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Sample records for chosen pedal rate

  1. Crank inertial load affects freely chosen pedal rate during cycling.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ernst Albin; Jørgensen, Lars Vincents; Jensen, Kurt; Fregly, Benjamin Jon; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2002-02-01

    Cyclists seek to maximize performance during competition, and gross efficiency is an important factor affecting performance. Gross efficiency is itself affected by pedal rate. Thus, it is important to understand factors that affect freely chosen pedal rate. Crank inertial load varies greatly during road cycling based on the selected gear ratio. Nevertheless, the possible influence of crank inertial load on freely chosen pedal rate and gross efficiency has never been investigated. This study tested the hypotheses that during cycling with sub-maximal work rates, a considerable increase in crank inertial load would cause (1) freely chosen pedal rate to increase, and as a consequence, (2) gross efficiency to decrease. Furthermore, that it would cause (3) peak crank torque to increase if a constant pedal rate was maintained. Subjects cycled on a treadmill at 150 and 250W, with low and high crank inertial load, and with preset and freely chosen pedal rate. Freely chosen pedal rate was higher at high compared with low crank inertial load. Notably, the change in crank inertial load affected the freely chosen pedal rate as much as did the 100W increase in work rate. Along with freely chosen pedal rate being higher, gross efficiency at 250W was lower during cycling with high compared with low crank inertial load. Peak crank torque was higher during cycling at 90rpm with high compared with low crank inertial load. Possibly, the subjects increased the pedal rate to compensate for the higher peak crank torque accompanying cycling with high compared with low crank inertial load.

  2. The Reliability of Pedalling Rates Employed in Work Tests on the Bicycle Ergometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolonchuk, W. W.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a group of volunteer subjects could produce and maintain a pedalling cadence within an acceptable range of error. This, in turn, would aid in determining the reliability of pedalling rates employed in work tests on the bicycle ergometer. Forty male college students were randomly given four…

  3. Oxygen consumption of cycle ergometry is nonlinearly related to work rate and pedal rate.

    PubMed

    Londeree, B R; Moffitt-Gerstenberger, J; Padfield, J A; Lottmann, D

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop an equation to predict the oxygen cost of cycle ergometry. Forty subjects performed an incremental cycle ergometer test on three occasions at 50, 70, or 90 rpm in a counterbalanced order. Work rate was incremented every 5 or 6 min when steady rate values were achieved. To ensure accurate work rates, ergometer resistance was calibrated and flywheel revolutions were electronically measured. Oxygen consumption was measured with a computer interfaced system which provided results every minute. Oxygen consumption (mL.min-1) was the dependent variable, and independent variables were work rate (WR in kgm.min-1), pedal rate (rpm), weight (Kg), and gender (males, 0; females, 1). The following nonlinear equation was selected; VO2 = 0.42.WR1.2 + 0.00061.rpm3 + 6.35.Wt + 0.1136.RPM50.WR-0.10144.RPM90-WR-52-Gender, R2 = 0.9961, Sy.x = 106 mL.min-1, where RPM50: 50 rpm = 1, and RPM90: 90 rpm = 1, else = 0. It was concluded that the oxygen cost of cycle ergometry is nonlinearly related to work rate and pedal rate, linearly related to weight, and that females use less oxygen for a particular work rate.

  4. Exercise Therapy for Parkinson's Disease: Pedaling Rate Is Related to Changes in Motor Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Beall, Erik B.; Frankemolle, Anneke M.M.; Penko, Amanda; Phillips, Michael D.; Lowe, Mark J.; Alberts, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Forced-rate lower-extremity exercise has recently emerged as a potential safe and low-cost therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). The efficacy is believed to be dependent on pedaling rate, with rates above the subjects' voluntary exercise rates being most beneficial. In this study, we use functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to further elucidate the mechanism underlying this effect. Twenty-seven PD patients were randomized to complete 8 weeks of forced-rate exercise (FE) or voluntary-rate exercise (VE). Exercise was delivered using a specialized stationary bicycle, which can augment patients' voluntary exercise rates. The FE group received assistance from the cycle. Imaging was conducted at baseline, end of therapy, and after 4 weeks of follow-up. Functional connectivity (FC) was determined via seed-based correlation analysis, using activation-based seeds in the primary motor cortex (M1). The change in FC after exercise was compared using linear correlation with pedaling rate. Results of the correlation analysis showed a strong positive correlation between pedaling rate and change in FC from the most affected M1 to the ipsilateral thalamus. This effect persisted after 4 weeks of follow-up. These results indicate that a plausible mechanism for the therapeutic efficacy of high-rate exercise in PD is that it improves thalamo-cortical connectivity. PMID:26414696

  5. Exercise Therapy for Parkinson's Disease: Pedaling Rate Is Related to Changes in Motor Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Shah, Chintan; Beall, Erik B; Frankemolle, Anneke M M; Penko, Amanda; Phillips, Michael D; Lowe, Mark J; Alberts, Jay L

    2016-02-01

    Forced-rate lower-extremity exercise has recently emerged as a potential safe and low-cost therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). The efficacy is believed to be dependent on pedaling rate, with rates above the subjects' voluntary exercise rates being most beneficial. In this study, we use functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to further elucidate the mechanism underlying this effect. Twenty-seven PD patients were randomized to complete 8 weeks of forced-rate exercise (FE) or voluntary-rate exercise (VE). Exercise was delivered using a specialized stationary bicycle, which can augment patients' voluntary exercise rates. The FE group received assistance from the cycle. Imaging was conducted at baseline, end of therapy, and after 4 weeks of follow-up. Functional connectivity (FC) was determined via seed-based correlation analysis, using activation-based seeds in the primary motor cortex (M1). The change in FC after exercise was compared using linear correlation with pedaling rate. Results of the correlation analysis showed a strong positive correlation between pedaling rate and change in FC from the most affected M1 to the ipsilateral thalamus. This effect persisted after 4 weeks of follow-up. These results indicate that a plausible mechanism for the therapeutic efficacy of high-rate exercise in PD is that it improves thalamo-cortical connectivity.

  6. Pedaling rate is an important determinant of human oxygen uptake during exercise on the cycle ergometer

    PubMed Central

    Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E; Borrani, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of human oxygen uptake () during exercise is often used as an alternative when its direct measurement is not feasible. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) suggests estimating human during exercise on a cycle ergometer through an equation that considers individual's body mass and external work rate, but not pedaling rate (PR). We hypothesized that including PR in the ACSM equation would improve its prediction accuracy. Ten healthy male participants’ (age 19–48 years) were recruited and their steady-state was recorded on a cycle ergometer for 16 combinations of external work rates (0, 50, 100, and 150 W) and PR (50, 70, 90, and 110 revolutions per minute). was calculated by means of a new equation, and by the ACSM equation for comparison. Kinematic data were collected by means of an infrared 3-D motion analysis system in order to explore the mechanical determinants of . Including PR in the ACSM equation improved the accuracy for prediction of sub-maximal during exercise (mean bias 1.9 vs. 3.3 mL O2 kg−1 min−1) but it did not affect the accuracy for prediction of maximal (P > 0.05). Confirming the validity of this new equation, the results were replicated for data reported in the literature in 51 participants. We conclude that PR is an important determinant of human during cycling exercise, and it should be considered when predicting oxygen consumption. PMID:26371230

  7. Selective glycogen depletion pattern in human muscle fibres after exercise of varying intensity and at varying pedalling rates

    PubMed Central

    Gollnick, P. D.; Piehl, Karin; Saltin, B.

    1974-01-01

    1. Glycogen depletion pattern in human skeletal muscle fibres was studied after bicycle exercise of varying intensity performed at different pedalling rates. Work intensities studied were equivalent to 30-150% of V̇O2 max. with pedalling rates of 30-120 rev/min. 2. Glycogen depletion increased dramatically with increasing exercise intensity; depletion was 2·7 and 7·4 times greater respectively at workloads demanding 64 and 84% V̇O2 max. than at workloads calling for 31% V̇O2 max. Even greater rates of glycogen utilization occurred at supramaximal loads. 3. Slow twitch, high oxidative (ST) fibres were the first to lose glycogen (reduced PAS staining) at all workloads below V̇O2 max. Progressive glycogen depletion occurred in fast twitch (FT) fibres as work continued. Large quantities of glycogen remained in the muscle after 3 hr of exercise at low exercise intensity. This was almost exclusively found in FT fibres. At workloads exceeding maximal aerobic power, there was an initial depletion of glycogen in both fibre types. Varying the pedalling rate and, thus, the total force exerted in each pedal thrust had no effect on the pattern of glycogen depletion in the fibres. 4. Results point to primary reliance upon ST fibres during submaximal endurance exercise, FT fibres being recruited after ST fibres are depleted of glycogen. During exertion requiring energy expenditure greater than the maximal aerobic power, both fibre types appeared to be continuously involved in carrying out the exercise. ImagesPlate 2Plate 1 PMID:4278539

  8. Pedaling rate is an important determinant of human oxygen uptake during exercise on the cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E; Borrani, Fabio

    2015-09-01

    Estimation of human oxygen uptake (V˙o2) during exercise is often used as an alternative when its direct measurement is not feasible. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) suggests estimating human V˙o2 during exercise on a cycle ergometer through an equation that considers individual's body mass and external work rate, but not pedaling rate (PR). We hypothesized that including PR in the ACSM equation would improve its V˙o2 prediction accuracy. Ten healthy male participants' (age 19-48 years) were recruited and their steady-state V˙o2 was recorded on a cycle ergometer for 16 combinations of external work rates (0, 50, 100, and 150 W) and PR (50, 70, 90, and 110 revolutions per minute). V˙o2 was calculated by means of a new equation, and by the ACSM equation for comparison. Kinematic data were collected by means of an infrared 3-D motion analysis system in order to explore the mechanical determinants of V˙o2. Including PR in the ACSM equation improved the accuracy for prediction of sub-maximal V˙o2 during exercise (mean bias 1.9 vs. 3.3 mL O2 kg(-1) min(-1)) but it did not affect the accuracy for prediction of maximal V˙o2 (P > 0.05). Confirming the validity of this new equation, the results were replicated for data reported in the literature in 51 participants. We conclude that PR is an important determinant of human V˙o2 during cycling exercise, and it should be considered when predicting oxygen consumption. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  9. Electromyographic analysis of pedaling: a review.

    PubMed

    Hug, François; Dorel, Sylvain

    2009-04-01

    Although pedaling is constrained by the circular trajectory of the pedals, it is not a simple movement. This review attempts to provide an overview of the pedaling technique using an electromyographic (EMG) approach. Literature concerning the electromyographic analysis of pedaling is reviewed in an effort to make a synthesis of the available information, and to point out its relevance for researchers, clinicians and/or cycling/triathlon trainers. The first part of the review depicts methodological aspects of the EMG signal recording and processing. We show how the pattern of muscle activation during pedaling can be analyzed in terms of muscle activity level and muscle activation timing. Muscle activity level is generally quantified with root mean square or integrated EMG values. Muscle activation timing is studied by defining EMG signal onset and offset times that identify the duration of EMG bursts and, more recently, by the determination of a lag time maximizing the cross-correlation coefficient. In the second part of the review, we describe whether the patterns of the lower limb muscles activity are influenced by numerous factors affecting pedaling such as power output, pedaling rate, body position, shoe-pedal interface, training status and fatigue. Some research perspectives linked to pedaling performance are discussed throughout the manuscript and in the conclusion.

  10. Analysis of EMG measurements during bicycle pedalling.

    PubMed

    Jorge, M; Hull, M L

    1986-01-01

    Activity of eight leg muscles has been monitored for six test subjects while pedalling a bicycle on rollers in the laboratory. Each electromyogram (EMG) data channel was digitized at a sampling rate of 2 kHz by a minicomputer. Data analysis entailed generating plots of both EMG activity regions and integrated EMG (IEMG). For each test subject, data were recorded for five cases of pedalling conditions. The different pedalling conditions were defined to explore a variety of research hypotheses. This exploration has led to the following conclusions: Muscular activity levels of the quadriceps are influenced by the type of shoes worn and activity levels increase with soft sole shoes as opposed to cycling shoes with cleats and toeclips. EMG activity patterns are not strongly related to pedalling conditions (i.e. load, seat height and shoe type). The level of muscle activity, however, is significantly affected by pedalling conditions. Muscular activity bears a complex relationship with seat height and quadriceps activity level decreases with greater seat height. Agonist (i.e. hamstrings) and antagonist (i.e. quadriceps) muscles of the hip/knee are active simultaneously during leg extension. Regions of peak activity levels, however, do not overlap. The lack of significant cocontraction of agonist/antagonist muscles enables muscle forces during pedalling action to be computed by solving a series of equilibrium problems over different regions of the crank cycle. Regions are defined and a solution procedure is outlined.

  11. Haptic gas pedal feedback.

    PubMed

    Mulder, M; Mulder, M; van Paassen, M M; Abbink, D A

    2008-11-01

    Active driver support systems either automate a control task or present warnings to drivers when their safety is seriously degraded. In a novel approach, utilising neither automation nor discrete warnings, a haptic gas pedal (accelerator) interface was developed that continuously presents car-following support information, keeping the driver in the loop. This interface was tested in a fixed-base driving simulator. Twenty-one drivers between the ages of 24 and 30 years participated in a driving experiment to investigate the effects of haptic gas pedal feedback on car-following behaviour. Results of the experiment indicate that when haptic feedback was presented to the drivers, some improvement in car-following performance was achieved, while control activity decreased. Further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of the system in more varied driving conditions. Haptics is an under-used modality in the application of human support interfaces, which usually draw on vision or hearing. This study demonstrates how haptics can be used to create an effective driver support interface.

  12. Cycling efficiency and pedalling frequency in road cyclists.

    PubMed

    Chavarren, J; Calbet, J A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of pedalling rate on cycling efficiency in road cyclists. Seven competitive road cyclists participated in the study. Four separate experimental sessions were used to determine oxygen uptake (VO(2)) and carbon dioxide output (VCO(2)) at six exercise intensities that elicited a VO(2) equivalent to 54, 63, 73, 80, 87 and 93% of maximum VO(2) (VO(2max)). Exercise intensities were administered in random order, separated by rest periods of 3-5 min; four pedalling frequencies (60, 80, 100 and 120 rpm) were randomly tested per intensity. The oxygen cost of cycling was always lower when the exercise was performed at 60 rpm. At each exercise intensity, VO(2) showed a parabolic dependence on pedalling rate (r = 0.99-1, all P < 0.01) with a curvature that flattened as intensity increased. Likewise, the relationship between power output and gross efficiency (GE) was also best fitted to a parabola (r = 0.94-1, all P < 0.05). Regardless of pedalling rate, GE improved with increasing exercise intensity (P < 0.001). Conversely, GE worsened with pedalling rate (P < 0.001). Interestingly, the effect of pedalling cadence on GE decreased as a linear function of power output (r = 0.98, n = 6, P < 0.001). Similar delta efficiency (DE) values were obtained regardless of pedalling rate [21.5 (0.8), 22.3 (1.2), 22.6 (0.6) and 23.9 (1.0)%, for the 60, 80, 100 and 120 rpm, mean (SEM) respectively]. However, in contrast to GE, DE increased as a linear function of pedalling rate (r = 0.98, P < 0.05). The rate at which pulmonary ventilation increased was accentuated for the highest pedalling rate (P < 0.05), even after accounting for differences in exercise intensity and VO(2) (P < 0.05). Pedalling rate per se did not have any influence on heart rate which, in turn, increased linearly with VO(2). These results may help us to understand why competitive cyclists often pedal at cadences of 90-105 rpm to sustain a high power output during

  13. Piloted Simulation Study of Rudder Pedal Force/Feel Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Ronald A.

    2007-01-01

    A piloted, fixed-base simulation was conducted in 2006 to determine optimum rudder pedal force/feel characteristics for transport aircraft. As part of this research, an evaluation of four metrics for assessing rudder pedal characteristics previously presented in the literature was conducted. This evaluation was based upon the numerical handling qualities ratings assigned to a variety of pedal force/feel systems used in the simulation study. It is shown that, with the inclusion of a fifth metric, most of the rudder pedal force/feel system designs that were rated poorly by the evaluation pilots could be identified. It is suggested that these metrics form the basis of a certification requirement for transport aircraft.

  14. The relationship between cadence, pedalling technique and gross efficiency in cycling.

    PubMed

    Leirdal, Stig; Ettema, Gertjan

    2011-12-01

    Technique and energy saving are two variables often considered as important for performance in cycling and related to each other. Theoretically, excellent pedalling technique should give high gross efficiency (GE). The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between pedalling technique and GE. 10 well-trained cyclists were measured for GE, force effectiveness (FE) and dead centre size (DC) at a work rate corresponding to ~75% of VO(2)max during level and inclined cycling, seat adjusted forward and backward, at three different cadences around their own freely chosen cadence (FCC) on an ergometer. Within subjects, FE, DC and GE decreased as cadence increased (p < 0.001). A strong relationship between FE and GE was found, which was to great extent explained by FCC. The relationship between cadence and both FE and GE, within and between subjects, was very similar, irrespective of FCC. There was no difference between level and inclined cycling position. The seat adjustments did not affect FE, DC and GE or the relationship between them. Energy expenditure is strongly coupled to cadence, but force effectiveness, as a measure for pedalling technique, is not likely the cause of this relationship. FE, DC and GE are not affected by body orientation or seat adjustments, indicating that these parameters and the relationship between them are robust to coordinative challenges within a range of cadence, body orientation and seat position that is used in regular cycling.

  15. Selection of Pedaling Load and Design of Electric-Cart Control System with Continuously Adjustable Pedal Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Jin-Hua; Ishii, Shota; Yokota, Sho; Sakuma, Yuji; Ohyama, Yasuhiro

    A previously developed electric cart was improved by installing a knob that allows the driver to continuously vary the pedal load between the strenuous and assisted modes. This paper explains how the pedal load is determined and a design method for the cart control system. First, the largest pedal load is determined from the standpoint of ergonomics on the basis of the rating of perceived exertion and the Karvonen formula with a special focus on the motor function of the elderly. Then, a gain-scheduling cart control system for any pedal load in the allowed range is described, and a stability condition is derived using dynamic parallel distributed compensation. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of the cart control system.

  16. Needling versus liquid nitrogen cryotherapy for the treatment of pedal warts a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Daniel J; Brimage, Jessica T; Naraghi, Reza N; Bower, Virginia M

    2014-07-01

    We hypothesized that needling of a pedal wart creates local inflammation and a subsequent cell-mediated immune response (CMIR) against human papillomavirus. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether needling to induce a CMIR against human papillomavirus is an effective treatment for pedal warts compared with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. A secondary objective was to investigate whether the CMIR induced by needling is effective against satellite pedal warts. Eligible patients with pedal warts were randomly allocated to receive either needling or liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Only the primary pedal wart was treated during the study. Follow-up was 12 weeks, with outcome assessments made independently under blinded circumstances. Of 37 patients enrolled in the study, 18 were allocated to receive needling and 19 to receive liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Regression of the primary pedal wart occurred in 64.7% of the needling group (11 of 17) and in 6.2% of the liquid nitrogen cryotherapy group (1 of 16) (P =  .001). No significant relationship was found between needling of the primary pedal wart and regression of satellite pedal warts (P = .615) or complete pedal wart regression (P = .175). There was no significant difference in pain, satisfaction, or cosmesis between the two groups. The regression rate of the primary pedal wart was significantly higher in the needling group compared with the liquid nitrogen cryotherapy group.

  17. Sensor-based nitrogen applications out-performed producer-chosen rates for corn in on-farm demonstrations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Optimal nitrogen fertilizer rate for corn can vary substantially within and among fields. Current N management practices do not address this variability. Crop reflectance sensors offer the potential to diagnose crop N need and control N application rates at a fine spatial scale. Our objective was...

  18. Asymmetrical Pedaling Patterns in Parkinson's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Penko, Amanda L.; Hirsch, Joshua R.; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Martin, Philip E.; Blackburn, Gordon; Alberts, Jay L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 1.5 million Americans are affected by Parkinson's disease [1] which includes the symptoms of postural instability and gait dysfunction. Currently, clinical evaluations of postural instability and gait dysfunction consist of a subjective rater assessment of gait patterns using items from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, and assessments can be insensitive to the effectiveness of medical interventions. Current research suggests the importance of cycling for Parkinson's disease patients, and while Parkinson's gait has been evaluated in previous studies, little is known about lower extremity control during cycling. The purpose of this study is to examine the lower extremity coordination patterns of Parkinson's patients during cycling. Methods Twenty five participants, ages 44-72, with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease participated in an exercise test on a cycle ergometer that was equipped with pedal force measurements. Crank torque, crank angle and power produced by right and left leg were measured throughout the test to calculate Symmetry Index at three stages of exercise (20 Watt, 60 Watt, maximum performance). Findings Decreases in Symmetry Index were observed for average power output in Parkinson's patients as workload increased. Maximum power Symmetry Index showed a significant difference in symmetry between performance at both the 20 Watt and 60 Watt stage and the maximal resistance stage. Minimum power Symmetry Index did not show significant differences across the stages of the test. While lower extremity asymmetries were present in Parkinson's patients during pedaling, these asymmetries did not correlate to postural instability and gait dysfunction Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores. Interpretation This pedaling analysis allows for a more sensitive measure of lower extremity function than the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and may help to provide unique insight into current and

  19. Recurrence of Diabetic Pedal Ulcerations Following Tendo-Achilles Lengthening

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Richard D.; Hlad, Lee M.; McKenna, Danielle R.

    2011-01-01

    Foot and ankle surgeons are frequently challenged by the devastating systemic consequences of diabetes mellitus manifested through neuropathy, integumentary and joint breakdown, delayed healing, decreased ability to fight infection, and fragile tendon/ligaments. Diabetic neuropathic pedal ulcerations lead to amputations at an alarming rate and also carry a high mortality rate. This article will discuss causes of diabetic pedal ulcerations that persist or recur after tendo-Achilles lengthening and will highlight areas that need to be addressed by the practitioner such as infection, vascular and nutritional status, glucose control, off-loading, biomechanics, and patient compliance. PMID:22396818

  20. Development of objective discomfort evaluation indicators for a task-oriented motion using less constrained motion concept: application to automotive pedal clutching task.

    PubMed

    Romain, Pannetier; Xuguang, Wang

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method to develop objective discomfort evaluation indicators for a task oriented motion using the concept of less constrained movement. The basic idea is to compare imposed and less constrained movements in order to identify relevant biomechanical parameters for defining objective discomfort indicators. The task of automotive pedal clutching was chosen for illustrating the proposed method. Based on discomfort questionnaire and motion analysis of the experimental data, four discomfort indicators were proposed. Two of them were based on the ankle joint angle around flexion/extension axis at the beginning and the end of the clutch pedal depression. The third one was defined using knee flexion/extension joint torque at the end of the clutch pedal depression. The last indicator was defined as the relative lateral position of the heel compared to the average pedal lateral position for less constrained configurations. A global discomfort function was also defined as a weighted sum of all indicators. Globally, the proposed global discomfort indicator succeeded in differentiating the tested configurations in agreement with experimental observation. As expected, less discomfort rating is obtained for less constrained movement when compared with the corresponding imposed one.

  1. 16 CFR 1512.7 - Requirements for pedals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.7 Requirements for pedals. (a) Construction. Pedals... designed for optional use of toe clips shall have tread surfaces. (c) Pedal reflectors. Pedals for bicycles other than sidewalk bicycles shall have reflectors in accordance with § 1512.16(e). Pedals for sidewalk...

  2. 16 CFR 1512.7 - Requirements for pedals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.7 Requirements for pedals. (a) Construction. Pedals... designed for optional use of toe clips shall have tread surfaces. (c) Pedal reflectors. Pedals for bicycles other than sidewalk bicycles shall have reflectors in accordance with § 1512.16(e). Pedals for sidewalk...

  3. 16 CFR 1512.7 - Requirements for pedals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.7 Requirements for pedals. (a) Construction. Pedals... designed for optional use of toe clips shall have tread surfaces. (c) Pedal reflectors. Pedals for bicycles other than sidewalk bicycles shall have reflectors in accordance with § 1512.16(e). Pedals for sidewalk...

  4. A Piloted Simulator Evaluation of Transport Aircraft Rudder Pedal Force/Feel Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    2008-01-01

    A piloted simulation study has been conducted in a fixed-base research simulator to assess the directional handling qualities for various rudder pedal feel characteristics for commercial transport airplanes. That is, the effects of static pedal force at maximum pedal travel, breakout force, and maximum pedal travel on handling qualities were studied. An artificial maneuver with a severe lateral wind shear and requiring runway tracking at an altitude of 50 feet in a crosswind was used to fully exercise the rudder pedals. Twelve active airline pilots voluntarily participated in the study and flew approximately 500 maneuvers. The pilots rated the maneuver performance with various rudder pedal feel characteristics using the Cooper- Harper rating scale. The test matrix had 15 unique combinations of the 3 static pedal feel characteristics. A 10-term, second-order equation for the Cooper-Harper pilot rating as a function of the 3 independent pedal feel parameters was fit to the data. The test matrix utilized a Central Composite Design that is very efficient for fitting an equation of this form. The equation was used to produce contour plots of constant pilot ratings as a function of two of the parameters with the third parameter held constant. These contour plots showed regions of good handling qualities as well as regions of degraded handling qualities. In addition, a numerical equation solver was used to predict the optimum parameter values (those with the lowest pilot rating). Quantitative pilot performance data were also analyzed. This analysis found that the peak values of the cross power spectra of the pedal force and heading angle could be used to quantify the tendency toward directional pilot induced oscillations (PIO). Larger peak values of the cross power spectra were correlated with larger (degraded) Cooper-Harper pilot ratings. Thus, the subjective data (Cooper-Harper pilot ratings) were consistent with the objective data (peak values of the cross power

  5. Safety Pedal for Foot-Operated Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    Ninged structure prevents inadvertent use. Forward motion of foot on yoke plate necessary to operate brake pedal. Downward force on yoke plate turns locking/releasing laver, which then pushes locking pin into indexing hole. New pedal improves both productivity and safety of power brakes and such other machines as metal shearers and punch presses.

