are presented for testing various hypotheses from classification images based on some more compact set of features derived from them. As an example of how the methods we describe can be used, we present a case study investigating detection of a Gaussian bump profile.

  11. The Impact of Cigarette Packaging Design Among Young Females in Canada: Findings From a Discrete Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Kotnowski, Kathy; Fong, Geoffrey T; Gallopel-Morvan, Karine; Islam, Towhidul; Hammond, David

    2016-05-01

    The tobacco industry uses various aspects of cigarette packaging design to market to specific groups. The current study examined the relative importance of five cigarette packaging attributes--pack structure (eg, "slims"), brand, branding, warning label size, and price--on perceptions of product taste, harm, and interest in trying, among young females in Canada. A discrete choice experiment was conducted with smoking and nonsmoking females, aged 16 to 24 (N = 448). Respondents were shown 10 choice sets, each containing four packs with different combinations of the attributes: pack structure (slim, lipstick, booklet, traditional); brand ("Vogue," "du Maurier"); branding (branded, plain); warning label size (50%, 75%); and price ($8.45, $10.45). For each choice set, respondents chose the brand that they: (1) would rather try, (2) would taste better, and (3) would be less harmful, or "none." For each outcome, the attributes' impact on consumer choice was analyzed using a multinomial logit model. The multinomial logit analyses revealed that young females weighted pack structure to be most important to their intention to try (46%), judgment of product taste (52%), and judgment of product harm (48%). Price and branding were weighted important in trial intent decisions (23% and 18%, respectively) and product taste judgments (29% and 15%, respectively). Whereas warning label size and brand were weighted important when judging product harm (23% and 17%, respectively). The findings suggest that standardized cigarette packaging may decrease demand and reduce misleading perceptions about product harm among young females. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Case studies in technology choice. Volume 2. Puget Sound Power and Light Co. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, R.L.; Sicherman, A.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents an illustrative case study using the EPRI technology choice model (TCM). This model is designed to help individual utilities choose technologies and explain their choices. It allows utilities to compare the technological, economic, and environmental effects of different technologies with management's evaluation of these effects. The study examines technology choice complexities, including multiple objectives, uncertainties, and timing.

  13. How Simple Hypothetical-Choice Experiments Can Be Utilized to Learn Humans’ Navigational Escape Decisions in Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Haghani, Milad; Sarvi, Majid; Shahhoseini, Zahra; Boltes, Maik

    2016-01-01

    How humans resolve non-trivial tradeoffs in their navigational choices between the social interactions (e.g., the presence and movements of others) and the physical factors (e.g., spatial distances, route visibility) when escaping from threats in crowded confined spaces? The answer to this question has major implications for the planning of evacuations and the safety of mass gatherings as well as the design of built environments. Due to the challenges of collecting behavioral data from naturally-occurring evacuation settings, laboratory-based virtual-evacuation experiments have been practiced in a number of studies. This class of experiments faces the traditional question of contextual bias and generalizability: How reliably can we infer humans’ behavior from decisions made in hypothetical settings? Here, we address these questions by making a novel link between two different forms of empirical observations. We conduct hypothetical emergency exit-choice experiments framed as simple pictures, and then mimic those hypothetical scenarios in more realistic fashions through staging mock evacuation trials with actual crowds. Econometric choice models are estimated based on the observations made in both experimental contexts. The models are contrasted with each other from a number of perspectives including their predictions as well as the sign, magnitude, statistical significance, person-to-person variations (reflecting individuals’ perception/preference differences) and the scale (reflecting context-dependent decision randomness) of their inferred parameters. Results reveal a surprising degree of resemblance between the models derived from the two contexts. Most strikingly, they produce fairly similar prediction probabilities whose differences average less than 10%. There is also unexpected consensus between the inferences derived from both experimental sources on many aspects of people’s behavior notably in terms of the perception of social interactions. Results

  14. How Simple Hypothetical-Choice Experiments Can Be Utilized to Learn Humans' Navigational Escape Decisions in Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Haghani, Milad; Sarvi, Majid; Shahhoseini, Zahra; Boltes, Maik

    2016-01-01

    How humans resolve non-trivial tradeoffs in their navigational choices between the social interactions (e.g., the presence and movements of others) and the physical factors (e.g., spatial distances, route visibility) when escaping from threats in crowded confined spaces? The answer to this question has major implications for the planning of evacuations and the safety of mass gatherings as well as the design of built environments. Due to the challenges of collecting behavioral data from naturally-occurring evacuation settings, laboratory-based virtual-evacuation experiments have been practiced in a number of studies. This class of experiments faces the traditional question of contextual bias and generalizability: How reliably can we infer humans' behavior from decisions made in hypothetical settings? Here, we address these questions by making a novel link between two different forms of empirical observations. We conduct hypothetical emergency exit-choice experiments framed as simple pictures, and then mimic those hypothetical scenarios in more realistic fashions through staging mock evacuation trials with actual crowds. Econometric choice models are estimated based on the observations made in both experimental contexts. The models are contrasted with each other from a number of perspectives including their predictions as well as the sign, magnitude, statistical significance, person-to-person variations (reflecting individuals' perception/preference differences) and the scale (reflecting context-dependent decision randomness) of their inferred parameters. Results reveal a surprising degree of resemblance between the models derived from the two contexts. Most strikingly, they produce fairly similar prediction probabilities whose differences average less than 10%. There is also unexpected consensus between the inferences derived from both experimental sources on many aspects of people's behavior notably in terms of the perception of social interactions. Results show

  15. Addressing health workforce distribution concerns: a discrete choice experiment to develop rural retention strategies in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Shroff, Zubin; Zang, Omer Ramses; Kingue, Samuel; Djienouassi, Sebastien; Kouontchou, Christian; Sorgho, Gaston

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. Methods: To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Results: Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, P< 0.001) and improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.54, 95% CI: 2.73-4.58) respectively were the attributes with the largest effect sizes. Among medical doctors and nurse aides, a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary was the attribute with the largest effect size (medical doctors aOR= 5.60, 95% CI: 4.12-7.61, P< 0.001; nurse aides aOR= 4.29, 95% CI: 3.11-5.93, P< 0.001). On the other hand, improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.56, 95% CI: 2.75-4.60, P< 0.001), was the attribute with the largest effect size among the state registered nurses surveyed. Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) estimates were generated for each health worker cadre for all the attributes. Preference impact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Conclusion: Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on the

  16. Risk as an attribute in discrete choice experiments: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Mark; Rigby, Dan; Vass, Caroline; Flynn, Terry; Louviere, Jordan; Payne, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are used to elicit preferences of current and future patients and healthcare professionals about how they value different aspects of healthcare. Risk is an integral part of most healthcare decisions. Despite the use of risk attributes in DCEs consistently being highlighted as an area for further research, current methods of incorporating risk attributes in DCEs have not been reviewed explicitly. This study aimed to systematically identify published healthcare DCEs that incorporated a risk attribute, summarise and appraise methods used to present and analyse risk attributes, and recommend best practice regarding including, analysing and transparently reporting the methodology supporting risk attributes in future DCEs. The Web of Science, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Econlit databases were searched on 18 April 2013 for DCEs that included a risk attribute published since 1995, and on 23 April 2013 to identify studies assessing risk communication in the general (non-DCE) health literature. Healthcare-related DCEs with a risk attribute mentioned or suggested in the title/abstract were obtained and retained in the final review if a risk attribute meeting our definition was included. Extracted data were tabulated and critically appraised to summarise the quality of reporting, and the format, presentation and interpretation of the risk attribute were summarised. This review identified 117 healthcare DCEs that incorporated at least one risk attribute. Whilst there was some evidence of good practice incorporated into the presentation of risk attributes, little evidence was found that developing methods and recommendations from other disciplines about effective methods and validation of risk communication were systematically applied to DCEs. In general, the reviewed DCE studies did not thoroughly report the methodology supporting the explanation of risk in training materials, the impact of framing risk, or exploring the validity of risk

  17. Addressing health workforce distribution concerns: a discrete choice experiment to develop rural retention strategies in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Shroff, Zubin; Zang, Omer Ramses; Kingue, Samuel; Djienouassi, Sebastien; Kouontchou, Christian; Sorgho, Gaston

    2015-03-01

    Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, P< 0.001) and improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.54, 95% CI: 2.73-4.58) respectively were the attributes with the largest effect sizes. Among medical doctors and nurse aides, a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary was the attribute with the largest effect size (medical doctors aOR= 5.60, 95% CI: 4.12-7.61, P< 0.001; nurse aides aOR= 4.29, 95% CI: 3.11-5.93, P< 0.001). On the other hand, improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.56, 95% CI: 2.75-4.60, P< 0.001), was the attribute with the largest effect size among the state registered nurses surveyed. Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) estimates were generated for each health worker cadre for all the attributes. Preference impact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on the analysis of locally relevant, actionable

  18. Social time preferences for health and money elicited with a choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Meerding, Willem Jan; Bonsel, Gouke J; Brouwer, Werner B F; Stuifbergen, Marja C; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2010-01-01

    In economic evaluations future health and monetary outcomes are commonly discounted at equal and constant rates. The theoretical foundation of this practice is being debated and appropriate discount rates for costs and health effects are sought. Here, we have derived social discount rates for health, money, and environmental benefits by means of a choice experiment. All choices were framed from a social perspective. We investigated differences in time preference by domain (health, monetary benefits, environmental benefits), time delay (5, 10, and 40 years), and respondent characteristics. Respondents were 173 health-care professionals and 34 health policymakers. Choice titration was used to determine when the respondent was indifferent between future and present benefits. At least two-thirds of respondents preferred an intervention with immediate benefits to delayed benefits in the different domains. The median (mean) yearly discount rates for health benefits were 2.7% (10.7%), 1.3% (3.5%), and 1.1% (2.3%) assuming a 5, 10, and 40 years delay, respectively. Social time preference for monetary benefits was significantly stronger, with median (mean) yearly discount rates of 6.6% (18.7%) and 4.8% (11.2%) assuming a 5 and 10 years delay, respectively. The social time preference with regard to environmental benefits was similar to the monetary benefits. Social time preference for the different domains was significantly correlated at the individual level. The empirically derived social time preference is in line with current theoretical arguments for a lower discount rate for health benefits than for monetary benefits. Moreover, the implied median discount rates for health were lower than those commonly used or advocated in guidelines.

  19. Eliciting preferences for social health insurance in Ethiopia: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Obse, Amarech; Ryan, Mandy; Heidenreich, Sebastian; Normand, Charles; Hailemariam, Damen

    2016-12-01

    As low-income countries are initiating health insurance schemes, Ethiopia is also planning to move away from out-of-pocket private payments to health insurance. The success of such a policy depends on understanding and predicting preferences of potential enrolees. This is because a scarce health care budget forces providers and consumers to make trade-offs between potential benefits within a health insurance. An assessment of preferences of potential enrolees can therefore add important information to optimal resource allocation in the design of health insurance. We used a discrete choice experiment to elicit preferences for social health insurance (SHI) among formal sector employees in Ethiopia. Respondents were presented with 18 binary hypothetical choices of SHI. Each insurance package was described by eight policy relevant attributes: premium, enrolment, exclusions, providers and coverage of inpatient services, outpatient services, drugs and tests. A mixed logit model was estimated to determine respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) for the different health insurance attributes. We also predicted probabilities of uptake for alternative SHI scenarios. Health insurance packages with 'no exclusions', 'public and private' providers, low rate of premium and full coverage of tests and drugs were highly valued and had greatest impact on the choices . Other things being equal, respondents were willing to contribute 1.52% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.71, 2.32) of their salary to a SHI package with no service exclusions having public and private service providers. This is substantially lower than the proposed 3% premium in the draft SHI strategy. For the typical SHI package proposed by the SHI strategy at the time, the uptake probability was predicted to be 29% (95% CI: 0.25, 0.33). The low uptake probability and WTP for the proposed SHI package suggests considering preferences of the potential enrolees' in revisions of the draft SHI strategy for introduction of

  20. Perch compliance and experience affect destination choice of brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis).

    PubMed

    Mauro, A Alexander; Jayne, C Bruce

    2016-04-01

    Arboreal animals often encounter branches with variable diameters that are highly correlated with stiffness, but how surface compliance affects the perch choice of animals is poorly understood. We used artificial branches to test the effects of different diameters and compliance on the choice between two destinations for twenty brown tree snakes as they bridged gaps. When both destinations were rigid, the diameters of the surfaces did not affect perch choice. However, with increased experience snakes developed a preference for a rigid, large-diameter perch compared to a compliant, small-diameter perch that collapsed under loads that were a small fraction of the weight of the snake. In hundreds of trials, with only one exception, the snakes proceeded to crawl entirely onto all rigid perches after first touching them, whereas the snakes commonly withdrew from the compliant perch even after touching it so lightly that it did not collapse. Hence, both tactile and visual cues appear to influence how these animals select a destination while crossing a gap. The preference for the rigid, large-diameter perch compared to the compliant, small-diameter perch developed mainly from short-term learning during three successive trials per testing session per individual. Furthermore, a preference for large diameters did not persist in the final treatment which used a rigid, large-diameter perch and a rigid, small-diameter perch. Hence, brown tree snakes appeared to be able to form short-term associations between the perch appearance and stiffness, the latter of which may have been determined via tactile sensory input.

  1. Consumers' practical understanding of healthy food choices: a fake food experiment.

    PubMed

    Mötteli, Sonja; Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael; Barbey, Jana; Bucher, Tamara

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about laypeople's practical understanding of a healthy diet, although this is important to successfully promote healthy eating. The present study is the first to experimentally examine how consumers define healthy and balanced food choices for an entire day compared with normal choices and compared with dietary guidelines. We used an extensive fake food buffet (FFB) with 179 foods commonly consumed in the Swiss diet. The FFB is a validated method to investigate food choice behaviour in a well-controlled laboratory setting. People from the general population in Switzerland (n 187; 51·9 % females), aged between 18 and 65 years, were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the control group, the participants were instructed to serve themselves foods they would eat on a normal day, whereas in the 'healthy' group they were instructed to choose foods representing a healthy diet. Participants chose significantly more healthy foods, with 4·5 g more dietary fibre, 2 % more protein and 2 % less SFA in the 'healthy' group compared with the control group. However, in both experimental conditions, participants served themselves foods containing twice as much sugar and salt than recommended by dietary guidelines. The results suggest that laypeople lack knowledge about the recommended portion sizes and the amounts of critical nutrients in processed food, which has important implications for communicating dietary guidelines. Furthermore, the energy of the food served was substantially correlated with the energy needs of the participants, demonstrating the potential of the fake food buffet method.

  2. 'MMR talk' and vaccination choices: an ethnographic study in Brighton.

    PubMed

    Poltorak, Mike; Leach, Melissa; Fairhead, James; Cassell, Jackie

    2005-08-01

    In the context of the high-profile controversy that has unfolded in the UK around the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine and its possible adverse effects, this paper explores how parents in Brighton, southern England, are thinking about MMR for their own children. Research focusing on parents' engagement with MMR has been dominated by analysis of the proximate influences on their choices, and in particular scientific and media information, which have led health policy to focus on information and education campaigns. This paper reports ethnographic work including narratives by mothers in Brighton. Our work questions such reasoning in showing how wider personal and social issues shape parents' immunisation actions. The narratives by mothers show how practices around MMR are shaped by personal histories, by birth experiences and related feelings of control, by family health histories, by their readings of their child's health and particular strengths and vulnerabilities, by particular engagements with health services, by processes building or undermining confidence, and by friendships and conversations with others, which are themselves shaped by wider social differences and transformations. Although many see vaccination as a personal decision which must respond to the particularities of a child's immune system, 'MMR talk', which affirms these conceptualisations, has become a social phenomenon in itself. These perspectives suggest ways in which people's engagements with MMR reflect wider changes in their relations with science and the state.

  3. The use of choice experiments in the analysis of tourist preferences for ecotourism development in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Hearne, Robert R; Salinas, Zenia M

    2002-06-01

    Many nations promote nature-based tourism in order to promote the dual goals of nature conservation and income generation. To be most effective in providing services that facilitate achievement of these goals, decision makers will need to understand and incorporate tourist preferences for nature appreciation, infrastructure, use restrictions, and other attributes of national parks and protected areas. This paper presents the use of choice experiments as a mechanism to analyze preferences of national and international tourists in relation to the development of Barva Volcano Area in Costa Rica. In this section of the Braulio Carrillo National Park, managers are faced with an immediate need to plan for greatly increased visitation rates due to a new road, which will greatly improve access. Choice sets were developed in collaboration with park managers. A survey was conducted of 171 Costa Rican and 271 foreign tourists who visited Poás Volcano, a well-visited alternative site to Barva Volcano. Survey data was analyzed using conditional multinomial logit models. Results of the study demonstrate, that both sets of tourists preferred: (i) improved infrastructure; (ii) aerial trams with observation towers and picnic areas; (iii) more information; and (iv) low entrance fees. Foreign tourists demonstrated strong preferences for the inclusion of restrictions in the access to some trails, whereas Costa Ricans did not show any significant preference for restrictions. Marginal willingness-to-pay for greater information was estimated to be $1.54 for foreign tourists and $1.01 for Costa Rican visitors. The study concludes that choice experiments are a useful tool in the analyses of tourist preferences for the development of protected areas in developing countries.

