Science.gov

Sample records for choriocarcinma bronchial artery

  1. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Doorn, Colette S. van De Boo, Diederick W.; Weersink, Els J. M.; Delden, Otto M. van Reekers, Jim A. Lienden, Krijn P. van

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  2. A case of systemic polyarteritis nodosa involving bronchial artery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y J; Park, S S; Kim, S Y; Lee, J Y; Koo, H K; Yoon, H I

    2010-07-01

    Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis involving predominantly medium-sized muscular arteries. It commonly involves skin, kidney, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, and neurological system. But bronchial artery involvement of PAN is rarely identified. We report a case of PAN with initial presentation of hemoptysis. On admission, chest radiograph and chest CT angiography revealed no focus of bleeding. Angiography showed a bronchial artery aneurysm and multiple arterial aneurysms in both renal, hepatic, mesenteric and branches of small bowel arteries. These findings were compatible with the diagnosis of PAN. The patient was started on steroid and cyclophosphamide.

  3. Bronchial Artery Aneurysm Embolization with NBCA

    SciTech Connect

    Aburano, Hiroyuki Kawamori, Yasuhiro; Horiti, Yasushi; Kitagawa, Kiyohide; Sanada, Junichiro; Matsui, Osamu

    2006-12-15

    We present a case of asymptomatic bronchial artery aneurysm that formed a fistula with part of the pulmonary artery (there was no definite fistula with the pulmonary vein). We were able to catheterize the feeding vessel but could not reach the aneurysm. We therefore injected a mixture of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA; Histoacryl, B. Braun, Melsungen, Germany) and iodized oil (Lipiodol; Guerbet, Aulnay-sous-Bois, France) from the feeding vessel. The fistula, aneurysm, and feeding vessel were almost totally occluded. After embolization, the patient coughed a little; there were no other definite side effects or complications. One and 3 months later, on chest CT, the aneurysm was almost completely occupied with hyperattenuating NBCA-Lipiodol embolization. NBCA is a liquid embolization material whose time to coagulation after injection can be controlled by diluting it with Lipiodol. It is therefore possible to embolize an aneurysm, feeding vessels, and efferent vessels (in our case, it was a fistula) by using an NBCA-Lipiodol mixture of an appropriate concentration, regardless of whether the catheter can reach the aneurysm or not.

  4. Bronchial arterial embolisation for massive haemoptysis in cavitary sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Geoffrey Andrew; Lettieri, Christopher J; Shah, Anita A

    2013-01-01

    A 48-year-old non-smoking man with a 6-year history of pulmonary cavitary sarcoidosis presented with acute onset of haemoptysis of approximately 600 ml. Prior episodes of haemoptysis had resolved only after serial upper lobe wedge resections bilaterally and steroids. A chest CT identified bilateral upper lobe cavitary lesions with extravasation of contrast from a large right upper lobe cavity. The patient underwent urgent bronchial angiography and subsequent bronchial artery embolisation of a left bronchial artery and three right bronchial arteries. He was started on methotrexate and steroids for refractory sarcoidosis. Two years after embolisation, the patient remained haemoptysis-free with his sarcoid well controlled on methotrexate monotherapy. PMID:23355590

  5. A Surgical Case of Bronchial Artery Aneurysm Directory Connecting with Pulmonary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Fumitoshi; Hayashi, Shoko; Suzuki, Kosuke; Uematsu, Shugo; Suzuki, Takashi; Saeki, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    We present a surgical case of bronchial artery aneurysm (BAA) connecting pulmonary artery accompanied with racemose hemangioma. This is a third surgical case report of BAA directly connecting pulmonary artery in the English literature. A 63-year-old female was found a BAA, 2 cm in diameter, connecting right A4 pulmonary artery. The patient underwent two attempts for embolization. However, due to extensive collaterals, there was persistent flow in the aneurysm. Standard lateral thoracotomy was performed. A BAA was located between A4 and A5 PA. A small branch of A4 PA was separated, and the small vessel connecting to the BAA could be ligated. A5 PA was separated similarly, however BAA was ruptured not to identify the other small vessel connecting to the BAA. After a clamp of the BAA, middle lobe lobectomy was performed. We removed the aneurysm with dilated bronchial artery connecting to the aneurysm. The postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:26050595

  6. Aberrant Left Inferior Bronchial Artery Originating from the Left Gastric Artery in a Patient with Acute Massive Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Sen Sun, Xi-Wen Yu, Dong Jie, Bing

    2013-10-15

    Massive hemoptysis is a life-threatening condition, and the major source of bleeding in this condition is the bronchial circulation. Bronchial artery embolization is a safe and effective treatment for controlling hemoptysis. However, the sites of origin of the bronchial arteries (BAs) have numerous anatomical variations, which can result in a technical challenge to identify a bleeding artery. We present a rare case of a left inferior BA that originated from the left gastric artery in a patient with recurrent massive hemoptysis caused by bronchiectasis. The aberrant BA was embolized, and hemoptysis has been controlled for 8 months.

  7. [Incidentally detected bronchial artery aneurysm with combined operation for mitral regurgitation;report of a case].

    PubMed

    Sato, Hisashi; Oteki, Hitoshi; Naito, Kozo; Yunoki, Junji

    2015-02-01

    A 77-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital for heart failure with orthopnea. Echocardiography revealed massive mitral regurgitation. During preoperative cardiac catheterization, an aneurysm was indentified incidentally just below the tracheal carina. Three dimensional computed tomography showed three bronchial artery aneurysms behind the pulmonary artery and the left atrium. The proximal aneurysm was the largest and was 22 mm in diameter. It was resected by retracting the ascending aorta to the left, the superior vana cava to the right and right pulmonary artery cranially under cardiopulmonary bypass, and mitral valve plasty was performed. We believed that resection of the proximal aneurysm would cause thrombotic occlusion of the other 2 aneurysms. Bronchial artery aneurysm is a rare entity that is observed in fewer than 1% of those who undergo selective bronchial arteriography. In addition, because bronchial artery aneurysm is a potentially life-threatening lesion, it should be treated promptly when diagnosed.

  8. Pulmonary artery--bronchial fistula: a new complication of Swan-Ganz catheterization.

    PubMed

    Rubin, S A; Puckett, R P

    1979-04-01

    A patient with a Swan-Ganz catheter developed massive hemoptysis. Injection of radiographic contrast media through the catheter revealed rapid filling of the tracheo-bronchial tree, consistent with direct pulmonary artery-bronchial communication. Development of hemoptysis in a patient with a Swan-Ganz catheter should alert the clinician to this possibility. PMID:446146

  9. Transcatheter Embolization of Bronchial Artery Arising from Left Circumflex Coronary Artery in a Patient with Massive Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Jaemin; Shin, Taebeom Jun, Kyeongneo; Ryoo, Jaeuk; Choi, Hocheol; Choi, Bongryeong; Hwang, Jinyong

    2010-02-15

    It has been reported that anastomoses between the bronchial and the coronary arteries can become dilated and functional in certain diseases, provoking angina pectoris through coronary steal syndrome. The condition can be treated with endovascular or surgical management. It is possible that this abnormality may be associated with hemoptysis in patients with parenchymal or vascular disease of the lung but this condition is very rare. We present the coronary CT angiographic findings of bronchial arteries arising from the left coronary artery and their treatment with transcatheter embolization for the control of massive hemoptysis.

  10. Coronary-to-Bronchial Artery Communication: Report of Two Patients Successfully Treated by Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Jarry, Genevieve; Bruaire, Jean-Pierre; Commeau, Philippe; Hermida, Jean-Sylvain; Leborgne, Laurent; Auquier, Marie-Anne; Delonca, Jean; Quiret, Jean-Claude; Remond, Alexandre

    1999-05-15

    We report two cases of coronary-to-bronchial artery communication responsible for coronary steal. In both cases the anastomosis originated from the proximal circumflex artery and developed because of bronchiectasis. In both cases closure of the anastomosis was achieved successfully by embolization. To date, the patients remained free from symptoms.

  11. Endovascular treatment of ectopic bronchial artery aneurysm with brachiocephalic artery stent placement and coil embolization

    PubMed Central

    Di, Xiao; Ji, Dong-Hua; Chen, Yu; Liu, Chang-Wei; Liu, Bao; Yang, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Bronchial artery aneurysm (BAA) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening disease, and multiple BAAs are even rarer. Clinically, the tortuous and short neck of a BAA may present significant challenges for invasive intervention. Methods: This report describes the detailed process of diagnosis and treatment and includes a literature review of the etiology, clinical presentation, and therapeutic management of BAA. Results: A rare case of multiple BAAs, with one having an inflow artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk, was referred to our hospital. The patient was successfully treated with coil embolization and brachiocephalic artery stent placement. In addition, we conducted a literature review involving 63 cases of BAA. BAA was most commonly associated with bronchiectasis and was located predominantly in the mediastinum. There was no significant difference between the diameters of the ruptured aneurysms and those of the nonruptured aneurysms (P = 0.115). Transcatheter arterial embolization was the most commonly adopted technique to treat BAA, while thoracic aortic endovascular repair was selected if the neck between the aneurysm and the aorta was short. Subgroup analysis suggested that patients with > 1 BAA were significantly more likely to be female than male (χ2 test, P = 0.034). Conclusion: Transcatheter coil embolization combined with stent placement could be a reasonable treatment option for BAAs with a tortuous and short neck. According to our literature review, patients with multiple BAAs display distinctive clinical characteristics compared with patients with a single BAA. PMID:27583854

  12. Coronary CT findings of coronary to bronchial arterial communication in chronic pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Byun, Sung Su; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Jeong Ho; Sung, Yon Mi; Kim, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Eun Young; Park, Eun Ah

    2015-06-01

    To describe the coronary CT findings of coronary-to-bronchial artery communication (CBAC) in chronic pulmonary disease. Coronary CT was performed in 15 patients with chronic pulmonary disease using 64-channel or greater multidetector CT. Among those patients, one or two CBACs were identified. A retrospective analysis of the CT findings was done to determine the originating artery, arterial course of the communications and other associated results. The main underlying pulmonary disease was bronchiectasis (n = 12). The origin of the CBAC was from the left atrial (n = 7) or sinoatrial (SA) nodal (n = 3) branch of the left circumflex artery in nine patients and the SA nodal branch of the right coronary artery in six patients. The CBAC was connected to the left bronchial artery in 11 patients and the right bronchial artery in five patients. The course of the CBAC passed through the interpulmonary venous bare area between reflections of the serous pericardium of the transverse and oblique sinuses in 13 patients. In three patients, it passed through the perivascular space around the left upper or lower pulmonary vein. In one patient, there were two communications-one through the interpulmonary venous bare area and the other through the perivascular space around the left lower pulmonary vein. There was no significant coronary arterial stenosis except in two patients. Bronchial arterial hypertrophy was found in all 15 patients. Detailed analysis of coronary CT can be a helpful guide for hemodynamic significance and clinical management including embolotherapy for CBAC in patients of chronic pulmonary disease with hemoptysis.

  13. Posterior Circulation Stroke After Bronchial Artery Embolization. A Rare but Serious Complication

    SciTech Connect

    Laborda, Alicia; Tejero, Carlos; Fredes, Arturo; Cebrian, Luis; Guelbenzu, Santiago; Gregorio, Miguel Angel de

    2013-06-15

    Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is the treatment of choice for massive hemoptysis with rare complications that generally are mild and transient. There are few references in the medical literature with acute cerebral embolization as a complication of BAE. We report a case of intracranial posterior territory infarctions as a complication BAE in a patient with hemoptysis due to bronchiectasis.

  14. Endovascular Therapy of Bronchial Artery Aneurysm: Five Cases With Six Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Lue, Peng-Hua Wang Lifu; Su Yusheng; Lee, Deok-Hee; Wang Shuxiang; Sun Ling; Geng Suping; Huang Wennuo

    2011-06-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-Lipiodol mixture in patients with bronchial artery aneurysm (BAA). From January 2005 to January 2010, five patients presenting hemoptysis with six BAAs were treated with NBCA-Lipiodol mixture, including intra-aneurysm embolization (IAE) in one patient. Adjuvant embolization with spherical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) embolic microparticles or NBCA was first performed to embolize the distal engorged bronchiectatic arteries. Bronchial arterial angiography showed six BAAs (four in the right lobe and two in the left lobe) and some engorged, tortuous bronchial arteries. TAE through microcatheter was successful in all cases. Postembolization angiogram demonstrated the NBCA cast and total occlusion of BAAs and bronchiectatic engorged vessels. After these procedures, hemoptysis completely disappeared in all patients. Follow-up computed tomography (CT) scan was performed at an average of 3 months (range 2 to 6), which showed no enhancement of BAAs and accumulation of NBCA. TAE is a minimally invasive, effective, and reliable approach for treatment for patients with BAA. NBCA-Lipiodol mixture provides a good choice for treatment of BAA, especially when catheterization of the efferent branches is impossible.

  15. Radiological Management of Hemoptysis: A Comprehensive Review of Diagnostic Imaging and Bronchial Arterial Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Joo-Young Morgan, Robert; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2010-04-15

    Hemoptysis can be a life-threatening respiratory emergency and indicates potentially serious underlying intrathoracic disease. Large-volume hemoptysis carries significant mortality and warrants urgent investigation and intervention. Initial assessment by chest radiography, bronchoscopy, and computed tomography (CT) is useful in localizing the bleeding site and identifying the underlying cause. Multidetector CT angiography is a relatively new imaging technique that allows delineation of abnormal bronchial and nonbronchial arteries using reformatted images in multiple projections, which can be used to guide therapeutic arterial embolization procedures. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is now considered to be the most effective procedure for the management of massive and recurrent hemoptysis, either as a first-line therapy or as an adjunct to elective surgery. It is a safe technique in the hands of an experienced operator with knowledge of bronchial artery anatomy and the potential pitfalls of the procedure. Recurrent bleeding is not uncommon, especially if there is progression of the underlying disease process. Prompt repeat embolization is advised in patients with recurrent hemoptysis in order to identify nonbronchial systemic and pulmonary arterial sources of bleeding. This article reviews the pathophysiology and causes of hemoptysis, diagnostic imaging and therapeutic options, and technique and outcomes of BAE.

  16. A case of type-2 endoleak from a bronchial artery after endovascular aortic repair for Kommerell diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Amako, Mau; Wada, Hideichi; Matsumura, Hitoshi; Morita, Yuichi; Shimizu, Masayuki; Ohsumi, Masahiro; Sukehiro, Yuta; Minematsu, Noritoshi; Nishimi, Masaru; Tashiro, Tadashi

    2014-11-01

    We describe a case of type-2 bronchial artery endoleak after endovascular aortic repair of Kommerell diverticulum (KD) involving right-sided aortic arch and aberrant left subclavian artery (LSA). A 68-year-old woman underwent an endovascular repair of KD with an aberrant LSA in our hospital. Follow-up computed tomography (CT) at 6 months after the procedure showed an endoleak. Digital subtraction angiography revealed a type-2 endoleak from a bronchial artery, but no type-1 or type-2 endoleak from the aberrant left subclavian artery. We performed coil embolization of the KD and the left subclavian artery. The endoleak disappeared in the postoperative CT.

  17. Bronchial Artery Embolization in the Management of Pulmonary Parenchymal Endometriosis with Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kervancioglu, Selim Andic, Cagatay; Bayram, Nazan; Telli, Cumali; Sarica, Akif; Sirikci, Akif

    2008-07-15

    Pulmonary parenchymal endometriosis is extremely rare and usually manifests itself with a recurrent hemoptysis associated with the menstrual cycle. The therapies proposed for women with endometriosis consist of medical treatments and surgery. Bronchial artery embolization has become a well-established and minimally invasive treatment modality for hemoptysis, and to the best of our knowledge, it has not been reported in pulmonary endometriosis. We report a case of pulmonary parenchymal endometriosis treated with embolotheraphy for hemoptysis.

  18. Referred Pain to the Ipsilateral Forehead and Orbit: An Unusual Phenomenon During Bronchial Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakantan, Ravi; Ketkar, Manoj; Maddali, Krishna; Deshmukh, Hemant

    1999-07-15

    Purpose: We report an unusual pattern of referred pain to the ipsilateral forehead and orbit observed during bronchial artery embolization (BAE) for massive hemoptysis due to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and postulate possible neural mechanisms for its occurrence. Methods: Seven men, from a series of 194 patients (171 men, 23 women) undergoing BAE (right bronchial artery 4, left 3) with gelatin sponge for control of massive hemoptysis due to pulmonary TB form the subject of this report. Results: Embolization was successful in achieving control of hemoptysis in these patients and there were no complications following the embolization. Transient, moderately severe, ipsilateral supraorbital and/or retroorbital pain occurred only during the injection of the gelatin sponge contrast mixture into the bronchial artery. The pain did not occur during the injection of heparinized saline or ionic contrast medium. Conclusions: Referred pain during BAE is an unusual phenomenon. Acute vessel distension triggering visceral sensations is probably the causative mechanism. Sympathetic afferents from the bronchi coursing through the posterior pulmonary plexus eventually pass to the trigeminal ganglion via the carotid sympathetic chain. The ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve then mediate pain sensation to the ipsilateral forehead and orbit. Similarly, parasympathetic afferents from the pulmonary plexus crossing the nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve may be responsible for interexchange of impulses to the neurons in this nucleus. Sensory fibers of the ophthalmic and maxillary nerves relaying in this nucleus are then involved in this pain being referred to the forehead and orbit.

  19. Y90-Radioembolization of Lung Metastases via the Bronchial Artery: A Report of 2 Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Ricke, Jens Grosser, Oliver; Amthauer, Holger

    2013-12-15

    We report successful Y90-radioembolization of the lung applying Y90-resin microspheres via the bronchial artery in two patients with diffuse colorectal and renal cancer metastases, respectively. The deposition of radioactive Y90-resin-microspheres was technically feasible and resulted in a reasonable absorbed dose in the tumors. However, open questions remain regarding dosimetry and safe dose exposure to the lung. The technique warrants thorough investigation before clinical use. A Phase I trial to evaluate safety and preliminary efficacy is under preparation.

  20. Bronchial Artery Embolization for Hemoptysis Due to Benign Diseases: Immediate and Long-Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Akira; Kudo, Sho; Matsumoto, Koichi; Fukahori, Tetsuhiro; Shimizu, Toshihisa; Uchino, Akira; Hayashi, Shinichiro

    2000-09-15

    Purpose: To clarify the immediate effect and long-term results of bronchial artery embolization (BAE) for hemoptysis due to benign diseases and the factors influencing the outcomes.Methods: One hundred and one patients (aged 34-89 years) received bronchial artery embolization with polyvinyl alcohol particles and gelatin sponge for massive or continuing moderate hemoptysis caused by benign pulmonary diseases and resistant to medical treatment.Results: After BAE, bleeding stopped in 94 patients (94%). The immediate effect was unfavorable in cases where feeder vessels were overlooked or the embolization of the intercostal arteries was insufficient. Long-term cumulative hemoptysis non recurrence rates after the initial embolization were 77.7% for 1 year and 62.5% for 5 years. In bronchitis (n 9) and active tuberculosis (n = 4) groups, an excellent (100%) 5-year cumulative non recurrence rate was obtained. The rate was lower in groups with pneumonia/abscess/pyothorax (n = 8) or with pulmonary aspergillosis (n = 9) (53.3%, 1-year cumulative non recurrence). There were higher incidences of early recurrence among patients with massive hemorrhage or more marked vascularity and systemic artery-pulmonary artery shunt in angiography: however, these trends were not statistically significant. Conclusions: BAE can yield long-term benefit in patients with hemoptysis due to benign diseases. Technical problems in the procedure had an impact on the short-term effect. The degree of hemorrhage or the severity of angiographical findings were not significant factors affecting the outcome. The most significant factor affecting long-term results was whether the inflammation caused by the underlying disease was medically well controlled.

  1. Transcatheter bronchial artery embolization in the multimodality management of massive hemoptysis.

    PubMed

    Metzdorff, M T; Vogelzang, R L; LoCicero, J; Otto, R

    1990-06-01

    To illustrate the potential role of transcatheter bronchial artery embolization (TBAE) in the multimodality management of massive hemoptysis, we describe a case in which TBAE was successfully employed as the definitive therapy. In recent years, the technique of TBAE has joined the armamentarium of managing methods for massive hemoptysis. While massive hemoptysis has traditionally been defined in terms of the volume of blood produced within a period of time, with a rate of 600 ml in 24 hours the most commonly used definition, a more functional definition has been proposed: bleeding into the tracheobronchial tree at a rate that poses a threat to life. It is the life-threatening nature of this symptom that often results in the early involvement of thoracic surgeons in the care of these patients.

  2. Long-term outcomes of the bronchial artery embolization are diagnosis dependent

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Vikas; Stavas, Joseph M; Ford, Hubert J; Austin, Charles A; Aris, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is an established, safe, and effective procedure for the treatment of hemoptysis but long-term outcomes of the BAE have never been investigated before. Objectives: To retrospectively analyze long-term outcomes of the BAE. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart analysis was done from the hospital central database for all patients undergoing the BAE over a consecutive 14-year period (January 2000-February 2014). A total of 58 patients were identified from the database. Eight patients were excluded due to the lack of follow-up. Data such as patient demographics, reason for hemoptysis, medical imaging results, bronchoscopy findings, recurrence rates, and morbidity/mortality rates after the BAE were collected. Results: Eighty three embolizations were performed in 50 patients. The median follow-up was of 2.2 years. Cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis was the most common etiology (21/50), followed by non-CF bronchiectasis (9/50). Cavitary lung disease occurred in 12/50 patients, an additional 4/50 had cancer (primary lung and metastatic), and one patient had antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) vasculitis. In three patients the etiology was unknown. Postprocedural complications occurred in 5/83 (6%) patients, two patients with two major complications - stroke (one) and paraplegia (one) - and three patients with minor complications - chest pain (two) and bronchial artery dissection (one). A total of 15/50 patients died during the follow-up. Three patients died of hemoptysis, and the remaining deaths were unrelated to the procedure or hemoptysis. Twenty four patients had recurrent hemoptysis. A Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed an excellent long-term survival that was 85% at 10 years. Conclusions: The BAE is a safe and effective procedure with excellent overall long-term survival. PMID:26933299

  3. Stent Implantation for Malignant Pulmonary Artery Stenosis in a Metastasizing Non-Small Cell Bronchial Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Gutzeit, A.; Koch, S.; Meier, U. R.; Zollikofer, Ch.

    2008-07-15

    A 58-year-old patient with recently diagnosed non-small cell bronchial carcinoma was referred to us with increasing shortness of breath and orthopnea by her family practitioner. To exclude the possibility of a pulmonary embolism, contrast medium-enhanced angio-CT of the thorax was performed. This showed a large mediastinal tumor, which, on the one hand, infiltrated and occluded the left upper lobe bronchus and, on the other, constricted the left pulmonary artery over a considerable part of its length. In view of the palliative situation and massively increasing dyspnea, balloon dilatation of the obstructed left pulmonary artery followed by stent placement was performed. This resulted in an immediate improvement of the symptoms. The originally strongly oxygen-dependent and heavily dyspneic patient could be relieved of the external supply of oxygen and was able to sleep normally without additional medication within 24 h. The patient was able ambulate freely within 2 days, with a markedly improved quality of life.

  4. Unusual Case of Left Bronchial Compression by Aneurysmal Pulmonary Arteries in a Child With Atrial Septal Defect.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Ranjit; Kumar, Gaurav; Sharma, Vipul; Dalal, S S

    2016-07-01

    We report an uncommon case of large ostium secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension, with associated aneurysmal dilatation of the pulmonary arteries (PAs) leading to compression of the left main bronchus and collapse of the entire left lung in a 15-month-old female child. The patient was managed by surgical closure of the ASD, translocation of the right PA anterior to the aorta with PA aneurysmorrhaphy. Left bronchial compression was relieved with complete lung expansion on the third postoperative day. PMID:26865068

  5. Endovascular Embolization of Bronchial Artery Originating from the Upper Portion of Aortic Arch in Patients with Massive Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Sen Sun, Xi-Wen Yu, Dong Jie, Bing

    2013-05-15

    PurposeOur experience with endovascular embolization (EVE) of the bronchial artery (BA) originating from the upper portion of the aortic arch (AA) in six patients is described.MethodsAltogether, 818 patients with hemoptysis underwent multidetector row computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) before EVE or AA angiography during EVE. Aberrant BAs originating from the upper portion of the AA were the source of massive hemoptysis in six patients (0.73 %). MDCT angiograms and/or Digital subtraction angiograms were retrospectively reviewed. Selective catheterization and embolization were performed.ResultsThe ostia of the BAs were located on the superior surface of the AA between the brachiocephalic trunk and left common carotid artery in three patients, the junction of the aorta and medial surface of the left subclavian artery in two, and the posterior wall of the upper portion of the AA in one. The six BAs comprised two common trunks, three single right sides, and one single left side. The targeted vessels were successfully catheterized and embolized by a coaxial microcatheter system using polyvinyl alcohol particles. Other pathologic BAs and nonbronchial systemic arteries also were embolized. Bleeding was immediately controlled in all patients with no recurrence of hemoptysis. No procedure-related complications occurred.ConclusionsApplication of EVE of anomalous origin of BAs in patients with hemoptysis is important, as demonstrated in the six reported patients. MDCTA before EVE or AA angiography during EVE is critical to avoid missing a rare aberrant BA originating from the upper portion of the AA.

  6. Functional anatomy of bronchial veins.

    PubMed

    Charan, Nirmal B; Thompson, William H; Carvalho, Paula

    2007-01-01

    The amount of bronchial arterial blood that drains into the systemic venous system is not known. Therefore, in this study we further delineated the functional anatomy of the bronchial venous system in six adult, anesthetized, and mechanically ventilated sheep. Through a left thoracotomy, the left azygos vein was dissected and the insertion of the bronchial vein into the azygos vein was identified. A pouch was created by ligating the azygos vein on either side of the insertion of the bronchial vein. A catheter was inserted into this pouch for the measurement of bronchial venous occlusion pressure and bronchial venous blood flow. An ultrasonic flow probe was placed around the common bronchial branch of the bronchoesophageal artery to monitor the bronchial arterial blood flow. Catheters were also placed into the carotid artery and the pulmonary artery. The mean bronchial blood flow was 20.6+/-4.2mlmin(-1) (mean+/-SEM) and, of this, only about 13% of the blood flow drained into the azygos vein. The mean systemic artery pressure was 72.4+/-4.1mmHg whereas the mean bronchial venous occlusion pressure was 38.1+/-2.1mmHg. The mean values for blood gas analysis were as follows: bronchial venous blood pH=7.54+/-0.02, PCO(2)=35+/-2.6, PO(2)=95+/-5.7mmHg; systemic venous blood-pH=7.43+/-0.02, PCO(2)=48+/-3.2, PO(2)=42+/-2.0mmHg; systemic arterial blood-pH=7.51+/-0.03, PCO(2)=39+/-2.1, PO(2)=169+/-9.8mmHg. We conclude that the major portion of the bronchial arterial blood flow normally drains into the pulmonary circulation and only about 13% drains into the bronchial venous system. In addition, the oxygen content of the bronchial venous blood is similar to that in the systemic arterial blood.

  7. High-resolution computed tomography bronchial lumen to pulmonary artery diameter ratio in anesthetized ventilated cats with normal lungs.

    PubMed

    Reid, Lauren E; Dillon, A Ray; Hathcock, John T; Brown, Lawrence A; Tillson, Michael; Wooldridge, Anne A

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution computed tomography (CT) is the preferred noninvasive tool for diagnosing bronchiectasis in people. A criterion for evaluating dilation of the bronchus is the bronchial lumen to pulmonary artery diameter (bronchoarterial ratio [BA ratio]). A ratio of > 1.0 in humans or > 2.0 in dogs has been suggested as a threshold for identifying bronchiectasis. The purpose of this study was to establish the BA ratio in normal cats. Fourteen specific pathogen-free cats were selected for analysis of thoracic CT images. The BA ratios of the lobar bronchi of the left cranial (cranial and caudal parts), right cranial, right middle, left caudal, and right caudal lung lobes were measured. The mean of the mean BA ratio of all lung lobes was 0.71 +/- 0.05. Individual BA ratios ranged from 0.5 to 1.11. Comparing individual lobes for each cat, there was no significant difference (P = 0.145) in mean BA ratio between lung lobes. A mean BA ratio for these normal cats was 0.71 +/- 0.1, which suggests an upper cut-off normal value > 0.91 (mean +/- 2 standard deviations) between normal and abnormal cats.

  8. Bronchial thermoplasty.

    PubMed

    Kynyk, Jessica; Benninger, Cathy; Wood, Karen L

    2014-02-01

    Bronchial thermoplasty is a relatively new therapy for the management of severe asthma. It involves the direct bronchoscopic application of thermal energy to airways by a catheter-directed expandable basket. The airways of the lower and upper lobes are treated in 3 separate sessions spaced 3 weeks apart. The therapy targets airway smooth muscle, with studies showing a decrease in airway smooth muscle after bronchial thermoplasty therapy. After therapy, an improvement in quality of life and decrease in asthma exacerbations can be expected. Adverse events can occur with bronchial thermoplasty and careful patient selection is critical to ensure benefits outweigh the potential risks.

  9. Bronchial Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... when the airways shrink while you are exercising Bronchiolitis, an inflammation of the small airways that branch off from the bronchi Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a condition affecting infants Treatment of bronchial disorders depends on the cause.

  10. Bronchial Aneurysms Mimicking Aortic Aneurysms: Endovascular Treatment in Two Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Vernhet, Helene; Bousquet, Claudine; Jean, Betty; Lesnik, Alvian; Durand, Gerard; Giron, Jacques; Senac, Jean Paul

    1999-05-15

    Bronchial artery dilatation and aneurysm formation is a potential complication of local inflammation, especially in bronchiectasis. When the bronchial artery has an ectopic origin from the inferior segment of the aortic arch, aneurysms may mimick aortic aneurysms. Despite this particular location, endovascular treatment is possible. We report two such aneurysms that were successfully embolized with steel coils.

  11. Bronchial mucous gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Spencer, H

    1979-07-27

    Tumours arising in the bronchial mucous glands closely resemble tumours arising in the mixed salivary glands. Bronchial mucous gland tumours account for less than 0.5 per cent of all lung tumours. Twenty six tumours are reviewed and they have been divided into five types, (a) adenoidcystic carcinomas, (b) muco-epidermoid tumors, (c) mixed (pleomorphic) tumors, (d) cystadenomas and (f) oxyphilic adenoma. The clinical features, and postoperative course of the patients are reviewed. Adenocystic carcinomas, arising in the bronchus frequently involve the neighbouring trachea and spread mainly by direct infiltration. Most muco-epidermoid bronchial tumours were confined to young persons, and the only malignant muco-epidermoid tumour occurred in an elderly person. The prognosis in young persons is good provided the tumours are completely excised. The two mixed bronchial tumours resembled their salivary counterparts and one subsequently behaved as a carcinoma and metastasised. Bronchial cystadenomas all proved to be benign tumours but in two cases were associated with surface papillary proliferation. The only example of an oxyphil cell adenoma was discovered at post mortem examination. The histogenesis of the tumours is considered.

  12. Atypical Bronchial Carcinoid Masquerading as Bronchial Asthma.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, V; Iqbal; Kumar, Vinod

    2015-11-01

    A case study of 35-year-old woman with persistent breathlessness and wheezing that had been unsuccessfully treated with inhaled beta 2-agonists and steroids for about two years. Patient developed dry cough and haemoptysis, so investigated further. Spirometry demonstrated a restrictive pattern. Chest CT demonstrated well defined hyperdense lesion in right middle lobe. Biopsy taken from the mass during bronchoscopy demonstrated the picture of atypical bronchial carcinoid. In this case, due to the lack of awareness, diagnosis of carcinoid was delayed by two years. PMID:27608788

  13. Adenovirus-mediated wild-type p53 gene transfer in combination with bronchial arterial infusion for treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, one year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yong-song; Liu, Yuan; Zou, Qing; He, Qing; La, Zi; Yang, Lin; Hu, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In the present study, we have examined the safety and efficacy of recombinant adenovirus encoding human p53 tumor suppressor gene (rAd-p53) injection in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the combination with the therapy of bronchial arterial infusion (BAI). Methods: A total of 58 patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled in a non-randomized, two-armed clinical trial. Of which, 19 received a combination treatment of BAI and rAd-p53 (the combo group), while the remaining 39 were treated with only BAI (the control group). Patients were followed up for 12 months, with safety and local response evaluated by the National Cancer Institute’s Common Toxicity Criteria and response evaluation criteria in solid tumor (RECIST), respectively. Time to progression (TTP) and survival rates were also analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. Results: In the combo group, 19 patients received a total of 49 injections of rAd-p53 and 46 times of BAI, respectively, while 39 patients in the control group received a total of 113 times of BAI. The combination treatment was found to have less adverse events such as anorexia, nausea and emesis, pain, and leucopenia (P<0.05) but more arthralgia, fever, influenza-like symptom, and myalgia (P<0.05), compared with the control group. The overall response rates (complete response (CR)+partial response (PR)) were 47.3% and 38.4% for the combo group and the control group, respectively (P>0.05). Patients in the combo group had a longer TTP than those in the control group (a median 7.75 vs 5.5 months, P=0.018). However, the combination treatment did not lead to better survival, with survival rates at 3, 6, and 12 months in the combo group being 94.74%, 89.47%, and 52.63%, respectively, compared with 92.31%, 69.23%, and 38.83% in the control group (P=0.224). Conclusion: Our results show that the combination of rAd-p53 and BAI was well tolerated in patients with NSCLC and may have improved the quality of life and delayed

  14. [Atypical case of bronchial carcinoid].

    PubMed

    Andrzejak, R; Mydłowski, R; Krajewski, E; Orłowski, T; Bochnia, M

    1997-01-01

    This article illustrates problems in diagnosis and treatment of an atypical form of bronchial carcinoid. We described the case of a 49-year old man, exposed to granite dust and noise for 25 years who had suffered from frequent bronchitis inflammations and pneumonias for 5 years prior to the diagnosis. He was admitted to our clinic because of supposed occupational nature of hearing deficiency. Although a pneumoconiosis was excluded before the admission, we found clinical and X-ray features of the right lung emphysema with medium restrictive ventilation disturbances. Bronchoscopy was performed because of "bright" right lung and ventilation disturbances and it showed presence of the carcinoid. Unusual in this case were tiny anamnestical findings (mild dyspnea attacks after physical effort or nervousness) plus increasing frequency of reported from the childhood bronchitis and pneumonias and uncharacteristic "bright" right lung in X-ray. Therapeutical difficulties resulted from atypical histological form of the tumor, its diameter, polypous-infiltrative character, and inconvenient localization. In spite of late diagnosis of carcinoid and significant acceleration of respiratory decompensation symptoms after the diagnosis the attempt of surgical therapy was appropriate but unsuccessful. After the operation the patient was suffering long lasting lowering of arterial pressure (what was corrected with catecholamine infusions) probably as a result of serotonin secretion. However it was not established because of technical reasons.

  15. Independent bilateral primary bronchial carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, M. Ray

    1971-01-01

    Independent bilateral primary bronchial carcinomas are not common. Since Beyreuther's description in 1924, 16 well-documented cases of independent primary bronchial carcinomas of different histology have been described. From 1965 to 1970, eight cases were seen at the London Chest Hospital. In order to make the diagnosis of a second primary bronchial carcinoma, each tumour should be malignant and neither should be a metastasis from the other. To meet this last criterion, the histopathological features of the two tumours must be different. Many cases have been described in the literature as double primary bronchial carcinomas where the second primary had the same histological features as the first. Images PMID:4327711

  16. Pulmonary and bronchial circulations: contributions to heat and water exchange in isolated lungs.

    PubMed

    Serikov, V B; Fleming, N W

    2001-11-01

    The relative contribution of the pulmonary and bronchial circulatory systems to heat and water exchange in normal lungs was evaluated in 20 isolated, in situ perfused dog lungs and in four patients undergoing elective cardiopulmonary bypass. In isolated dog lungs, if the pulmonary artery was perfused at a nominal flow rate (0.5 l/min), bronchial artery perfusion (up to 70 ml/min) did not significantly affect the expired gas temperature. When the lungs were not perfused through either system, 8 min of ventilation with cool, dry gas decreased the temperature of the expired gas by 6.2 +/- 1.4 degrees C. Selective perfusion of bronchial arteries at 68 +/- 10 mmHg resulted in a mean flow rate of 28 +/- 16 ml/min and increased the average temperature of the expired gas by 0.6 degrees C. An increase in the rate of bronchial arterial perfusion to 55 +/- 14 ml/min increased the average temperature of the expired gas by 1.3 degrees C. The time constant for equilibration of tritiated water between the perfusate and the lung parenchyma was 130 +/- 33 min for pulmonary arterial perfusion and 35 +/- 13 min for combined bronchial and pulmonary perfusion, which indicated that filtration of water from high-pressure bronchial vessels facilitated water exchange in the lung interstitium. The rate of tracer equilibration was similar between the perfusate and gas in both variants of perfusion, but the ratios of tracer gas to perfusate were different (0.42 +/- 0.06 for pulmonary, 0.98 +/- 0.07 for combined), which indicates that bronchial vessels contribute mainly to the hydration of the bronchial mucosa. In humans, the bronchial blood flow was capable of maintaining heat supply after the initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass. Before bypass, when both pulmonary and bronchial blood flow were present, the mean time constant of the temperature decay after a switch to ventilation with cool, dry gas was 35 +/- 12 s. The average temperature difference between the blood and expired gas was 2

  17. [Bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Bregante, J I; Rituerto, B; Font de Mora, F; Alonso, F; Andreu, M J; Figuerola, J; Mulet, J F

    1998-07-01

    We submit the case of a child afflicted with a mucoepidermoid bronchial tumor. The patient is a boy, aged seven, who after undergoing antibiotic treatment for six weeks because of a fever and atelectasia-condensation in the right lower lobe showed no signs of clinical improvement and was sent to our department to undergo further study and treatment. A bronchoscopy performed shows a polypoid mass that partially blocks the main bronchial tube a few milimiters under the access to the right upper lobe. A biopsy is carried out and the anatomopathological test shows there is a low degree epidermoid carcinoma. We decide to perform a lobectomy which for the tumor location and the lung condition has to be medium and lower right. We proceed to remove the adenopaty of hilium not affected by the tumor. The postoperative period develops without incidents. A check-up bronchoscopy performed three months later shows two polypoid masses in the right bronchial tube which, once a biopsy is performed, proved to be granulation tissue. Twelve months after undergoing surgery, the patient's condition is good, there is no evidence of tumor relapse and the breathing capacity is adequate, though there is an obstructive restrictive pattern in the espirometry. Even taking into consideration that lung tumors are extremely unusual, the epidermoid carcinoma is the one which most frequently occurs. The tumor's low malignancy is a sign that points to a good prognosis. Performing conservative surgery by means of bronchoplasty should be taken into account so as to keep the sequelae on the lung condition to a minimum, even though in this case the tumor location made it impossible. PMID:12602035

  18. DNA adducts in bronchial biopsies.

    PubMed

    Dunn, B P; Vedal, S; San, R H; Kwan, W F; Nelems, B; Enarson, D A; Stich, H F

    1991-06-19

    To investigate the feasibility of measuring DNA-carcinogen adducts in the lungs of non-surgical patients, endobronchial biopsies were obtained from 78 patients undergoing routine diagnostic bronchoscopy. Lung cancer was present in 37 (47%) of the patients. DNA was isolated from the tissues and analyzed by HPLC- or nuclease-PI-enriched 32P-postlabelling, using procedures selective for aromatic adducts. Chromatograms from all 28 current smokers showed a distinctive diagonal adduct zone which was present in only 24 of 40 ex-smokers and 4 of 10 lifetime non-smokers. Adduct levels and chromatographic patterns were similar in bronchial tissue from different lobes of the lung, in bronchial and alveolar tissue, and in tumor and non-tumor bronchial tissue taken from the same subject. Bronchial DNA adduct levels were strongly associated with cigarette smoking status and dropped rapidly after smoking ceased. Higher levels of DNA adducts seen in the lung-cancer patients were mainly due to cigarette smoking. Frequent alcohol intake was the only dietary factor associated with higher levels of bronchial DNA adducts. We conclude that the level of bronchial DNA adducts is strongly associated with cigarette-smoking history and with alcohol intake, but is not associated with lung cancer independently from its relation to smoking. The results indicate the feasibility of using 32P-postlabelling to detect and quantitate genetic damage in bronchial biopsy specimens.

  19. Chyluria associated with bronchial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Morice, A. H.; Wood, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Chylous pleural effusion, though not chyluria, is a recognized association of carcinoma of the bronchus. A case of chyluria associated with squamous bronchial carcinoma is reported. Chyluria in this patient was successfully treated by dietary modification. PMID:7329888

  20. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  2. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  5. [Anesthetic management in bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Kozian, Alf; Schilling, Thomas; Hachenberg, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    In daily practice, acute and chronic pulmonary diseases are common issues presenting to the anesthetist. Respiratory physiology in general is affected by both general and regional anesthesia, which results in an increased number of perioperative complications in pulmonary risk patients. Therefore, anesthetic management of patients with bronchial asthma needs to address different clinical topics: the physical appearance of pulmonary disease, type and extent of surgical intervention as well as effects of therapeutic drugs, anesthetics and mechanical ventilation on respiratory function. The present work describes important precautions in preoperative scheduling of the asthmatic patient. In the operative course, airway manipulation and a number of anesthetics are able to trigger intraoperative bronchial spasm with possibly fatal outcome. It is essential to avoid these substances to prevent asthma attack. If asthmatic status occurs, appropriate procedures according to therapeutic standards have to be applied to the patient. Postoperatively, sufficient pain therapy avoids pulmonary complications and improves outcome. PMID:27359239

  6. Bronchial responsiveness in active steelworkers.

    PubMed

    Corhay, J L; Bury, T; Louis, R; Delavignette, J P; Kayembe, J M; Weber, G; Albert, A; Radermecker, M F

    1998-02-01

    Coke-oven workers are exposed to dust and irritant gases. Therefore they are at risk of developing lung diseases including chronic bronchitis. Nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) has been advocated as a potential risk factor predisposing to the development of chronic bronchitis. In a previous study, we showed that prevalence of BHR was higher in retired coke-oven workers than in retired blast furnace workers. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of BHR in active steelworkers. Thus, 137 coke-oven workers and 150 blast furnace workers underwent clinical examination, a standardized questionnaire for the study of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function testing and methacholine aerosol challenge. The study demonstrates a higher prevalence and degree of BHR [provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (PC20) < or = 8 mg x mL(-1)] in coke-oven workers than in blast furnace workers (31.4 versus 6.7%; p<0.001). Moreover, the frequency of respiratory symptoms and basal bronchial obstruction were greater among coke-oven workers with BHR in nonresponders. The basal maximum expiratory flow from 25-75% of forced vital capacity and the respiratory symptoms were correlated with bronchial responsiveness. The lack of correlation observed between BHR and the intensity of smoking or years spent in coke-oven environment may be explained by the high proportion of smokers, the worker turnover in the steel plant, and the "healthy worker effect". In conclusion, the higher prevalence and degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in coke-oven workers suggests that coke-oven pollutants are more intense irritants than those that escape from blast furnaces. PMID:9551724

  7. Bronchial responsiveness in active steelworkers.

    PubMed

    Corhay, J L; Bury, T; Louis, R; Delavignette, J P; Kayembe, J M; Weber, G; Albert, A; Radermecker, M F

    1998-02-01

    Coke-oven workers are exposed to dust and irritant gases. Therefore they are at risk of developing lung diseases including chronic bronchitis. Nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) has been advocated as a potential risk factor predisposing to the development of chronic bronchitis. In a previous study, we showed that prevalence of BHR was higher in retired coke-oven workers than in retired blast furnace workers. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of BHR in active steelworkers. Thus, 137 coke-oven workers and 150 blast furnace workers underwent clinical examination, a standardized questionnaire for the study of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function testing and methacholine aerosol challenge. The study demonstrates a higher prevalence and degree of BHR [provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (PC20) < or = 8 mg x mL(-1)] in coke-oven workers than in blast furnace workers (31.4 versus 6.7%; p<0.001). Moreover, the frequency of respiratory symptoms and basal bronchial obstruction were greater among coke-oven workers with BHR in nonresponders. The basal maximum expiratory flow from 25-75% of forced vital capacity and the respiratory symptoms were correlated with bronchial responsiveness. The lack of correlation observed between BHR and the intensity of smoking or years spent in coke-oven environment may be explained by the high proportion of smokers, the worker turnover in the steel plant, and the "healthy worker effect". In conclusion, the higher prevalence and degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in coke-oven workers suggests that coke-oven pollutants are more intense irritants than those that escape from blast furnaces.

  8. Bronchial haemangioma: exceptionally rare cause of haemoptysis.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Scott; Tharion, John; Jones, Peter; Brown, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Bronchial haemangioma is an exceptionally rare cause of haemoptysis in the adult. There are currently less than 10 recorded cases in the literature. Airway haemangiomas are generally seen in infants with coexistent cutaneous haemangiomas. The incidence of bronchial haemangioma in adults remains unknown. This case reports the diagnosis and treatment of a bronchial haemangioma in a 56 year-old male presenting with a one-month history of haemoptysis. Bronchial haemangioma diagnosis was confirmed and excision performed by bronchoscopy without complication. Bronchial haemangioma should be a considered differential diagnosis in the presence of meaningful haemoptysis when an endoluminal lesion is visualised on computed tomography scan. This case also demonstrates that bronchial haemangiomas can be successfully removed via bronchoscopy with minimal risk and discomfort to the patient.

  9. A Large Posttraumatic Subclavian Artery Aneurysm Complicated by Artery Occlusion and Arteriobronchial Fistula Successfully Treated Using a Covered Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Czeczotka, Jaroslaw; Elgalal, Marcin; Sapieha, Michal; Rowinski, Olgierd

    2011-02-15

    The treatment of posttraumatic aneurysms of peripheral arteries using covered stents is increasingly commonplace. We present the case of a 10-year-old girl with a pseudoaneurysm of the subclavian artery complicated by an arteriobronchial fistula with hemorrhaging into the bronchial tree and distal subclavian artery occlusion. Despite the lack of artery patency, endovascular stent graft implantation was successful. Pseudoaneurysm exclusion and involution was achieved, together with a patent implant and maintained collateral circulation patency.

  10. Risk Factors for Hemoptysis in Idiopathic and Hereditary Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Tio, Darryl; Leter, Edward; Boerrigter, Bart; Boonstra, Anco; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Bogaard, Harm Jan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction When hemoptysis complicates pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), it is assumed to result from bronchial artery hypertrophy. In heritable PAH, the most common mutation is in the BMPR2 gene, which regulates growth, differentiation and apoptosis of mesenchymal cells. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship in PAH between the occurrence of hemoptysis, and disease progression, bronchial artery hypertrophy, pulmonary artery dilation and BMPR2 mutations. Methods 129 IPAH patients underwent baseline pulmonary imaging (CT angio or MRI) and repeated right-sided heart catheterization. Gene mutations were assessed in a subset of patients. Results Hemoptysis was associated with a greater presence of hypertrophic bronchial arteries and more rapid hemodynamic deterioration. The presence of a BMPR2 mutation did not predispose to the development of hemoptysis, but was associated with a greater number of hypertrophic bronchial arteries and a worse baseline hemodynamic profile. Conclusion Hemoptysis in PAH is associated with bronchial artery hypertrophy and faster disease progression. Although the presence of a BMPR2 mutation did not correlate with a greater incidence of hemoptysis in our patient cohort, its association with worse hemodynamics and a trend of greater bronchial arterial hypertrophy may increase the risk of hemoptysis. PMID:24194909

  11. Reflex tracheal smooth muscle contraction and bronchial vasodilation evoked by airway cooling in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pisarri, T E; Giesbrecht, G G

    1997-05-01

    Cooling intrathoracic airways by filling the pulmonary circulation with cold blood alters pulmonary mechanoreceptor discharge. To determine whether this initiates reflex changes that could contribute to airway obstruction, we measured changes in tracheal smooth muscle tension and bronchial arterial flow evoked by cooling. In nine chloralose-anesthetized open-chest dogs, the right pulmonary artery was cannulated and perfused; the left lung, ventilated separately, provided gas exchange. With the right lung phasically ventilated, filling the right pulmonary circulation with 5 degrees C blood increased smooth muscle tension in an innervated upper tracheal segment by 23 +/- 6 (SE) g from a baseline of 75 g. Contraction began within 10 s of injection and was maximal at approximately 30s. The response was abolished by cervical vagotomy. Bronchial arterial flow increased from 8 +/- 1 to 13 +/- 2 ml/min, with little effect on arterial blood pressure. The time course was similar to that of the tracheal response. This response was greatly attenuated after cervical vagotomy. Blood at 20 degrees C also increased tracheal smooth muscle tension and bronchial flow, whereas 37 degrees C blood had little effect. The results suggested that alteration of airway mechanoreceptor discharge by cooling can initiate reflexes that contribute to airway obstruction. PMID:9134906

  12. [Thoracic actinomycosis versus bronchial cancer].

    PubMed

    Brombacher-Frey, I; Wöckel, W; Kreusser, T

    1992-01-01

    We report on 4 thoracic actinomycoses; in three of these four cases a bronchial carcinoma was suspected, and in case No. 2 this carcinoma had been considered to be in a very advanced and inoperable stage. A man of 51 years of age was in a generally run-down condition. He also noticed that his sputum was tinged with blood. The x-ray film showed a large space-occupying growth at the right lung hilus. Repeated perbronchial biopsies of the focus did not yield any diagnosis. Actinomycosis was identified histologically only in the tissue samples obtained via thoracotomy. After a three-month penicillin course the hilar shadow receded. A 61-year old male patient was transferred to our Pneumological Hospital, being strongly suspected of suffering from an extensive bronchial carcinoma, and having multiple intrathoracic space-occupying growths as well as pleural effusions, a pericardial effusion, and an infiltration of the left thoracic wall with fistula formation; however, histological examination of skin biopsies revealed that he was suffering from actinomycosis. Antibiotic therapy cured him completely in a six-month course. In a man of 32 years of age who had been indulging for many years in a severe abuse of nicotin, we suspected a central bronchial carcinoma on the basis of his x-ray, but histology of the tissue taken from the space-occupying growth via diagnostic thoracotomy revealed that this patient, too, suffered from actinomycosis. Complete recession occurred after several months of antibiotic treatment. A woman of 82 years had been an inpatient for several months in another hospital because of relapsing pleuropneumonias on the right side. She was transferred to us as an outpatient after a renewed relapse. We conducted a transcutaneous fine-needle biopsy of the right indurating pleural effusion. A few actinomyces filaments were seen on histological examination of the purulent exudate. Hence, actinomycosis was confirmed. After antibiotic therapy the finding receded

  13. Primary diffuse tracheo-bronchial amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Maria L.; Da Luz, J. M. Vieira

    1969-01-01

    A case of diffuse tracheo-bronchial amyloidosis in a 62-year-old woman thought to have chronic bronchitis is reported. The immunological mechanism in the pathogenesis of this condition is considered and the need for bronchological investigation in chronic bronchial disorders is stressed. Images PMID:5810372

  14. [Eosinophilic oesophagitis in bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Mikhaleva, L M; Barkhina, T G; Golovanova, V E; Shchegoleva, N N; Gracheva, N A

    2012-01-01

    Combination of bronchial asthma and gastrointestinal pathology is frequently encountered in clinical practice. Clinical symptoms of this condition are highly diversified and gastrointestinal diseases play an important role in exacerbation of bronchial asthma. The prevalence of allergic diseases has recently become rampant. Eosinophilic oesophagitis is worth of special attention because its histological criteria, unlike clinical ones, are well defined. They include chronic immune antigen-mediated inflammatory oesophageal disease with pronounced intraepithelial eosinophilic infiltration and clinical symptoms resulting from oesophageal dysfunction that resemble manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease but fail to respond to antireflux and antacid therapy. Many specific and practical aspects of the problem remain to be elucidated. The poor awareness of clinicians of this disease hampers its adequate diagnostics and treatment. In order to revise and optimize the former diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm., an interdisciplinary expert group was set up in 2010 constituted by specialists of the American College of Gastroenterology, American Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, and Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Results of the work of this group together with the literature data on eosinophilic esopahgitis are discussed in the present review. PMID:23516863

  15. [Thoracic surgery for patients with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Iyoda, A; Satoh, Y

    2012-07-01

    Thoracic surgery poses a risk for complications in the respiratory system. In particular, for patients with bronchial asthma, we need to care for perioperative complications because it is well known that these patients frequently have respiratory complications after surgery, and they may have bronchial spasms during surgery. If we can get good control of their bronchial asthma, we can usually perform surgery for these patients without limitations. For safe postoperative care, it is desirable that these patients have stable asthma conditions that are well-controlled before surgery, as thoracic surgery requires intrabronchial intubation for anesthesia and sometimes bronchial resection. These stimulations to the bronchus do not provide for good conditions because of the risk of bronchial spasm. Therefore, we should use the same agents that are used to control bronchial asthma if it is already well controlled. If it is not, we have to administer a β₂ stimulator, aminophylline, or steroidal agents for good control. Isoflurane or sevoflurane are effective for the safe control of anesthesia during surgery, and we should use a β₂ stimulator, with or without inhalation, or steroidal agents after surgery. It is important to understand that we can perform thoracic surgery for asthma patients if we can provide perioperative control of bronchial asthma, although these patients still have severe risks. PMID:22868432

  16. [COPD: bronchial and systemic inflammation].

    PubMed

    Macario, Ciro Casanova; de Torres Tajes, Juan Pablo; Córdoba Lanus, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considered to be an inflammatory disease of the airways, in which there can be low-grade systemic inflammation. The etiology of this disease is multifactorial but is mainly due to an anomalous and amplified inflammatory response to tobacco smoke. This inflammatory response involves innate and acquired immunity. The latter is characterized by a Th1-type (CD8) response and its presence seems to be associated with progression to advanced stages of the disease. Currently, it is unknown whether bronchial and systemic inflammation are related or whether they act as independent compartments. Most of the available data on COPD are drawn from cross-sectional studies and consequently a causal relation between the possible inflammatory mediators and the genetic factors involved in pulmonary and extrapulmonary involvement in this disease cannot be established. Further studies are required that would allow the inflammatory response to be correlated with the distinct COPD phenotypes.

  17. [CYTYOGENETIC MARKERS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN CHILDREN].

    PubMed

    Lytvynets', L Ia

    2014-01-01

    The learning of cytyogenetic special of cariotip in children with the bronchial asthma maked by course of the investigation of prometahyases chromosomes of limphocytes of the periferic bloods. The quantity of association of acrocentric chromosome was analised. The 82 children in age 6-18 years old with the bronchial asthma and with the different control were learned by results of asthma--test control. In children with the noncontrol bronchial asthma the big frequency of of association of acrocentric chromosome 13-15 (D-D), 21-22 (G-G) n 13-15--21-22 (D-G) were received. In patients with the bronchial asthma the lover mitotic activity by healthy were marked (P(N) < 0.05). With the degree of activity it was decreased.

  18. VATS right upper lobe bronchial sleeve resection

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qianli

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to discuss video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) sleeve bronchial lobectomy when handling the locally advanced central lung cancer (involving the trachea and/or main bronchus). Methods A 2.5 cm × 1.0 cm mass was found in the right upper lobe. Bronchoscopy demonstrated the tumor obstructing the right upper lobe bronchus and involved the right main bronchus and bronchus intermedius. Interrupted sutures were chosen for bronchial anastomosis. Bronchial membrane was sutured first, and then circumference end-to-end anastomoses were carried out using 3-0 absorbable sutures. Results There were no complications and the patient was discharged 8 days postoperatively. Conclusions The third intercostal space of the anterior axillary line was suggested for right upper lobe bronchial sleeve resection. This incision can reduce the distance and angle between the anastomosis to the incision, and facilitate anastomosis. This approach can also prevent operator from fatigue for keeping one posture for a long time. Clearance of the mediastinal lymph nodes before cutting the bronchus was helpful for exposing the right main bronchus, the upper lobe bronchus and bronchus intermedius satisfied. And this option would avoid pulling bronchial anastomosis during mediastinal lymph nodes clearance. Interrupted suture was safe and effective for VATS bronchial anastomosis. PMID:27621889

  19. Anatomical modeling of the bronchial tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Gerrit; Klinder, Tobias; Blaffert, Thomas; Bülow, Thomas; Wiemker, Rafael; Lorenz, Cristian

    2010-02-01

    The bronchial tree is of direct clinical importance in the context of respective diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It furthermore constitutes a reference structure for object localization in the lungs and it finally provides access to lung tissue in, e.g., bronchoscope based procedures for diagnosis and therapy. This paper presents a comprehensive anatomical model for the bronchial tree, including statistics of position, relative and absolute orientation, length, and radius of 34 bronchial segments, going beyond previously published results. The model has been built from 16 manually annotated CT scans, covering several branching variants. The model is represented as a centerline/tree structure but can also be converted in a surface representation. Possible model applications are either to anatomically label extracted bronchial trees or to improve the tree extraction itself by identifying missing segments or sub-trees, e.g., if located beyond a bronchial stenosis. Bronchial tree labeling is achieved using a naïve Bayesian classifier based on the segment properties contained in the model in combination with tree matching. The tree matching step makes use of branching variations covered by the model. An evaluation of the model has been performed in a leaveone- out manner. In total, 87% of the branches resulting from preceding airway tree segmentation could be correctly labeled. The individualized model enables the detection of missing branches, allowing a targeted search, e.g., a local rerun of the tree-segmentation segmentation.

  20. Autonomic control of bronchial circulation in awake sheep during rest and behaviour.

    PubMed

    McIlveen, S; White, S; Parsons, G

    1997-12-01

    1. We tested the hypothesis that the pattern and the intensity of autonomic mechanisms causing vasoconstriction in the resting bronchial circulation of awake dogs also exists in awake sheep. It was also postulated that sighing behaviour and the associated bronchovascular dilatation induced by non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) mechanisms observed in the dog exist in sheep. 2. Bronchial arterial blood flow to lower airways of both lungs of awake sheep was measured continuously using pulsed Doppler flow probes mounted on the bronchial artery at prior thoracotomy. 3. Cumulative and factorial analysis of responses to randomized combinations of autonomic alpha 1-, alpha 2-, beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors and cholinoceptor autonomic blockade suggests that resting vasoconstrictor activity is less in sheep than in dogs. At normal aortic pressure, the autonomic activity of these receptor groups in the sheep lowers bronchial blood flow and conductance by 30%, whereas in the awake dog, the corresponding autonomic effect is 50%. 4. Tonic autonomic control of bronchial conductance can be partitioned in sheep to show significant and separate alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor vasoconstrictor activity at a ratio of 1.8:1, an effect normally offset by a weaker vasodilator alpha-/beta-adrenoceptor interaction. In contrast to the situation in awake dogs, cholinoceptors do not play a role in awake sheep. 5. Nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition in sheep using NG-nitro-L-arginine following blockade of alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors and cholinoceptors causes hypertension, but minor changes, if any, in pulmonary pressures or heart rate. Bronchial flow and conductance, however, fall from a higher resting conductance by approximately 50%, suggesting that, normally, resting bronchial flow conductance is dominated by strong tonic NO vasodilator effects that interact with weaker tonic autonomic vasoconstrictor effects. 6. Superimposed (respiratory) behaviours of sighing, sneezing and coughing

  1. Perennial atopic rhinitis as an early stage of bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Gniazdowski, R

    1979-01-01

    Etiologic factors and incidence of bronchial hyperreactivity as a 'stigma' of bronchial asthma were studied in 237 patients suffering from perennial atopic rhinitis. All pateints underwent detailed laryngologic and allergologic examiniation and pulmonary function tests at rest, after exercise, and after histamine inhalation. Most often the patients were sensitized tungal allergens. Bronchial hyperreactivity, typical of bronchial asthma, was observed in 48.52% of patients. Results were analysed statistically. It was concluded that early institution of causal therapy can cure the symptoms of rhinitis and prevent evolution of the disease into atopic bronchial asthma in patients already suffering from bronchial hyperreactivity. PMID:495074

  2. Pendelluft in the bronchial tree.

    PubMed

    Greenblatt, Elliot E; Butler, James P; Venegas, Jose G; Winkler, Tilo

    2014-11-01

    Inhomogeneous inflation or deflation of the lungs can cause dynamic pressure differences between regions and lead to interregional airflows known as pendelluft. This work first uses analytical tools to clarify the theoretical limits of pendelluft at a single bifurcation. It then explores the global and regional pendelluft that may occur throughout the bronchial tree in a realistic example using an in silico model of bronchoconstriction. The theoretical limits of pendelluft volume exchanged at a local bifurcation driven by sinusoidal breathing range from 15.5% to 41.4% depending on the relative stiffness of the subtended regions. When nonsinusoidal flows are considered, pendelluft can be as high as 200% inlet tidal volume (Vin). At frequencies greater than 10 Hz, the inertia of the air in the airways becomes important, and the maximal local pendelluft is theoretically unbounded, even with sinusoidal breathing. In a single illustrative numerical simulation of bronchoconstriction with homogenous compliances, the overall magnitude of global pendelluft volume was <2% of the tidal volume. Despite the small overall magnitude, pendelluft volume exchange was concentrated in poorly ventilated regions of the lung, including local pendelluft at bifurcations of up to 13% Vin. This example suggests that pendelluft may be an important phenomena contributing to regional gas exchange, irreversible mixing, and aerosol deposition patterns inside poorly ventilated regions of the lung. The analytical results support the concept that pendelluft may be more prominent in diseases with significant heterogeneity in both resistance and compliance. PMID:25170072

  3. [Bronchial asthma pathogenesis and genetic prognosis development].

    PubMed

    Balmasova, I P; Sepiashvili, R I; Sepiashvili, Ia R; Malova, E S

    2014-01-01

    The review is dedicated to an actual problem--genetic prognosis of risk of bronchial asthma development that is quite a complex aspect of studies from a methodological viewpoint. Bronchial asthma--heterogeneous disease by both etiology and clinical characteristics. At the same time genetic prognosis is based on the unity of pathogenetic mechanisms of development, though in immunological reactions that are the base of this disease, alternative variants are possible. The aim of this review is carrying out parallels between modern achievements in the field of deciphering trigger mechanisms of bronchial asthma pathogenesis and object of genetic studies based on these mechanisms. Among the examined conceptions--role of epithelial tissue in trigger mechanisms of bronchial asthma, variants of key role of immune system cells, first of all, T-helpers of various types for further development of inflammatory-effector reactions with damage characteristic for this disease. Compliance of contemporary approaches of genetic studies and novel concepts of bronchial asthma pathogenesis is shown.

  4. Bronchial arteriography and embolotherapy for hemoptysis in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tonkin, I L; Hanissian, A S; Boulden, T F; Baum, S L; Gavant, M L; Gold, R E; George, P; Green, W J

    1991-01-01

    Bronchial arteriography and embolotherapy were performed to control hemoptysis in 11 patients with advanced stages of cystic fibrosis. Two patients suffered massive, 1 moderate, and 8 mild but recurrent hemoptysis. The embolization procedures were performed with Gelfoam, Ivalon, and coils in one to four separate procedures. Altogether, 19 of 20 procedures were successful, with follow-up periods ranging from 9 months to 8 years. No serious complications were encountered except for one femoral artery pseudoaneurysm which required surgical repair. Rapid digital subtraction angiography and "roadmapping" were considered helpful in avoiding the complication of reflux embolization and expediting the procedures. Bronchial embolization is a life-saving procedure for severe hemoptysis in patients with cystic fibrosis and is considered safe enough to include the indications of moderate and mild/recurrent hemoptysis to improve the quality of life in these patients. PMID:1913738

  5. Coronary-bronchial blood flow and airway dimensions in exercise-induced syndromes.

    PubMed

    White, S W; Pitsillides, K F; Parsons, G H; Hayes, S G; Gunther, R A; Cottee, D B

    2001-01-01

    1. We have an incomplete understanding of integrative cardiopulmonary control during exercise and particularly during the postexercise period, when symptoms and signs of myocardial ischaemia and exercise-induced asthma not present during exercise may appear. 2. The hypothesis is advanced that baroreflex de-resetting during exercise recovery is normally associated with (i) a dominant sympathetic vasoconstrictor effect in the coronary circulation, which, when associated with obstructive coronary disease, may initiate a potentially positive-feedback cardiocardiac sympathetic reflex (variable myocardial ischaemia with symptoms and signs); and (ii) a dominant parasympathetic bronchoconstrictor effect in the presence of bronchovascular dilatation, which, when associated with raised mediator release in the bronchial wall, reinforces the tendency for airway obstruction (variable dyspnoea results). 3. There is a need for new techniques to examine hypotheses concerning autonomic control, during and after exercise, of the coronary and bronchial circulations and the dimensions of airways. Accordingly, a new ultrasonic instrument has been designed named an 'Airways Internal Diameter Assessment (AIDA) Sonomicrometer'. It combines pulsed Doppler flowmetry with transit-time sonomicrometry of airway circumference and single-crystal sonomicrometry of airway wall thickness. Initial evaluation suggests it is relatively easy to apply during thoracotomy in recovery animals. The component devices are linear and will measure target variables with excellent accuracy. 4. In anaesthetized sheep, intubated with controlled ventilation, intravenous isoproterenol causes large increases in bronchial blood flow, a fall in arterial pressure and a reduction in airway circumference. This may reflect the dominant action of reflex vagal activity over direct beta-adrenoceptor inhibition of bronchial smooth muscle, the reflex source being baroreflex secondary to the fall in arterial pressure. These

  6. Pulmonary artery involvement in aorto-arteritis. An analysis of DSA.

    PubMed

    He, N S; Liu, F; Wu, E H; Zhang, C L; Yang, J G; Tan, J; Gao, S; Yang, L C; Zhou, Y B

    1990-08-01

    Angiographic features of the pulmonary artery were studied in 24 patients with aortoarteritis (Takayasu's arteritis) by digital subtraction angiography. The pulmonary artery involvement was found in nine cases (37.5%). The right side was involved in eight and the left side in five cases. The right pulmonary artery was involved in two cases, the lobar artery in six, the segmental artery in six, and subsegmental as well as peripheral branches in four. The angiographic features were stenosis and/or occlusion as were the changes of the systemic arteries in aorto-arteritis. The aorta and its main branches were involved in all nine patients, but the severity of pulmonary vascular changes was not always related to the systemic vascular changes. Bronchial angiography demonstrated enlarged and tortuous bronchial arteries in four cases. Lung ECT revealed abnormalities in four cases. PMID:1978705

  7. Bronchial Venular Leakage During Endotoxin Shock

    PubMed Central

    Pietra, G. G.; Szidon, J. P.; Carpenter, H. A.; Fishman, A. P.

