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Sample records for chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone

  1. Inhibition of in vitro human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone production in testis and of ovulation in the rat by charcoal-treated rat testicular extract

    SciTech Connect

    de Bellabarba, G.A.; Bishop, W.; Rojas, F.J.

    1984-01-16

    Previously, the authors described the presence of a factor obtained from rat testis that was found to inhibit human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) binding to gonadal receptors. In the present study, similarly prepared testicular extract was tested for its effects on in vitro hCG-stimulated testosterone production by isolated testis interstitial cells and for its effect on spontaneous ovulation in the rat. Incubation of interstitial cells with charcoal-treated extract significantly inhibited the steroidogenic response to hCG in a dose-related manner. This inhibition was also apparent after heating the extract for 10 min at 100/sup 0/C. A single i.p. injection of testicular extract inhibited spontaneous ovulation in the rat. This effect was also observed after heating the extract for 10 min at 100/sup 0/C. It is concluded that the aqueous testicular extract contains a factor able to antagonize the physiological events mediated by luteinizing hormone (LH)/hCG, and that this factor is consistent with the presence of an LH/hCG-binding inhibitory activity in rat testis.

  2. Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Stimulation Increase the Number of Luteinized Follicles and the Progesterone Level Compared with Cabergoline Stimulation in Anoestrus Bitches.

    PubMed

    Jurczak, A; Domosławska, A; Bukowska, B; Janowski, T

    2016-08-01

    In this study, ovarian morphologies and blood progesterone concentrations following oestrous induction in bitches were examined. Fifty-three clinically healthy anoestrus bitches received cabergoline at a daily dose of 5 μg/kg of body weight per os for 21 days (group I) or subcutaneous equine chorionic gonadotropin at a dose of 20 IU/kg of body weight for five consecutive days with an additional 500 IU s.c. per bitch of human chorionic gonadotropin on the last day of treatment (group II). Twenty bitches that spontaneously displayed oestrous signs were left untreated and served as controls (group III). The induced oestrous rates and ovulation rates in groups I and II were 60.0% vs 64.3% and 86.7% vs 83.3%, respectively. Morphological assessments of the ovarian structures after ovariohysterectomy revealed an increase in the number of luteinized follicles and cysts in group II compared with the two other groups (p < 0.001). In contrast, the numbers of corpora lutea and follicles were similar in all groups. In accordance with the above-mentioned alteration, the progesterone concentration in the gonadotropin group (II) was increased (p < 0.001) in the periovulatory period compared with the other two groups. During the entire sampling period, the progesterone profiles in the cabergoline (I) and control (III) groups were similar and typical of normally cycling bitches. In conclusion, gonadotropin treatment is associated with an increased progesterone level during the periovulatory period that probably originates from luteinized follicles, whereas cabergoline treatment induces cycles with both physiological progesterone concentrations and ovarian morphologies. PMID:27321641

  3. Gonadotropin stimulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and testosterone production without detectable high-affinity binding sites in purified Leydig cells from rat testis

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, E.S.; Bhalla, V.K. )

    1991-02-01

    Rat testicular interstitial cells were separated by three different gradient-density procedures and, with each, two biochemically and morphologically distinct cell fractions were isolated. The lighter density cells in fraction-I bound iodine 125-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) with high-affinity (apparent equilibrium dissociation constant, Kd, approximately 10{sup {minus} 10} M) without producing either cyclic adenosine monophosphate or testosterone in response to hormone action. The heavier-density cells displayed morphologic features typical of Leydig cells and produced cyclic adenosine monophosphate and testosterone in the presence of hCG without detectable {sup 125}I-labeled hCG high-affinity binding. These cell fractions were further characterized by studies using deglycosylated hCG, a known antagonist to hCG action. Cell concentration-dependent studies with purified Leydig cells revealed that maximal testosterone production was achieved when lower cell concentrations (0.5 x 10(6) cells/250 microliters) were used for in vitro hCG stimulation assays. Under these conditions, the {sup 125}I-labeled hCG binding was barely detectable (2.24 fmol; 2,698 sites/cell). Furthermore, these studies revealed that the hCG-specific binding in Leydig cells is overestimated by the classic method for nonspecific binding correction using excess unlabeled hormone. An alternate method is presented.

  4. Ketoconazole inhibition of testicular secretion of testosterone and displacement of steroid hormones from serum transport proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, D S; Boyden, T W; Pamenter, R W; Johnson, D G; Stevens, D A; Galgiani, J N

    1983-01-01

    In vivo perfusion of canine testes with ketoconazole inhibited the stimulation of testosterone production by human chorionic gonadotropin in a dose-dependent manner. Ketoconazole also selectively displaced steroids from serum-binding globulins. Dihydrotestosterone and estradiol binding to sex hormone-binding globulin were inhibited by ketoconazole. Cortisol binding to corticosteroid-binding globulin was unaffected. The concentrations of ketoconazole that inhibited human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation of testicular androgen production and displaced sex steroids from sex hormone-binding globulin were in the range of blood levels found in patients on higher therapeutic dosage regimens. Suppression of testicular testosterone synthesis and displacement of estrogens from sex hormone-binding globulin may decrease the androgen/estrogen ratio of the blood and contribute to the development of gynecomastia that has been reported in some ketoconazole-treated patients. PMID:6301363

  5. Short-term human chorionic gonadotropin-induced testosterone rise does not modify leptin levels in eugonadal men.

    PubMed

    Panidis, D; Koliakos, G; Kourtis, A; Rousso, D; Mavromatidis, G; Triantos, A; Kalahanis, I

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor serum leptin concentrations after altering the levels of testosterone, by intramuscular administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), in eugonadal men. A 7-day monitoring of hCG, testosterone and leptin levels was performed after intramuscular administration of a dose of 5000 IU hCG in these men. Thirty fertile men aged 23-38 years were studied. In addition, 30 women aged 18-34 years with normal ovulatory cycles were studied, to verify reports of sexual dimorphism in serum leptin levels. These 60 individuals were divided into four groups, according to their sex and body mass index (BMI) values. In men, blood samples were collected at 09.00, after an overnight fast, for the determination of hCG, testosterone and leptin levels, and, immediately thereafter, a dose of 5000 IU hCG was administered intramuscularly. Further blood samples were collected at 24-h intervals for a period of 7 days for determination of the same hormones. In women, blood samples were collected only once, at 09.00, after an overnight fast between the 3rd and the 6th day of the menstrual cycle, for determination of serum estradiol and leptin levels. Our results showed that the mean value of leptin in thin men and women was significantly lower than that in obese men and women, respectively. The mean value of leptin in thin women was significantly higher than that in obese men. Serum leptin concentrations decreased significantly, 168 h after short-term hCG administration. There was a significant positive correlation between BMI values and serum leptin concentrations, in both men and women. Our results support the view that hCG administration in eugonadal men does not influence serum leptin levels. Moreover, a short-term increase of serum testosterone levels, after one dose of hCG, is not sufficient to affect and modify leptin secretion mechanisms in vivo. PMID:11915586

  6. Prolonged gonadotropin stimulation is associated with decreased ART success

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Meleen; Zapantis, Athena; Taylor, Martina; Jindal, Sangita K.; Neal-Perry, Genevieve S.; Lieman, Harry J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether the duration of gonadotropin stimulation predicts the likelihood of live birth after ART. Methods All IVF or ICSI cycles using fresh autologous oocytes at our institution between January 2004 and December 2007 were analyzed. Results Out of 699 cycles resulting in oocyte retrieval, 193 produced a live birth (27.6%). Women who achieved a live birth had a significantly shorter stimulation phase (11.1 vs. 11.5 days, respectively). Multivariable analysis suggested that 13 days or longer of stimulation decreased the likelihood of a live birth by 53% as compared to cycles that were 10–12 days long (odds ratio [OR] 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30–0.75) after adjustment for female age, maximum historical FSH, total dose of gonadotropin received, oocytes retrieved, embryos transferred, antagonist suppression and PCOS diagnosis. Conclusions Prolonged duration of gonadotropin stimulation is an independent negative predictor of ART success in our cohort. PMID:20821043

  7. Testosterone

    MedlinePlus

    Serum testosterone ... In males, the testicles produce most of the testosterone in the body. Levels are most often checked to evaluate signs of abnormal testosterone such as: Early or late puberty (in boys) ...

  8. Testosterone

    MedlinePlus

    Serum testosterone ... In males, the testicles produce most of the testosterone in the body. Levels are most often checked to evaluate signs of low testosterone such as: Early or late puberty (in boys) ...

  9. Gonadotropin-regulated Testicular RNA Helicase (GRTH/DDX25), a Negative Regulator of Luteinizing/Chorionic Gonadotropin Hormone-induced Steroidogenesis in Leydig Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Masato; Villar, Joaquin; Tsai-Morris, Chon-Hwa; Dufau, Maria L.

    2011-01-01

    Gonadotropin-regulated testicular RNA helicase (GRTH/DDX25) is a testis-specific gonadotropin-regulated RNA helicase that is present in Leydig cells (LCs) and germ cells and is essential for spermatid development and completion of spermatogenesis. Normal basal levels of testosterone in serum and LCs were observed in GRTH null (GRTH−/−) mice. However, testosterone production was enhanced in LCs of GRTH−/− mice compared with WT mice by both in vivo and in vitro human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation. LCs of GRTH−/− mice had swollen mitochondria with a significantly increased cholesterol content in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Basal protein levels of SREBP2, HMG-CoA reductase, and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR; a protein that transports cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane) were markedly increased in LCs of GRTH−/− mice compared with WT mice. Gonadotropin stimulation caused an increase in StAR mRNA levels and protein expression in GRTH−/− mice versus WT mice, with no further increase in SREBP2 and down-regulation of HMG-CoA reductase protein. The half-life of StAR mRNA was significantly increased in GRTH−/− mice. Moreover, association of StAR mRNA with GRTH protein was observed in WT mice. Human chorionic gonadotropin increased GRTH gene expression and its associated StAR protein at cytoplasmic sites. Taken together, these findings indicate that, through its negative role in StAR message stability, GRTH regulates cholesterol availability at the mitochondrial level. The finding of an inhibitory action of GRTH associated with gonadotropin-mediated steroidogenesis has provided insights into a novel negative autocrine molecular control mechanism of this helicase in the regulation of steroid production in the male. PMID:21719703

  10. Progestin Exposure Before Gonadotropin Stimulation Improves Embryo Development after In Vitro Fertilization in the Domestic Cat1

    PubMed Central

    Pelican, Katharine M.; Spindler, Rebecca E.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.; Wildt, David E.; Ottinger, Mary A.; Howard, JoGayle

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of progestin priming and ovarian quiescence on response to exogenous gonadotropin stimulation in the cat. Because a subpopulation of cats routinely ovulated spontaneously, there also was the opportunity to examine the ovary's reaction to the added impact of endogenously secreted progestagen. Queens were given 1) equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) plus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) only (control; n = 9 cats), 2) GnRH antagonist (antide) injections followed by eCG and hCG (n = 9), and 3) a progestin implant (levonorgestrel) followed by eCG and hCG (n = 9). Laparoscopy was used to assess ovarian activity and aspirate follicular oocytes that were graded on the basis of morphology. In five cats per treatment, half of the high-quality oocytes were assessed for glucose, pyruvate, and lactate metabolism as well as nuclear maturation. Remaining oocytes were inseminated in vitro, cultured, and examined at 72 h after insemination for cleavage. In the remaining four cats per treatment, all oocytes were inseminated in vitro and assessed at 72, 120, and 168 h after insemination for embryo developmental stage. Cats pretreated with progestin had more follicles and produced more embryos per donor (including at the combined morula/blastocyst stage) than controls or females treated with GnRH antagonist (P < 0.05). There were no differences among groups (P > 0.05) in oocyte carbohydrate metabolism, nuclear maturation metrics, or fertilization success, although there was a tendency toward improvements in all three (P < 0.2) in progestin-treated females. Interestingly, cats that spontaneously ovulated within 60 days of treatment onset also produced more embryos per cat than induced-ovulation counterparts (P < 0.05). Results indicate that prior exposure to exogenous progestin (via implant) or endogenous progestagen (via spontaneous ovulation) improves ovarian responsiveness to gonadotropins in the cat through a mechanism that is independent of

  11. Current status of testosterone replacement therapy in men.

    PubMed

    Winters, S J

    1999-01-01

    Testosterone plays an essential role in the development of the normal male and in the maintenance of many male characteristics, including muscle mass and strength, bone mass, libido, potency, and spermatogenesis. Androgen deficiency occurs with disorders that damage the testes, including traumatic or surgical castration (primary testicular failure) or disorders in which the gonadotropin stimulation of the testes is reduced (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism). The clinical manifestations of androgen deficiency depend on the age at onset and the severity and duration of the deficiency. In adult males, these manifestations may include reduced body hair, decreased muscle mass and strength, increased fat mass, decreased hematocrit, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, infertility, osteoporosis, and depressed mood. The forms of androgen replacement currently available in the United States are intramuscular depot injections of testosterone esters, oral tablets of testosterone derivatives, and transdermal patches. For most patients, androgen replacement therapy with testosterone is a safe, effective treatment for testosterone deficiency. PMID:10333822

  12. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Suppresses Gonadotropin-Stimulated Estradiol Release from Zebrafish Ovarian Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Alsop, Derek; Ings, Jennifer S.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2009-01-01

    While stress is known to impact reproductive performance, the pathways involved are not entirely understood. Corticosteroid effects on the functioning of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis are thought to be a key aspect of stress-mediated reproductive dysfunction. A vital component of the stress response is the pituitary secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which binds to the melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) in the adrenal glands and activates cortisol biosynthesis. We recently reported MC2R mRNA abundance in fish gonads leading to the hypothesis that ACTH may be directly involved in gonadal steroid modulation. Using zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovarian follicles, we tested the hypothesis that acute ACTH stimulation modulates cortisol and estradiol (E2) secretion. ACTH neither affected cortisol nor unstimulated E2 release from ovarian follicles. However, ACTH suppressed human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated E2 secretion in a dose-related manner, with a maximum decrease of 62% observed at 1 I.U. ACTH mL−1. This effect of ACTH on E2 release was not observed in the presence of either 8-bromo-cAMP or forskolin, suggesting that the mechanism(s) involved in steroid attenuation was upstream of adenylyl cyclase activation. Overall, our results suggest that a stress-induced rise in plasma ACTH levels may initiate a rapid down-regulation of acute stimulated E2 biosynthesis in the zebrafish ovary, underscoring a novel physiological role for this pituitary peptide in modulating reproductive activity. PMID:19649243

  13. Human chorionic gonadotrophin and sport.

    PubMed Central

    Kicman, A T; Brooks, R V; Cowan, D A

    1991-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) is a glycoprotein hormone which is produced in large amounts during pregnancy and also by certain types of tumour. The biological action of hCG is identical to that of luteinizing hormone, although the former has a much longer plasma half-life. Some male athletes use pharmaceutical preparations of hCG to stimulate testosterone production before competition and/or to prevent testicular shutdown and atrophy during and after prolonged courses of androgen administration. Testosterone administration can be detected by measuring the ratio of concentrations of testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E). An athlete is often considered to have failed a drug test if the urinary T/E ratio is greater than 6. In contrast, hCG administration stimulates the endogenous production of both testosterone and epitestosterone without increasing the urinary T/E ratio above normal values. Although the administration of hCG was banned by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1987, no definitive test for hCG has been approved by the IOC. Currently, the only way of measuring small concentrations of hCG is by immunoassay, and this does not have a discriminating power as great as gas-liquid chromatography with mass-spectrometry which is necessary to satisfy IOC requirements. Extraction procedures and chromatographic steps could be introduced before using a selected immunoassay for hCG to meet these requirements. PMID:1751893

  14. Multidrug resistance gene expression correlates with progesterone production in dehydroepiandrosterone-induced polycystic and equine chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated ovaries of prepubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, G Y; Croop, J M; Anderson, E

    1998-02-01

    Polycystic ovaries (PCO) can be induced in prepubertal rats by daily injection of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). There are high levels of progesterone, androgens, and estrogens in the cystic fluid of DHEA-treated rat ovaries. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether high levels of steroids in the PCO correlate with the expression of multidrug resistance gene product P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Using C219, a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the 170-kDa ATP-dependent transmembrane pump, we localized Pgp on the plasma membrane of granulosa cells in cystic follicles but not of oocytes or thecal/interstitial cells. In normal prepubertal rats, Pgp was localized in progesterone-producing granulosa cells of the preovulatory follicles and in cells of the corpora lutea after eCG/hCG stimulation, but not in growing follicles, oocytes, or thecal/interstitial cells. Northern analysis of these tissues indicated strong expression of Pgp mRNA in the preovulatory follicles, cystic follicles, and corpora lutea. From these findings it seems that progesterone produced by the granulosa cells may act in an autocrine manner to induce the expression of Pgp. It may be possible that progesterone interacts with the Pgp of these granulosa cells to modulate steroid efflux. PMID:9475386

  15. Testosterone and Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Ohlander, Samuel J; Lindgren, Mark C; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-05-01

    Hypogonadism and its therapies have a significant impact on male fertility potential. It is necessary to determine the etiology to treat and counsel the patient appropriately on therapeutic options. For the hypogonadal male on exogenous testosterone, management should begin with cessation of the exogenous testosterone and supplemental subcutaneous human chorionic gonadotropin and an oral follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-inducing agent to allow reestablishment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and spermatogenesis. Further supplemental therapy with recombinant FSH in some patients may be necessary to achieve optimal semen parameters. PMID:27132576

  16. Gonadotropin stimulation using P.G. 600® on reproductive success of non-lactating anestrous ewes.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, K N; Rastle-Simpson, S L; Redhead, A K; Baptiste, Q S; Smith, B; Knights, M

    2014-08-01

    The effect of stimulation with a gonadotropin preparation with combined follicle stimulating and luteininzing hormone like activity on reproductive success in anestrous ewes was evaluated. In Experiment 1, ewes of mixed breeding were treated with CIDR inserts (0.3g progesterone) for 5 days and were assigned randomly to receive either gonadotropin stimulation (3mL i.m. injection of P.G. 600®, 240IU eCG and 120IU hCG) at CIDR removal or no further treatment. Intact raddled rams were joined at insert removal for 30-35 days, and ewes were observed for indications of estrus after 4 days of ram exposure. Pregnancy diagnosis was conducted via transrectal ultrasonography at the time of ram removal and again 20-25 days. The second experiment was similar to Experiment 1, except treated ewes received the gonadotropin 1 day prior to insert removal. In Experiment 1, incidence of estrus was greater for treated ewes (P=0.01), and prolificacy tended to be greater in treated ewes (P=0.06). In Experiment 2, treated ewes had greater conception rates (P=0.01), pregnancy rates to first service (P=0.0007), and tended to have greater overall pregnancy rates than control ewes (P=0.07). A greater percentage of ewes lambed in the gonadotropin treated ewes than in ewes in the control group (P<0.0001), and overall lambing rates in treated ewes were greater than non-treated controls (P<0.0001). In conclusion, gonadotropin treatment 1 day prior to CIDR removal increased reproductive success in progesterone-treated anestrous ewes. PMID:24950998

  17. Testosterone Buccal

    MedlinePlus

    Testosterone buccal systems are used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in men who have hypogonadism (a condition in which the ... sexual organs and typical male characteristics. Testosterone buccal systems work by replacing testosterone that is normally produced ...

  18. Testosterone Buccal

    MedlinePlus

    ... not produce enough natural testosterone). Testosterone is used only for men with low testosterone levels caused by ... two doses in a row.Testosterone buccal systems only work when applied to the upper gum. Although ...

  19. Chorionic villus sampling

    MedlinePlus

    Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a test some pregnant women have to screen their baby for genetic problems. ... CVS can be done through the cervix (transcervical) or through the belly (transabdominal). Miscarriage rates are slightly ...

  20. Testosterone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... in which the body does not produce enough natural testosterone). Testosterone is used only for men with ... topical may control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to use testosterone topical even ...

  1. Testosterone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... not produce enough natural testosterone). Testosterone is used only for men with low testosterone levels caused by ... is a controlled substance. Prescriptions may be refilled only a limited number of times; ask your pharmacist ...

  2. Biologically Active Chorionic Gonadotropin: Synthesis by the Human Fetus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, W. G.; Kuhn, R. W.; Jaffe, R. B.

    1983-04-01

    The kidney, and to a slight extent the liver, of human fetuses were found to synthesize and secrete the α subunit common to glycoprotein hormones. Fetal lung and muscle did not synthesize this protein. Since fetal kidney and liver were previously found to synthesize β chorionic gonadotropin, their ability to synthesize bioactive chorionic gonadotropin was also determined. The newly synthesized hormone bound to mouse Leydig cells and elicited a biological response: namely, the synthesis of testosterone. These results suggest that the human fetus may participate in metabolic homeostasis during its development.

  3. Oral Progestin Priming Increases Ovarian Sensitivity to Gonadotropin Stimulation and Improves Luteal Function in the Cat1

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Rosemary A.; Pelican, Katharine M.; Crosier, Adrienne E.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.; Wildt, David E.; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Howard, JoGayle

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT As the only domesticated species known to exhibit both induced and spontaneous ovulation, the cat is a model for understanding the nuances of ovarian control. To explore ovarian sensitivity to exogenous gonadotropins and the influence of progestin priming, we conducted a study of queens that were down-regulated with oral progestin or allowed to cycle normally, followed by low or high doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Our metrics included 1) fecal steroid metabolite profiles before and after ovulation induction, 2) laparoscopic examination of ovarian follicles and corpora lutea (CL) on Days 2 and 17 (Day 0 = hCG administration), and 3) ovariohysterectomy (Day 17) to assess CL progesterone concentrations, morphometrics, and histology. Reproductive tracts from time-matched, naturally mated queens (n = 6) served as controls. Every progestin-primed cat (n = 12) produced the desired response of morphologically similar, fresh CL (regardless of eCG/hCG dose) by Day 2, whereas 41.7% of unprimed counterparts (n = 12) failed to ovulate or had variable-aged CL suggestive of prior spontaneous ovulation (P < 0.05). The ovarian response to low, but not high, eCG/hCG was improved (P < 0.05) in primed compared to unprimed cats, indicating increased sensitivity to gonadotropin in the progestin-primed ovary. Progestin priming prevented hyperelevated fecal steroid metabolites and normalized CL progesterone capacity, but only when combined with low eCG/hCG. However, priming failed to prevent ancillary CL formation, smaller CL mass, or abnormal luteal cell density, which were common to all eCG/hCG-treated cats. Thus, the domestic cat exposed to eCG/hCG produces CL with structural and functional aberrations. These anomalies can be partially mitigated by progestin priming, possibly due to a protective effect of progestin associated with enhanced ovarian sensitivity to gonadotropins. PMID:23100619

  4. Liver and chorion cytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Roels, F; De Prest, B; De Pestel, G

    1995-01-01

    Microscopic visualization of peroxisomes in chorionic villus cytotrophoblast and in biopsy and autopsy samples of liver and kidney, the presence of enlarged liver macrophages containing lipid droplets insoluble in acetone and n-hexane as well as polarizing inclusions formed by stacks of trilamellar sheets are of diagnostic value in peroxisomal disorders. Methods are presented for evaluating these structures by light microscopy; trilamellar inclusions are only detected by electron microscopy. Macrophage features are preserved in archival paraffin blocks. In adrenal cortex, insoluble lipid, polarizing inclusions and trilamellar structures should be looked for. The stains are easily reproducible, and all reagents are commercially available. PMID:9053549

  5. Criteria to indicate testosterone administration.

    PubMed Central

    Kicman, A T; Brooks, R V; Collyer, S C; Cowan, D A; Nanjee, M N; Southan, G J; Wheeler, M J

    1990-01-01

    A detection method for testosterone administration was developed using radioimmunoassay to measure the urinary ratios of testosterone (T) to epitestosterone (E) and to luteinizing hormone (LH). A comparative study of the effect on these ratios of a single intramuscular injection of testosterone heptanoate followed by stimulation with human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) in three normal men was undertaken. To allow immediate investigation, a commercially supplied epitestosterone antiserum was used. This study showed that both T/E and T/LH ratios could be used to detect testosterone administration, the latter also being an indicator of HCG use due to cross-reactivity with the LH antiserum. Subsequently, an epitestosterone antiserum of superior specificity was raised and used in a study to demonstrate the insignificant effect of exercise on these ratios. Finally, an intramuscular injection of a combined preparation of testosterone/epitestosterone heptanoates resulted in raised ratios of T/LH but not of T/E. This demonstrated the importance of the T/LH ratio in circumstances where the T/E ratio can be easily circumvented. PMID:2097025

  6. [Testosterone therapy].

    PubMed

    Diemer, T; Hauptmann, A; Wagenlehner, F M E

    2016-04-01

    Hormone replacement therapy with testosterone has become well-established over the course of time. The initial substantial concerns with respect to complications and potential adverse events, particularly in older patients, were proven to be unfounded over time. Testosterone therapy has therefore gradually become a regular treatment modality in urological practice. It has also been shown to represent a valuable tool as supportive treatment for patients with erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism. A variety of testosterone preparations are available for treatment. Recent pharmaceutical developments have greatly improved the practicability and ease of administration for patients. Several guidelines have been developed that provide clearly formulated standards and instructions for indications, contraindications, application, risk factors and monitoring of testosterone therapy. Adverse events affecting the cardiovascular system and especially diseases of the prostate gland are of great importance, thus making the urologist the primary partner in the treatment of patients with testosterone deficiency. PMID:27067659

  7. Testosterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... used in certain women with a type of breast cancer called mammary cancer that has spread to other ... naturally in the body. When used to treat breast cancer, testosterone works by stopping the release of estrogen.

  8. Testosterone Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... of other conditions, such as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) . ^ Back to top What does the test result ... are normally low. Increased testosterone levels can indicate: PCOS Ovarian or adrenal gland tumor Congenital adrenal hyperplasia ^ ...

  9. Testosterone Nasal Gel

    MedlinePlus

    Testosterone nasal gel is used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in men who have hypogonadism (a condition in which the body does not produce enough natural testosterone). Testosterone nasal gel is used only for men ...

  10. Testosterone Nasal Gel

    MedlinePlus

    ... enough natural testosterone). Testosterone nasal gel is used only for men with low testosterone levels caused by ... is a controlled substance. Prescriptions may be refilled only a limited number of times; ask your pharmacist ...

  11. Testosterone Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... not produce enough natural testosterone). Testosterone is used only for men with low testosterone levels caused by ... are a controlled substance. Prescriptions may be refilled only a limited number of times; ask your pharmacist ...

  12. Meiotic maturation of incompetent prepubertal sheep oocytes is induced by paracrine factor(s) released by gonadotropin-stimulated oocyte-cumulus cell complexes and involves mitogen-activated protein kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Cecconi, Sandra; Mauro, Annunziata; Capacchietti, Giulia; Berardinelli, Paolo; Bernabò, Nicola; Di Vincenzo, Anna Rita; Mattioli, Mauro; Barboni, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    In this study, sheep oocyte-cumulus cell complexes (OCC) derived from medium (M) antral follicles (M-OCC) were in vitro matured alone or in coculture with OCC derived from small (S) antral follicles (S-OCC) to investigate the contribution of cumulus cells (CC) and oocytes to the process of oocyte meiotic maturation and cumulus expansion (CE). Experiments were conducted with or without gonadotropins (FSH/LH). Regardless of culture conditions, about 12% of S-oocytes reached the metaphase II stage, and S-CC showed a low degree of CE. In contrast, both maturational processes were significantly stimulated by gonadotropins in M-OCC. However, about 48% of S-oocytes progressed to metaphase II, and S-CC expanded after coculture with gonadotropin-stimulated M-OCC and M-CC but not with mural granulosa cells. Both maturational processes were inhibited when S-OCC were cocultured with M-denuded oocytes, or when S-denuded oocytes were cocultured with M-CC. The capacity of these paracrine factor(s) to activate the MAPK pathway in somatic and germ cells of S-complexes was investigated. It was found that MAPK kinase/MAPK phosphorylation levels in M-OCC but not in S-OCC were significantly increased by gonadotropins, first in CC and later in the oocytes. Kinase phosphorylations were activated only in S-oocytes cocultured with M-OCC or M-CC. These results demonstrate that soluble factors specifically produced by M-CC are capable to induce meiotic maturation and CE in S-complexes by acting via CC. These factors can induce MAPK activation only in S-oocytes, whose meiotic arrest could be due to the inability of surrounding CC to respond to gonadotropin stimulation. PMID:17884935

  13. Steroid productions by co-cultures of granulosa cells with inner and outer theca cells in preovulatory follicles of gonadotropin stimulated calves.

    PubMed

    Bosc, M J; Nicolle, A

    1997-06-01

    Granulosa, interna and externa theca cells were isolated from large follicles of equine-chorionic-gonadotropin (eCG)-primed calves and co-cultured during 3 days in the absence or in the presence of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Co-cultures were performed by adding defined numbers of theca and/or granulosa cells which represented 0, 10, 20, 50 or 100% of total cells per well. Secretion of oestradiol-17beta (E2), androstenedione (A4) and progesterone (P4) depended on the type of theca cells (P < 0.001), on the percentage of seeded granulosa cells (P < 0.001) and on the day of culture (P < 0.001). DHEA increased (P < 0.001) E2 and A4, but not P4 (P > 0.05) productions. Interactions existed between these factors (P < 0.01). On day 1, A4 production was nil in granulosa cells alone. E2 production was negligible in theca cells alone but it increased when granulosa cells were added. E2 and A4 varied in an opposite manner according to the percentage of granulosa cells and with the type of theca cells. On day 3, without DHEA, E2 and A4 were low. On day 3 with DHEA, E2 production was maintained in granulosa cells alone but not with any combination of theca cells. In these conditions, A4 production was maintained in the presence of theca cells but not in granulosa cells alone. Granulosa cells alone secreted more P4 than theca cells. P4 increased as a function of the percentage of granulosa in co-cultures with externa but not interna theca cells with which it remained low. In conclusion, theca cells in culture have two effects in relation to the granulosa cells, which differ according to the steroid concerned and to the cell combination. Both types of theca cells have an inhibitory effect on E2 secretion whereas only interna theca cells are able to alter P4 production. PMID:9393957

  14. Testosterone, thrombophilia, thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Joel; Glueck, Charles J; Prince, Marloe; Riaz, Rashid; Wang, Ping

    2015-05-01

    We screened previously undiagnosed thrombophilia (V Leiden-prothrombin mutations, Factors VIII and XI, homocysteine, and antiphospholipid antibody [APL] syndrome) in 15 men and 2 women with venous thromboembolism (VTE) or osteonecrosis 7 months (median) after starting testosterone therapy (TT), gel (30-50 mg/d), intramuscular (100-400 mg/wk), or human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) (6000 IU/wk). Thrombophilia was studied in 2 healthy control groups without thrombosis (97 normal controls, 31 subjects on TT) and in a third control group (n = 22) with VTE, not on TT. Of the 17 cases, 76% had ≥1 thrombophilia vs 19% of 97 normal controls (P < 0.0001), vs 29% of 31 TT controls (P = 0.002). Cases differed from normal controls by Factor V Leiden (12% vs 0%, P = 0.021), by high Factor VIII (>150%) (24% vs 7%, P = 0.058), by high homocysteine (29% vs 5%, P = 0.007), and from both normal and TT controls for APL syndrome (18% vs 2%, P = 0.023, vs 0%, P = 0.04). Despite adequate anticoagulation with TT continued after the first deep venous thrombosis-pulmonary embolus (DVT-PE), 1 man sustained 3 DVT-PEs 5, 8, and 11 months later and a second man had 2 DVT-PEs 1 and 2 months later. Of the 10 cases with serum T measured on TT, 6 (60%) had supranormal T (>800 ng/dL) and of 9 with estradiol measured on TT, 7 (78%) had supranormal levels (>42.6 pg/mL). TT interacts with thrombophilia leading to thrombosis. TT continuation in thrombophilic men is contraindicated because of recurrent thrombi despite anticoagulation. Screening for thrombophilia before starting TT should identify subjects at high risk for VTE with an adverse the risk to benefit ratio for TT. PMID:25639953

  15. Testosterone deficiency myopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Orrell, R W; Woodrow, D F; Barrett, M C; Press, M; Dick, D J; Rowe, R C; Lane, R J

    1995-01-01

    Testosterone is recognized to have a positive effect on nitrogen balance and muscle development in hypogonadal men, but significantly myopathy secondary to testosterone deficiency has been reported only rarely. We describe a patient who presented with a myopathy associated with testosterone deficiency, and who demonstrated a significant functional and myometric response to treatment. PMID:7562829

  16. Testosterone and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    1994-01-01

    Studies comparing aggressive and nonaggressive prisoners show higher testosterone levels among the former. While there is limited evidence for a strong association between aggressiveness and testosterone during adolescence, other studies indicate that testosterone levels are responsive to influences from the social environment, particularly those…

  17. A comprehensive analysis of the chorion locus in silkmoth

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiwei; Nohata, Junko; Guo, Huizhen; Li, Shenglong; Liu, Jianqiu; Guo, Youbing; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Liu, Chun; Arunkumar, Kallare P.; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Shiping; Labropoulou, Vassiliki; Swevers, Luc; Tsitoura, Panagiota; Iatrou, Kostas; Gopinathan, Karumathil P.; Goldsmith, Marian R.; Xia, Qingyou; Mita, Kazuei

    2015-01-01

    Despite more than 40 years of intense study, essential features of the silkmoth chorion (eggshell) are still not fully understood. To determine the precise structure of the chorion locus, we performed extensive EST analysis, constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig, and obtained a continuous genomic sequence of 871,711 base pairs. We annotated 127 chorion genes in two segments interrupted by a 164 kb region with 5 non-chorion genes, orthologs of which were on chorion bearing scaffolds in 4 ditrysian families. Detailed transcriptome analysis revealed expression throughout choriogenesis of most chorion genes originally categorized as “middle”, and evidence for diverse regulatory mechanisms including cis-elements, alternative splicing and promoter utilization, and antisense RNA. Phylogenetic analysis revealed multigene family associations and faster evolution of early chorion genes and transcriptionally active pseudogenes. Proteomics analysis identified 99 chorion proteins in the eggshell and micropyle localization of 1 early and 6 Hc chorion proteins. PMID:26553298

  18. A comprehensive analysis of the chorion locus in silkmoth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiwei; Nohata, Junko; Guo, Huizhen; Li, Shenglong; Liu, Jianqiu; Guo, Youbing; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Liu, Chun; Arunkumar, Kallare P; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Shiping; Labropoulou, Vassiliki; Swevers, Luc; Tsitoura, Panagiota; Iatrou, Kostas; Gopinathan, Karumathil P; Goldsmith, Marian R; Xia, Qingyou; Mita, Kazuei

    2015-01-01

    Despite more than 40 years of intense study, essential features of the silkmoth chorion (eggshell) are still not fully understood. To determine the precise structure of the chorion locus, we performed extensive EST analysis, constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig, and obtained a continuous genomic sequence of 871,711 base pairs. We annotated 127 chorion genes in two segments interrupted by a 164 kb region with 5 non-chorion genes, orthologs of which were on chorion bearing scaffolds in 4 ditrysian families. Detailed transcriptome analysis revealed expression throughout choriogenesis of most chorion genes originally categorized as "middle", and evidence for diverse regulatory mechanisms including cis-elements, alternative splicing and promoter utilization, and antisense RNA. Phylogenetic analysis revealed multigene family associations and faster evolution of early chorion genes and transcriptionally active pseudogenes. Proteomics analysis identified 99 chorion proteins in the eggshell and micropyle localization of 1 early and 6 Hc chorion proteins. PMID:26553298

  19. Secondary treatment failure without anti-human chorionic gonadotropin antibody in a patient with Kallmann syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, S; Yoshida, K; Ishizaka, K; Higashi, Y; Takagi, K; Oshima, H

    1998-07-01

    A 29-year-old man with Kallmann syndrome suddenly developed decreased semen volume, azoospermia, and facial hair loss after 11 years of successful human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) treatment. Anti-hCG antibody was not detected in the patient's serum. A high serum level of luteinizing hormone (LH) with nasal LH-releasing hormone analogue administration failed to increase serum testosterone to a sufficient level. Testosterone injection after cessation of hCG and hMG therapy was able to improve semen volume, but not azoospermia. Resumption of hCG and hMG therapy after 6 months cessation partially restored spermatogenesis. The secondary failure of hCG and hMG therapy suggests a decrease of testicular sensitivity to LH as well as hCG. PMID:9712456

  20. Alternatives to testosterone replacement: testosterone restoration

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The European Male Aging Study has demonstrated that the hypogonadism of male aging is predominantly secondary. Theoretically with appropriate stimulation from the pituitary, the aging testis should be able to produce eugonadal levels of testosterone. The strategies for the treatment of late onset hypogonadism (LOH) have focused on replacement with exogenous testosterone versus restoration of endogenous production. The purpose of this article is to review existing peer-reviewed literature supporting the concept of restoration of endogenous testosterone in the treatment of LOH. PMID:25578932

  1. Transdermal delivery of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

    2015-05-01

    Male hypogonadism has been treated with exogenous testosterone since the 1930s. The early transdermal patches of testosterone became available in the 1980s with gel and solution preparations following subsequent decades. This review focusses on the skin permeation characteristics of testosterone, pharmacokinetics following application of transdermal formulations and formulations currently available. At present, gels dominate the market for transdermal testosterone replacement therapy, presumably because of their greater patient acceptability and non-occlusive nature compared with patches. However, specific incidences of secondary transfer of gels to children with consequent unwanted effects such as precocious puberty have been reported. A regulatory review of all testosterone replacement therapies is currently underway which may have implications for future prescribing practices of transdermal testosterone products. PMID:25709060

  2. The chorionic bump: Etiologic insights from two pathologic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Wax, Joseph R; Blaszyk, Hagen; Jones, Michael; Cartin, Angelina; Pinette, Michael G

    2016-09-01

    The clinical significance and etiology of the chorionic bump remain unclear. We describe two pregnancies characterized by chorionic bumps, which subsequently were diagnosed with a complete mole and trisomy 18, respectively. We hypothesize that placental pathology, including edema and hydropic villi, may contribute to or cause the sonographic finding of some chorionic bumps. An association between chorionic bumps and aneuploidy awaits future study. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:452-454, 2016. PMID:27220064

  3. Green tea polyphenols inhibit testosterone production in rat Leydig cells

    PubMed Central

    Figueiroa, Marina S; César Vieira, Juliany S B; Leite, Disleide S; Filho, Ruben C O Andrade; Ferreira, Fabiano; Gouveia, Patrícia S; Udrisar, Daniel P; Wanderley, Maria I

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of green tea extract (GTE) and its polyphenol constituents, (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (−)-epicatechin (EC), on basal and stimulated testosterone production by rat Leydig cells in vitro. Leydig cells purified in a Percoll gradient were incubated for 3 h with GTE, EGCG or EC and the testosterone precursor androstenedione, in the presence or absence of either protein kinase A (PKA) or protein kinase C (PKC) activators. The reversibility of the effect was studied by pretreating cells for 15 min with GTE or EGCG, allowing them to recover for 1 h and challenging them for 2 h with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH), 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol or androstenedione. GTE and EGCG, but not EC, inhibited both basal and kinase-stimulated testosterone production. Under the pretreatment conditions, the inhibitory effect of the higher concentration of GTE/EGCG on hCG/LHRH-stimulated or 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol-induced testosterone production was maintained, whereas androstenedione-supported testosterone production returned to control levels. At the lower concentration of GTE/EGCG, the inhibitory effect of these polyphenols on 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol-supported testosterone production was reversed. The inhibitory effects of GTE may be explained by the action of its principal component, EGCG, and the presence of a gallate group in its structure seems important for its high efficacy in inhibiting testosterone production. The mechanisms underlying the effects of GTE and EGCG involve the inhibition of the PKA/PKC signalling pathways, as well as the inhibition of P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase function. PMID:19330017

  4. Testosterone and Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Granger, Douglas A.; Mazur, Allan; Kivlighan, Katie T.

    2006-01-01

    Popular perceptions of the effect of testosterone on "manly" behavior are inaccurate. We need to move away from such simplistic notions by treating testosterone as one component along with other physiological, psychological and sociological variables in interactive and reciprocal models of behavior. Several hormones can now be measured in saliva,…

  5. Testosterone and Occupational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbs, James M., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Archival data on 4,462 military veterans linked higher levels of serum testosterone to lower-status occupations. A structural equation model was supported in which higher testosterone, mediated through lower intellectual ability, greater antisocial behavior, and lower education, leads away from white-collar occupations. Contains 49 references.…

  6. Effects of resistance training on testosterone metabolism in younger and older men.

    PubMed

    Ahtiainen, Juha P; Nyman, Kai; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Parviainen, Tapani; Helste, Mika; Rannikko, Antti; Kraemer, William J; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of resistance training (RT) on the metabolism of testosterone (T) in younger (n=5, 28±3yrs.) and older (n=8, 70±2yrs.) men. Experimental heavy resistance exercises (5×10RM leg presses) were performed before and after a 12-month of RT. No age differences were found in the production or metabolic clearance rate of T (determined by stable isotope dilution method), skeletal muscle androgen receptor content or serum LH concentrations due to acute or chronic RT. The T production capacity response to gonadotropin stimulation and the concentrations of the urinary T metabolites (androsterone and etiocholanolone) were lower in the older compared to younger men (p<0.05-0.01). This study further showed that RT may have acute effect on T production and clearance rates, while the exercise-induced increases in serum T appeared to be induced by decreased metabolic clearance rate of T. Attenuated T production capacity and urinary excretion of T metabolites in older men may reflect the known reduction in testicular steroidogenesis upon aging. No changes were observed in T metabolism due to RT indicating a homeostatic stability for this hormone in men of different ages. PMID:26079649

  7. Testosterone and musical talent.

    PubMed

    Hassler, M

    1991-01-01

    Two recently published hypotheses on the biological basis of special talents are discussed in relation to experimental data obtained from musical composers, instrumentalists, painters, and non-musicians, and from adolescent boys and girls with different levels of musical capacities. Both hypotheses assign an important influence to prenatal testosterone effects on the developing brain. Geschwind and Galaburda (1985) predict that subjects with special talents may have anomalous hemispheric dominance for verbal material. This was confirmed experimentally in adolescents and in adults using a dichotic listening task to assess functional lateralization. Hassler and Nieschlag (1989) expect musicians of both sexes to be psychologically androgynous and to have current testosterone levels that differ from sex-typed males and females. Salivary testosterone was measured in adults and in adolescents. Creative musical behavior was associated with very low testosterone values in males, and with high testosterone levels in females. Sexual activity level and motivation did not differ between males with testosterone levels less than or equal to 200 pmol/l and those with greater than 220 pmol/l. We tentatively suggest from our data that, among a complex interaction of biological and social factors, an optimal testosterone range may exist for the expression of creative musical behavior. Exceeding the range in the course of adolescence may be detrimental for musical creativity in boys. PMID:1778236

  8. Receptor-mediated gonadotropin action in the ovary. Regulatory role of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase(s) in intracellular adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate turnover and gonadotropin-stimulated progesterone production by rat ovarian cells

    PubMed Central

    Azhar, Salman; Menon, K. M. Jairam

    1979-01-01

    The regulatory role of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase(s) and cyclic AMP metabolism in relation to progesterone production by gonadotropins has been studied in isolated rat ovarian cells. Low concentrations of choriogonadotropin (0.4–5ng/ml) increased steroid production without any detectable increase in cyclic AMP, when experiments were carried out in the absence of phosphodiesterase inhibitors. The concentration of choriogonadotropin (10ng/ml) that stimulated progesterone synthesis maximally resulted in a minimal increase in cyclic AMP accumulation and choriogonadotropin binding. Choriogonadotropin at a concentration of 10ng/ml and higher, however, significantly stimulated protein kinase activity and reached a maximum between 250 and 1000ng of hormone/ml. Higher concentrations (50–2500ng/ml) of choriogonadotropin caused an increase in endogenous cyclic AMP, and this increase preceded the increase in steroid synthesis. Analysis of dose–response relationships of gonadotropin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation, progesterone production and protein kinase activity revealed a correlation between these responses over a wide concentration range when experiments were performed in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine. The phosphodiesterase inhibitors papaverine, theophylline and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine each stimulated steroid production in a dose-dependent manner. Incubation of ovarian cells with dibutyryl cyclic AMP or 8-bromo cyclic AMP mimicked the steroidogenic action of gonadotropins and this effect was dependent on both incubation time and nucleotide concentration. Maximum stimulation was obtained with 2mm-dibutyryl cyclic AMP and 8-bromo cyclic AMP, and this increase was close to that produced by a maximally stimulating dose of choriogonadotropin. Other 8-substituted derivatives such as 8-hydroxy cyclic AMP and 8-isopropylthio cyclic AMP, which were less susceptible to phosphodiesterase action, also effectively stimulated steroidogenesis. The

  9. Compounded Testosterone Troches TO OPTIMIZE HEALTH AND THE TESTOSTERONE CONTROVERSY.

    PubMed

    Guth, Michael A S

    2015-01-01

    As men age, testosterone levels progressively fall and inflammatory biomarkers increase. The gradual decline in testosterone production with aging, known as andropause, is common and may have deleterious effects on men including decreased overall well-being, increased sarcopenia, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, reduced sexual function, and bone loss. Therefore, it comes as no surprise that an increasing number of men worldwide have begun requesting testosterone replacement therapy from their physicians. Occasionally, physicians discourage male patients from getting testosterone replacement therapy based on a few recent studies indicating the therapy causes cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarctions. Yet, an extensive review of the testosterone replacement therapy literature reveals that the majority of clinical studies show that properly administered testosterone replacement therapy, in which estradiol and dihydrotestosterone levels are also controlled, has no adverse effects on myocardial infarction risk. The current state-of-the-art in testosterone replacement therapy comprises compounded testosterone troches; an aromatase inhibitor, such as generic Anastrazole, to control estradiol levels; and a 5α-reductase inhibitor, such as beneric Dutasteride or Finasteride, to control dihydrotestosterone. Compounded testosterone troches easily raise serum testosterone levels to the optimal range, are highly cost effective at $82 for a 180-day supply, and provide affordable access to testosterone replacement therapy to millions of men requesting it. Yet, the Blue Cross Blue Shield-associated firms have largely denied requests for coverage of compounded medications, including testosterone troches. Despite data demonstrating strong links between testosterone deficiency and significant comorbid conditions (including Type 2 diabetes and other metabolic syndrome diseases) as well as the health benefits of testosterone replacement therapy, some physian have

  10. Could you have low testosterone?

    MedlinePlus

    Male menopause; Andropause; Testosterone deficiency; Androgen deficiency of the aging male; Late-onset hypogonadism ... Testosterone makes a man look and feel like a man. In a man, this hormone helps: Keep ...

  11. Modulation of rat testes lipid composition by hormones: Effect of PRL (prolactin) and hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)

    SciTech Connect

    Sebokova, E.; Wierzbicki, A.; Clandinin, M.T. )

    1988-10-01

    The effect of prolactin (PRL) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration for 7 days on the composition and function of rat testicular plasma membrane was investigated. Refractory state in Leydig cells desensitized by hCG decreased the binding capacity for {sup 125}I-labeled hCG and also luteinizing hormone (LH)-induced adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and testosterone production. In testicular membranes of hCG-treated animals, a depletion of cholesterol and an increase in total phospholipid content was observed after gonadotropin injection, thereby decreasing the cholesterol-to-phospholipid ratio. Injection of high doses of PRL had no effect on the binding capacity or affinity of the LH-hCG receptor but decreased the response of Leydig cells to LH in terms of cAMP and testosterone synthesis. PRL also increased total and esterified cholesterol and decreased free cholesterol and membrane phospholipid content. The fatty acid composition of testicular lipids was significantly and selectively influenced by both hormonal treatments. These observations suggest that metabolism of cholesterol and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in testicular tissue is affected by chorionic gonadotropin and PRL and may provide the mechanism for regulating steroidogenic functions.

  12. Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tambo, Amos; Roshan, Mohsin H.K.; Pace, Nikolai P.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease [CVD] is a leading cause of mortality accounting for a global incidence of over 31%. Atherosclerosis is the primary pathophysiology underpinning most types of CVD. Historically, modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors were suggested to precipitate CVD. Recently, epidemiological studies have identified emerging risk factors including hypotestosteronaemia, which have been associated with CVD. Previously considered in the realms of reproductive biology, testosterone is now believed to play a critical role in the cardiovascular system in health and disease. The actions of testosterone as they relate to the cardiac vasculature and its implication in cardiovascular pathology is reviewed. PMID:27014372

  13. The Prenatal Environment in Twin Studies: A Review on Chorionicity.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; McMaster, Minni T B; Smith, Taylor F; Daams, Joost G; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Knopik, Valerie S

    2016-05-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify articles examining the association of chorionicity (e.g., whether twins share a single chorion and thus placenta or have separate chorions/placentas) and genetics, psychiatry/behavior, and neurological manifestations in humans twins and higher-order multiples. The main aim was to assess how frequently chorionicity has been examined in relation to heritability estimates, and to assess which phenotypes may be most sensitive to, or affected by, bias in heritability estimates because of chorionicity. Consistent with the theory that some chorionicity effects could lead to overestimation and others to underestimation of heritability, there were instances of each across the many phenotypes reviewed. However, firm conclusions should not be drawn since some of the outcomes were only examined in one or few studies and often sample sizes were small. While the evidence for bias due to chorionicity was mixed or null for many outcomes, results do, however, consistently suggest that heritability estimates are underestimated for measures of birth weight and early growth when chorionicity is not taken into account. PMID:26944881

  14. Testosterone and Men's Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Dabbs, James M., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Among 4,462 former servicemen surveyed, testosterone levels were positively related to not marrying and marital instability, and negatively related to every aspect of marital quality examined. Findings are analyzed in relation to three sociological theories of marital success based on socioeconomic status (educational attainment, income, and…

  15. Leptin inhibits testosterone secretion from adult rat testis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tena-Sempere, M; Pinilla, L; González, L C; Diéguez, C; Casanueva, F F; Aguilar, E

    1999-05-01

    Leptin, the product of the ob gene, has emerged recently as a pivotal signal in the regulation of fertility. Although the actions of leptin in the control of reproductive function are thought to be exerted mainly at the hypothalamic level, the potential direct effects of leptin at the pituitary and gonadal level have been poorly characterised. In the present study, we first assessed the ability of leptin to regulate testicular testosterone secretion in vitro. Secondly, we aimed to evaluate whether leptin can modulate basal gonadotrophin and prolactin (PRL) release by incubated hemi-pituitaries from fasted male rats. To attain the first goal, testicular slices from prepubertal and adult rats were incubated with increasing concentrations (10(-9)-10(-7) M) of recombinant leptin. Assuming that in vitro testicular responsiveness to leptin may be dependent on the background leptin levels, testicular tissue from both food-deprived and normally-fed animals was used. Furthermore, leptin modulation of stimulated testosterone secretion was evaluated by incubation of testicular samples with different doses of leptin in the presence of 10 IU human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). In addition, analysis of leptin actions on pituitary function was carried out using hemi-pituitaries from fasted adult male rats incubated in the presence of increasing concentrations (10(-9)-10(-7) M) of recombinant leptin. Serum testosterone levels, and basal and hCG-stimulated testosterone secretion by incubated testicular tissue were significantly decreased by fasting in prepubertal and adult male rats. However, a significant reduction in circulating LH levels was only evident in adult fasted rats. Doses of 10(-9)-10(-7) M leptin had no effect on basal or hCG-stimulated testosterone secretion by testes from prepubertal rats, regardless of the nutritional state of the donor animal. In contrast, leptin significantly decreased basal and hCG-induced testosterone secretion by testes from fasted and fed

  16. Testosterone therapy and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Walsh, James P; Kitchens, Anne C

    2015-04-01

    Endogenous testosterone levels are inversely associated with cardiovascular risk in older men and men with cardiovascular disease. Current data on cardiovascular outcomes of testosterone therapy include only observational studies and adverse event monitoring in short-term trials that were not designed to measure cardiovascular outcomes. These studies have yielded conflicting results, and some have raised concerns that testosterone therapy may increase cardiovascular risk. A well-designed, adequately powered, prospective trial will ultimately be required to clarify whether testosterone therapy impacts cardiovascular outcomes. This review describes the findings and limitations of recent studies of cardiovascular risk in older men on testosterone therapy and discusses some of the mechanisms through which testosterone may modify cardiovascular risk. PMID:25467243

  17. A unique case of growth hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin treatment in a 45,X male with Y: autosome translocation and literature review.

    PubMed

    Mareri, Arianna; Iezzi, MariaLaura; Salvatore, Alessia; Ligas, Claudio; D'Alessandro, Elvira

    2016-07-01

    Maleness associated with a 45,X karyotype is a rare condition in childhood. It is usually diagnosed in adult age because of infertility. We report a unique case of an unbalanced translocation t(Y;21) in a 14-year-old boy with 45,X karyotype referred because of short stature, thin habitus and puberty delay. Hormone analysis showed low serum levels of basal testosterone, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and gonadotrophins. Diagnosis of GH deficiency and puberty delay were made. He was treated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and GH therapy, respectively, for 6 and 24 months. PMID:27054600

  18. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    Controversies surround the usefulness of identifying patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Many of the components are accepted risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although the MetS as defined includes many men with insulin resistance, insulin resistance is not universal. The low total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels in these men are best explained by the hyperinsulinism and increased inflammatory cytokines that accompany obesity and increased waist circumference. It is informative that low SHBG levels predict future development of the MetS. Evidence is strong relating low TT levels to CVD in men with and without the MetS; however, the relationship may not be causal. The recommendations of the International Diabetes Federation for managing the MetS include cardiovascular risk assessment, lifestyle changes in diet, exercise, weight reduction and treatment of individual components of the MetS. Unfortunately, it is uncommon to see patients with the MetS lose and maintain a 10% weight loss. Recent reports showing testosterone treatment induced dramatic changes in weight, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, hemoglobin A1c levels and improvements in each of the components of the MetS are intriguing. While some observational studies have reported that testosterone replacement therapy increases cardiovascular events, the Food and Drug Administration in the United States has reviewed these reports and found them to be seriously flawed. Large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide more definitive data regarding the efficacy and safety of this treatment in middle and older men with the MetS and low TT levels. PMID:25652634

  19. Human chorionic gonadotropin measurements in parathyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Mishaela R; Bilezikian, John P; Birken, Steven; Silverberg, Shonni J

    2010-01-01

    Objective Preoperatively, it is difficult to differentiate between parathyroid cancer (PtCa) and severe primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) due to a benign tumor. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a tumor marker in trophoblastic and nontrophoblastic cancers and hyperglycosylated hCG is increased in hCG-secreting malignancies. We investigated whether hCG can distinguish PtCa cancer from benign disease and add prognostic information. Design Observational study. Methods Measurement of urinary hCG (total and malignant isoforms) and serum malignant hCG in 8 subjects with PtCa and in 18 subjects with PHPT (measurement of urine in ten and serum in eight). Results Total urinary hCG was normal in the benign PHPT control subjects (range: 0–17 fmol/mg Cr; nl < 50). In the PtCa subjects, three had normal total urinary hCG levels and survived complication free for at least 2 years; three had persistently elevated total urinary hCG levels (range: 217–1986 fmol/mg Cr) and sustained hip fracture (n = 3) and died (n = 2) within 3 and 6 months respectively; two had a rise in total urinary hCG and had hip fracture (n = 1) and died (n = 2) within 4 and 10 months respectively. Elevated urinary hCG was of the malignant hyperglycosylated isoform. Serum malignant hyperglycosylated hCG values in all of the cancer patients exceeded the maximal serum malignant hCG level of the PHPT subjects with benign disease (3.77 pmol/l). Conclusion hCG, especially itshyperglycosylated isoform, might add diagnostic and prognostic information in PtCa. Further studies would help to elucidate the role of hCG as a potential tumor marker in this disease. PMID:18625691

  20. Vitelline envelope, chorion, and micropyle of Fundulus heteroclitus eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Dumont, J.N.; Brummet, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    The architecture and transformation of the vitelline envelope of the developing oocyte into the chorion of the mature egg of Fundulus heteroclitus have been examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The mature vitelline envelope is structurally complex and consists of about nine strata. The envelope is penetrated by pore canals that contain microvilli arising from the oocyte and macrovilli from follicle cells. During the envelope's transformation into the chorion, the pore canals are lost and the envelope becomes more fibrous and compact and its stratified nature less apparent. The micropyle, or pore, through which the sperm gains access to the enclosed egg is located at the bottom of a small funnel-shaped depression in the envelope. Internally, the micropyle opens on the apex of a cone-like elevation of the chorion. During the development of the envelope, structured chorionic fibrils, the components of which are presumed to be synthesized by the follicle cells, become attached to its surface. These chorionic fibrils are thought to aid in the attachment of the egg to the substratum and perhaps to help prevent water loss during low tides when the egg may be exposed.

  1. Visualization of Drosophila melanogaster chorion genes undergoing amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Osheim, Y.N.; Miller, O.L. Jr.; Beyer, A.L.

    1988-07-01

    The authors visualized by electron microscopy the preferential amplification of Drosophila chorion genes in late-stage follicle cells. Chromatin spreads revealed large clusters of actively transcribed genes of the appropriate size, spacing, and orientation for chorion genes that were expressed with the correct temporal specificity. Occasionally the active genes were observed within or contiguous with intact replicons and replication forks. In every case, our micrographs are consistent with the hypothesis that the central region of each chorion domain contains a replication origin(s) used during the amplification event. In one case, a small replication bubble was observed precisely at the site of the essential region of the X chromosome amplification control element. The micrographs also suggest that forks at either end of a replicon frequently progress very different distances, presumably due to different times in initiation or different rates of movement. It appears that all chorion genes (even those coding for minor proteins) are transcribed in a ''fully on'' condition, albeit for varied durations, and that if replication fork passage does inactivate a promoter, it does so very transiently. Furthermore, a DNA segment containing one active gene is likely to have an additional active gene(s). Surprisingly, during the time frame of expected maximum activity, approximately half of the chorion sequences appear transciptionally inactive.

  2. Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Kloner, Robert A; Carson, Culley; Dobs, Adrian; Kopecky, Stephen; Mohler, Emile R

    2016-02-01

    Testosterone (T) is the principal male sex hormone. As men age, T levels typically fall. Symptoms of low T include decreased libido, vasomotor instability, and decreased bone mineral density. Other symptoms may include depression, fatigue, erectile dysfunction, and reduced muscle strength/mass. Epidemiology studies show that low levels of T are associated with more atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular events. However, treating hypogonadism in the aging male has resulted in discrepant results in regard to its effect on cardiovascular events. Emerging studies suggest that T may have a future role in treating heart failure, angina, and myocardial ischemia. A large, prospective, long-term study of T replacement, with a primary endpoint of a composite of adverse cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction, stroke, and/or cardiovascular death, is needed. The Food and Drug Administration recently put additional restrictions on T replacement therapy labeling and called for additional studies to determine its cardiac safety. PMID:26846952

  3. Plasma prorenin response to human chorionic gonadotropin in ovarian-hyperstimulated women: correlation with the number of ovarian follicles and steroid hormone concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Itskovitz, J; Sealey, J E; Glorioso, N; Rosenwaks, Z

    1987-01-01

    directly related to the number of ovarian follicles and to plasma estrogen and progesterone levels. The findings suggest that prorenin is produced by the mature ovarian follicle and by the corpus luteum in response to gonadotropin stimulation. Images PMID:3118364

  4. 21 CFR 556.710 - Testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Testosterone propionate. 556.710 Section 556.710... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.710 Testosterone propionate. No residues of testosterone, resulting from the use of testosterone propionate, are permitted in excess of the following increments...

  5. 21 CFR 556.710 - Testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Testosterone propionate. 556.710 Section 556.710... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.710 Testosterone propionate. No residues of testosterone, resulting from the use of testosterone propionate, are permitted in excess of the following increments...

  6. 21 CFR 556.710 - Testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Testosterone propionate. 556.710 Section 556.710... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.710 Testosterone propionate. No residues of testosterone, resulting from the use of testosterone propionate, are permitted in excess of the following increments...

  7. 21 CFR 556.710 - Testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testosterone propionate. 556.710 Section 556.710... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.710 Testosterone propionate. No residues of testosterone, resulting from the use of testosterone propionate, are permitted in excess of the following increments...

  8. 21 CFR 556.710 - Testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Testosterone propionate. 556.710 Section 556.710... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.710 Testosterone propionate. No residues of testosterone, resulting from the use of testosterone propionate, are permitted in excess of the following increments...

  9. Controversies in testosterone replacement therapy: testosterone and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Kathleen; Miner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The role of testosterone in the cardiovascular (CV) health of men is controversial. Data suggest that both the condition and treatment of clinical hypogonadism is associated with decreased CV mortality; however, two recent studies suggest that hypogonadal subjects treated with testosterone replacement therapy have a higher incidence of new CV events. There has been increased media attention concerning the risk of CV disease in men treated with testosterone. Until date, there are no long-term prospective studies to determine safety. Literature spanning over the past 30 years has suggested that not only is there a possible increased CV risk in men with low levels of testosterone, but the benefits from testosterone therapy may even lower this risk. We review here the recent studies that have garnered such intense scrutiny. This article is intended as a thorough review of testosterone levels and CV risk, providing the clinician with the facts needed to make informed clinical decisions in managing patients with clinical hypogonadism. PMID:25652628

  10. Could you have low testosterone?

    MedlinePlus

    ... menopause; Andropause; Testosterone deficiency; Androgen deficiency of the aging male; Late-onset hypogonadism ... Some symptoms may be a normal part of aging. For example, it is normal to feel less ...

  11. Aromatase inhibition, testosterone, and seizures.

    PubMed

    Harden, Cynthia; MacLusky, Neil J

    2004-04-01

    The effect of testosterone on brain excitability is unclear. The excitatory aspect of testosterone's action in the brain may be due to its conversion to estrogen via aromatase. We report herein a 61-year-old man with temporal lobe epilepsy and sexual dysfunction due to low testosterone levels. Use of an aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, normalized his testosterone level and improved his sexual functioning. Letrozole, in addition to standard antiseizure medication, was also associated with improved seizure control. This was sustained and, further, was associated with seizure exacerbation after withdrawing letrozole, and subsequent seizure improvement after restarting it. During the course of treatment, his serum testosterone level increased, sex hormone-binding globulin decreased (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels increased, while serum estradiol levels remained undetectable. Letrozole may, therefore, have produced a central alteration in the testosterone/estrogen ratio, thereby impairing estrogen-mediated feedback control of the pituitary, resulting in the observed increase in circulating LH and FSH levels. This experience suggests that aromatase inhibitors should be further investigated as a beneficial treatment modality for male patients with epilepsy. PMID:15123030

  12. Controversies in testosterone supplementation therapy.

    PubMed

    Khera, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone has now become one of the most widely used medications throughout the world. The rapid growth of the testosterone market in the past 10 years is due to many factors. We currently have a worldwide aging population. In the US, the number of men 65 years old or older is increasing 2-3 times faster than the number of men younger than 65 years. In addition, poor general health and certain medical conditions such as diabetes/metabolic syndrome (MetS), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and osteoporosis have been associated with low serum testosterone levels. [1],[2],[3] There are now fewer concerns regarding the development of prostate cancer (PCa) after testosterone therapy, making it a more attractive treatment option. Finally, the introduction of different forms of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) with increased promotion, marketing, and direct-to-consumer advertising is also driving market growth. As the demand for TST continues to grow, it is becoming more important for clinicians to understand how to diagnose and treat patients with low testosterone. PMID:25652639

  13. Testosterone and the breast.

    PubMed

    Shufelt, Chrisandra L; Braunstein, Glenn D

    2008-09-01

    Although women have been treated with testosterone (T) for female sexual dysfunction since the 1950s, the role of T in normal female physiology is not yet fully defined. One of the major safety concerns of androgen therapy is whether androgens have a stimulatory effect on the breast that could lead to breast carcinomas. The proposed mechanisms for such stimulation include local estrogen production from the aromatase enzyme complex present in the breast tissue or by the direct stimulation of the androgen receptor. Predominant data from in vitro studies have shown that androgens actually have apoptotic and antiproliferative effects and not stimulatory effects. Animal models have shown similar results to in vitro studies, finding that androgens inhibit breast cancer growth. Prospective and retrospective epidemiological analyses have shown mixed outcomes, with no clear consensus regarding androgen use and breast cancer risk. Hyperandrogenism in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome with elevated levels of endogenous T is not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer and may, in fact, be protective. Another human model with excess of T is female-to-male transgenderism, in which genotypic women are treated with large doses of exogenous T with no increased risk. High-dose androgen therapy also has been effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Thus, the preponderance of data suggests that T use in females is not associated with an increased risk of breast carcinoma. PMID:18714077

  14. A potential role for zinc transporter 7 in testosterone synthesis in mouse Leydig tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Chu, Qingqing; Chi, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Xiuli; Liang, Dan; Wang, Xuemei; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Ping

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element which is involved in male reproduction. The zinc transporter (ZnT) family, SLC30a, is involved in the maintenance of Zn homeostasis and in mediating intracellular signaling events; however, relatively little is known regarding the effect of ZnTs on testosterone synthesis. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of Zn transporter 7 (ZnT7) on testosterone synthesis in male CD-1 mice and mouse Leydig cells. The findings of the present study revealed that the concentrations of Zn in the testes and Leydig cells were significantly lower in mice fed a Zn-deficient diet compared with the control mice fed a Zn-adequate diet. In addition, ZnT7 was principally expressed and colocalized with steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in the Leydig cells of male CD-1 mice. ZnT7 expression was downregulated in the mice fed a Zn-deficient diet, which led to decreases in the expression of the enzymes involved in testosterone synthesis namely cholesterol side‑chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/D5-D4 isomerase (3β-HSD) as well as decreased serum testosterone levels. These results suggested that Znt7 may be involved in testosterone synthesis in the mouse testes. To examine this hypothesis, we used the mouse Leydig tumor cell line (MLTC-1 cell line) in which the ZnT7 gene had been silenced, in order to gauge the impact of changes in ZnT7 expression on testosterone secretion and the enzymes involved in testosterone synthesis. The results demonstrated that ZnT7 gene silencing downregulated the expression of StAR, P450scc and 3β-HSD as well as progesterone concentrations in the human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)-stimulated MLTC-1 cells. Taken together, these findings reveal that ZnT7 may play an important role in the regulation of testosterone synthesis by modulating steroidogenic enzymes, and may represent a therapeutic target in

  15. 21 CFR 522.1079 - Serum gonadotropin and chorionic gonadotropin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Serum gonadotropin and chorionic gonadotropin. 522.1079 Section 522.1079 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN.... (i) Gilts. For induction of fertile estrus (heat) in healthy prepuberal (noncycling) gilts. (ii)...

  16. 21 CFR 522.1079 - Serum gonadotropin and chorionic gonadotropin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Serum gonadotropin and chorionic gonadotropin. 522.1079 Section 522.1079 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN.... (i) Gilts. For induction of fertile estrus (heat) in healthy prepuberal (noncycling) gilts. (ii)...

  17. 21 CFR 522.1079 - Serum gonadotropin and chorionic gonadotropin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Serum gonadotropin and chorionic gonadotropin. 522.1079 Section 522.1079 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN.... (i) Gilts. For induction of fertile estrus (heat) in healthy prepuberal (noncycling) gilts. (ii)...

  18. EFFECT OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE ON HUMAN TROPHOBLAST CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN SECRETION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effect of Bromodichloromethane on Human Trophoblast Chorionic Gonadotrophin Secretion

    Jiangang Chen1, Twanda L. Thirkill1, Peter N. Lohstroh1, Susan R. Bielmeier2, Michael G. Narotsky3, Deborah S. Best3, Randy A. Harrison3, Kala Natarajan1, Rex A. Pegram3, Gordon C. Dougla...