  4. Ethnic Inequality in Choice-Driven Education Systems: A Longitudinal Study of Performance and Choice in England and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Michelle; Jonsson, Jan O.; Rudolphi, Frida

    2012-01-01

    The authors ask whether choice-driven education systems, with comprehensive schools and mass education at the secondary and tertiary level, represented in this article by England and Sweden, provide educational opportunities for ethnic minorities. In studying educational attainment, the authors make a theoretical distinction between mechanisms…

  5. Offering Choices to People with Intellectual Disabilities: An Interactional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antaki, C.; Finlay, W.; Walton, C.; Pate, L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: At the level of policy recommendation, it is agreed that people with intellectual impairments ought to be given opportunities to make choices in their lives; indeed, in the UK, the Mental Capacity Act of 2005 enshrines such a right in law. However, at the level of practice, there is a dearth of evidence as to how choices are actually…

  6. Educational Choice Regarding Technical Education: Research with Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kacerauskas, Tomas; Šaparauskas, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    In first part, the models, theories, mechanisms and presumptions, as well as the ideas of educational choice discourse have been scrutinized. In the second part, the survey on educational choice at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Lithuania has been presented. The methodology used in this research is a survey of respondents and survey…

  7. Women's Preferences for Treatment of Perinatal Depression and Anxiety: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Ride, Jemimah; Lancsar, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal depression and anxiety (PNDA) are an international healthcare priority, associated with significant short- and long-term problems for women, their children and families. Effective treatment is available but uptake is suboptimal: some women go untreated whilst others choose treatments without strong evidence of efficacy. Better understanding of women's preferences for treatment is needed to facilitate uptake of effective treatment. To address this issue, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) was administered to 217 pregnant or postnatal women in Australia, who were recruited through an online research company and had similar sociodemographic characteristics to Australian data for perinatal women. The DCE investigated preferences regarding cost, treatment type, availability of childcare, modality and efficacy. Data were analysed using logit-based models accounting for preference and scale heterogeneity. Predicted probability analysis was used to explore relative attribute importance and policy change scenarios, including how these differed by women's sociodemographic characteristics. Cost and treatment type had the greatest impact on choice, such that a policy of subsidising effective treatments was predicted to double their uptake compared with the base case. There were differences in predicted uptake associated with certain sociodemographic characteristics: for example, women with higher educational attainment were more likely to choose effective treatment. The findings suggest policy directions for decision makers whose goal is to reduce the burden of PNDA on women, their children and families.

  8. Women’s Preferences for Treatment of Perinatal Depression and Anxiety: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ride, Jemimah; Lancsar, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal depression and anxiety (PNDA) are an international healthcare priority, associated with significant short- and long-term problems for women, their children and families. Effective treatment is available but uptake is suboptimal: some women go untreated whilst others choose treatments without strong evidence of efficacy. Better understanding of women’s preferences for treatment is needed to facilitate uptake of effective treatment. To address this issue, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) was administered to 217 pregnant or postnatal women in Australia, who were recruited through an online research company and had similar sociodemographic characteristics to Australian data for perinatal women. The DCE investigated preferences regarding cost, treatment type, availability of childcare, modality and efficacy. Data were analysed using logit-based models accounting for preference and scale heterogeneity. Predicted probability analysis was used to explore relative attribute importance and policy change scenarios, including how these differed by women’s sociodemographic characteristics. Cost and treatment type had the greatest impact on choice, such that a policy of subsidising effective treatments was predicted to double their uptake compared with the base case. There were differences in predicted uptake associated with certain sociodemographic characteristics: for example, women with higher educational attainment were more likely to choose effective treatment. The findings suggest policy directions for decision makers whose goal is to reduce the burden of PNDA on women, their children and families. PMID:27258096

  9. Exploring the social value of health-care interventions: a stated preference discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Green, Colin; Gerard, Karen

    2009-08-01

    Much of the literature on distributive preferences covers specific considerations in isolation, and recent reviews have suggested that research is required to inform on the relative importance of various key considerations. Responding to this research recommendation, we explore the distributive preferences of the general public using a set of generic social value judgments. We report on a discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey, using face-to-face interviews, in a sample of the general population (n=259). The context for the survey was resource allocation decisions in the UK National Health Service, using the process of health technology appraisal as an example. The attributes used covered health improvement, value for money, severity of health, and availability of other treatments, and it is the first such survey to use cost-effectiveness in scenarios described to the general public. Results support the feasibility and acceptability of the DCE approach for the elicitation of public preferences. Choice data are used to consider the relative importance of changes across attribute levels, and to model utility scores and relative probabilities for the full set of combinations of attributes and levels in the experimental design used (n=64). Results allow the relative social value of health technology scenarios to be explored. Findings add to a sparse literature on 'social' preferences, and show that DCE data can be used to consider the strength of preference over alternative scenarios in a priority-setting context.

  10. The Effect of Perceived Risks on the Demand for Vaccination: Results from a Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Sadique, Md Z.; Devlin, Nancy; Edmunds, William J.; Parkin, David

    2013-01-01

    The demand for vaccination against infectious diseases involves a choice between vaccinating and not vaccinating, in which there is a trade-off between the benefits and costs of each option. The aim of this paper is to investigate these trade-offs and to estimate how the perceived prevalence and severity of both the disease against which the vaccine is given and any vaccine associated adverse events (VAAE) might affect demand. A Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) was used to elicit stated preferences from a representative sample of 369 UK mothers of children below 5 years of age, for three hypothetical vaccines. Cost was included as an attribute, which enabled estimation of the willingness to pay for different vaccines having differing levels of the probability of occurrence and severity of both the infection and VAAE. The results suggest that the severity of the health effects associated with both the diseases and VAAEs exert an important influence on the demand for vaccination, whereas the probability of these events occurring was not a significant predictor. This has important implications for public health policy, which has tended to focus on the probability of these health effects as the main influence on decision making. Our results also suggest that anticipated regrets about the consequences of making the wrong decision also exert an influence on demand. PMID:23408936

  11. Rural District Nursing Experiences of Successful Advocacy for Person-Centered End-of-Life Choice.

    PubMed

    Reed, Frances M; Fitzgerald, Les; Bish, Melanie R

    2016-05-05

    Choices in care during the end stages of life are limited by the lack of resources and access for rural people. Nursing advocacy based on the holistic understanding of people and their rural communities may increase the opportunity for choice and improve the quality of care for people living and dying at home. Pragmatism and nurse agency theory were used for a practical exploration of how district nurses successfully advocate for rural Australian end-of-life goals to begin the development of a practice model. In two stages of data collection, rural district nurse informants (N = 7) were given the opportunity to reflect on successful advocacy and to write about their experiences before undertaking further in-depth exploration in interviews. They defined successful advocacy as "caring" that empowers people in the "big and small" personal goals important for quality of life. The concepts described that enable successful advocacy were organized into a network with three main themes of "willing" investment in holistic person-centered care, "knowing" people and resources, and feeling "supported." The thematic network description provides deep insight into the emotional skill and moral agency involved in successful end-of-life nurse advocacy and can be used as a sound basis for modeling and testing in future research.

  12. Adolescent values for immunisation programs in Australia: A discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Ratcliffe, Julie; Afzali, Hossein Haji Ali; Giles, Lynne; Marshall, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The importance of adolescent engagement in health decisions and public health programs such as immunisation is becoming increasingly recognised. Understanding adolescent preferences and further identifying barriers and facilitators for immunisation acceptance is critical to the success of adolescent immunisation programs. This study applied a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to assess vaccination preferences in adolescents. Methods This study was conducted as a cross-sectional, national online survey in Australian adolescents. The DCE survey evaluated adolescent vaccination preferences. Six attributes were assessed including disease severity, target for protection, price, location of vaccination provision, potential side effects and vaccine delivery method. A mixed logit model was used to analyse DCE data. Results This survey was conducted between December 2014 and January 2015. Of 800 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years, stronger preferences were observed overall for: vaccination in the case of a life threatening illness (p<0.001), lower price vaccinations (p<0.001), mild but common side effects (p = 0.004), delivery via a skin patch (p<0.001) and being administered by a family practitioner (p<0.001). Participants suggested that they and their families would be willing to pay AU$394.28 (95%CI: AU$348.40 to AU$446.92) more for a vaccine targeting a life threatening illness than a mild-moderate illness, AU$37.94 (95%CI: AU$19.22 to AU$57.39) more for being vaccinated at a family practitioner clinic than a council immunisation clinic, AU$23.01 (95%CI: AU$7.12 to AU$39.24) more for common but mild and resolving side effects compared to rare but serious side effects, and AU$51.80 (95%CI: AU$30.42 to AU$73.70) more for delivery via a skin patch than injection. Conclusions Consideration of adolescent preferences may result in improved acceptance of, engagement in and uptake of immunisation programs targeted for this age group. PMID:28746348

  13. What do UK medical students value most in their careers? A discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Jennifer A; Johnston, Peter; Watson, Verity; Krucien, Nicolas; Skåtun, Diane

    2017-08-01

    Many individual- and job-related factors are known to influence medical careers decision making. Previous research has extensively studied medical trainees' (residents') and students' views of the factors that are important. However, how trainees and students trade off these factors at times of important careers-related decision making is under-researched. Information about trade-offs is crucial to the development of effective policies to enhance the recruitment and retention of junior doctors. Our aim was to investigate the strength of UK medical students' preferences for the characteristics of training posts in terms of monetary value. We distributed a paper questionnaire that included a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to final-year medical students in six diverse medical schools across the UK. The main outcome measure was the monetary value of training post characteristics, based on willingness to forgo and willingness to accept extra income for a change in each job characteristic calculated from regression coefficients. A total of 810 medical students answered the questionnaire. The presence of good working conditions was by far the most influential characteristic of a training position. Medical students consider that, as newly graduated doctors, they will require compensation of an additional 43.68% above average earnings to move from a post with excellent working conditions to one with poor working conditions. Female students value excellent working conditions more highly than male students, whereas older medical students value them less highly than younger students. Students on the point of completing medical school and starting postgraduate training value good working conditions significantly more than they value desirable geographical location, unit reputation, familiarity with the unit or opportunities for partners or spouses. This intelligence can be used to address the crisis in workforce staffing that has developed in the UK and opens up fruitful

  14. Study on simple reaction and choice times in patients with type I diabetes.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Medina, Jose A; Prado-Olivarez, Juan; Amador-Licona, Norma; Cardona-Torres, Luz M; Galicia-Resendiz, Delia; Diaz-Carmona, Javier

    2013-05-01

    A study on simple reaction time (SRT) and choice reaction time in patients having diabetes is described in this paper. The study was applied to fourteen patients with type I diabetes, as well as to fourteen non-diabetic persons. The research is based on two visual signal perception experiments, both implemented on a computer based environment. The SRT experiment consisted on measuring participants' reaction times to a light change event in a simulated traffic light scenario. The choice reaction time was studied through the performance indexes (d') achieved by participants in a two alternative forced experiment, where a known visual signal is identified from two noisy images. According to the obtained results, the diabetic patients' SRTs were an average of 24% longer than the reaction time of non-diabetic persons, in the same way a significant average difference of 41% was obtained in the efficient index d' too. A positive correlation of 0.6594 between the time periods since diabetes has been diagnosed and the average SRTs of diabetic patients was obtained, also significant correlation differences between age of all experiments participants and resulting variables, SRTs and d', were observed; for instance the correlation factor between participants' ages and their average SRTs was -0.8529 for diabetic patients, meanwhile a value of -0.2905 was obtained for non-diabetic persons. The evidence suggests that the time period since diabetes has been diagnosed notably affects motor and sensorial systems maturity, and consequently conduction speed of sural and peroneal nerves.

  15. ChoiceKey: a real-time speech recognition program for psychology experiments with a small response set.

    PubMed

    Donkin, Christopher; Brown, Scott D; Heathcote, Andrew

    2009-02-01

    Psychological experiments often collect choice responses using buttonpresses. However, spoken responses are useful in many cases-for example, when working with special clinical populations, or when a paradigm demands vocalization, or when accurate response time measurements are desired. In these cases, spoken responses are typically collected using a voice key, which usually involves manual coding by experimenters in a tedious and error-prone manner. We describe ChoiceKey, an open-source speech recognition package for MATLAB. It can be optimized by training for small response sets and different speakers. We show ChoiceKey to be reliable with minimal training for most participants in experiments with two different responses. Problems presented by individual differences, and occasional atypical responses, are examined, and extensions to larger response sets are explored. The ChoiceKey source files and instructions may be downloaded as supplemental materials for this article from brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  16. Comparisons among three types of generalist physicians: Personal characteristics, medical school experiences, financial aid, and other factors influencing career choice.

    PubMed

    Xu, G; Veloski, J J; Barzansky, B; Hojat, M; Diamond, J; Silenzio, V M

    1996-01-01

    A national survey of family physicians, general internists, and general pediatricians was conducted in the US to examine differences among the three groups of generalists physicians, with particular regard to the factors influencing their choice of generalist career. Family physicians were more likely to have made their career decision before medical school, and were more likely to have come from inner-city or rural areas. Personal values and early role models play a very important role in influencing their career choice. In comparison, a higher proportion of general internists had financial aid service obligations and their choice of the specialty was least influenced by personal values. General pediatricians had more clinical experiences either in primary care or with underserved populations, and they regarded medical school experiences as more important in influencing their specialty choice than did the other two groups. Admission committees may use these specialty-related factors to develop strategies to attract students into each type of generalist career.

  17. Modeling the mental health service utilization decisions of university undergraduates: A discrete choice conjoint experiment.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Charles E; Zipursky, Robert B; Christensen, Bruce K; Bieling, Peter J; Madsen, Victoria; Rimas, Heather; Mielko, Stephanie; Wilson, Fiona; Furimsky, Ivana; Jeffs, Lisa; Munn, Catharine

    2017-05-16

    We modeled design factors influencing the intent to use a university mental health service. Between November 2012 and October 2014, 909 undergraduates participated. Using a discrete choice experiment, participants chose between hypothetical campus mental health services. Latent class analysis identified three segments. A Psychological/Psychiatric Service segment (45.5%) was most likely to contact campus health services delivered by psychologists or psychiatrists. An Alternative Service segment (39.3%) preferred to talk to peer-counselors who had experienced mental health problems. A Hesitant segment (15.2%) reported greater distress but seemed less intent on seeking help. They preferred services delivered by psychologists or psychiatrists. Simulations predicted that, rather than waiting for standard counseling, the Alternative Service segment would prefer immediate access to E-Mental health. The Usual Care and Hesitant segments would wait 6 months for standard counseling. E-Mental Health options could engage students who may not wait for standard services.