    1974-01-01

    The pulmonary effects of endotoxin shock were investigated in dogs by a combination of anatomic and physiologic technics. Shock was produced in 14 dogs by injecting Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide intravenously. Three dogs in hypovolemic shock and 6 untreated dogs served as controls. Colloidal carbon was injected intravenously to detect sites of pathologic increase in vascular permeability. During the first hour of endotoxin shock, bronchial venules allowed carbon and blood elements to traverse their walls, whereas no leakage of these large particles or ultrastructural changes could be detected in the alveolar walls. Only after the first hour was bronchial venular leakage accompanied by focal degenerative changes in the alveolar endothelium, focal interstitial edema in the alveolar septum and sequestration of damaged leukocytes in the alveolar capillaries. In contrast to these observations in endotoxin shock, control dogs in hypovolemic shock did not show bronchial venous leakage. Our findings suggest that the leakage of bronchial venules may be involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary interstitial edema caused by endotoxin shock. ImagesFig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 1 PMID:4611225

  8. Analysis of bronchial reactivity in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, M J; Saunders, N A; Hensley, M J

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of bronchial reactivity in epidemiological studies has the advantage of quantifying an objective physiological feature of asthma. Bronchial reactivity was developed in a clinical setting and has been conventionally expressed as the dose of agonist producing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PD20). As PD20 can be estimated for less than 20% of subjects in general community surveys with the doses of agonist that are usually given, data from most subjects must be censored. Thus PD20 alone is a poor index of bronchial reactivity for epidemiological studies. Data from 809 aluminium smelter workers were used to evaluate alternative methods of analysing bronchial reactivity. Dose-response relationships were analysed by four methods: (1) PD20 by the conventional method of interpolating the dose on a logarithmic scale between the last two measurements of FEV1; (2) PD20 (with allowance for extrapolation), estimated by fitting an exponential curve to the dose-response data; (3) the linear regression slope between dose and FEV1 when significant; (4) the dose-response slope obtained in all subjects as the % change in FEV1 from baseline in response to total dose. When each of these measures was related to symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of asthma, all differentiated between "asthmatic" and "non-asthmatic" subjects. The dose-response slope (method 4) had the advantages of simplicity and no censored data, and was shown to be clinically relevant. It is suggested that the dose-response slope should be used for the analysis of bronchial reactivity in epidemiological studies. PMID:2281424

  9. Lung preservation: pulmonary flush route affects bronchial mucosal temperature and expression of IFN-gamma and Gro in regional lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Roe, David W; Fehrenbacher, John W; Niemeier, Michael R; Zieger, Michael; Labarrere, Carlos; Wilkes, David S

    2005-05-01

    Optimal lung preservation via flush of the pulmonary vasculature minimizes early graft failure post-lung transplantation. We hypothesized that the route of pulmonary flush has differential effects on thermal gradients in the lung and expression of inflammatory mediators. Swine underwent antegrade flush (AG) via pulmonary artery; AG/RG: antegrade + retrograde flush via pulmonary veins or AG/BA: antegrade + bronchial artery flush via bronchial artery. Temperatures were recorded in bronchial mucosa and peribronchial lymph nodes. RT-PCR was utilized to detect cytokine gene expression in the nodes. AG/BA flush resulted in greatest cooling of bronchial mucosa and lymph nodes (p < 0.001). The route of flush did not affect expression of RANTES, MCP-1, IL-8, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha or IL-6. However, expression of Gro was reduced 4-h post-preservation in all groups. Only AG/BA resulted in decreased IFN-gamma transcripts. These data show that, compared to AG or AG/RG, AG/BA flush results in the greatest cooling of lung compartments and down regulates lymph node expression of a cytokine and chemokine that have key roles in inflammation and immunity. These data suggest that pulmonary flush via AG/BA during donor harvest may be optimal to decrease the risk of early graft failure.

  10. Relation between the bronchial obstructive response to inhaled lipopolysaccharide and bronchial responsiveness to histamine.

    PubMed Central

    Michel, O; Ginanni, R; Sergysels, R

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bronchoconstriction has developed after inhalation of lipopolysaccharide in a dose of 20 micrograms in asthmatic patients and of 200 micrograms in normal subjects. This study set out to determine whether the bronchial response to lipopolysaccharide was related to non-specific bronchial responsiveness and atopy. METHODS: Sixteen subjects with a fall in specific airway conductance of 40% (PD40sGaw) after inhaling up to 900 micrograms histamine inhaled 20 micrograms lipopolysaccharide (from Escherichia coli type 026:B6) a week after bronchial challenge with a control solution of saline. The bronchial response over five hours was measured as change in FEV1 and area under the FEV1-time curve. RESULTS: FEV1 fell significantly more after lipopolysaccharide than after diluent inhalation, the difference in mean (SE) FEV1 being 4.6% (5.4%); response was maximal 60 minutes after lipopolysaccharide inhalation and lasted more than five hours. Histamine PD20FEV1 and PD40sGaw correlated with the fall in FEV1 after lipopolysaccharide inhalation. There was no difference in the proportions of responders and non-responders to lipopolysaccharide who were atopic. CONCLUSION: Lipopolysaccharide induced bronchial obstruction is associated with non-specific responsiveness but not with atopy. PMID:1585294

  11. Passive smoking. Effects on bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Dahms, T E; Bolin, J F; Slavin, R G

    1981-11-01

    Ten patients with bronchial asthma and ten control subjects were exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke (passive smoking) for one hour in an environmental chamber. All subjects showed the same increase in carboxyhemoglobin as a result of the exposure: 0.40 percent. The asthmatic group demonstrated a significant linear decrease in pulmonary function during this exposure. After one hour of smoke, FEV1 decreased 21.4 percent, FEF25-75% decreased 19.2 percent, and FVC decreased 20.0 percent in the asthmatic patients. These alterations were readily reversible in all subjects when given inhalations of metaproterenol following the exposure. The control subjects showed no change in pulmonary function when exposed to identical conditions. These data show that nonsmokers with bronchial asthma are at risk when exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke in an environmental chamber. PMID:7297141

  12. Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy of bronchial epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Pierre M.; Lam, Stephen; McWilliams, Annette; Leriche, Jean C.; Anderson, Marshall W.; Macaulay, Calum E.

    2009-03-01

    Confocal microendoscopy permits the acquisition of high-resolution real-time confocal images of bronchial mucosa via the instrument channel of an endoscope. We report here on the construction and validation of a confocal fluorescence microendoscope and its use to acquire images of bronchial epithelium in vivo. Our objective is to develop an imaging method that can distinguish preneoplastic lesions from normal epithelium to enable us to study the natural history of these lesions and the efficacy of chemopreventive agents without biopsy removal of the lesion that can introduce a spontaneous regression bias. The instrument employs a laser-scanning engine and bronchoscope-compatible confocal probe consisting of a fiber-optic image guide and a graded-index objective lens. We assessed the potential of topical application of physiological pH cresyl violet (CV) as a fluorescence contrast-enhancing agent for the visualization of tissue morphology. Images acquired ex vivo with the confocal microendoscope were first compared with a bench-top confocal fluorescence microscope and conventional histology. Confocal images from five sites topically stained with CV were then acquired in vivo from high-risk smokers and compared to hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of biopsies taken from the same site. Sufficient contrast in the confocal imagery was obtained to identify cells in the bronchial epithelium. However, further improvements in the miniature objective lens are required to provide sufficient axial resolution for accurate classification of preneoplastic lesions.

  13. Complete video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery upper left bronchial sleeve lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guobing; Zheng, Wei; Guo, Zhaohui; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Chun

    2013-08-01

    This video demonstrates a case undergoing complete video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) upper left bronchial sleeve lobectomy. The 18-year-old female patient was admitted for recurrent cough and intermittent hemoptysis for one month. Chest CT scan showed a neoplasm in the left main bronchus and the left upper lobe bronchus. Bronchoscopic biopsy indicated mucinous epithelial cancer. Based on the chest CT findings, the left lower lung was not affected. To preserve normal lung tissue and minimize the loss of lung function, we decided to perform this surgical procedure. A three-port technique was conducted, in which the hypoplastic oblique fissure, the left upper pulmonary vein, and the upper lobe branch of the left pulmonary artery were initially treated under complete VATS. Bronchial sleeve lobectomy of the upper lobe of the left lung was finally carried out. The key to success was the end-to-end anastomosis between the left main bronchus and the lower left bronchus under thoracoscope. The deep location of the operative field partly hidden under the left pulmonary artery trunk during bronchial anastomosis made it even more difficult to operate thoracoscopically. To improve exposure of the operative field, we managed to raise the left main bronchus by passing two 1-0 silk sutures, respectively ligated with both sides of the posterior wall of the left main bronchus, through the anterior and posterior chest walls using a crochet needle. Similarly, a 1-0 silk suture was advanced through the posterior chest wall with a crochet needle to lift the trunk of the left pulmonary artery. In this way, a widely open, exposed field was achieved. Postoperative recovery was smooth. Chest X-ray showed good expansion of the left lung. Bronchoscopy indicated a patent anastomosis. The patient was discharged after two weeks. In conclusion, complete VATS bronchial sleeve lobectomy is a minimally invasive approach for thorough removal of tumor lesions while sparing as most normal

  14. Incidental bronchial injury by soft coagulation.

    PubMed

    Shibano, Tomoki; Endo, Shunsuke; Otani, Shinichi; Nakano, Tomoyuki

    2015-08-01

    Soft coagulation is a hemostat system of electrosurgical units, which automatically regulates its output voltage below 200 V, to avoid excessive output that causes carbonization of the target tissue. However, this new minimally invasive technology still has the potential risk of tissue damage during surgery. We encountered three patients with bronchial injury caused by the above system; one of whom had bronchopleural fistula. This is believed to be the first report emphasizing the adverse effects of the soft coagulation system in thoracic surgery, giving a warning to the application of this convenient device. PMID:26380775

  15. Pneumothorax as atypical presentation of bronchial carcinoid.

    PubMed

    Madrid-Carbajal, Claudia J; García-Clemente, Marta M; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Margarita; Pando-Sandoval, Ana; Alvarez-Santín, Laura; Casan-Clarà, Pere

    2013-12-01

    We present a case of pneumothorax associated with an endobronchial carcinoid tumor in a 18-year-old man with dyspnea and chest pain. Additional tests were done, identifying in the chest roentgenogram a complete left pneumothorax with persistent leak, which was confirmed by computed tomography of the chest, and also finding an endobronchial lesion that limited the complete reexpansion of the left lung. Surgical excision was performed, and the lesion was identified as a typical bronchial carcinoid, with satisfactory outcome after the intervention. PMID:24296189

  16. Bronchial carcinoma in a young Negro

    PubMed Central

    Kidner, P. H.; Williams, H. O.

    1969-01-01

    A case of bronchial carcinoma occurring in a young Negro is described. The incidence of the condition in the Negro race is reviewed. Although it is apparently rare in the native African, it is much more common in the American of Negro stock. Two factors are suggested as being responsible for this—increasing longevity and increasing contact with external carcinogens, of which the most likely is cigarette smoke. Available evidence indicates that the disease is, as yet, rare in the British Negro but may be expected to rise following the pattern in the United States. PMID:5795650

  17. Pneumothorax as atypical presentation of bronchial carcinoid.

    PubMed

    Madrid-Carbajal, Claudia J; García-Clemente, Marta M; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Margarita; Pando-Sandoval, Ana; Alvarez-Santín, Laura; Casan-Clarà, Pere

    2013-12-01

    We present a case of pneumothorax associated with an endobronchial carcinoid tumor in a 18-year-old man with dyspnea and chest pain. Additional tests were done, identifying in the chest roentgenogram a complete left pneumothorax with persistent leak, which was confirmed by computed tomography of the chest, and also finding an endobronchial lesion that limited the complete reexpansion of the left lung. Surgical excision was performed, and the lesion was identified as a typical bronchial carcinoid, with satisfactory outcome after the intervention.

  18. Neglected foreign body aspiration mimicking bronchial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Afghani, Reza; Khandashpour Ghomi, Mahmoud; Khandoozi, Seyed Reza; Yari, Behrouz

    2016-07-01

    Foreign body aspiration can occur in any age group, but it is more commonly seen in children. In adults, there is usually a predisposing condition that poses a risk of aspiration. If aspiration occurs, prompt diagnosis and extraction of the foreign body is needed to prevent early and late complications. We report a rare case of neglected foreign body aspiration in a 45-year-old schizophrenic opium addicted patient, which resulted in an occlusive lesion in the bronchus, mimicking bronchial carcinoma. PMID:27273232

  19. [100 cases of bronchial mechanical sutures].

    PubMed

    Paolini, A; Lepore, M; Riccardelli, F; Canuti, W; Caminiti, A; Mucci, M; Ruggieri, M

    1990-03-01

    The Authors report their experience with stapler model T.A. 30 in lung resections; 100 stapled sutures were carried out in the IV Surgical Department of the University "La Sapienza" of Rome, during the period 1980-88. The use of stapler with two rows of staples allows a secure closure of the bronchial stump. Moreover, it prevents granulomas caused by suture material. The bronchopleural fistulas, serious complications of manual suturing, did not occur. Finally, this method is simpler and rapidly feasible in comparison with classic ones.

  20. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. Reduced blood flow through the renal artery ...

  1. Effect of pre-cardiac and adult stages of Dirofilaria immitis in pulmonary disease of cats: CBC, bronchial lavage cytology, serology, radiographs, CT images, bronchial reactivity, and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Ray Dillon, A; Tillson, D M; Wooldridge, A; Cattley, R; Hathcock, J; Brawner, W R; Cole, R; Welles, B; Christopherson, P W; Lee-Fowler, T; Bordelon, S; Barney, S; Sermersheim, M; Garbarino, R; Wells, S Z; Diffie, E B; Schachner, E R

    2014-11-15

    A controlled, blind study was conducted to define the initial inflammatory response and lung damage associated with the death of precardiac stages of Dirofilaria immitis in cats as compared to adult heartworm infections and normal cats. Three groups of six cats each were used: UU: uninfected untreated controls; PreS I: infected with 100 D. immitis L3 by subcutaneous injection and treated topically with selamectin 32 and 2 days pre-infection and once monthly for 8 months); IU: infected with 100 D. immitis L3 and left untreated. Peripheral blood, serum, bronchial lavage, and thoracic radiographic images were collected from all cats on Days 0, 70, 110, 168, and 240. CT images were acquired on Days 0, 110, and 240. Cats were euthanized, and necropsies were conducted on Day 240 to determine the presence of heartworms. Bronchial rings were collected for in vitro reactivity. Lung, heart, brain, kidney, and liver tissues were collected for histopathology. Results were compared for changes within each group. Pearson and Spearman correlations were performed for association between histologic, radiographic, serologic, hematologic and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) results. Infected cats treated with selamectin did not develop radiographically evident changes throughout the study, were heartworm antibody negative, and were free of adult heartworms and worm fragments at necropsy. Histologic lung scores and CT analysis were not significantly different between PreS I cats and UU controls. Subtle alveolar myofibrosis was noted in isolated areas of several PreS I cats and an eosinophilic BAL cytology was noted on Days 75 and 120. Bronchial ring reactivity was blunted in IU cats but was normal in PreS I and UU cats. The IU cats became antibody positive, and five cats developed adult heartworms. All cats with heartworms were antigen positive at one time point; but one cat was antibody positive, antigen negative, with viable adult females at necropsy. The CT revealed early involvement

  2. Value of bronchial challenge in scuba diving candidates.

    PubMed

    Badier, M; Guillot, C; Delpierre, S; Fornaris, E; Jacquin, M

    2000-12-01

    Bronchial challenges were effected with carbachol in 76 subjects who were candidates for a scuba diving group. Bronchial reactivity was assessed through airway resistance and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) measurements. Medical interrogation had revealed symptoms of recent (RA) or ancient (AA) asthma, or allergic rhinitis (AL). Nearly half of the subjects (47%) presented bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), which was much more frequent in the RA group, but whose strength did not depend on clinical presentation. Prevalence of BHR was fairly high (36%) in the AL group. BHR constituted a contraindication to scuba diving because it may promote pulmonary barotrauma.

  3. Effects of acupuncture in bronchial asthma: preliminary communication.

    PubMed Central

    Dias, P L; Subramaniam, S; Lionel, N D

    1982-01-01

    Twenty patients randomly assigned to an experimental and a control group participated in a double blind study to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture in bronchial asthma, using the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) as an index of bronchial patency. All patients in the control group showed a significant improvement in their PEFR while only 3 patients in the treated group showed an improvement. A subjective improvement and a reduction in drug dosages were observed in both groups. It is concluded that acupuncture has a placebo effect in bronchial asthma. PMID:7040659

  4. Yoga for bronchial asthma: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Nagarathna, R; Nagendra, H R

    1985-10-19

    Fifty three patients with asthma underwent training for two weeks in an integrated set of yoga exercises, including breathing exercises, suryanamaskar, yogasana (physical postures), pranayama (breath slowing techniques), dhyana (meditation), and a devotional session, and were told to practise these exercises for 65 minutes daily. They were then compared with a control group of 53 patients with asthma matched for age, sex, and type and severity of asthma, who continued to take their usual drugs. There was a significantly greater improvement in the group who practised yoga in the weekly number of attacks of asthma, scores for drug treatment, and peak flow rate. This study shows the efficacy of yoga in the long term management of bronchial asthma, but the physiological basis for this beneficial effect needs to be examined in more detail.

  5. [Tumor-bronchial actinomycosis simulating a recurrence of lung cancer 14 years after initial treatment: A case report].

    PubMed

    Folliet, L; Perpoint, T; Pignat, J-C; Laurent, F; Devouassoux, M; Perol, M; Nesme, P; Guerin, J-C; Ernesto, S; Odier, L; Arpin, D

    2015-05-01

    A patient with a history of squamous cell carcinoma of the right upper lung lobe treated 14 years before by concomitant chemo-radiotherapy was referred on account of dyspnea. Bronchial endoscopy revealed complete obstruction of the right main bronchus highly suggestive of a tumor recurrence. However, biopsy samples only showed inflammatory and necrotic tissue with no evidence of malignancy. Despite complete tissue resection by rigid bronchoscopy, a rapid and complete recurrence occurred requiring the placement of a Y-shaped bronchial prosthesis. Repeat histological, bacteriological and mycological analyses were negative. The patient was soon readmitted to hospital for a lung infection due to recurrence of obstruction inside and around the prosthesis. Bacterial examination of biopsy samples identified Actinomyces meyeri. Appropriate antibiotic therapy led to a complete regression of the bronchial obstruction. Unfortunately, the patient died a few months later due to massive hemoptysis after the removal of the prosthesis. Autopsy examination showed a fistula between the right main bronchus and pulmonary artery, with no evidence of neoplastic recurrence nor the persistence of lesions associated with actinomycosis. PMID:26024827

  6. [Metabolic and pharmacologic interactions on the bronchial tonus].

    PubMed

    Harichaux, P

    1977-01-01

    After reminding data concerning the part played by the as a rule antagonist cAMP system in moticity of the smooth muscle fibers in general and of the bronchial fibers in particular, the authors study the different types of interaction on bronchial muscular fibers which have been discribed. It is concerning the adrenergic fibers that the experimental and clinical data are prevalent (role of bronchial alpha- and beta2- receptors) and the authors point especially to their own studies performed since 1964 concerning the alpha1- -bronchoconstrictive component and progressive auto-inhibition of the bronchial beta2- receptors. But autacoids (serotonin, bradykinin, histamine and prostaglandines) and with the stimulating or inhibiting agents of the beta2 -receptors also begin to be recognized.

  7. Imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants.

    PubMed

    Alamo, Leonor; Vial, Yvan; Gengler, Carole; Meuli, Reto

    2016-03-01

    Congenital lung malformations are increasingly detected before birth. However, bronchial atresia is rarely identified in utero and not always recognized in neonates. There are two types of atresia: 1) proximal, located at the level of the mainstem or the proximal lobar bronchi, which is extremely rare and usually lethal during pregnancy, causing a tremendous volume increase of the distal involved lung with secondary hypoplasia of the normal lung, and 2) peripheral, located at the segmental/subsegmental bronchial level, which may present as an isolated lesion or as part of a complex congenital malformation. Prenatal findings are mostly nonspecific. Postnatal exams show overinflated lung areas and focal bronchial dilations. The typical fluid-filled bronchoceles are not always observed in neonates but develop progressively in the first months of life. This pictorial essay describes the spectrum of imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants. PMID:26646151

  8. Bronchial epithelium in children: a key player in asthma.

    PubMed

    Carsin, Ania; Mazenq, Julie; Ilstad, Alexandra; Dubus, Jean-Christophe; Chanez, Pascal; Gras, Delphine

    2016-06-01

    Bronchial epithelium is a key element of the respiratory airways. It constitutes the interface between the environment and the host. It is a physical barrier with many chemical and immunological properties. The bronchial epithelium is abnormal in asthma, even in children. It represents a key component promoting airway inflammation and remodelling that can lead to chronic symptoms. In this review, we present an overview of bronchial epithelium and how to study it, with a specific focus on children. We report physical, chemical and immunological properties from ex vivo and in vitro studies. The responses to various deleterious agents, such as viruses or allergens, may lead to persistent abnormalities orchestrated by bronchial epithelial cells. As epithelium dysfunctions occur early in asthma, reprogramming the epithelium may represent an ambitious goal to induce asthma remission in children.

  9. Endobronchial mucosal blanching due to a post-lung transplantation pulmonary artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Wolff, Rienhart F E; van der Bij, Wim

    2011-03-01

    A 45-year-old woman underwent a bronchoscopy shortly after lung transplantation. The airway mucosal appearance significantly differed between both lungs, with a pale aspect of the left bronchial tree. Computed tomography (CT) and perfusion scan confirmed a left pulmonary artery stenosis, improving with conservative treatment.

  10. Combined transection of the left common carotid artery and delayed left main bronchus disruption after blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Tarmiz, Amine; Dagenais, François; Grégoire, Jocelyn; Dumont, Éric

    2013-07-01

    A 26-year old female was hit in the cervical region by a large block of ice and admitted with stable vital signs and multiple fractures. Chest radiography demonstrated an enlarged mediastinum, and CT scan revealed a transection of the left common carotid artery at its origin, with a false aneurysm. The lesion was repaired using a median sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass, moderate hypothermia and cerebral antegrade perfusion through the right axillary artery. The bronchial lesion was diagnosed 2 days later and successfully treated with left posterolateral thoracotomy and the use of direct bronchial anastomosis.

  11. Arterial Catheterization

    MedlinePlus

    ... rial line can provide valuable information to adjust oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilator (respirator; breathing machine) settings. The blood oxygen pres- sure measures from an arterial line give ...

  12. Effects of intravenous and subcutaneous heartworm homogenate from doxycycline-treated and untreated donor dogs on bronchial reactivity and lung in cats.

    PubMed

    Dillon, A Ray; Tillson, D M; Wooldridge, A; Cattley, R; Brawner, B; Cole, R; Welles, B; Christopherson, P W; Lee-Fowler, T; Borderlon, S; Barney, S; Wells, S Z; Diffie, E B; Schachner, E R

    2014-11-15

    A controlled, blind research study was conducted to define the innate response of lungs in specific pathogen free (SPF) cats to intravenous (n=10) or subcutaneous (n=4) administration of homogenate of adult Dirofilaria immitis from donor dogs compared with lung response in control cats (n=6). There was no difference in cats that received heartworm homogenate IV for 18 days from donor dogs treated with doxycycline for 1 month compared with cats given heartworm homogenate from untreated donor dogs. Cats did not develop clinical signs, and no radiographic changes were noted. Cats given SC heartworm homogenate at lower concentration than IV groups did not develop histologic changes. Cats that received IV heartworm homogenate for 18 days developed mild interstitial and peribronchial myofibrocyte proliferation and smooth muscle proliferation of the pulmonary arteries. Bronchial ring contractility in vitro was blunted in the IV homogenate cats to the agonists acetylcholine and 5-hydroxytryptamine. Cats in the SC group had increased sensitivity to histamine at high concentrations but normal contractility and relaxation responses to other agonists. No increase in mast cells was noted in lung tissues of cats given homogenate. In the absence of bronchial wall remodeling, cats given IV homogenate had blunted responses to bronchial constriction, but normal relaxation to nitroprusside and substance P and increased sensitivity to histamine. In the absence adult heartworms, the homogenate of adult heartworms in the circulation of SPF cats induced a direct effect on lung parenchyma and altered bronchial ring reactivity.

  13. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  14. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  15. Bronchial responsiveness to histamine in wheezy infants.

    PubMed Central

    Prendiville, A; Green, S; Silverman, M

    1987-01-01

    Little is known about airway responsiveness in infancy. The bronchial response to incremental doses of nebulised histamine (to a maximum dose of 8 g/l) was measured in 11 wheezy infants with a mean age of 8.7 months. The study was repeated after a 30-40 minute recovery period in seven infants and again on a separate day in 10. The index of response was the provoking concentration of histamine that produced a 30% fall in the maximum expiratory flow at functional residual capacity (PC30), taken from partial forced expiratory flow-volume curves produced in a pressure jacket. Nine of 11 infants had a PC30 of less than 8 g/l. The response was consistent between tests in both the nine responders and the two who failed to respond at 8 g/l. The PC30 was lower in infants with more severe baseline airway obstruction. Spontaneous recovery after challenge was complete in 30 minutes in seven of eight infants studied. The highest doses of histamine caused changes in the configuration of the flow-volume curves and symptomatic cough and wheeze in addition to a change in forced flow rates. This study provides clear evidence of intrathoracic airway responsiveness to histamine in infancy. PMID:3433246

  16. Virus Infection-Induced Bronchial Asthma Exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Yamaya, Mutsuo

    2012-01-01

    Infection with respiratory viruses, including rhinoviruses, influenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus, exacerbates asthma, which is associated with processes such as airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and mucus hypersecretion. In patients with viral infections and with infection-induced asthma exacerbation, inflammatory mediators and substances, including interleukins (ILs), leukotrienes and histamine, have been identified in the airway secretions, serum, plasma, and urine. Viral infections induce an accumulation of inflammatory cells in the airway mucosa and submucosa, including neutrophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils. Viral infections also enhance the production of inflammatory mediators and substances in airway epithelial cells, mast cells, and other inflammatory cells, such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF, RANTES, histamine, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Viral infections affect the barrier function of the airway epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells. Recent reports have demonstrated augmented viral production mediated by an impaired interferon response in the airway epithelial cells of asthma patients. Several drugs used for the treatment of bronchial asthma reduce viral and pro-inflammatory cytokine release from airway epithelial cells infected with viruses. Here, I review the literature on the pathogenesis of the viral infection-induced exacerbation of asthma and on the modulation of viral infection-induced airway inflammation. PMID:22966430

  17. Diagnose of occult bronchial foreign body

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan; Pudasaini, Bigyan; Wang, Xue-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Occult bronchial foreign body can be very difficult to diagnose early in an adult patient without acute symptoms. This report describes a rare case of undetected Chinese medicine “Coptis chinensis” aspiration for 10 long years. Methods: A case was reported that a female patient complained of a 10-year history of productive cough. A battery of tests were given to confirm the diagnosis. Results: Chest computed tomography (CT) showed extensive bronchiectasis and multiple nodules, along with stenosis of left lower lobar bronchus. An extensive solid lesion with surrounding inflammatory granulation tissue was seen on her first bronchoscopy and biopsy revealed chronic mucosal inflammation. A neglected history of Coptis chinensis regularly kept in-mouth while sleeping for the last 10 years in this patient provided clues for a final diagnosis. Confirmatory diagnosis of bilateral tracheobronchial foreign bodies caused by recurrent inhalation of Coptis chinensis was made by a second bronchoscopy. Conclusions: This case clearly demonstrates that a precise medical history is often overlooked. A high index of suspicion, a precise medical history, radiographic features of chronic respiratory symptoms not explained by other conditions were keys to diagnosing this case. PMID:27495017

  18. Bronchial reactivity to histamine before and after sodium cromoglycate in bronchial asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Kang, B; Townley, R G; Lee, C K; Miller Kolotkin, B

    1976-01-01

    Out of 19 patients with extrinsic bronchial asthma challenged with 123 mug histamine acid phosphate by intravenous infusion only 13 responded with a fall in FEV1 of over 10% (mean 16%). Seventeen of these patients were given histamine 2 mg/ml by aerosol, and all responded with a mean decrease in FEV1 of 37.8%. When challenged with allergen extract by aerosol the mean decrease in FEV1 was 37.5%. After 40 mg sodium cromoglycate 15 of the 17 patients showed significant protection against allergen challenge with a mean decrease in FEV1 of only 23.6%. Inhalation of 40 mg sodium cromoglycate, however, failed to protect against histamine given by either the intravenous or aerosol route. Histamine given intravenously to asthmatic patients produces less of a bronchial response than when given by aerosol, even though the intravenous route produces many more systemic symptoms, such as flushing and throbbing headache. The protection of sodium cromoglycate against an allergen inhalation challenge is not due to histamine antagonsim. PMID:816411

  19. Mesenteric artery ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... bowel - mesenteric; Dead gut - mesenteric; Atherosclerosis - mesenteric artery; Hardening of the arteries - mesenteric artery ... the aorta, the main artery from the heart. Hardening of the arteries occurs when fat, cholesterol, and ...

  20. Recurrent pneumothorax associated with bronchial atresia: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazuhisa; Suzuki, Hidemi; Nakajima, Takahiro; Tagawa, Tetsuzo; Iwata, Takekazu; Mizobuchi, Teruaki; Yoshida, Shigetoshi; Yoshino, Ichiro

    2015-10-01

    We herein report a case of recurrent pneumothorax associated with congenital bronchial atresia. A 26-year-old male presented with chest pain. Chest roentgenograms showed left pneumothorax, a left apical bulla and an area of hyperlucency in the left upper lung field, and chest computed tomography revealed a discontinuation of the left superior bronchus. Additionally, both ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy showed a defect in the left superior segment. A thoracoscopy-assisted left superior segmentectomy was performed, and a pathological examination indicated left superior segmental bronchial atresia, which might have predisposed the peripheral lung to emphysematous conditions. No relapse was observed 6 months after the operation. Although this entity is rare, congenital bronchial atresia should be considered in the differential diagnosis when a patient has suffered from a recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax.

  1. Eosinophilic Pneumonia in a Patient with Bronchial Myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Arindom; Al-Ismaili, Suad; Ramadhan, Fatma A.; Al-Wardi, Talal H. M.; Al-Salmi, Quasem; Al-Hashami, Hilal

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary myiasis is an unusual form of myiasis in humans and has been recently identified as a cause of eosinophilic pneumonia. We report the case of a 13-year-old Omani boy who presented to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in October 2014 with respiratory distress. Bronchial aspirates revealed features of eosinophilic pneumonia. Possible larvae identified in the cytology report, a high immunoglobulin E level and the patient history all indicated bronchial myiasis. The patient was treated with steroids and ventilation and has since been disease-free with no long-term side-effects. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of bronchial myiasis in Oman. PMID:26629385

  2. 21 CFR 868.5740 - Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.../bronchial differential ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube is a device used to isolate the left or the right lung of a patient for anesthesia or...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5740 - Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.../bronchial differential ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube is a device used to isolate the left or the right lung of a patient for anesthesia or...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5740 - Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.../bronchial differential ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube is a device used to isolate the left or the right lung of a patient for anesthesia or...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5740 - Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.../bronchial differential ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube is a device used to isolate the left or the right lung of a patient for anesthesia or...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5740 - Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.../bronchial differential ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube is a device used to isolate the left or the right lung of a patient for anesthesia or...

  7. Seasonal and allergenic predictors of bronchial responsiveness to distilled water.

    PubMed

    Studnicka, M J; Frischer, T; Weiss, S T; Dockery, D W; Speizer, F E; Neumann, M G

    1993-12-01

    To evaluate a possible seasonal change in bronchial responsiveness and the relation of such change to atopy, we administered 2,537 bronchial challenge tests in winter and spring to a dynamic population cohort of children 7 to 10 yr of age. The bronchial challenge test consisted of 10 min of tidal inhalation of an aerosol of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water; the resulting percentage decrease in FEV1 (dFEV1%) was recorded. Atopy was determined on the basis of skin-test positivity (any wheal with a diameter greater than that obtained with a positive control) to seven allergens (cat dander, dog dander, house-dust mite, birch, raygrass, orchard grass, and Alternaria). Greater bronchial responsiveness in winter was independently and significantly predicted by a physician's diagnosis of asthma (difference in dFEV1%, 5.6; 95% confidence intervals [95% CI], 2.8 to 8.5; p = 0.0001) and by shortness of breath (difference in dFEV1%, 4.2; 95% CI, 2.1 to 6.3; p = 0.0001). These factors were also predictive of greater responsiveness in the spring, as was atopy (difference in dFEV1%, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.8 to 4.6; p = 0.0001). Analysis of specific allergens further revealed that reactivity to perennial allergens (house-dust mite, cat dander) was predictive of bronchial responsiveness in both winter and spring. However, the change in responsiveness between seasons was most significantly predicted by allergy to seasonal grass pollen, i.e., ragweed or orchard grass (change in dFEV1%, 2.6; 95% CI, 0.6 to 4.5; p = 0.01). In summary, our study demonstrates increased bronchial responsiveness in spring among children allergic to grass pollen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Arterial Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Avolio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Stiffness of large arteries has been long recognized as a significant determinant of pulse pressure. However, it is only in recent decades, with the accumulation of longitudinal data from large and varied epidemiological studies of morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease, that it has emerged as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. This has generated substantial interest in investigations related to intrinsic causative and associated factors responsible for the alteration of mechanical properties of the arterial wall, with the aim to uncover specific pathways that could be interrogated to prevent or reverse arterial stiffening. Much has been written on the haemodynamic relevance of arterial stiffness in terms of the quantification of pulsatile relationships of blood pressure and flow in conduit arteries. Indeed, much of this early work regarded blood vessels as passive elastic conduits, with the endothelial layer considered as an inactive lining of the lumen and as an interface to flowing blood. However, recent advances in molecular biology and increased technological sophistication for the detection of low concentrations of biochemical compounds have elucidated the highly important regulatory role of the endothelial cell affecting vascular function. These techniques have enabled research into the interaction of the underlying passive mechanical properties of the arterial wall with the active cellular and molecular processes that regulate the local environment of the load-bearing components. This review addresses these emerging concepts. PMID:26587425

  9. Carotid artery surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  10. Comparison of bronchial brushing and sputum in detection of pediatric pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiao-Pei; Ren, Shi-Feng; Wang, Xin-Feng; Wang, Mao-Shui

    2016-01-27

    The retrospective study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of bronchial brushing and sputum using acid fast bacilli smear, mycobacterial culture and real-time PCR in detection of pediatric pulmonary tuberculosis, sensitivity and specificity of bronchial brushing and sputum examined by the three methods were calculated and compared to each other. Data showed there were no significant difference in sensitivity between bronchial brushing and matched sputum using each method. But the specificity of real-time PCR on bronchial brushing was lower than on sputum. Compared with bronchial brushing, sputum was better specimen in detection of pediatric pulmonary tuberculosis.

  11. Bronchial carcinoma in a Red Shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neoplasms of respiratory tract are rare in birds. This report describes carcinoma of the bronchial epithelium in a Red Shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus). Grossly, the caudal air sac and coelomic cavity contained approximately 15 ml of dark brown cloudy fluid that displaced the intestines cranially....

  12. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells grown from explants.

    PubMed

    Yaghi, Asma; Zaman, Aisha; Dolovich, Myrna

    2010-01-01

    Human bronchial epithelial cells are needed for cell models of disease and to investigate the effect of excipients and pharmacologic agents on the function and structure of human epithelial cells. Here we describe in detail the method of growing bronchial epithelial cells from bronchial airway tissue that is harvested by the surgeon at the times of lung surgery (e.g. lung cancer or lung volume reduction surgery). With ethics approval and informed consent, the surgeon takes what is needed for pathology and provides us with a bronchial portion that is remote from the diseased areas. The tissue is then used as a source of explants that can be used for growing primary bronchial epithelial cells in culture. Bronchial segments about 0.5-1cm long and < or =1cm in diameter are rinsed with cold EBSS and excess parenchymal tissue is removed. Segments are cut open and minced into 2-3mm(3) pieces of tissue. The pieces are used as a source of primary cells. After coating 100mm culture plates for 1-2 hr with a combination of collagen (30 microg/ml), fibronectin (10 microg/ml), and BSA (10 microg/ml), the plates are scratched in 4-5 areas and tissue pieces are placed in the scratched areas, then culture medium (DMEM/Ham F-12 with additives) suitable for epithelial cell growth is added and plates are placed in an incubator at 37 degrees C in 5% CO(2) humidified air. The culture medium is changed every 3-4 days. The epithelial cells grow from the pieces forming about 1.5 cm diameter rings in 3-4 weeks. Explants can be re-used up to 6 times by moving them into new pre-coated plates. Cells are lifted using trypsin/EDTA, pooled, counted, and re-plated in T75 Cell Bind flasks to increase their numbers. T75 flasks seeded with 2-3 million cells grow to 80% confluence in 4 weeks. Expanded primary human epithelial cells can be cultured and allowed to differentiate on air-liquid interface. Methods described here provide an abundant source of human bronchial epithelial cells from freshly

  13. Angioplasty and stent placement -- peripheral arteries

    MedlinePlus

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery; PTA - peripheral artery; Angioplasty - peripheral arteries; Iliac artery -angioplasty; Femoral artery - angioplasty; Popliteal artery - angioplasty; Tibial artery - angioplasty; ...

  14. [Experience with ciclesonide in patients with mild persistent bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Bartosíková, L; Necas, J; Frána, L; Bartosík, T

    2007-12-01

    Experience with ciclesonide in patients with mild persistent bronchial asthma The study aimed to monitor the effectiveness and safety of the treatment with ciclesonide, administered once a day in a 160 microg dose, over a 3-month period, to a group of 100 patients diagnosed with mild persistent bronchial asthma with deterioration of problems after exercise. The results of the study prove significant positive effects of the preparation used. A significant improvement of FEV1 and PEF values was observed, as well as a statistically significant remission of both day and nocturnal symptoms of the disease, a significantly lower consumption of short-acting beta2-sympathomimetics, and an improvement of all evaluated data relating to the quality of life of the asthmatic patients. No adverse effects were registered. PMID:18257418

  15. Bilateral renal dysplasia, nephroblastomatosis, and bronchial stenosis. A new syndrome?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Maria Matilde; Correa-Medina, Mayrin; Whittington, Elizabeth E

    2015-06-01

    Bilateral nephroblastomatosis (NB) is an uncommon renal anomaly characterized by multiple confluent nephrogenic rests scattered through both kidneys, with only a limited number of cases reported in the medical literature. Some of these children may have associated either Perlman or Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and others do not demonstrate syndromic features. We report a full-term boy with anteverted nose, bilateral bronchial stenosis due to lack of cartilage, bilateral obstructive renal dysplasia and NB with glomeruloid features. The infant had visceromegaly, but neither gigantism nor hemihypertrophy. Immunohistochemistry for PAX2 (Paired box gene-2) and WT-1 (Wilms Tumor 1) were strongly positive in the areas of NB. GLEPP-1 (Glomerular Epithelial Protein) did not stain the areas of NB with a glomeruloid appearance, but was positive in the renal glomeruli as expected. We found neither associated bronchial stenosis nor the histology of NB resembling giant glomeruli in any of the reported cases of NB. PMID:25871299

  16. [Nedocromil in treating chronic bronchial asthma of a moderate course].

    PubMed

    Rogala, B; Jarzab, J; Rogala, E; Nowakowski, M

    Randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical studies aimed at evaluating the efficiency of nedocromil sodium (Tilade) in the form of metered dosimeter aerosol. Studies involved patients with moderate chronic bronchial asthma controlled with beta 2-agonists and theophylline in the form of sustained release preparations. Forty patients completed the studies. All patients were examined clinically (staging of the symptoms and doses of drugs) and spirometrically prior to and after 4 and 8 weeks of the treatment with nedocromil sodium. Statistically significant clinical improvement and spirometric improvement as well in patients treated with nedocromil sodium were noted. It may be concluded that nedocromil sodium is effective and well tolerated adjuvant therapy in the bronchial asthma.

  17. Techniques of protection and revascularization of the bronchial anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Diso, Daniele; Anile, Marco; Rendina, Erino A.

    2016-01-01

    Airway anastomosis has been traditionally considered at risk for the onset of complications, particularly dehiscence with consequent infection and erosion in the adjacent vessels. Although the modifications and improvements of the surgical technique has contributed to reduce the incidence of complications, the protection and revascularization of the anastomotic site is still considered mandatory at many centers Many techniques have been proposed for encircling the bronchial anastomosis. PMID:26981269

  18. BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN ADULTS—Causes and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Albert H.; Rowe, Albert

    1950-01-01

    Food and inhalant allergens were of about equal importance in producing bronchial asthma in 907 adults between the ages of 15 and 55 years. Drug and especially bacterial allergens were infrequent causes. Psychogenic factors may activate or exaggerate causes mentioned but were not the sole cause of any case in this series. Food allergens are best studied and controlled by the standardized cereal-free elimination diet and at times other elimination diets. Test-negative diets usually fail because of the fallibility of both negative and positive skin tests. Inhalant allergy is controlled by the elimination of causative allergens by varying degrees of environmental control and often by pollen and dust filters in the window. Desensitization is necessary against those allergens that cannot be removed from the environment. Dilutions in the millions and billions may be required. Morphine and other opiates, Demerol, chloral, paraldehyde and large or moderate doses of barbiturates are contraindicated in bronchial asthma, as emphasized by deaths resulting from the use of them. Bronchoscopy is indicated for bronchial obstruction due to inspissated mucous plugs, but the danger of the procedure, especially with much sedation, must be recognized. When secondary infection is probable, the use of sulfadiazine, penicillin, aureomycin and chloramphenicol must be considered. PMID:18731687

  19. Using the capnograph to confirm lung isolation when using a bronchial blocker.

    PubMed

    Fisicaro, Marc D; Maguire, David P; Armstead, Valerie E

    2010-11-01

    The endotracheal tube and bronchial blocker combination is an accepted lung isolation technique used during thoracic surgery. A reliable and inexpensive method of confirming lung isolation that uses capnographic monitoring of the bronchial blocker central lumen is presented. As the bronchial blocker balloon is inflated, lung isolation is confirmed when the normal respiratory variation of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is replaced by a persistent plateau CO(2) waveform. PMID:21056815

  20. Successful surgical repair of complex Christmas-tree pattern tracheo-bronchial anatomy with stenosis.

    PubMed

    Abelardo, Edgardo; Hewitt, Richard; Elliott, Martin J; Muthialu, Nagarajan

    2013-07-01

    Congenital anomalies of bronchial division are extremely rare. Presence of complete cartilaginous rings in bronchial tree with co-existent bronchial division anomalies make surgical correction more challenging, and needs a well-structured surgical pathway. We report a case of complex airway pattern similar to Christmas-tree appearance with associated stenosis due to complete rings, treated by modified sliding tracheoplasty with a successful outcome.

  1. Increased wheeze but not bronchial hyperreactivity near power stations.

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, J A; Henry, R L; Hankin, R G; Hensley, M J

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--In a previous study a higher than expected prevalence of asthma was found in Lake Munmorah, a coastal town near two power stations, compared with another coastal control town. This study aimed to compare atopy, bronchial hyperreactivity, and reported symptoms of asthma in the power station town and a second control area with greater socioeconomic similarity. DESIGN--A cross sectional survey was undertaken. SETTINGS--Lake Munmorah, a coastal town near two power stations, and Dungog, a country town in the Hunter Valley, NSW, Australia. PARTICIPANTS--All children attending kindergarten to year 6 at all schools in the two towns were invited to participate in 1990. The response rates for the questionnaire for reported symptoms and associated demographic data were 92% in Lake Munmorah and 93% in Dungog, with 84% and 90% of children respectively being measured for lung function, atopy, and bronchial reactivity. There were 419 boys and 432 girls aged 5 to 12 years. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Main outcome measures were current wheeze and bronchial hyper-reactivity, defined as a fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) or peak expiratory flow (PEF) of 20% or more. Current wheeze was reported in 24.8% of the Lake Munmorah children compared with 14.6% of the Dungog children. Bronchial hyper-reactivity was similar for both groups--25.2% in Lake Munmorah and 22.3% in Dungog. The mean baseline FEV1 was lower in Lake Munmorah than in Dungog (p < 0.001). Dungog children were more likely to have positive skin test to house dust mite (Dungog 27.0%, Lake Munmorah 20.2%, p = 0.028) but there were no other differences in skin test atopy in the two towns. After adjusting for age, gender, any smoker in the house, and positive dust mite skin test, the odds of current wheeze in Lake Munmorah compared with Dungog was 2.16 (95% confidence interval 1.45, 3.15). CONCLUSIONS--Baseline lung function was lower and reported symptoms of asthma were higher in the power

  2. The Concept of the Arch Window in the Spiral Switch of the Great Arteries.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ing-Sh; Lee, Meng-Luen; Huang, Shu-Chien; Chang, Chung-I; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Anderson, Robert H

    2016-08-01

    When the arterial switch operation includes the Lecompte maneuver, the arterial trunks are reconnected in parallel, rather than the spiral fashion observed in the normal heart. Thus, although the ventriculo-arterial connections are hemodynamically corrected, the anatomic arrangement cannot be considered normal. We hypothesized that, if feasible, it would be advantageous to restore a spiral configuration for the arterial trunks. In 58 patients, we reconstructed the arterial trunks such that, postoperatively, the pulmonary channel spirals round the aorta, passing to either the right or the left, and branches posteriorly. We compared the outcomes with those in 95 patients undergoing a standard non-spiraling operation over the same period. Average follow-up was 8.2 ± 4.5 years. The estimated 10-year survival was similar in the cohorts, at 94.7 % for those with spiraling trunks, as compared to 90.4 % for those with parallel outflow tracts. Reoperation-free survival at 10 years was not significantly different (87.6 vs. 90.5 %). Supravalvar pulmonary stenosis, aortic neo-coarctation, or left bronchial stenosis, however, was encountered in one-eighth of those undergoing a standard operation. None of these complications occurred in those patients who, postoperatively, had spiraling outflow tracts (P = 0.002). Reconstruction of spiraling trunks after the arterial switch has, thus far, avoided the complications of supravalvar pulmonary stenosis, neo-aortic kinking, or bronchial stenosis. The spiraling arrangement prevents compression of the pulmonary vessels and bronchial tree by the aorta, since it provides a wide window in the new aortic arch. PMID:27272691

  3. Hardening of the arteries

    MedlinePlus

    Atherosclerosis; Arteriosclerosis; Plaque buildup - arteries; Hyperlipidemia - atherosclerosis; Cholesterol - atherosclerosis ... Hardening of the arteries often occurs with aging. As you grow older, ... narrows your arteries and makes them stiffer. These changes ...

  4. Peripheral arterial line (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A peripheral arterial line is a small, short plastic catheter placed through the skin into an artery of the arm or leg. The purpose of a peripheral arterial line is to allow continuous monitoring of ...

  5. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  6. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, a ...

  7. Lack of Dystrophin Affects Bronchial Epithelium in mdx Mice.

    PubMed

    Morici, Giuseppe; Rappa, Francesca; Cappello, Francesco; Pace, Elisabetta; Pace, Andrea; Mudò, Giuseppa; Crescimanno, Grazia; Belluardo, Natale; Bonsignore, Maria R

    2016-10-01

    Mild exercise training may positively affect the course of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Training causes mild bronchial epithelial injury in both humans and mice, but no study assessed the effects of exercise in mdx mice, a well known model of DMD. The airway epithelium was examined in mdx (C57BL/10ScSn-Dmdmdx) mice, and in wild type (WT, C57BL/10ScSc) mice either under sedentary conditions (mdx-SD, WT-SD) or during mild exercise training (mdx-EX, WT-EX). At baseline, and after 30 and 45 days of training (5 d/wk for 6 weeks), epithelial morphology and markers of regeneration, apoptosis, and cellular stress were assessed. The number of goblet cells in bronchial epithelium was much lower in mdx than in WT mice under all conditions. At 30 days, epithelial regeneration (PCNA positive cells) was higher in EX than SD animals in both groups; however, at 45 days, epithelial regeneration decreased in mdx mice irrespective of training, and the percentage of apoptotic (TUNEL positive) cells was higher in mdx-EX than in WT-EX mice. Epithelial expression of HSP60 (marker of stress) progressively decreased, and inversely correlated with epithelial apoptosis (r = -0.66, P = 0.01) only in mdx mice. Lack of dystrophin in mdx mice appears associated with defective epithelial differentiation, and transient epithelial regeneration during mild exercise training. Hence, lack of dystrophin might impair repair in bronchial epithelium, with potential clinical consequences in DMD patients. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2218-2223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Phototherapy and sleep deprivation as additional methods of treating bronchial asthma patients].

    PubMed

    Maevskiĭ, A A

    1991-05-01

    Correction of internal desynchronosis in bronchial asthma by means of phototherapy and partial sleep deprivation was instituted in 4 hormone-dependent patients with bronchial asthma for 13 months. The results were positive: the frequency and severity of night attacks reduced, the condition of the patients improved.

  9. Intrabronchial Infusion of Autologous Blood Plus Thrombin for Intractable Pneumothorax After Bronchial Occlusion Using Silicon Spigots

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Yasuharu; Kawamura, Tetsuji; Sasaki, Shin; Tsukamoto, Hiroaki; Mochiduki, Yoshiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bronchial occlusion therapy using silicon spigots is effective for intractable pneumothorax. However, sometimes the pneumothorax is refractory to bronchial occlusion because of collateral ventilation. For such difficult pneumothoraces, we attempted an intrabronchial infusion of autologous blood plus thrombin to control collateral ventilation and stop air leaks. Methods: We performed bronchial occlusions using silicon spigots in patients with spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to emphysema and refractory to chest drainage, but which was inoperable owing to each patient’s poor surgical candidacy and poor overall health condition. When bronchial occlusion proved ineffective, we undertook intrabronchial infusion of autologous blood plus thrombin, 2 to 4 days after bronchial occlusion. A catheter was inserted into the subpleural area, through a gap between the silicon spigot and the bronchial wall, using a flexible bronchoscope under fluoroscopic guidance. Autologous blood, followed by a thrombin solution, was infused using the catheter. We repeated the same infusion a total of 4 to 6 times while changing the target bronchi. All interventions were performed under local anesthesia. Results: The subjects were 9 men, aged from 61 to 88 years, with smoking histories. Three patients also had interstitial pneumonia, and 6 patients had undergone pleurodesis in vain before bronchial occlusion. For 4of the 9 patients, autologous blood plus thrombin infusions successfully stopped air leaks, and in 3 patients, intrabronchial infusions and pleurodesis halted leaks altogether. Conclusion: Intrabronchial infusion of autologous blood plus thrombin was effective for intractable pneumothoraces that could not be clinically managed, even by bronchial occlusion using silicon spigots. PMID:27454474

  10. [Bronchial asthma in a hairdresser caused by hair bleach].

    PubMed

    Schwaiblmair, M; Baur, X; Fruhmann, G

    1990-05-01

    Three years after starting to work as a hairdresser a 33-year-old woman developed urticaria on contact with hairbleach. After a further four years rhinoconjunctivitis set in and later also bronchial asthma on contact with such bleaches. Extensive tests revealed hypersensitivity to widely used persulphate-containing bleaching liquids which ultimately forced the patient to give up her profession. The causative role of this group of chemicals was proven by positive skin tests and specific workplace-related provocation tests. But specific IgE antibodies could not be demonstrated. The findings suggest a pseudoallergic reaction.

  11. Central bronchial carcinoid: Management of a case and anesthetic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Goswami, D; Kashyap, L; Batra, R K; Bhagat, C

    2016-01-01

    Obstructing lesions of the central airways present with a variety of symptoms and are often associated with pneumonia or asthma-like states. Anesthesia to these patients often presents challenges right from the preoperative stabilization of underlying lung condition, mask ventilation in the supine position to maintaining oxygenation and ventilation in the intraoperative and postoperative period. We present here a case of a young woman with a central bronchial tumor with significant airway obstruction with potential for major bleeding and subsequent anesthetic management without lung sacrificing measures and cardiopulmonary bypass assistance. PMID:26955320

  12. [Flexible bronchoscopy techniques: bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial biopsy and transbronchial biopsy].

    PubMed

    Escribano Montaner, A; Moreno Galdó, A

    2005-04-01

    This article completes previous recommendations of the Techniques Group of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Pulmonologists on the practice of flexible bronchoscopy in children. We review the most frequently performed diagnostic and therapeutic procedures applied through the flexible bronchoscope: bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial biopsy and transbronchial biopsy. Recommendations are also provided on the practice of nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage. We review the indications and contraindications of these techniques, the equipment required, and the preparation and monitoring of the patient before, during and after the procedure. The complications of these techniques are also discussed. These recommendations may be adopted, modified or rejected according to clinical needs and constraints.

  13. [Body build and body proportions in children with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Umławska, Wioleta

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a literature review of somatic development in children with chronic bronchial asthma. Asthma is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory system in children and youth that is increasing in prevalence. In spite of significant progress in treatment, growth problems are often observed in children with asthma. Growth delay in asthmatic children, increased incidence of short stature, distorted body proportions and nutritional status impairment are reported frequently, in spite of inhaled corticosteroid drugs treatment. The severity of the asthma influences growth outcomes. The issue of growth in children with chronic asthma requires further detailed studies in its clinical and auxological aspects.

  14. [Bronchial asthma in a hairdresser caused by hair bleach].

    PubMed

    Schwaiblmair, M; Baur, X; Fruhmann, G

    1990-05-01

    Three years after starting to work as a hairdresser a 33-year-old woman developed urticaria on contact with hairbleach. After a further four years rhinoconjunctivitis set in and later also bronchial asthma on contact with such bleaches. Extensive tests revealed hypersensitivity to widely used persulphate-containing bleaching liquids which ultimately forced the patient to give up her profession. The causative role of this group of chemicals was proven by positive skin tests and specific workplace-related provocation tests. But specific IgE antibodies could not be demonstrated. The findings suggest a pseudoallergic reaction. PMID:2139846

  15. The frequency and importance of bronchial hyperreactivity in patients with allergic and non-allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Dziedziczko, A; Gniazdowski, R

    1977-01-01

    A trial was undertaken to evaluate the occurrence of bronchial hyperreactivity, typical of bronchial asthma, in 50 patients with hay fever (rhinitis allergica) and 45 patients with rhinitis vasomotorica nonallergica, as opposed to a group of healthy subjects and patients with bronchial asthma. All the patients were subjected to spirographic examinations at rest (VC, FEV1, ETT, SI), after exercise (PWC170), and after histamine inhalation. The authors believe that it is expedient to study bronchial hyperreactivity in patients with hay fever and rhinitis vasomotorica nonallergica in that it affords possibilities for the prevision of the conceivable unfavourable evolution of the disease towards the atopic or non-atopic bronchial asthma, as well as for the taking of adequate preventive and therapeutic measures. PMID:920144

  16. [Some modern views of the role of the eosinophils in allergic reactions and bronchial asthma and a new method of detecting eosinophils in the bronchial secretion].

    PubMed

    Denchev, K; Lipcheva, N; Kis'ova, K

    1976-01-01

    A review of certain contemporary opinions of eosinophil function in allergic reactions and bronchial asthma is presented in this report. Phagocytosis and processing of the complexes antigenantibody, histamine inhibition and a histamine elimination elimination by a specific inhibitor, isolated from eosinophilis (EDI), stimulation of prostaglandines E release, which also inhibit histamine and have a bronchial dilataion effect. The new method is recommended for eosinophil detection in sputa based on the fluorescent principle as faster and more efficient.

  17. Anesthetic implications of subxiphoid coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthy, Murali; Veerappa, Muralimanohar; Jawali, Vivek; Pandya, Nischal; Krishnamoorthy, Jayaprakash; Muniraju, Geetha; George, Antony; Baishya, Jitumoni

    2016-01-01

    Background: Minimal invasive surgeries are carried out to benefit the patient with less pain, blood loss, mechanical ventilation and hospital stay; a smaller scar is not the aim. Minimal invasive cardiac surgeries are carried out via small sternotomy, small thoracotomy and via robotic arms. Subxiphoid route is a novel method and avoids sternotomy. Aim: This case series is an attempt to understand the anesthetic modifications required. Secondly, whether it is feasible to carry out subxiphoid coronary artery bypass surgery. Methods: Elective patients scheduled to undergo subxiphoid coronary artery bypass surgery were chosen. The surgeries were conducted under general anesthesia with left lung isolation via either endobronchial tube or bronchial blocker. Results: We conducted ten (seven males and 3 females) coronary artery bypass graft surgeries via subxiphoid technique. The mean EuroSCORE was 1.7 and the mean ejection fraction was 53.6. Eight patients underwent surgery via endobronchial tube, while, in the remaining two lung isolation was obtained using bronchial blocker. Mean blood loss intraoperatively was 300 ± 42 ml and postoperatively 2000 ± 95 ml. The pain score on the postoperative day ‘0’ was 4.3 ± 0.6 and 2.3 ± 0.7 on the day of discharge. Length of stay in the hospital was 4.8 ± 0.9 days. There were no complications, blood transfusions, conversion to cardiopulmonary bypass. The modifications in the anesthetic and surgical techniques are, use of left lung isolation using either endobronchial tube or bronchial blocker, increased duration for conduit harvesting, grafting, requirement of transesophageal echocardiography monitoring in addition to hemodynamic monitoring. Other minor requirements are transcutaneous pacing and defibrillator pads, a wedge under the chest to ‘lift’ up the chest, sparing right femoral artery and vein (to serve as vascular access) for an unlikely event of conversion to cardiopulmonary bypass. Any anesthesiologist wishing

  18. Modified bronchial anastomosis in video-assisted thoracoscopic sleeve lobectomy: a report of 32 cases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Huang, Lin; Xu, Guobing; Zheng, Bin; Zheng, Wei; Zhu, Yong; Guo, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Background Bronchial anastomosis is a key technical challenge in sleeve lobectomy, especially when using the video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) approach. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a modified bronchial anastomosis technique developed by the authors at Fujian Union Hospital. Methods From October 2010 to October 2015, we performed 32 cases of VATS sleeve lobectomy through a three-port or single-port approach. All bronchial anastomoses were performed using modified bronchial anastomosis technique: the bronchial anastomosis was begun with an initial stitch on the posterior wall, and the bilateral quarters of the circumference were continuously sutured. The other two bilateral quarters were then similarly sutured, and the last knot was made outside the bronchial lumen. Results All cases were completed uneventfully. No perioperative deaths or serious complications occurred. The mean operative time, bronchial anastomosis time, and blood loss volume were 271.8±67.5, 37.6±12.0 min, and 177.5±102.9 mL, respectively. The mean follow-up time was 21.0±11.7 months, and the follow-up rate was 96.9% (31/32). An electronic bronchoscope scan was performed 6 months after surgery, and a fine healing stoma was detected in all cases. No anastomotic fistula, anastomotic stenosis, or other serious postoperative anastomotic complications occurred until the end of follow-up. Conclusions Modified bronchial anastomosis technique applied in bronchial anastomosis was safe and feasible in three-port and single-port VATS sleeve lobectomy with good short-term and long-term therapeutic results. Adequate management of the operative process and implementation of a skilled bronchial anastomosis technique could help to reduce the difficulty of VATS sleeve lobectomy. PMID:27621881

  19. Modified bronchial anastomosis in video-assisted thoracoscopic sleeve lobectomy: a report of 32 cases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Huang, Lin; Xu, Guobing; Zheng, Bin; Zheng, Wei; Zhu, Yong; Guo, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Background Bronchial anastomosis is a key technical challenge in sleeve lobectomy, especially when using the video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) approach. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a modified bronchial anastomosis technique developed by the authors at Fujian Union Hospital. Methods From October 2010 to October 2015, we performed 32 cases of VATS sleeve lobectomy through a three-port or single-port approach. All bronchial anastomoses were performed using modified bronchial anastomosis technique: the bronchial anastomosis was begun with an initial stitch on the posterior wall, and the bilateral quarters of the circumference were continuously sutured. The other two bilateral quarters were then similarly sutured, and the last knot was made outside the bronchial lumen. Results All cases were completed uneventfully. No perioperative deaths or serious complications occurred. The mean operative time, bronchial anastomosis time, and blood loss volume were 271.8±67.5, 37.6±12.0 min, and 177.5±102.9 mL, respectively. The mean follow-up time was 21.0±11.7 months, and the follow-up rate was 96.9% (31/32). An electronic bronchoscope scan was performed 6 months after surgery, and a fine healing stoma was detected in all cases. No anastomotic fistula, anastomotic stenosis, or other serious postoperative anastomotic complications occurred until the end of follow-up. Conclusions Modified bronchial anastomosis technique applied in bronchial anastomosis was safe and feasible in three-port and single-port VATS sleeve lobectomy with good short-term and long-term therapeutic results. Adequate management of the operative process and implementation of a skilled bronchial anastomosis technique could help to reduce the difficulty of VATS sleeve lobectomy.

  20. Vapor resistant arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor); Dussinger, Peter M. (Inventor); Buchko, Matthew T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A vapor block resistant liquid artery structure for heat pipes. A solid tube artery with openings is encased in the sintered material of a heat pipe wick. The openings are limited to that side of the artery which is most remote from the heat source. The liquid in the artery can thus exit the artery through the openings and wet the sintered sheath, but vapor generated at the heat source is unlikely to move around the solid wall of the artery and reverse its direction in order to penetrate the artery through the openings. An alternate embodiment uses finer pore size wick material to resist vapor entry.

  1. [A case of recurrent cough in bronchial carcinoid].

    PubMed

    Strano, M; Funis, M; Frediani, S; Duvina, P L

    1999-01-01

    The carcinoid tumors of the bronchial are extremely uncommon, with an incidence of 5% of all pulmonary neoplasms. The carcinoid is the more frequent tumor of the lung in paediatric age. The symptoms most often reported were cough, recurring infection, chest pain, hemoptysis, fever, dyspnea, mild dyspnea attacks after physical effort or nervousness. The carcinoid syndrome is uncommon. Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung embrace a spectrum from low-grade typical carcinoid, intermediate-grade atypical carcinoid, and high-grade categories of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell carcinoma. Low grade neoplasms may metastasize to adjacent nodes. Atypical carcinoids are considered low grade malignancies. Most malignant end of neuroendocrine neoplasm group is small cell carcinoma. Typical carcinoids carry an excellent prognosis and should be offered conservative lung resection, whilst atypical carcinoids which behave aggressively should be treated by radical lung resection. The authors report a case of the young patients with bronchial typical carcinoid tumor who had suffered from cough and mild dyspnea attacks after physical effort or nervousness in the last year. PMID:10570790

  2. [Preoperative Management of Patients with Bronchial Asthma or Chronic Bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Hagihira, Satoshi

    2015-09-01

    Bronchial asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation. The primary goal of treatment of asthma is to maintain the state of control. According to the Japanese guidelines (JGL2012), long-term management consists of 4 therapeutic steps, and use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is recommended at all 4 steps. Besides ICS, inhalation of long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) is also effective. Recently, omalizumab (a humanized antihuman IgE antibody) can be available for patients with severe allergic asthma. Although there is no specific strategy for preoperative treatment of patients with asthma, preoperative systemic steroid administration seemed to be effective to prevent asthma attack during anesthesia. The most common cause of chronic bronchitis is smoking. Even the respiratory function is within normal limits, perioperative management of patients with chronic bronchitis is often troublesome. The most common problem is their sputum. To minimize perioperative pulmonary complication in these patients, smoking cessation and pulmonary rehabilitation are essential. It is known that more than 1 month of smoking cessation is required to reduce perioperative respiratory complication. However, even one or two weeks of smoking cessation can decrease sputum secretion. In summary, preoperative optimization is most important to prevent respiratory complication in patients with bronchial asthma or chronic bronchitis. PMID:26466493

  3. Assessment of bronchial beta blockade after oral bevantolol.

    PubMed

    Mackay, A D; Gribbin, H R; Baldwin, C J; Tattersfield, A E

    1981-01-01

    We have applied a new method for quantitative measurement of bronchial beta adrenoceptor blockade to a new beta adrenoceptor antagonist, bevantolol. Dose-response curves to a beta agonist, albuterol, were obtained in six normal subjects by measuring specific airway conductance (sGaw) after increasing doses of inhaled albuterol. These were repeated on three separate occasions 2 hr after subjects had taken oral placebo or bevantolol (75 or 150 mg), double-blind in random order. The dose-response curves after bevantolol 75 mg were displaced in the right of placebo in four subjects and after 150 mg were displaced to the right of placebo in all subjects. The mean dose ratios for bevantolol 75 or 150 mg were 1.02 and 2.77, much the same as those obtained in the same subjects after practolol 100 and 200 mg and considerably less than that after propranolol 40 mg. The mean reductions in exercise heart rate were 25% and 29% after bevantolol 75 and 150 mg. Our data show that bronchial beta blockade after a beta blocking drug can be assessed quantitatively in many by a double-blind technique.