  19. Testosterone, thrombophilia, thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Charles J; Friedman, Joel; Hafeez, Ahsan; Hassan, Atif; Wang, Ping

    2014-10-01

    We assessed previously undiagnosed thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis in 11 testosterone (T)-taking men, five of whom developed deep venous thrombosis (DVT), four pulmonary embolism, one spinal cord infarction, and one osteonecrosis 3.5 months (median) after starting T gel (50-160 mg/day) or T intramuscular (50-250 mg/week). In the order of referral because of thrombosis after starting T, thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis was studied in 11 men, and, separately, in two control groups without thrombosis - 44 healthy normal male controls and 39 healthy men taking T. Nine men had DVT or DVT-pulmonary embolism after 3.5 months (median) on T, one spinal cord infarction after 5 days on T, and one had osteonecrosis (knee and then hip osteonecrosis after 6 and 18 months on T). Four of the 11 men (36%) had high factor VIII (≥150%) vs. one of 42 (2%) controls (P = 0.005), and vs. one of 25 (4%) T-controls, (P = 0.023). Of the 11 men, two (18%) had factor V Leiden heterozygosity vs. none of 44 controls, (P = 0.04) and vs. none of 39 T-controls(P = 0.045). Of the 11 men, three had 4G4G plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 homozygosity, one prothrombin G20210A heterozygosity, one low protein S, and one high factor XI. When T was continued, second DVT-pulmonary embolism recurred in three of 11 men despite adequate anticoagulation. T interacts with thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis leading to thrombosis. Men sustaining DVT-pulmonary embolism-osteonecrosis on T should be studied for thrombophilia. Continuation of T in thrombophilic men appears to be contraindicated because of recurrent thrombosis despite adequate anticoagulation. Before starting T, to prevent T-associated thrombosis, we recommend measures of factor V Leiden, factor VIII, and the prothrombin gene. PMID:24732175

  20. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Nieschlag, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental) courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the ‘vital principle’ as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889), which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17α-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by Kallmann, Del

  1. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Nieschlag, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental) courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the 'vital principle' as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889), which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17α-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by Kallmann, Del

  2. TESTOSTERONE AND SPORT: CURRENT PERSPECTIVES

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Ruth I.; Stanton, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone and other anabolic-androgenic steroids enhance athletic performance in men and women. As a result, exogenous androgen is banned from most competitive sports. However, due to variability in endogenous secretion, and similarities with exogenous testosterone, it has been challenging to establish allowable limits for testosterone in competition. Endogenous androgen production is dynamically regulated by both exercise and winning in competition. Furthermore, testosterone may promote athletic performance, not only through its long-term anabolic actions, but also through rapid effects on behavior. In women, excess production of endogenous testosterone due to inborn disorders of sexual development (DSD) may convey a competitive advantage. For many years, female competitors have been subject to tests of sexual genotype and phenotype known as gender verification. Although gender verification has not identified any normal man competing as a woman, this process has identified women athletes with DSD. As understanding of DSD has expanded in recent years, women with DSD are increasingly able to continue athletic competition. PMID:21983229

  3. Testosterone and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Thomas R; Chughtai, Bilal; Kaplan, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    The use of testosterone to treat the symptoms of late-onset hypogonadal men has increased recently due to patient and physician awareness. However, concerns regarding the effect of testosterone on the prostate, in particular any possible effect on the risk of prostate cancer have prompted further research in this regard. Surprisingly, numerous retrospective or small, randomized trials have pointed to a possible improvement in male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients treated with testosterone. The exact mechanism of this improvement is still debated but may have a close relationship to metabolic syndrome. For the clinician, the results of these studies are promising but do not constitute high levels of evidence. A thorough clinical examination (including history, examination and laboratory testing of testosterone) should be undertaken before considering the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism or instigating treatment for it. Warnings still remain on the testosterone supplement product labels regarding the risk of urinary retention and worsening LUTS, and these should be explained to patients. PMID:25337845

  4. Testosterone and weight loss: the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Traish, Abdulmaged M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this article is to examine the contemporary data linking testosterone therapy in overweight and obese men with testosterone deficiency to increased lean body mass, decreased fat mass, improvement in overall body composition and sustained weight loss. This is of paramount importance because testosterone therapy in obese men with testosterone deficiency represents a novel and a timely therapeutic strategy for managing obesity in men with testosterone deficiency. Recent findings Long-term testosterone therapy in men with testosterone deficiency produces significant and sustained weight loss, marked reduction in waist circumference and BMI and improvement in body composition. Further, testosterone therapy ameliorates components of the metabolic syndrome. The aforementioned improvements are attributed to improved mitochondrial function, increased energy utilization, increased motivation and vigor resulting in improved cardio-metabolic function and enhanced physical activity. Summary The implication of testosterone therapy in management of obesity in men with testosterone deficiency is of paramount clinical significance, as it produces sustained weight loss without recidivism. On the contrary, alternative therapeutic approaches other than bariatric surgery failed to produce significant and sustained outcome and exhibit a high rate of recidivism. These findings represent strong foundations for testosterone therapy in obese men with testosterone deficiency and should spur clinical research for better understanding of usefulness of testosterone therapy in treatment of underlying pathophysiological conditions of obesity. PMID:25105998

  5. Use of human chorionic gonadotropin in a male Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) to induce rut and achieve a pregnancy in a nulliparous female.

    PubMed

    Muraco, Holley S; Coombs, Leah D; Procter, Dianna G; Turek, Paul J; Muraco, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Walrus in US zoos have a very low reproductive rate of 11 births in 80 years, and little is known about Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) reproductive biology. To address this, we initiated a program in which detailed biological data were recorded on captive walrus. As part of a 7-year study, 1 male and 1 female 16-year-old captive Pacific walrus were carefully monitored with weekly serum hormone analysis, daily glans penis smears for spermatozoa, and abdominal ultrasound for pregnancy. The female ovulated once annually from late December through mid-January and then exhibited 9 months of sustained elevated progesterone. This nonconceptive estrous cycle profile is consistent with reports from wild walrus females. In contrast, the male's seasonal rut routinely occurred in late February through May with a serum testosterone peak in March. This profile differed from the reported adult male cycle in wild walrus of November through March. During the period of the female's ovulation, the male had nadir testosterone levels and was consistently azoospermic. Likewise, during the male's spermatogenic rut in the spring, the female was anovulatory with elevated progesterone. On this basis, the male was treated for 14 weeks with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in an attempt to increase testosterone levels in synchrony with the female's annual ovulation. The treatment successfully induced rut characterized by sustained elevated serum testosterone levels and production of spermatozoa. The male and female successfully bred, and the female became pregnant. Upon discontinuation of hCG treatment, the male resumed baseline testosterone levels. We theorize that the lack of synchronization of rut and ovulatory cycles is a primary reason for reproductive failure in these captive walrus. PMID:22207706

  6. Leptin inhibits basal but not gonadotrophin-stimulated testosterone production in the immature mouse and sheep testis.

    PubMed

    Herrid, Muren; Xia, Yin; O'Shea, Tim; McFarlane, James R

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms whereby leptin regulates testosterone secretion are complex and are likely to involve actions at different levels of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. In the present study, the effect of leptin on testicular steroidogenesis at different developmental stages in mice and sheep was investigated. Testosterone data from testicular slice and Leydig cells of immature and adult mice testes demonstrated that the action of leptin in the regulation of steroidogenesis appears to be dependent on the developmental stage of the testis. Leptin biphasically modulates basal testosterone production in immature testicular slice cultures: at relatively low concentrations (6.25-12.5 ng mL(-1)) leptin exerts a significant inhibitory effect, but has less of an effect at very low (1.25 ng mL(-1)) or high concentrations (25 ng mL(-1)). However, leptin failed to modulate basal testosterone levels in Leydig cell preparations. In contrast with immature testes, leptin was unable to regulate either basal or human chorionic gonadotrophin (10 IU mL(-1))-stimulated testosterone production in adult testicular slices or Leydig cell cultures. The age- and concentration-dependent regulation pattern was confirmed using sheep testicular slice culture. Leptin (1.56-25 ng mL(-1)) significantly inhibited basal testosterone production in the testis from birth to Day 21, but had no effect on Day 27 or older testes. However, the plasma and testicular concentrations of leptin and testosterone data in the ram indicate that such a regulatory effect of leptin on testis steroidogenesis in vitro is unable to efficiently influence testosterone concentrations in vivo. This does not exclude the possibility of a non-competitive mechanism of interaction between leptin and luteinising hormone to regulate testosterone production. Thus, we hypothesise that leptin is not an important independent regulator of testosterone concentration in the normal physiological state. The physiological significance and

  7. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Prostate Cancer Incidence

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    While early studies demonstrated a positive association between testosterone and prostate cancer, evidence on the nature of the relationship has evolved with time and newer data. Studies examining links between baseline testosterone levels as well as testosterone therapy and incident prostate cancer, reveal a more complex relationship. Moreover, investigators have reported their initial experiences with supplementing testosterone in men with a history of both treated and untreated prostate cancer. PMID:26770932

  8. Review of health risks of low testosterone and testosterone administration

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Huanguang; Sullivan, Charles T; McCoy, Sean C; Yarrow, Joshua F; Morrow, Matthew; Borst, Stephen E

    2015-01-01

    Hypogonadism is prevalent in older men and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for older hypogonadal men is a promising therapy. However, a number of important clinical concerns over TRT safety remain unsolved due to a lack of large-scale randomized clinical trials directly comparing the health risks of untreated hypogonadism vs long-term use of TRT. Meta-analyses of clinical trials of TRT as of 2010 have identified three major adverse events resulting from TRT: polycythemia, an increase in prostate-related events, and a slight reduction in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. There are other purported health risks but their incidence can be neither confirmed nor denied based on the small number of subjects that have been studied to date. Furthermore, subsequent literature is equivocal with regard to the safety and utility of TRT and this topic has been subject to contentious debate. Since January 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration has released two official announcements regarding the safety of TRT and clinical monitoring the risks in TRT users. Additionally, the health risks related to the clinical presentation of low or declining testosterone levels not been resolved in the current literature. Because TRT is prescribed in the context of putative risks resulting from reduced testosterone levels, we reviewed the epidemiology and reported risks of low testosterone levels. We also highlight the current information about TRT utilization, the risks most often claimed to be associated with TRT, and current or emerging alternatives to TRT. PMID:25879005

  9. Gender-Typed Play and Amniotic Testosterone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca Christine; Wheelwright, Sally; Taylor, Kevin; Raggatt, Peter; Hackett, Gerald; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Sex differences in play are apparent in a number of mammalian species, including humans. Prenatal testosterone may contribute to these differences. The authors report the first attempt to correlate gender-typed play in a normative sample of humans with measurements of amniotic testosterone (aT). Testosterone was measured in the amniotic fluid of…

  10. Detection of human chorionic gonadotrophin misuse in sports.

    PubMed

    Delbeke, F T; Van Eenoo, P; De Backer, P

    1998-05-01

    The peptide hormone human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) was measured in the urine of 5663 male athletes collected for doping analysis in Flanders during the period 1993-1996. Using the Abbott IMx hCG procedure, the free and whole molecule associated beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin was determined. Statistical evaluation of the data results in a far outside value of 2.28 mIU/ml. The decision limit, i.e. the concentration at which a sportsman will be considered positive, is set at 5 mIU/ml to ensure with the greatest possible degree of certainty that no false positive results are reported. PMID:9657371

  11. Pattern of human chorionic gonadotropin binding in the polycystic ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Brawer, J.; Richard, M.; Farookhi, R. )

    1989-08-01

    The histologic evolution of polycystic ovaries in the estradiol valerate-treated rat coincides with the development of a unique plasma pattern of luteinizing hormone. To assess the role of luteinizing hormone in polycystic ovaries, it is necessary to evaluate the luteinizing hormone sensitivity of the specific tissues in the polycystic ovary. Therefore, we examined the pattern of luteinizing hormone binding sites in polycystic ovaries. Rats at 4 or 8 weeks after estradiol valerate treatment each received an intrajugular injection of iodine 125-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin. Some rats also received a 1000-fold excess of unlabeled human chorionic gonadotropin in the same injection. Ovaries were prepared for autoradiography. Dense accumulations of grains occurred over the theca of normal and atretic secondary follicles in all ovaries and over clusters of secondary interstitial cells. The iodine label was variable over the typically hypertrophied theca of precystic follicles. The theca of definitive cysts showed little or no label. These results indicate that cyst formation coincides with the loss of luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin binding to the affected follicles.

  12. The low plasma testosterone levels of young Indian infarct survivors are not due to a primary testicular defect.

    PubMed Central

    Sewdarsen, M.; Jialal, I.; Naidu, R. K.

    1988-01-01

    A case control study was performed to determine whether the hypotestosteronaemia described in men with coronary artery disease could be the result of primary testicular dysfunction. Testicular function was assessed by comparing the response of 10 young Indian men with myocardial infarction to human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) injection to that of 10 healthy age and weight matched controls. The basal testosterone levels in the patients were significantly lower (12.71 +/- 1.36 nmol/l vs 16.51 +/- 0.79 nmol/l; P = 0.01) and the basal oestradiol levels significantly higher than the controls (120.67 +/- 8.81 pmol/l vs 94.05 +/- 8.23 pmol/l; P = 0.02). There was no difference in the sex hormone binding globulin concentrations. However, following HCG stimulation the patients demonstrated a normal response with a 2-fold increase in testosterone. There was no difference in the testosterone and oestradiol levels of the patients and controls following HCG stimulation. This normal response in our patients demonstrates that the hypotestosteronaemia in Indian men with myocardial infarction is not due to a primary testicular dysfunction but probably is a result of increased aromatization of testosterone to oestradiol. PMID:3186567

  13. 77 FR 55481 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Chorionic Gonadotropin; Naloxone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ...; Chorionic Gonadotropin; Naloxone; Oxymorphone; Oxytocin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Pharmaceuticals hydrochloride) Inc., 100 Painters Injection. Dr., Chadds Ford, PA 19317. 046-822 VETOCIN...

  14. Testosterone and Vascular Function in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Rhéure A. M.; Neves, Karla B.; Carneiro, Fernando S.; Tostes, Rita C.

    2012-01-01

    Androgen receptors are widely distributed in several tissues, including vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Through classic cytosolic androgen receptors or membrane receptors, testosterone induces genomic and non-genomic effects, respectively. Testosterone interferes with the vascular function by increasing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and arterial thickness. Experimental evidence indicates that sex steroid hormones, such as testosterone modulate the synthesis and bioavailability of NO and, consequently, endothelial function, which is key for a healthy vasculature. Of interest, aging itself is accompanied by endothelial and vascular smooth muscle dysfunction. Aging-associated decline of testosterone levels is accompanied by age-related diseases, such as metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, indicating that very low levels of androgens may contribute to cardiovascular dysfunction observed in these age-related disorders or, in other words, that testosterone may have beneficial effects in the cardiovascular system. However, testosterone seems to play a negative role in the severity of renal disease. In this mini-review, we briefly comment on the interplay between aging and testosterone levels, the vascular actions of testosterone and its implications for vascular aging. Renal effects of testosterone and the use of testosterone to prevent vascular dysfunction in elderly are also addressed. PMID:22514541

  15. Detection of testosterone esters in blood.

    PubMed

    Forsdahl, Guro; Erceg, Damir; Geisendorfer, Thomas; Turkalj, Mirjana; Plavec, Davor; Thevis, Mario; Tretzel, Laura; Gmeiner, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Injections of synthetic esters of testosterone are among the most common forms of testosterone application. In doping control, the detection of an intact ester of testosterone in blood gives unequivocal proof of the administration of exogenous testosterone. The aim of the current project was to investigate the detection window for injected testosterone esters as a mixed substance preparation and as a single substance preparation in serum and plasma. Furthermore, the suitability of different types of blood collection devices was evaluated. Collection tubes with stabilizing additives, as well as non-stabilized serum separation tubes, were tested. A clinical study with six participants was carried out, comprising a single intramuscular injection of either 1000 mg testosterone undecanoate (Nebido(®)) or a mixture of 30 mg testosterone propionate, 60 mg testosterone phenylpropionate, 60 mg testosterone isocaproate, and 100 mg testosterone decanoate (Sustanon(®)). Blood was collected throughout a testing period of 60 days. The applied analytical method for blood analysis included liquid-liquid extraction and preparation of oxime derivatives, prior to TLX-sample clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection. All investigated testosterone esters could be detected in post-administration blood samples. The detection time depended on the type of ester administered. Furthermore, results from the study show that measured blood concentrations of especially short-chained testosterone esters are influenced by the type of blood collection device applied. The testosterone ester detection window, however, was comparable. PMID:26695486

  16. Secretion of Unconjugated Androgens and Estrogens by the Normal and Abnormal Human Testis before and after Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, R. L.; Kelch, R. P.; Jenner, M. R.; Kaplan, S. L.; Grumbach, M. M.

    1974-01-01

    The secretion of androgens and estrogens by normal and abnormal testes was compared by determining the concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione (Δ4A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), and 17β-estradiol (E2) in peripheral and spermatic venous plasma samples from 14 normal men and 5 men with unilateral testicular atrophy. Four normal men and one patient with unilateral atrophy of the testis were given human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) before surgery. Plasma estrogens were determined by radioimmunoassay; plasma androgens were measured by the double-isotope dilution derivative technique. Peripheral concentrations of these steroids before and after HCG were similar in both the normal men and the patients with unilateral testicular atrophy. In normal men, the mean ±SE spermatic venous concentrations were DHEA, 73.1±11.7 ng/ml; Δ4A, 30.7±7.9 ng/ml; T, 751±114 ng/ml; E1, 306±55 pg/ml; and E2, 1298±216 pg/ml. Three of four subjects with unilateral testicular atrophy had greatly diminished spermatic venous levels of androgens and estrogens. HCG treatment increased the testicular secretion of DHEA and T fivefold, Δ4A threefold, E1 sixfold, and E2 eightfold in normal men. In the single subject with an atrophic testis who received HCG, the spermatic venous concentrations of androgens and estrogens were much less than in normal men similarly treated. We conclude that: (a) E1 is secreted by the human testis, but testicular secretion of E1 accounts for less than 5% of E1 production in normal men; (b) HCG stimulation produces increases in spermatic venous estrogens equal to or greater than the changes in androgens, including testosterone; and (c) strikingly decreased secretion of androgen and estrogen by unilateral atrophic human tests cannot be appreciated by analyses of peripheral steroid concentrations. PMID:4271572

  17. [Demonstration and evolution of chorionic gonadotropin in ewes].

    PubMed

    Lacroix, M C; Martal, J

    1979-02-26

    Occurrence of ovine Chorionic Gonadotropin (oCG) is demonstrated in placenta and amniotic fluid with the use of a radioreceptor assay (corpus luteum membranes) in ewes. Identification of oCG is possible as early as 15th day of pregnancy. It should be secreted at a constant rate, and its maximum concentration is recorded on the 130th day. This hormonal factor might be one of the major components accountable for high progesteronemia observed during the 100 last days of pregnancy. PMID:110484

  18. Testosterone, hemostasis, and cardiovascular diseases in men.

    PubMed

    Brodin, Ellen; Vikan, Torkel; Hansen, John-Bjarne; Svartberg, Johan

    2011-02-01

    Men have a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than women, and adverse thrombotic events increase with age. Recent experimental cross-sectional, and case-control studies have shown that testosterone may affect the hemostatic/fibrinolytic system in men in several ways. It has been hypothesized that physiological doses of testosterone would have a beneficial effect on tissue factor-induced thrombin generation and the development of CVD. The search for eternal youth has created a market for testosterone treatment in aging men during the last few years. However, whether testosterone supplementation could be useful in the treatment of testosterone-deficient elderly men is still controversial. The present review focuses on the coagulation system and CVD from the perspective of testosterone. PMID:21249606

  19. Selection and sequence analysis of a cDNA clone encoding a known chorion protein of the A family.

    PubMed Central

    Tsitilou, S G; Regier, J C; Kafatos, F C

    1980-01-01

    Using as criteria the size, abundance and developmental specificity of hybridizing mRNA sequences, we have selected from our chorion cDNA library a clone corresponding to a specific chorion protein, A4--cl. Comparison between the clone sequence and the largely known sequence of A4--cl validates the use of the cDNA library for sequence analysis of the chorion multigene families. The two major chorion protein families, A and B, share certain structural similarities. Images PMID:7433133

  20. Association of Free Testosterone with Hypogonadal Symptoms in Men with Near-Normal Total Testosterone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjith; Golan, Ron; Wilken, Nathan; Scovell, Jason M.; Lipshultz, Larry I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between hypogonadal symptoms and free testosterone levels in men with near-normal total testosterone levels (250–350ng/dL) and to determine whether a discriminatory threshold for free testosterone exists below which hypogonadal symptoms become more prevalent. Methods We reviewed the charts of 3,167 men who presented to an outpatient men's health clinic. 231 men had symptoms of “low testosterone” and serum testosterone levels between 250 and 350ng/dL. We evaluated hypogonadal symptoms using the ADAM and qADAM questionnaires. Serum levels of total testosterone and SHBG were collected on the same day that men completed their questionnaires. We used linear regression to determine whether or not a threshold of free testosterone exists for hypogonadal symptoms. We performed univariate and multivariable analyses to evaluate factors that predicted a low free testosterone level. Results The median age was 43.5 y, and the median testosterone and free testosterone levels were 303ng/dL, and 6.3ng/dL respectively. Prevalence and severity of hypogonadal symptoms (ADAM and qADAM) were similar between men with low (<6.4ng/mL) and normal free testosterone levels. There was an association between age and three of the 10 hypogonadal symptoms (decreased enjoyment in life, sadness, and deterioration of work performance) with a low free testosterone on a univariate analysis. Only younger age was positively associated with free testosterone on multivariable analysis. Conclusions We did not observe a relationship between hypogonadal symptoms and free testosterone in men with near-normal testosterone levels. Symptom-specific free testosterone thresholds could not be defined, as age remains an important confounder. PMID:26199166

  1. Chemical sterilisation of Bos indicus bull calves following intratesticular injection of zinc acetate: Effects on growth and concentrations of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, J; Wang, M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects in Bos indicus calves of intra-testicular injection of either saline (n=9) or one of two doses of zinc acetate ((ZA1, 57.75mg, n=10, or ZA2, 71.75mg, n=10) or surgical castration (n=9) on circulating concentrations of testostosterone and liveweight. Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG, 1500IU) was administered 202 and 525 days after treatment on Day 0 and animals were slaughtered on Day 860. In animals left intact treatment with ZA reduced mean serum concentrations of testosterone (Saline: 5.58±0.79ng/mL, ZA1: 1.28±0.27ng/mL, ZA2: 1.01±0.17ng/mL; P<0.001) and concentrations 48h following administration of hCG. The maximum concentration of testosterone recorded throughout the study in six out of 19 animals treated with ZA was ≤0.21ng/mL. Treatment with ZA did not significantly affect live weights or carcass weights or result in any detectable scrotal lesions. Animals with concentrations of testosterone ≥1.0ng/mL exhibited greater liveweights throughout most of the study and yielded heavier carcass weights (340.9±7.02 versus 309.3±6.17kg, P=0.002). It is concluded that a single, intra-testicular administration of either 57.75mg or 71.75mg of ZA was able to similarly reduce circulating concentrations of testosterone without significantly affecting liveweights or carcass weights. Treatment with ZA can result in variation in circulating concentrations of testosterone which could lead to differences in behaviour, liveweights and carcass characteristics. PMID:26130602

  2. Testosterone improves motor function in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, E; Thomas, D; Burnet, R

    2006-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD) there is increasing evidence that sex steroids such as estradiol and testosterone modulate, either as a positive or negative effect, the clinical expression of a variety of movement disorders involving the nigrostriatum. Testosterone deficiency is common in the older male population and has an increased prevalence in parkinsonian patients. Testosterone therapy has been shown to improve the non-motor symptoms of PD but evidence for a direct effect of testosterone on motor symptoms is lacking. This case report demonstrates a significant improvement in the resting tremor and fine motor control after testosterone administration in a parkinsonian patient with testosterone deficiency (1 nmol/L). Motor symptom change was shown by serial assessment of the patient's handwriting, self-reporting using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and measurement of resting tremor amplitude by an accelerometer. The improvement in motor symptoms correlated with serum testosterone levels. The use of testosterone replacement in those men with decreased levels may improve the motor symptoms as well as increase general wellbeing. PMID:16410216

  3. Testosterone, Marital Quality, and Role Overload

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Johnson, David R.; Granger, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    In a sample of established working- and middle-class families with school-aged children (N= 307 wives and 307 husbands), neither husbands nor wives testosterone showed a direct connection with marital quality. In contrast, the association between husbands' testosterone and positive and negative marital quality (as evaluated by both spouses) was…

  4. Four Thrombotic Events Over 5 Years, Two Pulmonary Emboli and Two Deep Venous Thrombosis, When Testosterone-HCG Therapy Was Continued Despite Concurrent Anticoagulation in a 55-Year-Old Man With Lupus Anticoagulant

    PubMed Central

    Glueck, Charles J.; Lee, Kevin; Prince, Marloe; Jetty, Vybhav; Shah, Parth; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background: When exogenous testosterone or treatments to elevate testosterone (human chorionic gonadotropin [HCG] or Clomid) are prescribed for men who have antecedent thrombophilia, deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism often occur and may recur despite adequate anticoagulation if testosterone therapy is continued. Case Presentation: A 55-year-old white male was referred to us because of 4 thrombotic events, 3 despite adequate anticoagulation over a 5-year period. We assessed interactions between thrombophilia, exogenous testosterone therapy, and recurrent thrombosis. In 2009, despite low-normal serum testosterone 334 ng/dL (lower normal limit [LNL] 300 ng/dL), he was given testosterone (TT) cypionate (50 mg/week) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG; 500 units/week) for presumed hypogonadism. Ten months later, with supranormal serum T (1385 ng/dL, upper normal limit [UNL] 827 ng/dL) and estradiol (E2) 45 pg/mL (UNL 41 pg/mL), he had a pulmonary embolus (PE) and was then anticoagulated for 2 years (enoxaparin, then warfarin). Four years later, on TT-HCG, he had his first deep venous thrombosis (DVT). TT was stopped and HCG continued; he was anticoagulated (enoxaparin, then warfarin, then apixaban, then fondaparinux). One year after his first DVT, on HCG, still on fondaparinux, he had a second DVT (5/315), was anticoagulated (enoxaparin + warfarin), with a Greenfield filter placed, but 8 days later had a second PE. Thrombophilia testing revealed the lupus anticoagulant. After stopping HCG, and maintained on warfarin, he has been free of further DVT-PE for 9 months. Conclusion: When DVT-PE occur on TT or HCG, in the presence of thrombophilia, TT-HCG should be stopped, lest DVT-PE reoccur despite concurrent anticoagulation. PMID:27536705

  5. Testosterone ethosomes for enhanced transdermal delivery.

    PubMed

    Ainbinder, Denize; Touitou, Elka

    2005-01-01

    Physiological decrease in testosterone levels in men with age causes various changes with clinical significance. Recent testosterone replacement therapy is based mainly on transdermal nonpatch delivery systems. These products have the drawback of application on extremely large areas to achieve required hormone blood levels. The objective of the present study was to design and test a testosterone nonpatch formulation using ethosomes for enhanced transdermal absorption. The ethosomal formulation was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering for structure and size distribution and by ultracentrifugation for entrapment capacity. To evaluate the feasibility of this delivery system to enhance testosterone permeation through the skin, first the systemic absorption in rats was compared with a currently used gel (AndroGel). Further, theoretical estimation of testosterone blood concentration following ethosomal application in men was made. For this purpose, in vitro permeation experiments through human skin were performed to establish testosterone skin permeation values. In the design of these experiments, testosterone solubility in various solutions was measured and the effect of the receiver medium on the skin barrier function was assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Theoretical estimation shows that testosterone human plasma concentration value in the upper part of the physiological range could be achieved by application of the ethosomal formulation on an area of 40 cm(2). This area is about 10 times smaller than required with current nonpatch formulations. Our work shows that the ethosomal formulation could enhance testosterone systemic absorption and also be used for designing new products that could solve the weaknesses of the current testosterone replacement therapies. PMID:16188729

  6. How to perform transabdominal chorionic villus sampling: a practical guideline.

    PubMed

    Monni, Giovanni; Pagani, Giorgio; Stagnati, Valentina; Iuculano, Ambra; Ibba, Rosa Maria

    2016-05-01

    The spread of both first trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities and the possibility to check for single gene disorders at DNA-analysis has increased the request for chorionic villus sampling (CVS) in the first trimester. In order to perform placental biopsy, two routes are possible: the transcervical (TC) and the transabdominal (TA). In early days, the trancervical technique was the most diffused, but since its introduction into clinical practice, the TA technique has become the approach of choice in detriment of the TC technique. In our institution, we have a 30-year experience in TA-CVS with more than 26 000 procedures performed. Considering the expertise and the volume of procedures undertaken at our unit, we suggest a practical guideline for novel operators in TA-CVS. PMID:26372474

  7. Bleeding as a consequence of chorion villus sampling.

    PubMed

    Liu, D T; Jeavons, B; Preston, C; Slater, E; Symonds, E M

    1989-03-01

    A series of 4 separate studies were conducted to assess the incidence and short term consequence of bleeding associated with chorion villus sampling. Results support previous reports that risk of foetal-maternal transfusion as suggested by a rise in maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) can occur. This occurrence is not consistent and need not be obvious even after therapeutic abortion. It is also transient and did not complicate mid-trimester neural tube screening or subsequent course of pregnancy. Eighty-seven percent of blood contaminating villus samples are of maternal origin. Following diagnosis 37% of patients reported some vaginal bleeding. This is mainly in the form of spotting which did not preclude normal pregnancy. Foetal loss occurred in 4 of the patients when bleeding considered heavier than spotting continued. In rhesus negative patients prophylactic anti-D gamma-globulin is advised, since neither Kleihauer counts nor MSAFP estimation reliably detect all foetal-maternal transfusions. PMID:2472129

  8. Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition.

    PubMed

    Casto, Kathleen V; Edwards, David A

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone and cortisol figure prominently in the research literature having to do with human competition. In this review, we track the history of this literature, concentrating particularly on major theoretical and empirical contributions, and provide commentary on what we see as important unresolved issues. In men and women, athletic competition is typically associated with an increase in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Hormone changes in response to non-athletic competition are less predictable. Person (e.g., power motivation, mood, aggressiveness, social anxiety, sex, and baseline levels of T and C) and context (e.g., whether a competition is won or lost, the closeness of the competition, whether the outcome is perceived as being influenced by ability vs. chance, provocations) factors can influence hormone responses to competition. From early on, studies pointed to a positive relationship between T and dominance motivation/status striving. Recent research, however, suggests that this relationship only holds for individuals with low levels of C - this is the core idea of the dual-hormone hypothesis, and it is certain that the broadest applications of the hypothesis have not yet been realized. Individuals differ with respect to the extent to which they embrace competition, but the hormonal correlates of competitiveness remain largely unexplored. Although rapid increases in both T and C associated with competition are likely adaptive, we still know very little about the psychological benefits of these hormonal changes. Administration studies have and will continue to contribute to this inquiry. We close with a discussion of what, we think, are important methodological and mechanistic issues for future research. PMID:27103058

  9. Testosterone and aggressive behavior in man.

    PubMed

    Batrinos, Menelaos L

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant's testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  10. Testosterone and Aggressive Behavior in Man

    PubMed Central

    Batrinos, Menelaos L.

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant’s testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  11. Human chorionic gonadotropin induces human macrophages to form intracytoplasmic vacuoles mimicking Hofbauer cells in human chorionic villi.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Munekage; Ohba, Takashi; Tashiro, Hironori; Yamada, Gen; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

    2013-01-01

    The most characteristic morphological feature of macrophages in the stroma of placental villi, known as Hofbauer cells, is their highly vacuolated appearance. They also show positive immunostaining for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and express messenger ribonucleic acid of the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor with a deletion of exon 9 (LH/CG-R Δ9). Maternal hCG enters fetal plasma through the mesenchyme of the placental villi and promotes male sexual differentiation in early pregnancy; therefore, excess hCG may induce aberrant genital differentiation and hCG must be adjusted at the fetomaternal interface. We hypothesized that hCG is regulated by Hofbauer cells and that their peculiar vacuoles are involved in a cell-specific function. To assess the morphological modification and expression of LH/CG-R Δ9 in human macrophages after hCG exposure, the present study examined phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated THP-1 cells, a human monocyte-macrophage cell line. hCG induced transient vacuole formation in PMA-treated THP-1 cells, morphologically mimicking Hofbauer cells. Immunocytochemistry showed that PMA-treated THP-1 cells incorporated hCG but not luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone. Western blotting analyses demonstrated that PMA-treated THP-1 cells expressed an immunoreactive 60-kDa protein, designated as endogenous LH/CG-R Δ9. hCG induced a transient reduction in the LH/CG-R Δ9, which was synchronous with the appearance of cytoplasmic vacuoles. In conclusion, human macrophages regulating hCG via cytoplasmic LH/CG-R Δ9 mimic the morphological characteristics of Hofbauer cells. Their vacuoles may be associated with their cell-specific function to protect the fetus from exposure to excess maternal hCG during pregnancy. PMID:23128164

  12. Comparative safety of testosterone dosage forms

    PubMed Central

    Layton, J. Bradley; Meier, Christoph R.; Sharpless, Julie L.; Stürmer, Til; Jick, Susan S.; Brookhart, M. Alan

    2015-01-01

    Importance Increases in testosterone use and mixed reports of adverse events have raised concerns about the cardiovascular safety of testosterone. Testosterone is available in several delivery mechanisms with varying pharmacokinetics; injections cause spikes in testosterone levels, while transdermal patches and gels cause more subtle but sustained increases. The comparative cardiovascular safety of gels, injections and patches has not been studied. Objective To determine the comparative cardiovascular safety of testosterone injections, patches, and gels. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Administrative claims from a commercially-insured and Medicare population in the United States, and general practitioner records from the United Kingdom, years 2000 – 2012 Participants Adult (18+), male initiators of testosterone patches, gels, or injections following 180 days free of any testosterone use Exposure New initiation of a testosterone dosage form, followed for up to one year Main Outcomes and Measures In- or outpatient medical records, diagnoses, or claims for: cardio- and cerebrovascular events, including myocardial infarction (MI), unstable angina, stroke, composite acute event (MI, unstable angina, or stroke); venous thromboembolism (VTE); mortality, and all-cause hospitalization. Results We identified 431,687 testosterone initiators between the 3 datasets: 36% injection, 9% patch, 55% gel. Medicare had a majority of injection initiators (51%); the US commercially-insured population had majority gel initiators (56%); the United Kingdom had equal proportions of injections and gels (~41%). When compared to gels, injection initiators had higher hazards of CV events (MI, UA, and stroke) (HR=1.26, 95% CI: 1.18–1.35), hospitalization (HR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.13–1.18), and death (HR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.15–1.56), but not VTE (HR=0.92, 95% CI: 0.76–1.11). Patches did not confer increased hazards of CV events compared to gels (HR=1.10, 95% CI: 0.94–1

  13. Bacteria Localization and Chorion Thinning among Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Fortner, Kimberly B.; Grotegut, Chad A.; Ransom, Carla E.; Bentley, Rex C.; Feng, Liping; Lan, Lan; Heine, R. Phillips; Seed, Patrick C.; Murtha, Amy P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Bacterial colonization of the fetal membranes and its role in pathogenesis of membrane rupture is poorly understood. Prior retrospective work revealed chorion layer thinning in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) subjects. Our objective was to prospectively examine fetal membrane chorion thinning and to correlate to bacterial presence in PPROM, preterm, and term subjects. Study Design Paired membrane samples (membrane rupture and membrane distant) were prospectively collected from: PPROM = 14, preterm labor (PTL = 8), preterm no labor (PTNL = 8), term labor (TL = 10), and term no labor (TNL = 8), subjects. Sections were probed with cytokeratin to identify fetal trophoblast layer of the chorion using immunohistochemistry. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed using broad range 16 s ribosomal RNA probe. Images were evaluated, chorion and choriodecidua were measured, and bacterial fluorescence scored. Chorion thinning and bacterial presence were compared among and between groups using Student's t-test, linear mixed effect model, and Poisson regression model (SAS Cary, NC). Results In all groups, the fetal chorion cellular layer was thinner at rupture compared to distant site (147.2 vs. 253.7 µm, p<0.0001). Further, chorion thinning was greatest among PPROM subjects compared to all other groups combined, regardless of site sampled [PPROM(114.9) vs. PTL(246.0) vs. PTNL(200.8) vs. TL(217.9) vs. TNL(246.5)]. Bacteria counts were highest among PPROM subjects compared to all other groups regardless of site sampled or histologic infection [PPROM(31) vs. PTL(9) vs. PTNL(7) vs. TL(7) vs. TNL(6)]. Among all subjects at both sites, bacterial counts were inversely correlated with chorion thinning, even excluding histologic chorioamnionitis (p<0.0001 and p = 0.05). Conclusions Fetal chorion was uniformly thinner at rupture site compared to distant sites. In PPROM fetal chorion, we demonstrated pronounced global thinning

  14. Direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of salivary testosterone: correlation with free and total serium testosterone

    SciTech Connect

    Vittek, J.; L'Hommedieu, D.G.; Gordon, G.G.; Rappaport, S.C.; Southren, A.L.

    1985-08-26

    Simple and sensitive direct RIA for determination of salivary testosterone was developed by using RSL NOSOLVEX TM (125 1) kit produced by Radioassay System Laboratories (Carcon, California). In addition, a relationship between salivary and serum free and total testosterone concentrations was studied in randomly selected 45 healthy subjects, 5 females on oral contraceptive pills and 28 hypertensive patients on various treatment regimens. The lowest weight of testosterone detectable by the modified method was equivalent to 1 pg/ml of saliva, taking into account analytical variability. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 5.09 +/- 2.7% and 8.2 +/- 5.9% respectively. Statistically significant correlations were found between salivary and serum free testosterone (r = 0.97) and salivary and serum total testosterone concentrations (r = 0.70 - 0.87). The exception to this was a group of hypertensive females in which no correlation (r = 0.14) between salivary and total serum testosterone was found. It is also of interest that, while salivary testosterone was significantly increased in subjects taking oral contraceptives and most of the hypertensive patients, the total serum testosterone concentration was in normal range. These findings suggest that the determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active hormone in the circulation. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  15. Construction, complete sequence, and annotation of a BAC contig covering the silkworm chorion locus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiwei; Nohata, Junko; Guo, Huizhen; Li, Shenglong; Liu, Jianqiu; Guo, Youbing; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Liu, Chun; Arunkumar, Kallare P; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Shiping; Labropoulou, Vassiliki; Swevers, Luc; Tsitoura, Panagiota; Iatrou, Kostas; Gopinathan, Karumathil P; Goldsmith, Marian R; Xia, Qingyou; Mita, Kazuei

    2015-01-01

    The silkmoth chorion was studied extensively by F.C. Kafatos' group for almost 40 years. However, the complete structure of the chorion locus was not obtained in the genome sequence of Bombyx mori published in 2008 due to repetitive sequences, resulting in gaps and an incomplete view of the locus. To obtain the complete sequence of the chorion locus, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from follicular epithelium cells were used as probes to screen a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. Seven BACs were selected to construct a contig which covered the whole chorion locus. By Sanger sequencing, we successfully obtained complete sequences of the chorion locus spanning 871,711 base pairs on chromosome 2, where we annotated 127 chorion genes. The dataset reported here will recruit more researchers to revisit one of the oldest model systems which has been used to study developmentally regulated gene expression. It also provides insights into egg development and fertilization mechanisms and is relevant to applications related to improvements in breeding procedures and transgenesis. PMID:26594380

  16. Construction, complete sequence, and annotation of a BAC contig covering the silkworm chorion locus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiwei; Nohata, Junko; Guo, Huizhen; Li, Shenglong; Liu, Jianqiu; Guo, Youbing; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Liu, Chun; Arunkumar, Kallare P.; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Shiping; Labropoulou, Vassiliki; Swevers, Luc; Tsitoura, Panagiota; Iatrou, Kostas; Gopinathan, Karumathil P.; Goldsmith, Marian R.; Xia, Qingyou; Mita, Kazuei

    2015-01-01

    The silkmoth chorion was studied extensively by F.C. Kafatos’ group for almost 40 years. However, the complete structure of the chorion locus was not obtained in the genome sequence of Bombyx mori published in 2008 due to repetitive sequences, resulting in gaps and an incomplete view of the locus. To obtain the complete sequence of the chorion locus, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from follicular epithelium cells were used as probes to screen a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. Seven BACs were selected to construct a contig which covered the whole chorion locus. By Sanger sequencing, we successfully obtained complete sequences of the chorion locus spanning 871,711 base pairs on chromosome 2, where we annotated 127 chorion genes. The dataset reported here will recruit more researchers to revisit one of the oldest model systems which has been used to study developmentally regulated gene expression. It also provides insights into egg development and fertilization mechanisms and is relevant to applications related to improvements in breeding procedures and transgenesis. PMID:26594380

  17. Serum Testosterone Levels in Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnani, Prem D.; Dwyer, Margretta

    1986-01-01

    Reports that with the increase in diagnosis of offenders across the nation, physicians and psychiatric personnel need to be aware of low testosterone as a possible indicator of hypo-sexuality and possible concurrent offending behavior. (Author/ABB)

  18. Testosterone and disinhibited personality in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Anton; García, Luis F; García, Óscar; Blanco, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    The relationship among testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), bioavailable testosterone (BT) and personality were studied in a sample of 105 healthy males (26.71±9.68years old). The possible effects of age and other hormones, such as luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and albumin (ALB) were controlled. Personality was assessed by the novelty seeking scale of Cloninger's Temperament-Character Inventory (TCI), and a reduced version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ). Main results show that there is a weak association among three measures of testosterone with novelty seeking, sociability and, to a lesser extent, with impulsive sensation seeking. Our data, as expected, confirmed previous results and also suggest that these relationships are strongly affected by the age variable. LH, FSH and SHBG hormones play no role in the reported relationships. PMID:27291990

  19. Testosterone abolishes implicit subordination in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Terburg, David; Syal, Supriya; Rosenberger, Lisa A; Heany, Sarah J; Stein, Dan J; Honk, Jack van

    2016-10-01

    Neuro-evolutionary theories describe social anxiety as habitual subordinate tendencies acquired through a recursive cycle of social defeat and submissive reactions. If so, the steroid hormone testosterone might be of therapeutic value, as testosterone is a main force behind implicit dominance drive in many species including humans. We combined these two theories to investigate whether the tendency to submit to the dominance of others is an implicit mechanism in social anxiety (Study-1), and whether this can be relieved through testosterone administration (Study-2). Using interactive eye-tracking we demonstrate that socially anxious humans more rapidly avert gaze from subliminal angry eye contact (Study-1). We replicate this effect of implicit subordination in social anxiety in an independent sample, which is subsequently completely abolished after a single placebo-controlled sublingual testosterone administration (Study-2). These findings provide crucial evidence for hormonal and behavioral treatment strategies that specifically target mechanisms of dominance and subordination in social anxiety. PMID:27448713

  20. Diagnosis and management of testosterone deficiency

    PubMed Central

    McBride, James A; Carson, Culley C; Coward, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) use has dramatically increased over the past decade, due to the availability of newer agents, aggressive marketing, and an increasing incidence of testosterone deficiency (TD). Despite the increase in TST, a degree of ambiguity remains as to the exact diagnostic criteria of TD, and administration and monitoring of TST. One explanation for this phenomenon is the complex role testosterone plays in multiple physiologic pathways. Numerous medical co-morbidities and medications can alter testosterone levels resulting in a wide range of nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms of TD. The diagnosis is also challenging due to the lack of a definitive serum total testosterone level that reliably correlates with symptoms. This observation is particularly true in the aging male and is exacerbated by inconsistencies between different laboratory assays. Several prominent medical societies have developed guideline statements to clarify the diagnosis, but they differ from each other and with expert opinion in several ways. Aside from diagnostic dilemmas, there are numerous subtle advantages and disadvantages of the various testosterone agents to appreciate. The available TST agents have changed significantly over the past decade similar to the trends in the diagnosis of TD. Therefore, as the usage of TST increases, clinicians will be challenged to maintain an up-to-date understanding of TD and TST. The purpose of this review is to provide a clear description of the current strategies for diagnosis and management of TD. PMID:25532575

  1. Testosterone deficiency and cardiovascular mortality

    PubMed Central

    Morgentaler, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    New concerns have been raised regarding cardiovascular (CV) risks with testosterone (T) therapy (TTh). These concerns are based primarily on two widely reported retrospective studies. However, methodological flaws and data errors invalidate both studies as credible evidence of risk. One showed reduced adverse events by half in T-treated men but reversed this result using an unproven statistical approach. The authors subsequently acknowledged serious data errors including nearly 10% contamination of the dataset by women. The second study mistakenly used the rate of T prescriptions written by healthcare providers to men with recent myocardial infarction (MI) as a proxy for the naturally occurring rate of MI. Numerous studies suggest T is beneficial, including decreased mortality in association with TTh, reduced MI rate with TTh in men with the greatest MI risk prognosis, and reduced CV and overall mortality with higher serum levels of endogenous T. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated benefits of TTh in men with coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure. Improvement in CV risk factors such as fat mass and glycemic control have been repeatedly demonstrated in T-deficient men treated with T. The current evidence does not support the belief that TTh is associated with increased CV risk or CV mortality. On the contrary, a wealth of evidence accumulated over several decades suggests that low serum T levels are associated with increased risk and that higher endogenous T, as well as TTh itself, appear to be beneficial for CV mortality and risk. PMID:25432501

  2. Comparison of Complications of Chorionic Villus Sampling and Amniocentesis

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazian, Nahid; Barati, Mojgan; Arian, Parvin; Saadati, Najmie

    2012-01-01

    Background A significant number of pregnancies are associated with the cytogenetic abnormalities of the fetus. Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) are procedures used for prenatal genetic diagnosis. In this study, we compare the safety and complications of mid-trimester amniocentesis and transabdominal CVS. Materials and Methods This analytic cross-sectional study was performed in 308 patients from 2.11.2007 to 26.10.2009. We had 155 cases of amniocentesis, which we performed in weeks 15-23 of pregnancy; and 153 cases of CVS, which we performed during weeks 10-14 of pregnancy. Results There were 2 cases (1.2%) of premature rupture of membrane (PROM) in amniocentesis which occurred 1 and 10 days after the procedure and caused pregnancy loss before 20 weeks. We had 1 case (0.7%) of abortion in CVS, which occurred 10 days after the procedure. Additionally, there was 1 case of amniotic fluid leakage (0.7%) in which, after admission to the hospital and observation, leakage was stopped and the pregnancy continued normally. Conclusion In this study, we had more complications with amniocentesis cases than CVS. CVS is a procedure performed in the earlier stages of pregnancy and its complications are less than amniocentesis. We suggest CVS to be the procedure of choice for genetic diagnosis. PMID:25210610

  3. Luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin receptors in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Meduri, G; Charnaux, N; Loosfelt, H; Jolivet, A; Spyratos, F; Brailly, S; Milgrom, E

    1997-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that human choriogonadotropin (hCG), in addition to its function in regulating steroidogenesis, may also play a role as a growth factor. Immunocytochemistry using two different monoclonal antibodies (LHR29 and LHR1055) raised against the human luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin (LH/hCG) receptor allowed us to detect this receptor in breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF7, and ZR75) in individual cancer biopsies and in benign breast lesions. The receptor was also present in epithelial cells of normal human and sow breast. In the latter, its concentration increased after ovulation. The presence of LH/hCG receptor mRNA was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR using primers extending over exons 2-4, 5-11, and 9-11. The proportion of LH/hCG-receptor positive cells and the intensity of the immunolabeling varied in individual biopsies, but there was no obvious correlation with the histological type of the cancer. These results are compatible with previous studies suggesting that during pregnancy, hCG is involved in the differentiation of breast glandular epithelium and that this hormone may play an inhibitory role in mammary carcinogenesis and in the growth of breast tumors. PMID:9041186

  4. Male prolactinomas presenting with normal testosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Shimon, Ilan; Benbassat, Carlos

    2014-06-01

    In men harboring prolactinoma the most common symptoms are related to hypogonadism, including decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and gynecomastia. These men characteristically present with elevated serum prolactin (PRL) levels, suppressed gonadotropins, and low testosterone levels. We studied a group of 11 unique men with prolactinomas presenting with testosterone levels within the normal range (≥2.6 ng/ml; cohort A), and compared them to 11 prolactinoma men with borderline baseline testosterone (2.1-2.5 ng/ml; cohort B) and to a cohort of 34 prolactinoma patients with low testosterone levels (≤2 ng/ml; cohort C). Mean testosterone levels at presentation were 3.91 ± 0.9 ng/ml in cohort A (range, 2.6-5.2 ng/ml), 2.44 ± 0.16 ng/ml in cohort B and 0.96 ± 0.6 in cohort C (p < 0.001). Mean baseline PRL levels were >20 times above normal in cohort A compared to >100 times above normal in cohorts B and C. Symptoms of hypogonadism were present in 55, 64 and 76% of men in groups A, B and C, respectively. There was a trend towards a larger tumor size in the low testosterone group (p = 0.06). Visual fields defects at presentation were more prevalent in this cohort (C). With cabergoline, testosterone level increased from 3.91 to 6.42 ng/ml (Δ = 2.51 ng/ml) in cohort A, from 2.44 to 5.63 ng/ml (Δ = 3.19 ng/ml) in cohort B, and from 0.96 to 3.30 ng/ml (Δ = 2.34 ng/ml) in cohort C (p < 0.05 for each group). Symptoms of hypogonadism improved following treatment in 83% of symptomatic men in cohort A. Normal testosterone does not exclude the likelihood of prolactinoma in men. When treated with cabergoline, testosterone levels in these men can increase higher within the normal range together with clinical improvement. PMID:23756784

  5. Serum Testosterone Kinetics After Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Taira, Al V.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Lief, Jonathan H.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Wallner, Kent E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate temporal changes in testosterone after prostate brachytherapy and investigate the potential impact of these changes on response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Between January 2008 and March 2009, 221 consecutive patients underwent Pd-103 brachytherapy without androgen deprivation for clinically localized prostate cancer. Prebrachytherapy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum testosterone were obtained for each patient. Repeat levels were obtained 3 months after brachytherapy and at least every 6 months thereafter. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated to determine an association with temporal testosterone changes. In addition, analysis was conducted to determine if there was an association between testosterone changes and treatment outcomes or the occurrence of a PSA spike. Results: There was no significant difference in serum testosterone over time after implant (p = 0.57). 29% of men experienced an increase {>=}25%, 23% of men experienced a decrease {>=}25%, and the remaining 48% of men had no notable change in testosterone over time. There was no difference in testosterone trends between men who received external beam radiotherapy and those who did not (p = 0.12). On multivariate analysis, preimplant testosterone was the only variable that consistently predicted for changes in testosterone over time. Men with higher than average testosterone tended to experience drop in testosterone (p < 0.001), whereas men with average or below average baseline testosterone had no significant change. There was no association between men who experienced PSA spike and testosterone temporal trends (p = 0.50) nor between initial PSA response and testosterone trends (p = 0.21). Conclusion: Prostate brachytherapy does not appear to impact serum testosterone over time. Changes in serum testosterone do not appear to be associated with PSA spike phenomena nor with initial PSA response to treatment; therefore, PSA response

  6. Up-regulation of placental leptin by human chorionic gonadotropin.

    PubMed

    Maymó, Julieta L; Pérez Pérez, Antonio; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor; Dueñas, José L; Calvo, Juan Carlos; Varone, Cecilia L

    2009-01-01

    Leptin, the 16,000 molecular weight protein product of the obese gene, was originally considered as an adipocyte-derived signaling molecule for the central control of metabolism. However, leptin has been suggested to be involved in other functions during pregnancy, particularly in placenta, in which it was found to be expressed. In the present work, we have found that recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) added to BeWo choriocarcinoma cell line showed a stimulatory effect on endogenous leptin expression, when analyzed by Western blot. This effect was time and dose dependent. Maximal effect was achieved at hCG 100 IU/ml. Moreover, hCG treatment enhanced leptin promoter activity up to 12.9 times, evaluated by transient transfection with a plasmid construction containing different promoter regions and the reporter gene luciferase. This effect was dose dependent and evidenced with all the promoter regions analyzed, regardless of length. Similar results were obtained with placental explants, thus indicating physiological relevance. Because hCG signal transduction usually involves cAMP signaling, this pathway was analyzed. Contrarily, we found that dibutyryl cAMP counteracted hCG effect on leptin expression. Furthermore, cotransfection with the catalytic subunit of PKA and/or the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein repressed leptin expression. Thereafter we determined that hCG effect could be partially blocked by pharmacologic inhibition of MAPK pathway with 50 microM PD98059 but not by the inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway with 0.1 microm wortmannin. Moreover, hCG treatment promoted MAPK kinase and ERK1/ERK2 phosphorylation in placental cells. Finally, cotransfection with a dominant-negative mutant of MAPK blocked the hCG-mediated activation of leptin expression. In conclusion, we provide some evidence suggesting that hCG induces leptin expression in trophoblastic cells probably involving the MAPK signal transduction

  7. The role of chorion on toxicity of silver nanoparticles in the embryonic zebrafish assay

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Tae; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to investigate how the size- and surface coating-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is influenced by the presence and absence of the chorion in an embryonic zebrafish assay. Methods Normal and dechorinated embryos were exposed to four different AgNPs, 20 or 110 nm in size, with polypyrrolidone (PVP) or citrate surface coatings in a standard zebrafish embryo medium (EM). This was then compared to a 62.5 μM calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution where agglomeration was controlled. Results Embryonic toxicity in the absence of the chorion was greater than in its presence. The smaller 20 nm AgNPs were more toxic than the larger 110 nm AgNPs, regardless of the chorion and test media. However, surface coating affected toxicity, since PVPcoated AgNPs were more toxic than citrate-coated AgNPs; this was strongly affected by the presence of the chorion in both EM and CaCl2. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the permeability function of the chorion on the size- and surface coating-dependent toxicity of AgNPs. Thereafter, careful experiment should be conducted to assess nanoparticle toxicity in zebrafish embryos. PMID:25518841

  8. Analysis of developmentally regulated chorion gene promoter architecture via electroporation of silk moth follicles.

    PubMed

    Tsatsarounos, S P; Rodakis, G C; Lecanidou, R

    2015-02-01

    In the silk moth Bombyx mori, chorion genes of the same developmental specificity are organized in divergently transcribed α/β gene pairs, sharing a common 5' flanking promoter region. This bidirectional promoter contains a complete set of cis-elements responsible for developmentally accurate gene expression. In the present paper, based on the observation that Bombyx chorion gene promoters contain cis-elements for the same transcription factors without concrete evidence on which of them are essential, we address the question as to how promoter architecture (number, orientation and position of common factor binding sites) facilitates developmentally accurate chorion gene regulation. To this end, we constructed several mutated promoter regions of an early-middle gene pair and cloned them upstream of a reporter gene to introduce these plasmid constructs into silk moth follicle epithelial cells via electroporation as an efficient and quick method for transient expression. This is the first time that an ex vivo method had been applied to test the impact of systematic cis-element mutations on a chorion gene promoter. Our results confirmed the importance of the HMGA factor and the role of the GATA factor as an early repressor, and led to a more detailed understanding of which C/EBP sites participate in the regulation of early-middle chorion gene expression. PMID:25256090

  9. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... measure testosterone (a male sex hormone) in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurement of testosterone are used in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders involving the male sex hormones (androgens),...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... measure testosterone (a male sex hormone) in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurement of testosterone are used in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders involving the male sex hormones (androgens),...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... measure testosterone (a male sex hormone) in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurement of testosterone are used in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders involving the male sex hormones (androgens),...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... measure testosterone (a male sex hormone) in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurement of testosterone are used in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders involving the male sex hormones (androgens),...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... measure testosterone (a male sex hormone) in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurement of testosterone are used in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders involving the male sex hormones (androgens),...

  14. Ovarian stimulation with human chorionic gonadotropin and equine chorionic gonadotropin affects prostacyclin and its receptor expression in the porcine oviduct.

    PubMed

    Małysz-Cymborska, I; Andronowska, A

    2015-10-01

    Prostaglandins are well-known mediators of crucial events in the female reproductive tract, eg, early embryo development and implantation. Prostacyclin (PGI2) is the most synthesized prostaglandin in the human oviduct during the postovulatory period, indicating its important role in supporting and regulating the oviductal environment. The present study was undertaken to determine the influence of insemination and ovarian stimulation with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)/equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on PGI2 synthesis in the porcine oviduct on day 3 post coitus. Mature gilts (n = 25) were assigned into 2 experiments. In experiment I, gilts were divided into cyclic (control; n = 5) and inseminated (control; n = 5) groups. In experiment II, there were 3 groups of animals: inseminated (n = 5), induced ovulation/inseminated (750 IU eCG, 500 IU hCG; n = 5), and superovulated/inseminated (1,500 IU eCG, 1,000 IU hCG; n = 5) gilts. Parts of oviducts (isthmus and ampulla) were collected 3 days after phosphate-buffered saline treatment (cyclic gilts of experiment I) or insemination (all other groups). Expression of messenger RNA for PGI2 synthase (PGIS) and its receptor (IP) was measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT PCR) and protein levels using Western blots. Concentrations of the PGI2 metabolite 6-keto PGF1α were evaluated by enzyme immunoassay and localization of PGIS and IP in the oviductal tissues using immunohistochemical staining. Insemination by itself increased PGIS protein levels in the oviductal isthmus (P < 0.05) and IP protein expression in the ampulla (P < 0.05). The concentration of 6-keto PGF1α increased significantly in the oviductal ampulla after insemination (P < 0.05). Induction of ovulation decreased IP protein levels in the oviductal ampulla (P < 0.05), whereas superovulation reduced IP levels in both parts of the oviduct (P < 0.01). Synthesis of 6-keto PGF1α was reduced by induction of ovulation

  15. Skin permeation of testosterone and its ester derivatives in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, M K; Lee, C H; Kim, D D

    2000-04-01

    To establish the optimum conditions for improving the transdermal delivery of testosterone, we studied the relationship between the lipophilicity of testosterone ester derivatives and the rat skin permeation rate of testosterone. We performed a rat skin permeation study of testosterone and its commercially available ester derivatives, testosterone hemisuccinate, testosterone propionate and testosterone-17beta-cypionate, using an ethanol/water co-solvent system. The aqueous solubility and rat skin permeation rate of each drug, saturated in various compositions of an ethanol/water system, was determined at 37 degrees C. The aqueous solubility of testosterone and its ester derivatives increased exponentially as the volume fraction of ethanol increased up to 100% (v/v). The stability of testosterone propionate in both the skin homogenate and the extract was investigated to observe the enzymatic degradation during the skin permeation process. Testosterone propionate was found to be stable in the isotonic buffer solution and in the epidermis-side extract for 10h at 37 degrees C. However, in the skin homogenate and the dermis-side extract testosterone propionate rapidly degraded producing testosterone, implying that testosterone propionate rapidly degraded to testosterone during the skin permeation process. The steady-state permeation rates of testosterone in the ethanol/water systems increased exponentially as the volume fraction of ethanol increased, reaching the maximum value (2.69+/-0.69 microg cm(-2)h(-1)) at 70% (v/v) ethanol in water, and then decreasing with further increases in the ethanol volume fraction. However, in the skin permeation study with testosterone esters saturated in 70% (v/v) ethanol in water system, testosterone esters were hardly detected in the receptor solution, probably due to the rapid degradation to testosterone during the skin permeation process. Moreover, a parabolic relationship was observed between the permeation rate of testosterone and

  16. Testosterone nasal gel (Natesto) for hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    2015-05-11

    In one study, Natesto nasal gel administered intranasally 3 times daily was effective in raising low serum testosterone levels into the normal range in patients with hypogonadism. Whether patients will find this method of administration more acceptable than an intramuscular injection every 2-4 weeks or once-daily application to the skin remains to be determined. Based on the lack of convincing evidence of benefit in older men and concerns about its safety, the FDA has warned against using testosterone to treat hypogonadism due solely to aging. PMID:25941957

  17. 21 CFR 522.842 - Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.842 Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. (a) Sponsors. See sponsors in... testosterone propionate (one implant consisting of 8 pellets, each pellet containing 2.5 mg estradiol...

  18. 21 CFR 522.842 - Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.842 Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. (a) Sponsors. See sponsors in... testosterone propionate (one implant consisting of 8 pellets, each pellet containing 2.5 mg estradiol...

  19. 21 CFR 522.842 - Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.842 Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. (a) Sponsors. See sponsors in... testosterone propionate (one implant consisting of 8 pellets, each pellet containing 2.5 mg estradiol...

  20. 21 CFR 522.842 - Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.842 Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. (a) Sponsors. See sponsors in... testosterone propionate (one implant consisting of 8 pellets, each pellet containing 2.5 mg estradiol...

  1. 21 CFR 522.842 - Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.842 Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. (a) Sponsors. See sponsors in... testosterone propionate (one implant consisting of 8 pellets, each pellet containing 2.5 mg estradiol...

  2. Testosterone in tropical birds: effects of environmental and social factors.

    PubMed

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Moore, Ignacio T; Scheuerlein, Alexander; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Grafen, Alan; Wingfield, John C

    2004-09-01

    Previous investigations suggest that male tropical birds have lower plasma testosterone concentrations than northern latitude species. To test whether this generalization is valid, we analyzed all currently available plasma testosterone data of tropical birds. We focused on peak breeding testosterone levels using phylogenetic and conventional statistics. Explanatory variables considered were social mating system, type of territoriality, breeding season length, and altitude. On average, tropical birds had lower mean peak testosterone levels than northern temperate birds. However, in several tropical species, testosterone levels were well within the range of northern latitude birds. Without controlling for phylogeny, breeding season length, type of territoriality, and altitude explained a significant proportion of the variance in testosterone levels. The shorter the breeding season, the higher the testosterone levels. Tropical birds that defend a breeding season territory had higher testosterone levels than birds that were year-round territorial or colonial, and testosterone levels were positively correlated with altitude. When controlling for phylogeny, only breeding season length predicted testosterone levels. In conclusion, we propose to refine previous notions of low plasma testosterone levels in tropical birds: short breeding seasons and perhaps environmental conditions at high altitudes precipitate conditions under which high testosterone levels are beneficial in the tropics. PMID:15478088

  3. Reproductive performance in sows treated with estradiol benzoate/human chorionic gonadotrophin combination at weaning.

    PubMed Central

    Friendship, R M; Bosu, W T; King, G J

    1982-01-01

    The effects of estradiol benzoate plus human chorionic gonadotrophin administered on the day of weaning on the reproductive performance in sows was studied. The treatment advanced the onset of estrus but the duration of estrus was slightly prolonged. Breeding on the post-weaning estrus was associated with poor pregnancy rate and smaller litters. The treatment did not cause permanent damage to the reproductive tract as the reproductive performance of the treated sows after subsequent breedings were unaffected. The possible causes of the poor fertility in the estradiol benzoate plus human chorionic gonadotrophin treated sows are discussed. PMID:6890868

  4. Development of ovine chorionic somatomammotropin hormone-deficient pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Baker, Callie M; Goetzmann, Lindsey N; Cantlon, Jeremy D; Jeckel, Kimberly M; Winger, Quinton A; Anthony, Russell V

    2016-05-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Chorionic somatomammotropin hormone (CSH), a placenta-specific secretory product found at high concentrations in maternal and fetal circulation throughout gestation, is significantly reduced in human and sheep IUGR pregnancies. The objective of this study was to knock down ovine CSH (oCSH) expression in vivo using lentiviral-mediated short-hairpin RNA to test the hypothesis that oCSH deficiency would result in IUGR of near-term fetal lambs. Three different lentiviral oCSH-targeting constructs were used and compared with pregnancies (n = 8) generated with a scrambled control (SC) lentiviral construct. Pregnancies were harvested at 135 days of gestation. The most effective targeting sequence, "target 6" (tg6; n = 8), yielded pregnancies with significant reductions (P ≤ 0.05) in oCSH mRNA (50%) and protein (38%) concentrations, as well as significant reductions (P ≤ 0.05) in placental (52%) and fetal (32%) weights compared with the SC pregnancies. Fetal liver weights were reduced 41% (P ≤ 0.05), yet fetal liver insulin-like growth factor-I (oIGF1) and -II mRNA concentrations were reduced (P ≤ 0.05) 82 and 71%, respectively, and umbilical artery oIGF1 concentrations were reduced 62% (P ≤ 0.05) in tg6 pregnancies. Additionally, fetal liver oIGF-binding protein (oIGFBP) 2 and oIGFBP3 mRNA concentrations were reduced (P ≤ 0.05), whereas fetal liver oIGFBP1 mRNA concentration was not impacted nor was maternal liver oIGF and oIGFBP mRNA concentrations or uterine artery oIGF1 concentrations (P ≥ 0.10). Based on our results, it appears that oCSH deficiency does result in IUGR, by impacting placental development as well as fetal liver development and function. PMID:26887431

  5. Metabolic and renal clearance rates of purified human chorionic gonadotropin.

    PubMed Central

    Wehmann, R E; Nisula, B C

    1981-01-01

    The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and renal clearance rate (RCR) of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were measured in healthy young men and women using techniques of continuous intravenous infusion and rapid intravenous injection of unlabeled, highly purified hCG. Seven subjects received 4 d of infusion at a rate of 0.2 microgram/min, followed by an additional 4 d of infusion at 0.8 microgram/min. Mean serum levels of hCG established at these rates of infusion were 61.1 +/- 3.3 and 237 +/- 16 ng/ml, respectively (mean +/- SEM). The MCR determined at the low infusion rate was not significantly different from that determined at the higher infusion rate (1.83 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.95 +/- 0.14 ml/min per m2). The mean MCR for all subjects was 1.88 +/- 0.08 ml/min per m2. The MCR was not significantly different between men amd women (2.04 +/- 0.13 vs. 1.76 +/- 0.07 ml/min per m2). The RCR also did not vary between low and high infusion rates (0.40 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.40 +/- 0.04 ml/min per m2). The mean RCR for all subjects was 0.40 +/- 0.02 ml/min per m2. There was no difference in RCR between men and women (0.42 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.39 +/- 0.03 ml/min per m2). Six subjects were given 1.0 mg of highly purified hCG by rapid intravenous injection. Initial serum levels of hCG were 300-400 ng/ml, and the subsequent disappearance curve was multiexponential over 8-10 d. The disappearance curve of hCG in each subject was fitted to a biexponential equation. The rapid component t1/2 was 5.97 +/- 0.63 h and the slow component t1/2 was 35.6 +/- 8.0 h. We conclude that the MCR of purified hCG in man is about 2 ml/min per m2 and the RCR is 0.4 ml/min per m2; these parameters are concentration independent and do not differ significantly between healthy young men and women. PMID:7251859

  6. Serum levels of testosterone precursors, testosterone and estradiol in 10 animal species.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, U; Wichmann, G; Krause, W

    1984-05-01

    Blood levels of testosterone precursors, i.e. pregnenolone, progesterone, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, androstendione, DHEA, and delta 5-androstendiol as well as testosterone and estradiol are measured in 10 animals each of 10 different species. The determination is done by radioimmunoassay with steroidspecific antibodies. Precursors of the delta 5-pathway (DHEA, androstendiol) are low in the red deer, dog, cat, rat and guinea pig. Precursors of the delta 4-pathway (progesterone, 17-hydroxprogesterone, androstendione) are lower in the bull, boar, ram, stallion and rabbit thus indicating a predominance of different pathways in the animal species studied herein. Pregnenolone concentrations are of equal height in all animals, testosterone is lowest in the cat and stallion. In the latter species the estradiol/testosterone ratio is spectacular high. PMID:6540697

  7. Postnatal Testosterone Concentrations and Male Social Development

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Gerianne M.