  18. Variation in intrapartum referral rates in primary midwifery care in the Netherlands: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Offerhaus, Pien M; Otten, Wilma; Boxem-Tiemessen, Jolanda C G; de Jonge, Ank; van der Pal-de Bruin, Karin M; Scheepers, Peer L H; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M

    2015-04-01

    in midwife-led care models of maternity care, midwives are responsible for intrapartum referrals to the obstetrician or obstetric unit, in order to give their clients access to secondary obstetric care. This study explores the influence of risk perception, policy on routine labour management, and other midwife related factors on intrapartum referral decisions of Dutch midwives. a questionnaire was used, in which a referral decision was asked in 14 early labour scenarios (Discrete Choice Experiment or DCE). The scenarios varied in woman characteristics (BMI, gestational age, the preferred birth location, adequate support by a partner, language problems and coping) and in clinical labour characteristics (cervical dilatation, estimated head-to-cervix pressure, and descent of the head). primary care midwives in the Netherlands. a systematic random selection of 243 practicing primary care midwives. The response rate was 48 per cent (117/243). the Impact Factor of the characteristics in the DCE was calculated using a conjoint analysis. The number of intrapartum referrals to secondary obstetric care in the 14 scenarios of the DCE was calculated as the individual referral score. Risk perception was assessed by respondents׳ estimates of the probability of eight birth outcomes. The associations between midwives׳ policy on management of physiological labour, personal characteristics, workload in the practice, number of midwives in the practice, and referral score were explored. the estimated head-to-cervix pressure and descent of the head had the largest impact on referral decisions in the DCE. The median referral score was five (range 0-14). Estimates of probability on birth outcomes were predominantly overestimating actual risks. Factors significantly associated with a high referral score were: a low estimated probability of a spontaneous vaginal birth (p=0.007), adhering to the active management policy Proactive Support of Labour (PSOL) (p=0.047), and a practice situated

  19. Qualitative Development of a Discrete Choice Experiment for Physical Activity Interventions to Improve Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Daniel; Danilovich, Margaret K; Hansen, Paul; Finn, Daniel J; Chang, Rowland W; Holl, Jane L; Heinemann, Allen W; Bockenholt, Ulf

    2017-06-01

    To describe the qualitative process used to develop attributes and attribute levels for inclusion in a discrete choice experiments (DCE) for older adult physical activity interventions. Five focus groups (n=41) were conducted, grounded in the Health Action Process Approach framework. Discussion emphasized identification and prioritization attributes for a DCE on physical activity. Semi-structured interviews (n=6) investigated attribute levels and lay-language for the DCE. A focus group with physical activity researchers and health care providers was the final stakeholder group used to establish a comprehensive approach for the generation of attributes and levels. A DCE pilot test (n=8) was then conducted with individuals of the target patient population. All transcripts were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. General community and university-based research setting. Volunteers (N=55) aged >45 years with knee pain, aches, or stiffness for at least 1 month over the previous 12 months. Not applicable. Interview guides, attributes, attribute levels, and discrete choice experiment. The most influential identified attributes for physical activity were time, effort, cost, convenience, enjoyment, and health benefits. Each attribute had 3 levels that were understandable in the pilot test of the DCE. The identification of 6 physical activity attributes that are most salient to adults with knee osteoarthritis resulted from a systematic qualitative process, including attribute-ranking exercises. A DCE will provide insight into the relative importance of these attributes for participating in physical activity, which can guide intervention development. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Preferences for managing symptoms of differing severity: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Rennie, Lisa; Porteous, Terry; Ryan, Mandy

    2012-12-01

    To design cost-effective health services it is important to understand why people adopt particular symptom management strategies. To establish the relative importance of factors that influence decision making when managing symptoms of differing severity, to establish how people trade between these factors, and to estimate the monetary value placed on different management types. Discrete choice experiment. UK online research panel. Successive members of an online panel were invited to participate until 480 discrete choice experiment questionnaires were completed. Relative preferences for managing three symptom scenarios of varying severity were measured. Symptom management was described by three characteristics (management type, availability, and cost). Preferences for ways of managing symptoms were measured by using conditional logit analysis. A total of 98.5% of the completed questionnaires were valid (473 of 480 respondents). People preferred to manage minor symptoms by self-care or by visiting a pharmacy and were willing to pay £21.58 and £19.06, respectively, to do so. For managing moderately severe symptoms, people preferred to consult a general practitioner and were willing to pay £34.86 for this option. People preferred to manage potentially very severe symptoms by consulting a general practitioner and were willing to pay £73.08 to do so. Respondents were willing to trade between management types; options less preferred became more attractive when waiting time and cost were reduced. People value self-care, supported self-care, and general practitioner consultation differently depending on the type of symptoms. Manipulating costs to users and waiting times for different services could allow policymakers to influence the services people choose when managing symptoms. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of choice on the physiology of emotion: an affective startle modulation study.

    PubMed

    Genevsky, Alexander; Gard, David E

    2012-04-01

    The affective startle modulation task has been an important measure in understanding physiological aspects of emotion and motivational responses. Research utilizing this method has relied primarily on a 'passive' viewing paradigm, which stands in contrast to everyday life where much of emotion and motivation involves some active choice or agency. The present study investigated the role of choice on the physiology of emotion. Eighty-four participants were randomized into 'choice' (n=44) or 'no-choice' (n=40) groups distinguished by the ability to choose between stimuli. EMG eye blink responses were recorded in both anticipation and stimulus viewing. Results indicated a significant attenuation of the startle magnitude in choice condition trials (relative to no-choice) across all picture categories and probe times. We interpret these findings as an indication that the act of choice may decrease one's defensive response, or conversely, lacking choice may heighten the defensive response. Implications for future research are discussed.

  2. Using Tourism Free-Choice Learning Experiences to Promote Environmentally Sustainable Behaviour: The Role of Post-Visit "Action Resources"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Roy; Packer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues the need for the providers of ecotourism and other free-choice environmental learning experiences to promote the adoption of environmentally sustainable actions beyond their own sites, when visitors return to their home environments. Previous research indicates that although visitors often leave such experiences with a heightened…

  3. Using Tourism Free-Choice Learning Experiences to Promote Environmentally Sustainable Behaviour: The Role of Post-Visit "Action Resources"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Roy; Packer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues the need for the providers of ecotourism and other free-choice environmental learning experiences to promote the adoption of environmentally sustainable actions beyond their own sites, when visitors return to their home environments. Previous research indicates that although visitors often leave such experiences with a heightened…

  4. Elimination and selection by aspects in health choice experiments: prioritising health service innovations.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Seda; Campbell, Danny; Thompson, Carl

    2014-12-01

    Priorities for public health innovations are typically not considered equally by all members of the public. When faced with a choice between various innovation options, it is, therefore, possible that some respondents eliminate and/or select innovations based on certain characteristics. This paper proposes a flexible method for exploring and accommodating situations where respondents exhibit such behaviours, whilst addressing preference heterogeneity. We present an empirical case study on the public's preferences for health service innovations. We show that allowing for elimination-by-aspects and/or selection-by-aspects behavioural rules leads to substantial improvements in model fit and, importantly, has implications for willingness to pay estimates and scenario analysis.

  5. Undergraduate Female Science-Related Career Choices: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Kathy S.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study used a modified Groenewald's five steps method with semi-structured, recorded, and transcribed interviews to focus on the underrepresentation of females in science-related careers. The study explored the lived experiences of a purposive sample of 25 senior female college students attending a college in…

  6. Undergraduate Female Science-Related Career Choices: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Kathy S.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study used a modified Groenewald's five steps method with semi-structured, recorded, and transcribed interviews to focus on the underrepresentation of females in science-related careers. The study explored the lived experiences of a purposive sample of 25 senior female college students attending a college in…

  7. The Influences of Landscape Features on Visitation of Hospital Green Spaces—A Choice Experiment Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kaowen Grace; Chien, Hungju

    2017-01-01

    Studies have suggested that visiting and viewing landscaping at hospitals accelerates patient’s recovery from surgery and help staff’s recovery from mental fatigue. To plan and construct such landscapes, we need to unravel landscape features desirable to different groups so that the space can benefit a wide range of hospital users. Using discrete choice modeling, we developed experimental choice sets to investigate how landscape features influence the visitations of different users in a large regional hospital in Taiwan. The empirical survey provides quantitative estimates of the influence of each landscape feature on four user groups, including patients, caregivers, staff, and neighborhood residents. Our findings suggest that different types of features promote visits from specific user groups. Landscape features facilitating physical activities effectively encourage visits across user groups especially for caregivers and staff. Patients in this study specify a strong need for contact with nature. The nearby community favors the features designed for children’s play and family activities. People across user groups value the features that provide a mitigated microclimate of comfort, such as a shelter. Study implications and limitations are also discussed. Our study provides information essential for creating a better healing environment in a hospital setting. PMID:28678168

  8. The Influences of Landscape Features on Visitation of Hospital Green Spaces-A Choice Experiment Approach.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kaowen Grace; Chien, Hungju

    2017-07-05

    Studies have suggested that visiting and viewing landscaping at hospitals accelerates patient's recovery from surgery and help staff's recovery from mental fatigue. To plan and construct such landscapes, we need to unravel landscape features desirable to different groups so that the space can benefit a wide range of hospital users. Using discrete choice modeling, we developed experimental choice sets to investigate how landscape features influence the visitations of different users in a large regional hospital in Taiwan. The empirical survey provides quantitative estimates of the influence of each landscape feature on four user groups, including patients, caregivers, staff, and neighborhood residents. Our findings suggest that different types of features promote visits from specific user groups. Landscape features facilitating physical activities effectively encourage visits across user groups especially for caregivers and staff. Patients in this study specify a strong need for contact with nature. The nearby community favors the features designed for children's play and family activities. People across user groups value the features that provide a mitigated microclimate of comfort, such as a shelter. Study implications and limitations are also discussed. Our study provides information essential for creating a better healing environment in a hospital setting.

  9. Reasons for Treatment Choices in Knee and Hip Osteoarthritis: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Selten, Ellen M; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; Geenen, Rinie; van der Laan, Willemijn H; van der Meulen-Dilling, Roelien G; Nijhof, Marc W; Schers, Henk J; van den Ende, Cornelia H

    2016-09-01

    Conservative treatment modalities in osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip or knee are underused, whereas the demand for surgery is rising substantially. To improve the use of conservative treatment modalities, a more in-depth understanding of the reasons for patients' treatment choices is required. This study identifies the reasons for choice of treatment in patients with hip or knee OA. Semistructured in-depth interviews with 24 OA patients were held. Stratified purposive sampling was used to enrich data variation. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and subsequently coded using a thematic approach. Two independent researchers reflected on, compared, discussed, and adjusted the coding. Various treatment modalities were discussed by respondents: medication, exercise, physical therapy, injections, surgery, complementary, and alternative treatment. Four key themes underlying the choice for or against a treatment modality for OA were identified: 1) treatment characteristics: expectations about its effectiveness and risks, the degree to which it can be personalized to a patient's needs and wishes, and the accessibility of a treatment; 2) personal investment in terms of money and time; 3) personal circumstances: age, body weight, comorbidities, and previous experience with a treatment; and 4) support and advice from the patient's social environment and health care providers. The 4 identified key themes enhance the insight of health care providers into the widespread reasons influencing patients' treatment choices for knee or hip OA. This knowledge can be used in clinical practice to aid shared decision making, which may lead to optimized treatment choices for both conservative and surgical treatment. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  10. A qualitative study of influences on older women’s practitioner choices for back pain care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Back pain is an increasingly prevalent health concern amongst Australian women for which a wide range of treatment options are available, offered by biomedical, allied health and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers. Although there is an emerging literature on patterns of provider utilisation, less is known about the reasons why women with back pain select their chosen practitioner. In this paper we explore the influences on back pain sufferers’ decision-making about treatment seeking with practitioners for their most recent episode of back pain. Methods Drawing on 50 semi-structured interviews with women aged 60–65 years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH) who have chronic back pain, we focus on the factors which influence their choice of practitioner. Analysis followed a framework approach to qualitative content analysis, augmented by NVivo 9 qualitative data analysis software. Key themes were identified and tested for rigour through inter-rater reliability and constant comparison. Results The women identified four predominant influences on their choice of practitioner for back pain: familiarity with treatment or experiences with individual practitioners; recommendations from social networks; geographical proximity of practitioners; and, qualifications and credentials of practitioners. The therapeutic approach or evidence-base of the practices being utilised was not reported by the women as central to their back pain treatment decision making. Conclusions Choice of practitioner appears to be unrelated to the therapeutic approaches, treatment practices or the scientific basis of therapeutic practices. Moreover, anecdotal lay reports of effectiveness and the ‘treatment experience’ may be more influential than formal qualifications in guiding women’s choice of practitioner for their back pain. Further work is needed on the interpersonal, collective and subjective underpinnings of practitioner

  11. Exploring informed choice in the context of prenatal testing: findings from a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Beth K.; O’Reilly, Natasha; Etchegary, Holly; Howley, Heather; Graham, Ian D.; Walker, Mark; Coyle, Doug; Chorny, Yelena; Cappelli, Mario; Boland, Isabelle; Wilson, Brenda J.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Purpose  This study explored whether and how a sample of women made informed choices about prenatal testing for foetal anomalies; its aim was to provide insights for future health policy and service provision. Methods  We conducted semi‐structured interviews with 38 mothers in Ottawa, Ontario, all of whom had been offered prenatal tests in at least one pregnancy. Using the Multi‐dimensional Measure of Informed Choice as a general guide to analysis, we explored themes relevant to informed choice, including values and knowledge, and interactions with health professionals. Results  Many, but not all, participants seemed to have made informed decisions about prenatal testing. Values and knowledge were interrelated and important components of informed choice, but the way they were discussed differed from the way they have been presented in scientific literature. In particular, ‘values’ related to expressions of women’s moral views or ideas about ‘how life should be lived’ and ‘knowledge’ related to the ways in which women prioritized and interpreted factual information, through their own and others’ experiences and in ‘thinking through’ the personal implications of testing. While some women described non‐directive discussions with health professionals, others perceived testing as routine or felt pressured to accept it. Conclusions  Our findings suggest a need for maternity care providers to be vigilant in promoting active decision making about prenatal testing, particularly around the consideration of personal implications. Further development of measures of informed choice may be necessary to fully evaluate decision support tools and to determine whether prenatal testing programmes are meeting their objectives. PMID:18798759

  12. The Importance of Place for International Students' Choice of University: A Case Study at a Malaysian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Jasvir Kaur Nachatar; Schapper, Jan; Jack, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The scholarly bias toward Western and English-speaking settings in the study of international education overlooks the experiences of international students in emerging education hubs in Asia. To redress this imbalance, this article offers insights into the crucial role of place in the study destination choices of a group of international…

  13. The Importance of Place for International Students' Choice of University: A Case Study at a Malaysian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Jasvir Kaur Nachatar; Schapper, Jan; Jack, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The scholarly bias toward Western and English-speaking settings in the study of international education overlooks the experiences of international students in emerging education hubs in Asia. To redress this imbalance, this article offers insights into the crucial role of place in the study destination choices of a group of international…

  14. Lost in the crowd? Using eye-tracking to investigate the effect of complexity on attribute non-attendance in discrete choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Spinks, Jean; Mortimer, Duncan

    2016-02-03

    The provision of additional information is often assumed to improve consumption decisions, allowing consumers to more accurately weigh the costs and benefits of alternatives. However, increasing the complexity of decision problems may prompt changes in information processing. This is particularly relevant for experimental methods such as discrete choice experiments (DCEs) where the researcher can manipulate the complexity of the decision problem. The primary aims of this study are (i) to test whether consumers actually process additional information in an already complex decision problem, and (ii) consider the implications of any such 'complexity-driven' changes in information processing for design and analysis of DCEs. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) is used to simulate a complex decision problem; here, the choice between complementary and conventional medicine for different health conditions. Eye-tracking technology is used to capture the number of times and the duration that a participant looks at any part of a computer screen during completion of DCE choice sets. From this we can analyse what has become known in the DCE literature as 'attribute non-attendance' (ANA). Using data from 32 participants, we model the likelihood of ANA as a function of choice set complexity and respondent characteristics using fixed and random effects models to account for repeated choice set completion. We also model whether participants are consistent with regard to which characteristics (attributes) they consider across choice sets. We find that complexity is the strongest predictor of ANA when other possible influences, such as time pressure, ordering effects, survey specific effects and socio-demographic variables (including proxies for prior experience with the decision problem) are considered. We also find that most participants do not apply a consistent information processing strategy across choice sets. Eye-tracking technology shows promise as a way of obtaining

  15. Researchers' choice of the number and range of levels in experiments affects the resultant variance-accounted-for effect size.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kensuke; Hoshino, Takahiro

    2016-08-08

    In psychology, the reporting of variance-accounted-for effect size indices has been recommended and widely accepted through the movement away from null hypothesis significance testing. However, most researchers have paid insufficient attention to the fact that effect sizes depend on the choice of the number of levels and their ranges in experiments. Moreover, the functional form of how and how much this choice affects the resultant effect size has not thus far been studied. We show that the relationship between the population effect size and number and range of levels is given as an explicit function under reasonable assumptions. Counterintuitively, it is found that researchers may affect the resultant effect size to be either double or half simply by suitably choosing the number of levels and their ranges. Through a simulation study, we confirm that this relation also applies to sample effect size indices in much the same way. Therefore, the variance-accounted-for effect size would be substantially affected by the basic research design such as the number of levels. Simple cross-study comparisons and a meta-analysis of variance-accounted-for effect sizes would generally be irrational unless differences in research designs are explicitly considered.

  16. Nudging healthy food choices: a field experiment at the train station.

    PubMed

    Kroese, Floor M; Marchiori, David R; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-06-01

    Recognizing the mindless nature of many food decisions, it has been suggested that attempts to increase healthy eating should not focus on convincing people what is 'right' but rather aim to adjust the environment such that people are automatically directed toward healthy choices. This study investigated a nudge aiming to promote healthy food choices in train station snack shops. The nudge involved a repositioning of food products: healthy foods were placed at the cash register desk, while keeping unhealthy products available elsewhere in the shop. Three snack shops were included: a control condition; a nudge condition repositioning healthy products and a nudge + disclosure condition employing the same nudge together with an explanatory sign. Next to examining its effectiveness during 1 week, the study assessed customers' acceptance of the nudge. Controlling for a baseline week, more healthy (but not fewer unhealthy) products were sold in both nudge conditions, with no difference between the nudge and the nudge + disclosure condition. A majority of customers reported positive attitudes toward the nudge. Repositioning healthy foods is a simple, effective and well-accepted nudge to increase healthy purchases. Moreover, disclosing its purpose does not impact on effectiveness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A systematic review of the reliability and validity of discrete choice experiments in valuing non-market environmental goods.