  4. Parental smoking, bronchial reactivity and peak flow variability in children

    PubMed Central

    Cook, D.; Strachan, D.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—A systematic quantitative review was conducted of the evidence relating environmental tobacco smoke to bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) during childhood.
METHODS—Twenty nine relevant studies were identified after consideration of 1593 articles selected by electronic search of the Embase and Medline databases using keywords relevant to passive smoking in children. The search was completed in April 1997.
RESULTS—Of 19 studies using challenge tests in children of school age, 10 (5759 children) could be summarised as the odds ratio of being bronchial hyperreactive in children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke compared with those not exposed. The pooled odds ratio for maternal smoking was 1.29 (95% confidence limits 1.10to 1.50) with no evidence of heterogeneity between studies. However, in five further studies of 3531 children providing some evidence, but not odds ratios, none were statistically significant. A further four studies on 5233 children have collected data but are not published. In contrast, all four studies of circadian variation in peak expiratory flow found increased variation in children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.
CONCLUSIONS—A clear effect of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke on BHR in the general population has not been established. While the meta-analysis suggests a small but real increase in BHR in school aged children, it seems likely that this estimate is biased upwards due to publication bias. In contrast, limited evidence suggests greater variation in peak expiratory flow in children of smoking parents.

 PMID:9741375

  5. Endoscopic bronchial occlusion with silicone spigots under virtual bronchoscopic navigation

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shingo; Shiroyama, Takayuki; Nishida, Takuji; Nishihara, Takashi; Okamoto, Norio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A 68‐year‐old woman with interstitial lung disease related to dermatomyositis and systemic scleroderma was admitted to our hospital with fever and dyspnoea. Although the fever was reduced after antibiotic therapy, a left pneumothorax suddenly occurred on day 27 after admission. A continuous air leak persisted despite chest drainage with three tubes and repeated pleurodesis. Chest computed tomography (CT) images showed a cavitary lesion with a pinhole in the left upper division, which was suspected to be the affected lesion with the air leak. Virtual bronchoscopic navigation images were constructed from CT data. Bronchial occlusion with Endobronchial Watanabe Spigots (EWSs) was performed on day 52. Two medium‐sized EWSs were inserted into the left B1 + 2a and B1 + 2b, and the air leak stopped immediately. No procedure‐related adverse events occurred. All three chest tubes were successfully removed by day 60. This case demonstrates that virtual bronchoscopic navigation can improve bronchial occlusion procedures using EWSs. PMID:27512560

  6. Efficacy of naturopathy and yoga in bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Rao, Y Chitharanjan; Kadam, Avinash; Jagannathan, Aarti; Babina, N; Rao, Raghavendra; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the efficacy of a one month in-patient naturopathy and yoga programme for patients with asthma. Retrospective data of 159 bronchial asthma patients, undergoing the naturopathy and yoga programme, was analyzed for Forced Vital Capacity, Forced Expiratory Volume at the end of 1 second, Maximum Voluntary Ventilation and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate on admission, 11th day, on discharge and once in three months for three years. The paired sample t test results showed significant increase in the Forced Vital Capacity and Forced Expiratory Volume from the date of admission up to 6th month (P < 0.0035) post Bonferroni correction. Maximum Voluntary Ventilation significantly increased from admission till the date of discharge (P < 0.0035) and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate significantly increased from admission till the 36th month of follow-up (P < 0.0035), post Bonferroni correction. This validated the beneficial effect of combining naturopathy and yoga for the management of bronchial asthma.

  7. Human bronchial epithelial cells express and secrete MMP-12.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Mark C; Thakker, Paresh; Gunn, Jason; Wong, Anthony; Miyashiro, Joy S; Wasserman, Aeona M; Wei, Shui-Qing; Pelker, Jeffrey W; Kobayashi, Michiko; Eppihimer, Michael J

    2004-11-12

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade extracellular matrix proteins, which may be responsible for enlargement of alveoli in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and remodeling of pulmonary tissue associated with chronic asthma. Here, we provide novel evidence that MMP-12 is expressed and secreted by normal human bronchial epithelial cell cultures (NHBECs) and reveal the regulation of MMP-12 gene expression by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated MMP-12 mRNA presence in unstimulated differentiated NHBEC cultures. Cultures stimulated independently with EGF or IFN-gamma failed to alter MMP-12 mRNA abundance, while TNF-alpha, TNF-alpha+EGF, or TNF-alpha+IFN-gamma elicited relatively early (6 h) peak increases in MMP-12 mRNA levels. Western blot analyses specifically indicated the presence of MMP-12 in differentiated NHBEC-conditioned media. These findings indicate that the bronchial epithelium may be an important source of elastolytic activity in COPD and tissue remodeling in chronic asthma.

  8. Endoscopic bronchial occlusion with silicone spigots under virtual bronchoscopic navigation.

    PubMed

    Hayama, Manabu; Sato, Shingo; Shiroyama, Takayuki; Nishida, Takuji; Nishihara, Takashi; Okamoto, Norio

    2016-07-01

    A 68-year-old woman with interstitial lung disease related to dermatomyositis and systemic scleroderma was admitted to our hospital with fever and dyspnoea. Although the fever was reduced after antibiotic therapy, a left pneumothorax suddenly occurred on day 27 after admission. A continuous air leak persisted despite chest drainage with three tubes and repeated pleurodesis. Chest computed tomography (CT) images showed a cavitary lesion with a pinhole in the left upper division, which was suspected to be the affected lesion with the air leak. Virtual bronchoscopic navigation images were constructed from CT data. Bronchial occlusion with Endobronchial Watanabe Spigots (EWSs) was performed on day 52. Two medium-sized EWSs were inserted into the left B1 + 2a and B1 + 2b, and the air leak stopped immediately. No procedure-related adverse events occurred. All three chest tubes were successfully removed by day 60. This case demonstrates that virtual bronchoscopic navigation can improve bronchial occlusion procedures using EWSs. PMID:27512560

  9. Optical low-coherence tomography of bronchial tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamford, Karl J.; James, Stephen W.; Barr, Hugh; Tatam, Ralph P.

    1999-12-01

    An optical fiber based low coherence interferometer for measuring the Epithelium thickness of Bronchial tissue, for early diagnosis of Carcinoma in situ, is presented. Previous simulation of laser induced fluorescence using an electromagnetic scattering model has extracted the relative permittivity value for the Submucosa and Epithelium layers indicating a difference of up to 0.14. The optical system presented here uses a low coherence source operating at 840 nm with a bandwidth of 30 nm, coupled into single mode optical fiber. A Fizeau cavity is formed between the fiber end and the tissue under investigation. A remote processing interferometer is used to monitor changes in permittivity between the different tissue layers. An initial experiment has demonstrated a sensitivity measurement of 40 dB for a permittivity difference measurement of 0.61. Preliminary results have shown that the discontinuity between the Bronchial Epithelium layer and its surrounding medium can be identified allowing the thickness of the Epithelium layer to be measured to an accuracy of 20 micrometers . Since interferometric noise contributions are only significant within the processing interferometer, the fiber optic Fizeau interferometer technique is a strong candidate for the development of an endoscope for the early detection of cancer within Gastrointestinal and Respiratory tracts.

  10. Gastro-bronchial fistula after laparoscopic nissen fundoplication.

    PubMed

    Faraj, Walid; Khalifeh, Mohamad; Soweid, Asaad; Habli, Nader; Selmo, Francesca; Priest, Oliver; Jamali, Faek R

    2007-10-01

    Gastro-bronchial fistula (GBF) is an unusual complication of Nissen fundoplication, particularly when performed via a transabdominal approach. The mechanism of such fistula is thought to be related to a previously untreated ulcer in the mucosa of the wall of the gastric wrap or to a subclinical injury to the gastric wall during the process of division of the short gastric vessels and gastric mobilization. This process is greatly aided by herniation of the wrap into the chest in the postoperative period, placing the stomach in intimate contact with the bronchial tree. The diagnosis of GBF is often difficult to establish and requires a high index of suspicion. Most investigative studies tend to be unrevealing. Historically, an upper gastrointestinal series was the recommended study of choice in the literature. Newer reports, however, highlight the value and importance of upper endoscopy as a diagnostic tool in this condition. The majority of GBF were reported in the era of transthoracic Nissen fundoplication. The incidence of this complication seems to have markedly decreased after the widespread adoption of the transabdominal approach to the treatment of GERD. We are reporting the second case in the literature of a GBF developing after a laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication in a 28-year-old male patient. This case report should serve to increase awareness of this uncommon complication that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with recurrent pneumonia or refractory hemoptysis after major upper gastrointestinal surgical procedures.

  11. Eosinophil cationic protein mRNA expression in children with bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Yu, H Y; Li, X Y; Cai, Z F; Li, L; Shi, X Z; Song, H X; Liu, X J

    2015-11-13

    Studies have shown that eosinophils are closely related to pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Eosinophils release eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), which plays an important role in infection and allergic reactions. Serum ECP mRNA expression in children with bronchial asthma has not been adequately investigated. We analyzed serum ECP mRNA expression in 63 children with bronchial asthma and 21 healthy children by using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to understand the role of ECP in children with bronchial asthma. The children with bronchial asthma were segregated into acute-phase and stable-phase groups, based on the severity of the illness. Serum ECP mRNA expression in children with bronchial asthma (0.375 ± 0.04) was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (0.20 ± 0.02; P < 0.05). Additionally, children in the acute-phase group showed higher ECP mRNA expression level (0.44 ± 0.06) than those in the stable-phase (0.31 ± 0.03) and healthy control groups (0.20 ± 0.02; P < 0.05), while the level in the stable-phase (0.31 ± 0.03) was markedly higher than that in the healthy control group (0.20 ± 0.02; P < 0.05). Detection of serum ECP mRNA expression level has possible applications in the diagnosis and treatment of children with bronchial asthma.

  12. Prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma in a rural adult population.

    PubMed Central

    Woolcock, A J; Peat, J K; Salome, C M; Yan, K; Anderson, S D; Schoeffel, R E; McCowage, G; Killalea, T

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in adult populations is not known. To document its prevalence and distribution and to determine the factors associated with it, a random sample of the adult population of Busselton, Western Australia, was studied. Spirometric function, bronchial responsiveness to histamine, and atopic responses to skin prick tests were measured. Respiratory symptoms were determined by questionnaire. Data were obtained from 916 subjects. Of these, 876 underwent a histamine inhalation test and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to histamine (defined as a dose of histamine provoking a 20% fall in FEV1 equal to or less than 3.9 mumol) was found in 10.5%. Another 40 subjects with poor lung function were tested with a bronchodilator and 12 were found to have bronchial hyperresponsiveness (defined as a greater than 15% increase in FEV1), making the total prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness 11.4%. The prevalence of current asthma, defined as bronchial hyperresponsiveness plus symptoms consistent with asthma in the last 12 months, was 5.9%. The distribution of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in the studied population was continuous. There was a significant association between it and respiratory symptoms, atopy, smoking, and abnormal lung function (p less than 0.001 for all associations). There was no association with age, sex, or recent respiratory tract infection. Images PMID:3660290

  13. [Abnormal popliteal arteries].

    PubMed

    Elbaz, C

    1975-01-01

    Arteriopathy restricted to the popliteal artery, except in cases of atheroma, must indicate three of four unusual diagnoses: the trapped popliteal artery and the dessicating haematoma are anatomo-clinical entities that have been identified only relatively recently. The popliteal artery may be trapped by the medial gastrocnomius muscle, round the tendon of which the artery passes (totally or partially). This results in compression of the artery and eventually in thrombosis. Clinically, intermittent claudication is seen that may deteriorate and lead to gangrene of the toes. Arteriography makes it possible to diagnose the condition as the condition as the artery is considerably displaced inwards. Surgical correction is simple: sectioning of the tendon and repositioning of the artery. Dessicating haematoma of the popliteal artery is due essentially to atheroma, associated with medianecrosis. A "egg-timer" stenosis is found by arteriography and this condition also progresses towards thrombosis. Arterial restoration is called for, usually by bridging. PMID:1230799

  14. Respiratory symptoms and bronchial reactivity: identification of a syndrome and its relation to asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Mortagy, A K; Howell, J B; Waters, W E

    1986-01-01

    Two postal questionnaire surveys were carried out among the adult population of Southampton aimed at clarifying the diagnostic criteria for asthma (study 1) and at testing the validity of symptoms so identified as diagnostic of bronchial hyper-reactivity (study 2). The questionnaires asked about respiratory symptoms and included three questions thought likely to disclose increased bronchial reactivity. Laboratory measurements on subsamples of respondents included spirometry and bronchial challenge with increasing doses of histamine till a concentration was reached provoking a fall of more than 20% (PC greater than 20) in forced expiratory volume in one second. In the first study no normal subject (that is, one who did not report shortness of breath or wheezing on the questionnaire) had a PC greater than 20 below 0.5 g/l. Of 51 subjects who reported shortness of breath or wheezing, or both, nine had a cluster of abnormalities consisting of one or more symptoms of bronchial irritability, nocturnal dyspnoea, and prolonged morning tightness together with PC greater than 20 values of 0.5 g/l or less. These symptoms in conjunction with a low PC greater than 20 were termed the bronchial irritability syndrome. In the second study bronchial challenge confirmed the close association of these symptoms with bronchial hyper-reactivity, all other subjects being less reactive to histamine. Only 27% of subjects with symptoms of the bronchial irritability syndrome had been diagnosed as asthmatic by their general practitioners. The bronchial irritability syndrome is a definable entity for epidemiological study and patient care. PMID:3092901

  15. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  16. [Efficiency of kinesi- and hydrokinesitherapy in children with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Surovenko, T N; Iashchuk, A V; Iansons, T Ia; Ezhov, S N

    2003-01-01

    The authors review efficiency of various programs of kinesi and hydrokinesitherapy of children with atopic bronchial asthma (BA). Efficiency of the treatment was assessed by quality of life using the questionnaire by A. West, D. French "Childhood asthma questionnaire" (adapted for Russia by V. I. Petrov et al). Monitoring of the activity of allergic inflammation of the upper respiratory tracts was performed by examination of the nasal lavage fluid for nitric oxide metabolites, of the lower respiratory tracts--by the metabolites in the condensate of the expired air. It is shown that hydrokinesitherapy raises BA children's quality of life and declines inflammation activity leading to reduction of the number of BA exacerbations and hospitalizations. The above criteria of the treatment efficacy proved sensitive.

  17. Analysis of genomic instability in bronchial cells from uranium miners

    SciTech Connect

    Neft, R.E.; Belinsky, S.A.; Gilliland, F.D.; Lechner, J.F.

    1994-11-01

    Epidemiological studies show that underground uranium miners have a radon progeny exposure-dependent increased risk for developing lung cancer. The odds ratio for lung cancer in uranium miners increase for all cumulative exposures above 99 Working Level Months. In addition, there is a strong multiplicative effect of cigarette smoking on the development of lung cancer in uranium miners. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether or not early genetic changes, as indicated by genomic instability, can be detected in bronchial cells from uranium miners. Investigations of this nature may serve as a means of discovering sub-clinical disease and could lead to earlier detection of lung cancer and a better prognosis for the patient.

  18. [Complementary therapies in the treatment of bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Filip-Ciubotaru, Florina; Pandele, G I; Foia, Liliana

    2005-01-01

    The clinical and paraclinical benefits of drugs that are not included in the standard therapy strategies, to patients suffering from bronchial asthma, are illustrated in a particularly rich specialty literature. Magnesium, furosemide, heparins, antioxidative drugs, nitric oxide donor substances have real qualities, that make them useful in the management of patients suffering from asthma. The tremendous amount of studies that inspired this work suggests that, for the asthmatic patients, there are other alternative therapies, which can be administrated as adjuvant medication to the classical medication. At the same time, unconventional treatments are a solution worth considering for treatment-resisting cases, for cases in which side reactions develop to the standard therapy, and a source of inspiration for future research.

  19. Bronchial thermoplasty: reappraising the evidence (or lack thereof).

    PubMed

    Iyer, Vivek N; Lim, Kaiser G

    2014-07-01

    Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) involves the application of radiofrequency energy to visible proximal airways to selectively ablate airway smooth muscle. BT is the first nonpharmacologic interventional therapy approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for severe asthma. This approval was based on the results of the pivotal Asthma Intervention Research (AIR)-2 trial, which is the only randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial of BT. The primary end point of the AIR-2 trial was improvement in the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). The results of the AIR-2 trial have generated enormous interest, controversy, and confusion regarding the true efficacy of BT for severe asthma. Current marketing of BT highlights its use for patients with "severe" asthma, which is interpreted by most practicing clinicians as meaning oral corticosteroid dependence, frequent exacerbations, or a significantly reduced FEV1 with a poor quality of life. Did the AIR-2 trial include patients with a low FEV1, oral steroid dependence, or frequent exacerbations? Did the trial show efficacy for any of the primary or secondary end points? The FDA approved the device based on the reduction in severe asthma exacerbations. However, were the rates of asthma exacerbations, ED visits, or hospitalizations truly different between the two groups, and was this type of analysis even justified given the original study design? This commentary is designed to specifically answer these questions and help the practicing clinician navigate the thermoplasty literature with confidence and clarity. We carefully dissect the design, conduct, and results of the AIR-2 trial and raise serious questions about the efficacy of bronchial thermoplasty.

  20. Adjuvant immunotherapy with BCG in squamous cell bronchial carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, H M; The, T H; Orie, N G

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-four patients with evidence of locally advanced primary squamous cell bronchial carcinoma (SCC), and three patients with adenocarcinoma (AC) had lung resection to remove all the visible tumour. After operation an randomly chosen group of 20 SCC patients received adjuvant BCG immunostimulation by scarifications (BCG-A). An additional group of 14 SCC patients, and three AC patients received initially intrapleural BCG treatment and subsequently scarifications (BCG-B). A control group of 20 SCC patients received no adjuvant treatment. Follow-up studies were done from three to 51 months. Immune reactivity was monitored in vivo with PPD skin tests in 33 treated and in 18 untreated patients. In both the BCG-treated SCC groups recurrence rates decreased statistically significant during follow-up (BCG-A; six to 51 months, p less than 0.001; BCG: 6-9 months, p less than 0.01 and nine to 24 months, p less than 0.001). However, no difference could be demonstrated between systemic and combined systemic and intrapleural treatment. The three BCG-treated AC patients all relapsed within nine months of follow-up. A pronounced increase in skin reactivity to PPD was seen six months after surgery in the BCG-treated patients (BCG-A, p less than 0.001; BCG-B, p less than 0.01), whereas the control patients remained anergic after surgery. This improved immune reactivity went in parallel with a more favourable outcome of the individual patients (BCG-A, p less than 0.02; BCG-B, p less than 0.05). It is concluded that adjuvant BCG immunotherapy used in strongly selected patients with minimal residual squamous cell bronchial carcinoma improves the prognosis. Intrapleural treatment did not improve the prognosis further. A favourable clinical outcome was mirrored by an increase in cellular immune reactivity. PMID:7466726

  1. Parasympathetic Stimuli on Bronchial and Cardiovascular Systems in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Zannin, Emanuela; Pellegrino, Riccardo; Di Toro, Alessandro; Antonelli, Andrea; Dellacà, Raffaele L.; Bernardi, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Background It is not known whether parasympathetic outflow simultaneously acts on bronchial tone and cardiovascular system waxing and waning both systems in parallel, or, alternatively, whether the regulation is more dependent on local factors and therefore independent on each system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the simultaneous effect of different kinds of stimulations, all associated with parasympathetic activation, on bronchomotor tone and cardiovascular autonomic regulation. Methods Respiratory system resistance (Rrs, forced oscillation technique) and cardio-vascular activity (heart rate, oxygen saturation, tissue oxygenation index, blood pressure) were assessed in 13 volunteers at baseline and during a series of parasympathetic stimuli: O2 inhalation, stimulation of the carotid sinus baroreceptors by neck suction, slow breathing, and inhalation of methacholine. Results Pure cholinergic stimuli, like O2 inhalation and baroreceptors stimulation, caused an increase in Rrs and a reduction in heart rate and blood pressure. Slow breathing led to bradycardia and hypotension, without significant changes in Rrs. However slow breathing was associated with deep inhalations, and Rrs evaluated at the baseline lung volumes was significantly increased, suggesting that the large tidal volumes reversed the airways narrowing effect of parasympathetic activation. Finally inhaled methacholine caused marked airway narrowing, while the cardiovascular variables were unaffected, presumably because of the sympathetic activity triggered in response to hypoxemia. Conclusions All parasympathetic stimuli affected bronchial tone and moderately affected also the cardiovascular system. However the response differed depending on the nature of the stimulus. Slow breathing was associated with large tidal volumes that reversed the airways narrowing effect of parasympathetic activation. PMID:26046774

  2. Functional Metagenomics of the Bronchial Microbiome in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Millares, Laura; Pérez-Brocal, Vicente; Ferrari, Rafaela; Gallego, Miguel; Pomares, Xavier; García-Núñez, Marian; Montón, Concepción; Capilla, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently aggravated by exacerbations, and changes in the composition and activity of the microbiome may be implicated in their appearance. The aim of this study was to analyse the composition and the gene content of the microbial community in bronchial secretions of COPD patients in both stability and exacerbation. Taxonomic data were obtained by 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing, and metabolic information through shotgun metagenomics, using the Metagenomics RAST server (MG-RAST), and the PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States) programme, which predict metagenomes from 16S data. Eight severe COPD patients provided good quality sputum samples, and no significant differences in the relative abundance of any phyla and genera were found between stability and exacerbation. Bacterial biodiversity (Chao1 and Shannon indexes) did not show statistical differences and beta-diversity analysis (Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index) showed a similar microbial composition in the two clinical situations. Four functional categories showed statistically significant differences with MG-RAST at KEGG level 2: in exacerbation, Cell growth and Death and Transport and Catabolism decreased in abundance [1.6 (0.2–2.3) vs 3.6 (3.3–6.9), p = 0.012; and 1.8 (0–3.3) vs 3.6 (1.8–5.1), p = 0.025 respectively], while Cancer and Carbohydrate Metabolism increased [0.8 (0–1.5) vs 0 (0–0.5), p = 0.043; and 7 (6.4–9) vs 5.9 (6.3–6.1), p = 0.012 respectively]. In conclusion, the bronchial microbiome as a whole is not significantly modified when exacerbation symptoms appear in severe COPD patients, but its functional metabolic capabilities show significant changes in several pathways. PMID:26632844

  3. Functional Metagenomics of the Bronchial Microbiome in COPD.

    PubMed

    Millares, Laura; Pérez-Brocal, Vicente; Ferrari, Rafaela; Gallego, Miguel; Pomares, Xavier; García-Núñez, Marian; Montón, Concepción; Capilla, Silvia; Monsó, Eduard; Moya, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    The course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently aggravated by exacerbations, and changes in the composition and activity of the microbiome may be implicated in their appearance. The aim of this study was to analyse the composition and the gene content of the microbial community in bronchial secretions of COPD patients in both stability and exacerbation. Taxonomic data were obtained by 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing, and metabolic information through shotgun metagenomics, using the Metagenomics RAST server (MG-RAST), and the PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States) programme, which predict metagenomes from 16S data. Eight severe COPD patients provided good quality sputum samples, and no significant differences in the relative abundance of any phyla and genera were found between stability and exacerbation. Bacterial biodiversity (Chao1 and Shannon indexes) did not show statistical differences and beta-diversity analysis (Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index) showed a similar microbial composition in the two clinical situations. Four functional categories showed statistically significant differences with MG-RAST at KEGG level 2: in exacerbation, Cell growth and Death and Transport and Catabolism decreased in abundance [1.6 (0.2-2.3) vs 3.6 (3.3-6.9), p = 0.012; and 1.8 (0-3.3) vs 3.6 (1.8-5.1), p = 0.025 respectively], while Cancer and Carbohydrate Metabolism increased [0.8 (0-1.5) vs 0 (0-0.5), p = 0.043; and 7 (6.4-9) vs 5.9 (6.3-6.1), p = 0.012 respectively]. In conclusion, the bronchial microbiome as a whole is not significantly modified when exacerbation symptoms appear in severe COPD patients, but its functional metabolic capabilities show significant changes in several pathways.

  4. Prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in highly trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Weiler, J M; Metzger, W J; Donnelly, A L; Crowley, E T; Sharath, M D

    1986-07-01

    Previous studies indicated that the prevalence of symptomatic asthma is about 4 to 7 percent. No similar studies exist to suggest the prevalence of asthma in highly trained competitive athletes, since asthma is thought to be an uncommon disease in this population. We became concerned, therefore, when a large number of football players developed symptoms consistent with asthma during preparation in California for the Rose Bowl in December 1981. We studied the team and found 12 percent of the football players admitted to a history of asthma, whereas none of the members of the university basketball team and 7 percent of a group of sophomore medical students and physician assistant students gave a history of asthma. Furthermore, 19 percent of the football players indicated that at some time they had chest tightness, cough, wheezing, or prolonged shortness of breath after exercise; 12 percent of the basketball players and 37 percent of the students indicated such a history. We examined each of these three groups for non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine using a modified methacholine bronchoprovocation (MBP) challenge and found that 76 of 151 (50 percent) football players tested had positive tests; 76 percent of those with symptoms had positive results of inhalation tests and 47 percent of those with minimal or no symptoms had positive test results. In addition, four of 16 (25 percent) basketball players and 69 of 167 (41 percent) students had positive MBP tests. These studies indicate that bronchial hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine is much more common in these young adults than has previously been suspected.

  5. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...

  6. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes and medication . View an animation of atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis and PAD Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up ... of an artery. PAD is usually caused by atherosclerosis in the peripheral arteries (or outer regions away ...

  7. Coronary artery fistula

    MedlinePlus

    Congenital heart defect - coronary artery fistula; Birth defect heart - coronary artery fistula ... attaches to one of the chambers of the heart (the atrium or ventricle) or another blood vessel ( ...

  8. Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... artery. Such people should seek medical care immediately. Did You Know... When people suddenly develop a painful, ... In This Article Animation 1 Peripheral Arterial Disease Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Figure 1 ...

  9. Primary bronchial tumors in childhood. A clinicopathologic study of six cases.

    PubMed

    Lack, E E; Harris, G B; Eraklis, A J; Vawter, G F

    1983-02-01

    A primary bronchial tumor was diagnosed in six children younger than age 12 years. These cases include four bronchial carcinoids, a low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and a granular cell tumor ("myoblastoma"). Lobar or segmental resection was performed in each case and remains the treatment of choice. The most common bronchial tumors in childhood are carcinoids with 17 other evaluable cases in the English Literature. This series includes the youngest child to be reported with bilateral choroidal metastases leading to blindness; in addition, there were clinical manifestations of gigantism and acromegaly possibly related to ectopic hormone production. Low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas rank second in frequency to carcinoids and have an excellent prognosis. Judging from the childhood bronchial tumors reported to date, proved examples of bronchogenic carcinoma are vanishingly rare. PMID:6295603

  10. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... and efficacy continues to be studied in several medical centers. This procedure involves the placement of a small flexible tube (catheter) into an artery from the groin. The catheter is then directed to the neck to reach the carotid artery blockage. A balloon pushes open the artery wall and a stent ( ...

  11. He-Ne laser radiation in combined therapy of children's bronchial asthma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilnikov, Dmitriy V.; Varavva, Andrey S.; Tarasova, Olga N.; Plaksina, Galina V.; Barybin, Vitaliy F.; Khlutkova, Svetlana N.

    2004-02-01

    In this paper the medical application of He-Ne lasers for the treatment of bronchial asthma is described. Research objective of this work was the development of a treatment method for children with bronchial asthman of heavy and medium-heavy forms, resistant to the base therapy, with the help of low-intensive laser radiation with wave length λ=0,63 μm.

  12. MULTIDETECTOR-ROW COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY PATTERNS OF BRONCHOESPHAGEAL ARTERY HYPERTROPHY AND SYSTEMIC-TO-PULMONARY FISTULA IN DOGS.

    PubMed

    Ledda, Gianluca; Caldin, Marco; Mezzalira, Giorgia; Bertolini, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Anomalies involving arterial branches in the lungs are one of the causes of hemoptysis in humans and dogs. Congenital and acquired patterns of bronchoesophageal artery hypertrophy have been reported in humans based on CT characteristics. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe clinical, echocardiographic, and multidetector computed tomography features of bronchoesophageal artery hypertrophy and systemic-to-pulmonary arterial communications in a sample of 14 dogs. Two main vascular patterns were identified in dogs that resembled congenital and acquired conditions reported in humans. Pattern 1 appeared as an aberrant origin of the right bronchoesophageal artery, normal origin of the left one, and enlargement of both the bronchial and esophageal branches that formed a dense network terminating in a pulmonary artery through an orifice. Pattern 2 appeared as a normal origin of both right and left bronchoesophageal arteries, with an enlarged and tortuous course along the bronchi to the periphery of the lung, where they communicated with subsegmental pulmonary arteries. Dogs having Pattern 1 also had paraesophageal and esophageal varices, with the latter being confirmed by videoendoscopy examination. Authors conclude that dogs with Pattern 1 should be differentiated from dogs with other congenital vascular systemic-to-pulmonary connections. Dogs having Pattern 2 should be evaluated for underlying pleural or pulmonary diseases. Bronchoesophageal artery hypertrophy can be accompanied by esophageal venous engorgement and should be included in the differential diagnosis for esophageal and paraesophageal varices in dogs. PMID:25961802

  13. [Upper extremity arterial diseases].

    PubMed

    Becker, F

    2007-02-01

    Compared to lower limb arterial diseases, upper limb arterial diseases look rare, heterogeneous with various etiologies and a rather vague clinical picture, but with a negligible risk of amputation. Almost all types of arterial diseases can be present in the upper limb, but the anatomical and hemodynamic conditions particular to the upper limb often confuse the issue. Thus, atherosclerosis affects mainly the subclavian artery in its proximal segment where the potential of collateral pathway is high making the symptomatic forms not very frequent whereas the prevalence of subclavian artery stenosis or occlusion is relatively high. The clinical examination and the etiologies are discussed according to the clinical, anatomical and hemodynamic context.

  14. Jet pump assisted artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  15. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  16. A solitary large radioiodine accumulative lung lesion in high-dose 131i therapeutic scan: bronchial atresia with mucocele.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Hyoung; Park, Jung Mi; Kwak, Jeong Ja

    2015-02-01

    We reported a large radioiodine accumulative lung lesion on I therapeutic whole-body scan performed in a 50-year-old woman for thyroid cancer ablation therapy. Previously, her chest radiography and contrast-enhanced chest CT images showed bronchial atresia in the left upper lobar bronchus and mucus-filled dilated distal bronchus. Bronchial mucocele was confirmed by CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration. Bronchial atresia is a rare congenital abnormality associated with the mucocele.

  17. Duodenal-bronchial fistula: an unusual cause of shortness of breath and a productive cough.

    PubMed

    Wong, Cynthia; Khan, Kalim; Byass, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Duodenal-bronchial fistulas are very uncommon, even among the already rare subgroup of abdominal-bronchial fistulas. We describe a case of a woman with Crohn's disease who presented with shortness of breath and a productive cough who was found to have a duodeanl bronchial fistula on computed tomography scan. We demonstrate with this case how these rare cases can lead to chronic lung aspirations and require multidisciplinary involvement. PMID:27594936

  18. Bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery.

    PubMed

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Totlis, Trifon; Tsikaras, Prokopios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2006-09-01

    The subscapular artery arises from the third part of the axillary artery and gives off the circumflex scapular and the thoracodorsal arteries. Although anatomical variations of the axillary artery are very common, the existence of a unilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery has been described in the literature only once. There are no reports of bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, in the literature. In the present study, a bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, originating on either side of the third part of the axillary artery, is described in a 68-year-old female cadaver. All the other branches of the axillary artery had a typical origin, course, distribution and termination. This extremely rare anatomical variation apart from the anatomical importance also has clinical significance for surgeons in this area. Especially, during the dissection or mobilization of the latissimus dorsi that is partly used for coverage problems in many regions of the body and also in dynamic cardiomyoplasty, any iatrogenic injury of this accessory artery may result in ischemia and functional loss of the graft.

  19. Effect of 4% lidocaine inhalation in bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Prakash, G S; Sharma, S K; Pande, J N

    1990-01-01

    The effect of 4% lidocaine inhalation was studied in a single-blind fashion in 18 patients with chronic stable asthma. Inhalation of normal saline solution was used as placebo. None of the parameters except flow rate at 50% of vital capacity (V50) showed any statistically significant change from baseline values. V50 at 15 min was significantly lower (p less than 0.05) after 4% lidocaine inhalation. Considering more than 10% change from the baseline value as significant, 8 of 15 patients showed decrease in airway resistance (Raw) and 7 of the 15 patients showed an increase in specific airway conductance (SGaw) after 15 min of inhalation. However, V50 (8/18 patients), flow rate at 25% vital capacity [V25 (6/15 patients], and forced expiratory flow rate at 25-75% of the vital capacity (FEF25-75) (5/15 patients) showed a decrease after 15 min of 4% lidocaine inhalation. No change in pulmonary function was noted after 30 min of lidocaine inhalation. It is concluded from this study that lidocaine produces a small bronchodilatory effect on the large airways and a bronchoconstrictor effect on the small airways after 15 min of inhalation, but this effect is not statistically significant. It can be safely used as topical agent for bronchoscopy in patients with bronchial asthma.

  20. Tungsten-induced carcinogenesis in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Laulicht, Freda; Brocato, Jason; Cartularo, Laura; Vaughan, Joshua; Wu, Feng; Kluz, Thomas; Sun, Hong; Oksuz, Betul Akgol; Shen, Steven; Peana, Massimiliano; Medici, Serenella; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta; Costa, Max

    2015-10-01

    Metals such as arsenic, cadmium, beryllium, and nickel are known human carcinogens; however, other transition metals, such as tungsten (W), remain relatively uninvestigated with regard to their potential carcinogenic activity. Tungsten production for industrial and military applications has almost doubled over the past decade and continues to increase. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate tungsten's ability to induce carcinogenic related endpoints including cell transformation, increased migration, xenograft growth in nude mice, and the activation of multiple cancer-related pathways in transformed clones as determined by RNA sequencing. Human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) exposed to tungsten developed carcinogenic properties. In a soft agar assay, tungsten-treated cells formed more colonies than controls and the tungsten-transformed clones formed tumors in nude mice. RNA-sequencing data revealed that the tungsten-transformed clones altered the expression of many cancer-associated genes when compared to control clones. Genes involved in lung cancer, leukemia, and general cancer genes were deregulated by tungsten. Taken together, our data show the carcinogenic potential of tungsten. Further tests are needed, including in vivo and human studies, in order to validate tungsten as a carcinogen to humans. PMID:26164860

  1. A locus regulating bronchial hyperresponsiveness maps to chromosome 5q

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, R.C.; Meyers, D.A.; Bleecker, E.R.

    1994-09-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is one of the hallmarks of asthma. BHR correlates well with asthmatic symptoms and the response to treatment. Moreover, BHR appears to be closely related to airways inflammation. Numerous studies have demonstrated a familial aggregation; however, this phenotype is not likely inherited as a simple Mendelian trait. BHR is also closely associated with total serum IgE levels, as are allergy and asthma. We studied 92 families from Northern Holland ascertained through a parent with asthma who were originally studied between 1962-1970. Since there are a number of candidate genes on chromosome 5q potentially important in producing BHR, families were genotyped for markers in this region. These genes regulate IgE production and the cellular elements that are likely involved in inflammation associated with BHR, allergy and asthma. They include IL-4, IL-3, IL-5, IL-9, IL-12, IL-13 and GM-CSF. Linkage of BHR with markers on 5q was tested using a model free sib-pair method. The data suggest a locus for BHR maps near the cytokine gene cluster on 5q. This region appears critical in producing susceptibility to BHR and possibly to asthma.

  2. Indications for the use of bronchial thermoplasty in severe asthma.

    PubMed

    Dheda, Keertan; Koegelenberg, Coenraad F N; Esmail, Aliasgar; Irusen, Elvis; Wechsler, Michael E; Niven, Rob M; Chung, Kian Fan; Bateman, Eric D

    2015-09-18

    Approximately 5% of the ~3 million asthmatics in South Africa have severe asthma that is associated with substantial morbidity, cost, absenteeism, preventable mortality, and the requirement for costly chronic medication that may be associated with significant adverse events. There is an unmet need for alternative safer and more effective interventions for severe asthma. A recently introduced option, bronchial thermoplasty (BT), imparts radiofrequency-generated heat energy to the airways to cause regression of airway smooth muscle. The effectiveness of this technique has been confirmed in randomised control trials and is now endorsed by several international guidelines, including the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guideline, the British Asthma Guideline, and the UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guideline. We recommend BT as a potential therapeutic intervention for severe uncontrolled asthma, provided that it is performed by an experienced pulmonologist at an accredited centre and done within the broader context of appropriate management of the disease by doctors experienced in treating difficult-to-control asthma.

  3. Pharmacological Therapy of Bronchial Asthma: The Role of Biologicals.

    PubMed

    Heck, Sebastian; Nguyen, Juliane; Le, Duc-Dung; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a heterogeneous, complex, chronic inflammatory and obstructive pulmonary disease driven by various pathways to present with different phenotypes. A small proportion of asthmatics (5-10%) suffer from severe asthma with symptoms that cannot be controlled by guideline therapy with high doses of inhaled steroids plus a second controller, such as long-acting β2 agonists (LABA) or leukotriene receptor antagonists, or even systemic steroids. The discovery and characterization of the pathways that drive different asthma phenotypes have opened up new therapeutic avenues for asthma treatment. The approval of the humanized anti-IgE antibody omalizumab for the treatment of severe allergic asthma has paved the way for other cytokine-targeting therapies, particularly those targeting interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, IL-17, and IL-23 and the epithelium-derived cytokines IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Knowledge of the molecular basis of asthma phenotypes has helped, and continues to help, the development of novel biologicals that target a diverse array of phenotype-specific molecular targets in patients suffering from severe asthma. This review summarizes potential therapeutic approaches that are likely to show clinical efficacy in the near future, focusing on biologicals as promising novel therapies for severe asthma. PMID:26895179

  4. Detection of trisomy 7 in bronchial cells from uranium miners

    SciTech Connect

    Lechner, J.F.; Neft, R.E.; Belinsky, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    New Mexico was the largest producer of uranium in the western world during 1960s and 1970s. Investigators at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine`s Epidemiology and Cancer Control Program have been conducting epidemiological studies on uranium miners over the past 2 decades. Currently, this cohort includes more than 3600 men who had completed at least 1 y of underground work experience in New Mexico by December 31, 1976. These miners, who are now in their 5th through 7th decades, the age when lung cancer incidence is highest, are at high risk for developing this disease because they were exposed to high levels of radon progeny in the mines, and they also smoked tobacco. However, not all people comparably exposed develop lung cancer; in fact, the lifetime risk of lung cancer for the smoking uranium miners has been projected by epidemiological analyses to be no higher than 50%. Therefore, the identification of gene alterations in bronchial epithelium would be a valuable tool to ascertain which miners are at greatest risk for lung cancer. The underlying significance of the current effort confirms the hypothesis that chronic exposure to high concentrations of {alpha}-particles and tobacco smoke produces genetically altered lung epithelial cells throughout the respiratory tract of some susceptible individuals before they develop clinical disease.

  5. Endoscopic bronchial valve treatment: patient selection and special considerations

    PubMed Central

    Eberhardt, Ralf; Gompelmann, Daniela; Herth, Felix JF; Schuhmann, Maren

    2015-01-01

    As well as lung volume reduction surgery, different minimally invasive endoscopic techniques are available to achieve lung volume reduction in patients with severe emphysema and significant hyperinflation. Lung function parameters and comorbidities of the patient, as well as the extent and distribution of the emphysema are factors to be considered when choosing the patient and the intervention. Endoscopic bronchial valve placement with complete occlusion of one lobe in patients with heterogeneous emphysema is the preferred technique because of its reversibility. The presence of high interlobar collateral ventilation will hinder successful treatment; therefore, endoscopic coil placement, polymeric lung volume reduction, or bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation as well as lung volume reduction surgery can be used for treating patients with incomplete fissures. The effect of endoscopic lung volume reduction in patients with a homogeneous distribution of emphysema is still unclear and this subgroup should be treated only in clinical trials. Precise patient selection is necessary for interventions and to improve the outcome and reduce the risk and possible complications. Therefore, the patients should be discussed in a multidisciplinary approach prior to determining the most appropriate treatment for lung volume reduction. PMID:26504379

  6. [Efficacy of combined relaxation exercises for children with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Gröller, B

    1991-05-01

    In the framework of a pilot study, 15 children having bronchial asthma (4 female, 11 male; age 5-11;6) participated, over a period of 8 weeks, in two weekly sessions of combined relaxation, respiratory and sports exercises. The present article in particular focuses on the relaxation exercises, made up of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Autogenic Training elements as well as of phantasy travels, mantras, and periodic music. Ongoing observation of the children during training, the findings of subsequent semi-structured interviews with them, topical instances of coping with impending asthma attacks by using the techniques learned, as well as the results of a catamnestic inquiry some three years later--all indicate a positive impact of the relaxation exercises. Statistical analysis of the data at hand revealed significant improvements in a number of pulmonary function parameters (airway resistance, forced expiratory volume for 1 s, forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow rate). Interpretation of these findings must however take into account the entirety of the training provided.

  7. [Effectiveness of combined relaxation exercises for children with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Gröller, B

    1992-02-01

    In the framework of a pilot study, 15 children having bronchial asthma (4 female, 11 male; age 5-11; 6) participated, over a period of 8 weeks, in two weekly sessions of combined relaxation, respiratory and sports exercises. The present article in particular focuses on the relaxation exercises, made up of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Autogenic Training elements as well as of phantasy travels, mantras, and periodic music. Ongoing observation of the children during training, the findings of subsequent semi-structured interviews with them, topical instances of coping with impending asthma attacks by using the techniques learnt, as well as the result of a catamnestic inquiry some three years later--all indicate a positive impact of the relaxation exercises. Statistical analysis of the data at hand revealed significant improvements in a number of pulmonary function parameters (airway resistance, forced expiratory volume for 1 s, forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow rate). Interpretation of these findings must however take into account the entirety of the training provided.

  8. Tungsten-induced carcinogenesis in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Laulicht, Freda; Brocato, Jason; Cartularo, Laura; Vaughan, Joshua; Wu, Feng; Kluz, Thomas; Sun, Hong; Oksuz, Betul Akgol; Shen, Steven; Peana, Massimiliano; Medici, Serenella; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta; Costa, Max

    2015-10-01

    Metals such as arsenic, cadmium, beryllium, and nickel are known human carcinogens; however, other transition metals, such as tungsten (W), remain relatively uninvestigated with regard to their potential carcinogenic activity. Tungsten production for industrial and military applications has almost doubled over the past decade and continues to increase. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate tungsten's ability to induce carcinogenic related endpoints including cell transformation, increased migration, xenograft growth in nude mice, and the activation of multiple cancer-related pathways in transformed clones as determined by RNA sequencing. Human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) exposed to tungsten developed carcinogenic properties. In a soft agar assay, tungsten-treated cells formed more colonies than controls and the tungsten-transformed clones formed tumors in nude mice. RNA-sequencing data revealed that the tungsten-transformed clones altered the expression of many cancer-associated genes when compared to control clones. Genes involved in lung cancer, leukemia, and general cancer genes were deregulated by tungsten. Taken together, our data show the carcinogenic potential of tungsten. Further tests are needed, including in vivo and human studies, in order to validate tungsten as a carcinogen to humans.

  9. [The follow up of patients with bronchial carcinoma (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wilde, J

    1980-01-01

    The aims of follow up of patients with bronchial carcinoma are: 1. Complete use of all therapeutical possibilities. 2. Avoidance of preventable complications of therapeutical prescriptions. 3. Prevention of sicknesses beside the basic complaint. 4. The rehabilitation of the patient. The medical structure for realizing these aims, we suppose in the cooperation of the doctor of the family or the factory, who will see the patient in intervals of four weeks, and the ambulant working pulmologist, who will see the patient in intervals of 3 months, and the thorax-centre, what the patient will consult once or twice the year, and the centre for rehabilitation, where patients with limited cardiorespiratoric function will get an appropriated training of condition. Two cure-places with this special direction will satisfy the require in the GDR. The oncologist of the district where the patient lives will be the coordinator of all parts of this system and the controller to keep its function. The effectivity of follow up will be realised by clear and proofed recommendations by the therapeutical centres and the continued consultations on actual problem cases with the shared doctors. The data processing can do an useful help in this cooperation. PMID:6261467

  10. [A three dimensional fractal simulation of the lung bronchial tree].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiuyi; Tan, Xiaoping; Pei, Juemin

    2004-06-01

    The lungs are naturally irregular and asymmetrical organ in anatomy. The conducting bronchial trees in the lungs display complex self-similar structure. We have established the host mesh coordinates of the right lung on the basis of the anatomical data from the literature. A three-dimensional fractal model of the conducting airways was set up by calculating the coordinates of the mass centers of the divided blocks, searching the branch direction and determining branch lengths with the use of the drawing tool OpenGL. Specific data of the lengths at various grades, branching angles, and capillary diameters were obtained. As a result, the computed data were identical with those of the existing statistical data. The fractal covering dimensionality obtained in the computation of this model was 2.19, which is very close to the ideal dimensionality, 2.17, from the literature. The present model has laid the foundation for further research of the gas diffusion and transfer performance in the lungs using the fractal concept, and furthermore, it helps to save the computer memories and fastening the graphic transfer. PMID:15250137

  11. Tungsten-induced carcinogenesis in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Laulicht, Freda; Brocato, Jason; Cartularo, Laura; Vaughan, Joshua; Wu, Feng; Kluz, Thomas; Sun, Hong; Oksuz, Betul Akgol; Shen, Steven; Paena, Massimilano; Medici, Serenella; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta; Costa, Max

    2015-01-01

    Metals such as arsenic, cadmium, beryllium, and nickel are known human carcinogens; however, other transition metals, such as tungsten (W), remain relatively uninvestigated with regard to their potential carcinogenic activity. Tungsten production for industrial and military applications has almost doubled over the past decade and continues to increase. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate tungsten’s ability to induce carcinogenic related endpoints including cell transformation, increased migration, xenograft growth in nude mice, and the activation of multiple cancer related pathways in transformed clones as determined by RNA seq. Human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) exposed to tungsten developed carcinogenic properties. In a soft agar assay, tungsten-treated cells formed more colonies than controls and the tungsten-transformed clones formed tumors in nude mice. RNA-sequencing data revealed that the tungsten-transformed clones altered the expression of many cancer-associated genes when compared to control clones. Genes involved in lung cancer, leukemia, and general cancer genes were deregulated by tungsten. Taken together, our data shows the carcinogenic potential of tungsten. Further tests are needed, including in vivo and human studies, in order to validate tungsten as a carcinogen to humans. PMID:26164860

  12. [Arterial CO2- and O2 partial pressure at rest and during exertion in pulmonary emphysema].

    PubMed

    Scherrer, M; Zeller, C; Bachofen, H

    1977-07-30

    In 83 patients with severe, largely irreversible bronchial obstruction (FEV1/VC less than 40% and FEV1 after orciprenaline inhalation less than 120% of the control value) and radiologie evidence of AD-emphysema, arterial PCO2 and PO2 were measured at rest in supine position and on the bicycle ergometer during a steady-state exercice of 5 min. Alveolar hypoventilation (PCO2 greater than 45 mm Hg) was most often observed in the cases with FEV1 less than 1.01 (in 22 patients [27%] at rest and in 26 patients [31%] during exercise). However, there was no significant correlation of the PCO2 increase with the degree of bronchial obstruction. In all patients there was a marked inhomogeneity of the alveolar ventilation or the alveolar-capillary O2 transfer in relation to alveolar blood perfusion. Indeed, the alveolar-arterial PO2 difference was increased (40 mm Hg at rest and 45 mm Hg during exercise). The additional increase of this gradient during exercise was due to an unequal distribution of alveolar O2 diffusing capacities in connection with the alveolar blood flow (preceding measurements of the N2 gradient between alveolar air and arterial blood revealed a mean fall from 18 at rest to 8 mm Hg during exercise). The observed deterioration of hypoxemia during exercise (without additional hypercapnia) is to a great extent related to the degree of bronchial obstruction measured by simple spirometry. Thus, measurements of PCO2 and PO2 at rest and during exercise appear to be a helpful adjuvant to routine spirometry in the diagnosis of subclinical emphysema.

  13. Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; PTA - peripheral artery - discharge; Angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - peripheral artery- discharge; PAD - PTA discharge; PVD - ...

  14. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, A. R.; Taylor, I.

    1997-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare and controversial form of upper intestinal obstruction in which the third part of the duodenum is compressed by the overlying superior mesenteric artery. Any disease process decreasing the angle between the superior mesenteric artery and the abdominal aorta can result in the external compression of the duodenum and subsequent intestinal obstruction. The aetiology, presentation, investigation and management of this unusual condition are discussed. PMID:9497945

  15. [Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Musumeci, S; Iuppa, A; Beneventano, G; Rinella, P; Mammano, M; Cinquegrani, E

    1986-12-15

    Trapped popliteal artery syndrome is relatively uncommon: the literature reports some 60 cases. The clinical picture is linked to compression of the popliteal artery by the gastrocnemius as it contracts, thus distorting the arterial route. The result is an interruption in the blood flow distally to the area involved due to stenosis of the blood vessel that is at first functional but becomes organic. PMID:3808379

  16. Utility of Cell-Block of Bronchial Washings in Diagnosis of Lung Cancer- A Comparative Analysis with Conventional Smear Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Vadala, Rohit; Mandrekar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bronchoscopy is a safe & effective means of diagnosing bronchogenic carcinoma with a varying diagnostic yield of different bronchoscopic procedures. Cell-Block (CB) preparation of cytology specimen has been shown to increase the diagnostic yield further. To the authors’ knowledge, the diagnostic value of CB as an adjunct to conventional smear cytology (CS) of bronchial washing specimens in the detection of bronchogenic carcinoma has not been well evaluated. Aim The present study was aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of CB of bronchial washings when compared with CS. Materials and Methods A total of 104 patients of suspected bronchogenic carcinoma were subjected to bronchoscopy as per British Thoracic Society (BTS) protocol. Bronchial biopsy, brushings and washings were collected. Smears were prepared immediately of bronchial washings and another aliquot was subjected to CB preparation and further processing by paraffin embedding and H&E staining. Results Out of 104 patients, 92 were diagnosed by bronchoscopy with a cumulative diagnostic yield of all sampling techniques being 88.46%. Yield of CB of bronchial washings (44.23%) was higher than Bronchial washings – conventional smears (36.53%). CB detected additional 8 cases of malignancy where corresponding bronchial washings-conventional smears were negative. Exclusive diagnosis by CB was obtained in 2 cases. Brushings and biopsy confirmed malignancy in 49.03% and 57.69% cases. Conclusion CB of bronchial washings had a higher yield as compared to corresponding conventional smears. Increase in yield was also noted when CB of bronchial washings was combined with biopsy and compared to bronchial washings- conventional smears combined with biopsy. In limited resource settings, CB preparation is a simple method that increases diagnostic yield of flexible bronchoscopy, is cost effective & hence can be routinely used. The immunohistochemical and molecular studies are possible with CB only, which is a

  17. Buckling instability in arteries.

    PubMed

    Vandiver, Rebecca M

    2015-04-21

    Arteries can become tortuous in response to abnormal growth stimuli, genetic defects and aging. It is suggested that a buckling instability is a mechanism that might lead to artery tortuosity. Here, the buckling instability in arteries is studied by examining asymmetric modes of bifurcation of two-layer cylindrical structures that are residually stressed. These structures are loaded by an axial force, internal pressure and have nonlinear, anisotropic, hyperelastic responses to stresses. Strain-softening and reduced opening angle are shown to lower the critical internal pressure leading to buckling. In addition, the ratio of the media thickness to the adventitia thickness is shown to have a dramatic impact on arterial instability.

  18. Specific bronchial reactivity to toluene diisocyanate: relationship with baseline clinical findings.

    PubMed Central

    Paggiaro, P L; Innocenti, A; Bacci, E; Rossi, O; Talini, D

    1986-01-01

    One hundred and fourteen subjects with asthma induced by toluene diisocyanate were identified and the pattern of their bronchial responses to challenge with toluene diisocyanate was studied. An occupational type specific bronchial provocation test with toluene diisocyanate (10-25 parts per thousand million for 10-15 minutes) elicited an immediate response in 24, a late response in 50, and a dual response in 40 patients. Subjects with a dual response showed at diagnosis a longer duration of symptoms and a greater prevalence of airway obstruction; in these subjects FEV1 (percentage of predicted value) was lower than in subjects with immediate or late reactions to toluene diisocyanate. The percentage of current smokers and ex-smokers was significantly lower in subjects with a late response (26%) than in subjects with immediate or dual responses (56% and 57% respectively). In 27 of the 114 subjects a non-specific challenge test with methacholine was performed and subjects with dual responses showed greater non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness than the other groups. These results suggest that a dual response to specific challenge in bronchial asthma related to toluene diisocyanate may be associated with more severe disease than other types of response, as assessed by duration of symptoms, baseline airway obstruction, and non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness. The high prevalence of non-smokers and low prevalence of smokers in the group with a late response to specific challenge is so far unexplained. PMID:3016938

  19. A cohort study of bronchial carcinomas in workers producing chromate pigments.

    PubMed Central

    Langård, S; Norseth, T

    1975-01-01

    A cohort study of the incidence of bronchial cancer in male workers in a small company producing chromate pigments is presented. Altogether 133 workers had been employed by the company from the time production was started in 1948 until the end of 1972. Workers with more than three years employment were included in the study, and three cases of bronchial carcinoma were found among the 24 workers who fulfilled this requirement. Based on the data of the Cancer Registry of Norway the risk of bronchial cancer for a corresponding group of the general population was found to be 0.079, which gives a risk ratio for exposed workers of approximately 38. The average age of the cancer patients was as low as 50 years at the time of diagnosis. All workers in the company had been exposed mainly to zinc chromate dust, and the exposure levels of the workers developing bronchial cancers had probably been from 0-5 to 1-5 mg Cr/m-3 for six to nine years. Two of the three patients were smokers. It is assumed that exposure to chromate pigments, and probably to zinc chromate, may be related to the increased incidence of bronchial cancer in this group of workers. The possibility of a contributing effect of tobacco smoking in at least two of the three cases cannot be ruled out. PMID:164880

  20. Extrabronchial symptoms and late phase reaction enhance the diagnostic value of aspirin bronchial challenge

    PubMed Central

    Zielińska-Wyderkiewicz, Ewa; Górski, Paweł; Kuna, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lysine aspirin (l-ASA) bronchial challenge can be used in the diagnostics of aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease. It is safer than oral challenge, however it is characterized by a lower sensitivity. Aim We sought to investigate whether additional indicators of the positive result of l-ASA bronchial challenge, i.e. late phase reaction (LPR) and extrabronchial symptoms (EBS), may enhance its diagnostic value. Material and methods Sixty-seven patients with a positive history of asthma exacerbated by aspirin and/or other non-steroidal inflammatory drugs underwent l-ASA bronchial challenge. The control groups comprised 15 aspirin tolerant asthmatics and 15 healthy subjects. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and 24-hour peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements were performed in all subjects in order to recognize early and late response to l-ASA. All subjects underwent oral ASA challenge 2 weeks after l-ASA bronchial challenge. Results Basing on FEV1 and PEF results, early reaction was present in 50.7% of patients, early and LPR in 29.9% and LPR in only 10.4% of aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease patients. The EBS were noted in 31.3% of subjects. Inclusion of LPR and EBS as positive criteria of the challenge increased sensitivity to 94.0%. Conclusions These results indicate that both LPR and EBS should be considered as positive criteria of aspirin bronchial challenge as they enhance its diagnostic value. PMID:26755906

  1. Pleural plaques and risk for bronchial carcinoma and mesothelioma. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hillerdal, G

    1994-01-01

    From the general population in the county of Uppsala, Sweden, 1,596 men with pleural plaques fulfilling strict radiologic criteria were identified from 1963 until June 1985. The men have been followed prospectively for 16,369 person-years. The number of mesotheliomas and bronchial carcinomas was compared with the age- and year-specific expected incidence from the official cancer registry of Sweden. Fifty bronchial carcinomas occurred, while 32.1 were expected after correction for smoking habits, a difference which was statistically significant. Patients with radiologic asbestosis were overrepresented among those with bronchial carcinoma. The risk for patients with pleural plaques without asbestosis was increased 1.4 times, which was statistically significant. There were 9 mesotheliomas, while only 0.8 were expected. The mean latency time from first exposure to diagnosis of bronchial cancer was 44.1 years and for mesothelioma was 48.1 years. Thus, pleural plaques on the chest roentgenogram indicate significant exposure to asbestos, with an increased risk for mesothelioma and possibly also for bronchial carcinoma. Any person found to have plaques on chest roentgenogram should be informed of them and should be persuaded to stop smoking.

  2. Bronchial reacutization and gastroesophageal reflux: is there a potential clinical correlation?

    PubMed Central

    Mauroner, Luisa; Paiano, Simona; Assante, Luca Rosario; Bertolaccini, Luca; Ruffo, Giacomo; Mainardi, Paride; Bocus, Paolo; Geccherle, Andrea; Albanese, Sergio Ivan; Ciaffoni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Background Pepsin plays a role in gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Aims of this study were to verify if pepsin could be the cause of frequent bronchial exacerbations and to check if the persistence of chronic respiratory symptoms were correlated with pre-existing respiratory diseases. Methods From January to May 2016, 42 patients underwent a diagnostic bronchoscopy. All patients had a history of at least one bronchial exacerbation during the previous year. Bronchial lavage fluid specimens were obtained. A semiquantitative assessment of pepsin in the samples was carried out based on the intensity of the test sample. Results Pepsin was present in 37 patients (88%), but in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the finding of pepsin in the bronchoalveolar fluid was 100%. There was a strong positive statistical correlation between pepsin detection and radiological signs of GER (ρ=0.662), and between pepsin detection and diagnosis (ρ=0.682). No correlation was found between the bacteriology and the presence of pepsin in the airways (ρ=0.006). Conclusions The presence of pepsin in the airways shows the occurrence of reflux. The persistence of respiratory symptoms by at least 2 months suggest an endoscopic bronchial examination. This straightforward test confirms the cause possible irritation of the airways and may prevent further diagnostic tests, such as an EGD or pH monitoring esophageal. PMID:27668224

  3. Captopril augments acetylcholine-induced bronchial smooth muscle contractions in vitro via kinin-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Naman; Akella, Aparna; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2016-06-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors therapy is aassociated with bothersome dry cough as an adverse effect. The mechanisms underlying this adverse effect are not clear. Therefore, influence of captopril (an ACE inhibitor) on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced bronchial smooth muscle contractions was investigated. Further, the mechanisms underlying the captopril-induced changes were also explored. In vitro contractions of rat bronchial smooth muscle to cumulative concentrations of ACh were recorded before and after exposure to captopril. Further, the involvement of kinin and inositol triphosphate (IP₃) pathways for captopril-induced alterations were explored. ACh produced concentration-dependent (5-500 µM) increase in bronchial smooth muscle contractions. Pre-treatment with captopril augmented the ACh-induced contractions at each concentration significantly. Pre-treatment with aprotinin (kinin synthesis inhibitor) or heparin (inositol triphosphate, IP₃-inhibitor), blocked the captopril-induced augmentation of bronchial smooth muscle contractions evoked by ACh. Further, captopril-induced augmentation was absent in calcium-free medium. These results suggest that captopril sensitizes bronchial smooth muscles to ACh-induced contractions. This sensitization may be responsible for dry cough associated with captopril therapy. PMID:27468462

  4. Management of occult adrenocorticotropin-secreting bronchial carcinoids: limits of endocrine testing and imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Loli, P; Vignati, F; Grossrubatscher, E; Dalino, P; Possa, M; Zurleni, F; Lomuscio, G; Rossetti, O; Ravini, M; Vanzulli, A; Bacchetta, C; Galli, C; Valente, D

    2003-03-01

    The differential diagnosis and the identification of the source of ACTH in occult ectopic Cushing's syndrome due to a bronchial carcinoid still represents a challenge for the endocrinologist. We report our experience in six patients with occult bronchial carcinoid in whom extensive hormonal, imaging, and scintigraphic evaluation was performed. All patients presented with hypercortisolism associated with high plasma ACTH values. The CRH test and high dose dexamethasone suppression test suggested an ectopic source of ACTH in three of six patients. During bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling, none of the patients showed a central to peripheral ACTH gradient. At the time of diagnosis, none of the patients had radiological evidence of the ectopic source of ACTH, whereas pentetreotide scintigraphy identified the lesion in two of four patients. Finally, a chest computed tomography scan revealed the presence of a bronchial lesion in all patients, and pentetreotide scintigraphy identified four of six lesions. In all patients a bronchial carcinoid was found and removed. In one patient with scintigraphic evidence of residual disease after two operations, radioguided surgery, using a hand-held gamma probe after iv administration of radiolabeled pentetreotide, was performed; this allowed detection and removal of residual multiple mediastinal lymph node metastases. In conclusion, our data show that there is not a single endocrine test or imaging procedure accurate enough to diagnose and localize occult ectopic ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoids. Radioguided surgery appears to be promising in the presence of multiple tumor foci and previous incomplete removal of the tumor. PMID:12629081

  5. Management of occult adrenocorticotropin-secreting bronchial carcinoids: limits of endocrine testing and imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Loli, P; Vignati, F; Grossrubatscher, E; Dalino, P; Possa, M; Zurleni, F; Lomuscio, G; Rossetti, O; Ravini, M; Vanzulli, A; Bacchetta, C; Galli, C; Valente, D

    2003-03-01

    The differential diagnosis and the identification of the source of ACTH in occult ectopic Cushing's syndrome due to a bronchial carcinoid still represents a challenge for the endocrinologist. We report our experience in six patients with occult bronchial carcinoid in whom extensive hormonal, imaging, and scintigraphic evaluation was performed. All patients presented with hypercortisolism associated with high plasma ACTH values. The CRH test and high dose dexamethasone suppression test suggested an ectopic source of ACTH in three of six patients. During bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling, none of the patients showed a central to peripheral ACTH gradient. At the time of diagnosis, none of the patients had radiological evidence of the ectopic source of ACTH, whereas pentetreotide scintigraphy identified the lesion in two of four patients. Finally, a chest computed tomography scan revealed the presence of a bronchial lesion in all patients, and pentetreotide scintigraphy identified four of six lesions. In all patients a bronchial carcinoid was found and removed. In one patient with scintigraphic evidence of residual disease after two operations, radioguided surgery, using a hand-held gamma probe after iv administration of radiolabeled pentetreotide, was performed; this allowed detection and removal of residual multiple mediastinal lymph node metastases. In conclusion, our data show that there is not a single endocrine test or imaging procedure accurate enough to diagnose and localize occult ectopic ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoids. Radioguided surgery appears to be promising in the presence of multiple tumor foci and previous incomplete removal of the tumor.

  6. The middle suprarenal artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Honma, Satoru; Kudo, Motoi

    2012-01-01

    We observed a rare case of the middle suprarenal artery branching out from the superior mesenteric artery in a 78-year-old male. This atypical artery enters the right suprarenal gland that was also supplied by the superior and the inferior suprarenal arteries as usual. In embryonic stages, vasculature of the vitelline system and the gonadal system is differentially organized. The superior mesenteric artery has been generally thought to be pure vitelline, since there has been no evidence that the superior mesenteric artery supplies other organs than digestive. We then speculate that the present middle suprarenal artery is a remnant of the embryonic gonadal artery from the superior mesenteric artery, whereas a stem artery to the testis disappeared. Surgeons should take notice of the middle suprarenal artery when operations are conducted around the superior mesenteric artery.