    2014-01-01

    Converging evidence from over 40 years of behavioral research indicates that higher testicular androgens in prenatal life and at puberty contribute to the masculinization of human behavior. However, the behavioral significance of the transient activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis in early postnatal life remains largely unknown. Although early research on non-human primates indicated that suppression of the postnatal surge in testicular androgens had no measurable effects on the later expression of the male behavioral phenotype, recent research from our laboratory suggests that postnatal testosterone concentrations influence male infant preferences for larger social groups and temperament characteristics associated with the later development of aggression. In later assessment of gender-linked behavior in the second year of life, concentrations of testosterone at 3–4 months of age were unrelated to toy choices and activity levels during toy play. However, higher concentrations of testosterone predicted less vocalization in toddlers and higher parental ratings on an established screening measure for autism spectrum disorder. These findings suggest a role of the transient activation of the HPG axis in the development of typical and atypical male social relations and suggest that it may be useful in future research on the exaggerated rise in testosterone secretion in preterm infants or exposure to hormone disruptors in early postnatal life to include assessment of gender-relevant behavioral outcomes, including childhood disorders with sex-biased prevalence rates. PMID:24600437

  8. Precocious puberty secondary to topical testosterone exposure.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Sherry Lynn; Geffner, Mitchell E

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of pronounced virilization, including marked penile and pubic hair growth, accelerated height velocity and skeletal maturation, and increased muscle mass in a 2.67 year-old boy resulting from presumed inadvertent, long-term exposure to a topical testosterone cream being used by his father. PMID:12585348

  9. Licorice consumption and serum testosterone in healthy man.

    PubMed

    Armanini, D; Bonanni, G; Mattarello, M J; Fiore, C; Sartorato, P; Palermo, M

    2003-09-01

    We have previously found that licorice can reduce serum testosterone in healthy men. These results were not confirmed in another study, where the same amounts of licorice did not decrease salivary testosterone values. In the actual study we treated more cases with the same amount of licorice and reproduced our previous data. The mean testosterone values decreased by 26 % after one week of treatment (p < 0.01). There was also a significant increase in 17-OHP and LH concentrations and a slight, but not significant decrease in free testosterone. Licorice treatment, in addition, did not affect the response of testosterone and 17-OHP to stimulation with beta-HCG. PMID:14520600

  10. A FSH-Secreting Pituitary Macroadenoma Causing A Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiong; Ge, Li; Cui, Yuanqing; Lang, Cuihong; Hao, Cuifang

    2014-04-01

    FSH-secreting pituitary adenomas can affect sexual and reproductive function. In this article, we have reported the case of a 32-year-old male with secondary infertility. The patient had sexual and reproductive disturbances. The test results of the blood samples indicated obviously decreased testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) levels. Based on previous hormonal results, the patient received pituitary stimulation and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) tests. Both follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) showed low response during the pituitary stimulation test. The results of the hCG test indicated that T/E2 could recover to a normal level. In addition, this patient was diagnosed with pituitary macroadenoma, which was supported by the pituitary MRI. The man's sexual and reproductive functions recovered following surgery. The pathological results confirmed that the tumor tissue was an FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma by immunohistochemical staining. The purpose of this report was to review the relative literature and discuss the influence of FSH-secreting pituitary adenomas on hormones through the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis. PMID:24696774

  11. Oxytocin, testosterone, and human social cognition.

    PubMed

    Crespi, Bernard J

    2016-05-01

    I describe an integrative social-evolutionary model for the adaptive significance of the human oxytocinergic system. The model is based on a role for this hormone in the generation and maintenance of social familiarity and affiliation across five homologous, functionally similar, and sequentially co-opted contexts: mothers with offspring, female and male mates, kin groups, individuals with reciprocity partners, and individuals within cooperating and competing social groups defined by culture. In each situation, oxytocin motivates, mediates and rewards the cognitive and behavioural processes that underlie the formation and dynamics of a more or less stable social group, and promotes a relationship between two or more individuals. Such relationships may be positive (eliciting neurological reward, reducing anxiety and thus indicating fitness-enhancing effects), or negative (increasing anxiety and distress, and thus motivating attempts to alleviate a problematic, fitness-reducing social situation). I also present evidence that testosterone exhibits opposite effects from oxytocin on diverse aspects of cognition and behaviour, most generally by favouring self-oriented, asocial and antisocial behaviours. I apply this model for effects of oxytocin and testosterone to understanding human psychological disorders centrally involving social behaviour. Reduced oxytocin and higher testosterone levels have been associated with under-developed social cognition, especially in autism. By contrast, some combination of oxytocin increased above normal levels, and lower testosterone, has been reported in a notable number of studies of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, and, in some cases, higher oxytocin involves maladaptively 'hyper-developed' social cognition in these conditions. This pattern of findings suggests that human social cognition and behaviour are structured, in part, by joint and opposing effects of oxytocin and testosterone, and that extremes of such joint

  12. Advanced glycation end products inhibit testosterone secretion by rat Leydig cells by inducing oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun-Tao; Qi, Ya-Wei; Hu, Chuan-Yin; Chen, Shao-Hong; Liu, You

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes severely impairs male reproduction. The present study assessed the effects and mechanisms of action of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which play an important role in the development of diabetes complications, on testosterone secretion by rat Leydig cells. Primary rat Leydig cells were cultured and treated with AGEs (25, 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml). Testosterone production induced by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was determined by ELISA. The mRNA and protein expression levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), which are involved in testosterone biosynthesis, were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blot analyssi, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in Leydig cells was measured using the dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) probe. The expression levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins [C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78)] in the Leydig cells were measured by western blot analysis. We found that the AGEs markedly suppressed testosterone production by rat Leydig cells which was induced by hCG in a concentration-dependent manner compared with the control (P<0.01). The mRNA and protein expression levels of StAR, 3β-HSD and P450scc were downregulated by the AGEs in a dose-dependent manner compared with the control (P<0.01). The antioxidant agent, N-acetyl‑L‑cysteine (NAC), and the endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), reversed the inhibitory effects of AGEs. In addition, the content of ROS in Leydig cells treated with AGEs increased significantly. The expression levels of CHOP and GRP78 were markedly upregulated by the AGEs in the Leydig cells. From these findings, it can be concluded that AGEs inhibit testosterone production by rat Leydig cells by inducing oxidative stress and

  13. [Testosterone in the management of metastatic prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Wolff, J M; Schmid, H P

    2015-11-01

    Background Among all cancer types, prostate cancer (PCa) is the most prevalent cancer and is the third-leading cause of cancer-related death in men. The biologic function of the prostate is decisively influenced by testosterone and its metabolic product dihydrotestosterone. However, there is general uncertainty about the role of testosterone in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). For many years, the androgen hypothesis had been accepted to explain the correlation between testosterone levels and the development or progression of PCa. However, extensive study analyses revealed contradictory results, leading to a reconsideration of the androgen hypothesis. High serum testosterone levels do not predispose to PCa development and low serum testosterone levels are not protective. The importance of testosterone levels in patients with mCRPC has been shown in several registration studies with new drugs, such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide. There is growing evidence suggesting a prognostic role of testosterone levels in mCRPC. PMID:26113300

  14. Current topics in testosterone replacement of hypogonadal men.

    PubMed

    Nieschlag, Eberhard

    2015-01-01

    All forms of hypogonadism - primary, secondary and late-onset - require testosterone substitution. The indication is given when the patient presents with symptoms of androgen deficiency and the serum testosterone levels are below normal. Several testosterone preparations and modes of application are available of which those producing physiologic serum levels should be preferred e.g. preferentially transdermal gels and long-acting intramuscular testosterone undecanoate. Testosterone substitution must be monitored at regular intervals, best at 3, 6 and 12 months after initiation and then annually. Parameters for surveillance include well-being, libido and sexual activity, measurement of serum testosterone levels, haemoglobin and haematocrit, PSA and digital rectal examination, and, biannually, bone mineral density. Testosterone has positive effects on comorbidities such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes type II, cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. PMID:25617174

  15. 21 CFR 862.1155 - Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test system. 862.1155 Section 862.1155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1155 - Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test system. 862.1155 Section 862.1155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1155 - Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test system. 862.1155 Section 862.1155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  18. EFFECT OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE ON CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN SECRETION BY HUMAN PLACENTAL TROPHOBLAST CULTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECT OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE ON CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN SECRETION BY HUMAN PLACENTAL TROPHOBLAST CULTURES

    Jiangang Chen1, Gordon C. Douglas1?,Twanda L. Thirkill1?, Peter N. Lohstroh1, Susan R. Bielmeier2, Michael G. Narotsky3, Deborah S. Best3, Randy A. Harrison3, Kala ...

  19. Egg morphology and chorionic ultrastructure of key stored product insect pests of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggs of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were imaged with scanning electron microscopy to explore how respiratory openings on the chorion surface may be related to the efficacy of fumigants. Each P. interpunctella eg...

  20. Testosterone treatment is immunosuppressive in superb fairy-wrens, yet free-living males with high testosterone are more immunocompetent.

    PubMed

    Peters, A

    2000-05-01

    The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis proposes that the immunosuppressive effect of testosterone enforces honesty of sexual signalling via a physiological trade-off between signal intensity and immunocompetence. However, evidence that testosterone is immunosuppressive is scant, particularly in birds. I studied the correlation between immunocompetence and testosterone in superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus), a species with intense intersexual selection. Males are seasonally dichromatic and testosterone increases during the moult from dull brown eclipse plumage into bright nuptial plumage. I determined the primary antibody response to immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) in (i) control and testosterone-implanted males in captivity, and (ii) a cross-section of free-living males with basal and elevated testosterone (in eclipse plumage, moulting and in nuptial plumage). Experimental treatment with testosterone decreased the likelihood of an antibody response to SRBCs in captive birds. In contrast, free-living males which had acquired the nuptial plumage and had naturally elevated testosterone were more likely to respond to SRBCs than males in eclipse plumage with basal testosterone levels. The association between higher immunocompetence and higher immunosuppressive testosterone could arise if both are positively correlated with male phenotypic quality In addition, the association could result if males compensate for potential immunosuppression by enhancing their humoral immune responses, particularly since high testosterone is linked to other demanding activities such as moulting and courtship displays. PMID:10853730

  1. Testosterone metabolism in the estuarine mysid neomysis integer (Crustacea; Mysidacea): identification of testosterone metabolites and endogenous vertebrate-type steroids.

    PubMed

    Verslycke, Tim; De Wasch, Katia; De Brabander, Hubert F; Janssen, Colin R

    2002-04-01

    Testosterone metabolism by Neomysis integer (Crustacea; Mysidacea) was assessed to obtain initial data on its metabolic capacity. N. integer were exposed to both testosterone and [(14)C]testosterone. Identification of testosterone metabolites and endogenous steroids was performed using thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography with multiple mass spectrometry. Endogenous production of testosterone in mysids was detected for the first time. N. integer were exposed to testosterone and metabolized administered testosterone extensively. At least 11 polar testosterone metabolites (R(f,metabolite) < R(f,testosterone)), androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, and testosterone were produced in vivo by N. integer. A sex-specific testosterone metabolism was also observed, although this observation requires further confirmation. The anabolic steroid beta-boldenone was also identified for the first time in invertebrates. The metabolic pathway leading to the formation of beta-boldenone remains unknown, since the steroidal precursor androstadienedione could not be detected. These results reveal interesting similarities in enzyme systems in invertebrate and vertebrate species. Alterations in steroid hormone metabolism may be used as a new biomarker for the effects of endocrine disruptors in invertebrates. PMID:12030775

  2. The TRPM8 Protein Is a Testosterone Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Demirkhanyan, Lusine; Sun, Xiaohui; Elustondo, Pia A.; Krishnan, Vivek; Baskaran, Padmamalini; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Thyagarajan, Baskaran; Pavlov, Evgeny V.; Zakharian, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone is a key steroid hormone in the development of male reproductive tissues and the regulation of the central nervous system. The rapid signaling mechanism induced by testosterone affects numerous behavioral traits, including sexual drive, aggressiveness, and fear conditioning. However, the currently identified testosterone receptor(s) is not believed to underlie the fast signaling, suggesting an orphan pathway. Here we report that an ion channel from the transient receptor potential family, TRPM8, commonly known as the cold and menthol receptor is the major component of testosterone-induced rapid actions. Using cultured and primary cell lines along with the purified TRPM8 protein, we demonstrate that testosterone directly activates TRPM8 channel at low picomolar range. Specifically, testosterone induced TRPM8 responses in primary human prostate cells, PC3 prostate cancer cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and hippocampal neurons. Picomolar concentrations of testosterone resulted in full openings of the purified TRPM8 channel in planar lipid bilayers. Furthermore, acute applications of testosterone on human skin elicited a cooling sensation. Our data conclusively demonstrate that testosterone is an endogenous and highly potent agonist of TRPM8, suggesting a role of TRPM8 channels well beyond their well established function in somatosensory neurons. This discovery may further imply TRPM8 channel function in testosterone-dependent behavioral traits. PMID:25480785

  3. Physiological levels of testosterone kill salmonid leukocytes in vitro

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slater, C.H.; Schreck, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) elaborate high plasma concentrations of testosterone during sexual maturation, and these levels of testosterone have been shown to reduce the salmonid immune response in vitro. Our search for the mechanism of testosterone's immunosuppressive action has led to the characterization of an androgen receptor in salmonid leukocytes. In the present study we examined the specific effects that testosterone had on salmonid leukocytes. Direct counts of viable leukocytes after incubation with and without physiological levels of testosterone demonstrate a significant loss of leukocytes in cultures exposed to testosterone. At least 5 days of contact with testosterone was required to produce significant immunosuppression and addition of a 'conditioned media' (supernatant from proliferating lymphocytes not exposed to testosterone) did not reverse the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. These data lead us to conclude that testosterone may exert its immunosuppressive effects by direct action on salmonid leukocytes, through the androgen receptor described, and that this action leads to the death of a significant number of these leukocytes.

  4. Effects of gendered behavior on testosterone in women and men.

    PubMed

    van Anders, Sari M; Steiger, Jeffrey; Goldey, Katherine L

    2015-11-10

    Testosterone is typically understood to contribute to maleness and masculinity, although it also responds to behaviors such as competition. Competition is crucial to evolution and may increase testosterone but also is selectively discouraged for women and encouraged for men via gender norms. We conducted an experiment to test how gender norms might modulate testosterone as mediated by two possible gender→testosterone pathways. Using a novel experimental design, participants (trained actors) performed a specific type of competition (wielding power) in stereotypically masculine vs. feminine ways. We hypothesized in H1 (stereotyped behavior) that wielding power increases testosterone regardless of how it is performed, vs. H2 (stereotyped performance), that wielding power performed in masculine but not feminine ways increases testosterone. We found that wielding power increased testosterone in women compared with a control, regardless of whether it was performed in gender-stereotyped masculine or feminine ways. Results supported H1 over H2: stereotyped behavior but not performance modulated testosterone. These results also supported theory that competition modulates testosterone over masculinity. Our findings thus support a gender→testosterone pathway mediated by competitive behavior. Accordingly, cultural pushes for men to wield power and women to avoid doing so may partially explain, in addition to heritable factors, why testosterone levels tend to be higher in men than in women: A lifetime of gender socialization could contribute to "sex differences" in testosterone. Our experiment opens up new questions of gender→testosterone pathways, highlighting the potential of examining nature/nurture interactions and effects of socialization on human biology. PMID:26504229

  5. Effects of gendered behavior on testosterone in women and men

    PubMed Central

    van Anders, Sari M.; Steiger, Jeffrey; Goldey, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone is typically understood to contribute to maleness and masculinity, although it also responds to behaviors such as competition. Competition is crucial to evolution and may increase testosterone but also is selectively discouraged for women and encouraged for men via gender norms. We conducted an experiment to test how gender norms might modulate testosterone as mediated by two possible gender→testosterone pathways. Using a novel experimental design, participants (trained actors) performed a specific type of competition (wielding power) in stereotypically masculine vs. feminine ways. We hypothesized in H1 (stereotyped behavior) that wielding power increases testosterone regardless of how it is performed, vs. H2 (stereotyped performance), that wielding power performed in masculine but not feminine ways increases testosterone. We found that wielding power increased testosterone in women compared with a control, regardless of whether it was performed in gender-stereotyped masculine or feminine ways. Results supported H1 over H2: stereotyped behavior but not performance modulated testosterone. These results also supported theory that competition modulates testosterone over masculinity. Our findings thus support a gender→testosterone pathway mediated by competitive behavior. Accordingly, cultural pushes for men to wield power and women to avoid doing so may partially explain, in addition to heritable factors, why testosterone levels tend to be higher in men than in women: A lifetime of gender socialization could contribute to “sex differences” in testosterone. Our experiment opens up new questions of gender→testosterone pathways, highlighting the potential of examining nature/nurture interactions and effects of socialization on human biology. PMID:26504229

  6. Ovarian and Adrenal Androgens and Their Link to High Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Levels: A Prospective Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Zacarías; Morales-Martinez, Felipe Arturo; Rodríguez-Guajardo, René; González-Saldivar, Gloria; Mancillas-Adame, Leonardo G.; Alvarez-Villalobos, Neri Alejandro; Lavalle-Gonzalez, Fernando Javier; González-González, José Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background. Although the association between human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and hyperandrogenism was identified more than 40 years ago, relevant questions remain unanswered. Design and Methods. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal, and controlled study in 23 women with a diagnosis of a complete hydatidiform mole (HM). Results. All participants completed the study. Before HM evacuation mean hCG was markedly higher in the cases than in the control group (P ≤ 0.001). Free testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) were found to be higher in the cases (2.78 ± 1.24 pg/mL and 231.50 ± 127.20 μ/dL) when compared to the control group (1.50 ± 0.75 pg/mL and 133.59 ± 60.69 μ/dL) (P = 0.0001 and 0.001), respectively. There was a strong correlation between hCG and free T/total T/DHEA-S concentrations (r = 0.78; P ≤ 0.001, r = 0.74;  P ≤ 0.001, and r = 0.71;  P ≤ 0.001), respectively. In the cases group 48 hours after HM evacuation, hCG levels were found to be significantly lower when compared to initial levels (P = 0.001) and free T and DHEA-S declined significantly (P = 0.0002 and 0.009). Conclusion. Before uterus evacuation, hCG, free T, and DHEA-S levels were significantly higher when compared with controls finding a strong correlation between hCG and free T/DHEA-S levels. Forty-eight hours after HM treatment hCG levels declined and the difference was lost. A novel finding of our study is that in cases, besides free T, DHEA-S was also found to be significantly higher and both the ovaries and adrenal glands appear to be the sites of this androgen overproduction. PMID:25505909

  7. Estrogen, testosterone, and sequential movement in men.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jessica A; Young, Laura A; Neiss, Michelle B; Samuels, Mary H; Roselli, Charles E; Janowsky, Jeri S

    2008-10-01

    Behavioral and physiological data suggest that the striatal dopaminergic system is important in the production and execution of sequential movements. Striatal function is also modulated by sex hormones, and previous studies show that estradiol is related to sequential movement in women. The authors examined whether sex hormones are involved in the production of sequential movement in healthy older and younger men. Testosterone was modified for a 6-week period such that levels in older men matched those of younger men, the conversion of testosterone to estradiol was blocked, the production of testosterone was blocked, or the men received no treatment (placebo). Sequential movement was measured before and after hormone treatment. Older men were slower and more accurate than younger men on the sequential movement task pre- and posttreatment. Hormone manipulation had no effect on movement speed. Hormone levels were not correlated with sequential movement performance in either older or younger men, suggesting that sex hormones do not modulate sequential movement in men, and hormone replacement may not restore a loss of sequential movement ability in elderly men or men with Parkinson's disease. PMID:18823152

  8. The TRPM8 protein is a testosterone receptor: II. Functional evidence for an ionotropic effect of testosterone on TRPM8.

    PubMed

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Demirkhanyan, Lusine; Sun, Xiaohui; Elustondo, Pia A; Krishnan, Vivek; Baskaran, Padmamalini; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Thyagarajan, Baskaran; Pavlov, Evgeny V; Zakharian, Eleonora

    2015-01-30

    Testosterone is a key steroid hormone in the development of male reproductive tissues and the regulation of the central nervous system. The rapid signaling mechanism induced by testosterone affects numerous behavioral traits, including sexual drive, aggressiveness, and fear conditioning. However, the currently identified testosterone receptor(s) is not believed to underlie the fast signaling, suggesting an orphan pathway. Here we report that an ion channel from the transient receptor potential family, TRPM8, commonly known as the cold and menthol receptor is the major component of testosterone-induced rapid actions. Using cultured and primary cell lines along with the purified TRPM8 protein, we demonstrate that testosterone directly activates TRPM8 channel at low picomolar range. Specifically, testosterone induced TRPM8 responses in primary human prostate cells, PC3 prostate cancer cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and hippocampal neurons. Picomolar concentrations of testosterone resulted in full openings of the purified TRPM8 channel in planar lipid bilayers. Furthermore, acute applications of testosterone on human skin elicited a cooling sensation. Our data conclusively demonstrate that testosterone is an endogenous and highly potent agonist of TRPM8, suggesting a role of TRPM8 channels well beyond their well established function in somatosensory neurons. This discovery may further imply TRPM8 channel function in testosterone-dependent behavioral traits. PMID:25480785

  9. Reflexive Testosterone Release: A Model System for Studying the Nongenomic Effects of Testosterone Upon Male Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Nyby, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Male mammals of many species exhibit reflexive testosterone release in mating situations. In house mice (Mus musculus), the dramatic robustness of such release, occurring primarily in response to a novel female, suggests some function. The resulting testosterone elevations typically peak during copulatory behavior and may serve to activate transitory motivational and physiological responses that facilitate reproduction. However, such a function requires that testosterone be working through either nongenomic, or very quick genomic, mechanisms. The first part of the review describes reflexive sex hormone release in house mice. The second part summarizes research implicating testosterone’s fast actions in affecting anxiety, reward, learning, analgesia, and penile reflexes in rodents, all of which could optimize male mating success. The review concludes with a speculative model of how spontaneous and reflexive hormone release might interact to regulate reproductive behavior and why mice appear to be an ideal species for examining testosterone’s quick effects. PMID:17976710

  10. A link between high serum levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin and chorionic expression of its mature functional receptor (LHCGR) in Down's syndrome pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Subhasis; Smallwood, Alan; Chambers, Anne E; Papageorghiou, Aris; Loosfelt, Hugues; Spencer, Kevin; Campbell, Stuart; Nicolaides, Kypros

    2005-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) is released from placental trophoblasts and is involved in establishing pregnancy by maintaining progesterone secretion from the corpus luteum. Serum hCG is detected in the maternal circulation within the first 2–3 wks of gestation and peaks at the end of the first trimester before declining. In Down's syndrome (DS) pregnancies, serum hCG remains significantly high compared to gestation age-matched uncompromised pregnancies. It has been proposed that increased serum hCG levels could be due to transcriptional hyper-activation of the CGB (hCG beta) gene, or an increased half life of glycosylated hCG hormone, or both. Another possibility is that serum hCG levels remain high due to reduced availability of the hormone's cognate receptor, LHCGR, leading to lack of hormone utilization. We have tested this hypothesis by quantifying the expression of the hCG beta (CGB) RNA, LHCGR RNA and LHCGR proteins in chorionic villous samples. We demonstrate that chorionic expression of hCG beta (CGB) mRNA directly correlates with high serum hCG levels. The steady-state synthesis of LHCGR mRNA (exons 1–5) in DS pregnancies was significantly higher than that of controls, but the expression of full-length LHCGR mRNA (exons 1–11) in DS was comparable to that of uncompromised pregnancies. However, the synthesis of high molecular weight mature LHCGR proteins was significantly reduced in DS compared to uncompromised pregnancies, suggesting a lack of utilization of circulating hCG in DS pregnancies. PMID:15969756

  11. The evidence for seasonal variations of testosterone in men.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan P; Coward, Robert M; Kovac, Jason R; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2013-03-01

    Ample evidence exists to support the concept of diurnal variations in testosterone levels; however, substantiation for seasonal fluctuations is sparse and inconsistent. Since circadian disparities exist, laboratory screening for hypogonadism has traditionally been conducted using serum testosterone levels obtained in the early morning. Should circannual variability of testosterone be confirmed, it would make the monitoring of testosterone levels more difficult while forcing the development of seasonal reference standards to allow for comparison. Moreover, decisions to begin treatment and adjustment of practice patterns would likely follow. This review thoroughly explores all of the available evidence concerning seasonal variations in testosterone levels. The impacts of melatonin, vitamin D, sleep-wake cycles, light exposure, physical activity, BMI, and waist circumference are also discussed. Current research suggests that while some evidence exists to support the notion of seasonal testosterone variations, the discussed inconsistencies preclude the incorporation of this concept into current clinical standards. PMID:23294933

  12. Testosterone, cortisol, and psychopathic traits in men and women.

    PubMed

    Welker, Keith M; Lozoya, Elianna; Campbell, Jocelyn A; Neumann, Craig S; Carré, Justin M

    2014-04-22

    Cortisol and testosterone are theorized to independently and jointly influence antisocial behaviors. The current research examined the independent and interactive effects of baseline testosterone and cortisol on individual differences in psychopathic traits in a relatively large non-clinical sample (N=237). Participants completed the Self-Report Psychopathy - Short Form (SRP; Paulhus, Neumann, & Hare, in press) and provided saliva samples. Analyses indicated that testosterone and cortisol were positively correlated with psychopathic traits in men, but beyond these effects, cortisol moderated the relationship between testosterone and psychopathy in men. The relationship between testosterone and psychopathy within men was positive when cortisol levels were high, but negative when cortisol levels were low. These results have implications for work surrounding the dual hormone hypothesis and suggest that nonclinical variability in psychopathy can be predicted by baseline testosterone and cortisol. PMID:24631306

  13. Testosterone Replacement and Cardiovascular Safety: No Straight and Narrow!

    PubMed Central

    Hans, Sartaj S; Dhindsa, Sandeep S; Chemitiganti, Rama

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen a tremendous increase in the number of men treated for hypogonadism with the expectation of symptomatic benefit. However, the long-term cardiovascular safety of testosterone replacement remains unknown because retrospective studies of testosterone replacement have been inconsistent, and definitive, prospective, randomized studies are lacking. The purpose of this review is to critically appraise the studies on testosterone replacement and cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:25983562

  14. THE TESTOSTERONE TRIALS: THE DESIGN OF SEVEN COORDINATED TRIALS TO DETERMINE IF TESTOSTERONE TREATMENT BENEFITS ELDERLY MEN

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Peter J; Ellenberg, Susan S; Cunningham, Glenn R; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Bhasin, Shalender; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Gill, Thomas M; Farrar, John T; Cella, David; Rosen, Raymond C; Resnick, Susan M; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Cauley, Jane A; Cifelli, Denise; Fluharty, Laura; Pahor, Marco; Ensrud, Kristine E; Lewis, Cora E; Molitch, Mark E; Crandall, Jill P; Wang, Christina; Budoff, Matthew J; Wenger, Nanette K; Mohler, Emile R; Bild, Diane E; Cook, Nakela L; Keaveny, Tony M; Kopperdahl, David L; Lee, David; Schwartz, Ann V; Storer, Thomas W; Ershler, William B; Roy, Cindy N; Raffel, Leslie J; Romashkan, Sergei; Hadley, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of low testosterone levels in men increases with age, as does the prevalence of decreased mobility, sexual function, self-perceived vitality, cognitive abilities, bone mineral density, and glucose tolerance, and of increased anemia and coronary artery disease. Similar changes occur in men who have low serum testosterone concentrations due to known pituitary or testicular disease, and testosterone treatment improves the abnormalities. Prior studies of the effect of testosterone treatment in elderly men, however, have produced equivocal results. Purpose To describe a coordinated set of clinical trials designed to avoid the pitfalls of prior studies and determine definitively if testosterone treatment of elderly men with low testosterone is efficacious in improving symptoms and objective measures of age-associated conditions. Methods We present the scientific and clinical rationale for the decisions made in the design of this trial. Results We designed The Testosterone Trials as a coordinated set of seven trials to determine if testosterone treatment of elderly men with low serum testosterone concentrations and also symptoms and objective evidence of impaired mobility and/or diminished libido and/or reduced vitality would be efficacious in improving mobility (Physical Function Trial), sexual function (Sexual Function Trial), fatigue (Vitality Trial), cognitive function (Cognitive Function Trial), hemoglobin (Anemia Trial), bone density (Bone Trial), and coronary artery plaque volume (Cardiovascular Trial). The scientific advantages of this coordination were common eligibility criteria, treatment and monitoring and the ability to pool safety data. The logistical advantages were a single steering committee, data coordinating center and data safety monitoring board (DSMB), the same clinical trial sites, and the possibility of men participating in multiple trials. The major consideration in subject selection was setting the eligibility criterion

  15. Testosterone levels in suicide attempters with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sher, Leo; Grunebaum, Michael F.; Sullivan, Gregory M.; Burke, Ainsley K.; Cooper, Thomas B.; Mann, J. John; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The best known neurobehavioral effects of testosterone are on sexual function and aggression. However, testosterone and other androgens may be involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and suicidal behavior. This is the first study to examine whether there is a relation between testosterone levels and clinical parameters in bipolar suicide attempters. Methods Patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of a bipolar disorder (16 males and 51 females), in a depressive or mixed episode with at least one past suicide attempt were enrolled. Demographic and clinical parameters, including lifetime suicidal behavior, were assessed and recorded. Plasma testosterone was assayed using a double antibody radioimmunoassay procedure. Results The number of major depressive episodes, the maximum lethality of suicide attempts, and the testosterone levels were higher in men compared to women. Current suicidal ideation scores were higher in women compared to men. Controlling for sex, we found that testosterone levels positively correlated with the number of manic episodes and the number of suicide attempts. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with previous observations of the association between testosterone levels and parameters of mood and behavior. This study suggests that testosterone levels may be related to the course of bipolar disorder and suicidal behavior. Further studies of the role of testosterone in the neurobiology of mood disorders and suicidal behavior are merited. PMID:22858352

  16. Amnion and Chorion Allografts in Combination with Coronally Advanced Flap in the Treatment of Gingival Recession: A Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborthy, Sonali; Sambashivaiah, Savita; Bilchodmath, Shivaprasad

    2015-01-01

    Background Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) based root coverage using different allograft membranes has been utilized to correct gingival recession defects with promising results. Amnion and chorion allograft membranes of alternative origin derived from human placental tissue has been advocated in the treatment of gingival recession. However, chorion membrane has been used in combination with amnion membrane no study has compared these allograft membranes in the treatment of gingival recession. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate and compare the efficacy of amnion membrane and chorion membrane in combination with coronally advanced flap in the treatment of gingival recessions. Materials and Methods Twelve systemically healthy patients having at least 2 bilateral Miller’s Class I or Class II gingival recession were recruited and coronally advanced flap was performed with amnion membrane or chorion membrane. Clinical parameters such as gingival Index, plaque index, length of the recession, width of the recession, width of keratinized gingiva, relative attachment level were evaluated at baseline, 3 and 6 months post-surgery. Results The mean decrease in length of recession (LR) for Chorion site was 2.00±1.54mm and amnion site was 1.58±1.14mm. The gain in attachment level for amnion site was 2.17±1.53mm and for chorion site was 1.58±1.22mm. The total mean percentage of root coverage was 34% for chorion site and 22% for amnion site. Conclusion Both amnion membrane and chorion membrane has shown to be versatile allograft material to be used in the treatment of root coverage. PMID:26501023

  17. SMAD1/5 Signaling in the Early Equine Placenta Regulates Trophoblast Differentiation and Chorionic Gonadotropin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Sharp, Victoria; Read, Jordan E.; Richardson, Stephanie; Kowalski, Alycia A.; Antczak, Douglas F.; Cartwright, Judith E.; Mukherjee, Abir

    2014-01-01

    TGFβ superfamily proteins, acting via SMAD (Sma- and Mad-related protein)2/3 pathways, regulate placental function; however, the role of SMAD1/5/8 pathway in the placenta is unknown. This study investigated the functional role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)4 signaling through SMAD1/5 in terminal differentiation of primary chorionic gonadotropin (CG)-secreting trophoblast. Primary equine trophoblast cells or placental tissues were isolated from day 27–34 equine conceptuses. Detected by microarray, RT-PCR, and quantitative RT-PCR, equine chorionic girdle trophoblast showed increased gene expression of receptors that bind BMP4. BMP4 mRNA expression was 20- to 60-fold higher in placental tissues adjacent to the chorionic girdle compared with chorionic girdle itself, suggesting BMP4 acts primarily in a paracrine manner on the chorionic girdle. Stimulation of chorionic girdle-trophoblast cells with BMP4 resulted in a dose-dependent and developmental stage-dependent increase in total number and proportion of terminally differentiated binucleate cells. Furthermore, BMP4 treatment induced non-CG-secreting day 31 chorionic girdle trophoblast cells to secrete CG, confirming a specific functional response to BMP4 stimulation. Inhibition of SMAD2/3 signaling combined with BMP4 treatment further enhanced differentiation of trophoblast cells. Phospho-SMAD1/5, but not phospho-SMAD2, expression as determined by Western blotting was tightly regulated during chorionic girdle trophoblast differentiation in vivo, with peak expression of phospho-SMAD1/5 in vivo noted at day 31 corresponding to maximal differentiation response of trophoblast in vitro. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate the involvement of BMP4-dependent pathways in the regulation of equine trophoblast differentiation in vivo and primary trophoblast differentiation in vitro via activation of SMAD1/5 pathway, a previously unreported mechanism of TGFβ signaling in the mammalian placenta. PMID:24848867

  18. Effects of flucycloxuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on reproductive events and thickness of chorion in mealworms.

    PubMed

    Hami, M; Taibi, F; Soltani-Mazouni, N

    2004-01-01

    Flucycloxuron (FCX), a benzoylphenylurea derivative, was evaluated on Tenebrio molitor. The compound was incorporated into the diet and administrated to newly emerged females at various doses (2, 5 and 10 mg/kg). FCX was found to affect several reproductive events such as the duration of preovipostion and oviposition period, the fecundity, the viability of eggs and the duration of embryonic development, respectively. Morphological study of ovaries showed that FCX reduced both oocytes number, the ovaries weight and the size and the volume of the basal oocyte during the sexual maturation. In addition, it reduced the thickness of chorion from freshly laid eggs. However, electron microscopic study revealed that this compound had no significant effect on the fine structure of chorion. Finally, measurements of ovarian ecdysteroids production by an enzyme immunoassay indicated a reduction in the hormonal amounts recorded. PMID:15759421

  19. Chorionic villus sampling and materno-fetal transfusions: an immunological pathogenesis of vascular disruptive syndromes?

    PubMed

    Los, F J; Noomen, P; Vermeij-Keers, C; Gaillard, J L; Brandenburg, H; Jahoda, M G; Luider, T M

    1996-03-01

    Experimental materno-embryonic transfusions with serum that is immunologically active against blood group antigens cause congenital malformations in the rat embryo. In view of the possible increased incidence of vascular disruptive syndromes after chorionic villus sampling (CVS), we investigated the occurrence of materno-fetal transfusions (MFTs) in this procedure. In 18 pregnant women experiencing two needle introductions at CVS, we looked immunohistochemically at the presence of haemoglobin A1-containing maternal erythrocytes in the fetal circulation of the separately collected first and second chorionic villus samples. In 4 of 18 patients (22 per cent), a significant increase of maternal cells was observed in the second sample compared with the first sample, indicating the occurrence of MFT by CVS. On the rare occasion of maternal immunization against fetal antigens, a CVS-associated MFT might provoke immunological damage to the fetus. PMID:8710770

  20. Tissue-specific expression of silkmoth chorion genes in vivo using Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus as a transducing vector.

    PubMed Central

    Iatrou, K; Meidinger, R G

    1990-01-01

    A pair of silkmoth chorion chromosomal genes, HcA.12-HcB.12, was inserted into a baculovirus transfer vector, pBmp2, derived from the nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Bombyx mori. This vector, which permits the insertion of foreign genetic material in the vicinity of a mutationally inactivated polyhedrin gene, was used to acquire the corresponding recombinant virus. Injection of mutant silkmoth pupae that lack all Hc chorion genes with the recombinant virus resulted in the infection of all internal organs including follicular tissue. Analysis of RNA from infected tissues has demonstrated that the two chorion genes present in the viral genome are correctly transcribed under the control of their own promoter in follicular cells, the tissue in which chorion genes are normally expressed. The chorion primary transcripts are also correctly processed in the infected follicular cells and yield mature mRNAs indistinguishable from authentic chorion mRNAs present in wild-type follicles. These results demonstrate that recombinant nuclear polyhedrosis viruses can be used as transducing vectors for introducing genetic material of host origin into the cells of the organism and that the transduced genes are transiently expressed in a tissue-specific manner under the control of their resident regulatory sequences. Thus we show the in vivo expression of cloned genes under cellular promoter control in an insect other than Drosophila melanogaster. The approach should be applicable to all insect systems that are subject to nuclear polyhedrosis virus infection. Images PMID:2187186

  1. Stimulation of Spermiation by Human Chorionic Gonadotropin and Carp Pituitary Extract in Grass Puffer, Takifugu niphobles

    PubMed Central

    Goo, In Bon; Park, In-Seok; Gil, Hyun Woo; Im, Jae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Spermiation was stimulated in the mature grass puffer, Takifugu niphobles, with an injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) or carp pituitary extract (CPE). Spermatocrit and sperm density were reduced, but milt production was increased in both the HCG and CPE treatment groups relative to those in the control group (P <0.05). These results should be useful for increasing the fertilization efficiency in grass puffer breeding programs. PMID:26973977

  2. Gamma scintigraphy using Tc-99m labeled antibody to human chorionic gonadotropin

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, R.T.; Lyster, D.M.; Alcorn, L.N.; Rhodes, B.A.; Breslow, K.; Burchiel, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    A case report is presented describing a 27-year-old woman with invasive trophoblastic hydatidiform mole metastatic to the lung. Gamma scintiscanning, using a polyclonal and monoclonal antibody specific to human chorionic gonadotropin, hCG, and labeled with Tc-99m, is described. The area of the primary lesion in the uterus was demonstrated with both antibodies tested without computer subtraction techniques; metastatic deposits in the lung were detected only with the aid of blood pool subtraction techniques.

  3. Microscopic chorionic pseudocysts in placental membranes: a histologic lesion of in utero hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Jerzy; Weng, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Grossly apparent and microscopically intermediate trophoblast-lined subchorionic, septal, and cell island cysts are relatively common placental findings. To analyze the clinicopathologic correlations of histologically similar but grossly inapparent microscopic chorionic pseudocysts (lakes) arising in the chorion laeve of placental membranes (mccpm), selected placental and clinical parameters of all 172 consecutive placentas with mccpm (study group, sg) and all consecutive 3743 placentas without mccpm (comparative group, cg) from years 1994 through 2005 were statistically compared; mccpm were observed in 4.3% of all placentas and in 14.9% of placentas from preeclamptic mothers from 24- to 42-week pregnancies, their gestational weeks' distribution almost mirroring that of the distribution of preeclampsia, with a peak in the middle of the 3rd trimester. Microscopic chorionic pseudocysts (lakes) arising in the chorion laeve of placental membranes were statistically significantly more common in patients with preeclampsia and maternal diabetes mellitus. In placentas with mccpm, decidual arteriolopathy, homogeneous placental maturation, global hypoxic pattern of placental injury, chorangiosis, placental infarction, laminar necrosis of membranes, stem obliterative endarteritis, erythroblasts of fetal blood, and decidual hemosiderosis were statistically significantly more common, while acute chorioamnionitis, villous fibrosis, and villous edema were less common (P < or = 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between sg and cg in meconium staining, retroplacental hematoma, perivillous fibrin deposition, intervillous thrombi, chronic villitis, chorangiomas, placenta accreta, amnion nodosum, and marginate/vallate placenta. Highly statistically significant associations of mccpm with preeclampsia and a cluster of placental lesions known to be linked to placental hypoxia indicate that the mccpm form in response to hypoxia, particularly in patients with

  4. An unexpected reason for elevated human chorionic gonadotropin in a young woman. Cervical squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Aynur; Bozdag, Zehra; Tepe, Neslihan B; Ozcan, Husiyen C

    2016-08-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin has been used for decades, in addition to specific investigations, to detect pregnancy, trophoblastic tumors, as well as congenital defects. Rarely, it can be elevated in  non-trophoblastic tumors such as squamous cell cancers and germ cell tumors. A 33-year-old Asian Syrian female had irregular menses accompanied with feelings of heaviness in the vagina. In addition to routine investigations, we measured the serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-HCG) level (based on the patient's complaint of amenorrhea), which was 50.05 ml UI/ml. Cervical biopsy revealed a non-keratinized large cell squamous carcinoma. After excluding other causes, ß-hCG elevation was explained by the ectopic secretion of cancer cells line. Cervical biopsy was suggestive of large cell non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma and positive for human chorionic gonadotropin on immunohistochemistry. As a result, we manage the possibility of ectopic secretion of ß-HCG from non- trophoblastic disease. PMID:27464870

  5. Clinical outcomes after assisted reproductive technology in twin pregnancies: chorionicity-based comparison.

    PubMed

    Sun, Luming; Zou, Gang; Wei, Xing; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Okun, Nanette; Duan, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The chorionicity-based evaluation of the perinatal risk in twin pregnancies after assisted reproductive technology (ART) is lacking. A retrospective review was performed of all twin pregnancies monitored prenatally and delivered at our hospital between 2010 and 2014. Chorionicity was diagnosed by ultrasound examination at first trimester and confirmed by postnatal pathology. Pregnancy and perinatal outcomes were prospectively recorded. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated in a logistic regression model. A total of 1153 twin pregnancies were analyzed. The occurrence of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) was 3 times as frequent in monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies after ART as in those spontaneous counterparts (aOR 3.0; 95%CI 1.1-3.2). The prevalence of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancies (ICP) was significantly higher in dichorionic diamniotic (DCDA) twin pregnancies following ART compared to spontaneous DCDA pregnancies (aOR 3.3; 95%CI 1.3-5.6). Perinatal outcomes did not differ between two conception methods, either in MCDA or DCDA twin pregnancies. Based on differentiation of chorionicity, ART is associated with the increased risk of PPROM in MCDA twin pregnancies and with a higher rate of ICP in DCDA twin gestations. ART does not increase adversity of perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies. PMID:27243373

  6. Assessment of early chorionic circulation by three-dimensional power Doppler.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Tomislav; Kurjak, Asim; Funduk-Kurjak, Biserka; Bekavac, Ivanka

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional power Doppler sonography is a unique instrument that enables assessment of vascular signals within the whole investigated area. Hemodynamical changes included in the process of early placentation are one of the most exciting topics in investigation of early human development. This investigation was designed as an observational cross-sectional study. A group of 25 patients in gestational age five to eleven weeks were recruited for the study. After acquirement of the volume containing three-dimensional power Doppler data of the pregnant uterus, the signals belonging to the chorion were isolated. Vascular 3D measurements were undertaken through 3D color/power histogram and expressed by Vascularization Index (VI) and Vascularization Flow Index (VFI). Volume of the chorion increased exponentially throughout the observation period. The VI and VFI positively correlated with the crown-rump length and chorion volume, and showed gradual increment through the investigation period. This investigation produced results confirming gradual augmentation of the loci and intensity of the intervillous flow in pregnancies between five and eleven gestational weeks. PMID:11933653

  7. Environmental and Genetic Contributors to Salivary Testosterone Levels in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Kai; Yu, Yang; Ahn, Mihye; Zhu, Hongtu; Zou, Fei; Gilmore, John H.; Knickmeyer, Rebecca C.

    2014-01-01

    Transient activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis in early infancy plays an important role in male genital development and sexual differentiation of the brain, but factors contributing to individual variation in testosterone levels during this period are poorly understood. We measured salivary testosterone levels in 222 infants (119 males, 103 females, 108 singletons, 114 twins) between 2.70 and 4.80 months of age. We tested 16 major demographic and medical history variables for effects on inter-individual variation in salivary testosterone. Using the subset of twins, we estimated genetic and environmental contributions to salivary testosterone levels. Finally, we tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within ±5 kb of genes involved in testosterone synthesis, transport, signaling, and metabolism for associations with salivary testosterone using univariate tests and random forest (RF) analysis. We report an association between 5 min APGAR scores and salivary testosterone levels in males. Twin modeling indicated that individual variability in testosterone levels was primarily explained by environmental factors. Regarding genetic variation, univariate tests did not reveal any variants significantly associated with salivary testosterone after adjusting for false discovery rate. The top hit in males was rs10923844, an SNP of unknown function located downstream of HSD3B1 and HSD3B2. The top hits in females were two SNPs located upstream of ESR1 (rs3407085 and rs2295190). RF analysis, which reflects joint and conditional effects of multiple variants, indicated that genes involved in regulation of reproductive function, particularly LHCGR, are related to salivary testosterone levels in male infants, as are genes involved in cholesterol production, transport, and removal, while genes involved in estrogen signaling are related to salivary testosterone levels in female infants. PMID:25400620

  8. Fetal Testosterone, Socio-Emotional Engagement and Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrant, Brad M.; Mattes, Eugen; Keelan, Jeff A.; Hickey, Martha; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relations among fetal testosterone, child socio-emotional engagement and language development in a sample of 467 children (235 boys) from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Bioavailable testosterone concentration measured in umbilical cord blood taken at birth was found to be significantly…

  9. Testosterone and oxidative stress: the oxidation handicap hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Bertrand, Sophie; Faivre, Bruno; Chastel, Olivier; Sorci, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    Secondary sexual traits (SST) are usually thought to have evolved as honest signals of individual quality during mate choice. Honesty of SST is guaranteed by the cost of producing/maintaining them. In males, the expression of many SST is testosterone-dependent. The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis has been proposed as a possible mechanism ensuring honesty of SST on the basis that testosterone, in addition to its effect on sexual signals, also has an immunosuppressive effect. The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis has received mixed support. However, the cost of testosterone-based signalling is not limited to immunosuppression and might involve other physiological functions such as the antioxidant machinery. Here, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone depresses resistance to oxidative stress in a species with a testosterone-dependent sexual signal, the zebra finch. Male zebra finches received subcutaneous implants filled with flutamide (an anti-androgen) or testosterone, or kept empty (control). In agreement with the prediction, we found that red blood cell resistance to a free radical attack was the highest in males implanted with flutamide and the lowest in males implanted with testosterone. We also found that cell-mediated immune response was depressed in testosterone-treated birds, supporting the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis. The recent finding that red blood cell resistance to free radicals is negatively associated with mortality in this species suggests that benefits of sexual signalling might trade against the costs derived from oxidation. PMID:17251089

  10. An improved ultrafiltration method for determining free testosterone in serum

    SciTech Connect

    Vlahos, I.; MacMahon, W.; Sgoutas, D.; Bowers, W.; Thompson, J.; Trawick, W.

    1982-11-01

    In this method, we use the Amicon MPS-1 centrifugal ultrafiltration device and the YMB membrane in measuring free testosterone in serum. Two independent assays are combined: total testosterone and the ultrafiltrable fraction of added (/sup 3/H)testosterone. The unbound fraction is determined in 0.15-0.5 mL ultrafiltrates of 0.6 to 1 mL of variably diluted serum that has been equilibrated with (/sup 3/H)testosterone at 37 degrees C. The assay is rapid (less than 1 h), practicable (requires 0.6 mL of serum), and reproducible (CV 3.2% within assay, 3.9% between assays). Accuracy was evaluated as the fraction of free testosterone in the ultrafiltrate of dialyzed serum vs that in a prior dialysate; they were the same confirming the validity of the free testosterone measurement. Samples from ostensibly healthy men and women and from hirsute and pregnant women gave results that agreed with those obtained by equilibrium dialysis. Total testosterone concentrations for normal and hirsute women showed considerable overlap, but data on free testosterone concentrations in these populations were better resolved.

  11. A Mendelian randomization study of testosterone and cognition in men

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jie V.; Lam, Tai Hing; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Cherny, Stacey S.; Liu, Bin; Cheng, Kar Keung; Zhang, Weisen; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C Mary

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone replacement for older men is increasingly common, with some observations suggesting a protective effect on cognitive function. We examined the association of endogenous testosterone with cognitive function among older men in a Mendelian randomization study using a separate-sample instrumental variable (SSIV) analysis estimator to minimize confounding and reverse causality. A genetic score predicting testosterone was developed in 289 young Chinese men from Hong Kong, based on selected testosterone-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs10046, rs1008805 and rs1256031). The association of genetically predicted testosterone with delayed 10-word recall score and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was assessed at baseline and follow-up using generalized estimating equation among 4,212 older Chinese men from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. Predicted testosterone was not associated with delayed 10-word recall score (−0.02 per nmol/L testosterone, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.06–0.02) or MMSE score (0.06, 95% CI −0.002–0.12). These estimates were similar after additional adjustment for age, education, smoking, use of alcohol, body mass index and the Framingham score. Our findings do not corroborate observed protective effects of testosterone on cognitive function among older men. PMID:26864717

  12. Lowered testosterone in male obesity: mechanisms, morbidity and management

    PubMed Central

    Fui, Mark Ng Tang; Dupuis, Philippe; Grossmann, Mathis

    2014-01-01

    With increasing modernization and urbanization of Asia, much of the future focus of the obesity epidemic will be in the Asian region. Low testosterone levels are frequently encountered in obese men who do not otherwise have a recognizable hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis pathology. Moderate obesity predominantly decreases total testosterone due to insulin resistance-associated reductions in sex hormone binding globulin. More severe obesity is additionally associated with reductions in free testosterone levels due to suppression of the HPT axis. Low testosterone by itself leads to increasing adiposity, creating a self-perpetuating cycle of metabolic complications. Obesity-associated hypotestosteronemia is a functional, non-permanent state, which can be reversible, but this requires substantial weight loss. While testosterone treatment can lead to moderate reductions in fat mass, obesity by itself, in the absence of symptomatic androgen deficiency, is not an established indication for testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy may lead to a worsening of untreated sleep apnea and compromise fertility. Whether testosterone therapy augments diet- and exercise-induced weight loss requires evaluation in adequately designed randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:24407187

  13. Testosterone and oxidative stress: the oxidation handicap hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Bertrand, Sophie; Faivre, Bruno; Chastel, Olivier; Sorci, Gabriele

    2007-03-22

    Secondary sexual traits (SST) are usually thought to have evolved as honest signals of individual quality during mate choice. Honesty of SST is guaranteed by the cost of producing/maintaining them. In males, the expression of many SST is testosterone-dependent. The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis has been proposed as a possible mechanism ensuring honesty of SST on the basis that testosterone, in addition to its effect on sexual signals, also has an immunosuppressive effect. The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis has received mixed support. However, the cost of testosterone-based signalling is not limited to immunosuppression and might involve other physiological functions such as the antioxidant machinery. Here, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone depresses resistance to oxidative stress in a species with a testosterone-dependent sexual signal, the zebra finch. Male zebra finches received subcutaneous implants filled with flutamide (an anti-androgen) or testosterone, or kept empty (control). In agreement with the prediction, we found that red blood cell resistance to a free radical attack was the highest in males implanted with flutamide and the lowest in males implanted with testosterone. We also found that cell-mediated immune response was depressed in testosterone-treated birds, supporting the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis. The recent finding that red blood cell resistance to free radicals is negatively associated with mortality in this species suggests that benefits of sexual signalling might trade against the costs derived from oxidation. PMID:17251089

  14. Proof of the effect of testosterone on skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, S; Woodhouse, L; Storer, T W

    2001-07-01

    In spite of the widespread abuse of androgenic steroids by athletes and recreational body-builders, the effects of these agents on athletic performance and physical function remain poorly understood. Experimentally induced androgen deficiency is associated with a loss of fat-free mass; conversely, physiologic testosterone replacement of healthy, androgen-deficient men increases fat-free mass and muscle protein synthesis. Testosterone supplementation of HIV-infected men with low testosterone levels and of older men with normally low testosterone concentrations also increases muscle mass. However, we do not know whether physiologic testosterone replacement can improve physical function and health-related quality of life, and reduce the risk of falls and disability in older men or those with chronic illness. Testosterone increases maximal voluntary strength in a dose-dependent manner and thus might improve performance in power-lifting events. However, testosterone has not been shown to improve performance in endurance events. The mechanisms by which testosterone increases muscle mass are not known, but probably involve alterations in the expression of multiple muscle growth regulators. PMID:11431134

  15. Testosterone deficiency in the aging male

    PubMed Central

    McBride, J. Abram; Carson, Culley C.; Coward, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment for hypogonadism is on the rise, particularly in the aging population. Yet treatment in this population represents a unique challenge to clinicians. The physiology of normal aging is complex and often shares the same, often vague, symptoms of hypogonadism. In older men, a highly prevalent burden of comorbid medical conditions and polypharmacy complicates the differentiation of signs and symptoms of hypogonadism from those of normal aging, yet this differentiation is essential to the diagnosis of hypogonadism. Even in older patients with unequivocally symptomatic hypogonadism, the clinician must navigate the potential benefits and risks of treatment that are not clearly defined in older men. More recently, a greater awareness of the potential risks associated with treatment in older men, particularly in regard to cardiovascular risk and mortality, have been appreciated with recent changes in the US Food and Drug Administration recommendations for use of testosterone in aging men. The aim of this review is to provide a framework for the clinician evaluating testosterone deficiency in older men in order to identify correctly and treat clinically significant hypogonadism in this unique population while minimizing treatment-associated harm. PMID:26834840

  16. Rapid weight loss decreases serum testosterone.

    PubMed

    Karila, T A M; Sarkkinen, P; Marttinen, M; Seppälä, T; Mero, A; Tallroth, K

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the effects of a rapid weight reduction program under authentic pre-competition conditions, eighteen elite wrestlers were studied with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) before and after two to three weeks' weight reduction regimens. In order to establish the degree of dehydration and hormonal status, blood samples were collected to obtain blood chemistry, electrolytes and endocrinological parameters after both DXA measurements. The mean weight loss was 8.2 +/- 2.3 % and it was constituted by the mean reductions of fat mass of 16 +/- 6.9 % (p < or = 0.001) and lean body mass of 7.9 +/- 2.5 %. The rapid weight reduction caused significant dehydration which was noticed as increased blood hemoglobin (7.8 +/- 5.9 %, p < or = 0.001), hematocrit (11.3 +/- 6.8 %, p < or = 0.001), and serum creatinine (35 +/- 23 %, p < or = 0.001). There was a significant decrease in serum testosterone (63 +/- 33 %, p < or = 0.001) and luteinizing hormone (54 +/- 47 %, p < or = 0.001) concentrations. A reduced body weight correlated with decreased serum testosterone concentration (r = 0.53, p < or = 0.024). Serum sex hormone binding globulin concentration increased significantly (40 +/- 21 %, p < or = 0.001). The results suggest that even short-term weight reduction may have marked effects on body composition, blood chemistry and hormonal parameters. It may constitute a possible health risk at least in a growing adolescent athlete. PMID:18516767

  17. Understanding testosterone variation in a tropical lek-breeding bird

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Thomas B.; Horton, Brent M.; Moore, Ignacio T.

    2011-01-01

    Male reproductive coalitions, in which males cooperate to attract females, are a rare strategy among vertebrates. While some studies have investigated ultimate aspects of these relationships, little is known about the mechanistic role that hormones play in modulating cooperative behaviours. Here, we examined male testosterone variation in a tropical lekking bird, the wire-tailed manakin (Pipra filicauda), which exhibits cooperative male–male display coalitions. We found that testosterone levels in territorial males were comparable to those of temperate breeding birds, a surprising result given their environmental, social and reproductive dynamics. In addition, social status rather than plumage was a strong predictor of testosterone variation. Territorial males had significantly higher testosterone levels than did two other plumage classes of floater males, who do not hold territories. We hypothesize that testosterone variation plays an important role in the establishment of male dominance hierarchies (competition), while concurrently facilitating stable display partnerships (cooperation). PMID:21325306

  18. The use of testosterone as a male contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Amory, J K; Bremner, W J

    1998-10-01

    Testosterone functions as a contraceptive by suppressing secretion of the pituitary gonadotropins luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone. Low levels of these hormones decrease endogenous testosterone secretion from the testis and deprive developing sperm of the signals required for normal maturation. Interference with sperm maturation causes a decline in sperm production and can lead to reversible infertility in men, raising the possibility that testosterone could be utilized in a commercially available contraceptive. To this end, testosterone has been studied alone and in combination with either gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues or progestins in efforts to improve its contraceptive efficacy. In this chapter, we will review efforts to use testosterone to create a safe, convenient, efficacious contraceptive method for men. PMID:10332567

  19. Single dose testosterone administration reduces loss chasing in healthy females.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yin; Liu, Jinting; Qu, Lujing; Eisenegger, Christoph; Clark, Luke; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2016-09-01

    Testosterone has been linked to modulation of impulsivity and risky choice, potentially mediated by changes in reward or punishment sensitivity. This study investigated the effect of testosterone on risk-taking and the adjustment of risk-taking on trials following a gain or a loss. Loss chasing is operationalized herein as the propensity to recover losses by increasing risky choice. Healthy female participants (n=26) received a single-dose of 0.5mg sublingual testosterone in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. At 240min post-administration, participants performed a gambling task with a high and a low risk option. In the placebo condition, participants were more likely to choose the high risk option following losses compared to wins. This effect was abolished on the testosterone session. Ignoring prior outcomes, no overall changes in risk-taking were observed. Our data indicate that testosterone affects human decision-making via diminishing sensitivity to punishment. PMID:27236486

  20. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin on muscle strength and physical function and activity in older men with partial age-related androgen deficiency.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peter Y; Wishart, Susan M; Handelsman, David J

    2002-07-01

    Despite partial androgen deficiency, the safety and efficacy of androgen therapy in older men remains controversial because controlled studies of testosterone have given equivocal results. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) can be conveniently and infrequently self-administered, and it increases not only circulating testosterone but also estradiol and other testicular steroids. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of 3 months of treatment with sc recombinant hCG (r-hCG, Ovidrel) on muscle mass, strength, mobility, and physical activity in ambulant, community-dwelling men more than 60 yr old having partial androgen deficiency (testosterone < or = 15 nmol/liter, twice). Forty eligible men (mean age, 67 yr; range, 60-85 yr) were randomized to receive r-hCG (5000 IU, 250 microg) or placebo by twice weekly sc self-injection and were studied before treatment, monthly during treatment, and 1 month after treatment. All completed the study, and treatment groups were well matched. r-hCG significantly increased body weight (approximately 1 kg; P < 0.05) and lean body mass ( approximately 2 kg; P < 0.001) and reduced fat mass (approximately 1 kg, P < 0.05). However, anthropometric measures of skinfold thickness (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac) and circumferences (midarm, waist, hip, and midthigh), including the waist-hip ratio, did not change significantly. Shoulder and knee strength (peak torque), as measured by isokinetic and isometric dynamometry, was not significantly increased, nor was physical activity (accelerometry and Physical Activity Scale for Elderly self-report) or gait and balance (modified Guralnik and Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques performance batteries) altered. Total and free testosterone and estradiol were markedly (150%; P < 0.001) and stably increased, whereas LH, FSH, and urea were significantly decreased. Testis volume was significantly decreased (approximately 5 ml; P < 0.05). There were no significant

  1. Expression of 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase in Human Chorion Is Associated with Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Isoform Expression in Term Labor.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Li, Yuan; Ding, Xiaoying; Sun, Qianqian; Huang, Ying; Gu, Hang; Ni, Xin

    2015-07-01

    Chorionic NAD-dependent 15-hydroxy prostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH) plays a pivotal role in controlling the amount of prostaglandins in the uterus. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are implicated to be involved in parturition. In this study, we investigated whether PPARs are involved in control of PGDH expression in chorion. The chorionic tissues were collected from the following groups of the women with singleton pregnancy: term no labor (TNL), term labor (TL) and preterm labor (PTL). Chorionic trophoblasts were isolated and cultured in vitro. Immunocytochemistry analysis showed that PPARα, PPARβ, and PPARγ were localized to trophoblasts in chorion. The protein levels of PGDH, PPARβ, and PPARγ were localized to trophoblasts in chorion. The protein levels of PPARα, PPARβ, and PPARγ were reduced in TL tissues compared to that of TNL group. PPARα, PPARβ, and PPARγ expression correlated to PGDH in TNL tissues, whereas only PPARγ expression correlated to PGDH in TL chorion tissues. PGDH expression was decreased in PTL tissues compared with TL group, whereas the expression of PPARs was not significantly different between TL and PTL groups. The agonists of three PPARs dose-dependently stimulated PGDH activity, mRNA, and protein expression in cultured chorionic cells. PPARs did not affect the stability of PGDH mRNA but stimulated the transcriptional activity of HPGD gene. Our results suggest that PPARs play pivotal roles in maintenance of PGDH expression in chorion during human pregnancy. PMID:26093984

  2. Long-lived testosterone esters in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Borg, W; Shackleton, C H; Pahuja, S L; Hochberg, R B

    1995-01-01

    Over the past decade it has become increasingly clear that steroid hormones are enzymatically esterified with fatty acids. These steroidal esters are the natural analogs of synthetic esters that are used therapeutically. One such family of pharmacological steroids is the synthetic alkyl esters of testosterone, androgens with great hormonal potency. We have investigated whether testosterone esters exist naturally by using the rat as a model. Most tissues of male rats, including blood, have very little if any ester (quantified by immunoassay as a nonpolar saponifiable metabolite), but fat and testes have sizable quantities, approximately 3 ng of testosterone equivalents per g of tissue. Testosterone in fat averages 9 ng/g. The fat from female rats and long-term (> 2 weeks) castrated males has no detectable testosterone ester. The presence of testosterone esters was confirmed by GC/MS, which clearly showed the presence of testosterone in the hydrolyzed ester fraction of fat from intact males but not long-term castrates. Upon castration, testosterone levels in the fat completely disappear within 6 hr. To the contrary, it is not until 48 hr after castration that a measurable fall in the testosterone ester fraction was observed; even after 10 days a small amount of ester is still present in the fat. These experiments demonstrate the existence of a previously unknown androgen with a potentially important physiological impact; testosterone esters, natural analogs of potent therapeutic agents, occur in the fat where they can serve as a reservoir of preformed androgen to stimulate neighboring target tissues. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7878017

  3. Testosterone Therapy Can Interact With Thrombophilia, Leading to Osteonecrosis.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Charles J; Riaz, Rashid; Prince, Marloe; Freiberg, Richard A; Wang, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Although this effect is not widely recognized, testosterone therapy can interact with thrombophilia, causing osteonecrosis. In 12 men and 4 women who had idiopathic osteonecrosis a median of 6 months after the onset of testosterone therapy, the authors examined the interaction between testosterone therapy and previously undiagnosed thrombophilia. The authors hypothesized that patients who had osteonecrosis after starting testosterone therapy were more likely than 110 normal control subjects or 48 patients who had osteonecrosis and were not receiving testosterone therapy to have thrombophilia. Measures of thrombophilia included Factor V Leiden, prothrombin, PAI-1 gene mutations, Factor VIII, Factor XI, anticardiolipin antibody immunoglobulin G or immunoglobulin M, and homocysteine values. In 10 cases, osteonecrosis occurred 6 months or less after the onset of testosterone therapy, and in all 16 cases, it occurred after a median of 6 months of testosterone therapy. Of the 16 cases, 5 (31%) were Factor V Leiden heterozygotes vs 2 of 109 (2%) healthy control subjects (P=.0003) and 4 of 48 patients who had osteonecrosis and were not receiving testosterone therapy (P=.04). Of the 16 cases, 4 (25%) had high (>150%) Factor VIII levels vs 7 of 103 (7%) healthy control subjects (P=.04), and 3 (19%) had high (>150%) Factor XI levels vs 3 of 101 (3%) healthy control subjects (P=.03). Of the 16 patients with osteonecrosis, 14 (88%) had at least 1 abnormal procoagulant value (of the 8 measured) vs 47 of 110 (43%) healthy control subjects (P=.0009). Of the 5 men whose serum estradiol level was measured while they were receiving testosterone therapy, this level was high (≥42.6 pg/mL) in 4. When testosterone therapy is given to patients with thrombophilia, they are at increased risk for osteonecrosis. PMID:26652327

  4. Increasing insulin resistance is associated with a decrease in Leydig cell testosterone secretion in men.

    PubMed

    Pitteloud, Nelly; Hardin, Megan; Dwyer, Andrew A; Valassi, Elena; Yialamas, Maria; Elahi, Dariush; Hayes, Frances J

    2005-05-01

    Insulin resistance is associated with low testosterone (T) levels in men, the mechanism of which is unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in men with a spectrum of insulin sensitivity. Twenty-one men (aged 25-65 yr) had a glucose tolerance test and assessment of insulin sensitivity using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Insulin sensitivity, expressed as the M value (milligrams per kilograms(-1) per minute(-1)), was calculated from the glucose disposal rate during the final 30 min of the clamp. Eighteen subjects had blood sampling every 10 min for 12 h to assess LH pulsatility. Hypogonadism was then induced with a GnRH antagonist, followed by sequential stimulation testing with GnRH (750 ng/kg, iv) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 1000 IU, im) to assess pituitary and testicular responsiveness, respectively. Nine subjects had normal glucose tolerance, nine had impaired glucose tolerance, and three had diabetes mellitus. There was a positive relationship between M and T levels (r = 0.46; P < 0.05). No relationship was seen between M and parameters of LH secretion, including mean LH levels, LH pulse amplitude, LH pulse frequency, and LH response to exogenous GnRH administration. In contrast, a strong correlation was observed between M and the T response to hCG (r = 0.73; P < 0.005). Baseline T levels correlated with the increase in T after hCG administration (r = 0.47; P < 0.05). During the clamp, T levels increased from a baseline level of 367 +/- 30 to 419 +/- 38 ng/dl during the last 30 min (P < 0.05). From these data we conclude that insulin resistance is associated with a decrease in Leydig cell T secretion in men. Additional studies are required to determine the mechanism of this effect. PMID:15713702

  5. Reactive oxygen species: players in the cardiovascular effects of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Rita C; Carneiro, Fernando S; Carvalho, Maria Helena C; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2016-01-01

    Androgens are essential for the development and maintenance of male reproductive tissues and sexual function and for overall health and well being. Testosterone, the predominant and most important androgen, not only affects the male reproductive system, but also influences the activity of many other organs. In the cardiovascular system, the actions of testosterone are still controversial, its effects ranging from protective to deleterious. While early studies showed that testosterone replacement therapy exerted beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease, some recent safety studies point to a positive association between endogenous and supraphysiological levels of androgens/testosterone and cardiovascular disease risk. Among the possible mechanisms involved in the actions of testosterone on the cardiovascular system, indirect actions (changes in the lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and hemostatic mechanisms, modulation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), as well as direct actions (modulatory effects on proinflammatory enzymes, on the generation of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide bioavailability, and on vasoconstrictor signaling pathways) have been reported. This mini-review focuses on evidence indicating that testosterone has prooxidative actions that may contribute to its deleterious actions in the cardiovascular system. The controversial effects of testosterone on ROS generation and oxidant status, both prooxidant and antioxidant, in the cardiovascular system and in cells and tissues of other systems are reviewed. PMID:26538238

  6. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2016-05-01

    Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high-dose hormone application in adult female-to-male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel-based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting-state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone-dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language-specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738-1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  7. Testosterone Suppression of CRH-stimulated Cortisol in Men

    PubMed Central

    Rubinow, David R.; Roca, Catherine A.; Schmidt, Peter J.; Danaceau, Merry A.; Putnam, Karen; Cizza, Giovanni; Chrousos, George; Nieman, Lynnette

    2005-01-01

    Despite observations of age-dependent sexual dimorphisms in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, the role of androgens in the regulation of HPA axis activity in men has not been examined. We assessed this role by performing CRH stimulation tests in ten men (ages 18–45) during gonadal suppression with leuprolide acetate and during testosterone addition to leuprolide. CRH-stimulated cortisol levels as well as peak cortisol and greatest cortisol excursion were significantly lower (p < .05, .005, and .01, respectively) during testosterone replacement compared with the induced hypogonadal condition (leuprolide plus placebo); cortisol area under the curve was lower at a trend level (p < .1). Paradoxically, CRH-stimulated ACTH was increased significantly during testosterone replacement (p < .05). The cortisol:ACTH ratio, a measure of adrenal sensitivity, was lower during testosterone replacement (p < .1). A mixed effects regression model showed that testosterone but not estradiol or CBG significantly contributed to the variance of cortisol. These data demonstrate that testosterone regulates CRH-stimulated HPA axis activity in men, with the divergent effects on ACTH and cortisol suggesting a peripheral (adrenal) locus for the suppressive effects on cortisol. Our results further demonstrate that the enhanced stimulated HPA axis activity previously described in young men compared with young women cannot be ascribed to an activational upregulation of the axis by testosterone. PMID:15841103

  8. Testosterone and muscle hypertrophy in female rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, F. E.; Max, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of chronic treatment with testosterone propionate (TP) on compensatory muscle hypertropy in female rats are examined. The 48 female rats were placed in one of four test groups: (1) no overload (synergist removal), no TP, (2) overload, no TP, (3) no overload + TP, and (4) overload + TP. The technique used to administer the TP is described. The preparation of the plantaris muscle, the analysis of pyruvate oxidation and the determination of malate and lactate dehydrogenases and the noncollogen protein are explained. The results which reveal the effect of overload and TP on body weight, noncollogen protein concentration, lactate and malate dehydrogenase activities, and pyruvate oxidation are presented and discussed. It is concluded that in terms of body weight, protein content, pyruvate, glycolysis, and oxidative metabolisms chronic TP treatments do not change compensatory muscle hypertropy.