    PubMed

    Rakotonarivo, O Sarobidy; Schaafsma, Marije; Hockley, Neal

    2016-12-01

    While discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are increasingly used in the field of environmental valuation, they remain controversial because of their hypothetical nature and the contested reliability and validity of their results. We systematically reviewed evidence on the validity and reliability of environmental DCEs from the past thirteen years (Jan 2003-February 2016). 107 articles met our inclusion criteria. These studies provide limited and mixed evidence of the reliability and validity of DCE. Valuation results were susceptible to small changes in survey design in 45% of outcomes reporting reliability measures. DCE results were generally consistent with those of other stated preference techniques (convergent validity), but hypothetical bias was common. Evidence supporting theoretical validity (consistency with assumptions of rational choice theory) was limited. In content validity tests, 2-90% of respondents protested against a feature of the survey, and a considerable proportion found DCEs to be incomprehensible or inconsequential (17-40% and 10-62% respectively). DCE remains useful for non-market valuation, but its results should be used with caution. Given the sparse and inconclusive evidence base, we recommend that tests of reliability and validity are more routinely integrated into DCE studies and suggest how this might be achieved.

  18. Physicians' preferences for prescribing oral and intravenous anticancer drugs: a Discrete Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Laure; Cotté, François-Emery; Philippe, Caroline; Mercier, Florence; Bachelot, Thomas; Vidal-Trécan, Gwenaëlle

    2012-04-01

    Although efficacy and tolerability are classical criteria for treatment choice, patient adherence and tariff issues related to novel oral anticancer drugs may also influence therapeutic decisions. We estimated the relative influence of efficacy, tolerability, expected adherence and route of administration of a chemotherapy treatment on 203 French physicians' preferences who participated in a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE), a quantitative method used to elicit preferences. From a questionnaire with six scenarii, respondents had to choose between two treatments which differed with respect to these four attributes. Scenarii were first presented in a curative setting then in a palliative setting. Efficacy, tolerability and expected adherence had two modalities (good versus moderate) and route of administration had three modalities (intravenous (€286-379/session), oral with the current tariff (€28/consultation), oral with a hypothetical tariff (€114)). Efficacy was the reference criterion in choosing a treatment whatever the therapeutic goal (β: 2.114, p<0.0001 in curative setting versus β: 1.063, p<0.0001 in palliative setting). The oral route of administration was important but only in a palliative setting (β: 0.612, p=0.035, and β: 0.506, p<0.0001 for the current and hypothetical tariff, respectively). Removing the efficacy attribute from logistic regression model, tolerability (β: 1.228, p=0.0001) and expected adherence (β: 1.223, p=0.0001) were influent in curative setting while the route of administration was still predominant in palliative setting (β: 0.431, p<0.0001). Results suggest that economic considerations as well as therapeutic efficacy play a significant role in choosing a treatment. Preference for oral chemotherapy with a hypothetical tariff for a patient support programme should be considered for the development of therapeutic education and healthcare coordination, currently not taken into account in the tariff of oral chemotherapy

  19. Preferences for Early Intervention Mental Health Services: A Discrete-Choice Conjoint Experiment.

    PubMed

    Becker, Mackenzie P E; Christensen, Bruce K; Cunningham, Charles E; Furimsky, Ivana; Rimas, Heather; Wilson, Fiona; Jeffs, Lisa; Bieling, Peter J; Madsen, Victoria; Chen, Yvonne Y S; Mielko, Stephanie; Zipursky, Robert B

    2016-02-01

    Early intervention services (EISs) for mental illness may improve outcomes, although treatment engagement is often a problem. Incorporating patients' preferences in the design of interventions improves engagement. A discrete-choice conjoint experiment was conducted in Canada to identify EIS attributes that encourage treatment initiation. Sixteen four-level attributes were formalized into a conjoint survey, completed by patients, family members, and mental health professionals (N=562). Participants were asked which EIS option people with mental illness would contact. Latent-class analysis identified respondent classes characterized by shared preferences. Randomized first-choice simulations predicted which hypothetical options, based on attributes, would result in maximum utilization. Participants in the conventional-service class (N=241, 43%) predicted that individuals would contact traditional services (for example, hospital location and staffed by psychologists or psychiatrists). Membership was associated with being a patient or family member and being male. Participants in the convenient-service class (N=321, 57%) predicted that people would contact services promoting easy access (for example, self-referral and access from home). Membership was associated with being a professional. Both classes predicted that people would contact services that included short wait times, direct contact with professionals, patient autonomy, and psychological treatment information. The convenient-service class predicted that people would use an e-health model, whereas the conventional-service class predicted that people would use a primary care or clinic-hospital model. Provision of a range of services may maximize EIS use. Professionals may be more apt to adopt EISs in line with their beliefs regarding patient preferences. Considering several perspectives is important for service design.

  20. Pharmacists' preferences for providing patient-centered services: a discrete choice experiment to guide health policy.

    PubMed

    Grindrod, Kelly A; Marra, Carlo A; Colley, Lindsey; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Lynd, Larry D

    2010-10-01

    In Canada, most pharmacists are not paid to provide patient-centered services. In other areas of the world these services have suffered from poor adoption by pharmacists. To determine pharmacists' preferences for providing patient-centered services. Senior pharmacy students and pharmacists in British Columbia and Alberta were recruited to complete a discrete choice experiment. In 18 different choice-sets, respondents were asked to choose 1 of 3 options that included 2 different hypothetical patient-centered services and a status quo option. For each hypothetical service, we described the following attributes: service type and setting, personal income and job satisfaction, professional fee, and educational requirements. Multinomial logit and latent class regression models determined respondents' relative preference weights for each attribute. Of 539 respondents who completed the questionnaire, 49% were dispensary pharmacists or managers, 12% were dispensary owners or regional managers, 21% were clinical pharmacists, and 16% were students. When choosing new services, respondents were very averse to having their personal income or job satisfaction decrease. They also preferred a higher professional fee for the service (to be paid to the pharmacy) and preferred a weeklong course or a preceptorship over no education before embarking on new services. Respondents also preferred medication or disease management services, were not interested in screening, and were averse to typical pharmacy services. Finally, respondents preferred the clinic setting over the dispensary. Preferences differed according to several factors including respondents' employment and time in practice. Pharmacists prefer to provide patient-centered services over typical pharmacy services. Most will need to be assured that their income and job satisfaction will be maintained or increased and that they will have access to suitable advanced education. Decision-makers should carefully consider these

  1. Coexistence of full which-path information and interference in Wheelers delayed choice experiment with photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michielsen, K.; Yuan, S.; Zhao, S.; Jin, F.; De Raedt, H.

    2009-08-01

    We present a computer simulation model that is a one-to-one copy of an experimental realization of Wheeler's delayed choice experiment that employs a single photon source and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer composed of a 50/50 input beam splitter and a variable output beam splitter with adjustable reflection coefficient $R$ (V. Jacques {\\sl et al.}, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 220402 (2008)). For $0\\le R\\le 0.5$, experimentally measured values of the interference visibility $V$ and the path distinguishability $D$, a parameter quantifying the which-path information WPI, are found to fulfill the complementary relation $V^2+D^2\\le 1$, thereby allowing to obtain partial WPI while keeping interference with limited visibility. The simulation model that is solely based on experimental facts, that satisfies Einstein's criterion of local causality and that does not rely on any concept of quantum theory or of probability theory, reproduces quantitatively the averages calculated from quantum theory. Our results prove that it is possible to give a particle-only description of the experiment, that one can have full WPI even if D=0, V=1 and therefore that the relation $V^2+D^2\\le 1$ cannot be regarded as quantifying the notion of complementarity.

  2. Does Choice of Multicriteria Method Matter? An Experiment in Water Resources Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Benjamin F.; Chankong, Vira; Hamadeh, Wael; Stakhiv, Eugene Z.

    1992-07-01

    Many multiple criteria decision making methods have been proposed and applied to water planning. Their purpose is to provide information on tradeoffs among objectives and to help users articulate value judgments in a systematic, coherent, and documentable manner. The wide variety of available techniques confuses potential users, causing inappropriate matching of methods with problems. Experiments in which water planners apply more than one multicriteria procedure to realistic problems can help dispel this confusion by testing method appropriateness, ease of use, and validity. We summarize one such experiment where U.S. Army Corps of Engineers personnel used several methods to screen urban water supply plans. The methods evaluated include goal programming, ELECTRE I, additive value functions, multiplicative utility functions, and three techniques for choosing weights (direct rating, indifference tradeoff, and the analytical hierarchy process). Among the conclusions we reach are the following. First, experienced planners generally prefer simpler, more transparent methods. Additive value functions are favored. Yet none of the methods are endorsed by a majority of the participants; many preferred to use no formal method at all. Second, there is strong evidence that rating, the most commonly applied weight selection method, is likely to lead to weights that fail to represent the trade-offs that users are willing to make among criteria. Finally, we show that decisions can be as or more sensitive to the method used as to which person applies it. Therefore, if who chooses is important, then so too is how a choice is made.

  3. Can squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) plan for the future? Studies of temporal myopia in food choice.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Tammy; Cherman, Taryn; Bird, Leanne R; Naqshbandi, Mariam; Roberts, William A

    2004-11-01

    In seven experiments, 2 squirrel monkeys were given choices between arrays of food that varied in the quantity offered. In Experiments 1-5, the monkeys were offered choices between quantities of the same food that varied in a 2:1 ratio. The squirrel monkeys failed to show the temporal myopia effect or a decrease in preference for the larger quantity as the absolute number of food items offered increased. Even when given choices of 8 versus 16 peanuts and 10 versus 20 peanuts, both monkeys significantly preferred the larger quantity. An examination of the monkeys' rates of consumption indicated that 20 peanuts were consumed over a 1- to 2-h period, with eating bouts separated by periods of nonconsumption. In Experiments 6A, 6B, and 7, food was either pilfered or replenished 15 min after an initial choice, so that choice of the smaller quantity led to more total food in the long run. These manipulations caused both monkeys to reduce choice of the larger quantity, relative to baseline choice. The results suggest that squirrel monkeys anticipated the future consequences of their choices.

  4. The role of cognitive abilities in decisions from experience: Age differences emerge as a function of choice set size.

    PubMed

    Frey, Renato; Mata, Rui; Hertwig, Ralph

    2015-09-01

    People seldom enjoy access to summarized information about risky options before making a decision. Instead, they may search for information and learn about environmental contingencies-thus making decisions from experience. Aging is associated with notable deficits in learning and memory-but do these translate into poorer decisions from experience? We report three studies that used a sampling paradigm to investigate younger (M=24 years) and older (M=71 years) adults' decisions from experience. In Study 1 (N=121) participants made 12 decisions between pairs of payoff distributions in the lab. Study 2 (N=70) implemented the same paradigm using portable devices, collecting 84 decisions per individual over a week. Study 3 (N=84) extended the sampling paradigm by asking participants to make 12 decisions between two, four, and eight payoff distributions (in the lab). Overall, the behavioral results suggest that younger and older adults are relatively similar in how they search and what they choose when facing two payoff distributions (Studies 1 and 2). With an increasing number of payoff distributions, however, age differences emerged (Study 3). A modeling analysis on the level of individual participants showed that a simple delta-learning rule model best described the learning processes of most participants. To the extent that ongoing updating processes unfold relatively automatically and effortlessly, older adults may be liberated from the detrimental consequences of cognitive aging in the case of decisions from experience with few decision options. We discuss implications for research on decisions from experience and choice performance over the lifespan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling the bullying prevention program preferences of educators: a discrete choice conjoint experiment.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Charles E; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Rimas, Heather; Deal, Ken; Cunningham, Lesley; Short, Kathy; Chen, Yvonne

    2009-10-01

    We used discrete choice conjoint analysis to model the bullying prevention program preferences of educators. Using themes from computerized decision support lab focus groups (n = 45 educators), we composed 20 three-level bullying prevention program design attributes. Each of 1,176 educators completed 25 choice tasks presenting experimentally varied combinations of the study's attribute levels. Latent class analysis yielded three segments with different preferences. Decision Sensitive educators (31%) preferred that individual schools select bullying prevention programs. In contrast, Support Sensitive educators (51%) preferred that local school boards chose bullying prevention programs. This segment preferred more logistical and social support at every stage of the adoption, training, implementation, and long term maintenance processes. Cost Sensitive educators (16%) showed a stronger preference for programs minimizing costs, training, and implementation time demands. They felt prevention programs were less effective and that the time and space in the curriculum for bullying prevention was less adequate. They were less likely to believe that bullying prevention was their responsibility and more likely to agree that prevention was the responsibility of parents. All segments preferred programs supported by the anecdotal reports of colleagues from other schools rather than those based on scientific evidence. To ensure that the bullying prevention options available reflect the complex combination of attributes influencing real world adoption decisions, program developers need to accommodate the differing views of the Decision, Support, and Cost Sensitive segments while maximizing the support of parents and students.

  6. Environmental Stimulation Does Not Reduce Impulsive Choice in ADHD: A "Pink Noise" Study.

    PubMed

    Metin, Baris; Roeyers, Herbert; Wiersema, Jan R; van der Meere, Jaap J; Gasthuys, Roos; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    The preference for sooner smaller over larger later rewards is a prominent manifestation of impulsivity in ADHD. According to the State Regulation Deficit (SRD) model, this impulsive choice is the result of impaired regulation of arousal level and can be alleviated by adding environmental stimulation to increase levels of arousal. To test this prediction, we studied the effects of adding background "pink noise" on impulsive choice using a classical and new adjusting choice delay task in a sample of 25 children with ADHD and 28 controls. Children with ADHD made more impulsive choices than controls. Adding noise did not reduce impulsive choice in ADHD. The findings add to the existing evidence on impulsive choice in ADHD, but no evidence is found for the SRD model's explanation of this behavioral style. Alternative explanations for impulsive choice in ADHD are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. "For Me, Change Is Not a Choice": The Lived Experience of a Teacher Change Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luka, Karrin

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the lived experience of a teacher change agent who was identified by her secondary school colleagues as someone who pursued positive changes outside her classroom. In conversations about her experiences, she shared what motivated her, the strategies she used, and the challenges she faced. Findings derived from both quantitative…

  8. "For Me, Change Is Not a Choice": The Lived Experience of a Teacher Change Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luka, Karrin

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the lived experience of a teacher change agent who was identified by her secondary school colleagues as someone who pursued positive changes outside her classroom. In conversations about her experiences, she shared what motivated her, the strategies she used, and the challenges she faced. Findings derived from both quantitative…

  9. Choice chamber experiments to test the attraction of postflexion Rhabdosargus holubi larvae to water of estuarine and riverine origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Nicola C.; Cowley, Paul D.; Whitfield, Alan K.; Kaiser, Horst

    2008-03-01

    Although the recruitment of larvae and juveniles of marine fishes into estuaries has been well documented, little is known about the factors governing the immigration of estuary-associated marine fishes into estuaries. Fishes have a well-developed sense of smell and it has been suggested by several workers that olfactory cues of freshwater or estuarine origin serve as stimuli, attracting larvae and juveniles of estuary-associated species into estuaries. Attraction of postflexion Rhabdosargus holubi larvae to estuary and river water from the Kowie estuarine system, South Africa, was measured using a rectangular choice chamber. In experiments, conducted during peak recruitment periods, larvae selected estuary and river water with a significantly higher frequency than sea water. This study, the first to assess the possible role of olfaction in the recruitment process of an estuary-associated marine fish species, demonstrates that larvae are able to recognise water from different origins, probably based on odour.

  10. International study of student career choice in psychiatry (ISoSCCiP): results from Modena, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Silvia; Reggianini, Corinna; Mattei, Giorgio; Rigatelli, Marco; Pingani, Luca; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2013-08-01

    Italy was one of the 16 countries to take part in the International Study of Student Career Choice in Psychiatry (ISoSCCiP). This paper reports and comments on the IsoSCCiP data on Italian medical students. Italian final year medical students from the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia were asked to fill in an on-line questionnaire during the first semester of two consecutive academic years (2009-2010, 2010-2011). Step-wise logistic regressions were performed. Of the 231 students invited, 106 returned completed questionnaires (response rate = 46.7%). Women constituted 66%, and mean age was 25.14 (SD = 1.15). Psychiatry was the second most common choice of possible career by students (5.7%, n = 6). Choosing psychiatry was predicted by having volunteered for further clinical/research activities in psychiatry (p = 0.01), believing that 'the problems presented by psychiatric patients are often particularly interesting and challenging' (p < 0.01), and by accounts of personal/family experience with physical illness (p < 0.01). Both personal factors and factors related to training may be involved in the choice of psychiatry among Italian medical students. Cultural and organizational specificities of Italian mental healthcare may be involved, particularly the strong tradition of social psychiatry.