  7. Metallic oxide nanoparticle translocation across the human bronchial epithelial barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Isabelle; Naudin, Grégoire; Boland, Sonja; Mornet, Stéphane; Contremoulins, Vincent; Beugnon, Karine; Martinon, Laurent; Lambert, Olivier; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle

    2015-02-01

    Inhalation is the most frequent route of unintentional exposure to nanoparticles (NPs). Our aim was to quantify the translocation of different metallic NPs across human bronchial epithelial cells and to determine the factors influencing this translocation. Calu-3 cells forming a tight epithelial barrier when grown on a porous membrane in a two compartment chamber were exposed to fluorescently labelled NPs to quantify the NP translocation. NP translocation and uptake by cells were also studied by confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Translocation was characterized according to NP size (16, 50, or 100 nm), surface charge (negative or positive SiO2), composition (SiO2 or TiO2), presence of proteins or phospholipids and in an inflammatory context. Our results showed that NPs can translocate through the Calu-3 monolayer whatever their composition (SiO2 or TiO2), but this translocation was increased for the smallest and negatively charged NPs. Translocation was not associated with an alteration of the integrity of the epithelial monolayer, suggesting a transcytosis of the internalized NPs. By modifying the NP corona, the ability of NPs to cross the epithelial barrier differed depending on their intrinsic properties, making positively charged NPs more prone to translocate. NP translocation can be amplified by using agents known to open tight junctions and to allow paracellular passage. NP translocation was also modulated when mimicking an inflammatory context frequently found in the lungs, altering the epithelial integrity and inducing transient tight junction opening. This in vitro evaluation of NP translocation could be extended to other inhaled NPs to predict their biodistribution.Inhalation is the most frequent route of unintentional exposure to nanoparticles (NPs). Our aim was to quantify the translocation of different metallic NPs across human bronchial epithelial cells and to determine the factors influencing this translocation. Calu-3 cells forming a

  8. Bronchial involvement in advanced stage lymphangioleiomyomatosis: histopathologic and molecular analyses.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takuo; Kumasaka, Toshio; Mitani, Keiko; Okada, Yoshinori; Kondo, Takashi; Date, Hiroshi; Chen, Fengshi; Oto, Takahiro; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Iwasaki, Akinori; Hara, Kieko; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Ando, Katsutoshi; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Gunji-Niitsu, Yoko; Kunogi, Makiko; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yao, Takashi; Seyama, Kuniaki

    2016-04-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a rare progressive disease that almost exclusively affects women, is characterized by pulmonary cysts and neoplastic proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells (LAM cells). Airflow obstruction is a physiologic consequence that is commonly observed in LAM and has been attributed to narrowing of peripheral airways. However, histopathologic examinations of the entire airway have been precluded by the limited availability of such specimens. Here, we used explanted lung tissues from 30 LAM patients for a thorough histologic analysis with a special emphasis on the bronchi. We found bronchial involvement by LAM cells and lymphatics in all patients examined. Furthermore, a moderate to severe degree of chronic inflammation (73%), goblet cell hyperplasia (97%), squamous cell metaplasia (83%) of the epithelium, and thickening of basal lamina (93%) were identified in the bronchi. Because LAM cells are transformed by the functional loss of the TSC genes leading to a hyperactivated mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway, we confirmed the expression of phospho-p70S6K, phospho-S6, phospho-4E-BP1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D in LAM cells from all of the patients examined. In contrast, no protein expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, a downstream molecule indicative of mTORC1 activation and leading to VEGF production, was detected in any patient. Our study indicates that late-stage LAM patients commonly have bronchi involved by the proliferation of both LAM cells and lymphatics and that chronic inflammation complicated their disease. Furthermore, the up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, a common event in mTORC1-driven tumor cells, does not occur in LAM cells and plays no role in VEGF-D expression in LAM cells. PMID:26997436

  9. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) in advanced inoperable bronchial carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghissi, Keyvan; Dixon, Kate; Stringer, Mark R.; Brown, Stanley B.

    1996-12-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of PDT to: Palliate symptoms, control disease and extend survival in patients with advanced inoperable cancer. Subject and Method: 55 Males and 23 females aged between 45-81 years (mean 66 years) with inoperable and advanced lung cancer with > 5O. obstructive lesions of the main, lobar or segmental bronchi. Patients had pre-treatment routine clinical radiological, functional and endoscopic assessment with proven histological diagnosis. Protocol of PDT was; Intravenous injection of 2 mg/Kg bodyweight Polyhaematoporphyrin (equivalent to Photofrin) or Photofrin followed 24-72 hours later by illumination of tumour using 630 nm light (Oxford Laser) delivered via an optical fibre with end diffuser. Treatments were carried out under general anaesthesia as a day case procedure. Patients were rebronchoscoped for debridement/retreatment 4-7 days later. Results: There was no treatment related mortality. Two patients developed mild photosensitivity reaction. All patients showed symptomatic improvement with good initial functional and radiological amelioration. Every patient responded to treatment. Seven patients had complete response and negative histology for 3-12 months. After the first treatment average Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) improvement was 0.5 litres and 0.4 litres respectively. Twenty five percent of patients (nr 19) survived more than 2 years, 10'. (nr=8) between 1-2 years and the remaining 51 patients less than a year. Conclusion: PDT should be considered as a therapeutic modality for all stages of lung cancer and is an excellent treatment modality for palliation in advanced bronchial malignancies.

  10. Assessing dysplasia of a bronchial biopsy with FTIR spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, Liberty; Kimber, James A.; Oliver, Katherine V.; Brown, James M.; Janes, Samuel M.; Fearn, Tom; Kazarian, Sergei G.; Rich, Peter

    2015-03-01

    An FTIR image of an 8 µm section of de-paraffinised bronchial biopsy that shows a histological transition from normal to severe dysplasia/squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ was obtained in transmission by stitching together images of 256 x 256 µm recorded using a 96 x 96 element FPA detector. Each pixel spectrum was calculated from 128 co-added interferograms at 4 cm-1 resolution. In order to improve the signal to noise ratio, blocks of 4x4 adjacent pixels were subsequently averaged. Analyses of this spectral image, after conversion of the spectra to their second derivatives, show that the epithelium and the lamina propria tissue types can be distinguished using the area of troughs at either 1591, 1334, 1275 or 1215 cm-1 or, more effectively, by separation into two groups by hierarchical clustering (HCA) of the 1614-1465 region. Due to an insufficient signal to noise ratio, disease stages within the image could not be distinguished with this extent of pixel averaging. However, after separation of the cell types, disease stages within either the epithelium or the lamina propria could be distinguished if spectra were averaged from larger, manually selected areas of the tissue. Both cell types reveal spectral differences that follow a transition from normal to cancerous histology. For example, spectral changes that occurred in the epithelium over the transition from normal to carcinoma in situ could be seen in the 1200-1000 cm-1 region, particularly as a decrease in the second derivative troughs at 1074 and 1036 cm-1 , consistent with changes in some form of carbohydrate. Spectral differences that indicate a disease transition from normal to carcinoma in the lamina propria could be seen in the 1350-1175 cm-1 and 1125-1030 cm-1 regions. Thus demonstrating that a progression from healthy to severe dysplasia/squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ can be seen using FTIR spectroscopic imaging and multivariate analysis.

  11. Strain differences in guinea pigs' bronchial sensitivity to acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Mikami, H; Nishibata, R; Kawamoto, Y; Ino, T

    1990-01-01

    The bronchial sensitivity to acetylcholine (ACh) of guinea pigs of various strains was investigated to clarify strain differences. Inbred Strain 2, Strain 13 and JY-1 and non-inbred Hartley strain (two colonies) were used in this experiment. (1) Guinea pigs were exposed to 0.08% ACh aerosol and the time needed to produce falling down (TNPFD) was determined. Mean +/- standard error of TNPFD (n = 14 per group) of animals was 182 +/- 28 sec, 148 +/- 22 sec, 210 +/- 30 sec, 342 +/- 24 sec and 406 +/- 36 sec in Strain 2, Strain 13, JY-1, Hartley (Japan SLC) and Hartley (Hitachi), respectively. There was a significant difference in TNPFD between inbred strains and non-inbred strains (P less than 0.05 or P less than 0.01), indicating that inbred strains had higher sensitivity. (2) Guinea pigs were exposed to 20-5000 micrograms/ml ACh for 2 min. The mean dose threshold as determined by transcutaneous oxygen pressure was 524 micrograms/ml, 424 micrograms/ml, 614 micrograms/ml, 1317 micrograms/ml and 1651 micrograms/ml (n = 14 per group) in Strain 2, Strain 13, JY-1, Hartley (Japan SLC) and Hartley (Hitachi), respectively. Inbred strains showed lower dose thresholds than non-inbred strains. (3) Isolated trachea-lungs of 5 guinea pigs were perfused with 10(-9)-10(-5) g/ml ACh to determine strain differences. Dose response curves of animals of inbred strains shifted to the left (lower concentrations), unlike those of non-inbred strains, suggesting that inbred strains had higher sensitivity to ACh than non-inbred strains.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Metallic oxide nanoparticle translocation across the human bronchial epithelial barrier.

    PubMed

    George, Isabelle; Naudin, Grégoire; Boland, Sonja; Mornet, Stéphane; Contremoulins, Vincent; Beugnon, Karine; Martinon, Laurent; Lambert, Olivier; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle

    2015-03-14

    Inhalation is the most frequent route of unintentional exposure to nanoparticles (NPs). Our aim was to quantify the translocation of different metallic NPs across human bronchial epithelial cells and to determine the factors influencing this translocation. Calu-3 cells forming a tight epithelial barrier when grown on a porous membrane in a two compartment chamber were exposed to fluorescently labelled NPs to quantify the NP translocation. NP translocation and uptake by cells were also studied by confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Translocation was characterized according to NP size (16, 50, or 100 nm), surface charge (negative or positive SiO2), composition (SiO2 or TiO2), presence of proteins or phospholipids and in an inflammatory context. Our results showed that NPs can translocate through the Calu-3 monolayer whatever their composition (SiO2 or TiO2), but this translocation was increased for the smallest and negatively charged NPs. Translocation was not associated with an alteration of the integrity of the epithelial monolayer, suggesting a transcytosis of the internalized NPs. By modifying the NP corona, the ability of NPs to cross the epithelial barrier differed depending on their intrinsic properties, making positively charged NPs more prone to translocate. NP translocation can be amplified by using agents known to open tight junctions and to allow paracellular passage. NP translocation was also modulated when mimicking an inflammatory context frequently found in the lungs, altering the epithelial integrity and inducing transient tight junction opening. This in vitro evaluation of NP translocation could be extended to other inhaled NPs to predict their biodistribution.

  13. Measuring How Elastic Arteries Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMont, M. Edwin; MacGillivray, Patrick S.; Davison, Ian G.; McConnell, Colin J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a procedure used to measure force and pressure in elastic arteries. Discusses the physics of the procedure and recommends the use of bovine arteries. Explains the preparation of the arteries for the procedure. (DDR)

  14. Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of screening for carotid artery stenosis: Health professionals ... blood flow through the arteries. Potential Benefits and Harms of Carotid Artery Stenosis Screening and Treatment The ...

  15. The response of human nasal and bronchial organotypic tissue cultures to repeated whole cigarette smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Talikka, Marja; Kostadinova, Radina; Xiang, Yang; Mathis, Carole; Sewer, Alain; Majeed, Shoaib; Kuehn, Diana; Frentzel, Stefan; Merg, Celine; Geertz, Marcel; Martin, Florian; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is linked to the development of respiratory diseases, and there is a need to understand the mechanisms whereby CS causes damage. Although animal models have provided valuable insights into smoking-related respiratory tract damage, modern toxicity testing calls for reliable in vitro models as alternatives for animal experimentation. We report on a repeated whole mainstream CS exposure of nasal and bronchial organotypic tissue cultures that mimic the morphological, physiological, and molecular attributes of the human respiratory tract. Despite the similar cellular staining and cytokine secretion in both tissue types, the transcriptomic analyses in the context of biological network models identified similar and diverse biological processes that were impacted by CS-exposed nasal and bronchial cultures. Our results demonstrate that nasal and bronchial tissue cultures are appropriate in vitro models for the assessment of CS-induced adverse effects in the respiratory system and promising alternative to animal experimentation. PMID:25297719

  16. [Suggesting the Significance of Pericardial Fat Pad in Bronchial Stump Fistula].

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tomoki; Sano, Masaaki; Tominaga, Nasa; Sanada, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuo; Oya, Hisaharu; Nishi, Tetsuo; Koshikawa, Katsumi

    2016-05-01

    Bronchial stump fistula is a post-operative complication with poor outcome after pulmonary lobectomy. In order to prevent this complication, the bronchial stump is covered with pericardial fat tissue in our hospital. The case was 58 year old male who received adjuvant chemotherapy after sigmoidectomy for sigmoid colon cancer. As he developed multiple pulmonary metastases, 48 courses of chemotherapy were performed. The lesions had been localized at the right lower lobe, and neither increase in the size of these lesions nor development of other lesions were observed. Hence, an operation was performed. After right lower lobectomy, the bronchial stump was covered with the pericardial fat tissue. Three months after the operation, he developed pneumothorax, and bubbles were detected inside the fat. The pneumothorax was cured conservatively, and the bubbles disappeared spontaneously after 10 months. It is rare that the patient with bubbles in the covering tissue observed for a long time is cured conservatively, suggesting the significance of the stump pad.

  17. Eosinophilic Pneumonia in a Patient with Bronchial Myiasis: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Aich, Arindom; Al-Ismaili, Suad; Ramadhan, Fatma A; Al-Wardi, Talal H M; Al-Salmi, Quasem; Al-Hashami, Hilal

    2015-11-01

    Pulmonary myiasis is an unusual form of myiasis in humans and has been recently identified as a cause of eosinophilic pneumonia. We report the case of a 13-year-old Omani boy who presented to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in October 2014 with respiratory distress. Bronchial aspirates revealed features of eosinophilic pneumonia. Possible larvae identified in the cytology report, a high immunoglobulin E level and the patient history all indicated bronchial myiasis. The patient was treated with steroids and ventilation and has since been disease-free with no long-term side-effects. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of bronchial myiasis in Oman. PMID:26629385

  18. Effects of temporally varying inlet conditions on flow and particle deposition in the small bronchial tubes.

    PubMed

    Soni, Bela; Thompson, David

    2012-09-01

    The laminar flow in the small bronchial tubes is quite complex because of the presence of vortex-dominated, secondary flows. Factors contributing to this complexity are the unsteady nature of the inhale-exhale breathing cycle and the geometrical characteristics of the bronchial tubes. To investigate unsteady effects on flows and particle transport, unsteady inhalation flows at a 30-respiration-per-minute frequency, corresponding to a moderate activity level, were simulated for a three-generation, asymmetric, planar bronchial tube model. Ten-micron diameter water droplets were introduced at the inlet at different times during inhalation to develop particle destination maps. The differences in the flow fields and destination maps obtained at the unsteady peak flow and the comparable steady-state inflow condition were minimal. However, particles released at equivalent instantaneous off-peak inflow conditions produced different destination maps. The differences were attributed to the temporal variations of the fluid velocities and history effects.

  19. Diagnosis of Intracranial Artery Dissection

    PubMed Central

    KANOTO, Masafumi; HOSOYA, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral arterial dissection is defined as a hematoma in the wall of a cervical or an intracranial artery. Cerebral arterial dissection causes arterial stenosis, occlusion, and aneurysm, resulting in acute infarction and hemorrhage. Image analysis by such methods as conventional angiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and so on plays an important role in diagnosing cerebral arterial dissection. In this study, we explore the methods and findings involved in the diagnosis of cerebral arterial dissection. PMID:27180630

  20. Coronary artery stent (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open. ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open.

  1. Arterial Pressure Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heusner, A. A.; Tracy, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a simple hydraulic analog which allows students to explore some physical aspects of the cardiovascular system and provides them with a means to visualize and conceptualize these basic principles. Simulates the behavior of arterial pressure in response to changes in heart rate, stroke volume, arterial compliance, and peripheral…

  2. Coronary artery disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the ... blood to the heart can slow or stop, causing chest pain (stable ...

  3. [12Ala polymorphism of receptor gene, which activates proliferation by peroxisome ά2, determines severity of bronchial asthma course associated with coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the research was to detect the role of PPAR-γ2 gene Pro12Ala polymorphism in the development of bronchial asthma (BA) in combination with coronary heart disease (CHD). BA patients in combination with coronary artery disease were examined in terms of anthropometric measurements, lung function, cycle ergometry, ECG, blood pressure, and endothelium-independent vasodilatation. The alleles of PPAR-γ2 gene polymorphic region were determined; the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and the adhesion molecules sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 in the blood were detected; the biochemical blood analysis was performed. It was found that patients with Ala allele in homo-and heterozygous state, as opposed to patients with Pro allele in homozygous variant, reveal a significantly higher incidence of first grade arterial hypertension and mild persistent BA; lower rates of heart rate were recorded; significantly higher levels of parameters characterizing the systemic inflammation (white blood cell count and hsCRP) and lower rates of adhesion molecules of sICAM-1 level, total cholesterol, total and indirect bilirubin were detected. Ala allele carriers in homo- and heterozygous state in patients with BA in combination with CHD is associated with the risk of overweight, mild persistent asthma and angina I FC. Thus, the carrier state of 12Ala allele of PPAR-γ2 gene Pro12Ala polymorphism may be associated with a higher risk of developing BA against the background of CHD. PMID:24850604

  4. [Transposition of Great Artery].

    PubMed

    Konuma, Takeshi; Shimpo, Hideto

    2015-07-01

    Transposition of the great artery is one of common congenital cardiac disease resulting cyanosis. Death occurs easily in untreated patients with transposition and intact ventricular septal defect (VSD) in infancy at a few days of age when posterior descending coronary artery (PDA) closed. Since there are 2 parallel circulations, flow from pulmonary to systemic circulation is necessary for systemic oxygenation, and Balloon atrial septostomy or prostaglandin infusion should be performed especially if patient do not have VSD. Although the advent of fetal echocardiography, it is difficult to diagnose the transposition of the great arteries (TGA) as abnormality of great vessels is relatively undistinguishable. The diagnosis of transposition is in itself an indication for surgery, and arterial switch procedure is performed in the case the left ventricle pressure remains more than 2/3 of systemic pressure. Preoperative diagnosis is important as associated anomalies and coronary artery branching patterns are important to decide the operative indication and timing of surgery.

  5. [Genetic and biochemical mechanisms of involvement of antioxidant defense enzymes in the development of bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Polonikov, A V; Ivanov, V P; Bogomazov, A D; Solodilova, M A

    2015-01-01

    In the present review we have analyzed and summarized recent literature data on genetic and biochemical mechanisms responsible for involvement of antioxidant defense enzymes in the etiology and pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. It has been shown that the mechanisms of asthma development are linked with genetically determined abnormalities in the functioning of antioxidant defense enzymes. These alterations are accompanied by a systemic imbalance between oxidative and anti-oxidative reactions with the shift of the redox state toward increased free radical production and oxidative stress, a key element in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. PMID:26350733

  6. Cushing's like syndrome in typical bronchial carcinoid a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pedicelli, Ilaria; Patriciello, Giuseppina; Scala, Giovanni; Sorrentino, Antonietta; Gravino, Gennaro; Patriciello, Pasquale; Zeppa, Pio; Di Crescenzo, Vincenzo; Vatrella, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome occurred in 1-5% of cases of bronchial carcinoids. In this paper we describe a case of typical bronchial carcinoid in a nonsmoker young male with clinical manifestations mimicking a Cushing's syndrome. The patient performed chest radiograph and computed tomography. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed the presence of an endobronchial mass occluding the bronchus intermedius. A rigid bronchoscopy was necessary for the conclusive diagnosis and for partial resection of the intraluminal tumor. Despite of the presence of Cushingoid features, the normal blood levels of ACTH and cortisol excluded the coexistence of a Cushing's syndrome. PMID:26923475

  7. An integrated approach of yoga therapy for bronchial asthma: a 3-54-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Nagendra, H R; Nagarathna, R

    1986-01-01

    After an initial integrated yoga training program of 2 to 4 weeks, 570 bronchial asthmatics were followed up for 3 to 54 months. The training consisted of yoga practices--yogasanas, Pranayama, meditation, and kriyas--and theory of yoga. Results show highly significant improvement in most of the specific parameters. The regular practitioners showed the greatest improvement. Peak expiratory flow rate (PFR) values showed significant movement of patients toward normalcy after yoga, and 72, 69, and 66% of the patients have stopped or reduced parenteral, oral, and cortisone medication, respectively. These results establish the long-term efficacy of the integrated approach of yoga therapy in the management of bronchial asthma.

  8. [Genetic and biochemical mechanisms of involvement of antioxidant defense enzymes in the development of bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Polonikov, A V; Ivanov, V P; Bogomazov, A D; Solodilova, M A

    2015-01-01

    In the present review we have analyzed and summarized recent literature data on genetic and biochemical mechanisms responsible for involvement of antioxidant defense enzymes in the etiology and pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. It has been shown that the mechanisms of asthma development are linked with genetically determined abnormalities in the functioning of antioxidant defense enzymes. These alterations are accompanied by a systemic imbalance between oxidative and anti-oxidative reactions with the shift of the redox state toward increased free radical production and oxidative stress, a key element in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma.

  9. Cushing's like syndrome in typical bronchial carcinoid a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pedicelli, Ilaria; Patriciello, Giuseppina; Scala, Giovanni; Sorrentino, Antonietta; Gravino, Gennaro; Patriciello, Pasquale; Zeppa, Pio; Di Crescenzo, Vincenzo; Vatrella, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome occurred in 1-5% of cases of bronchial carcinoids. In this paper we describe a case of typical bronchial carcinoid in a nonsmoker young male with clinical manifestations mimicking a Cushing's syndrome. The patient performed chest radiograph and computed tomography. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed the presence of an endobronchial mass occluding the bronchus intermedius. A rigid bronchoscopy was necessary for the conclusive diagnosis and for partial resection of the intraluminal tumor. Despite of the presence of Cushingoid features, the normal blood levels of ACTH and cortisol excluded the coexistence of a Cushing's syndrome.

  10. Retrospective Cohort Study of Bronchial Doses and Radiation-Induced Atelectasis After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors Located Close to the Bronchial Tree

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, Kristin; Nyman, Jan; Baumann, Pia; Wersäll, Peter; Drugge, Ninni; Gagliardi, Giovanna; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Persson, Jan-Olov; Rutkowska, Eva; Tullgren, Owe; Lax, Ingmar

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dose–response relationship between radiation-induced atelectasis after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and bronchial dose. Methods and Materials: Seventy-four patients treated with SBRT for tumors close to main, lobar, or segmental bronchi were selected. The association between incidence of atelectasis and bronchial dose parameters (maximum point-dose and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volume [ranging from 0.1 cm{sup 3} up to 2.0 cm{sup 3}]) was statistically evaluated with survival analysis models. Results: Prescribed doses varied between 4 and 20 Gy per fraction in 2-5 fractions. Eighteen patients (24.3%) developed atelectasis considered to be radiation-induced. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the incidence of radiation-induced atelectasis and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volumes, of which 0.1 cm{sup 3} (D{sub 0.1cm3}) was used for further analysis. The median value of D{sub 0.1cm3} (α/β = 3 Gy) was EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 147 Gy{sub 3} (range, 20-293 Gy{sub 3}). For patients who developed atelectasis the median value was EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 210 Gy{sub 3}, and for patients who did not develop atelectasis, EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 105 Gy{sub 3}. Median time from treatment to development of atelectasis was 8.0 months (range, 1.1-30.1 months). Conclusion: In this retrospective study a significant dose–response relationship between the incidence of atelectasis and the dose to the high-dose volume of the bronchi is shown.

  11. Dyspnea in acute bronchial asthma in an emergency room.

    PubMed

    Kunitoh, H; Watanabe, K; Sajima, Y

    1994-03-01

    Pulmonary function, arterial blood gases, and pulse rate were prospectively compared with dyspnea perceived by patients before and after emergency room treatment for acute asthma in 83 episodes. Subjective degree of dyspnea was rated on a modified Borg scale. Before treatment, all spirometry (FVC, FEV1, and peak expiratory flow rate) and arterial blood gas (PaO2, PaCO2, and bicarbonate) data as well as pulse rate were significantly correlated with modified Borg scale, but only PaCO2 showed significant correlation (P < .001) in a multivariate analysis. After treatment, only PaO2 was significantly correlated with modified Borg scale (P = .008) in a multivariate analysis, and pulse rate showed correlation of borderline significance (P = .06). In another 37 episodes of relapsed acute asthma, the correlations between laboratory data and modified Borg scale were very weak, especially after treatment. We conclude that dyspnea expressed by asthmatic patients in an emergency room might be reflecting different mechanisms as treatment is performed. Although it should be one useful guide in emergency evaluation, it must be recognized that dyspnea in the same patient could mean different abnormalities.

  12. [Left Lower Lobectomy for an Elderly Patient with Anomalous Systemic Arterial Supply to the Basal Segment of the Left Lung;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Saki; Moriya, Makio; Kamesui, Tadashi; Shimizu, Junzo; Nagayoshi, Toshiro; Nonomura, Akitaka

    2016-07-01

    A 76-year-old man was referred to our department for an abnormal shadow on a chest X-ray. Computed tomography showed an aberrant artery arising from the descending thoracic aorta to the basal segment of the left lung. The aberrant artery was dilated and tortuous, and its wall had remarkable calcifications. Bronchial branching to the basal segment of the left lung were normal. The diagnosis of anomalous systemic arterial supply to normal basal segment was established, and division of the aberrant artery and left lower lobectomy were performed successfully. His postoperative course was uneventful, and he was discharged on the 14th postoperative day. We describe herein a rare case of the elderly patient surgically treated for this disease along with a brief review of the literatures. PMID:27365073

  13. An Arteriovenous Fistula Between the Internal Mammary Artery and the Pulmonary Vein Following Blunt Chest Trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, T. Sakamoto, Toshihisa; Norio, Hirofumi; Kaji, Tatsumi; Okada, Yoshiaki

    2005-01-15

    A 67-year-old man suffered a traffic accident and was transferred to an emergency hospital close to the scene. He was diagnosed to have bilateral pneumohemothorax with a lung contusion, an anterior fracture dislocation of the C6-vertebra and a cervical cord injury at the level of C7. On the 48th day, massive hemoptysis was suddenly recognized. He was transferred in a state of shock to our hospital to undergo hemostasis for the bleeding. On the day of admission, a selective arteriogram showed extravasation from the left bronchial artery, for which embolization was carried out using Gelfoam. In spite of this treatment, his hemoptysis continued. On the next day, a selective left internal mammary arteriogram showed an arteriovenous fistula between the left internal mammary artery and the left pulmonary vein without any apparent extravasation. The arteriovenous fistula was successfully embolized using platinum fiber coils. The patient no longer demonstrated any hemoptysis after embolization.

  14. Duplicated left pulmonary artery: an unknown disease? Three case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Giudici, Valentina; Kanani, Mazyar; Muthialu, Nagarajan; Carr, Michelle; Calder, Alistair D; Owens, Catherine M; Cook, Andrew C; Marek, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We report three cases of an abnormal finding of duplicated left pulmonary artery: two of these occurring in children with Kabuki syndrome and configuring the setting of a pseudo-pulmonary sling without any clinical or cardiac cross-sectional evidence of tracheal compression. The other case instead represents duplicated left pulmonary artery with pulmonary sling caused by the retro-tracheal course of the lower left pulmonary artery associated with "Christmas Tree" arrangement of the tracheo-bronchial system. In both patients with pseudo-pulmonary sling and Kabuki syndrome, the abnormal finding was incidental during echocardiographic examination and neither of the patients required surgical repair for the condition. To the best of our knowledge, they represent the third and fourth cases in which such an anomaly of the pulmonary artery branches not forming a sling is seen in association with Kabuki syndrome. Another case represents our second experience and the second case reported in literature with duplicated left pulmonary artery in the setting of a complex tracheal anatomy. In this symptomatic patient, surgical repair of atrial septal defect and relief of the vascular ring were indicated, and the surgical repair was performed successfully at the age of 3 years.

  15. Correlation and interventional embolization therapy of posterior intercostal arteries-induced hemoptysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y P; Chen, Y G; Jiang, F; Chen, J M

    2014-06-09

    The incidence of posterior intercostal arteries-induced hemoptysis, its correlation with primary diseases, and the value of interventional embolization therapy were investigated. Clinical data, multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and other imaging data of 143 cases of hemoptysis were retrospectively analyzed. After the offending vessels were subjected to interventional embolization therapy, patients were followed-up for observations of clinical efficacies and complications. Thirty-one patients (21.7%) showed 65 branches of posterior intercostal arteries as the non-bronchial systemic arteries involved in hemoptysis; pleural thickening was evident in 25 (80.6%) cases. Posterior intercostal arteries-induced hemoptysis was observed in 16 of the 27 (59.3%) patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, and in 9 of the 10 (90.0%) patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and pulmonary damage. Posterior intercostal arteries-induced hemoptysis was correlated to pleural thickening (P<0.05), which differed significantly among different underlying diseases (P<0.05). Twenty-eight cases of 58 branches of posterior intercostal arteries were found to be involved in hemoptysis by preoperative chest CT angiogram (CTA); the intraoperative matching rates were 90.3% (28/31) and 89.2% (58/65), respectively. Thirty-one patients received transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE), of which 29 (93.5%) showed immediate hemostasis; 1 case had surgical treatment for ineffectuality, and 2 cases showed recurrence without serious complications. The posterior intercostal arteries were commonly involved in hemoptysis, and were closely associated with pleural thickening and pulmonary tuberculosis, especially when accompanied by pulmonary damage. Complete TAE could improve the treatment effect of hemoptysis and preoperative chest CTA was helpful for interventional embolization therapy.

  16. [Ultrasound imaging of coronary artery].

    PubMed

    Fuse, Shigeto

    2014-09-01

    Coronary arterial anatomy and the terminology were reviewed. There is a specific portion of coronary artery aneurysm in Kawasaki disease. To investigate coronary arterial lesion, ultrasound imaging is useful because of non-invasive, high special and time resolu tion method. I explained the patient posture, the approaching method to the coronary arter ies, ultrasound setting, measurement of coronary arterial diameter and diastolic measurement.

  17. Both bronchial and alveolar exhaled nitric oxide are reduced with extrafine beclomethasone dipropionate in asthma.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, Gabriele; Chetta, Alfredo; Simonazzi, Anna; Tzani, Panayota; Aiello, Marina; Olivieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a noninvasive marker of airway inflammation. Beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) is the only inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) available as both extrafine and nonextrafine hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) formulation. The present study was designed to evaluate whether the different patterns of lung deposition of two HFA BDP formulations are associated with a different effect on bronchial and alveolar NO. This was a prospective double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover study. After a 2-week placebo run-in period without ICSs, asthmatic patients were randomized to extrafine BDP, 100 μg, b.i.d. or nonextrafine BDP, 250 μg, b.i.d. for two 2-week periods separated by a 2-week washout period. Fourteen patients (5 men) with a mean age 37 years and mean baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV₁) of 83% of predicted were analyzed. Exhaled bronchial NO was significantly (p < 0.001) reduced in both treatment groups when compared with the last week of run-in period, whereas alveolar NO was significantly (p < 0.001) reduced only with extrafine BDP. Moreover, extrafine BDP was superior to nonextrafine BDP in both parameters (p < 0.05). Extrafine but not nonextrafine BDP HFA formulation lowers both bronchial and alveolar exhaled NO in asthmatic patients. ICS distribution throughout the whole bronchial tree could be important in patients who do not gain optimal control of inflammation with conventional nonextrafine ICS.

  18. [Expiration of endogenous aerosol in chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma patients].

    PubMed

    Dobrykh, V A

    1987-01-01

    The amount of expired endogenous aerosol in liquid drop and solid phases, 0.1-10.0 micron in diameter, in patients exceeded the normal indices. The nature of solid aerosol particle distribution by sizes was related to a degree of bronchial obstruction. The amount of both types of aerosols showed correlation with the amount of expectorated sputum.

  19. ASBESTOS-INDUCED ACTIVATION OF SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title: Asbestos-Induced Activation of Signaling Pathways in Human
    Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    X. Wang, MD 1, J. M. Samet, PhD 2 and A. J. Ghio, MD 2. 1 Center for
    Environmental Medicine, Asthma and Lung Biology, University of North
    Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, Uni...

  20. On the purported discovery of the bronchial circulation by Leonardo da Vinci.

    PubMed

    Mitzner, W; Wagner, E

    1992-09-01

    Among modern physiologists and anatomists, there has been a nearly universal acceptance that Leonardo da Vinci was the first to identify the anatomy of the bronchial circulation. However, because of certain ambiguities in both his anatomic drawing that was supposed to have shown this circulation and the accompanying descriptive text, we questioned whether he really could have been the first to discover this small but important vasculature. To address this question, we set out to repeat Leonardo's dissections in the ox. We reasoned that perhaps the normally tiny bronchial vessels would be considerably more noticeable in this very large species. Our dissections, however, failed to provide any evidence that Leonardo's drawing was that of the bronchial circulation. Furthermore we observed a set of distinct small pulmonary veins to the left upper and right middle lobes that Leonardo, given his lack of understanding of the function of the lung and its circulation, could have easily mistaken for a separate circulation. We thus conclude that Leonardo da Vinci did not describe the anatomy of the bronchial circulation. We believe that the first person to clearly and unequivocally describe the anatomy of this circulation was the Dutch Professor of Anatomy and Botany, Frederich Ruysch.

  1. Role Of Hif2α Oxygen Sensing Pathway In Bronchial Epithelial Club Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Capelli, Mar; Marsboom, Glenn; Li, Qilong Oscar Yang; Tello, Daniel; Rodriguez, Florinda Melendez; Alonso, Tamara; Sanchez-Madrid, Francisco; García-Rio, Francisco; Ancochea, Julio; Aragonés, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen-sensing pathways executed by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) induce a cellular adaptive program when oxygen supply becomes limited. However, the role of the HIF oxygen-sensing pathway in the airway response to hypoxic stress in adulthood remains poorly understood. Here we found that in vivo exposure to hypoxia led to a profound increase in bronchial epithelial cell proliferation mainly confined to Club (Clara) cells. Interestingly, this response was executed by hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF2α), which controls the expression of FoxM1, a recognized proliferative factor of Club cells. Furthermore, HIF2α induced the expression of the resistin-like molecules α and β (RELMα and β), previously considered bronchial epithelial growth factors. Importantly, despite the central role of HIF2α, this proliferative response was not initiated by in vivo Vhl gene inactivation or pharmacological inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase oxygen sensors, indicating the molecular complexity of this response and the possible participation of other oxygen-sensing pathways. Club cells are principally involved in protection and maintenance of bronchial epithelium. Thus, our findings identify a novel molecular link between HIF2α and Club cell biology that can be regarded as a new HIF2α-dependent mechanism involved in bronchial epithelium adaptation to oxygen fluctuations. PMID:27150457

  2. Bronchial thermoplasty: a novel treatment for severe asthma requiring monitored anesthesia care.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jamille A; Rowen, David W; Rose, David D

    2011-12-01

    Dexmedetomidine used in monitored anesthesia care produces a safe and effective technique well documented in research. We report the successful use of dexmedetomidine for sedation during bronchial thermoplasty, a new treatment for patients with severe persistent asthma refractory to inhaled corticosteroids and long-term beta-2 agonists. PMID:22400414

  3. Bronchial and cardiac beta-adrenoceptor blockade--a comparison of atenolol, acebutolol and labetalol.

    PubMed Central

    Gribbin, H R; Mackay, A D; Baldwin, C J; Tattersfield, A E

    1981-01-01

    Bronchial and cardiac beta-adrenoceptor blockade have been compared in six normal subjects after three beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. Single and double doses of atenolol (50 and 100 mg), acebutolol (100 and 200 mg) and labetalolol (150 and 300 mg) were studied on separate occasions. 2 Salbutamol airway dose-response curves were obtained by measuring the airway response as the change in specific airway conductance (sGaw) after increasing doses of inhaled salbutamol. Bronchial beta-adrenoceptor blockade was assessed after each drug as the dose of salbutamol needed to cause a 50% increase in sGaw (sGaw D50). 3 Cardiac beta-adrenoceptor blockade was assessed after the same doses of each beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, by measuring the percentage reduction in exercise heart rate from control, after exercise for 5 min at 70% of the subject's maximum work rate. 4 Atenolol 50 and 100 mg caused least bronchial beta-adrenoceptor blockade and the greatest reduction in exercise heart rate. 5 Acebutolol 100 and 200 mg and labetalol 150 and 300 mg produced more bronchial beta-adrenoceptor blockade than atenolol. 6 With this approach new beta-adrenoceptor antagonists can be assessed without putting asthmatic patients at risk. PMID:6264936

  4. Adenosine dry powder inhalation for bronchial challenge testing, part 2: proof of concept in asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed

    Lexmond, Anne J; van der Wiel, Erica; Hagedoorn, Paul; Bult, Wouter; Frijlink, Henderik W; ten Hacken, Nick H T; de Boer, Anne H

    2014-09-01

    Adenosine is an indirect stimulus to assess bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR(2)) in asthma. Bronchial challenge tests are usually performed with nebulised solutions of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP(3)). The nebulised AMP test has several disadvantages, like long administration times and a restrictive maximum concentration that does not result in BHR in all patients. In this study, we investigated the applicability of dry powder adenosine for assessment of BHR in comparison to nebulised AMP. Dry powder adenosine was prepared in doubling doses (0.01-80 mg) derived from the nebulised AMP test with addition of two higher doses. Five asthmatic subjects performed two bronchial challenge tests, one with nebulised AMP following the 2-min tidal breathing method; the second with dry powder adenosine administered with an investigational inhaler and single slow inhalations (inspiratory flow rate 30-40 L/min). All subjects reached a 20% fall in FEV₁(4) with the new adenosine test (PD20(5)) compared to four subjects with the AMP test (PC₂₀(6)). Dry powder adenosine was well tolerated by all subjects and better appreciated than nebulised AMP. In conclusion, this new bronchial challenge test appears to be a safe and convenient alternative to the nebulised AMP test to assess BHR in asthmatic subjects.

  5. Lung function and bronchial reactivity in asthmatics during exposure to volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Harving, H.; Dahl, R.; Molhave, L. )

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether vapors of organic solvents at low concentrations could exert an adverse effect in the lower airways. Under controlled conditions in a climate chamber, 11 persons with bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine and bronchial asthma were exposed for 90 min to a mixture of organic solvents at levels of zero, 2.5, and 25 mg/m3. During exposure to 25 mg/m3 a decrease in FEV1 to 90.7% of baseline value was measured. This was significantly different from the initial value (p less than 0.05), but not significantly different from the value found after sham exposure (FEV1, 97.4% of initial value). The decline in FEV1 during exposure to 25 mg/m3 was most pronounced in persons with high bronchial sensitivity. No changes were found in histamine reactivity after exposure, and no late reactions were registered. Ratings of discomfort showed different individual patterns ranging from no response to reactions towards both of the concentrations. The ratings indicated development of tolerance during exposure. Volatile organic compounds in concentrations found in both the work and the home environments may influence lung function and are probably of importance as bronchial irritants.

  6. CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION DURING DIFFERENTIATION OF CULTURED HUMAN PRIMARY BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary airway epithelial cell cultures are a useful tool for the in vitro study of normal bronchial cell differentiation and function, airway disease mechanisms, and pathogens and toxin response. Growth of these cells at an air-liquid interface for several days results in the f...

  7. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF NORMAL HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO TRIVALENT ARSENICALS AND DIMETHYLTHIOARSINIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lung is a major target for arsenic carcinogenesis in humans. However, the carcinogenic mode of action of arsenicals is unknown. We investigated, in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS2B) cells, the effects of inorganic arsenic (iAsIII), monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII), dimethylarsi...

  8. 77 FR 26016 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; Alair Bronchial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... Patents and Trademarks, Department of Commerce, for the extension of a patent which claims that medical... dated February 17, 2011, FDA advised the Patent and Trademark Office that this medical device had... Patent Extension; Alair Bronchial Thermoplasty System AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS....

  9. Azithromycin induces anti-viral effects in cultured bronchial epithelial cells from COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Mandy; Akbarshahi, Hamid; Bjermer, Leif; Uller, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Rhinovirus infection is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and may contribute to the development into severe stages of COPD. The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin may exert anti-viral actions and has been reported to reduce exacerbations in COPD. However, little is known about its anti-viral actions on bronchial epithelial cells at clinically relevant concentrations. Primary bronchial epithelial cells from COPD donors and healthy individuals were treated continuously with azithromycin starting 24 h before infection with rhinovirus RV16. Expression of interferons, RIG-I like helicases, pro-inflammatory cytokines and viral load were analysed. Azithromycin transiently increased expression of IFNβ and IFNλ1 and RIG-I like helicases in un-infected COPD cells. Further, azithromycin augmented RV16-induced expression of interferons and RIG-I like helicases in COPD cells but not in healthy epithelial cells. Azithromycin also decreased viral load. However, it only modestly altered RV16-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Adding budesonide did not reduce interferon-inducing effects of azithromycin. Possibly by inducing expression of RIG-I like helicases, azithromycin increased rhinovirus-induced expression of interferons in COPD but not in healthy bronchial epithelium. These effects would reduce bronchial viral load, supporting azithromycin’s emerging role in prevention of exacerbations of COPD. PMID:27350308

  10. Proposed Design of a Clinical Information System for the Management of Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Huq, S; Karras, BT; Wright, J; Lober, WB; Lozano, P; Zimmerman, FJ

    2002-01-01

    This poster categorizes the various applications to aid the management of Pediatric Bronchial Asthma. An attempt is made at classifying the various informatics approaches in this domain. Later, the approach of the proposed Asthma CAMS (Computer Aided Management System) project, being developed by the Child Health Institute and Clinical Informatics Research Group www.cirg.washington.edu at the University of Washington, is discussed.

  11. Cavitary lung cancer lined with normal bronchial epithelium and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Goto, Taichiro; Maeshima, Arafumi; Oyamada, Yoshitaka; Kato, Ryoichi

    2011-01-01

    Reports of cavitary lung cancer are not uncommon, and the cavity generally contains either dilated bronchi or cancer cells. Recently, we encountered a surgical case of cavitary lung cancer whose cavity tended to enlarge during long-term follow-up, and was found to be lined with normal bronchial epithelium and adenocarcinoma cells. PMID:21980325

  12. Use of high kilovoltage filtered beam radiographs for detection of bronchial situs in infants and young children.

    PubMed Central

    Deanfield, J E; Leanage, R; Stroobant, J; Chrispin, A R; Taylor, J F; Macartney, F J

    1980-01-01

    Determination of atrial situs is of cardinal importance in the analysis of complex congenital heart lesions, and is best predicted from bronchial situs. Previous methods for assessing bronchial morphology, however, are unsuited to the very young patient. To assess bronchial morphology, 100 consecutive patients under 18 months of age (medium 57.5 days) with suspected congenital heart disease were studied by high kilovoltage filtered beam radiographs, before cardiac catheterisation. This low radiation dose technique clearly defined bronchial anatomy in 95 patients. The lengths of the left and right main bronchi were compared and 10 cases (10%) had a ratio less than 1.5 suggesting bronchial isomerism. Discriminant function analysis based on tracheal width and bronchial length enabled clear distinction of right from left bronchi. Four patients had bilateral right and six had bilateral left bronchi. Four of these 10 cases died and had necropsy confirmation of the radiological diagnosis. Practical prediction about cardiac anatomy, particularly the systemic and pulmonary venous return, may be made when bronchial morphology is known. Images PMID:7437200

  13. Residual disease at the bronchial stump after curative resection for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wind, Jan; Smit, Egbert J; Senan, Suresh; Eerenberg, Jan-Peter

    2007-07-01

    The most important surgical goal during potentially curative surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a macroscopic and microscopic radical resection (R0-resection). Studies reporting on recurrence and long-term survival mainly comprise patients with completely resected NSCLC (R0-resection). However, there is limited data on incidence, treatment and prognosis of patients with microscopic residual tumour tissue at the bronchial resection margin (R1-resection). Furthermore, the definition of an R1-resection of the bronchial resection margin is not uniform in literature. Based on 19 studies published between 1945 and 2003 with a substantial number of included patients with resected NSCLC, the incidence of an R1-resection of the bronchial resection margin is approximately 4-5% (range 1.2-17%) of all lung resections. Divided into the localisation of the microscopic residual disease, survival of patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS) at the bronchial resection margin is comparable to the survival after a radical resection. The prognosis is negatively influenced in case of microscopic mucosal residual disease. Survival is even worse in patients with peribronchial residual disease; 1- and 5-year survivals range between 20-50% and 0-20%, respectively. This poor prognosis is because peribronchial residual disease, in 75-85% of the patients, is associated with mediastinal lymph node metastasis. According to the stage, survival of patients with stage I and II NSCLC and an R1-resection of the bronchial resection margin is significantly worse as compared to stage-corrected survival after a radical resection. In these patients, survival is limited due to local recurrence. The negative effect of an R1-resection of the bronchial margin in stage III NSCLC is limited, as these patients die due to disseminated disease (distant metastasis) before local recurrence occurs. A conservative approach with frequent bronchoscopic surveillance is justified for CIS. For patients with

  14. Effect of TRPV1 gene mutation on bronchial asthma in children before and after treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuan-Liang; Li, Hong; Xing, Xiao-Hong; Guan, Hai-Shan; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Zhao, Jun-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a worldwide disease with high incidence. It not only harms children's physical and mental health, but it also brings a heavy burden to their families as well as the society. However, the trigger and pathogenesis of the disease remain unclear. This study aimed to analyze TRPV1 gene mutation and expression of cytokines in children with acute bronchial asthma before and after treatment, thus providing theoretical guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of bronchial asthma in children. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was adopted to detect TRPV1 mRNA expression level and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay was used to detect the serum total IgE level, eosinophil (EOS) number, IL-4, IL-5, and interferon (IFN) gamma levels in peripheral venous blood of children in the healthy control group and asthma group before and after treatment. Logistic regression analysis was applied to analyze the most essential factor inducing bronchial asthma in children. TRPV1 mRNA level of peripheral blood in the asthma group was higher than that in the control group before treatment (p < 0.01). The IL-4, IL-5, and EOS levels in serum were markedly higher than those in the control group (p < 0.01), whereas the IFN-gamma level was lower than that in the control group (p < 0.01). After conventional treatment, TRPV1 mRNA level increased significantly (p < 0.01). The levels of serum IL-4, IL-5, and EOS were significantly lower than those before treatment (p < 0.01), whereas, IFN-gamma level was higher than that before treatment (p < 0.01). Compared with that before treatment, the expression level of IgE showed a significant decrease after treatment (p < 0.01). The results of logistic regression analysis indicated that TRPV1 expression level, IL-4 level, and rs4790522 site mutation were the main risk factors inducing bronchial asthma in children. TRPV1 gene mutation was closely related to bronchial asthma in children, which provided a theoretical basis for the

  15. Bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: research activity in Arab countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic respiratory diseases, like bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are a worldwide health problem. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of asthma and COPD-related research from Arab countries has not been explored and there are few internationally published reports on such field. The main objectives of this study were to analyze research output originating from Arab countries in the field of bronchial asthma and COPD. Methods Original scientific articles or reviews published from the 22 Arab countries were screened using specific words pertaining to asthma and COPD using Scopus database and search engine. Research productivity was evaluated based on: (a) total and trends of contribution of each Arab country to asthma and COPD research and (b) journals in which researchers from Arab countries published their research. Results The total number of original research and review articles published globally about bronchial asthma and COPD was 163,964. The leading country in bronchial asthma and COPD research was United States of America (38,632; 23.56%). Worldwide, Turkey ranked 19th while Israel and Iran ranked 25th and 29th respectively. Among Arab countries, Egypt and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia came on positions 39th and 43rd, respectively. A total of 1,304 documents about bronchial asthma and COPD were published from Arab countries which represents 0.8% of the global research output. Research in bronchial asthma was almost double that in COPD. Research from Arab countries was low and showed a significant increase after 2000. Approximately 12% of research activity in asthma and COPD from Arab countries was published in Saudi Medical Journal, Annals of Saudi Medicine, Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal and Tunisie Medicale. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with a total publication of 353 (27.07%) ranked first among the Arab countries while University of Kuwait was the most productive institution with a total of 123 (9

  16. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    MedlinePlus

    ... legs; Arterial insufficiency of the legs; Recurrent leg pain and cramping; Calf pain with exercise ... The main symptoms of PAD are pain, achiness, fatigue, burning, or ... or thighs. These symptoms most often appear during walking or ...

  17. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Smoking and Your ... in the body's arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis . Over time, plaque can harden and narrow the ...

  18. Coronary artery anomalies.

    PubMed

    Earls, James P

    2006-12-01

    Coronary artery anomalies are uncommon findings but can be of significant clinical importance in a small number of individuals. Clinical presentation depends on the specific anomaly. Most coronary artery anomalies are benign and clinically insignificant, however, some anomalies are potentially significant and can lead to heart failure and even death. Noninvasive imaging has emerged as the preferred way to image coronary anomalies. Both electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) are useful for the diagnosis of anomalous coronary arteries. Recently, MDCT has also proven to be very useful in the detection and characterization of anomalous coronary arteries. This chapter will review the appearance of the most commonly encountered coronary anomalies on MDCT. PMID:17709086

  19. Renal arteries (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A renal angiogram is a test used to examine the blood vessels of the kidneys. The test is performed ... main vessel of the pelvis, up to the renal artery that leads into the kidney. Contrast medium ...

  20. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  1. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... t help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new path for blood to flow ... more than one bypass. The results of the surgery usually are excellent. Many people remain symptom-free ...

  2. Retinal artery occlusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... eds. Textbook of Family Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 17. Duker JS. Retinal arterial ... M, Duker JS, eds. Ophthalmology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2014:chap 6.18. Reiss GR, Sipperley ...

  3. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... ve started to help the medicine work. Other Organizations American Heart Association Questions to Ask Your Doctor Am I at risk for coronary artery disease (CAD)? What lifestyle changes should I make to decrease my risk of ...

  4. Expression of mRNA for interleukin-5 in mucosal bronchial biopsies from asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Q; Azzawi, M; Ying, S; Moqbel, R; Wardlaw, A J; Corrigan, C J; Bradley, B; Durham, S R; Collins, J V; Jeffery, P K

    1991-01-01

    We have attempted to identify mRNA for IL-5 in endobronchial mucosal biopsies from asthmatics and controls, using the technique of in situ hybridization. Bronchial biopsies were obtained from 10 asthmatics and 9 nonatopic normal controls. A radio-labeled cRNA probe was prepared from an IL-5 cDNA and hybridized to permeabilized sections. These were washed extensively before processing for autoradiography. An IL-5-producing T cell clone derived from a patient with the hyper-IgE syndrome was used as a positive control. As a negative control, sections were also treated with a "sense" IL-5 probe. Specific hybridization signals for IL-5 mRNA were demonstrated within the bronchial mucosa in 6 out of the 10 asthmatic subjects. Cells exhibiting hybridization signals were located beneath the epithelial basement membrane. In contrast, there was no hybridization in the control group. No hybridization was observed with the sense probe. The six IL-5 mRNA-positive asthmatics tended to have more severe disease than the negative asthmatics, as assessed by symptoms and lung function, and showed a significant increase in the degree of infiltration of the bronchial mucosa by secreting (EG2+) eosinophils and activated (CD25+) T lymphocytes. Within the subjects who showed positive IL-5 mRNA, there was a correlation between IL-5 mRNA expression and the number of CD25+ and EG2+ cells and total eosinophil count. This study provides evidence for the cellular localization of IL-5 mRNA in the bronchial mucosa of asthmatics and supports the concept that this cytokine regulates eosinophil function in bronchial asthma. Images PMID:2022726

  5. Determination of lung segments in computed tomography images using the Euclidean distance to the pulmonary artery

    SciTech Connect

    Stoecker, Christina; Moltz, Jan H.; Lassen, Bianca; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Krass, Stefan; Welter, Stefan; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Computed tomography (CT) imaging is the modality of choice for lung cancer diagnostics. With the increasing number of lung interventions on sublobar level in recent years, determining and visualizing pulmonary segments in CT images and, in oncological cases, reliable segment-related information about the location of tumors has become increasingly desirable. Computer-assisted identification of lung segments in CT images is subject of this work.Methods: The authors present a new interactive approach for the segmentation of lung segments that uses the Euclidean distance of each point in the lung to the segmental branches of the pulmonary artery. The aim is to analyze the potential of the method. Detailed manual pulmonary artery segmentations are used to achieve the best possible segment approximation results. A detailed description of the method and its evaluation on 11 CT scans from clinical routine are given.Results: An accuracy of 2–3 mm is measured for the segment boundaries computed by the pulmonary artery-based method. On average, maximum deviations of 8 mm are observed. 135 intersegmental pulmonary veins detected in the 11 test CT scans serve as reference data. Furthermore, a comparison of the presented pulmonary artery-based approach to a similar approach that uses the Euclidean distance to the segmental branches of the bronchial tree is presented. It shows a significantly higher accuracy for the pulmonary artery-based approach in lung regions at least 30 mm distal to the lung hilum.Conclusions: A pulmonary artery-based determination of lung segments in CT images is promising. In the tests, the pulmonary artery-based determination has been shown to be superior to the bronchial tree-based determination. The suitability of the segment approximation method for application in the planning of segment resections in clinical practice has already been verified in experimental cases. However, automation of the method accompanied by an evaluation on a larger

  6. [Splenic artery aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Colović, R; Davidović, L; Bilanović, D; Krivokapić, Z; Grubor, N; Cvetković, S; Radak, V; Marković, M

    2006-01-01

    Although the third most frequent aneurysm in the abdomen, after aneurysms of the aorta and iliac arteries, and most frequent aneurisms of visceral arteries, splenic artery aneurysms are rare, but not very rare. Thanks to the new imaging techniques, first of all ultrasonography, they have been discovered with increasing frequency. We present a series of 9 splenic artery aneurysms. Seven patients were female and two male of average age 49 years (ranging from 28 to 75 years). The majority of afected women were multiparae, with average 3 children (ranging from 1 to 6). One patient had a subacute rupture, and 2 had ruptures into the splenic vein causing portal hypertension. The spleen was enlarged in 7 out of 9 patients. The average size of aneurysms was 3,2 cm (ranging from 2 to 8 cm). The preoperative diagnosis of splenic artery aneurysm was established in 6 patients while in 3 patients aneurism was accidentally found during other operations, during splenectomy in 2, and during the excision of a retroperitoneal tumour in 1 patient. Aneurysmectomy was carried out in 7 patients, while a ligation of the incoming and outcoming wessels was performed in 2 patients with arteriovenous fistula. Splenectomy was performed in 6 patients, while pancreatic tail resection, cholecystectomy and excision of the retroperitoneal tumor were performed in 3 patients. Additional resection of the abdominal aortic aneurysm with reconstruction of aortoiliac segment was performed in 2 patients. There were no mortality and the postoperative recovery was uneventful in all patients. PMID:16989145

  7. Blood Flow in Arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, David N.

    Blood flow in arteries is dominated by unsteady flow phenomena. The cardiovascular system is an internal flow loop with multiple branches in which a complex liquid circulates. A nondimensional frequency parameter, the Womersley number, governs the relationship between the unsteady and viscous forces. Normal arterial flow is laminar with secondary flows generated at curves and branches. The arteries are living organs that can adapt to and change with the varying hemodynamic conditions. In certain circumstances, unusual hemodynamic conditions create an abnormal biological response. Velocity profile skewing can create pockets in which the direction of the wall shear stress oscillates. Atherosclerotic disease tends to be localized in these sites and results in a narrowing of the artery lumena stenosis. The stenosis can cause turbulence and reduce flow by means of viscous head losses and flow choking. Very high shear stresses near the throat of the stenosis can activate platelets and thereby induce thrombosis, which can totally block blood flow to the heart or brain. Detection and quantification of stenosis serve as the basis for surgical intervention. In the future, the study of arterial blood flow will lead to the prediction of individual hemodynamic flows in any patient, the development of diagnostic tools to quantify disease, and the design of devices that mimic or alter blood flow. This field is rich with challenging problems in fluid mechanics involving three-dimensional, pulsatile flows at the edge of turbulence.

  8. Coronary Artery Imaging in Children

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery problems in children usually have a significant impact on both short-term and long-term outcomes. Early and accurate diagnosis, therefore, is crucial but technically challenging due to the small size of the coronary artery, high heart rates, and limited cooperation of children. Coronary artery visibility on CT and MRI in children is considerably improved with recent technical advancements. Consequently, CT and MRI are increasingly used for evaluating various congenital and acquired coronary artery abnormalities in children, such as coronary artery anomalies, aberrant coronary artery anatomy specific to congenital heart disease, Kawasaki disease, Williams syndrome, and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. PMID:25741188

  9. Understanding Arteries | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Understanding Arteries Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Below: ... the arteries and veins are healthy. A Healthy Artery An artery is a muscular tube. It has ...

  10. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Spontaneous Rupture of the Omental Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Yamagami, Takuji; Morishita, Hiroyuki; Iida, Shigeharu; Tazoe, Jun; Asai, Shunsuke; Masui, Koji; Ikeda, Jun; Nagata, Akihiro; Sato, Osamu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2011-02-15

    We encountered a rare case of spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. A 25-year-old man without any episode of abdominal trauma or bleeding disorders came to the emergency unit with left upper abdominal pain. Hematoma with extravasation of the greater omentum and a hemoperitoneum was confirmed on abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Bleeding from the omental artery was suspected based on these findings. Transcatheter arterial embolization was successfully performed after extravasation of the omental artery, which arises from the left gastroepiploic artery, was confirmed on arteriography. Partial ometectomy was performed 10 days after transcatheter arterial embolization, revealing that the hematoma measured 10 cm in diameter in the greater omentum. Pathological examination showed rupture of the branch of an omental artery without abnormal findings, such as an aneurysm or neoplasm. Thus, we diagnosed him with spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. The patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital 10 days after the surgery, with a favorable postoperative course.

  11. Brachial Artery Access for Percutaneous Renal Artery Interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaukanen, Erkki T.; Manninen, Hannu I.; Matsi, Pekka J.; Soeder, Heini K.

    1997-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the suitability of transbrachial access for endovascular renal artery interventions. Methods: During 37 consecutive endovascular renal artery interventions, the transbrachial approach was used on nine patients (mean age 63 years; range 41-76 years) for 11 renal artery procedures on native kidneys and one percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) on a transplanted kidney. The reason for using transbrachial access was a steep aorta-renal angle in five, and severe aorta-iliac atherosclerosis in the remaining patients. In addition to the intervention catheter in the left brachial artery, an additional nonselective catheter for controlling the procedure was inserted transfemorally (six patients) or via the contralateral brachial artery. Results: Eleven interventions (six PTAs, five stents) were successfully completed. The one failure resulted from impenetrable subclavian artery stenosis. The only major complication was a brachial artery pseudoaneurysm requiring surgical treatment. Conclusion: Transbrachial access is an effective and relatively safe technique for renal artery interventions when transfemoral access is not possible.

  12. Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Response to Heavy Particle Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Minna, John; Park, Seong-mi; Peyton, Michael; Larsen, Jill

    2012-07-01

    A battery of non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) are being used to examine the molecular changes that lead to lung carcinogenesis after exposure to heavy particles found in the free space environment. The goal is to ultimately identify biomarkers of radioresponse that can be used for prediction of carcinogenic risk for fatal lung cancer. Our initial studies have focused on the cell line HBEC3 KT and the isogenic variant HBEC3 KTR53, which overexpresses the RASv12 mutant and where p53 has been knocked down by shRNA, and is considered to be a more oncogenically progressed variant. We have previously described the response of HBEC3 KT at the cellular and molecular level, however, the focus here is on the rate of cellular transformation after HZE radiation exposure and the molecular changes in transformed cells. When comparing the two cell lines we find that there is a maximum rate of cellular transformation at 0.25 Gy when cells are exposed to 1 GeV Fe particles, and, for the HBEC3 KTR53 there are multiple pathways upregulated that promote anchorage independent growth including the mTOR pathway, the TGF-1 pathway, RhoA signaling and the ERK/MAPK pathway as early as 2 weeks after radiation. This does not occur in the HBEC3 KT cell line. Transformed HBEC3 KT cells do not show any morphologic or phenotypic changes when grown as cell cultures. HBEC3 KTR53 cells on the other hand show substantial changes in morphology from a cobblestone epithelial appearance to a mesenchymal appearance with a lack of contact inhibition. This epithelial to mesenchymal change in morphology is accompanied by the expression of vimentin and a reduction in the expression of E-cadherin, which are hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Interestingly, for HBEC3 KT transformed cells there are no mutations in the p53 gene, 2 of 15 clones were found to be heterozygous for the RASV12 mutation, and 3 of 15 clones expressed high levels of BigH3, a TGFB

  13. Mechanisms of aldehyde-induced bronchial reactivity: Role of airway epithelium. Research report, July 1986-January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Leikauf, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether exposures to environmentally relevant concentrations of two aldehydes of low molecular weight were associated with impaired airway function. Specifically, the study addressed questions of the relative irritant potency of formaldehyde and acrolein on the induction of increased bronchial reactivity to acetylcholine in guinea pigs. The relationship of bronchial reactivity to epithelial damage and inflammation were also examined after both in vivo and in vitro exposures.

  14. Arterial hypertension and cancer.

    PubMed

    Milan, Alberto; Puglisi, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Laura; Bruno, Giulia; Losano, Isabel; Veglio, Franco

    2014-05-15

    Arterial hypertension and cancer are two of the most important causes of mortality in the world; correlations between these two clinical entities are complex and various. Cancer therapy using old (e.g., mitotic spindle poisons) as well as new (e.g., monoclonal antibody) drugs may cause arterial hypertension through different mechanisms; sometimes the increase of blood pressure levels may be responsible for chemotherapy withdrawal. Among newer cancer therapies, drugs interacting with the VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factors) pathways are the most frequently involved in hypertension development. However, many retrospective studies have suggested a relationship between antihypertensive treatment and risk of cancer, raising vast public concern. The purposes of this brief review have then been to analyse the role of chemotherapy in the pathogenesis of hypertension, to summarize the general rules of arterial hypertension management in this field and finally to evaluate the effects of antihypertensive therapy on cancer disease.

  15. Prominent gastroduodenal artery: Endosonographic sign of celiac artery stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Gonen, Can; Sürmelioğlu, Ali; Tilki, Metin; Kiliçoğlu, Gamze

    2016-01-01

    Celiac artery (CA) stenosis is a relatively common finding in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). In the presence of CA stenosis, arterial blood supply to the celiac territory is usually sustained from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) through well-developed collaterals. In this paper, the authors report endosonographically identified prominent gastroduodenal artery as the sign of CA stenosis for the first time. Uncovering previously unidentified vascular abnormality, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has improved patient management. The patient had uneventful collateral preserving PD. PMID:27803908

  16. Bronchial aspirates glucose level as indicator for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in intubated mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Alsayed, Sherif; Marzouk, Samar; Mousa, Essam; Ragab, Ashraf

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated if the level of glucose in bronchial aspirate serves as indicator for the risk of MRSA infection in intubated mechanically ventilated ICU patients. A total of 50 critically ill patients was enrolled and were under tight glycemic control to abolish the effect of hyperglycemia on bronchial secretion, if they were expected to require mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours. Bronchial aspirates were detected for glucose and sent twice weekly for microbiological analysis and whenever an MRSA was expected. The results showed that all the patients had glucose tested in bronchial aspirates. Glucose was detected in bronchial aspirates of 28 of the 50 patients. Glucose in bronchial aspirates in these patients ranged between (2.9-5.1 mmol/l). MRSA was detected in 22 patients where 28 were MRSA free of the MRSA patients 19 had positive glucose where glucose was positive in 28 patients of them 19 (86.4%) where MRSA positive to 9 with no MRSA (32.1%).The risk of having MRSA present markedly increased significantly in the presence of glucose: (p value .001). PMID:25597152

  17. Harvesting the radial artery

    PubMed Central

    Osterday, Robert M.; Brodman, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    The radial artery (RA) has emerged as an important arterial graft for coronary bypass surgery. With improving five-year patency rates and increasing uptake, great attention has been focused on the optimal conduit harvesting technique. We herein present our approach to RA harvesting. Prerequisites of a successful harvest include adherence to important anatomical landmarks, protection of the sensory innervation to the volar forearm, and meticulous handling of the RA branches. Regardless of the harvesting methodology chosen, adherence to a “no-touch” technique will optimize the patency and durability of the RA conduit. PMID:23977633

  18. About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes and medication . View an animation of atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis and PAD Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up ... of an artery. PAD is usually caused by atherosclerosis in the peripheral arteries (or outer regions away ...

  19. Peripheral Arterial Disease and Claudication

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fatty deposits inside them. This is called atherosclerosis. If you have PAD, your arms, and more ... also more likely in people who already have atherosclerosis in other arteries, such as the arteries in ...

  20. [Air pollution and the prevalence of bronchial asthma among the pediatric population of Moscow].

    PubMed

    Revich, B A

    1995-01-01

    The article presents results of descriptive epidemiologic study of bronchial asthma among children in Moscow where the incidence is steadily growing. Since 1947 average prevalence of bronchial asthma in Moscow has increased over 7 times, being considerably uneven over the territory. The average prevalence equals 6.9/1,000, but on 56% of the territory it is double higher. Sites of the higher occurrence are localized in the living area situated near the Zoo, horse races, perfume factory and other enterprises, near major automobile roads. Statistic analysis of the prevalence if correlated with concentrations of pollutants in the air proved that nitrogen oxides induce 60% of the cases. No differences in some risk factors (heredity, living conditions, etc.) were revealed by the poll among families of the ailing children residing in the districts with variable air pollution. The results helped to restructure pediatric allergologic service in the city.