  9. "Mitochondrial Eve", "Y Chromosome Adam", testosterone, and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Howard, James Michael

    2002-01-01

    I suggest primate evolution began as a consequence of increased testosterone in males which increased aggression and sexuality, therefore, reproduction and success. With time, negative effects of excessive testosterone reduced spermatogenesis and started a decline of the group. Approximately 30-40 million years ago, the gene DAZ (Deleted in AZoospermia) appeared on the Y chromosome, increased spermatogenesis, and rescued the early primates from extinction. (Note: DAZ is considered by some to specifically, positively affect spermatogenesis; others suggest it has no effect on spermatogenesis.) Hominid evolution continued with increasing testosterone. The advent of increased testosterone in females of Homo erectus (or Homo ergaster) increased the female-to-male body size ratio, and eventually produced another era of excessive testosterone. Excessive testosterone caused a reduction in population size (bottleneck) that produced the "Mitochondrial Eve" (ME) mechanism. (Only certain females continued during the bottleneck to transmit their mitochondrial DNA.) That is, the ME mechanism culminated, again, in excessive testosterone and reduced spermatogenesis in the hominid line. Approximately 50,000 to 200,000 years ago, a "doubling" of the DAZ gene occurred on the Y chromosome in hominid males which rescued the hominid line with increased spermatogenesis in certain males. This produced the "Y Chromosome Adam" event. The doubling of DAZ allowed further increases in testosterone in hominids that resulted in the increased size and development of the brain. Modern humans periodically fluctuate between the positive and negative consequences of increased levels of testosterone, currently identifiable as the secular trend, increased infections, and reduced spermatogenesis. PMID:12449688

  10. Ultradian rhythmicity and induced changes in salivary testosterone.

    PubMed

    Beaven, C Martyn; Ingram, John R; Gill, Nicholas D; Hopkins, Will G

    2010-09-01

    Testosterone and cortisol respond to exercise stimuli and modulate adaptation. Episodic basal secretion of these hormones may modify the responsiveness of these hormones. We sought to identify episodic steroid secretion via frequent salivary sampling and investigate any interaction between ultradian rhythmicity and induced changes in testosterone. Salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations of seven males (age 20-40 years) were measured every 10 min between 0800 and 1600 h on three consecutive days. On either the second or third day, three interventions designed to elicit a hormonal response were randomly assigned: sprint exercise (two 30-s maximal efforts on a cycle ergometer); boxing (two 30-s maximal punching efforts); and a violent video game (10 min of player vs. player combat). On the other days subjects were inactive. Testosterone data on non-intervention days suggested pulsatile secretion with a pulse interval of 47 +/- 9 min (mean +/- SD). The sprint intervention substantially affected hormones: it elicited a small transient elevation in testosterone (by a factor of 1.21; factor 90% confidence limits x/ divided by 1.21) 10 min after exercise, and a moderate elevation in cortisol peaking 50 min post-exercise (factor 2.3; x/ divided by 2.6). The testosterone response correlated with the change in testosterone concentration in the 10 min prior to the sprint (r = 0.78; 90% CL 0.22-0.95) and with a measure of randomness in testosterone fluctuations (r = 0.83; 0.35-0.96). Thus, the salivary testosterone response to exercise may be dependent on the underlying ultradian rhythm and aspects of its regulation. This interaction may have important implications for adaptation to exercise. PMID:20512500

  11. Testosterone as a discriminative stimulus in male rats.

    PubMed

    Wood, Ruth I; Vertelkina, Nina V; Antzoulatos, Eleni

    2011-11-01

    Testosterone and other anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are reinforcing in animals, as determined by conditioned place preference or self-administration. Most drugs of abuse produce subjective effects on mood and perception that initiate and maintain drug taking. Whether AAS have similar effects is not known. Food-restricted male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=9) were tested for their ability to discriminate an injection of testosterone from the β-cyclodextrin vehicle using a standard two-lever operant paradigm. In drug discrimination, animals use the subjective effects of drug or vehicle to select the appropriate lever to obtain food pellets under an FR10 schedule of reinforcement. All rats demonstrated vigorous responding for food (1415.1±76.1 responses/20 min) with 94.9% of responses on the active lever. For the first 30 days, rats received 1mg/kg testosterone sc 30 min before testing. On Day 14, one rat achieved the discrimination criteria of 9/10 consecutive days with >90% responses on the active lever and ≤5 responses on the inactive lever before the first reinforcement. Subsequently, rats were tested with testosterone at different doses (2, 7.5, 15 mg/kg at 30 min before testing) and times (2mg/kg at 30 or 60 min before testing), each for 20 days. One additional rat demonstrated successful discrimination at Day 54 with 2mg/kg testosterone 60 min before testing. The remaining 7 rats failed to discriminate testosterone within 110 days. When analyzed according to less-stringent standards, 4 additional rats met criteria for testosterone discrimination. However, continued performance was not stable. Thus, testosterone was unable to consistently support drug discrimination. We conclude that testosterone does not produce rapid interoceptive effects (NIH DA12843 to RIW). PMID:21893083

  12. TESTOSTERONE AS A DISCRIMINATIVE STIMULUS IN MALE RATS

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Ruth I.; Vertelkina, Nina V.; Antzoulatos, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone and other anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are reinforcing in animals, as determined by conditioned place preference or self-administration. Most drugs of abuse produce subjective effects on mood and perception that initiate and maintain drug taking. Whether AAS have similar effects is not known. Food-restricted male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=9) were tested for their ability to discriminate an injection of testosterone from the β-cyclodextrin vehicle using a standard two-lever operant paradigm. In drug discrimination, animals use the subjective effects of drug or vehicle to select the appropriate lever to obtain food pellets under an FR10 schedule of reinforcement. All rats demonstrated vigorous responding for food (1415.1±76.1 responses/20 min) with 94.9% of responses on the active lever. For the first 30 days, rats received 1 mg/kg testosterone sc 30 min before testing. On Day 14, one rat achieved the discrimination criteria of 9/10 consecutive days with >90% responses on the active lever and ≤5 responses on the inactive lever before the first reinforcement. Subsequently, rats were tested with testosterone at different doses (2, 7.5, 15 mg/kg at 30 min before testing) and times (2 mg/kg at 30 or 60 min before testing), each for 20 days. One additional rat demonstrated successful discrimination at Day 54 with 2 mg/kg testosterone 60 min before testing. The remaining 7 rats failed to discriminate testosterone within 110 days. When analyzed according to less-stringent standards, 4 additional rats met criteria for testosterone discrimination. However, continued performance was not stable. Thus, testosterone was unable to consistently support drug discrimination. We conclude that testosterone does not produce rapid interoceptive effects. (NIH DA12843 to RIW) PMID:21893083

  13. Effect of lufenuron on chorionic and cuticular structure of unhatched larval Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    PubMed

    Meola, R W; Dean, S R; Meola, S M; Sittertz-Bhatkar, H; Schenker, R

    1999-01-01

    When adult cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché), were fed concentrations of < or = 0.08 ppm lufenuron in cattle blood, egg hatch did not differ significantly from the controls. However, as the concentration of lufenuron in blood increased from 0.125 to 1.0 ppm egg hatch decreased to 64 and 2%, respectively. Most of these eggs contained fully developed larvae. Microscopic examination of unhatched larvae, revealed that the cuticle epidermal cells, chorion, and vitelline membrane all were affected by lufenuron treatment. Larvae often produced 2 separate cuticles in response to treatment. The 1st cuticle consisted of an indistinct layer of epicuticle and a procuticle composed of randomly deposited chitin microfibrils. After the 1st layer of procuticle separated from the epidermal cells, a 2nd layer of procuticle was deposited. It was not possible to determine whether the egg tooth was functional during larval hatch. The surface of the egg tooth appeared normal, but the cuticle may have had structural abnormalities similar to those seen in other areas of the exoskeleton. Structural defects appeared to be due to the cytotoxic effects of lufenuron. The epidermal cells of treated larvae showed evidence of disintegration (i.e., the nuclei and mitochondria appeared to be degenerating and the amount of endoplasmic reticulum and other cytoplasmic organelles was decreased). The chorion of lufenuron-treated larvae consisted of an outer layer, middle and inner layers that were thinner and less electron dense than those of controls, and lacked the innermost chorionic layer found in the control larvae. The vitelline membrane also was thinner than that of the controls. Larval hatching was prevented by ruptures in the cuticle, which opened during eclosion resulting in the loss of hemolymph and desiccation of the larva. Evidently, tearing of the cuticle was caused by abnormal formation of the procuticle that was not strong enough to withstand the cuticular expansion and muscular

  14. Small gene family encoding an eggshell (chorion) protein of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni

    SciTech Connect

    Bobek, L.A.; Rekosh, D.M.; Lo Verde, P.T.

    1988-08-01

    The authors isolated six independent genomic clones encoding schistosome chorion or eggshell proteins from a Schistosoma mansoni genomic library. A linkage map of five of the clones spanning 35 kilobase pairs (kbp) of the S. mansoni genome was constructed. The region contained two eggshell protein genes closely linked, separated by 7.5 kbp of intergenic DNA. The two genes of the cluster were arranged in the same orientation, that is, they were transcribed from the same strand. The sixth clone probably represents a third copy of the eggshell gene that is not contained within the 35-kbp region. The 5- end of the mRNA transcribed from these genes was defined by primer extension directly off the RNA. The ATCAT cap site sequence was homologous to a silkmoth chorion PuTCATT cap site sequence, where Pu indicates any purine. DNA sequence analysis showed that there were no introns in these genes. The DNA sequences of the three genes were very homologous to each other and to a cDNA clone, pSMf61-46, differing only in three or four nucleotices. A multiple TATA box was located at positions -23 to -31, and a CAAAT sequence was located at -52 upstream of the eggshell transcription unit. Comparison of sequences in regions further upstream with silkmoth and Drosophila sequences revealed very short elements that were shared. One such element, TCACGT, recently shown to be an essential cis-regulatory element for silkmoth chorion gene promoter function, was found at a similar position in all three organisms.

  15. The endocrine pharmacology of testosterone therapy in men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oettel, Michael

    The review starts off by outlining the history of the discovery of the male sex hormone testosterone and the historical background to the various, often dubious, approaches to the treatment of age-related endocrine disorders in older men. A discussion of congenital androgen deficiency in young men is followed by methods of diagnosing hypogonadism in older men. Among therapeutic options, the alternatives to direct testosterone replacement are discussed, although none of them have proved to be particularly successful in clinical practice. For testosterone replacement itself, various routes of administration and pharmaceutical formulations are now available, facilitating good monitoring and individualized therapy.

  16. Synthesis of deuterium labeled 17-methyl-testosterone

    SciTech Connect

    Shinohara, Y.; Baba, S.; Kasuya, Y.

    1984-09-01

    The synthesis of two forms of selectively deuterated 17-methyl-testosterone is described. 17-Methyl-d3-testosterone was prepared by the Grignard reaction of dehydroepiandrosterone with deuterium labeled methyl magnesium iodide followed by an Oppenauer oxidation. 17-Methyl-d3-testosterone-19,19,19-d3 was prepared by treating 3,3-ethylenedioxy-5,10-epoxy-5 alpha, 10 alpha-estran-17-one with deuterium labeled methyl magnesium bromide followed by hydrolysis and dehydration of the 5 alpha-hydroxyandrostane derivative.

  17. Late-Onset Hypogonadism and Testosterone Replacement in Older Men.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Rajib K; Bhattacharya, Shelley B

    2015-11-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism is an underdiagnosed and easily treated condition defined by low serum testosterone levels in men older than 65 years. When treated, a significant improvement in quality of life may be reached in this rapidly rising sector of the population. During the evaluation, laboratory tests and a full medication review should be performed to exclude other illnesses or adverse effects from medications. The major goal of treatment in this population is treating the symptoms related to hypogonadism. There has not been clear evidence supporting universally giving older men with low serum testosterone levels and hypogonadal symptoms testosterone replacement therapy. PMID:26476121

  18. [Testosterone therapy in female hypoactive sexual desire disorder].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Patrick

    2016-03-16

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is a deficiency of sexual desire that causes marked personal or interpersonal distress. It occurs in approximately 1 in 10 adult women. A number of potential contributory factors (hormonal, neurobiological and psychosocial) have been identified. Testosterone plays an excitatory role in sexual desire but the mechanism is not yet well understood. Treatment with testosterone has been shown to improve sexual desire in menopausal women with HSDD. However, there are limited data concerning premenopausal women and long-term safety. At present, physiological testosterone preparations for use in women are not available in Switzerland. PMID:27149714

  19. [Exclusion of Sandhoff disease (Tay-Sachs 0 variant) by chorion biopsy].

    PubMed

    Veszprémi, B; Baranyai, Z; Klujber, L; Arany, A

    1992-04-01

    Transcervical chorionic villus sampling with ultrasound guidance at the 11-th week of pregnancy was made at a woman with the history of one lethal case of Sandhoff disease. The total hexosaminidase and the hexosaminidase A were determined. At the 16-th week amniocentesis was performed and the characteristic enzymes were determined from the amniotic cell culture. The results of the examinations made possible to advise the patient to carry out the pregnancy. The examinations after delivery confirmed the newborn to be a carrier. PMID:1522989

  20. First-trimester prenatal diagnosis of mucolipidosis II (I-cell disease) by chorionic biopsy.

    PubMed Central

    Poenaru, L; Castelnau, L; Dumez, Y; Thepot, F

    1984-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of mucolipidosis type II (ML II) prenatal diagnosis by lysosomal enzyme determination on trophoblast biopsy obtained at 10 weeks of gestation in two pregnancies at risk. Diagnosis of ML II was made in both cases on fresh chorionic villi on the basis of depressed beta-galactosidase activity, and after abortion, the diagnosis was confirmed on fresh fetal tissues and on cells cultured from trophoblast and fetuses. We stress the importance of culturing cells from the trophoblast biopsy to ensure a reliable diagnosis. PMID:6440435

  1. Amnion and Chorion Membranes: Potential Stem Cell Reservoir with Wide Applications in Periodontics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The periodontal therapy usually aims at elimination of disease causing bacteria and resolution of inflammation. It involves either resective or regenerative surgery to resolve the inflammation associated defects. Over the years, several methods have been used for achievement of periodontal regeneration. One of the oldest biomaterials used for scaffolds is the fetal membrane. The amniotic membranes of developing embryo, that is, amnion (innermost lining) and chorion (a layer next to it), have the properties with significant potential uses in dentistry. This paper reviews the properties, mechanism of action, and various applications of these placental membranes in general and specifically in Periodontics. PMID:26770199

  2. Early pregnancy factor is an immunosuppressive contaminant of commercial preparations of human chorionic gonadotrophin.

    PubMed Central

    Rolfe, B E; Morton, H; Clarke, F M

    1983-01-01

    Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is a pregnancy associated substance detected in human serum and urine throughout the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. It has also been detected in several commercial preparations of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). The various molecular weight forms of EPF which occur in human pregnancy serum, urine and commercial hCG preparations have been partially characterized and found to be similar to each other but distinct from hCG. Further evidence is presented which suggests that it is EPF rather than hCG which is responsible for the immunosuppressive activity of some crude hCG preparations. PMID:6831771

  3. [Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia after spontaneous normalization of human chorionic gonadotropin in patient with partial hydatidiform mole].

    PubMed

    Matos, Michelle; Ferraz, Leda; Lopes, Patrícia de Fátima; Lozoya, Consuelo; Amim Junior, Joffre; Rezende-Filho, Jorge; Braga, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    We report here a case of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia after spontaneous normalization of human chorionic gonadotropin in a patient with a partial hydatidiform mole. This is the second occurrence of this event to be reported and the first one with proven immunohistochemical evidence. Besides showing the treatment for this pregnancy complication, this case report discusses the possibility of reducing the duration of post-molar follow-up, as well as strategies for early recognition of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia after spontaneous remission of molar pregnancy. PMID:26247255

  4. On the effects of testosterone on brain behavioral functions

    PubMed Central

    Celec, Peter; Ostatníková, Daniela; Hodosy, Július

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone influences the brain via organizational and activational effects. Numerous relevant studies on rodents and a few on humans focusing on specific behavioral and cognitive parameters have been published. The results are, unfortunately, controversial and puzzling. Dosing, timing, even the application route seem to considerably affect the outcomes. In addition, the methods used for the assessment of psychometric parameters are a bit less than ideal regarding their validity and reproducibility. Metabolism of testosterone contributes to the complexity of its actions. Reduction to dihydrotestosterone by 5-alpha reductase increases the androgen activity; conversion to estradiol by aromatase converts the androgen to estrogen activity. Recently, the non-genomic effects of testosterone on behavior bypassing the nuclear receptors have attracted the interest of researchers. This review tries to summarize the current understanding of the complexity of the effects of testosterone on brain with special focus on their role in the known sex differences. PMID:25741229

  5. Testosterone Therapy in Adult Men with Androgen Deficiency Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood levels of testosterone of 300–1,000 ng/dL are considered normal, but these levels may ... blood PSA (prostate specific antigen) level over 4 ng/ mL (which suggests prostate cancer or other prostate ...

  6. Testosterone levels in an aging population: screen, measure, and restore.

    PubMed

    Kells, John; Dollbaum, Charles M

    2011-01-01

    An insufficient level of testosterone in aging men and women is associated with a constellation of adverse conditions (cognitive decline, loss of muscle mass, osteopenia, decreased libido, changes in fat distribution, fragility, depression, a greater risk of fracture). Research has confirmed that supplementary testosterone can ameliorate those signs and symptoms in hypogonadic individuals, but the benefits and risks of that therapy remain controversial. The treatment of such patients should be based on knowledge of the physiologic effects of testosterone in the elderly, effective screening for testosterone deficiency accurate measurement of bioavailable levels of that hormone, and safe and effective treatment options, all of which are examined in this article. In designing hormone replacement regimens, the skill of a compounding pharmacist who can customize dose and dosage forms to answer individual medical needs and preferences can be instrumental in achieving the desired outcome. PMID:23696079

  7. Testosterone Therapy May Boost Older Men's Sex Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159622.html Testosterone Therapy May Boost Older Men's Sex Lives Gel hormone treatment led to improved libido ... experienced a moderate but significant improvement in their sex drive, sexual activity and erectile function compared to ...

  8. Prenatal stimulation and postnatal testosterone affects infanticide in female rats.

    PubMed

    Miley, W M; Blustein, J; Kennedy, K

    1982-04-01

    Prenatal handling, prenatal stress, and early postnatal exogeneous testosterone were examined in female rats for their effects on rat pup-killing and pup retrieval. During each of the last 5 days of pregnancy. Long-Evans rats received either 3 minutes of handling, 45 minutes of restraint and intense illumination or remained untouched. Half of the offspring of each group received testosterone from Day 1 after birth to Day 30. In adulthood, animals that received handling prenatally and testosterone postnatally killed pups more rapidly than any other group and a larger proportion did so than in the control groups. Animals not manipulated at any time retrieved pups more rapidly and a larger proportion did so than the combined other groups. The study suggests that prenatal handling interacts with testosterone presented immediately postnatally to increase infanticide in female rats. A variety of perinatal manipulations seem to suppress pup retrieval. PMID:7200619

  9. Testosterone Supplementation Therapy in the Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Jason R.; Pastuszak, Alexander W.; Lamb, Dolores J.; Lipshultz, Larry I.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clinical complex of risk factors including increased waist circumference, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure and insulin resistance whose presence increases the likelihood of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. With a quarter of the American adult population affected, MetS has been referred to as the most significant public health threat of the 21st century. While lifestyle modification and weight loss are recommended, no specific pharmacological treatment is known. Given that low levels of testosterone have been implicated in the pathogenesis of MetS and an inverse relationship exists between circulating testosterone and the development of MetS, it is tempting to speculate that men with MetS may benefit from testosterone supplementation therapy (TST). As such, this review seeks to examine the role of testosterone and the use of TST as a treatment modality in men with MetS. PMID:25387223

  10. Crystal growth of steroids in silica gel: Testosterone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkura, S. Narayana; Devanarayanan, S.

    1989-03-01

    Single crystals of testosterone monohydrate (C 19H 28O 2·H 2O) were grown in silica gel. IR spectroscopic, X-ray powder diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) methods were used to characterize the crystals.

  11. Effect of Dehydroepiandrosterone and Testosterone Supplementation on Systemic Lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Espinosa De Ycaza, Ana E; Rizza, Robert A; Nair, K Sreekumaran; Jensen, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated the effects of supplementation with DHEA (in elderly men and women) and testosterone (in elderly men) on postprandial or iv insulin suppression of lipolysis. We found no effect of these hormones on systemic lipolysis. PMID:26885881

  12. Supra-physiological dose of testosterone induces pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Pirompol, Prapawadee; Teekabut, Vassana; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Bupha-Intr, Tepmanas; Wattanapermpool, Jonggonnee

    2016-04-01

    Testosterone and androgenic anabolic steroids have been misused for enhancement of physical performance despite many reports on cardiac sudden death. Although physiological level of testosterone provided many regulatory benefits to human health, including the cardiovascular function, supra-physiological levels of the hormone induce hypertrophy of the heart with unclear contractile activation. In this study, dose- and time-dependent effects of high-testosterone treatment on cardiac structure and function were evaluated. Adult male rats were divided into four groups of testosterone treatment for 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg BW for 4, 8, or 12 weeks. Increases in both percentage heart:body weight ratio and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area in representing hypertrophy of the heart were significantly shown in all testosterone-treated groups to the same degree. In 4-week-treated rats, physiological cardiac hypertrophy was apparent with an upregulation of α-MHC without any change in myofilament contractile activation. In contrast, pathological cardiac hypertrophy was observed in 8- and 12-week testosterone-treated groups, as indicated by suppression of myofilament activation and myocardial collagen deposition without transition of MHC isoforms. Only in 12-week testosterone-treated group, eccentric cardiac hypertrophy was demonstrated with unaltered myocardial stiffness, but significant reductions in the phosphorylation signals of ERK1/2 and mTOR. Results of our study suggest that the outcome of testosterone-induced cardiac hypertrophy is not dose dependent but is rather relied on the factor of exposure to duration in inducing maladaptive responses of the heart. PMID:26850730

  13. Correlation Between Personality Traits and Testosterone Concentrations in Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Bayón, Camila; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Carrasco, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: High plasma testosterone levels have been associated with aggression, sexual behaviour and social status. The aim of this paper was to study the correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and personality variables in healthy participants. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four participants were randomly enrolled into this study. Basal plasma testosterone levels were measured between 8:30 am and 10 am. After 24 hours of blood drawing, each subject completed personality questionnaires. Results: Positive correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and anti-social personality traits in both genders was observed (r = 0.336 and P < 0.018). Also, a positive correlation was observed between basal plasmatestosterone levels and criminal thinking traits (r = 0. 376, P < 0.05) and Millon compulsive (r = 0.386, P < 0.010) in both genders. In female participants, a positive correlation between basal plasmatestosterone levels and psychoticism (r = 0. 25, P < 0.019) and Cloninger AUTO TCI (r = 0.507, P < 0.004) was observed. In males participants positive correlation between baseline plasmatic Testosterone levels and Millon Antisocial trait (r = 0. 544, P < 0.19) and Millon Hypomania trait (r = 0. 485, P < 0.41) and Millon Drug Abuse trait (r = 0.632, P < 0.05) was reported. Conclusion: Our results suggest gender differences in clinical and personality variables related with basal plasma testosterone level. In men, high plasma testosterone levels were associated with clinical traits, substance abuse and hypomania. Women with higher basal testosterone levels showed higher scores on personality self-direction traits. PMID:26664080

  14. The Effect of Testosterone on Men With Andropause

    PubMed Central

    Sofimajidpour, Heshmatollah; Teimoori, Taher; Gharibi, Fardin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Andropause is the gradual reduction of the male sex hormone (testosterone) with increasing age. Its symptoms are sexual dysfunction, weakness, fatigue, insomnia, loss of motivation, mood disorders and reduction of bone density. Treatment of andropause with testosterone has been recently considered. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of testosterone in the treatment of andropause in men. Patients and Methods: For men who met the inclusion criteria (50 years of age and older) laboratory tests and clinical examinations were conducted by an urologist in order to diagnose prostate cancer, prostate disease, urinary tract infection and active urinary retention. After obtaining consent, the patients were enrolled in the study. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage, mean, standard deviation) and the paired t-test were used to compare levels of testosterone. To determine the correlation between age and testosterone levels, the Pearson correlation was used. Finally, to compare the treatment processes during the treatment period the repeated measures ANOVA was used. Results: The mean age of patients was 56.57 ± 3.21 years. A total of 31 patients (39%) were smokers, among them 30% smoked daily, 2.5% weekly and 6% smoked for fun. The mean testosterone level before treatment was 240.6 ± 125.4 and at 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment the level was raised, so that at the end of the sixth months it was 578.7 ± 141.7. The level of increase was statistically significant (P = 0.0001). Conclusions: Treatment with testosterone in men over 50 years with andropause will increase testosterone levels and also quality of life, sexual desire, erection, energy levels, ability to exercise and feel the joy of life more than before. Depression was decreased and they had sleepy feelings after dinner. PMID:26756004

  15. Mechanism of Testosterone Deficiency in the Transgenic Sickle Cell Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Musicki, Biljana; Zhang, Yuxi; Chen, Haolin; Brown, Terry R.; Zirkin, Barry R.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency is associated with sickle cell disease (SCD), but its underlying mechanism is not known. We investigated the possible occurrence and mechanism of testosterone deficiency in a mouse model of human SCD. Transgenic sickle male mice (Sickle) exhibited decreased serum and intratesticular testosterone and increased luteinizing hormone (LH) levels compared with wild type (WT) mice, indicating primary hypogonadism in Sickle mice. LH-, dbcAMP-, and pregnenolone- (but not 22-hydroxycholesterol)- stimulated testosterone production by Leydig cells isolated from the Sickle mouse testis was decreased compared to that of WT mice, implying defective Leydig cell steroidogenesis. There also was reduced protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), but not cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in the Sickle mouse testis. These data suggest that the capacity of P450scc to support testosterone production may be limited by the supply of cholesterol to the mitochondria in Sickle mice. The sickle mouse testis exhibited upregulated NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox and increased oxidative stress, measured as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and unchanged protein expression of an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase-1. Mice heterozygous for the human sickle globin (Hemi) exhibited intermediate hypogonadal changes between those of WT and Sickle mice. These results demonstrate that testosterone deficiency occurs in Sickle mice, mimicking the human condition. The defects in the Leydig cell steroidogenic pathway in Sickle mice, mainly due to reduced availability of cholesterol for testosterone production, may be related to NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that targeting testicular oxidative stress or steroidogenesis mechanisms in SCD offers a potential treatment for improving phenotypic changes associated with testosterone deficiency in this disease. PMID:26023917

  16. Twin Chorionicity and the Risk of Hypertensive Disorders: Gestational Hypertension and Pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Bartnik, Pawel; Kosinska-Kaczynska, Katarzyna; Kacperczyk, Joanna; Ananicz, Wojciech; Sierocińska, Aleksandra; Wielgos, Miroslaw; Szymusik, Iwona

    2016-08-01

    Twin gestation is known to be a risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. However, the relationship between hypertensive disorders (pre-eclampsia (PE) and gestational hypertension (GH)) and chorionicity of twin pregnancy is unclear, and published data is conflicting. We decided to analyze the relationship between placentation and prevalence of hypertensive disorders. It was a retrospective cohort study. 312 twin pregnancies delivered between 2009 and 2014 were analyzed, 79 of which were monochorionic and 233 dichorionic. The occurrence of PE and GH was established according to American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' (ACOG) guidelines. Hypertensive disorders were diagnosed significantly more often in dichorionic than in monochorionic twin pregnancies (19.7% vs. 8.9%; OR = 2.53 95% CI 1.04-6.45; p = .03). PE occurred more frequently in DCP (13.3% vs. 3.8%; OR = 3.88 95% CI 1.09-16.46; p = .02). There were no differences between those two groups in the prevalence of GH (6.4% vs. 5.1%; p = .79). The logistic regression model for the occurrence of PE included chorionicity, mother's age lower than 18 or higher than 40, pre-gestational obesity, in vitro fertilization, primiparity, gestational age at delivery, gestational diabetes, and active smoking. It showed that dichorionicity remained an independent risk factor for PE (adjusted OR = 4.97.0 95% CI 1.06-23.38; p = .04). Dichorionicity seems to be a risk factor for PE but not for GH development. PMID:27160962

  17. Respiratory morphology of the Abedus herberti Hidalgo egg chorion (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Goforth, Christine L; Smith, Robert L

    2011-07-01

    Although giant water bugs (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae) are large, aquatic insects known for their obligate paternal egg brooding behaviors, little research has focused on the structure of their eggs. The respiratory requirements of developing embryos likely created selection for brooding, so a thorough understanding of the respiratory morphology of belostomatid eggs could help explain how brooding behaviors facilitate embryonic gas exchange. This study used scanning electron microscopy to document the respiratory microstructure of the eggs of Abedus herberti, a back brooding giant water bug. The exochorion is similar to that of other belostomatids in texture and organization except that the respiratory region is confined to the uppermost quarter of the egg. This is the area exposed to the atmosphere by encumbered males. A plastron network made up of densely packed vertical projections demarcates the boundary between the respiratory and nonrespiratory regions of the chorion. The internal chorion is composed of alternate air-filled and denser layers that likely facilitate the movement of oxygen from the aeropyles at the top of the eggs to the developing embryonic tissues. J. Morphol., 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21472766

  18. Automated Zebrafish Chorion Removal and Single Embryo Placement: Optimizing Throughput of Zebrafish Developmental Toxicity Screens

    PubMed Central

    Mandrell, David; Truong, Lisa; Jephson, Caleb; Sarker, Mushfiqur R.; Moore, Aaron; Lang, Christopher; Simonich, Michael T.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of the developing zebrafish model for toxicology and drug discovery is limited by inefficient approaches to manipulating and chemically exposing zebrafish embryos—namely, manual placement of embryos into 96- or 384-well plates and exposure of embryos while still in the chorion, a barrier of poorly characterized permeability enclosing the developing embryo. We report the automated dechorionation of 1600 embryos at once at 4 h postfertilization (hpf) and placement of the dechorionated embryos into 96-well plates for exposure by 6 hpf. The process removed ≥95% of the embryos from their chorions with 2% embryo mortality by 24 hpf, and 2% of the embryos malformed at 120 hpf. The robotic embryo placement allocated 6-hpf embryos to 94.7% ± 4.2% of the wells in multiple 96-well trials. The rate of embryo mortality was 2.8% (43 of 1536) from robotic handling, the rate of missed wells was 1.2% (18 of 1536), and the frequency of multipicks was <0.1%. Embryo malformations observed at 24 hpf occurred nearly twice as frequently from robotic handling (16 of 864; 1.9%) as from manual pipetting (9 of 864; 1%). There was no statistical difference between the success of performing the embryo placement robotically or manually. PMID:22357610

  19. High levels of chorionic gonadotrophin attenuate insulin sensitivity and promote inflammation in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qinyun; Fan, Jianxia; Wang, Jiqiu; Yang, Shuai; Cong, Qing; Wang, Rui; Lv, Qianqian; Liu, Ruixin; Ning, Guang

    2015-04-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) presents with moderate inflammation, insulin resistance and impaired glucose uptake, which may result from increased maternal fat mass and increased circulation of placental hormones and adipokines. In this study, we set out to test whether the surge in chorionic gonadotrophin (CG) secretion is a cause of inflammation and impaired insulin sensitivity in GDM. We first found that LH/chorionic gonadotrophin receptors (CG/LHR) were expressed at low levels in insulin-sensitive murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes and murine C2C12 myocytes. CG treatment not only directly reduced insulin-responsive gene expression, including that of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), but also impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells. Moreover, CG treatment increased the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1) and upregulated nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activity in 3T3-L1 cells. Clinically, pregnant women who had higher CG levels and elevated MCP1 developed GDM. Above all, apart from prepregnancy BMI and MCP1 level, CG level was associated with abnormal glucose tolerance. In summary, our findings confirmed that higher CG levels in pregnancy possibly played a role in GDM development partly by impairing the functions of insulin, such those involved in as glucose uptake, while promoting inflammation in adipocyte. PMID:25691497

  20. A 26-Year Experience in Chorionic Villus Sampling Prenatal Genetic Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Paula; Mota-Freitas, Maria Manuela; Santos, Rosário; Silva, Maria Luz; Soares, Gabriela; Fortuna, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the trends of chorionic villus sampling (CVS) referred for prenatal genetic diagnosis in the past two and a half decades in a Portuguese Center. Our cohort of 491 CVS was mostly performed by the transcervical method at the 12th gestational week. Data collected within the framework of this study relate to the following: sampling method, referral reason versus abnormality and incidence of procedure-related pregnancy loss, that declined to about 0.5% over the last 15 years. The year 2000 represented a change in referral reasons for chorionic tissue collection, shifting from almost exclusively for cytogenetic testing to an increasing number of molecular tests for monogenic disorders. Herein, success rates as well as cytogenetic and/or molecular DNA results are presented. These latter include not only tests for several monogenic disorders, but also aneuploidy and maternal cell contamination screening. This retrospective analysis reiterates that CVS is a safe and reliable first trimester technique for prenatal diagnosis in high genetic risk pregnancies. PMID:26237480

  1. Clinical outcomes after assisted reproductive technology in twin pregnancies: chorionicity-based comparison

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Luming; Zou, Gang; Wei, Xing; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Okun, Nanette; Duan, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The chorionicity–based evaluation of the perinatal risk in twin pregnancies after assisted reproductive technology (ART) is lacking. A retrospective review was performed of all twin pregnancies monitored prenatally and delivered at our hospital between 2010 and 2014. Chorionicity was diagnosed by ultrasound examination at first trimester and confirmed by postnatal pathology. Pregnancy and perinatal outcomes were prospectively recorded. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated in a logistic regression model. A total of 1153 twin pregnancies were analyzed. The occurrence of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) was 3 times as frequent in monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies after ART as in those spontaneous counterparts (aOR 3.0; 95%CI 1.1–3.2). The prevalence of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancies (ICP) was significantly higher in dichorionic diamniotic (DCDA) twin pregnancies following ART compared to spontaneous DCDA pregnancies (aOR 3.3; 95%CI 1.3–5.6). Perinatal outcomes did not differ between two conception methods, either in MCDA or DCDA twin pregnancies. Based on differentiation of chorionicity, ART is associated with the increased risk of PPROM in MCDA twin pregnancies and with a higher rate of ICP in DCDA twin gestations. ART does not increase adversity of perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies. PMID:27243373

  2. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S.; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high‐dose hormone application in adult female‐to‐male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel‐based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting‐state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone‐dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language‐specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738–1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  3. Low serum testosterone increases mortality risk among male dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Carrero, Juan Jesús; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Parini, Paolo; Arver, Stefan; Lindholm, Bengt; Bárány, Peter; Heimbürger, Olof; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Men treated with hemodialysis (HD) have a very poor prognosis and an elevated risk of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the general population, associations between low testosterone concentrations and cardiovascular risk have been suggested. We performed a prospective observational study involving a well characterized cohort of 126 men treated with HD to examine the relationship between testosterone concentration and subsequent mortality during a mean follow-up period of 41 mo. Independent of age, serum creatinine, and sexual hormone binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone levels inversely and strongly associated with the inflammatory markers IL-6 and CRP. Patients with a clinical history of CVD had significantly lower testosterone levels. During follow up, 65 deaths occurred, 58% of which were a result of CVD. Men with testosterone values in the lowest tertile had increased all-cause and CVD mortality (crude hazard ratios [HRs] 2.03 [95% CI 1.24 to 3.31] and 3.19 [1.49 to 6.83], respectively), which persisted after adjustment for age, SHBG, previous CVD, diabetes, ACEi/ARB treatment, albumin, and inflammatory markers, but was lost after adjustment for creatinine. In summary, among men treated with HD, testosterone concentrations inversely correlate with all-cause and CVD-related mortality, as well as with markers of inflammation. Hypogonadism may be an additional treatable risk factor for patients with chronic kidney disease. PMID:19144759

  4. Chronic Testosterone Replacement Exerts Cardioprotection against Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Attenuating Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Testosterone-Deprived Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pongkan, Wanpitak; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C.; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2015-01-01

    Background Although testosterone deficiency is associated with increased risks of heart disease, the benefits of testosterone therapy are controversial. Moreover, current understanding on the cardiac effect of testosterone during cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) periods is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that testosterone replacement attenuates the impairment of left ventricular (LV) function and heart rate variability (HRV), and reduces the infarct size and arrhythmias caused by I/R injury in orchiectomized (ORX) rats. Methodology ORX or sham-operated male Wistar rats (n = 24) were randomly divided and received either testosterone (2 mg/kg, subcutaneously administered) or the vehicle for 8 weeks. The ejection fraction (EF) and HRV were determined at baseline and the 4th and 8th week. I/R was performed by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for 30 minutes, followed by a 120-minute reperfusion. LV pressure, arrhythmia scores, infarct size and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined. Results Prior to I/R, EF and HRV were impaired in the ORX group, but were restored in the testosterone-treated group. During I/R, arrhythmia scores and the infarct size were greater, and cardiac mitochondrial function was impaired, whereas the time to 1st VT/VF onset and the LV end-systolic pressure were decreased in the ORX group when compared to the sham group. Testosterone replacement attenuated the impairment of these parameters in ORX rats during I/R injury, but did not show any benefit or adverse effect in non-ORX rats. Conclusions Testosterone replacement restores cardiac function and autonomic regulation, and exerts cardioprotective effects during the I/R period via mitochondrial protection in ORX rats. PMID:25822979

  5. The laboratory diagnosis of testosterone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Darius A; Brannigan, Robert E; Fuchs, Eugene F; Kim, Edward D; Marmar, Joel L; Sandlow, Jay I

    2014-05-01

    The evaluation and treatment of hypogonadal men has become an important part of urologic practice. Fatigue, loss of libido, and erectile dysfunction are commonly reported, but nonspecific symptoms and laboratory verification of low testosterone (T) are an important part of evaluation in addition to a detailed history and physical examination. Significant intraindividual fluctuations in serum T levels, biologic variation of T action on end organs, the wide range of T levels in human serum samples, and technical limitations of currently available assays have led to poor reliability of T measurements in the clinical laboratory setting. There is no universally accepted threshold of T concentration that distinguishes eugonadal from hypogonadal men; thus, laboratory results have to be interpreted in the appropriate clinical setting. This review focuses on clinical, biological, and technological challenges that affect serum T measurements to educate clinicians regarding technological advances and limitations of the currently available laboratory methods to diagnose hypogonadism. A collaborative effort led by the American Urological Association between practicing clinicians, patient advocacy groups, government regulatory agencies, industry, and professional societies is underway to provide optimized assay platforms and evidence-based normal assay ranges to guide clinical decision making. Until such standardization is commonplace in clinical laboratories, the decision to treat should be based on the presence of signs and symptoms in addition to serum T measurements. Rigid interpretation of T ranges should not dictate clinical decision making or define coverage of treatment by third party payers. PMID:24548716

  6. Effects of fetal testosterone on visuospatial ability.

    PubMed

    Auyeung, Bonnie; Knickmeyer, Rebecca; Ashwin, Emma; Taylor, Kevin; Hackett, Gerald; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated whether fetal testosterone (FT) measured from second trimester amniotic fluid was related to specific aspects of visuospatial ability, in children aged 7-10 years (35 boys, 29 girls). A series of tasks were used: the children's Embedded Figures Test (EFT) (a test of attention to detail), a ball targeting task (measuring hand-eye coordination), and a computerized mental rotation task (measuring rotational ability). FT was a significant predictor for EFT scores in both boys and girls, with boys also showing a clear advantage for this task. No significant sex differences were observed in targeting. Boys scored higher than girls on mental rotation. However, no significant relationships were observed between FT and targeting or mental rotation. Girls' performance on the mental rotation and targeting tasks was significantly related to age, indicating that these tasks may have been too difficult for the younger children. These results indicate that FT has a significant role in some aspects of cognitive development but that further work is needed to understand its effect on the different aspects of visuospatial ability. PMID:22033667

  7. Architectural factor HMGA induces promoter bending and recruits C/EBP and GATA during silkmoth chorion gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Papantonis, Argyris; Vanden Broeck, Josef; Lecanidou, Rena

    2008-11-15

    A protein displaying significant similarity to mammalian HMGA (high-mobility group A) proteins, but also bearing unique structural features, was isolated from silkmoth (Bombyx mori) follicular cells. This factor, named BmHMGA, exhibits specific binding preference for chorion gene promoter elements and induces DNA bending thereon. BmHMGA deploys temporal-specific interaction with transcription factors BmC/EBP (C/EBP is CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein) and BmGATAbeta during follicle maturation. The respective protein complexes can be detected on chorion gene promoters in vivo, with different developmental profiles each time. Analogous interaction takes place on the putative promoter of the BmC/EBP gene, hinting towards a transcriptional circuit that is responsible for the progress of choriogenesis as a whole. Finally, transient suppression of BmHMGA expression led to down-regulation of chorion genes and the BmC/EBP gene, and revealed recruitment of BmC/EBP, BmGATAbeta and TFIID (transcription factor IID)/TBP (TATA-box-binding protein) by BmHMGA. A revised model for chorion gene regulation is discussed in view of these findings. PMID:18636971

  8. Gonadotropin stimulation regimens for follicular aspiration and in vitro embryo production from calf oocytes.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, D T; Irvine, B J; Earl, C R; McLean, D; Seamark, R F

    1994-01-01

    Crossbred beef x dairy calves were randomly allocated at 3 wk of age to different gonadotropin treatment regimens for stimulation of follicle development and induction of oocyte maturation in vivo. Follicular responses were assessed laparoscopically, and oocytes were aspirated for assessment of maturational state or for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and culture to determine developmental capacity. Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH), administered in a single subcutaneous injection together with a low dosage of PMSG, was as effective as the same total dosage of FSH administered in 6 injections over a 3-d period. Without accompanying PMSG, this dose of FSH was ineffective in stimulating follicle development. The mean number of preovulatory follicles (> 5mm, with hyperemic appearance) doubled with each successive stimulation at 3-wk intervals, reaching 35 follicles per calf at 9 wk of age. Oocyte yields ranged from 55 to 81% of follicles aspirated, and did not differ significantly among age, FSH regimen and oocyte maturation stimulus. A combination of LH + FSH was more effective in stimulating cumulus cell expansion than LH by itself (73 vs 22% of recovered oocyte-cumulus cell complex (OCC) respectively; P<0.05). Of 33 unselected immature oocytes (cumulus unexpanded) subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM) and IVF, 30% developed to blastocysts during co-culture with bovine oviduct epithelial cells, which was not significantly different from 25% of 36 oocytes from adult ovaries which reached the blastocyst stage under similar conditions. The results indicate that follicle responses of calf ovaries to FSH stimulation increase progressively from 3 to 9 wk of age, and that oocytes recovered laparoscopically from these follicles produce blastocysts in culture at rates similar to oocytes from adult cattle ovaries collected at slaughter. The approach offers promise for embryo production from donor calves of superior genetic merit for embryo transfer, thereby enhancing the rate of genetic gain above that attainable by conventional breeding or by embryo transfer in adult cattle. PMID:16727627

  9. Bisphenol A exposure reduces the estradiol response to gonadotropin stimulation during in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Michael S.; Kim, Dongsul; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Taylor, Julia A.; Cheng, Gloria; Lamb, Julie D.; Fujimoto, Victor Y.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Investigate associations between serum BPA concentrations and follicular response to exogenous ovary stimulation. Design Fasting serum was prospectively collected on the day of oocyte retrieval and assessed for unconjugated BPA using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with Coularray detection. Multivariable linear regression and negative binomial regression were used to assess associations between concentrations of BPA and outcome measures. Models were adjusted for race/ethnicity, antral follicle count at baseline, and cigarette smoking. Setting A reproductive health center. Patients Forty-four women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Main outcome measures Peak-estradiol level (E2) and the number of oocytes retrieved during IVF. Results The median unconjugated serum BPA concentration is 2.53 ng/ml (range 0.3–67.36 ng/ml). Bisphenol A is inversely associated with E2 (β=−0.16; 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.32, 0.01), as well as with E2 normalized to the number of mature-sized follicles at the hCG trigger (β=−0.14; 95%CI −0.24, −0.03). No association is observed for BPA and the number of oocytes retrieved (adjusted risk ratio=0.95; 95%CI 0.82, 1.10). Conclusions Bisphenol A is associated with a reduced estradiol response during IVF. Although limited by the preliminary nature of this study, these results merit confirmation in a future comprehensive investigation. PMID:21813122

  10. Testosterone influences spatial strategy preferences among adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Spritzer, Mark D.; Fox, Elliott C.; Larsen, Gregory D.; Batson, Christopher G.; Wagner, Benjamin A.; Maher, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Males outperform females on some spatial tasks, and this may be partially due to the effects of sex steroids on spatial strategy preferences. Previous work with rodents indicates that low estradiol levels bias females toward a striatum-dependent response strategy, whereas high estradiol levels bias them toward a hippocampus-dependent place strategy. We tested whether testosterone influenced the strategy preferences in male rats. All subjects were castrated and assigned to one of three daily injection doses of testosterone (0.125, 0.250, or 0.500 mg/rat) or a control group that received daily injections of the drug vehicle. Three different maze protocols were used to determine rats’ strategy preferences. A low dose of testosterone (0.125 mg) biased males toward a motor-response strategy on a T-maze task. In a water maze task in which the platform itself could be used intermittently as a visual cue, a low testosterone dose (0.125 mg) caused a significant increase in the use of a cued-response strategy relative to control males. Results from this second experiment also indicated that males receiving a high dose of testosterone (0.500 mg) were biased toward a place strategy. A third experiment indicated that testosterone dose did not have a strong influence on the ability of rats to use a nearby visual cue (floating ball) in the water maze. For this experiment, all groups seemed to use a combination of place and cued-response strategies. Overall, the results indicate that the effects of testosterone on spatial strategy preference are dose dependent and task dependent. PMID:23597827

  11. A Novel Testosterone Catabolic Pathway in Bacteria ▿ ‡

    PubMed Central

    Leu, Yann-Lii; Wang, Po-Hsiang; Shiao, Ming-Shi; Ismail, Wael; Chiang, Yin-Ru

    2011-01-01

    Forty years ago, Coulter and Talalay (A. W. Coulter and P. Talalay, J. Biol. Chem. 243:3238–3247, 1968) established the oxygenase-dependent pathway for the degradation of testosterone by aerobes. The oxic testosterone catabolic pathway involves several oxygen-dependent reactions and is not available for anaerobes. Since then, a variety of anaerobic bacteria have been described for the ability to degrade testosterone in the absence of oxygen. Here, a novel, oxygenase-independent testosterone catabolic pathway in such organisms is described. Steroidobacter denitrificansDSMZ18526 was shown to be capable of degrading testosterone in the absence of oxygen and was selected as the model organism in this study. In a previous investigation, we identified the initial intermediates involved in an anoxic testosterone catabolic pathway, most of which are identical to those of the oxic pathway demonstrated in Comamonas testosteroni. In this study, five additional intermediates of the anoxic pathway were identified. We demonstrated that subsequent steps of the anoxic pathway greatly differ from those of the established oxic pathway, which suggests that a novel pathway for testosterone catabolism is present. In the proposed anoxic pathway, a reduction reaction occurs at C-4 and C-5 of androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione, the last common intermediate of both the oxic and anoxic pathways. After that, a novel hydration reaction occurs and a hydroxyl group is thus introduced to the C-1α position of C19steroid substrates. To our knowledge, an enzymatic hydration reaction occurring at the A ring of steroid compounds has not been reported before. PMID:21725000

  12. Time for international action on treating testosterone deficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Aim Testosterone deficiency is having an increasing impact on men's health because of global aging, higher levels of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome and adverse environmental factors such as stress xenoestrogens and anti-androgens. The question addressed is to what extent the large body of evidence on the benefits and safety of testosterone therapy is applied in clinical practice. Methods Demographic data for men over the age of 50 from different regions of the world have been compared with the number of men in that age group estimated from sales figures to be receiving testosterone treatment. Results On the basis of estimate that 20% of men over 50 in the general population of each region could be expected to have testosterone deficiency symptoms, on average only these men (0.69%) in most European countries were receiving treatment. Proportion was higher in the UK (1.00%) and Germany (1.89%), but lower in France (0.49%), Italy (0.51%) and Russia (0.54%). Interestingly, Australia had higher figures (1.64%), in spite of tight state control measures on androgen use. The USA has the highest treatment rate (7.96%) and this is increasing rapidly. If the basis for the diagnosis was the more conventional combination of symptoms plus biochemical evidence of low total and free testosterone levels, androgen deficiency would be expected in at least 5% of men over 50, and percentage treatment rates therefore four times higher. However, even on that basis, only in the USA do these exceed 10%. Conclusions International action is urgently needed to raise awareness in the medical profession in the various countries of these remarkably low levels of testosterone treatment. Improvement in this requires education and motivation of doctors and those regulating the healthcare systems. A public awareness campaign is needed to educate men about the symptoms of testosterone deficiency and its impact on their health. PMID:19326293

  13. Testosterone levels of children with a diagnosis of developmental stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Selçuk, Engin Burak; Erbay, Lale Gönenir; Özcan, Özlem Özel; Kartalci, Şükrü; Batcioğlu, Kadir

    2015-01-01

    Background Stuttering is defined as a disruption in the rhythm of speech and language articulation, where the subject knows what he/she wants to say, but is unable to utter the intended word or phrase fluently. The effect of sex on development and chronicity of stuttering is well known; it is more common and chronic in males. We aimed to investigate the relationship between developmental stuttering and serum testosterone levels in this study. Materials and methods In this study, we evaluated a total of 50 children (7–12 years of age); eight (16%) were female and 42 (84%) were male. Twenty-five children who stutter and 25 typically fluent peers with the same demographic properties (ages between 7 years and 12 years) were included in this study. The testosterone levels of the two groups were determined in terms of nanogram per milliliter (ng/mL) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The difference between the means of the two groups was analyzed. Results The medians of the testosterone levels of the stutterer and control groups were determined as 20 ng/mL (range =12–184 ng/mL) and 5 ng/mL (range =2–30 ng/mL), respectively. Testosterone levels of the stutterer group were significantly higher than in the control group (P=0.001). Besides, there was a significant correlation between the severity of the stuttering and testosterone levels in the stutterer group (P=0.0001). Conclusion The findings of this study show that testosterone may have an effect on the severity of developmental stuttering and on the clinical differences between sexes. However, further investigations are needed to show that testosterone may play a role in the etiology of developmental stuttering. PMID:25999727

  14. [Testosterone and Induced Humoral Immunity in Male Campbell Dwarf Hamsters (Phodopus campbelli, Thomas, 1905, Rodentia, Cricetidae): Experimental Manipulation of Testosterone Levels].

    PubMed

    Vasilieva, N Yu; Khrushchova, A M; Shekarova, N; Rogovin, K A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of testosterone manipulation in the blood of male Campbell dwarf hamsters Phodopus campbelli Thomas, 1905 through castration, followed by testosterone treatment. Under these conditions, we studied antibody production rates in response to injection with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). It was shown that castration induced a dramatic decrease in blood testosterone but had no effect on the humoral response to SRBC. Males that received a testosterone compound with a long-lasting action (omnadren) exhibited a poor response to SRBC following re-exposure in the context of elevated testosterone compared to castrated males inoculated with an oil base of the drug. PMID:26349233

  15. Effects of hypoxia on testosterone release in rat Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Guey-Shyang; Chen, Szu-Tah; Chen, Te-Jung; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect and action mechanisms of intermittent hypoxia on the production of testosterone both in vivo and in vitro. Male rats were housed in a hypoxic chamber (12% O(2) + 88% N(2), 1.5 l/ml) 8 h/day for 4 days. Normoxic rats were used as control. In an in vivo experiment, hypoxic and normoxic rats were euthanized and the blood samples collected. In the in vitro experiment, the enzymatically dispersed rat Leydig cells were prepared and challenged with forskolin (an adenylyl cyclase activator, 10(-4) M), 8-Br-cAMP (a membrane-permeable analog of cAMP, 10(-4) M), hCG (0.05 IU), the precursors of the biosynthesis testosterone, including 25-OH-C (10(-5) M), pregnenolone (10(-7) M), progesterone (10(-7) M), 17-OH-progesterone (10(-7) M), and androstendione (10(-7)-10(-5) M), nifedipine (L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, 10(-6)-10(-4) M), nimodipine (L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, 10(-5) M), tetrandrine (L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, 10(-5) M), and NAADP (calcium-signaling messenger causing release of calcium from intracellular stores, 10(-6)-10(-4) M). The concentrations of testosterone in plasma and medium were measured by radioimmunoassay. The level of plasma testosterone in hypoxic rats was higher than that in normoxic rats. Enhanced testosterone production was observed in rat Leydig cells treated with hCG, 8-Br-cAMP, or forskolin in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Intermittent hypoxia resulted in a further increase of testosterone production in response to the testosterone precursors. The activity of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was stimulated by the treatment of intermittent hypoxia in vitro. The intermittent hypoxia-induced higher production of testosterone was accompanied with the influx of calcium via L-type calcium channel and the increase of intracellular calcium via the mechanism of calcium mobilization. These results suggested that the intermittent hypoxia stimulated the secretion of testosterone at least in

  16. Prenatal detection of chromosome aneuploidies in uncultured chorionic villus samples by FISH.

    PubMed Central

    Bryndorf, T.; Christensen, B.; Vad, M.; Parner, J.; Carelli, M. P.; Ward, B. E.; Klinger, K. W.; Bang, J.; Philip, J.

    1996-01-01

    We developed a 1-d FISH assay for detection of numerical chromosome abnormalities in uncultured chorionic villus samples (CVS). Probes specific for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y were used to determine ploidy by analysis of signal number in hybridized nuclei. Aneuploidy detection using this assay was directly compared with the results obtained by conventional cytogenetic analysis in a consecutive, clinical study of 2,709 CVS and placental samples. The FISH assay yielded discrete differences in the signal profiles between cytogenetically normal and abnormal samples. On the basis of these results, we generated FISH-assay cutoff values that discriminated between karyotypically normal and aneuploid samples. Samples with mosaicism and a single sample with possible heritable small chromosome X probe target were exceptions and showed poor agreement between FISH results and conventional cytogenetics. We conclude that the FISH assay may act as a more accurate and less labor-demanding alternative to "direct" CVS analysis. PMID:8808609

  17. The basal chorionic trophoblast cell layer: An emerging coordinator of placenta development.

    PubMed

    Walentin, Katharina; Hinze, Christian; Schmidt-Ott, Kai M

    2016-03-01

    During gestation, fetomaternal exchange occurs in the villous tree (labyrinth) of the placenta. Development of this structure depends on tightly coordinated cellular processes of branching morphogenesis and differentiation of specialized trophoblast cells. The basal chorionic trophoblast (BCT) cell layer that localizes next to the chorioallantoic interface is of critical importance for labyrinth morphogenesis in rodents. Gcm1-positive cell clusters within this layer initiate branching morphogenesis thereby guiding allantoic fetal blood vessels towards maternal blood sinuses. Later these cells differentiate and contribute to the syncytiotrophoblast of the fetomaternal barrier. Additional cells within the BCT layer sustain continued morphogenesis, possibly through a repopulating progenitor population. Several mouse mutants highlight the importance of a structurally intact BCT epithelium, and a growing number of studies addresses its patterning and epithelial architecture. Here, we review and discuss emerging concepts in labyrinth development focussing on the biology of the BCT cell layer. PMID:26778584

  18. Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum: lessons from the human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Ruddon, R. W.; Sherman, S. A.; Bedows, E.

    1996-01-01

    There have been few studies of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum of intact mammalian cells. In the one case where the in vivo and in vitro folding pathways of a mammalian secretory protein have been compared, the folding of the human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit (hCG-beta), the order of formation of the detected folding intermediates is the same. The rate and efficiency with which multidomain proteins such as hCG-beta fold to native structure in intact cells is higher than in vitro, although intracellular rates of folding of the beta subunit can be approached in vitro in the presence of an optimal redox potential and protein disulfide isomerase. Understanding how proteins fold in vivo may provide a new way to diagnose and treat human illnesses that occur due to folding defects. PMID:8844836

  19. A model for gas and nutrient exchange in the chorionic vasculature system of the mouse placenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirbod, Parisa; Sled, John

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an analytical model for the oxygen and nutrient transport from the umbilical cord to the small villous capillaries. The nutrient and carbon dioxide removal from the fetal cotyledons in the mouse placental system has also been considered. This model describes the mass transfer between the fetal and the maternal red blood cells in the chorionic arterial vasculature system. The model reveals the detail fetal vasculature system and its geometry and the precise mechanisms of mass transfer through the placenta. The dimensions of the villous capillaries, the total length of the villous trees, the total villi surface area, and the total resistance to mass transport in the fetal villous trees has also been defined. This is the first effort to explain the reason why there are at least 7 lobules in the mouse placenta from the fluid dynamics point of view.

  20. Studies on stabilities of some human chorionic gonadotropin complexes with β-emitting radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Moumita; Sen, Kamalika; Sen, Souvik; Lahiri, Susanta

    2011-02-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a peptide hormone, whose one of the structural subunits is identical to that of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). As a consequence, the receptors of TSH also act as receptor for hCG hormone. Keeping in mind this interesting property of hCG we have studied the complex formation ability of various no-carrier-added β-emitting isotopes of (61)Cu (3.3 h), (62)Zn (9.2 h), (90)Nb (14.60 h) and (99)Mo (66.02 h) with hCG molecule. Stability of the hCG-M (M=metal ions) complexes was investigated by dialysis with respect to triple distilled water and ringer lactate solution, which has the same composition as extracellular fluid. PMID:21144760

  1. Detection of Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene products in amniotic fluid and chorionic villus sampling cells.

    PubMed

    Prigojin, H; Brusel, M; Fuchs, O; Shomrat, R; Legum, C; Nudel, U; Yaffe, D

    1993-12-01

    We have examined the expression of several Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene products in amniotic fluid (AF) and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) cells. Variable amounts of dystrophin could be detected in most CVS and AF samples by immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis. PCR analysis demonstrated the presence of the muscle type dystrophin mRNA in all AF cell cultures. The brain type dystrophin mRNA was also detected in some of these cultures. These DMD gene transcripts are of fetal origin and are produced by most or all clonable AF cells. The results may facilitate the development of a method for prenatal diagnosis of DMD, based on the expression of the gene in AF and CVS cells. PMID:8253201

  2. Mussel adhesive enhances the immobilization of human chorionic gonadotrophin to a solid support.

    PubMed

    Burzio, V A; Silva, T; Pardo, J; Burzio, L O

    1996-10-15

    Polystyrene microtiter plates coated with 0.30 microgram/ well of the adhesive polyphenolic protein purified from the mussel Aulacomya ater showed enhanced capacity to immobilize antigens such as human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Uncoated and coated wells were activated with different amounts of hCG (from 2 to 500 ng), blocked with bovine serum albumin, and tested with anti-hCG monoclonal antibodies and antimouse IgG conjugated with peroxidase. The reading at 492 nm of the uncoated wells activated with 500 ng of hCG was similar to that obtained with coated wells but using 5 to 10 ng of antigen. The coating procedure also resulted in better sensitivity to detect low concentration of monoclonal antibodies and better signal-to-noise ratio. The capacity of the mussel coating to immobilize hCG, as well as the immunoreactivity of the attached antigen, remained stable for several months. PMID:8921186

  3. Evidence for, and Associated Risks with, the Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Supplemented Diet.

    PubMed

    Butler, Stephen A; Cole, Laurence A

    2016-11-01

    Trend diets can be commonplace amongst those who are trying to lose weight but in most cases there is some shred of evidence to suggest they might be of some benefit. Seldom is there a diet which is such a fad that it is not only completely unfounded but also potential harmful. The human chorionic gonadotropin or "hCG diet" is such a diet, which after half a century still has no evidence to support its efficacy; in fact all scientific publications subsequent to the original article counter these claims. In this short communication, we review the literature and present data on exactly what some of the hCG diet preparations actually contain and highlight that, based on current data, these may do more harm than good. It is worrying that more consideration is not given to the possible danger of administration of hCG preparations to individuals without an evidence-based rational. PMID:27010890

  4. Induction of follicular luteinization by equine chorionic gonadotropin in cyclic guinea pigs*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun-rong; Wang, Wei; Shi, Fang-xiong

    2015-01-01

    The effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on follicular development and ovulation in cyclic guinea pigs were investigated by histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Three groups of guinea pigs (n=12) were administrated subcutaneously with saline, 20 or 50 IU of eCG, respectively, on cyclic Day 12 (Day 1=vaginal openings). Ovaries were collected at 4 and 8 d after administration (6 animals per group each time). The eCG administration induced significant and distinct morphological changes in the ovaries, as it promoted the luteinization of granulosa cells, but not follicular development. In addition, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) were immunolocalized specifically in luteinized follicles. Our experiments together indicate that eCG administration can induce follicular luteinization but not superovulation in guinea pigs. The eCG in cyclic guinea pigs functions similar to that of luteinizing hormone (LH), but not follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). PMID:26642181

  5. Mechanism of Trypanosoma cruzi Placenta Invasion and Infection: The Use of Human Chorionic Villi Explants

    PubMed Central

    Fretes, Ricardo E.; Kemmerling, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Congenital Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease, endemic in Latin America, is associated with premature labor and miscarriage. During vertical transmission the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) crosses the placental barrier. However, the exact mechanism of the placental infection remains unclear. We review the congenital transmission of T. cruzi, particularly the role of possible local placental factors that contribute to the vertical transmission of the parasite. Additionally, we analyze the different methods available for studying the congenital transmission of the parasite. In that context, the ex vivo infection with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of human placental chorionic villi constitutes an excellent tool for studying parasite infection strategies as well as possible local antiparasitic mechanisms. PMID:22701129

  6. Simultaneous photoelectrochemical and visualized immunoassay of β-human chorionic gonadotrophin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Ruan, Yi-Fan; Ma, Zheng-Yuan; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2016-11-15

    Herein, on the basis of the alkaline phosphate (ALP) induced reaction, a simultaneous photoelectrochemical (PEC) and visualized immunoassay has been established for the detection of β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-HCG). Specifically, in the proposed system, ALP stimulated the oxidative hydrolyzing transformation of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoyl phosphate (BCIP) to an indigo precipitation, generating an insulating layer that impeded the interfacial mass and electron transfer and thus the photocurrent production. Meanwhile, a visualized detection could be performed according to the change of color intensity. Upon proper experimental conditions, the protocol possessed a detection range of 0.5-1000IU/L with a detection limit of (0.20±0.011)IU/L toward β-HCG. With high sensitivity and specificity, this work presents the first general protocol for simultaneous PEC and visualized detection, which could be easily extended to addressing numerous other targets. PMID:27183279

  7. Testosterone Administration Decreases Generosity in the Ultimatum Game

    PubMed Central

    Zak, Paul J.; Kurzban, Robert; Ahmadi, Sheila; Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Park, Jang; Efremidze, Levan; Redwine, Karen; Morgan, Karla; Matzner, William

    2009-01-01

    How do human beings decide when to be selfish or selfless? In this study, we gave testosterone to 25 men to establish its impact on prosocial behaviors in a double-blind within-subjects design. We also confirmed participants' testosterone levels before and after treatment through blood draws. Using the Ultimatum Game from behavioral economics, we find that men with artificially raised T, compared to themselves on placebo, were 27% less generous towards strangers with money they controlled (95% CI placebo: (1.70, 2.72); 95% CI T: (.98, 2.30)). This effect scales with a man's level of total-, free-, and dihydro-testosterone (DHT). Men in the lowest decile of DHT were 560% more generous than men in the highest decile of DHT. We also found that men with elevated testosterone were more likely to use their own money punish those who were ungenerous toward them. Our results continue to hold after controlling for altruism. We conclude that elevated testosterone causes men to behave antisocially. PMID:20016825

  8. Testosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma in a peripubertal girl

    SciTech Connect

    Kamilaris, T.C.; DeBold, C.R.; Manolas, K.J.; Hoursanidis, A.; Panageas, S.; Yiannatos, J.

    1987-11-13

    A 15-year-old girl who presented with primary amenorrhea and virilization had an adrenocortical adenoma that secreted predominantly testosterone. To the authors' knowledge, she is the first peripubertal and second youngest patient with a testosterone-secreting adrenal tumor described. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary 17-ketosteroid an 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels were normal. A tumor was located by a computed tomographic (CT) scan and by uptake of 6-..beta..-(/sup 75/Se) selenomethylnorcholesterol. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed typical features of an adrenocortical adenoma with no histologic features characteristic of Leydig cells. Postoperatively, her hirsutism regressed, she rapidly went through puberty, and regular monthly menstruation started four months later. Finding the source of testosterone in a virilized patient can be difficult. Eleven of the 14 previously described patients with testosterone-secreting adrenal tumors initially underwent misdirected surgery on the ovaries. Review of these cases revealed that results of hormone stimulation and suppression tests are unreliable and that these tumors are usually large. Therefore, CT scanning of the adrenal glands is recommended in all patients suspected of having a testosterone-secreting tumor.

  9. Effect of testosterone therapy on the female voice

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, R.; York, A.; Dimitrakakis, C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This prospective study was designed to investigate the effect of testosterone, delivered by subcutaneous implants, on the female voice. Methods Ten women who had opted for testosterone therapy were recruited for voice analysis. Voices were recorded prior to treatment and at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months while on testosterone therapy. Acoustic samples were collected with subjects reading a sentence, reading a paragraph, and participating in a conversation. Significant changes in the voice over time were investigated using a repeated-measures analysis of variance with the fundamental frequency (F 0) as a response variable. Demographic variables associated with characteristics of the voice were assessed. Results There were no significant differences in average F 0 related to smoking history, menopausal status, weight, or body mass index. There was no difference in average fundamental speaking frequency (sentence, paragraph, conversation) between the pre-treatment group and any post-treatment group at 3 and 12 months. There was an increase in sentence speech F 0 at 6 months. Two of three patients with lower than expected F 0 at baseline improved on testosterone therapy. Conclusion Therapeutic levels of testosterone, delivered by subcutaneous implant, had no adverse affect on the female voice including lowering or deepening of the voice. PMID:26857354

  10. Effects of Testosterone Administration on Strategic Gambling in Poker Play.

    PubMed

    van Honk, Jack; Will, Geert-Jan; Terburg, David; Raub, Werner; Eisenegger, Christoph; Buskens, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone has been associated with economically egoistic and materialistic behaviors, but -defensibly driven by reputable status seeking- also with economically fair, generous and cooperative behaviors. Problematically, social status and economic resources are inextricably intertwined in humans, thus testosterone's primal motives are concealed. We critically addressed this issue by performing a placebo-controlled single-dose testosterone administration in young women, who played a game of bluff poker wherein concerns for status and resources collide. The profit-maximizing strategy in this game is to mislead the other players by bluffing randomly (independent of strength of the hand), thus also when holding very poor cards (cold bluffing). The profit-maximizing strategy also dictates the players in this poker game to never call the other players' bluffs. For reputable-status seeking these materialistic strategies are disadvantageous; firstly, being caught cold bluffing damages one's reputation by revealing deceptive intent, and secondly, not calling the other players' bluffs signals submission in blindly tolerating deception. Here we show that testosterone administration in this game of bluff poker significantly reduces random bluffing, as well as cold bluffing, while significantly increasing calling. Our data suggest that testosterone in humans primarily motivates for reputable-status seeking, even when this elicits behaviors that are economically disadvantageous. PMID:26727636

  11. Testosterone administration decreases generosity in the ultimatum game.

    PubMed

    Zak, Paul J; Kurzban, Robert; Ahmadi, Sheila; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Park, Jang; Efremidze, Levan; Redwine, Karen; Morgan, Karla; Matzner, William

    2009-01-01

    How do human beings decide when to be selfish or selfless? In this study, we gave testosterone to 25 men to establish its impact on prosocial behaviors in a double-blind within-subjects design. We also confirmed participants' testosterone levels before and after treatment through blood draws. Using the Ultimatum Game from behavioral economics, we find that men with artificially raised T, compared to themselves on placebo, were 27% less generous towards strangers with money they controlled (95% CI placebo: (1.70, 2.72); 95% CI T: (.98, 2.30)). This effect scales with a man's level of total-, free-, and dihydro-testosterone (DHT). Men in the lowest decile of DHT were 560% more generous than men in the highest decile of DHT. We also found that men with elevated testosterone were more likely to use their own money punish those who were ungenerous toward them. Our results continue to hold after controlling for altruism. We conclude that elevated testosterone causes men to behave antisocially. PMID:20016825

  12. Testosterone and paternal care in East African foragers and pastoralists.

    PubMed

    Muller, Martin N; Marlowe, Frank W; Bugumba, Revocatus; Ellison, Peter T

    2009-01-22

    The 'challenge hypothesis' posits that testosterone facilitates reproductive effort (investment in male-male competition and mate-seeking) at the expense of parenting effort (investment in offspring and mates). Multiple studies, primarily in North America, have shown that men in committed relationships, fathers, or both maintain lower levels of testosterone than unpaired men. Data from non-western populations, however, show inconsistent results. We hypothesized that much of this cross-cultural variation can be attributed to differential investment in mating versus parenting effort, even among married fathers. Here, we directly test this idea by comparing two neighbouring Tanzanian groups that exhibit divergent styles of paternal involvement: Hadza foragers and Datoga pastoralists. We predicted that high levels of paternal care by Hadza fathers would be associated with decreased testosterone in comparison with non-fathers, and that no such difference between fathers and non-fathers would be evident in Datoga men, who provide minimal direct paternal care. Twenty-seven Hadza men and 80 Datoga men between the ages of 17 and 60 provided morning and afternoon saliva samples from which testosterone was assayed. Measurements in both populations confirmed these predictions, adding further support to the hypothesis that paternal care is associated with decreased testosterone production in men. PMID:18826936

  13. Hypothalamic control of the male neonatal testosterone surge.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Jenny; Herbison, Allan E

    2016-02-19

    Sex differences in brain neuroanatomy and neurophysiology underpin considerable physiological and behavioural differences between females and males. Sexual differentiation of the brain is regulated by testosterone secreted by the testes predominantly during embryogenesis in humans and the neonatal period in rodents. Despite huge advances in understanding how testosterone, and its metabolite oestradiol, sexually differentiate the brain, little is known about the mechanism that actually generates the male-specific neonatal testosterone surge. This review examines the evidence for the role of the hypothalamus, and particularly the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, in generating the neonatal testosterone surge in rodents and primates. Kisspeptin-GPR54 signalling is well established as a potent and critical regulator of GnRH neuron activity during puberty and adulthood, and we argue here for an equally important role at birth in driving the male-specific neonatal testosterone surge in rodents. The presence of a male-specific population of preoptic area kisspeptin neurons that appear transiently in the perinatal period provide one possible source of kisspeptin drive to neonatal GnRH neurons in the mouse. PMID:26833836

  14. Testosterone regulates metabolism of plasma chylomicrons in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Staprans, I.; Rapp, J.H.; Pan, X.M.; Ong, D.L.; Feingold, K.R. )

    1990-07-01

    Previously we demonstrated a marked sex difference in the metabolism of chylomicrons in adult rats. In males, radiolabeled chylomicrons displayed a longer dwell time on endothelial surfaces, which resulted in a decreased chylomicron uptake by the liver. The increased rate of chylomicron metabolism in females was associated with increased postheparin lipoprotein lipase activity. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of physiological doses of sex steroid hormones on the metabolism of chylomicrons and postheparin lipoprotein lipase activity. No sex differences were found in prepubertal animals. We also found no difference in chylomicron metabolism in control female, castrated female, estrogen-treated female, castrated male, and estrogen-treated male rats. However, control male, testosterone-treated male, and testosterone-treated female rats showed increased endothelial binding of chylomicrons and decreased chylomicron uptake by the liver. Postheparin lipoprotein lipase activity also was decreased by testosterone administration. In parallel with the alterations in chylomicron metabolism, serum high density lipoprotein levels in male rats decreased with testosterone administration. These results indicate that the differences in chylomicron metabolism, postheparin lipoprotein lipase activities, and serum high density lipoprotein levels observed between male and female rats are due to testosterone.