  6. 16 CFR 1512.7 - Requirements for pedals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... only be on the surface presented to the rider's foot. (b) Toe clips. Pedals intended to be used only with toe clips shall have toe clips securely attached to them and need not have tread surfaces. Pedals designed for optional use of toe clips shall have tread surfaces. (c) Pedal reflectors. Pedals for...

  7. 16 CFR 1512.7 - Requirements for pedals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... only be on the surface presented to the rider's foot. (b) Toe clips. Pedals intended to be used only with toe clips shall have toe clips securely attached to them and need not have tread surfaces. Pedals designed for optional use of toe clips shall have tread surfaces. (c) Pedal reflectors. Pedals for...

  8. Use of the Wattbike Cycle Ergometer for Attenuation of Bilateral Pedaling Asymmetry in Trained Cyclists.

    PubMed

    Kell, David T; Greer, Beau K

    2017-02-01

    Kell, DT and Greer, BK. Use of the Wattbike cycle ergometer for attenuation of bilateral pedaling asymmetry in trained cyclists. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 468-473, 2017-Experienced cyclists typically pedal with a 5-20% bilateral asymmetry in regards to power output. The aim of this study was to determine if visual feedback (VF) through the Wattbike cycle ergometer is an effective tool in reducing bilateral pedaling asymmetry in trained cyclists. Twelve subjects completed three 10-minute cycling trials on the Wattbike at a power output consistent with 60% V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak. The 3 trials consisted of a baseline (BASE) trial in which cyclists pedaled without instruction, a conscious control (CC) trial during which cyclists attempted to pedal symmetrically, and another trial in which cyclists attempted to pedal symmetrically while using VF of their bilateral power outputs (%) through the Wattbike. Although the BASE trial was always performed first, the order of the CC and VF trials was counterbalanced to minimize the influence of the order effect. For the primary analysis, the Asymmetry Index percentages (AI%s) for the 3 trials were not significantly different (p > 0.05). However, secondary analysis of subjects who had baseline AI%s within the normal, reported range showed significantly decreased AI%s during the VF trial as compared with BASE (p ≤ 0.05). These results suggest that cyclists with normal AI%s can pedal more symmetrically while using VF of their asymmetry as opposed to merely attempting conscious correction without feedback. It is currently unknown whether adopting a more bilaterally symmetrical pedaling style will improve cycling performance or decrease injury rates in cyclists.

  9. Determination of the peak power output during maximal brief pedalling bouts.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Y; Mutoh, Y; Miyashita, M

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose an optimization procedure for determining power output during very brief maximal pedalling exercise. Twenty-six healthy male students (21-28 years) performed anaerobic tests on a Monark bicycle ergometer with maximal effort for less than 10 s at eight different loads ranging from 28.1 to 84.2 Nm in pedalling moment. The maximal pedalling rate was determined from the minimal time required for one rotation of the cycle wheel. Pedalling rate decreased linearly with the load. The relationship between load and pedalling rate was represented by two linear regression equations for each subject; one regression equation was determined from eight pairs of pedalling rates and loads (r less than -0.976) and the other from three pairs (at 28.1, 46.8, 65.5 Nm; r less than -0.969). The two regression coefficients of the respective regression equations were almost identical. Mean +/- S.D. of maximal power output (Pmax) which was determined for each subject based on the two linear regression equations for eight pairs and three pairs of pedalling rates and loads was 930 +/- 187 W (13.4 +/- 1.6 W kgBW-1) and 927 +/- 187 W (13.4 +/- 1.6 W kgBW-1), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the values of Pmax which were obtained from each equation. It was concluded that maximal anaerobic power could be simply determined by performing maximal cycling exercise at three different loads.

  10. Foot Pedals for Spacecraft Manual Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Morin, Lee M.; McCabe, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Fifty years ago, NASA decided that the cockpit controls in spacecraft should be like the ones in airplanes. But controls based on the stick and rudder may not be best way to manually control a vehicle in space. A different method is based on submersible vehicles controlled with foot pedals. A new pilot can learn the sub's control scheme in minutes and drive it hands-free. We are building a pair of foot pedals for spacecraft control, and will test them in a spacecraft flight simulator.

  11. Evaluation of mechanical tractor pedal extensions.

    PubMed

    Kelso, S A; Stangherlin, A M; Mann, D D

    2008-10-01

    Many farmers with disabilities choose to modify their work environments to accommodate their personal abilities; however, modified tractors may present greater risk to the operator as they are often one-of-a-kind designs that have not been subjected to rigorous safety testing. The objective of this research was to evaluate mechanical tractor pedal , extensions from a safety perspective. This objective was achieved by identifying potential hazards associated with the introduction of a pedal extension into the cab environment so that both existing and novel designs could be compared using a common methodology. Based on review of the published literature, 19 potential hazards associated with the introduction of a pedal extension into the cab of a tractor were identified. A hazard self-assessment worksheet (HSAW), created based on the 19 hazards, was validated through a pilot study. The overall inter-rater reliability and concurrent criterion validity proved to be acceptable. With the use of the HSAW six pedal extensions (three existing designs and three novel designs) were evaluated by 14 experts. Statistical analysis of the results did not identify a "best" design; however, several important trends were observed. Four of the six designs tended to block access to the exit path. The two designs that did not block access to the exit path might be considered to be the best designs for the tractors used in this study, but other designs likely would have been acceptable if they had been custom-fit for these tractors. The results of this research suggest that custom fabrication of pedal extensions for each specific tractor will likely yield the safest work environment for those who choose to use this assistive technology.

  12. Optimization of vehicle accelerator-brake pedal foot travel time.

    PubMed

    Glass, S W; Suggs, C W

    1977-12-01

    This study was directed towards reducing the lag time between stimulus and incidence of braking. The effect of the relative vertical heights of the brake and accelerator pedals on foot travel time was the subject of the first part of the investigation. In the second part, two new pedal designs in which the accelerator was mounted directly on the brake pedal were evaluated. A significant reduction in foot travel time of approximately 12.5% was realised by locating the accelerator pedal 25-50 mm (1-2 in) higher than the brake pedal. Mounting of the accelerator pedal adjacent to or directly on the brake pedal allowed reductions in braking lag time of 46% to 74%.

  13. Voluntary Movement Frequencies in Submaximal One- and Two-Legged Knee Extension Exercise and Pedaling

    PubMed Central

    Stang, Julie; Wiig, Håvard; Hermansen, Marte; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of behavior and control of human voluntary rhythmic stereotyped leg movements is useful in work to improve performance, function, and rehabilitation of exercising, healthy, and injured humans. The present study aimed at adding to the existing understanding within this field. To pursue the aim, correlations between freely chosen movement frequencies in relatively simple, single-joint, one- and two-legged knee extension exercise were investigated. The same was done for more complex, multiple-joint, one- and two-legged pedaling. These particular activities were chosen because they could be considered related to some extent, as they shared a key aspect of knee extension, and because they at the same time were different. The activities were performed at submaximal intensities, by healthy individuals (n = 16, thereof eight women; 23.4 ± 2.7 years; 1.70 ± 0.11 m; 68.6 ± 11.2 kg). High and fair correlations (R-values of 0.99 and 0.75) occurred between frequencies generated with the dominant leg and the nondominant leg during knee extension exercise and pedaling, respectively. Fair to high correlations (R-values between 0.71 and 0.95) occurred between frequencies performed with each of the two legs in an activity, and the two-legged frequency performed in the same type of activity. In general, the correlations were higher for knee extension exercise than for pedaling. Correlations between knee extension and pedaling frequencies were of modest occurrence. The correlations between movement frequencies generated separately by each of the legs might be interpreted to support the following working hypothesis, which was based on existing literature. It is likely that involved central pattern generators (CPGs) of the two legs share a common frequency generator or that separate frequency generators of each leg are attuned via interneuronal connections. Further, activity type appeared to be relevant. Thus, the apparent common rhythmogenesis for the two legs appeared

  14. Foot placement during error and pedal applications in naturalistic driving.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuqing; Boyle, Linda Ng; McGehee, Daniel; Roe, Cheryl A; Ebe, Kazutoshi; Foley, James

    2017-02-01

    Data from a naturalistic driving study was used to examine foot placement during routine foot pedal movements and possible pedal misapplications. The study included four weeks of observations from 30 drivers, where pedal responses were recorded and categorized. The foot movements associated with pedal misapplications and errors were the focus of the analyses. A random forest algorithm was used to predict the pedal application types based the video observations, foot placements, drivers' characteristics, drivers' cognitive function levels and anthropometric measurements. A repeated multinomial logit model was then used to estimate the likelihood of the foot placement given various driver characteristics and driving scenarios. The findings showed that prior foot location, the drivers' seat position, and the drive sequence were all associated with incorrect foot placement during an event. The study showed that there is a potential to develop a driver assistance system that can reduce the likelihood of a pedal error.

  15. Effect of an Adjustable Pedal Shaft on ROM and Phasic Muscle Activity of the Knee during Bicycling.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, C; Cornwall, M W

    1989-01-01

    From the Department of Physical Therapy, Louisiana State University Medical Center, New Orleans, LA. The purpose of this study was to determine if a shortened pedal shaft in comparison to a standard length pedal shaft significantly changed the amount of flexion required at the knee joint during cycling. In addition, was the phasic activity of the lower extremity musculature altered as a result of cycling under the two different conditions? Six healthy subjects pedaled at a steady rate of 75 rpm on a stationary bicycle with a standard (17.0 cm) and a shortened (8.9 cm) pedal shaft. The results of a paired t-test showed that significantly (p < 0.05) less knee flexion was needed with the shortened pedal shaft compared to the standard length shaft. Comparison of each muscle's phasic activity showed similar activity patterns between the two conditions. The onset of EMG activity, however, was found to be significantly later (p < 0.05) in the rectus femoris muscle while pedaling with the shortened shaft. In addition, the termination of EMG activity in the gastrocnemius muscle was found to occur significantly sooner (p < 0.05) during the shortened pedal shaft condition. The results of this study indicate that a shortened bicycle pedal shaft reduces the amount of knee flexion required for cycling without greatly altering the muscle contraction patterns of the muscles studied. It is the opinion of the authors that such a device will allow patients with moderately restricted ROM of the knee to utilize a stationary bicycle in their rehabilitation program. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1989;11(6):259-262.

  16. A theoretical analysis of an optimal chainring shape to maximize crank power during isokinetic pedaling.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Jeffery W; Neptune, Richard R

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have sought to improve cycling performance by altering various aspects of the pedaling motion using novel crank-pedal mechanisms and non-circular chainrings. However, most designs have been based on empirical data and very few have provided significant improvements in cycling performance. The purpose of this study was to use a theoretical framework that included a detailed musculoskeletal model driven by individual muscle actuators, forward dynamic simulations and design optimization to determine if cycling performance (i.e., maximal power output) could be improved by optimizing the chainring shape to maximize average crank power during isokinetic pedaling conditions. The optimization identified a consistent non-circular chainring shape at pedaling rates of 60, 90 and 120 rpm with an average eccentricity of 1.29 that increased crank power by an average of 2.9% compared to a conventional circular chainring. The increase in average crank power was the result of the optimal chainrings slowing down the crank velocity during the downstroke (power phase) to allow muscles to generate power longer and produce more external work. The data also showed that chainrings with higher eccentricity increased negative muscle work following the power phase due to muscle activation-deactivation dynamics. Thus, the chainring shape that maximized average crank power balanced these competing demands by providing enough eccentricity to increase the external work generated by muscles during the power phase while minimizing negative work during the subsequent recovery phase.

  17. Influence of saddle setback on pedalling technique effectiveness in cycling.

    PubMed

    Menard, Mathieu; Domalain, Mathieu; Decatoire, Arnaud; Lacouture, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Besides its regulation by Union Cycliste Internationale, the evidence relating saddle setback to pedalling performance remains inconclusive. This study investigates the influence of saddle setback on pedalling effectiveness through two indexes: an index of pedalling force effectiveness and an index of pedalling work effectiveness. Eleven cyclists were assessed six saddle setback conditions while pedalling at a steady power output of 200 W and cadence of 90 rpm. A force sensor was integrated within the seat post to compute the centre of pressure on the saddle. From instrumented pedals, an index of force effectiveness (ratio between the force directed perpendicular to the crank arm and the total force applied to the pedal) and an index of work effectiveness (based on the minimisation of negative crank work) were calculated. In comparison with a forward position, sitting backward significantly decreased 5% cumulative total work, increased index of work effectiveness (84.2 ± 3.7 vs. 82.0 ± 4.7%), and increased index of force effectiveness (41.7 ± 2.9 vs. 39.9 ± 3.7 and 36.9 ± 0.7%). Thus, while it was previously reported that sitting more forward favours maximal power, this study demonstrates that it also leads to a decreased effectiveness in steady-state pedalling.

  18. Evaluation of a combined brake-accelerator pedal.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Rickard

    2002-03-01

    Over the years, designers have developed various combined brake-accelerator pedals in an effort to eliminate the operator's risk of pressing the wrong pedal as well as to reduce his or her reaction time in braking. The goal of this study is to highlight problems that drivers may face when they switch between pedal systems. Eighteen male and female drivers varying in age participated in the study. The evaluation was carried out during special driving maneuvers and in normal traffic in which all drivers used the same test vehicle. The results indicate that drivers were able to learn the new combined pedal mechanism quickly and effortlessly and that the number of mistakes was extremely low during the acquisition phase in learning the new system. The drivers reported that they preferred the combined brake-accelerator pedal to the conventional pedals, noting that the combined pedal offered greater physical comfort and was considerably more natural to operate. Because of the risk of compensation, whereby increased safety is forfeited as a result of reduced safety margins, future experiments of the new combined pedal are desirable.

  19. A haptic pedal for surgery assistance.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Iñaki; Gil, Jorge Juan; Louredo, Marcos

    2014-09-01

    The research and development of mechatronic aids for surgery is a persistent challenge in the field of robotic surgery. This paper presents a new haptic pedal conceived to assist surgeons in the operating room by transmitting real-time surgical information through the foot. An effective human-robot interaction system for medical practice must exchange appropriate information with the operator as quickly and accurately as possible. Moreover, information must flow through the appropriate sensory modalities for a natural and simple interaction. However, users of current robotic systems might experience cognitive overload and be increasingly overwhelmed by data streams from multiple modalities. A new haptic channel is thus explored to complement and improve existing systems. A preliminary set of experiments has been carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed system in a virtual surgical drilling task. The results of the experiments show the effectiveness of the haptic pedal in providing surgical information through the foot. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Foot pedal operated fluid type exercising device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crum, G. W.; Sauter, R. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A foot pedal operated exercising device is reported that contains a dynamometer formed of a pair of cylinders each containing a piston. The pistons are linked to each other. The upper portions of the two cylinders are joined together by a common opening to provide a common fluid reservoir and each piston is provided with a one way check valve to maintain an adequate supply of working fluid. Fluid from the driven cylinder is transmitted to the other cylinder through separate constant force spring biased valves each valve takes the predominant portion of the pressure drop thereby providing a constant force hydraulic dynamometer. A device is provided to determine the amount of movement of piston travel.

  1. The effect of tempo on pedal timing in piano performance.

    PubMed

    Repp, B H

    1997-01-01

    The temporal coordination of hand and foot actions in piano performance is an interesting instance of highly practiced, perceptually guided complex motor behavior. To gain some insight into the nature of this coordination, ten pianists were asked to play two excerpts from the piano literature that required repeated use of the damper pedal to connect successive chords. Each excerpt was played at three prescribed tempos on a Yamaha Disklavier and was recorded in MIDI format. The question of interest was whether and how changes in tempo would affect the timing of pedal releases and depressions within the periods defined by successive manual chord onsets. Theoretical possibilities ranged from absolute invariance (variable phase relationships) to relative invariance of pedal timing (constant phase relationships). The results show that, typically, the timing of pedal actions is neither absolutely nor relatively invariant: As the tempo increases, both pedal releases and depressions usually occur a little sooner and pedal changes (release-depression sequences) are executed a little more quickly, but these effects are proportionally smaller than the changes in manual (and pedal) period duration. Since this may be due to unequal changes in peripheral hand and foot kinematics with tempo, it remains possible that there is invariance of either kind at the level of central motor commands. However, it is the peripheral timing that produces the acoustic consequences musicians try to achieve.

  2. Injuries to pedal cyclists on New Zealand roads, 1988-2007.

    PubMed

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Woodward, Alistair; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2010-10-30

    The risk of injury is one of the major barriers to engaging in cycling. We investigated exposure-based rates and profiles of traffic injuries sustained by pedal cyclists that resulted in death or hospital inpatient treatment in New Zealand, one of the most car dependent countries. Pedal cyclist traffic injuries were identified from the Mortality Collection and the National Minimum Dataset. Total time spent cycling was used as the measure of exposure and computed from National Household Travel Surveys. Analyses were undertaken for the periods 1988-91, 1996-99 and 2003-07 in relation to other major road users and by age, gender and body region affected. A modified Barell matrix was used to characterise the profiles of pedal cyclist injuries by body region affected and nature of injury. Cyclists had the second highest rate of traffic injuries compared to other major road user categories and the rate increased from 1996-99 to 2003-07. During 2003-07, 31 injuries occurred per million hours spent cycling. Non-collision crashes (40%) and collisions with a car, pick-up truck or van (26%) accounted for two thirds of the cycling injuries. Children and adolescents aged under 15 years were at the highest risk, particularly of non-collision crashes. The rate of traumatic brain injuries fell from 1988-91 to 1996-99; however, injuries to other body parts increased steadily. Traumatic brain injuries were most common in collision cases whereas upper extremity fractures were most common in other crashes. The burden of fatal and hospitalised injuries among pedal cyclists is considerable and has been increasing over the last decade. This underscores the development of road safety and injury prevention programmes for cyclists alongside the cycling promotion strategies.

  3. Injuries to pedal cyclists on New Zealand roads, 1988-2007

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The risk of injury is one of the major barriers to engaging in cycling. We investigated exposure-based rates and profiles of traffic injuries sustained by pedal cyclists that resulted in death or hospital inpatient treatment in New Zealand, one of the most car dependent countries. Methods Pedal cyclist traffic injuries were identified from the Mortality Collection and the National Minimum Dataset. Total time spent cycling was used as the measure of exposure and computed from National Household Travel Surveys. Analyses were undertaken for the periods 1988-91, 1996-99 and 2003-07 in relation to other major road users and by age, gender and body region affected. A modified Barell matrix was used to characterise the profiles of pedal cyclist injuries by body region affected and nature of injury. Results Cyclists had the second highest rate of traffic injuries compared to other major road user categories and the rate increased from 1996-99 to 2003-07. During 2003-07, 31 injuries occurred per million hours spent cycling. Non-collision crashes (40%) and collisions with a car, pick-up truck or van (26%) accounted for two thirds of the cycling injuries. Children and adolescents aged under 15 years were at the highest risk, particularly of non-collision crashes. The rate of traumatic brain injuries fell from 1988-91 to 1996-99; however, injuries to other body parts increased steadily. Traumatic brain injuries were most common in collision cases whereas upper extremity fractures were most common in other crashes. Conclusions The burden of fatal and hospitalised injuries among pedal cyclists is considerable and has been increasing over the last decade. This underscores the development of road safety and injury prevention programmes for cyclists alongside the cycling promotion strategies. PMID:21034490

  4. Close up view of the pair of Rudder Pedals in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close up view of the pair of Rudder Pedals in the Commander's Satiation on the Flight Deck of the Orbiter Discovery. The rudder pedals command orbiter acceleration in yaw by positioning the rudder during atmospheric flight. However, because the flight control software automatically performs turn coordination during banking maneuvers, the rudder pedals are not operationally used during glided flight. It is not until after touchdown that the crew uses them for nose wheel steering during rollout. Depressing the upper portion of the rudder pedals provides braking. Differential braking may also be used for directional control during rollout. This view was take at Johnson Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  5. Distal wound complications following pedal bypass: analysis of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Robison, J G; Ross, J P; Brothers, T E; Elliott, B M

    1995-01-01

    Wound complications of the pedal incision continue to compromise successful limb salvage following aggressive revascularization. Significant distal wound disruption occurred in 14 of 142 (9.8%) patients undergoing pedal bypass with autogenous vein for limb salvage between 1986 and 1993. One hundred forty-two pedal bypass procedures were performed for rest pain in 66 patients and tissue necrosis in 76. Among the 86 men and 56 women, 76% were diabetic and 73% were black. All but eight patients had a history of diabetes and/or tobacco use. Eight wounds were successfully managed with maintenance of patent grafts from 5 to 57 months. Exposure of a patent graft precipitated amputation in three patients, as did graft occlusion in an additional patient. One graft was salvaged by revision to the peroneal artery and one was covered by a local bipedicled flap. Multiple regression analysis identified three factors associated with wound complications at the pedal incision site: diabetes mellitus (p = 0.03), age > 70 years (p = 0.03), and rest pain (p = 0.05). Ancillary techniques ("pie-crusting") to reduce skin tension resulted in no distal wound problems among 15 patients considered to be at greatest risk for wound breakdown. Attention to technique of distal graft tunneling, a wound closure that reduces tension, and control of swelling by avoiding dependency on and use of gentle elastic compression assume crucial importance in minimizing pedal wound complications following pedal bypass.

  6. Altered muscle coordination when pedaling with independent cranks

    PubMed Central

    Hug, François; Boumier, Florian; Dorel, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Pedaling with independent cranks ensures each leg cycles independently of the other, and thus eliminates the contribution of the contralateral leg during the upstroke phase. Consequently the subject is required to actively pull-up the pedal to complete the cycle. The present study aimed to determine the acute effect of the use of independent cranks on muscle coordination during a submaximal pedaling exercise. Ten healthy males were asked to perform submaximal pedaling exercises at 100 Watts with normal fixed cranks (control condition) or independent cranks. Both 2-D pedal forces and electromyographic (EMG) SIGNALS of 10 lower limb muscles were recorded. When the mean EMG activity across the cycle was considered, the use of independent cranks significantly increased the activity level compared to control for Tibialis anterior (TA) (P = 0.0017; +336 ± 302%), Gastrocnemius medialis (GM) (P = 0.0005; +47 ± 25%), Rectus femoris (RF) (P = 0.005; +123 ± 153%), Biceps femoris (BF)—long head (P = 0.0001; +162 ± 97%), Semimembranosus (SM) (P = 0.0001; +304 ± 192%), and Tensor fascia latae (P = 0.0001; +586 ± 262%). The analysis of the four pedaling sectors revealed that the increased activity of hip and knee flexors mainly occurred during the top dead center and the upstroke phase. In addition, a high inter-individual variability was found in the way the participants adapted to pedaling with independent cranks. The present results showed that the enforced pull-up action required when using independent cranks was achieved by increasing the activation of hip and knee flexors. Further studies are needed to determine whether training with independent cranks has the potential to induce long-term changes in muscle coordination, and, if so, whether these changes are beneficial for cycling performance. PMID:24009587

  7. Altered muscle coordination when pedaling with independent cranks.

    PubMed

    Hug, François; Boumier, Florian; Dorel, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Pedaling with independent cranks ensures each leg cycles independently of the other, and thus eliminates the contribution of the contralateral leg during the upstroke phase. Consequently the subject is required to actively pull-up the pedal to complete the cycle. The present study aimed to determine the acute effect of the use of independent cranks on muscle coordination during a submaximal pedaling exercise. Ten healthy males were asked to perform submaximal pedaling exercises at 100 Watts with normal fixed cranks (control condition) or independent cranks. Both 2-D pedal forces and electromyographic (EMG) SIGNALS of 10 lower limb muscles were recorded. When the mean EMG activity across the cycle was considered, the use of independent cranks significantly increased the activity level compared to control for Tibialis anterior (TA) (P = 0.0017; +336 ± 302%), Gastrocnemius medialis (GM) (P = 0.0005; +47 ± 25%), Rectus femoris (RF) (P = 0.005; +123 ± 153%), Biceps femoris (BF)-long head (P = 0.0001; +162 ± 97%), Semimembranosus (SM) (P = 0.0001; +304 ± 192%), and Tensor fascia latae (P = 0.0001; +586 ± 262%). The analysis of the four pedaling sectors revealed that the increased activity of hip and knee flexors mainly occurred during the top dead center and the upstroke phase. In addition, a high inter-individual variability was found in the way the participants adapted to pedaling with independent cranks. The present results showed that the enforced pull-up action required when using independent cranks was achieved by increasing the activation of hip and knee flexors. Further studies are needed to determine whether training with independent cranks has the potential to induce long-term changes in muscle coordination, and, if so, whether these changes are beneficial for cycling performance.

  8. Study of alternate material for pedal ventilator kits. Final report May 79-May 80

    SciTech Connect

    Buday, J.M.

    1980-04-01

    The objective of this program was to conduct a study of alternate materials that could be utilized in the construction of a pedal ventilator kit (PVK). The goal of the study was to reduce unit cost in a large scale procurement. Cost savings and performance parameters were evaluated using the PVK developed in 1979 under Contract No. DCP01-78-C-0184 as a basis for comparison. A value analysis study was conducted on the PVK to determine viable material/design revisions that offered potential manufacturing economies. Based on the conclusions of the study, one optimum design was chosen for fabrication. Prior to fabrication, five breadboard support frames were constructed and tested. Fifteen fully assembled prototype pedal ventilator kits were constructed. Five of the PVK's were subsequently tested to assure compliance with performance and reliability requirements. Preliminary specifications and operating instructions were generated for the PVK. In addition, production cost estimates based on a procurement of 100,000 units were formulated for FEMA budgetary purposes.