  11. Patients' Preferences for the Treatment of Metastatic Castrate-resistant Prostate Cancer: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Eliasson, Lina; de Freitas, Hayley M; Dearden, Lindsay; Calimlim, Brian; Lloyd, Andrew J

    2017-04-01

    Patient treatment preferences are increasingly being used to inform health care decision making. This discrete choice experiment assessed how men perceive the risks and benefits of hypothetical treatment options for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Treatment attributes for inclusion were identified through a review of the literature and product labels. Expert interviews confirmed clinical appropriateness and patient relevance of the attributes, which included effectiveness (delay in months before chemotherapy), steroid use, possible drug interactions (additional hospital visits for monitoring), fogginess (effects on cognition and memory), fatigue (extreme tiredness), food restrictions, and bone pain. Following a pilot, the final discrete choice experiment included 18 choice sets presenting treatments for mCRPC and was completed by men with mCRPC in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Data were analyzed using a conditional logit model, with odds ratios (ORs) used to indicate preference for attributes, and tradeoff measures (TOM) were estimated using the ratio of coefficients. Within each attribute category and with all other factors being equal, participants (N = 285) indicated a strong preference for treatments that fully control bone pain (OR = 12.069 [95% CI, 10.555-13.800]) and for treatments that delay chemotherapy (OR, 1.727 [95% CI, 1.548-1.927]). They also preferred treatments that were associated with the lowest risk of fogginess (OR, 2.115 [95% CI, 1.849-2.420]), a lower risk of fatigue (OR, 1.365 [95% CI 1.219-1.528]), and fewer additional hospital visits (OR, 1.245 [95% CI 1.111-1.397]) than the respective reference categories. Participants preferred to use steroids under advice from a physician (OR, 1.275 [95% CI 1.132-1.437]). Food restrictions related to taking medication were not a significant concern for participants. TOM results indicated that large tradeoffs in effectiveness, fogginess, and fatigue are required for

  12. Study of the Voluntary Public School Choice Program. Interim Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Ahonen, Pirkko; Kim, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the Voluntary Public School Choice (VPSC) Program is to assist states and local school districts in the development of innovative strategies to expand options for students, and to encourage transfers of students from low-performing to higher-performing schools. This report presents interim findings from the National Evaluation of…

  13. The effect of traffic lights and regulatory statements on the choice between complementary and conventional medicines in Australia: results from a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Spinks, Jean; Mortimer, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that complementary medicines are currently 'under-regulated' in some countries due to their potential for harm as a direct result from side-effects or interactions; from delaying more effective care; or from the economic cost of purchasing an ineffective or inappropriate treatment. The requirement of additional labelling on complementary medicine products has been suggested in Australia and may provide additional information to consumers at the point of purchase. This paper details a unique way of testing the potential effects on consumer behaviour of including either a traffic light logo or regulatory statement on labels. Using a discrete choice experiment, data were collected in 2012 in a sample of 521 Australians with either type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease. We find that additional labelling can affect consumer behaviour, but in unpredictable ways. The results of this experiment are informative to further the dialogue concerning possible regulatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sexual Decision Making in the Absence of Choice: The African American Female Dating Experience

    PubMed Central

    Andrasik, Michele P.; Nguyen, Hong V.; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2016-01-01

    Although links between low mate availability and increased HIV and STI risk for African American women have been documented in the literature, we know little about the impact of limited mate choices on the quality of relationships between Black men and women and how these relationship dynamics impact risk for young Black women. We conducted a qualitative study with African American female young adults (N=12) to explore the perceived impact of structural forces on African American female young adults’ dating and sexual behavior. Participants reported (1) perceptions of Black men as untrustworthy and manipulative, (2) the limited and often negative roles for Black men in the larger Black community, and (3) heterosexual relationships in the Black community as increasingly influenced by economics and commerce. Recommendations for HIV prevention interventions that include micro and macro level approaches are discussed. PMID:27182463

  15. Understanding rational non-adherence to medications. A discrete choice experiment in a community sample in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In spite of the potential impact upon population health and expenditure, interventions promoting medication adherence have been found to be of moderate effectiveness and cost effectiveness. Understanding the relative influence of factors affecting patient medication adherence decisions and the characteristics of individuals associated with variation in adherence will lead to a better understanding of how future interventions should be designed and targeted. This study aims to explore medication-taking decisions that may underpin intentional medication non-adherence behaviour amongst a community sample and the relative importance of medication specific factors and patient background characteristics contributing to those decisions. Methods A discrete choice experiment conducted through a web-enabled online survey was used to estimate the relative importance of eight medication factors (immediate and long-term medication harms and benefits, cost, regimen, symptom severity, alcohol restrictions) on the preference to continue taking a medication. To reflect more closely what usually occurs in practice, non-disease specific medication and health terms were used to mimic decisions across multiple medications and conditions.161 general community participants, matching the national Australian census data (age, gender) were recruited through an online panel provider (participation rate: 10%) in 2010. Results Six of the eight factors (i.e. immediate and long-term medication harms and benefits, cost, and regimen) had a significant influence on medication choice. Patient background characteristics did not improve the model. Respondents with private health insurance appeared less sensitive to cost then those without private health insurance. In general, health outcomes, framed as a side-effect, were found to have a greater influence over adherence than outcomes framed as therapeutic benefits. Conclusions Medication-taking decisions are the subject of rational choices

  16. Weak measurement combined with quantum delayed-choice experiment and implementation in optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Tao; Ye, Ming-Yong; Song, He-Shan

    2015-12-01

    Weak measurement [Y. Aharonov, D.Z. Albert, L. Vaidman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1351 (1988); C. Simon, E.S. Polzik, Phys. Rev. A 83, 040101(R) (2011)] combined with quantum delayed-choice experiment that use Controlled Hadamard gate instead of Hadamard gate in quantum networks give rise to a surprising amplification effect, i.e., counterintuitive negative amplification effect. We show that this effect is caused by the wave and particle behaviours of the system, and it can't be explained by a semiclassical wave theory [D. Suter, Phys. Rev. A 51, 45 (1995); J.C. Howell, D.J. Starling, P.B. Dixon, P.K. Vudyasetu, A.N. Jordan, Phys. Rev. A 81, 033813 (2010); N. Brunner, A. Acín, D. Collins, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 180402 (2003)] and by the statistical feature of preselection and postselection with disturbance [C. Ferrie, J. Combes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 120404 (2014)], due to the entanglement of the system and the ancilla in Controlled Hadamard gate. The generation mechanism with wave-particle duality in quantum mechanics lead us to a scheme for implementation of weak measurement in optomechanical system.

  17. Is Best-Worst Scaling Suitable for Health State Valuation? A Comparison with Discrete Choice Experiments.

    PubMed

    Krucien, Nicolas; Watson, Verity; Ryan, Mandy

    2016-12-04

    Health utility indices (HUIs) are widely used in economic evaluation. The best-worst scaling (BWS) method is being used to value dimensions of HUIs. However, little is known about the properties of this method. This paper investigates the validity of the BWS method to develop HUI, comparing it to another ordinal valuation method, the discrete choice experiment (DCE). Using a parametric approach, we find a low level of concordance between the two methods, with evidence of preference reversals. BWS responses are subject to decision biases, with significant effects on individuals' preferences. Non parametric tests indicate that BWS data has lower stability, monotonicity and continuity compared to DCE data, suggesting that the BWS provides lower quality data. As a consequence, for both theoretical and technical reasons, practitioners should be cautious both about using the BWS method to measure health-related preferences, and using HUI based on BWS data. Given existing evidence, it seems that the DCE method is a better method, at least because its limitations (and measurement properties) have been extensively researched. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Reprint of "Attitudes towards honey among Italian consumers: A choice experiment approach".

    PubMed

    Cosmina, Marta; Gallenti, Gianluigi; Marangon, Francesco; Troiano, Stefania

    2016-11-01

    Honey is becoming increasingly popular with consumers for its nutritional benefits as well as many other functions. The objective of this article is to determine which factors influence consumers' purchase intentions and to assess the importance of certain honey characteristics to enable identification of the constituents of an ideal honey profile. This information will lead to satisfaction of consumers' preferences and formulation of marketing strategies that support honey makers. We applied a choice experiment to the Italian honey market to define the preferences and the willingness to pay for key characteristics of the product. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014 (January-July) among Italian consumers; it was completed by 427 respondents. A latent class model was estimated and four classes were identified, with different preferences, illustrating that respondents seem to be heterogeneous honey consumers. Results suggest the "organic" attribute was more important than others factors, such as the place where the honey was produced (landscape), but less important than the country of origin; local Italian honey was preferred to foreign honey. Respondents showed a higher willingness to pay (WTP) for honey from their country of origin versus the production method used. Our results suggest that while organic beekeeping might be an important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication is not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Using discrete choice experiments within a cost-benefit analysis framework: some considerations.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Emma

    2006-01-01

    A great advantage of the stated preference discrete choice experiment (SPDCE) approach to economic evaluation methodology is its immense flexibility within applied cost-benefit analyses (CBAs). However, while the use of SPDCEs in healthcare has increased markedly in recent years there has been a distinct lack of equivalent CBAs in healthcare using such SPDCE-derived valuations. This article outlines specific issues and some practical suggestions for consideration relevant to the development of CBAs using SPDCE-derived benefits. The article shows that SPDCE-derived CBA can adopt recent developments in cost-effectiveness methodology including the cost-effectiveness plane, appropriate consideration of uncertainty, the net-benefit framework and probabilistic sensitivity analysis methods, while maintaining the theoretical advantage of the SPDCE approach. The concept of a cost-benefit plane is no different in principle to the cost-effectiveness plane and can be a useful tool for reporting and presenting the results of CBAs.However, there are many challenging issues to address for the advancement of CBA methodology using SPCDEs within healthcare. Particular areas for development include the importance of accounting for uncertainty in SPDCE-derived willingness-to-pay values, the methodology of SPDCEs in clinical trial settings and economic models, measurement issues pertinent to using SPDCEs specifically in healthcare, and the importance of issues such as consideration of the dynamic nature of healthcare and the resulting impact this has on the validity of attribute definitions and context.

  20. Hawaiian Residents' Preferences for Miconia Control Program Attributes Using Conjoint Choice Experiment and Latent Class Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Lin, Tun; Yang, Fang; Sisior, Gwendalyn

    2010-02-01

    Invasive species control or eradication is an important issue. On the islands of Hawaii, this problem is exceedingly evident when it comes to Miconia calvescens ( Miconia) . Adequate funding is needed to control or eradicate this invasive plant, but with the limited amount of funding available for the fight against Miconia, it is important to make sure that the fund is being spent in a way that addresses the needs or preferences of the Hawaiian residents. Using the conjoint choice experiment method, we designed a survey that would measure the Hawaiian residents’ willingness to support Miconia control program attributes. The attributes focused on were cost, biodiversity loss, extent of spread and soil erosion. Latent class approach was used to assess the surveyed population to see the different preferences by individual classes. The results show three different classes or groups of individuals with varying preferences for a control program of which cost and erosion were the top preferred attributes among the classes. These groups were defined by their socio-demographics of income, the length of residency and exposure to farming/gardening activities. Even with a preference for lower cost, a group showed willingness to pay more (2.40) for a program that reduces erosion from high to low. Finally, the biodiversity attribute had very low consideration from a majority of the respondents showing the need for educating the public regarding its importance in preserving the unique environment in Hawaii.

  1. Hawaiian residents' preferences for Miconia control program attributes using conjoint choice experiment and latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Lin, Tun; Yang, Fang; Sisior, Gwendalyn

    2010-02-01

    Invasive species control or eradication is an important issue. On the islands of Hawaii, this problem is exceedingly evident when it comes to Miconia calvescens (Miconia). Adequate funding is needed to control or eradicate this invasive plant, but with the limited amount of funding available for the fight against Miconia, it is important to make sure that the fund is being spent in a way that addresses the needs or preferences of the Hawaiian residents. Using the conjoint choice experiment method, we designed a survey that would measure the Hawaiian residents' willingness to support Miconia control program attributes. The attributes focused on were cost, biodiversity loss, extent of spread and soil erosion. Latent class approach was used to assess the surveyed population to see the different preferences by individual classes. The results show three different classes or groups of individuals with varying preferences for a control program of which cost and erosion were the top preferred attributes among the classes. These groups were defined by their socio-demographics of income, the length of residency and exposure to farming/gardening activities. Even with a preference for lower cost, a group showed willingness to pay more ($2.40) for a program that reduces erosion from high to low. Finally, the biodiversity attribute had very low consideration from a majority of the respondents showing the need for educating the public regarding its importance in preserving the unique environment in Hawaii.

  2. Parents’ preferences for vaccinating daughters against human papillomavirus in the Netherlands: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To generate knowledge about potential improvements to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination information and organization strategies, we assessed how aspects of HPV vaccination are associated with parents’ preferences for their daughters’ uptake, and which trade-offs parents are willing to make between these aspects. Methods A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted among parents with a daughter aged 10–12 years. Panel mixed logit regression models were used to determine parents’ preferences for vaccination. Trade-offs were quantified between four vaccination programme aspects: degree of protection against cervical cancer, duration of protection, risk of serious side-effects, and age of vaccination. Results Total response rate was 302/983 (31%). All aspects influenced respondents’ preferences for HPV vaccination (p < 0.05). Respondents preferred vaccination at age 14 years instead of at a younger age. Respondents were willing to trade-off 11% of the degree of protection to obtain life-time protection instead of 25 years. To obtain a vaccination with a risk of serious side-effects of 1/750,000 instead of 1/150,000, respondents were willing to trade-off 21%. Conclusions Uptake may rise if the age ranges for free HPV vaccinations are broadened. Based on the trade-offs parents were willing to make, we conclude that uptake would increase if new evidence indicated outcomes are better than are currently understood, particularly for degree and duration of protection. PMID:24885861

  3. An Australian discrete choice experiment to value eq-5d health states.

    PubMed

    Viney, Rosalie; Norman, Richard; Brazier, John; Cronin, Paula; King, Madeleine T; Ratcliffe, Julie; Street, Deborah

    2014-06-01

    Conventionally, generic quality-of-life health states, defined within multi-attribute utility instruments, have been valued using a Standard Gamble or a Time Trade-Off. Both are grounded in expected utility theory but impose strong assumptions about the form of the utility function. Preference elicitation tasks for both are complicated, limiting the number of health states that each respondent can value and, therefore, that can be valued overall. The usual approach has been to value a set of the possible health states and impute values for the remainder. Discrete Choice Experiments (DCEs) offer an attractive alternative, allowing investigation of more flexible specifications of the utility function and greater coverage of the response surface. We designed a DCE to obtain values for EQ-5D health states and implemented it in an Australia-representative online panel (n = 1,031). A range of specifications investigating non-linear preferences with respect to time and interactions between EQ-5D levels were estimated using a random-effects probit model. The results provide empirical support for a flexible utility function, including at least some two-factor interactions. We then constructed a preference index such that full health and death were valued at 1 and 0, respectively, to provide a DCE-based algorithm for Australian cost-utility analyses.

  4. Valuing improvements to threatened and endangered marine species: an application of stated preference choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Wallmo, Kristy; Lew, Daniel K

    2011-07-01

    Non-market valuation research has produced value estimates for over forty threatened and endangered (T&E) species, including mammals, fish, birds, and crustaceans. Increasingly, Stated Preference Choice Experiments (SPCE) are utilized for valuation, as the format offers flexibility for policy analysis and may reduce certain types of response biases relative to the more traditional Contingent Valuation method. Additionally, SPCE formats can allow respondents to make trade-offs among multiple species, providing information on the distinctiveness of preferences for different T&E species. In this paper we present results of an SPCE involving three U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed species: the Puget Sound Chinook salmon, the Hawaiian monk seal, and the smalltooth sawfish. We estimate willingness-to-pay (WTP) values for improving each species' ESA listing status and statistically compare these values between the three species using a method of convolutions approach. Our results suggest that respondents have distinct preferences for the three species, and that WTP estimates differ depending on the species and the level of improvement to their ESA status. Our results should be of interest to researchers and policy-makers, as we provide value estimates for three species that have limited, if any, estimates available in the economics literature, as well as new information about the way respondents make trade-offs among three taxonomically different species.