  1. SATB2 expression increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng; Jordan, Ashley; Kluz, Thomas; Shen, Steven; Sun, Hong; Cartularo, Laura A; Costa, Max

    2016-02-15

    The special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a protein that binds to the nuclear matrix attachment region of the cell and regulates gene expression by altering chromatin structure. In our previous study, we reported that SATB2 gene expression was induced in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells transformed by arsenic, chromium, nickel and vanadium. In this study, we show that ectopic expression of SATB2 in the normal human bronchial epithelial cell-line BEAS-2B increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration, meanwhile, shRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB2 significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth in Ni transformed BEAS-2B cells. RNA sequencing analyses of SATB2 regulated genes revealed the enrichment of those involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and cell-movement pathways. Our evidence supports the hypothesis that SATB2 plays an important role in BEAS-2B cell transformation. PMID:26780400

  2. Bronchial provocation tests in small animals: a quantified and automated procedure.

    PubMed

    Chauveau, M; Leroy, M; Le Gall, G; Lockhart, A

    1992-08-01

    Bronchial provocation tests using aerosols in laboratory animals are difficult to standardize and quantify, because the amount of drug actually reaching the airways is unknown. To improve the quantification of aerosolized inhaled stimuli, we designed an apparatus that allows, in anesthetized intubated ventilated animals, control of temperature and hygrometry of inspired air, computerized measurement of pulmonary resistance, and fully automated delivery of a known amount of aerosolized drug directly into the trachea. Calibration of the aerosol delivery involved direct measurement of liquid delivered at the tip of the tracheal cannula. Despite all our efforts at standardization and full automation of all steps, reproducibility of aerosol delivery was poor, with stroke-by-stroke differences of 26 or 42%, according to whether an air-jet or an ultrasonic nebulizer was used. Histamine dose-response curves performed in 15 guinea pigs with this device confirmed marked differences among animals and also disclosed large intraindividual changes in bronchial responsiveness.

  3. Polypoid bronchial lesions due to Scedosporium apiospermum in a patient with Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Murayama, T; Amitani, R; Tsuyuguchi, K; Watanabe, I; Kimoto, T; Suzuki, K; Tanaka, E; Kamei, K; Nishimura, K

    1998-09-01

    A 69 yr old female was hospitalized for further examination of abnormal shadows on chest radiographs. She had a history of tuberculous pleurisy, rheumatoid arthritis and gold-induced interstitial pneumonia. On admission she still suffered from rheumatoid arthritis. A chest computed tomography scan on admission showed clusters of small nodules in subpleural regions of both lungs combined with bronchiectasis. Mycobacterium avium complex was cultured repeatedly from the sputum. Bronchoscopic examination disclosed white-yellow polypoid lesions in the orifice of the left B4 bronchus. Cultures of the brushing specimen of the polypoid lesions and bronchial aspirates from the B4 bronchus yielded smoky-grey mycelial colonies that were later identified as Scedosporium apiospermum. It was concluded that the polypoid bronchial lesions due to Scedosporium apiospermum were formed in the preexisting dilated bronchus caused by Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease. PMID:9762808

  4. Gene expression analysis uncovers novel Hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) effects in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaobo; Qiu, Weiliang; Sathirapongsasuti, J. Fah.; Cho, Michael H.; Mancini, John D.; Lao, Taotao; Thibault, Derek M.; Litonjua, Gus; Bakke, Per S.; Gulsvik, Amund; Lomas, David A.; Beaty, Terri H.; Hersh, Craig P.; Anderson, Christopher; Geigenmuller, Ute; Raby, Benjamin A.; Rennard, Stephen I.; Perrella, Mark A.; Choi, Augustine M.K.; Quackenbush, John; Silverman, Edwin K.

    2013-01-01

    Hedgehog Interacting Protein (HHIP) was implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, it remains unclear how HHIP contributes to COPD pathogenesis. To identify genes regulated by HHIP, we performed gene expression microarray analysis in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) stably infected with HHIP shRNAs. HHIP silencing led to differential expression of 296 genes; enrichment for variants nominally associated with COPD was found. Eighteen of the differentially expressed genes were validated by real-time PCR in Beas-2B cells. Seven of 11 validated genes tested in human COPD and control lung tissues demonstrated significant gene expression differences. Functional annotation indicated enrichment for extracellular matrix and cell growth genes. Network modeling demonstrated that the extracellular matrix and cell proliferation genes influenced by HHIP tended to be interconnected. Thus, we identified potential HHIP targets in human bronchial epithelial cells that may contribute to COPD pathogenesis. PMID:23459001

  5. Diagnosis and endoscopic treatment of esophago-bronchial fistula due to gastric heterotopy

    PubMed Central

    Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Christodoulou, Dimitrios K; Kamina, Sevasti; Maria, Kosmidou; Lambri, Evangelia; Theodorou, Stavroula; Tsampoulas, Konstantinos; Vasiliki, Mitsi; Tsianos, Epameinondas V

    2010-01-01

    Heterotopic gastric mucosa patches are congenital gastrointestinal abnormalities and have been reported to occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus. Complications of heterotopic gastric mucosa include dysphagia, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, upper esophageal ring stricture, adenocarcinoma and fistula formation. In this case report we describe the diagnosis and treatment of the first case of esophago-bronchial fistula due to heterotopic gastric mucosa in mid esophagus. A 40-year old former professional soccer player was referred to our department for treatment of an esophago-bronchial fistula. Microscopic examination of the biopsies taken from the esophageal fistula revealed the presence of gastric heterotopic mucosa. We decided to do a non-surgical therapeutic endoscopic procedure. A sclerotherapy catheter was inserted through which 1 mL of ready to use synthetic surgical glue was applied in the fistula and it closed the fistula opening with excellent results. PMID:21160729

  6. T-cell and macrophage subsets in the bronchial wall of clinically healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Power, C K; Burke, C M; Sreenan, S; Hurson, B; Poulter, L W

    1994-03-01

    This study was conducted to obtain quantitative data on the numbers of T-cells and macrophage subsets in the normal bronchial wall of man, and, thus, produce a baseline against which the numbers of these cells present in inflamed bronchi may be judged. Bronchial biopsies were obtained from 27 clinically healthy subjects attending hospital for elective orthopaedic operations. Eight of the subjects were smokers (median 3.5 pack-years), and eight were atopic as defined by skin prick test. Three to eight weeks after biopsy, subjects attended the lung function laboratory for spirometric testing and determination of provocative concentration of histamine producing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (PC20FEV1). The bronchial biopsies were frozen and cryostat sections prepared. These sections were investigated with immunohistological techniques to reveal the presence and distribution of T-cell and macrophage subsets. Twenty six out of 27 subjects had spirometric values within the normal range, but a wide spectrum of bronchial reactivity was observed (PC20FEV1 range 2-36 mg histamine). Using monoclonal antibodies in immunohistological techniques, only small numbers of T-cells were seen, the majority being CD8+ cells in the epithelium. In the underlying tissue, CD4+ cells predominated (CD4/CD8 ratio, epithelium 1:9; underlying tissue 4:1). In both cases, approx. 50% of T-cells expressed the CD45Ro isotype. Small numbers of macrophages were observed in all samples. The majority of these cells expressed a "suppressor cell" phenotype (RFD1+RFD7+), whilst only a small proportion (median 11% ) exhibited the phenotype of antigen presenting cells (RFD1+RFD7-).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Image-enhanced bronchoscopic evaluation of bronchial mucosal microvasculature in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Fathy, Eman Mahmoud; Shafiek, Hanaa; Morsi, Tamer S; El Sabaa, Bassma; Elnekidy, Abdelaziz; Elhoffy, Mohamed; Atta, Mohamed Samy

    2016-01-01

    Background Bronchial vascular remodeling is an underresearched component of airway remodeling in COPD. Image-enhanced bronchoscopy may offer a less invasive method for studying bronchial microvasculature in COPD. Objectives To evaluate endobronchial mucosal vasculature and changes in COPD by image-enhanced i-scan3 bronchoscopy and correlate them pathologically by analyzing bronchial mucosal biopsies. Methods This case–control study analyzed 29 COPD patients (41.4% Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease B [GOLD B] and 58.6% GOLD D) and ten healthy controls admitted at Alexandria Main University Hospital, Egypt. Combined high-definition white light bronchoscopy (HD WLB) with i-scan3 was used to evaluate endobronchial mucosal microvasculature. The vascularity was graded according to the level of mucosal red discoloration (ie, endobronchial erythema) from decreased discoloration to normal, mild, moderate, and severe increased red discoloration (G−1, G0, G+1, G+2, and G+3, respectively) and scored by three bronchoscopists independently. Bronchial mucosal biopsies were taken for microvascular density counting using anti-CD34 antibody as angiogenesis marker. Results Different grades of endobronchial erythema were observed across/within COPD patients using combined HD WLB + i-scan3, with significant agreement among scorers (P=0.031; median score of G+1 [G−1–G+2]) being higher in GOLD D (P=0.001). Endobronchial erythema significantly correlated with COPD duration, exacerbation frequency, and body mass index (P<0.05). Angiogenesis was significantly decreased among COPD patients versus controls (10.6 [8–13.3] vs 14 [11–17.1]; P=0.02). Mucosal surface changes (including edema, atrophy, and nodules) were better visualized by the combined HD WLB + i-scan3 rather than HD WLB alone. Conclusion Combined HD WLB + i-scan3 seems to be valuable in evaluating mucosal microvasculature and surface changes in COPD, which may represent vasodilatation rather than

  8. Mechanisms of aldehyde-induced bronchial reactivity: role of airway epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Leikauf, G.D. )

    1992-02-01

    To investigate the relative irritant potencies of inhaled aldehydes, guinea pigs were exposed to formaldehyde or acrolein and specific total pulmonary resistance and bronchial reactivity to intravenous acetylcholine were assessed. The mechanisms associated with these responses were investigated by analyzing morphologic and biochemical changes in airway epithelial cells after in vivo and in vitro exposures. Immediately after exposure to formaldehyde or acrolein, specific resistance increased transiently and returned to control values within 30 to 60 minutes. Bronchial hyperreactivity, assessed by the acetylcholine dose necessary to double resistance, increased and became maximal two to six hours after exposure to at least 9 parts per million2 (ppm) formaldehyde or at least 1 ppm acrolein for two hours. The effect of exposure to 3 ppm formaldehyde for two hours was less than the effect of exposure to 1 ppm formaldehyde for eight hours; thus, extended exposures produced a disproportionate heightening of bronchial reactivity. Bronchial hyperreactivity often persisted for longer than 24 hours. Increases in three bronchoconstrictive eicosanoids, prostaglandin F2 alpha, thromboxane B2, and leukotriene C4, occurred immediately after exposure, whereas an influx of neutrophils into lavage fluid occurred 24 hours later. Histological examination of the tracheal epithelium and lamina propria also demonstrated a lack of inflammatory cell infiltration. Treatment with leukotriene synthesis inhibitors and receptor antagonists inhibited acrolein-induced hyperreactivity, supporting a causal role for these compounds in this response. Acrolein also stimulated eicosanoid release from bovine epithelial cells in culture. However, the profile of metabolites formed differed from that found in lavage fluid after in vivo exposure.

  9. Smoking cessation and bronchial epithelial remodelling in COPD: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Lapperre, Thérèse S; Sont, Jacob K; van Schadewijk, Annemarie; Gosman, Margot ME; Postma, Dirkje S; Bajema, Ingeborg M; Timens, Wim; Mauad, Thais; Hiemstra, Pieter S

    2007-01-01

    Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is associated with bronchial epithelial changes, including squamous cell metaplasia and goblet cell hyperplasia. These features are partially attributed to activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Whereas smoking cessation reduces respiratory symptoms and lung function decline in COPD, inflammation persists. We determined epithelial proliferation and composition in bronchial biopsies from current and ex-smokers with COPD, and its relation to duration of smoking cessation. Methods 114 COPD patients were studied cross-sectionally: 99 males/15 females, age 62 ± 8 years, median 42 pack-years, no corticosteroids, current (n = 72) or ex-smokers (n = 42, median cessation duration 3.5 years), postbronchodilator FEV1 63 ± 9% predicted. Squamous cell metaplasia (%), goblet cell (PAS/Alcian Blue+) area (%), proliferating (Ki-67+) cell numbers (/mm basement membrane), and EGFR expression (%) were measured in intact epithelium of bronchial biopsies. Results Ex-smokers with COPD had significantly less epithelial squamous cell metaplasia, proliferating cell numbers, and a trend towards reduced goblet cell area than current smokers with COPD (p = 0.025, p = 0.001, p = 0.081, respectively), but no significant difference in EGFR expression. Epithelial features were not different between short-term quitters (<3.5 years) and current smokers. Long-term quitters (≥3.5 years) had less goblet cell area than both current smokers and short-term quitters (medians: 7.9% vs. 14.4%, p = 0.005; 7.9% vs. 13.5%, p = 0.008; respectively), and less proliferating cell numbers than current smokers (2.8% vs. 18.6%, p < 0.001). Conclusion Ex-smokers with COPD had less bronchial epithelial remodelling than current smokers, which was only observed after long-term smoking cessation (>3.5 years). Trial registration NCT00158847 PMID:18039368

  10. Bronchial epithelial cells release monocyte chemotactic activity in response to smoke and endotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, S.; Rennard, S.I.; Leikauf, G.D.; Robbins, R.A. )

    1991-08-01

    An increase in mononuclear phagocytes occurs within the airways during airway inflammation. Bronchial epithelial cells could release monocyte chemotactic activity and contribute to this increase. To test this hypothesis, bovine bronchial epithelial cells were isolated and maintained in culture. Bronchial epithelial cell culture supernatant fluids were evaluated for monocyte chemotactic activity. Epithelial cell culture supernatant fluids attracted significantly greater numbers of monocytes compared to media alone and the number of monocytes attracted increased in a time dependent manner. Endotoxin and smoke extract induced a dose and time dependent release of monocyte chemotactic activity compared with cells cultured in media (52.5 {plus minus} 2.6 (endotoxin), 30.5 {plus minus} 2.3 (smoke) vs 20.5 {plus minus} 2.2 cells/high power field (HPF) p less than 0.001). The released activity was chemotactic by checkerboard analysis. Stimulation of the epithelial cells by opsonized zymosan, calcium ionophore (A23187), and PMA also resulted in an increase in monocyte chemotactic activity (p less than 0.01). Because the release of activity was blocked by the lipoxygenase inhibitors, nordihydroguaiaretic acid and diethycarbamazine, epithelial cell monolayers were cultured with 3 microCi (3H)arachidonic acid for 24 h and then exposed to A23187, PMA, or both stimuli, for 4, 8, and 24 h. Analysis of the released 3H activity was performed with reverse-phase HPLC and revealed that the major lipoxygenase product was leukotriene B4. These data suggest that monocytes may be recruited into airways in response to chemotactic factors released by bronchial epithelial cells.

  11. Severity-related changes of bronchial microbiome in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Nuñez, Marian; Millares, Laura; Pomares, Xavier; Ferrari, Rafaela; Pérez-Brocal, Vicente; Gallego, Miguel; Espasa, Mateu; Moya, Andrés; Monsó, Eduard

    2014-12-01

    Bronchial colonization by potentially pathogenic microorganisms (PPMs) is often demonstrated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but culture-based techniques identify only a portion of the bacteria in mucosal surfaces. The aim of the study was to determine changes in the bronchial microbiome of COPD associated with the severity of the disease. The bronchial microbiome of COPD patients was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing in sputum samples obtained during stable disease. Seventeen COPD patients were studied (forced expiratory volume in the first second expressed as a percentage of the forced vital capacity [FEV1%] median, 35.0%; interquartile range [IQR], 31.5 to 52.0), providing a mean of 4,493 (standard deviation [SD], 2,598) sequences corresponding to 47 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (SD, 17) at a 97% identity level. Patients were dichotomized according to their lung function as moderate to severe when their FEV1% values were over the median and as advanced when FEV1% values were lower. The most prevalent phyla in sputum were Proteobacteria (44%) and Firmicutes (16%), followed by Actinobacteria (13%). A greater microbial diversity was found in patients with moderate-to-severe disease, and alpha diversity showed a statistically significant decrease in patients with advanced disease when assessed by Shannon (ρ = 0.528; P = 0.029, Spearman correlation coefficient) and Chao1 (ρ = 0.53; P = 0.028, Spearman correlation coefficient) alpha-diversity indexes. The higher severity that characterizes advanced COPD is paralleled by a decrease in the diversity of the bronchial microbiome, with a loss of part of the resident flora that is replaced by a more restricted microbiota that includes PPMs.

  12. Bronchial isomerism in a Kabuki syndrome patient with a novel mutation in MLL2 gene

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare, multiple congenital anomalies/intellectual disability syndrome caused by mutations of MLL2 gene, which codifies for a histone methyltrasferase that regulates the embryogenesis and the tissue development. Left-bronchial isomerism is a rare congenital abnormality that can be defined as the absence of the normal lateralizing features which distinguish right and left-sides in the lungs. To date, this is the first report of left-bronchial isomerism in association with KS. Case presentation A one-month-old Caucasian male patient underwent our attention for microcephaly, dysmorphic features (long palpebral fissures, eyebrows with sparse lateral third, everted lower eyelids, blue sclerae, large dysplastic ears, lower lip pits), persistent fetal fingertip pads, short stature, heart defects (interventricular defect and aortic coarctation), unilateral cryptorchidism, hypotonia and delay in gross motor skills. These features suggested a diagnosis of KS and a molecular analysis confirmed a novel frame-shift mutation in the exon 11 of MLL2 gene. Subsequently, given recurrent respiratory infections with a normal immunological status, he underwent a chest CT scan that showed a left bronchial isomerism. Conclusion We report a patient affected by KS, with a novel MLL2 mutation and an atypical phenotype characterized by left-side bronchial isomerism. Interestingly, genes involved in the heterotaxia/isomerism such as ROCK2 and SHROOM3 are known to interact with MLL2 gene. In order to achieve a correct diagnosis and an appropriate therapy, the presence of pulmonary anatomical variations should be investigated in KS patients with respiratory signs not associated to immunological deficiency. Finally, our findings support the hypothesis that the mutations leading to a complete loss of function of MLL2 gene is often associated with complex visceral malformations. PMID:24472332

  13. A Case of Aorto-Bronchial Fistula After Insertion of Left Main Bronchial Self-Expanding Metallic Stent in a Patient with Recurrent Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Hiroshi Kuriyama, Kengo; Komiyama, Takafumi; Tanaka, Shiho; Marino, Kan; Tsukamoto, Tatsuaki; Araki, Tsutomu

    2004-09-15

    We report a case of aorto-bronchial fistula (ABF) caused by a self-expanding metallic stent (EMS) 51 days after insertion into the left main bronchus. The patient presented with left main bronchial stenosis caused by post-operative local recurrence of esophageal cancer. Post-operative radio therapy totaling 40 Gy and post-recurrence radiotherapy totaling 34 Gy were administered, with daily fractions of 2 Gy. Stenosis of the left main bronchus improved slightly, and was followed with insertion of EMS to prevent re-stenosis. The patient experienced massive hemoptysis for 3 days before sudden death. Autopsy revealed the EMS edge perforating the descending aortic lumen. Tumor infiltration and bacterial infection were observed on the wall of the left bronchus, and atherosclerosis was present on the aortic wall around the fistula. It should be noted that the left main bronchus was at considerable risk of ABF after insertion of EMS for malignant stenosis, and prophylactic stent insertion into the bronchus without imperative need must be avoided.

  14. Evaluation of Effect of Taxus baccata Leaves Extract on Bronchoconstriction and Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Patel, PK; Patel, KV; Gandhi, TR

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the bronchodilating effect and bronchial hyperreactivity of alcoholic extract of Taxus baccata Linn. (AET) leaves in experimental animals. Bronchodilator activity of AET was studied on the histamine and acetylcholine aerosol induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs and bronchial hyperreactivity was studied on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in the egg albumin sensitized guinea pigs and by histopathological studies. In vitro mast cell stabilizing activity was studied using compound 48/80 as a degranulating agent. Treatment with AET (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o., for 7 days) showed significant protection against histamine and acetylcholine aerosol induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs. Significant decrease in the total leukocyte and differential leukocyte count in the BALF of the egg albumin sensitized guinea pigs was observed by administration of AET (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o., for 15 days). AET dose dependently protected the mast cell disruption induced by compound 48/80. These results suggest that AET not only has bronchodilating activity but also decreases bronchial hyperreactivity by decreasing the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the airway and inhibiting the release of histamine like mediators from the mast cell by stabilizing it. PMID:21607053

  15. Increased polysomy of chromosome 7 in bronchial epithelium from patients at high risk for lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Belinsky, S.A.; Neft, R.E.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    Current models of carcinogenesis suggest that tissues progress through multiple genetic and epigenetic changes which ultimately lead to development of invasive cancer. Epidemiologic studies of Peto, R.R. and J.A. Doll indicate that the accumulation of these genetic changes over time, rather than any single unique genetic change, is probably responsible for development of the malignant phenotype. The bronchial epithelium of cigarette smokers is diffusely exposed to a broad spectrum of carcinogens, toxicants, and tumor promoters contained in tobacco smoke. This exposure increases the risk of developing multiple, independent premalignant foci throughout the lower respiratory tract that may contain independent gene aberrations. This {open_quotes}field cancerization{close_quotes} theory is supported by studies that have demonstrated progressive histologic changes distributed throughout the lower respiratory tract of smokers. A series of autopsy studies demonstrated that cigarette smokers exhibit premalignant histologic changes ranging from hyperplasia and metaplasia to severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ diffusely throughout the bronchial mucosa. The proximal bronchi appear to exhibit the greatest number of changes, particularly at bifurcations. The results described are the first to quantitate the frequency for a chromosome aberration in {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} bronchial epithelial cells.

  16. Bronchial epithelial cells: The key effector cells in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Li, Lingling; Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Sini; Adcock, Ian M; Barnes, Peter J; Huang, Mao; Yao, Xin

    2015-07-01

    The primary function of the bronchial epithelium is to act as a defensive barrier aiding the maintenance of normal airway function. Bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) form the interface between the external environment and the internal milieu, making it a major target of inhaled insults. However, BEC can also serve as effectors to initiate and orchestrate immune and inflammatory responses by releasing chemokines and cytokines, which recruit and activate inflammatory cells. They also produce excess reactive oxygen species as a result of an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance that contributes to chronic pulmonary inflammation and lung tissue damage. Accumulated mucus from hyperplastic BEC obstructs the lumen of small airways, whereas impaired cell repair, squamous metaplasia and increased extracellular matrix deposition underlying the epithelium is associated with airway remodelling particularly fibrosis and thickening of the airway wall. These alterations in small airway structure lead to airflow limitation, which is critical in the clinical diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this review, we discuss the abnormal function of BEC within a disturbed immune homeostatic environment consisting of ongoing inflammation, oxidative stress and small airway obstruction. We provide an overview of recent insights into the function of the bronchial epithelium in the pathogenesis of COPD and how this may provide novel therapeutic approaches for a number of chronic lung diseases.

  17. Correlation between the severity of critically ill patients and clinical predictors of bronchial aspiration

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Gisele Chagas; Sassi, Fernanda Chiarion; Zambom, Lucas Santos; de Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the severity of non-neurological critically ill patients correlates with clinical predictors of bronchial aspiration. Methods: We evaluated adults undergoing prolonged orotracheal intubation (> 48 h) and bedside swallowing assessment within the first 48 h after extubation. We collected data regarding the risk of bronchial aspiration performed by a speech-language pathologist, whereas data regarding the functional level of swallowing were collected with the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System (ASHA NOMS) scale and those regarding health status were collected with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA). Results: The study sample comprised 150 patients. For statistical analyses, the patients were grouped by ASHA NOMS score: ASHA1 (levels 1 and 2), ASHA2 (levels 3 to 5); and ASHA3 (levels 6 and 7). In comparison with the other patients, those in the ASHA3 group were significantly younger, remained intubated for fewer days, and less severe overall clinical health status (SOFA score). The clinical predictors of bronchial aspiration that best characterized the groups were abnormal cervical auscultation findings and cough after swallowing. None of the patients in the ASHA 3 group presented with either of those signs. Conclusions: Critically ill patients 55 years of age or older who undergo prolonged orotracheal intubation (≥ 6 days), have a SOFA score ≥ 5, have a Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 14, and present with abnormal cervical auscultation findings or cough after swallowing should be prioritized for a full speech pathology assessment. PMID:27167432

  18. Acetylcholine is an autocrine or paracrine hormone synthesized and secreted by airway bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Proskocil, Becky J; Sekhon, Harmanjatinder S; Jia, Yibing; Savchenko, Valentina; Blakely, Randy D; Lindstrom, Jon; Spindel, Eliot R

    2004-05-01

    The role of acetylcholine (ACh) as a key neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system is well established. However, the role of ACh may be broader because ACh may also function as an autocrine or paracrine signaling molecule in a variety of nonneuronal tissues. To begin to establish ACh of nonneuronal origin as a paracrine hormone in lung, we have examined neonatal and adult monkey bronchial epithelium for the components involved in nicotinic cholinergic signaling. Using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR, we have demonstrated in lung bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) expression of choline acetyltransferase, the vesicular ACh transporter, the choline high-affinity transporter, alpha7, alpha4, and beta2 nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) subunits, and the nAChR accessory protein lynx1. Confocal microscopy demonstrates that these factors are expressed in epithelial cells and are clearly distinct from neighboring nerve fibers. Confirmation of RNA identity has been confirmed by partial sequence analysis of PCR products and by cDNA cloning. Primary culture of BECs confirms the synthesis and secretion of ACh and the activity of cholinesterases. Thus, ACh meets all the criteria for an autocrine/paracrine hormone in lung bronchial epithelium. The nonneuronal cholinergic signaling pathway in lung provides a potentially important target for cholinergic drugs. This pathway may also explain some of the effects of nicotine on fetal development and also provides additional mechanisms by which smoking affects lung cancer growth and development. PMID:14764638

  19. CT-based geometry analysis and finite element models of the human and ovine bronchial tree.

    PubMed

    Tawhai, Merryn H; Hunter, Peter; Tschirren, Juerg; Reinhardt, Joseph; McLennan, Geoffrey; Hoffman, Eric A

    2004-12-01

    The interpretation of experimental results from functional medical imaging is complicated by intersubject and interspecies differences in airway geometry. The application of computational models in understanding the significance of these differences requires methods for generation of subject-specific geometric models of the bronchial airway tree. In the current study, curvilinear airway centerline and diameter models have been fitted to human and ovine bronchial trees using detailed data segmented from multidetector row X-ray-computed tomography scans. The trees have been extended to model the entire conducting airway system by using a volume-filling algorithm to generate airway centerline locations within detailed volume descriptions of the lungs or lobes. Analysis of the geometry of the scan-based and model-based airways has verified their consistency with measures from previous anatomic studies and has provided new anatomic data for the ovine bronchial tree. With the use of an identical parameter set, the volume-filling algorithm has produced airway trees with branching asymmetry appropriate for the human and ovine lung, demonstrating the dependence of the method on the shape of the lung or lobe volume. The modeling approach that has been developed can be applied to any level of detail of the airway tree and into any volume shape for the lung; hence it can be used directly for different individuals or animals and for any number of scan-based airways. The resulting models are subject-specific computational meshes with anatomically consistent geometry, suitable for application in simulation studies.

  20. Treatment of bronchial asthma with low-level laser in attack-free period at children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailioaie, C.; Ailioaie, Laura

    2000-06-01

    Bronchial asthma is a common disease in both the pediatric and adult populations, characterized by wide variations over short periods of time in resistance to airflow in intrapulmonary airways. A primary goal in the use of low- level laser therapy (LLLT) was the safe, effective and rapid palliation of symptoms owing to tracheal or bronchial obstruction. We have investigated the effects of LLLT comparatively with other modality trials in children's asthma. In the study were included 98 patients aged 10-18 years diagnosed with moderate or severe asthma, in attack- free period. The patients were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 received only laser therapy using extra meridian acupuncture points and scanning technique. Group 2 was treated only with inhaled Serevent 2 X 25 micrometers , two times daily, 3 months. Group 3 was tread with Theophylline retard in dosage of 15-mg/kg/12 h, 3 months. At the end of treatment we remarked a noticeable improvement of the clinical, functional and immunological characteristics at 83 percent of patients in group 1, comparatively with only 70 percent (group 2) and 53 percent (group 3). The LLLT had a very good action on bronchial patency , displayed an immunocorrecting action and is recommended in attack-free periods at children.

  1. Bronchial carcinoid tumors metastatic to the sella turcica and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Moshkin, Olga; Rotondo, Fabio; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Soares, Mark; Coire, Claire; Smyth, Harley S; Goth, Miklos; Horvath, Eva; Kovacs, Kalman

    2012-06-01

    We review here the literature on neuroendocrine neoplasms metastatic to the pituitary and present an example of the disease. Metastasis of bronchial carcinoid tumors to the sellar region are rare. Herein, we describe the case of a 63-year-old woman who presented with constant cough and headaches. She had previously been operated for carcinoid tumor of the lung. During the preoperative investigation, a CT scan of the head revealed a sellar mass. Six months after a left lower lobectomy, the sellar lesion was removed by transsphenoidal surgery. The two tumors were evaluated by histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Both showed identical morphologic features, those of carcinoid tumor. Immunohistochemistry revealed immunoreactivity for the endocrine markers, synaptophysin and chromogranin, as well as CD-56, serotonin, bombesin and vascular endothelial growth factor. The sellar neoplasm showed nuclear immunopositivity for thyroid transcription factor-1, supporting the diagnosis of a metastatic bronchial carcinoid tumor. In conclusion, this is the first report of a serotonin- and bombesin-immunopositive atypical bronchial carcinoid tumor metastatic to the sella. PMID:22485018

  2. Ozone-induced changes in pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness in asthmatics

    SciTech Connect

    Kreit, J.W.; Gross, K.B.; Moore, T.B.; Lorenzen, T.J.; D'Arcy, J.; Eschenbacher, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    To compare the responses of asthmatic and normal subjects to high effective doses of ozone, nine asthmatic and nine normal subjects underwent two randomly assigned 2-h exposures to filtered, purified air and 0.4 ppm ozone with alternating 15-min periods of rest and exercise on a cycle ergometer (minute ventilation = 30 l.min-1.m-2). Before and after each exposure, pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness to methacholine were measured and symptoms were recorded. Ozone exposure was associated with a statistically significant decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV1), percent FEV1 (FEV1%), and forced expired flow at 25-75% FVC (FEF25-75) in both normal and asthmatic subjects. However, comparing the response of asthmatic and normal subjects to ozone revealed a significantly greater percent decrease in FEV1, FEV1%, and FEF25-75 in the asthmatic subjects. The effect of ozone on FVC and symptom scores did not differ between the two groups. In both normal and asthmatic subjects, exposure to ozone was accompanied by a significant increase in bronchial responsiveness. We conclude that exposure to a high effective ozone dose produces 1) increased bronchial responsiveness in both normal and asthmatic subjects, 2) greater airways obstruction in asthmatic than in normal subjects, and 3) similar symptoms and changes in lung volumes in the two groups.

  3. Mechanical Strain Causes Adaptive Change in Bronchial Fibroblasts Enhancing Profibrotic and Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Manuyakorn, Wiparat; Smart, David E.; Noto, Antonio; Bucchieri, Fabio; Haitchi, Hans Michael; Holgate, Stephen T.; Howarth, Peter H.; Davies, Donna E.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by periodic episodes of bronchoconstriction and reversible airway obstruction; these symptoms are attributable to a number of factors including increased mass and reactivity of bronchial smooth muscle and extracellular matrix (ECM) in asthmatic airways. Literature has suggested changes in cell responses and signaling can be elicited via modulation of mechanical stress acting upon them, potentially affecting the microenvironment of the cell. In this study, we hypothesized that mechanical strain directly affects the (myo)fibroblast phenotype in asthma. Therefore, we characterized responses of bronchial fibroblasts, from 6 normal and 11 asthmatic non-smoking volunteers, exposed to cyclical mechanical strain using flexible silastic membranes. Samples were analyzed for proteoglycans, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), collagens I and III, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 & 9 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) by qRT-PCR, Western blot, zymography and ELISA. Mechanical strain caused a decrease in αSMA mRNA but no change in either αSMA protein or proteoglycan expression. In contrast the inflammatory mediator IL-8, MMPs and interstitial collagens were increased at both the transcriptional and protein level. The results demonstrate an adaptive response of bronchial fibroblasts to mechanical strain, irrespective of donor. The adaptation involves cytoskeletal rearrangement, matrix remodelling and inflammatory cytokine release. These results suggest that mechanical strain could contribute to disease progression in asthma by promoting inflammation and remodelling responses. PMID:27101406

  4. Impact of the Tamsulosin in Alpha Adrenergic Receptor of Airways at Patients with Increased Bronchial Reactibility

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Lirim; Ilazi, Ali; Dauti, Arta; Islami, Pellumb; Kastrati, Bashkim; Islami, Hilmi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this work, effect of tamsulosin as antagonist of alpha1A and alpha1B adrenergic receptor and effect of agonists of beta2 adrenergic receptor–salbutamol in patients with increased bronchial reactibility was studied. Methods: Parameters of the lung function are determined with Body plethysmography six (6) hours after administration of tamsulosin. Raw and ITGV were registered and specific resistance (SRaw) was calculated as well. Tamsulosin was administered in per os manner as a preparation in the shape of the capsules with a brand name of “Prolosin”, produced by Niche Generics Limited, Hitchin, Herts. Results: After six (6) hours of administration of tamsulosin, results gained indicate that blockage of alpha1A and alpha1B-adrenergic receptor (0.8 mg per os) has not changed significantly (p > 0.1) the bronchomotor tonus of tracheobronchial tree in comparison to the check-up that has inhaled salbutamol agonist of adrenergic beta2 receptor (2 inh. x 0.2 mg), (p < 0.05). Blood pressure suffered no significant decrease following administration of the 0.8 mg dose of tamsulosin. Conclusion: This suggests that even after six hours of administration of tamsulosin, and determining of lung function parameters, the activity of alpha1A and alpha1B-adrenergic receptor in the smooth bronchial musculature has not changed in patients with increased bronchial reactibility. PMID:26543414

  5. [Case of sarcoidosis with squamous cell carcinoma which originated from solitary bronchial papilloma].

    PubMed

    Urushiyama, Hirokazu; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Sunohara, Mitsuhiro; Kouyama, Tadashi; Ohishi, Nobuya; Fukami, Takeshi; Nakajima, Jun; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Oota, Satoshi; Fukayama, Masashi; Nagase, Takahide

    2010-11-01

    A 60-year-old man was given a clinical diagnosis of sarcoidosis, with enlarged mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy by chest CT, high levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme, and gallium scintigraphy findings. After 2 years follow-up, chest CT showed that only the right superior lobe bronchial lymph node had enlarged, occluding the right B1 bronchus, but other enlarged lymph nodes had not changed in size. We performed bronchoscopy to evaluate the occlusion of the right B1 bronchus, and recognized a polypoid lesion. Transbronchial tumor biopsy specimens revealed squamous cell lung carcinoma. A right upper lobectomy and drainage of the hilar and mediastinal lymph regions were performed. Histopathological examination revealed the coexistence of squamous cell carcinoma with many non-caseating epithelioid cell granulomas in all hilar and mediastinal drainage lymph nodes, but no metastasis. Non-caseating epithelioid cell granulomas were also seen in the lung interstitium. Histopathological examination suggested that the squamous cell carcinoma originated from a solitary bronchial papilloma. A diagnosis of lung cancer complicated with sarcoidosis was difficult by clinical imaging alone, including FDG-PET/CT. This suggests the importance of bronchoscopic examination, if a clinical course of the disease appears to be different from the usual course. This was a rare case of squamous cell carcinoma which originated from a solitary bronchial papilloma.

  6. Endurance training and the risk of bronchial asthma in female cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Żebrowska, A; Głuchowska, B; Jastrzębski, D; Kochańska-Dziurowicz, A; Stanjek-Cichoracka, A; Pokora, I

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is one of the crucial factors responsible for asthma development and exacerbation. The purpose of the present study was to assess the risk of bronchial asthma in female athletes. Spirometric evaluations and physical exercise test were performed and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) levels were measured in 12 female elite cross-country skiers. Serum concentrations of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were measured in all subjects before exercise, immediately after it, and after 15 min of recovery. Peak eNO values were 18.7±4.8 (ppb) and did not confirm the risk of early bronchial asthma symptoms. A graded exercise test caused significant increases in TNF-α and IL-1β concentration (p<0.05) after 15 min of recovery. A significant negative correlation was found between resting and post-exercise eNO and IL-6 levels (p<0.01). Our study did not confirm an increased risk of bronchial asthma or respiratory tract inflammatory conditions among female cross-country skiers exposed to physical exertion.

  7. Translocation of SiO2-NPs across in vitro human bronchial epithelial monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, I.; Vranic, S.; Boland, S.; Borot, M. C.; Marano, F.; Baeza-Squiban, A.

    2013-04-01

    Safe development and application of nanotechnologies in many fields require better knowledge about their potential adverse effects on human health. Evidence of abilities of nanoparticles (NPs) to cross epithelial barriers and reach secondary organs via the bloodstream led us to investigate the translocation of SiO2 NPs of 50 nm (50 nm-SiO2-NPs) across human bronchial epithelial cells that are primary targets after exposure to inhaled NPs. We quantified the translocation of fluorescently labelled SiO2 NPs at non-cytotoxic concentrations (5 and 10 μg/cm2) across Calu-3 epithelial monolayer. After 14 days in culture Calu-3 cells seeded onto 3 μm-polycarbonate Transwell membranes formed an efficient bronchial barrier assessed by measurement of the transepithelial electric resistance and quantification of the permeability of the monolayer. After 24 hours of exposure, we observed a significant translocation of NPs that was more important when the initial NP concentration decreased. Confocal microscopy observations revealed NP uptake by cells and an important NP retention inside the porous membrane. In conclusion, 50 nm-SiO2-NPs can cross the human bronchial epithelial barrier without affecting the integrity of the epithelial cell monolayer.

  8. Uterine artery embolization

    MedlinePlus

    ... the procedure. UAE is less invasive than surgical treatments for uterine fibroids. Many women may return more quickly to activities ... SC, Spies JB, Worthington-Kirsch R, et al. Uterine artery embolization for ... from the FIBROID registry. Obstet Gynecol . 2008; 111:22-33. Munro ...

  9. [Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis].

    PubMed

    Sauguet, A; Honton, B

    2014-12-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis can cause ischaemic nephropathy and arterial hypertension. Renal artery stenosis (RAS) continues to be a problem for clinicians, with no clear consensus on how to investigate and assess the clinical significance of stenotic lesions and manage the findings. RAS caused by fibromuscular dysplasia is probably commoner than previously appreciated, should be actively looked for in younger hypertensive patients and can be managed successfully with angioplasty. Atheromatous RAS is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular events and increased cardiovascular mortality, and is likely to be seen with increasing frequency. Many patients with RAS may be managed effectively with medical therapy for several years without endovascular stenting, as demonstrated by randomized, prospective trials including the cardiovascular outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) trial, the Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Artery Lesions (ASTRAL) trial. These trials share the limitation of excluding subsets of patients with high-risk clinical presentations, including episodic pulmonary edema and rapidly progressing renal failure and hypertension. Blood pressure control and medication adjustment may become more difficult with declining renal function and may prevent the use of angiotensin receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The objective of this review is to evaluate the current management of RAS for cardiologists in the context of recent randomized clinical trials. There is now interest in looking more closely at patient selection for intervention, with focus on intervening only in patients with the highest-risk presentations such as flash pulmonary edema, rapidly declining renal function and severe resistant hypertension. PMID:25450992

  10. Arterial Stiffness Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Fortier, Catherine; Agharazii, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background Aortic stiffness is a strong predictor of cardiovascular mortality in various clinical conditions. The aim of this review is to focus on the arterial stiffness gradient, to discuss the integrated role of medium-sized muscular conduit arteries in the regulation of pulsatile pressure and organ perfusion and to provide a rationale for integrating their mechanical properties into risk prediction. Summary The physiological arterial stiffness gradient results from a higher degree of vascular stiffness as the distance from the heart increases, creating multiple reflective sites and attenuating the pulsatile nature of the forward pressure wave along the arterial tree down to the microcirculation. The stiffness gradient hypothesis simultaneously explains its physiological beneficial effects from both cardiac and peripheral microcirculatory points of view. The loss or reversal of stiffness gradient leads to the transmission of a highly pulsatile pressure wave into the microcirculation. This suggests that a higher degree of stiffness of medium-sized conduit arteries may play a role in protecting the microcirculation from a highly pulsatile forward pressure wave. Using the ratio of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) to carotid-radial PWV, referred to as PWV ratio, a recent study in a dialysis cohort has shown that the PWV ratio is a better predictor of mortality than the classical carotid-femoral PWV. Key Messages Theoretically, the use of the PWV ratio seems more logical for risk determination than aortic stiffness as it provides a better estimation of the loss of stiffness gradient, which is the unifying hypothesis that explains the impact of aortic stiffness both on the myocardium and on peripheral organs. PMID:27195235

  11. Inhaled Steroids Modulate Extracellular Matrix Composition in Bronchial Biopsies of COPD Patients: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Lisette I. Z.; Strebus, Jolanda; Budulac, Simona E.; Lapperre, Therese S.; Sterk, Peter J.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Mauad, Thais; Timens, Wim; Hiemstra, Pieter S.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Smoking and inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which involves changes in extracellular matrix. This is thought to contribute to airway remodeling and airflow obstruction. We have previously observed that long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids can not only reduce bronchial inflammation, but can also attenuate lung function decline in moderate-severe COPD. We hypothesized that inhaled corticosteroids and current smoking modulate bronchial extracellular matrix components in COPD. Objective To compare major extracellular matrix components (elastic fibers; proteoglycans [versican, decorin]; collagens type I and III) in bronchial biopsies 1) after 30-months inhaled steroids treatment or placebo; and 2) between current and ex-smokers with COPD. Methods We included 64 moderate-severe, steroid-naive COPD patients (24/40 (ex)-smokers, 62±7 years, 46 (31–54) packyears, post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 62±9% predicted) at baseline in this randomized, controlled trial. 19 and 13 patients received 30-months treatment with fluticasone or placebo, respectively. Bronchial biopsies collected at baseline and after 30 months were studied using (immuno)histochemistry to evaluate extracellular matrix content. Percentage and density of stained area were calculated by digital image analysis. Results 30-Months inhaled steroids increased the percentage stained area of versican (9.6% [CI 0.9 to 18.3%]; p = 0.03) and collagen III (20.6% [CI 3.8 to 37.4%]; p = 0.02) compared to placebo. Increased collagen I staining density correlated with increased post-bronchodilator FEV1 after inhaled steroids treatment (Rs = 0.45, p = 0.04). There were no differences between smokers and ex-smokers with COPD in percentages and densities for all extracellular matrix proteins. Conclusions These data show that long-term inhaled corticosteroids treatment partially changes the

  12. Coronary artery fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Said, S.A.M.; Thiadens, A.A.H.J.; Fieren, M.J.C.H.; Meijboom, E.J.; van der Werf, T.; Bennink, G.B.W.E.

    2002-01-01

    The aetiology of congenital coronary artery fistulas remains a challenging issue. Coronary arteries with an anatomically normal origin may, for obscure reasons, terminate abnormally and communicate with different single or multiple cardiac chambers or great vessels. When this occurs, the angiographic morphological appearance may vary greatly from discrete channels to plexiform network of vessels. Coronary arteriovenous fistulas (CAVFs) have neither specific signs nor pathognomonic symptoms; the spectrum of clinical features varies considerably. The clinical presentation of symptomatic cases can include angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, fatigue, dyspnoea, CHF, SBE, ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias or even sudden cardiac death. CAVFs may, however, be a coincidental finding during diagnostic coronary angiography (CAG). CAG is considered the gold standard for diagnosing and delineating the morphological anatomy and pathway of CAVFs. There are various tailored therapeutic modalities for the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations of CAVFs, including conservative pharmacological strategy, percutaneous transluminal embolisation and surgical ligation. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:25696067

  13. Caliber-Persistent Artery

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sabrina Araújo Pinho; Ruiz, Marcelo Martinson; Kaba, Shajadi Pardo; Florezi, Giovanna Piacenza; Lemos Júnior, Celso Augusto; Witzel, Andréa Lusvarghi

    2015-01-01

    Caliber-persistent artery (CPLA) of the lip is a common vascular anomaly in which a main arterial branch extends to the surface of the mucous tissue with no reduction in its diameter. It usually manifests as pulsatile papule, is easily misdiagnosed, and is observed more frequently among older people, suggesting that its development may involve a degenerative process associated with aging; CPLA is also characterized by the loss of tone of the adjacent supporting connective tissue. Although the diagnosis is clinical, high-resolution Doppler ultrasound is a useful noninvasive tool for evaluating the lesion. This report describes the case of a 58-year-old male patient who complained of a lesion of the lower lip with bleeding and recurrent ulceration. The patient was successfully treated in our hospital after a diagnosis of CPLA and is currently undergoing a clinical outpatient follow-up with no complaints. PMID:26448884

  14. LATENT LIFE OF ARTERIES.

    PubMed

    Carrel, A

    1910-07-23

    When a segment of artery, killed by heat, formalin or glycerin is transplanted, it undergoes a rapid degeneration. Its muscle fibers disappear while the tissue of the host reacts by building a new wall of connective tissue. When the transplanted vessel has been preserved in a condition of latent life, no degeneration of the wall occurs, or the wall undergoes only partial degeneration. The muscle fibers can keep their normal appearance, even for a long time after the operation. It is, therefore, demonstrated that arteries can be preserved outside of the body in a condition of unmanifested actual life. The best method of preservation consists of placing the vessels, immersed in vaselin, in an ice box, the temperature of which is slightly above the freezing point. From a surgical standpoint, the transplantation of preserved vessels can be used with some safety. When the arteries were kept in defibrinated blood or vaselin and in cold storage, the proportion of positive results was 75 and 80 per cent., and this can probably be increased. PMID:19867337

  15. Pediatric arterial interventions.

    PubMed

    Marshalleck, Francis

    2010-12-01

    The spectrum of pediatric vascular pathology differs from the adult population and it varies greatly to include congenital and acquired disorders. Although catheter-directed angiography remains the gold standard, most vascular conditions in the child can be adequately diagnosed with magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomographic angiography, or duplex/Doppler ultrasonography with only a few exceptions, such as intrarenal arterial stenosis, small vessel vasculitides, and visceral vascular malformations. The advancement of catheter and wire technology has made it increasingly possible for complex arterial interventions to be performed in children, including embolization, angioplasty with stent insertion, thrombolysis, and endovascular neurological procedures. More angiographic procedures are being performed with the aim of also being therapeutic. Special considerations in children include the use of appropriate equipment and adequate dosing of contrast and of the various medications used during angiography, particularly in patients less than 15 kg in weight. This article will focus on the management of renovascular hypertension, liver transplant hepatic arterial intervention, and the use of carbon dioxide gas as a contrast agent in the child.

  16. Arterial stiffness as a risk factor for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Liao, Josh; Farmer, John

    2014-02-01

    Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor, and clinical trials have demonstrated that successful reduction of elevated blood pressure to target levels translates into decreased risk for the development of coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, and renal failure. The arterial system had previously been regarded as a passive conduit for the transportation of arterial blood to peripheral tissues. The physiologic role the arterial system was greatly expanded by the recognition of the central role of the endothelial function in a variety of physiologic processes. The role of arterial function and structure in cardiovascular physiology was expanded with the development of a variety of parameters that evaluate arterial stiffness. Markers of arterial stiffness have been correlated with cardiovascular outcomes, and have been classified as an emerging risk factor that provides prognostic information beyond standard stratification strategies involving hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia and smoking. Multiple epidemiologic studies have correlated markers of arterial stiffness such as pulse-wave velocity, augmentation index and pulse pressure with risk for the development of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. Additionally, measurements of arterial stiffness had clarified the results of clinical trials that demonstrated differing impacts on clinical outcomes, despite similar reductions in blood pressure, as measured by brachial and sphygmomanometry.

  17. Noninvasive assessment of arterial compliance of human cerebral arteries with short inversion time arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Warnert, Esther A H; Murphy, Kevin; Hall, Judith E; Wise, Richard G

    2015-03-01

    A noninvasive method of assessing cerebral arterial compliance (AC) is introduced in which arterial spin labeling (ASL) is used to measure changes in arterial blood volume (aBV) occurring within the cardiac cycle. Short inversion time pulsed ASL (PASL) was performed in healthy volunteers with inversion times ranging from 250 to 850 ms. A model of the arterial input function was used to obtain the cerebral aBV. Results indicate that aBV depends on the cardiac phase of the arteries in the imaging volume. Cerebral AC, estimated from aBV and brachial blood pressure measured noninvasively in systole and diastole, was assessed in the flow territories of the basal cerebral arteries originating from the circle of Willis: right and left middle cerebral arteries (RMCA and LMCA), right and left posterior cerebral arteries (RPCA and LPCA), and the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). Group average AC values calculated for the RMCA, LMCA, ACA, RPCA, and LPCA were 0.56%±0.2%, 0.50%±0.3%, 0.4%±0.2%, 1.1%±0.5%, and 1.1%±0.3% per mm Hg, respectively. The current experiment has shown the feasibility of measuring AC of cerebral arteries with short inversion time PASL.

  18. Activated T-lymphocytes and eosinophils in the bronchial mucosa in isocyanate-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Bentley, A M; Maestrelli, P; Saetta, M; Fabbri, L M; Robinson, D S; Bradley, B L; Jeffery, P K; Durham, S R; Kay, A B

    1992-04-01

    We have studied the phenotype and activation status of leukocytes in the bronchial mucosa in patients with isocyanate-induced asthma. Fiberoptic bronchial biopsy specimens were obtained from nine subjects with occupational (five toluene- and four methylene diisocyanate-sensitive) asthma, 10 subjects with extrinsic asthma, and 12 nonatopic healthy control subjects. Bronchial biopsy specimens were examined by immunohistology with a panel of monoclonal antibodies and the alkaline phosphatase-antialkaline phosphatase method. There was a significant increase in the number of CD25+ cells (interleukin-2 receptor-bearing cells, presumed "activated" T-lymphocytes; p less than 0.01) in isocyanate-induced asthma compared with that of control subjects. There were also significant increases in major basic protein (BMK-13)-positive (p less than 0.02) and EG2-positive (p less than 0.01) cells that represent total and "activated" eosinophil cationic protein-secreting eosinophils, respectively. In agreement with our previous findings, CD25+ (p less than 0.01), BMK-13 (p less than 0.03), and EG2+ (p less than 0.01) cells were also elevated in extrinsic asthma. No significant differences were observed in the numbers of T-lymphocyte phenotypic markers (CD3, CD4, and CD8) between subjects with asthma (isocyanate-induced and extrinsic) and control subjects. Similarly, no significant differences in immunostaining for neutrophil elastase (neutrophils) or CD68 (macrophages) were observed. The results suggest that isocyanate-induced occupational asthma and atopic (extrinsic) asthma have a similar pattern of inflammatory cell infiltrate. The results support the view that T-lymphocyte activation and eosinophil recruitment may be important in asthma of diverse etiology.

  19. Human bronchial cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoenzymes: biochemical and pharmacological analysis using selective inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, J.; Philpott, A. J.; van Amsterdam, R. G.; Shahid, M.; Zaagsma, J.; Nicholson, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    1 The aims of the present study were to characterize the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoenzyme activities present in human bronchi and to examine the ability of selective isoenzyme inhibitors to relax histamine and methacholine precontracted preparations of human bronchi. 2 Three separations of pooled human bronchial tissue samples were performed. Ion-exchange chromatography showed that the soluble fraction of human bronchial preparations contains PDE I, II, III, IV and V isoenzyme activities. Multiple forms of PDE I and PDE IV were observed and PDE IV was the main cyclic AMP hydrolytic activity. 3 3-Isobutyl-l-methylxanthine (IBMX) non-selectively inhibited all separated isoenzyme activities. Zaprinast selectively inhibited PDE V, but also effectively inhibited one of the two PDE I isoforms identified. The PDE IV selective inhibitors rolipram and RO-201724, inhibited the PDE IV activities as did the dual PDE III/IV inhibitor, Org 30029. Org 9935, a PDE III selective inhibitor, potently attenuated part of the PDE IV activity peak in one of three separations performed, indicating that some PDE III activity may co-elute with PDE IV under the experimental conditions employed. 4 PDE IV-selective (rolipram), PDE III-selective (Org 9935) and dual PDE III/IV (Org 30029) inhibitors were effective relaxants of human bronchial smooth muscle. The PDE V/PDE I inhibitor, zaprinast was relatively ineffective. 5 The present study demonstrates in human bronchi, as in animal airways smooth muscle, that inhibitors of PDE III, PDEIV and dual PDE III/IV have potentially useful bronchodilator activity and are worthy of further consideration as anti-asthma drugs. PMID:1393276

  20. Prevalence of bronchial reactivity to inhaled methacholine in New Zealand children.

    PubMed Central

    Sears, M R; Jones, D T; Holdaway, M D; Hewitt, C J; Flannery, E M; Herbison, G P; Silva, P A

    1986-01-01

    The prevalence of bronchial hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine and of a clinical history of symptoms of asthma was determined in a birth cohort of 9 year old New Zealand children. A history of current or previous recurrent wheezing was obtained in 220 of 815 children. Of 800 who had spirometric tests, 27 (3.4%) had resting airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC less than 75%). Methacholine challenge was undertaken without problem in 766 children, the abbreviated protocol being based on five breaths and four concentrations. A fall in FEV1 of more than 20% was observed in 176 children (23% of challenges, 22% of the full cohort) after inhalation of methacholine in concentrations of up to 25 mg/ml. The prevalence of bronchial reactivity in children with symptoms was related to the frequency of wheezing episodes in the last year, and the degree of reactivity to the interval since the last episode. Sixty four children (8.0%) with no history of wheeze or recurrent dry cough were, however, also responsive to methacholine 25 mg/ml or less, while 35% of children with current or previous wheezing did not respond to any dose of methacholine. Bronchial challenge by methacholine inhalation was not sufficiently sensitive or specific to be useful as a major criterion for the diagnosis of asthma in epidemiological studies. The occurrence of airway reactivity in children without symptoms of asthma, however, raises the possibility that adult onset asthma and the development of airways obstruction in some subjects with chronic bronchitis could have origins in childhood. PMID:3738848

  1. Prevalence of bronchial reactivity to inhaled methacholine in New Zealand children.

    PubMed

    Sears, M R; Jones, D T; Holdaway, M D; Hewitt, C J; Flannery, E M; Herbison, G P; Silva, P A

    1986-04-01

    The prevalence of bronchial hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine and of a clinical history of symptoms of asthma was determined in a birth cohort of 9 year old New Zealand children. A history of current or previous recurrent wheezing was obtained in 220 of 815 children. Of 800 who had spirometric tests, 27 (3.4%) had resting airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC less than 75%). Methacholine challenge was undertaken without problem in 766 children, the abbreviated protocol being based on five breaths and four concentrations. A fall in FEV1 of more than 20% was observed in 176 children (23% of challenges, 22% of the full cohort) after inhalation of methacholine in concentrations of up to 25 mg/ml. The prevalence of bronchial reactivity in children with symptoms was related to the frequency of wheezing episodes in the last year, and the degree of reactivity to the interval since the last episode. Sixty four children (8.0%) with no history of wheeze or recurrent dry cough were, however, also responsive to methacholine 25 mg/ml or less, while 35% of children with current or previous wheezing did not respond to any dose of methacholine. Bronchial challenge by methacholine inhalation was not sufficiently sensitive or specific to be useful as a major criterion for the diagnosis of asthma in epidemiological studies. The occurrence of airway reactivity in children without symptoms of asthma, however, raises the possibility that adult onset asthma and the development of airways obstruction in some subjects with chronic bronchitis could have origins in childhood.

  2. Modulation of bronchial epithelial cell barrier function by in vitro jet propulsion fuel 8 exposure.

    PubMed

    Robledo, R F; Barber, D S; Witten, M L

    1999-09-01

    The loss of epithelial barrier integrity in bronchial and bronchiolar airways may be an initiating factor in the observed onset of toxicant-induced lung injuries. Acute 1-h inhalation exposures to aerosolized jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) have been shown to induce cellular and morphological indications of pulmonary toxicity that was associated with increased respiratory permeability to 99mTc-DTPA. To address the hypothesis that JP-8 jet fuel-induced lung injury is initiated through a disruption in the airway epithelial barrier function, paracellular mannitol flux of BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells was measured. Incubation of confluent cell cultures with non-cytotoxic concentrations of JP-8 or n-tetradecane (C14), a primary constituent of JP-8, for a 1-h exposure period resulted in dose-dependent increases of paracellular flux. Following exposures of 0.17, 0.33, 0.50, or 0.67 mg/ml, mannitol flux increased above vehicle controls by 10, 14, 29, and 52%, respectively, during a 2-h incubation period immediately after each JP-8 exposure. C14 caused greater mannitol flux increases of 37, 42, 63, and 78%, respectively, following identical exposure conditions. The effect on transepithelial mannitol flux reached a maximum at 12 h and spontaneously reversed to control values over a 48-h recovery period, for both JP-8 and C14 exposure. These data indicate that non-cytotoxic exposures to JP-8 or C14 exert a noxious effect on bronchial epithelial barrier function that may preclude pathological lung injury.

  3. Maximum Time of the Effect of Antileukotriene - Zileuton in Treatment of Patients with Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Morina, Naim; Boçari, Gëzim; Iljazi, Ali; Hyseini, Kadir; Halac, Gunay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Maximum time of the effect of antileukotriene substances - Zileuton in the treatment of patients with bronchial asthma and increased bronchial reactivity and of the salbutamol as agonist of the beta2 adrenergic receptor studied in this work. Methods: Parameters of the lung function are determined with Body plethysmography. Raw and ITGV were registered and specific resistance (SRaw) was calculated. Zileuton (Zyflo, tbl. 600 mg), producer Cornerstone Therapeutics, USA was used in the research. Results: Results of this research, in patients with bronchial asthma, indicate that antileukotriene substances–Zileuton administered in a dose of 600 mg first day (oral route of administration 4 × 1 tbl.) has not caused significant decrease of the specific resistance of the airways (SRaw) (p value 0.1 > Alpha 0.05), whereas Zileuton administered two days in a row, in a dose of 600 mg (4 × 1 tbl. a day), has caused significant decrease of the specific resistance of the airways (SRaw) (P value 0.03 < Alpha 0.05). Effect of the control with salbutamol (beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist) is efficient in the removal of the increased bronchomotor tone, causing significant decrease of the resistance (Raw), respectively of the specific resistance (SRaw), (p value 0.05 = Alpha 0.05). Conclusion: Formation of leukotrienes depends on the lypoxygenation of the arachidonic acid by 5-lypoxygenase. Zileuton is an active and powerful inhibitor of the activity of 5- lypoxygenase and as such inhibits generation of its products. Consequently, besides inhibition of cys-LTs’, zileuton also inhibits the formation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), which is a powerful chemotactic of other eicosanoids too, which depend on the synthesis of lekotriene A4 (LTA4). This suggests that the effect of antileukotrienes (Zileuton) is not immediate after oral administration, but the powerful effect of the Zileuton seen only after two days of inhibition of cys-LTs’, and inhibition of leukotriene B4 (LTB4

  4. Inhibitory effect of hydrogen sulfide on ozone-induced airway inflammation, oxidative stress, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengyu; Li, Feng; Wiegman, Coen H; Zhang, Min; Hong, Yan; Gong, Jicheng; Chang, Yan; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Adcock, Ian; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhou, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ozone has been associated with airway inflammation, oxidative stress, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. The goal of this study was to examine whether these adverse effects of ozone could be prevented or reversed by hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a reducing agent. The H2S donor sodium (NaHS) (2 mg/kg) or vehicle (PBS) was intraperitoneally injected into mice 1 hour before and after 3-hour ozone (2.5 ppm) or air exposure, and the mice were studied 24 hours later. Preventive and therapeutic treatment with NaHS reduced the ozone-induced increases in the total cells, including neutrophils and macrophages; this treatment also reduced levels of cytokines, including TNF-α, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, IL-6, and IL-1β levels in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid; inhibited bronchial hyperresponsiveness; and attenuated ozone-induced increases in total malondialdehyde in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and decreases in the ratio of reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione in the lung. Ozone exposure led to decreases in the H2S production rate and in mRNA and protein levels of cystathionine-β-synthetase and cystathionine-γ-lyase in the lung. These effects were prevented and reversed by NaHS treatment. Furthermore, NaHS prevented and reversed the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and heat shock protein 27. H2S may have preventive and therapeutic value in the treatment of airway diseases that have an oxidative stress basis.

  5. Blood Level of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Leukocytes and Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNL) have an important defensive role against various microorganisms and other agents, but by liberating various substances, first of all the superoxide anion (O 2¯), they can damage the bronchial mucosa and influence the development of bronchial inflammation which is the fundamental of bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR). Objective: to show the role of the PMNL for development and level of BHR in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Material and methods: We observed 160 patients with COPD treated in Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” Sarajevo during three years :from 2012 to 2014. They were divided into groups and subgroups according to the first registration of BHR in the course of illness and to the number of exacerbations of the disease in one year. The number of blood PMNL was measured in a stable state of disease at the begging and at the end of investigation. Results: The number of blood PMNL was significantly greater in patients with 3 or more exacerbations per one year (p <0.01). Patients with BHR had significantly greater number blood PMNL than patients without BHR (p< 0.05). Patients with 3 exacerbations per year had a statistically significant increase of number of PMNL between first and last examination (p<0.01). Conclusion: There is statistically significant correlation between the number of blood PMNL and the level of BHR in COPD, but future examination need to be done to determine real role and mode of action of PMNL for these processes. PMID:26543311

  6. Dual pathway clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA from the bronchial mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, W.D.; Ilowite, J.S.

    1989-05-01

    Many studies have reported clearance rates of 99mTc-DTPA from the alveolar epithelial surface, but few have measured clearance of this solute from the bronchial mucosa. Those that have attempted such measurements have discounted the possibility that 99mTc-DTPA may be removed from the bronchial airways by mucocilliary transport as well as by absorption through the epithelium. This study was designed to better approximate the rate of 99mTc-DTPA absorption across the bronchial epithelium by correcting the measurements of total 99mTc-DTPA clearance for mucus transport. On two separate study days, each normal, nonsmoking subject (n = 8) breathed an aqueous aerosol (2.0 microns MMAD, sigma g = 2.0) containing 99mTc bound to DTPA or human serum ablumin (HSA) (a relatively nonpermeable solute that is cleared only by mucus transport over the period of measured clearance) while seated in front of a gamma camera. Breathing pattern was standardized to produce a similar central deposition of particles on both study days. From measurements of retention versus time over a 1-h period, exponential rate constants (Ktot and Km) were determined for the clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-HSA, respectively. By modeling the airways as a single compartment with two possible routes of clearance, we determined the permeability rate constant, Kp, as Ktot minus Km. Results showed that mucus clearance (Km) accounted for two thirds of the total rate of 99mTc-DTPA clearance (Ktot) (mean Ktot = 0.00985, Km = 0.00698, and Kp = 0.00287/min).

  7. [Bronchial asthma: clinico-pathological study of fatalities in intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Rabell, S; Piera, O M; Abdo, A; Sotolongo, R

    1975-01-01

    Due to the great amount of asthmatic patients presenting complications which could endanger their lives, a revision of the possible threatening factors is carried out. The factors concurring with the base pathologic mechanism are analyzed and it is demonstrated, that some of these factors intervene independently from bronchial asthma. The study is carried out on the basis of age, sex, hospital stay duration, clinical picture, blood gases analysis, complications and pathology findings: 1) Most of the deceased patients presented various pathologies besides bronchial asthma which contributed to the decease. 2) The physician should be alert in order to establish good therapeutic procedure in these patients which could carry other important complications; these complications are responsible for the fatal outcome in a great number of patients. A complication should always be searched for, e.g. pneumothorax. 3) The vast majority of patients who passed away in status were relatively young. 4) A female predominance was found. 5) All patients before entering our Center, presented asthma crisis at least three days prior to admission. 6) The predominant hospital stay duration was 24 hours. 7) The most common pathologic findings were: pulmonary fibroemphysema, acute bronchopneumonia, bronchial mucoid plugging, atelectasia and cerebral edema. 8) Cerebral edema and compression of the amygdale were common brain pathologic findings. 9) Bronchopneumonia was a common necropsy finding. 10) Based on these findings, ICU treatment is extremely important. 11) The critical status of the patient in the moment of admission, is due to the delay in bringing him to the hospital for proper medical surveyance. This justifies the interest of the Public Health Department in ample distribution of proper information to the asthmatic patients. PMID:1155315

  8. Low molecular weight components of pollen alter bronchial epithelial barrier functions.

    PubMed

    Blume, Cornelia; Swindle, Emily J; Gilles, Stefanie; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Davies, Donna E

    2015-01-01

    The bronchial epithelium plays a key role in providing a protective barrier against many environmental substances of anthropogenic or natural origin which enter the lungs during breathing. Appropriate responses to these agents are critical for regulation of tissue homeostasis, while inappropriate responses may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Here, we compared epithelial barrier responses to different pollen species, characterized the active pollen components and the signaling pathways leading to epithelial activation. Polarized bronchial cells were exposed to extracts of timothy grass (Phleum pratense), ragweed (Ambrosia artemisifolia), mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), birch (Betula alba) and pine (Pinus sylvestris) pollens. All pollen species caused a decrease in ionic permeability as monitored trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TER) and induced polarized release of mediators analyzed by ELISA, with grass pollen showing the highest activity. Ultrafiltration showed that the responses were due to components <3kDa. However, lipid mediators, including phytoprostane E1, had no effect on TER, and caused only modest induction of mediator release. Reverse-phase chromatography separated 2 active fractions: the most hydrophilic maximally affected cytokine release whereas the other only affected TER. Inhibitor studies revealed that JNK played a more dominant role in regulation of barrier permeability in response to grass pollen exposure, whereas ERK and p38 controlled cytokine release. Adenosine and the flavonoid isorhamnetin present in grass pollen contributed to the overall effect on airway epithelial barrier responses. In conclusion, bronchial epithelial barrier functions are differentially affected by several low molecular weight components released by pollen. Furthermore, ionic permeability and innate cytokine production are differentially regulated. PMID:26451347

  9. A case of bronchial carcinoid: diagnosis and follow-up with 111In-DTPA-octreotide.

    PubMed

    Orsolon, P; Bagni, B; Basadonna, P; Geatti, O; Talmassons, G; Guerra, U P

    1995-12-01

    Scintigraphy with radiolabelled analogue of somatostatin is highly sensitive in detecting carcinoid tumors especially if performed with Single Photon Computed Tomography (SPECT). In this report we describe our experience with 111In-DTPA-Octreotide in a female patient affected by a small asymptomatic intrabronchial carcinoid demonstrated by CT scan and bronchial endoscopy performed after recurrent left pneumonias. Planar views and SPECT images, using 111In-DTPA-Octreotide, were collected before and four hours after the first endoscopic laser resection. All groups of SPECT images were positive in the left parahilar region but at a different degree. Scans performed after resection showed a low degree of uptake which was considered to be probably secondary to local swelling; CT scan was negative. Follow up endoscopic biopsy repeated at six months, showed a relapse always in the same site; CT scan of the thorax was again negative. 111In-DTPA-Octreotide images obtained at twelve months were positive always in the left parahilar region, CT scan was negative but another biopsy was not possible. Therefore it was suspected a relapse of the carcinoid which was probably growing only through the bronchial wall without spreading towards the bronchial lumen and/or the lung parenchima. In this occasion, it was also thought that images collected four hours after resection could be positive not only for swelling but for a relapse as well. In every scintigraphic session, SPECT images presented higher quality than planar. This case suggests that 111In-DTPA-Octreotide SPECT is a non-invasive diagnostic technique which could be applied as a follow-up tool especially to patients with no-secreting carcinoid neoplasm and/or with negative or doubtful endoscopic and radiological investigations.