  15. Disappearance of chorion proteins from Bombyx mori eggs treated with HCl solution to prevent diapause.

    PubMed

    Tsurumaru, Shuichiro; Kawamori, Akihito; Mitsumasu, Kanako; Niimi, Teruyuki; Imai, Kunio; Yamashita, Okitsugu; Yaginuma, Toshinobu

    2010-12-01

    Bombyx mori eggs enter diapause immediately after completion of mesoderm segregation. HCl treatment of approximately 24-hour-old eggs (germband formation stage) is well known to be the most effective procedure to prevent entry into diapause, although the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the protein composition of diapausing and nondiapausing eggs after various HCl treatments known to prevent or break diapause and found that proteins of approximately 11 and 8 kDa disappeared immediately after HCl treatment. Partial amino acid sequences of these proteins indicated that they were members of the chorion class A protein L12 family synthesized in follicle cells. Under the hypothesis that the chorion provides a barrier to oxygen, dechorionation of diapausing eggs induces resumption of embryonic development. Hence, to test this and other hypotheses about the function of these proteins, we used 20% SDS-PAGE with Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining to trace their disappearance from embryos and eggshells after treatment with HCl under different conditions and on polyvoltine, univoltine, and bivoltine silkworm races. Even when 10-day-old diapausing eggs were treated with HCl, which did not break diapause, the 11 and 8 kDa proteins disappeared. Our results suggest that disappearance of these proteins is not directly associated with preventing entry into or breaking a diapause state. Nevertheless, our results cannot completely rule out the possibility that the 11 and 8 kDa proteins function to block permeability of O(2) during the period when HCl treatment is physiologically effective to prevent diapause so that after the diapause system is established within the egg, even removing the 11 and 8 kDa proteins may not affect to prevent diapause. We also discuss the role of these proteins in choriogenesis. PMID:20637776

  16. Human placenta and chorion: potential additional sources of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bárcena, Alicia; Muench, Marcus O.; Kapidzic, Mirhan; Gormley, Matthew; Goldfien, Gabriel A.; Fisher, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is an essential element of medical therapy, leading to cures of previously incurable disease for hematological and non-hematological pathologies. Many patients do not find matched donors in a timely manner, which has driven efforts to find alternative pools of transplantable HSCs. The use of umbilical cord blood (UCB) as a source of transplantable HSCs began more than two decades ago. However, the use of UCB as a reliable source of HSCs for transplantation still faces crucial challenges: the number of HSCs present in a unit of UCB is usually sufficient for younger children but not for adults and the persistent delayed engraftment often seen can result in high rates of infection and mortality. Study Design and Methods We propose a new approach to a solution of these problems: a potential increase of the limited number of UCB–HSCs available by harvesting HSCs contained in the placenta and the fetal chorionic membrane available at birth. Results We investigated the presence of hematopoietic progenitors/HSC in human placenta and chorion at different gestational ages. The characterization of these cells was performed by flow cytometry and immunolocalization and their functional status was investigated by transplanting them into immunodeficient mice. Conclusion HSCs are present in extraembryonic tissues and could be banked in conjunction to the UCB-HSCs. This novel approach could have a large impact on the field of HSC banking and more crucially, on the outcome of patients undergoing this treatment by greatly improving the use of life-saving hematopoietic transplants. PMID:22074633

  17. Reproductive outcomes of Alpine goats primed with progesterone and treated with human chorionic gonadotropin during the anestrus-to-estrus transition season.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Espino, A S; Meza-Herrera, C A; Carrillo, E; González-Álvarez, V H; Guillen-Muñoz, J M; Ángel-García, O; Mellado, M; Véliz-Deras, F G

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the possible effects of a single injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as a means for estrus induction in acyclic French-Alpine goats during the reproductive transition period at 25°N, 103°W. The potential effects of hCG upon ovarian function and reproductive performance of goats were also assessed. Multiparous acyclic French-Alpine goats (n = 39; 37.4 ± 8 .5 kg) were primed with 20mg progesterone (P4) 1 day prior to hCG administration. Thereafter, does were treated either with saline (hCG-0; n = 10), 50 (hCG-50; n = 9), 100 (hCG-100; n = 10), or 300 IU of hCG (hCG-300; n = 10). Ovarian structures and pregnancy were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography. In addition, after hCG application, goats were monitored twice daily (0800 and 1800 h) to detect estrus signs, with the use of aproned, sexually active bucks treated with testosterone. Goats were bred 12h after the onset of estrus. Two days after hCG administration, the number of large follicles was higher (P < 0.05) in the hCG-50 and hCG-300 groups (1.7 ± 0.1 and 1.8 ± 0.2, respectively) compared with the hCG-100 and hCG-0 groups (1.4 ± 0.2 and 1.1 ± 0.1, respectively). Although none of the hCG-0-goats depicted estrus, the estrus response from the hCG-50, hCG-100, and hCG-300 groups over the 7-d breeding period was 67%, 100%, and 90%, respectively (P > 0.05), being always accompanied by ovulation. Pregnancy rate (67, 100, and 70%), kidding rate (55%, 80%, and 70%), and litter size (1.6 ± 0.5, 1.5 ± 0.5, and 1.5 ± 0.5) for hCG-50, hCG-100, and hCG-300, respectively, did not differ among the hCG-treated does. Therefore, the combined use of P4-priming plus a 100-IU hCG injection is an effective protocol for inducing estrus in non-cycling Alpine goats during the anestrus-to-estrus transition period, which is of key importance for both goat producers and industrializers. PMID:26944772

  18. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G. )

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, (3H)testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with (3H)testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis.

  19. The role of testosterone in trichloroethylene penetration in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, K.; Abdel-Rahman, M.S. )

    1991-02-01

    Sex differences are known to exist in the metabolism and bioavailability of trichloroethylene (TCE). This study revealed that dermal penetration of ({sup 14}C)TCE in vitro was twofold greater in untreated female than in untreated male Sprague-Dawley rats. Since testosterone has been shown to mediate a wide variety of sex differences, its role in dermal penetration of ({sup 14}C)TCE was investigated. Penetration was measured by using an in vitro evaporation-penetration cell with a 10-hour collection period. Depriving male rats of testosterone (by castration) resulted in increased values for total penetration, area under the curve (AUC), and penetration slopes compared to those found in the female control group. Administration of testosterone to female animals produced values for total penetration, AUC, and penetration slopes significantly lower than those of the female control group.

  20. [The influence of testosterone on cardiovascular disease in men].

    PubMed

    Payer, J; Banárová, A

    2010-07-01

    The influence of testosterone on cardiovascular disease is recently discussed question. Testosterone modulates vascular reactivity by genomic and nongenomic modes of action, it has an impact on endothelial function, production of proinflamatory cytokines and lipid profiles. The possible role of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in androgen action by plasmatic membrane receptors breaks "the free hormone hypothesis", especially when clinical trials reveal strong association between SHBG and risk factors of cardiovascular disease. The results of last clinical trials mention that androgen deficiency is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. Large clinical trials demonstrated that androgen deficiency predict mortality in elderly men. Testosterone substitution restores vasoreactivity and endothelial function and could potentially reduce cardiovascular disease in men but to confirm this theory more large clinical trials are needed. PMID:20842916

  1. Differential effects of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones on testosterone production by mouse testes.

    PubMed

    Dalterio, S L; Suter, D E; Schwartz, N B; Mayfield, D; Rettori, V B

    1986-07-01

    In adult mice, direct intratesticular injection of ovine follicle-stimulating hormone (o-FSH-13; AFP 2846-C, from NIAMDD, less than 1% LH contamination) at 10, 100 or 1000 ng significantly elevated concentrations of testosterone (T) within the testis. These effects were rapid, with peak values attained by 15 min, and transient, with return to values comparable to that in the contralateral, saline-injected testis within 90 min. Intratesticular injection of FSH (1 microgram) significantly increased testicular T levels in 15- and 60-day old mice. This contrasted with the effects of intratesticular administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which stimulated T production significantly at 30 days of age through adulthood. In adult mice, the equivalent LH to the possible contamination in the FSH preparation (1 ng) had no effect. Intratesticular injection of 10 ng LH produced comparable stimulation to that by 100 ng FSH (approximately 7-fold). Systemic pre-treatment with a charcoal-treated porcine follicular fluid (PFF) extract for 2 days reduced plasma FSH levels [86 +/- 17 (5) vs 700 +/- 8 (6); P less than 0.05], but had no effect on plasma LH. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, the response to intratesticular injection of hCG (2.5 mIU), FSH (100 ng) or LH (10 ng) was also significantly attenuated in these mice. Intratesticular injection of PFF had no direct effect on testicular T levels. In vitro T production in the presence of hCG, LH or FSH were differentially affected by the concentrations of calcium (Ca2+) or magnesium (Mg2+) in the incubation media. The stimulatory effects of FSH were apparent at significantly lower levels of Ca2+ or Mg2+, than were those of LH or hCG. The results of these studies indicate that FSH is capable of stimulating testicular T production. Furthermore, the responsiveness to FSH is qualitatively different than that to LH/hCG in terms of the age pattern, as well as the dependence on Ca2+ or Mg2+. In addition, plasma FSH

  2. Effects of aromatase inhibition vs. testosterone in older men with low testosterone: randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dias, J P; Melvin, D; Simonsick, E M; Carlson, O; Shardell, M D; Ferrucci, L; Chia, C W; Basaria, S; Egan, J M

    2016-01-01

    Aging in men is associated with loss of bone mass, impaired physical function and altered body composition. The objective of this proof-of-concept randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single-center trial was to determine the relative effects of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E(2)) on bone mineral density, body composition, and physical performance in older men. The primary outcome was lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD), and secondary outcomes were body composition, muscle strength, gait speed, and sex hormone concentrations. Forty three men (age range, 65-82 years; mean age 71 years) with low total T levels <350 ng/dL were randomized to one of three groups: 5 g transdermal testosterone gel (TT) (N = 16), anastrozole (AI) 1 mg (N = 14) or placebo daily (N = 13) for 12 months. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Both TT and AI increased serum TT levels (>500 ng/dL, p < 0.05) compared to baseline; T values remained stable throughout the duration of the trial. At 12 months, TT improved the primary outcome of lumbar spine BMD (p < 0.01).Both interventions improved knee strength at 12 months compared to baseline (p < 0.05) while lean body mass significantly increased only in the AI group at 6 and 12 months (1.49 ± 0.38 kg, p < 0.01; 1.24 ± 0.39 kg, p < 0.05, respectively) compared to baseline. Interestingly, TT improved fast gait speed at 3 and 12 months (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). In summary, this proof-of-concept study confirms that aromatization of T is required for maintaining BMD in older men with low-T levels. The trial also uncovered the novel finding that aromatization of T is required for improvement in fast gait speed, an observation that needs to be verified in future studies. PMID:26588809

  3. A comparison of salivary testosterone measurement using immunoassays and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Welker, Keith M; Lassetter, Bethany; Brandes, Cassandra M; Prasad, Smrithi; Koop, Dennis R; Mehta, Pranjal H

    2016-09-01

    Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) are widely used to measure salivary testosterone. However, little is known about how accurately different EIAs assess testosterone, partially because estimates across various EIAs differ considerably. We compared testosterone concentrations across EIAs of three commonly used manufacturers (DRG International, Salimetrics, and IBL International) to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Relative to EIAs from Salimetrics and IBL International, EIAs supplied by DRG International provided the closest approximation to LC-MS/MS testosterone concentrations, followed closely by EIAs from Salimetrics, and then IBL. Additionally, EIAs tended to inflate estimates of lower testosterone concentrations in women. Examining our results and comparing them to existing data revealed that testosterone EIAs had decreased linear correspondence with LC-MS/MS in comparison to cortisol EIAs. Overall, this paper provides researchers with information to better measure testosterone in their research and more accurately compare testosterone measurements across different methods. PMID:27295182

  4. Phthalate-Induced Pathology in the Foetal Testis Involves More Than Decreased Testosterone Production

    EPA Science Inventory

    Foetal exposure to phthalates is known to adversely impact male reproductive development and function. Developmental anomalies of reproductive tract have been attributed to impaired testosterone synthesis. However, species differences in the ability to produce testosterone have...

  5. The Forkhead Transcription Factor, FOXP3: A Critical Role in Male Fertility in Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Jasurda, Jake S.; Jung, Deborah O.; Froeter, Erin D.; Schwartz, David B.; Hopkins, Torin D.; Farris, Corrie L.; McGee, Stacey; Narayan, Prema; Ellsworth, Buffy S.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fertility is dependent on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Each component of this axis is essential for normal reproductive function. Mice with a mutation in the forkhead transcription factor gene, Foxp3, exhibit autoimmunity and infertility. We have previously shown that Foxp3 mutant mice have significantly reduced expression of pituitary gonadotropins. To address the role of Foxp3 in gonadal function, we examined the gonadal phenotype of these mice. Foxp3 mutant mice have significantly reduced seminal vesicle and testis weights compared with Foxp3+/Y littermates. Spermatogenesis in Foxp3 mutant males is arrested prior to spermatid elongation. Activation of luteinizing hormone signaling in Foxp3 mutant mice by treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin significantly increases seminal vesicle and testis weights as well as testicular testosterone content and seminiferous tubule diameter. Interestingly, human chorionic gonadotropin treatments rescue spermatogenesis in Foxp3 mutant males, suggesting that their gonadal phenotype is due primarily to a loss of pituitary gonadotropin stimulation rather than an intrinsic gonadal defect. PMID:24258212

  6. The multiple actions of testosterone in men: nature knows best.

    PubMed

    Funder, John W

    2014-01-01

    In male hormone replacement therapy Finkelstein et al. show that testosterone rather than synthetic "pure" androgens should be prescribed. Testosterone is converted to the superactive androgen dihydrotestosterone and to estradiol, and thus has actions via androgen receptors and both estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ). Although muscle strength is androgen dependent, estradiol has major physiologic effects in men-on bone, cartilage, and together with androgens, on sexual functioning. Neither dihydrotestosterone nor 'pure' synthetic androgens can be converted to estradiol; those so treated thus risk missing out on the beneficial (and necessary) effects of estrogens in men. PMID:24385014

  7. Trends in Testosterone Prescription and Public Health Concerns.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsen, Joseph Scott; Najari, Bobby B; Alukal, Joseph P; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2016-05-01

    Testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) has become increasingly popular since the turn of the century. Most prescriptions in the U.S. are written by primary care providers, endocrinologists, or urologists. The FDA has requests pharmaceutical companies provide more long term data on efficacy and safety of testosterone products. Results from these studies will help define the appropriate population for TST going forward. It is hoped that these data combined with physician and public education will minimize inappropriate prescribing and allow those likely to benefit from TST to receive it. PMID:27132584

  8. Mate choice and male behaviour following castration and replacement of testosterone in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos ).

    PubMed

    Klint, T

    1985-11-01

    Male sexual behaviour was controlled by castration and testosterone replacement. The first experiment shows that, within a group of similarly coloured and castrated male mallards, females preferred males treated with testosterone. The second experiment shows that a testosterone-treated male was always preferred by the females, irrespective of plumage colour, in a choice between a wild and a white mallard drake. The results shows that testosterone dependent male cues is important in mate choice in the mallard duck. PMID:24896699

  9. Testosterone and Child and Adolescent Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Parent-Child Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Johnson, David R.; Granger, Douglas A.; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan

    2003-01-01

    In a sample of families with 6- to 18-year-olds, this study found that sons' and daughters' testosterone levels showed little direct connection to risk behavior or depressive symptoms. As parent-child relationship quality increased, testosterone-related adjustment problems were less evident. When relationship quality decreased, testosterone-linked…

  10. Marriage and motherhood are associated with lower testosterone concentrations in women

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Emily S.; Tran, Van; Thurston, Sally; Jasienska, Grazyna; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Ellison, Peter T.; Thune, Inger

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone has been hypothesized to modulate the trade-off between mating and parenting effort in males. Indeed, evidence from humans and other pair-bonded species suggests that fathers and men in committed relationships have lower testosterone levels than single men and men with no children. To date, only one published study has examined testosterone in relation to motherhood, finding that mothers of young children have lower testosterone than non-mothers. Here, we examine this question in 195 reproductive-age Norwegian women. Testosterone was measured in morning serum samples taken during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, and marital and maternal status were assessed by questionnaire. Mothers of young children (age ≤3) had 14% lower testosterone than childless women and 19% lower testosterone than women who only had children over age 3. Among mothers, age of the youngest child strongly predicted testosterone levels. There was a trend towards lower testosterone among married women compared to unmarried women. All analyses controlled for body mass index (BMI), age, type of testosterone assay, and time of serum sample collection. This is the first study to look at testosterone concentrations in relation to marriage and motherhood in Western women, and it suggests that testosterone may differ with marital and maternal status in women, providing further corroboration of previous findings in both sexes. PMID:23123222

  11. Endogenous testosterone level and testosterone supplementation therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Atlantis, Evan; Fahey, Paul; Cochrane, Belinda; Wittert, Gary; Smith, Sheree

    2013-01-01

    Objective Low testosterone level may be a reversible risk factor for functional disability and deterioration in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to systematically assess the endogenous testosterone levels and effect of testosterone therapy on exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes in COPD patients, as well as to inform guidelines and practice. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources We searched PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Health Source Nursing and PsychINFO and the reference lists of retrieved articles published before May 2012. Inclusion criteria Observational studies on endogenous testosterone levels in people with chronic lung disease compared with controls, or randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on testosterone therapy for exercise capacity and/or HRQoL outcomes in COPD patients were eligible. Data extraction and analysis Data on the mean difference in endogenous total testosterone (TT) values, and the mean difference in exercise capacity and HRQoL values were extracted and pooled using random effects meta-analysis. Results Nine observational studies in 2918 men with COPD reported consistently lower levels of TT compared with controls (weighted mean difference was –3.21 nmol/L (95% CI −5.18 to −1.23)). Six RCTs in 287 participants yielded five studies on peak muscle strength and peak cardiorespiratory fitness outcomes (peak oxygen uptake (VO2) and workload) and three studies on HRQoL outcomes. Testosterone therapies significantly improved peak muscle strength (standardised mean difference (SMD) was 0.31 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.56)) and peak workload (SMD was 0.27 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.52)) compared with control conditions (all but one used placebo), but not peak VO2 (SMD was 0.21 (95% CI −0.15 to 0.56)) or HRQoL (SMD was –0.03 (95% CI −0.32 to 0.25)). Conclusions Men with COPD have clinically relevant lower than normal TT levels. Insufficient evidence from

  12. Why are We Waiting to Start Large Scale Clinical Testing of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin for the Treatment of Preterm Births?

    PubMed

    Rao, C V

    2016-07-01

    Preterm births are an expensive global health problem. Despite the basic science and clinical research advances to better understand and prevent preterm births, the rates are increasing. There are several therapeutic options. While some options such as progestins work for selected women, others such as magnesium sulfate can only be used for delaying births for 24 to 48 hours so that the patients can be treated with corticosteroids to promote fetal lung maturity. Based on the scientific and clinical evidence, we recommend testing human chorionic gonadotropin in a large multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trials in women with active preterm labor and those with a previous history of preterm births. Human chorionic gonadotropin is not only inexpensive but also has not shown any side effects so far in the infants or in the mothers. PMID:26692543

  13. Testosterone Therapy May Boost Older Men's Sex Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159622.html Testosterone Therapy May Boost Older Men's Sex Lives Gel hormone treatment led to improved libido ...

  14. Second-to-Fourth Digit Length, Testosterone and Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempel, P.; Gohlke, B.; Klempau, J.; Zinsberger, P.; Reuter, M.; Hennig, J.

    2005-01-01

    Based on stimulating findings suggesting that prenatal levels of steroids may influence cognitive functions, a study with N=40 healthy volunteers of both sexes was conducted. Prenatal levels of testosterone (T) were estimated by use of the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) which is supposed to be controlled by the same genes involved in…

  15. Aromatized testosterone attenuates contextual generalization of fear in male rats.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Joseph F; Vanderhoof, Tyler; Winiecki, Patrick; Latsko, Maeson S; Riccio, David C; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2016-08-01

    Generalization is a common symptom of many anxiety disorders, and females are 60% more likely to suffer from an anxiety disorder than males. We have previously demonstrated that female rats display significantly accelerated rates of contextual fear generalization compared to male rats; a process driven, in part, by activation of ERβ. The current study was designed to determine the impact of estrogens on contextual fear generalization in male rats. For experiment 1, adult male rats were gonadectomized (GDX) and implanted with a capsule containing testosterone proprionate, estradiol, dihydrotestosterone proprionate (DHT), or an empty capsule. Treatment with testosterone or estradiol maintained memory precision when rats were tested in a different (neutral) context 1day after training. However, male rats treated with DHT or empty capsules displayed significant levels of fear generalization, exhibiting high levels of fear in the neutral context. In Experiment 2, we used acute injections of gonadal hormones at a time known to elicit fear generalization in female rats (e.g. 24h before testing). Injection treatment followed the same pattern of results seen in Experiment 1. Finally, animals given daily injections of the aromatase inhibitor, Fadrozole, displayed significant fear generalization. These data suggest that testosterone attenuates fear generalization likely through the aromatization testosterone into estradiol as animals treated with the non-aromatizable androgen, DHT, or animals treated with Fadrozole, displayed significant generalized fear. Overall, these results demonstrate a sex-dependent effect of estradiol on the generalization of contextual fear. PMID:27368147

  16. Fate of estradiol and testosterone in anaerobic lagoon digestors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory-scale lagoon digestors were constructed, and the fate of 14C-labelled 17ß-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (Test) were monitored for 42 d anaerobically under biological and sterile conditions. Hormone levels decreased in the liquid layer and increased in the sludge with time. At 42 d, 16-2...

  17. Effects of Testosterone Administration on Strategic Gambling in Poker Play

    PubMed Central

    van Honk, Jack; Will, Geert-Jan; Terburg, David; Raub, Werner; Eisenegger, Christoph; Buskens, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone has been associated with economically egoistic and materialistic behaviors, but -defensibly driven by reputable status seeking- also with economically fair, generous and cooperative behaviors. Problematically, social status and economic resources are inextricably intertwined in humans, thus testosterone’s primal motives are concealed. We critically addressed this issue by performing a placebo-controlled single-dose testosterone administration in young women, who played a game of bluff poker wherein concerns for status and resources collide. The profit-maximizing strategy in this game is to mislead the other players by bluffing randomly (independent of strength of the hand), thus also when holding very poor cards (cold bluffing). The profit-maximizing strategy also dictates the players in this poker game to never call the other players’ bluffs. For reputable-status seeking these materialistic strategies are disadvantageous; firstly, being caught cold bluffing damages one’s reputation by revealing deceptive intent, and secondly, not calling the other players’ bluffs signals submission in blindly tolerating deception. Here we show that testosterone administration in this game of bluff poker significantly reduces random bluffing, as well as cold bluffing, while significantly increasing calling. Our data suggest that testosterone in humans primarily motivates for reputable-status seeking, even when this elicits behaviors that are economically disadvantageous. PMID:26727636

  18. EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS ON FETAL TESTES TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Environmental Chemicals on Fetal Testes Testosterone Production

    Lambright, CS , Wilson, VS , Furr, J, Wolf, CJ, Noriega, N, Gray, LE, Jr.
    US EPA, ORD/NHEERL/RTD, RTP, NC

    Exposure of pregnant rodents to certain environmental chemicals during criti...

  19. Foetal Testosterone, Social Relationships, and Restricted Interests in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Raggatt, Peter; Taylor, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Background: Sex-differences exist in some areas of human social behaviour. In animals, foetal testosterone (fT) plays a central role in organising the brain and in later social behaviour. fT has also been implicated in language development, eye-contact, and spatial ability in humans. Methods: Fifty-eight children (35 male and 23 female), whose fT…

  20. Hostility, testosterone, and vascular reactivity to stress: effects of sex.

    PubMed

    Girdler, S S; Jammer, L D; Shapiro, D

    1997-01-01

    This study investigated the association of personality with cardiovascular stress reactivity (CVR) in men and women. Also, the degree to which testosterone and estradiol reactivity were related to personality and CVR measures was examined. Twenty-six men and 44 women completed the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory before speech, Stroop, and math stress. Testosterone (men) and estradiol (subset of women) were sampled once after an initial rest period and again after the last stressor. Cardiovascular reactivity, including cardiac output and total peripheral resistance (TPR), was assessed during stressors. For men, testosterone increased significantly with stress, and testosterone reactivity to stressors was significantly correlated with hostility. However, stepwise multiple regression revealed that hostility was the only independent predictor of CVR to speech, math, and Stroop stress in men, accounting for 13%-32% of the variance in TPR. Baseline systolic blood pressure explained 22% of the variance in TPR reactivity to speech preparation. No evidence was obtained to suggest that hostility, depressive mood, or anxiety predicted CVR in women, and estradiol did not show stress-sensitive effects. These data provide evidence that increased vascular reactivity may be one mechanism linking hostility to increased cardiovascular mortality in men and support the notion that hostility may have different implications for CVR in women. PMID:16250731

  1. The treatment of balanitis xerotica obliterans with testosterone propionate ointment.

    PubMed

    Pasieczny, T A

    1977-01-01

    Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) and kraurosis penis are thought to be synonymous. Clinically and histopathologically they probably represent the same disease process as lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) but also involve the urethral mucosa. The treatment of choice is considered to be 2 1/2% testosterone propionate ointment which gives better results than strong corticosteroid applications, yet without their side effects. PMID:71837

  2. Effects of Nandrolone Stimulation on Testosterone Biosynthesis in Leydig Cells.

    PubMed

    Pomara, Cristoforo; Barone, Rosario; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Sangiorgi, Claudia; Barone, Fulvio; Pitruzzella, Alessandro; Locorotondo, Nicola; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Salerno, Monica; Maglietta, Francesca; Sarni, Antonio Luciano; Di Felice, Valentina; Cappello, Francesco; Turillazzi, Emanuela

    2016-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are among the drugs most used by athletes for improving physical performance, as well as for aesthetic purposes. A number of papers have showed the side effects of AAS in different organs and tissues. For example, AAS are known to suppress gonadotropin-releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. This study investigates the effects of nandrolone on testosterone biosynthesis in Leydig cells using various methods, including mass spectrometry, western blotting, confocal microscopy and quantitative real-time PCR. The results obtained show that testosterone levels increase at a 3.9 μM concentration of nandrolone and return to the basal level a 15.6 μM dose of nandrolone. Nandrolone-induced testosterone increment was associated with upregulation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and downregulation of 17a-hydroxylase/17, 20 lyase (CYP17A1). Instead, a 15.6 µM dose of nandrolone induced a down-regulation of CYP17A1. Further in vivo studies based on these data are needed to better understand the relationship between disturbed testosterone homeostasis and reproductive system impairment in male subjects. PMID:26626779

  3. IQ, Fetal Testosterone and Individual Variability in Children's Functional Lateralization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercure, Evelyne; Ashwin, Emma; Dick, Frederic; Halit, Hanife; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Johnson, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have revealed that faces and words show a robust difference in the lateralization of their N170. The present study investigated the development of this differential lateralization in school-age boys. We assessed the potential role of fetal testosterone (FT) level as a factor biasing the prenatal…

  4. Testosterone in sera of workers exposed to acrylonitrile.

    PubMed

    Ivănescu, M; Berinde, M; Simionescu, L

    1990-01-01

    Testosterone was measured through three consecutive years in sera from young and adult male subjects working in a chemical factory exposed to some complex chemical noxae, the major exposure being acrylonitrile (vinylcyanid). In the first yr, (group A), the blood was collected on May 1975 (no 39), the II-nd yr (group B) on March (no 109) and the III-rd yr (group C) on May (no 149). The exposure time varied in each group between 6 mos and 7-10 yrs. For comparison, blood samples were collected from 145 men of comparable age grouped in nonexposed: blood donors (no 37) (group a), new workers (no 23) (group b) and exposed to other chemical noxae in the same factory: Na cyanid (group c, no 23), cyan derivatives (group d, no 22) and pyrolysis (group no 39). The seasonal testosterone variations being considered, the Student's 't' test applied to the hormonal levels in acrylonitrile groups A, B and C showed non significant differences. However, the comparison of the testosterone concentrations in sera of the groups A, B and C vs the control groups investigated during the same month of the year showed much lower levels of the hormone in the first groups (p less than 0.001). These data are suggesting that the exposure to acrylonitrile either by direct participation to the technological chain or by working in the same noxious environment may influence the testosterone synthesis and/or secretion. PMID:2103974

  5. The TRPM8 Protein Is a Testosterone Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Elustondo, Pia A.; Demirkhanyan, Lusine; Sun, Xiaohui; Baskaran, Padmamalini; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Thyagarajan, Baskaran; Pavlov, Evgeny V.; Zakharian, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    The transient receptor potential ion channel of the melastatin subfamily, TRPM8, is a major cold receptor in the peripheral nervous system. Along with the sensory neurons, the TRPM8 protein is highly expressed in the prostate epithelial cells, and this expression is regulated by androgens. Here we investigated the expression and intracellular localization of the TRPM8 channel in relationship to androgens. We performed experiments using human prostate tissues obtained from healthy individuals and patients with prostate cancer at various stages of the disease as well as in cultured cells. Using an immunohistochemistry approach, we detected an intensive colocalization pattern of the TRPM8 protein with endogenous androgens in all tissues tested, suggesting possible interactions. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments performed using cultured prostate epithelial cells, prostate cancer cells, and HEK-293 cells stably expressing TRPM8 further confirmed direct binding of the steroid hormone, testosterone, to the TRPM8 protein. Applications of picomolar concentrations of testosterone to the primary human prostate cells, endogenously expressing TRPM8, elicited Ca2+ responses and channel currents, and those were inhibited in the presence of TRPM8 antagonist, N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(4-(benzyloxy)-3-methoxybenzyl)thiophene-2-carboxamide hydrochloride. These results indicate that the TRPM8 channel is physically associated with testosterone and suggest that, in addition to a genomic role, testosterone plays a role in direct regulation of the TRPM8 channel function. PMID:25480783

  6. Diagnosis and Treatment of Low Testosterone among Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yeran; Johansen, Kirsten L

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of low testosterone level is particularly high among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and has been associated with mortality. In populations without ESRD, low testosterone level has also been associated with a number of morbidities including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, low muscle mass, low bone mass, low physical performance, and frailty. However, there is controversy regarding what constitutes low testosterone level in the aging population and at what level replacement therapy with testosterone is indicated. There are no randomized controlled trials investigating long-term outcomes of testosterone replacement therapy in populations with or without ESRD. Available trial results suggest equivocal improvements in sexual function. Muscle mass and bone mineral density appear to improve, but results in physical function and performance are mixed and there are no data on fracture prevention. Some recent data suggest harm when testosterone was given to men with limited mobility. Finally, there is little evidence that testosterone adds to existing erythropoietin agents in the treatment of anemia in ESRD. Due to lack of evidence supporting long-term use of testosterone, the authors recommend against the routine use of testosterone in ESRD patients with low testosterone levels. Testosterone treatment can be considered in those with low bone mass and total testosterone level <200 ng/dl, or in younger patients with sexual complaints with total testosterone level lower than the reference range. It is important to engage patients in discussion of risks and benefits before initiating testosterone therapy; testosterone therapy should be discontinued if the intended treatment effect is not observed after short-term use. PMID:25376701

  7. Pituitary and testis responsiveness of young male sheep exposed to testosterone excess during fetal development.

    PubMed

    Recabarren, Mónica P; Rojas-Garcia, Pedro P; Einspanier, Ralf; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Sir-Petermann, Teresa; Recabarren, Sergio E

    2013-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone induces reproductive disturbances in both female and male sheep. In females, it alters the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis. In males, prenatal testosterone excess reduces sperm count and motility. Focusing on males, this study tested whether pituitary LH responsiveness to GNRH is increased in prenatal testosterone-exposed males and whether testicular function is compromised in the testosterone-exposed males. Control males (n=6) and males born to ewes exposed to twice weekly injections of 30  mg testosterone propionate from days 30 to 90 and of 40  mg testosterone propionate from days 90 to 120 of gestation (n=6) were studied at 20 and 30 weeks of age. Pituitary and testicular responsiveness was tested by administering a GNRH analog (leuprolide acetate). To complement the analyses, the mRNA expression of LH receptor (LHR) and that of steroidogenic enzymes were determined in testicular tissue. Basal LH and testosterone concentrations were higher in the testosterone-exposed-males. While LH response to the GNRH analog was higher in the testosterone-exposed males than in the control males, testosterone responses did not differ between the treatment groups. The testosterone:LH ratio was higher in the control males than in the testosterone-exposed males of 30 weeks of age, suggestive of reduced Leydig cell sensitivity to LH in the testosterone-exposed males. The expression of LHR mRNA was lower in the testosterone-exposed males, but the mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes did not differ between the groups. These findings indicate that prenatal testosterone excess has opposing effects at the pituitary and testicular levels, namely increased pituitary sensitivity to GNRH at the level of pituitary and decreased sensitivity of the testes to LH. PMID:23579187

  8. Identification of Fetal Inflammatory Cells in Eosinophilic/T-cell Chorionic Vasculitis Using Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Katzman, Philip J; Li, LiQiong; Wang, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic/T-cell chorionic vasculitis (ETCV) is an inflammatory lesion of placental fetal vessels. In contrast to acute chorionic vasculitis, inflammation in ETCV is seen in chorionic vessel walls opposite the amnionic surface. It is not known whether inflammation in ETCV consists of maternal cells from the intervillous space or fetal cells migrating from the vessel. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to differentiate fetal versus maternal cells in ETCV. Placentas with ETCV, previously identified for a published study, were used. Infant sex in each case was identified using the electronic medical record. For male infants, 3-μm sections were cut from archived tissue blocks from placentas involving ETCV and stained with fluorescent X- and Y-chromosome centromeric probes. A consecutive hematoxylin/eosin-stained section was used for correlation. FISH analysis was performed on 400 interphase nuclei at the site of ETCV to determine the proportion of XX, XY, X, and Y cells. Of 31 ETCV cases, 20 were female and 10 were male (1 sex not recorded). Six of 10 cases with male infants had recuts with visible ETCV. In these 6 cases the average percentages (ranges) of XY cells, X-only cells, and Y-only cells in the region of inflammation were 81 (70-90), 11 (6-17), and 8 (2-14), respectively. There was a 2:1 female:male infant ratio in ETCV. Similar to acute chorionic vasculitis, the inflammation in ETCV is of fetal origin. It is still unknown, however, whether the stimulus for ETCV is of fetal or maternal origin. PMID:25756311

  9. Early gestation chorionic villi-derived stromal cells for fetal tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lankford, Lee; Selby, Taryn; Becker, James; Ryzhuk, Volodymyr; Long, Connor; Farmer, Diana; Wang, Aijun

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential for early gestation placenta-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (PMSCs) for fetal tissue engineering. METHODS: PMSCs were isolated from early gestation chorionic villus tissue by explant culture. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)-size tissue samples (mean = 35.93 mg) were used to test the feasibility of obtaining large cell numbers from CVS within a clinically relevant timeframe. We characterized PMSCs isolated from 6 donor placentas by flow cytometry immunophenotyping, multipotency assays, and through immunofluorescent staining. Protein secretion from PMSCs was examined using two cytokine array assays capable of probing for over 70 factors in total. Delivery vehicle compatibility of PMSCs was determined using three common scaffold systems: fibrin glue, collagen hydrogel, and biodegradable nanofibrous scaffolds made from a combination of polylactic acid (PLA) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Viral transduction of PMSCs was performed using a Luciferase-GFP-containing lentiviral vector and efficiency of transduction was tested by fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. RESULTS: We determined that an average of 2.09 × 106 (SD ± 8.59 × 105) PMSCs could be obtained from CVS-size tissue samples within 30 d (mean = 27 d, SD ± 2.28), indicating that therapeutic numbers of cells can be rapidly expanded from very limited masses of tissue. Immunophenotyping by flow cytometry demonstrated that PMSCs were positive for MSC markers CD105, CD90, CD73, CD44, and CD29, and were negative for hematopoietic and endothelial markers CD45, CD34, and CD31. PMSCs displayed trilineage differentiation capability, and were found to express developmental transcription factors Sox10 and Sox17 as well as neural-related structural proteins NFM, Nestin, and S100β. Cytokine arrays revealed a robust and extensive profile of PMSC-secreted cytokines and growth factors, and detected 34 factors with spot density values exceeding 103. Detected

  10. Testosterone replacement attenuates cognitive decline in testosterone-deprived lean rats, but not in obese rats, by mitigating brain oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Pintana, Hiranya; Pongkan, Wanpitak; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2015-10-01

    Testosterone replacement improves metabolic parameters and cognitive function in hypogonadism. However, the effects of testosterone therapy on cognition in obese condition with testosterone deprivation have not been investigated. We hypothesized that testosterone replacement improves cognitive function in testosterone-deprived obese rats by restoring brain insulin sensitivity, brain mitochondrial function, and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Thirty male Wistar rats had either a bilateral orchiectomy (ORX: O, n = 24) or a sham operation (S, n = 6). ORX rats were further divided into two groups fed with either a normal diet (NDO) or a high-fat diet (HFO) for 12 weeks. Then, ORX rats in each dietary group were divided into two subgroups (n = 6/subgroup) and were given either castor oil or testosterone (2 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for 4 weeks. At the end of this protocol, cognitive function, metabolic parameters, brain insulin sensitivity, hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and brain mitochondrial function were determined. We found that testosterone replacement increased peripheral insulin sensitivity, decreased circulation and brain oxidative stress levels, and attenuated brain mitochondrial ROS production in HFO rats. However, testosterone failed to restore hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function in HFO rats. In contrast, in NDO rats, testosterone decreased circulation and brain oxidative stress levels, attenuated brain mitochondrial ROS production, and restored hippocampal synaptic plasticity as well as cognitive function. These findings suggest that testosterone replacement improved peripheral insulin sensitivity and decreased oxidative stress levels, but failed to restore hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function in testosterone-deprived obese rats. However, it provided beneficial effects in reversing cognitive impairment in testosterone-deprived non-obese rats. PMID:26277724

  11. Branching enzyme activity of cultured amniocytes and chorionic villi: prenatal testing for type IV glycogen storage disease.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, B I; Brown, D H

    1989-01-01

    Although type IV glycogen storage disease (Andersen disease; McKusick 23250) is considered to be a rare, autosomally recessive disorder, of the more than 600 patients with glycogenosis identified in our laboratory by enzymatic assays, 6% have been shown to be deficient in the glycogen branching enzyme. Most of the 38 patients with type IV glycogen storage disease who are known to us have succumbed at a very early age, with the exception of one male teenager, an apparently healthy 7-year-old male, and several 5-year-old patients. Fourteen pregnancies at risk for branching enzyme deficiency have been monitored using cultured amniotic fluid cells, and four additional pregnancies have been screened using cultured chorionic villi. Essentially no branching enzyme activity was detectable in eight samples (amniocytes); activities within the control range were found in five samples (three amniocyte and two chorionic villi samples); and five samples appeared to have been derived from carriers. In two of the cases lacking branching enzyme activity, in which the pregnancies were terminated and fibroblasts were successfully cultured from the aborted fetuses, no branching enzyme activity was found. Another fetus, which was predicted by antenatal assay to be affected, was carried to term. Skin fibroblasts from this baby were deficient in branching enzyme. Pregnancies at risk for glycogen storage disease due to the deficiency of branching enzyme can be successfully monitored using either cultured chorionic villi or amniocytes. PMID:2521770

  12. Expressions of candidate molecules in the human fallopian tube and chorionic villi of tubal pregnancy exposed to levonorgestrel emergency contraception

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cases of ectopic pregnancy (EP) following levonorgestrel (LNG) emergency contraception (EC) failure were reported, however, the effects of LNG on tubal microenvironment or chorionic villi in EP have not yet been documented. Methods Fifty-five women with tubal pregnancy were divided into two groups according to whether LNG-EC was administrated during the cycle of conception. The serum concentrations of beta-hCG, E2 and P were measured. The mRNA and protein expressions of estrogen and progesterone receptors, leukemia inhibitory factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and endocannabinoid receptor - CB1 in the ectopic implantation site and chorionic villi were examined. Results Compared to those unexposed to LNG-EC, women with tubal pregnancy exposed to LNG-EC during the cycle of conception had no statistically significances in the serum concentrations of beta-hCG, E2 P, nor in the pathological types of tubal pregnancy or the expressions of ER-alpha, PR, LIF, VEGF, iNOS and CB1. Conclusions The expressions of candidate molecules in the fallopian tube and chorionic villi were not altered by exposure to LNG-EC. A routine therapy with no additional intervention might thus be applied to tubal pregnancy exposed to LNG-EC. PMID:23687977

  13. Low testosterone levels may be associated with suicidal behavior in older men while high testosterone levels may be related to suicidal behavior in adolescents and young adults: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that there is an association between testosterone and suicidal behavior. A link between testosterone and the neurobiology of suicidal behavior may be related to: a) a direct effect of testosterone on suicidality via certain brain mechanisms; and/or b) a testosterone influence on aggression and, consequently, suicidality; and/or c) a testosterone effect on mood and, consequently, suicidality; and/or d) a testosterone effect on cognition and, consequently, suicidality. At least one study has demonstrated a relation between high levels of testosterone and suicide in young people. A significant number of studies suggest that high testosterone levels are associated with aggression in adolescents and adults. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that aggression is associated with suicidal behavior. The effect of high testosterone levels on suicidality in adolescents and young adults may be mediated by testosterone-related elevated aggression. It is also possible that, in young people, high testosterone levels are directly linked to suicidality via certain brain mechanisms. In older men, decreased testosterone levels are associated with depressive symptoms and reduced cognitive function, whereas higher blood levels of testosterone are associated with better mood and cognitive functioning. Depression and reduced cognition are associated with suicidal behavior and may mediate the effect of decreased testosterone levels on suicidality. Therefore, it is reasonable to propose that suicidal behavior in adolescents and young adults is associated with high testosterone levels, whereas suicidality in older men is associated with decreased testosterone secretion. PMID:23893672

  14. Progressive Improvement of T-Scores in Men with Osteoporosis and Subnormal Serum Testosterone Levels upon Treatment with Testosterone over Six Years.

    PubMed

    Haider, Ahmad; Meergans, Ulrich; Traish, Abdulmaged; Saad, Farid; Doros, Gheorghe; Lips, Paul; Gooren, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency leads to bone loss and testosterone treatment has a beneficial effect. This study investigated the effects of normalizing serum testosterone on bone mineral density in 45 men with osteoporosis, diagnosed with testosterone deficiency (serum testosterone levels <12.1 nmol/L, T-scores: (mean ± SD) -3.12 ± 0.45, minimum: -4.10, and maximum: -2.60). In a cumulative, prospective, registry study of hypogonadal men (mean age: 53 ± 7 years) they received parenteral testosterone undecanoate of 1000 mg/12 weeks for up to six years. After one year 44 men were included in the registry, after two years 36 men, after three years 32 men, after four years 25 men, after five years 10 men and after six years 4 men. The declining numbers do not reflect drop-out rates but are a result of the registry design. Over the 6 year period there was a significant and progressive improvement of the T-scores in these men. Normalizing of serum testosterone leads to an improvement of bone mineral density and this improvement was progressive with the time period of testosterone administration. In this study of 6-years many men with testosterone deficiency suffered from classical diagnoses (Klinefelter's syndrome and testicular pathology) hitherto undiagnosed. PMID:24688541

  15. The TRPM8 protein is a testosterone receptor: I. Biochemical evidence for direct TRPM8-testosterone interactions.

    PubMed

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Elustondo, Pia A; Demirkhanyan, Lusine; Sun, Xiaohui; Baskaran, Padmamalini; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Thyagarajan, Baskaran; Pavlov, Evgeny V; Zakharian, Eleonora

    2015-01-30

    The transient receptor potential ion channel of the melastatin subfamily, TRPM8, is a major cold receptor in the peripheral nervous system. Along with the sensory neurons, the TRPM8 protein is highly expressed in the prostate epithelial cells, and this expression is regulated by androgens. Here we investigated the expression and intracellular localization of the TRPM8 channel in relationship to androgens. We performed experiments using human prostate tissues obtained from healthy individuals and patients with prostate cancer at various stages of the disease as well as in cultured cells. Using an immunohistochemistry approach, we detected an intensive colocalization pattern of the TRPM8 protein with endogenous androgens in all tissues tested, suggesting possible interactions. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments performed using cultured prostate epithelial cells, prostate cancer cells, and HEK-293 cells stably expressing TRPM8 further confirmed direct binding of the steroid hormone, testosterone, to the TRPM8 protein. Applications of picomolar concentrations of testosterone to the primary human prostate cells, endogenously expressing TRPM8, elicited Ca(2+) responses and channel currents, and those were inhibited in the presence of TRPM8 antagonist, N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(4-(benzyloxy)-3-methoxybenzyl)thiophene-2-carboxamide hydrochloride. These results indicate that the TRPM8 channel is physically associated with testosterone and suggest that, in addition to a genomic role, testosterone plays a role in direct regulation of the TRPM8 channel function. PMID:25480783

  16. Salivary testosterone levels in men at a U.S. sex club.

    PubMed

    Escasa, Michelle J; Casey, Jacqueline F; Gray, Peter B

    2011-10-01

    Vertebrate males commonly experience elevations in testosterone levels in response to sexual stimuli, such as presentation of a novel mating partner. Some previous human studies have shown that watching erotic movies increases testosterone levels in males although studies measuring testosterone changes during actual sexual intercourse or masturbation have yielded mixed results. Small sample sizes, "unnatural" lab-based settings, and invasive techniques may help account for mixed human findings. Here, we investigated salivary testosterone levels in men watching (n = 26) versus participating (n = 18) in sexual activity at a large U.S. sex club. The present study entailed minimally invasive sample collection (measuring testosterone in saliva), a naturalistic setting, and a larger number of subjects than previous work to test three hypotheses related to men's testosterone responses to sexual stimuli. Subjects averaged 40 years of age and participated between 11:00 pm and 2:10 am. Consistent with expectations, results revealed that testosterone levels increased 36% among men during a visit to the sex club, with the magnitude of testosterone change significantly greater among participants (72%) compared with observers (11%). Contrary to expectation, men's testosterone changes were unrelated to their age. These findings were generally consistent with vertebrate studies indicating elevated male testosterone in response to sexual stimuli, but also point out the importance of study context since participation in sexual behavior had a stronger effect on testosterone increases in this study but unlike some previous human lab-based studies. PMID:21165688

  17. Forbidden fruit for athletes, but possible divine blessing for rehabilitation: testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Khae-Hawn

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone is regarded as an attractive supplement for obtaining masculinity and sexuality; however, there have been pros and cons regarding its application as a treatment. In addition, there is also conventional repulsion on adoption of testosterone to any kind of exercise to anyone with concern with sports. However, we should keep in mind that in terms of rehabilitation, our main concern is not fairness but efficiency. And there are obvious advantages of testosterone in recovery and rejuvenation. We aim to introduce the possibility of testosterone in recovery and rejuvenation and are to bring up a topic the application of testosterone in exercise rehabilitation. Considering the light and darkness in testosterone, moderate use of testosterone under professional medication counseling might be an effective possibility to those with sickness and illness and should be considered as a possible option to assist the recovery from frailty and illness. PMID:25830137

  18. Testosterone, anastrozole, factor V Leiden heterozygosity and osteonecrosis of the jaws.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Ramesh S; Glueck, Charles J

    2014-04-01

    Our specific aim is to describe the development of thrombotic osteonecrosis of the jaws after testosterone-anastrozole therapy in a 55-year-old white man subsequently found to have previously undiagnosed factor V Leiden heterozygosity. Before the diagnosis of V Leiden heterozygosity, he was given testosterone gel, 50 mg/day, and on testosterone, serum testosterone (963 ng/dl) and estradiol were high (50 pg/ml). Anastrozole was started, and testosterone was continued. Six months later, osteonecrosis of the jaws was diagnosed. Exogenous testosterone is aromatized to estradiol and estradiol-induced thrombophilia, when superimposed on underlying familial thrombophilia, as in this case, may lead to thrombosis and osteonecrosis. We recommend that before giving testosterone, at a minimum, screening for the factor V Leiden and G20210A mutations, and factor VIII and XI activity be carried out, to avoid unanticipated thrombosis. PMID:24674881

  19. Human chorionic somatomammotropin in normal adolescent primiparous pregnancy. I. Effect of smoking.

    PubMed

    Moser, R J; Hollingsworth, D R; Carlson, J W; Lamotte, L

    1974-12-15

    Human chorionic somatomammotropin (HCS) levels were studied in normal smoking and nonsmoking primiparous adolescent pregnancies. 136 teenagers, aged 12-18 years, were divided into groups: nonsmokers, deep, and shallow inhalers, long, and short puffers, high, and low tar, and high, and low nicotin. Shallow inhaling and low nicotine exposure patients were found to have a later age of menarche than did nonsmokers (13.2 vs. 12.3 years, p=.03). The mean body weight of the mothers who smoked was slightly less (61 gm) than that of nonsmoking mothers. Except for long puffers, overall, smokers had significantly lower HCS values throughout pregnancy than noosmokers (p = .48 high tar-p = .002 low tar). However, in the third trimester those with the lowest smoking exposures had the lowest HCS values and the heavier smokers had slightly higher mean values than nonsmokers. These data suggest that HCS production may be more sensitive to low tar and nicotine exposure with possible tolerance or even stimulation occurring in larger doses. PMID:4432896

  20. Solid-phase competitive and sandwich-type erythro-immunoassays for human chorionic gonadotropin.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S K; Guesdon, J L; Avrameas, S; Talwar, G P

    1985-06-25

    A simple '1-step' competitive erythro-immunoassay for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) employing V-shaped well microtitration plates coated with monoclonal anti-beta-hCG antibody has been described. hCG of the test sample competes with the antigen-coupled sheep erythrocytes for binding to the antibody on the solid surface. The assay is able to detect up to 31.25 ng hCG/ml. A higher sensitivity enabling detection up to 0.25 ng hCG/ml is attained by the sandwich erythro-immunoassay using a chimera antibody prepared by coupling monoclonal anti-alpha-hCG antibody to an affinity-purified polyclonal antibody specific for sheep erythrocytes. This assay is amenable to the qualitative as well as quantitative use as described. The urinary components do not interfere in the assay. Results obtained by this assay on 47 human urine samples correlated well with the values obtained by '2-step' sandwich enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay. PMID:2409175

  1. Chorion formation in panoistic ovaries requires windei and trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9.

    PubMed

    Herraiz, Alba; Belles, Xavier; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications play key roles in transcriptional regulation. Trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3) is one of the most widely studied histone post-translational modifications, and has been linked to transcriptional repression. In Drosophila melanogaster, Windei is needed for H3K9me3 in female germ line cells. Here, we report the occurrence of a D. melanogaster Windei (Wde) ortholog in the ovary of the hemimetabolous insect Blattella germanica, which we named BgWde. Depletion of BgWde by RNAi reduced H3K9me3 in follicular cells, which triggered changes in transcriptional regulation that led to the prevention of chorion gene expression. In turn, this impaired oviposition (and the formation of the ootheca) and, therefore, prevented reproduction. Windei and H3K9me3 have already been reported in follicular cells of D. melanogaster, but this is the first time that the function of these modifications has been demonstrated in the said cells. This is also the first time that an epigenetic marker is reported as having a key role in choriogenesis. PMID:23872316

  2. A review of luteinising hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin when used in assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, Diego; Humaidan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Gonadotropins extracted from the urine of post-menopausal women have traditionally been used to stimulate folliculogenesis in the treatment of infertility and in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Products, such as human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), consist not only of a mixture of the hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), but also other biologically active contaminants, such as growth factors, binding proteins and prion proteins. The actual amount of molecular LH in hMG preparations varies considerably due to the purification process, thus hCG, mimicking LH action, is added to standardise the product. However, unlike LH, hCG plays a different role during the natural human menstrual cycle. It is secreted by the embryo and placenta, and its main role is to support implantation and pregnancy. More recently, recombinant gonadotropins (r-hFSH and r-hLH) have become available for ART therapies. Recombinant LH contains only LH molecules. In the field of reproduction there has been controversy in recent years over whether r-hLH or hCG should be used for ART. This review examines the existing evidence for molecular and functional differences between LH and hCG and assesses the clinical implications of hCG-supplemented urinary therapy compared with recombinant therapies used for ART. PMID:25280580

  3. Silkmoth chorion proteins: sequence analysis of the products of a multigene family.

    PubMed Central

    Regier, J C; Kafatos, F C; Goodfliesh, R; Hood, L

    1978-01-01

    Five polypeptide components have been isolated from the eggshell (chorions) of a silkmoth. Two are homogeneous on sodium dodecyl sulfate and isoelectric focusing gels, and three contain predominantly two proteins each. Amino acid analyses show that all five components are similar to each other. These proteins have been sequenced from the amino terminus. Homogeneous components yielded single sequences; heterogeneous components yielded two residues at some positions, consistent with their containing two major electrophoretic components. Striking similarities are apparent among all these sequences. These similarities can be increased dramatically by separating each of the three protein mixtures into two sequences and introducing a small number of gaps or insertions. This is due in part to bringing into register a portion that contains short repeating subunits found in all sequences. All proteins are also characterized by a region of high cysteine content near the amino terminus followed by a longer low-cysteine region. The data suggest that these proteins share a common evolutionary origin and are encoded by a multigene family. Images PMID:272655

  4. Prenatal detection of chromosome aneuploidies in uncultured chorionic villus samples by FISH

    SciTech Connect

    Bryndorf, T.; Christensen, B.; Vad, M.; Philip, J.

    1996-10-01

    We developed a 1-d FISH assay for detection of numerical chromosome abnormalities in uncultured chorionic villus samples (CVS). Probes specific for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y were used to determine ploidy by analysis of signal number in hybridized nuclei. Aneuploidy detection using this assay was directly compared with the results obtained by conventional cytogenetic analysis in a consecutive, clinical study of 2,709 CVS and placental samples. The FISH assay yielded discrete differences in the signal profiles between cytogenetically normal and abnormal samples. On the basis of these results, we generated FISH-assay cutoff values that discriminated between karyotypically normal and aneuploid samples. Samples with mosaicism and a single sample with possible heritable small chromosome X probe target were exceptions and showed poor agreement between FISH results and conventional cytogenetics. We conclude that the FISH assay may act as a more accurate and less labor-demanding alternative to {open_quotes}direct{close_quotes} CVS analysis. 22 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. Uterine choriocarcinoma accompanied by an extremely high human chorionic gonadotropin level and thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Tsung-Ying; Hsu, Keng-Fu; Kuo, Pao-Lin; Huang, Soon-Cen

    2008-04-01

    The conventional treatments given to a 24-year-old woman with metastatic uterine choriocarcinoma and clinical and biochemical thyrotoxicosis did not appear to have any effect, probably due to an extremely high serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) level which was up to 11,910,000 mIU/mL, and were initially underscored in light of the 'high-dose hook effect'. To our knowledge, no extremely high hCG level in a uterine choriocarcinoma patient has been reported in the literature. Her decapacitating symptoms subsided after the first course of chemotherapy by etoposide, methotrexate, and actinomycin D-cyclophosphamide and vincristine (EMA-CO) regimen. The serum hCG level, which reflects the quantification of host tumor burden, returned to the reference range after the fifth course of chemotherapy and the thyroid function reached euthyroid status before the third course of chemotherapy; two final courses were administered after the hCG level became undetectable. Two years after remission of disease, the patient experienced a normal pregnancy, and a term baby girl was delivered vaginally. No recurrence of uterine choriocarcinoma has been noted for 7 years. PMID:18412797

  6. Antibody-free detection of human chorionic gonadotropin by use of liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaokang; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2013-11-19

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is an important biomarker for the diagnosis of pregnancy and cancers. In this study, we report an antibody-free and label-free mechanism for detecting hCG. To replace enzyme-labeled antibodies, we use a short oligopeptide as an hCG receptor to bind hCG. The short oligopeptide sequence, (N-)PPLRINRHILTR(-C), is identified after 5 rounds of screening by use of a phage library. After binding, liquid crystal (LC) is used to transduce the binding event into optical signals. The captured hCG can disrupt a thin layer (~6 μm) of LC covered on the surface. Depending on the initial concentration of hCG, LC gives distinct optical signals visible to the naked eye. The limit of detection (LOD) for this method is approximately 1 IU/mL (2 nM) in both phosphate-buffered saline and urine samples, and only 0.6 μL of hCG solution is required. This means that as little as 45.5 pg of hCG can be detected by this method. Compared to other detection methods for hCG, this detection method does not require the use of antibody and is label-free. It has the potential to become a portable diagnostic kit for hCG. PMID:24147645

  7. Quantitative human chorionic gonadotropin analysis. I. Comparison of an immunoradiometric assay and a radioimmunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.I.; Wu, T.F.; Ballon, S.C.; Lamb, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for the quantitative analysis of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was evaluated for specificity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision. The results were compared with those of the conventional radioimmunoassay (RIA) used in our laboratory. The IRMA is a solid-phase, double-antibody immunoassay that sandwiches the intact hCG molecule between the two antibodies. It has specificity, accuracy, and precision which are similar to those of the RIA. The RIA is based upon the assumptions that the antigenicity of the tracer is not altered by the iodination process and that the antibody reacts equally with all of the antigens, including the radiolabeled antigen. The IRMA does not use radiolabeled antigens and thus is free of the assumptions made in the conventional RIA. The IRMA may be more accurate at the lower limits of the assay because it does not require logarithmic transformations. Since the IRMA does not measure the free beta-subunit of hCG, it cannot be endorsed as the sole technique to quantitate hCG in patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia until the significance of the free beta-subunit in these patients is determined.

  8. Crystallization and characterization of human chorionic gonadotropin in chemically deglycosylated and enzymatically desialylated states

    SciTech Connect

    Lustbader, J.W.; Birken, S.; Pileggi, N.F.; Folks, M.A.G.; Pollak, S.; Cuff, M.E.; Yang, Wei; Hendrickson, W.A.; Canfield, R.E. )

    1989-11-28

    Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction studies at moderate resolution have been grown from two forms of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG): HF-treated hCG and neuraminidase-treated hCG. The enzymatically desialylated form of hCG produced crystals that diffract to 2.8 {angstrom} as compared to the HF-treated hCG crystals that diffract to 3.0 {angstrom}. Although it was assumed that the high and heterogeneous carbohydrate content of the glycoprotein hormones inhibited their crystallization, this report suggests that it is the negatively charged surface sugars and neither the total carbohydrate content nor its heterogeneity which interferes with crystal formation. Chemical deglycosylation resulted in significantly increased protein degradation during crystal growth. Such peptide bond cleavages were observed to a much lesser extent in the crystals grown from neuraminidase-digested hCG. Sequence analysis of the HF-treated hCG crystals suggested that up to 45% of the molecules within the crystal had an acid-labile peptide bond cleaved. In contrast, the neuraminidase-treated hCG exhibited less than 9% of this type of cleavage. The manner in which hCG was treated prior to crystallization was found to be a very important factor in the extent of peptide bound cleavages occurring during crystal growth. HF treatment of glycoproteins may render glycoproteins more susceptible to peptide bond cleavage during crystal growth.

  9. Evaluation of nicked human chorionic gonadotropin content in clinical specimens by a specific immunometric assay.

    PubMed

    Kovalevskaya, G; Birken, S; Kakuma, T; Schlatterer, J; O'Connor, J F

    1999-01-01

    We report the development and characterization of an IRMA for the direct measurement of nicked human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGn) in blood and urine. hCGn derived from a reference preparation of hCG used as an immunogen elicits monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with enhanced recognition of human luteinizing hormone epitopes. The most specific assay for pregnancy hCGn is an IRMA composed of one mAb to choriocarcinoma-derived hCGn (C5) and a second mAb developed from immunization with normal-pregnancy hCGn. This assay was used to evaluate hCGn profiles in normal, in vitro fertilization, Down syndrome, and ectopic pregnancies. In all pregnancies, hCGn was usually present in much lower concentrations than the non-nicked hCG isoform. Our results suggest that some form of physical separation from the overwhelming quantities of non-nicked hCG present in clinical specimens will be required before accurate immunochemical estimations of hCGn can be made. PMID:9895340

  10. In vitro effects of chorionic gonadotropin hormone on human adipose development.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Esther; Dieudonné, Marie-Noëlle; Leneveu, Marie-Christine; Pecquery, René; Serazin, Valérie; Giudicelli, Yves

    2007-08-01

    It is well known that pregnancy is associated with fat weight gain. However, the mechanisms whereby fat mass accumulation is controlled during this period are poorly understood. Therefore, we attempted to determine whether human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), in vitro, influences human adipose tissue development and/or metabolism. For the first time, HCG/LH receptor was characterized in human adipose cells. We also demonstrated that physiological concentrations of HCG, while unaltering both lipolysis and expression of two markers of lipogenesis (FAS and ADD1) in human mature adipocytes, stimulate human preadipocyte growth via the activation of a protein kinase A-independent mitogen-activated protein kinase/c-fos signaling pathway. HCG also moderately increases the preadipocyte differentiation capacity as reflected by enhanced glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity and expression of key adipogenic transcriptional factors (C/enhancer-binding protein alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2). Finally, HCG significantly stimulates the secretion of the pro-adipogenic factor, leptin, from human adipose tissue. Taken altogether, these data suggest that the pro-adipogenic effect of HCG in human preadipocytes contributes to explain why increased fat storage occurs during the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:17641281

  11. The structure of the chorion and associated surface filaments in Oryzias--evidence for the presence of extracellular tubules.

    PubMed

    Hart, N H; Pietri, R; Donovan, M

    1984-05-01

    The structure of the chorion with its associated surface filaments has been examined in Oryzias latipes using several techniques, including scanning and transmission electron microscopy, enzymatic digestion, and sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The chorion of the recently fertilized egg was found to be organized into three zones: an outer, fuzzy electron-lucent zone that was continuous over the surface of filaments, a middle, homogeneous electron-dense zone, and an inner zone of ten to 12 horizontal, fibrous lamellae. Two topographically distinct types of filaments were found on the chorionic surface: nonattaching and attaching. Nonattaching filaments showed a regular spatial distribution over the chorion with an interfilament distance of about 60-70 microns. Attaching filaments originated from a localized portion of the chorion and united with those of neighboring eggs to anchor the egg cluster to the gonoduct of the female. Both nonattaching and attaching filaments were morphologically regionalized into basal and distal segments. Internally, nonattaching and attaching filaments were constructed of unbranched, packed tubules with an average outside diameter of approximately 19.5 and 18.8 nm, respectively. Using the attaching filament for further study, it was determined by rotational analysis (Markham et al., '63) that the wall of each tubule was a cylinder composed of 14 globular subunits. Two structural types of attaching filaments were identified. The type I attaching filament was similar in internal organization to the nonattaching filament and consisted of only tubules. The type II attaching filament, however, showed a highly osmiophilic, electron-dense bar surrounded by packed tubules. Tubules of attaching filaments of the adult were resistant to the action of Triton X-100 and colchicine, but sensitive to a 0.1% protease solution. However, colchicine-treated ovary tissue showed an absence and pattern of disorganization of tubules at

  12. Association between serum total testosterone and Body Mass Index in middle aged healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Muhammad Omar; Ali Khan, Farooq Munfaet; Arshad, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine correlation of serum total testosterone with body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR) in healthy adult males. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 200 nonsmoker healthy males (aged 30-50 years) university employees. They were selected by convenience sampling technique after a detailed medical history and clinical examination including BMI and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) calculation. Blood sampling was carried out to measure serum total testosterone (TT) using facilities of Chemiluminescence assay (CLIA) technique in Dow Chemical Laboratory. Independent sample T test was used for mean comparisons of BMI and WHR in between low and normal testosterone groups. (Subjects having < 9.7 nmol/L of total testosterone in blood were placed in low testosterone group and subjects having ≥ 9.7 nmol/L of total testosterone in blood were placed in normal testosterone group). Correlation of testosterone with BMI and WHR was analyzed by Pearson Correlation. Results: Mean (± SD) age of the subjects included in this study was 38.7 (± 6.563) years mean (± SD) total testosterone was 15.92 (±6.322)nmol/L. The mean (± SD) BMI, and WHR were 24.95 (±3.828) kg/m2 and 0.946 (±0.0474) respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed in the mean values of BMI and WHR for the two groups of testosterone. Significant inverse correlation of serum total testosterone with BMI(r = -0.311, p = 0.000) was recorded in this study. However testosterone was not significantly correlated with waist/hip ratio.(r = -0.126, p = 0.076) Conclusion: Middle age men working at DUHS who have low level of serum total testosterone are more obese than individuals with normal total testosterone level. PMID:26101490

  13. Effect of a single injection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on testicular blood flow measured by color doppler ultrasonography in male Shiba goats.

    PubMed

    Samir, Haney; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Ahmed, Eman; Karen, Aly; Nagaoka, Kentaro; El Sayed, Mohamed; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Gen

    2015-05-01

    Although color Doppler ultrasonography has been used to evaluate testicular blood flow in many species, very little has been done in goat. Eight male Shiba goats were exposed to a single intramuscular injection of either gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH group; 1 µg/kg BW) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG group; 25 IU/kg BW). Plasma testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and inhibin (INH) were measured just before (0 hr) and at different intervals post injection by radioimmunoassay. Testis volume (TV) and Doppler indices, such as resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) of the supratesticular artery, were measured by B-mode and color Doppler ultrasonography, respectively. The results indicated an increase in testicular blood flow in both groups, as RI and PI decreased significantly (P<0.05), but this increase was significant higher and earlier in hCG group (1 hr) than in the GnRH group (2 hr). A high correlation was found for RI and PI with both T (RI, r= -0.862; PI, r= -0.707) and INH in the GnRH group (RI, r=0.661; PI, r=0.701). However, a significant (P<0.05) correlation was found between E2 and both RI (r= -0.610) and PI (r= -0.763) in hCG group. In addition, TV significantly increased and was highly correlated with RI in both groups (GnRH, r= -0.718; hCG, r= -0.779). In conclusion, hCG and GnRH may improve testicular blood flow and TV in Shiba goats. PMID:25715956

  14. Species-specific mechanism in rat Leydig cell tumorigenesis by procymidone.

    PubMed

    Murakami, M; Hosokawa, S; Yamada, T; Harakawa, M; Ito, M; Koyama, Y; Kimura, J; Yoshitake, A; Yamada, H

    1995-04-01

    To clarify the mechanism of species difference in the induction of testicular interstitial cell tumor (ICT, Leydig cell tumor) between rats and mice, male Sprague-Dawley rats and ICR mice were fed procymidone at dietary concentrations of 700, 2000 or 6000 ppm and 1000, 5000, or 10,000 ppm, respectively, for 3 months. The Leydig cell functions were evaluated by serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, testosterone levels in the testis, LH levels in the pituitary, the capacity of the testis to respond to gonadotropin stimulation, i.e., the production of testosterone in vitro, and by the testicular binding of labeled human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Measurement of testosterone and LH levels in rat serum, the testis, or the pituitary showed that both hormones were enhanced throughout the 3-month treatment period. The hypergonadotropism was associated with the increase of interstitial cell response to hCG in vitro for up to 3 months. As with rats, both serum and pituitary LH were increased in mice at 4 weeks but not at 13 weeks. However, in contrast to rats, no significant increase in testosterone was observed in mice either in vivo or ex vivo during the course of the study. This suggests a difference between the rat and mouse in the response of the Leydig cell to the LH stimulation associated with procymidone administration. These differences in the response of interstitial cells to procymidone may be the basis for the distinct species responses to procymidone-induced Leydig cell tumorigenesis. The sustained response of the Leydig cells to stimulation in the rat results in chronic hyperplasia and subsequent benign tumor formation, while the attenuated response of Leydig cells in the mouse is associated with neither hyperplasia nor neoplasia. PMID:7716766

  15. Chorionicity and Heritability Estimates from Twin Studies: The Prenatal Environment of Twins and Their Resemblance Across a Large Number of Traits.

    PubMed

    van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Overbeek, L I H; Rozendaal, L; McMaster, M T B; Glasner, T J; Bartels, M; Vink, J M; Martin, N G; Dolan, C V; Boomsma, D I

    2016-05-01

    There are three types of monozygotic (MZ) twins. MZ twins can either share one chorion and one amnion, each twin can have its own amnion, or MZ twins can-like dizygotic twins-each have their own chorion and amnion. Sharing the same chorion may create a more similar/dissimilar prenatal environment and bias heritability estimates, but most twin studies do not distinguish between these three types of MZ twin pairs. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of chorion sharing on the similarity within MZ twin pairs for a large number of traits. Information on chorion status was obtained for the Netherlands twin register (NTR) by linkage to the records from the database of the dutch pathological anatomy national automated archive (PALGA). Record linkage was successful for over 9000 pairs. Effect of chorion type was tested by comparing the within-pair similarity between monochorionic (MC) and dichorionic (DC) MZ twins on 66 traits including weight, height, motor milestones, child problem behaviors, cognitive function, wellbeing and personality. For only 10 traits, within-pair similarity differed between MCMZ and DCMZ pairs. For traits influenced by birth weight (e.g. weight and height in young children) we expected that MC twins would be more discordant. This was found for 5 out of 13 measures. When looking at traits where blood supply is important, we saw MCMZ twins to be more concordant than DCMZ's for 3 traits. We conclude that the influence on the MZ twin correlation of the intra-uterine prenatal environment, as measured by sharing a chorion type, is small and limited to a few phenotypes. This implies that the assumption of equal prenatal environment of mono- and DC MZ twins, which characterizes the classical twin design, is largely tenable. PMID:26410687

  16. Atomic softness-based QSAR study of testosterone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, H. K.; Pasha, F. A.; Singh, P. P.