  5. Risk preferences in strategic wildfire decision making: a choice experiment with U.S. wildfire managers.

    PubMed

    Wibbenmeyer, Matthew J; Hand, Michael S; Calkin, David E; Venn, Tyron J; Thompson, Matthew P

    2013-06-01

    Federal policy has embraced risa management as an appropriate paradigm for wildfire management. Economic theory suggests that over repeated wildfire events, potential economic costs and risas of ecological damage are optimally balanced when management decisions are free from biases, risa aversion, and risa seeking. Of primary concern in this article is how managers respond to wildfire risa, including the potential effect of wildfires (on ecological values, structures, and safety) and the likelihood of different fire outcomes. We use responses to a choice experiment questionnaire of U.S. federal wildfire managers to measure attitudes toward several components of wildfire risa and to test whether observed risa attitudes are consistent with the efficient allocation of wildfire suppression resources. Our results indicate that fire managers' decisions are consistent with nonexpected utility theories of decisions under risa. Managers may overallocate firefighting resources when the likelihood or potential magnitude of damage from fires is low, and sensitivity to changes in the probability of fire outcomes depends on whether probabilities are close to one or zero and the magnitude of the potential harm. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Modeling the Bullying Prevention Program Preferences of Educators: A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Charles E.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Rimas, Heather; Deal, Ken; Cunningham, Lesley; Short, Kathy; Chen, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    We used discrete choice conjoint analysis to model the bullying prevention program preferences of educators. Using themes from computerized decision support lab focus groups (n = 45 educators), we composed 20 three-level bullying prevention program design attributes. Each of 1,176 educators completed 25 choice tasks presenting experimentally…

  7. Does Educator Training or Experience Affect the Quality of Multiple-Choice Questions?

    PubMed

    Webb, Emily M; Phuong, Jonathan S; Naeger, David M

    2015-10-01

    Physicians receive little training on proper multiple-choice question (MCQ) writing methods. Well-constructed MCQs follow rules, which ensure that a question tests what it is intended to test. Questions that break these are described as "flawed." We examined whether the prevalence of flawed questions differed significantly between those with or without prior training in question writing and between those with different levels of educator experience. We assessed 200 unedited MCQs from a question bank for our senior medical student radiology elective: an equal number of questions (50) were written by faculty with previous training in MCQ writing, other faculty, residents, and medical students. Questions were scored independently by two readers for the presence of 11 distinct flaws described in the literature. Questions written by faculty with MCQ writing training had significantly fewer errors: mean 0.4 errors per question compared to a mean of 1.5-1.7 errors per question for the other groups (P < .001). There were no significant differences in the total number of errors between the untrained faculty, residents, and students (P values .35-.91). Among trained faculty 17/50 questions (34%) were flawed, whereas other faculty wrote 38/50 (76%) flawed questions, residents 37/50 (74%), and students 44/50 (88%). Trained question writers' higher performance was mainly manifest in the reduced frequency of five specific errors. Faculty with training in effective MCQ writing made fewer errors in MCQ construction. Educator experience alone had no effect on the frequency of flaws; faculty without dedicated training, residents, and students performed similarly. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Patients' preferences for anti-osteoporosis drug treatment: a cross-European discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Dellaert, Benedict G; Dirksen, Carmen D; Watson, Verity; Bours, Sandrine; Goemaere, Stefan; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Roux, Christian; McGowan, Bernie; Silke, Carmel; Whelan, Bryan; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Torres, Elisa; Papadakis, Georgios; Rizzoli, Rene; Cooper, Cyrus; Pearson, Gill; Boonen, Annelies

    2017-07-01

    To estimate the preferences of osteoporotic patients for medication attributes, and analyse data from seven European countries. A discrete choice experiment was conducted in Belgium, France, Ireland, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland and the UK. Patients were asked to choose repeatedly between two hypothetical unlabelled drug treatments (and an opt-out option) that varied with respect to four attributes: efficacy in reducing the risk of fracture, type of potential common side effects, and mode and frequency of administration. In those countries in which patients contribute to the cost of their treatment directly, a fifth attribute was added: out-of-pocket cost. A mixed logit panel model was used to estimate patients' preferences. In total, 1124 patients completed the experiment, with a sample of between 98 and 257 patients per country. In all countries, patients preferred treatment with higher effectiveness, and 6-monthly subcutaneous injection was always preferred over weekly oral tablets. In five countries, patients also preferred a monthly oral tablet and yearly i.v. injections over weekly oral tablets. In the three countries where the out-of-pocket cost was included as an attribute, lower costs significantly contributed to the treatment preference. Between countries, there were statistically significant differences for 13 out of 42 attribute/level interactions. We found statistically significant differences in patients' preferences for anti-osteoporosis medications between countries, especially for the mode of administration. Our findings emphasized that international treatment recommendations should allow for local adaptation, and that understanding individual preferences is important if we want to improve the quality of clinical care for patients with osteoporosis.

  9. The development of quality indicators in mental healthcare: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Schellings, Ron; Essers, Brigitte A B; Kessels, Alfons G; Brunner, Florian; van de Ven, Tijmen; Robben, Paul B M

    2012-08-07

    Health care regulatory agencies perform audits or inspections to judge the quality and safety of health care. This judgment is based on the assessment of a large set of health care indicators as accepted by the profession. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the influence of these indicators and whether a smaller number would be sufficient for a quality assessment or audit procedure. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was performed for the assessment of quality of care regarding the management of patients with schizophrenia and drug dependency in psychiatric institutes. Based on multidisciplinary guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia and a visit of (co)inspectors of the Dutch Healthcare Inspectorate at all 33 integrated mental hospitals a set of 51 indicators were assessed in a subsequent interview. With the analysis of the results, 6 attributes were selected for the DCE as quality indicators. Seventy-six percent of all health services (co)inspectors (n = 33) involved in the inspection of mental health services, participated in the experiment. Respondents considered an operational elaborate treatment plan the most important indicator for the assessment of quality of care in a psychiatric institute, followed by a general care program, treatment outcome measurement, and involvement in treatment of patients and relatives. Pharmacotherapy and governance responsibility were valued as less important indicators. The results of this DCE show that there is a prioritisation in the six selected quality indicators. This might help health services (co) inspectors to enhance the efficiency and transparency of the quality of care assessment for patients with schizophrenia and/or drug dependency in psychiatric institutes.

  10. Modeling the Information Preferences of Parents of Children with Mental Health Problems: A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Charles E.; Deal, Ken; Rimas, Heather; Buchanan, Don H.; Gold, Michelle; Sdao-Jarvie, Katherine; Boyle, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Although materials informing parents about children's mental health (CMH) problems can improve outcomes, we know relatively little about the design factors that might influence their utilization of available resources. We used a discrete choice conjoint experiment to model the information preferences of parents seeking mental health services for 6…

  11. International Student Destination Choice: The Influence of Home Campus Experience on the Decision to Consider Branch Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Stephen; Huisman, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has found that the country and institution choices of international students are greatly influenced by recommendations they receive from others who have experience of undertaking higher education overseas. For Western universities, it is of utmost importance to satisfy their international students, who can then encourage the next…

  12. Schools' Responses to Voucher Policy: Participation Decisions and Early Implementation Experiences in the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Megan J.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the supply side of voucher programs, despite schools' central role in program effectiveness. Using survey and interview data on the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program (ICSP), I analyze schools' participation decisions and early implementation experiences to understand better how schools respond to program regulations. I find…

  13. Country Image and the Study Abroad Destination Choice of Students from Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazarian, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the author focuses on the issue of country image in destination choice. To examine the relationship between these two variables, the study tests whether mainland Chinese who favor a destination as their ideal first choice for study abroad have a significantly more positive view of that destination's country image than their…

  14. Search, Choice and Persistence for Higher Education: A Case Study in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Erdal; Oktay, Münir

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate students' behaviors in search and choice during university placement, and also to examine how students' choice process affects their persistence decisions. Participants in the study were 51 second year students studying in the Department of Chemistry Education of Kazim Karabekir Education Faculty, in…

  15. Frictions Between Formal Education Policy and Actual School Choice: Case Studies in an International Comparative Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teelken, Christine; Driessen, Geert; Smit, Frederik

    2005-01-01

    This contribution is based on comparative case studies of secondary schools in England, the Netherlands and Scotland. The authors conclude that although opportunities for school choice are offered in a formal sense in each of the locations studied, in certain cases choice is not particularly encouraged. In order to explain this disparity between formal education policy and actual school choice, they identified seven areas of friction which determine school choice. This approach allowed a more detailed and accurate view of the operation of school choice on a local, day-to-day basis. Active or passive discouragement of choice became apparent in factors such as availability of transport and information; bureaucratic procedures; strictly enforced admission criteria; and lack of educational diversity.

  16. Technology, Biopolitics, Rationalities and Choices: Recent Studies of Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    New synergies across anthropology, science and technology studies (STS), legal studies and sociology, bring fresh theoretical perspectives to the study of reproduction. Recent works on reproduction trace some of the changing rationalities: from the tactics of feminist self-help health movements in 1970s and 1980s in the US, to the commercialized experience of pregnancy and the various configurations, policies and legalities addressing globalized genetic and assisted reproductive technologies. Reproductive decision-making is deeply entangled with neoliberalism, welfare reforms, racial and geographic disparities, economic stratification and cultural rationalities to produce inequalities. Studies of reproduction remain central to basic anthropological questions: what it means to be human, what constitutes life, how we live our lives, and how societies value particular lives.

  17. A qualitative study of medical school choice in the UK.

    PubMed

    Brown, Celia

    2007-02-01

    Examining the factors that make a medical school attractive (or otherwise) to potential students is particularly important but there is little empirical evidence that explores this issue. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 24 prospective medical students at six schools and colleges in England. The interviews aimed to elicit detailed information on the why and how of medical school choice, in students' application and acceptance decisions. Three categories of medical school attributes stood out as positive determinants of choice: academic factors (with reputation considered the most important), location factors (specifically preferences for particular cities) and intangibles (gut feelings and personal contacts and recommendations). Most of students' decision-making activity was undertaken during the admissions stage of the application process. The results are important in explaining why the students in the sample did not rate the new medical schools highly and also suggest that few of the important attributes can be manipulated by the schools themselves.

  18. When choice becomes limited: Women’s experiences of delay in labour

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Natalie; Kenyon, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Choice and patient involvement in decision-making are strong aspirations of contemporary healthcare. One of the most striking areas in which this is played out is maternity care where recent policy has focused on choice and supporting normal birth. However, birth is sometimes not straightforward and unanticipated complications can rapidly reduce choice. We draw on the accounts of women who experienced delay during labour with their first child. This occurs when progress is slow, and syntocinon is administered to strengthen and regulate contractions. Once delay has been recognized, the clinical circumstances limit choice. Drawing on Mol’s work on the logics of choice and care, we explore how, although often upsetting, women accepted that their choices and plans were no longer feasible. The majority were happy to defer to professionals who they regarded as having the necessary technical expertise, while some adopted a more traditional medical model and actively rejected involvement in decision-making altogether. Only a minority wanted to continue active involvement in decision-making, although the extent to which the possibility existed for them to do so was questionable. Women appeared to accept that their ideals of choice and involvement had to be abandoned, and that clinical circumstances legitimately changed events. PMID:26655326

  19. Preferences for support services among adolescents and young adults with cancer or a blood disorder: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Goodall, Stephen; King, Madeleine; Ewing, Jane; Smith, Narelle; Kenny, Patricia

    2012-10-01

    Life-threatening illnesses in young people are traumatic for patients and their families. Support services can help patients and families deal with various non-medical impacts of diagnosis, disease and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine which types of support are most valued by adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer or blood disorders and their families. A discrete choice experiment (DCE). Separate experiments were conducted with AYA and their carers. Completed surveys were returned by 83 patients and 78 carers. AYA preferred emotional support for themselves (either by counsellors and/or peers), emotional support for their family, financial support and assistance returning to school/work over services relating to cultural and spiritual needs. Covariate analysis indicated female AYA were more likely than males to prefer emotional support, while males were more likely to prefer assistance returning to work/school. Carers preferred emotional support for their AYA and assistance returning to school/work. Like AYA, they were indifferent about services relating to cultural and spiritual needs. Providing the types of support services that people prefer should maximise effectiveness. This study suggests that AYA patients require support services that included financial aid, assistance returning to work/study, emotional support for themselves and for their family. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Qualitative study of influences on food store choice

    PubMed Central

    Krukowski, Rebecca A.; McSweeney, Jean; Sparks, Carla; West, Delia Smith

    2012-01-01

    Previous research indicates food store choice influences dietary intake and may contribute to health disparities. However, there is limited knowledge about the reasons which prompt the choice of a primary food store, particularly among populations vulnerable to obesity and chronic diseases (e.g., individuals living in rural locations and African-Americans). Purposive sampling was used to select rural and urban communities (3 African-American and 2 Caucasian focus groups; n=48) in Arkansas from June to November 2010, allowing examination of potential racial or rurality differences. Primary household food shoppers (n=48) (96% female, 63% African-American, mean age=48.1±13.9 years old, mean BMI=30.5±7.8) discussed reasons for choosing their primary store. Qualitative analysis techniques—content analysis and constant comparison—were used to identify themes. Four themes emerged: proximity to home or work, financial considerations and strategies, availability/quality of fruits, vegetables, and meat, and store characteristics (e.g., safety, cleanliness/smell, customer service, nonfood merchandise availability, and brand availability). While there were persistent rurality differences, the relevant factors were similar between African-American and Caucasian participants. These findings have important implications for future policies and programs promoting environmental changes related to dietary intake and obesity, particularly in rural areas that appear to have significant challenges in food store choice. PMID:22771756

  1. Qualitative study of influences on food store choice.

    PubMed

    Krukowski, Rebecca A; McSweeney, Jean; Sparks, Carla; West, Delia Smith

    2012-10-01

    Previous research indicates food store choice influences dietary intake and may contribute to health disparities. However, there is limited knowledge about the reasons which prompt the choice of a primary food store, particularly among populations vulnerable to obesity and chronic diseases (e.g., individuals living in rural locations and African-Americans). Purposive sampling was used to select rural and urban communities (three African-American and two Caucasian focus groups; n=48) in Arkansas from June to November 2010, allowing examination of potential racial or rurality differences. Primary household food shoppers (n=48) (96% female, 63% African-American, mean age=48.1±13.9years old, mean BMI=30.5±7.8) discussed reasons for choosing their primary store. Qualitative analysis techniques-content analysis and constant comparison-were used to identify themes. Four themes emerged: proximity to home or work, financial considerations and strategies, availability/quality of fruits, vegetables, and meat, and store characteristics (e.g., safety, cleanliness/smell, customer service, non-food merchandise availability, and brand availability). While there were persistent rurality differences, the relevant factors were similar between African-American and Caucasian participants. These findings have important implications for future policies and programs promoting environmental changes related to dietary intake and obesity, particularly in rural areas that appear to have significant challenges in food store choice.

  2. Activation of self-knowledge reduces conflict during occupational choice: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Takashi; Takezawa, Tomohiro; Shiraishi, Maiko; Miyatani, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether the activation of self-knowledge reduces conflict during occupational choice, which can elicit many correct answers. Conflict was measured via event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Results of this study showed that activation of self-knowledge reduces conflict during occupational choice. Our results suggest that, in a situation in which two or more possible correct answers exist, people use self-knowledge as a benchmark to reduce conflict by biasing either choice of behavior.

  3. Frictions between Formal Education Policy and Actual School Choice: Case Studies in an International Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teelken, Christine; Driessen, Geert; Smit, Frederik

    2005-01-01

    This contribution is based on comparative case studies of secondary schools in England, the Netherlands and Scotland. The authors conclude that although opportunities for school choice are offered in a formal sense in each of the locations studied, in certain cases choice is not particularly encouraged. In order to explain this disparity between…

  4. A Study of the Factors Influencing Parental Choice of a Charter School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekanem, Imaobong Columba

    2013-01-01

    The study discussed in this dissertation identified and examined the factors that influence parent charter school choice. The study was conducted for a rural K-8 charter school in Delaware. The survey instrument used was a parent questionnaire which contained questions that examined the reasons for parent charter school choice, the features of…

  5. A Study of the Factors Influencing Parental Choice of a Charter School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekanem, Imaobong Columba

    2013-01-01

    The study discussed in this dissertation identified and examined the factors that influence parent charter school choice. The study was conducted for a rural K-8 charter school in Delaware. The survey instrument used was a parent questionnaire which contained questions that examined the reasons for parent charter school choice, the features of…

  6. Frictions between Formal Education Policy and Actual School Choice: Case Studies in an International Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teelken, Christine; Driessen, Geert; Smit, Frederik

    2005-01-01

    This contribution is based on comparative case studies of secondary schools in England, the Netherlands and Scotland. The authors conclude that although opportunities for school choice are offered in a formal sense in each of the locations studied, in certain cases choice is not particularly encouraged. In order to explain this disparity between…

  7. Patients' Preferences for Outcome, Process and Cost Attributes in Cancer Treatment: A Systematic Review of Discrete Choice Experiments.

    PubMed

    Bien, Daniela R; Danner, Marion; Vennedey, Vera; Civello, Daniele; Evers, Silvia M; Hiligsmann, Mickaël

    2017-03-31

    As several studies have been conducted to elicit patients' preferences for cancer treatment, it is important to provide an overview and synthesis of these studies. This study aimed to systematically review discrete choice experiments (DCEs) about patients' preferences for cancer treatment and assessed the relative importance of outcome, process and cost attributes. A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed and EMBASE to identify all DCEs investigating patients' preferences for cancer treatment between January 2010 and April 2016. Data were extracted using a predefined extraction sheet, and a reporting quality assessment was applied to all studies. Attributes were classified into outcome, process and cost attributes, and their relative importance was assessed. A total of 28 DCEs were identified. More than half of the studies (56%) received an aggregate score lower than 4 on the PREFS (Purpose, Respondents, Explanation, Findings, Significance) 5-point scale. Most attributes were related to outcome (70%), followed by process (25%) and cost (5%). Outcome attributes were most often significant (81%), followed by process (73%) and cost (67%). The relative importance of outcome attributes was ranked highest in 82% of the cases where it was included, followed by cost (43%) and process (12%). This systematic review suggests that attributes related to cancer treatment outcomes are the most important for patients. Process and cost attributes were less often included in studies but were still (but less) important to patients in most studies. Clinicians and decision makers should be aware that attribute importance might be influenced by level selection for that attribute.