  9. Intermuscular coherence contributions in synergistic muscles during pedaling.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Cristiano; Severini, Giacomo; Castronovo, Anna Margherita; Schmid, Maurizio; Conforto, Silvia

    2015-06-01

    The execution of rhythmical motor tasks requires the control of multiple skeletal muscles by the Central Nervous System (CNS), and the neural mechanisms according to which the CNS manages their coordination are not completely clear yet. In this study, we analyze the distribution of the neural drive shared across muscles that work synergistically during the execution of a free pedaling task. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from eight lower limb muscles of eleven healthy untrained participants during an unconstrained pedaling exercise. The coordinated activity of the lower limb muscles was described within the framework of muscle synergies, extracted through the application of nonnegative matrix factorization. Intermuscular synchronization was assessed by calculating intermuscular coherence between pairs of EMG signals from co-active, both synergistic and non-synergistic muscles within their periods of co-activation. The spatiotemporal structure of muscle coordination during pedaling was well represented by four muscle synergies for all the subjects. Significant coherence values within the gamma band (30-60 Hz) were identified only for one out of the four extracted muscle synergies. This synergy is mainly composed of the activity of knee extensor muscles, and its function is related to the power production and crank propelling during the pedaling cycle. In addition, a significant coherence peak was found in the lower frequencies for the GAM/SOL muscle pair, possibly related to the ankle stabilizing function of these two muscles during the pedaling task. No synchronization was found either for the other extracted muscle synergies or for pairs of co-active but non-synergistic muscles. The obtained results seem to suggest the presence of intermuscular synchronization only when a functional force production is required, with the observed gamma band contribution possibly reflecting a cortical drive to synergistic muscles during pedaling.

  10. Pedal coordinates, dark Kepler, and other force problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, Petr

    2017-06-01

    Pedal coordinates (instead of polar or Cartesian coordinates) are more natural settings in which to study force problems of classical mechanics in the plane. We will show that the trajectory of a test particle under the influence of central and Lorentz-like forces can be translated into pedal coordinates at once without the need of solving any differential equation. This will allow us to generalize Newton theorem of revolving orbits to include nonlocal transforms of curves. Finally, we apply developed methods to solve the "dark Kepler problem," i.e., central force problem where in addition to the central body, gravitational influences of dark matter and dark energy are assumed.

  11. Development and calibration of a pedal with force and moment sensors.

    PubMed

    Gurgel, Jonas; Porto, Flávia; Russomano, Thais; Cambraia, Rodrigo; de Azevedo, Dario F G; Glock, Flávio S; Beck, João Carlos Pinheiro; Helegda, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    An instrumented bicycle pedal was built and calibrated. The pedal has good linearity and sensibility, comparable to other instruments in the literature. This study aimed to perform accurate calibration of a tri-axial pedal, including forces applied, deformations, nonlinearities, hysteresis and standard error for each axis. Calibration was based on Hull and Davis method, which is based on the application of known loads on the pedal in order to create a calibration matrix.

  12. Effects of 8 hemodynamic conditions on direct blood pressure values obtained simultaneously from the carotid, femoral and dorsal pedal arteries in dogs.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Eduardo R; Campagnol, Daniela; Bajotto, Gustavo C; Simões, Clarissa R; Rassele, Alice C

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of 8 hemodynamic conditions on blood pressure measurements taken from the carotid, femoral and dorsal pedal arteries of dogs. Six healthy dogs. During isoflurane anesthesia, catheters were introduced into the carotid, femoral and dorsal pedal arteries of dogs to allow simultaneous monitoring of direct blood pressure in each artery. The dogs were submitted to 8 hemodynamic conditions induced by combining changes in heart rate (bradycardia, normocardia, tachycardia) with changes in blood pressure (hypotension, normotension, hypertension). Values obtained from each arterial catheter were compared and agreement between central (carotid) and peripheral (femoral and dorsal pedal) values were analyzed by the Bland-Altman method. During hypotensive conditions, systolic arterial pressure (SAP) was lower in the femoral and dorsal pedal arteries compared to the carotid artery whereas during normotensive and hypertensive conditions, SAP was higher in peripheral arteries. During hypotensive states, increases in heart rate resulted in greater bias between central and peripheral SAP whereas during normotensive states, the bias decreased as heart rate increased. Mean and diastolic arterial pressures were lower in the femoral and dorsal pedal arteries than in the carotid artery during most hemodynamic conditions. In healthy anesthetized dogs, invasive blood pressure measurements in peripheral arteries may differ significantly from measurements in a central artery. The greatest differences were observed in SAP and the magnitude of differences between central and peripheral blood pressure measurements varied according to the dog's hemodynamic condition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of pedal type and pull-up action during cycling.

    PubMed

    Mornieux, G; Stapelfeldt, B; Gollhofer, A; Belli, A

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of different shoe-pedal interfaces and of an active pulling-up action during the upstroke phase on the pedalling technique. Eight elite cyclists (C) and seven non-cyclists (NC) performed three different bouts at 90 rev . min (-1) and 60 % of their maximal aerobic power. They pedalled with single pedals (PED), with clipless pedals (CLIP) and with a pedal force feedback (CLIPFBACK) where subjects were asked to pull up on the pedal during the upstroke. There was no significant difference for pedalling effectiveness, net mechanical efficiency (NE) and muscular activity between PED and CLIP. When compared to CLIP, CLIPFBACK resulted in a significant increase in pedalling effectiveness during upstroke (86 % for C and 57 % NC, respectively), as well as higher biceps femoris and tibialis anterior muscle activity (p < 0.001). However, NE was significantly reduced (p < 0.008) with 9 % and 3.3 % reduction for C and NC, respectively. Consequently, shoe-pedal interface (PED vs. CLIP) did not significantly influence cycling technique during submaximal exercise. However, an active pulling-up action on the pedal during upstroke increased the pedalling effectiveness, while reducing net mechanical efficiency.

  14. Factors associated with the selection of the freely chosen cadence in non-cyclists.

    PubMed

    Whitty, Anthony G; Murphy, Aron J; Coutts, Aaron J; Watsford, Mark L

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine both the freely chosen cadence (FCC) and the physical variables associated with cadence selection in non-cyclists. Eighteen participants pedalled at 40, 50, and 60% of their maximal power output (determined by a maximal oxygen uptake test, W (max)), whilst cadence (50, 65, 80, 95, 110 rpm, and FCC) was manipulated. Gross efficiency, was used to analyse the most economical cadence whilst central and peripheral ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were used to measure the most comfortable cadence and the cadence whereby muscle strain was minimised. Peak (T (peak)), mean crank torque (T (mean)) and the crank torque profile were analysed at 150 and 200 W at cadences of 50, 65, 80, 95, and 110 rpm in order to determine the mechanical load. FCC was found to be approximately 80 rpm at all workloads and was significantly higher than the most economical cadence (50 rpm). At 60% W (max), RPE peripheral was minimised at 80 rpm which coincided with the FCC. Both T (peak) and T (mean) decreased as cadence increased and, conversely, increased as power output increased. An analysis of the crank torque profile showed that the crank angle at both the top (DP(top)) and the bottom (DP(bot)) dead point of the crank cycle at 80 rpm occurred later in the cycling revolution when compared to 50 rpm. The findings suggested that the FCC in non-cyclists was more closely related to variables that minimise muscle strain and mechanical load than those associated with minimising metabolic economy.

  15. Differences in Pedaling Technique in Cycling: A Cluster Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lanferdini, Fábio J; Bini, Rodrigo R; Figueiredo, Pedro; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; Mota, Carlos B; Arndt, Anton; Vaz, Marco A

    2016-10-01

    To employ cluster analysis to assess if cyclists would opt for different strategies in terms of neuromuscular patterns when pedaling at the power output of their second ventilatory threshold (POVT2) compared with cycling at their maximal power output (POMAX). Twenty athletes performed an incremental cycling test to determine their power output (POMAX and POVT2; first session), and pedal forces, muscle activation, muscle-tendon unit length, and vastus lateralis architecture (fascicle length, pennation angle, and muscle thickness) were recorded (second session) in POMAX and POVT2. Athletes were assigned to 2 clusters based on the behavior of outcome variables at POVT2 and POMAX using cluster analysis. Clusters 1 (n = 14) and 2 (n = 6) showed similar power output and oxygen uptake. Cluster 1 presented larger increases in pedal force and knee power than cluster 2, without differences for the index of effectiveness. Cluster 1 presented less variation in knee angle, muscle-tendon unit length, pennation angle, and tendon length than cluster 2. However, clusters 1 and 2 showed similar muscle thickness, fascicle length, and muscle activation. When cycling at POVT2 vs POMAX, cyclists could opt for keeping a constant knee power and pedal-force production, associated with an increase in tendon excursion and a constant fascicle length. Increases in power output lead to greater variations in knee angle, muscle-tendon unit length, tendon length, and pennation angle of vastus lateralis for a similar knee-extensor activation and smaller pedal-force changes in cyclists from cluster 2 than in cluster 1.

  16. The effects of stimulating lower leg muscles on the mechanical work and metabolic response in functional electrically stimulated pedaling.

    PubMed

    Hakansson, Nils A; Hull, M L

    2010-10-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) pedaling with the muscles of the upper leg has been shown to provide benefit to spinal cord injured (SCI) individuals. FES pedaling with electrical stimulation timing patterns that minimize the stress-time integral of activated muscles has been shown to increase the work individuals can perform during the exercise compared to existing FES stimulation timing patterns. Activation of the lower leg muscles could further enhance the benefit of FES pedaling by increasing the metabolic response to the exercise. For SCI individuals, the objectives of this study were to experimentally determine whether FES pedaling with the upper and lower leg muscles would affect the work generated and increase the physiological responses compared to pedaling with the upper leg muscles alone. Work, rate of oxygen consumption ·VO₂, and blood lactate data were measured from nine SCI subjects (injury level T4-T12) as they pedaled using upper leg and upper and lower leg muscle groups on repeated trials. The subjects performed 6% more work with the upper and lower legs than with the upper legs alone, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.2433). The average rate of oxygen consumption associated with the upper leg muscles (441 ±231 mL/min) was not significantly different from the corresponding average for the upper and lower legs (473 ±213 mL/min) (p = 0.1176). The blood lactate concentration associated with the upper leg muscles (5.9 ±2.3 mmoles/L) was significantly lower than the corresponding average for the upper and lower legs (6.8 ±2.3 mmoles/L) (p = 0.0049). The results indicate that electrical stimulation timing patterns that incorporate the lower leg muscles do increase the blood lactate concentrations. However, there was not enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis that stimulating the lower leg muscles affected the work accomplished or increased the rate of oxygen consumption. In conclusion, incorporating the lower leg muscles

  17. Successful Coronary Stent Retrieval From a Pedal Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Mariano, Enrica Versaci, Francesco; Gandini, Roberto; Simonetti, Giovanni; Di Vito, Livio; Romeo, Francesco

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this article is to report complications from a coronary drug-eluting stent lost in the peripheral circulation. We report the case of successful retrieval of a sirolimus coronary stent from a pedal artery in a young patient who underwent coronary angiography for previous anterior myocardial infarction. Recognition of stent embolization requires adequate removal of the device to avoid unwelcome clinical sequelae.

  18. Treating calf and pedal vessel disease: the extremes of intervention.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Marco; Palena, Luis M

    2014-12-01

    Recent developments in catheter, balloon, and guidewire technology have increased the scope for endovascular treatments in the management of complex and challenging disease in the calf and foot. The antegrade femoral approach remains the starting point for most interventions, but there is a growing role for procedures performed from unconventional access such as the pedal arteries. This article reviews the indications for intervention, atypical access, and the choice of equipment for these extreme interventions.

  19. Vibrotactile pedals: provision of haptic feedback to support economical driving.

    PubMed

    Birrell, Stewart A; Young, Mark S; Weldon, Alex M

    2013-01-01

    The use of haptic feedback is currently an underused modality in the driving environment, especially with respect to vehicle manufacturers. This exploratory study evaluates the effects of a vibrotactile (or haptic) accelerator pedal on car driving performance and perceived workload using a driving simulator. A stimulus was triggered when the driver exceeded a 50% throttle threshold, past which is deemed excessive for economical driving. Results showed significant decreases in mean acceleration values, and maximum and excess throttle use when the haptic pedal was active as compared to a baseline condition. As well as the positive changes to driver behaviour, subjective workload decreased when driving with the haptic pedal as compared to when drivers were simply asked to drive economically. The literature suggests that the haptic processing channel offers a largely untapped resource in the driving environment, and could provide information without overloading the other attentional resource pools used in driving. Overloaded or distracted drivers present a real safety danger to themselves and others. Providing driving-related feedback can improve performance but risks distracting them further; however, giving such information through the underused haptic processing channel can provide the driver with critical information without overloading the driver's visual channel.

  20. Breathing in man during steady-state exercise on the bicycle at two pedalling frequencies, and during treadmill walking.

    PubMed Central

    Kay, J D; Petersen, E S; Vejby-Christensen, H

    1975-01-01

    1. The breathing pattern, that is the changes in tidal volume (VT), and in inspiratory (TI) and expiratory (TE) durations, has been studied as ventilation increases in exercise. 2. Five healthy subjects were studied in steady-state exercise on a bicycle ergometer, breathing air, at two speeds of pedalling and at six different loads. The pattern was recorded for single breaths. Two of the subjects were also studied while walking on a treadmill with four combinations of speed and gradient. 3. In bicycle exercise, as the CO2 output increased mean VT increased, and mean TI and TE decreased, the absolute decrease in TI being small. The pedalling speed did not affect these relationships. 4. Individual breath durations showed no tendency to group around multiples of the period of rotation of the pedals. 5. In treadmill exercise, no clear influence of stride rate on respiratory rate could be found. The pattern was similar to that found in bicycle exercise. Again no grouping could be found. 6. No evidence of an effect of frequency of limb movement on breathing pattern in submaximal exercise has been found. The selection of breathing pattern seems to be unrelated to the nature of the stimulus but closely geared to the metabolic needs of the body. PMID:1185678

  1. Energy biomass characteristics of chosen plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyszlak-Bargłowicz, J.; Zając, G.; Piekarski, W.

    2012-04-01

    The chosen energy plants species: willow, mallow and Miscanthus are presented. Result of analysis of combustion heat and heating value of these species biomass indicate on possibility of their utilization as fuel for combustion and energy and heat production.

  2. A novel fMRI paradigm suggests that pedaling-related brain activation is altered after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Promjunyakul, Nutta-on; Schmit, Brian D.; Schindler-Ivens, Sheila M.

    2015-01-01

    regions were examined separately, reduced brain activation volume reached statistical significance in BA6 [p = 0.04; 4,350 (2,347) μL stroke; 6,938 (3,134) μL control] and cerebellum [p = 0.001; 4,591 (1,757) μL stroke; 8,381 (2,835) μL control]. Regardless of whether activated regions were examined together or separately, there were no significant between-group differences in brain activation intensity [p = 0.17; 1.30 (0.25)% stroke; 1.16 (0.20)% control]. Reduced volume in the stroke group was not observed during lower limb tapping and could not be fully attributed to differences in head motion or movement rate. There was a tendency for pedaling-related brain activation volume to increase with increasing work performed by the paretic limb during pedaling (p = 0.08, r = 0.525). Hence, the results of this study provide two original and important contributions. First, we demonstrated that pedaling can be used with fMRI to examine brain activation associated with lower limb movement in people with stroke. Unlike previous lower limb movements examined with fMRI, pedaling involves continuous, reciprocal, multijoint movement of both limbs. In this respect, pedaling has many characteristics of functional lower limb movements, such as walking. Thus, the importance of our contribution lies in the establishment of a novel paradigm that can be used to understand how the brain adapts to stroke to produce functional lower limb movements. Second, preliminary observations suggest that brain activation volume is reduced during pedaling post-stroke. Reduced brain activation volume may be due to anatomic, physiology, and/or behavioral differences between groups, but methodological issues cannot be excluded. Importantly, brain action volume post-stroke was both task-dependent and mutable, which suggests that it could be modified through rehabilitation. Future work will explore these possibilities. PMID:26089789

  3. A novel fMRI paradigm suggests that pedaling-related brain activation is altered after stroke.

    PubMed

    Promjunyakul, Nutta-On; Schmit, Brian D; Schindler-Ivens, Sheila M

    2015-01-01

    were examined separately, reduced brain activation volume reached statistical significance in BA6 [p = 0.04; 4,350 (2,347) μL stroke; 6,938 (3,134) μL control] and cerebellum [p = 0.001; 4,591 (1,757) μL stroke; 8,381 (2,835) μL control]. Regardless of whether activated regions were examined together or separately, there were no significant between-group differences in brain activation intensity [p = 0.17; 1.30 (0.25)% stroke; 1.16 (0.20)% control]. Reduced volume in the stroke group was not observed during lower limb tapping and could not be fully attributed to differences in head motion or movement rate. There was a tendency for pedaling-related brain activation volume to increase with increasing work performed by the paretic limb during pedaling (p = 0.08, r = 0.525). Hence, the results of this study provide two original and important contributions. First, we demonstrated that pedaling can be used with fMRI to examine brain activation associated with lower limb movement in people with stroke. Unlike previous lower limb movements examined with fMRI, pedaling involves continuous, reciprocal, multijoint movement of both limbs. In this respect, pedaling has many characteristics of functional lower limb movements, such as walking. Thus, the importance of our contribution lies in the establishment of a novel paradigm that can be used to understand how the brain adapts to stroke to produce functional lower limb movements. Second, preliminary observations suggest that brain activation volume is reduced during pedaling post-stroke. Reduced brain activation volume may be due to anatomic, physiology, and/or behavioral differences between groups, but methodological issues cannot be excluded. Importantly, brain action volume post-stroke was both task-dependent and mutable, which suggests that it could be modified through rehabilitation. Future work will explore these possibilities.

  4. Consistency of muscle synergies during pedaling across different mechanical constraints.

    PubMed

    Hug, François; Turpin, Nicolas A; Couturier, Antoine; Dorel, Sylvain

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether muscle synergies are constrained by changes in the mechanics of pedaling. The decomposition algorithm used to identify muscle synergies was based on two components: "muscle synergy vectors," which represent the relative weighting of each muscle within each synergy, and "synergy activation coefficients," which represent the relative contribution of muscle synergy to the overall muscle activity pattern. We hypothesized that muscle synergy vectors would remain fixed but that synergy activation coefficients could vary, resulting in observed variations in individual electromyographic (EMG) patterns. Eleven cyclists were tested during a submaximal pedaling exercise and five all-out sprints. The effects of torque, maximal torque-velocity combination, and posture were studied. First, muscle synergies were extracted from each pedaling exercise independently using non-negative matrix factorization. Then, to cross-validate the results, muscle synergies were extracted from the entire data pooled across all conditions, and muscle synergy vectors extracted from the submaximal exercise were used to reconstruct EMG patterns of the five all-out sprints. Whatever the mechanical constraints, three muscle synergies accounted for the majority of variability [mean variance accounted for (VAF) = 93.3 ± 1.6%, VAF (muscle) > 82.5%] in the EMG signals of 11 lower limb muscles. In addition, there was a robust consistency in the muscle synergy vectors. This high similarity in the composition of the three extracted synergies was accompanied by slight adaptations in their activation coefficients in response to extreme changes in torque and posture. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that these muscle synergies reflect a neural control strategy, with only a few timing adjustments in their activation regarding the mechanical constraints.

  5. Preliminary wind tunnel tests on the pedal wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinayagalingam, T.

    1980-06-01

    High solidity-low speed wind turbines are relatively simple to construct and can be used advantageously in many developing countries for such direct applications as water pumping. Established designs in this class, such as the Savonius and the American multiblade rotors, have the disadvantage that their moving surfaces require a rigid construction, thereby rendering large units uneconomical. In this respect, the pedal wind turbine recently reported by the author and which incorporates sail type rotors offers a number of advantages. This note reports preliminary results from a series of wind tunnel tests which were carried out to assess the aerodynamic torque and power characteristics of the turbine.

  6. Detection of intention of pedaling start cycle through EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Ugarte, Marisol; Hortal, Enrique; Costa, Alvaro; Ianez, Eduardo; Ubeda, Andres; Azorin, Jose M

    2016-08-01

    Recovery from cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is a growing research topic. Exoskeletons are being used for this purpose in combination with a volitional control algorithm. This work studied the intention of pedaling initiation movement, based on previous work, with different types of electrode configuration and different processing time windows. The main characteristic is to find alterations in the mu and beta frequency bands where ERD/ERS is produced. The results show that for the majority of the subjects this event is well detected with 8 or 9 electrodes and using time before and after the movement onset.

  7. Development of Velocity Guidance Assistance System by Haptic Accelerator Pedal Reaction Force Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Feilong; Hayashi, Ryuzo; Raksincharoensak, Pongsathorn; Nagai, Masao

    This research proposes a haptic velocity guidance assistance system for realizing eco-driving as well as enhancing traffic capacity by cooperating with ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems). The proposed guidance system generates the desired accelerator pedal (abbreviated as pedal) stroke with respect to the desired velocity obtained from ITS considering vehicle dynamics, and provides the desired pedal stroke to the driver via a haptic pedal whose reaction force is controllable and guides the driver in order to trace the desired velocity in real time. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the feasibility of the haptic velocity guidance. A haptic velocity guidance system for research is developed on the Driving Simulator of TUAT (DS), by attaching a low-inertia, low-friction motor to the pedal, which does not change the original characteristics of the original pedal when it is not operated, implementing an algorithm regarding the desired pedal stroke calculation and the reaction force controller. The haptic guidance maneuver is designed based on human pedal stepping experiments. A simple velocity profile with acceleration, deceleration and cruising is synthesized according to naturalistic driving for testing the proposed system. The experiment result of 9 drivers shows that the haptic guidance provides high accuracy and quick response in velocity tracking. These results prove that the haptic guidance is a promising velocity guidance method from the viewpoint of HMI (Human Machine Interface).

  8. Strength training improves performance and pedaling characteristics in elite cyclists.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, B R; Hansen, J; Hollan, I; Ellefsen, S

    2015-02-01

    The purpose was to investigate the effect of 25 weeks heavy strength training in young elite cyclists. Nine cyclists performed endurance training and heavy strength training (ES) while seven cyclists performed endurance training only (E). ES, but not E, resulted in increases in isometric half squat performance, lean lower body mass, peak power output during Wingate test, peak aerobic power output (W(max)), power output at 4 mmol L(-1)[la(-)], mean power output during 40-min all-out trial, and earlier occurrence of peak torque during the pedal stroke (P < 0.05). ES achieved superior improvements in W(max) and mean power output during 40-min all-out trial compared with E (P < 0.05). The improvement in 40-min all-out performance was associated with the change toward achieving peak torque earlier in the pedal stroke (r = 0.66, P < 0.01). Neither of the groups displayed alterations in VO2max or cycling economy. In conclusion, heavy strength training leads to improved cycling performance in elite cyclists as evidenced by a superior effect size of ES training vs E training on relative improvements in power output at 4 mmol L(-1)[la(-)], peak power output during 30-s Wingate test, W(max), and mean power output during 40-min all-out trial. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Biomechanical factors associated with shoe/pedal interfaces. Implications for injury.

    PubMed

    Gregor, R J; Wheeler, J B

    1994-02-01

    The principal demand on the body during cycling is on the lower extremities as they are responsible for producing a majority of the energy imparted to the bike. As a result the legs, due to high reactive forces between the foot and pedal, experience high loads on the joints. These loads may adversely affect joint tissues and contribute to overuse injuries, e.g. knee pain. The mechanical link between the leg and the bike is the shoe/pedal interface. This transmission site, by design, can either create smooth transfer of energy or abnormally high repetitive loads which are potentially injurious to the body. Incidence of lower extremity injury in cycling is high, and historically biomechanical analyses of this activity have focused their attention on either the rider or the bike, but not the link between the two. Recently, pedal designs have changed in response to complaints of sore knees with the development of pedals allowing varying degrees of float. This form of transmission is intended to enhance power transfer from rider to bike as well as minimise trauma to the legs by permitting the foot to rotate during the pedalling cycle in a toe-in/heel-out or heel-in/toe-out movement pattern. Recent evidence suggests this type of pedal design does reduce trauma and maintains power output. This article reviews common lower extremity overuse injuries and biomechanical factors during the pedalling cycle with the primary focus on the shoe/pedal interface. We will summarise information available on lower extremity kinematics and kinetics as well as recent data specifically related to shoe/pedal interface kinetics, evaluation of different pedal types-specifically comparison between clipless 'fixed' and clipless 'float' systems-and discuss their resultant effect on lower extremity dynamics and their implications for injury.

  10. Modulation of the soleus H-reflex during pedalling in normal humans and in patients with spinal spasticity.

    PubMed Central

    Boorman, G; Becker, W J; Morrice, B L; Lee, R G

    1992-01-01

    Soleus H-reflexes were recorded in 10 normal subjects and seven patients with spasticity caused by incomplete spinal cord injury while they pedalled on a stationary bicycle which had been modified to trigger electrical stimuli to the tibial nerve at eight precise points in the pedal cycle. Stimulus strength was adjusted to yield M-waves of constant amplitude at each pedal position. During active pedalling, all normal subjects showed modulation of the H-reflex with the amplitude being increased during the downstroke portion of the pedal cycle and the reflex suppressed or absent during the upstroke. This modulation was not present during passive pedalling, with the experimenter cranking the pedals by hand, or when the pedals were locked at each of the eight positions. In five of the seven patients with spasticity, there was reduced or absent modulation of the H-reflex during active pedalling and the reflex remained large during pedal upstroke. It is concluded that descending motor commands that produce patterned voluntary activity during pedalling normally cause cyclical gating of spinal reflexes by either presynaptic or postsynaptic inhibitory mechanisms. Loss of supraspinal control over these spinal inhibitory systems could result in failure to produce appropriate suppression of reflexes during patterned voluntary movements such as pedalling or walking, and may be an important factor contributing to the functional disability in spasticity. PMID:1479394

  11. Controllability of the better chosen partial networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xueming; Pan, Linqiang

    2016-08-01

    How to control large complex networks is a great challenge. Recent studies have proved that the whole network can be sufficiently steered by injecting control signals into a minimum set of driver nodes, and the minimum numbers of driver nodes for many real networks are high, indicating that it is difficult to control them. For some large natural and technological networks, it is impossible and not feasible to control the full network. For example, in biological networks like large-scale gene regulatory networks it is impossible to control all the genes. This prompts us to explore the question how to choose partial networks that are easy for controlling and important in networked systems. In this work, we propose a method to achieve this goal. By computing the minimum driver nodes densities of the partial networks of Erdös-Rényi (ER) networks, scale-free (SF) networks and 23 real networks, we find that our method performs better than random method that chooses nodes randomly. Moreover, we find that the nodes chosen by our method tend to be the essential elements of the whole systems, via studying the nodes chosen by our method of a real human signaling network and a human protein interaction network and discovering that the chosen nodes from these networks tend to be cancer-associated genes. The implementation of our method shows some interesting connections between the structure and the controllability of networks, improving our understanding of the control principles of complex systems.