  10. [Application of model 4650 type I compressor atomizer in bronchial challenge test].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Y; Wang, Y; Zeng, J; He, T

    2000-06-01

    This study was directed to the feasibility of applying a simple atomizer-model 4650 type I (abbrev. M)-to bronchial challenge test. 92 cases of asthma were divided into 3 groups randomly. All of them were subjected to the bronchial challenge test by M atomizer, and by standard Dosimeter atomizer (abbrev. D) as a comparison. In the test by M atomizer, the times for inspiring challenging medicine were 1, 1.5 and 2 minutes for the 3 groups respectively, while the time for D atomizer was 1 minute for all. The results showed no significant differences (P > 0.2-0.5) between the two atomizers in the 3 groups, their values were linear correlated. When the inspiring time was 1 minute for both M and D, the test needed a higher concentration of challenging medicine for M than for D, their coefficient of correlation (r = 0.285) was relatively low. When inspiring time postponed to 1.5 minute for M, the difference in medicine concentration between M and D was smallest (-0.075 g/L), r = 0.665. However, a further postponed inspiring time to 2 minute for M reversely broadened their difference. These results indicated that the efficiency of M atomizer was a little lower than that of D, postponing the inspiring time for M could make up this weakness. A 1.5 minute inspiring time for M atomizer was the suggestion. Some modifications on M atomizer were done by us for a better efficiency, and the cheap and popular M atomizer could be a good replacement in bronchial challenge test.

  11. Selective Embolization of Systemic Collaterals for the Treatment of Recurrent Hemoptysis Secondary to the Unilateral Absence of a Pulmonary Artery in a Child

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yin; Tsauo, Jiaywei; Li, Yuan; Li, Xiao

    2015-10-15

    The unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery (UAPA) is a rare anomaly. Hemoptysis due to systemic collaterals is one of the most common complications of UAPA. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the utility of selective embolization for the treatment of this condition in children has not been reported previously. This report describes a 6-year-old girl with isolated UAPA (IUAPA) admitted for a 10-month history of recurrent hemoptysis that had worsened during the previous 2 months. Selective embolization of the bronchial systemic collaterals was performed. The patient remained asymptomatic with no recurrence of hemoptysis 8 months after the procedure.

  12. Selective Embolization of Systemic Collaterals for the Treatment of Recurrent Hemoptysis Secondary to the Unilateral Absence of a Pulmonary Artery in a Child.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yin; Tsauo, Jiaywei; Li, Yuan; Li, Xiao

    2015-10-01

    The unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery (UAPA) is a rare anomaly. Hemoptysis due to systemic collaterals is one of the most common complications of UAPA. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the utility of selective embolization for the treatment of this condition in children has not been reported previously. This report describes a 6-year-old girl with isolated UAPA (IUAPA) admitted for a 10-month history of recurrent hemoptysis that had worsened during the previous 2 months. Selective embolization of the bronchial systemic collaterals was performed. The patient remained asymptomatic with no recurrence of hemoptysis 8 months after the procedure.

  13. Inflammatory Pattern of the Bronchial Mucosa in Patients with Asthma with Airway Hyperresponsiveness to Hypoosmotic Stimulus.

    PubMed

    Pirogov, A B; Prikhod'ko, A G; Perelman, Yu M; Zinovyev, S V; Afanasyeva, E Yu; Kolosov, V P

    2016-08-01

    Positive reaction of the bronchi to distilled water inhalation in asthmatics is associated with significant stimulation of the respiratory epithelium desquamation against the background of increased content of eosinophilic and neutrophilic leukocytes in induced sputum, predomination of eosinophil and neutrophil cytolysis, and lower activity of myeloperoxidase in leukocyte granules (in comparison with the parameter in patients with a negative response to bronchostimulation). Enhanced cytolysis and destruction of leukocytes and high myeloperoxidase concentration in the extracellular space are essential for the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness to hypoosmotic stimulus in asthma. PMID:27591875

  14. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA): will be or will not be a new revolutionary biomarker of bronchial asthma?

    PubMed

    Calabrese, C; Carpagnano, G E; Patella, V; Vatrella, A; Santus, P

    2015-10-01

    Carraro et al. measured asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) obtained from children with asthma and from healthy subjects. The authors demonstrated higher levels of ADMA in EBC of asthmatics compared to controls. ADMA levels in EBC did not correlate with serum levels, lung function parameters, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide. ADMA levels in EBC did not significantly differ between asthmatic patients regularly treated with inhaled steroids and those who were steroid naïve. Further studies are necessary in order to evaluate the role of this biomarker in the characterization of phenotypes of severe bronchial asthma. PMID:27427261

  15. Bronchial obstruction due to Teflon pledgets migration 13 years after lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Precht, Lisa M; Vallières, Eric

    2008-06-01

    Bronchopleural fistula is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after pulmonary resection. Different techniques of reinforcing the bronchial stump to prevent this complication have been described. Pledgeted sutures have been suggested for this purpose but have the potential to erode into the bronchus years after resection. We report an unusual case of airway obstruction 13 years after lung resection where pledgeted sutures had been used to reinforce a lobectomy stump. Bronchoscopic management of this rare complication consisted of endobronchial débridement and placement of a silicon stent to allow remodeling of the stenotic airway.

  16. Effect of long-term ionized air treatment on patients with bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Jones, D P; O'Connor, S A; Collins, J V; Watson, B W

    1976-08-01

    Seven patients with bronchial asthma requiring continuous medication were subjected to eight weeks of nocturnal exposure to negatively ionized air, and their progress was followed using objective tests of lung function and clinical assessment. During exposure, four patients showed significant increases in morning PEFR, which in two of these patients was not sustained when exposure ceased. In two patients the observed increase in PEFR was accompanied by subjective improvement. From the results of all our assessments we conclude that, although this treatment may lead to an improvement in some patients with asthma, further objective studies are required to determine the value of negatively ionized air in the routine management of asthma.

  17. [Oxidative stress in pathogenesis of bronchial asthma: a method of correction by inhalation of phospholipid nanoparticles].

    PubMed

    Lisitsa, A V; Soodaeva, S K; Klimanov, I A; Aver'ianov, A V

    2014-01-01

    The authors present the results of a prospective simple blind randomized placebo-controlled study for the evaluation of dynamics of biomarkers of oxidative stress (total concentration of nitrate- and nitrite-anions in condensed exhaled breath and plasma, pH of exhaled breath, total antioxidative activity of plasma in patients with bronchial asthma inhaling phospholipid nanoparticles. The results suggest significant positive effect of proposed therapy on dynamics of the main parameters of oxidative stress including reduced concentration of nitric oxide metabolites and increased total antioxidative activity of plasma. No clinically significant reactions were documented.

  18. Photodynamic therapy for bronchial carcinoid tumours: complete response over a 10-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Moghissi, Keyvan; Dixon, Kate; Gibbins, Sally

    2013-06-01

    A 63-year old woman diagnosed in September 2001 with a typical bronchial carcinoid of the left upper lobe bronchus extending into the left main stem bronchus is presented. The patient was unsuitable for standard surgical treatment, and the topography was not amenable for a parenchyma-saving bronchoplastic procedure. Two cycles of bronchoscopic photodynamic therapy (PDT) were undertaken at 6 monthly intervals. The patient has now been followed up regularly for over 10 years without signs of recurrence bronchoscopically or radiologically. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a carcinoid tumour treated solely by PDT. PMID:23284100

  19. Response of the Adrenergic System After Provoked Bronchoconstriction in Patients with Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Islami, Hilmi; Ilazi, Ali; Gashi, Nijazi; Mustafa, Lirim; Maloku, Halit; Jashanica, Adelina

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this paper, effect of the Tolazoline as antagonist of the alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive bronchitis was studied, and also the effect of stimulation with Hexoprenaline of beta-2 adrenergic receptor after bronchi-constriction caused with Propranolol, and Acetylcholine. Methods: Lung function parameters are determined with Body plethysmography. In patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive bronchitis was registered resistance (Raw), was determined the amount of intrathoracic gas volume (ITGV), and specific resistance was calculated as well (SRaw). Aerosolization was done with standard aerosolizing machine-Asema. Results: The study included a total of 21 patients. Two hours after the inhalation of Propranolol, in experimental group, it was applied the blocker of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors (Tolazoline 20 mg / ml with inhalator ways), which did not cause changes in bronchomotor tonus of tracheobronchial system (p > 1.0). Meanwhile, at the same patient, stimulation of beta-2 adrenergic receptor with Hexoprenaline (2 inh x 0.2 mg) is associated with a significant decrease of the specific resistance of airways (SRaw, p < 0.01). Control group results show that after bronchi-constriction caused by Propranolol-aerosol (20 mg / ml) in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive bronchitis, an increase of specific resistance in airways was caused (SRaw, p < 0.01), which confirms the presence of hyper-reactive bronco-constrictor effects intermediated by vagal ways. Two hours after Propranolol, inhaled Hexorenaline has blocked the action of Propranolol, but not entirely. Furthermore, two hours after acetylcholine-aerosol (1 mg /ml) was applied, inhaled Ipratropium (2 inh x 1 mg) has fully blocked the action of chemical bronchoconstrictor mediators, causing a decline of specific resistance in the airways (SRaw; p < 0.01). Conclusion: This suggests that primary mechanism, which would cause

  20. Intrasplenic Arterial Aneurysms during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Abu-khalaf, Mahmoud M. S.; Al-Ameer, Sokiyna M.; Smadi, Moath M.; Qatawneh, Ayman; Smara, Osama A.; Hadidy, Azmy T.

    2015-01-01

    Splenic artery aneurysms account for about 60% of all visceral aneurysms. Pregnancy is a risk factor for splenic artery aneurysms rupture with high maternal mortality and fetal loss. Intrasplenic arterial aneurysms are extremely rare and have not been reported to be associated with pregnancy. This report presents a 34-year-old woman during the second trimester, admitted with severe left upper quadrant and left shoulder pain. She had two uncomplicated intrasplenic aneurysms. Splenectomy was done. She delivered a full term healthy girl. This is the first report of acute abdomen during pregnancy caused by intrasplenic artery aneurysms with maternal and fetal survival. PMID:25810934

  1. Arterial pulse wave pressure transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, C.; Gorelick, D.; Chen, W. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An arterial pulse wave pressure transducer is introduced. The transducer is comprised of a fluid filled cavity having a flexible membrane disposed over the cavity and adapted to be placed on the skin over an artery. An arterial pulse wave creates pressure pulses in the fluid which are transduced, by a pressure sensitive transistor in direct contact with the fluid, into an electric signal. The electrical signal is representative of the pulse waves and can be recorded so as to monitor changes in the elasticity of the arterial walls.

  2. A general practice based survey of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and its relation to symptoms, sex, age, atopy, and smoking.

    PubMed Central

    Trigg, C J; Bennett, J B; Tooley, M; Sibbald, B; D'Souza, M F; Davies, R J

    1990-01-01

    The prevalence and associations of bronchial hyperresponsiveness were investigated in a general practice population. The sample was obtained by using every 12th patient on the practice age-sex register, replacing non-responders with corresponding age and sex matched individuals from up to two further 1 in 12 samples. The response rate was 43%; 366 patients were studied. Doubling concentrations of methacholine were given to a maximum of 32 mg/ml or until a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) occurred (provocation concentration, PC20FEV1). Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was defined arbitrarily as a PC20FEV1 of 2 mg/ml or less (or 11 mumol cumulative dose, PD20FEV1). The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness was 23%. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was not associated with age but was more prevalent in women than men (31%:13%). It was also more common in those who had ever wheezed (39%) and in those who had had an attack of rhinitis in the preceding month (45%, p less than 0.1), in atopic individuals (30%), and in smokers (32%), but it was not associated with cough or dyspnoea. There was a positive correlation between PC20FEV1 and resting FEV1 (r = 0.288) and a negative correlation between PC20FEV1 and mean daily peak flow variability (r = -0.356). Stepwise binary logistic regression analysis showed significant independent effects on PC20FEV1 for mean daily peak flow variability, gender, number of positive skin test responses, resting FEV1, and mean histamine skin weal area, but no relation with smoking or mean allergen weal area. The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness was much higher than the prevalence of diagnosed asthma in the practice in 1984 (4.9%). Analysis of case notes of 169 individuals showed that those with bronchial hyperresponsiveness had not attended the practice more frequently for respiratory complaints during the previous five years. Images PMID:2256016

  3. Allergic bronchial asthma due to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus hypersensitivity can be efficiently treated by inoculation of allergen-antibody complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Machiels, J J; Somville, M A; Lebrun, P M; Lebecque, S J; Jacquemin, M G; Saint-Remy, J M

    1990-01-01

    Antigen-antibody complexes were made from allergens of the common house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) and an excess of purified autologous specific antibodies. These complexes have been used to treat Dpt-hypersensitive patients who suffered from chronic bronchial asthma. Clinical symptoms and medication intake were followed by filling in diary cards. Peak expiratory flow, measured four times a day, was also followed. Intradermal skin tests and bronchial challenge tests were performed with allergen together with an evaluation of nonspecific bronchial reactivity. Specific IgE and IgG antibodies were assayed after separation from the bulk of serum immunoglobulins by immunoadsorption. The study was carried out over two years according to a double-blind protocol. Intradermal inoculation of antigen-antibody complexes resulted in a marked reduction of both clinical and medication scores. No systemic side-effects were observed and only mild wheal and flare reactions were noted at the injection site. The treatment showed a drastic reduction of specific skin and bronchial reactivities with only marginal effects on nonspecific bronchial reactivity. Concentrations of specific IgE antibodies decreased significantly during the first weeks of treatment and remained at these lower values throughout the study. Specific IgG antibodies actually decreased in the majority of treated patients. The total amount of allergen used in this study was less than 1% of the amount currently used for conventional hyposensitization with the same allergen. These findings show that antigen-antibody complex inoculation is an efficient and safe means of treating allergic bronchial asthma and that the mechanism of action is likely to differ from conventional hyposensitization. PMID:2318962

  4. Artery of Percheron Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, K.V.; Kaaviya, R.; Arpita, Bhaumik

    2016-01-01

    Artery of Percheron (AOP) occlusion is a rare cause of ischemic stroke characterized by bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts, with or without mesencephalic infarction. Clinically it presents with mental state disturbances, hypersomnolence, aphasia/dysarthria, amnesia and ocular movement disorders, including vertical gaze palsy. Here, we report a case of cardioembolic AOP infarction in a 37-year-old woman with rheumatic mitral valvular stenosis. This case is being reported to highlight the interesting clinical and neuroimaging features of this rare condition, and the differential diagnosis of AOP infarction on imaging have been discussed. PMID:27647964

  5. Artery of Percheron Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, K.V.; Kaaviya, R.; Arpita, Bhaumik

    2016-01-01

    Artery of Percheron (AOP) occlusion is a rare cause of ischemic stroke characterized by bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts, with or without mesencephalic infarction. Clinically it presents with mental state disturbances, hypersomnolence, aphasia/dysarthria, amnesia and ocular movement disorders, including vertical gaze palsy. Here, we report a case of cardioembolic AOP infarction in a 37-year-old woman with rheumatic mitral valvular stenosis. This case is being reported to highlight the interesting clinical and neuroimaging features of this rare condition, and the differential diagnosis of AOP infarction on imaging have been discussed.

  6. Artery of Percheron Infarction.

    PubMed

    Vinod, K V; Kaaviya, R; Arpita, Bhaumik

    2016-07-01

    Artery of Percheron (AOP) occlusion is a rare cause of ischemic stroke characterized by bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts, with or without mesencephalic infarction. Clinically it presents with mental state disturbances, hypersomnolence, aphasia/dysarthria, amnesia and ocular movement disorders, including vertical gaze palsy. Here, we report a case of cardioembolic AOP infarction in a 37-year-old woman with rheumatic mitral valvular stenosis. This case is being reported to highlight the interesting clinical and neuroimaging features of this rare condition, and the differential diagnosis of AOP infarction on imaging have been discussed. PMID:27647964

  7. [Comparative analysis of PD25-V50 and PD20-FEV1 as a judgement of bronchial provocation test].

    PubMed

    Yao, W Z; Zhoa, M W; Han, R X

    1994-08-01

    PD25-V50 as a judgement of bronchial provocation test was compared with PD20-FEV1. Both PD25-V50 and PD20-FEV1 showed linear correlation, but PD25-V50 was more sensitive than PD20-FEV1 for the diagnosis of bronchial asthma, and had higher specificity and sensitivity, and lower false-negative and false-positiverate. Moreover PD25-V50 provided the advantages of shorter period of histamine provocation and lower dose of inhaled histamine, so that avoided the side effects of higher dose of histamine.

  8. Retrograde superior mesenteric artery stenting for acute mesenteric arterial thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Do, Natalie; Wisniewski, Paul; Sarmiento, Jose; Vo, Trung; Aka, Paul K; Hsu, Jeffrey H; Tayyarah, Majid

    2010-08-01

    Retrograde superior mesenteric artery stenting (ROMS) represents a significant development in the treatment of acute mesenteric ischemia. Compared to traditional surgical mesenteric bypass, ROMS is a less invasive technique that avoids many complications associated with emergent mesenteric bypass. This case report illustrates that retrograde superior mesenteric artery (SMA) stenting is an option for the treatment of acute mesenteric ischemia for patients in extremis.

  9. True arterial system compliance estimated from apparent arterial compliance.

    PubMed

    Quick, C M; Berger, D S; Hettrick, D A; Noordergraaf, A

    2000-03-01

    A new method has been developed to estimate total arterial compliance from measured input pressure and flow. In contrast to other methods, this method does not rely on fitting the elements of a lumped model to measured data. Instead, it relies on measured input impedance and peripheral resistance to calculate the relationship of arterial blood volume to input pressure. Generally, this transfer function is a complex function of frequency and is called the apparent arterial compliance. At very low frequencies, the confounding effect of pulse wave reflection disappears, and apparent compliance becomes total arterial compliance. This study reveals that frequency components of pressure and flow below heart rate are generally necessary to obtain a valid estimate of compliance. Thus, the ubiquitous practice of estimating total arterial compliance from a single cardiac cycle is suspect under most circumstances, since a single cardiac cycle does not contain these frequencies. PMID:10784093

  10. The inferior epigastric artery arising from the internal iliac artery via a common trunk with the obturator artery.

    PubMed

    Won, Hyung-Sun; Won, Hyung-Jin; Oh, Chang-Seok; Han, Seung-Ho; Chung, In-Hyuk; Kim, Dong-Hoan

    2012-12-01

    We report a rare case of a left inferior epigastric artery arising from the internal iliac artery via a common trunk with the obturator artery in an 84-year-old female cadaver. A common trunk for the inferior epigastric and obturator arteries firstly originated from the left internal iliac artery, at 3.0 mm below the bifurcation of the left common iliac artery. This trunk ran straight between the left external iliac artery and left external iliac vein, and was finally divided into the left inferior epigastric and left obturator arteries just superior to the inguinal ligament. PMID:23301197

  11. Bronchial Hyperreactivity to Prostaglandin F2α and Histamine in Patients with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Mathé, A. A.; Hedqvist, P.; Holmgren, A.; Svanborg, N.

    1973-01-01

    The influence on airway conductance of inhaled aerosols of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), histamine, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was studied in 10 patients with spirometrically reversible bronchial asthma and in 10 healthy subjects with no history of lung disorder. Both groups responded with bronchoconstriction after inhalation of PGF2α but the asthmatic patients were about 8,000 times more sensitive to the compound than were the healthy controls. In the patients, but not in the controls, PGF2α often caused a long-standing decrease in airway conductance with symptoms resembling allergen-provoked asthmatic attacks. On the other hand, the patients showed less than a 10-fold increase in sensitivity to histamine, and the ratio of histamine: PGF2α doses causing a 50% decrease of airway conductance was 2·6:1 and 2,400:1 in controls and patients respectively. Inhalation of PGE2 while moderately but consistently increasing airway conductance in controls, had a variable—occasionally slight bronchoconstrictive—effect in patients. The decrease in airway conductance by a given dose of PGF2α was little modified by the simultaneous inhalation of a 100-times higher PGE2 dose. It is suggested that endogenous, locally formed PGF2α may play an important part in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. PMID:4686554

  12. Effect of parenteral magnesium sulfate on pulmonary functions in bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S K; Bhargava, A; Pande, J N

    1994-01-01

    Eighteen patients with bronchial asthma were studied in a single-blind fashion. Each patient received an infusion of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4.7H2O 50% W/V) in a dose equivalent to 10 mmol of elemental magnesium. The airways resistance showed a significant decrease (p < 0.01) while SGaw increased significantly (p < 0.001) with MgSO4 infusion. FEV1 (p < 0.01), FEF25-75% (p < 0.05), and V50 (p < 0.05) also showed statistically significant increase (p < 0.001) with MgSO4 infusion. Significant changes in Raw (p < 0.01) and SGaw (p < 0.01) persisted at 10 and 20 min following MgSO4 infusion. No significant side effects were observed with MgSO4 infusion. It is concluded that modest improvement in airways resistance and specific conductance and only small improvement in maximal expiratory flow rates is consistent with a predominant effect of MgSO4 on large airways in patients with bronchial asthma.

  13. [Best practice guide for radiation therapy of non-small cell bronchial cancers].

    PubMed

    Martel-Lafay, I; Fourneret, P; Ayadi, M; Brun, O; Buatois, F; Carrie, C; Chilles, A; Claude, L; Cottin-Durrleman, G; Farsi, F; Fournel, P; Mongodin, B; Pouchard, I; Balestrière, V; Suchaud, J P

    2009-01-01

    The objective was the drafting of a practical document intended for radiotherapists and radiophysicists, describing the technique of irradiation of a non small cell bronchial cancer. The good practices concern the care of patients affected by bronchial cancer localized in the thorax and inoperable or patients who must undergo postoperative irradiation. The document has been developed according to a methodology aiming to join the current scientific data from an analysis of the literature on the subject and the assessment of radiotherapists, radiophysicists, lung specialists and methodologists from Rhône-Alpes area. From the stages necessary for the good progress of a radiotherapy, the writers of this document proposed common definitions concerning the centering and the location of the zone to be treated, the calculation of the dose distribution, the preparation of the patient for the treatment, the treatment and the surveillance during the treatment. The recommendations of this guide took into account the peculiarities bound to the nature of the treated region and more particularly the lung heterogeneity, respiratory movements and the radiosensibility of healthy lung tissue. Even if the technical aspect of the radiotherapy was particularly developed, the interest accorded to patient information takes on all its importance for a therapeutic coverage of quality. The authors of the document wished that this Guide of Good Practices, which will be regularly updated, helps the radiotherapists and allows them to harmonize their practices. PMID:19041270

  14. Sulfur dioxide and ammonium sulfate effects on pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Kulle, T.J.; Sauder, L.R.; Shanty, F.; Kerr, H.D.; Farrell, B.P.; Miller, W.R.; Milman, J.H.

    1984-03-01

    The effect of exposures to 1 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and 500 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ respirable ammonium sulfate ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) was studied in 20 nonsmoking subjects to determine if a response can be measured at these atmospheric levels and if the response is additive or synergistic. Four-hour separate and combined exposures were employed. Each subject acted as his or her own control and performed two light-to-moderate exercise stints (612 kg-m/min) for 15 minutes on each day's confinement in the environmental chamber. Pulmonary function tests (body plethysmography and spirometry) and bronchial reactivity to methacholine were performed to assess the response of these exposures. No significant changes in pulmonary function or bronchial reactivity were observed in the individual exposures ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or SO/sub 2/), the combined exposure ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and SO/sub 2/), or 24 hours post-exposure. This study design and the observed results did not demonstrate any readily apparent risk to healthy subjects with these exposures. Since no significant changes were measured, it was not possible to conclude if these two pollutants in combination produce an additive or synergistic response.

  15. Development of an in vitro model of human bronchial epithelial barrier to study nanoparticle translocation.

    PubMed

    George, Isabelle; Vranic, Sandra; Boland, Sonja; Courtois, Arnaud; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle

    2015-02-01

    Inhalation is the most frequent route of unintentional exposure to nanoparticles (NPs). Our aim was to compare different in vitro models of human lung epithelial monolayers for their suitability to assess the translocation of 50 nm fluorescently labelled silica NPs (50 nm-SiO(2)-FITC-NPs). Human bronchial epithelial cell lines NCI-H292 and Calu-3 as well as human alveolar cell line A549 were seeded onto Transwell filters (TF) separating the well into an apical and a basal compartment. Measurements of the transepithelial electric resistance and monitoring the paracellular transport of a fluorescent marker (Lucifer Yellow) have shown that only Calu-3 cells formed a tight epithelium. In the absence of cells 4% of the initially applied NP concentration was found to cross the TF but the majority remained trapped inside the filter. After 24 h of treatment, 50 nm-SiO(2)-FITC-NPs were taken up by all cell types but their translocation was inversely correlated to the efficiency to prevent LY passage: translocation represented 3% of the initially apically applied NP concentration for Calu-3 cells, 9% for NCI-H292 cells and 35% for A549 cells. In conclusion, 50 nm-SiO(2)-FITC-NPs can cross different bronchial epithelial barriers, but the Calu-3 cell line appears to be the most relevant model for studying NP translocation. PMID:25197033

  16. Alterations of p53 in tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells correlate with metastatic potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piao, C. Q.; Willey, J. C.; Hei, T. K.; Hall, E. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation-induced lung cancer are not known. In the present study, alterations of p53 in tumorigenic human papillomavirus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells induced by a single low dose of either alpha-particles or 1 GeV/nucleon (56)Fe were analyzed by PCR-single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) coupled with sequencing analysis and immunoprecipitation assay. A total of nine primary and four secondary tumor cell lines, three of which were metastatic, together with the parental BEP2D and primary human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were studied. The immunoprecipitation assay showed overexpression of mutant p53 proteins in all the tumor lines but not in NHBE and BEP2D cells. PCR-SSCP and sequencing analysis found band shifts and gene mutations in all four of the secondary tumors. A G-->T transversion in codon 139 in exon 5 that replaced Lys with Asn was detected in two tumor lines. One mutation each, involving a G-->T transversion in codon 215 in exon 6 (Ser-->lle) and a G-->A transition in codon 373 in exon 8 (Arg-->His), was identified in the remaining two secondary tumors. These results suggest that p53 alterations correlate with tumorigenesis in the BEP2D cell model and that mutations in the p53 gene may be indicative of metastatic potential.

  17. Brainstem Circuitry of Tracheal-bronchial Cough: c-fos Study in Anesthetized Cats

    PubMed Central

    Jakus, Jan; Poliacek, Ivan; Halasova, Erika; Murin, Peter; Knocikova, Juliana; Tomori, Zoltan; Bolser, Donald C

    2008-01-01

    The c-fos gene expression method was used to localize brainstem neurons functionally related to the tracheal-bronchial cough on 13 spontaneously breathing, pentobarbitone anesthetized cats. The level of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in 6 animals with repetitive coughs (170±12) induced by mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial mucosa was compared to FLI in 7 control non-stimulated cats. Thirty-four nuclei were compared for the number of labeled cells. Enhanced cough FLI was found bilaterally at following brainstem structures, as compared to controls: In the medulla, FLI was increased in the medial, interstitial and ventrolateral subnuclei of the solitary tract (p<0.02), in the retroambigual nucleus of the caudal medulla (p<0.05), in the ambigual, paraambigual and retrofacial nuclei of the rostral medulla along with the lateral reticular nuclei, the ventrolateral reticular tegmental field (p<0.05), and the raphe nuclei (p<0.05). In pons, increased FLI was detected in the lateral parabrachial and Kölliker-Fuse nuclei (p<0.01), in the posteroventral cochlear nuclei (p<0.01), and the raphe midline (p<0.05). Within the mesencephalon cough-related FLI was enhanced at the rostral midline area (p<0.05), but a decrease was found at its caudal part in the periaqueductal gray (p<0.02). Results of this study suggest a large medullary - pontine - mesencephalic neuronal circuit involved in the control of the tracheal-bronchial cough in cats. PMID:18055277

  18. Role of virtual bronchoscopy in the evaluation of bronchial lesions: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Saad Rezk Abudlwahed

    2013-01-01

    Bronchoscopy is an important diagnostic method for the tracheobronchial, thoracic, and mediastinal lesions. It is limited by the physical progression of the bronchoscope. This represents a problem when assessing difficult airways, such as a lumen narrowed from any cause. Bronchoscopy can be performed with flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB), which remains the best modality for the evaluation of endoluminal and mucosal lesions of the respiratory tract. However, FOB has important limitations. It cannot view structures outside the bronchial wall, such as the mediastinal lymph nodes and vascular structures. Additionally, FOB frequently provides little information about the extent of the extraluminal diseases or airway patency distal to high-grade bronchial stenosis. In view of these limitations, some authors have suggested that virtual bronchoscopy (VB) may replace FOB. VB is a novel computed tomography-based imaging technique. It allows a noninvasive intraluminal evaluation of the tracheobronchial tree. In addition to its direct roles in patient care, VB has great potential in education, bronchoscopy training, and procedure planning. VB can be performed when FOB is contraindicated or considered risky, as in cases with airway narrowing. Also, it can be done as a preliminary evaluation before FOB. VB is not effective for the detection of subtle mucosal abnormalities, such as erythema or early sessile lesions. The aim of this pectoral essay is to present overview of VB and the author's experience of using of VB, based on computed tomography data, in diagnosis of different tracheobronchial lesions. PMID:23332136

  19. Comparison of CT and fiberoptic bronchoscopy in the evaluation of bronchial disease.

    PubMed

    Naidich, D P; Lee, J J; Garay, S M; McCauley, D I; Aranda, C P; Boyd, A D

    1987-01-01

    CT was compared to fiberoptic bronchoscopy in a large series of patients to study the value of CT for visualizing bronchial disease. CT scans were available for review in 64 cases in which focal airway disease was identified with fiberoptic bronchoscopy and in 38 patients in whom the airways appeared normal at bronchoscopy. CT was positive in 59 of 64 cases in which lesions were detected endoscopically. If the results are analyzed according to the extent of involvement of individual bronchi, CT successfully identified 88 (90%) of 98 lesions. CT correctly excluded disease in 35 (92%) of 38 cases that were subsequently verified to be normal by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. In no case was the diagnosis of malignancy missed by CT. While extremely accurate in detecting focal lesions, CT was inaccurate in predicting whether a given abnormality was endobronchial, submucosal, or extrinsic (peribronchial). In three cases CT failed to detect submucosal extension into the left mainstream bronchus, which has important implications concerning the value of CT in staging bronchial malignancy. It is concluded that CT is helpful when bronchoscopy is contraindicated or refused. CT may also be used in selected cases when there is low clinical suspicion of endobronchial disease and as a complementary procedure to fiberoptic bronchoscopy for outlining the exact location of major mediastinal and hilar vessels, lymph nodes, and tumor in relation to adjacent airways. PMID:3491497

  20. Clinical efficacy of herbal Padmapatradi yoga in bronchial asthma (Tamaka Swasa)

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Doddanagali, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Ayurveda refers to bronchial asthma as Tamaka Swasa and it is well explained in Charaka Samhita. It contributes several modalities of the treatment for Swasa roga(asthma). Among all modalities of treatment, polyherbal combinations are said to be well-accepted, safe and effective in asthma. A study was carried out in 40 patients of either sex in between the age of 15-65 years to assure the clinical response of Padmapatradi yoga in bronchial asthma (Tamaka Swasa) at P.G. department of Kayachikitsa, D.G.M. Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag, Karnataka. The sum total properties of Padmapatradi yoga is tikta katu rasa, laghu and tikna guna (light and penetrating properties), ushna virya (hot potency) and vatakaphagna (decrease vata and kapha dosa) Padmapatradi yoga is effective in increased peak expiratory flow rate, breath holding time, and reduces the absolute eosinophil count of studied cases and also found statistically highly significant at p<0.001 level. The drug is quite safe and acts as a bronchodilator, antihistaminic and anti-inflammatory. PMID:21760694

  1. Transfection of normal human bronchial epithelial cells with the bcl-2 oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.H.; Kenyon, K.D.; Tesfaigzi, J.

    1995-12-01

    In vitro, studies examining the transformation of virus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells after exposure to chemical and physical carcinogens have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the development of lung cancer. Virus-immortalized HBE cells have been used because of both the limited life span of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells in culture (approximately 30-35 population doublins) and their resistance to in vitro malignant transformation. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV)-immortalized HBE cells have been used to study the genetic changes that occur after exposure to {alpha}-particles in vitro. Although this model may prove to be useful for studying the 18% or less of bronchogenic carcinomas found to contain HPV sequences, it is not an appropriate model for studying the majority of lung epithelial malignancies in which HPV DNA is not detected. This view is supported by the fact that HPV-immortalized cell lines commonly exhibit aneuploidy. This results of this study suggest that: (1) NHBE cells can be transiently transfected with the pCMV{Beta} vector; and (2) the antibiotic hygromycin-resistant transfected cells.

  2. Bronchial airway gene expression in smokers with lung or head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Eric; Nazarov, Petr V; Muller, Arnaud; Nicot, Nathalie; Bosseler, Manon; Pierson, Sandrine; Van Moer, Kris; Palissot, Valérie; Mascaux, Céline; Knolle, Ulrich; Ninane, Vincent; Nati, Romain; Bremnes, Roy M; Vallar, Laurent; Berchem, Guy; Schlesser, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major cause of cancers of the respiratory tract, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and head and neck cancer (HNC). In order to better understand carcinogenesis of the lung and upper airways, we have compared the gene expression profiles of tumor-distant, histologically normal bronchial biopsy specimens obtained from current smokers with NSCLC or HNC (SC, considered as a single group), as well as nonsmokers (NS) and smokers without cancer (SNC). RNA from a total of 97 biopsies was used for gene expression profiling (Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 array). Differentially expressed genes were used to compare NS, SNC, and SC, and functional analysis was carried out using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Smoking-related cancer of the respiratory tract was found to affect the expression of genes encoding xenobiotic biotransformation proteins, as well as proteins associated with crucial inflammation/immunity pathways and other processes that protect the airway from the chemicals in cigarette smoke or contribute to carcinogenesis. Finally, we used the prediction analysis for microarray (PAM) method to identify gene signatures of cigarette smoking and cancer, and uncovered a 15-gene signature that distinguished between SNC and SC with an accuracy of 83%. Thus, gene profiling of histologically normal bronchial biopsy specimens provided insight into cigarette-induced carcinogenesis of the respiratory tract and gene signatures of cancer in smokers. PMID:24497500

  3. Asthma caused by diphenylmethane diisocyanate in foundry workers. Clinical, bronchial provocation, and immunologic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Zammit-Tabona, M.; Sherkin, M.; Kijek, K.; Chan, H.; Chan-Yeung, M.

    1983-08-01

    Eleven foundry workers who developed asthmatic symptoms were studied with inhalation provocation tests with formaldehyde and diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). These latter two chemicals are components of PepSet used for making molds for casting. Six subjects showed specific asthmatic reactions to MDI challenge (more than 20% fall in FEV1), 2 had a combined immediate and late reaction, and 4 had a predominantly late reaction. Four of the 6 subjects experienced recurrent nocturnal asthmatic reactions after a single challenge with MDI that lasted as long as 7 days, and this was associated with a significant increase in bronchial reactivity to methacholine. One subject had an immediate irritant reaction to both MDI and formaldehyde, which was spontaneously reversed in a few minutes. None of the remaining 10 subjects had a positive reaction to formaldehyde challenge. The reactors to MDI showed more evidence of air-flow obstruction in their lung function measurements and had a greater bronchial sensitivity to methacholine than the nonreactors but there was no difference in age, smoking habits, or atopic status. Specific IgE antibodies to MDI-human serum albumin conjugate were detected in 2 subjects, a reactor and a nonreactor. Specific IgG anti-MDI antibodies were detected in 4 subjects, 2 who reacted and 2 who did not. No difference in the pattern of response to MDI inhalation was observed in relation to the different immunologic findings. We conclude that MDI is a cause of asthma in foundry workers.

  4. Surface to nuclear distances in human bronchial epithelium: Relationships to penetration by Rn daughters

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, F.; Hovey, A.; McEwen, T.; O'Connor, R.; Unruh, H.; Bowden, D.H. )

    1991-02-01

    Lung cancer in U miners is thought to be related to the inhalation of particulate Rn daughters. Since the depth of penetration by alpha particles is short, the thickness of the epithelium lining the bronchial tree may be a critical factor in the development of cancers at specific sites in the lung. The objectives of the study were to measure the thickness of the epithelium at all levels of the human bronchial tree, to determine the distances of epithelial nuclei from the mucociliary surface, and to compare these parameters in smokers and nonsmokers. Twenty-nine surgically removed specimens were examined; 26 were from smokers. No significant differences were found between smokers and nonsmokers, allowing us to treat the 29 cases as a homogeneous group. With progressive divisions of the bronchi, the epithelium decreases in thickness, and distances of nuclei from the surface are also less in the peripheral bronchi. Allowing for artefacts of tissue preparation, the mean distance from the mucociliary surface to the underlying nuclei varies between 17 and 38 microns.

  5. Experimental investigation of the transitional bronchial velocity distribution using stereo scanning PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soodt, Thomas; Schröder, Franka; Klaas, Michael; van Overbrüggen, Timo; Schröder, Wolfgang

    2012-03-01

    An experimental analysis of the unsteady flow field in a realistic, transparent model of the human lung is presented. The model consists of the bronchial tree up to the third generation of bifurcation. The spatial focus is on the second bifurcation between the right main bronchus and the subsequent lobe bronchi, whereas the temporal focus is on the transition from inspiration to expiration. Due to the highly three-dimensional and unsteady character of the flow field, time-resolved 3D-3C measurements are performed using quasi-volumetric stereo scanning particle-image velocimetry. The measurements cover the total bronchial cross-section and are taken for two Womersley numbers of α1 = 3.4 and α2 = 4.2 at one peak Reynolds number of Re D = 1,420, representing breathing at rest. The temporal and spatial development of the flow field is presented for three temporal states in six parallel planes. The measurements show the development of vortical structures of varying size and location. An increased mass flux into the right superior bronchus for α2, a frequency-dependent phase shift of the flow structures, and a heterogeneous outflow at the beginning of the expiration phase are evidenced.

  6. Scintigraphic monitoring of mucociliary tracheo-bronchial clearance of technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Zwas, S.T.; Katz, I.; Belfer, B.; Baum, G.L.; Aharonson, E.

    1987-02-01

    A simple method for in vivo monitoring mucociliary tracheo-bronchial clearance is described. Eighteen healthy subjects and 13 patients with various chronic lung diseases were studied by this method. The principle of using an aerosol administration system similar to the system used for routine ventilation lung studies is stressed. Proximal large airway deposition of the radioaerosol was obtained by using relatively large particles (average diameter 2 microM) of (99mTc)MAA aerosol. Monitoring was performed by visual inspection of the tracheo-bronchial cinescintigraphic ascendence of the accumulated radioactive boli and by assessing their rate of clearance via automated computer analysis of the time-activity curves, following the movement of each bolus. The normal mean +/- s.d. clearance rate thus obtained was 4.7 +/- 1.3 mm/min. This rate appears to be more precise as compared with the range of results obtained by other radioisotopic methods. Significantly faster rates, mean 8.2 +/- 1.4 mm/min (p less than 0.001) were obtained in bronchiectatic patients while slower rates (2.8 mm/min) were seen in a patient with ciliary dyskinesia.

  7. Scheimpflug Imaging Parameters Associated with Tear Mediators and Bronchial Asthma in Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine associations between mediators in tears in the whole spectrum of keratoconus (KC); to explore connections between mediators and Scheimpflug parameters; to examine correlations between Scheimpflug parameters and bronchial asthma. Methods. Tear samples were collected from 69 patients and 19 controls. Concentrations of mediators—IL-6, -10; CXCL8, CCL5; MMP-9, -13; TIMP-1; t-PA, PAI-1—were measured by Cytometric Bead Array. Measured Pentacam parameters include keratometry values (K1, K2, Kmax), corneal thickness (Pachy Pupil, Apex, Min), and elevations and indices (including Belin-Ambrósio deviation (BAD-D)). Results. A number of significant positive associations were observed between pairs of mediator concentrations. Significant positive correlations were found between BAD-D and CXCL8/MMP-9 and K2 and MMP-9. Significant negative associations were explored between Pachy Min and CXCL8/t-PA. Significant associations were found between pairs of mediators (IL-6 and CXCL8; CCL5 and CXCL8/MMP-9; TIMP-1 and MMP-9/-13/t-PA; t-PA and CXCL8/CCL5/PAI-1) and the severity of KC. Significant positive correlation between asthma and the severity of KC was explored. Conclusion. Cooperation of different mediators in tears all taking part in the complex pathomechanism of keratoconus was revealed. Our research verifies that inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of KC. Additionally this study confirms the effect of bronchial asthma on keratoconus. PMID:26881061

  8. Inhalational sevoflurane in severe bronchial obstruction unresponsive to multipharmacologic therapy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Bronchial asthma with respiratory failure is a challenge for the intensivist as mechanical ventilation is often difficult due to bronchoconstriction and air-trapping. We describe a case of severe asthma with respiratory acidosis in a 10-year-old patient unresponsive to multipharmacologic broncholytic therapy. Only the initiation of sevoflurane inhalation resolved severe bronchoconstriction and dynamic hyperinflation, leading to complete recovery. Case presentation: A 10-year-old Caucasian boy was intubated and mechanically ventilated due to an asthmatic attack. Bronchoconstriction and dynamic hyperinflation were severe while multipharmacological broncholytic therapy was unsuccessful. Inhalation with sevoflurane via an anaesthesia machine was the key intervention leading to gradual resolving of severe hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis. Furthermore bilateral pupil dilation occurred during hypercapnia, but no intracranial pathology could be detected. The patient made an uneventful recovery. To our knowledge this is the first case where hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis were so profound and long lasting yet the patient survived without any damage. Conclusions: Inhalational anaesthetics must be considered as an early treatment option in ventilated asthmatic patients with bronchial obstruction unresponsive to conventional therapy even though their administration in intensive care units may be difficult. PMID:24358829

  9. Chemiluminescence of neutrophiles stimulated by opsonized Zymosan in children with bronchial asthma and pneumonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowicz-Uszynska, A.; Jankowski, A.

    2004-08-01

    Oxygen metabolism of neutrophils after stimulation with opsonized zymosan was examined using chemiluminescence test (in the presence of the patient serum or pooled serum). Into the study 37 children aged from 2 to 12 years were enrolled (20 girls and 17 boys). 10 healthy volunteers comprised the control group (group III). Two groups of patients were established: group I -- children with bronchial asthma (without infection), group II -- children with pneumonia. The examination in both groups was performed twice -- in acute phase and in remission period. The group I in acute phase comprised 16 children and in remission phase 9 children, group II - 21 children in acute phase and 9 children in remission phase, respectively. The following parameters of CL were estimated average value of so called spontaneous CL, maximal excitation of neutrophils after stimulation by zymogen (CLmax), time of zymosan opsonization. The following results were obtained: increased spontaneous CL and CLmax (at the presence of both sera) in acute phase of bronchial asthma and pneumonia in comparison to the control group. In the period of remission both these parameters were insignificantly decreased. The longest time of zymosan opsonization in acute period of disease was observed in children with pneumonia (18 min.). This time did not change during remission phase. Only slightly longer time of opsonization was observed in the patients from group I (in exacerbation) (15 min) than in the control group (13,1 min). This time was prolonged in the clinical remission (20 min).

  10. [Macro-and microelements imbalance in etiology and progression of bronchial asthma in children].

    PubMed

    Lytvynets', L Ia

    2013-06-01

    The aim of our work was the study of macro-and microelemensts characteristics of the state of the blood serum of children with asthma, depending on the severity. A total of 107 children aged 10 to 18 years with asthma in the acute stage. The results of the proposed asthma control test (GINA, 2011) to the level of asthma control the children were distributed as follows: 34 (31.8%)--with controlled, 47 (43.9%)--partly controlled and 26--with uncontrolled bronchial asthma. Investigation of serum trace elements were determined by atomic absobtsionnoy spectrophotometry. Found that with varying degrees of control of asthma changes were reduction of magnesium, zinc, when excessive amounts of copper and calcium. We show some dizelements in patients with nontrol bronhial asthma. The most pronounced manifestation dyzelements documented in patients with uncontrolled asthma. It is with same with uncontrolled asthma, there are marked hypoxic change, energy shortage, bronchial hyperreactivity, as a result of increasing stress level of response to an antigen, reduce antioxidant enzyme systems, immune system dysfunction. This changes in the macro-and microelement composition of the blood significantly reduce the reserves of the immune system, chronic inflammatory processes in the bronches, which exacerbates the severity of the disease, which in practice requires a differential diagnosis, comprehensive treatment based on identified dyzelements states.

  11. Dietary antioxidants and ozone-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness in adults with asthma.

    PubMed

    Trenga, C A; Koenig, J Q; Williams, P V

    2001-01-01

    Ozone exposure aggravates asthma, as has been demonstrated in both controlled exposures and epidemiologic studies. In the current double-blind crossover study, the authors evaluated the effects of dietary antioxidants (i.e., 400 IU vitamin E/500 mg vitamin C) on ozone-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness in adult subjects with asthma. Seventeen subjects were exposed to 0.12 ppm of ozone or to air for 45 min during intermittent moderate exercise. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was assessed with 10-min sulfur dioxide (i.e., 0.10 ppm and 0.25 ppm) inhalation challenges. Subjects who were given dietary antioxidants responded less severely to sulfur dioxide challenge than subjects given a placebo (i.e., forced expiratory volume in the 1st sec: -1.2% vs. 4.4%, respectively; peak flow: +2.2% vs. -3.0%, respectively; and mid-forced expiratory flow: +2.0% vs. -4.3%, respectively). Effects were more pronounced when subjects were grouped by response to sulfur dioxide at the screening visit. The results suggest that dietary supplementation with vitamins E and C benefits asthmatic adults who are exposed to air pollutants. PMID:11480500

  12. [Survey of clinical and experimental researches on mechanisms of acupuncture treatment of bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheng; Zhao, Ji-ping; Zhang, Chang

    2011-08-01

    In the present paper, the authors review the development of experimental and clinical studies on acupuncture treatment of bronchial asthma in recent 10 years. Regarding clinical studies, results showed that acupuncture could (1) regulate cardiac-pulmonary function; and (2) adjust immune state and relieve inflammatory reactions in bronchial asthma patients. Animal experiments showed that acupuncture could function in (1) improving pulmonary function; (2) reducing accumulation of the peripheral eosinophile granulocytes (EOS), relieving the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the air-passage mucosa and promoting the apoptosis of EOS in the lung and air-passages; (3) down-regulating the expression of air-passage remodeling-related protein insulin growth factor-1; (4) suppressing the secretion of tumor necrosis factor and endothelin; (5) attenuating allergic reaction; (6) regulating neuroendocrine activity; and (7) modulating intracellular second messenger activities. However, rigorous clinical study design is not enough, so that the reliability of the results is limited. In spite of many indicators of animal experiments have been selected, but their correlations are not in close association, resulting in poor complementation and mutual identification of the acquired findings. For this reason, its clinical efficacies need to be researched further according to principles of evidence-based medicine. PMID:21942186

  13. Uptake of 12-HETE by human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC): effects on HBEC cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Gormand, F; Chabannes, B; Moliere, P; Perrin-Fayolle, M; Lagarde, M; Pacheco, Y

    1996-04-01

    12-HETE, the major lipoxygenase end-product of platelets and macrophages, may be released in contact of bronchial epithelium in inflammatory diseases of the lung. We have studied the outcome of 12-HETE in presence of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC). When HBEC were incubated with [3H]12-HETE for 30 minutes, 27.5% of total radioactivity was found in HBEC and 72.5% in supernatants. Unesterified 12-HETE accounted for 22.4% of total radioactivity, 4.5% being recovered in phospholipids, preferentially in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. No incorporation in neutral lipids was detected. 72.9% of the incubated radioactivity was recovered in un identified metabolites. As 12-HETE has been shown to modulate the expression and production of various proteins, the consequence of the 12-HETE uptake on the release of GM-CSF and IL8 by HBEC was assessed. HBEC from control subjects were cultured for 24 hours with 12-HETE (10(-9) to 10(-7)M) in the presence or absence of TNF alpha. Detectable amounts of both cytokines were released in the supernatant in basal conditions at 24hr, and TNF alpha increased significantly the release of GM-CSF. 12-HETE at 10(-7)M weakly but significantly decreased the TNF-induced release of GM-CSF from HBEC. Thus the uptake of 12-HETE could affect the epithelial cell function in some situations.

  14. Multicentre European study for the treatment of advanced emphysema with bronchial valves.

    PubMed

    Ninane, Vincent; Geltner, Christian; Bezzi, Michela; Foccoli, Pierfranco; Gottlieb, Jens; Welte, Tobias; Seijo, Luis; Zulueta, Javier J; Munavvar, Mohammed; Rosell, Antoni; Lopez, Marta; Jones, Paul W; Coxson, Harvey O; Springmeyer, Steven C; Gonzalez, Xavier

    2012-06-01

    This multicentre, blinded, sham-controlled study was performed to assess the safety and effectiveness of bronchial valve therapy using a bilateral upper lobe treatment approach without the goal of lobar atelectasis. Patients with upper lobe predominant severe emphysema were randomised to bronchoscopy with (n = 37) or without (n = 36) IBV Valves for a 3-month blinded phase. A positive responder was defined as having both a ≥ 4-point improvement in St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and a lobar volume shift as measured by quantitative computed tomography. At 3 months, there were eight (24%) positive responders in the treated group versus none (0%) in the control group (p = 0.002). Also, there was a significant shift in volume in the treated group from the upper lobes (mean ± SD -7.3 ± 9.0%) to the non-treated lobes (6.7 ± 14.5%), with minimal change in the control group (p<0.05). Mean SGRQ total score improved in both groups (treatment: -4.3 ± 16.2; control: -3.6 ± 10.7). The procedure and devices were well tolerated and there were no differences in adverse events reported in the treatment and control groups. Treatment with bronchial valves without complete lobar occlusion in both upper lobes was safe, but not effective in the majority of patients.

  15. Effects of conidia of various Aspergillus species on apoptosis of human pneumocytes and bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Féménia, F; Huet, D; Lair-Fulleringer, S; Wagner, M C; Sarfati, J; Shingarova, L; Guillot, J; Boireau, P; Chermette, R; Berkova, N

    2009-05-01

    Aspergillus species can cause mycoses in human and animals. Previously, we demonstrated that A. fumigatus conidia from a human isolate inhibited apoptosis in human pneumocytes and bronchial epithelial cells. In the current study, we studied the effects of A. fumigatus conidia non-human origin and A. flavus, A. nidulans, A. niger and A. oryzae conidia on human cells apoptosis. Human pneumocytes or bronchial epithelial cells were simultaneously exposed to apoptotic inductors and aspergilli conidia. The cell cultures were analyzed by flow cytometry, immunoblotting, and examination of nuclear morphology. Similar to A. fumigatus conidia, A. flavus conidia inhibited cellular apoptosis while A. nidulans, A. niger and A. oryzae conidia did not affect apoptosis. We further studied the species specificity of conidia: there were no differences in the inhibition of apoptosis by A. fumigatus conidia from either human or bird isolates. In order to determine whether the inhibition of apoptosis by conidia is limited to certain strains, the effect on human cell apoptosis of different A. fumigatus human clinical isolates and A. fumigatus of environmental origin was evaluated. All A. fumigatus isolates inhibited apoptosis; an anti-apoptotic factor was released by conidia. For TNF-induced apoptosis, the anti-apoptotic effect of conidia of all isolates was found to be associated with a reduction of caspase-3 in human cells. The results suggest that suppression of apoptosis may play a role in reducing the efficacy of host defense mechanisms during infection with Aspergillus species. PMID:19117118

  16. Squamous Metaplasia Is Increased in the Bronchial Epithelium of Smokers with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rigden, Helen M.; Alias, Ahmad; Havelock, Thomas; O'Donnell, Rory; Djukanovic, Ratko; Davies, Donna E.; Wilson, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To quantify the extent of squamous metaplasia in bronchial biopsies and relate it to the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a smoking-related pathology. Methods Bronchial biopsies (n = 15 in each group) from smokers with COPD GOLD stage1 and GOLD stage2, smokers without COPD and healthy non-smokers were stained immunohistochemically with a panel of antibodies that facilitated the identification of pseudostratified epithelium and distinction of squamous metaplasia and squamous epithelium from tangentially cut epithelium. The percentage length of each of these epithelial phenotypes was measured as a percent of total epithelial length using computerised image analysis. Sections were also stained for carcinoembryonic antigen and p53, early markers of carcinogenesis, and Ki67, and the percentage epithelial expression measured. Results The extent of squamous metaplasia was significantly increased in both COPD1 and COPD2 compared to healthy smokers and healthy non-smokers. The amount of fully differentiated squamous epithelium was also increased in COPD1 and COPD2 compared to healthy non-smokers, as was the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen. These features correlated with one other. Conclusion In subjects with COPD there is a loss of pseudostratified epithelium accompanied by an increase in squamous metaplasia with transition into a fully squamous epithelium and expression of early markers of carcinogenesis. PMID:27228128

  17. Comparative clinical efficacy of Ashtangavaleha and Vyaghreehareetakee Avaleha on Tamaka Shwasa (bronchial asthma) in children

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Arvind Kumar; Rajagopala, S.; Patel, Kalpana S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tamaka Shwasa is a chronic inflammatory condition of the lung airways resulting in episodic airflow obstruction. This disease is more predominant in children and aged population. Apart from being the leading cause of hospitalization for children, it is one of the most important chronic conditions causing elementary school absenteeism. The parallel disease entity in contemporary medical science to this disorder is Bronchial Asthma. Aim: This study was aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Ashtangavaleha and Vyaghreehareetakee Avaleha on Tamaka Shwasa (Bronchial Asthma) in Children. Materials and Methods: The study was therapeutic interventional randomized clinical trial. Totally 100 patients suffering from Tamaka Shwasa were selected, and 74 patients completed the course of treatment. Patients were divided into two groups. Ashtangavaleha was administered in group AG and Vyaghreehareetakee Avaleha was administerd in group VG (5-15g in divided doses) for 8 weeks duration. Comaprative assesment of both the drugs was done on the signs and symptoms of the disease, pulmonary function test and quality of life parameters. Results: When the individualized overall effect of therapy was considered, more number of patients treated with Ashtangavaleha reached moderate improvement zone than the patients treated with Vyaghreehareetakee Avaleha. Conclusions: The trial showed a marginal better efficacy of Ashtangavaleha (66.66%) in comparison to Vyaghreehareetakee Avaleha (63.15%) on the overall condition of the patients even though the superiority was statistically insignificant (>0.05). PMID:26195900

  18. The Use of X Rays in the Treatment of Bronchial Asthma: A Historical Assessment.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J; Dhawan, Gaurav; Kapoor, Rachna

    2015-08-01

    This article provides a historical assessment of the role of X-ray therapy in the treatment of bronchial asthma. This analysis revealed that X-ray therapy in the treatment of bronchial asthma spanned the first six decades of the 20th century, and involved nearly 6,000 patients in published clinical case studies. Patients selected typically had at least moderate to severe asthma and were refractory to other commonly employed treatments. The results of more than 60 studies indicated that about 70% of patients had rapid and marked reductions in clinical symptoms with about half of these patients showing complete symptom relief. The duration of the beneficial responses was variable but was approximately 1-6 months for about 50% of the benefited patients, and between 1 to 4 years for the upper 25% of benefited patients. The use of X rays to treat such patients fell into disfavor during the 1950s due to mounting concerns over possible enhanced risks of cancer that coincided with the discoveries and use of antihistamine medications, antibiotics and the methyl xanthine bronchodilators aminophylline and theophylline.

  19. Human Normal Bronchial Epithelial Cells: A Novel In Vitro Cell Model for Toxicity Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haiyan; Xia, Bo; Liu, Hongya; Li, Jie; Lin, Shaolin; Li, Tiyuan; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Human normal cell-based systems are needed for drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. hTERT or viral genes transduced human cells are currently widely used for these studies, while these cells exhibited abnormal differentiation potential or response to biological and chemical signals. In this study, we established human normal bronchial epithelial cells (HNBEC) using a defined primary epithelial cell culture medium without transduction of exogenous genes. This system may involve decreased IL-1 signaling and enhanced Wnt signaling in cells. Our data demonstrated that HNBEC exhibited a normal diploid karyotype. They formed well-defined spheres in matrigel 3D culture while cancer cells (HeLa) formed disorganized aggregates. HNBEC cells possessed a normal cellular response to DNA damage and did not induce tumor formation in vivo by xenograft assays. Importantly, we assessed the potential of these cells in toxicity evaluation of the common occupational toxicants that may affect human respiratory system. Our results demonstrated that HNBEC cells are more sensitive to exposure of 10~20 nm-sized SiO2, Cr(VI) and B(a)P compared to 16HBE cells (a SV40-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells). This study provides a novel in vitro human cells-based model for toxicity evaluation, may also be facilitating studies in basic cell biology, cancer biology and drug discovery. PMID:25861018

  20. Molecular alterations in tumorigenic human bronchial and breast epithelial cells induced by high let radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei, T. K.; Zhao, Y. L.; Roy, D.; Piao, C. Q.; Calaf, G.; Hall, E. J.

    Carcinogenesis is a multi-stage process with sequence of genetic events governing the phenotypic expression of a series of transformation steps leading to the development of metastatic cancer. In the present study, immortalized human bronchial (BEP2D) and breast (MCF-10F) cells were irradiated with graded doses of either 150 keV/μm alpha particles or 1 GeV/nucleon 56Fe ions. Transformed cells developed through a series of successive steps before becoming tumorigenic in nude mice. Cell fusion studies indicated that radiation-induced tumorigenic phenotype in BEP2D cells could be completely suppressed by fusion with non-tumorigenic BEP2D cells. The differential expressions of known genes between tumorigenic bronchial and breast cells induced by alpha particles and their respective control cultures were compared using cDNA expression array. Among the 11 genes identified to be differentially expressed in BEP2D cells, three ( DCC, DNA-PK and p21 CIPI) were shown to be consistently down-regulated by 2 to 4 fold in all the 5 tumor cell lines examined. In contrast, their expressions in the fusion cell lines were comparable to control BEP2D cells. Similarly, expression levels of a series of genes were found to be altered in a step-wise manner among tumorigenic MCF-10F cells. The results are highly suggestive that functional alterations of these genes may be causally related to the carcinogenic process.

  1. Evaluation of Differentiated Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Culture Systems for Asthma Research

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ceri E.; Torr, Elizabeth E.; Mohd Jamili, Nur H.; Bosquillon, Cynthia; Sayers, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate primary (human bronchial epithelial cells, HBEC) and non-primary (Calu-3, BEAS-2B, BEAS-2B R1) bronchial epithelial cell culture systems as air-liquid interface- (ALI-) differentiated models for asthma research. Ability to differentiate into goblet (MUC5AC+) and ciliated (β-Tubulin IV+) cells was evaluated by confocal imaging and qPCR. Expression of tight junction/adhesion proteins (ZO-1, E-Cadherin) and development of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) were assessed. Primary cells showed localised MUC5AC, β-Tubulin IV, ZO-1, and E-Cadherin and developed TEER with, however, a large degree of inter- and intradonor variation. Calu-3 cells developed a more reproducible TEER and a phenotype similar to primary cells although with diffuse β-Tubulin IV staining. BEAS-2B cells did not differentiate or develop tight junctions. These data highlight the challenges in working with primary cell models and the need for careful characterisation and selection of systems to answer specific research questions. PMID:22287976

  2. Computer measurement of arterial disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J.; Selzer, R. H.; Barndt, R.; Blankenhorn, D. H.; Brooks, S.

    1980-01-01

    Image processing technique quantifies human atherosclerosis by computer analysis of arterial angiograms. X-ray film images are scanned and digitized, arterial shadow is tracked, and several quantitative measures of lumen irregularity are computed. In other tests, excellent agreement was found between computer evaluation of femoral angiograms on living subjects and evaluation by teams of trained angiographers.

  3. Epigenetics and Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Golledge, Jonathan; Biros, Erik; Bingley, John; Iyer, Vikram; Krishna, Smriti M

    2016-04-01

    The term epigenetics is usually used to describe inheritable changes in gene function which do not involve changes in the DNA sequence. These typically include non-coding RNAs, DNA methylation and histone modifications. Smoking and older age are recognised risk factors for peripheral artery diseases, such as occlusive lower limb artery disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm, and have been implicated in promoting epigenetic changes. This brief review describes studies that have associated epigenetic factors with peripheral artery diseases and investigations which have examined the effect of epigenetic modifications on the outcome of peripheral artery diseases in mouse models. Investigations have largely focused on microRNAs and have identified a number of circulating microRNAs associated with human peripheral artery diseases. Upregulating or antagonising a number of microRNAs has also been reported to limit aortic aneurysm development and hind limb ischemia in mouse models. The importance of DNA methylation and histone modifications in peripheral artery disease has been relatively little studied. Whether circulating microRNAs can be used to assist identification of patients with peripheral artery diseases and be modified in order to improve the outcome of peripheral artery disease will require further investigation.

  4. Effect of ozone on platelet-activating factor production in phorbol-differentiated HL60 cells, a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS S6), and primary human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Samet, J M; Noah, T L; Devlin, R B; Yankaskas, J R; McKinnon, K; Dailey, L A; Friedman, M

    1992-11-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a phospholipid with a wide spectrum of pro-inflammatory properties. In the lung, PAF induces airway hyperresponsiveness, neutrophil sequestration, and increased vascular permeability. The alveolar macrophage and the bronchial epithelium are tissues that are exposed to inhaled ozone (O3). We studied the effect of an in vitro O3 exposure on PAF production in a macrophage-like HL60 human cell line (dHL60), a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS S6), and also in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. PAF was quantified by thin-layer chromatographic separation of lipid extracts from cells radiolabeled with [3H]lysoPAF and by radioimmunoassay. In vitro exposure of dHL60 cells to 0.05 to 1.0 ppm O3 for 15 to 120 min was found to significantly increase PAF levels above air control values at all exposure levels and time points (average increase of 92%). Similarly, BEAS S6 cells grown on collagen-coated filter supports and exposed to 0.05 to 1.0 ppm O3 for 60 min released an average increase in PAF of 626% above control values. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells also demonstrated significant increases in [3H]PAF release (average increase of 289% after exposure to 1.0 ppm O3 for 60 min) compared with paired air controls. These findings suggest that some of the effects of O3 inhalation may be mediated by PAF.