  8. Early Experience with Employee Choice of Consumer-Directed Health Plans and Satisfaction with Enrollment

    PubMed Central

    Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Kind, Elizabeth A; Braun, Barbara L; Bertko, John

    2004-01-01

    Objective To assess the initial impact of offering consumer-defined health plan (CDHP) options on employees. Data Sources/Study Setting A mail survey of 4,680 employees in the corporate offices of Humana Inc. in June 2001. Study Design The study was a cross-sectional mail survey of employees aged 18 and older who were eligible for health care benefits. The survey was conducted following open enrollment. The primary outcome is the choice of consumer-directed health plan or not; the secondary outcome is satisfaction with the enrollment process. Important covariates include sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, race, educational level, exempt or nonexempt status, type of coverage), health status, health care utilization, and plan design preferences. Data Collection Methods A six-page questionnaire was mailed to the home of each employee, followed by a reminder postcard and two subsequent mailings to nonrespondents. Principal Findings The response rate was 66.2 percent. Seven percent selected one of the two new plan options. Because there were no meaningful differences between employees choosing either of the two new options, these groups were combined in multivariate analysis. A logistic regression modeled the likelihood of choosing the novel plan options. Those selecting the new plans were less likely to be black (odds ratio [OR] 0.46), less likely to have only Humana coverage (OR 0.30), and more likely to have single coverage (OR 1.77). They were less likely to have a chronic health problem (OR 0.56) and more likely to have had no recent medical visits (OR 3.21). They were more likely to believe that lowest premiums were the most important plan attribute (OR 2.89) and to think there were big differences in the premiums of available plans (OR 5.19). Employees in fair or poor health were more likely to have a difficult time during the online enrollment process. They were more likely to find the communications very helpful (OR 0.42) and the benefits

  9. Patient preferences for dry powder inhaler attributes in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in France: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Hawken, Natalia; Torvinen, Saku; Neine, Mohamed-Elmoctar; Amri, Ikbel; Toumi, Mondher; Aballéa, Samuel; Plich, Adam; Roche, Nicolas

    2017-07-06

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are often used in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) therapies. Using the discrete choice experiment (DCE) methodology, this study conducted in France was designed to assess patients' preferences for different attributes of DPIs. Attributes of DPIs were defined based on a literature review, patient focus group discussions and interviews with healthcare professionals (qualitative phase of the study). An online survey was then conducted among French patients with asthma or COPD to elicit patient preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) for these attributes using the DCE methodology (quantitative phase). A fractional factorial design including three blocks of 12 choice sets was created. Each choice set comprised three alternatives: two fictitious inhalers and the patient's current inhaler. Marginal utilities were estimated using a ranked ordered logit model. Interactions between attributes and disease (asthma or COPD) were tested. Six DPI attributes were defined based on the qualitative phase: ease of use/fool-proof priming; accurate and easy-to-read dose counter; dose confirmation; hygiene of the mouthpiece; flexibility of the device handling; ability to use the inhaler with breathing difficulties. Overall, 201 patients with asthma and 93 with COPD were included in the online survey. Patients with asthma placed most value on an inhaler that requires one step for dose preparation (WTP €4.83 [95% CI: €3.77-€5.90], relative to an inhaler requiring four steps) and one that could be used during episodes of breathing difficulties (WTP €4.49 [95% CI: €2.95-€6.02]). Patients with COPD placed most value on an inhaler that could be used during episodes of breathing difficulties (WTP €7.70 [95% CI: €5.65-€9.76]) and on the accuracy of the dose counter (WTP €5.87 [95% CI: €3.98-€ 7.77]). This study suggests that asthma and COPD patients would be willing to change their inhaler if they were offered the option

  10. A rapid usability assessment methodology to support the choice of clinical information systems: a case study.

    PubMed

    Beuscart-Zéphir, M C; Watbled, L; Carpentier, A M; Degroisse, M; Alao, O

    2002-01-01

    We present here an adapted methodology integrating usability engineering and early evaluation procedures to support the choice of a Clinical Information System in the context of a standard Call for Tender. We illustrate the application of this methodology with a case study. We integrated a standard 'contextual task and activity analysis' into the choice process and then drew up usability recommendations for the choice of an application. We organized a one-week on-site exhibition and test for each candidate company. During the test sessions, we performed a rapid usability assessment. The final choice of the application is strongly and positively influenced by the results of the usability assessment.

  11. Using the choice experiment method in the design of breeding goals in dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Ragkos, A; Abas, Z

    2015-02-01

    Market failures are the main cause of poor acknowledgement of the true impact of functional sheep traits on the management and economic performance of farms, which results in their omission from the breeding goal or the estimation of non-representative economic weights in the breeding goal. Consequently, stated-preference non-market valuation techniques, which recently emerged to mitigate these problems, are necessary to estimate economic weights for functional traits. The purpose of this paper is to present an example of the use of a choice experiment (CE) in the estimation of economic weights for sheep traits for the design of breeding goals. Through a questionnaire survey the preferences of sheep farmers are recorded and their marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for 10 production and functional traits is estimated. Data are analysed using random parameter logit models. The results reveal unobserved preference heterogeneity for fertility, adaptability to grazing and resistance to disease, thus highlighting that these traits are appreciated differently by farmers, because their needs are diverse. Positive MWTP is found for Greek breeds, high milk production and lambs with low fat deposition, for which there is high demand in Greek markets. On the other hand, MWTP for the cheese-making ability of milk is negative, stemming from the fact that sheep milk prices in Greece are not formulated according to milk composition. In addition, farmers seem to understand differences between udder shapes and attribute different values to various types. This application of the CE method indicates that communication channels among farmers and breeders should be established in order to enhance market performance and to provide orientation to the design of breeding programmes. Non-market valuation can be used complementarily to market valuation techniques, in order to provide accurate estimates for production and functional traits.

  12. Health worker preferences for community-based health insurance payment mechanisms: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2004, a community-based health insurance scheme (CBI) was introduced in Nouna health district, Burkina Faso. Since its inception, coverage has remained low and dropout rates high. One important reason for low coverage and high dropout is that health workers do not support the CBI scheme because they are dissatisfied with the provider payment mechanism of the CBI. Methods A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was used to examine CBI provider payment attributes that influence health workers’ stated preferences for payment mechanisms. The DCE was conducted among 176 health workers employed at one of the 34 primary care facilities or the district hospital in Nouna health district. Conditional logit models with main effects and interactions terms were used for analysis. Results Reimbursement of service fees (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.49, p < 0.001) and CBI contributions for medical supplies and equipment (aOR 1.47, p < 0.001) had the strongest effect on whether the health workers chose a given provider payment mechanism. The odds of selecting a payment mechanism decreased significantly if the mechanism included (i) results-based financing (RBF) payments made through the local health management team (instead of directly to the health workers (aOR 0.86, p < 0.001)) or (ii) RBF payments based on CBI coverage achieved in the health worker’s facility relative to the coverage achieved at other facilities (instead of payments based on the numbers of individuals or households enrolled at the health worker’s facility (aOR 0.86, p < 0.001)). Conclusions Provider payment mechanisms can crucially determine CBI performance. Based on the results from this DCE, revised CBI payment mechanisms were introduced in Nouna health district in January 2011, taking into consideration health worker preferences on how they are paid. PMID:22697498

  13. What do hospital consultants value about their jobs? A discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ubach, Cristina; Scott, Anthony; French, Fiona; Awramenko, Morag; Needham, Gillian

    2003-01-01

    Objective To examine the strength of hospital consultants' preferences for various aspects of their work. Design Questionnaire survey including a discrete choice experiment. Setting NHS Scotland. Participants 2923 hospital consultants in Scotland. Main outcome measures Monetary valuations or prices for each job characteristic, based on consultants' willingness to pay and willingness to accept extra income for a change in each job characteristic, calculated from regression coefficients. Results The response rate was 61% (1793 resspondents). Being on call was the most important attribute, as consultants would need to be compensated up to £18 000 (30% of their average net income) (P < 0.001) for a high on-call workload. Compensation of up to £9700 (16% of their net income) (P < 0.001) would be required for consultants to forgo opportunities to undertake non-NHS work. Consultants would be willing to accept £7000 (12% of net income) (P < 0.001) in compensation for fair rather than good working relationships with staff, and £6500 (11% of net income) (P < 0.001) to compensate them for a shortage of staff. The least important characteristic was hours of work, with £562 per year (0.9% of their net income) (P < 0.001) required to induce consultants to work one extra hour per week. These preferences also varied among specific subgroups of consultants. Conclusions Important information on consultants' strength of preferences for characteristics of their job should be used to help to address recruitment and retention problems. Consultants would require increased payment to cover more intensive on-call commitments. Other aspects of working conditions would require smaller increases. PMID:12829556

  14. Improving the public health sector in South Africa: eliciting public preferences using a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Honda, Ayako; Ryan, Mandy; van Niekerk, Robert; McIntyre, Diane

    2015-06-01

    The introduction of national health insurance (NHI), aimed at achieving universal coverage, is the most important issue currently on the South African health policy agenda. Improvement in public sector health-care provision is crucial for the successful implementation of NHI as, regardless of whether health-care services become more affordable and available, if the quality of the services provided is not acceptable, people will not use the services. Although there has been criticism of the quality of public sector health services, limited research is available to identify what communities regard as the greatest problems with the services. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was undertaken to elicit public preferences on key dimensions of quality of care when selecting public health facilities in South Africa. Qualitative methods were applied to establish attributes and levels for the DCE. To elicit preferences, interviews with community members were held in two South African provinces: 491 in Western Cape and 499 in Eastern Cape. The availability of necessary medicine at health facilities has the greatest impact on the probability of attending public health facilities. Other clinical quality attributes (i.e. provision of expert advice and provision of a thorough examination) are more valued than non-clinical quality of care attributes (i.e. staff attitude, treatment by doctors or nurses, and waiting time). Treatment by a doctor was less valued than all other attributes. Communities are prepared to tolerate public sector health service characteristics such as a long waiting time, poor staff attitudes and lack of direct access to doctors if they receive the medicine they need, a thorough examination and a clear explanation of the diagnosis and prescribed treatment from health professionals. These findings prioritize issues that the South African government must address in order to meet their commitment to improve public sector health-care service provision. Published

  15. A discrete choice experiment to explore patients' willingness to risk disease relapse from treatment withdrawal in psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rothery, Claire; Bojke, Laura; Richardson, Gerry; Bojke, Chris; Moverley, Anna; Coates, Laura; Thorp, Liz; Waxman, Robin; Helliwell, Philip

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study is to assess patient preferences for treatment-related benefits and risk of disease relapse in the management of low disease states of psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Focus groups with patients and a literature review were undertaken to determine the characteristics of treatment and symptoms of PsA important to patients. Patient preferences were assessed using a discrete choice experiment which compared hypothetical treatment profiles of the risk and benefits of treatment withdrawal. The risk outcome included increased risk of disease relapse, while benefit outcomes included reduced sickness/nausea from medication and changes in health-related quality of life. Each patient completed 12 choice sets comparing treatment profiles. Preference weights were estimated using a logic regression model, and the maximum acceptable risk in disease relapse for a given improvement in benefit outcomes was elicited. Final sample included 136 patients. Respondents attached the greatest importance to eliminating severe side effects of sickness/nausea and the least importance to a change in risk of relapse. Respondents were willing to accept an increase in the risk of relapse of 32.6 % in order to eliminate the side effects of sickness/nausea. For improvements in health status, the maximum acceptable risk in relapse was comparable to a movement from some to no sickness/nausea. The study suggests that patients in low disease states of PsA are willing to accept greater risks of relapse for improvements in side effects of sickness/nausea and overall health status, with the most important benefit attribute being the elimination of severe sickness or nausea.

  16. Audiovisual information affects informed choice and experience of information in antenatal Down syndrome screening--a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Ulla; Marsk, Anna; Levin, Charlotta; Öhman, Susanne Georgsson

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of an information film on making an informed choice regarding Down syndrome screening, and women's knowledge and experiences of information. Randomized controlled trial including 184 women in the intervention group and 206 controls recruited from maternity units in Stockholm, Sweden. The intervention was an information film presented as a complement to written and verbal information. Data were collected via a questionnaire in gestational week 27. Three different measures were combined to measure informed choice: attitudes towards Down syndrome screening, knowledge about Down syndrome and Down syndrome screening, and uptake of CUB (combined ultrasound and biochemical screening). In the intervention group 71.5% made an informed choice versus 62.4% in the control group. Women in the intervention group had significantly increased knowledge, and to a greater extent than the control group, experienced the information as being sufficient, comprehensible, and correct. An information film tended to increase the number of women who made an informed choice about Down syndrome screening. Participants were more satisfied with the information received. Access to correct, nondirective, and sufficient information is essential when making a choice about prenatal diagnostics. It is essential with equivalent information to all women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Patient preferences for treatment of multiple sclerosis with disease-modifying therapies: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Dominguez, José Manuel; Muñoz, Delicias; Comellas, Marta; Gonzalbo, Irmina; Lizán, Luis; Polanco Sánchez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess disease-modifying therapy (DMT) preferences in a population of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to estimate the association between sociodemographic and clinical factors and these preferences. Methods Preferences for DMTs attributes were measured using a discrete choice experiment. Analysis of preferences was assessed using mixed-logit hierarchical Bayes regression. A multilinear regression was used to evaluate the association between the preferences for each attribute and patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics. A Student’s t-test or Welch’s t-test was used for subgroup comparisons. Results A total of 125 patients were included in the final analysis (62.9% female, mean age 44.5 years, 71.5% with relapsing-remitting MS diagnosis). The most important factor for patients was the possibility of suffering from the side effects of the treatment (relative importance [RI] =50%), followed by a delay in disease progression (RI =19.4%), and route and frequency of administration (RI =14.3%). According to maximum acceptable risk, patients were willing to accept an increase of 3.8% in severity of side effects, for a delay of 1 year in disease progression. Treatment duration was the most prevalent factor affecting preferences, followed by the age of patients, type of MS, level of education, and the type of current treatment. Patients treated orally were significantly more concerned about the route and frequency of administration (P=0.026) than patients on injectable therapy. Naïve patients stated significantly less importance to prevention of relapses (P=0.021) and deterioration of the capacity for performing usual daily life activities (P=0.015). Finally, patients with >5 years since diagnosis were significantly less concerned about preventing disease progression (P=0.021), and more concerned about treatment side effects (P=0.052) than compared with patients with <5 years of MS history. Conclusion The most important attribute for

  18. Would you train me with my mental illness? Evidence from a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Deuchert, Eva; Kauer, Lukas; Meisen Zannol, Flurina

    2013-06-01

    Mental illness is the prime reason for the inflow into disability insurance in many countries. The integration of persons with a disability into the regular labor market is costly and in the case of mentally ill persons, particularly difficult. Supported Education and Employment - a rehabilitation method that directly places patients in a realistic work environment - has been shown to be effective in increasing competitive employment. However, it has not yet been widely implemented. We evaluate ex-ante the willingness to participate in Supported Education and Employment and the barriers to do so from the employer's perspective. We conducted a discrete choice experiment implemented in an online survey. The survey was carried out among all Swiss companies which provide standard dual-track vocational education and training for commercial occupations in Eastern Switzerland. We presented respondents (employees who are responsible for vocational training and/or for the selection of applicants) with a sample of five hypothetical profiles. These profiles vary along different medical diagnoses, different illness related (dys-)functions, and other characteristics that may be associated with a company's willingness to accept the candidate (such as school performance, motivation, and illness related absences). Respondents were asked whether or not they would train this person. 22% of the profiles are accepted. However, our results demonstrate that the hypothetical bias - which is the difference between individual saying what they would do in a hypothetical setting and what they will do when they have the opportunity - is severe. Correcting for this bias using follow-up scales ("Are you sure?") reduces the overall acceptance in our sample to 9%. Keeping in mind the response rate to our survey of 35%, overall acceptance may be as low as 3%. Non-cognitive dysfunctions (e.g. non-adherence to regulations, difficulties with contacts with others) that are related to mental disorders

  19. A Diagnostic Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Competency in Multiple-Choice Item Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asim, Alice E.; Ekuri, Emmanuel E.; Eni, Eni I.

    2013-01-01

    Large class size is an issue in testing at all levels of Education. As a panacea to this, multiple choice test formats has become very popular. This case study was designed to diagnose pre-service teachers' competency in constructing questions (IQT); direct questions (DQT); and best answer (BAT) varieties of multiple choice items. Subjects were 88…

  20. Enacting Glasser's (1998) Choice Theory in a Grade 3 Classroom: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Choice theory identifies five psychological needs: survival, freedom, power, belonging, and fun (Glasser, 1998). There are close parallels with self-determination theory (SDT), which specifies autonomy, competence, and relatedness as essential needs (Deci & Ryan, 2000). This case study examines a very successful example of choice theory…

  1. The College-Choice Process of High Achieving Freshmen: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the college-choice process of high achieving students. Employing current literature and previous research, it combined current models of college choice and the influential factors identified throughout the literature while utilizing the concept of bounded rationality to create a conceptual framework to…

  2. The College-Choice Process of High Achieving Freshmen: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the college-choice process of high achieving students. Employing current literature and previous research, it combined current models of college choice and the influential factors identified throughout the literature while utilizing the concept of bounded rationality to create a conceptual framework to…

  3. A Diagnostic Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Competency in Multiple-Choice Item Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asim, Alice E.; Ekuri, Emmanuel E.; Eni, Eni I.