  12. VRACK: measuring pedal kinematics during stationary bike cycling.

    PubMed

    Farjadian, Amir B; Kong, Qingchao; Gade, Venkata K; Deutsch, Judith E; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2013-06-01

    Ankle impairment and lower limb asymmetries in strength and coordination are common symptoms for individuals with selected musculoskeletal and neurological impairments. The virtual reality augmented cycling kit (VRACK) was designed as a compact mechatronics system for lower limb and mobility rehabilitation. The system measures interaction forces and cardiac activity during cycling in a virtual environment. The kinematics measurement was added to the system. Due to the constrained problem definition, the combination of inertial measurement unit (IMU) and Kalman filtering was recruited to compute the optimal pedal angular displacement during dynamic cycling exercise. Using a novel benchmarking method the accuracy of IMU-based kinematics measurement was evaluated. Relatively accurate angular measurements were achieved. The enhanced VRACK system can serve as a rehabilitation device to monitor biomechanical and physiological variables during cycling on a stationary bike.

  13. On the Importance of Pedal Edema in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Rajiv; Andersen, Martin J.; Pratt, J. Howard

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Volume control is a key component of treatment of hemodialysis patients. The role of pedal edema as a marker of volume is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine factors that are associated with edema. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: A cross-sectional study of asymptomatic hemodialysis patients (n = 146) in four university-affiliated hemodialysis units was conducted. Echocardiographic variables, blood volume monitoring, plasma volume markers (plasma renin and aldosterone and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide), and inflammation markers (C-reactive protein and IL-6) were measured as exposures, and edema was measured as outcome. Results: In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, age, body mass index, and left ventricular hypertrophy were independent determinants of edema. Compared with patients with normal or low weight, overweight patients had odds ratio for edema of 5.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0 to 31.8), and obese patients of 44.8 (95% CI 9.0 to 223). Patients in the top quartile of left ventricular mass index and normal to low weight had odds ratio of edema of 7.7 (95% CI 2.3 −25.9), those who were overweight of 43.5 (95% CI 3.9 to 479.8), and those who were obese of 344.8 (95% CI 33.8 to 3515). Inferior vena cava diameter, blood volume monitoring, plasma volume markers, and inflammation markers were not determinants of edema. Conclusions: Pedal edema correlates with cardiovascular risk factors such as age, body mass index, and left ventricular mass but does not reflect volume in hemodialysis patients. PMID:18057304

  14. Validation of an integrated pedal desk and electronic behavior tracking platform.

    PubMed

    Schuna, John M; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Proença, Mahara; Barreira, Tiago V; Hsia, Daniel S; Pitta, Fabio; Vatsavai, Padma; Guidry, Richard D; Magnusen, Matthew R; Cowley, Amanda D; Martin, Corby K

    2016-02-09

    This study tested the validity of revolutions per minute (RPM) measurements from the Pennington Pedal Desk™. Forty-four participants (73 % female; 39 ± 11.4 years-old; BMI 25.8 ± 5.5 kg/m(2) [mean ± SD]) completed a standardized trial consisting of guided computer tasks while using a pedal desk for approximately 20 min. Measures of RPM were concurrently collected by the pedal desk and the Garmin Vector power meter. After establishing the validity of RPM measurements with the Garmin Vector, we performed equivalence tests, quantified mean absolute percent error (MAPE), and constructed Bland-Altman plots to assess agreement between RPM measures from the pedal desk and the Garmin Vector (criterion) at the minute-by-minute and trial level (i.e., over the approximate 20 min trial period). The average (mean ± SD) duration of the pedal desk trial was 20.5 ± 2.5 min. Measures of RPM (mean ± SE) at the minute-by-minute (Garmin Vector: 54.8 ± 0.4 RPM; pedal desk: 55.8 ± 0.4 RPM) and trial level (Garmin Vector: 55.0 ± 1.7 RPM; pedal desk: 56.0 ± 1.7 RPM) were deemed equivalent. MAPE values for RPM measured by the pedal desk were small (minute-by-minute: 2.1 ± 0.1 %; trial: 1.8 ± 0.1 %) and no systematic relationships in error variance were evident by Bland-Altman plots. The Pennington Pedal Desk™ provides a valid count of RPM, providing an accurate metric to promote usage.

  15. Histological, chemical and behavioural evidence of pedal communication in brown bears.

    PubMed

    Sergiel, Agnieszka; Naves, Javier; Kujawski, Piotr; Maślak, Robert; Serwa, Ewa; Ramos, Damián; Fernández-Gil, Alberto; Revilla, Eloy; Zwijacz-Kozica, Tomasz; Zięba, Filip; Painer, Johanna; Selva, Nuria

    2017-04-21

    Most mammals rely upon scent for intraspecific communication. As most bear species have large home ranges and are non-territorial, scent deposit while walking could be an effective way to communicate with conspecifics. Here, we investigate the existence of pedal glands in brown bears and their role in chemical communication from a histological, biochemical and behavioural perspective. We found eccrine glands in footpads, and prominent apocrine and sebaceous glands in the interdigital, metacarpal and metatarsal skin sections. Pedal scent contained 26 compounds including carboxylic acids, important constituents of mammalian secretions. Six of these compounds were exclusive for males. Finally, we describe a specific marking gait recorded in the field, mostly performed by males. Our study supports the existence of chemical communication through pedal marking in brown bears and suggests sex-coding potential of pedal scent.

  16. Sterilization chosen by 11 million Americans.

    PubMed

    1979-12-01

    Nearly 11 million Americans have chosen surgical sterilization as their contraceptive method; about 1,131,000 procedures were obtained in 1978, 670,000 women and 461,000 men. In 1960 the ratio of male to female sterilizations was 40% to 60%. In 1969 The Association for Voluntary Sterilization (AVS) opened the first vasectomy clinic in the U.S. at the Margaret Sanger Center, New York City. During 1970-71 more vasectomy clinics were established around the country. The medical profession began to provide vasectomy as an office procedure. The peak of the vasectomy movement occurred in 1971 when 6700,000 vasectomies were performed. Newer techniques for female sterilization appeared, minilap and laparotomy, which required less hospitalization and facilitated quicker recovery. It is unrealistic to expect sterilization to become the number 1 method for people who are under 29 or 30. The sterilization boom has peaked, and although the numbers of acceptors has increased every year since the 1960's, the level of growth has reached a plateau.

  17. Imagery intelligence from low altitudes: chosen aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczykowski, P.; Kedzierski, M.

    2017-04-01

    Remote acquisition of information about phenomena and objects from an imagery is the main objective of remote sensing. The ability to realize aims of image intelligence depends on the quality of acquired remote sensing data. The imagery intelligence can be carried out from different altitudes- from satellite level to terrestrial platforms. In this article, authors are focused on chosen aspects of imagery intelligence from low altitudes. Unfortunately the term low altitudes is not precise defined, therefore, for the purpose of this article is assumed that low altitudes, are altitudes in which operate the mini unmanned aerial vehicles (mini UAVs).The quality of imagery acquired determines the level of analysis that can be performed. The imagery quality depends on many factors, such as platforms on which the sensor is mounted, imaging sensors, height from which the data are acquired and object that is investigated. The article will also present the methods for assessing the quality of imagery in terms of detection, identification, description and technical analysis of investigated objects, as well as in terms of the accuracy of their location in the images (targeting).

  18. Suppose Freud had chosen Orestes instead.

    PubMed

    Clark, Margaret

    2009-04-01

    The paper argues that the story of Oedipus, however understood, conveys psychic truth of no greater or more central importance to human development than do the stories of many other myths. A distinction is made between sophisticated theories developed out of Freud's original concept of the Oedipus complex, and the adherence by some clinicians to his original sexual theory. The meaning of Sophocles' play Oedipus the King is found to lie in the clash between Oedipus' omnipotent narcissism (hubris) and the power of the unconscious psyche, rather than in cross-generational sex. Emphasis is placed on the clinical usefulness of understanding all myths symbolically. The Oresteia by Aeschylus is offered as a story about pre-Oedipal (in the Freudian sense) psychic states. This trilogy shows symbolically the developing of an ego, the establishment of moral judgement and the integration of our shadow (the Furies). It also shows the parallel development of structures of law in society to replace instinctive blood feuds. It is suggested that had Freud chosen Orestes instead of Oedipus, the course of both psychoanalysis and of Western society would have had a different emphasis.

  19. Foot force direction control during a pedaling task in individuals post-stroke

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Appropriate magnitude and directional control of foot-forces is required for successful execution of locomotor tasks. Earlier evidence suggested, following stroke, there is a potential impairment in foot-force control capabilities both during stationary force generation and locomotion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the foot-pedal surface interaction force components, in non-neurologically-impaired and stroke-impaired individuals, in order to determine how fore/aft shear-directed foot/pedal forces are controlled. Methods Sixteen individuals with chronic post-stroke hemiplegia and 10 age-similar non-neurologically-impaired controls performed a foot placement maintenance task under a stationary and a pedaling condition, achieving a target normal pedal force. Electromyography and force profiles were recorded. We expected generation of unduly large magnitude shear pedal forces and reduced participation of multiple muscles that can contribute forces in appropriate directions in individuals post-stroke. Results We found lower force output, inconsistent modulation of muscle activity and reduced ability to change foot force direction in the paretic limbs, but we did not observe unduly large magnitude shear pedal surface forces by the paretic limbs as we hypothesized. Conclusion These findings suggested the preservation of foot-force control capabilities post-stroke under minimal upright postural control requirements. Further research must be conducted to determine whether inappropriate shear force generation will be revealed under non-seated, postural demanding conditions, where subjects have to actively control for upright body suspension. PMID:24739234

  20. Pedaling alters the excitability and modulation of vastus medialis H-reflexes after stroke.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Dana P; Sanghvi, Namita; Wieser, Jon; Schindler-Ivens, Sheila

    2011-10-01

    Individuals post-stroke display abnormal Group Ia reflex excitability. Pedaling has been shown to reduce Group Ia reflexes and to normalize the relationship between EMG and reflex amplitude in the paretic soleus (SO). The purpose of this study was to determine whether these changes extend to the paretic quadriceps. H-reflexes were used to examine Group Ia reflex excitability of the vastus medialis (VM). H-reflexes were elicited in paretic (n=13) and neurologically intact (n=13) individuals at 11 positions in the pedaling cycle and during static knee extension at comparable limb positions and levels of VM EMG. VM H-reflexes were abnormally elevated in the paretic limb of stroke survivors. During static muscle activation, H-reflex amplitude did not change with the level of background VM activity. Pedaling reduced the amplitude of paretic VM H-reflexes and restored the normal relationship between VM EMG and H-reflex amplitude. Pedaling-induced changes in Group Ia reflex excitability that have been reported for the paretic SO are evident in the paretic VM. Pedaling may have a generalized effect on lower extremity Group Ia reflexes post-stroke. Pedaling may be therapeutic for reducing Group Ia reflexes after stroke. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characteristics of Maximum Performance of Pedaling Exercise in Recumbent and Supine Positions

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Morimasa; Tsutsumi, Toshihiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kurakane, Shizue; Chang, Hyukki

    2011-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of maximum pedaling performance in the recumbent and supine positions, maximum isokinetic leg muscle strength was measured in eight healthy male subjects during pedaling at three velocities (300°/s, 480°/s, and 660°/s), and maximum incremental tests were performed for each position. The maximum isokinetic muscle strength in the recumbent position was 210.0 ± 29.2 Nm at 300°/s, 158.4 ± 19.8 Nm at 480°/s, and 110.6 ± 13.2 at 660°/s. In contrast, the muscle strength in the supine position was 229.3 ± 36.7 Nm at 300°/s, 180. 7 ± 20.3 Nm at 480°/s, and 129.6 ± 14.0 Nm at 660°/s. Thus, the maximum isokinetic muscle strength showed significantly higher values in the supine position than in the recumbent position at all angular velocities. The knee and hip joint angles were measured at peak torque using a goniometer; the knee joint angle was not significantly different between both positions, whereas the hip joint angle was greater in the supine position than in the recumbent position (Supine position: 137.3 ± 9. 33 degree at 300°/s, 140.0 ± 11.13 degrees at 480°/s, and 141.0 ± 9.61 degrees at 660°/s. Recumbent position: 99.5 ± 12.21 degrees at 300°/s, 101.6 ± 12.29 degrees at 480°/s, and 105.8 ± 14.28 degrees at 660°/s). Peak oxygen uptake was higher in the recumbent position (50.3 ± 4.43 ml·kg-1·min-1) than in the supine position (48.7 ± 5.10 ml·kg-1·min-1). At maximum exertion, the heart rate and whole-body rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were unaffected by position, but leg muscle RPE was higher in the supine position (19.5 ± 0.53 than in the recumbent position (18.8 ± 0.71). These results suggest that the supine position is more suitable for muscle strength exertion than the recumbent position, and this may be due to different hip joint angles between the positions. On the contrary, the endurance capacity was higher in the recumbent position than in the supine position. Since leg muscle RPE was

  2. Regional variations in pedal cyclist injuries in New Zealand: safety in numbers or risk in scarcity?

    PubMed

    Tin, Sandar Tin; Woodward, Alistair; Thornley, Simon; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2011-08-01

    To assess regional variations in rates of traffic injuries to pedal cyclists resulting in death or hospital inpatient treatment, in relation to time spent cycling and time spent travelling in a car. Cycling injuries were identified from the Mortality Collection and the National Minimum Dataset. Time spent cycling and time spent travelling as a driver or passenger in a car/van/ute/SUV were computed from National Household Travel Surveys. There are 16 census regions in New Zealand, some of which were combined for this analysis to ensure an adequate sample size, resulting in eight regional groups. Analyses were undertaken for 1996-99 and 2003-07. Injury rates, per million hours spent cycling, varied widely across regions (11 to 33 injuries during 1996-99 and 12 to 78 injuries during 2003-07). The injury rate increased with decreasing per capita time spent cycling. The rate also increased with increasing per capita time spent travelling in a car. There was an inverse association between the injury rate and the ratio of time spent cycling to time spent travelling in a car. The expected number of cycling injuries increased with increasing total time spent cycling but at a decreasing rate particularly after adjusting for total time spent travelling in a car. The findings indicate a 'risk in scarcity' effect for New Zealand cyclists such that risk profiles of cyclists are likely to deteriorate if fewer people use a bicycle and more use a car. Cooperative efforts to promote cycling and its safety and to restrict car use may reverse the risk in scarcity effect. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  3. Interindividual variability of electromyographic patterns and pedal force profiles in trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Hug, François; Drouet, Jean Marc; Champoux, Yvan; Couturier, Antoine; Dorel, Sylvain

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether high inter-individual variability of the electromyographic (EMG) patterns during pedaling is accompanied by variability in the pedal force application patterns. Eleven male experienced cyclists were tested at two submaximal power outputs (150 and 250 W). Pedal force components (effective and total forces) and index of mechanical effectiveness were measured continuously using instrumented pedals and were synchronized with surface electromyography signals measured in ten lower limb muscles. The intersubject variability of EMG and mechanical patterns was assessed using standard deviation, mean deviation, variance ratio and coefficient of cross-correlation (_R(0), with lag time = 0). The results demonstrated a high intersubject variability of EMG patterns at both exercise intensities for biarticular muscles as a whole (and especially for Gastrocnemius lateralis and Rectus femoris) and for one monoarticular muscle (Tibialis anterior). However, this heterogeneity of EMG patterns is not accompanied by a so high intersubject variability in pedal force application patterns. A very low variability in the three mechanical profiles (effective force, total force and index of mechanical effectiveness) was obtained in the propulsive downstroke phase, although a greater variability in these mechanical patterns was found during upstroke and around the top dead center, and at 250 W when compared to 150 W. Overall, these results provide additional evidence for redundancy in the neuromuscular system.

  4. Effects of passive pedaling exercise on the intracortical inhibition in subjects with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Langthaler, Patrick B; Bathke, Arne C; Höller, Yvonne; Brigo, Francesco; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Christova, Monica; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-06-01

    Cortical reorganization can be induced by exercise below the level of the lesion after spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of passive and active pedaling exercise on leg motor cortical area excitability of subjects with traumatic SCI. Ten subjects with chronic cervical or thoracic SCI were enrolled in the study. We found a significant effect of pedaling on short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), which did not interact with the experimental condition (active vs. passive). This corresponded to a significant reduction of SICI in the subjects with SCI, together with no evidence that this pattern differed for passive vs. active pedaling. We found no significant effect of pedaling on intracortical facilitation. Our results showed that also passive cycling may be beneficial in activating motor cortical regions and possibly also facilitating motor recovery after SCI. The present study confirms and extends the findings of previous studies that have observed task-specific cortical activation during passive pedaling. Therefore passive exercise therapies when applied below the level of the lesion in subjects with SCI could promote cortical neuroplastic reorganization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of bilateral asymmetry in cycling using a commercial instrumented crank system and instrumented pedals.

    PubMed

    Bini, Rodrigo R; Hume, Patria A

    2014-09-01

    The accuracy of commercial instrumented crank systems for symmetry assessment in cycling has not been fully explored. Therefore, the authors' aims were to compare peak crank torque between a commercial instrumented crank system and instrumented pedals and to assess the effect of power output on bilateral asymmetries during cycling. Ten competitive cyclists performed an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. Forces and pedal angles were recorded using right and left instrumented pedals synchronized with crank-torque measurements using an instrumented crank system. Differences in right (dominant) and left (nondominant) peak torque and asymmetry index were assessed using effect sizes. In the 100- to 250-W power-output range, the instrumented pedal system recorded larger peak torque (dominant 55-122%, nondominant 23-99%) than the instrumented crank system. There was an increase in differences between dominant and nondominant crank torque as power output increased using the instrumented crank system (7% to 33%) and the instrumented pedals (9% to 66%). Lower-limb asymmetries in peak torque increased at higher power-output levels in favor of the dominant leg. Limitations in design of the instrumented crank system may preclude the use of this system to assess peak crank-torque symmetry.

  6. Surgical treatment of septic pedal osteitis in horses: nine cases (1980-1987).

    PubMed

    Gaughan, E M; Rendano, V T; Ducharme, N G

    1989-10-15

    Over an 8-year period, 9 horses with septic pedal osteitis were admitted to the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine. Septic pedal osteitis was defined by the presence of purulent exudate combined with radiographic evidence of lysis of the distal phalanx. The condition described involved only the distal phalanx, the laminae and hoofwall, and the soft tissues of the sole. Treatment included curettage and removal of the affected portion of the distal phalanx through a ventral approach to the foot, combined with systemic administration of antibodies. Of the 9 horses, 7 returned to soundness and original function within 12 weeks after surgery. During the early postoperative period, 2 horses died from causes unrelated to the surgery or to septic pedal osteitis.

  7. Ergonomic evaluation of brake pedal and push handle locations on hospital beds.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Wiggermann, Neal

    2017-04-01

    Transporting patients in hospital beds is a physically demanding activity performed by healthcare workers and bed design may moderate the risk of injury. Nine healthcare workers participated in a study to investigate how brake pedal location affected maximal voluntary exertion (MVE) force and the level of acceptable force for engagement. Preferred and acceptable push heights when maneuvering a bed were also evaluated. The method of limits was used to determine acceptable forces and push heights. Results demonstrated that pedal depth, clearance above, and clearance behind the pedal significantly affected MVE force and acceptable force. Preferred push height was approximately at elbow level and a single height would not accommodate the user population. These findings provide important considerations for hospital bed design. The method of limits was a valid and reliable approach for evaluating user acceptance of design inputs characterized by continuous variables and may be useful in other design evaluations.

  8. Crank inertial load has little effect on steady-state pedaling coordination.

    PubMed

    Fregly, B J; Zajac, F E; Dairaghi, C A

    1996-12-01

    Inertial load can affect the control of a dynamic system whenever parts of the system are accelerated or decelerated. During steady-state pedaling, because within-cycle variations in crank angular acceleration still exist, the amount of crank inertia present (which varies widely with road-riding gear ratio) may affect the within-cycle coordination of muscles. However, the effect of inertial load on steady-state pedaling coordination is almost always assumed to be negligible, since the net mechanical energy per cycle developed by muscles only depends on the constant cadence and workload. This study test the hypothesis that under steady-state conditions, the net joint torques produced by muscles at the hip, knee, and ankle are unaffected by crank inertial load. To perform the investigation, we constructed a pedaling apparatus which could emulate the low inertial load of a standard ergometer or the high inertial load of a road bicycle in high gear. Crank angle and bilateral pedal force and angle data were collected from ten subjects instructed to pedal steadily (i.e., constant speed across cycles) and smoothly (i.e., constant speed within a cycle) against both inertias at a constant workload. Virtually no statistically significant changes were found in the net hip and knee muscle joint torques calculated from an inverse dynamics analysis. Though the net ankle muscle joint torque, as well as the one- and two-legged crank torque, showed statistically significant increases at the higher inertia, the changes were small. In contrast, large statistically significant reductions were found in crank kinematic variability both within a cycle and between cycles (i.e., cadence), primarily because a larger inertial load means a slower crank dynamic response. Nonetheless, the reduction in cadence variability was somewhat attenuated by a large statistically significant increase in one-legged crank torque variability. We suggest, therefore, that muscle coordination during steady

  9. A novel technique for examining human brain activity associated with pedaling using fMRI.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Jay P; Verber, Matthew D; Wieser, Jon A; Schmit, Brian D; Schindler-Ivens, Sheila M

    2009-05-15

    Advances in neural imaging technologies, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have made it possible to obtain images of human brain activity during motor tasks. However, technical challenges have made it difficult to image the brain during multijoint lower limb movements like those involved in locomotion. We developed an MR compatible pedaling device and recorded human brain activity associated with rhythmic, alternating flexion and extension of the lower extremities. Ten volunteers pedaled at 30 RPM while recording fMRI signals in a GE 3T short bore MR scanner. We utilized a block design consisting of 3 runs of pedaling, each lasting 4 min. In a single run, subjects pedaled for 30 s and then rested for 30 s. This sequence was repeated 4 times. Conventional fMRI processing techniques, that correlate the entire BOLD signal with standard model, did not extract physiologically meaningful signal, likely due to magnetic field distortion caused by leg movement. Hence, we examined only the portion of the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal during movement-free periods. This technique takes advantage of the delayed nature of the BOLD signal and fits the falling portion of the signal after movement has stopped with a standard model. Using this approach, we observed physiologically plausible brain activity patterns associated with pedaling in the primary and secondary sensory and motor cortices and the cerebellum. To our knowledge, this is the first time that human brain activity associated with pedaling has been recorded with fMRI. This technique may be useful for advancing our understanding of supraspinal control of locomotor-like movements in health and disease.

  10. Plantar pressure of clipless and toe-clipped pedals in cyclists - A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Davis, Andrea; Pemberton, Troy; Ghosh, Subhajit; Maffulli, Nicola; Padhiar, Nat

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effect of clipless and toe-clipped pedals on plantar foot pressure while cycling. Seven bikers and 11 healthy volunteers were tested on a Giant ATX Team mountain bike, Tekscan Clinical 5.24 F-scan® system with an inner sole pressure sensor, a Tacx Cycle force One Turbo Trainer and a Cateye Mity 8 computerized speedometer were used. The subjects wore Shimano M037 shoes and used a standard clipless and toe-clipped pedal. The seat height was set at 100% of subject's trochanteric height. Plantar pressures were recorded over 12 consecutive crank cycles at a constant speed for each of the power outputs. The videos were analysed to record the pressure exerted at 12 positions on the foot for each variable. Whether there is any dominance of any of the metatarsals, and any difference in plantar pressures between clipped and clipless pedal. There was a significant difference in the pressure at many positions of the foot, but the sites were different for each individual. General regression analysis indicated that pedal type had a statistically significant effect on plantar pressure at the sites of 1(st) metatarsal (p=0.042), 3(rd) metatarsal (p<0.001), 5(th) metatarsal (<0.001), 2(nd) (p=0.018) and 5(th) toe (p<0.001), lateral midfoot (p<0.001) and central heel (p<0.001) areas. Clipless pedals produce higher pressures which are more spread across the foot than toe-clipped pedals. This may have implications for their use in the prevention and/or management of overuse injuries in the knee and foot.

  11. Alternative sensor system and MLP neural network for vehicle pedal activity estimation.

    PubMed

    Wefky, Ahmed M; Espinosa, Felipe; Jiménez, José A; Santiso, Enrique; Rodríguez, José M; Fernández, Alfredo J

    2010-01-01

    It is accepted that the activity of the vehicle pedals (i.e., throttle, brake, clutch) reflects the driver's behavior, which is at least partially related to the fuel consumption and vehicle pollutant emissions. This paper presents a solution to estimate the driver activity regardless of the type, model, and year of fabrication of the vehicle. The solution is based on an alternative sensor system (regime engine, vehicle speed, frontal inclination and linear acceleration) that reflects the activity of the pedals in an indirect way, to estimate that activity by means of a multilayer perceptron neural network with a single hidden layer.

  12. Engineer pedals STS-37 CETA electrical cart along track in JSC MAIL Bldg 9A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas engineer Gary Peters operates crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Peters, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots and positioned in portable foot restraint (PFR), is suspended above CETA cart and track via harness to simulate weightlessness. The electrical cart is moved by electricity generated from turning hand pedals. CETA will be tested in orbit in the payload bay of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during STS-37.

  13. Engineer pedals STS-37 CETA electrical cart along track in JSC MAIL Bldg 9A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas engineer Gary Peters operates crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Peters, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots and positioned in portable foot restraint (PFR), is suspended above CETA cart and track via harness to simulate weightlessness. The electrical cart is moved by electricity generated from turning hand pedals. CETA will be tested in orbit in the payload bay of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during STS-37.