    Ionization potential of an atom in a molecule, electron affinity of an atom in a molecule, and quantum chemical descriptor atomic softness values En‡-based quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of testosterone derivatives have been done with the help of PM3 calculations on WinMOPAC 7.21 software. The 3D modeling and geometry optimization of all the compounds have been done with the help of PCMODEL software. The biological activities of testosterone derivatives have been taken from literature. The predicted values of biological activity with the help of multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis is very close to observed biological activity. The cross-validation coefficient and correlation coefficient also indicate that the QSAR model is valuable. Regression analysis shows a very good relationship with biological activity and En‡ values. With the help of these values, prediction of the biological activity of any unknown compound is possible.

  17. Testosterone induces leucocyte migration by NADPH oxidase-driven ROS- and COX2-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chignalia, Andreia Z; Oliveira, Maria Aparecida; Debbas, Victor; Dull, Randal O; Laurindo, Francisco R M; Touyz, Rhian M; Carvalho, Maria Helena C; Fortes, Zuleica B; Tostes, Rita C

    2015-07-01

    The mechanisms whereby testosterone increases cardiovascular risk are not clarified. However, oxidative stress and inflammation seem to be determinants. Herein, we sought to determine whether exogenous testosterone, at physiological levels, induces leucocyte migration, a central feature in immune and inflammatory responses and the mediating mechanisms. We hypothesized that testosterone induces leucocyte migration via NADPH oxidase (NADPHox)-driven reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-dependent mechanisms. Sixteen-week-old Wistar rats received an intraperitoneal injection (5 ml) of either testosterone (10(-7) mol/l) or saline. Rats were pre-treated with 5 ml of sodium salicylate (SS, non-selective COX inhibitor, 1.25 × 10(-3) mol/l, 1 h prior to testosterone or saline), flutamide (androgen receptor antagonist, 10(-5) mol/l), apocynin (NADPHox inhibitor, 3 × 10(-4) mol/l), N-[2-Cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl]methanesulfonamide (NS398, COX2 inhibitor, 10(-4) mol/l) or saline, 4 h before testosterone or saline administration. Leucocyte migration was assessed 24 h after testosterone administration by intravital microscopy of the mesenteric bed. Serum levels of testosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. NADPHox activity was assessed in membrane fractions of the mesenteric bed by dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence and in isolated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) by HPLC. NADPHox subunits and VCAM (vascular cell adhesion molecule) expression were determined by immunoblotting. Testosterone administration did not change serum levels of endogenous testosterone, but increased venular leucocyte migration to the adventia, NADPHox activity and expression (P < 0.05). These effects were blocked by flutamide. SS inhibited testosterone-induced leucocyte migration (P<0.05). Apocynin and NS398 abolished testosterone-induced leucocyte migration and NADPHox activity (P<0.05). Testosterone induces leucocyte migration via NADPHox- and COX2-dependent mechanisms and

  18. Age-independent increases in male salivary testosterone during horticultural activity among Tsimane forager-farmers.

    PubMed

    Trumble, Benjamin C; Cummings, Daniel K; O'Connor, Kathleen A; Holman, Darryl J; Smith, Eric A; Kaplan, Hillard S; Gurven, Michael D

    2013-09-01

    Testosterone plays an important role in mediating male reproductive trade-offs in many vertebrate species, augmenting muscle and influencing behavior necessary for male-male competition and mating-effort. Among humans, testosterone may also play a key role in facilitating male provisioning of offspring as muscular and neuromuscular performance are deeply influenced by acute changes in testosterone. This study examines acute changes in salivary testosterone among 63 Tsimane men ranging in age from 16-80 (mean 38.2) years during one-hour bouts of tree-chopping while clearing horticultural plots. The Tsimane forager-horticulturalists living in the Bolivian Amazon experience high energy expenditure associated with food production, have high levels of parasites and pathogens, and display significantly lower baseline salivary testosterone than age-matched US males. Mixed-effects models controlling for BMI and time of specimen collection reveal increased salivary testosterone (p<0.001) equivalent to a 48.6% rise, after one hour of tree chopping. Age had no effect on baseline (p=0.656) or change in testosterone (p=0.530); self-reported illness did not modify testosterone change (p=0.488). A comparison of these results to the relative change in testosterone during a competitive soccer tournament in the same population reveals larger relative changes in testosterone following resource production (tree chopping), compared to competition (soccer). These findings highlight the importance of moving beyond a unidimensional focus on changes in testosterone and male-male aggression to investigate the importance of testosterone-behavior interactions across additional male fitness-related activities. Acutely increased testosterone during muscularly intensive horticultural food production may facilitate male productivity and provisioning. PMID:24187482

  19. Age-independent increases in male salivary testosterone during horticultural activity among Tsimane forager-farmers

    PubMed Central

    TRUMBLE, BENJAMIN C; CUMMINGS, DANIEL K; O’CONNOR, KATHLEEN A; HOLMAN, DARRYL J; SMITH, ERIC A; KAPLAN, HILLARD S; GURVEN, MICHAEL D

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone plays an important role in mediating male reproductive trade-offs in many vertebrate species, augmenting muscle and influencing behavior necessary for male-male competition and mating-effort. Among humans, testosterone may also play a key role in facilitating male provisioning of offspring as muscular and neuromuscular performance are deeply influenced by acute changes in testosterone. This study examines acute changes in salivary testosterone among 63 Tsimane men ranging in age from 16–80 (mean 38.2) years during one-hour bouts of tree-chopping while clearing horticultural plots. The Tsimane forager-horticulturalists living in the Bolivian Amazon experience high energy expenditure associated with food production, have high levels of parasites and pathogens, and display significantly lower baseline salivary testosterone than age-matched US males. Mixed-effects models controlling for BMI and time of specimen collection reveal increased salivary testosterone (p<0.001) equivalent to a 48.6% rise, after one hour of tree chopping. Age had no effect on baseline (p=0.656) or change in testosterone (p=0.530); self-reported illness did not modify testosterone change (p=0.488). A comparison of these results to the relative change in testosterone during a competitive soccer tournament in the same population reveals larger relative changes in testosterone following resource production (tree chopping), compared to competition (soccer). These findings highlight the importance of moving beyond a unidimensional focus on changes in testosterone and male-male aggression to investigate the importance of testosterone-behavior interactions across additional male fitness-related activities. Acutely increased testosterone during muscularly intensive horticultural food production may facilitate male productivity and provisioning. PMID:24187482

  20. Testosterone deprivation accelerates cardiac dysfunction in obese male rats.

    PubMed

    Pongkan, Wanpitak; Pintana, Hiranya; Sivasinprasasn, Sivaporn; Jaiwongkam, Thidarat; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2016-06-01

    Low testosterone level is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular diseases. As obese-insulin-resistant condition could impair cardiac function and that the incidence of obesity is increased in aging men, a condition of testosterone deprivation could aggravate the cardiac dysfunction in obese-insulin-resistant subjects. However, the mechanism underlying this adverse effect is unclear. This study investigated the effects of obesity on metabolic parameters, heart rate variability (HRV), left ventricular (LV) function, and cardiac mitochondrial function in testosterone-deprived rats. Orchiectomized or sham-operated male Wistar rats (n=36per group) were randomly divided into groups and were given either a normal diet (ND, 19.77% of energy fat) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 57.60% of energy fat) for 12weeks. Metabolic parameters, HRV, LV function, and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined at 4, 8, and 12weeks after starting each feeding program. We found that insulin resistance was observed after 8weeks of the consumption of a HFD in both sham (HFS) and orchiectomized (HFO) rats. Neither the ND sham (NDS) group nor ND orchiectomized (NDO) rats developed insulin resistance. The development of depressed HRV, LV contractile dysfunction, and increased cardiac mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production was observed earlier in orchiectomized (NDO and HFO) rats at week 4, whereas HFS rats exhibited these impairments later at week 8. These findings suggest that testosterone deprivation accelerates the impairment of cardiac autonomic regulation and LV function via increased oxidative stress and impaired cardiac mitochondrial function in obese-orchiectomized male rats. PMID:27000685

  1. Recognition of N-glycoforms in human chorionic gonadotropin by monoclonal antibodies and their interaction motifs.

    PubMed

    Li, Daoyuan; Zhang, Ping; Li, Fei; Chi, Lequan; Zhu, Deyu; Zhang, Qunye; Chi, Lianli

    2015-09-11

    The glycosylation of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) plays an important role in reproductive tumors. Detecting hCG N-glycosylation alteration may significantly improve the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity of related cancers. However, developing an immunoassay directly against the N-linked oligosaccharides is unlikely because of the heterogeneity and low immunogenicity of carbohydrates. Here, we report a hydrogen/deuterium exchange and MS approach to investigate the effect of N-glycosylation on the binding of antibodies against different hCG glycoforms. Hyperglycosylated hCG was purified from the urine of invasive mole patients, and the structure of its N-linked oligosaccharides was confirmed to be more branched by MS. The binding kinetics of the anti-hCG antibodies MCA329 and MCA1024 against hCG and hyperglycosylated hCG were compared using biolayer interferometry. The binding affinity of MCA1024 changed significantly in response to the alteration of hCG N-linked oligosaccharides. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange-MS reveals that the peptide β65-83 of the hCG β subunit is the epitope for MCA1024. Site-specific N-glycosylation analysis suggests that N-linked oligosaccharides at Asn-13 and Asn-30 on the β subunit affect the binding affinity of MCA1024. These results prove that some antibodies are sensitive to the structural change of N-linked oligosaccharides, whereas others are not affected by N-glycosylation. It is promising to improve glycoprotein biomarker-based cancer diagnostics by developing combined immunoassays that can determine the level of protein and measure the degree of N-glycosylation simultaneously. PMID:26240146

  2. Luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotrophin receptors in various epidermal structures.

    PubMed

    Venencie, P Y; Méduri, G; Pissard, S; Jolivet, A; Loosfelt, H; Milgrom, E; Misrahi, M

    1999-09-01

    Two different monoclonal antibodies recognizing different epitopes were used to study the localization of luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotrophin (LH/hCG) receptors in human skin. Immunolabelling was observed only in the epidermis and derived structures but not in the dermis. The basal, spinal and granular layers were stained, whereas no receptors were detected in the non-nucleated horny cells. In the growing (anagen) hair, immunostaining was found in the inner root sheath below the level of the sebaceous glands and in the outer root sheath above this level. In the resting (telogen) hair, only the latter staining was observed. In the sebaceous glands, only the thin cells close to the walls of the ducts were immunolabelled. In the eccrine sweat glands, the external clear cells were stained in the secretory portion of the gland, whereas only the cells close to the lumen were labelled in the ducts. The distribution of LH/hCG receptors was compared with that of steroidogenic enzymes (side chain cleavage cytochrome P450, adrenodoxin, 3-beta-hydroxy-5-ene steroid dehydrogenase Delta5-Delta4 isomerase, 17-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 and cytochrome P450 aromatase). Only partial overlaps were observed. The presence of LH receptor mRNA in the skin was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Monoclonal antibodies raised against the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor failed to detect the latter in the epidermal structures and in the dermis. The role of LH and hCG in skin modifications occurring during pregnancy and after the menopause is unknown. These hormones may possibly act by regulating steroidogenic enzymes or by modulating cell growth and differentiation. PMID:10583046

  3. Effect of bromodichloromethane on chorionic gonadotrophin secretion by human placental trophoblast cultures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiangang; Douglas, Gordon C; Thirkill, Twanda L; Lohstroh, Peter N; Bielmeier, Susan R; Narotsky, Michael G; Best, Deborah S; Harrison, Randy A; Natarajan, Kala; Pegram, Rex A; Overstreet, James W; Lasley, Bill L

    2003-11-01

    Bromodichloromethane (BDCM) is a trihalomethane found in drinking water as a by-product of disinfection processes. BDCM is hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic in rodents and has been reported to cause strain-specific full-litter resorption in F344 rats during the luteinizing hormone-dependent phase of pregnancy. In humans, epidemiological studies suggest an association between exposure to BDCM in drinking water and increased risk of spontaneous abortion. To begin to address the mechanism(s) of BDCM-induced spontaneous abortion, we hypothesized that BDCM targets the placenta. Primary cultures of human term trophoblast cells were used as an in vitro model to test this hypothesis. Trophoblasts were allowed to differentiate into multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast-like colonies, after which they were incubated for 24 h with different concentrations of BDCM (20 nM to 2 mM). Culture media were collected and assayed for immunoreactive and bioactive chorionic gonadotropin (CG). Cultures exposed to BDCM showed a dose-dependent decrease in the secretion of immunoreactive CG as well as bioactive CG. The lowest effective BDCM concentration was 20 nM, approximately 35-times higher than the maximum concentration reported in human blood (0.57 nM). Trophoblast morphology and viability were similar in controls and cultures exposed to BDCM. We conclude that BDCM perturbs CG secretion by differentiated trophoblasts in vitro. This suggests that the placenta is a likely target of BDCM toxicity in the human and that this could be related to the adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with BDCM. PMID:12970577

  4. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome prenatal diagnosis by methylation analysis in chorionic villi.

    PubMed

    Paganini, Leda; Carlessi, Nicole; Fontana, Laura; Silipigni, Rosamaria; Motta, Silvia; Fiori, Stefano; Guerneri, Silvana; Lalatta, Faustina; Cereda, Anna; Sirchia, Silvia; Miozzo, Monica; Tabano, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an imprinting disorder that can be prenatally suspected or diagnosed based on established clinical guidelines. Molecular confirmation is commonly performed on amniocytes. The possibility to use fresh (CVF) and cultured (CVC) chorionic villi has never been investigated. To verify whether CVF and CVC are reliable sources of DNA to study fetal methylation, we used pyrosequencing to test the methylation level of a number of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) at several imprinted loci (ICR1, ICR2, H19, PWS/AS-ICR, GNASXL, GNAS1A, ZAC/PLAGL1, and MEST) and at non-imprinted MGMT and RASSF1A promoters. We analyzed these regions in 19 healthy pregnancies and highlighted stable methylation levels between CVF and CVC at ICR1, ICR2, GNASXL, PWS/AS-ICR, and MEST. Conversely, the methylation levels at H19 promoter, GNAS1A and ZAC/PLAGL1 were different in CVC compared to fresh CV. We also investigated ICR1 and ICR2 methylation level of CVF/CVC of 2 BWS-suspected fetuses (P1 and P2). P1 showed ICR2 hypomethylation, P2 showed normal methylation at both ICR1 and ICR2. Our findings, although limited to one case of BWS fetus with an imprinting defect, can suggest that ICR1 and ICR2, but not H19, could be reliable targets for prenatal BWS diagnosis by methylation test in CVF and CVC. In addition, PWS/AS-ICR, GNASXL, and MEST, but not GNAS1A and ZAC/PLAGL1, are steadily hemimethylated in CV from healthy pregnancies, independently from culture. Thus, prenatal investigation of genomic imprinting in CV needs to be validated in a locus-specific manner. PMID:26061650

  5. Human chorionic gonadotropin increases serum progesterone, number of corpora lutea and angiogenic factors in pregnant sheep.

    PubMed

    Coleson, Megan P T; Sanchez, Nicole S; Ashley, Amanda K; Ross, Timothy T; Ashley, Ryan L

    2015-07-01

    Early gestation is a critical period when implantation and placental vascularization are established, processes influenced by progesterone (P4). Although human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is not endogenously synthesized by livestock, it binds the LH receptor, stimulating P4 synthesis. We hypothesized treating pregnant ewes with hCG would increase serum P4, number of corpora lutea (CLs) and concepti, augment steroidogenic enzymes, and increase membrane P4 receptors (PAQRs) and angiogenic factors in reproductive tissues. The objective was to determine molecular alterations induced by hCG in pregnant sheep that may promote pregnancy. Ewes received either 600 IU of hCG or saline i.m. on day 4 post mating. Blood samples were collected daily from day 0 until tissue collection for serum P4 analysis. Reproductive tissues were collected on either day 13 or 25 of gestation and analyzed for PAQRs, CXCR4, proangiogenic factors and steroidogenic enzymes. Ewes receiving hCG had more CL and greater serum P4, which remained elevated. On day 25, StAR protein production decreased in CL from hCG-treated ewes while HSD3B1 was unchanged; further, expression of CXCR4 significantly increased and KDR tended to increase. PAQR7 and CXCR4 protein was increased in caruncle tissue from hCG-treated ewes. Maternal hCG exposure influenced fetal extraembryonic tissues, as VEGFA, VEGFB, FLT1, and ANGPT1 expression increased. Our results indicate hCG increases serum P4 due to augmented CL number per ewe. hCG treatment resulted in greater PAQR7 and CXCR4 in maternal endometrium and promoted expression of proangiogenic factors in fetal extraembryonic membranes. Supplementing livestock with hCG may boost P4 levels and improve reproductive efficiency. PMID:25861798

  6. Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome prenatal diagnosis by methylation analysis in chorionic villi

    PubMed Central

    Paganini, Leda; Carlessi, Nicole; Fontana, Laura; Silipigni, Rosamaria; Motta, Silvia; Fiori, Stefano; Guerneri, Silvana; Lalatta, Faustina; Cereda, Anna; Sirchia, Silvia; Miozzo, Monica; Tabano, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an imprinting disorder that can be prenatally suspected or diagnosed based on established clinical guidelines. Molecular confirmation is commonly performed on amniocytes. The possibility to use fresh (CVF) and cultured (CVC) chorionic villi has never been investigated. To verify whether CVF and CVC are reliable sources of DNA to study fetal methylation, we used pyrosequencing to test the methylation level of a number of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) at several imprinted loci (ICR1, ICR2, H19, PWS/AS-ICR, GNASXL, GNAS1A, ZAC/PLAGL1, and MEST) and at non-imprinted MGMT and RASSF1A promoters. We analyzed these regions in 19 healthy pregnancies and highlighted stable methylation levels between CVF and CVC at ICR1, ICR2, GNASXL, PWS/AS-ICR, and MEST. Conversely, the methylation levels at H19 promoter, GNAS1A and ZAC/PLAGL1 were different in CVC compared to fresh CV. We also investigated ICR1 and ICR2 methylation level of CVF/CVC of 2 BWS-suspected fetuses (P1 and P2). P1 showed ICR2 hypomethylation, P2 showed normal methylation at both ICR1 and ICR2. Our findings, although limited to one case of BWS fetus with an imprinting defect, can suggest that ICR1 and ICR2, but not H19, could be reliable targets for prenatal BWS diagnosis by methylation test in CVF and CVC. In addition, PWS/AS-ICR, GNASXL, and MEST, but not GNAS1A and ZAC/PLAGL1, are steadily hemimethylated in CV from healthy pregnancies, independently from culture. Thus, prenatal investigation of genomic imprinting in CV needs to be validated in a locus-specific manner. PMID:26061650

  7. CNS germinoma with elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin level: Clinical characteristics and treatment outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, Hiroyuki . E-mail: ogino@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp; Shibamoto, Yuta; Takanaka, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Kazunori; Ishihara, Shun-Ichi; Yamada, Tetsuya; Sugie, Chikao; Nomoto, Yoshihito; Mimura, Mikio

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: The prognostic significance of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level in central nervous system germinoma remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical characteristics and prognosis of germinoma patients with normal and high HCG titers in the serum. Methods and Materials: We undertook a multi-institutional retrospective analysis of 103 patients with central nervous system germinoma whose serum HCG and/or {beta}-HCG level had been measured before treatment between 1984 and 2002. All patients had been treated with radiation therapy either alone (n = 66) or in combination with chemotherapy (n = 37) with a median dose of 47.8 Gy. Results: HCG and/or {beta}-HCG level in the serum was high in 39% of all patients. The proportion of HCG-producing tumors was higher in the lesions at the basal ganglia than in the lesions at the other sites. No correlation was found between tumor size and HCG level, but there seemed to be a weak correlation between size and {beta}-HCG. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were 96% and 94%, respectively, in both patient groups with normal and high HCG (p = 0.99). The 5- and 10-year relapse-free survival rates were 87% and 82%, respectively, in patients with normal HCG level and were both 87% in patients with high HCG (p = 0.74). Also, no other patient-, tumor-, or treatment-related factors seemed to influence the prognosis of the patients. Conclusion: Serum HCG level does not seem to influence patient prognosis when treated with sufficient doses of radiation. Relationship between tumor size and site and HCG level should be investigated further.

  8. Choriocarcinoma-like human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) and HCG bioactivity during the first trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mock, P; Kovalevskaya, G; O'Connor, J F; Campana, A

    2000-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of choriocarcinoma-like human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) isoforms during first trimester pregnancy and their relationship with in-vitro HCG bioactivity. This was done by means of a retrospective analysis of patients' sera with first trimester normal intrauterine and abnormal (ectopic) pregnancies. Serum samples were obtained from 38 women with an amenorrhoea of <10 weeks. From these, 19 had a normal intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) and 19 an ectopic pregnancy (EP). Total immunoreactive HCG (HCGi), free beta-HCGi and oestradiol were measured by enzyme immunoassays and bioactive HCG by the mouse Leydig cell bioassay. The alterations in HCG isoform content were measured by the combination of two immunometric assays, B152 for choriocarcinoma-like HCG and B109 for intact HCG detection and expressed as the B152/B109 ratio. Choriocarcinoma-like HCG isoforms ratio measured by B152 and B109 assays was significantly higher in the low subgroups of free beta-HCGi and gestational age (P = 0.0111 and 0.0036 respectively). Whereas bioactive to immunoreactive HCG ratios (b/i ratio) were significantly higher when free beta-HCGi concentrations were low (P = 0.0010), no correlation was found between the variation of bioactivity (b/i ratio) and the proportion of choriocarcinoma-like HCG isoforms (B159/B108). It is concluded that in first trimester pregnancies (i) the modulation of HCG in-vitro bioactivity is not related to the variation of choriocarcinoma-like HCG isoforms secretion and (ii) the amount of choriocarcinoma-like HCG isoforms secreted by the early trophoblast is predominant and may be the result of an early developmental regulation of glycosylation enzyme. PMID:11006201

  9. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Partially Mediates Phthalate Association With Male and Female Anogenital Distance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myoung Keun; Naimi, Ashley I.; Barrett, Emily; Nguyen, Ruby H.; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Zhao, Yaqi; Thiet, Mari-Paule; Redmon, J. Bruce; Swan, Shanna H.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Prenatal exposure to phthalates disrupts male sex development in rodents. In humans, the placental glycoprotein hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is required for male development, and may be a target of phthalate exposure. Objective: This study aimed to test the hypothesis that phthalates disrupt placental hCG differentially in males and females with consequences for sexually dimorphic genital development. Design: The Infant Development and Environment Study (TIDES) is a prospective birth cohort. Pregnant women were enrolled from 2010–2012 at four university hospitals. Participants: Participants were TIDES subjects (n = 541) for whom genital and phthalate measurements were available and who underwent prenatal serum screening in the first or second trimester. Main Outcome Measures: Outcomes included hCG levels in maternal serum in the first and second trimesters and anogenital distance (AGD), which is the distance from the anus to the genitals in male and female neonates. Results: Higher first-trimester urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP; P = .01), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP; P = .03), and mono-carboxy-isooctyl phthalate (P < .01) were associated with higher first-trimester hCG in women carrying female fetuses, and lower hCG in women carrying males. First-trimester hCG was positively correlated with the AGD z score in female neonates, and inversely correlated in males (P = 0.01). We measured significant associations of MnBP (P < .01), MBzP (P = .02), and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP; P < .01) with AGD, after adjusting for sex differences. Approximately 52% (MnBP) and 25% (MEHP) of this association in males, and 78% in females (MBzP), could be attributed to the phthalate association with hCG. Conclusions: First-trimester hCG levels, normalized by fetal sex, may reflect sexually dimorphic action of phthalates on placental function and on genital development. PMID:26200238

  10. Identification of inadequate maternal progesterone concentrations in nulliparous dairy heifers and treatment with human chorionic gonadotrophin.

    PubMed

    King, S G; Dobson, H; Royal, M D; Christley, R M; Murray, R D; Routly, J E; Smith, R F; Mann, G E

    2013-11-01

    Plasma progesterone concentrations were estimated for 381 nulliparous dairy heifers from eight farms on days 4-6 after insemination. Heifers were synchronised using two treatments of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) 11 days apart. Alternate heifers were treated with 1500 IU human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) at the time of sampling, and the pregnancy status assessed ~35 days after insemination. Heifers with no corpus luteum (CL; n-30) at the second PGF2α had lower progesterone concentrations (P<0.001) and pregnancy rates (PR; P=0.001) compared with heifers with CL (n=351, defined as cyclic). The risk of no CL increased in heifers <15 months of age (OR=7.5, P<0.001) and with body condition score <2.5 (OR=4.5, P=0.001). Those with no CL were removed from further analysis. The 20 per cent cyclic control heifers with progesterone concentrations ≤2 ng/ml on days 4-6 had lower PRs compared with those with higher concentrations (42 per cent vs 64 per cent, OR=0.3, P=0.01). There was no overall effect of hCG on PR compared with controls (51 per cent vs 60 per cent, P=0.10). However, heifers with high progesterone on days 4-6 (>2 ng/ml) had a lower PR after treatment (51 per cent vs 64 per cent, OR=0.6, P=0.02). Heifers inseminated with sexed (n=18) compared with conventional (n=333) semen had a decreased PR (33 per cent vs 57 per cent, OR=0.2, P=0.01). This study demonstrates that higher plasma progesterone concentrations as early as days 4-6 after insemination have a positive effect on first insemination PR, but there was no beneficial effect of hCG treatment on these days in dairy heifers. PMID:24128945

  11. Successful hunting increases testosterone and cortisol in a subsistence population

    PubMed Central

    Trumble, Benjamin C.; Smith, Eric A.; O'Connor, Kathleen A.; Kaplan, Hillard S.; Gurven, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Controversy over the adaptive significance of male hunting in subsistence societies hinges on the relative importance of familial provisioning and mate-quality signalling. This paper examines the proximate and ultimate motivations of hunting behaviour from a neuroendocrine perspective, using salivary testosterone and cortisol data collected before, during and after hunting focal follows from 31 Tsimane hunters aged 18–82 years. Despite circadian declines in hormone levels, testosterone and cortisol of Tsimane hunters increased at the time of a kill, and remained high as successful hunters returned home. Previous studies of hormonal changes during competitions find that high-stakes and success in the presence of relevant audiences result in increased neuroendocrine arousal. If men hunt primarily to provision their families, then an additional audience would not be expected to impact testosterone or cortisol, nor would the size of the animal killed. However, if signalling male quality by ‘showing off’ was a larger relative driver of men's hunting behaviour, one would expect greater hormonal response in cases where men returned with large sharable kills, especially in the presence of community members. Consistent with provisioning models of male hunting motivation, neither kill size nor encountering an audience of villagers while returning from hunting was associated with hormonal changes for successful hunters. PMID:24335989

  12. Testosterone as a biological marker in psychopathy and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Stålenheim, E G; Eriksson, E; von Knorring, L; Wide, L

    1998-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the relationships between testosterone and alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence and specific personality characteristics and behaviors in a forensic psychiatric population. Serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT-DPC) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were determined in 61 male subjects undergoing forensic psychiatric examinations. All subjects had been detoxified from drugs and alcohol during previous incarceration in jail or hospital. TT and FT-DPC were found to be highly correlated (r=0.63, P < 0.0001). High concentrations of TT and SHBG were consistently related to type II alcoholism, but not pure alcohol dependence. TT and SHBG were also related to antisocial personality disorder. Furthermore, TT and SHBG were related to socially deviant behavior, reflected in factor 2 in the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R). In a multiple regression, FT-DPC was also clearly associated with the psychopathy-related scales of the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) when age and signs of hepatic damage were kept under control. PMID:9541143

  13. Do low testosterone levels contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma?

    PubMed

    Canguven, Onder; Albayrak, Selami

    2011-04-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disorder that causes respiratory hypersensitivity and intermittent obstruction. Airway hyperresponsiveness to both specific and nonspecific stimuli is the hallmark of asthma. Although genetic susceptibility and airway inflammation are believed to play fundamental roles, etiology of asthma is unknown. In most cases, the treatment of asthma focuses on control of factors contributing to asthma severity and pharmacologic therapy including bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory agents. The prevalence of reported asthma is greater in prepubertal boys, with a change to a female predominance after puberty. Many epidemiological studies also suggest that women are at increased risk of developing adult-onset asthma and also suffer from more severe disease than men. This strongly suggests an important role for sex hormones in asthma. Previous articles provided us that, testosterone and/or its metabolites maintain the physiological balance of autoimmunity and protective immunity by preserving the number of regulatory cells. Testosterone is an immunosuppressant and is likely to be protective against immunological and inflammatory processes that trigger asthma. We hypothesized that the testosterone or selective androgen receptor modulators would have beneficial effects on asthma and could decrease the risk of asthmatic attacks. PMID:21282014

  14. Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy of the Accessory Cells and Chorion During Development of Ciona intestinalis Type B Embryos and the Impact of Their Removal on Cell Morphology.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Helen; Shimeld, Sebastian M

    2015-06-01

    Spawned ascidian oocytes are surrounded by a membrane called the chorion (or vitelline coat) and associated with two populations of maternally-supplied cells. Outside the chorion are follicle cells, which may affect the buoyancy of eggs. Inside the chorion are test cells, which during oogenesis provision the egg and which after fertilisation contribute to the larval tunic. The structure of maternal cells may vary between species. The model ascidian Ciona intestinalis has been recently split into two species, currently named type A and type B. The ultrastructure of extraembryonic cells and structures from type A embryos has been reported. Here we describe the ultrastructure of follicle and test cells from C. intestinalis type B embryos. Test cells are about 5 µm in diameter and line the inside of the chorion of developing embryos in a dense sheet. Follicle cells are large (> 100 µm long) and spike-shaped, with many large vesicles. Terminal electron dense granules are found towards the tips of spikes, adjacent to cytoplasm containing numerous small electron dense bodies connected by filaments. These are probably vesicles containing material for the terminal granules. Removal of maternal structures and cells just after fertilisation, as commonly used in many experiments manipulating C. intestinalis development, has been reported to affect embryonic patterning. We examined the impact of this on embryonic ectoderm cells by scanning electron microscopy. Cells of embryos that developed without maternal structures still developed cilia, but had indistinct cell boundaries and a more flattened appearance than those that developed within the chorion. PMID:26003975

  15. Serum testosterone concentration, efficiency of estrus detection and libido expression in androgenized beef cows.

    PubMed

    Nix, J P; Spitzer, J C; Chenoweth, P J

    1998-04-15

    Twenty multiparous, cyclic, nonlactating beef cows were blocked by dominance rank and randomly and equally allotted to 1 of 4 treatment groups: an untreated control group, a synovex-treated group which received 8 Synovex-H implants with no additional hormones, a testosterone-treated group which received 500 mg, i.m. and 1500 mg, s.c. testosterone enanthate on Day 1 with additional 1000 mg, s.c. doses of testosterone enanthate every 14 d, and a synovex + testosterone-treated group which received 8 Synovex-H implants with 500 mg, i.m. and 1500 mg, s.c. testosterone enanthate on Day 1 only. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture once a week beginning 3 wk prior to start of treatment. In addition, samples were collected just prior to treatment; once a day for 1 wk after initiation of treatment; and then twice a week until 225 d after treatment. Efficiency of estrus detection was assessed 22 d prior to start of treatment and every 14 d thereafter for 98 d, using estrus detection trials with synchronized females or modified libido tests. Scores for estrus detection trials included total mounts in 1 h and the percentage of estrous cows detected. Libido was scored on a scale of 0 through 6. All testosterone treatments raised plasma testosterone concentrations above control and pretreatment levels (testosterone and synovex + testosterone > synovex > control; all P < 0.05). Synovex-, testosterone- and synovex + testosterone-treated females performed more mounts in 1 h than the controls (18, 9, 6 and 1, respectively; all P < 0.05). All testosterone-treated cows mounted a higher number of estrous females than the controls (P < 0.05). Only synovex + testosterone- and testosterone-treated cows received libido scores above pretreatment and control values. However, libido of testosterone-treated cows decreased over time, while that of synovex + testosterone-treated females remained high until Day 98. Libido scores correlated positively with the number of mounts in 1

  16. Pregnancy close to the edge: an immunosuppressive infiltrate in the chorionic plate of placentas from uncomplicated egg cell donation.

    PubMed

    Schonkeren, Dorrith; Swings, Godelieve; Roberts, Drucilla; Claas, Frans; de Heer, Emile; Scherjon, Sicco

    2012-01-01

    In pregnancies achieved after egg donation (ED) tolerance towards a completely allogeneic fetus is mediated by several complex immunoregulatory mechanisms, of which numerous aspects are still unknown. A distinct lesion not described previously in the literature, was repeatedly found in the chorionic plate in a substantial portion of placentas from ED pregnancies, but never in placentas from normal term pregnancies. The aim of this study was to assess its origin and its cellular composition. The relation between the lesion, the clinical and histological parameters were assessed. In addition we investigated the relation with the number of HLA-mismatches and KIR genotype of mother and child.In ten out of twenty-six (38.5%) placentas from ED pregnancies an inflammatory lesion was present in the chorionic plate. A significantly lower incidence of pre-eclampsia was found in the group with the lesion; 0% versus 45.5%. A significant relation was found between this lesion and the presence of intervillositis, chronic deciduitis, presence of plasma cells and fibrin deposition in the decidua. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation with X/Y-chromosome probes showed that the majority of cells present in the lesion are of maternal origin. The expression of the macrophage marker CD14+ and of the type 2 macrophage (M2) marker CD163+ was significantly higher in the lesion. The incidence of a fetal HLA-C2 genotype was significantly higher in cases with a lesion compared to the group without the lesion. In conclusion, a striking relationship was observed between the presence of a not previously described inflammatory lesion in the chorionic plate and the absence of pre-eclampsia in ED pregnancies. The lesion consists of mainly maternal cells with a higher expression of the macrophage marker CD14+ and the M2 marker CD163+. These findings suggest a protective immune mechanism which might contribute to the prevention of severe clinical complications like pre-eclampsia. PMID:22479322

  17. Medical Manuscript: Serum Total Testosterone as a Prognostic Indicator in Male Patients With Terminal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Won; Hwang, In Cheol; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Kyung, Sun Young; Ahn, Hong Yup

    2016-06-01

    The role of total serum testosterone in the prognosis of terminal cancer is unclear. We retrospectively investigated the total serum testosterone level in 69 male patients with terminal cancer in a palliative care unit. The association between the serum testosterone level and survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazard model. The median value of serum total testosterone was 44.5 ng/dL, far lower than previously reported in patients with advanced cancer. Multivariate analysis revealed thrombocytopenia (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.68), hypoalbuminemia (aHR, 2.02), azotemia (aHR, 2.67), and lower serum testosterone level (aHR, 2.03) were significantly negatively prognostic of survival. Lower serum testosterone level was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for life expectancy in male patients with terminal cancer. PMID:25712105

  18. Interest in Babies Negatively Predicts Testosterone Responses to Sexual Visual Stimuli Among Heterosexual Young Men.

    PubMed

    Zilioli, Samuele; Ponzi, Davide; Henry, Andrea; Kubicki, Konrad; Nickels, Nora; Wilson, M Claire; Maestripieri, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Men's testosterone may be an important physiological mechanism mediating motivational and behavioral aspects of the mating/parenting trade-off not only over time but also in terms of stable differences between mating-oriented and parenting-oriented individuals. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that self-reported interest in babies is inversely related to testosterone reactivity to cues of short-term mating among heterosexual young men. Among 100 participants, interest in babies was related to a slow life-history strategy, as assessed by the Mini-K questionnaire, and negatively related to testosterone responses to an erotic video. Interest in babies was not associated with baseline testosterone levels or with testosterone reactivity to nonsexual social stimuli. These results provide the first evidence that differential testosterone reactivity to sexual stimuli may be an important aspect of individual differences in life-history strategies among human males. PMID:26626441

  19. Cardiac lesions induced by testosterone: protective effects of dexrazoxane and trimetazidine.

    PubMed

    Belhani, Dalila; Fanton, Laurent; Vaillant, Fanny; Descotes, Jacques; Manati, Waheed; Tabib, Alain; Bui-Xuan, Bernard; Timour, Quadiri

    2009-06-01

    Further to our previous observation of post-mortem cardiac lesions after sudden death in several athletes with a history of anabolic steroid abuse, this study was intended to reproduce these lesions in rabbits administered testosterone oenanthate, a prototypic anabolic steroid abused by athletes, and to provide evidence for the protective effects of trimetazidine and dexrazoxane that are used as antianginal and cardioprotective drugs, respectively. Groups of six rabbits each were administered saline, testosterone, or a combination of testosterone and either trimetazidine or dexrazoxane for 3 months. Histologic cardiac lesions including necrosis, misshapen cell nuclei, interstitial and endocardial fibrosis, lymphocytic infiltrates, and vascular dystrophies were observed in testosterone-treated rabbits. In contrast, no significant lesions were observed in the animals treated with testosterone combined with either trimetazidine or dexrazoxane. This is the first study providing evidence for testosterone cardiotoxicity following sub-chronic exposure in laboratory animals. In addition, these results suggest the protective role of trimetazidine and dexrazoxane. PMID:19484391

  20. Factors influencing annual fecal testosterone metabolite profiles in captive male polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Curry, E; Roth, T L; MacKinnon, K M; Stoops, M A

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of season, breeding activity, age and latitude on fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in captive, adult male polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Fourteen polar bears from 13 North American zoos were monitored for 12-36 months, producing 25-year-long testosterone profiles. Results indicated that testosterone was significantly higher during the breeding season (early January through the end of May) compared with the non-breeding season with the highest concentrations excreted from early January through late March. Variations in excretion patterns were observed among individuals and also between years within an individual, with testosterone peaks closely associated with breeding activity. Results indicate that fecal testosterone concentrations are influenced by season, breeding activity and age, but not by latitude. This is the first report describing longitudinal fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in individual adult male polar bears. PMID:23279504

  1. Separation of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and immunoglobulin G by a miniaturized size exclusion chromatography column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yongmo; Chae, Junseok

    2009-04-01

    This report describes a miniaturized size exclusion chromatography column that effectively preseparates raw samples for medical point-of-care testing (POCT) devices. The minicolumn is constructed of polydimethylsiloxane fabricated on a glass slide. The minicolumn separates 300 ng/ml of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) from an immunoglobulin G (IgG)-rich solution (100 μg/ml) in 7.7 min, with 2.23 resolution and 0.018 mm plate height. The complete analyte discrimination shows potential for the sample preparation stage of POCT devices for cancer screening, prognosis, and monitoring.

  2. Can Serum Testosterone Be Used as a Marker of Overall Health?

    PubMed Central

    Mederos, Michael A; Bernie, Aaron M; Scovell, Jason M; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2015-01-01

    Low serum testosterone has been associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Individuals with these comorbidities are at increased risk of premature death and other adverse health effects. Clinical data portend low testosterone as a risk factor for developing these conditions which are supported by the hypogonadal-obesity-adipocytokine hypothesis. The authors support comprehensive evaluation for these comorbid conditions in men found to have low serum testosterone. PMID:26839520

  3. The Effects of Testosterone Supplementation on Cognitive Functioning in Older Men.

    PubMed

    Wahjoepramono, Eka J; Asih, Prita R; Aniwiyanti, Vilia; Taddei, Kevin; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Fuller, Stephanie J; Foster, Jonathan; Carruthers, Malcolm; Verdile, Giuseppe; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Martins, Ralph N

    2016-01-01

    Reduction in testosterone levels in men during aging is associated with cognitive decline and risk of dementia. Animal studies have shown benefits for testosterone supplementation in improving cognition and reducing Alzheimer's disease pathology. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of men with subjective memory complaint and low testosterone levels, we investigated whether testosterone treatment significantly improved performance on various measures of cognitive functioning. Forty-four men were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to establish the baseline prior to being randomly divided into two groups. The first group (Group A) received 24 weeks of testosterone treatment (T treatment) followed by 4 weeks washout, and then 24 weeks of placebo (P); the second group (Group B) received the same treatments, in reverse order (Placebo, washout, and then T treatment). In group A (TèP), compared to baseline, there was a modest (1 point) but significant improvement in general cognitive functioning as measured by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) following testosterone treatment. This improvement from baseline was sustained following the washout period and crossover to placebo treatment. Similar Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were observed when comparing testosterone treatment with placebo. In group B (PèT) a significant increase was observed from baseline following testosterone treatment and a trend towards an increase when compared to placebo treatment. Improvements in baseline depression scores (assessed by Geriatric Depression Scale) were observed following testosterone/placebo treatment in both groups, and no difference was observed when comparing testosterone with placebo treatment. Our findings indicate a modest improvement on global cognition with testosterone treatment. Larger clinical trials with a longer follow- up and with the inclusion of blood and brain imaging markers are now needed to conclusively

  4. Supplementary testosterone inhibits paternal care in a tropically breeding sparrow, Zonotrichia capensis.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Sharon E; Prince, Leslie E; Schook, Derek M; Moore, Ignacio T

    2009-01-01

    In most male birds that exhibit paternal care, elevation in testosterone above the breeding baseline reduces nestling provisioning, which can be detrimental to offspring survival. Mechanisms that may allow some males to avoid this detrimental effect of elevated testosterone include (1) decreased sensitivity to testosterone's effects on behavior and (2) uncoupling of testosterone secretion from territorial challenges (thus reducing the number of transient elevations in testosterone above the breeding baseline). Both of these "cost-avoidance" mechanisms have been documented, but whether selection for these mechanisms is correlated or independent is unknown. We investigated the relationship between elevated testosterone and paternal care in a tropical bird, the rufous-collared sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis). Zonotrichia capensis males exhibit an uncoupling of testosterone secretion from territorial aggression, and this species has a flexible breeding season and a clutch size smaller than those of temperate congeners. We implanted males with testosterone or empty implants and observed paternal behavior 2-3 and 6-7 d posthatch. During both observation periods, 100% of control males fed chicks, whereas 22% and 0% of testosterone-implanted males fed chicks on days 2-3 and 6-7, respectively. Chicks of testosterone-implanted males weighed less than control chicks, but tarsus growth, wing growth, and fledging success did not differ. Thus, we demonstrate a robust negative effect of testosterone on nestling provisioning that may not ultimately affect reproductive success. We suggest that these results relate to extreme flexibility in breeding schedule and the small clutch size in this tropical species. Our data also suggest that selection for the two mechanisms to avoid deleterious effects of elevations in testosterone above the breeding baseline likely occurs independently. PMID:19799502

  5. Effect of Adiantum Capillus veneris Linn on an Animal Model of Testosterone-Induced Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Noubarani, Maryam; Rostamkhani, Hossein; Erfan, Mohammad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Babaeian, Mohammad; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss in men. The present study was designed to evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity of a preparation of the Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. (A. capillus-veneris) on albino mice using a testosterone-induced alopecia model. Five groups of albino mice were studied: (A) Testosterone solution only (n=6); (B) Testosterone + Finasteride solution (2%) (n=6); (C) Testosterone + vehicle (n=6); (D) Testosterone + A. capillus-veneris solution (1%) (n=6); (E) intact control (n=2, without testosterone). Alopecia was induced in all intervention groups by testosterone 1.0 mg subcutaneous. A. capillus-veneris solution was applied topically to the back skin of animals in the respective group. Hair growth was evaluated by visual observation and histological study of several skin sections via various parameters as follicle density (number of follicles/mm) and anagen/telogen ratio. After 21 days, a patch of diffuse hair loss was seen in animals received testosterone while animals treated with A. capillus-veneris showed less hair loss as compared to those treated with testosterone only. The follicular density observed in the A. capillus-veneris-treated group was 1.92 ± 0.47, compared to 1.05 ± 0.21 in testosterone-group and 2.05 ± 0.49 in finasteride-treated animals. Anagen/telogen ratio was significantly affected by A. capillus-veneris, which was 0.92 ± 0.06 as compared with 0.23 ± 0.03 and 1.12 ± 0.06 for testosterone and finasteride treated groups, respectively. According to visual observation and quantitative data (follicular density and anagen/telogen ratio), A. capillus-veneris was found to possess good activity against testosterone-induced alopecia. PMID:24711836

  6. Status-appropriate singing behavior, testosterone and androgen receptor immunolabeling in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Cordes, M A; Stevenson, S A; Riters, L V

    2014-04-01

    Vocalizations convey information about an individual's motivational, internal, and social status. As circumstances change, individuals respond by adjusting vocal behavior accordingly. In European starlings, a male that acquires a nest site socially dominates other males and dramatically increases courtship song. Although circulating testosterone is associated with social status and vocal production it is possible that steroid receptors fine-tune status-appropriate changes in behavior. Here we explored a possible role for androgen receptors. Male starlings that acquired nest sites produced high rates of courtship song. For a subset of males this occurred even in the absence of elevated circulating testosterone. Immunolabeling for androgen receptors (ARir) was highest in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) in males with both a nest site and elevated testosterone. For HVC, ARir was higher in dominant males with high testosterone (males that sang longer songs) than dominant males with low testosterone (males that sang shorter songs). ARir in the dorsal medial portion of the nucleus intercollicularis (DM) was elevated in males with high testosterone irrespective of dominance status. Song bout length related positively to ARir in POM, HVC and DM, and testosterone concentrations related positively to ARir in POM and DM. Results suggest that the role of testosterone in vocal behavior differs across brain regions and support the hypothesis that testosterone in POM underlies motivation, testosterone in HVC relates to song quality, and testosterone in DM stimulates vocalizations. Our data also suggest that singing may influence AR independent of testosterone and that alternative androgen-independent pathways regulate status-appropriate singing behavior. PMID:24594286

  7. Status-appropriate singing behavior, testosterone and androgen receptor immunolabeling in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Cordes, M.A.; Stevenson, S.A.; Riters, L.V.

    2014-01-01

    Vocalizations convey information about an individual’s motivational, internal, and social status. As circumstances change, individuals respond by adjusting vocal behavior accordingly. In European starlings, a male that acquires a nest site socially dominates other males and dramatically increases courtship song. Although circulating testosterone is associated with social status and vocal production it is possible that steroid receptors fine-tune status-appropriate changes in behavior. Here we explored a possible role for androgen receptors. Male starlings that acquired nest sites produced high rates of courtship song. For a subset of males this occurred even in the absence of elevated circulating testosterone. Immunolabeling for androgen receptors (ARir) was highest in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) in males with both a nest site and elevated testosterone. For HVC, ARir was higher in dominant males with high testosterone (males that sang longer songs) than dominant males with low testosterone (males that sang shorter songs). ARir in the dorsal medial portion of the nucleus intercollicularis (DM) was elevated in males with high testosterone irrespective of dominance status. Song bout length related positively to ARir in POM, HVC and DM, and testosterone concentrations related positively to ARir in POM and DM. Results suggest the role of testosterone in vocal behavior differs across brain regions and support the hypothesis that testosterone in POM underlies motivation, testosterone in HVC relates to song quality, and testosterone in DM stimulates vocalizations. Our data also suggest that singing may influence AR independent of testosterone and that alternative androgen-independent pathways regulate status-appropriate singing behavior. PMID:24594286

  8. Testosterone hormone replacement therapy: state-of-the-art and emerging technologies.

    PubMed

    Leichtnam, Marie-Laure; Rolland, Hervé; Wüthrich, Patrick; Guy, Richard H

    2006-06-01

    In the human male, testosterone is the major circulating androgen. The clinical effects of androgen are numerous, and testosterone deficiency is associated with a number of clinical abnormalities. At present, a variety of preparations containing testosterone is available for the treatment of androgen deficiency. Ideally, those treatments have to produce and maintain physiologic serum concentrations of the hormone. This article reviews the current existing testosterone dosage forms on the market with their advantages and drawbacks and examines new and emerging technology developments concerning this therapy. In particular, the latest innovations in transdermal delivery are explored. PMID:16755346

  9. First case report of testosterone assay-interference in a female taking maca (Lepidium meyenii)

    PubMed Central

    Srikugan, L; Sankaralingam, A; McGowan, B

    2011-01-01

    A young female with prolonged intermenstrual bleeding was found to have raised total plasma testosterone of 25.8 nmol/l (NR<2.9 nmol/l) using the Roche Elecsys Testosterone I immunoassay without clinical features of virulisation. Few months ago investigations for lethargy and low libido had shown normal total testosterone of 0.8 nmol/l. Further history revealed that she was using maca extract to improve her lethargy and low libido. Maca is traditionally used for its aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties. Maca use has not been shown to affect serum testosterone in mice and human studies. Immunoassay interference with maca was suspected. Testosterone immunoassays use monoclonal antibodies specifically directed against testosterone. They are prone to interference from androgenic compounds. Reanalysis of the original serum sample using Elecsys Testosterone II assay, a higher affinity assay, revealed a total testosterone level of 2.9 nmol/l. It is important to exclude assay interference when testosterone level is greater than 5 nmol/l without supportive clinical signs. PMID:22700073

  10. First case report of testosterone assay-interference in a female taking maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    PubMed

    Srikugan, L; Sankaralingam, A; McGowan, B

    2011-01-01

    A young female with prolonged intermenstrual bleeding was found to have raised total plasma testosterone of 25.8 nmol/l (NR<2.9 nmol/l) using the Roche Elecsys Testosterone I immunoassay without clinical features of virulisation. Few months ago investigations for lethargy and low libido had shown normal total testosterone of 0.8 nmol/l. Further history revealed that she was using maca extract to improve her lethargy and low libido. Maca is traditionally used for its aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties. Maca use has not been shown to affect serum testosterone in mice and human studies. Immunoassay interference with maca was suspected. Testosterone immunoassays use monoclonal antibodies specifically directed against testosterone. They are prone to interference from androgenic compounds. Reanalysis of the original serum sample using Elecsys Testosterone II assay, a higher affinity assay, revealed a total testosterone level of 2.9 nmol/l. It is important to exclude assay interference when testosterone level is greater than 5 nmol/l without supportive clinical signs. PMID:22700073

  11. Single dose testosterone administration alleviates gaze avoidance in women with Social Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Enter, Dorien; Terburg, David; Harrewijn, Anita; Spinhoven, Philip; Roelofs, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Gaze avoidance is one of the most characteristic and persistent social features in people with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). It signals social submissiveness and hampers adequate social interactions. Patients with SAD typically show reduced testosterone levels, a hormone that facilitates socially dominant gaze behavior. Therefore we tested as a proof of principle whether single dose testosterone administration can reduce gaze avoidance in SAD. In a double-blind, within-subject design, 18 medication-free female participants with SAD and 19 female healthy control participants received a single dose of 0.5mg testosterone and a matched placebo, at two separate days. On each day, their spontaneous gaze behavior was recorded using eye-tracking, while they looked at angry, happy, and neutral facial expressions. Testosterone enhanced the percentage of first fixations to the eye-region in participants with SAD compared to healthy controls. In addition, SAD patients' initial gaze avoidance in the placebo condition was associated with more severe social anxiety symptoms and this relation was no longer present after testosterone administration. These findings indicate that single dose testosterone administration can alleviate gaze avoidance in SAD. They support theories on the dominance enhancing effects of testosterone and extend those by showing that effects are particularly strong in individuals featured by socially submissive behavior. The finding that this core characteristic of SAD can be directly influenced by single dose testosterone administration calls for future inquiry into the clinical utility of testosterone in the treatment of SAD. PMID:26402923

  12. Management of Hypogonadism in Cardiovascular Patients: What Are the Implications of Testosterone Therapy on Cardiovascular Morbidity?

    PubMed

    Tanna, Monique S; Schwartzbard, Arthur; Berger, Jeffery S; Underberg, James; Gianos, Eugenia; Weintraub, Howard S

    2016-05-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy is recommended for men with clinical androgen deficiency with decades of evidence supporting its use for treatment of sexual, physical, and psychological consequences of male hypogonadism. In this updated review, the authors discuss the implications of testosterone deficiency and conflicting evidence regarding testosterone replacement therapy and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Based on mounting evidence, the authors conclude that testosterone therapy can be safely considered in men with appropriately diagnosed clinical androgen deficiency and concurrent cardiovascular risk factors and even manifest cardiovascular disease after a thorough discussion of potential risks and with guideline-recommended safety monitoring. PMID:27132583

  13. Testosterone deficiency and quality of life in Australasian testicular cancer survivors: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    O'Carrigan, B; Fournier, M; Olver, I N; Stockler, M R; Whitford, H; Toner, G C; Thomson, D B; Davis, I D; Hanning, F; Singhal, N; Underhill, C; Clingan, P; McDonald, A; Boland, A; Grimison, P

    2014-08-01

    This is the first prospective study in a contemporary Australian/New Zealand population to determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency in testicular cancer survivors at 12 months from treatment, and any association with poorer quality of life. Hormone assays from 54 evaluable patients in a prospective cohort study revealed biochemical hypogonadism in 18 patients (33%) and low-normal testosterone in 13 patients (24%). We found no association between testosterone levels and quality of life (all P > 0.05). Hypogonadal patients should be considered for testosterone replacement to prevent long-term morbidity. PMID:25081047

  14. The effects of castration followed testosterone supplementation in prostatic complex of Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).

    PubMed

    Puga, Cíntia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2016-06-01

    The prostatic complex (ventral and dorsal regions) of Artibeus planirostris exhibits seasonal variations throughout the year. Circulating testosterone was correlated with prostate weight, showing an increase from autumn to summer, with the highest peak in summer corresponding to the largest breeding season. This indicates that the level of serum testosterone influences variations in both testicular and prostatic weights. Serum testosterone levels seem to be closely related to the different responses of these glands throughout the year. The castration (consequent suppression of testosterone) and subsequent hormone supplementation may elucidate the relationship of these two glandular types with testosterone. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of castration and the testosterone supplementation in the male prostatic complex of A. planirostris. The results indicated that both prostatic regions were affected by the ablation of testosterone, presenting a decrease in cell proliferation and an increase in apoptosis. Similarly, the prostate was responsive to hormonal supplementation, having a recovery of the active morphophysiological pattern with testosterone supplementation. However, data have shown that the ventral region was more sensitive to changes in testosterone than the dorsal, presenting greater cell renewal. PMID:27032910

  15. Influence of testosterone gel treatment on spermatogenesis in men with hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    George, Mskhalaya; Yulia, Tishova; Svetlana, Kalinchenko

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of androgen deficiency in reproductive-aged men is increasing and needs new approach to long-term hypogonadism treatment that can preserve fertility. An open non-controlled pilot study included 18 men with eugonadotropic hypogonadism, who received transdermal testosterone gel treatment for 3 months. Sperm analysis was made before treatment and after 3 month of testosterone therapy. Testosterone level was normalized in all patients, but no negative effect was observed on spermatogenesis. Testosterone gel therapy may be a therapy of choice in hypogonadal men of reproductive age but further studies are needed. PMID:25200823

  16. The Effects of Testosterone on Oxidative Stress Markers in Mice with Spinal Cord Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Choobineh, Hamid; Sadighi Gilani, Mohammad Ali; Pasalar, Parvin; Jahanzad, Issa; Ghorbani, Rostam; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes infertility in male patients through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction, semen and hormone abnormalities. Oxidative stress (OS) is involved in poor semen quality and subsequent infertility in males with SCI. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of SCI on the level of testosterone hormone. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we evaluated the effects of exogenous testosterone on the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonylation (PCO), as markers of OS, in 10 groups of SCI mice. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was determined using the 2,29-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation assay. Results Exogenous testosterone administration in mice with SCI significantly reduced SOD and GPx enzyme activities and MDA level. There was no significant decrease in PCO content. In addition, TAC remarkably increased in the sham and SCI groups not treated with testosterone but remained unchanged in all other experimental groups. Exogenous testosterone also reduced serum testosterone levels in all groups except the positive control group. Conclusion Our cumulative data indicated that SCI could cause sterility by disturbing the plasmatic testosterone balance. The normal level of endogenous testosterone was not completely restored by exogenous testosterone administration. PMID:27123205

  17. [The role of testosterone in regulating the aggressive behavior of male laboratory mice of different strains].

    PubMed

    Diuzhikova, N A

    1994-01-01

    The influence of testosterone on aggressive behaviour, on urinal pheromonal activity, on weight of the preputial gland, seminal vesicles and coagulating glands of male mouse CBA, C57BL/6 and hybrids CBAB6F1 was studied. The interstrain differences in reactivity to testosterone in aggressive behaviour tests and in seminal vesicles and coagulating gland weight were found. The urinal pheromonal characteristics were not changed by testosterone influence. No significant correlations between the aggressive behaviour parameters, urinal pheromonal activity, testosterone plasma levels and reactivity to its action were discovered. PMID:7941714

  18. Cloning and functional expression of the equine luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotrophin receptor.

    PubMed

    Saint-Dizier, Marie; Foulon-Gauze, Florence; Lecompte, François; Combarnous, Yves; Chopineau, Maryse

    2004-12-01

    Pituitary equine luteinizing hormone (eLH) and fetal chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) have identical polypeptidic chains, but different linked carbohydrates. In equine tissues, eCG and eLH bind only to the LH/CG receptor (eLH/CG-R) and have no FSH activity. However, radio-receptor assays on equine luteal or testicular tissues have shown that eCG binds to the eLH/CG-R with only 2-4% of the binding activity of eLH. In order to study the structure-function relationship of eLH and eCG in a homologous system, we undertook the cloning and functional expression of the eLH/CG-R. Based on sequence homologies among mammalian sequences for the LH/CG-R, overlapping partial fragments of LH/CG-R cDNAs were obtained from mare luteal RNA using reverse transcription-PCR and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Ligations of the partial cDNA fragments encoded a part of the signal peptide followed by a putative 672 amino acid eLH/CG-R mature protein. The mature eLH/CG-R displayed 88.2-92.8% overall sequence homology with the other mammalian LH/CG-Rs and contained one unique seventh N-glycosylation site in its extracellular domain. COS-7 cells were transiently transfected with a cDNA construct encoding an engineered complete signal peptide and the mature eLH/CG-R. Membrane preparations from transfected COS-7 cells bound 125I-eLH with high affinity (Kd 3.8 x 10(-10) M). On a molar basis, eCG competed with 125I-eLH on membrane preparations with only 12.4% of the eLH binding activity. In transfected COS-7, both eLH and eCG increased the extracellular cAMP concentration in a dose-dependent manner, whereas eFSH did not. Furthermore, on a molar basis, eCG stimulated cAMP production with only 13.9% of the eLH stimulating activity. We conclude that the cloned cDNA encodes a The differences functional eLH/CG-R. between eLH and eCG activities towards this receptor will be useful in studies of the influence of carbohydrates on gonadotrophin receptor binding and activation. PMID:15590981

  19. Human chorionic gonadotropin: Different glycoforms and biological activity depending on its source of production.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Thierry

    2016-06-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is the first hormonal message from the placenta to the mother. It is detectable in maternal blood two days after implantation and behaves like a super LH agonist stimulating progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum. In addition to maintaining the production of progesterone until the placenta itself produces it, hCG also has a role in myometrial quiescence and local immune tolerance. Specific to humans, hCG is a complex glycoprotein composed of two highly glycosylated subunits. The α-subunit is identical to the pituitary gonadotropin hormones (LH, FSH, TSH), contains two N-glycosylation sites, and is encoded by a single gene (CGA). By contrast, the β-subunits are distinct for each hormones and confer both receptor and biological specificity, although LH and hCG bind to the same receptor (LH/CG-R). The hCG ß-subunit is encoded by a cluster of genes (CGB) and contains two sites of N-glycosylation and four sites of O-glycosylation. The hCG glycosylation state varies with the stage of pregnancy, its source of production and in the pathology. It is well established that hCG is mainly secreted into maternal blood, where it peaks at 8-10weeks of gestation (WG), by the syncytiotrophoblast (ST), which represents the endocrine tissue of the human placenta. The invasive extravillous trophoblast (iEVT) also secretes hCG, and in particular hyperglycosylated forms of hCG (hCG-H) also produced by choriocarcinoma cells. In maternal blood, hCG-H is elevated during early first trimester corresponding to the trophoblastic cell invasion process and then decreases. In addition to its endocrine role, hCG has autocrine and paracrine roles. It promotes formation of the ST and angiogenesis through LH/CG-R but has no effect on trophoblast invasion in vitro. By contrast, hCG-H stimulates trophoblast invasion and angiogenesis by interacting with the TGFß receptor in a LH/CG-R independent signalling pathway. hCG is largely used in antenatal screening

  20. Oxygen-Sensitive K+ Channels Modulate Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Secretion from Human Placental Trophoblast

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Paula; Sibley, Colin P.; Greenwood, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a key autocrine/paracrine regulator of placental syncytiotrophoblast, the transport epithelium of the human placenta. Syncytiotrophoblast hCG secretion is modulated by the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and potassium (K+) channels. Here we test the hypothesis that K+ channels mediate the effects of pO2 and ROS on hCG secretion. Placental villous explants from normal term pregnancies were cultured for 6 days at 6% (normoxia), 21% (hyperoxia) or 1% (hypoxia) pO2. On days 3–5, explants were treated with 5mM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) or tetraethylammonium (TEA), blockers of pO2-sensitive voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels, or ROS (10–1000μM H2O2). hCG secretion and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, a marker of necrosis, were determined daily. At day 6, hCG and LDH were measured in tissue lysate and 86Rb (K+) efflux assessed to estimate syncytiotrophoblast K+ permeability. hCG secretion and 86Rb efflux were significantly greater in explants maintained in 21% pO2 than normoxia. 4-AP/TEA inhibited hCG secretion to a greater extent at 21% than 6% and 1% pO2, and reduced 86Rb efflux at 21% but not 6% pO2. LDH release and tissue LDH/hCG were similar in 6%, 21% and 1% pO2 and unaffected by 4-AP/TEA. H2O2 stimulated 86Rb efflux and hCG secretion at normoxia but decreased 86Rb efflux, without affecting hCG secretion, at 21% pO2. 4-AP/TEA-sensitive K+ channels participate in pO2-sensitive hCG secretion from syncytiotrophoblast. ROS effects on both hCG secretion and 86Rb efflux are pO2-dependent but causal links between the two remain to be established. PMID:26863525

  1. Association of Luteinizing Hormone Chorionic Gonadotropin Receptor Gene Polymorphism (rs2293275) with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kodati, Vijayalakshmi; Erukkambattu, Jayashankar; Addepally, Uma; Qurratulain, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovaries and irregular menstruation/anovulation are important diagnostic criteria along with hyperandrogenism as per the Androgen Excess Society–2006 criteria for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). In the etiopathogenesis of PCOS, one of the candidate genes causing ovarian failure is the luteinizing hormone (LH) chorionic gonadotropin hormone receptor (LHCGR). Our aim was to study the association of LHCGR polymorphism (rs2293275) with PCOS in our study population. Materials and Methods: Genetic case–control study from multiple gynecological centers from Hyderabad, a cosmopolitan city in South India. The study involved 204 women with PCOS and 204 healthy, sex-, and age-matched controls. Anthropometric and biochemical profiles were taken in a well-designed pro forma. Isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and genotype analysis were done for the entire study population using the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism method followed by 12% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results: In this study, we have demonstrated an association between LHCGR (rs2293275) polymorphism and PCOS. The frequency of the G allele was 0.60 in PCOS and 0.49 in controls (odds ratio [OR] 1.531, confidence interval [CI] 1.16–2.01, and p-value=0.0026), which indicates that the G allele is associated with PCOS in our population. The GG genotype conferred a significant risk of developing PCOS (OR 3.36, CI 1.96–5.75, and p-value<0.0001). We found a significant association of the GG allele with body–mass index, waist to hip ratio, insulin resistance, LH, and LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio in PCOS when compared with controls. The AA allele showed high basal FSH levels. Conclusions: This study suggests that LHCGR (rs2293275) polymorphism is associated with PCOS and could be used as a relevant molecular marker to identify women with the risk of developing PCOS in our population and may provide an understanding about the

  2. New discoveries on the biology and detection of human chorionic gonadotropin

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Laurence A

    2009-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein hormone comprising 2 subunits, alpha and beta joined non covalently. While similar in structure to luteinizing hormone (LH), hCG exists in multiple hormonal and non-endocrine agents, rather than as a single molecule like LH and the other glycoprotein hormones. These are regular hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG and the free beta-subunit of hyperglycosylated hCG. For 88 years regular hCG has been known as a promoter of corpus luteal progesterone production, even though this function only explains 3 weeks of a full gestations production of regular hCG. Research in recent years has explained the full gestational production by demonstration of critical functions in trophoblast differentiation and in fetal nutrition through myometrial spiral artery angiogenesis. While regular hCG is made by fused villous syncytiotrophoblast cells, extravillous invasive cytotrophoblast cells make the variant hyperglycosylated hCG. This variant is an autocrine factor, acting on extravillous invasive cytotrophoblast cells to initiate and control invasion as occurs at implantation of pregnancy and the establishment of hemochorial placentation, and malignancy as occurs in invasive hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. Hyperglycosylated hCG inhibits apoptosis in extravillous invasive cytotrophoblast cells promoting cell invasion, growth and malignancy. Other non-trophoblastic malignancies retro-differentiate and produce a hyperglycosylated free beta-subunit of hCG (hCG free beta). This has been shown to be an autocrine factor antagonizing apoptosis furthering cancer cell growth and malignancy. New applications have been demonstrated for total hCG measurements and detection of the 3 hCG variants in pregnancy detection, monitoring pregnancy outcome, determining risk for Down syndrome fetus, predicting preeclampsia, detecting pituitary hCG, detecting and managing gestational trophoblastic diseases, diagnosing quiescent gestational trophoblastic

  3. Value of human chorionic gonadotropin compared to CEA in discriminating benign from malignant effusions.

    PubMed

    Lamerz, R; Stoetzer, O J; Mezger, J; Brandt, A; Darsow, M; Wilmanns, W

    1999-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is expressed in germ cell tumors and urothelial, breast, lung and colon cancers. The aim of the study was to investigate if the determination of HCG in comparison with CEA is able to discriminate between malignant and benign effusions. Effusion and partially serum samples of 61 patients with benign (g.i., heart/kidney isnuff.) and 116 patients with malignant diseases (g.i., gynec., lung, misc., CUP) were investigated. HCG was specifically determined by an IRMA using 2 monoclonal antibodies, CEA by a conventional double Ab RIA. Cytological staining was preformed using the Pappenheim-method on cytospin preparations. Significant differences (p < 0.001) were found for HCG between benign and malignant ascitic effusions with the best discrimination at 5 IU/l (ROC) and an overall sensitivity of 31.3% (spec. vs benign eff. 93.4%) increasing in subgroups from hematol. (5.8%) < misc. (31.3%) < gynec. (32.1%) < g.i. (36%) < lung (38.1%) to CUP (50%). CEA also showed significant differences between benign and malignant total and ascitic effusions, and weaker for the pleural subgroup (cutoff 9 ng/ml) with a total sensitivity of 44.6% (sp = 100%) increasing from misc. (30.8%) < lung (47.1%) < CUP (50%) < gynec. (60%) < g.i. (60.9%). Comparative cytology and TM determinations increased the positiverate of cytology (45.2%) to 58.3% for either cytology or HCG positive cases, or to 61.6% for either cytology or CEA positive cases. For the combined determination of cytologoy and HCG and CEA, the overall TM positive rate for 33 cytology-pos. cases was 78.8%, but in 40 cytology-negative cases 37.5% for TM positive cases. In conclusion HCG is useful in ascitic > pleural effusions with high specificity (90% at 5 IU/l) but low sensitivity of 31% increasing in g.i., lung and gynecologic cases, CEA a more general TM with higher sensitivity of 45% increasing in g.i., gynecologic and lung cases (sp. 100% at 9 ng/ml) both adding significantly to cytology

  4. Oxygen-Sensitive K+ Channels Modulate Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Secretion from Human Placental Trophoblast.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Paula; Sibley, Colin P; Greenwood, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a key autocrine/paracrine regulator of placental syncytiotrophoblast, the transport epithelium of the human placenta. Syncytiotrophoblast hCG secretion is modulated by the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and potassium (K+) channels. Here we test the hypothesis that K+ channels mediate the effects of pO2 and ROS on hCG secretion. Placental villous explants from normal term pregnancies were cultured for 6 days at 6% (normoxia), 21% (hyperoxia) or 1% (hypoxia) pO2. On days 3-5, explants were treated with 5mM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) or tetraethylammonium (TEA), blockers of pO2-sensitive voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels, or ROS (10-1000μM H2O2). hCG secretion and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, a marker of necrosis, were determined daily. At day 6, hCG and LDH were measured in tissue lysate and 86Rb (K+) efflux assessed to estimate syncytiotrophoblast K+ permeability. hCG secretion and 86Rb efflux were significantly greater in explants maintained in 21% pO2 than normoxia. 4-AP/TEA inhibited hCG secretion to a greater extent at 21% than 6% and 1% pO2, and reduced 86Rb efflux at 21% but not 6% pO2. LDH release and tissue LDH/hCG were similar in 6%, 21% and 1% pO2 and unaffected by 4-AP/TEA. H2O2 stimulated 86Rb efflux and hCG secretion at normoxia but decreased 86Rb efflux, without affecting hCG secretion, at 21% pO2. 4-AP/TEA-sensitive K+ channels participate in pO2-sensitive hCG secretion from syncytiotrophoblast. ROS effects on both hCG secretion and 86Rb efflux are pO2-dependent but causal links between the two remain to be established. PMID:26863525

  5. Placental Hypoxia Developed During Preeclampsia Induces Telocytes Apoptosis in Chorionic Villi Affecting The Maternal-Fetus Metabolic Exchange.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Cleofina Becerra; Díaz, Eugenia Guerra; Gutierrez, Rodrigo Rojas; González, Jaime Montero; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Rodrigo, Ramón Salinas; Barja, Pilar Yañez

    2016-01-01

    Telocytes (TC) are a new type of stromal cells initially found and studied in digestive and extra- digestive organs. These cells have a small cell body with 2 to 5 thin and extremely long cytoplasmic prolongations named telopodes. In recent years, TC have also been described in placental chorionic villi, located in a strategical position between the smooth muscle cells from fetal vessels and the myofibroblasts in the stromal villi. Unlike other organs, the placenta is not innervated and considering the strategic location of TC is has been postulated that TC function would be related to signal transduction mechanisms involved in the regulation of the fetal vessels blood flow, as well as in the shortening/lengthening of the chorionic villi, providing the necessary rhythmicity to the process of maternal/fetal metabolic exchange. Preeclampsia (PE) is a systemic syndrome that affects 4%-6% of pregnancies worldwide. It is characterized by a placental state of ischemia-hypoxia which triggers an oxidative stress stage with the concomitant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to an increase in the degree of placental apoptosis. Placental vascular tone is regulated by the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) and, in PE cases, NO is diverted towards the formation of peroxynitrite, a powerful oxidative agent whose activity leads to an increase of placental apoptosis degree that compromises TC and myofibroblasts, a key feature we would like to emphasize in this work. PMID:25643124

  6. Elevated serum progesterone/ MII oocyte ratio on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration can predict impaired endometrial receptivity

    PubMed Central

    Aflatoonian, Abbas; Davar, Robab; Hojjat, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increased serum progesterone on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration may affect in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether progesterone elevation on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration is associated with poor IVF outcome. Materials and Methods: To determine the relationship between serum progesterone on the day of HCG and the outcome of IVF-embryo transfer treatment, 378 infertile patients undergoing IVF-embryo transfer at Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility from October 2009 to March 2011 were prospectively studied. Results: In this study, absolute p-value and P/E2 ratio were not a good predictor outcome of in-vitro fertilization but progesterone per metaphase II were predictive of implantation rate and pregnancy rate with statistically significant results but had no effect on the fertilization rate. Conclusion: We suggest avoided the increased progesterone that the cause of advanced endometrial maturation and impaired endometrial receptivity. If the progesterone is greater than 0.32 per oocyte metaphase II, the embryo transfer can be canceled and freezing all embryos for future transfer must be considered, to increase acceptance of the endometrium and thus increase the success rate. PMID:25071852

  7. A thicker chorion gives ova of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) the upper hand against Saprolegnia infections.