  5. Patent arterial duct.

    PubMed

    Forsey, Jonathan T; Elmasry, Ola A; Martin, Robin P

    2009-07-10

    Patent arterial duct (PAD) is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavicular area) is typical. The precordium may be hyperactive and peripheral pulses are bounding with a wide pulse pressure. Tachycardia, exertional dyspnoea, laboured breathing, fatigue or poor growth are common. Large shunts may lead to failure to thrive, recurrent infection of the upper respiratory tract and congestive heart failure. In the majority of cases of PAD there is no identifiable cause. Persistence of the duct is associated with chromosomal aberrations, asphyxia at birth, birth at high altitude and congenital rubella. Occasional cases are associated with specific genetic defects (trisomy 21 and 18, and the Rubinstein-Taybi and CHARGE syndromes). Familial occurrence of PAD is uncommon and the usual mechanism of inheritance is considered to be polygenic with a recurrence risk of 3%. Rare families with isolated PAD have been described in which the mode of inheritance appears to be dominant or recessive. Familial incidence of PAD has also been linked to Char syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection associated with patent arterial duct, and familial patent arterial duct and bicuspid aortic valve associated with hand abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed with transthoracic echocardiography. Assessment of ductal blood flow can be made using colour flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler. Antenatal diagnosis is not possible, as PAD is a normal structure during antenatal life. Conditions with signs and symptoms of pulmonary overcirculation

  6. Patent arterial duct

    PubMed Central

    Forsey, Jonathan T; Elmasry, Ola A; Martin, Robin P

    2009-01-01

    Patent arterial duct (PAD) is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavicular area) is typical. The precordium may be hyperactive and peripheral pulses are bounding with a wide pulse pressure. Tachycardia, exertional dyspnoea, laboured breathing, fatigue or poor growth are common. Large shunts may lead to failure to thrive, recurrent infection of the upper respiratory tract and congestive heart failure. In the majority of cases of PAD there is no identifiable cause. Persistence of the duct is associated with chromosomal aberrations, asphyxia at birth, birth at high altitude and congenital rubella. Occasional cases are associated with specific genetic defects (trisomy 21 and 18, and the Rubinstein-Taybi and CHARGE syndromes). Familial occurrence of PAD is uncommon and the usual mechanism of inheritance is considered to be polygenic with a recurrence risk of 3%. Rare families with isolated PAD have been described in which the mode of inheritance appears to be dominant or recessive. Familial incidence of PAD has also been linked to Char syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection associated with patent arterial duct, and familial patent arterial duct and bicuspid aortic valve associated with hand abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed with transthoracic echocardiography. Assessment of ductal blood flow can be made using colour flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler. Antenatal diagnosis is not possible, as PAD is a normal structure during antenatal life. Conditions with signs and symptoms of pulmonary overcirculation

  7. COMPARISON OF PM-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES BETWEEN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS AND NASAL EPITHELIAL CELLS IN HUMAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have linked exposures to particulate matter (PM) and increased pulmonary mortality and morbidity. Bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) are the primary target of PM. PM exposure induces a wide array of biological responses in BEC. Primary human BEC, however, need...

  8. [Cellular immunity state assessed in bronchial and alveolar lavage for experimental animals exposed to the rubber dust].

    PubMed

    Zhumabekova, B K; Karabalin, S K; Bakirova, R E

    2004-01-01

    Experiments on 21 rats helped to study influence of mechanical rubber dust on cellular immunity state in bronchial and alveolar lavage, efficiency of Ruvimine for prophylaxis. Findings are that mechanical rubber dust is strongly cytotoxic. Ruvimine administration during the whole experiment demonstrates therapeutic and prophylactic effect and normalizes local pulmonary phagocytosis.

  9. Horseshoe lung--a case report with unusual bronchial and pleural anomalies and a proposed new classification.

    PubMed

    Figa, F H; Yoo, S J; Burrows, P E; Turner-Gomes, S; Freedom, R M

    1993-01-01

    One case of horseshoe lung with associated scimitar syndrome is presented. Unusual bronchial and pleural anomalies as delineated by CT and plain chest radiographic imaging are described. The presence of bilateral fissures led to a newly proposed classification of horseshoe lung based on pleural anatomy. PMID:8469591

  10. Zinc Induced G2/M Blockage is p53 and p21 Dependent in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The involvement of the p53 and p21 signal pathway in the G2/M cell cycle progression of zinc supplemented normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells was examined using the siRNA approach. Cells were cultured for one passage in different concentrations of zinc: <0.4 microM (ZD) as zinc-deficient;...

  11. The effect of platelet activating factor antagonist on ozone-induced airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, W.C.; Bethel, R.A. )

    1992-10-01

    We investigated the role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in ozone-induced airway responses by examining the effects of L659,989, a potent PAF antagonist, on bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation. Twenty-four male guinea pigs were studied in four equal groups. Total lung resistance (RL) in intubated and spontaneously breathing animals was measured in a constant-volume body plethysmograph. Dose-response curves to methacholine were determined in all animals at the start of the experiment. These were repeated on a separate day after the following types of treatments: air exposure in Group 1, intraperitoneally administered alcohol and air exposure in Group 2; intraperitoneally administered alcohol and ozone exposure in Group 3, and intraperitoneally administered L659,989 (a specific PAF antagonist), 5 mg/kg dissolved in alcohol, and ozone exposure in Group 4. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed after the second methacholine challenge, and the bronchial mucosa was also examined for inflammatory cells. Exposure to 3 ppm ozone for 2 h resulted in a three-doubling concentration increase in bronchial responsiveness, which was not significantly inhibited by prior treatment with L659,989. Ozone induced a 1.8-fold increase in BAL total cell count, increased eosinophilic influx into the airways, and increased eosinophilic infiltration in the bronchial mucosa, which were all not inhibited by L659,989 pretreatment. The results suggest that PAF may not have an essential role in ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and nonallergic airway inflammation.

  12. AEROSOL DEPOSITION EFFICIENCIES AND UPSTREAM RELEASE POSITIONS FOR DIFFERENT INHALATION MODES IN AN UPPER BRONCHIAL AIRWAY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerosol Deposition Efficiencies and Upstream Release Positions for Different Inhalation Modes in an Upper Bronchial Airway Model

    Zhe Zhang, Clement Kleinstreuer, and Chong S. Kim

    Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina at Ch...

  13. INHIBITION OF RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS (RSV)-INDUCED INFLAMMATION BY 3-NITROTYROSINE IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhibition of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-Induced Inflammation by 3-Nitrotyrosine in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells. J. M. Soukup, MPH 1, ZW. Li, MD 2 and YC. T. Huang, MD 1. 1 NHEERL, US Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC and 2 CEMALB, University of North Carolina,...

  14. Human bronchial epithelial cells injury and cytokine production induced by Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Rigoni, Vera Lucia Silva; Kwasniewski, Fabio H; Vieira, Rodolfo Paula; Linhares, Ingrid Sestrem; da Silva, Joelmir Lucena Veiga; Nogueira-Pedro, Amanda; Zamuner, Stella Regina

    2016-09-15

    Tityus serrulatus is the scorpion specie responsible for the majority of scorpion sting accidents in Brazil. Symptoms of envenomation by Tityus serrulatus range from local pain to severe systemic reactions such as cardiac dysfunction and pulmonary edema. Thus, this study has evaluated the participation of bronchial epithelial cells in the pulmonary effects of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom (Tsv). Human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B were utilized as a model target and were incubated with Tsv (10 or 50 μg/mL) for 1, 3, 6 and 24 h. Effects on cellular response of venom-induce cytotoxicity were examined including cell viability, cell integrity, cell morphology, apoptosis/necrosis as well as cell activation through the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Tsv caused a decrease in cell viability at 10 and 50 μg/mL, which was confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurement. Flow cytometry analyses revealed necrosis as the main cell death pathway caused by Tsv. Furthermore, Tsv induced the release of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Altogether, these results demonstrate that Tsv induces cytotoxic effects on bronchial epithelial cells, involving necrosis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that bronchial epithelial cells may play a role in the pulmonary injury caused by Tsv. PMID:27452928

  15. Bronchial leiomyoma in a chemical warfare victim—a causative agent or an incidental finding: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Behesthirouy, Samad; Kakaei, Farzad; Azhough, Ramin; Fakhrjou, Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Bronchial leiomyoma is one of the rarest benign tumors of the lower respiratory system, compromising less than 2% of reported benign pulmonary tumors. Chemical warfare is a known cause of chronic pulmonary diseases in soldiers who survives of the chemical wars. Most of these patients are chronically under treatment by respiratory drugs and acute exacerbations of their symptoms prompt for investigations for diagnosis of a new complication in these patients. PRESENTATION OF CASE In this case report we present a 43 y/o male chemical warfare victim who was under treatment for his respiratory disease for near 20 years but at last bronchial leiomyoma was diagnosed as the cause of exacerbation of his symptoms. He was undergone right thoracotomy and sleeve resection of left main bronchus. Severe adhesions plus lymphadenitis in the mediastinum might be due to the effects of prior inflammatory process. DISCUSSION Because of rarity of this tumor, bronchial leiomyoma in this patient may be the result of previous exposure to nitrogen mustard but the exact relationship remained to be confirmed. CONCLUSION Although the association between chemical warfare and lung neoplasias has not been well understood, it is the first time that a bronchial leiomyoma is reported in a nitrogen mustard survivor. PMID:22705579

  16. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection.

    PubMed

    Tweet, Marysia S; Gulati, Rajiv; Hayes, Sharonne N

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is an important etiology of nonatherosclerotic acute coronary syndrome, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Innovations in the catheterization laboratory including optical coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound have enhanced the ability to visualize intimal disruption and intramural hematoma associated with SCAD. Formerly considered "rare," these technological advances and heightened awareness suggest that SCAD is more prevalent than prior estimates. SCAD is associated with female sex, young age, extreme emotional stress, or extreme exertion, pregnancy, and fibromuscular dysplasia. The clinical characteristics and management strategies of SCAD patients are different than for atherosclerotic heart disease and deserve specific consideration. This review will highlight recent discoveries about SCAD as well as describe current efforts to elucidate remaining gaps in knowledge.

  17. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection.

    PubMed

    Tweet, Marysia S; Gulati, Rajiv; Hayes, Sharonne N

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is an important etiology of nonatherosclerotic acute coronary syndrome, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Innovations in the catheterization laboratory including optical coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound have enhanced the ability to visualize intimal disruption and intramural hematoma associated with SCAD. Formerly considered "rare," these technological advances and heightened awareness suggest that SCAD is more prevalent than prior estimates. SCAD is associated with female sex, young age, extreme emotional stress, or extreme exertion, pregnancy, and fibromuscular dysplasia. The clinical characteristics and management strategies of SCAD patients are different than for atherosclerotic heart disease and deserve specific consideration. This review will highlight recent discoveries about SCAD as well as describe current efforts to elucidate remaining gaps in knowledge. PMID:27216840

  18. A single nucleotide polymorphism in hsa‑miR‑146a is responsible for the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in response to intubation during general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Luan, Yong; Li, Dongjiang; Gao, Lulu; Xie, Sha; Pei, Ling

    2016-09-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is the most common clinical manifestation identified in asthmatic patients, and intubation is the major factor that stimulates the airway of patients receiving general anesthetic. In the present study, nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) was identified as a target gene of micro (mi)R‑146a using in silico analysis and luciferase assay. Furthermore, the regulatory role of miR‑146a was demonstrated by the observation that the NOS1 expression level in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) transfected with miR‑146a mimics was significantly downregulated and the NOS1 expression level in PASMCs transfected with miR‑146a inhibitors was significantly upregulated. Additionally, it was identified that a polymorphism in pri‑miR‑146 interfered with mature processing and reduced the quantity of mature miRNA. To assess the association between the polymorphism and the development of BHR, 563 patients with basic pulmonary diseases, such as asthma, emphysema or bronchitis were enrolled in the present study. Each participant received a general anesthetic and the development of BHR was evaluated. The miR‑146a rs2910164 polymorphism CC genotype was identified to be significantly associated with a decreased risk of BHR in response to intubation when compared with the GG or GC genotype (odds ratio, 0.38; confidence interval, 0.18‑0.78). These findings indicate that the miR‑146a rs2910164 polymorphism is associated with a decrease risk of BHR, and the CC genotype increased the level of NOS1 expression, which was physiologically inhibited by wild‑type miR‑146a. PMID:27431205

  19. Infection by Ascaris lumbricoides and bronchial hyper reactivity: an outstanding association in Venezuelan school children from endemic areas.

    PubMed

    Hagel, I; Cabrera, M; Hurtado, M A; Sanchez, P; Puccio, F; Di Prisco, M C; Palenque, M

    2007-09-01

    Asthma and other respiratory diseases have increased in the last years among Venezuelan children from helminthic endemic areas where the infection by Ascaris lumbricoides has been associated to bronchial airway inflammation in parasitized individuals. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible associations between the development of bronchial hyper reactivity and the immune response against A. lumbricoides in urban and rural children. We evaluated 470 school children from rural and urban communities. Pulmonary function tests were performed and >or=20% PC(20) changes were considered as a positive diagnostic of bronchial hyper reactivity. The prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides infection was determined by faecal examination. Specific serum IgE levels using a modified ELISA and skin prick tests against A. lumbricoides and the common allergen Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were done. The number of circulating lymphocyte sub populations was determined by flow cytometry analysis. In rural children, bronchial hyper reactivity was associated with increased specific levels of anti-A. lumbricoides IgE (p<0.0001) and skin test positivity for A. lumbricoides (p<0.0001). The percentage of FEV1 predictive values correlated inversely (p<0.0001) with anti-A. lumbricoides IgE levels. Elevated numbers of circulating CD3+CD4+ and CD20+CD23+ cells were found in rural children with bronchial hyper reactivity compared to their asymptomatic counterparts. They correlated positively with anti-A. lumbricoides IgE levels (p<0.005 and <0.0001, respectively). In contrast, in urban children, bronchial hyper reactivity was associated with elevated anti-D. pteronyssinus IgE levels (p=0. 0089), skin hyper reactivity towards this aero allergen (p=0.003) and to an increase in the number of CD3+CD8+ (p<0.0001). Our results suggest that the IgE response against A. lumbricoides infection may be involved in the development of bronchial hyper reactivity among rural children from endemic

  20. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Doustkami, Hossein; Maleki, Nasrollah; Tavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic. PMID:27403190

  1. A Comparative Study of Induced Sputum and Bronchial Washings in Diagnosing Sputum Smear Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mandava, Venu; Namballa, Usha Rani; Makala, Sravani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis is one of the most important public health problem worldwide. Detecting patients with active pulmonary Koch’s disease is an important component of tuberculosis control programs. However, at times in patients even with a compatible clinical picture, sputum smears do not reveal acid-fast bacilli and smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis remains a common problem. Aim The present study is aimed to compare the results of induced sputum and bronchial washings smear in patients suspected to have sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods A prospective study conducted from August 2014 to July 2015, comprising 120 patients fulfilling study criteria. Patients with respiratory symptoms and chest roentgenogram suspicious of pulmonary tuberculosis with no previous history of anti-tuberculosis treatment and two spontaneous sputum smear samples negative for acid fast bacilli were included. Patients with active haemoptysis and sputum positive were excluded from the study. Sputum induction was done by using 5-10 ml of 3% hypertonic saline through ultrasonic nebulizer taking safety precautions. All the patient underwent fibreoptic bronchoscopy after six hours fasting on the same day. About 20 ml of normal saline instilled into the suspected pathology area and washings were taken with gentle suction. The sample processing and fluorescent staining for acid fast bacilli was done in a designated microscopy lab. Results Out of 120 sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients, induced sputum smear examination detected acid fast bacilli in 76 patients (63.3%) and acid fast bacilli detected from bronchial washings in 94 patients (78.3%). Smear positivity was higher in cavitary and infiltrative lesions as compared to consolidation and infrahilar pattern disease. Conclusion Even though both induced sputum and bronchial washings procedures were valuable for the diagnosis of sputum smear negative, sputum induction with hypertonic

  2. Novel phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor T-440 reverses and prevents human bronchial contraction induced by allergen.

    PubMed

    Fujii, K; Kohrogi, H; Iwagoe, H; Hamamoto, J; Hirata, N; Goto, E; Kawano, O; Wada, K; Yamagata, S; Ando, M

    1998-01-01

    To study the roles of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 in the human airways, we examined the effect of the novel PDE4 inhibitor T-440 in the isolated human bronchus. T-440 inhibited PDE4 extracted from human bronchial smooth muscle. IC50 values for the effect of T-440, rolipram (a PDE4 inhibitor) and theophylline on PDE4 activity of the bronchial tissues were 0.08 microM, 2 microM and > 100 microM, respectively. T-440 (10(-6) M to 10(-5) M) and aminophylline (3.3 x 10(-5) M) significantly reversed the 10(-5) M histamine-induced contraction, the efficacy of 10(-6) M T-440 being almost the same as that of 3.3 x 10(-5) M aminophylline. T-440 (10(-6) M to 10(-5) M) and aminophylline (3.3 x 10(-5) M) significantly reversed the 10(-4) M ACh-induced contraction. But their reversal effects on the ACh-induced contraction were weaker than those on the histamine-induced contraction. T-440 (10(-5) M) significantly reversed the contraction induced by allergen in passively sensitized bronchi. The efficacy of the reversal effect of T-440 (10(-5) M) was significantly higher than that of aminophylline (10(-5) M). T-440 and aminophylline significantly relaxed the basal tension, but pretreatment with T-440 or aminophylline did not significantly prevent histamine- or ACh-induced contraction. In contrast, both T-440 (10(-5) M) and aminophylline (3.3 x 10(-5) M) prevented the contraction induced by allergen, which suggests that PDE4 inhibitor inhibits the release of chemical mediators probably from bronchial mast cells in the allergic response. T-440 (10(-6) M to 10(-5) M) caused the accumulation of cAMP at the concentration that relaxed histamine-induced contraction. Thus selective PDE4 inhibitor is a candidate for the treatment of asthma. PMID:9435174

  3. [Occupationally-induced contact dermatitis and bronchial asthma in a unusual delayed reaction to hydroxychloroquine].

    PubMed

    Meier, H; Elsner, P; Wüthrich, B

    1999-09-01

    We report the case of a a 60 year-old worker in the pharmaceutical industry who suffered from recurring contact dermatitis. Initially the contact dermatitis was limited to the hands; later on it became generalized. The patient had been working on a drug filling line in a pharmaceutical plant for more than 20 years. Eight years after starting this job he had developed allergic hand dermatitis to 2,6-diaminopyridine (patch test positive); this healed upon cessation of exposure. Ten years later he again developed hand dermatitis which progressed to generalized dermatitis and conjunctivitis. Under systemic and local therapy with corticosteroids and cessation of work, it healed nearly completely. Four months after returning to work, the patient experienced a first episode of severe asthma and generalized dermatitis with conjunctivitis following exposure to hydroxychloroquine the day before. The asthma and dermatitis improved after systemic corticosteroid therapy and stopping work. His condition continued to fluctuate, when though the patient was transferred at work and now wore rubber gloves. Eight months later he again developed a generalized dermatitis. Patch testing revealed delayed-type sensitizations to hydroxychloroquine (tested in concentrations of 0. 1%, 0.5%, 1% and 2%). Equivalent tests in five healthy volunteers were negative. The patch test reactions were pustular, while a biopsy was interpreted as a multiform contact dermatitis reaction. Bronchial exposure with hydroxychloroquine dust produced a delayed bronchial obstruction over the next 20 hours, which progressed to fever and generalized erythema (hematogenous contact dermatitis). After removing exposure to 2,6-diaminopyridine and hydroxychloroquine, the patient went on to develop a contact dermatitis to latex (patch test positive). However, skin prick tests with latex and patch tests with rubber additiva were negative. Hydroxychloroquine is well known to cause drug reactions. To our knowledge, contact

  4. Comparative Analysis of Clinicopathologic Features of, Treatment in, and Survival of Americans with Lung or Bronchial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Du, Xianglin L.; Ren, Yinghong; Liu, Peijun; Li, Shuting; Yang, Jiao; Lv, Meng; Chen, Ling; Wang, Xin; Li, Enxiao; Yang, Jin; Yi, Min

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic disparities in lung and bronchial cancer diagnoses and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates in the United States are well known. However, few studies have specifically assessed these differences in Asian subgroups. The primary objectives of the retrospective analysis described herein were to identify any significant differences in clinicopathologic features, treatment, and survival rate between Asian lung cancer patients and lung cancer patients in other broad ethnic groups in the United States and to determine the reasons for these differences among subgroups of Asian patients with lung or bronchial cancer. We searched the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database to identify patients diagnosed with lung or bronchial cancer from 1990 to 2012. Differences in clinicopathologic features, treatment, and DSS rate in four broad ethnic groups and eight Asian subgroups were compared. The study population consisted of 849,088 patients, 5.2% of whom were of Asian descent. Female Asian patients had the lowest lung and bronchial cancer incidence rates, whereas male black patients had the highest rates. Asian patients had the best 5-year DSS rate. In our Asian subgroup analysis, Indian/Pakistani patients had the best 5-year DSS rate, whereas Hawaiian/Pacific Islander patients had the worst 5-year DSS rates. We found the differences in DSS rate among the four broad ethnic groups and eight Asian subgroups when we grouped patients by age and disease stage, as well. Asian patients had better DSS rates than those in the other three broad ethnic groups in almost every age and disease-stage group, especially in older patients and those with advanced-stage disease. In conclusion, we found that clinicopathologic features and treatment of lung and bronchial cancer differ by ethnicity in the United States, and the differences impact survival in each ethnic group. PMID:27244238

  5. Left Subclavian Artery Occlusion: Femoro-Axillary Artery Retrograde Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Masaya; Kobayashi, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    The treatment tactics for subclavian artery occlusion include the more commonly used endovascular therapy rather than surgical intervention. We present a case of a 61-year-old woman with dialysis-dependent chronic renal failure who experienced left finger necrosis in the left upper extremity. To salvage the limb, we performed femoro-axillary (fem-ax) artery bypass using an autologous saphenous vein graft. However, 10 months later, she experienced coldness in the left forearm. Angiography revealed chronic total occlusion of the venous bypass. Despite emergent thrombectomy, redo fem-ax artery bypass operation was performed using a prosthetic graft. Upper limb salvage can be achieved by fem-ax artery retrograde bypass. PMID:27386454

  6. Spindle cell sarcoma of pulmonary artery mimicking thromboembolism with lung metastasis detected in fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Pattabiraman, Vr; Mehta, Sangita; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2014-10-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS), although rare, must be considered in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). This tumor is highly malignant and the prognosis is very poor. As much as the standardized uptake values (SUVs) at fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) have helped in differentiating between benign and malignant tumors, visualization of a low-attenuation filling defect within a pulmonary artery on contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) can be suggestive of a malignancy, such as PAS, if the lesion shows high FDG uptake at PET. We present a case of PAS that showed high FDG uptake on integrated FDG PET/CT and with lung metastasis. Patient underwent endoscopic bronchial ultrasound-transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA), which confirmed spindle cell sarcoma.

  7. Spindle cell sarcoma of pulmonary artery mimicking thromboembolism with lung metastasis detected in fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Pattabiraman, VR; Mehta, Sangita; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS), although rare, must be considered in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). This tumor is highly malignant and the prognosis is very poor. As much as the standardized uptake values (SUVs) at fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) have helped in differentiating between benign and malignant tumors, visualization of a low-attenuation filling defect within a pulmonary artery on contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) can be suggestive of a malignancy, such as PAS, if the lesion shows high FDG uptake at PET. We present a case of PAS that showed high FDG uptake on integrated FDG PET/CT and with lung metastasis. Patient underwent endoscopic bronchial ultrasound-transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA), which confirmed spindle cell sarcoma. PMID:25400365

  8. Abolished ventilation and perfusion of lung caused by blood clot in the left main bronchus: auto-downregulation of pulmonary arterial blood supply.

    PubMed

    Afzelius, P; Bergmann, A; Henriksen, J H

    2015-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the lungs possess arterial autoregulation associated with bronchial obstruction. A patient with pneumonia and congestive heart failure unexpectedly developed frequent haemoptysis. High-resolution CT and diagnostic CT were performed as well as ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy with single-photon emission CT (SPECT)/CT. V/Q SPECT/CT demonstrated abolished ventilation due to obstruction of the left main bronchus and markedly reduced perfusion of the entire left lung, a condition that was completely reversed after removal of a blood clot. We present the first pictorially documented case of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction and flow shift in a main pulmonary artery due to a complete intrinsic obstruction of the ipsilateral main bronchus. The condition is reversible, contingent on being relieved within a few days. PMID:26374773

  9. Almanac 2015: coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Shavelle, David M

    2016-04-01

    Recent years have seen major advances in the evaluation and treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. These include assessment of novel biomarkers and imaging methods for patients at risk for coronary artery disease, care of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, a novel device to treat medical refractory angina, use of non-statin lipid-lowering agents, a better understanding of the risks and benefits of long-term dual antiplatelet therapy and the use of the newer antiplatelet agents. This article summarises research related to coronary artery disease published in Heart in 2014 and 2015, within the context of other major cardiovascular journals. PMID:26819234

  10. Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysm Formation with Superior Mesenteric Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kitaoka, Tadashi; Kamiya, Chiaki; Suzuki, Jun; Sato, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Celiac stenosis or occlusion is attributed partly to increase blood flow at pancreatic arcade from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) system and may play a causal role in true aneurysm of pancreaticoduodenal artery (PDAA) formation. However, despite possible increased blood flow in the pancreatic arcades like celiac stenosis, PDAAs with a stenotic SMA are extremely rare, with only three cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of PDAA with SMA stenosis and review the literature. PMID:25298835

  11. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization With Spherical Embolic Agent for Pulmonary Metastases From Renal Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, Akihiko Hori, Shinichi Sueyoshi, Satoru Hori, Atsushi Kono, Michihiko Murata, Shinichi Maeda, Masahiko

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the safety and local efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with superabsorbent polymer microspheres (SAP-MS) in patients with pulmonary metastases from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods: Sixteen patients with unresectable pulmonary metastases from RCC refractory to standard therapy were enrolled to undergo TAE with the purpose of mass reduction and/or palliation. The prepared SAP-MS swell to approximately two times larger than their dry-state size (100-150 {mu}m [n = 14], 50-100 {mu}m [n = 2]). Forty-nine pulmonary nodules (lung n = 22, mediastinal lymph node n = 17, and hilar lymph node n = 10) were selected as target lesions for evaluation. Local tumor response was evaluated 3 months after TAE according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST; version 1.1). The relationship between tumor enhancement ratio by CT during selective angiography and local tumor response was evaluated. Results: The number of TAE sessions per patient ranged from 1 to 5 (median 2.9). Embolized arteries at initial TAE were bronchial arteries in 14 patients (87.5 %) and nonbronchial systemic arteries in 11 patients (68.8 %). Nodule-based evaluation showed that 5 (10.2 %) nodules had complete response, 17 (34.7 %) had partial response, 15 (30.6 %) had stable disease, and 12 (24.5 %) had progressive disease. The response rate was significantly greater in 22 lesions that had a high tumor enhancement ratio than in 27 lesions that had a slight or moderate ratio (90.9 vs. 7.4 %, p = 0.01). Severe TAE-related adverse events did not occur. Conclusion: TAE with SAP-MS might be a well-tolerated and locally efficacious palliative option for patients with pulmonary metastases from RCC.

  12. Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  13. Pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Montani, David; Günther, Sven; Dorfmüller, Peter; Perros, Frédéric; Girerd, Barbara; Garcia, Gilles; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Artaud-Macari, Elise; Price, Laura C; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald; Sitbon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  14. Signs and Symptoms of Artery Disease | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Signs and Symptoms of Artery Disease Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents ... this depends on which arteries are affected. Coronary Arteries Coronary arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to the ...

  15. Branching Morphogenesis of Immortalized Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells in Three-Dimensional Culture

    PubMed Central

    Kaisani, Aadil; Delgado, Oliver; Fasciani, Gail; Kim, Sang Bum; Wright, Woodring E.; Minna, John D.; Shay, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    While mouse models have contributed in our understanding of lung development, repair and regeneration, inherent differences between the murine and human airways requires the development of new models using human airway epithelial cells. In this study, we describe a three-dimensional model system using human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) cultured on reconstituted basement membrane. HBECs form complex budding and branching structures on reconstituted basement membrane when co-cultured with human lung fetal fibroblasts. These structures are reminiscent of the branching epithelia during lung development. The HBECs also retain markers indicative of epithelial cell types from both the central and distal airways suggesting their multipotent potential. In addition, we illustrate how the model can be utilized to understand respiratory diseases such as lung cancer. The 3D novel cell culture system recapitulates stromal-epithelial interactions in vitro that can be utilized to understand important aspects of lung development and diseases. PMID:24830354

  16. Study of fingerprint patterns to evaluate the role of dermatoglyphics in early detection of bronchial asthma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shiva; Khurana, Alkesh Kumar; Harode, Hemant Ashish; Tripathi, Apoorva; Pakhare, Abhijit; Chaware, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dermatoglyphics and bronchial asthma (BA) are both influenced by genetic factors. Hence, we assessed the diagnostic potential of correlation between fingerprint pattern and BA. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in out-patient Department of Pulmonary Medicine of All India Institute of Medical Sciences Bhopal. It included 36 patients of BA and 50 nonasthmatic individuals as controls. The following parameters were studied and analyzed: (a) Whorls, (b) arches, (c) radial loops, (d) ulnar loops, (e) the absolute finger ridge count (AFRC), (f) total finger ridge count (TFRC). Results: A significant decrease in the mean value of the arches and increase in the mean value of the ulnar loops were observed in BA patients compared to the control group. The mean values of TFRC, AFRC, and whorls were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Evaluation of dermatoglyphic patterns may be useful in identifying patients prone to developing BA. PMID:27003968

  17. [Explanation of Evidence-based Guidelines of Clinical Practice with Acupuncture and Moxibustion: Adult Bronchial Asthma].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yue; Wu, Zhongchao; Zhou, Wenna; Si, Xiaohua; Wang, Jingjing; Zhou, Jincao; Chen, Zhongjie; Li, Rongjun; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Xiao, Liwei

    2016-05-01

    The development and compilation of Evidence-based Guidelines of Clinical Practice with Acupuncture and Moxibustion: Adult Bronchial Asthma are introduced from three aspects, named the guideline methodology, the guideline structure and the guideline content. Based on the acupuncture-moxibustion practice and clinical research, the evidence-based medicine method is adopted. During the development and compilation of the guideline, the characteristics and advantages of acupuncture and moxibustion are specially considered in the treatment of this disease; the latest optimum evidences at home and abroad, experts' experience and patients' value are closely integrated with each other. Additionally, the worldwide accepted assessments of evidence quality and the recommendation (GRADE system) are combined with the clinical evidences of the ancient and modern famous acupuncture-moxibustion experts, and the clinical research evidences are with the experts' consensus to the large extent. The purpose of the guideline is to provide the maximal guidance to the clinical physicians.

  18. Tracheo-bronchial soft tissue and cartilage resonances in the subglottal acoustic input impedance.

    PubMed

    Lulich, Steven M; Arsikere, Harish

    2015-06-01

    This paper offers a re-evaluation of the mechanical properties of the tracheo-bronchial soft tissues and cartilage and uses a model to examine their effects on the subglottal acoustic input impedance. It is shown that the values for soft tissue elastance and cartilage viscosity typically used in models of subglottal acoustics during phonation are not accurate, and corrected values are proposed. The calculated subglottal acoustic input impedance using these corrected values reveals clusters of weak resonances due to soft tissues (SgT) and cartilage (SgC) lining the walls of the trachea and large bronchi, which can be observed empirically in subglottal acoustic spectra. The model predicts that individuals may exhibit SgT and SgC resonances to variable degrees, depending on a number of factors including tissue mechanical properties and the dimensions of the trachea and large bronchi. Potential implications for voice production and large pulmonary airway tissue diseases are also discussed.

  19. [Explanation of Evidence-based Guidelines of Clinical Practice with Acupuncture and Moxibustion: Adult Bronchial Asthma].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yue; Wu, Zhongchao; Zhou, Wenna; Si, Xiaohua; Wang, Jingjing; Zhou, Jincao; Chen, Zhongjie; Li, Rongjun; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Xiao, Liwei

    2016-05-01

    The development and compilation of Evidence-based Guidelines of Clinical Practice with Acupuncture and Moxibustion: Adult Bronchial Asthma are introduced from three aspects, named the guideline methodology, the guideline structure and the guideline content. Based on the acupuncture-moxibustion practice and clinical research, the evidence-based medicine method is adopted. During the development and compilation of the guideline, the characteristics and advantages of acupuncture and moxibustion are specially considered in the treatment of this disease; the latest optimum evidences at home and abroad, experts' experience and patients' value are closely integrated with each other. Additionally, the worldwide accepted assessments of evidence quality and the recommendation (GRADE system) are combined with the clinical evidences of the ancient and modern famous acupuncture-moxibustion experts, and the clinical research evidences are with the experts' consensus to the large extent. The purpose of the guideline is to provide the maximal guidance to the clinical physicians. PMID:27509620

  20. Complete right lung agenesis presenting with bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Ram Avadh Singh; Ranganath, T G; Garg, Rajiv; Anand, Shipra

    2012-01-01

    A 26 year-old lady presented with episodic breathlessness, chest tightness, recurrent nasal obstruction and excessive sneezing, mainly during change of season along with opacity of the right hemithorax on chest x-ray. Further detailed work-up including spirometry, high-resolution CT scan of the thorax and fibre-optic bronchoscopy confirmed complete right lung agenesis in patients with bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. Complete control of symptoms was achieved with formeterol 6 μg and mometasone 200 μg (via dry powder inhaler) and intranasal fluticasone 50 μg (nasal spray) 2 puffs twice daily and oral montelukast 10 mg with levocetirizine 5 mg once daily. PMID:23001088

  1. Efficacy of naturopathy and yoga in bronchial asthma--a self controlled matched scientific study.

    PubMed

    Sathyaprabha, T N; Murthy, H; Murthy, B T

    2001-01-01

    Asthma is one of the common psychosomatic illness influenced by many factors. Bronchodilators give temporary relief and have side effects. The present study is aimed at finding the efficacy of a non-pharmacological approach of naturopathy and Yoga in bronchial asthma. A total no of 37 patients (19 men, 18 women) with mean age 35.06 yrs (men), 40.74 yrs (women) admitted to INYS, Bangalore, for the period of 21 days. The treatment included 1. Diet therapy 2. Nature cure treatment and 3. Yoga therapy. The various parameters including lung function test were measured on admission and once a week. Results showed the significant improvement in PEFR, VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV/FEC %, MVV, ESR and absolute eosinophil count. The patients reported a feeling of well being, freshness and comfortable breathing. Naturopathy and yoga helps in inducing positive health, alleviating the symptoms of disease by acting at physical and mental levels.

  2. Chemical carcinogen-induced decreases in genomic 5-methyldeoxycytidine content of normal human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, V L; Smith, R A; Longoria, J; Liotta, M A; Harper, C M; Harris, C C

    1987-01-01

    The genomic content of DNA 5-methyldeoxycytidine (m5dC) was measured in dividing normal human bronchial epithelial cells treated with a broad range of chemical carcinogens. At noncytotoxic concentrations, all of the carcinogenic agents tested significantly reduced cellular DNA m5dC content whereas the weakly carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic agents, benzo[e]pyrene and phenanthrene (respectively), did not. These reductions varied from 8% to 31% depending on the agent and the donor cells. The reductions in genomic m5dC levels were concentration dependent for the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene. We speculate that carcinogen-induced perturbation of DNA m5dC patterns may lead to heritable changes in gene expression and contribute to the molecular alterations involved in the initiation and the subsequent steps of the carcinogenesis process. PMID:3472209

  3. Photodynamic therapy for synchronous occult bronchial cancer 17 years after pneumonectomy.

    PubMed

    Moghissi, Keyvan; Dixon, Kate

    2005-08-01

    We present a patient with radiologically occult double synchronous bronchial neoplastic lesions 17 years after right pneumonectomy. Chest radiograph and CT scan of the thorax showed no abnormalities of the residual lung fields nor mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Standard white light bronchoscopy (WLB) revealed a tumour in the left lower lobe bronchus. Autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB) indicated two abnormal fluorescing areas; one in the left lower lobe (as per WLB) and the other in the right lower lateral wall of the trachea. Both of these proved to be neoplastic. The two lesions were treated by bronchoscopic photodynamic therapy (PDT) with complete response so far for 10 months. AFB played a crucial role in diagnosis and ensuring completeness of treatment by PDT in this case with encouraging early results illustrating the respective value of AFB and PDT in such cases. PMID:17670423

  4. Endobronchial Hamartoma Subtotally Occluding the Right Main Bronchus and Mimicking Bronchial Carcinoid Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Lococo, Filippo; Galeone, Carla; Lasagni, Luciano; Carbonelli, Cristiano; Tagliavini, Elena; Piro, Roberto; Zucchi, Luigi; Sgarbi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hamartomas are very rarely identified as an endobronchial lesion. Herein, we describe a peculiar case of a 55-year-old woman with persistent cough and increasing dyspnea and radiological detection of a solid lesion subtotally occluding the main right bronchus. Despite the radiological and radiometabolic (18-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computer tomography scan) features were highly suspected for bronchial carcinoid, the definitive diagnosis after endoscopic removal was indicative of an endobronchial hamartoma. When considering differential diagnosis of an endobronchial lesion, the physicians should take firmly in mind such rare entity and, accordingly, bronchoscopy and bronchoscopic biopsy should be done as first step in management of all cases presenting with endobronchial lesions. PMID:27082600

  5. Pregnancy-related rupture of arterial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Barrett, J M; Van Hooydonk, J E; Boehm, F H

    1982-09-01

    Over 50 per cent of ruptured arterial aneurysms in women under the age of 40 are pregnancy-related. The hemodynamic and endocrine changes of pregnancy appear to be the cause of arterial alterations which may lead to new aneurysm formation and/or weakening of preexisting aneurysms. The most commonly reported arteries to have aneurysms rupture during pregnancy are the aorta, cerebral arteries, splenic artery, renal artery, coronary artery, and ovarian artery. In many instances, the rupture of an arterial aneurysm will initially simulate other less serious disease processes, thus delaying the correct diagnosis until a catastrophic event occurs. Early diagnosis and treatment of a ruptured arterial aneurysm are imperative in order to give optimal chances of survival to the mother and fetus.

  6. Symptoms, atopy, and bronchial response to methacholine in parents with asthma and their children.

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, R D; Pugsley, A; Radford, M; Holgate, S T

    1987-01-01

    We have studied 50 children with one parent with asthma at a mean age of 6.4 years by symptom questionnaire and performed allergy skin testing and measurement of bronchial responsiveness to methacholine in both parent and child in 29-32 cases. Ninety eight per cent of the parents were receiving medication for asthma. Fifty one per cent had visited their doctor and 20% had taken more than five days off work in the previous 12 months; 12% had been admitted to hospital during the preceding 10 years. In the children the prevalences of wheeze, shortness of breath, and cough were all about double that found in a general population survey of children of similar age. Atopy was present in 90% of parents, but the prevalence of atopy among the children was not significantly different from the children in the general population. Eczema and hay fever, however, had high prevalences of 40% and 24%, respectively. Responsiveness to methacholine (provocation dose achieving 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second less than 6.4 mumol) was found in 93% of parents and 45% of children, which is compatible with a large increase compared with the general population. All atopic but only 50% of non-atopic children with symptoms of asthma responded to methacholine. These findings indicate that children who have one parent with asthma have roughly double the chance of developing clinical features of asthma compared with the general population and suggests that, in these children, a causal interaction occurs between atopy and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. PMID:3545100

  7. Comparison of respiratory inductance plethysmography with thoracoabdominal compression in bronchial challenges in infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Springer, C; Godfrey, S; Vilozni, D; Bar-Yishay, E; Noviski, N; Avital, A

    1996-09-01

    Respiratory inductance plethysmography measuring thoracoabdominal asynchrony (TAA) has been claimed to be a useful tool for measuring changes in airway resistance in infants. In this study we evaluated the response to methacholine by thoracoabdominal compression and respiratory inductance plethysmography. Seventeen infants (mean age, 13.1 +/- 4.7 mo) with recurrent episodes of cough or wheeze underwent bronchial challenge with inhaled methacholine. Lung function was evaluated by measuring maximal expiratory flow at resting lung volume (VmaxFRC), and the degree of TAA was measured by phase angle (theta). Methacholine was inhaled for 1 min during tidal breathing using increasing doubling concentrations until a fall of at least 40% in VmaxFRC was achieved (final concentration). All infants responded to the final concentration of methacholine by a significant fall in VmaxFRC (from 31 +/- 10 to 12 +/- 5 ml/s/kg, p < 0.001). All but one infant responded to methacholine at the final concentration with a significant increase in phase angle (median theta increased from 11.7 to 31.7 degrees, p < 0.001). In two other infants there was an early response in theta compared with the response in VmaxFRC. Phase angle increase after methacholine was expressed as Z-scores (the difference between postmethacholine theta and postbuffer theta divided by the standard deviation of postbuffer theta). An increase of at least 2.0 Z-scores in theta was observed at the same concentration of methacholine when VmaxFRC fell by at least 40% in 15 of the 17 infants (88%). We conclude that respiratory inductance plethysmography is a sensitive method to measure bronchial reactivity to methacholine in most of the infants studied (14 of 17, 82%). A concentration of methacholine causing an increase in theta of at least 2.0 standard deviations above baseline is equivalent to the concentration causing a 40% fall in VmaxFRC.

  8. Bronchial obstructive phenotypes in the first year of life among Paris birth cohort infants.

    PubMed

    Clarisse, Bénédicte; Demattei, Christophe; Nikasinovic, Lydia; Just, Jocelyne; Daures, Jean-Pierre; Momas, Isabelle

    2009-03-01

    As the natural history of respiratory and allergic manifestations is unclear, our ongoing Paris birth cohort study prospectively assesses the onset of these symptoms in early childhood. Data were collected by five questionnaires sent at regular intervals during the first year of life. Partitioning around medoids (PAM) was used to classify infants according to their bronchial obstructive symptoms. A polytomous logistic regression was performed to assess the eventual predictable power of various respiratory events and perinatal factors. Results are given for 2698 infants. Atopic dermatitis occurred in 17.9% of infants. The main respiratory symptoms in infancy were wheeze in the chest (22%), dyspnoea responsible for sleep disturbance (23.7%), nocturnal dry cough (14.5%) and shortness of breath (4.2%). The PAM method identified three groups of infants. Apart from the G0 group of infants mostly asymptomatic, two distinct clinical phenotypes (G1 and G2: 8.7% and 23.5% of total infants respectively) emerged. G2 was defined by severe bronchial obstructive disorders as all cases of dyspnoea with sleep disturbance were included in this group, while all infants assigned in G1 suffered from nocturnal dry cough. G2 group infants had significantly higher rates of respiratory events while a parental history of asthma, symptoms suggestive of rhino-conjunctivitis and birth season clearly differentiated the G1 group. Finally, G1 and G2 group infants should be closely followed up as they are expected to develop allergic and asthmatic phenotypes, possibly in relation to environmental and behavioural risk factors. PMID:18346096

  9. [Changes in blood eosinophils and nonspecific bronchial reactivity after exposure tests to wheat flour and TDI].

    PubMed

    De Zotti, R; Gubian, F; Negro, C

    1996-01-01

    We studied non-specific bronchial responsiveness (NSBR) and blood eosinophils before and 24 hours after a bronchoprovocation test (SBPT) with wheat flour (22 cases) and TDI (32 cases). Twelve patients developed asthma after exposure to wheat flour (7 early and 5 dual/late asthma), and 12 after exposure to TDI (6 early and 6 late/dual asthma). Responders and non responders to wheat flour exposure were similar for all general characteristics except IgE levels (p = 0.036) and NSBR (p = 0.047). A higher degree of airway responsiveness to methacholine was the only characteristic which differentiated responders from non responders to TDI exposure (p = 0.043). Airway responsiveness, assessed 24 hours after the SBPT (44 cases), did not show any change compared to pretest values; the data were similar both among non responders to wheat flour (Wilcoxon p = 0.1) or to TDI (p = 0.2) and responders to TDI (p = 0.6) or wheat flour (p = 0.3); also no significant changes were observed among early and dual/late asthma caused by wheat flour and TDI. Twenty-four hours after the SBPT, blood eosinophils were higher than pretest, but only among the 24 patients with asthma (Wilcoxon p = 0.002); the blood eosinophil increase was statistically significant among patients with early and late/dual asthma caused by wheat flour, and among those with early and late/dual TDI asthma. In our study, NSBR was confirmed as a common feature of occupational asthma, either IgE mediated (wheat flour) or non-IgE mediated (TDI). Twenty four hours after the specific exposure, among patients with asthma induced by wheat flour and TDI, there was an increase in blood eosinophils while in the same time interval no variation in non-specific bronchial responsiveness was observed.

  10. Ciliary Genes Are Down-Regulated in Bronchial Tissue of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Geremek, Maciej; Ziętkiewicz, Ewa; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Franke, Lude; Pogorzelski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections, sinusitis, bronchiectasis and male infertility. The pulmonary phenotype in PCD is caused by the impaired motility of cilia in the respiratory epithelium, due to ultrastructural defects of these organelles. We hypothesized that defects of multi-protein ciliary complexes should be reflected by gene expression changes in the respiratory epithelium. We have previously found that large group of genes functionally related to cilia share highly correlated expression pattern in PCD bronchial tissue. Here we performed an explorative analysis of differential gene expression in the bronchial tissue from six PCD patients and nine non-PCD controls, using Illumina HumanRef-12 Whole Genome BeadChips. We observed 1323 genes with at least 2-fold difference in the mean expression level between the two groups (t-test p-value <0.05). Annotation analysis showed that the genes down-regulated in PCD biopsies (602) were significantly enriched for terms related to cilia, whereas the up-regulated genes (721) were significantly enriched for terms related to cell cycle and mitosis. We assembled a list of human genes predicted to encode ciliary proteins, components of outer dynein arms, inner dynein arms, radial spokes, and intraflagellar transport proteins. A significant down-regulation of the expression of genes from all the four groups was observed in PCD, compared to non-PCD biopsies. Our data suggest that a coordinated down-regulation of the ciliome genes plays an important role in the molecular pathomechanism of PCD. PMID:24516614

  11. Pro-Inflammatory Effects of Cook Stove Emissions on Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Brie; Volckens, John

    2012-01-01

    Approximately half the world’s population uses biomass fuel for indoor cooking and heating. This form of combustion typically occurs in open fires or primitive stoves. Human exposure to emissions from indoor biomass combustion is a global health concern, causing an estimated 1.5 million premature deaths each year. Many ‘improved’ stoves have been developed to address this concern; however, studies that examine exposure-response with cleaner-burning, more efficient stoves are few. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of traditional and cleaner burning stove emissions on an established model of the bronchial epithelium. We exposed well-differentiated, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells to emissions from a single biomass combustion event using either a traditional three-stone fire or one of two energy-efficient stoves. Air-liquid interface cultures were exposed using a novel, aerosol-to-cell deposition system. Cellular expression of a panel of three pro-inflammatory markers was evaluated at 1 and 24 hours following exposure. Cells exposed to emissions from the cleaner burning stoves generated significantly fewer amounts of pro-inflammatory markers than cells exposed to emissions from a traditional, three stone fire. Particulate matter emissions from each cookstove were substantially different, with the three-stone fire producing the largest concentrations of particles (by both number and mass). This study supports emerging evidence that more efficient cookstoves have the potential to reduce respiratory inflammation in settings where solid fuel combustion is used to meet basic domestic needs. PMID:22672519

  12. In vitro cadmium effects on ECM gene expression in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Tiziano; Lilli, Cinzia; Bellucci, Catia; Luca, Giovanni; Mancuso, Francesca; Fallarino, Francesca; Falabella, Giulia; Arato, Iva; Calvitti, Mario; Marinucci, Lorella; Muzi, Giacomo; Dell'Omo, Marco; Gambelunghe, Angela; Bodo, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Occupational and environmental exposure to the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) and its inhalation from cigarette smoke are associated with emphysema. Many growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) cell signaling molecules are directly involved in the epithelial bronchial cell pathway. This study investigated the direct effects of Cd on the production of several ECM components in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) that were exposed in vitro for 48 h to sub-toxic and toxic concentrations of Cd. Gene expression of collagens, metalloproteases (MMPs), integrins, tenascin and vitronectin were quantified by RT-PCR. To study apoptosis cascade, annexin assay and cellular cytotoxicity by MTT assay were performed. We also investigated whether an imbalance in the TGFβ/TGFβ receptor (TGFβR) expression mediated Cd effects. The results showed the sub-toxic Cd dose significantly increased tenascin, vitronectin, β1 and β5 integrin gene expression. The toxic Cd dose decreased type IV and V collagen, α1, α2 and β3 integrins. Both Cd doses down-regulated type I collagen and up-regulated metalloproteases. Each Cd dose caused a different imbalance in the complex pattern of TGFβ and its receptors. No alteration in classic apoptotic marker protein expression was observed in presence of the sub-toxic dose of Cd, suggesting this metal alters ECM production without apoptotic activation. In conclusion, all these data show even sub-toxic Cd dose exposure alters the specific gene expression of several ECM components that are crucially implicated in the mechanical properties of lung parenchyma supporting the hypothesis that the mechanism underlying Cd-induced lung disease may involve downstream changes in TGFβ/TGFβR signaling.

  13. [Respiratory rehabilitation in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Kinshasa].

    PubMed

    Muzembo Ndundu, J; Nkakudulu Bikuku, H; Frans, A

    2001-06-01

    A number of studies in western countries have shown that respiratory and physical rehabilitation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) only has a minimal effect on respiratory function but can significantly improve physical capacity. The aim of our study was to apply these methods to patients in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. We treated 38 patients (20 women) who had bronchial asthma (n=14) or COPD (n=24). These ambulatory patients were treated in two different hospitals in Kinshasa, the university hospital and the general hospital, three times per week for twelve weeks. The patients were treated with kinestherapy and inhaled bronchodilator drugs (salbutamol, and/or ipratropium bromide with a boreal nebulizer) as well as bronchial hygiene and performed breathing exercises on a Bodyguard Ergometer 990 with walking, running and climbing steps until exhaustion. After the rehabilitation program FEV1 increased from 1.37 +/- 0.62 (50% expected) to 1.54 +/- 0.69 (56% expected) (p<0.01). The same trend was observed for walking distance (from 644 +/- 459 m to 1213 +/- 569 m, p<0.001) and for maximal power developed on the cycloergometer (from 45 +/- 20 w to 73 +/- 37 w, p<0.001). In contrast, the maximal work load performed during climbing steps (from 106 +/- 44 w to 115 +/- 23 w) did not improve significantly. COPD patients improved their FEV1 significantly compared with asthma patients. Our study show that pulmonary rehabilitaion increase the level of spontaneous physical activity. The pulmonary rehabilitation program changes the quality of life of COPD patients who are able to move about better for longer periods of time, have a longer walking distance, and improved physical activity level. PMID:11416804

  14. Indomethacin does not inhibit the ozone-induced increase in bronchial responsiveness in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, R.L.; Gross, K.B.; Terzo, T.S.; Eschenbacher, W.L. )

    1990-10-01

    Exposure of human subjects to sufficiently high levels of ozone can result in reversible changes in lung function (restrictive in nature) and increases in nonspecific airway responsiveness. Several studies have implicated products of cyclooxygenase metabolism in the mediation of these changes. The purpose of this study was to determine if indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor) would alter the changes in the ozone-induced increase in responsiveness to methacholine or the ozone-induced decrease in lung function. Thirteen male subjects underwent three randomly assigned 2-h exposure to 0.4 ppm ozone with alternating 15-min periods of rest and exercise on a cycle ergometer (30 L/min/m2, body surface area). For the 4 days before each of the exposures, the subjects received either indomethacin (150 mg/day) or placebo, or no modification. Of the 13 subjects, only seven had both detectable indomethacin serum levels on the indomethacin Study Day and a significant increase in bronchial responsiveness to methacholine on the No Medication Day. For this group of seven subjects, we found that indomethacin did not alter the ozone-induced increase in bronchial responsiveness to methacholine (decrease in PC100SRaw for the different study days: no medication, -78.4 +/- 5.3% (mean +/- SEM); placebo, -48.9 +/- 12.2%; indomethacin, -64.5 +/- 6.3%; p greater than 0.2), although indomethacin did attenuate the ozone-induced decrease in lung function. The decrease in the FEV1 for the different study days was as follows: no medication, -20.7 +/- 5.0% (mean +/- SEM); placebo, -19.2 +/- 6.3%; indomethacin, -4.8 +/- 3.7% (p less than 0.001).

  15. Role of mesothelin in carbon nanotube-induced carcinogenic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoqing; Despeaux, Emily; Stueckle, Todd A; Chi, Alexander; Castranova, Vincent; Dinu, Cerasela Zoica; Wang, Liying; Rojanasakul, Yon

    2016-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been likened to asbestos in terms of morphology and toxicity. CNT exposure can lead to pulmonary fibrosis and promotion of tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying CNT-induced carcinogenesis are not well defined. Mesothelin (MSLN) is overexpressed in many human tumors, including mesotheliomas and pancreatic and ovarian carcinomas. In this study, the role of MSLN in the carcinogenic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells chronically exposed to single-walled CNT (BSW) was investigated. MSLN overexpression was found in human lung tumors, lung cancer cell lines, and BSW cells. The functional role of MSLN in the BSW cells was then investigated by using stably transfected MSLN knockdown (BSW shMSLN) cells. MSLN knockdown resulted in significantly decreased invasion, migration, colonies on soft agar, and tumor sphere formation. In vivo, BSW shMSLN cells formed smaller primary tumors and less metastases. The mechanism by which MSLN contributes to these more aggressive behaviors was investigated by using ingenuity pathway analysis, which predicted that increased MSLN could induce cyclin E expression. We found that BSW shMSLN cells had decreased cyclin E, and their proliferation rate was reverted to nearly that of untransformed cells. Cell cycle analysis showed that the BSW shMSLN cells had an increased G2 population and a decreased S phase population, which is consistent with the decreased rate of proliferation. Together, our results indicate a novel role of MSLN in the malignant transformation of bronchial epithelial cells following CNT exposure, suggesting its utility as a potential biomarker and drug target for CNT-induced malignancies. PMID:27422997

  16. Acute toxicity of silver and carbon nanoaerosols to normal and cystic fibrosis human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jeannet, Natalie; Fierz, Martin; Schneider, Sarah; Künzi, Lisa; Baumlin, Nathalie; Salathe, Matthias; Burtscher, Heinz; Geiser, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of engineered nanoparticles (NP) poses a still unknown risk. Individuals with chronic lung diseases are expected to be more vulnerable to adverse effects of NP than normal subjects, due to altered respiratory structures and functions. Realistic and dose-controlled aerosol exposures were performed using the deposition chamber NACIVT. Well-differentiated normal and cystic fibrosis (CF) human bronchial epithelia (HBE) with established air-liquid interface and the human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B were exposed to spark-generated silver and carbon nanoaerosols (20 nm diameter) at three different doses. Necrotic and apoptotic cell death, pro-inflammatory response, epithelial function and morphology were assessed within 24 h after aerosol exposure. NP exposure resulted in significantly higher necrosis in CF than normal HBE and BEAS-2B cells. Before and after NP treatment, CF HBE had higher caspase-3 activity and secreted more IL-6 and MCP-1 than normal HBE. Differentiated HBE had higher baseline secretion of IL-8 and less caspase-3 activity and MCP-1 secretion compared to BEAS-2B cells. These biomarkers increased moderately in response to NP exposure, except for MCP-1, which was reduced in HBE after AgNP treatment. No functional and structural alterations of the epithelia were observed in response to NP exposure. Significant differences between cell models suggest that more than one and fully differentiated HBE should be used in future toxicity studies of NP in vitro. Our findings support epidemiologic evidence that subjects with chronic airway diseases are more vulnerable to adverse effects of particulate air pollution. Thus, this sub-population needs to be included in nano-toxicity studies. PMID:26011645

  17. Acute toxicity of silver and carbon nanoaerosols to normal and cystic fibrosis human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jeannet, Natalie; Fierz, Martin; Schneider, Sarah; Künzi, Lisa; Baumlin, Nathalie; Salathe, Matthias; Burtscher, Heinz; Geiser, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of engineered nanoparticles (NP) poses a still unknown risk. Individuals with chronic lung diseases are expected to be more vulnerable to adverse effects of NP than normal subjects, due to altered respiratory structures and functions. Realistic and dose-controlled aerosol exposures were performed using the deposition chamber NACIVT. Well-differentiated normal and cystic fibrosis (CF) human bronchial epithelia (HBE) with established air-liquid interface and the human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B were exposed to spark-generated silver and carbon nanoaerosols (20 nm diameter) at three different doses. Necrotic and apoptotic cell death, pro-inflammatory response, epithelial function and morphology were assessed within 24 h after aerosol exposure. NP exposure resulted in significantly higher necrosis in CF than normal HBE and BEAS-2B cells. Before and after NP treatment, CF HBE had higher caspase-3 activity and secreted more IL-6 and MCP-1 than normal HBE. Differentiated HBE had higher baseline secretion of IL-8 and less caspase-3 activity and MCP-1 secretion compared to BEAS-2B cells. These biomarkers increased moderately in response to NP exposure, except for MCP-1, which was reduced in HBE after AgNP treatment. No functional and structural alterations of the epithelia were observed in response to NP exposure. Significant differences between cell models suggest that more than one and fully differentiated HBE should be used in future toxicity studies of NP in vitro. Our findings support epidemiologic evidence that subjects with chronic airway diseases are more vulnerable to adverse effects of particulate air pollution. Thus, this sub-population needs to be included in nano-toxicity studies.

  18. Uptake and cytotoxic effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Seishiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Furuyama, Akiko; Kanno, Sanae

    2010-11-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are cytotoxic to several cell types. However, the mechanism of CNT toxicity has not been fully studied, and dosimetric analyses of CNT in the cell culture system are lacking. Here, we describe a novel, high throughput method to measure cellular uptake of CNT using turbimetry. BEAS-2B, a human bronchial epithelial cell line, was used to investigate cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and inflammatory effects of multi-walled CNT (MWCNT). The cytotoxicity of MWCNT was higher than that of crocidolite asbestos in BEAS-2B cells. The IC{sub 50} of MWCNT was 12 {mu}g/ml, whereas that of asbestos (crocidolite) was 678 {mu}g/ml. Over the course of 5 to 8 h, BEAS-2B cells took up 17-18% of the MWCNT when they were added to the culture medium at a concentration of 10 {mu}g/ml. BEAS-2B cells were exposed to 2, 5, or 10 {mu}g/ml of MWCNT, and total RNA was extracted for cytokine cDNA primer array assays. The culture supernatant was collected for cytokine antibody array assays. Cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 increased in a dose dependent manner at both the mRNA and protein levels. Migration inhibitory factor (MIF) also increased in the culture supernatant in response to MWCNT. A phosphokinase array study using lysates from BEAS-2B cells exposed to MWCNT indicated that phosphorylation of p38, ERK1, and HSP27 increased significantly in response to MWCNT. Results from a reporter gene assays using the NF-{kappa}B or AP-1 promoter linked to the luciferase gene in transiently transfected CHO-KI cells revealed that NF-{kappa}B was activated following MWCNT exposure, while AP-1 was not changed. Collectively, MWCNT activated NF-{kappa}B, enhanced phosphorylation of MAP kinase pathway components, and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines in human bronchial epithelial cells.

  19. Cineangiography of the Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Gerard M.; Charland, Raymond; Roy, Paul; Primeau, Robert; Nadeau, Reginald

    1971-01-01

    Fifty French-Canadian patients presenting with typical or atypical anginal pain were studied by selective cinearteriography and coronary sinus catheterization, with measurement of myocardial function, oxygen and lactate extraction at rest and during isoproterenol infusion. In 28 of 42 patients all three coronary arteries were involved, but angina pectoris also occurred in patients with single mildly stenotic arterial lesions and even in eight patients with normal cinearteriograms. All patients with severe arterial lesions had typical angina, and the longer the duration of angina, the greater the extent, usually, of anatomic disease. Seventy-nine percent of resting electrocardiograms of patients with documented coronary artery disease were abnormal, with recognizable prior infarction in 18. Two-thirds of the patients experiencing pain during the stressful state had abnormal ventricular function. An abnormal arteriovenous lactate difference in response to isoproterenol occurred in patients in all groups. PMID:5563346

  20. Peripheral artery bypass - leg - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... P. Peripheral arterial diseases. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's ... noncoronary obstructive vascular disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's ...

  1. [The arteries of the stomach].

    PubMed

    Sow, M L; Diop, M; Morin, A

    1995-06-01

    In order to specify the gastric-arterial systematization, 65 fresh stomachs of adults deceased from non-gastro-duodenal causes, extracted by necropsy, allowed us to study the arteries of the stomach through the injection-corrosion technics. A selective injection for each arterial trunk has been made on 15 stomachs. This work allowed us to know better the arterial supply of the stomach and ut into obviousness important vascular anastomosis. While emphasizing on the substitute notion, the persons who wrote this summary describe regions poor in anastomosis, which correspond surgically with "critical" areas. They also emphasize how important it is to have an estimated score of the ischemia for gastric surgery, especially in the case of oeso-gastroplasty.

  2. [Doppler ultrasound of penis arteries].

    PubMed

    Jünemann, K P; Siegsmund, M; Löbelenz, M; Alken, P

    1990-05-01

    In addition to pharmaco testing, pharmaco-Doppler sonography of the penile arteries is part of the basic work-up for erectile dysfunction. Insufficient training with the Doppler method, lack of standardized criteria for evaluation of the penis, and analysis of the Doppler curves all make it difficult to use Doppler sonography for the evaluation of impotent men. The aim of this study was to explain the principal criteria of the method and demonstrate the most important details for analyzing the form of the Doppler waves. Pharmaco-Doppler sonography includes the evaluation of blood-flow velocities within the dorsal and deep cavernous arteries of the penis before and after intracavernous application of a vasoactive drug. The following main criteria have proven to be most important for analysis of the Doppler curves: evaluation of the amplitude height, the actual wave form, differences between the left and right arteries and along the individual vessel, amplitude increase, and elevation of the curve baseline after pharmaco stimulation. The most frequent mistakes made during evaluation of the penile arteries are changes in the probe angle, pressure put on the artery by the probe during evaluation and a false estimation of the evaluation time after pharmaco stimulation. Recently, duplex sonography of the penile arteries has been introduced, and this method allows an accurate measurement of the blood-flow velocity and arterial diameter changes before and after application of the drug. Furthermore, additional calculation of the resistancy index permits determination of the vascular resistance and optimizes the evaluation of the penile arterial status. The technical details, the method, and the analyzation criteria are all explained in detail.

  3. Ruptured Isolated Spinal Artery Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez Romero, Diego; Batista, Andre Lima; Gentric, Jean Christoph; Raymond, Jean; Roy, Daniel; Weill, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Summary Isolated spinal artery aneurysms are exceedingly rare vascular lesions thought to be related to dissection of the arterial wall. We describe two cases presenting with spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage that underwent conservative management. In the first patient the radiculomedullary branch involved was feeding the anterior spinal artery at the level of D3 and thus, neither endovascular nor surgical approach was employed. Control angiography was performed at seven days and at three months, demonstrating complete resolution of the lesion. In our second case, neither the anterior spinal artery or the artery of Adamkiewicz could be identified during angiography, thus endovascular management was deemed contraindicated. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a stable lesion in the second patient. No rebleeding or other complications were seen. In comparison to intracranial aneurysms, spinal artery aneurysms tend to display a fusiform appearance and lack a clear neck in relation to the likely dissecting nature of the lesions. Due to the small number of cases reported, the natural history of these lesions is not well known making it difficult to establish the optimal treatment approach. Various management strategies may be supported, including surgical and endovascular treatment, but It would seem that a wait and see approach is also viable, with control angiogram and treatment decisions based on the evolution of the lesion. PMID:25496690

  4. Arterial Stiffness and Cardiovascular Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Janić, Miodrag; Lunder, Mojca; Šabovič, Mišo

    2014-01-01

    The world population is aging and the number of old people is continuously increasing. Arterial structure and function change with age, progressively leading to arterial stiffening. Arterial stiffness is best characterized by measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV), which is its surrogate marker. It has been shown that PWV could improve cardiovascular event prediction in models that included standard risk factors. Consequently, it might therefore enable better identification of populations at high-risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present review is focused on a survey of different pharmacological therapeutic options for decreasing arterial stiffness. The influence of several groups of drugs is described: antihypertensive drugs (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers, diuretics, and nitrates), statins, peroral antidiabetics, advanced glycation end-products (AGE) cross-link breakers, anti-inflammatory drugs, endothelin-A receptor antagonists, and vasopeptidase inhibitors. All of these have shown some effect in decreasing arterial stiffness. Nevertheless, further studies are needed which should address the influence of arterial stiffness diminishment on major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). PMID:25170513

  5. Coronary Artery Disease | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Coronary Artery Disease Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents ... exercise routine produced a strong heart!" Fast Facts Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood ...

  6. Recurrent ischemia resulting from left internal mammary artery-to-pulmonary artery fistula.

    PubMed

    Madu, E C; Hanumanthu, S K; Kim, C; Prudoff, A

    2001-03-01

    This report describes a case series of recurrent ischemia after coronary artery bypass grafting resulting from left internal mammary artery-to-pulmonary artery fistula. An angiographic demonstration of this fistula is presented.