  14. Influence of different racing positions on mechanical and electromyographic patterns during pedalling.

    PubMed

    Dorel, S; Couturier, A; Hug, F

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, in comparison with standard postures, aero posture (AP) would modify the coordination of lower limb muscles during pedalling and consequently would influence the pedal force production. Twelve triathletes were asked to pedal at an intensity near the ventilatory threshold (VT+Delta20%) and at an intenisty corresponding to the respiratory compensation point (RCP). For each intensity, subjects were tested under three positions: (1) upright posture (UP), (2) dropped posture (DP), and (3) AP. Gas exchanges, surface electromyography and pedal effective force were continuously recorded. No significant difference was found for the gas-exchange variables among the three positions. Data illustrate a significant increase [gluteus maximus (GMax), vastus medialis (VM)] and decrease [rectus femoris (RF)] in electromyography (EMG) activity level in AP compared with UP at RCP. A significant shift forward of the EMG patterns (i.e. later onset of activation) was observed for RF (at VT+Delta20% and RCP), GMax, VL, and VM (at RCP) in AP compared with UP. These EMG changes are closely related to alteration of force profile in AP (higher downstroke positive peak force, lower upstroke negative peak force, and later occurrence of these peaks along the crank cycle).

  15. Undergraduates as Environmental Educators: The Pedal and Paddle Pollution Tour Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronje, Ruth Johnson; Neff, Paula Kleintjes; Mowry, Donald; Running, Garry L.

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduates can become effective agents of environmental outreach when challenged to produce evidence-based messages to inform the public about local environmental issues. We recount our experience partnering our undergraduate students with community organizations dedicated to water stewardship to create a "Pedal and Paddle Pollution…

  16. Undergraduates as Environmental Educators: The Pedal and Paddle Pollution Tour Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronje, Ruth Johnson; Neff, Paula Kleintjes; Mowry, Donald; Running, Garry L.

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduates can become effective agents of environmental outreach when challenged to produce evidence-based messages to inform the public about local environmental issues. We recount our experience partnering our undergraduate students with community organizations dedicated to water stewardship to create a "Pedal and Paddle Pollution…

  17. The Relationship between Pedal Force and Crank Angular Velocity in Sprint Cycling.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, Maarten Frank; Casius, L J Richard; Van Soest, Arthur J

    2016-05-01

    Relationships between tangential pedal force and crank angular velocity in sprint cycling tend to be linear. We set out to understand why they are not hyperbolic, like the intrinsic force-velocity relationship of muscles. We simulated isokinetic sprint cycling at crank angular velocities ranging from 30 to 150 rpm with a forward dynamic model of the human musculoskeletal system actuated by eight lower extremity muscle groups. The input of the model was muscle stimulation over time, which we optimized to maximize average power output over a cycle. Peak tangential pedal force was found to drop more with crank angular velocity than expected based on intrinsic muscle properties. This linearizing effect was not due to segmental dynamics but rather due to active state dynamics. Maximizing average power in cycling requires muscles to bring their active state from as high as possible during shortening to as low as possible during lengthening. Reducing the active state is a relatively slow process, and hence must be initiated a certain amount of time before lengthening starts. As crank angular velocity goes up, this amount of time corresponds to a greater angular displacement, so the instant of switching off extensor muscle stimulation must occur earlier relative to the angle at which pedal force was extracted for the force-velocity relationship. Relationships between pedal force and crank angular velocity in sprint cycling do not reflect solely the intrinsic force-velocity relationship of muscles but also the consequences of activation dynamics.

  18. Using Accelerator Pedal Force to Increase Seat Belt Use of Service Vehicle Drivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Houten, Ron; Hilton, Bryan; Schulman, Richard; Reagan, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a device that applied a sustained increase in accelerator pedal back force whenever drivers exceeded a preset speed criterion without buckling their seat belts. This force was removed once the belt was fastened. Participants were 6 commercial drivers who operated carpet-cleaning vans. During baseline, no contingency was in…

  19. PyPedal, an open source software package for pedigree analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The open source software package PyPedal (http://pypedal.sourceforge.net/) was first released in 2002, and provided users with a set of simple tools for manipulating pedigrees. Its flexibility has been demonstrated by its used in a number of settings for large and small populations. After substantia...

  20. Cars Gone Wild: The Major Contributor to Unintended Acceleration in Automobiles is Pedal Error.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Richard A; Young, Douglas E

    2010-01-01

    "Unintended-acceleration" automobile accidents typically begin when the driver first enters the car, starts the engine, and intends to press his/her right foot on the brake while shifting from Park to a drive gear (Drive or Reverse). The driver reports an unintended (uncommanded) full-throttle acceleration, coupled with a loss of braking, until the episode ends in a crash. Pedal misapplications - where the right foot contacts the accelerator instead of the brake that was intended - have been linked to these accidents (Schmidt, 1989, 1993) which, in the 1980s, were thought to occur only at the start of a driving cycle (and/or with the car in Park). But, in 1997, we identified over 200 pedal errors as the cause of accidents reported in the North Carolina database; these crashes occurred during the driving cycle (Schmidt et al., 1997), and/or with the vehicle in a gear other than Park. Our present work provides a more thorough analysis of these North Carolina Police Accident Reports from 1979 to 1995. The vast majority of pedal misapplications (over 92%) (a) occurred during the driving cycle, (b) were generally in "unhurried" conditions, and (c) were categorically separate from those events referred to as unintended-acceleration episodes at start-up. These ideas are explanatory for the recent (2009-2010) surge of unintended-acceleration reports, perhaps even suggesting that all of these crashes are caused by pedal errors, and that none of them are based on some vehicle defect(s).

  1. Motor adaptations to unilateral quadriceps fatigue during a bilateral pedaling task.

    PubMed

    Brøchner Nielsen, N-P; Hug, F; Guével, A; Fohanno, V; Lardy, J; Dorel, S

    2016-12-20

    This study was designed to investigate how motor coordination adapts to unilateral fatigue of the quadriceps during a constant-load bilateral pedaling task. We first hypothesized that this local fatigue would not be compensated within the fatigued muscles leading to a decreased knee extension power. Then, we aimed to determine whether this decrease would be compensated by between-joints compensations within the ipsilateral leg and/or an increased contribution of the contralateral leg. Fifteen healthy volunteers were tested during pedaling at 350 W before and after a fatigue protocol consisting of 15 minutes of electromyostimulation on the quadriceps muscle. Motor coordination was assessed from myoelectrical activity (22 muscles) and joint powers calculated through inverse dynamics. Maximal knee extension torque decreased by 28.3%±6.8% (P<.0005) immediately after electromyostimulation. A decreased knee extension power produced by the ipsilateral leg was observed during pedaling (-22.8±12.3 W, -17.0%±9.4%; P<.0005). To maintain the task goal, participants primarily increased the power produced by the non-fatigued contralateral leg during the flexion phase. This was achieved by an increase in hip flexion power confirmed by a higher activation of the tensor fascia latae. These results suggest no adjustment of neural drive to the fatigued muscles and demonstrate no concurrent ipsilateral compensation by the non-fatigued muscles involved in the extension pedaling phase. Although interindividual variability was observed, findings provide evidence that participants predominantly adapted by compensating with the contralateral leg during its flexion phase. Both neural (between legs) and mechanical (between pedals) couplings and the minimization of cost functions might explain these results.

  2. Influence of Pedaling Cadence and Incremental Protocol on the Estimation of EMGFT.

    PubMed

    Duff, Timothy M; Fournier, Hallie; Hopp, Orie B; Ochshorn, Eli; Sanders, Eric S; Stevens, Rachel E; Malek, Moh H

    2016-08-01

    Duff, TM, Fournier, H, Hopp, OB, Ochshorn, E, Sanders, ES, Stevens, RE, and Malek, MH. Influence of pedaling cadence and incremental protocol on the estimation of EMGFT. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2206-2211, 2016-Theoretically, the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMGFT) is the highest exercise intensity that an individual can exercise at indefinitely without an increase in electromyography (EMG) amplitude. This index is estimated from a single incremental test. There are, however, factors that may influence EMG amplitude such as pedaling cadence or the incremental protocol used. The purposes of this study were to determine whether different pedaling cadences and/or incremental protocols influence the estimation of the EMGFT. Eight healthy college-aged men performed incremental cycle ergometry on three separate visits. The participants exercised using the following combinations of pedaling cadences and incremental protocols in random order: 25 W at 70 RPM; 13 W at 70 RPM; and 25 W at 100 RPM. The EMGFT value was determined from the vastus lateralis muscle of each participant for each of the three conditions. Separate 1-way repeated measures analysis of variances were performed to determine mean differences for various outcome indices. The mean maximal power output for the 13 W at 70 RPM condition was significantly lower than the two other conditions. There were, however, no significant mean differences (F (2,14) = 2.03; p = 0.169) for EMGFT between the three conditions. The findings of this study indicated that different pedaling cadences and incremental protocols did not influence the estimation of the EMGFT.

  3. Relationship between pedal force asymmetry and performance in cycling time trial.

    PubMed

    Bini, R R; Hume, P A

    2015-09-01

    It remains unclear if cyclists with better performance have less asymmetry. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the relationship between cycling time trial performance and bilateral asymmetries in pedal forces. Ten cyclists/triathletes performed an incremental cycling test to exhaustion to measure maximal oxygen uptake and power output. In a second session, bilateral pedal forces were acquired during a 4-km cycling time trial on the stationary cycle ergometer. Resultant and effective forces were computed along with the index of effectiveness at 500 m sections of the time trial using instrumented pedals. Intra-limb variability and the asymmetry index were calculated for each force variable. Multivariate analysis assessed bilateral differences in pedal forces accounting for power output, pedalling cadence and oxygen uptake of each cyclist. Force variables did not change throughout the test (effective - P=0.98, resultant - P=0.90 and index of effectiveness - P=0.99) with larger force applied by the dominant limb (11-21%). The relationship between asymmetries and performances was strong for the effective force (r=-0.72) but weak for the resultant force (r = 0.01) and for the index of effectiveness (r=-0.29). Substantial asymmetries were observed for the effective force (36-54%), resultant force (11-21%) and for the index of effectiveness (21-32%) at greater range than intra-limb variability (effective force =8-22%, resultant force =5-10% and index of effectiveness =1-3%). Larger asymmetries in effective force were related to better performances during the 4-km time trial with low intra-limb variability for force measures suggesting consistence in asymmetries for individual cyclists.

  4. Effects of an active accelerator pedal on driver behaviour and traffic safety after long-term use in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Várhelyi, András; Hjälmdahl, Magnus; Hydén, Christer; Draskóczy, Magda

    2004-09-01

    The long-term effects of the active accelerator pedal (AAP) were evaluated in the city of Lund in 2000 and 2001. The system, installed in 284 vehicles, produced a counterforce in the accelerator pedal at the speed limit. It could, however be overridden by pressing the accelerator pedal harder. The results showed that test drivers' compliance with the speed limits improved considerably. Reduction in average speeds and less speed variation by the test vehicles indicate a great traffic-safety potential. Travel times were unaffected, while emission volumes decreased significantly.

  5. The natural history of pedal puncture wounds in diabetics: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Surgeons usually witness only the limb-threatening stages of infected, closed pedal puncture wounds in diabetics. Given that this catastrophic outcome often represents failure of conservative management of pre-infected wounds, some suggest consideration of invasive intervention (coring or laying-open) for pre-infected wounds in hope of preventing contamination from evolving into infection, there being no evidence based guidelines. However, an invasive pre-emptive approach is only justifiable if the probability of progression to catastrophic infection is very high. Literature search revealed no prior studies on the natural history of closed pedal puncture wounds in diabetics. Methods A survey was conducted via an interviewer-administered questionnaire on 198 adult diabetics resident in the parish of St. James, Jamaica. The sample was selected using a purposive technique designed to mirror the social gradient and residential distribution of the target population and is twice the number needed to detect a prevalence of puncture wounds of 14% with a range of 7-21% in a random sample of the estimated adult diabetic population. Results The prevalence of a history of at least one closed pedal puncture wound since diagnosis of diabetes was 25.8% (CI; 19.6-31.9%). The only modifiable variable associated at the 5% level of significance with risk of pedal puncture wound, after adjustment by multivariable logistic regression, was site of interview/paying status, a variable substantially reflective of income more so than quality-of-care. Of 77 reported episodes of closed pedal puncture wound among 51 participants, 45.4% healed without medical intervention, 27.3% healed after non-surgical treatment by a doctor and 27.3% required surgical intervention ranging from debridement to below-knee amputation. Anesthetic foot (failure to feel the puncture) and sole of the forefoot as site of puncture were the variables significantly associated with risk of requiring surgical

  6. Freely chosen cadence during a covert manipulation of ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Geoffrey L; Cheung, Stephen S

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated relationships between changes in power output (PO) to torque (TOR) or freely chosen cadence (FCC) during thermal loading. Twenty participants cycled at a constant rating of perceived exertion while ambient temperature (Ta) was covertly manipulated at 20-min intervals of 20 °C, 35 °C, and 20 °C. The magnitude responses of PO, FCC and TOR were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA, while the temporal correlations were analyzed using Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Averages (ARIMA). Increases in Ta caused significant thermal strain (p < .01), and subsequently, a decrease in PO and TOR magnitude (p < .01), whereas FCC remained unchanged (p = .51). ARIMA indicates that changes in PO were highly correlated to TOR (stationary r2 = .954, p = .04), while FCC was moderately correlated (stationary r2 = .717, p = .01) to PO. In conclusion, changes in PO are caused by a modulation in TOR, whereas FCC remains unchanged and therefore, unaffected by thermal stressors.

  7. Comparing ICD-10 external cause codes for pedal cyclists with self-reported crash details.

    PubMed

    Beck, Ben; Ekegren, Christina L; Cameron, Peter; Stevenson, Mark; Judson, Rodney; Bucknill, Andrew; Edwards, Elton; Gabbe, Belinda

    2017-02-16

    Accurate coding of injury event information is critical in developing targeted injury prevention strategies. However, little is known about the validity of the most universally used coding system, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), in characterising crash counterparts in pedal cycling events. This study aimed to determine the agreement between hospital-coded ICD-10-AM (Australian modification) external cause codes with self-reported crash characteristics in a sample of pedal cyclists admitted to hospital following bicycle crashes. Interview responses from 141 injured cyclists were mapped to a single ICD-10-AM external cause code for comparison with ICD-10-AM external cause codes from hospital administrative data. The percentage of agreement was 77.3% with a κ value of 0.68 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.77), indicating substantial agreement. Nevertheless, studies reliant on ICD-10 codes from administrative data should consider the 23% level of disagreement when characterising crash counterparts in cycling crashes.

  8. The control of brain mitochondrial energization by cytosolic calcium: the mitochondrial gas pedal.

    PubMed

    Gellerich, Frank Norbert; Gizatullina, Zemfira; Gainutdinov, Timur; Muth, Katharina; Seppet, Enn; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Vielhaber, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    This review focuses on problems of the intracellular regulation of mitochondrial function in the brain via the (i) supply of mitochondria with ADP by means of ADP shuttles and channels and (ii) the Ca(2+) control of mitochondrial substrate supply. The permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane for adenine nucleotides is low. Therefore rate dependent concentration gradients exist between the mitochondrial intermembrane space and the cytosol. The existence of dynamic ADP gradients is an important precondition for the functioning of ADP shuttles, for example CrP-shuttle. Cr at mM concentrations instead of ADP diffuses from the cytosol through the porin pores into the intermembrane space. The CrP-shuttle isoenzymes work in different directions which requires different metabolite concentrations mainly caused by dynamic ADP compartmentation. The ADP shuttle mechanisms alone cannot explain the load dependent changes in mitochondrial energization, and a complete model of mitochondrial regulation have to account the Ca(2+) -dependent substrate supply too. According to the old paradigmatic view, Ca(2+) (cyt) taken up by the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter activates dehydrogenases within the matrix. However, recently it was found that Ca(2+) (cyt) at low nM concentrations exclusively activates the state 3 respiration via aralar, the mitochondrial glutamate/aspartate carrier. At higher Ca(2+) (cyt) (> 500 nM), brain mitochondria take up Ca(2+) for activation of substrate oxidation rates. Since brain mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation is only slightly influenced by Ca(2+) (cyt) , it was proposed that the cytosolic formation of pyruvate from its precursors is tightly controlled by the Ca(2+) dependent malate/aspartate shuttle. At low (50-100 nM) Ca(2+) (cyt) the pyruvate formation is suppressed, providing a substrate limitation control in neurons. This so called "gas pedal" mechanism explains why the energy metabolism of neurons in the nucleus suprachiasmaticus could be down

  9. Electromyographic Analysis of the Peroneous Longus during Bicycle Ergometry across Work Load and Pedal Type.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    monitored with EMG . These muscles consisted of flexors and extensors of the hip , knee, and ankle, but did not include the peroneous longus. The...electrodes but a curvilinear relationship with bipolar electrodes. 3 5 Vigreux and associates reported stronger EMG signals with longitudinal place- ment...pedaling is not known. The purpose of this study was to analyze the electromyo- graphic ( EMG ) activity of the peroneous longus across work load (1, 2, and

  10. In vivo hip joint loads and pedal forces during ergometer cycling.

    PubMed

    Damm, P; Dymke, J; Bender, A; Duda, G; Bergmann, G

    2017-07-26

    The rising prevalence of osteoarthritis and an increase in total hip replacements calls for attention to potential therapeutic activities. Cycling is considered as a low impact exercise for the hip joint and hence recommended. However, there are limited data about hip joint loading to support this claim. The aim of this study was to measure synchronously the in vivo hip joint loads and pedal forces during cycling. The in vivo hip joint loads were measured in 5 patients with instrumented hip implants. Data were collected at several combinations of power and cadence, at two saddle heights. Joint loads and pedal forces showed strong linear correlation with power. So the relationship between the external pedal forces and internal joint forces was shown. While cycling at different cadences the minimum joint loads were acquired at 60RPM. The lower saddle height configuration results in an approximately 15% increase compared to normal saddle height. The results offered new insights into the actual effects of cycling on the hip joint and can serve as useful tools while developing an optimum cycling regimen for individuals with coxarthrosis or following total hip arthroplasty. Due to the relatively low contact forces, cycling at a moderate power level of 90W at a normal saddle height is suitable for patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. USING ACCELERATOR PEDAL FORCE TO INCREASE SEAT BELT USE OF SERVICE VEHICLE DRIVERS

    PubMed Central

    Van Houten, Ron; Hilton, Bryan; Schulman, Richard; Reagan, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a device that applied a sustained increase in accelerator pedal back force whenever drivers exceeded a preset speed criterion without buckling their seat belts. This force was removed once the belt was fastened. Participants were 6 commercial drivers who operated carpet-cleaning vans. During baseline, no contingency was in place for unbuckled trips. The pedal resistance was introduced via a multiple baseline design across groups. On the first day of treatment, the device was explained and demonstrated for all drivers of the vehicle. The treatment was associated with an immediate sustained increase in seat belt compliance to 100%. Occasionally, drivers initially did not buckle during a trip and encountered the force. In all instances, they buckled within less than 25 s. These results suggest that the increased force was sufficient to set up an establishing operation to reinforce seat belt buckling negatively. Drivers indicated that they were impressed with the device and would not drive very long unbelted with the pedal force in place. PMID:21541142

  12. Effects of leg pedaling on early latency cutaneous reflexes in upper limb muscles.

    PubMed

    Sasada, Syusaku; Tazoe, Toshiki; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Zehr, E Paul; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi

    2010-07-01

    The functional coupling of neural circuits between the upper and lower limbs involving rhythmic movements is of interest to both motor control research and rehabilitation science. This coupling can be detected by examining the effect of remote rhythmic limb movement on the modulation of reflex amplitude in stationary limbs. The present study investigated the extent to which rhythmic leg pedaling modulates the amplitude of an early latency (peak 30-70 ms) cutaneous reflex (ELCR) in the upper limb muscles. Thirteen neurologically intact volunteers performed leg pedaling (60 or 90 rpm) while simultaneously contracting their arm muscles isometrically. Control experiments included isolated isometric contractions and discrete movements of the leg. ELCRs were evoked by stimulation of the superficial radial nerve with a train of rectangular pulses (three pulses at 333 Hz, intensity 2.0- to 2.5-fold perceptual threshold). Reflex amplitudes were significantly increased in the flexor carpi radialis and posterior deltoid and significantly decreased in the biceps brachii muscles during leg pedaling compared with that during stationary isometric contraction of the lower leg muscles. This effect was also sensitive to cadence. No significant modulation was seen during the isometric contractions or discrete movements of the leg. Additionally, there was no phase-dependent modulation of the ELCR. These findings suggest that activation of the rhythm generating system of the legs affects the excitability of the early latency cutaneous reflex pathways in the upper limbs.

  13. Pedaling power and speed production vs. technical factors and track difficulty in bicycle motocross cycling.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Manuel; Blasco-Lafarga, Cristina; Zabala, Mikel

    2011-12-01

    Mateo, M, Blasco-Lafarga, C, and Zabala, M. Pedaling power and speed production vs. technical factors and track difficulty in BMX cycling. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3248-3256, 2011-This article analyzes whether there is a determined profile in the production of cyclic and acyclic periods in relation to the phases of a bicycle motocross (BMX) race and whether this profile is related to the variables, Difficulty of track and Techniques used. After an initial test for determining maximum pedaling power (Pmax), 9 athletes belonging to the Spanish national team completed 3 series of 3 different types of races: (a) Complete track without pedaling; (b) Track, pedaling only at the gate start; and (c) track with free pedaling. The triple test was carried out over 3 days and on different level tracks: (a) high difficulty (HD), (b) medium difficulty (MD), and (c) low difficulty (LD). Our results show that average peak power applied in the BMX race was 85.21 ± 2.15% Pmax, coming down to 73.02 ± 18.38% at the gate start and to 51.37 ± 15.84% on the first straight. On the other hand, mean power (MP) in the BMX race is 33.79 ± 8.60% MPmax, with statistically significant differences in relation to the difficulty of the track (p < 0.000; 0.009; higher in the easiest). The mean velocity developed is 34.21 ± 1.0 km·h with significant differences (p < 0.000) in relation to the difficulty of the track. Acyclic efforts accounted for 86.3%, and cyclic efforts accounted for the remaining 16.7% of the overall performance in the race, with differences in relation to the difficulty of the track (p ≤ 0.003). Both power profile and performance (measured as velocity) are dependent on the phases and techniques of the race and are significantly affected by the level of difficulty of the track. The greater the technical level of the track, the lesser the possibility of developing cyclic power and vice versa.

  14. Efficacy of debridement alone versus debridement combined with topical antifungal nail lacquer for the treatment of pedal onychomycosis: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Malay, D Scot; Yi, Sang; Borowsky, Pamela; Downey, Michael S; Mlodzienski, Alan J

    2009-01-01

    Pedal onychomycosis is a common malady caused by dermatophytes, saprophytes, and yeasts. Traditional treatment options for this condition include toenail debridement, and pharmacological therapies that range from the application of topical agents to the oral administration of antifungal medications. In this study, 55 patients (289 toenails) were randomly allocated to either nail debridement (27 [49.09%] patients) or debridement plus application of topical antifungal nail lacquer (28 [50.91%] patients). The primary outcome was mycological cure, and secondary outcomes included foot-related quality of life, and a number of clinically important toenail characteristics. After a median follow-up of 10.5 months (range, 3.25-14.25) months), patients in the antifungal nail lacquer group improved statistically significantly more than did those in the debridement alone group, and displayed a 76.74% rate of mycological cure. None of the patients in the debridement-only group experienced mycological cure. Variables that statistically significantly decreased the likelihood of cure included yeast on culture, pedal hyperhidrosis, cigarette smoking, involvement of the lunula, and involvement of >50% of the transverse width of the nail. Variables statistically significantly associated with an increased likelihood of cure included intervention before 6 months' duration, treatment at a large, urban practice, black race, and loss of protective sensation. 1.

  15. Surgical treatment of limb- and life-threatening infections in the feet of patients with diabetes and at least one palpable pedal pulse: successes and lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Lázaro-Martínez, Jose L; Hernández-Herrero, Cristina; Campillo-Vilorio, Nalini; Quintana-Marrero, Yurena; García-Morales, Esther; Hernández-Herrero, Maria J

    2011-12-01

    Outcomes of surgically treated limb- and life-threatening infections in patients with diabetes and a well-vascularized foot based only on the palpation of foot pulses are not well known. The authors retrospectively studied a series of 173 patients with diabetes and limb- (moderate) or life- (severe) threatening infections with at least one palpable pedal pulse who were admitted to their department for the treatment of infected diabetic foot from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2009. A total of 141 patients (81.5%) presented with limb-threatening/moderate infections and 32 (18.5%) with life-threatening/severe infections. In all, 49 patients (28.3%) presented with soft tissue infections only, 90 (52%) with osteomyelitis and 34 (19.7%) with a combined infection. Amputation was needed in 74 patients (42.7%), of whom 6 needed a major amputation (3.5% of overall). A total of 99 (57.2%) patients were treated by conservative surgery. Four patients (2.3%) died during the postoperative period (30 days). Limb salvage was achieved in 167 (96.5%) of the patients who were followed up until healing. Healing of the wounds by secondary intention was achieved in a median of 72 days. Clinical results permit the observation that a high rate of limb salvage can be achieved after the surgical treatment of limb- and life-threatening infections in patients with at least one palpable pedal pulse.

  16. Associative Self-Anchoring Interacts with Obtainability of Chosen Objects

    PubMed Central

    Prévost, Charlotte; Bolger, Niall; Mobbs, Dean

    2016-01-01

    While there is evidence that implicit self-esteem transfers to chosen objects (associative self-anchoring), it is still unknown whether this phenomenon extends to explicit self-esteem. Moreover, whether the knowledge that these objects might belong to the self in the future or not affects the evaluation of these objects has received little attention. Here, we demonstrate that evaluations of chosen objects are further enhanced when they are obtainable as compared to when they are not in participants with high explicit self-esteem, whereas participants with low explicit self-esteem exhibit the opposite pattern. These findings extend previous results and shed new light on the role of self-esteem in altering preferences for chosen objects depending on their obtainability. PMID:26913011

  17. Cineradiographic study of spine during cycling: effects of changing the pedal unit position on the dorso-lumbar spine angle.