    PubMed

    Songe, M M; Willems, A; Sarowar, M N; Rajan, K; Evensen, Ø; Drynan, K; Skaar, I; van West, P

    2016-07-01

    Since the ban of malachite green in the fish farming industry, finding alternative ways of controlling Saprolegnia infections has become of utmost importance. Much effort has been made to elucidate the mechanisms by which Saprolegnia invades fish eggs. Little is known about the defence mechanisms of the hosts, making some eggs more prone to infection than others. One clue might lie in the composition of the eggs. As the immune system in the embryos is not developed yet, the difference in infection levels could be explained by factors influenced by the mother herself, by either transferring passive immunity, influencing the physical aspects of the eggs or both. One of the physical aspects that could be influenced by the female is the chorion, the extracellular coat surrounding the fish egg, which is in fact the first major barrier to be overcome by Saprolegnia spp. Our results suggest that a thicker chorion in eggs from Atlantic salmon gives a better protection against Saprolegnia spp. In addition to the identification of differences in sensitivity of eggs in a fish farm set-up, we were able to confirm these results in a laboratory-controlled challenge experiment. PMID:26644366

  8. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia, a case of intrauterine sudden death of fetus with rupture of cirsoid periumbilical chorionic vessels

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report a 32-year-old woman (1-gravid, 1-para) with a vesicular lesion in her uterus that was pointed out on ultrasound at 8 weeks' gestation. Amniocentesis at 15 weeks' gestation showed a normal female karyotype, 46XX. As the pregnancy advanced, the mole-like lesion became relatively reduced. Throughout gestation, the maternal human chorionic gonadotropin level was normal, but the serum alpha fetoprotein level rose as her pregnancy progressed. Her fetus did not exhibit any remarkable anomalies. The patient visited our hospital complaining of a diminished feeling of fetal movements at 36 weeks 5 days' gestation, and intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) was confirmed. She delivered a 2336-g female without any definite anomalies. A pathological examination led to a diagnosis of placental mesenchymal dysplasia, and androgenetic/biparental mosaicism in the placenta was identified using p57kip2 immunohistochemical staining. And it also revealed that the rupture of the cirsoid chorionic vessels had led to IUFD. PMID:21513565

  9. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Mortality in Older Men.

    PubMed

    Hackett, G I

    2016-02-01

    While US testosterone prescriptions have tripled in the last decade with lower trends in Europe, debate continues over the risks, benefits and appropriate use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). Several authors blame advertising and the availability of more convenient formulations, whilst others have pointed out that the routine testing of men with erectile dysfunction (ED) (a significant marker of cardiovascular risk) and those with diabetes would inevitably increase the diagnosis of hypogonadism and lead to an increase in totally appropriate prescribing. They commented that this was merely an appropriate correction of previous under-diagnosis and under-treatment in line with evidence based guidelines. It is unlikely that persuasive advertising or convenient formulations could grow a market over such a sustained period if the treatment was not effective. Urologists and primary care physicians are the most frequent initiators of TRT usually for ED. Benefits are clearly established for sexual function, increase in lean muscle mass and strength, mood and cognitive function, with a possible reduction in frailty and osteoporosis. There remains no evidence that TRT is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer or symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia, yet the decision to initiate and continue therapy is often decided by urologists. The cardiovascular issues associated with TRT have been clarified by recent studies showing that therapy associated with clear increases in serum testosterone levels to the normal range is associated with reduced all-cause mortality. Studies reporting to show increased risk have been subject to flawed designs with inadequate baseline diagnosis and follow-up testing. Effectively, they have compared non-treated patients with under-treated or non-compliant subjects involving a range of different therapy regimes. Recent evidence suggests long-acting injections may be associated with decreased cardiovascular risk, but the

  10. Impaired hypertrophy in myoblasts is improved with testosterone administration.

    PubMed

    Deane, Colleen S; Hughes, David C; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Lewis, Mark P; Stewart, Claire E; Sharples, Adam P

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the ability of testosterone (T) to restore differentiation in multiple population doubled (PD) murine myoblasts, previously shown to have a reduced differentiation in monolayer and bioengineered skeletal muscle cultures vs. their parental controls (CON) (Sharples et al., 2011, 2012 [7,26]). Cells were exposed to low serum conditions in the presence or absence of T (100nM)±PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) for 72h and 7 days (early and late muscle differentiation respectively). Morphological analyses were performed to determine myotube number, diameter (μm) and myonuclear accretion as indices of differentiation and myotube hypertrophy. Changes in gene expression for myogenin, mTOR and myostatin were also performed. Myotube diameter in CON and PD cells increased from 17.32±2.56μm to 21.02±1.89μm and 14.58±2.66μm to 18.29±3.08μm (P≤0.05) respectively after 72h of T exposure. The increase was comparable in both PD (+25%) and CON cells (+21%) suggesting a similar intrinsic ability to respond to exogenous T administration. T treatment also significantly increased myonuclear accretion (% of myotubes expressing 5+ nuclei) in both cell types after 7 days exposure (P≤0.05). Addition of PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) in the presence of T attenuated these effects in myotube morphology (in both cell types) suggesting a role for the PI3K pathway in T stimulated hypertrophy. Finally, PD myoblasts showed reduced responsiveness to T stimulated mRNA expression of mTOR vs. CON cells and T also reduced myostatin expression in PD myoblasts only. The present study demonstrates testosterone administration improves hypertrophy in myoblasts that basally display impaired differentiation and hypertrophic capacity vs. their parental controls, the action of testosterone in this model was mediated by PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:23714396

  11. Effects of Testosterone Level on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Crawford, E David; Poage, Wendy; Nyhuis, Allen; Price, David A; Dowsett, Sherie A; Muram, David

    2016-09-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common in older men and are frequently associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The relationship between BPH and endogenous total testosterone (TT) levels has been widely studied. The aim of this post hoc analysis was to determine the association between LUTS and endogenous TT levels in a subset of men participating in the 2013 Prostate Cancer Awareness Week, a U.S. community-based prostate cancer screening program. Men completed the International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) questionnaire, prostate size was estimated by a digital rectal examination, and serum TT and prostate-specific antigen levels were measured. Mean TT levels (ng/dl) did not significantly correlate with prostate size category (r = +.03, p = .69): normal, 419.2 (n = 106); enlarged, 394.7 (n = 71); abnormal, 416.4 (n = 7); and abnormal/suspicious, 515.2 (n = 19). Mean TT levels (ng/dl) did not significantly correlate with I-PSS category (r = -.06, p = .40): none, 468.5 (n = 15); mild, 414.0 (n = 138); moderate, 397.4 (n = 66); and severe, 437.9 (n = 7). Mean TT levels (ng/dl) did not significantly correlate with I-PSS quality of life rating (r = -.13, p = .055): delighted, 474.5 (n = 43); pleased, 424.6 (n = 65); mostly satisfied, 361.2 (n = 63); mixed, 448.2 (n = 29); mostly dissatisfied, 337.2 (n = 17); and unhappy, 435.8 (n = 6). Adjustment for prostate size or prostate-specific antigen levels yielded similar findings. In conclusion, endogenous TT levels did not correlate with LUTS or prostate size, and these findings support the saturation theory in which TT is not able to induce further androgen-stimulated prostate tissue growth due to receptor saturation. Any worsening of LUTS following testosterone replacement therapy in hypogonadal men may be related to stimulation of prostatic cells previously deprived of testosterone. PMID:26077271

  12. Intensive exercise training suppresses testosterone during bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Stanford, K. I.; Stein, T. P.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    2005-01-01

    Spaceflight and prolonged bed rest (BR) alter plasma hormone levels inconsistently. This may be due, in part, to prescription of heavy exercise as a countermeasure for ameliorating the adverse effects of disuse. The initial project was to assess exercise programs to maintain aerobic performance and leg strength during BR. The present study evaluates the effect of BR and the performance of the prescribed exercise countermeasures on plasma steroid levels. In a 30-day BR study of male subjects, the efficacy of isotonic (ITE, n = 7) or isokinetic exercise (IKE, n = 7) training was evaluated in contrast to no exercise (n = 5). These exercise countermeasures protected aerobic performance and leg strength successfully. BR alone (no-exercise group) did not change steroidogenesis, as assessed by the plasma concentrations of cortisol, progesterone, aldosterone, and free (FT) and total testosterone (TT). In the exercise groups, both FT and TT were decreased (P < 0.05): FT during IKE from 24 +/- 1.7 to 18 +/- 2.0 pg/ml and during ITE from 21 +/- 1.5 to 18 +/- 1 pg/ml, and TT during IKE from 748 +/- 68 to 534 +/- 46 ng/dl and during ITE from 565 +/- 36 to 496 +/- 38 ng/dl. The effect of intensive exercise countermeasures on plasma testosterone was not associated with indexes of overtraining. The reduction in plasma testosterone associated with both the IKE and ITE countermeasures during BR supports our hypothesis that intensive exercise countermeasures may, in part, contribute to changes in plasma steroid concentrations during spaceflight.

  13. Testosterone related to age and life-history stages in male baboons and geladas.

    PubMed

    Beehner, Jacinta C; Gesquiere, Laurence; Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne

    2009-10-01

    Despite significant advances in our knowledge of how testosterone mediates life-history trade-offs, this research has primarily focused on seasonal taxa. We know comparatively little about the relationship between testosterone and life-history stages for non-seasonally breeding species. Here we examine testosterone profiles across the life span of males from three non-seasonally breeding primates: yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus or P. hamadryas cynocephalus), chacma baboons (Papio ursinus or P. h. ursinus), and geladas (Theropithecus gelada). First, we predict that testosterone profiles will track the reproductive profiles of each taxon across their respective breeding years. Second, we evaluate age-related changes in testosterone to determine whether several life-history transitions are associated with these changes. Subjects include males (>2.5 years) from wild populations of each taxon from whom we had fecal samples for hormone determination. Although testosterone profiles across taxa were broadly similar, considerable variability was found in the timing of two major changes: (1) the attainment of adult levels of testosterone and (2) the decline in testosterone after the period of maximum production. Attainment of adult testosterone levels was delayed by 1 year in chacmas compared with yellows and geladas. With respect to the decline in testosterone, geladas and chacmas exhibited a significant drop after 3 years of maximum production, while yellows declined so gradually that no significant annual drop was ever detected. For both yellows and chacmas, increases in testosterone production preceded elevations in social dominance rank. We discuss these differences in the context of ecological and behavioral differences exhibited by these taxa. PMID:19712676

  14. Control of the misuse of testosterone in castrated horses based on an international threshold in plasma.

    PubMed

    Ho, Emmie N M; Kwok, W H; Leung, David K K; Riggs, Christopher M; Sidlow, Gordon; Stewart, Brian D; Wong, April S Y; Wan, Terence S M

    2015-05-01

    Testosterone is an endogenous steroid produced primarily in the testes. Trace levels of testosterone are found in urine samples from geldings, as testosterone is also secreted by the adrenal. An international threshold of free and conjugated testosterone in urine (20 ng/mL) was adopted by the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities (IFHA) in 1996 for controlling testosterone misuse in geldings. In view of the recent popularity of using blood in doping control testing, it is necessary to establish a threshold for testosterone in gelding plasma. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method was developed for quantifying low levels of free testosterone in gelding plasma. Based on a population study of 152 post-race plasma samples, the mean ± SD concentration of plasma testosterone was determined to be 14.7 ± 6.8 pg/mL. Normal distribution could be obtained after square-root or cube-root transformation, resulting in respective tentative thresholds of 49 or 55 pg/mL (corresponding to a risk factor of less than 1 in 10 000). A rounded-up threshold of 100 pg/mL of free testosterone in plasma was proposed. Based on the administration of Testosterone Suspension 100 to six geldings, the same average detection time of 14 days was observed in either plasma or urine using the proposed plasma threshold and the existing international urine threshold. The maximum detection time was 18 days in plasma and 20 days in urine. The results demonstrated the proposed plasma threshold is effective in controlling the misuse of testosterone in geldings. Similar results were subsequently obtained in Europe, and this proposed threshold was adopted by IFHA in October 2013. PMID:24889217

  15. Testosterone related to age and life-history stages in male baboons and geladas

    PubMed Central

    Beehner, Jacinta C.; Gesquiere, Laurence; Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant advances in our knowledge of how testosterone mediates life-history trade-offs, this research has primarily focused on seasonal species. We know comparatively little about the relationship between testosterone and life-history stages for non-seasonally breeding species. Here we examine testosterone profiles across the lifespan of males from three non-seasonally breeding primates: yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus or P. hamadryas cynocephalus), chacma baboons (Papio ursinus or P. h. ursinus), and geladas (Theropithecus gelada). First, we predict that testosterone profiles will track the reproductive profiles of each taxon across their respective breeding years. Second, we evaluate age-related changes in testosterone to determine whether several life-history transitions are associated with these changes. Subjects include males (>2.5 years) from wild populations of each taxon from whom we had fecal samples for hormone determination. Although testosterone profiles across species were broadly similar, considerable variability was found in the timing of two major changes: (1) the attainment of adult levels of testosterone, and (2) the decline in testosterone after the period of maximum production. Attainment of adult testosterone levels was delayed by one year in chacmas compared with yellows and geladas. With respect to the decline in testosterone, geladas and chacmas exhibited a significant drop after three years of maximum production, while yellows declined so gradually that no significant annual drop was ever detected. For both yellows and chacmas, increases in testosterone production preceded elevations in social dominance rank. We discuss these differences in the context of ecological and behavioral differences exhibited by these taxa. PMID:19712676

  16. Examining factors that may influence accurate measurement of testosterone in sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Graham, Katherine M; Mylniczenko, Natalie D; Burns, Charlene M; Bettinger, Tammie L; Wheaton, Catharine J

    2016-01-01

    Differences in reported testosterone concentrations in male sea turtle blood samples are common in the veterinary literature, but may be accounted for by differences in sample handling and processing prior to assay. Therefore, our study was performed to determine best practices for testosterone analysis in male sea turtles (Caretta caretta and Chelonia mydas). Blood samples were collected into 5 collection tube types, and assay validation and measured testosterone concentrations were compared across different sample storage (fresh, refrigerated 1 week, or frozen), extraction (unextracted or ether-extracted), and processing treatment (untreated, homogenized, or dissociation reagent) conditions. Ether-extracted and dissociation reagent-treated samples validated in all conditions tested and are recommended for use, as unextracted samples validated only if assayed fresh. Dissociation reagent treatment was simpler to perform than ether extraction and resulted in total testosterone concentrations ~2.7-3.5 times greater than free testosterone measured in ether-extracted samples. Sample homogenization did not affect measured testosterone concentrations, and could be used to increase volume in gelled samples. An annual seasonal testosterone increase was observed in both species when ether extraction or dissociation reagent treatment was used. Annual deslorelin implant treatments in a Chelonia mydas male resulted in suppression of seasonal testosterone following the fourth treatment. Seasonal testosterone patterns resumed following discontinuation of deslorelin. Comparison of in-house and commercially available enzyme immunoassay kits revealed similar patterns of seasonal testosterone increases and deslorelin-induced suppression. Our study highlights the importance of methodological validation and provides laboratorians with best practices for testosterone enzyme immunoassay in sea turtles. PMID:26699527

  17. The behavior of chickens following embryonic treatment with testosterone propionate.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, J M; Wolfe, J L; Glick, B

    1975-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate an initial response and the flocking behavior of chicks treated embryonically with testosterone propionate (TP). The high (1.28 gm. %) and low (0.32 gm. %) levels of TP interfered with the response of these chicks to a specific stimulus. However, only the high level TP depressed the flocking response. TP administered prior to day 13 of embryonic development will depress sexual behavior in the chicken. These data suggest that TP influences a variety of behavioral patterns in the chicken. PMID:1228736

  18. Teeth, Sex, and Testosterone: Aging in the World's Smallest Primate

    PubMed Central

    Zohdy, Sarah; Gerber, Brian D.; Tecot, Stacey; Blanco, Marina B.; Winchester, Julia M.; Wright, Patricia C.; Jernvall, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease) but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of senescence observed in captive animals, but that predation limits their lifespan to four years, thus preventing observance of these diseases in the wild. Testing whether this assumption is true is informative about both Microcebus natural history and environmental influences on senescence, leading to interpretation of findings for models of human aging. Additionally, the study of Microcebus longevity provides an opportunity to better understand mechanisms of sex-biased longevity. Longevity is often shorter in males of species with high male-male competition, such as Microcebus, but mouse lemurs are sexually monomorphic, suggesting similar lifespans. We collected individual-based observations of wild brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus) from 2003–2010 to investigate sex-differences in survival and longevity. Fecal testosterone was measured as a potential mechanism of sex-based differences in survival. We used a combination of high-resolution tooth wear techniques, mark-recapture, and hormone enzyme immunoassays. We found no dental or physical signs of senescence in M. rufus as old as eight years (N = 189, ages 1–8, mean = 2.59±1.63 SE), three years older than captive, senescent congeners (M. murinus). Unlike other polygynandrous vertebrates, we found no sex difference in age-dependent survival, nor sex or age differences in testosterone levels. While elevated male testosterone levels have been implicated in shorter lifespans in several species, this is one of the first studies to show equivalent testosterone levels accompanying equivalent lifespans. Future research on captive aged individuals can determine

  19. One step enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for direct estimation of serum testosterone.

    PubMed

    Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Basu, Anupam; Kariya, Kiran P

    2003-01-01

    One step competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for direct estimation of testosterone in human serum is described. Testosterone-3-O-carboxymethyl-oxime-bovine serum albumin (testosterone-3-O-CMO-BSA), was used as immunogen and testosterone-3-O-carboxymethyl-oxime-adipic-acid dihydrazide-horseradish peroxidase (testosterone-3-O-CMO-ADH-HRP) was used as tracer. To the testosterone antibody coated microtiter wells, standard or serum samples (100 microL), along with testosterone-3-O-CMO-ADH-HRP conjugate (100 microL) were incubated for 1 h at 37 degrees C. Bound enzyme activity was measured by using tetra methyl benzidine/hydrogen peroxide (TMB/H2O2) as a substrate. In this new strategy, charcoal stripped pooled human serum spiked with non-cross reactive C18, C19, C21, and C27 steroids, used for preparing the standards and blocking the sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG)/and other steroid binding globulins (SBG). The sensitivity of the assay was 0.015 ng/mL. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) were ranged from 7.8 to 11.8 and 4.8 to 10.4, respectively. The serum testosterone values, obtained by this method, were correlated well with those obtained by radioimmunoassay r = .98 (n = 100). PMID:12778972

  20. MAINTENANCE OF TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION BY PURIFIED ADULT RAT LEYDIG CELLS FOR THREE DAYS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using a preparation of highly purified, adult rat Leydig cells and conditions of culture which we found to optimize testosterone production during 24 h, we sought to maintain optimal testosterone production for 3 d. eydig cells cultured on Cytodex 3 beads at 19% O2 in Dulbecco's ...

  1. Fulfilling desire: evidence for negative feedback between men's testosterone, sociosexual psychology, and sexual partner number.

    PubMed

    Puts, David A; Pope, Lauramarie E; Hill, Alexander K; Cárdenas, Rodrigo A; Welling, Lisa L M; Wheatley, John R; Marc Breedlove, S

    2015-04-01

    Across human societies and many nonhuman animals, males have greater interest in uncommitted sex (more unrestricted sociosexuality) than do females. Testosterone shows positive associations with male-typical sociosexual behavior in nonhuman animals. Yet, it remains unclear whether the human sex difference in sociosexual psychology (attitudes and desires) is mediated by testosterone, whether any relationships between testosterone and sociosexuality differ between men and women, and what the nature of these possible relationships might be. In studies to resolve these questions, we examined relationships between salivary testosterone concentrations and sociosexual psychology and behavior in men and women. We measured testosterone in all men in our sample, but only in those women taking oral contraception (OC-using women) in order to reduce the influence of ovulatory cycle variation in ovarian hormone production. We found that OC-using women did not differ from normally-ovulating women in sociosexual psychology or behavior, but that circulating testosterone mediated the sex difference in human sociosexuality and predicted sociosexual psychology in men but not OC-using women. Moreover, when sociosexual psychology was controlled, men's sociosexual behavior (number of sexual partners) was negatively related to testosterone, suggesting that testosterone drives sociosexual psychology in men and is inhibited when those desires are fulfilled. This more complex relationship between androgens and male sexuality may reconcile some conflicting prior reports. PMID:25644313

  2. Relations between Prenatal Testosterone Levels and Cognitive Abilities at 4 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegan, Jo-Anne K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared children's cognitive abilities at four years and their prenatal amniotic fluid testosterone levels. For girls, prenatal testosterone levels were related in a curvilinear manner to language comprehension and classification abilities, and inversely related to counting and knowledge of number facts. For boys, no relationships were found. (BC)

  3. Testosterone during Pregnancy and Gender Role Behavior of Preschool Children: A Longitudinal, Population Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Melissa; Golombok, Susan; Rust, John; Johnston, Katie J.; Golding, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Related blood levels of testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in pregnant women to gender role behavior among 342 male and 337 female offspring at 3.5 years. Found that testosterone levels related linearly to girls' gender role behavior. Neither hormone related to boys' gender role behavior. Other factors, including older brothers or…

  4. Is Testosterone Deficiency A Possible Risk Factor For Priapism Associated With Sickle Cell Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Belinda F.; Anele, Uzoma A.; Reid, Marvin E.; Madden, Wendy A.; Feng, Zhaoyong; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the association of testosterone deficiency and priapism in adult men with SCD. Methods A cross-sectional study of 50 adult men with homozygous S SCD was performed. All patients had early morning blood taken for total and free testosterone, FSH, LH, prolactin, lipid levels, LDH and hematological indices. Patients completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire regarding priapism frequency, duration, and treatment. Testosterone deficiency was defined as a serum total testosterone < 12 nmol/L (346 ng/dl). Results The mean age of the study population was 34.2 ± 8.9 years. Priapism was noted in 24 (48%) patients and was most frequently seen in men between ages 18–25 years. Testosterone deficiency was observed in 11 of 50 (22 %) of all patients, and particularly in 6 of 24 (25%) patients with histories of priapism. There was no difference in mean total testosterone levels in patients with and without a history of priapism (16.7± 4.9 nmol/L and 15.4±5.9 nmol/L, respectively) (p=0.43). Similarly, there was no difference in serum LH and FSH levels based on history of priapism. Conclusion Testosterone deficiency is prevalent in patients with SCD; however, we did not identify an association based on a history of priapism. Larger, prospectively gathered data is needed to define the priapism profile of SCD patients with testosterone deficiency. PMID:25371242

  5. Sex-Specific Associations between Umbilical Cord Blood Testosterone Levels and Language Delay in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Mattes, Eugen; Maybery, Murray T.; Sawyer, Michael G.; Jacoby, Peter; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Hickey, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Background: Preliminary evidence suggests that prenatal testosterone exposure may be associated with language delay. However, no study has examined a large sample of children at multiple time-points. Methods: Umbilical cord blood samples were obtained at 861 births and analysed for bioavailable testosterone (BioT) concentrations. When…

  6. Myocardial Infarction and Stroke Risk in Young Healthy Men Treated with Injectable Testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Robert S.; Cook, Kelly R.; Reilly, William G.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between testosterone therapy and new myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke events in a series of patients treated at Low T Centers across the United States, consisting of mainly young (mean age = 46), otherwise, healthy men. Electronic medical records were queried between the years 2009 and 2014 to identify patients diagnosed with hypogonadism, MI, and stroke, as indicated by ICD-9 codes. The incidence of MI and stroke events was compared to community-based registries. 39,936 patients recruited from 40 Low T Centers across the United States were treated and 19,968 met eligibility criteria for receiving testosterone treatment. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for MI in testosterone- (T-) treated versus nontreated patients was 0.14 (C.I. = 0.08 to 0.18, P < 0.0001) whereas the IRR for stroke for T-treated versus nontreated patients was 0.11 (C.I. = 0.02 to 0.13, P < 0.0001). There was no evidence of worsening preexisting MI or stroke in patients treated with testosterone. The experience in Low T Centers shows that, in an injectable testosterone patient registry, testosterone is generally safe for younger men who do not have significant risk factors. Of patients that developed MI with testosterone, there was no association with testosterone or hematocrit levels. PMID:26124832

  7. Interaction of APOE genotype and testosterone on episodic memory in middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Panizzon, Matthew S; Hauger, Richard; Xian, Hong; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Spoon, Kelly M; Mendoza, Sally P; Jacobson, Kristen C; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Rana, Brinda K; McKenzie, Ruth; McCaffery, Jeanne M; Lyons, Michael J; Kremen, William S; Franz, Carol E

    2014-07-01

    Age-related changes in testosterone are believed to be a key component of the processes that contribute to cognitive aging in men. The APOE-ε4 allele may interact with testosterone and moderate the hormone's association with cognition. The goals of the present study were to examine the degree to which free testosterone is associated with episodic memory in a community-based sample of middle-aged men, and examine the potential interaction between free testosterone and the APOE-ε4 allele. Data were used from 717 participants in the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. Average age was 55.4 years (standard deviation = 2.5). Significant positive associations were observed between free testosterone level and verbal episodic memory, as well as a significant interaction between free testosterone and APOE-ε4 status. In ε4 carriers free testosterone was positively associated with verbal episodic memory performance (story recall), whereas no association was observed in ε4 noncarriers. Results support the hypothesis that APOE-ε4 status increases susceptibility to other risk factors, such as low testosterone, which may ultimately contribute to cognitive decline or dementia. PMID:24444806

  8. Vehicle effects on the in vitro penetration of testosterone through equine skin.

    PubMed

    Mills, P C

    2007-02-01

    The effects of three vehicles, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), ethanol (50% in PBS w/w) and propylene glycol (50% in PBS w/w) on in vitro transdermal penetration of testosterone was investigated in the horse. Skin was harvested from the thorax of five Thoroughbred horses after euthanasia and stored at -20 degrees C until required. The skin was then defrosted and placed into Franz-type diffusion cells, which were maintained at approximately 32 degrees C by a water bath. Saturated solutions of testosterone, containing trace amounts of radiolabelled [14C]testosterone, in each vehicle were applied to the outer (stratum corneum) surface of each skin sample and aliquots of receptor fluid were collected at 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 20, 22 and 24 h and analysed for testosterone by scintillation counting. The maximum flux (Jmax) of testosterone was significantly higher for all sites when testosterone was dissolved in a vehicle containing 50% ethanol or 50% propylene glycol, compared to PBS. In contrast, higher residues of testosterone were found remaining within the skin when PBS was used as a vehicle. This study shows that variability in clinical response to testosterone could be expected with formulation design. PMID:17191091

  9. Maternal testosterone and reproductive outcome in a rat model of obesity.

    PubMed

    Arnon, Liat; Hazut, Noa; Tabachnik, Tzlil; Weller, Aron; Koren, Lee

    2016-09-01

    Global sex differences in obesity rates are persistent, suggesting the involvement of sex steroids. In addition, adipose tissue is a metabolic site for steroidogenesis. Here, we compared female reproductive parameters in a rat model of obesity, with the same parameters in its lean control strain, and tested for an association with integrated measures of corticosterone and testosterone. Steroids were extracted and quantified from 17 Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF; an animal model for obesity) and 13 Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO; the lean control strain) hair samples that were collected after weaning offspring. The obese OLETF mothers had higher hair testosterone levels than the control LETO strain. Overall, testosterone, but not corticosterone, predicted litter sex ratios. Younger mothers with large litters and older mothers with small litters tended to have the highest sex ratios (i.e., male-biased litters). In the lean LETO strain, but not in the obese OLETF, maternal testosterone was positively associated with litter size and number of male pups. Corticosterone did not differ between the two strains and was not associated with testosterone or with reproductive parameters. This study suggests that long-term circulating testosterone is associated with female reproduction in multiple ways. The possible trade-off between litter size and sex ratio may be mediated by testosterone and influenced by body fat and composition, which influence the individual's well-being. Exploring the multiple roles of testosterone in females may also help explain the complex relationship between obesity and reproduction. PMID:27125699

  10. Baseline cortisol moderates testosterone reactivity to women's intercollegiate athletic competition.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David A; Casto, Kathleen V

    2015-04-01

    Recent research suggests that cortisol (C) level moderates testosterone (T) reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in men. The extent to which C moderates T reactivity in other circumstances and in women is not known. In this retrospective study, before- and after-competition salivary levels of C and T from 97 intercollegiate women athletes competing in one of four different sports (soccer, volleyball, softball, tennis) were used to evaluate the influence of before-competition C level on T reactivity in women's athletic competition. Athletic competition was associated with a substantial increase in salivary levels of C and T in the vast majority of athletes. Before-competition level of C significantly moderated testosterone reactivity to athletic competition - women with relatively low levels of C showed larger increases in T to competition than women with higher levels of C. Clearly, the moderating effect of C on T reactivity is not limited to laboratory settings intended to increase social stress, but is also seen in (as we show here) the context of athletic competition. PMID:25647361

  11. Endocrine control of spermatogenesis: Role of FSH and LH/ testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Suresh; Weinbauer, Gerhard F

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of testicular functions (production of sperm and androgens) is an important aspect of preclinical safety assessment and testicular toxicity is comparatively far more common than ovarian toxicity. This chapter focuses (1) on the histological sequelae of disturbed reproductive endocrinology in rat, dog and nonhuman primates and (2) provides a review of our current understanding of the roles of gonadotropins and androgens. The response of the rodent testis to endocrine disturbances is clearly different from that of dog and primates with different germ cell types and spermatogenic stages being affected initially and also that the end-stage spermatogenic involution is more pronounced in dog and primates compared to rodents. Luteinizing hormone (LH)/testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) are the pivotal endocrine factors controlling testicular functions. The relative importance of either hormone is somewhat different between rodents and primates. Generally, however, both LH/testosterone and FSH are necessary for quantitatively normal spermatogenesis, at least in non-seasonal species. PMID:26413400

  12. Triclocarban Enhances Testosterone Action: A New Type of Endocrine Disruptor?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiangang; Ahn, Ki Chang; Gee, Nancy A.; Ahmed, Mohamed I.; Duleba, Antoni J.; Zhao, Ling; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Lasley, Bill L.

    2008-01-01

    Many xenobiotics have been associated with endocrine effects in a wide range of biological systems. These associations are usually between small nonsteroid molecules and steroid receptor signaling systems. In this report, triclocarban (TCC; 3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide), a common ingredient in personal care products that is used as an antimicrobial agent was evaluated and found to represent a new category of endocrine-disrupting substance. A cell-based androgen receptor-mediated bioassay was used to demonstrate that TCC and other urea compounds with a similar structure, which have little or no endocrine activity when tested alone, act to enhance testosterone (T)-induced androgen receptor-mediated transcriptional activity in vitro. This amplification effect of TCC was also apparent in vivo when 0.25% TCC was added to the diet of castrated male rats that were supported by exogenous testosterone treatment for 10 d. All male sex accessory organs increased significantly in size after the T+TCC treatment, compared with T or TCC treatments alone. The data presented here suggest that the bioactivity of endogenous hormones may be amplified by exposure to commercial personal care products containing sufficient levels of TCC. PMID:18048496

  13. Can testosterone replacement decrease the memory problem of old age?

    PubMed

    Lim, David; Flicker, Leon; Dharamarajan, Arunasalam; Martins, Ralph N

    2003-06-01

    The world is rapidly ageing. It is against this backdrop that there are increasing incidences of dementia reported worldwide, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) being the most common form of dementia in the elderly. It is estimated that AD affects almost 4 million people in the US, and costs the US economy more than 65 million dollars annually. There is currently no cure for AD but various therapeutic agents have been employed in attempting to slow down the progression of the illness, one of which is oestrogen. Over the last decades, scientists have focused mainly on the roles of oestrogen in the prevention and treatment of AD. Newer evidences suggested that testosterone might also be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Although the exact mechanisms on how androgen might affect AD are still largely unknown, it is known that testosterone can act directly via androgen receptor-dependent mechanisms or indirectly by converting to oestrogen to exert this effect. Clinical trials need to be conducted to ascertain the putative role of androgen replacement in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:12699720

  14. Central and peripheral testosterone effects in men with heart failure: An approach for cardiovascular research.

    PubMed

    Bušić, Željko; Čulić, Viktor

    2015-09-26

    Heart failure (HF) is a syndrome recognized as a health problem worldwide. Despite advances in treatment, patients with HF still have increased morbidity and mortality. Testosterone is one of the most researched hormones in the course of HF. Growing interest regarding the effect of testosterone, on a variety of body systems, has increased the knowledge about its mechanisms of action. The terms central and peripheral effects are used to distinguish the effects of testosterone on cardiac and extracardiac structures. Central effects include influences on cardiomyocytes and electrophysiology. Peripheral effects include influences on blood vessels, baroreceptor reactivity, skeletal muscles and erythropoesis. Current knowledge about peripheral effects of testosterone may explain much about beneficiary effects in the pathophysiology of HF syndrome. However, central, i.e., cardiac effects of testosterone are to be further explored. PMID:26413227

  15. Parents’ Testosterone and Children’s Perception of Parent-Child Relationship Quality

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Alan; Hibel, Jacob; Granger, Douglas A.; Johnson, David

    2011-01-01

    We examine the link between parental testosterone and children’s perceptions of their relationship with their mother and father. Using data from 352 predominantly white working and middle class families, we find no direct link between mother’s and father’s testosterone and parent-child closeness. However, the association between mothers’ testosterone and mother-child closeness appears to be influenced by the quality of two other family relationships. When father’s marital satisfaction is low, mothers with high testosterone have a poorer relationship with their children. And, when fathers report low levels of intimacy with their children, high testosterone women have a poorer relationship with their children. No comparable associations were observed among fathers. PMID:21843525

  16. [Testosterone in saliva: application to the follow-up of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Navarro-Moreno, M A; Rivera-Coll, A

    1990-03-01

    The basic aspects of steroid hormones transport, their tissular release and the interpretation of salivary testosterone values as a reflect of the free hormone in serum are reviewed in this article, as well as the salivary testosterone applications in several disorders, with a special emphasis on prostatic carcinoma. The usefulness of salivary testosterone in the short-term (n = 4) and long-term (n = 13) follow-up of patients affected by prostatic carcinoma after medical or surgical orchiectomy has also been studied. Our results show a correlation (r = 0.62) between salivary and serum concentration values, as well as a significative decrease (p less than 0.001) in both quantities after treatment. Both these findings and the advantages inherent to the sampling obtaining, lead to the conclusion that salivary testosterone is a good alternative to serum testosterone. PMID:2204093

  17. Central and peripheral testosterone effects in men with heart failure: An approach for cardiovascular research

    PubMed Central

    Bušić, Željko; Čulić, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a syndrome recognized as a health problem worldwide. Despite advances in treatment, patients with HF still have increased morbidity and mortality. Testosterone is one of the most researched hormones in the course of HF. Growing interest regarding the effect of testosterone, on a variety of body systems, has increased the knowledge about its mechanisms of action. The terms central and peripheral effects are used to distinguish the effects of testosterone on cardiac and extracardiac structures. Central effects include influences on cardiomyocytes and electrophysiology. Peripheral effects include influences on blood vessels, baroreceptor reactivity, skeletal muscles and erythropoesis. Current knowledge about peripheral effects of testosterone may explain much about beneficiary effects in the pathophysiology of HF syndrome. However, central, i.e., cardiac effects of testosterone are to be further explored. PMID:26413227

  18. Amniotic membrane is a potential regenerative option for chronic non-healing wounds: a report of five cases receiving dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allograft.

    PubMed

    Mrugala, Andrew; Sui, Audrey; Plummer, Malgorzata; Altman, Igor; Papineau, Elaine; Frandsen, Devn; Hill, Danielle; Ennis, William J

    2016-08-01

    A case series of five patients with a total of six chronic non-healing wounds (>30 day duration) were non-randomly selected to evaluate the performance, safety and handling properties of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allograft, an amniotic membrane scaffolding product. The patients had lower extremity wounds that had previously failed standard of care within a university outpatient/inpatient wound healing programme. Five wounds treated with dehydrated amnion/chorion membrane allograft showed a mean 43% area reduction from baseline (51% median) at 3 weeks into treatment and completely healed with a 64-day median time to closure (SD ±27·6 days). One wound worsened at 3 weeks and was found to have a complete central vein obstruction that was treated with long-term mild compression but still eventually healed at 6 months. Removing this outlier, the four responding wounds had a 72% mean and 69% median change in area from baseline, at the 3 week point. All five patients received only one application of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allograft, and there were no adverse events. The product was easy to use, administer and handle. In summary, dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allograft appears to be a safe, effective and easy to use therapy for chronic non-healing wounds. This study describes the details of these clinical cases and provides an overview of the current evidence on the use of amniotic tissue in clinical practice. PMID:25974156

  19. Double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial on the effects of testosterone supplementation in elderly men with moderate to low testosterone levels: design and baseline characteristics [ISRCTN23688581

    PubMed Central

    Nakhai Pour, Hamid Reza; Emmelot-Vonk, Marielle H; Sukel-Helleman, Marja; Verhaar, Harald JJ; Grobbee, Diederick E; van der Schouw, Yvonne T

    2006-01-01

    In ageing men testosterone levels decline, while cognitive function, muscle and bone mass, sexual hair growth, libido and sexual activity decline and the risk of cardiovascular diseases increase. We set up a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effects of testosterone supplementation on functional mobility, quality of life, body composition, cognitive function, vascular function and risk factors, and bone mineral density in older hypogonadal men. We recruited 237 men with serum testosterone levels below 13.7 nmol/L and ages 60–80 years. They were randomized to either four capsules of 40 mg testosterone undecanoate (TU) or placebo daily for 26 weeks. Primary endpoints are functional mobility and quality of life. Secondary endpoints are body composition, cognitive function, aortic stiffness and cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral density. Effects on prostate, liver and hematological parameters will be studied with respect to safety. Measure of effect will be the difference in change from baseline visit to final visit between TU and placebo. We will study whether the effect of TU differs across subgroups of baseline waist girth (< 100 cm vs. ≥ 100 cm; testosterone level (<12 versus ≥ 12 nmol/L), age (< median versus ≥ median), and level of outcome under study (< median versus ≥ median). At baseline, mean age, BMI and testosterone levels were 67 years, 27 kg/m2 and 10.72 nmol/L, respectively. PMID:16887030

  20. Effects of testosterone on spatial learning and memory in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Spritzer, Mark D.; Daviau, Emily D.; Coneeny, Meagan K.; Engelman, Shannon M.; Prince, W. Tyler; Rodriguez-Wisdom, Karlye N.

    2011-01-01

    A male advantage over females for spatial tasks has been well documented in both humans and rodents, but it remains unclear how the activational effects of testosterone influence spatial ability in males. In a series of experiments, we tested how injections of testosterone influenced the spatial working and reference memory of castrated male rats. In the eight-arm radial maze, testosterone injections (0.500 mg/rat) reduced the number of working memory errors during the early blocks of testing but had no effect on the number of reference memory errors relative to the castrated control group. In a reference memory version of the Morris water maze, injections of a wide range of testosterone doses (0.0625-1.000 mg/rat) reduced path lengths to the hidden platform, indicative of improved spatial learning. This improved learning was independent of testosterone dose, with all treatment groups showing better performance than the castrated control males. Furthermore, this effect was only observed when rats were given testosterone injections starting seven days prior to water maze testing and not when injections were given only on the testing days. We also observed that certain doses of testosterone (0.250 and 1.000 mg/rat) increased perseverative behavior in a reversal-learning task. Finally, testosterone did not have a clear effect on spatial working memory in the Morris water maze, although intermediate doses seemed to optimize performance. Overall, the results indicate that testosterone can have positive activational effects on spatial learning and memory, but the duration of testosterone replacement and the nature of the spatial task modify these effects. PMID:21295035

  1. Testosterone regulates the density of dendritic spines in the male preoptic area.

    PubMed

    Garelick, Timothy; Swann, Jennifer

    2014-03-01

    Male-typical behavior is dependent on testosterone. Castrated males gradually stop mating and engaging in sexual behaviors. Castrates treated with testosterone regain motivation and sex behaviors over time. Although this effect is well characterized, the specific mechanisms by which testosterone treatment recovers sexual behaviors remain unknown. The medial preoptic area (MPOA) is a likely site for testosterone's action on copulation. The integrity of the area is essential for the expression of male sex behavior; and the MPOA is densely populated with receptors for gonadal steroids. Moreover testosterone appears to regulate synaptic efficacy in the MPOA. Exposure to sexually relevant stimuli stimulates the MPOA but only in the presence of circulating testosterone. Sites afferent to the area respond to similar exposure independent of the hormonal milieu suggesting that testosterone mediates communication between the MPOA and its afferents. The protracted time course suggests that the effects of steroidal manipulation are mediated by structural changes. The present experiment evaluated this hypothesis by comparing dendritic spine density among Syrian hamsters that were castrated, castrated and treated with testosterone, or were left gonadally intact. Brains were sectioned and stained using the rapid Golgi stain protocol (FD Neurotechnologies, Baltimore), and the spine density, dendrite length, and the number of branches were compared among groups. Intact and testosterone replaced animals had more spines and greater spine density but did not differ in dendrite length and branching from castrated animals. These results suggest that existing dendrites increase the number of spines available for synapse formation but do not extend their dendrites in response to testosterone treatment. PMID:24492023

  2. Testosterone across successive competitions: evidence for a 'winner effect' in humans?

    PubMed

    Zilioli, Samuele; Watson, Neil V

    2014-09-01

    In many species testosterone fluctuates in concert with outcome-dependent changes in social status, such that winning a competition leads to an increase in circulating testosterone (i.e., competition effect). Although this phenomenon has been well studied in humans, the cumulative endocrine impact of multiple successive competitions is poorly understood. Moreover, although changes in testosterone after a competition seem to predict immediate aggressive behavior, competitive motivation, risk-taking, and affiliation, whether this endocrine response also has long-term behavioral effects, as suggested by studies in non-human animals, has not been examined. In this study, salivary testosterone was collected from pairs of male participants engaging, on two consecutive days, in head-to-head competitions on a previously validated laboratory task. We found that testosterone reactivity on the first day, which was congruent with the competition effect (i.e., net testosterone increase in randomly assigned winners), predicted the task performance on the second day. Further, when looking at testosterone reactivity on the second day, those individuals that lost both competitions experienced the steepest decline in testosterone compared to those individuals who lost on the second day but won on the first day. Testosterone fluctuations on the second day were also analyzed considering the type of status hierarchy (stable vs. unstable) that emerged as a result of the combined outcomes of the two competitions. In accordance with the challenge hypothesis, men in unstable hierarchies (first day winners/second day losers and first day losers/second day winners) experienced an increase in testosterone compared to men in the stable hierarchies (double winners and double losers). Results are discussed within a comparative perspective, drawing parallels with the winner effect and the challenge hypothesis observed in non-human animals. PMID:25001950

  3. Transcriptional regulation of myotrophic actions by testosterone and trenbolone on androgen-responsive muscle.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fan; McCoy, Sean C; Ross, Heather H; Bernardo, Joseph A; Beharry, Adam W; Senf, Sarah M; Judge, Andrew R; Beck, Darren T; Conover, Christine F; Cannady, Darryl F; Smith, Barbara K; Yarrow, Joshua F; Borst, Stephen E

    2014-09-01

    Androgens regulate body composition and skeletal muscle mass in males, but the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Recently, we demonstrated that trenbolone (a potent synthetic testosterone analogue that is not a substrate for 5-alpha reductase or for aromatase) induces myotrophic effects in skeletal muscle without causing prostate enlargement, which is in contrast to the known prostate enlarging effects of testosterone. These previous results suggest that the 5α-reduction of testosterone is not required for myotrophic action. We now report differential gene expression in response to testosterone versus trenbolone in the highly androgen-sensitive levator ani/bulbocavernosus (LABC) muscle complex of the adult rat after 6weeks of orchiectomy (ORX), using real time PCR. The ORX-induced expression of atrogenes (Muscle RING-finger protein-1 [MuRF1] and atrogin-1) was suppressed by both androgens, with trenbolone producing a greater suppression of atrogin-1 mRNA compared to testosterone. Both androgens elevated expression of anabolic genes (insulin-like growth factor-1 and mechano-growth factor) after ORX. ORX-induced increases in expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA were suppressed by trenbolone treatment, but not testosterone. In ORX animals, testosterone promoted WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 2 (WISP-2) gene expression while trenbolone did not. Testosterone and trenbolone equally enhanced muscle regeneration as shown by increases in LABC mass and in protein expression of embryonic myosin by western blotting. In addition, testosterone increased WISP-2 protein levels. Together, these findings identify specific mechanisms by which testosterone and trenbolone may regulate skeletal muscle maintenance and growth. PMID:24928725

  4. A review on the relationship between testosterone and life-course persistent antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Bariş O; Derksen, Jan J L

    2012-12-30

    Life-course persistent antisocial behavior is 10 to 14 times more prevalent in males and it has been suggested that testosterone levels could account for this gender bias. Preliminary studies with measures of fetal testosterone find inconsistent associations with antisocial behavior, especially studies that use the 2D:4D ratio as a proxy for fetal testosterone. However, circulating testosterone consistently shows positive associations with antisocial behaviors throughout childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, particularly in males. It is suggested that high fetal/circulating testosterone interactively influence the maturation and functionality of mesolimbic dopaminergic circuitry, right orbitofrontal cortex, and cortico-subcortical connectivity, resulting in a strong reward motivation, low social sensitivity, and dampened regulation of strong motivational/emotional processes. The link between these testosterone induced endophenotypes and actual display of antisocial behavior is strongly modulated by different social (e.g., social rejection, low SES) and genetic (e.g., MAOA, 5HTT) risk factors that can disturb socio-, psycho-, and biological development and interact with testosterone in shaping behavior. When these additional risk factors are present, the testosterone induced endophenotypes may increase the risk for a chronic antisocial lifestyle. However, behavioral endophenotypes induced by testosterone can also predispose towards socially adaptive traits such as a strong achievement motivation, leadership, fair bargaining behaviors, and social assertiveness. These adaptive traits are more likely to emerge when the high testosterone individual has positive social experiences that promote prosocial behaviors such as strong and secure attachments with his caregivers, affiliation with prosocial peers, and sufficient socioeconomic resources. A theoretical model is presented, various hypotheses are examined, and future venues for research are discussed. PMID:22925371

  5. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Luise; Diekhof, Esther K

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility) might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner's dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, 50 male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject's own favorite team (ingroup) or fans of other teams (outgroups). Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving parochial altruism. PMID

  6. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism

    PubMed Central

    Reimers, Luise; Diekhof, Esther K.

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility) might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner's dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, 50 male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject's own favorite team (ingroup) or fans of other teams (outgroups). Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving parochial altruism. PMID

  7. Relationship between blood and urine concentrations of intact human chorionic gonadotropin and its free subunits in early pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, R.J.; Menabawey, M.; Lowings, C.; Buck, R.H.; Chard, T.

    1987-04-01

    Paired blood and urine samples were obtained from patients between the sixth and 14th weeks of normal pregnancy. The levels of intact human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and of the free alpha and beta subunits, were measured by specific radioimmunoassays. There was a close association between blood and urine levels of intact hCG and of the alpha subunit of hCG, but no relation between the levels of beta subunit in these sites. These findings suggest that the use of beta subunit assays may give discrepant results according to the fluid examined. By contrast, measurement of intact hCG appears to give similar results in blood and urine.

  8. Atypical Presentations of Molar Pregnancy: Diagnostic Roles of Imaging, β-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Measurement, and p57 Immunostaining.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Sara A; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Ghamande, Sharad; Chaffin, Joanna; Browne, Paul

    2016-03-01

    In modern practice , the diagnosis of molar pregnancy is made at an early gestational age. The opportunity to diagnose gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) using sonography alone occurs less frequently. The classic appearance of a "snowstorm" in the endometrial cavity and bilateral theca lutein cysts still applies to the diagnosis of second-trimester GTD. The diagnosis of first-trimester GTD requires increased clinical suspicion. If the sonographic appearance of the pregnancy is atypical, GTD should be included in the differential diagnosis. Additional nonimaging criteria such as serial quantitative β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels, pathologic examination, and p57 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C protein) immunostaining can accurately confirm the diagnosis of GTD. PMID:26860483

  9. Serum testosterone levels and arterial blood pressure in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Fogari, Roberto; Preti, Paola; Zoppi, Annalisa; Fogari, Elena; Rinaldi, Andrea; Corradi, Luca; Mugellini, Amedeo

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum testosterone levels and arterial blood pressure (BP) in the elderly. We studied 356 non-diabetic, non-smoking, non-obese men aged 60 to 80 years and untreated for hypertension. All subjects were evaluated in the morning after an overnight fast. Evaluation included measurements of the following: BP (by mercury sphygmomanometer, Korotkoff I and V), body weight, height and free testosterone (T) plasma levels (by radioimmunoassay). According to the BP values, the subjects were classified as normotensives (NT; n=112; SBP/DBP<140/90 mmHg), systolic and diastolic hypertensives (HT; n=127; SBP/DBP>140/90 mmHg), and isolated systolic hypertensives (ISH; n=117; SBP>140 mmHg and DBP<90 mmHg). T values decreased with increasing age in all 3 groups and was significantly lower in HT (-15%) and ISH men (-21%) than in NT men (p<0.05). In each group, the T levels showed a highly significant negative correlation with BMI (p<0.001). A significant negative correlation was also found between T levels and SBP in NT (r=-0.35, p<0.001), ISH (r=-0.67, p<0.001), and HT (r=-0.19, p<0.05) men, whereas a negative correlation with DBP was observed only in the NT men (r=-0.19, p<0.05). Adjusting for the BMI confirmed a significant difference in plasma T levels between ISH and NT men, but not between HT and NT men. Multiple regression analysis employing BP as a dependent variable confirmed a strong relationship between T levels and SBP in all 3 groups, whereas a significant relationship between T levels and DBP was found only in NT men. In conclusion, although further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between plasma T levels and BP, our findings suggest that in elderly men with ISH, the reduced plasma levels of testosterone might contribute to the increased arterial stiffness typical of these subjects. PMID:16392765

  10. Comparative analysis of neural differentiation potential in human mesenchymal stem cells derived from chorion and adult bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Ziadlou, Reihane; Shahhoseini, Maryam; Safari, Fatemeh; Sayahpour, Forugh-Azam; Nemati, Shiva; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban

    2015-11-01

    The finding of a reliable and abundant source of stem cells for the replacement of missing neurons in nervous system diseases requires extensive characterization of neural-differentiation-associated markers in stem cells from various sources. Chorion-derived stem cells from the human placenta have recently been described as an abundant, ethically acceptable, and easily accessible source of cells that are not limited in the same way as bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We have isolated and cultured chorion MSCs (C-MSCs) and compared their proliferative capacity, multipotency, and neural differentiation ability with BM-MSCs. C-MSCs showed a higher proliferative capacity compared with BM-MSCs. The expression and histone modification of Nestin, as a marker for neural stem/progenitor cells, was evaluated quantitatively between the two groups. The Nestin expression level in C-MSCs was significantly higher than that in BM-MSCs. Notably, modifications of lys9, lys4, and lys27 of histone H3 agreed with the remarkable higher expression of Nestin in C-MSCs than in BM-MSCs. Furthermore, after neural differentiation of MSCs upon retinoic acid induction, both immunocytochemical and flow cytometry analyses demonstrated that the expression of neural marker genes was significantly higher in neural-induced C-MSCs compared with BM-MSCs. Mature neuron marker genes were also expressed at a significantly higher level in C-MSCs than in BM-MSCs. Thus, C-MSCs have a greater potential than BM-MSCs for differentiation to neural cell lineages and can be regarded as a promising source of stem cells for the cell therapy of neurological disorders. PMID:26022335

  11. The clinical and molecular heterogeneity of 17βHSD-3 enzyme deficiency.

    PubMed

    George, Minu M; New, Maria I; Ten, Svetlana; Sultan, Charles; Bhangoo, Amrit

    2010-01-01

    17-β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17βHSD-3) deficiency is a rare, but frequently misdiagnosed autosomal recessive cause of 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD). 17βHSD-3 enzyme is present almost exclusively in the testes and converts Δ4-androstenedione (Δ4) to testosterone (T). The diagnosis can be easily missed in early childhood as the clinical presentation may be subtle. Any young girl with an inguinal hernia, mild clitoromegaly, single urethral opening or urogenital sinus should raise suspicion. If not diagnosed early, patients present with severe virilization and primary amenorrhea in adolescence and may undergo a change from a female to male gender role. A low T/Δ4 ratio on baseline or hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)-stimulated testing is suggestive of 17βHSD-3 deficiency. The diagnosis can be confirmed with molecular genetic studies. This review summarizes the clinical presentations, reported mutations, diagnosis, treatment and clinical course of this disorder. The Arg80 site in exon 3 is the most common location of repeated mutations and can be considered a hot spot in certain Arab populations. PMID:20689261

  12. Testosterone signaling through internalizable surface receptors in androgen receptor-free macrophages.

    PubMed

    Benten, W P; Lieberherr, M; Stamm, O; Wrehlke, C; Guo, Z; Wunderlich, F

    1999-10-01

    Testosterone acts on cells through intracellular transcription-regulating androgen receptors (ARs). Here, we show that mouse IC-21 macrophages lack the classical AR yet exhibit specific nongenomic responses to testosterone. These manifest themselves as testosterone-induced rapid increase in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], which is due to release of Ca(2+) from intracellular Ca(2+) stores. This Ca(2+) mobilization is also inducible by plasma membrane-impermeable testosterone-BSA. It is not affected by the AR blockers cyproterone and flutamide, whereas it is completely inhibited by the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 and pertussis toxin. Binding sites for testosterone are detectable on the surface of intact IC-21 cells, which become selectively internalized independent on caveolae and clathrin-coated vesicles upon agonist stimulation. Internalization is dependent on temperature, ATP, cytoskeletal elements, phospholipase C, and G-proteins. Collectively, our data provide evidence for the existence of G-protein-coupled, agonist-sequestrable receptors for testosterone in plasma membranes, which initiate a transcription-independent signaling pathway of testosterone. PMID:10512854

  13. Testosterone Signaling through Internalizable Surface Receptors in Androgen Receptor-free Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Benten, W. Peter M.; Lieberherr, Michèle; Stamm, Olaf; Wrehlke, Christian; Guo, Zhiyong; Wunderlich, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Testosterone acts on cells through intracellular transcription-regulating androgen receptors (ARs). Here, we show that mouse IC-21 macrophages lack the classical AR yet exhibit specific nongenomic responses to testosterone. These manifest themselves as testosterone-induced rapid increase in intracellular free [Ca2+], which is due to release of Ca2+ from intracellular Ca2+ stores. This Ca2+ mobilization is also inducible by plasma membrane-impermeable testosterone-BSA. It is not affected by the AR blockers cyproterone and flutamide, whereas it is completely inhibited by the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 and pertussis toxin. Binding sites for testosterone are detectable on the surface of intact IC-21 cells, which become selectively internalized independent on caveolae and clathrin-coated vesicles upon agonist stimulation. Internalization is dependent on temperature, ATP, cytoskeletal elements, phospholipase C, and G-proteins. Collectively, our data provide evidence for the existence of G-protein-coupled, agonist-sequestrable receptors for testosterone in plasma membranes, which initiate a transcription-independent signaling pathway of testosterone. PMID:10512854

  14. Generation of Small Single Domain Nanobody Binders for Sensitive Detection of Testosterone by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Guanghui; Zhu, Min; Ma, Lu; Yan, Junrong; Lu, Xiaoling; Shen, Yanfei; Wan, Yakun

    2016-06-01

    A phage display library of variable domain of the heavy chain only antibody or nanobody (Nb) was constructed after immunizing a bactrian camel with testosterone. With the smaller molecular size (15 kDa), improved solubility, good stability, high affinity, specificity, and lower immunogenicity, Nbs are a promising tool in the next generation of diagnosis and medical applications. Testosterone is a reproductive hormone, playing an important role in normal cardiac function and being the highly predictive marker for many diseases. Herein, a simple and sensitive immunosensor based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Nbs was successfully developed for the determination of testosterone. We successfully isolated the antitestosterone Nbs from an immune phage display library. Moreover, one of the Nbs was biotinylated according to in vivo BirA system, which showed the highest production yield and the most stable case. Further, the EIS immunosensor was set up for testosterone detection by applying the biotinylated antitestosterone Nb. As a result, the biosensor exhibited a linear working range from 0.05 to 5 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.045 ng mL(-1). In addition, the proposed immunosensor was successfully applied in determining testosterone in serum samples. In conclusion, the proposed immunosensor revealed high specificity of testosterone detection and showed as a potential approach for sensitive and accurate diagnosis of testosterone. PMID:27196036

  15. Testosterone and reward prediction-errors in healthy men and men with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Morris, R W; Purves-Tyson, T D; Weickert, C Shannon; Rothmond, D; Lenroot, R; Weickert, T W

    2015-11-01

    Sex hormones impact reward processing, which is dysfunctional in schizophrenia; however, the degree to which testosterone levels relate to reward-related brain activity in healthy men and the extent to which this relationship may be altered in men with schizophrenia has not been determined. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure neural responses in the striatum during reward prediction-errors and hormone assays to measure testosterone and prolactin in serum. To determine if testosterone can have a direct effect on dopamine neurons, we also localized and measured androgen receptors in human midbrain with immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR. We found correlations between testosterone and prediction-error related activity in the ventral striatum of healthy men, but not in men with schizophrenia, such that testosterone increased the size of positive and negative prediction-error related activity in a valence-specific manner. We also identified midbrain dopamine neurons that were androgen receptor immunoreactive, and found that androgen receptor (AR) mRNA was positively correlated with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA in human male substantia nigra. The results suggest that sex steroid receptors can potentially influence midbrain dopamine biosynthesis, and higher levels of serum testosterone are linked to better discrimination of motivationally-relevant signals in the ventral striatum, putatively by modulation of the dopamine biosynthesis pathway via AR ligand binding. However, the normal relationship between serum testosterone and ventral striatum activity during reward learning appears to be disrupted in schizophrenia. PMID:26232868

  16. Mechanisms by which neonatal testosterone exposure mediates sex differences in impulsivity in prepubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Bayless, Daniel W; Darling, Jeffrey S; Daniel, Jill M

    2013-11-01

    Neonatal testosterone, either acting directly or through its conversion to estradiol, can exert organizational effects on the brain and behavior. The goal of the current study was to examine sex differences and determine the role of neonatal testosterone on prefrontal cortex-dependent impulsive choice behavior in prepubertal rats. Male and female prepubertal rats were tested on the delay-based impulsive choice task. Impulsive choice was defined as choosing an immediate small food reward over a delayed large reward. In a first experiment to examine sex differences, males made significantly more impulsive choices than did females. In a second experiment to examine the organizational effects of testosterone, females treated with neonatal testosterone made significantly more impulsive choices than did control females and their performance was indistinguishable from that of control males. In a third experiment to determine if the effect of testosterone on performance is due to the actions of androgens or estrogens through its conversion to estradiol, males treated neonatally with the aromatase inhibitor formestane, which blocks the conversion of testosterone to estradiol, females treated neonatally with the non-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone, and females treated neonatally with estradiol made significantly more impulsive choices than did control females and their performance was indistinguishable from that of control males. Results indicate that male pubertal rats display increased impulsive choice behavior as compared to females, that this sex difference results from organizing actions of testosterone during the neonatal period, and that this effect can result from both androgenic and estrogenic actions. PMID:24126137

  17. Contribution of Leydig and Sertoli cells to testosterone production in mouse fetal testes.

    PubMed

    Shima, Yuichi; Miyabayashi, Kanako; Haraguchi, Shogo; Arakawa, Tatsuhiko; Otake, Hiroyuki; Baba, Takashi; Matsuzaki, Sawako; Shishido, Yurina; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Tachibana, Taro; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Morohashi, Ken-ichirou

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone is a final product of androgenic hormone biosynthesis, and Leydig cells are known to be the primary source of androgens. In the mammalian testis, two distinct populations of Leydig cells, the fetal and the adult Leydig cells, develop sequentially, and these two cell types differ both morphologically and functionally. It is well known that the adult Leydig cells maintain male reproductive function by producing testosterone. However, it has been controversial whether fetal Leydig cells can produce testosterone, and the synthetic pathway of testosterone in the fetal testis is not fully understood. In the present study, we generated transgenic mice in which enhanced green fluorescence protein was expressed under the control of a fetal Leydig cell-specific enhancer of the Ad4BP/SF-1 (Nr5a1) gene. The transgene construct was prepared by mutating the LIM homeodomain transcription factor (LHX9)-binding sequence in the promoter, which abolished promoter activity in the undifferentiated testicular cells. These transgenic mice were used to collect highly pure fetal Leydig cells. Gene expression and steroidogenic enzyme activities in the fetal Leydig cells as well as in the fetal Sertoli cells and adult Leydig cells were analyzed. Our results revealed that the fetal Leydig cells synthesize only androstenedione because they lack expression of Hsd17b3, and fetal Sertoli cells convert androstenedione to testosterone, whereas adult Leydig cells synthesize testosterone by themselves. The current study demonstrated that both Leydig and Sertoli cells are required for testosterone synthesis in the mouse fetal testis. PMID:23125070

  18. Drug Insight: testosterone and selective androgen receptor modulators as anabolic therapies for chronic illness and aging

    PubMed Central

    Bhasin, Shalender; Calof, Olga M; Storer, Thomas W; Lee, Martin L; Mazer, Norman A; Jasuja, Ravi; Montori, Victor M; Gao, Wenqing; Dalton, James T

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Several regulatory concerns have hindered development of androgens as anabolic therapies, despite unequivocal evidence that testosterone supplementation increases muscle mass and strength in men; it induces hypertrophy of type I and II muscle fibers, and increases myonuclear and satellite cell number. Androgens promote differentiation of mesenchymal multipotent cells into the myogenic lineage and inhibit their adipogenic differentiation, by facilitating association of androgen receptors with β-catenin and activating T-cell factor 4. Meta-analyses indicate that testosterone supplementation increases fat-free mass and muscle strength in HIV-positive men with weight loss, glucocorticoid-treated men, and older men with low or low-normal testosterone levels. The effects of testosterone on physical function and outcomes important to patients have not, however, been studied. In older men, increased hematocrit and increased risk of prostate biopsy and detection of prostate events are the most frequent, testosterone-related adverse events. Concerns about long-term risks have restrained enthusiasm for testosterone use as anabolic therapy. Selective androgen-receptor modulators that are preferentially anabolic and that spare the prostate hold promise as anabolic therapies. We need more studies to determine whether testosterone or selective androgen-receptor modulators can induce meaningful improvements in physical function and patient-important outcomes in patients with physical dysfunction associated with chronic illness or aging. PMID:16932274

  19. Latent trait testosterone among 18-24 year olds: Methodological considerations and risk associations.

    PubMed

    Dariotis, Jacinda K; Chen, Frances R; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-05-01

    The study investigated the relationship between latent trait testosterone (LTT) and risk-taking among 126 youth (M age=21.34years; 56% female; 52% African American). Latent state-trait (LST) modeling isolates observed variance of samples via their correlations into (1) a latent trait testosterone (LTT) factor capturing individual differences, and (2) a component of state testosterone factor (LST) capturing state-specific situational or environmental influences and random error variances. Participants provided four laboratory (20min apart) and four home (waking, 20-min post-waking, noon, evening) salivary samples (later assayed for testosterone). Participants reported risk-taking tendencies and behaviors via an Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview. Behavioral risk was measured using the Balloon Analog Risk Task. Results revealed: (1) LTT model invariance (operated similarly) for females and males; (2) LTT accounted for 18-89% (home samples) and 61-95% (lab samples) of the variance in testosterone levels, and (3) LTT was associated with risk-seeking behaviors and the strength of this association was similar across males and females. LST Modeling has potential to advance our understanding of testosterone-behavior associations to new limits by estimating stable trait-like components of the variance in testosterone levels. PMID:26852415

  20. [Testosterone assays using non recommended methods lead to misdiagnosis in women].