    2013-01-01

    Large class size is an issue in testing at all levels of Education. As a panacea to this, multiple choice test formats has become very popular. This case study was designed to diagnose pre-service teachers' competency in constructing questions (IQT); direct questions (DQT); and best answer (BAT) varieties of multiple choice items. Subjects were 88…

  4. Preferences for Policy Options for Deceased Organ Donation for Transplantation: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Howard, Kirsten; Jan, Stephen; Rose, John M; Wong, Germaine; Craig, Jonathan C; Irving, Michelle; Tong, Allison; Chadban, Steven; Allen, Richard D; Cass, Alan

    2016-05-01

    Despite broad public support for organ donation, there is a chronic shortage of deceased donor organs. We sought to identify community preferences for features of organ donation policies. A discrete choice study was conducted using an online panel of Australian community respondents older than 18 years. Respondents were presented with scenarios comparing a "new" policy to the current policy. Tradeoffs between 8 policy aspects were quantified using mixed logit and latent class models: registration system, extent of donor family involvement, ease of registration, frequency of confirmation of intent, direct payment, and funeral expense reimbursement, priority for donor's family, and formal recognition of donation. There were 2005 respondents (mean, 44.6 years). We found a strong preference for a new policy. Overall, respondents favored a policy that included: some involvement of the donor's family in the final decision, simple registration processes, less frequent reconfirmation of donation intent, direct payment or funeral expense reimbursement, and formal recognition of donation. However, there was significant preference heterogeneity across respondents, with various respondent groups valuing policy mechanisms differently. Respondents who viewed policy change negatively were also those who would be unlikely to be organ donors anyway, because they tended to hold negative views toward organ donation. Our results suggest that the Australian community are open to alternative organ donation policies including changes to: registration systems, family involvement, and financial and nonfinancial mechanisms. Future policy discussions should not be limited by preconceived notions of what is acceptable to the community, rather informed by actual community values and preferences.

  5. Job Preferences of Nurses and Midwives for Taking Up a Rural Job in Peru: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Huicho, Luis; Miranda, J. Jaime; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Lema, Claudia; Lescano, Andrés G.; Lagarde, Mylene; Blaauw, Duane

    2012-01-01

    Background Robust evidence on interventions to improve the shortage of health workers in rural areas is needed. We assessed stated factors that would attract short-term contract nurses and midwives to work in a rural area of Peru. Methods and Findings A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted to evaluate the job preferences of nurses and midwives currently working on a short-term contract in the public sector in Ayacucho, Peru. Job attributes, and their levels, were based on literature review, qualitative interviews and focus groups of local health personnel and policy makers. A labelled design with two choices, rural community or Ayacucho city, was used. Job attributes were tailored to these settings. Multiple conditional logistic regressions were used to assess the determinants of job preferences. Then we used the best-fitting estimated model to predict the impact of potential policy incentives on the probability of choosing a rural job or a job in Ayacucho city. We studied 205 nurses and midwives. The odds of choosing an urban post was 14.74 times than that of choosing a rural one. Salary increase, health center-type of facility and scholarship for specialization were preferred attributes for choosing a rural job. Increased number of years before securing a permanent contract acted as a disincentive for both rural and urban jobs. Policy simulations showed that the most effective attraction package to uptake a rural job included a 75% increase in salary plus scholarship for a specialization, which would increase the proportion of health workers taking a rural job from 36.4% up to 60%. Conclusions Urban jobs were more strongly preferred than rural ones. However, combined financial and non-financial incentives could almost double rural job uptake by nurses and midwifes. These packages may provide meaningful attraction strategies to rural areas and should be considered by policy makers for implementation. PMID:23284636

  6. Preferences for evidence-based practice dissemination in addiction agencies serving women: a discrete-choice conjoint experiment.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Charles E; Henderson, Joanna; Niccols, Alison; Dobbins, Maureen; Sword, Wendy; Chen, Yvonne; Mielko, Stephanie; Milligan, Karen; Lipman, Ellen; Thabane, Lehana; Schmidt, Louis

    2012-08-01

      To model variables influencing the dissemination of evidence-based practices to addiction service providers and administrators.   A discrete-choice conjoint experiment. We systematically varied combinations of 16 dissemination variables that might influence the adoption of evidence-based practices. Participants chose between sets of variables.   Canadian agencies (n = 333) providing addiction services to women.   Service providers and administrators (n = 1379).   We estimated the relative importance and optimal level of each dissemination variable. We used latent class analysis to identify subsets of participants with different preferences and simulated the conditions under which participants would use more demanding professional development options.   Three subsets of participants were identified: outcome-sensitive (52%), process-sensitive (29.6%) and demand-sensitive (18.2%). Across all participants, the number of clients who were expected to benefit from an evidence-based practice exerted the most influence on dissemination choices. If a practice was seen as feasible, co-worker and administrative support influenced decisions. Client benefits were most important to outcome-sensitive participants; type of dissemination process (e.g. active versus passive learning) was more important to process-sensitive participants. Brief options with little follow-up were preferred by demand-sensitive participants. Simulations predicted that initiatives selected and endorsed by government funders would reduce participation.   Clinicians and administrators are more likely to adopt evidence-based addiction practices if the practice is seen as helpful to clients, and if it is supported by co-workers and program administration. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Defining Continuous Improvement and Cost Minimization Possibilities through School Choice Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrifield, John

    2009-01-01

    Studies of existing best practices cannot determine whether the current "best" schooling practices could be even better, less costly, or more effective and/or improve at a faster rate, but we can discover a cost effective menu of schooling options and each item's minimum cost through market accountability experiments. This paper describes…

  8. Defining Continuous Improvement and Cost Minimization Possibilities through School Choice Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrifield, John

    2009-01-01

    Studies of existing best practices cannot determine whether the current "best" schooling practices could be even better, less costly, or more effective and/or improve at a faster rate, but we can discover a cost effective menu of schooling options and each item's minimum cost through market accountability experiments. This paper describes…

  9. The Emergence of a Regional Hub: Comparing International Student Choices and Experiences in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jon, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jenny J.; Byun, Kiyong

    2014-01-01

    As the demand for international education increases, middle-income non-English speaking countries, such as South Korea, play an increasing role in hosting the world's students. This mixed-methods study compares the different motivations and experiences of international students within and outside the East Asian region. Based on findings, this…

  10. The Emergence of a Regional Hub: Comparing International Student Choices and Experiences in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jon, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jenny J.; Byun, Kiyong

    2014-01-01

    As the demand for international education increases, middle-income non-English speaking countries, such as South Korea, play an increasing role in hosting the world's students. This mixed-methods study compares the different motivations and experiences of international students within and outside the East Asian region. Based on findings, this…

  11. Impacts of Campus Experiences and Parental Socialization on Undergraduates' Career Choices. Final Report, BSSR Project: 549.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidman, John C.

    The impact of selected aspects of the collegiate experience on changes in undergraduates' occupational preferences and personal goals is examined in this study. Two aspects of the college environment are assessed: the social structure and the students' perception of the institution's ability to facilitate the attainment of personal goals. The…

  12. Experiments to Generate New Data about School Choice: Commentary on "Defining Continuous Improvement and Cost Minimization Possibilities through School Choice Experiments" and Merrifield's Reply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Nathan; Merrifield, John

    2009-01-01

    Benefiting from new data provided by experimental economists, behavioral economics is now moving beyond empirical tests of standard behavioral assumptions to the problem of designing improved institutions that are tuned to fit real-world behavior. It is therefore worthwhile to consider the potential for new experiments to advance school choice…

  13. Estimating the monetary value of willingness to pay for E-book reader's attributes using partially confounded factorial conjoint choice experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Chin-Khian

    2013-09-01

    A partially confounded factorial conjoint choice experiments design was used to examine the monetary value of the willingness to pay for E-book Reader's attributes. Conjoint analysis is an efficient, cost-effective, and most widely used quantitative method in marketing research to understand consumer preferences and value trade-off. Value can be interpreted by customer or consumer as the received of multiple benefits from a price that was paid. The monetary value of willingness to pay for battery life, internal memory, external memory, screen size, text to Speech, touch screen, and converting handwriting to digital text of E-book reader were estimated in this study. Due to the significant interaction effect of the attributes with the price, the monetary values for the seven attributes were found to be different at different values of odds of purchasing versus not purchasing. The significant interactions effects were one of the main contribution of the partially confounded factorial conjoint choice experiment.

  14. Incorporating social impact on new product adoption in choice modeing: A case study in green vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    He, Lin; Wang, Mingxian; Chen, Wei; Conzelmann, Guenter

    2014-10-01

    While discrete choice analysis is prevalent in capturing consumer preferences and describing their choice behaviors in product design, the traditional choice modeling approach assumes that each individual makes independent decisions, without considering the social impact. However, empirical studies show that choice is social - influenced by many factors beyond engineering performance of a product and consumer attributes. To alleviate this limitation, we propose a new choice modeling framework to capture the dynamic influence from social networks on consumer adoption of new products. By introducing social influence attributes into a choice utility function, social network simulation is integrated with the traditional discrete choice analysis in a three-stage process. Our study shows the need for considering social impact in forecasting new product adoption. Using hybrid electric vehicles as an example, our work illustrates the procedure of social network construction, social influence evaluation, and choice model estimation based on data from the National Household Travel Survey. Our study also demonstrates several interesting findings on the dynamic nature of new technology adoption and how social networks may influence hybrid electric vehicle adoption. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  15. Experiments to Study Our Atmospheric Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, James

    The teacher of an introductory physics and chemistry course has many choices when it comes to laboratory manuals. Not so with atmospheric science: texts devoted to learning the subject in a lab setting are limited in number and often in scope. A large portion of the available lab texts concentrate solely on exercises in synoptic analysis and forecasting skills, which while important do not convey the full range of the science and its applications. That is why Steven Businger's Experiments to Study Our Atmospheric Environment stands out among recent books devoted to teaching atmospheric science in the lab.

  16. Eliciting health state utilities for Dupuytren’s contracture using a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose An internet-based discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted to elicit preferences for a wide range of Dupuytren’s contracture (DC)-related health states. An algorithm was subsequently developed to convert these preferences into health state utilities that can be used to assess DC’s impact on quality of life and the value of its treatments. Methods Health state preferences for varying levels of DC hand severity were elicited via an internet survey from a sample of the UK adult population. Severity levels were defined using a combination of contractures (0, 45, or 90 degrees) in 8 proximal interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints of the index, middle, ring, and little fingers. Right-handed, left-handed, and ambidextrous respondents indicated which hand was preferable in each of the 10 randomly-selected hand-pairings comparing different DC severity levels. For consistency across comparisons, anatomically precise digital hand drawings were used. To anchor preferences onto the traditional 0–1 utility scale used in health economic evaluations, unaffected hands were assigned a utility of 1.0 whereas the utility for a maximally affected hand (i.e., all 8 joints set at 90 degrees of contracture) was derived by asking respondents to indicate what combination of attributes and levels of the EQ-5D-5L profile most accurately reflects the impact of living with such hand. Conditional logistic models were used to estimate indirect utilities, then rescaled to the anchor points on the EQ-5D-5L. Results Estimated utilities based on the responses of 1,745 qualified respondents were 0.49, 0.57, and 0.63 for completely affected dominant hands, non-dominant hands, or ambidextrous hands, respectively. Utility for a dominant hand with 90-degree contracture in t h e metacarpophalangeal joints of the ring and little fingers was estimated to be 0.89. Separately, reducing the contracture of metacarpophalangeal joint for a little finger from 50 to 12

  17. Influence of experience on intake and feeding behavior of dairy sheep when offered forages from woody plants in a multiple-choice situation.

    PubMed

    Meier, J S; Liesegang, A; Rischkowsky, B; Louhaichi, M; Zaklouta, M; Kreuzer, M; Marquardt, S

    2013-10-01

    A satisfactory intake of novel low-quality forages by ruminants may require previous experience with this feed. Therefore, this study tested in sheep whether experience with forages from woody plants had an influence on feed intake, feeding behavior, and nutrient supply when offered in a multiple-choice arrangement. Two sheep experiments were conducted, 1 in Syria (Mediterranean region; Exp. 1) and the other in Switzerland (Central Europe; Exp. 2), that investigated 5 and 6 woody test plants, respectively. In Exp. 1, the test plants were Artemisia herba-alba, Atriplex leucoclada, Haloxylon articulatum, Noaea mucronata, and Salsola vermiculata. In Exp. 2, Betula pendula, Castanea sativa, and Juglans regia were used in addition to A. leucoclada, H. articulatum, and S. vermiculata (the plants most consumed in Exp. 1). In each experiment, 12 lactating sheep (Awassi sheep in Exp. 1 and East Friesian Milk sheep in Exp. 2) were allocated to 2 groups ("experienced" and "naïve"). Experienced sheep subsequently were familiarized with each test plant during a learning period of binary choices (1 test plant vs. barley straw) for 4 h in the morning for 7 d each. The naïve group received only straw. During the rest of the day, a basal diet composed of barley straw (ad libitum) and concentrate was offered to both groups. For the 2 wk following the learning period, the sheep were subjected to feeding of the basal diet to avoid carryover effects of the last offered test plant. In the following multiple-choice period, both groups were allowed to select from all test plants during 4 h in the morning for 14 d. Forage intake after 4 and 24 h and feeding behavior during the first 30 min of the test feeding were assessed. Milk yield and composition were measured at the end of the multiple-choice period. Nutrient intake was calculated using feed intake measurements and compositional analyses. Only in Exp. 2, group differences (P < 0.05) were found on d 1 of the multiple-choice period

  18. Choice making in Rett syndrome: a descriptive study using video data.

    PubMed

    Urbanowicz, Anna; Ciccone, Natalie; Girdler, Sonya; Leonard, Helen; Downs, Jenny

    2017-01-23

    To describe the choice-making abilities of girls and women with Rett syndrome. Females with Rett syndrome registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database with a pathogenic MECP2 mutation were included in this study. Video clips showing choice making in 64 females at a median age of 11.6 years (range 2.3-35.6 years) were analysed. Video clips were coded for the location and nature of the choice-making interaction, and the actions of the communication partner and female with Rett syndrome. The majority (82.8%, 53/64) of females made a choice, most using eye gaze. Just under half (24/53) used one modality to communicate their choice, 52.8% used two modalities and one used three modalities. Of those who made a choice, 50% did so within 8 s. The length of time to make a choice did not appear to vary with age. During choice making, 57.8% (37/64) of communication partners used language and gestures, 39.1% (25/64) used only language and two used language, gestures and symbols within the interaction. The provision of adequate time allowing for a response and observation for the use of multiple modalities could promote effective choice making in females with Rett syndrome. Implications for Rehabilitation The provision of adequate time allowing for a response will promote effective choice making in girls and women with Rett syndrome. Although almost all girls and women with Rett syndrome used eye gaze to indicate their choice, communication partners also need to recognise and respond to other communication modalities that are sometimes used like body movements.

  19. Influence of choice on vegetable intake in children: an in-home study.

    PubMed

    de Wild, Victoire W T; de Graaf, Cees; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Jager, Gerry

    2015-08-01

    Children's vegetable consumption is still far below that recommended, and stimulating their intake is a challenge for caregivers. The objective of this study was to investigate whether choice-offering is an effective strategy to increase children's vegetable intake in an in-home situation. Seventy children (mean age 3.7; SD 1) randomly assigned to a choice or a no-choice condition, were exposed 12 times to six familiar target vegetables at home during dinner. In the choice group, two selected vegetables were offered each time, whereas the no-choice group only received one vegetable. Vegetable intake was measured by weighing children's plates before and after dinner. A mixed linear model with age, gender, and baseline vegetable liking as covariates was used to compare intake between the choice and the no-choice group. Mixed linear model analysis yielded estimated means for vegetable intake of 48.5 g +/- 30 in the no-choice group and 57.7 g +/- 31 for the choice group (P = 0.09). In addition, baseline vegetable liking (P <0.001) and age (P = 0.06) predicted vegetable intake to be higher when the child liked vegetables better and with older age. These findings suggest that choice-offering has some, but hardly robust, effect on increasing vegetable intake in children. Other factors such as age and liking of vegetables also mediate the effect of offering a choice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preferences of Bulgarian consumers for quality, access and price attributes of healthcare services-result of a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    van de Schoot, Thijs; Pavlova, Milena; Atanasova, Elka; Groot, Wim

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the preferences of Bulgarian citizens regarding the provision of healthcare services. A survey was carried out in Bulgaria among a nationally representative sample of 1003 respondents. Both a discrete choice experiment and a self-explicated ranking of outpatient and inpatient service attributes were included in the survey. The data are analyzed to elicit the preferences of Bulgarian healthcare consumers for service attributes and to compare them with previous studies in Bulgaria and other countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The reputation and skills of the care provider appear to be relatively most important to the respondents, followed by the state of the equipment, the condition of the facility and the attitude of the staff. The fee-level and access-related attributes (waiting and traveling time) emerged as less important. Overall, consumers in Bulgaria value the quality of healthcare provision very highly. Yet, there are some statistically significant differences between socio-demographic groups. In general, Bulgarian healthcare consumers are wi