    PubMed

    Fanucci, Ezio; Masala, Salvatore; Fasoli, Fabrizio; Cammarata, Rita; Squillaci, Ettore; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    Low back pain is a frequent pathology among bicyclists, probably due to unappropriate saddle position. This radiographic study was conducted to evaluate dorso-lumbar angular values in two different pedal unit positions; the first one in a bicycle frame type with pedals in front of the saddle axis and the second one with the pedals behind the saddle axis, in order to define the most physiological sitting position. Ten voluntary healthy adults, ranging in age between 21 to 45 years, were randomly choosen among a group of cyclist not involved in competition and underwent serial fluoroscopic studies while cyclists sit on two different saddles of a prototype cyclette; dorso-lumbar angles at both different sitting positions were measured on film according to modified Lippmann-Cobb method using as reference the upper somatic limitant of the eleventh or twelth dorsal vertebra and the lower somatic limitant of the third lumbar vertebra. Statistical analysis of the measured angles demonstrates that the differences between the dorso-lumbar spine angle in the different saddle positions are statistically significative with a coefficient correlation equals to 0.64015 and p>0.01; angular values are more physiological in the second position with pedal unit behind the saddle axis. The incidence and importance of low back pain in cyclists can be reduced with appropriate pedal unit position; the position with pedals behind the saddle axis permits more physiological spine angles in comparison with the classic one having the pedals in front of the saddle axis; this fact is due to a different pelvic position which coincides with lumbar angles.

  18. Work and power outputs determined from pedalling and flywheel friction forces during brief maximal exertion on a cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Hibi, N; Fujinaga, H; Ishii, K

    1996-01-01

    Work and power outputs during short-term, maximal exertion on a friction loaded cycle ergometer are usually calculated from the friction force applied to the flywheel. The inertia of the flywheel is sometimes taken into consideration, but the effects of internal resistances and other factors have been ignored. The purpose of this study was to estimate their effects by comparing work or power output determined from the force exerted on the pedals (pedalling force) with work or power output determined from the friction force and the moment of inertia of the rotational parts. A group of 22 male college students accelerated a cycle ergometer as rapidly as possible for 3 s. The total work output determined from the pedalling force (TWp) was significantly greater than that calculated from the friction force and the moment of inertia (TWf). Power output determined from the pedalling force during each pedal stroke (SPp) was also significantly greater than that calculated from the friction force and the moment of inertia. Percentage difference (% diff), defined by % diff = ¿(TWp - TWf)/TWf¿ x 100, ranged from 16.8% to 49.3% with a mean value of 30.8 (SD 9.1)%. It was observed that % diff values were higher in subjects with greater TWp or greater maximal SPp. These results would indicate that internal resistances and other factors, such as the deformation of the chain and the vibrations of the entire system, may have significant effects on the measurements of work and power outputs. The effects appear to depend on the magnitudes of pedalling force and pedal velocity.

  19. Racial disparities in the type of postmastectomy reconstruction chosen.

    PubMed

    Offodile, Anaeze C; Tsai, Thomas C; Wenger, Julia B; Guo, Lifei

    2015-05-01

    Racial disparities remain for women undergoing immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) after mastectomy. Understanding patterns of racial disparities in IBR utilization may present opportunities to tailor policies aimed at optimizing care across racial groups. The aim of this study was to determine if racial disparities exist for types of IBR chosen. A national, retrospective cohort study used the 2005-2011 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Multivariable logistic regression models were created to detect the odds by race for receiving each subtype of IBR after mastectomy-prosthetic, pedicled-transfer autologous tissue, or free-transfer autologous tissue. Secondary outcome was trends in IBR rates over time. There were 44,597 women identified in the data set who underwent mastectomy. Thirty-seven percent of women (N = 16, 642) were noted to undergo IBR after mastectomy. Prosthetic reconstruction (84.4%, n = 37, 640) was the most common form of IBR compared with pedicled-autologous reconstruction (15.4%, n = 6868) and free transfer autologous reconstruction (4.9%, n = 2185), P < 0.001. In multivariate analysis, minorities had lower odds of undergoing IBR compared with whites (odds ratio [OR] 0.37 and 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33-0.42 for Asians, OR 0.57 and 95% CI 0.52-0.61 for blacks, and OR 0.64 and 95% CI 0.58-0.71 for Hispanics, all P < 0.001). Compared with whites, Hispanics (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.58-0.83) and blacks (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.46-0.60) were less likely to use prosthetic reconstruction and more likely to use free-transfer autologous reconstruction (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.26-2.18 for Hispanics, OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.73-2.63 for blacks), all P < 0.001. Racial disparities persisted from 2005-2011; as minority patients were less likely to undergo IBR than whites (P < 0.001). Utilization of IBR may be a sensitive measure of disparities in access to high-quality care and underlying cultures. Strategies

  20. Intra-session repeatability of lower limb muscles activation pattern during pedaling.

    PubMed

    Dorel, Sylvain; Couturier, Antoine; Hug, François

    2008-10-01

    Assessment of intra-session repeatability of muscle activation pattern is of considerable relevance for research settings, especially when used to determine changes over time. However, the repeatability of lower limb muscles activation pattern during pedaling is not fully established. Thus, we tested the intra-session repeatability of the activation pattern of 10 lower limb muscles during a sub-maximal cycling exercise. Eleven triathletes participated to this study. The experimental session consisted in a reference sub-maximal cycling exercise (i.e. 150 W) performed before and after a 53-min simulated training session (mean power output=200+/-12 W). Repeatability of EMG patterns was assessed in terms of muscle activity level (i.e. RMS of the mean pedaling cycle and burst) and muscle activation timing (i.e. onset and offset of the EMG burst) for the 10 following lower limb muscles: gluteus maximus (GMax), semimembranosus (SM), Biceps femoris (BF), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), gastrocnemius medianus (GM) and lateralis (GL), soleus (SOL) and tibialis anterior (TA). No significant differences concerning the muscle activation level were found between test and retest for all the muscles investigated. Only VM, SOL and TA showed significant differences in muscle activation timing parameters. Whereas ICC and SEM values confirmed this weak repeatability, cross-correlation coefficients suggest a good repeatability of the activation timing parameters for all the studied muscles. Overall, the main finding of this work is the good repeatability of the EMG pattern during pedaling both in term of muscle activity level and muscle activation timing.

  1. The influence of seat configuration on maximal average crank power during pedaling: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Jeffery W; Neptune, Richard R

    2010-11-01

    Manipulating seat configuration (i.e., seat tube angle, seat height and pelvic orientation) alters the bicycle-rider geometry, which influences lower extremity muscle kinematics and ultimately muscle force and power generation during pedaling. Previous studies have sought to identify the optimal configuration, but isolating the effects of specific variables on rider performance from the confounding effect of rider adaptation makes such studies challenging. Of particular interest is the influence of seat tube angle on rider performance, as seat tube angle varies across riding disciplines (e.g., road racers vs. triathletes). The goals of the current study were to use muscle-actuated forward dynamics simulations of pedaling to 1) identify the overall optimal seat configuration that produces maximum crank power and 2) systematically vary seat tube angle to assess how it influences maximum crank power. The simulations showed that a seat height of 0.76 m (or 102% greater than trochanter height), seat tube angle of 85.1 deg, and pelvic orientation of 20.5 deg placed the major power-producing muscles on more favorable regions of the intrinsic force-length-velocity relationships to generate a maximum average crank power of 981 W. However, seat tube angle had little influence on crank power, with maximal values varying at most by 1% across a wide range of seat tube angles (65 to 110 deg). The similar power values across the wide range of seat tube angles were the result of nearly identical joint kinematics, which occurred using a similar optimal seat height and pelvic orientation while systematically shifting the pedal angle with increasing seat tube angles.

  2. Effects of hyperventilation on repeated pedaling sprint performance: short vs. long intervention duration.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Akihiro; Naito, Hisashi; Chow, Chin-Moi

    2017-01-20

    Previously, hyperventilation (HV) induced respiratory alkalosis, implemented during the last 30-s of each 60-s recovery that separated repeated pedaling sprints, has been shown to attenuate performance decrement. The present study investigated whether the ergogenic effects of HV would hold if the HV duration was shortened or extended. Seventeen power-trained athletes performed 10-s × 10 sets of standing pedaling sprints on a cycle ergometer, with 60-s inter-set recovery and the load (kp) set at 0.075 × body mass, under three breathing conditions: control, HV of 15-s (HVshort), and HV of 45-s (HVlong). Subjects breathed spontaneously during each 60-s recovery for the control condition. Under HVshort and HVlong conditions, subjects hyperventilated at 60 breaths/min with near-maximum tidal volume during the last 15-s or 45-s respectively of each recovery period. Peak and mean pedaling power outputs (POpeak and POmean) were documented for each sprint set to compare performance decrements between conditions. No significant condition effect or condition × time interaction was found for POpeak and POmean. The lack of ergogenic effects with HVlong may be ascribed to a complex interaction between the positive (augmented buffering effects) and negative effects of hyperventilation (decreased aerobic energy metabolism and exaggerated discomfort sensation of increased ventilatory work). For HVshort, the implemented duration may have been too short to yield positive physiological effects. A practical implication is that ergogenic effects may be impaired when hyperventilation is too short or too long, with the duration of around 30-s being the target for this exercise type.

  3. Lower Wingate Test Power Outcomes From "All-Out" Pretest Pedaling Cadence Compared With Moderate Cadence.

    PubMed

    Lunn, William R; Zenoni, Maria A; Crandall, Ian H; Dress, Ashley E; Berglund, Michelle L

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different pretest pedaling cadences on power outcomes obtained during the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). Vigorously exercising adult men (n = 14, 24.9 ± 1.2 years) and women (n = 14, 20.4 ± 0.6 years) participated in a randomized crossover study during which they performed the 30-second WAnT on a mechanically braked cycle ergometer (0.075 kg·kg(-1) body weight) under 2 conditions. Participants pedaled maximally with an unloaded flywheel during 5 seconds before resistance was applied and the test began (FAST). In another trial, participants maintained a moderate cadence (80 revolutions per minute [rpm]) during 5 seconds before the test began (MOD). All other components of the WAnT were identical. Peak power (PP), mean power (MP), minimum power (MinP), fatigue index (%FAT), and maximum cadence during test were recorded. Comparisons were made using a 2 × 2 factorial repeated-measures analysis of variance. Regardless of gender, the FAST condition resulted in 22.2% lower PP (612.6 ± 33.0 W vs. 788.3 ± 43.5 W), 13.3% lower MP (448.4 ± 22.2 W vs. 517.2 ± 26.4 W), 11.7% lower MinP (280.9 ± 14.8 W vs. 318.3 ± 17.2 W), and 9.0% lower %FAT (53.5 ± 1.3% vs. 58.8 ± 1.5%) than MOD condition (p < 0.01; mean ± SD). Similar outcomes were observed within gender. The authors conclude that practitioners of the WAnT should instruct participants to maintain a moderate pedal cadence (∼80 rpm) during 5 seconds before the test commences to avoid bias from software sampling and peripheral fatigue. Standardizing the pretest pedal cadence will be important to exercise testing professionals who compare data with norms or generate norms for specific populations.

  4. Engineers test STS-37 CETA electrical hand pedal cart in JSC MAIL Bldg 9A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas engineers Noland Talley (left) and Gary Peters (center) and ILC-Dover engineer Richard Richard Smallcombe prepare test setup for the evaluation of the crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Peters, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots and positioned in portable foot restraint (PFR), is suspended above CETA cart and track via harness to simulate weightlessness. CETA will be tested in orbit in the payload bay of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during STS-37.

  5. Engineers test STS-37 CETA electrical hand pedal cart in JSC MAIL Bldg 9A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas engineers Noland Talley (left) and Gary Peters (center) and ILC-Dover engineer Richard Richard Smallcombe prepare test setup for the evaluation of the crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Peters, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots and positioned in portable foot restraint (PFR), is suspended above CETA cart and track via harness to simulate weightlessness. CETA will be tested in orbit in the payload bay of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during STS-37.

  6. Ciba chosen in EPA`s environmental leadership program

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.

    1995-04-19

    Ciba`s St. Gabriel, LA plant site is among 12 chosen to participate in EPA`s new Environmental Leadership Program (ELP). Facilities in the one-year pilot program will develop innovative environmental management techniques, including self-audits whose results will be shared with EPA. Routine state and federal inspections will be suspended during the pilot period, but the manufacturing facilities will disclose any actual or suspected violations, with a limited period in which to correct them.

  7. Fully automatic control of paraplegic FES pedaling using higher-order sliding mode and fuzzy logic control.

    PubMed

    Farhoud, Aidin; Erfanian, Abbas

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a fully automatic robust control strategy is proposed for control of paraplegic pedaling using functional electrical stimulation (FES). The method is based on higher-order sliding mode (HOSM) control and fuzzy logic control. In FES, the strength of muscle contraction can be altered either by varying the pulse width (PW) or by the pulse amplitude (PA) of the stimulation signal. The proposed control strategy regulates simultaneously both PA and PW (i.e., PA/PW modulation). A HOSM controller is designed for regulating the PW and a fuzzy logic controller for the PA. The proposed control scheme is free-model and does not require any offline training phase and subject-specific information. Simulation studies on a virtual patient and experiments on three paraplegic subjects demonstrate good tracking performance and robustness of the proposed control strategy against muscle fatigue and external disturbances during FES-induced pedaling. The results of simulation studies show that the power and cadence tracking errors are 5.4% and 4.8%, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the proposed controller can improve pedaling system efficacy and increase the endurance of FES pedaling. The average of power tracking error over three paraplegic subjects is 7.4±1.4% using PA/PW modulation, while the tracking error is 10.2±1.2% when PW modulation is used. The subjects could pedal for 15 min with about 4.1% power loss at the end of experiment using proposed control strategy, while the power loss is 14.3% using PW modulation. The controller could adjust the stimulation intensity to compensate the muscle fatigue during long period of FES pedaling.

  8. Pedal proportions of Poposaurus gracilis: convergence and divergence in the feet of archosaurs.

    PubMed

    Farlow, James O; Schachner, Emma R; Sarrazin, John Cody; Klein, Hendrik; Currie, Philip J

    2014-06-01

    The crocodile-line basal suchian Poposaurus gracilis had body proportions suggesting that it was an erect, bipedal form like many dinosaurs, prompting questions of whether its pedal proportions, and the shape of its footprint, would likewise "mimic" those of bipedal dinosaurs. We addressed these questions through a comparison of phalangeal, digital, and metatarsal proportions of Poposaurus with those of extinct and extant crocodile-line archosaurs, obligate or facultatively bipedal non-avian dinosaurs, and ground birds of several clades, as well as a comparison of the footprint reconstructed from the foot skeleton of Poposaurus with known early Mesozoic archosaurian ichnotaxa. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of phalangeal and digital dimensions showed numerous instances of convergence in pedal morphology among disparate archosaurian clades. Overall, the foot of Poposaurus is indeed more like that of bipedal dinosaurs than other archosaur groups, but is not exactly like the foot of any particular bipedal dinosaur clade. Poposaurus likely had a digitigrade stance, and its footprint shape could have resembled grallatorid ichnotaxa, unless digit I of the foot of Poposaurus commonly left an impression.

  9. 3D DCE-MRA of pedal arteries in patients with diabetes mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamyshevskaya, M.; Zavadovskaya, V.; Zorkaltsev, M.; Udodov, V.; Grigorev, E.

    2016-02-01

    Purpose was identification and evaluation of pedal vascularization in diabetic patients of using contrast MR-angiography (3D DCE-MRA). 23 diabetic feet of 23 patients (15 male, 8 female; mean age 56 ± 14.6) underwent 3D DCE-MRA (Gadobutrol 15ml) at 1.5 T. Imaging analysis included blood-flow's speed, vascular architectonic's condition and character of contrast's accumulation. Osteomyelitis was verified by surgery in 15 cases. All patients were divided in 3 groups: neuropathic, neuroischemic, ischemic forms of diabetic foot. First- pass MRA detected significant delay of contrast's arrival in ischemic group. There were no significant differences between the values of neuropathic and neuroischemic forms of diabetic foot. Pedal vessels in patients were absent. Contrast MRA revealed three types of contrast distribution in soft tissues: uniform, local increase and local absence. Osteomyelitis was associated with diffuse enhanced contrast accumulation in all cases. In summary, MRI blood vessel imaging is a promising and valuable method for examining peripheral arterial changes in diabetic foot and might be useful for treatment planning in different forms of diabetic foot.

  10. Pedal-plantar loop technique for a challenging below-the-knee chronic total occlusion: a novel approach to percutaneous revascularization in critical lower limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, Massimiliano; Dalla Paola, Luca; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe

    2007-02-01

    Arterial revascularization by means of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is a mainstay in the management of patients with peripheral artery disease and critical limb ischemia (CLI). However, when employing standard approaches, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of below-the-knee arteries may fail in up to 20% of cases. In the present article, we report on a novel interventional strategy, the pedal-plantar loop technique, which we successfully employed in a patient with critical lower limb ischemia. This technique may sensibly increase success rates of PTA in very challenging total occlusions of below-the-knee arteries (e.g., those lacking a proximal occlusion stump). Technical points pertinent to this case are clearly illustrated, including the need to accurately choose guidewires and balloons of appropriate length, and the extensive use of the subintimal angioplasty technique.

  11. Some aspects of acoustic analysis of chosen vowels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kołodziejski, Jacek

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to perform acoustic analysis of normal speech signal in order to evaluate voice quality of normal speech. Acoustic analysis included measures of parameters such as mean fundamental frequency, Jitter local and Harmonics-to-Noise Ratio (HNR). The parameters were extracted from speech samples representing chosen short (non-sustained) vowels: /a/ /e/ /i/. The obtained values of parameters were compared with defined standards of threshold pathology. Results showed that obtained values of parameters can be used to further investigation of normal speech.

  12. Effects of the rotor pedalling system on the performance of trained cyclists during incremental and constant-load cycle-ergometer tests.

    PubMed

    Lucía, A; Balmer, J; Davison, R C R; Pérez, M; Santalla, A; Smith, P M

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Rotor, a new cycle crank configuration that effectively allows the pedals to move independently throughout the duty cycle, on indices of endurance cycling performance in trained cyclists. Ten cyclists (5 Rotor users and 5 non-users; age (mean +/- SD): 22 +/- 5 y; VO(2)max: 69.5 +/- 5.1 mL. kg(-1).min(-1)) volunteered to participate in the study. On four separate days, the subjects performed four cycle-ergometer tests, i.e. two incremental tests and two 20-min tests. An imposed crank rate of 75 rev.min(-1) was used during all tests. The incremental protocol started at 112.5 W, and the power output was increased by 37.5 W every 3 min until volitional exhaustion. The 20-min tests were performed at a fixed power output equivalent to 80 % of the highest power output that the cyclists maintained for a complete 3-min period during incremental tests. Both types of tests were performed with the conventional crank system and the Rotor following a counter-balanced, cross-over design. Gas exchange parameters were measured in all the tests and blood lactate was determined at the end of each 3-min period (incremental tests) and at the end of the 20-min tests. A three factor (pedalling system used during the tests x habitual pedalling system x power output [incremental tests] or time [20-min tests]) ANOVA with repeated measures on power output (incremental tests) or time (20-min tests) was used to analyse several indices of performance, e.g. peak power output, VO(2)max, lactate threshold, onset of blood lactate accumulation, economy, delta, and gross efficiency. No differences (p > 0.05) were found between the Rotor and conventional systems for any of the aforementioned variables. It seems that the theoretical advantage brought about by the Rotor system, i.e. improved contra-lateral cooperation of both legs, would be minimized in trained cyclists. Although field studies are needed to assess the possible implications, in terms

  13. Pre-impact lower extremity posture and brake pedal force predict foot and ankle forces during an automobile collision.

    PubMed

    Hardin, E C; Su, A; van den Bogert, A J

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how a driver's foot and ankle forces during a frontal vehicle collision depend on initial lower extremity posture and brake pedal force. A 2D musculoskeletal model with seven segments and six right-side muscle groups was used. A simulation of a three-second braking task found 3647 sets of muscle activation levels that resulted in stable braking postures with realistic pedal force. These activation patterns were then used in impact simulations where vehicle deceleration was applied and driver movements and foot and ankle forces were simulated. Peak rearfoot ground reaction force (F(RF)), peak Achilles tendon force (FAT), peak calcaneal force (F(CF)) and peak ankle joint force (F(AJ)) were calculated. Peak forces during the impact simulation were 476 +/- 687 N (F(RF)), 2934 +/- 944 N (F(CF)) and 2449 +/- 918 N (F(AJ)). Many simulations resulted in force levels that could cause fractures. Multivariate quadratic regression determined that the pre-impact brake pedal force (PF), knee angle (KA) and heel distance (HD) explained 72% of the variance in peak FRF, 62% in peak F(CF) and 73% in peak F(AJ). Foot and ankle forces during a collision depend on initial posture and pedal force. Braking postures with increased knee flexion, while keeping the seat position fixed, are associated with higher foot and ankle forces during a collision.

  14. Steel Lattice Tower Under Ultimate Load - Chosen Joint Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szafran, Jacek; Rykaluk, Kazimierz

    2017-06-01

    The main objective of the presented paper is to discuss chosen lattice tower joint behavior under structure ultimate load. Joint numerical modelling considerations are enriched with comparison to the full-scale tower pushover test results. Two independent load cases were examined: 1) where the L-sections (diagonal bracings) are loaded by the axial force only and that forces are applied in the center of the member cross section, 2) where the L-sections are loaded by the axial force and the bending moment that reproduce the effect of the eccentric connection to the gusset plates by the one leg of the angle section is added. Differences in equivalent stresses state for two independent design situations allow for conclusion that additional bending moments should be taken into account, especially for thin-walled members.

  15. [Fat and fatty acids chosen in chocolates content].

    PubMed

    Tarkowski, Andrzej; Kowalczyk, Magdalena

    2007-01-01

    The objective of present work was to comparison of fat and chosen fatty acid in chocolates with, approachable on national market. In the investigations on fat and fatty acids content in the milk chocolates, there were used 14 chocolates, divided into 3 groups either without, with supplements and stuffing. Crude fat content in the chocolates was determined on Soxhlet automatic apparatus. The saturated ad nsaturated acids content was determined using gas chromatographic method. Content of fat and fatty cids in chocolates were differentiation. The highest crude fat content was finding in chocolates with tuffing (31.8%) and without supplements (28.9%). The sum of saturated fatty acids content in fat above 62%) was highest and low differentiation in the chocolates without supplements. Among of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids depended from kind of chocolates dominated, palmitic, stearic, oleic and, linoleic acids. Supplements of nut in chocolates had on influence of high oleic and linoleic level

  16. Silicon Nanowire Growth at Chosen Positions and Orientations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getty, Stephanie A.

    2009-01-01

    It is now possible to grow silicon nanowires at chosen positions and orientations by a method that involves a combination of standard microfabrication processes. Because their positions and orientations can be chosen with unprecedented precision, the nanowires can be utilized as integral parts of individually electronically addressable devices in dense arrays. Nanowires made from silicon and perhaps other semiconductors hold substantial promise for integration into highly miniaturized sensors, field-effect transistors, optoelectronic devices, and other electronic devices. Like bulk semiconductors, inorganic semiconducting nanowires are characterized by electronic energy bandgaps that render them suitable as means of modulating or controlling electronic signals through electrostatic gating, in response to incident light, or in response to molecules of interest close to their surfaces. There is now potential for fabricating arrays of uniform, individually electronically addressable nanowires tailored to specific applications. The method involves formation of metal catalytic particles at the desired positions on a substrate, followed by heating the substrate in the presence of silane gas. The figure illustrates an example in which a substrate includes a silicon dioxide surface layer that has been etched into an array of pillars and the catalytic (in this case, gold) particles have been placed on the right-facing sides of the pillars. The catalytic thermal decomposition of the silane to silicon and hydrogen causes silicon columns (the desired nanowires) to grow outward from the originally catalyzed spots on the substrate, carrying the catalytic particles at their tips. Thus, the position and orientation of each silicon nanowire is determined by the position of its originally catalyzed spot on the substrate surface, and the orientation of the nanowire is perpendicular to the substrate surface at the originally catalyzed spot.

  17. Non-enhanced, ECG-gated MR angiography of the pedal vasculature: comparison with contrast-enhanced MR angiography and digital subtraction angiography in peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Tilman; Takes, Martin; Aschwanden, Markus; Klarhoefer, Markus; Haas, Tanja; Jacob, Augustinus L; Liu, David; Gutzeit, Andreas; Kos, Sebastian

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted in order to compare a high resolution, non-contrast-enhanced MRA (NATIVE SPACE, NE-MRA) of the pedal vasculature with contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). The prospective study consists of 20 PAOD patients. All patients underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty or stenting and received MR angiographies the following day. With CE-MRA, 75.7 % of vessel segments showed good, 16.4 % suboptimal and 7.9 % not usable image quality. With NE-MRA, 64.6 % showed good, 18.6 % suboptimal and 16.8 % not usable image quality. CE-MRA showed a sensitivity and negative predictive value of 90 %/95 % regarding significant stenosis (greater than 50 %), and specificity and positive predictive value were 88 %/77 %. Accordingly, sensitivity and negative predictive value for the NE-MRA were 96 %/97 % and specificity and positive predictive value were 80 %/69 % for stenoses greater than 50 %. The applied NE-MRA technique achieves high diagnostic accuracy even in very small distal arteries of the foot. However, the rate of non-diagnostic vessel segments is considerably higher for NE-MRA than for CE-MRA. NE-MRA is a valuable alternative to CE-MRA in selected patients. • Comparison of non-enhanced MRA with contrast-enhanced MRA and DSA as gold standard. • High resolution MRA at 3 T for the depiction of small pedal vessels. • Evaluation of high resolution non-enhanced MRA in PAOD patients.