  7. The hepatic artery in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Merion, R M; Burtch, G D; Ham, J M; Turcotte, J G; Campbell, D A

    1989-09-01

    Hepatic artery complications after liver transplantation are uncommon, but represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality. In addition, these complications tax an already limited supply of donor organs because of the frequent need for retransplantation in this group of patients. In this study, we examined the incidence of hepatic arterial anomalies in donors and recipients of orthotopic liver transplants, focusing on the techniques that are available for hepatic arterial reconstruction and on the occurrence of hepatic arterial complications. A total of 77 liver transplants were carried out in 68 patients. Standard recipient anatomy was present in 60 of 68 patients (88%). Anomalous vessels were identified in eight patients (12%), including six cases of replaced right hepatic artery (9%) and two cases of replaced left hepatic artery (3%). Donor liver arterial anatomy was standard in 62 cases (80%). Anomalous arterial supply was identified in 15 of 77 donor livers (20%), including replaced left hepatic artery in nine (12%) and replaced right hepatic artery in six (8%). A variety of methods were used to manage the anomalous vessels. There was one hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm, three cases of hepatic artery thrombosis (4%), and one patient developed a dissection of the native celiac axis. In primary transplants, utilization of the recipient's proper hepatic artery was associated with a significantly higher risk of hepatic artery thrombosis (P less than 0.04) when compared with the common hepatic artery or the branch patch technique. Use of a Carrel patch on the donor artery was associated with a significantly reduced incidence of hepatic artery thrombosis (P less than 0.0003). For retransplantation, it is recommended that a more proximal recipient anastomotic site be chosen. An innovative method is described that provides increased length of the donor arterial supply without the use of an arterial graft. PMID:2675403

  8. Middle Cerebral Artery Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Hung-Wen; Liou, Michelle; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Liu, Hua-Shan; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Chiang, Shih-Wei; Chou, Ming-Chung; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Huang, Guo-Shu; Hsu, Hsian-He; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Calcification of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is uncommon in the healthy elderly. Whether calcification of the MCA is associated with cerebral ischemic stroke remains undetermined. We intended to investigate the association using Agatston calcium scoring of the MCA. This study retrospectively included 354 subjects with ischemic stroke in the MCA territory and 1518 control subjects who underwent computed tomography (CT) of the brain. We recorded major known risk factors for ischemic stroke, including age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, along with the MCA calcium burden, measured with the Agatston calcium scoring method. Univariate and modified logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between the MCA calcification and ischemic stroke. The univariate analyses showed significant associations of ischemic stroke with age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, total MCA Agatston score, and the presence of calcification on both or either side of the MCA. Subjects with the presence of MCA calcification on both or either side of the MCA were 8.46 times (95% confidence interval, 4.93–14.53; P < 0.001) more likely to have a cerebral infarct than subjects without MCA calcification after adjustment for the major known risk factors, including age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. However, a higher degree of MCA calcification reflected by the Agatston score was not associated with higher risk of MCA ischemic stroke after adjustment for the confounding factors and presence of MCA calcification. These results suggest that MCA calcification is associated with ischemic stroke in the MCA territory. Further prospective studies are required to verify the clinical implications of the MCA calcification. PMID:26683969

  9. Retinal artery occlusions in children.

    PubMed

    Dharmasena, Aruna; Wallis, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present a case of RAO in a 13 year old girl with a preceding history of hyperextension of the neck at her hairdressers for a long duration and use of her mobile phone handset resting it against the side of her neck presumably exerting some pressure on carotids during the same time. Materials and methods of this study was reported as case report and review of literature. A 13 year-old girl presented with the left supero-nasal scotoma due to an inferior temporal branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). She underwent extensive investigations and no underlying cause was discovered. She gave a history of cervical extension over a long period of time while having the hair coloured twice in the preceding week. She also mentioned that she was using her mobile phone more or less continuously during both these occasions keeping it against her neck. Given the above history it is possible that the pressure on the ipsilateral carotid arteries or the prolong neck extension may have been responsible for the formation of a platelet embolus resulting in the BRAO. In conclusion, although cerebro-vascular accidents due to 'beauty parlor stroke syndrome' (JAMA 269:2085-2086, 1993) have been reported previously it has not been reported in children to our knowledge. On the other hand, 'beauty parlor stroke syndrome' occurs due to a dissection of the vertebral arteries or due to mechanical compression of the vertebral arteries during the prolonged hyperextension of the neck. The central retinal artery originates from the internal carotid circulation and it is highly unlikely for an embolus to enter the retinal circulation from the vertebral arteries. Therefore, the authors favour the possibility that the compulsive use of a mobile phone exerting pressure on the carotid arteries for a long time may have led to the formation of an embolus and subsequent RAO in this case.

  10. Bronchial reversibility with a short-acting β2-agonist predicts the FEV1 response to administration of a long-acting β2-agonist with inhaled corticosteroids in patients with bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Ohwada, Akihiko; Inami, Kei; Onuma, Emi; Matsumoto-Yamazaki, Mariko; Atsuta, Ryo; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2011-07-01

    A long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) combined with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) is frequently prescribed as initial therapy in steroid-naïve asthma patients because of its effective control of symptoms and improvement of pulmonary function. However, it is unclear which patients will be responsive to LABAs and whether bronchial responsiveness to LABAs is similar to that to short-acting β2-agonists (SABAs) in a clinical setting. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to compare the changes in spirometric parameters after SABA (salbutamol) inhalation to those after 1-month LABA/ICS (salmeterol/fluticasone propionate) therapy. Spirometric changes were evaluated as absolute values, as the percentage of predicted normal values and as the percentage of baseline values after salbutamol inhalation or 1-month LABA/ICS therapy in 45 patients with asthma. Compared to SABA inhalation, LABA/ICS therapy produced significant improvements in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity expired (FEF50%) from baseline (expressed as the percentage predicted) in all patients. FEV1 and the FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio after SABA or LABA/ICS therapy were inversely related to the corresponding baseline values. Analysis of spirometric changes after SABA inhalation showed that FEV1 was the best among spirometric parameters, such as PEF, correlated with responsiveness to LABA/ICS therapy. Reversibility of FEV1 with SABA inhalation predicts the spirometric response to LABA/ICS as initial therapy in patients with bronchial asthma. LABA/ICS therapy had a greater effect on bronchial reversibility in asthmatic patients, compared to SABA inhalation. This suggested that evaluation of bronchial reversibility after LABA/ICS therapy would be superior to that after SABA inhalation.

  11. Automated display of the anatomical name of bronchial branches in a virtual bronchoscopy system and its application as a training tool for medical students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kensaku; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Toriwaki, Jun-ichiro; Hasegawa, Jun-ichi; Anno, Hirofumi; Katada, Kazuhiro; Natori, Hiroshi

    1999-05-01

    This paper proposes a method for automated labeling of the bronchial branches in the virtual bronchoscopy system and its application as a training tool. Virtual Bronchoscopy System (VBS) is a new observation method of 3-D medical images. This system is useful for a variety of purposes such as diagnosis, planning of surgery, informed consent, education and training. By the proposed method the VBS can automatically labels bronchial branches which are extracted from 3-D chest X-ray CT images by the knowledge based processing in the VBS. The knowledge base of the bronchial branch name is constructed. Automated labeling is performed by comparing the tree structure of the extracted bronchus with the knowledge base. The bronchial branch name is displayed in the navigation inside the bronchus. We extended the VBS to a teaching tool by using this function. The system generates questions about bronchial branch name. When the user navigate inside the bronchus by using the VBS, the system presents a question on the virtual endoscopic view and the user answers a question. The proposed method was implemented in our VBS. We confirmed that the method can assign anatomical names to about 90% of bronchial branches extracted from 3-D X-ray CT image automatically. In an extended module for educational use of the VBS, the system could generate questions about branch names and could display them on the virtual endoscopic view automatically.

  12. Repair of Internal Iliac Artery Aneurysm Anastomosed to Donor Renal Artery in a Renal Transplant Patient

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Hiroshi; Kin, Keiwa; Maeda, Shuusaku

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a successful repair of an internal iliac artery aneurysm in a renal transplant patient. At renal transplantation, the main renal artery and accessory renal artery had been anastomosed to the right internal iliac artery and right external iliac artery, respectively. The patient underwent resection and graft replacement of the iliac artery aneurysm with reattachment of the main renal artery to the right external iliac artery through a midline laparotomy with repeated topical cold perfusion for renal protection. The postoperative course was uneventful, and no evidence of renal function impairment was present at discharge. PMID:27738467

  13. Histopathologic Characteristics of a Coronary-pulmonary Artery Fistula with a Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Noriyuki; Minematsu, Noritoshi; Morishige, Noritsugu; Tashiro, Tadashi; Imanaga, Yoshinobu

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report a case of a 59-year-old woman with a coronary-pulmonary artery fistula with a concomitant coronary artery aneurysm, which comprised an anomalous coronary artery originating at the right coronary cusp, an aberrant branch of the left anterior descending artery, and a coronary artery aneurysm draining into the main pulmonary artery. Histopathologically, non-dilated anomalous coronary artery showed the preservation of internal elastic lamina and medial smooth muscle cell phenotype which lacked in the aneurysmal wall. Thus, the disrupted internal elastic lamina and phenotypic change of medial smooth muscle cells might contribute to aneurysm formation in a coronary-pulmonary arterial fistula. PMID:23555427

  14. Embolization of the Systemic Arterial Supply via a Detachable Silicon Balloon in a Child with Scimitar Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Sahin, Sinan Celebi, Ahmet; Yalcin, Yalim; Saritas, Mustafa; Bilal, Mehmet S.; Celik, Levent

    2005-04-15

    Scimitar syndrome is a rare congenital disorder. It is characterized by partial or total abnormal venous drainage of the right lung into the inferior vena cava, which is often associated with anomalous systemic arterial supply to the right lung, congenital cardiac anomalies, hypoplasia of the right lung and bronchial anomalies. Symptoms depend on the degree of the shunt and severity of the associated anomalies, which determine the treatment. We present a 6-year-old boy who was diagnosed as having the adult form of scimitar syndrome during evaluation for recurrent pulmonary infections, and underwent embolization with a detachable silicon balloon of the anomalous systemic arterial supply from the abdominal aorta to the right lower lung lobe. Successful elective surgery was performed 6 months later, in which right pulmonary veins were directed to the left atrium using a Gore-Tex patch by creating an intra-atrial tunnel. The patient has been symptom-free period during 6 months of follow-up, which supports the idea that recurrent pulmonary infections can be eliminated by embolization of the anomalous arterial supply.

  15. [Acupoints selecting and medication rules analysis based on data mining technique for bronchial asthma treated with acupoint application].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaohui; Han, Dongyue; Qie, Lili; Liu, Chang; Wang, Fuchun

    2015-06-01

    Clinical literature of bronchial asthma treated with acupoints application from January 2000 to March 2014 in modern periodicals databases was retrieved through computer. With cluster analysis and frequency analysis methods of data mining, acupoints selecting and medication rules of bronchial asthma treated with acupoints application were analyzed. Total 38 articles were included eventually, including 25 acupoints and 42 medicines. The results indicate that on acupoints selecting, Feishu (BL 13) is used as the main acupoint and 3 groups of bladder meridian and conception vessel acupoints are applied alternately and on medicines, Baijiezi (Brassica alba Boiss), Xixin (Radix et Rhizoma Asari), Gansui (Radix Kansui), Yanhusuo (Corydalis) and Mahuang (Radix et Rhizonma Ephedrae) are primarily adopted, epispastic medicines being the main medicines; medicines mostly belong to lung meridian, main medicines being unchanged mostly with Shengjiang as guiding drug.

  16. Control and minimization of allergenic plants impact on bronchial asthma morbidity, based on spatial-temporal data model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuzh, Tatyana Y.; Mokin, Vitaliy B.; Wójcik, Waldemar; Imanbek, Baglan

    2015-12-01

    Control and development of priority measures to minimize the impact of allergenic plants on the state of morbidity, caused by asthma are one of the most common and complex problems for public health in modern cities. Bronchial asthma in humans occurs because of aggregation of various factors, the nature of which varies in time and space. So, we should use spatial-temporal data model for formalization of this problem, but typical data formalization methods and data processing methods need to be improved, taking into consideration the peculiarities of impact, especially of allergenic plants and weather conditions on people in a city. The paper shows a new approach to unified in time and optimal by discretization in space data formalization, concerning the main factors that form the conditions for the emergence of bronchial asthma. The example of such analysis was given, which illustrated the efficiency of the proposed information model and the method of its processing.

  17. Diesel Exhaust Particle-Exposed Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Induce Dendritic Cell Maturation and Polarization via Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin

    PubMed Central

    Bleck, Bertram; Tse, Doris B.; Curotto de Lafaille, Maria A.; Zhang, Feijie

    2009-01-01

    Human exposure to air pollutants, including ambient particulate matter, has been proposed as a mechanism for the rise in allergic disorders. Diesel exhaust particles, a major component of ambient particulate matter, induce sensitization to neoallergens, but the mechanisms by which sensitization occur remain unclear. We show that diesel exhaust particles upregulate thymic stromal lymphopoietin in human bronchial epithelial cells in an oxidant-dependent manner. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin induced by diesel exhaust particles was associated with maturation of myeloid dendritic cells, which was blocked by anti-thymic stromal lymphopoietin antibodies or silencing epithelial cell-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Dendritic cells exposed to diesel exhaust particle-treated human bronchial epithelial cells induced Th2 polarization in a thymic stromal lymphopoietin-dependent manner. These findings provide new insight into the mechanisms by which diesel exhaust particles modify human lung mucosal immunity. PMID:18049884

  18. Engineering of arteries in vitro.

    PubMed

    Huang, Angela H; Niklason, Laura E

    2014-06-01

    This review will focus on two elements that are essential for functional arterial regeneration in vitro: the mechanical environment and the bioreactors used for tissue growth. The importance of the mechanical environment to embryological development, vascular functionality, and vascular graft regeneration will be discussed. Bioreactors generate mechanical stimuli to simulate biomechanical environment of arterial system. This system has been used to reconstruct arterial grafts with appropriate mechanical strength for implantation by controlling the chemical and mechanical environments in which the grafts are grown. Bioreactors are powerful tools to study the effect of mechanical stimuli on extracellular matrix architecture and mechanical properties of engineered vessels. Hence, biomimetic systems enable us to optimize chemo-biomechanical culture conditions to regenerate engineered vessels with physiological properties similar to those of native arteries. In addition, this article reviews various bioreactors designed especially to apply axial loading to engineered arteries. This review will also introduce and examine different approaches and techniques that have been used to engineer biologically based vascular grafts, including collagen-based grafts, fibrin-gel grafts, cell sheet engineering, biodegradable polymers, and decellularization of native vessels.

  19. Posterior cerebral artery territory infarctions.

    PubMed

    Cereda, Carlo; Carrera, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Infarctions in the territory of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) occur in about 5-10% of all ischemic strokes. The PCA can be divided into 'deep' (P1 and P2 segments) and 'superficial' (P3 and P4) segments. Occlusion of paramedian perforating arteries arising from P1 causes rostral midbrain infarction with or without thalamic lesion. The classical clinical triad after thalamomesencephalic infarcts is hypersomnolence, cognitive deficits and vertical oculomotor paresis. Two main arterial groups arise from P2: infarction in the territory of the thalamogeniculate arteries causes severe contralateral hypesthesia and ataxia, whereas infarction in the territory of the posterior choroidal arteries results in sectoranopia with involvement of the lateral geniculate body. After superficial PCA infarcts, visual field defects and somatosensory deficits are the most frequent signs. Additionally, disorders of reading may be seen after unilateral left infarction and disorientation for place and visual neglect after right lesion. After bilateral PCA infarcts, amnesia, cortical blindness (the patient cannot see but pretend he can) may occur. Acute thrombolysis is as useful after PCA infarctions as after anterior circulation strokes. Mortality after PCA strokes is low, but long-term behavioral and cognitive deficits are underestimated.

  20. Combination of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide, and sulforaphane, reduces the viability and growth of bronchial carcinoid cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bronchial carcinoids are pulmonary neuroendocrine cell-derived tumors comprising typical (TC) and atypical (AC) malignant phenotypes. The 5-year survival rate in metastatic carcinoid, despite multiple current therapies, is 14-25%. Hence, we are testing novel therapies that can affect the proliferation and survival of bronchial carcinoids. Methods In vitro studies were used for the dose–response (AlamarBlue) effects of acetazolamide (AZ) and sulforaphane (SFN) on clonogenicity, serotonin-induced growth effect and serotonin content (LC-MS) on H-727 (TC) and H-720 (AC) bronchial carcinoid cell lines and their derived NOD/SCID mice subcutaneous xenografts. Tumor ultra structure was studied by electron microscopy. Invasive fraction of the tumors was determined by matrigel invasion assay. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to study the effect of treatment(s) on proliferation (Ki67, phospho histone-H3) and neuroendocrine phenotype (chromogranin-A, tryptophan hydroxylase). Results Both compounds significantly reduced cell viability and colony formation in a dose-dependent manner (0–80 μM, 48 hours and 7 days) in H-727 and H-720 cell lines. Treatment of H-727 and H-720 subcutaneous xenografts in NOD/SCID mice with the combination of AZ + SFN for two weeks demonstrated highly significant growth inhibition and reduction of 5-HT content and reduced the invasive capacity of H-727 tumor cells. In terms of the tumor ultra structure, a marked reduction in secretory vesicles correlated with the decrease in 5-HT content. Conclusions The combination of AZ and SFN was more effective than either single agent. Since the effective doses are well within clinical range and bioavailability, our results suggest a potential new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of bronchial carcinoids. PMID:23927827

  1. Effect of inhaled furosemide and torasemide on bronchial response to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed

    Foresi, A; Pelucchi, A; Mastropasqua, B; Cavigioli, G; Carlesi, R M; Marazzini, L

    1992-08-01

    Inhaled furosemide has been shown to reduce the bronchoconstriction induced by several indirect stimuli, including ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (UNDW). Because the protective effect could be due to the inhibition of the Na(+)-2Cl(-)-K+ cotransport system of bronchial epithelium, we have compared the protective effect of inhaled furosemide with that of inhaled torasemide, a new and more potent loop diuretic, on UNDW-induced bronchoconstriction in a group of 12 asthmatic subjects. UNDW challenge was performed by constructing a stimulus-response curve with five increasing volume outputs of distilled water (from 0.5 to 5.2 ml/min) and the bronchial response expressed as the provocative output causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PO20UNDW). On different days, each subject inhaled an equal dose (28 mg) of furosemide and torasemide in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study 5 min prior to an UNDW challenge. Furosemide and torasemide had no significant effect on resting lung function. The geometric mean value of PO20UNDW measured after placebo was 1.73 ml/min. This was significantly lower than that recorded after furosemide (4.25 ml/min; p < 0.025), but not after torasemide (3.05 ml/min; p = 0.07). Inhaled furosemide totally blocked bronchial response to UNDW in five subjects. In two of five subjects the response was also blocked by inhaled torasemide. A remarkable increase in diuresis was noted only after torasemide in most subjects. We conclude that inhaled furosemide has a better protective effect than does inhaled torasemide against UNDW-induced bronchoconstriction. However, the protective effect of furosemide is variable, with some asthmatic patients showing no change in bronchial response to UNDW.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1489126

  2. Effect of ozone exposure in vivo on response of bronchial rings in vitro: Role of intracellular Ca2+

    SciTech Connect

    Montano, L.M.; Jones, G.L.; O'Byrne, P.M.; Daniel, E.E. )

    1993-09-01

    In this study we investigated the role of intracellular Ca2+ in ozone- (O3) induced airway hyperresponsiveness. Acetylcholine-induced airway responses were measured before and after inhalation of O3 (3 ppm, 30 min) or dry air. In vitro experiments were performed with intact ring segments of third- to fifth-order bronchi. Bronchial responses to carbachol (CCh) were evaluated in Krebs solution (2.5 mM Ca2+) and in Ca(2+)-free [0.1 mM ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA)] Krebs solution with or without indomethacin (IDM, 10(-5) M) and were expressed as percentage of the maximal KCl response (60 mM). Inhalation of O3, but not dry air, caused airway hyperresponsiveness to acetylcholine in vivo. Responses to 50% effective concentrations of CCh were similar in bronchial preparations from O3 and control animals (with or without IDM) in normal Krebs solution. In Ca(2+)-free solution, CCh induced a sustained (20-min) bronchial contraction. These contractions relaxed immediately when nifedipine or a high EGTA concentration was added to the organ bath. The sustained contraction was abolished when the tissues had been incubated with cyclopiazonic acid (10(-5) M), a novel inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump. After O3 exposure, responses of the bronchial smooth muscle (in Ca(2+)-free medium without IDM) were increased (P < 0.05) compared with controls during the first and second CCh stimulations. This O3-induced increase in response to CCh in Ca(2+)-free solution was abolished when the tissues were incubated with IDM.

  3. The inhibitory mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis on cigarette smoke extract-induced senescence in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ailing; Wu, Jinxiang; Li, Aijun; Bi, Wenxiang; Liu, Tian; Cao, Liuzhao; Liu, Yahui; Dong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible growth arrest induced either by telomere shortening (replicative senescence) or stress. The bronchial epithelial cell is often injured by inhaled toxic substances, such as cigarette smoke. In the present study, we investigated whether exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induces senescence of bronchial epithelial cells; and Cordyceps sinensis mechanism of inhibition of CSE-induced cellular senescence. Methods Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE cells) cultured in vitro were treated with CSE and/or C. sinensis. p16, p21, and senescence-associated-galactosidase activity were used to detect cellular senescence with immunofluorescence, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), PI3K/AKT/mTOR and their phosphorylated proteins were examined to testify the activation of signaling pathway by ROS fluorescent staining and Western blotting. Then, inhibitors of ROS and PI3K were used to further confirm the function of this pathway. Results Cellular senescence was upregulated by CSE treatment, and C. sinensis can decrease CSE-induced cellular senescence. Activation of ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway was enhanced by CSE treatment, and decreased when C. sinensis was added. Blocking ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway can attenuate CSE-induced cellular senescence. Conclusion CSE can induce cellular senescence in human bronchial epithelial cells, and ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway may play an important role in this process. C. sinensis can inhibit the CSE-induced senescence. PMID:27555762

  4. Respiratory function and bronchial responsiveness among industrial workers exposed to different classes of occupational agents: a study from Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Ould-Kadi, Farid; Nawrot, Tim S; Hoet, Peter H; Nemery, Benoit

    2007-01-01

    Occupational exposures play a role in the onset of several chronic airway diseases. We investigated, in a cross-sectional study, lung function parameters and bronchial hyper-responsiveness to histamine in workers exposed to different airborne compounds. The study group totalled 546 male subjects of whom 114 were exposed to welding fumes, 106 to solvents, 107 to mineral dust, 97 to organic dust and 123 without known exposure to airway irritants. A questionnaire was administered and spirometry and bronchial responsiveness to histamine were assessed by one observer, in the morning before work to prevent effects of acute exposure. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 39.3 (7.8) years, with a mean duration of employment of 13.8 (6.6) years. Both before and after adjustment for smoking status, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, expressed as % predicted) was lower in welders -4.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], -6.3 to -1.8; p = 0.01) and workers exposed to solvents -5.6% (CI: -7.9 to -3.3; p = 0.0009) than in control subjects. Furthermore, solvent workers had an odds ratio of 3.43 (95% CI: 1.09–11.6; p = 0.037) for bronchial hyperresponsiveness compared with the reference group. The higher prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in solvent workers adds to the growing body of evidence of adverse respiratory effects of occupational solvent exposure. These results point to the necessity of preventive measures in solvent workers to avoid these adverse respiratory effects. PMID:17922914

  5. Implementing lessons learned from previous bronchial biopsy trials in a new randomized controlled COPD biopsy trial with roflumilast

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disease mediated by an array of inflammatory cells and mediators, but above all, CD8+ T-lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils are important players in disease pathogenesis. Roflumilast, a first-in-class, potent and selective phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor, reduces the rate of exacerbations in patients with a high risk of future exacerbations and has been shown to reduce inflammatory cells and mediators in induced sputum, a surrogate of airway inflammation. However, these anti-inflammatory effects are yet to be confirmed in another robust study directly assessing inflammatory markers in bronchial sub-mucosa. Methods/Design An international, 16-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study investigating the effects of roflumilast 500 μg once-daily versus placebo on inflammatory parameters in bronchial biopsy tissue specimens, sputum and blood serum. One hundred and fifty patients with COPD and chronic bronchitis for at least 12 months will be recruited into the study and randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either roflumilast or placebo. The primary endpoint will be the number of CD8+ cells (cell counts per mm2) in bronchial biopsy tissue specimens (sub-mucosa) and the key secondary endpoint will be the number of CD68+ cells (cell counts per mm2), assessed by indirect immunohistochemistry. Discussion It is hypothesized that treatment with roflumilast reduces the characteristic inflammation found in the airways of patients with moderate-to-severe COPD, compared with placebo. The design of the present study has built on the work of previous bronchial biopsy studies available in the literature. It is hoped that it will reveal the cellular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of roflumilast and identify potentially important biomarkers and other surrogate endpoints in patients with COPD. The design and rationale for this trial are

  6. Differentiation of human bronchial epithelial cells: role of hydrocortisone in development of ion transport pathways involved in mucociliary clearance.

    PubMed

    Zaidman, Nathan A; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; O'Grady, Scott M

    2016-08-01

    Glucocorticoids strongly influence the mucosal-defense functions performed by the bronchial epithelium, and inhaled corticosteroids are critical in the treatment of patients with inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis. A common pathology associated with these diseases is reduced mucociliary clearance, a defense mechanism involving the coordinated transport of salt, water, and mucus by the bronchial epithelium, ultimately leading to retention of pathogens and particles in the airways and to further disease progression. In the present study we investigated the role of hydrocortisone (HC) in differentiation and development of the ion transport phenotype of normal human bronchial epithelial cells under air-liquid interface conditions. Normal human bronchial epithelial cells differentiated in the absence of HC (HC0) showed significantly less benzamil-sensitive short-circuit current than controls, as well as a reduced response after stimulation with the selective β2-adrenergic receptor agonist salbutamol. Apical membrane localization of epithelial Na(+) channel α-subunits was similarly reduced in HC0 cells compared with controls, supporting a role of HC in the trafficking and density of Na(+) channels in the plasma membrane. Additionally, glucocorticoid exposure during differentiation regulated the transcription of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and β2-adrenergic receptor mRNAs and appeared to be necessary for the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-dependent anion secretion in response to β2-agonists. HC had no significant effect on surface cell differentiation but did modulate the expression of mucin mRNAs. These findings indicate that glucocorticoids support mucosal defense by regulating critical transport pathways essential for effective mucociliary clearance. PMID:27306366

  7. Asian Dust and Pediatric Emergency Department Visits Due to Bronchial Asthma and Respiratory Diseases in Nagasaki, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Takahiro; Hashizume, Masahiro; Ueda, Kayo; Shimizu, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Ayano; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Hashimoto, Kunio; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Odajima, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Tasuku; Tashiro, Kasumi; Tomimasu, Kunio; Nishiwaki, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Background The adverse health effects of Asian dust (AD) on the respiratory system of children are unclear. We hypothesized that AD events may lead to increased visits by children to emergency medical centers due to bronchial asthma and respiratory diseases, including bronchial asthma. Methods We used anonymized data on children receiving primary emergency treatment at Nagasaki Municipal Primary Emergency Medical Center, Japan between March 2010 and September 2013. We used Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data to assess AD exposure and performed time-stratified case-crossover analyses to examine the association between AD exposure and emergency department visits. The main analysis was done with data collected from March through May each year. Results The total number of emergency department visits during the study period was 756 for bronchial asthma and 5421 for respiratory diseases, and the number of “AD days” was 47. In school children, AD events at lag day 3 and lag day 4 were associated with increased emergency department visits due to bronchial asthma, with odds ratios of 1.837 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.212–2.786) and 1.829 (95% CI, 1.179–2.806), respectively. AD events were significantly associated with respiratory diseases among preschool children at lag day 0, lag day 1, and lag day 2, with odds ratios of 1.244 (95% CI, 1.128–1.373), 1.314 (95% CI, 1.189–1.452), and 1.273 (95% CI, 1.152–1.408), respectively. These associations were also significant when the results were adjusted for meteorological variables and other air pollutants. Conclusions The study findings suggested that AD exposure increases emergency department visits by children. PMID:27180931

  8. Ciprofloxacin Is Actively Transported across Bronchial Lung Epithelial Cells Using a Calu-3 Air Interface Cell Model

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Hui Xin; Traini, Daniela; Bebawy, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a well-established broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic that penetrates well into the lung tissues; still, the mechanisms of its transepithelial transport are unknown. The contributions of specific transporters, including multidrug efflux transporters, organic cation transporters, and organic anion-transporting polypeptide transporters, to the uptake of ciprofloxacin were investigated in vitro using an air interface bronchial epithelial model. Our results demonstrate that ciprofloxacin is subject to predominantly active influx and a slight efflux component. PMID:23507281

  9. First jejunal artery, an alternative graft for right hepatic artery reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Bibek; Komokata, Teruo; Kadono, Jun; Motodaka, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Tetsuya; Furoi, Akira; Imoto, Yutaka

    2015-04-01

    Common bile duct cancer invading right hepatic artery is sometimes diagnosed intraoperatively. Excision and safe reconstruction of the artery with suitable graft is essential. Arterial reconstruction with autologous saphenous vein graft is the preferred method practiced routinely. However the right hepatic artery reconstruction has also been carried out with several other vessels like gastroduodenal artery, right gastroepiploic artery or the splenic artery. We report a case of 63-year-old man presenting with history of progressive jaundice, pruritus and impaired appetite. Following various imaging modalities including computed tomography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, intraductal ultrasound extrahepatic bile duct cancer was diagnosed; however, none of those detected vessel invasion. Intraoperatively, right hepatic artery invasion was revealed. Right hepatic artery was resected and reconstructed with a graft harvested from the first jejunal artery (JA). Postoperative outcome was satisfactory with a long-term graft patency. First JA can be a reliable graft option for right hepatic artery reconstruction.

  10. Comparison of Glucocorticoid (Budesonide) and Antileukotriene (Montelukast) Effect in Patients with Bronchial Asthma Determined with Body Plethysmography

    PubMed Central

    Lajqi, Njomza; Ilazi, Ali; Kastrati, Bashkim; Islami, Hilmi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Effect of glucocorticoids-budesonide and antileukotriene–montelukast in patients with bronchial asthma and bronchial increased reactivity was studied in this work. Methods: Parameters of the lung function are determined with Body plethysmography. Raw and ITGV were registered and specific resistance (SRaw) was also calculated. Results: Results of this research, in patients with bronchial asthma, indicate that glucocorticoids – budesonide (Pulmicort; 2 × 2 mg inh) has significant action (p< 0.01) on reduction of the specific resistance (SRaw) of airways, applied to the same patients 3 days after administration of montelukast, at home (2 × 10 mg). Three days after administration of the montelukast, antileukotriene medicine, at home, on the fourth day same patients administered a capsule of montelukast, 10 mg dose per os, and significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the increased bronchomotor tonus; and the effect of the control with salbutamol (beta2-adrenergic agonist) is effective in removal of the increased bronchomotor tonus, causing significant decrease of the resistance (Raw), respectively of the specific resistance (SRaw), (p < 0, 01). Conclusion: This suggests that the bronchodilator effect of glucocorticoids is more powerful than of the leukotriene, because glucocorticoids terminate the early stage of chemical mediator release (prostaglandins PgD2, SRS, and leukotriene LTC4, LTD4, LTE4 and Cytokinins also etc.) as powerful bronchoconstriction substances, whilst antileukotriene substances does not have this feature. PMID:26862243

  11. Drug Signature-based Finding of Additional Clinical Use of LC28-0126 for Neutrophilic Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eunji; Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, So Ri; Kim, Soon Ha; Park, Joonghoon

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, global pharmaceutical companies have suffered from an R&D innovation gap between the increased cost of a new drug’s development and the decreased number of approvals. Drug repositioning offers another opportunity to fill the gap because the approved drugs have a known safety profile for human use, allowing for a reduction of the overall cost of drug development by eliminating rigorous safety assessment. In this study, we compared the transcriptional profile of LC28-0126, an investigational drug for acute myocardial infarction (MI) at clinical trial, obtained from healthy male subjects with molecular activity profiles in the Connectivity Map. We identified dyphilline, an FDA-approved drug for bronchial asthma, as a top ranked connection with LC28-0126. Subsequently, we demonstrated that LC28-0126 effectively ameliorates the pathophysiology of neutrophilic bronchial asthma in OVALPS-OVA mice accompanied with a reduction of inflammatory cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), inhibition of the release of proinflammatory cytokines, relief of airway hyperactivity, and improvement of histopathological changes in the lung. Taken together, we suggest that LC28-0126 could be a potential therapeutic for bronchial asthma. In addition, this study demonstrated the potential general utility of computational drug repositioning using clinical profiles of the investigational drug. PMID:26626943

  12. Growth and differentiation of primary and passaged equine bronchial epithelial cells under conventional and air-liquid-interface culture conditions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Horses develop recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) that resembles human bronchial asthma. Differentiated primary equine bronchial epithelial cells (EBEC) in culture that closely mimic the airway cells in vivo would be useful to investigate the contribution of bronchial epithelium in inflammation of airway diseases. However, because isolation and characterization of EBEC cultures has been limited, we modified and optimized techniques of generating and culturing EBECs from healthy horses to mimic in vivo conditions. Results Large numbers of EBEC were obtained by trypsin digestion and successfully grown for up to 2 passages with or without serum. However, serum or ultroser G proved to be essential for EBEC differentiation on membrane inserts at ALI. A pseudo-stratified muco-ciliary epithelium with basal cells was observed at differentiation. Further, transepithelial resistance (TEER) was more consistent and higher in P1 cultures compared to P0 cultures while ciliation was delayed in P1 cultures. Conclusions This study provides an efficient method for obtaining a high-yield of EBECs and for generating highly differentiated cultures. These EBEC cultures can be used to study the formation of tight junction or to identify epithelial-derived inflammatory factors that contribute to lung diseases such as asthma. PMID:21649893

  13. Oxygen-driving and atomized mucosolvan inhalation combined with holistic nursing in the treatment of children severe bronchial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang

    2015-07-01

    This paper aimed to discuss the method, effect and safety of oxygen-driving and atomized Mucosolvan inhalation combined with holistic nursing in the treatment of children severe bronchial pneumonia. Totally 90 children with severe bronchial pneumonia who were treated in our hospital from March 2013 to November 2013 were selected as the research objects. Based on randomized controlled principle, those children were divided into control group, test group I and test group II according to the time to enter the hospital, 30 in each group. Patients in control group was given conventional therapy; test group I was given holistic nursing combined with conventional therapy; test group II was given oxygen-driving and atomized Mucosolvan inhalation combined with holistic nursing on the basis of conventional therapy. After test, the difference of main symptoms in control group, test group I and II was of no statistical significance (P>0.05). Test group II was found with the best curative effect, secondary was test group I and control group was the last. It can be concluded that, oxygen-driving and atomized Mucosolvan inhalation combined with holistic nursing has certain effect in the treatment of children severe bronchial pneumonia and is better than holistic nursing only.

  14. Do Panic Symptoms Affect the Quality of Life and Add to the Disability in Patients with Bronchial Asthma?

    PubMed

    Faye, A D; Gawande, S; Tadke, R; Kirpekar, V C; Bhave, S H; Pakhare, A P; Tayade, B

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anxiety and panic are known to be associated with bronchial asthma with variety of impact on clinical presentation, treatment outcome, comorbidities, quality of life, and functional disability in patients with asthma. This study aims to explore the pattern of panic symptoms, prevalence and severity of panic disorder (PD), quality of life, and disability in them. Methods. Sixty consecutive patients of bronchial asthma were interviewed using semistructured proforma, Panic and Agoraphobia scale, WHO Quality of life (QOL) BREF scale, and WHO disability schedule II (WHODAS II). Results. Though 60% of the participants had panic symptoms, only 46.7% had diagnosable panic attacks according to DSM IV TR diagnostic criteria and 33.3% had PD. Most common symptoms were "sensations of shortness of breath or smothering," "feeling of choking," and "fear of dying" found in 83.3% of the participants. 73.3% of the participants had poor quality of life which was most impaired in physical and environmental domains. 55% of the participants had disability score more than a mean (18.1). Conclusion. One-third of the participants had panic disorder with significant effect on physical and environmental domains of quality of life. Patients with more severe PD and bronchial asthma had more disability. PMID:26425540

  15. Elastic Deformation Properties of Implanted Endobronchial Wire Stents in Benign and Malignant Bronchial Disease: A Radiographic In Vivo Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hautmann, Hubert; Rieger, Johannes; Huber, Rudolf M.; Pfeifer, Klaus J.

    1999-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term mechanical behavior in vivo of expandable endobronchial wire stents, we imaged three different prostheses in the treatment of tracheobronchial disease. Methods: Six patients with bronchial stenoses (three benign, three malignant) underwent insertion of metallic stents. Two self-expandable Wallstents, two balloon-expandable tantalum Strecker stents and two self-expandable nitinol Accuflex stents were used. Measurements of deformation properties were performed during voluntary cough by means of fluoroscopy, at 1 month and 7-10 months after implantation. The procedures were videotaped, their images digitized and the narrowing of stent diameters calculated at intervals of 20 msec. Results: After stent implantation all patients improved with respect to ventilatory function. Radial stent narrowing during cough reached 53% (Wallstent), 59% (tantalum Strecker stent), and 52% (nitinol Accuflex stent) of the relaxed post-implantation diameter. Stent compression was more marked in benign compared with malignant stenoses. In the long term permanent deformation occurred with the tantalum Strecker stents; the other stents were unchanged. Conclusion: Endobronchial wire stents can be helpful in the treatment of major airway collapse and obstructing bronchial lesions. However, evidence of material fatigue as a possible effect of exposure to recurrent mechanical stress on the flexible mesh tube may limit their long-term use. This seems to be predominantly important in benign bronchial collapse.

  16. Oxygen-driving and atomized mucosolvan inhalation combined with holistic nursing in the treatment of children severe bronchial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang

    2015-07-01

    This paper aimed to discuss the method, effect and safety of oxygen-driving and atomized Mucosolvan inhalation combined with holistic nursing in the treatment of children severe bronchial pneumonia. Totally 90 children with severe bronchial pneumonia who were treated in our hospital from March 2013 to November 2013 were selected as the research objects. Based on randomized controlled principle, those children were divided into control group, test group I and test group II according to the time to enter the hospital, 30 in each group. Patients in control group was given conventional therapy; test group I was given holistic nursing combined with conventional therapy; test group II was given oxygen-driving and atomized Mucosolvan inhalation combined with holistic nursing on the basis of conventional therapy. After test, the difference of main symptoms in control group, test group I and II was of no statistical significance (P>0.05). Test group II was found with the best curative effect, secondary was test group I and control group was the last. It can be concluded that, oxygen-driving and atomized Mucosolvan inhalation combined with holistic nursing has certain effect in the treatment of children severe bronchial pneumonia and is better than holistic nursing only. PMID:26431648

  17. ACUTE RETINAL ARTERIAL OCCLUSIVE DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2011-01-01

    The initial section deals with basic sciences; among the various topics briefly discussed are the anatomical features of ophthalmic, central retinal and cilioretinal arteries which may play a role in acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders. Crucial information required in the management of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is the length of time the retina can survive following that. An experimental study shows that CRAO for 97 minutes produces no detectable permanent retinal damage but there is a progressive ischemic damage thereafter, and by 4 hours the retina has suffered irreversible damage. In the clinical section, I discuss at length various controversies on acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders. Classification of acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders These are of 4 types: CRAO, branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO), cotton wools spots and amaurosis fugax. Both CRAO and BRAO further comprise multiple clinical entities. Contrary to the universal belief, pathogenetically, clinically and for management, CRAO is not one clinical entity but 4 distinct clinical entities – non-arteritic CRAO, non-arteritic CRAO with cilioretinal artery sparing, arteritic CRAO associated with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and transient non-arteritic CRAO. Similarly, BRAO comprises permanent BRAO, transient BRAO and cilioretinal artery occlusion (CLRAO), and the latter further consists of 3 distinct clinical entities - non-arteritic CLRAO alone, non-arteritic CLRAO associated with central retinal vein occlusion and arteritic CLRAO associated with GCA. Understanding these classifications is essential to comprehend fully various aspects of these disorders. Central retinal artery occlusion The pathogeneses, clinical features and management of the various types of CRAO are discussed in detail. Contrary to the prevalent belief, spontaneous improvement in both visual acuity and visual fields does occur, mainly during the first 7 days. The incidence of spontaneous visual

  18. [Trapped popliteal vein and artery].

    PubMed

    Allal, J; Gallimard, J F; Goubbault, F; Lelong, J; Barbier, J; Barraine, R

    1986-03-01

    A report is made of 3 observations of vascular constrictions in the knee hollow of three young adults: two constrictions of the popliteal artery, one by abnormal insertion of a tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle and of the arterial passage, the other by a fibrous band surrounding the artery. In one observation, the disorder was revealed by acute ischemia of one limb. The third observation was of a sural phlebitis with secondary repetition at the constriction of the popliteal vein by Soleaire's arcade. In all cases examination using the Doppler effect, in baseline and especially dynamic position, gives a diagnosis and allows postoperative monitoring. Bilateral arteriography, both static and dynamic, allows a precise diagnosis to be given and reveals the extent of vascular lesions, which conditions the operative technique. Treatment is always surgical, with exploration of the contralateral side if a constriction is suspected, even if it is asymptomatic. PMID:3707018

  19. Spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Khimenko, L P; Esham, H R; Ahmed, W

    2000-10-01

    Once considered uncommon, spontaneous dissection of the carotid artery is an increasingly recognized cause of stroke, headache, cranial nerve palsy, or ophthalmologic events, especially in young adults. Even in the presence of existing signs and symptoms, the diagnosis can be missed by experienced physicians of all specialties. We report a case of spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection in a 38-year-old woman with a cortical stroke and visual disturbances as initial symptoms. The diagnosis was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging/angiography and by angiography. Prompt anticoagulation was instituted, and the patient had complete resolution of symptoms. Cervicocephalic arterial dissection should be included in the differential diagnosis of the causes of cerebrovascular events.

  20. Influence of Bronchial Blood Flow and Conductance on Pulmonary Function in Stable Systolic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Ceridon, Maile L.; Morris, Norman R.; Hulsebus, Minelle L.; Olson, Thomas P.; Lalande, Sophie; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between airway blood flow (Q̇aw), airway conductance (Gf-aw) and pulmonary function in patients with stable HF. 12 controls (CTRL: age=63±9yr, FVC=98±15%pred, LVEF=61±6%) (all data presented as mean±SD), 16 patients with mild HF (HF-A, NYHA I–II: age=64±9yr, FVC=90±17%pred, LVEF=28±6%), and 14 patients with moderate/severe HF (HF-B, NYHA III–IV: age=65±6yr, FVC=84±12%pred, LVEF=26±6%) were studied. Q̇aw was assessed using soluble gas measurements; perfusion pressure across airway bed (ΔPaw) was estimated from systemic and pulmonary pressure measurements; Gf-aw was calculated as Q̇aw/ΔPaw; PF was assessed by spirometry. While Q̇aw was not significantly different between CTRL (61.3±17.9 μL·min−1·ml−1), HF-A (70.1±26.9 μL·min−1·ml−1) and HF-B (56.2±14.9 μL·min−1·ml−1) groups, Gf-aw, was elevated in HF-A (1.1±0.4 μL·min−1·ml−1·mmHg−1, p<0.03) and tended to be elevated in HF-B (1.2±0.6 μL·min−1·ml−1·mmHg−1, p=0.07) when compared to CTRL (0.8±0.3 μL·min−1·ml−1·mmHg−1). Significant positive correlations were found between Gf-aw and RV/TLC for HF-A (r=0.63, p<0.02) and HF-B (r=0.58, p<0.05). These results support the hypothesis that increased bronchial conductance and bronchial congestion may be related to greater small airway obstruction and as such may play a role in the PF abnormalities and symptoms of congestion commonly observed in HF patients. PMID:21545852

  1. Epidemiology of bronchial asthma in school children (10–16 years) in Srinagar

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Uruj Altaf; Bilques, Sufoora; ul Haq, Inaam; Khan, Muhammad Saleem; Qurieshi, Mariya Amin; Qureshi, Umar Amin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the epidemiological profile of asthma in school going children in Srinagar, Kashmir. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Thirty-one schools with proportionate representation from both government and private schools as well as from primary, middle, and high schools. Participants: School children aged 10–16 years with equal representation of sex and all ages. Main Outcome Measure: Prevalence of current and past asthma. Methods and Results: After administering a modified pretested questionnaire, peak expiratory flow measurement was carried. Children who had asthma-like symptoms or positive family history of asthma or physician-labeled asthma were subjected to spirometry and bronchodilator reversibility. Out of 806 children, bronchial asthma was seen in 60 (prevalence of 7.4%) which included 34 boys and 26 girls. Majority of asthmatic children (78.3% [n = 47]) had probable asthma; 6.7% (n = 4) had definite asthma; and 15% (n = 9) had physician-diagnosed asthma. Majority of children had intermittent asthma (78.3% [n = 47]). Mild persistent asthma was seen in 12.7% (n = 7) and 10% (n = 6) had moderate persistent asthma. None of the children had severe persistent asthma. The prevalence of current asthma was 3.2% (n = 26). On univariate analysis, the factors found to be statistically significant were family history of asthma (odds ratio [OR] =8.174; confidence interval [CI] =4.403–15.178), seasonal cough (OR = 4.266; CI = 2.336–7.791), allergic rhinitis (OR = 2.877; CI = 1.414–5.852), atopic dermatitis (OR = 6.597; CI = 2.72–16.004), and obesity (OR = 6.074; CI = 2.308–18.034). On multivariate analysis, family history, seasonal cough, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and obesity were found to be significant independent risk factors. Conclusions: Srinagar qualifies as a low prevalence area for bronchial asthma in the age group of 10–16 years. Majority of children had mild intermittent asthma resulting in under diagnosis and

  2. Delay of growth and development in children with bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Baum, W F; Schneyer, U; Lantzsch, A M; Klöditz, E

    2002-04-01

    The elevated incidence of short stature (body height < (-)x - 2s), skeletal retardation and delayed puberty in children with bronchial asthma or atopic dermatitis is generally attributed to the severity of the disorder. However, a series of findings indicate a causal influence of the atopy and the existence of atopic skeletal retardation per se.The observation that children with atopic disorders, whether bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis or allergic rhinitis, exhibit a rate of short stature that is twice to five times higher than normal indicates atopic and thus genetically determined influences. The elevated prevalence of short stature associated with allergic rhinitis is especially significant, as this disorder cannot be included among the severe chronic disorders. The fact that skeletal retardation is more prevalent in boys than in girls by a ratio of about 2:1 and that a significantly more marked retardation of bone maturation is found in atopic in comparisons with non-atopic asthmatics also lend support to this postulation. The clinical relevance of atopic growth retardation is also supported by the close interaction of pathophysiological basal mechanisms of bone metabolism and the atopy status. Thus the local growth factor prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), which is important for bone metabolism, is also a messenger substance for the immediate and late allergic reaction. The platelet-activating factor (PAF), as one of the strongest mediators in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders, influences the PGE(2) synthesis in the osteoblasts. These relationships show that atopy-dependent imbalances in the complex system of local and systemic growth factors can certainly lead to disturbance of skeletal maturation which may delay growth and development in atopic children. In order to verify these assumptions it is necessary to research the interaction of local growth factors (particularly the roles of PGE(2), PAF and IGF I) in the skeletons of children of short stature

  3. Clinical Implications of Hemoptysis in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Cantu, Jose; Wang, Degang; Safdar, Zeenat

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disabling disease that may result in haemoptysis. Patients with congenital heart disease associated PAH (CHD-APAH) may have a survival advantage when compared with patients with other types of PAH presenting with haemoptysis. The effects of aetiology and sub-sequent management choice of haemoptysis in PAH patients is not well-defined. Methods We conducted outcome analysis in CHD-APAH vs. all other subtypes of PAH patients presenting with haemoptysis to The Methodist Hospital. Twenty-one patients were identified, thirteen patients in the CHD-APAH group and eight patients in the non-CHD group. We evaluated outcomes related to treatment (bronchial artery embolization vs. conservative management), hospital length of stay, mortality rates and survival in this cohort. Results The CHD-APAH and non-CHD groups had similar baseline demographic, haemodynamic and laboratory values except BMI was higher in the non-CHD group and haematocrit was higher in the CHD-APAH group. Twenty-eight-day mortality (0% vs. 31%) and 1-year mortality (0% vs. 54%) was lower in the CHD-APAH patients as compared with non-CHD group. A statistically significant difference was found in the survival rate in favour of CHD-APAH group for the total follow-up period (p = 0.02). Although not statistically significant, patients treated with BAE had shorter length of stay (4.0 days ± 4.0 vs. 13.7 days ± 22.5; p = 0.26). There was recurrent haemoptysis in 43% of patients treated with BAE. Conclusion Haemoptysis in PAH patients is a serious event with a high mortality rate. CHD-APAH seems to confer a survival advantage, independent of therapy utilised. Termination of haemoptysis with BAE is rapid with relatively few complications except for frequent re-bleeding episodes. Further studies are needed to determine the risk factors that may predispose PAH patients to excessive mortality from haemoptysis and to identify an optimal therapeutic modality. PMID

  4. The kidney and arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ruilope, L M; Campo, C; Lahera, V

    1993-01-01

    It has been known for some time that a relationship exists between the kidney and blood pressure. The renal origin of arterial hypertension has been demonstrated in different animal models resembling human hypertension, with data from humans seeming to confirm this hypothesis. On the other hand, the renal vasculature also suffers the consequences of arterial hypertension, and renal insufficiency can develop as a result of elevated blood pressure levels. Antihypertensive therapy can prevent the development of renal damage secondary to hypertension. For example, calcium antagonists possess specific renal effects that not only facilitate their antihypertensive capacity but also protect the kidney from the development of renal failure.

  5. Flows In Model Human Femoral Arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, Lloyd H.; Kwack, Eug Y.; Crawford, Donald W.

    1990-01-01

    Flow is visualized with dye traces, and pressure measurements made. Report describes experimental study of flow in models of human femoral artery. Conducted to examine effect of slight curvature of artery on flow paths and distribution of pressure.

  6. Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery

    MedlinePlus

    Carotid angioplasty and stenting; CAS; Angioplasty - carotid artery; Carotid artery stenosis - angioplasty; ... Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) is done using a small surgical cut. Your surgeon will make a surgical cut ...

  7. Facts about Transposition of the Great Arteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Septal Defect Atrioventricular Septal Defect Coarctation of the Aorta D-Transposition of the Great Arteries Hypoplastic Left ... of the heart—the pulmonary artery and the aorta —are switched in position, or “transposed”. Normally, blood ...

  8. Transposition of the Greater Arteries (TGA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Disease Diseases of the arteries, valves, and aorta, as well as cardiac rhythm disturbances Aortic Valve ... Transposition of the Great Arteries Coarctation of the Aorta Truncus Arteriosus Single Ventricle Defects Lung, Esophageal, and ...

  9. Effect of once daily and twice daily sustained release theophylline formulations on daytime variation of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic patients

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, M.; Olivieri, M.; Lampronti, G.; Bonazza, L.; Biasin, C.; Nacci, P.; Talamini, G.; Lo, C

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies evaluating spirometric values and symptoms have shown that once daily theophylline administered in the evening produces greater stabilisation of the airway function in asthmatic patients than the prototype theophylline given twice a day. The aim of this study was to compare the effects on bronchial responsiveness to methacholine of an ultrasustained release theophylline formulation (Diffumal-24, Malesci, Florence, Italy) administered once a day, a sustained release theophylline formulation (Theo-Dur, Recordati, Milan, Italy) administered twice a day, and placebo. METHODS: The study was performed in 12 adult patients with asthma using a randomised, double blind, three phase, cross-over design. Each phase lasted seven days and was followed or preceded by at least three days of theophylline washout. Diffumal-24 was administered once a day at 20.00 hours whereas Theo-Dur was given twice a day at 08.00 hours and 20.00 hours. In each patient the total daily dose of theophylline was the same during both phases. The dose of the two active preparations was titrated to individual needs before the beginning of the study and then given in divided or once daily doses. At 08.00, 14.00, and 20.00 hours on day 7 of each phase serum theophylline concentrations were measured and spirometric tests (FEV1) and bronchial challenge with methacholine were also performed. RESULTS: When the administration of Diffumal-24 was compared with that of Theo-Dur, a higher serum theophylline concentration of the former was seen in the morning whereas at 20.00 hours the reverse was true. Compared with placebo, at 08.00 hours Diffumal-24 improved FEV1 whereas Theo-Dur did not (difference between treatments 0.29 1, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.45). At 08.00 hours Diffumal-24 decreased bronchial sensitivity to methacholine, expressed as a natural logarithm of PD20, to a greater extent than Theo-Dur (difference between treatments 0.54 log units, 95% CI 0.016 to 1.08). The morning

  10. Bilateral Internal Thoracic Artery Configuration for Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Boodhwani, Munir; Hanet, Claude; de Kerchove, Laurent; Navarra, Emiliano; Astarci, Parla; Noirhomme, Philippe; El Khoury, Gebrine

    2016-01-01

    Background— Bilateral internal thoracic arteries (BITA) have demonstrated superior patency and improved survival in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. However, the optimal configuration for BITA utilization and its effect on long-term outcome remains uncertain. Methods and Results— We randomly assigned 304 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting using BITA to either in situ or Y grafting configurations. The primary end point was 3-year angiographic patency. Secondary end points included major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (ie, death from any cause, stroke, myocardial infarction, or repeat revascularization) at 7 years. More coronary targets were able to be revascularized using internal thoracic arteries in patients randomized to Y grafting versus in situ group (3.2±0.8 versus 2.4±0.5 arteries/patient; P<0.01). The primary end point did not show significant differences in graft patency between groups. Secondary end points occurred more frequently in the in situ group (P=0.03), with 7-year rates of 34±10% in the in situ and 25±12% in the Y grafting groups, driven largely by a higher incidence of repeat revascularization in the in situ group (14±4.5% versus 7.4±3.2% at 7 years; P=0.009). There were no significant differences in hospital mortality or morbidity or in late survival, myocardial infarction, or stroke between groups. Conclusions— Three-year systematic angiographic follow-up revealed no significant difference in graft patency between the 2 BITA configurations. However, compared with in situ configuration, the use of BITA in a Y grafting configuration results in lower rates of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events at 7 years. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01666366. PMID:27406988

  11. TRAS principles blight arterial bypass and plasty.

    PubMed

    Kothari, M V; Mehta, L A; Kothari, V M

    1997-01-01

    A new concept--Tissue Requisitions (Principle I)/Relinquishes (Principle II) Arterial Supply--of TRAS principles is introduced to help appreciate the failures/successes of modern medicine's attempts at restoring arterial flow in luminally compromised coronary/carotid fields, an invasive branch rightly called vascular ReRheology, which comprises diagnosing/treating arterial blocks. The technical wizardry of arterial reconstruction (bypass) or lumen--restoration (plasty) has to reckon with the TRAS principles all the time. PMID:10740714

  12. Association of persistent bronchial hyperresponsiveness with beta2-adrenoceptor (ADRB2) haplotypes. A population study.

    PubMed

    D'amato, M; Vitiani, L R; Petrelli, G; Ferrigno, L; di Pietro, A; Trezza, R; Matricardi, P M

    1998-12-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is a hallmark of asthma and represents a strong risk factor for the disease. However, not all asthmatics have BHR and it can be observed in normal subjects too, probably because of genetic predisposition. Increasing attention is being focused on the beta2-adrenoceptor gene (ADRB2), whose genetic variability at amino acids 16 and 27 has been shown to correlate with some clinical features of asthma, including airways reactivity. To verify whether ADRB2 gene polymorphisms can influence BHR at a broader level, we studied a large, highly homogeneous sample of individuals sharing race, gender, age, and current living environment. BHR was strictly defined as a constant positive response to serial methacholine challenge tests and an improved definition of genetic variability at the ADRB2 locus was used, by identifying the haplotypic combinations of polymorphisms 16 and 27. We observed that the ADRB2 haplotype with a Gly at position 16 and a Gln at position 27 is associated with BHR in our sample. The association persisted also after correction for potentially confounding variables such as specific and total IgE levels. This observation suggests therefore that ADRB2 gene can confer genetic susceptibility to BHR, rather than having only a disease-modifying effect in asthma.

  13. Primary Paediatric Bronchial Airway Epithelial Cell in Vitro Responses to Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    McInnes, Neil; Davidson, Matthew; Scaife, Alison; Miller, David; Spiteri, Daniella; Engelhardt, Tom; Semple, Sean; Devereux, Graham; Walsh, Garry; Turner, Steve

    2016-01-01

    The bronchial airway epithelial cell (BAEC) is the site for initial encounters between inhaled environmental factors and the lower respiratory system. Our hypothesis was that release of pro inflammatory interleukins (IL)-6 and IL-8 from primary BAEC cultured from children will be increased after in vitro exposure to common environmental factors. Primary BAEC were obtained from children undergoing clinically indicated routine general anaesthetic procedures. Cells were exposed to three different concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or house dust mite allergen (HDM) or particulates extracted from side stream cigarette smoke (SSCS). BAEC were obtained from 24 children (mean age 7.0 years) and exposed to stimuli. Compared with the negative control, there was an increase in IL-6 and IL-8 release after exposure to HDM (p ≤ 0.001 for both comparisons). There was reduced IL-6 after higher compared to lower SSCS exposure (p = 0.023). There was no change in BAEC release of IL-6 or IL-8 after LPS exposure. BAEC from children are able to recognise and respond in vitro with enhanced pro inflammatory mediator secretion to some inhaled exposures. PMID:27023576

  14. [Functional activity of alveolar macrophages in patients with bronchial asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    PubMed

    Maev, I V; Liamina, S V; Kalish, S V; Malysheva, E V; Iurenev, G L; Malyshev, I Iu

    2013-01-01

    Combination of bronchial asthma (BA) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a widespread clinical situation. The two pathologies are known to influence each other leading to disturbances in immune responsiveness. We studied phenotypes and phenotypic plasticity of immune cells (alveolar macrophages) in patients with BA and GERD. It was shown that BA and GERD are largely associated with AM of proinflammatory M2 and anti-inflammatory M1 phenotypes respectively. Population of AM with MI phenotype increases in patients having both BA and GERD compared with that in BA alone. In vitro experiments showed that acidic milieu promotes shifting the phenotype toward the predominance of M1, i.e. simulates the situation characteristic of GERD. Combination of BA and GERD narrows the interval within which AM can change MI phenotype (i.e. makes them more "rigid") but broadens the range in which they can change M2 phenotype. Also, GERD promotes the development of morphological rigidity of AM. Patients with BA given steroid therapy undergo inversion of phenotypic plasticity of AM. These data characterize the immunological component of BA and/or GERD pathogenesis. They help to better understand mechanisms of development of broncho-pulmonary pathology in GERD patients and can be used to work out new methods for the treatment of these diseases. PMID:24417067

  15. Continuous measurements of bronchial exposure induced by radon decay products during inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tokonami, Shinji; Yonehara, Hidenori; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Doi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Yatabe, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Yuji

    2007-09-15

    The deposition of radon decay products is not equal in each of the respiratory regions and as the presence of radon has been linked with an increase in lung cancer risk, it is important to calculate the deposition of radon decay products in each of the respiratory regions. Recently, many studies on the deposition of radon in respiratory regions have been simulated using wire screens. The systems and equipment used in those studies are not suitable for field measurements as their dimensions are relatively massive, nor can they measure continuously. We developed a continuous bronchial dosimeter (CBD) which is suitable for field measurements. It was designed with specifications that allow it to be remain compact. The CBD simulates the deposition of radon decay products in the different respiratory regions by the use of a combination of wire screens. Deposition in the simulated regions of the lung can be continuously estimated in various environments. The ratio of activities deposited in a simulated nasal cavity (N) and tracheobronchial (TB) regions was calculated from the results of simultaneous measurements using CBD-R (reference), CBD-N (nasal), and CBD-TB (tracheobronchial) measurement units. After aerosols were injected into the radon chamber, the ratio of N and TB depositions decreased. This results indicate that the CBD gave a good response to changes in the environment. It was found that the ratio of N and TB deposition also varied with time in each actual environment.

  16. Continuous measurements of bronchial exposure induced by radon decay products during inhalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tokonami, Shinji; Yonehara, Hidenori; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Doi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Yatabe, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Yuji

    2007-09-01

    The deposition of radon decay products is not equal in each of the respiratory regions and as the presence of radon has been linked with an increase in lung cancer risk, it is important to calculate the deposition of radon decay products in each of the respiratory regions. Recently, many studies on the deposition of radon in respiratory regions have been simulated using wire screens. The systems and equipment used in those studies are not suitable for field measurements as their dimensions are relatively massive, nor can they measure continuously. We developed a continuous bronchial dosimeter (CBD) which is suitable for field measurements. It was designed with specifications that allow it to be remain compact. The CBD simulates the deposition of radon decay products in the different respiratory regions by the use of a combination of wire screens. Deposition in the simulated regions of the lung can be continuously estimated in various environments. The ratio of activities deposited in a simulated nasal cavity (N) and tracheobronchial (TB) regions was calculated from the results of simultaneous measurements using CBD-R (reference), CBD-N (nasal), and CBD-TB (tracheobronchial) measurement units. After aerosols were injected into the radon chamber, the ratio of N and TB depositions decreased. This results indicate that the CBD gave a good response to changes in the environment. It was found that the ratio of N and TB deposition also varied with time in each actual environment.

  17. Karyotyping of Chromosomes in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Transformed by High Energy Fe Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zhang, Ye; Park, Seongmi; Story, Michael T.; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer induced from exposure to space radiation is believed to be one of the most significant health risks for long-term space travels. In a previous study, normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), immortalized through the expression of Cdk4 and hTERT, were exposed to gamma rays and high energy Fe ions for the selection of transformed clones induced by low- and high-LET radiation. In this research, we analyzed chromosome aberrations in these selected clones for genomic instability using the multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH), as well as the multi-banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) techniques. In most of the clones, we found chromosomal aberrations involving translocations between different chromosomes, with several of the breaks occurred in the q-arm of chromosome 3. We also identified copy number variations between the transformed clones and the parental HBEC cells regardless of the exposure condition. Our results indicated that the chromosomal aberrations in low- and high radiation-induced transformed clones are inadequately different from spontaneous soft agar growth. Further analysis is underway to reveal the genomic instability in more transformed clones

  18. Karyotyping of Chromosomes in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Transformed by High Energy Fe Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zhang, Ye; Park, Seongmi; Story, Michael D.; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer induced from exposures to space radiation is one of the most significant health risks for long-term space travels. Evidences show that low- and high- Linear energy transfer (LET)-induced transformation of normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) that are immortalized through the expression of Cdk4 and hTERT. The cells were exposed to gamma rays and high-energy Fe ions for the selection of transformed clones. Transformed HBEC are identified and analyzed chromosome aberrations (i.e. genomic instability) using the multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH), as well as the multi-banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) techniques. Our results show chromosomal translocations between different chromosomes and several of the breaks occurred in the q-arm of chromosome 3. We also identified copy number variations between the transformed and the parental HBEC regardless of the exposure conditions. We observed chromosomal aberrations in the lowand high-LET radiation-induced transformed clones and they are imperfectly different from clones obtain in spontaneous soft agar growth.

  19. Bronchial fistula closure with negative pressure wound therapy: a feasible and cost-effective treatment.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Rodrigo Barboza; Müller, Bruno Francisco; Cipriano, Federico Enrique Garcia; Coltro, Pedro Soler; Farina, Jayme Adriano

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of bronchial fistula (BF) after pulmonary lobectomy is a challenge. Often, patients require long hospital stay, have recurrent empyema and pneumonia, are susceptible to sepsis, often need broad-spectrum antibiotics, as well as various surgical approaches. With the advent and growing evidence of the benefits of negative pressure therapy (NPT), its use in some patients with BF has been reported with encouraging results concerning its feasibility and cost-effectiveness. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the application of NPT as a resource for BF treatment and comparatively analyze the overall cost of treatment. RESUMO O tratamento de fístula brônquica (FB) após lobectomia pulmonar é um desafio. Muitas vezes, o paciente demanda longo tempo de internação, apresenta recidivas de empiema e pneumonia, pode evoluir para sepse, frequentemente necessita de antibioticoterapia de amplo espectro, bem como de várias abordagens cirúrgicas. Com o advento e acúmulo de evidências dos benefícios da terapia por pressão negativa (TPN), seu uso em alguns pacientes com FB tem sido relatado com resultados animadores relativos à sua viabilidade e ao seu custo-efetividade. O objetivo deste estudo foi demonstrar a aplicação de TPN como recurso para tratamento da FB e analisar comparativamente o custo global do seu tratamento. PMID:27679951

  20. Proteomic analysis of secreted proteins by human bronchial epithelial cells in response to cadmium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, De-Ju; Xu, Yan-Ming; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Dong-Yang; Wong, Wing-Yan; Tai, William Chi-Shing; Cho, Yong-Yeon; Lau, Andy T Y

    2015-09-01

    For years, many studies have been conducted to investigate the intracellular response of cells challenged with toxic metal(s), yet, the corresponding secretome responses, especially in human lung cells, are largely unexplored. Here, we provide a secretome analysis of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ), with the aim of identifying secreted proteins in response to Cd toxicity. Proteins from control and spent media were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and visualized by silver staining. Differentially-secreted proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis and database searching. We characterized, for the first time, the extracellular proteome changes of BEAS-2B dosed with Cd. Our results unveiled that Cd treatment led to the marked upregulation of molecular chaperones, antioxidant enzymes, enzymes associated with glutathione metabolic process, proteins involved in cellular energy metabolism, as well as tumor-suppressors. Pretreatment of cells with the thiol antioxidant glutathione before Cd treatment effectively abrogated the secretion of these proteins and prevented cell death. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Cd causes oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity; and the differentially-secreted protein signatures could be considered as targets for potential use as extracellular biomarkers upon Cd exposure.