    PubMed

    Taibi, Ludmia; Giton, Frank; Moutereau, Stéphane; Fiet, Jean; Guéchot, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    French and US endocrine societies recommend using GC-MS or RIA after purification (extraction + chromatography) to assess blood levels of testosterone in women. However, most of laboratories use automatized methods that have to be reserved to measure testosterone levels in men. The aim of this study was to show the consequences of analytical discrepancies of some immunological methods on the diagnostics values of testosterone levels assayed in women. Compared to GC-MS the correlations of the assayed levels varied (Spearman's rank correlation coefficients: 0.935; 0.793; 0.841; 0.852 respectively for RIA Immunotech™ with extraction and chromatographic purification; Testosterone Access-DxI800®; Testosterone Immulite 2000®; Testosterone II Cobas E601®). The testosterone levels allowed an accurate conclusion in 95.2 %; 75.8 %; 77.4 %; 89.8 % of patients, respectively. The agreement with GC-MS results was very good for RIA method (κ=0,840), moderate for DxI800® method (κ=0,414), moderate for Immulite® method (κ=0,467), good for Cobas® method (κ=0,667). Most of discordances are false hypertestosteronemia. The use of non recommended methods may leads to nosological errors (misclassification rates of 10 to 25% with automatized methods) that causes loss of chance in part of female patients. PMID:21159578

  1. Treatment of pain in fibromyalgia patients with testosterone gel: Pharmacokinetics and clinical response.

    PubMed

    White, Hillary D; Brown, Lin A J; Gyurik, Robert J; Manganiello, Paul D; Robinson, Thomas D; Hallock, Linda S; Lewis, Lionel D; Yeo, Kiang-Teck J

    2015-08-01

    To test our hypothesis that testosterone deficiency plays an important role in chronic pain, a Phase I/II pilot study was initiated with 12 fibromyalgia patients to verify that a daily dose for 28days with transdermal testosterone gel would 1) significantly and safely increase mean serum testosterone concentrations from low baseline levels to mid/high-normal levels, and 2) effectively treat the pain and fatigue symptoms of fibromyalgia. Pharmacokinetic data confirmed that serum free testosterone concentrations were raised significantly above baseline levels, by assessment of maximum hormone concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC) parameters: free testosterone Cmax was significantly raised from a mean of 2.64pg/mL to 3.91pg/mL (p<0.05), and 24hour free testosterone AUC was significantly raised from a mean of 35.0pg-hr/mL to 53.89pg-hr/mL. Assessment of the typical symptoms of fibromyalgia by patient questionnaire and tender point exam demonstrated significant change in: decreased muscle pain, stiffness, and fatigue, and increased libido during study treatment. These results are consistent with the hypothesized ability of testosterone to relieve the symptoms of fibromyalgia. Symptoms not tightly related to fibromyalgia were not improved. PMID:26004317

  2. Could seasonal variation in testosterone levels in men be related to sleep?

    PubMed

    Svartberg, J; Barrett-Connor, E

    2004-09-01

    We have previously reported seasonal variations in both total and free testosterone in men living in north Norway. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether seasonal variation in testosterone also occurs in men living in geographical areas with less extreme seasonal variation in sunlight and temperature. In 915 men aged 24-91 years from Rancho Bernardo, a suburb of San Diego in southern California, we found that neither total nor bioavailable testosterone varied by season, with or without adjustments for age and anthropometric measurements. Of all examined covariates, only physical activity showed a seasonal variation, with a peak in August (p < 0.001), and adjusting for physical activity did not change the lack of seasonal variation in testosterone. In addition, there was no association between testosterone and mean air temperature, or testosterone and possible hours of sunshine. We conclude that men living in southern California show no seasonal variation in testosterone levels. One possible explanation, besides the difference in climate, for the diverging findings between our previous study and the present study is different sleep patterns. PMID:15669539

  3. Testosterone and UVL-B stimulation of epidermal melanocytes in rat scrotal skin.

    PubMed

    Glimcher, M D; Wilson, M J; Szabo, G

    1979-01-01

    The effects of UVL-B and/or testosterone replacemnt therapy are compared in normal and castrated rats in order to determine whether testosterone is required for UVL-B (290-315 nm) stimulation of melanogenesis in the testosterone-dependent epidermal melanocyte system of the scrotal skin of black Long Evans rats. Testosterone is not a prerequisite for UVL-B stimulation of melanocytes as in both castrates and normal animals the melanocytes respond to UVL-B by increases in size, length and number of dendrites (dendriticness), and tyrosinase activity (intensity of Dopa reaction). Addition of testosterone to castrates does enhance the effects of UVL-B. However, UVL-B with or without testosterone cannot maintain normal melanogenesis in rats irradiated immediately after castration nor can it restore normal melanogenesis following long term castration. Bth the amount of UVL nergy/exposure and the number of exposures are important variables in stimulation of the epidermal melanocytes. Administration of a dose of UVL-B to castrates in a single exposure is ineffective, while the same overall dose spread over several exposures increases the size and dendriticness of melanocytes. Testosterone and UVL-B act synergistically in affecting melanogenesis although neither singly nor in combination are they able to fully restore normal melanogenesis. PMID:760595

  4. Family cohesion moderates the relation between free testosterone and delinquent behaviors in adolescent boys and girls

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Brown, Kathleen M.; Lavigne, John V.; Stevens, Victor J.; Barton, Bruce A.; Chandler, Donald W.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the associations of free testosterone and family environment with delinquent and aggressive behaviors among adolescent boys and girls with elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels. Methods Participants were 164 boys and 180 girls (ages 11–14 years). The female parent provided ratings of family cohesion and child aggressive and delinquent behaviors. Tanner ratings of pubertal development were obtained during physical examination, and a blood sample was drawn for assessment of serum levels of free testosterone. Results Hierarchical regression analyses revealed significant two-way interactions of free testosterone and family cohesion on delinquent behaviors among adolescent boys and girls. Specifically, under conditions of low family cohesion, free testosterone was positively associated with delinquent behaviors among boys, whereas no association between free testosterone and delinquent behavior was observed in families with high cohesion. In contrast, free testosterone was negatively associated with delinquent behaviors among adolescent girls in low cohesion families. For girls, family cohesion was negatively associated with aggressive behaviors; for boys, LDL-C was positively associated with aggressive behaviors. Conclusions Child gender and family environment factors appear to modify the associations between free testosterone and delinquent behaviors in adolescent boys and girls. PMID:19465324

  5. Evolution of testosterone treatment over 25 years: symptom responses, endocrine profiles and cardiovascular changes

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, Malcolm; Cathcart, Paul; Feneley, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Testosterone treatment has evolved rapidly over the past 25 years as new, more effective and convenient methods have become available. This study reports experience with seven different methods, introduced on the market in the UK. Aim: To establish the symptom response when testosterone treatment was initiated on the basis of clinical features and symptoms of androgen deficiency, and the resulting endocrine, biochemical and physiological responses. Methods: Of 2693 patients attending the 3 Men’s Health Centers – The UK Androgen Study (UKAS), 2247 were treated. Treatments included pellet implants, oral testosterone undecanoate (Testocaps), mesterolone (Proviron), testosterone gel (Testogel), testosterone scrotal cream (Andromen) and scrotal gel (Tostran). Results: There was no correlation between initial testosterone level, initial symptom score or the success of treatment as defined by adequate resolution of symptoms. Despite the diverse endocrine patterns produced, the testosterone preparations appear equally safe over prolonged periods, with either no change or improvement of cardiovascular risk factors, especially in lowering cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: It is suggested that because of excessive reliance on laboratory measures of androgens and undue safety concerns, many men who could benefit from symptom relief, improvement in related clinical conditions and given preventive medical benefits remain untreated. PMID:26218766

  6. High levels of testosterone inhibit ovarian follicle development by repressing the FSH signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Cui, Yu-qian; Zhao, Han; Liu, Hong-bin; Zhao, Shi-dou; Gao, Yuan; Mu, Xiao-li; Gao, Fei; Chen, Zi-jiang

    2015-10-01

    The effect of high concentrations of testosterone on ovarian follicle development was investigated. Primary follicles and granulosa cells were cultured in vitro in media supplemented with a testosterone concentration gradient. The combined effects of testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on follicular growth and granulosa cell gonadotropin receptor mRNA expression were also investigated. Follicle growth in the presence of high testosterone concentrations was promoted at early stages (days 1-7), but inhibited at later stage (days 7-14) of in vitro culture. Interestingly, testosterone-induced follicle development arrest was rescued by treatment with high concentrations of FSH (400 mIU/mL). In addition, in cultured granulosa cells, high testosterone concentrations induced cell proliferation, and increased the mRNA expression level of FSH receptor (FSHR), and luteinized hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor. It was concluded that high concentrations of testosterone inhibited follicle development, most likely through regulation of the FSH signaling pathway, although independently from FSHR downregulation. These findings are an important step in further understanding the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:26489629

  7. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets

    PubMed Central

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R. Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N.; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders’ financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways. PMID:26135946

  8. Effect of Exogenous Testosterone, Finasteride, and Castration on Serum Level of Thyroxin

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Fatemeh; Yousofvand, Namdar; Khazaei, Mozafar; Ghanbari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: The secretion of thyroxin (T4) as the main hormone of thyroid gland is regulated by androgens. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of testosterone and finasteride administration and castration on serum levels of T4 and to show the effect of this regulation on total body weight, weight of testis, and the weight of prostate. Methods: Male adult rats (n = 32) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8): Group 1 (control), Group 2 (castration), Group 3 (finasteride: 20 mg/kg/day) and Group 4 (testosterone: 5 mg/kg/day). At the end of the study (35 days), serum level of thyroxin, body weight, weight of testis, and prostate were determined. Results: The data showed that the body weight increased in castrated (P = 0.04) and decreased in testosterone (P = 0.00) groups but did not differ in finasteride (P>0.05) group. There were not any differences in the weight of testis among control, finasteride, and testosterone groups but the weight of prostate increased in testosterone group (P = 0.00) and decreased in castrated (P = 0.03) and finasteride groups (P = 0.04). In addition, the serum level of T4 (nmo/ml) decreased in the three groups: finasteride (P = 0.03), testosterone (P = 0.04), and castrated (P = 0.00). Conclusion: Testosterone in both high and low levels decreased the amount of T4 with a time-dependent manner. PMID:23999719

  9. Testosterone-to-oestradiol ratio is associated with female facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Probst, Fabian; Bobst, Cora; Lobmaier, Janek S

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between facial shape and attractiveness has been extensively studied, yet few studies have investigated the underlying biological factors of an attractive face. Many researchers have proposed a link between female attractiveness and sex hormones, but there is little empirical evidence in support of this assumption. In the present study we investigated the relationship between circulating sex hormones and attractiveness. We created prototypes by separately averaging photographs of 15 women with high and low levels of testosterone, oestradiol, and testosterone-to-oestradiol ratio levels, respectively. An independent set of facial images was then shape transformed toward these prototypes. We paired the resulting images in such a way that one face depicted a female with high hormone level and the other one with a low hormone level. Fifty participants were asked to choose the more attractive face of each pair. We found that low testosterone-to-oestradiol ratio and low testosterone were positively associated with female facial attractiveness. There was no preference for faces with high oestradiol levels. In an additional experiment with 36 participants we confirmed that a low testosterone-to-oestradiol ratio plays a larger role than low testosterone alone. These results provide empirical evidence that an attractive female face is shaped by interacting effects of testosterone and oestradiol. PMID:25730636

  10. The interaction of testosterone and cortisol is associated with attained status in male executives.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Gary D; Lerner, Jennifer S; Josephs, Robert A; Renshon, Jonathan; Gross, James J

    2016-06-01

    Are hormone levels associated with the attainment of social status? Although endogenous testosterone predicts status-seeking social behaviors, research suggests that the stress hormone cortisol may inhibit testosterone's effects. Thus, individuals with both high testosterone and low cortisol may be especially likely to occupy high-status positions in social hierarchies while individuals with high testosterone and high cortisol may not. We tested this hypothesis by recruiting a sample of real executives and examining testosterone, cortisol, and a concrete indicator of attained status: the number of subordinates over which the executive has authority. Despite the myriad nonhormonal factors that determine organizational promotion, the executives' endogenous testosterone and cortisol interacted to significantly predict hierarchical position: Testosterone positively predicted executives' number of subordinates, but only among low-cortisol executives. The results imply that reducing cortisol levels via stress reduction may be a critical goal not only because doing so will improve health but also because doing so may enhance leadership potential. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26302434

  11. Basal testosterone, leadership and dominance: A field study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Leander; Schaveling, Jaap; van Vugt, Mark

    2016-10-01

    This article examines the role of basal testosterone as a potential biological marker of leadership and hierarchy in the workplace. First, we report the result of a study with a sample of male employees from different corporate organizations in the Netherlands (n=125). Results showed that employees with higher basal testosterone levels reported a more authoritarian leadership style, but this relationship was absent among those who currently held a real management position (i.e., they had at least one subordinate). Furthermore, basal testosterone levels were not different between managers and non-managers, and testosterone was not associated with various indicators of status and hierarchy such as number of subordinates, income, and position in the organizational hierarchy. In our meta-analysis (second study), we showed that basal testosterone levels were not associated with leadership in men nor in women (9 studies, n=1103). Taken together, our findings show that basal testosterone is not associated with having a leadership position in the corporate world or related to leadership styles in leaders. We suggest that basal testosterone could play a role in acquiring leadership positions through dominant and authoritarian behavior. PMID:27372205

  12. Testosterone metabolism: a possible biological underpinning of non-verbal IQ in intellectually gifted girls.

    PubMed

    Durdiaková, Jaroslava; Celec, Peter; Laznibatová, Jolana; Minárik, Gabriel; Ostatníková, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The extraordinary giftedness is apparently a unique manifestation of a mutual interconnection between genes and environment. One of the possible etiological factors of intellectual giftedness is testosterone which is believed to affect the brain organization and function. The aim of our study was to analyze associations between 2D:4D digit ratio (a proxy of prenatal testosterone) and/or salivary testosterone levels with non-verbal IQ in intellectually gifted girls. Fifty-one girls with an age range of 10 to18 years and IQ scores higher than 130 were tested. Saliva samples were collected to obtain levels of salivary testosterone. 2D:4D digit ratio was measured on both hands as an indicator of prenatal testosterone. IQ parameters were assessed employing standardized set of tests. The CAG repeat polymorphism in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene was analyzed to assess the sensitivity of androgen receptor. Testing of between-subjects effects proved significant interactions between right and left 2D:4D ratio, genetic variability in androgen receptor, and also salivary testosterone level with non-verbal IQ in gifted girls. Our results point out that the variability in parameters of androgenicity contributes to the variability of nonverbal IQ in gifted girls. However, the exact molecular mechanism of how testosterone acts on the brain and affects this cognitive domain remains still unclear. PMID:27102919

  13. Environmental exposure to metals and male reproductive hormones: Circulating testosterone is inversely associated with blood molybdenum

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, John D.; Rossano, Mary G.; Protas, Bridget; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Diamond, Michael P.; Puscheck, Elizabeth; Daly, Douglas; Paneth, Nigel; Wirth, Julia J.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective To explore associations between exposure to metals and male reproductive hormone levels. Design Cross-sectional epidemiology study with adjustment for potential confounders. Setting Metal concentrations and reproductive hormone levels were measured in blood samples collected from 219 men. Patients: Men recruited through two Michigan, USA infertility clinics. Interventions None Main Outcome Measures Serum FSH, LH, inhibin B, testosterone, and SHBG. Results Cadmium, copper and lead were all significantly or suggestively positively associated with testosterone when modeled individually (p-values = 0.1, 0.03, and 0.07, respectively), findings that are consistent with limited previous human and animal studies. Conversely, molybdenum was associated with reduced testosterone (p-value for trend = 0.001). A significant inverse trend between molybdenum and testosterone remained when additionally considering other metals in the model, where a positive association between testosterone and zinc was also found. Finally, in exploratory analysis there was evidence for an interaction between molybdenum and zinc, where high molybdenum was associated with a 37% reduction in testosterone (relative to the population median level) among men with low zinc. Conclusions While reductions in testosterone and reproductive toxicity following molybdenum exposure have been previously demonstrated in animal studies, more research is needed to determine whether molybdenum poses a risk to human reproductive health. PMID:18990371

  14. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders' financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways. PMID:26135946

  15. Neonatal testosterone suppresses a neuroendocrine pulse generator required for reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, Jean-Marc; Cabelguen, Jean-Marie; Le Masson, Gwendal; Oliet, Stéphane H.; Ciofi, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    The pituitary gland releases hormones in a pulsatile fashion guaranteeing signalling efficiency. The determinants of pulsatility are poorly circumscribed. Here we show in magnocellular hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal oxytocin (OT) neurons that the bursting activity underlying the neurohormonal pulses necessary for parturition and the milk-ejection reflex is entirely driven by a female-specific central pattern generator (CPG). Surprisingly, this CPG is active in both male and female neonates, but is inactivated in males after the first week of life. CPG activity can be restored in males by orchidectomy or silenced in females by exogenous testosterone. This steroid effect is aromatase and caspase dependent, and is mediated via oestrogen receptor-α. This indicates the apoptosis of the CPG network during hypothalamic sexual differentiation, explaining why OT neurons do not burst in adult males. This supports the view that stereotypic neuroendocrine pulsatility is governed by CPGs, some of which are subjected to gender-specific perinatal programming.

  16. Testosterone-Induced Effects on Lipids and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Vodo, Stella; Bechi, Nicoletta; Petroni, Anna; Muscoli, Carolina; Aloisi, Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain has to be considered in all respects a debilitating disease and 10–20% of the world's adult population is affected by this disease. In the most general terms, pain is symptomatic of some form of dysfunction and (often) the resulting inflammatory processes in the body. In the study of pain, great attention has been paid to the possible involvement of gonadal hormones, especially in recent years. In particular, testosterone, the main androgen, is thought to play a beneficial, protective role in the body. Other important elements to be related to pain, inflammation, and hormones are lipids, heterogenic molecules whose altered metabolism is often accompanied by the release of interleukins, and lipid-derived proinflammatory mediators. Here we report data on interactions often not considered in chronic pain mechanisms. PMID:23606790

  17. Age differences in prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating symptoms: developmental windows of expression?

    PubMed

    Culbert, Kristen M; Breedlove, S Marc; Sisk, Cheryl L; Keel, Pamela K; Neale, Michael C; Boker, Steven M; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal testosterone exposure may be protective against disordered eating. However, prior studies have produced mixed results. Developmental differences in prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating may explain these discrepancies. Indeed, studies have differed in the age of participants assessed, with data supporting prenatal testosterone effects on disordered eating in early adolescent and young adult samples but not in late adolescence. The present studies are the first to investigate age differences in prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating. Two indirect markers of higher prenatal testosterone were examined: (a) lower finger-length ratios (Study 1: index [2D]/ring [4D] finger [2D:4D]) and (b) lower disordered eating in female s from opposite-sex twin pairs (who are thought to be exposed to higher prenatal testosterone from their male co-twin) relative to female controls (Study 2). Participants were twins from the Michigan State University Twin Registry (Study 1: n = 409; Study 2: n = 1,538) in early adolescence, late adolescence, or young adulthood. Disordered eating was assessed with well-validated questionnaires. Finger-length ratios were measured from hand scans, using electronic computer calipers. Findings were consistent across both studies. Higher prenatal testosterone (lower 2D:4D; females from opposite-sex twin pairs vs. controls) predicted lower disordered eating in early adolescence and young adulthood only. Prenatal testosterone-disordered eating associations were not observed during late adolescence. Results point to the possibility of developmental windows of expression for prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating and suggest that prior discrepant results may reflect age differences across samples. PMID:25621790

  18. Age Differences in Prenatal Testosterone's Protective Effects on Disordered Eating Symptoms: Developmental Windows of Expression?

    PubMed Central

    Culbert, Kristen M.; Breedlove, S. Marc; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Keel, Pamela K.; Neale, Michael C.; Boker, Steven M.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone exposure may be protective against disordered eating. However, prior studies have produced mixed results. Developmental differences in prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating may explain these discrepancies. Indeed, studies have differed in the age of participants assessed, with data supporting prenatal testosterone effects on disordered eating in early adolescent and young adult samples but not in late adolescence. The present series of studies are the first to investigate age differences in prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating. Two indirect markers of higher prenatal testosterone were examined: 1) lower finger-length ratios [index (2D)/ring (4D) finger] (Study 1), and 2) lower disordered eating in females from opposite-sex twin pairs (who are thought to be exposed to higher prenatal testosterone from their male co-twin) relative to female controls (Study 2). Participants were twins from the Michigan State University Twin Registry (Study 1: n = 409; Study 2: n = 1,538) in early adolescence, late adolescence, or young adulthood. Disordered eating was assessed with well-validated questionnaires. Finger-length ratios were measured from hand scans, using electronic computer calipers. Findings were consistent across both studies. Higher prenatal testosterone (lower 2D:4D; females from opposite-sex twin pairs vs. controls) predicted lower disordered eating in early adolescence and young adulthood only. Prenatal testosterone-disordered eating associations were not observed during late adolescence. Results point to the possibility of developmental windows of expression for prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating and suggest that prior discrepant results may reflect age differences across samples. PMID:25621790

  19. Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer Is Associated With Reduced Serum Testosterone and Increased FSH and LH

    SciTech Connect

    Bruheim, Kjersti Svartberg, Johan; Carlsen, Erik; Dueland, Svein; Haug, Egil; Skovlund, Eva; Tveit, Kjell Magne; Guren, Marianne G.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: It is known that scattered radiation to the testes during pelvic radiotherapy can affect fertility, but there is little knowledge on its effects on male sex hormones. The aim of this study was to determine whether radiotherapy for rectal cancer affects testosterone production. Methods and Materials: All male patients who had received adjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer from 1993 to 2003 were identified from the Norwegian Rectal Cancer Registry. Patients treated with surgery alone were randomly selected from the same registry as control subjects. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were analyzed, and free testosterone was calculated (N = 290). Information about the radiotherapy treatment was collected from the patient hospital charts. Results: Serum FSH was 3 times higher in the radiotherapy group than in the control group (median, 18.8 vs. 6.3 IU/L, p <0.001), and serum LH was 1.7 times higher (median, 7.5 vs. 4.5 IU/l, p <0.001). In the radiotherapy group, 27% of patients had testosterone levels below the reference range (8-35 nmol/L), compared with 10% of the nonirradiated patients (p <0.001). Irradiated patients had lower serum testosterone (mean, 11.1 vs. 13.4 nmol/L, p <0.001) and lower calculated free testosterone (mean, 214 vs. 235 pmol/L, p <0.05) than control subjects. Total testosterone, calculated free testosterone, and gonadotropins were related to the distance from the bony pelvic structures to the caudal field edge. Conclusions: Increased serum levels of gonadotropins and subnormal serum levels of testosterone indicate that curative radiotherapy for rectal cancer can result in permanent testicular dysfunction.

  20. Testosterone improves erectile function through inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation in castrated rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui; Meng, Xianghu; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Tao; Yang, Jun; Niu, Yonghua; Cui, Kai; Wang, Shaogang

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone is overwhelmingly important in regulating erectile physiology. However, the associated molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects and mechanisms of testosterone in erectile dysfunction (ED) in castrated rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four groups (control, sham-operated, castration and castration-with-testosterone-replacement). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was measured by dihydroethidium (DHE) staining. Erectile function was assessed by the recording of intracavernous pressure (ICP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Protein expression levels were examined by western blotting. We found that castration reduced erectile function and that testosterone restored it. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was decrease in the castrated rats, and testosterone administration attenuated this decrease (each p < 0.05). The testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentrations were lower in the castrated rats, and testosterone restored these levels (each p < 0.05). Furthermore, the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostacyclin synthase (PTGIS) expression levels and phospho-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS, Ser1177)/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) ratio were reduced in the castrated rats compared with the controls (each p < 0.05). In addition, the p40phox and p67phox expression levels were increased in the castrated rats, and testosterone reversed these changes (each p < 0.05). Overall, our results demonstrate that testosterone ameliorates ED after castration by reducing ROS production and increasing the activity of the eNOS/cGMP and COX-2/PTGIS/cAMP signaling pathways. PMID:27168996

  1. Gene expression profiling in human whole blood samples after controlled testosterone application and exercise.

    PubMed

    Schönfelder, Martin; Hofmann, Hande; Anielski, Patricia; Thieme, Detlef; Oberhoffer, Renate; Michna, Horst

    2011-10-01

    Doping with anabolic agents is regulated within a number of sports. Testosterone and its functional analogs are popular compounds for increasing muscle mass, physical performance, recovery, and reducing body fat. While routine tests for anabolic drugs exist (e.g. hair, urine, and blood analysis), the aim of the present study is to determine specific gene expression profiles (induced by testosterone and exercise) which may be used as effective biomarkers to determine the use of anabolic drugs. In this study, whole blood samples of 19 male volunteers were analyzed by semi-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for gene expression profiles in the context of exercise and transdermal testosterone application (1.5 mg/kg body weight). The hormone application was monitored by urine and saliva analysis for testosterone. Both urinary and saliva levels indicate that transdermal testosterone application leads to an increase of testosterone, especially after exercise. RT-PCR results showed a clear variation in the expression of target genes as well as established housekeeping genes. Only one of the nine common housekeeping genes, cyclophilin b (PPIB), appears to be independent of both exercise and testosterone. Out of 14 candidate genes, five are unregulated; all others were more or less influenced by the mentioned variables. Only interleukin-6 appeared to be exclusively dependent on long-term testosterone application. This study indicates that many genes are not influenced by testosterone alone while exercise modulates gene expression in whole blood samples. As such, exercise must be considered when validating gene expression techniques for doping analysis. PMID:22031502

  2. Influence of paradoxical sleep deprivation and sleep recovery on testosterone level in rats of different ages

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Mi Mi; Kim, Jin Wook; Jin, Myeong Heon; Kim, Je Jong; Moon, Du Geon

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to assess serum testosterone alterations induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and to verify their attenuation during sleep recovery (SR) based on different durations and ages. Wistar male rats aged 12 weeks for the younger group and 20 weeks for the elder group were randomly distributed into one of the following groups: a control group (cage and platform), 3-day SD, 5-day SD, 7-day SD, 1-day SR, 3-day SR and 5-day SR groups. For PSD, the modified multiple platform method was used to specifically limit rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Differences in the testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels between the younger group and the elder group according to duration of PSD and SR recovery were analysed. Testosterone continued to fall during the sleep deprivation period in a time-dependent manner in both the younger (P=0.001, correlation coefficient r=−0.651) and elder groups (P=0.001, correlation coefficient r=−0.840). The elder group showed a significantly lower level of testosterone compared with the younger group after PSD. Upon SR after 3 days of PSD, the testosterone level continued to rise for 5 days after sleep recovery in the younger group (P=0.013), whereas testosterone concentrations failed to recover until day 5 in the elder group. PSD caused a more detrimental effect on serum testosterone in the elder group compared to the younger group with respect to decreases in luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. The replenishment of serum testosterone level was prohibited in the elder group suggesting that the effects of SD/SR may be age-dependent. The mechanism by which SD affects serum testosterone and how age may modify the process are still unclear. PMID:22157981

  3. Effects of testosterone replacement in men with opioid-induced androgen deficiency: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Basaria, Shehzad; Travison, Thomas G; Alford, Daniel; Knapp, Philip E; Teeter, Kjersten; Cahalan, Christine; Eder, Richard; Lakshman, Kishore; Bachman, Eric; Mensing, George; Martel, Marc O; Le, Dillon; Stroh, Helene; Bhasin, Shalender; Wasan, Ajay D; Edwards, Robert R

    2015-02-01

    Symptomatic androgen deficiency is common in patients taking opioid analgesics, as these drugs potently suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. However, the efficacy of testosterone replacement in this setting remains unclear. The objective of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of testosterone replacement on pain perception and other androgen-dependent outcomes in men with opioid-induced androgen deficiency. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, parallel placebo-controlled trial at an outpatient academic research center. Participants were men aged 18 to 64 years on opioid analgesics for chronic noncancer pain, and total testosterone levels were <350 ng/dL. Participants were randomly assigned to 14 weeks of daily transdermal gel that contained 5 g of testosterone or placebo. Primary outcomes were changes in self-reported clinical pain and objectively assessed pain sensitivity. Sexual function, quality of life, and body composition were also assessed. The mean age was 49 years. The median total and free testosterone levels at baseline were 243 ng/dL and 47 pg/mL and 251 ng/dL and 43 pg/mL in the testosterone and placebo arm, respectively. Of the 84 randomized participants, 65 had follow-up data on efficacy outcomes. Compared with men assigned to the placebo arm, those assigned to testosterone replacement experienced greater improvements in pressure and mechanical hyperalgesia, sexual desire, and role limitation due to emotional problems. Testosterone administration was also associated with an improvement in body composition. There were no between-group differences in changes in self-reported pain. In conclusion, in men with opioid-induced androgen deficiency, testosterone administration improved pain sensitivity, sexual desire, body composition, and aspects of quality of life. PMID:25599449

  4. The Effect of Progestins on Tumor Necrosis Factor α-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Activity and Gene Expression in Human Primary Amnion and Chorion Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Terrence K; Feng, Liping; Nazzal, Matthew; Grotegut, Chad A; Buhimschi, Irina A; Murtha, Amy P

    2015-01-01

    Background Current treatment modalities for preventing preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) are limited, but progestins may play a role. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) enhances matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) gene expression and activity in fetal membranes, contributing to membrane weakening and rupture. We previously demonstrated that progestins attenuate TNFα-induced MMP-9 activity in a cytotrophoblast cell line. However, whether they have a similar effect in primary amnion and chorion cells of fetal membranes is unknown. In this study we evaluated the effect of progestins on basal and TNFα-induced MMP-9 activity and gene expression in primary chorion and amnion cells harvested from the fetal membranes of term non-laboring patients. Methods Primary amnion and chorion cells were isolated from fetal membranes obtained from term uncomplicated non-laboring patients following elective cesarean delivery (n=11). Confluent primary amnion and chorion cell cultures were both pretreated with vehicle (control), progesterone (P4), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P) or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) at 10-6 M concentration for 6 h followed by stimulation with TNFα at 10 ng/mL for an additional 24 h. Cell cultures pretreated with the vehicle only served as the unstimulated control and the vehicle stimulated with TNFα served as the stimulated control. Both controls were assigned a value of 100 units. Cell culture medium was harvested for MMP-9 enzymatic activity quantification using gelatin zymography. Total RNA was extracted for quantifying MMP-9 gene expression using RT-qPCR. Basal MMP-9 activity and gene expression data were normalized to the unstimulated control. TNFα-stimulated MMP-9 activity and gene expression were normalized to the stimulated control. The primary outcome was the effect of progestins on TNFα-induced MMP-9 enzymatic activity in term human primary amnion and chorion cells in vitro. Secondary outcomes included the effect of

  5. Testosterone has antidepressant-like efficacy and facilitates imipramine-induced neuroplasticity in male rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Steven R; Workman, Joanna L; Tehrani, Amir; Hamson, Dwayne K; Chow, Carmen; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-03-01

    Hypogonadal men are more likely to develop depression, while testosterone supplementation shows antidepressant-like effects in hypogonadal men and facilitates antidepressant efficacy. Depression is associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity and testosterone exerts suppressive effects on the HPA axis. The hippocampus also plays a role in the feedback regulation of the HPA axis, and depressed patients show reduced hippocampal neuroplasticity. We assessed the antidepressant-like effects of testosterone with, or without, imipramine on behavioral and neural endophenotypes of depression in a chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) model of depression. A 21-day CUS protocol was used on gonadectomized male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with vehicle, 1mg of testosterone propionate, 10mg/kg of imipramine, or testosterone and imipramine in tandem. Testosterone treatment reduced novelty-induced hypophagia following CUS exposure, but not under non-stress conditions, representing state-dependent effects. Further, testosterone increased the latency to immobility in the forced swim test (FST), reduced basal corticosterone, and reduced adrenal mass in CUS-exposed rats. Testosterone also facilitated the effects of imipramine by reducing the latency to immobility in the FST and increasing sucrose preference. Testosterone treatment had no significant effect on neurogenesis, though the combination of testosterone and imipramine increased PSA-NCAM expression in the ventral dentate gyrus. These findings demonstrate the antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects of testosterone within a CUS model of depression, and provide insight into the mechanism of action, which appears to be independent of enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:26774465

  6. No relation between 2D : 4D fetal testosterone marker and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Boets, Bart; De Smedt, Bert; Wouters, Jan; Lemay, Katrien; Ghesquière, Pol

    2007-09-17

    It has been suggested that high levels of prenatal testosterone exposure are implied in the aetiology of dyslexia and its frequently co-occurring sensory problems. This study examined 2D : 4D digit ratio (a marker of fetal testosterone exposure) in dyslexic and normal reading children. No group differences in 2D : 4D were observed. Digit ratio did not show the postulated relation with reading, spelling, phonological ability, speech perception, auditory processing and visual processing. These findings challenge the validity of theories that allocate a prominent role to fetal testosterone exposure in the aetiology of dyslexia and its sensory impairments. PMID:17712280

  7. Clinical evaluation of purified Shilajit on testosterone levels in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pandit, S; Biswas, S; Jana, U; De, R K; Mukhopadhyay, S C; Biswas, T K

    2016-06-01

    Purified Shilajit, an Ayurvedic rasayana, was evaluated in healthy volunteers of age between 45 and 55 years for its effect on male androgenic hormone viz. testosterone in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study at a dose of 250 mg twice a day. Treatment with Shilajit for consecutive 90 days revealed that it has significantly (P < 0.05) increased total testosterone, free testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) compared with placebo. Gonadotropic hormones (LH and FSH) levels were well maintained. PMID:26395129

  8. Daily testosterone and gonadotropin levels are similar in azoospermic and nonazoospermic normal men administered weekly testosterone: implications for male contraceptive development.

    PubMed

    Amory, J K; Anawalt, B D; Bremner, W J; Matsumoto, A M

    2001-01-01

    Weekly intramuscular administration of testosterone esters such as testosterone enanthate (TE) suppresses gonadotropins and spermatogenesis and has been studied as a male contraceptive. For unknown reasons, however, some men fail to achieve azoospermia with such regimens. We hypothesized that either 1) daily circulating serum fluoroimmunoreactive gonadotropins were higher or testosterone levels were lower during the weekly injection interval, or 2) monthly circulating bioactive gonadotropin levels were higher in nonazoospermic men. We therefore analyzed daily testosterone and fluoroimmunoreactive gonadotropin levels as well as pooled monthly bioactive and fluoroimmunoreactive gonadotropin levels in normal men receiving chronic TE injections and correlated these levels with sperm production. After a 3-month control period, 51 normal men were randomly assigned to receive intramuscular TE at 25 mg (n = 10), 50 mg (n = 9), 100 mg (n = 10), 300 mg (n = 10), or placebo (n = 12) weekly for 6 months. After 5 months of testosterone administration, morning testosterone and fluoroimmunoreactive follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were measured daily for a 1-week period between TE injections. In addition, fluoroimmunoreactive and bioactive FSH and LH levels were measured in pooled monthly blood samples drawn just before the next TE injection. In the 100-mg and 300-mg TE groups, mean monthly fluoroimmunoreactive FSH and LH levels were suppressed by 86%-97%, bioactive FSH and LH levels by 62%-80%, and roughly half the subjects became azoospermic. In the 1-week period of month 6, daily testosterone levels between TE injections were within the normal range in men receiving placebo, or 25 or 50 mg of weekly TE, but were significantly elevated in men receiving 100 or 300 mg of weekly TE. At no point during treatment, however, were there significant differences in daily testosterone or fluoroimmunoreactive gonadotropin levels, or monthly bioactive

  9. Testosterone attenuates and the selective estrogen receptor modulator, raloxifene, potentiates amphetamine-induced locomotion in male rats.

    PubMed

    Purves-Tyson, Tertia D; Boerrigter, Danny; Allen, Katherine; Zavitsanou, Katerina; Karl, Tim; Djunaidi, Vanezha; Double, Kay L; Desai, Reena; Handelsman, David J; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2015-04-01

    Although sex steroids are known to modulate brain dopamine, it is still unclear how testosterone modifies locomotor behaviour controlled, at least in part, by striatal dopamine in adolescent males. Our previous work suggests that increasing testosterone during adolescence may bias midbrain neurons to synthesise more dopamine. We hypothesised that baseline and amphetamine-induced locomotion would differ in adult males depending on testosterone exposure during adolescence. We hypothesised that concomitant stimulation of estrogen receptor signaling, through a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), raloxifene, can counter testosterone effects on locomotion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats at postnatal day 45 were gonadectomised (G) or sham-operated (S) prior to the typical adolescent testosterone increase. Gonadectomised rats were either given testosterone replacement (T) or blank implants (B) for six weeks and sham-operated (i.e. intact or endogenous testosterone group) were given blank implants. Subgroups of sham-operated, gonadectomised and gonadectomised/testosterone-replaced rats were treated with raloxifene (R, 5mg/kg) or vehicle (V), daily for the final four weeks. There were six groups (SBV, GBV, GTV, SBR, GBR, GTR). Saline and amphetamine-induced (1.25mg/kg) locomotion in the open field was measured at PND85. Gonadectomy increased amphetamine-induced locomotion compared to rats with endogenous or with exogenous testosterone. Raloxifene increased amphetamine-induced locomotion in rats with either endogenous or exogenous testosterone. Amphetamine-induced locomotion was negatively correlated with testosterone and this relationship was abolished by raloxifene. Lack of testosterone during adolescence potentiates and testosterone exposure during adolescence attenuates amphetamine-induced locomotion. Treatment with raloxifene appears to potentiate amphetamine-induced locomotion and to have an opposite effect to that of testosterone in male rats. PMID:25747465

  10. Testosterone and Bioavailable Testosterone Help to Distinguish between Mild Cushing’s Syndrome and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Pall, M. E.; Lao, M. C.; Patel, S. S.; Lee, M. L.; Ghods, D. E.; Chandler, D. W.; Friedman, T. C.

    2010-01-01

    Women with Cushing’s syndrome (CS) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) may present with similar symptoms. Subjects with mild CS lack clinical stigmata of classical CS and often have normal laboratory tests measuring hypercortisolism. Thus, distinguishing mild CS from PCOS may be difficult. We hypothesized that either total testosterone (TT) or bioavailable testosterone (BT) levels or the calculation of the free androgen index (FAI) would be low in patients with mild CS and elevated in patients with PCOS, and could help differentiate the two conditions. TT, BT, and FAI were measured in a group of 20 patients of reproductive age with mild CS and 20 PCOS patients matched for age and BMI. We used receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves to assess the sensitivity and specificity of these measurements for the diagnosis of CS. TT (p<0.0001), BT (p=0.02), and FAI (p=0.003) were significantly elevated in PCOS patients compared to mild CS patients. Sex hormone-binding globulin was similar in both groups. The optimal cut-point for TT was 1.39 nmol/L, yielding a sensitivity of 95 % and a specificity of 70%. The cut-point for BT was 0.24 nmol/L, resulting in a sensitivity of 75 % and a specificity of 80%. The cut-point for FAI was 5.7, with a sensitivity of 88 % and a specificity of 60 %. We conclude that TT levels may be useful to discriminate between mild CS and PCOS. In patients with signs and symptoms consistent with CS and PCOS, a TT level of <1.39nmol/L warrants a workup for CS. PMID:18819057

  11. Long-Term Safety of Letrozole and Gonadotropin Stimulation for Fertility Preservation in Women With Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jayeon; Turan, Volkan; Oktay, Kutluk

    2016-04-01

    This prospective non-randomized controlled study showed no increased recurrence risk in breast cancer patients who pursued fertility preservation via controlled ovarian stimulation with letrozole during the 5 years after diagnosis. PMID:26751194

  12. Effects of ciprofloxacin on testosterone and cortisol concentrations in healthy males.

    PubMed Central

    Waite, N M; Edwards, D J; Arnott, W S; Warbasse, L H

    1989-01-01

    Several inhibitors of oxidative drug metabolism inhibit the synthesis of endogenous compounds such as testosterone and cortisol. Since ciprofloxacin is a potent inhibitor of the metabolism of a number of drugs, we studied its effect on serum testosterone and cortisol concentrations in eight healthy male subjects. Blood samples were collected over a 12-h period under baseline conditions and following the first and final doses of ciprofloxacin (500 mg orally every 12 h for 4 days). No significant differences in concentrations or area under the concentration-time curve were found when baseline values were compared with those observed for either testosterone or cortisol after ciprofloxacin administration. These results suggest that ciprofloxacin is unlikely to have either antiandrogenic side effects or clinical utility in lowering testosterone or cortisol concentration. PMID:2610498

  13. Forearm mineral content in normal men: relationship to weight, height and plasma testosterone concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    McElduff, A.; Wilkinson, M.; Ward, P.; Posen, S.

    1988-01-01

    We measured forearm bone mineral content by single photon absorptiometry together with height, weight and the plasma concentrations of testosterone, free testosterone and sex steroid binding globulin in 66 normal Caucasian males aged 29-46 years. Multiple regression analysis suggests that bone mineral content in either the dominant or the nondominant arm is correlated with weight and sex steroid binding globulin (p less than 0.05 for both parameters). The partial negative correlation of bone mineral content (corrected for weight and sex steroid binding globulin) with plasma testosterone failed to reach statistical significance (p = 0.07). The parsimonious regression equation which best explained the bone mineral content measurements in the nondominant forearm in these men was bone mineral content = 29.1-0.374 (plasma testosterone) + 0.383 (weight) + 0.220 (sex steroid binding globulin) with an R2 value of 29.7%. A similar equation was generated for the dominant arm.

  14. ALTERATIONS IN SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TESTOSTERONE IN JUVENILE AMERICAN ALLIGATORS (ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS) FROM CONTAMINATED LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study was to determine whether hepatic biotransformation of testosterone is normally sexually dimorphic in juvenile alligators and whether living in a contaminated environment affects hepatic dimorphism. Lake Woodruff served as our reference site. Moonshine Bay, ...

  15. [Parental Care and Testosterone Secretion in Forest Rodent Males: Sensitization and Androgenic Stimulation of Parental Behavior].

    PubMed

    Gromov, V S; Osadchuk, L V

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of males of three forest rodent species (Myodes clethrionomys, M. rutilus, Apodemus uralensis) to young animals in comparison with their dimensional characteristics and androgenization level was studied. Demonstration of parental care was detected in males of two vole species (M. clethrionomys and M. rutilus) in case of regular contacts with them (sensitization effect). It was demonstrated that the testosterone concentration in the blood serum, as well as the testosterone content in the testicles of the M. clethrionomys males (demonstrating the parental care), was higher than in the sample of males inclined to infanticide. An increased testosterone content in the testicles and blood serum was also found in the M. rutilus males that had contact with young animas. Neither demonstration of parental care nor significant differences in the testosterone concentration in the testicles and blood serum were detected in the A. uralensis males. PMID:26415283

  16. Increased hair testosterone but unaltered hair cortisol in female patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Dettenborn, Lucia; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Gao, Wei; Spitzer, Carsten; Roepke, Stefan; Otte, Christian; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2016-09-01

    A number of studies have reported on dysfunctions in steroid secretion, including altered cortisol and testosterone levels in borderline personality disorder (BDP) patients compared to healthy controls. The present study extends findings from blood and saliva studies to the cumulative measure of hair steroids. We investigated women with BPD (n=18) and age- and education-matched healthy women (n=17). We did not find differences between BPD patients and healthy women (p=0.40) concerning hair cortisol levels but increased hair testosterone levels among BPD patients compared to controls (p=0.03). These results remained when restricting the analyses to unmedicated patients. Our data indicate altered long-term testosterone but not cortisol levels in females with BPD. Future studies should address the possible impact of altered testosterone on medical illness processes including metabolic syndrome in this population. PMID:27290653

  17. Beyond testosterone cypionate: evidence behind the use of nandrolone in male health and wellness.

    PubMed

    Pan, Michael M; Kovac, Jason R

    2016-04-01

    Characterized by low serum testosterone levels and diverse symptoms, male hypogonadism is a common condition. Current medical treatment focuses on testosterone supplementation using multiple modalities such as injections, gels and pellets. Interestingly, while testosterone is considered an anabolic androgenic steroid, it has not been saddled with the social stigma that other, similar medications have. The goal of this review is to highlight an anabolic steroid, 19-nortestosterone (i.e., nandrolone, deca-durabolin) and illustrate prospective therapeutic applications for male health. Containing a chemical structure similar to testosterone, nandrolone has a higher myotrophic: androgenic ratio resulting in improved effects on muscle mass. Animal models have suggested application in the improvement of joint healing following rotator cuff repair. Minimal literature exists regarding the use of nandrolone and, as such, further human studies are required. PMID:27141449

  18. Testosterone therapy in the new era of Food and Drug Administration oversight

    PubMed Central

    Desroches, Bethany; Kohn, Taylor P.; Welliver, Charles; Pastuszak, Alexander W.

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) introduced changes in labeling and indications for use to testosterone products in 2015 due to a possible increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events. This decision was made based on six clinical studies—some that supported an increased CV risk, and some that did not. Since this decision, additional studies have been published examining the interplay between hypogonadism, CV risk, and testosterone, demonstrating that the risk may be lower than originally estimated. Clinicians are placed in a difficult position, as studies support an increased mortality risk in hypogonadal men, but also an increased risk of CV events in men on testosterone therapy. As a result, many clinicians will be more selective in their prescribing of testosterone. In this review, we examine how these new guidelines arose and how they may affect prescribing habits. PMID:27141448

  19. Testosterone and estradiol produce different effects on cognitive performance in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of castration and hormone treatment on cognitive performance were evaluated in male rats. Castrated animals received either testosterone or estradiol and were compared with gonadally intact animals and with castrated controls. Results revealed a dissociation between the effects of testosterone and estradiol on cognitive performance in male rats. Specifically, estradiol enhanced acquisition of a delayed matching-to-position spatial task, similar to previously published observations in females. In contrast, neither castration nor testosterone treatment had any significant effect on acquisition of the delayed matching-to-position task, but did appear to affect delay-dependent working memory. None of the treatments had any significant effect on acquisition of a configural association negative patterning task, suggesting that effects on the delayed matching-to-position task were not due to effects on motivational factors. These data demonstrate that, as in females, gonadal hormones influence cognitive performance in males and suggest that estradiol and testosterone affect distinct cognitive domains. PMID:15890350

  20. Testosterone affects gaze aversion from angry faces outside of conscious awareness.

    PubMed

    Terburg, David; Aarts, Henk; van Honk, Jack

    2012-05-01

    Throughout vertebrate phylogeny, testosterone has motivated animals to obtain and maintain social dominance-a fact suggesting that unconscious primordial brain mechanisms are involved in social dominance. In humans, however, the prevailing view is that the neocortex is in control of primordial drives, and testosterone is thought to promote social dominance via conscious feelings of superiority, indefatigability, strength, and anger. Here we show that testosterone administration in humans prolongs dominant staring into the eyes of threatening faces that are viewed outside of awareness, without affecting consciously experienced feelings. These findings reveal that testosterone motivates social dominance in humans in much the same ways that it does in other vertebrates: involuntarily, automatically, and unconsciously. PMID:22477106

  1. Seasonal variations in plasma testosterone concentrations in the male marsupial bandicoot Isoodon macrourus in captivity.

    PubMed

    Gemmell, R T; Johnston, G; Barnes, A

    1985-08-01

    Although bandicoots in Queensland mate throughout the year, the majority of births occur in late winter and spring. To ascertain whether this seasonality in mating is manifest in the male reproductive system; body weight, testes size, and plasma testosterone concentration were examined in eight bandicoots throughout the year. The size of the testes increased with age in all bandicoots and there was no evidence of seasonal variation. Plasma testosterone concentrations fluctuated from 0.1 to 70.0 ng/ml and a seasonal cycle was observed, with a nadir in concentrations in March and a peak in September. The peak in testosterone concentration coincided with the period of the year when the majority of births occurred. Subsequent statistical analysis suggested that the annual plasma testosterone profile correlated well with the rate of change of day length. PMID:4018558

  2. Salivary oxytocin increases concurrently with testosterone and time away from home among returning Tsimane’ hunters

    PubMed Central

    Jaeggi, Adrian V.; Trumble, Benjamin C.; Kaplan, Hillard S.; Gurven, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin, testosterone and cortisol can have opposing effects on social behaviour, yet few studies have examined their interactions. We measured changes in salivary oxytocin, testosterone and cortisol among Tsimane’ men returning home after hunting, an ancient context of male status competition, parental investment and cooperation. Contra normal diurnal rhythm, oxytocin increased relative to baseline and this increase was positively associated with duration of the hunt and change in testosterone, but not cortisol, social context, hunting outcome or physical activity. The concurrent increase in endogenous peripheral oxytocin and testosterone is unexpected given their opposing independent effects on social cognition and behaviour, and has not been observed before. We discuss the potential significance of these effects for the biology of pair-bonding, parenting and social foraging in humans and other species. PMID:25788487

  3. Salivary oxytocin increases concurrently with testosterone and time away from home among returning Tsimane' hunters.

    PubMed

    Jaeggi, Adrian V; Trumble, Benjamin C; Kaplan, Hillard S; Gurven, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Oxytocin, testosterone and cortisol can have opposing effects on social behaviour, yet few studies have examined their interactions. We measured changes in salivary oxytocin, testosterone and cortisol among Tsimane' men returning home after hunting, an ancient context of male status competition, parental investment and cooperation. Contra normal diurnal rhythm, oxytocin increased relative to baseline and this increase was positively associated with duration of the hunt and change in testosterone, but not cortisol, social context, hunting outcome or physical activity. The concurrent increase in endogenous peripheral oxytocin and testosterone is unexpected given their opposing independent effects on social cognition and behaviour, and has not been observed before. We discuss the potential significance of these effects for the biology of pair-bonding, parenting and social foraging in humans and other species. PMID:25788487

  4. Variability in diurnal testosterone, exposure to violence, and antisocial behavior in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Peckins, Melissa K; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide evidence of an association between within-person variability in diurnal testosterone over 1 year, lifetime exposure to violence, and the manifestation of antisocial behavior in 135 pubertal-aged adolescents across 1 year. Adolescents' sex and lifetime history of violence exposure moderated the association between within-person variability in diurnal testosterone and antisocial behavior. Furthermore, sex-stratified analyses revealed that lifetime history of exposure to violence moderated the association between within-person variability in diurnal testosterone and antisocial behavior in females only. This report is unique in that it illuminates sex differences in within-person associations among exposure to violence, individual variability in diurnal testosterone, and antisocial behavior. PMID:26439079

  5. Beyond testosterone cypionate: evidence behind the use of nandrolone in male health and wellness

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Characterized by low serum testosterone levels and diverse symptoms, male hypogonadism is a common condition. Current medical treatment focuses on testosterone supplementation using multiple modalities such as injections, gels and pellets. Interestingly, while testosterone is considered an anabolic androgenic steroid, it has not been saddled with the social stigma that other, similar medications have. The goal of this review is to highlight an anabolic steroid, 19-nortestosterone (i.e., nandrolone, deca-durabolin) and illustrate prospective therapeutic applications for male health. Containing a chemical structure similar to testosterone, nandrolone has a higher myotrophic: androgenic ratio resulting in improved effects on muscle mass. Animal models have suggested application in the improvement of joint healing following rotator cuff repair. Minimal literature exists regarding the use of nandrolone and, as such, further human studies are required. PMID:27141449

  6. Relationships of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p’-DDE) with Testosterone Levels in Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Mia V.; Deane, Glenn D.; Nelder, Kyrie R.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Jacobs, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Background: Concern persists over endocrine-disrupting effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on human growth and sexual maturation. Potential effects of toxicant exposures on testosterone levels during puberty are not well characterized. Objectives: In this study we evaluated the relationship between toxicants [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and lead] and testosterone levels among 127 Akwesasne Mohawk males 10 to < 17 years of age with documented toxicant exposures. Methods: Data were collected between February 1996 and January 2000. Fasting blood specimens were collected before breakfast by trained Akwesasne Mohawk staff. Multivariable regression models were used to estimates associations between toxicants and serum testosterone, adjusted for other toxicants, Tanner stage, and potential confounders. Results: The sum of 16 PCB congeners (Σ16PCBs) that were detected in ≥ 50% of the population was significantly and negatively associated with serum testosterone levels, such that a 10% change in exposure was associated with a 5.6% decrease in testosterone (95% CI: –10.8, –0.5%). Of the 16 congeners, the more persistent ones (Σ8PerPCBs) were related to testosterone, whereas the less persistent ones, possibly reflecting more recent exposure, were not. When PCB congeners were subgrouped, the association was significant for the sum of eight more persistent PCBs (5.7% decrease; 95% CI: –11, –0.4%), and stronger than the sum of six less persistent congeners (3.1% decrease; 95% CI: –7.2, 0.9%). p,p´-DDE was positively but not significantly associated with serum testosterone (5.2% increase with a 10% increase in exposure; 95% CI: –0.5, 10.9%). Neither lead nor HCB was significantly associated with testosterone levels. Conclusions: Exposure to PCBs, particularly the more highly persistent congeners, may negatively influence testosterone levels among adolescent males. The

  7. Incestuous paternity detected by STR-typing of chorionic villi isolated from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded abortion material using laser microdissection.

    PubMed

    Robino, Carlo; Barilaro, Maria Rosa; Gino, Sarah; Chiarle, Roberto; Palestro, Giorgio; Torre, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    Microscopic examination of a blood clot expelled by a physically and mentally disabled woman taken to the emergency room because of genital bleeding revealed the presence of chorionic villi encircled by decidua, hemorrhage, and necrosis. In order to identify the father of the product of conception, sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded abortion material were subjected to laser microdissection: DNA extraction from chorionic villi selectively isolated from the surrounding tissues allowed successful STR-typing of fetal cells, which was otherwise prevented by excess maternal DNA. The large number of homozygous genotypes in the fetal profile suggested incestuous paternity. Analysis of reference DNA samples from male relatives excluded the woman's father, paternal grandfather, and maternal grandfather, whereas the obligate paternal alleles of the fetus were constantly present in the genotypes of the woman's brother, clearly demonstrating brother-sister incest (probability of paternity > 99.99999%). PMID:16423229

  8. Localization of major histocompatibility complex class I and II mRNA in human first-trimester chorionic villi by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Lata, J A; Tuan, R S; Shepley, K J; Mulligan, M M; Jackson, L G; Smith, J B

    1992-04-01

    Maternal immune recognition of pregnancy occurs despite the nonexpression of classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigenic determinants by chorionic villous trophoblast, which comprise the major surface area where maternal blood contacts fetal-derived cells. cDNA-mRNA in situ hybridization was used to probe expression of transcripts corresponding to nonpolymorphic MHC determinants in first-trimester chorionic villus samples. The HLA-B7 probe hybridization signals were localized to syncytiotrophoblast and to cells of the mesenchyme but not to villous cytotrophoblast. HLA-G mRNA was found only in syncytiotrophoblast. A DR beta clone hybridized to both villous cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast. The results suggest that expression of trophoblast class I and class II determinants early in gestation (10 wk) may be regulated by posttranscriptional events. This also suggests the potential for maternal antifetal alloimmune responses. PMID:1552281

  9. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Covariation Between DHEA and Testosterone in Adolescent Twins

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Mollie N.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies have shown that pubertal tempo and timing are shaped by genetic and environmental factors, few studies consider to what extent endocrine triggers of puberty are shaped by genetic and environmental factors. Doing so moves the field from examining correlated developmentally-sensitive biomarkers toward understanding what drives those associations. Two puberty related hormones, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone, were assayed from salivary samples in 118 MZ (62 % female), 111 same sex DZ (46 % female) and 103 opposite-sex DZ twin pairs, aged 12–16 years (M = 13.1, SD = 1.3). Pubertal status was assessed with a composite of mother- and self-reports. We used biometric models to estimate the genetic and environmental influences on the variance and covariance in testosterone and DHEA, with and without controlling for their association with puberty, and to test for sex differences. In males, the variance in testosterone and pubertal status was due to shared and non-shared environmental factors; variation in DHEA was due to genetic and non-shared environmental factors. In females, variance in testosterone was due to genetic and non-shared environmental factors; genetic, shared, and non-shared environmental factors contributed equally to variation in DHEA. In males, the testosterone-DHEA covariance was primarily due to shared environmental factors that overlapped with puberty as well as shared and non-shared environmental covariation specific to testosterone and DHEA. In females, the testosterone-DHEA covariance was due to genetic factors overlapping with pubertal status, and shared and non-shared environmental covariation specific to testosterone and DHEA. PMID:25633628

  10. Associations between salivary testosterone and cortisol levels and neonatal health and growth outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, June I.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Su, Xiaogang; McCormick, Kenneth L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Male vulnerability in health and growth outcomes has often been reported in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm neonates. On the basis of gender-difference theories, possible associations were explored between the levels of postnatal salivary testosterone/cortisol and the outcomes of neonatal health/growth. Methods This study used an exploratory and comparative research design. One-hundred-one mother–VLBW preterm neonate pairs were recruited from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a tertiary medical center in the Southeastern, US. Demographic information, health and growth variables of neonates, and pregnancy and labor variables of mothers were obtained from the medical record reviews and interviews of mothers. Saliva samples from each pair were collected between 9 and 60 days of age. The levels of testosterone and cortisol were determined by using an enzyme immunoassay methodology. Results Linear regression analysis showed that neonatal health problems were positively associated with the levels of postnatal salivary testosterone and cortisol, while growth delays were positively associated with the levels of postnatal salivary testosterone after adjusting for the characteristics of neonates and mothers and day of saliva sampling. The salivary levels of testosterone and cortisol were higher in neonates than in mothers. A positive correlation between the levels of testosterone and cortisol was found in neonates and in mothers. Conclusions The level of postnatal salivary testosterone is a more reliable marker in assessing neonatal health and growth outcomes compared to salivary cortisol. Further research on both testosterone and cortisol measurements at various stages during the neonatal period may elucidate further these associations. PMID:22633533

  11. Circulating microRNA-122 as Potential Biomarker for Detection of Testosterone Abuse.

    PubMed

    Salamin, Olivier; Jaggi, Laetitia; Baume, Norbert; Robinson, Neil; Saugy, Martial; Leuenberger, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and thus influence many cellular and physiological processes. miRNAs are also present in cell-free body fluids such as plasma or serum, and these circulating miRNAs are very stable, sensitive, and specific biomarkers of pathophysiological states. In this study, we investigated whether circulating miRNAs could serve as biomarkers of exogenous testosterone administration. Misuse of testosterone as a performance-enhancing drug is thought to be widespread in sports. Detection of testosterone through the urinary steroid profile of the Athlete Biological Passport faces several obstacles, indicating that new biomarkers are required. To this end, we analyzed plasma miRNA levels by high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR. Plasma samples were obtained before and at several time points after transdermal and oral testosterone administration. Screening identified three potential candidate miRNAs that were altered by both routes of testosterone administration. Longitudinal monitoring of these candidates revealed that variation in two of them (miR-150 and miR-342), relative to the corresponding levels in control samples, was testosterone-independent. However, levels of the liver-specific miR-122 increased 3.5-fold 1 day after drug intake. Given that testosterone is metabolized by the liver, this observation suggests that miR-122 in cell-free fluids may be used as a sensitive biomarker of testosterone misuse via multiple dosing routes and could therefore be integrated into a blood-based multiparametric follow-up. PMID:27171140

  12. Influence of testosterone on the docility of German Simmental and Charolais heifers during behavior tests.

    PubMed

    Geburt, Katrin; Piechotta, Marion; König von Borstel, Uta; Gauly, Matthias

    2015-03-15

    In beef cows, docility is important for animal welfare reasons, the farmer's and veterinarian's safety as well as for economic reasons. The hormone testosterone is often mentioned in the context with aggressions and docility. The present study tested the hypothesis that higher testosterone levels in beef cows are associated with more aggressive behavior and lower docility during behavior tests. German Simmental (beef) (n=21) and Charolais heifers (n=20) were subjected with one repetition to a chute test as well as a separation and restraint test. Heart rate, thermal images of the eye, saliva cortisol as well as saliva testosterone were collected along with behavioral parameters during the tests. For all physiological and most of the behavioral parameters significant breed differences were detected. Charolais heifers (0.10 ± 0.01 ng/ml saliva) had considerably higher testosterone levels compared with Simmental heifers (0.04 ± 0.01 ng/ml; P=0.0001). Interestingly, the Charolais heifers expressed a higher docility, so across breeds higher levels of testosterone are associated with higher docility. However, all the parameters presumably linked to stress (heart rate, eye temperature, cortisol levels) generally showed stronger correlations to behavior traits than testosterone (e.g., trait "time in corner" - testosterone: r=0.25 vs. cortisol: r=-0.43 (Fisher's r-to-z: P=0.0985); eye temperature: r=-0.65; (P=0.0005); heart rate: r=-0.60 (P=0.003)). Eye temperature correlated with both heart rate (r=0.68) and cortisol levels (r=0.62; both P<0.0001). Therefore, eye temperature more so than testosterone appears to be a suitable indicator of stress, and as such also an, albeit incomplete, indicator of docility in cattle. PMID:25624109

  13. Circulating microRNA-122 as Potential Biomarker for Detection of Testosterone Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Salamin, Olivier; Jaggi, Laetitia; Baume, Norbert; Robinson, Neil; Saugy, Martial; Leuenberger, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and thus influence many cellular and physiological processes. miRNAs are also present in cell-free body fluids such as plasma or serum, and these circulating miRNAs are very stable, sensitive, and specific biomarkers of pathophysiological states. In this study, we investigated whether circulating miRNAs could serve as biomarkers of exogenous testosterone administration. Misuse of testosterone as a performance-enhancing drug is thought to be widespread in sports. Detection of testosterone through the urinary steroid profile of the Athlete Biological Passport faces several obstacles, indicating that new biomarkers are required. To this end, we analyzed plasma miRNA levels by high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR. Plasma samples were obtained before and at several time points after transdermal and oral testosterone administration. Screening identified three potential candidate miRNAs that were altered by both routes of testosterone administration. Longitudinal monitoring of these candidates revealed that variation in two of them (miR-150 and miR-342), relative to the corresponding levels in control samples, was testosterone-independent. However, levels of the liver-specific miR-122 increased 3.5-fold 1 day after drug intake. Given that testosterone is metabolized by the liver, this observation suggests that miR-122 in cell-free fluids may be used as a sensitive biomarker of testosterone misuse via multiple dosing routes and could therefore be integrated into a blood-based multiparametric follow-up. PMID:27171140

  14. Endogenous testosterone levels are associated with neural activity in men with schizophrenia during facial emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ellen; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Catts, Stanley V; Vercammen, Ans; White, Christopher; Gur, Raquel E; Weickert, Thomas W

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that testosterone may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia given that testosterone has been linked to cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Here, we determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels are related to neural activity in affective processing circuitry in men with schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal changes as 32 healthy controls and 26 people with schizophrenia performed a facial emotion identification task. Whole brain analyses were performed to determine regions of differential activity between groups during processing of angry versus non-threatening faces. A follow-up ROI analysis using a regression model in a subset of 16 healthy men and 16 men with schizophrenia was used to determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels were related to neural activity. Healthy controls displayed significantly greater activation than people with schizophrenia in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). There was no significant difference in circulating testosterone levels between healthy men and men with schizophrenia. Regression analyses between activation in the IFG and circulating testosterone levels revealed a significant positive correlation in men with schizophrenia (r=.63, p=.01) and no significant relationship in healthy men. This study provides the first evidence that circulating serum testosterone levels are related to IFG activation during emotion face processing in men with schizophrenia but not in healthy men, which suggests that testosterone levels modulate neural processes relevant to facial emotion processing that may interfere with social functioning in men with schizophrenia. PMID:25796490

  15. Effects of velvet antler polypeptide on sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in aging male mice

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Zhi-Jun; Tang, Hong-Feng; Tuo, Ying; Xing, Wei-Jie; Ji, Su-Yun; Gao, Yong; Deng, Chun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-month-old male C57BL/6 mice with low serum testosterone levels were used as a late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) animal model for examining the effects of velvet antler polypeptide (VAP) on sexual function and testosterone synthesis. These mice received VAP for 5 consecutive weeks by daily gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg kg−1 body weight per day (n = 10 mice per dose). Control animals (n = 10) received the same weight-based volume of vehicle. Sexual behavior and testosterone levels in serum and interstitial tissue of testis were measured after the last administration of VAP. Furthermore, to investigate the mechanisms of how VAP affects sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in vivo, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in Leydig cells was also measured by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time PCR. As a result, VAP produced a significant improvement in the sexual function of these aging male mice. Serum testosterone level and intratesticular testosterone (ITT) concentration also increased in the VAP-treated groups. The expression of StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD was also found to be enhanced in the VAP-treated groups compared with the control group. Our results suggested that VAP was effective in improving sexual function in aging male mice. The effect of velvet antler on sexual function was due to the increased expression of several rate-limiting enzymes of testosterone synthesis (StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD) and the following promotion of testosterone synthesis in vivo. PMID:26608944

  16. The costs of dominance: testosterone, cortisol and intestinal parasites in wild male chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Male members of primate species that form multi-male groups typically invest considerable effort into attaining and maintaining high dominance rank. Aggressive behaviors are frequently employed to acquire and maintain dominance status, and testosterone has been considered the quintessential physiological moderator of such behaviors. Testosterone can alter both neurological and musculoskeletal functions that may potentiate pre-existing patterns of aggression. However, elevated testosterone levels impose several costs, including increased metabolic rates and immunosuppression. Cortisol also limits immune and reproductive functions. Methods To improve understanding of the relationships between dominance rank, hormones and infection status in nonhuman primates, we collected and analyzed 67 fecal samples from 22 wild adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Samples were analyzed for cortisol and testosterone levels as well as intestinal parasite prevalence and richness. 1,700 hours of observation data were used to determine dominance rank of each animal. We hypothesized that dominance rank would be directly associated with fecal testosterone and cortisol levels and intestinal parasite burden. Results Fecal testosterone (but not cortisol) levels were directly associated with dominance rank, and both testosterone and cortisol were directly associated with intestinal parasite richness (number of unique species recovered). Dominance rank was directly associated with helminth (but not protozoan) parasite richness, so that high ranking animals had higher testosterone levels and greater helminth burden. Conclusions One preliminary interpretation is that the antagonist pleiotropic effects of androgens and glucocorticoids place a cost on attaining and maintaining high dominance rank in this species. Because of the costs associated with elevated steroid levels, dominance status may be an honest signal of

  17. Effects of velvet antler polypeptide on sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in aging male mice.

    PubMed

    Zang, Zhi-Jun; Tang, Hong-Feng; Tuo, Ying; Xing, Wei-Jie; Ji, Su-Yun; Gao, Yong; Deng, Chun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-month-old male C57BL/6 mice with low serum testosterone levels were used as a late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) animal model for examining the effects of velvet antler polypeptide (VAP) on sexual function and testosterone synthesis. These mice received VAP for 5 consecutive weeks by daily gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg kg-1 body weight per day (n = 10 mice per dose). Control animals (n = 10) received the same weight-based volume of vehicle. Sexual behavior and testosterone levels in serum and interstitial tissue of testis were measured after the last administration of VAP. Furthermore, to investigate the mechanisms of how VAP affects sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in vivo, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in Leydig cells was also measured by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time PCR. As a result, VAP produced a significant improvement in the sexual function of these aging male mice. Serum testosterone level and intratesticular testosterone (ITT) concentration also increased in the VAP-treated groups. The expression of StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD was also found to be enhanced in the VAP-treated groups compared with the control group. Our results suggested that VAP was effective in improving sexual function in aging male mice. The effect of velvet antler on sexual function was due to the increased expression of several rate-limiting enzymes of testosterone synthesis (StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD) and the following promotion of testosterone synthesis in vivo. PMID:26608944

  18. Transport of manure-borne testosterone in soils affected by artificial rainfall events.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yong; Zhang, Tian C

    2016-04-15

    Information is very limited on fate and transport of steroidal hormones in soils. In this study, the rainfall simulation tests were conducted with a soil slab reactor to investigate the transport of manure-borne testosterone in a silty-clay loam soil under six controllable operation conditions (i.e., three rainfall intensities and two tillage practices). The properties [e.g., rainwater volume, particle size distribution (PSD)] of the slurry samples collected in runoff and leachate at different time intervals were measured; their correlation with the distribution of testosterone among runoff, leachate and soil matrix was analyzed. The results indicated that more than 88% of the testosterone was held by the applied manure and/or soil matrix even under the rainfall intensity of 100-year return frequency. The runoff facilitated testosterone transport through both dissolved and particle-associated phases, with the corresponding mass ratio being ∼7 to 3. Soil particles collected through runoff were mainly silt-sized aggregates (STA) and clays, indicating the necessity of using partially-dispersed soil particles as testing materials to conduct batch tests (e.g., sorption/desorption). No testosterone was detected at the soil depth >20 cm or in the leachate samples, indicating that transport of testosterone through the soil is very slow when there is no preferential flow. Tillage practice could impede the transport of testosterone in runoff. For the first time, results and the methodologies of this study allow one to quantify the hormone distribution among runoff, leachate and soil matrix at the same time and to obtain a comprehensive picture of the F/T of manure-borne testosterone in soil-water environments. PMID:26922564

  19. Mating season aggression and fecal testosterone levels in male ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Cavigelli, S A; Pereira, M E

    2000-05-01

    The challenge hypothesis (J. C. Wingfield, R. E. Hegner, B. G. Ball, and A. M. Duffy, 1990, Am. Nat. 136, 829-846) proposes that in birds, reptiles, and fish, "the frequency or intensity of reproductive aggression as an effect of T[estosterone] is strongest in situations of social instability, such as during the formation of dominance relationships, the establishment of territorial boundaries, or challenges by a conspecific male for a territory or access to mates" (p. 833). To determine the extension of this hypothesis to mammalian species, we tested predictions of the hypothesis in a nonpaternal, seasonal breeding, prosimian primate (ring-tailed lemurs, Lemur catta). Semi-free-ranging males were studied during periods of social stability (premating period) and instability (mating period). The annual mating season consists of several days during which males fight for access to promiscuous group females as each individually becomes sexually receptive for 1 day. Male rates of aggression were compared to fecal testosterone levels within premating and mating periods. In the premating period male rate of aggression was not significantly correlated with testosterone level. By contrast, during the mating season testosterone and aggression levels were positively and significantly correlated. However, on days just preceding estrus, male rate of aggression was not significantly correlated with testosterone, but on days of estrus, when aggressive challenges peaked sharply, testosterone and aggression were highly positively correlated. These results suggest that the challenge hypothesis applies to mammals as well as to birds, reptiles, and fish. In addition, elevations in testosterone were tightly circumscribed around days of estrus, suggesting a compromise between costs and benefits of elevated testosterone levels. PMID:10868488

  20. Neuroprotective Effects of Testosterone on Motoneuron and Muscle Morphology Following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Byers, James S.; Huguenard, Anna L.; Kuruppu, Dulanji; Liu, Nai-Kui; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Sengelaub, Dale R.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment with testosterone is neuroprotective/neurotherapeutic after a variety of motoneuron injuries. Here we assessed whether testosterone might have similar beneficial effects after spinal cord injury (SCI). Young adult female rats received either sham or T9 spinal cord contusion injuries and were implanted with blank or testosterone-filled Silastic capsules. Four weeks later, motoneurons innervating the vastus lateralis muscle of the quadriceps were labeled with cholera toxin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase, and dendritic arbors were reconstructed in three dimensions. Soma volume, motoneuron number, lesion volume, and tissue sparing were also assessed, as were muscle weight, fiber cross-sectional area, and motor endplate size and density. Contusion injury resulted in large lesions, with no significant differences in lesion volume, percent total volume of lesion, or spared white or gray matter between SCI groups. SCI with or without testosterone treatment also had no effect on the number or soma volume of quadriceps motoneurons. However, SCI resulted in a decrease in dendritic length of quadriceps motoneurons in untreated animals, and this decrease was completely prevented by treatment with testosterone. Similarly, the vastus lateralis muscle weights and fiber cross-sectional areas of untreated SCI animals were smaller than those of sham-surgery controls, and these reductions were both prevented by testosterone treatment. No effects on motor endplate area or density were observed across treatment groups. These findings suggest that regressive changes in motoneuron and muscle morphology seen after SCI can be prevented by testosterone treatment, further supporting a role for testosterone as a neurotherapeutic agent in the injured nervous system. PMID:22314886