  18. The influence of the rotational energy of a flywheel on the load pulse sum during pedalling on a cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Voigt, B; von Kiparski, R

    1989-01-01

    Employing seven male subjects, the influence of four different ergometer flywheels with the moments of inertia at the crankshaft (J') = 5.5, 10.5, 16.5, and 19.5 kg.m2 on 6-min load pulse sum (LPS), the heart rate integrated over 6-min was investigated. The J' was demonstrated to influence LPS at each of the corresponding rotational energies of the flywheels (75, 144, 226 and 276 J at 50 rev.min-1) in the four work-load steps (50, 100, 150 and 200 W). Between the values J' = 5.5 kg.m2 and 10.5 kg.m2 the LPS decreases, to rise again in the range J' = 10.5 kg.m2-19.5 kg.m2. For equal work-loads the minimum LPS was reached at a J' of 10.5 kg.m2. For the workloads of 100, 150 and 200 W it was possible to show statistically significant differences. The moment of inertia of ergometer flywheels J has a smoothing effect on the fluctuations of the rotational speed which are unavoidable during work on a cycle ergometer. The flywheel stores the leg forces acting on the pedals as rotational energy and opposes any rotational acceleration. If the J used is too small, equalization of the fluctuations of the rotational speed remains unsatisfactory. Flywheels with larger J require larger torques at the crankshaft for acceleration. For the most effective delivery of work to a cycle ergometer, an optimal rotational energy of the flywheel was found. For equal physical work, smaller or larger rotational energies require a larger expenditure of biological energy. A J' = 11 +/- 2 kg.m2 was incorporated into the draft for the German standard DIN 13,405 -- cycle-type ergometers.

  19. American alligator proximal pedal phalanges resemble human finger bones: Diagnostic criteria for forensic investigators.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Joseph V; Binetti, Katie M

    2014-07-01

    A scientific approach to bone and tooth identification requires analysts to pursue the goal of empirical falsification. That is, they may attribute a questioned specimen to element and taxon only after having ruled out all other possible attributions. This requires analysts to possess a thorough understanding of both human and non-human osteology, particularly so for remains that may be morphologically similar across taxa. To date, forensic anthropologists have identified several potential 'mimics' for human skeletal remains, including pig teeth and bear paws. Here we document another possible mimic for isolated human skeletal elements--the proximal pedal phalanges of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) closely resemble the proximal and intermediate hand phalanges of adult humans. We detail morphological similarities and differences between these elements, with the goal of providing sufficient information for investigators to confidently falsify the hypothesis that a questioned phalanx is derived from an American alligator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fusion podoplasty for the management of chronic pedal conditions in seven dogs and one cat.

    PubMed

    Papazoglou, Lysimachos G; Ellison, Gary W; Farese, James P; Bellah, Jamie R; Coomer, Alastair R; Lewis, Daniel D

    2011-01-01

    Eight animals underwent fusion podoplasties for the treatment of chronic interdigital furunculosis (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), digit abnormalities associated with tendonectomy (n=1), redundant indertigital skin (n=1), conformational deformity (n=1), and necrotizing fasciitis of the paw (n=1). Median duration of bandaging was 14 days, and median duration of hospitalization was 5 days. Four dogs had dehiscence, which occurred at a mean time of 11 days after surgery. Clinical abnormalities necessitating podoplasty resolved in six animals and improved in two. Six animals had normal ambulation and two dogs had slight weight-bearing lameness after a median follow-up time of 29 mo. Fusion podoplasty may be recommended as a salvage procedure for the treatment of various chronic pedal diseases in dogs and cats.

  1. The unique sound of the uni-vibe pedal: Part II. Transient behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahlweg, Cornelius F.; Rothe, Hendrik

    2013-09-01

    The Uni-Vibe is an effect pedal mostly used by electric guitar players. It is based on an opto-electronically controlled all-pass chain. In last year's paper on the subject an idealized system model was derived, which lead to deeper discussion of the musical consequences of the effect in terms of harmonic analysis of single tones and chords in clean and distorted mode. As a direct continuation the present paper deals with the transient behaviour of the device. The transient response is essential for understanding the special sound character, the reaction on picking techniques and the interaction with certain instruments. Therefore the system model is expanded and the pulse response of the idealized time invariant system is derived.

  2. [Theory of resilience. Key conceptual constructs and chosen issues].

    PubMed

    Borucka, Anna; Ostaszewski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to familiarize readers with key conceptual constructs related to resilience theory. This theory explains the phenomenon of children's and adolescents' positive adaptation despite various adverse life conditions and traumatic events. The resilience theory emphasizes the importance (relevance) of positive factors and mechanisms for child and adolescent development. Thus, it could be very useful for developing primary prevention and mental health promotion programmes among children and youth. This article is based on a review of publications written by significant resiliency researchers: M Rutter, N. Garmezy, E. Werner, S. Luthar, A. Sameroff, K. Kumpfer, A. Masten, M. Zimmerman, D. Cicchetti. More than 20 articles and book chapters published during the past 25 years were taken into consideration. They were chosen from the electronic database available at the University of Michigan and SAMSHA, and publications available in Poland. Several resilience definitions are mentioned, indicating the interactive and dynamic process of positive adaptation. These definitions encompass the impact of both risk and positive factors (and their interaction) on the individual's behavior, competence and health. The key conceptual constructs such as risk, risk factors, positive factors, resilience models and mechanisms are described in this article. The differences between the risk and protective mechanism are also presented. The difficulties related to operationalization of the key resilience constructs in empirical research are discussed. Common difficulties are related for example to clear criteria for risk and positive adaptation, and for risk group selection.

  3. Human endogenous retroviruses and chosen disease parameters in morphea

    PubMed Central

    Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Szramka-Pawlak, Beata; Żaba, Ryszard; Osmola-Mańkowska, Agnieszka; Silny, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Morphea (localized scleroderma) is a relatively rare disease characterized by excessive skin fibrosis. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) are largely distributed within the human genome with hundreds of thousands of elements. The HERV have been widely studied in autoimmune disorders, yet hardly ever assessed in diseases with a good prognosis such as morphea. Aim In this study we focus on the possible relations between the expression of chosen HERV and factors influencing the pathomechanism of the disease, such as age, sex, titres of anti-nuclear antibodies, as well as duration, activity, and severity of the disease (LoSSI index). Material and methods Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting six HERV sequences of interest were performed on samples derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and skin biopsies. Results In PBMC we found a statistically significant negative correlation between HERV-W env expression and LoSSI index (p = 0.01). Additionally, HERV-W env was downregulated in patients with the active form of morphea. In all other cases we found no correlation whatsoever nor statistically significant differences below the p = 0.05 threshold. Conclusions Morphea seems to be an autoimmune disease where the impact of HERV is not so apparent. It seems that probing many patients for the expression of just a few sequences is not as effective as previously expected. For initial studies of HERV in other diseases we recommend high throughput techniques such as HERV-dedicated DNA microarrays or massive parallel sequencing. PMID:28261031

  4. [Clinical research IV. Relevancy of the statistical test chosen].

    PubMed

    Talavera, Juan O; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    When we look at the difference between two therapies or the association of a risk factor or prognostic indicator with its outcome, we need to evaluate the accuracy of the result. This assessment is based on a judgment that uses information about the study design and statistical management of the information. This paper specifically mentions the relevance of the statistical test selected. Statistical tests are chosen mainly from two characteristics: the objective of the study and type of variables. The objective can be divided into three test groups: a) those in which you want to show differences between groups or inside a group before and after a maneuver, b) those that seek to show the relationship (correlation) between variables, and c) those that aim to predict an outcome. The types of variables are divided in two: quantitative (continuous and discontinuous) and qualitative (ordinal and dichotomous). For example, if we seek to demonstrate differences in age (quantitative variable) among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with and without neurological disease (two groups), the appropriate test is the "Student t test for independent samples." But if the comparison is about the frequency of females (binomial variable), then the appropriate statistical test is the χ(2).

  5. Dopamine neurons learn relative chosen value from probabilistic rewards

    PubMed Central

    Lak, Armin; Stauffer, William R; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Economic theories posit reward probability as one of the factors defining reward value. Individuals learn the value of cues that predict probabilistic rewards from experienced reward frequencies. Building on the notion that responses of dopamine neurons increase with reward probability and expected value, we asked how dopamine neurons in monkeys acquire this value signal that may represent an economic decision variable. We found in a Pavlovian learning task that reward probability-dependent value signals arose from experienced reward frequencies. We then assessed neuronal response acquisition during choices among probabilistic rewards. Here, dopamine responses became sensitive to the value of both chosen and unchosen options. Both experiments showed also the novelty responses of dopamine neurones that decreased as learning advanced. These results show that dopamine neurons acquire predictive value signals from the frequency of experienced rewards. This flexible and fast signal reflects a specific decision variable and could update neuronal decision mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18044.001 PMID:27787196

  6. INTERVENTION AT THE FOOT-SHOE-PEDAL INTERFACE IN COMPETITIVE CYCLISTS

    PubMed Central

    Vicenzino, Bill; Sisto, Sue Ann

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Competitive cyclists are susceptible to injury from the highly repetitive nature of pedaling during training and racing. Deviation from an optimal movement pattern is often cited as a factor contributing to tissue stress with specific concern for excessive frontal plane knee motion. Wedges and orthoses are increasingly used at the foot-shoe-pedal-interface (FSPI) in cycling shoes to alter the kinematics of the lower limb while cycling. Determination of the effect of FSPI alteration on cycling kinematics may offer a simple, inexpensive tool to reduce anterior knee pain in recreational and competitive cyclists. There have been a limited number of experimental studies examining the effect of this intervention in cyclists, and there is little agreement upon which FSPI interventions can prevent or treat knee injury. The purpose of this review is to provide a broader review of the literature than has been performed to date, and to critically examine the literature examining the evidence for FSPI intervention in competitive cyclists. Methods Current literature examining the kinematic response to intervention at the FSPI while cycling was reviewed. A multi-database search was performed in PubMed, EBSCO, Scopus, CINAHL and SPORTdiscus. Eleven articles were reviewed, and a risk of bias assessment performed according to guidelines developed by the Cochrane Bias Methods Group. Papers with a low risk of bias were selected for review, but two papers with higher risk of bias were included as there were few high quality studies available on this topic. Results Seven of the eleven papers had low bias in sequence generation i.e. random allocation to the test condition, only one paper had blinding to group allocation, all papers had detailed but non-standardized methodology, and incomplete data reporting, but were generally free of other bias sources. Conclusions Wedges and orthoses at the FSPI alter kinematics of the lower limb while cycling, although conclusions

  7. Differential expression profile of membrane proteins in Aplysia pleural–pedal ganglia under the stress of methyl parathion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Ying; Huang, Lin; Zhang, Yong; Ke, Cai-Huan; Huang, He-Qing

    2014-03-01

    This study was aimed to analyze the alteration of membrane protein profiles in Aplysia juliana Quoy & Gaimard (A. juliana) pleural–pedal ganglia under MP exposure. Both the results of GC–MS analysis and the activity assay of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) reveal that MP toxicological effects on Aplysia left and right pleural–pedal ganglia are different under 7 and 14 days of exposure. Therefore, Aplysia were subjected for exposure at two concentrations (1 and 2 mg/l) of MP for 7 and 14 days for membrane proteomic study. As a result, 19 and 14 protein spots were differentially expressed in A. juliana left pleural–pedal ganglia under 7 and 14 days treatment, and 20 and 14 protein spots found with differential expressions in their right ganglia under the same treatment, respectively. Several proteins with expression variations were detected from both the left and right pleural–pedal ganglia; however, most proteins have distinctive expressions, indicating different mechanisms might be involved in initiating MP toxicology in left and right ganglia. Among the total differential protein spots obtained, 29 proteins were classed as membrane proteins. These proteins are mainly involved in the metabolism process, cell redox homeostasis, signal transduction, immunology, intracellular transport and catalysis, indicating MP toxicity in mollusks seems to be complex and diverse. Some differentially expressed proteins were further confirmed by Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. These results might provide renovated insights to reveal the mechanism of MP-induced neurotoxicity, and the novel candidate biomarkers might have potential application for environmental evaluation of MP pollution level.

  8. Muscle activity adapts to anti-gravity posture during pedalling in persons with post-stroke hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Brown, D A; Kautz, S A; Dairaghi, C A

    1997-05-01

    With hemiplegia following stroke, a person's movement response to anti-gravity posture often appears rigid and inflexible, exacerbating the motor dysfunction. A major determinant of pathological movement in anti-gravity postures is the failure to adapt muscle-activity patterns automatically to changes in posture. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the impaired motor performance observed when persons with hemiplegia pedal in a horizontal position is exacerbated at more vertical anti-gravity body orientations. Twelve healthy elderly subjects and 17 subjects with chronic (> 6 months) post-stroke hemiplegia participated in the study. Subjects pedalled a modified ergometer at different body orientations (from horizontal to vertical), maintaining the same workload, cadence, and hip and knee kinematics. Pedal reaction forces, and crank and pedal kinematics, were measured and then used to calculate the work done by each leg and their net positive and negative components. The EMG was recorded from four leg muscles (tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps femoris). The main result from this study was that impaired plegic leg performance, as measured by net negative work done by the plegic leg and abnormal early rectus femoris activity, was exacerbated at the most vertical body orientations. However, contrary to the belief that muscle activity cannot adapt to anti-gravity postures, net positive work increased appropriately and EMG activity in all muscles showed modulated levels of activity similar to those in elderly control subjects. These results support the hypothesis that increased verticality exacerbates the already impaired movement performance. Yet, much of the motor response to verticality was flexible and appropriate, given the mechanics of the task.

  9. The pes of Australovenator wintonensis (Theropoda: Megaraptoridae): analysis of the pedal range of motion and biological restoration

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Alex G.; Klinkhamer, Ada J.; Elliott, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The pedal range of motion in Australovenator wintonensis is investigated to determine what influence soft tissue had on range of motion in the foot. Fortunately, the theropod pes shares a close morphology with extant large cursorial birds. Therefore, to better understand the pedal range of motion of Australovenator, the pedal range of motion of Dromaius novaehollandiae (commonly known as the emu) was analysed with and without soft tissue. We used a variety of innovative digital techniques to analyse the range of motion and biologically restore the Australovenator pes. Computed tomography scans of Dromaius pes in fully flexed and fully extended positions provided the soft tissue range of motion limits. The bone on bone range of motion of the same specimen was replicated following the removal of soft tissue. It was identified that there was an increase in range of motion potential with the removal of soft tissue. This variation provided a guide to develop the potential range of motion of a fully fleshed Australovenator pes. Additionally, the dissection of the Dromaius pes provided a guide enabling the replication of the corresponding soft tissue and keratin sheaths of the Australovenator pes. PMID:27547591

  10. The pes of Australovenator wintonensis (Theropoda: Megaraptoridae): analysis of the pedal range of motion and biological restoration.

    PubMed

    White, Matt A; Cook, Alex G; Klinkhamer, Ada J; Elliott, David A

    2016-01-01

    The pedal range of motion in Australovenator wintonensis is investigated to determine what influence soft tissue had on range of motion in the foot. Fortunately, the theropod pes shares a close morphology with extant large cursorial birds. Therefore, to better understand the pedal range of motion of Australovenator, the pedal range of motion of Dromaius novaehollandiae (commonly known as the emu) was analysed with and without soft tissue. We used a variety of innovative digital techniques to analyse the range of motion and biologically restore the Australovenator pes. Computed tomography scans of Dromaius pes in fully flexed and fully extended positions provided the soft tissue range of motion limits. The bone on bone range of motion of the same specimen was replicated following the removal of soft tissue. It was identified that there was an increase in range of motion potential with the removal of soft tissue. This variation provided a guide to develop the potential range of motion of a fully fleshed Australovenator pes. Additionally, the dissection of the Dromaius pes provided a guide enabling the replication of the corresponding soft tissue and keratin sheaths of the Australovenator pes.

  11. Abdominal Aortic Hemodynamics in Intermittent Claudication Patients at Rest and During Dynamic Pedaling Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Christopher P.; Taylor, Charles A.; Dalman, Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lower extremity exercise has been shown to eliminate adverse hemodynamics conditions, such as low and oscillating blood flow and wall shear stress, in the abdominal aortas of healthy young and older adults. Methods We use cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging and a custom MRI-compatible exercise cycle to quantify hemodynamic changes due to pedaling exercise in patients diagnosed with intermittent claudication. Results and Conclusions With only an average heart increase of 35±18% and exercise workload of 36±16 Watts, the patients experienced approximately 3- and 6-fold increases in blood flow, and 4- and 16-fold increases in wall shear stress at the supraceliac and infrarenal aortic locations, respectively. Also, all oscillations in flow and shear stress at rest were eliminated with exercise. Claudication patients experience 3 to 4-fold lower oscillations in flow and shear stress at rest as compared to healthy age-matched controls, likely due to reduced distal arterial compliance as a result of distal atherosclerosis. The magnitude of flow and shear oscillatory indices may be good indicators of distal arterial compliance and health, and may provide predictive power for the efficacy of focal interventions. PMID:26315797

  12. Cortical current density oscillations in the motor cortex are correlated with muscular activity during pedaling exercise.

    PubMed

    Schneider, S; Rouffet, D M; Billaut, F; Strüder, H K

    2013-01-03

    Despite modern imaging techniques, assessing and localizing changes in brain activity during whole-body exercise is still challenging. Using an active electroencephalography (EEG) system in combination with source localization algorithms, this study aimed to localize brain cortical oscillations patterns in the motor cortex and to correlate these with surface electromyography (EMG)-detected muscular activity during pedaling exercise. Eight subjects performed 2-min isokinetic (90 rpm) cycling bouts at intensities ranging from 1 to 5 Wkg(-1) body mass on a cycle ergometer. These bouts were interspersed by a minimum of 2 min of passive rest to limit to development of peripheral muscle fatigue. Brain cortical activity within the motor cortex was analyzed using a 32-channel active EEG system combined with source localization algorithms. EMG activity was recorded from seven muscles on each lower limb. EEG and EMG activity revealed comparatively stable oscillations across the different exercise intensities. More importantly, the oscillations in cortical activity within the motor cortex were significantly correlated with EMG activity during the high-intensity cycling bouts. This study demonstrates that it is possible to localize oscillations in brain cortical activity during moderate- to high-intensity cycling exercise using EEG in combination with source localization algorithms, and that these oscillations match the activity of the active muscles in time and amplitude. Results of this study might help to further evaluate the effects of central vs. peripheral fatigue during exercise.

  13. Muscular activity level during pedalling is not affected by crank inertial load.

    PubMed

    Duc, S; Villerius, V; Bertucci, W; Pernin, J N; Grappe, F

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of gear ratio (GR) and thus crank inertial load (CIL), on the activity levels of lower limb muscles. Twelve competitive cyclists performed three randomised trials with their own bicycle equipped with a SRM crankset and mounted on an Axiom ergometer. The power output ( approximately 80% of maximal aerobic power) and the pedalling cadence were kept constant for each subject across all trials but three different GR (low, medium and high) were indirectly obtained for each trial by altering the electromagnetic brake of the ergometer. The low, medium and high GR (mean +/- SD) resulted in CIL of 44 +/- 3.7, 84 +/- 6.5 and 152 +/- 17.9 kg.m(2), respectively. Muscular activity levels of the gluteus maximus (GM), the vastus medialis (VM), the vastus lateralis (VL), the rectus femoris (RF), the medial hamstrings (MHAM), the gastrocnemius (GAS) and the soleus (SOL) muscles were quantified and analysed by mean root mean square (RMS(mean)). The muscular activity levels of the measured lower limb muscles were not significantly affected when the CIL was increased approximately four fold. This suggests that muscular activity levels measured on different cycling ergometers (with different GR and flywheel inertia) can be compared among each other, as they are not influenced by CIL.

  14. Digits Lost or Gained? Evidence for Pedal Evolution in the Dwarf Salamander Complex (Eurycea, Plethodontidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Change in digit number, particularly digit loss, has occurred repeatedly over the evolutionary history of tetrapods. Although digit loss has been documented among distantly related species of salamanders, it is relatively uncommon in this amphibian order. For example, reduction from five to four toes appears to have evolved just three times in the morphologically and ecologically diverse family Plethodontidae. Here we report a molecular phylogenetic analysis for one of these four-toed lineages – the Eurycea quadridigitata complex (dwarf salamanders) – emphasizing relationships to other species in the genus. A multilocus phylogeny reveals that dwarf salamanders are paraphyletic with respect to a complex of five-toed, paedomorphic Eurycea from the Edwards Plateau in Texas. We use this phylogeny to examine evolution of digit number within the dwarf−Edwards Plateau clade, testing contrasting hypotheses of digit loss (parallelism among dwarf salamanders) versus digit gain (re-evolution in the Edwards Plateau complex). Bayes factors analysis provides statistical support for a five-toed common ancestor at the dwarf-Edwards node, favoring, slightly, the parallelism hypothesis for digit loss. More importantly, our phylogenetic results pinpoint a rare event in the pedal evolution of plethodontid salamanders. PMID:22649536

  15. Diagnosis of pedal osteomyelitis in diabetic patients using current scintigraphic techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, A.M.; Tindel, N.L.; Alavi, A. )

    1989-10-01

    Seventy-seven diabetic patients with suspected osteomyelitis of the foot were evaluated by three-phase bone scintigraphy (TPBS), indium 111-labeled white blood cell scintigraphy (WBCS), roentgenography, or some combination thereof. Retrospective analysis after clinical and pathologic follow-up indicated that the sensitivity of TPBS alone in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis was 100%, with a specificity of only 38% and an accuracy of 63%; the sensitivity of WBCS alone was 100%, with a specificity of 78% and an accuracy of 87%; and the combination of TPBS and WBCS yielded a sensitivity of 100%, with a specificity of 79% and an accuracy of 87%. Roentgenography yielded a sensitivity of 69%, with a specificity of 82% and an accuracy of 76%. The results of this study demonstrate that WBCS is superior to TPBS in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot, and TPBS adds little when viewed in conjunction with WBCS. Based on our observations and because of the high prevalence of neuropathic joint disease and other causes of false-positive bone scans, we believe that WBCS alone is adequate for evaluation of suspected pedal osteomyelitis in diabetic patients, particularly when the suspected lesion is located in the tarsometatarsal region in contrast to the toe region (7% vs 44% specificity and 28% vs 69% accuracy, respectively, for TPBS in these two regions, compared with 100% vs 68% specificity and 100% vs 80% accuracy, respectively, for WBCS in the same two regions).

  16. Affective imaging: psychological and physiological reactions to individually chosen images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorovskaya, Elena A.; Miller, Paige; Prabhu, Girish; Horwitz, Cecelia; Matraszek, Tomasz; Parks, Peter; Blazey, Richard; Endrikhovski, Serguei

    2001-06-01

    In a series of experiments, observers' cognitive and psychophysiological responses to pictorial stimuli were evaluated. In the first experiment, subjects were viewing a set of randomly presented images. After each image presentation, they rates every image on a number of cognitive scales. In the second experiment, images producing certain physiological effects - deactivating, neutral, or activating - were individually selected based on the results of the first experiment and shown to the subjects again. Psychophysiological measurements included electrocardiogram, hand temperature, muscle tension, eye movements, blood oxygen, respiration, and galvanic skin response. Our result indicate that images produced significant emotional changes based on verbal and physiological assessment. The changes were in agreement with the predictions derived from the metric that we developed in a number of cases that exceeded the change level. The direction of changes corresponded to previous findings reported elsewhere.

  17. Rudimentary pedal grasping in mice and implications for terminal branch arboreal quadrupedalism.

    PubMed

    Byron, Craig; Kunz, Hawley; Matuszek, Heather; Lewis, Stephanie; Van Valkinburgh, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    We use an outbred laboratory mouse strain (ICR/CD-1, Charles River Laboratories, Inc.) to model a type of preprimate locomotion associated with rudimentary pedal grasping. Ten male mice were assigned to either control or climbing groups (n = 5 per group). Climbing mice lived within a specialized terrarium that included ∼7.5 m of thin branches (5 and 10 cm long) with a thickness of 3.3 mm, arranged in a reticulated canopy. Food, water, and a nest site were placed among the branches. To discourage mice from palmigrade or digitigrade locomotion, the floor of the terrarium was flooded with a few centimeters of water. Climbing mice were placed in this setting upon weaning and reared for 3 months until they were mature in size. Litter, and age-matched controls were also maintained for comparison with climbers. Climbing mice quickly acclimated to the requirements of the fine-branch model using the foot and tail for grasping and balance. At maturity, climbing and control mice exhibited minor, but significant, morphological plasticity. For climbers, this includes a greater angle of the femoral neck, larger patellar groove index, relatively shorter talar neck length, and more circular talar head aspect ratio (P < 0.10). Climbers also exhibit increased curvature of the distal third metacarpal, decreased talar head angle, and relatively longer caudal vertebrae transverse processes (P < 0.05). These results in a small-bodied eutherian mammal suggest that facultative hallucial opposability and coordinated tail use enable a kind of grasping active arboreal quadrupedality relevant to the latest stages of pre-euarchontan evolution. In light of these data, we hypothesize that a unique advantage of mouse-sized mammals is that they exhibit a highly flexible body plan allowing them to engage in a diverse array of anatomical positions without requiring specific limb morphologies. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Lower Wingate Test Power Outcomes from 'All-Out' Pre-Test Pedaling Cadence Compared to Moderate Cadence.

    PubMed

    Lunn, William R; Zenoni, Maria A; Crandall, Ian H; Dress, Ashley E; Berglund, Michelle L

    2013-11-20

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different pre-test pedaling cadences on power outcomes obtained during the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). Vigorously-exercising adult males (n = 14, 24.9 ± 1.2 y) and females (n = 14, 20.4 ± 0.6 y) participated in a randomized, crossover study during which they performed the 30-s WAnT on a mechanically-braked cycle ergometer (0.075 kg/kg body weight) under two conditions. Participants pedaled maximally with an unloaded flywheel during 5 s before resistance was applied and the test began (FAST). In another trial, participants maintained a moderate cadence (80 rpm) during 5 s before test start (MOD). All other components of the WAnT were identical. Peak power (PP), mean power (MP), minimum power (MinP), fatigue index (%FAT) and maximum cadence during test (maxRPM) were recorded. Comparisons were made using a 2x2 factorial RMANOVA. Regardless of gender, the FAST condition resulted in 22.2% lower PP (612.6 ± 33.0 W vs. 788.3 ± 43.5 W), 13.3 % lower MP (448.4 ± 22.2 W vs. 517.2 ± 26.4 W), 11.7% lower MinP (280.9 ± 14.8 W vs. 318.3 ± 17.2 W), and 9.0% lower %FAT (53.5 ± 1.3 % vs. 58.8 ± 1.5 %) than in MOD (p < 0.01; means ± sd). Similar outcomes were observed within gender. The authors conclude that practitioners of the WAnT should instruct participants to maintain a moderate pedal cadence (∼80 rpm) during the 5 s before the test commences to avoid bias from software sampling and peripheral fatigue. Standardizing the pre-test pedal cadence will be important to exercise testing professionals who compare data to norms or generate norms for specific populations.

  19. Comparison of foot pedal reaction time among patients with right or left hemiplegia and able-bodied controls.

    PubMed

    Pauley, Tim; Ismail, Farooq; Boulias, Chris; Devlin, Michael; Phadke, Chetan P

    2013-01-01

    Although inpatient stroke rehabilitation provides clinicians with the opportunity to prepare patients for continuation of prestroke activities, little is known about the patients' ability to safely resume driving at the point of discharge to the community. To compare foot pedal response times of 20 stroke patients with right hemiplegia (RH) or left hemiplegia (LH) and 10 controls. A cross-sectional design was used. Response times were measured using 3 foot pedal operation techniques: (1) right-sided accelerator with right leg operating accelerator and brake, (2) right-sided accelerator with left leg operating accelerator and brake, and (3) left-sided accelerator with left leg operating accelerator and brake. Outcomes included reaction time (RT), movement time (MT), and total response time (TRT). Controls demonstrated faster RT than patients with RH (263 vs 348 ms; P < .001) or LH (316 ms; P < .05) for all conditions, as well as faster MT than patients with RH (P < .05 for all) but not LH when using the right leg (258 vs 251 ms; P = .82). Controls demonstrated faster TRT than patients with RH (P < .001 for all) but not LH when using the right leg (515 vs 553 ms; P = .44). When using the nonparetic leg, patients with LH had braking response times comparable to controls, but patients with RH demonstrated significant impairment of both the paretic and nonparetic legs.

  20. Integrated inertial sensors and mobile computing for real-time cycling performance guidance via pedaling profile classification.

    PubMed

    Xu, James Y; Nan, Xiaomeng; Ebken, Victor; Wang, Yan; Pottie, Greg J; Kaiser, William J

    2015-03-01

    Today, the bicycle is utilized as a daily commute tool, a physical rehabilitation asset, and sporting equipment, prompting studies into the biomechanics of cycling. Of the number of important parameters that affect cycling efficiency, the foot angle profile is one of the most important as it correlates directly with the effective force applied to the bike. However, there has been no compact and portable solution for measuring the foot angle and for providing the cyclist with real-time feedback due to a number of difficulties of the current tracking and sensing technologies and the myriad types of bikes available. This paper presents a novel sensing and mobile computing system for classifying the foot angle profiles during cycling and for providing real-time guidance to the user to achieve the correct profile. Continuous foot angle tracking is firstly converted into a discrete problem requiring only recognition of acceleration profiles of the foot using a single shoe mounted tri-axial accelerometer during each pedaling cycle. A classification method is then applied to identify the pedaling profile. Finally, a mobile solution is presented to provide real-time signal processing and guidance.

  1. Influence of two pedalling rate conditions on mechanical output and physiological responses during all-out intermittent exercise.

    PubMed

    Dorel, Sylvain; Bourdin, Muriel; Van Praagh, Emmanuel; Lacour, Jean-René; Hautier, Christophe André

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two cycling velocities on power output and concomitant metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses to repeated all-out exercises. Mean power output (P(m)), total work ( W(tot)), total oxygen consumption (VO(2tot)) and blood lactate accumulation (delta[La](b)) were evaluated in 13 male subjects who performed two series of twelve 5-s bouts of sprint cycling. Recovery periods of 45-s were allowed between trials. One series was executed at optimal velocity (V(opt): velocity for greatest power) and the other one at 50% V(opt) (0.5 V(opt)). Velocities obtained in these conditions were V(opt=)116.6 (4.7) rpm; 0.5V(opt)=60.6 (4.9) rpm. After a phase of adaptation in oxygen uptake in the first part of the series, the data from the 6th to the 12th sprint were as follows: P(m), 924.6 (73.9) versus 689.2 (61.8) W; W(tot), 29.95 (4.14) versus 22.04 (3.17) kJ; VO(2tot), 12.80 (1.36) versus 10.58 (1.37) l; delta[La](b), 2.72 (1.22) versus 0.64 (0.79) mmol x l(-1), respectively (P<0.001). Both W(tot) and VO(2tot) were consistently higher at optimal velocity (+21 and +35.8%, respectively). The present findings demonstrate that during intermittent short-term all-out exercise requiring maximal activation, the energy turnover is not necessarily maximal. It depends on muscle contraction velocity. The increase, lower than expected, in metabolic response from 0.5 V(opt) to V(opt) suggests also that mechanical efficiency is higher at V(opt).

  2. Identification with Stimuli Moderates Women's Affective and Testosterone Responses to Self-Chosen Erotica.

    PubMed

    Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M

    2016-11-01

    Sexual thoughts are sufficient to increase testosterone (T) in women, yet erotic films are not. A key confound in past studies is autonomy in stimulus selection: women choose the content of their sexual thoughts but films have been selected by researchers. We hypothesized that self-chosen erotic films, compared to researcher-chosen erotic films, would (1) increase women's self-reported arousal, enjoyment, and identification with stimuli, and decrease negative affect; and (2) increase T. Participants (N = 116 women) were randomly assigned to a neutral documentary condition or one of three erotic film conditions: high choice (self-chosen erotica from participants' own sources), moderate choice (self-chosen erotica from films preselected by sexuality researchers), or no choice (researcher-chosen erotica). Participants provided saliva samples for T before and after viewing the film in the privacy of their homes. Compared to researcher-chosen erotica, self-chosen erotica increased self-reported arousal and enjoyment, but also unexpectedly disgust, guilt, and embarrassment. Self-chosen erotica only marginally increased identification with stimuli compared to researcher-chosen erotica. Overall, film condition did not affect T, but individual differences in identification moderated T responses: among women reporting lower levels of identification, the moderate choice condition decreased T compared to the no choice condition, but this difference was not observed among women with higher identification. These results highlight the importance of cognitive/emotional factors like identification for sexually modulated T. However, self-chosen erotica results in more ambivalent rather than unequivocally positive cognitive/emotional responses, perhaps because stigma associated with viewing erotica for women becomes more salient when choosing stimuli.

  3. Pediatric endurance and limb strengthening for children with cerebral palsy (PEDALS) – a randomized controlled trial protocol for a stationary cycling intervention

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Eileen G; Knutson, Loretta M; DeMuth, Sharon K; Sugi, Mia; Siebert, Kara; Simms, Victoria; Azen, Stanley P; Winstein, Carolee J

    2007-01-01

    Background In the past, effortful exercises were considered inappropriate for children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) due to concern that they would escalate abnormalities including spasticity and abnormal movement patterns. Current scientific evidence indicates that these concerns were unfounded and that therapeutic interventions focused on muscle strengthening can lead to improved functional ability. However, few studies have examined the potential benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness exercises in this patient population. Methods/design The rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial examining the effects of a stationary cycling intervention for children with CP are outlined here. Sixty children with spastic diplegic CP between the ages of 7 and 18 years and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels of I, II, or III will be recruited for this study. Participants will be randomly assigned to either an intervention (cycling) or a control (no cycling) group. The cycling intervention will be divided into strengthening and cardiorespiratory endurance exercise phases. During the strengthening phase, the resistance to lower extremity cycling will be progressively increased using a uniquely designed limb-loaded mechanism. The cardiorespiratory endurance phase will focus on increasing the intensity and duration of cycling. Children will be encouraged to exercise within a target heart rate (HR) range (70 – 80% maximum HR). Thirty sessions will take place over a 10–12 week period. All children will be evaluated before (baseline) and after (follow-up) the intervention period. Primary outcome measures are: knee joint extensor and flexor moments, or torque; the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM); the 600 Yard Walk-Run test and the Thirty-Second Walk test (30 sec WT). Discussion This paper presents the rationale, design and protocol for Pediatric Endurance and Limb Strengthening (PEDALS); a Phase I randomized controlled trial evaluating the

  4. [Purification and ligand-receptor analysis of insulin-related peptides from pedal ganglion of the mollusc Anodonta cygnea].

    PubMed

    Rusakov, Iu I; Kolychev, A P; Shipilov, V N; Bondareva, V M

    2004-01-01

    Six insulin-related peptides (IRPs) from pedal ganglions of the molluscs Anodonta cygnea have been isolated and purified by reverse-phase chromatography. Each peptide (designated as IRP8-IRP13) showed its own retention time on the HPLC column. The testing of IRPs in radioreceptor systems specific for insulin and insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I) showed their ability to bind to both types of receptors. The concentration of IRPs, producing a 50% inhibition of porcine 125I-insulin binding with rat liver plasma membrane receptors (IC50) for IRP 10, was 1167 nM, IRP11--833 nM, IRP13--1333 nm. IRP8, IRP9, IRP12 in the maximum concentration of 10(4) ng/ml displaced less than 50% of labeled hormone. All of the six peptides were capable of competing with human 125I-IGF-I for binding to receptors of a fraction of rat brain membranes. IRP8, IRP9 and IRP12 had close means equal to 1167 nM, 1500 nM, 1167 nM, respectively. Another group including IRP10, IRP11 and IRP13 showed a much higher activity (833, 83 and 500 nM, respectively). The results obtained from radioligand analysis revealed the predominance of IGF-I binding properties in all peptides of pedal ganglions. At the same time, apparent proximity of IRP's physico-chemical characteristics to porcine insulin, and also the revealed dose-dependent binding to both insulin and IGF-I receptors suggest a bifunctionality of mollusc peptides. The expression level of this bifunctionality may be associated with the molecular structure pecularities of individual isoforms.

  5. Method for producing solid or hollow spherical particles of chosen chemical composition and of uniform size

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D.

    1988-01-01

    A method is provided for producing commercially large quantities of high melting temperature solid or hollow spherical particles of a predetermined chemical composition and having a uniform and controlled size distribution. An end (18, 50, 90) of a solid or hollow rod (20, 48, 88) of the material is rendered molten by a laser beam (14, 44, 82). Because of this, there is no possibility of the molten rod material becoming contaminated with extraneous material. In various aspects of the invention, an electric field is applied to the molten rod end (18, 90), and/or the molten rod end (50, 90) is vibrated. In a further aspect of the invention, a high-frequency component is added to the electric field applied to the molten end of the rod (90). By controlling the internal pressure of the rod, the rate at which the rod is introduced into the laser beam, the environment of the process, the vibration amplitude and frequency of the molten rod end, the electric field intensity applied to the molten rod end, and the frequency and intensity of the component added to the electric field, the uniformity and size distribution of the solid or hollow spherical particles (122) produced by the inventive method is controlled. The polarity of the electric field applied to the molten rod end can be chosen to eliminate backstreaming electrons, which tend to produce run-away heating in the rod, from the process.

  6. Cannabidiol Attenuates the Appetitive Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Humans Smoking Their Chosen Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Celia JA; Freeman, Tom P; Schafer, Gráinne L; Curran, H Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide cannabis dependence is increasing, as is the concentration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in street cannabis. At the same time, the concentration of the second most abundant cannabinoid in street cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), is decreasing. These two cannabinoids have opposing effects both pharmacologically and behaviorally when administered in the laboratory. No research has yet examined how the ratio of these constituents impacts on the appetitive/reinforcing effects of cannabis in humans. A total of 94 cannabis users were tested 7 days apart, once while non-intoxicated and once while acutely under the influence of their own chosen smoked cannabis on dependence-related measures. Using an unprecedented methodology, a sample of cannabis (as well as saliva) was collected from each user and analyzed for levels of cannabinoids. On the basis of CBD : THC ratios in the cannabis, individuals from the top and bottom tertiles were directly compared on indices of the reinforcing effects of drugs, explicit liking, and implicit attentional bias to drug stimuli. When intoxicated, smokers of high CBD : THC strains showed reduced attentional bias to drug and food stimuli compared with smokers of low CBD : THC. Those smoking higher CBD : THC strains also showed lower self-rated liking of cannabis stimuli on both test days. Our findings suggest that CBD has potential as a treatment for cannabis dependence. The acute modulation of the incentive salience of drug cues by CBD may possibly generalize to a treatment for other addictive disorders. PMID:20428110

  7. A method for the determination of confidence limits for the P/2e- ratio for chosen values of ymaxatp form the results of continuous culture experiments.

    PubMed

    Boender, R J; Stouthamer, A H

    1977-04-01

    A model is described, which allows the determination of 95% confidence limits for the maintenance coefficient and the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation for chosen values of the growth yield for ATP corrected for energy maintenace (YmaxATP). As experimental data the specific rates of substrate consumption, product formation and oxygen uptake in chemostat cultures at various growth rates are use.

  8. [Alcohol and other psychoactive substances addiction risk assessment among chosen high school students test group].

    PubMed

    Suwała, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Use of nicotine, alcohol and other psychoactive substances plays an important role in youth death rate and incidence proportion. The probability of accidents, risky sexual behaviors or interpersonal aggression rises when young people are under the influence of alcohol or other drugs. In all the developed countries alcohol and other psychoactive substances are the main risk factors leading to youth death caused by traffic accidents, murders and suicides. That is the reason why the popularization of a simple and effective screening tool that would allow choosing the high risk youth group and implementing early intervention program is so important to conduct in Poland. Alcohol and other psychoactive substances addiction risk assessment within the chosen test group of high school youth attending different types of schools in a medium size city. Study was conducted in February 2014 in three high schools - public high school, catholic high school and technical high school, located in Stalowa Wola reaching 119 students from 3rd grade (18-19 years old). Study utilized CRAFFT test (Alcohol and Other Drug Screening Test). Within the past 12 months previous to the screening 92.4% of tested students drunk alcohol, 26.1% smoked marihuana and 10.9% used other psychoactive substances. One fourth of students admitted to driving or riding the car with the driver who was under the influence of alcohol or other drug. One half of the students ad. mitted drinking alcohol or using drugs to relax, improve the mood or to fit in. One in five students was confronted by friends or family members and asked to limit use of alcohol or drugs. Based on CRAFFT test results over a half of students (53.6%) may be diagnosed with significant psychoactive substances addiction risk and should be promptly subjected to preventive actions.

  9. The critical power function is dependent on the duration of the predictive exercise tests chosen.

    PubMed

    Bishop, D; Jenkins, D G; Howard, A

    1998-02-01

    The linear relationship between work accomplished (W(lim)) and time to exhaustion (t(lim)) can be described by the equation: W(lim) = a + CP x t(lim). Critical power (CP) is the slope of this line and is thought to represent a maximum rate of ATP synthesis without exhaustion, presumably an inherent characteristic of the aerobic energy system. The present investigation determined whether the choice of predictive tests would elicit significant differences in the estimated CP. Ten female physical education students completed, in random order and on consecutive days, five all-out predictive tests at preselected constant-power outputs. Predictive tests were performed on an electrically-braked cycle ergometer and power loadings were individually chosen so as to induce fatigue within approximately 1-10 mins. CP was derived by fitting the linear W(lim)-t(lim) regression and calculated three ways: 1) using the first, third and fifth W(lim)-t(lim) coordinates (I135), 2) using coordinates from the three highest power outputs (I123; mean t(lim) = 68-193 s) and 3) using coordinates from the lowest power outputs (I345; mean t(lim) = 193-485 s). Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that CPI123 (201.0+/-37.9W) > CPI135 (176.1+/-27.6W) > CPI345 (164.0+/-22.8W) (P<0.05). When the three sets of data were used to fit the hyperbolic Power-t(lim) regression, statistically significant differences between each CP were also found (P<0.05). The shorter the predictive trials, the greater the slope of the W(lim)-t(lim) regression; possibly because of the greater influence of 'aerobic inertia' on these trials. This may explain why CP has failed to represent a maximal, sustainable work rate. The present findings suggest that if CP is to represent the highest power output that an individual can maintain "for a very long time without fatigue" then CP should be calculated over a range of predictive tests in which the influence of aerobic inertia is minimised.

  10. Quasi-statically Self-chosen Faulting Path Modeling in Heterogeneous Medium: FEM-beta Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kame, N.; Oguni, K.

    2005-12-01

    We apply FEM-β, a newly proposed Finite Element Method (Hori, Oguni and Sakaguchi, JMPS, 2005), to quasi-statically self-chosen faulting path modeling. The method, FEM-β, is based on particle discretization of a displacement field with non-overlapping shape function and it provides an easy way to express displacement discontinuities between any two adjacent nodes: This is an advantage of FEM-β for self-chosen failure path modeling. FEM-β, originally developed for the analysis on tensile failure within a structural material containing local imperfection, is here tested for earthquake shear faulting in strongly heterogeneous medium. In order to investigate the effect of elastic heterogeneity in the crust on the formation of geometrically complex fault traces, we first analyze the static stress field in a heterogeneous medium containing a shear crack and then simulate the quasi-static crack growth for which rupture path is self-chosen.

  11. Aborted double bicycle-pedal isomerization with hydrogen bond breaking is the primary event of bacteriorhodopsin proton pumping

    PubMed Central

    Altoè, Piero; Cembran, Alessandro; Olivucci, Massimo; Garavelli, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations based on ab initio multiconfigurational second order perturbation theory are employed to construct a computer model of Bacteriorhodopsin that reproduces the observed static and transient electronic spectra, the dipole moment changes, and the energy stored in the photocycle intermediate K. The computed reaction coordinate indicates that the isomerization of the retinal chromophore occurs via a complex motion accounting for three distinct regimes: (i) production of the excited state intermediate I, (ii) evolution of I toward a conical intersection between the excited state and the ground state, and (iii) formation of K. We show that, during stage ii, a space-saving mechanism dominated by an asynchronous double bicycle-pedal deformation of the C10═C11─C12═C13─C14═N moiety of the chromophore dominates the isomerization. On this same stage a N─H/water hydrogen bond is weakened and initiates a breaking process that is completed during stage iii. PMID:21048087

  12. Investigating pianists' individuality in the performance of five timbral nuances through patterns of articulation, touch, dynamics, and pedaling

    PubMed Central

    Bernays, Michel; Traube, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Timbre is an essential expressive feature in piano performance. Concert pianists use a vast palette of timbral nuances to color their performances at the microstructural level. Although timbre is generally envisioned in the pianistic community as an abstract concept carried through an imaged vocabulary, performers may share some common strategies of timbral expression in piano performance. Yet there may remain further leeway for idiosyncratic processes in the production of piano timbre nuances. In this study, we examined the patterns of timbral expression in performances by four expert pianists. Each pianist performed four short pieces, each with five different timbral intentions (bright, dark, dry, round, and velvety). The performances were recorded with the high-accuracy Bösendorfer CEUS system. Fine-grained performance features of dynamics, touch, articulation and pedaling were extracted. Reduced PCA performance spaces and descriptive performance portraits confirmed that pianists exhibited unique, specific profiles for different timbral intentions, derived from underlying traits of general individuality, while sharing some broad commonalities of dynamics and articulation for each timbral intention. These results confirm that pianists' abstract notions of timbre correspond to reliable patterns of performance technique. Furthermore, these effects suggest that pianists can express individual styles while complying with specific timbral intentions. PMID:24624099

  13. Investigating pianists' individuality in the performance of five timbral nuances through patterns of articulation, touch, dynamics, and pedaling.

    PubMed

    Bernays, Michel; Traube, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Timbre is an essential expressive feature in piano performance. Concert pianists use a vast palette of timbral nuances to color their performances at the microstructural level. Although timbre is generally envisioned in the pianistic community as an abstract concept carried through an imaged vocabulary, performers may share some common strategies of timbral expression in piano performance. Yet there may remain further leeway for idiosyncratic processes in the production of piano timbre nuances. In this study, we examined the patterns of timbral expression in performances by four expert pianists. Each pianist performed four short pieces, each with five different timbral intentions (bright, dark, dry, round, and velvety). The performances were recorded with the high-accuracy Bösendorfer CEUS system. Fine-grained performance features of dynamics, touch, articulation and pedaling were extracted. Reduced PCA performance spaces and descriptive performance portraits confirmed that pianists exhibited unique, specific profiles for different timbral intentions, derived from underlying traits of general individuality, while sharing some broad commonalities of dynamics and articulation for each timbral intention. These results confirm that pianists' abstract notions of timbre correspond to reliable patterns of performance technique. Furthermore, these effects suggest that pianists can express individual styles while complying with specific timbral intentions.

  14. Aborted double bicycle-pedal isomerization with hydrogen bond breaking is the primary event of bacteriorhodopsin proton pumping.

    PubMed

    Altoè, Piero; Cembran, Alessandro; Olivucci, Massimo; Garavelli, Marco

    2010-11-23

    Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations based on ab initio multiconfigurational second order perturbation theory are employed to construct a computer model of Bacteriorhodopsin that reproduces the observed static and transient electronic spectra, the dipole moment changes, and the energy stored in the photocycle intermediate K. The computed reaction coordinate indicates that the isomerization of the retinal chromophore occurs via a complex motion accounting for three distinct regimes: (i) production of the excited state intermediate I, (ii) evolution of I toward a conical intersection between the excited state and the ground state, and (iii) formation of K. We show that, during stage ii, a space-saving mechanism dominated by an asynchronous double bicycle-pedal deformation of the C10═C11─C12═C13─C14═N moiety of the chromophore dominates the isomerization. On this same stage a N─H/water hydrogen bond is weakened and initiates a breaking process that is completed during stage iii.

  15. Student Self-Efficacy in a Chosen Business Career Path: The Influence of Cognitive Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Joseph T.; Czyzewski, Alan; Sherwood, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    An important dimension of university students' academic success is retention in their chosen major. When students do switch majors or interrupt their education, it is largely due to their lack of confidence about doing well academically, as well as perceived chances of success in the career area related to university major. A term often used for…

  16. Variables Related to the Type of Postsecondary Education Experience Chosen by Young Adults with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robert J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study found that the postsecondary education experience (junior college, community college, 4-year college/university, military, or private training) chosen by 225 young adults with learning disabilities was related to use of community resources; community mobility; participation in vocational education while in high school; autonomy; peer…

  17. Student Self-Efficacy in a Chosen Business Career Path: The Influence of Cognitive Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Joseph T.; Czyzewski, Alan; Sherwood, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    An important dimension of university students' academic success is retention in their chosen major. When students do switch majors or interrupt their education, it is largely due to their lack of confidence about doing well academically, as well as perceived chances of success in the career area related to university major. A term often used for…

  18. Influence of pedal cadence on the respiratory compensation point and its relation to critical power.

    PubMed

    Broxterman, R M; Ade, C J; Barker, T; Barstow, T J

    2015-03-01

    It is not known if the respiratory compensation point (RCP) is a distinct work rate (Watts (W)) or metabolic rate V̇(O2) and if the RCP is mechanistically related to critical power (CP). To examine these relationships, 10 collegiate men athletes performed cycling incremental and constant-power tests at 60 and 100 rpm to determine RCP and CP. RCP work rate was significantly (p≤0.05) lower for 100 than 60 rpm (197±24 W vs. 222±24 W), while RCP V̇(O2) was not significantly different (3.00±0.33 l min(-1) vs. 3.12±0.41 l min(-1)). CP at 60 rpm (214±51 W; V̇(O2): 3.01±0.69 l min(-1)) and 100 rpm (196±46 W; V̇(O2): 2.95±0.54 l min(-1)) were not significantly different from RCP. However, RCP and CP were not significantly correlated. These findings demonstrate that RCP represents a distinct metabolic rate, which can be achieved at different power outputs, but that RCP and CP are not equivalent parameters and should not, therefore, be used synonymously.

  19. 41 CFR 301-74.6 - What can we do if we cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per diem rate? 301-74.6 Section 301-74.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.6...

  20. 41 CFR 301-74.6 - What can we do if we cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per diem rate? 301-74.6 Section 301-74.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.6...

  1. 41 CFR 301-74.6 - What can we do if we cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per diem rate? 301-74.6 Section 301-74.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.6...

  2. 41 CFR 301-74.6 - What can we do if we cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per diem rate? 301-74.6 Section 301-74.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.6...

  3. 41 CFR 301-74.6 - What can we do if we cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per diem rate? 301-74.6 Section 301-74.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.6...

  4. Vulnerability to chosen-plaintext attack of optoelectronic information encryption with phase-shifting interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wan; Peng, Xiang; Meng, Xiangfeng; Gao, Bruce Z.

    2013-01-01

    The optical cryptosystem based on phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) is one of the most interesting optical cryptographic schemes in recent years. However, we find that the PSI technique provides an attractive method to record the ciphertext, but contributes little to the security level of the cryptosystem. From the cryptanalysis point of view, in a certain simplified case, an attacker is only required to crack two equivalent decryption keys instead of the original random phase keys and geometric key. Moreover, a chosen-plaintext attack method is proposed, in which an impulse function is chosen as a known plaintext. By using this attack, the attacker can effectively recover any plaintext from the corresponding ciphertext. The validity of the attack is verified by computer simulations. PMID:23894214

  5. Vulnerability to chosen-plaintext attack of optoelectronic information encryption with phase-shifting interferometry.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wan; Peng, Xiang; Meng, Xiangfeng; Gao, Bruce Z

    2011-06-13

    The optical cryptosystem based on phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) is one of the most interesting optical cryptographic schemes in recent years. However, we find that the PSI technique provides an attractive method to record the ciphertext, but contributes little to the security level of the cryptosystem. From the cryptanalysis point of view, in a certain simplified case, an attacker is only required to crack two equivalent decryption keys instead of the original random phase keys and geometric key. Moreover, a chosen-plaintext attack method is proposed, in which an impulse function is chosen as a known plaintext. By using this attack, the attacker can effectively recover any plaintext from the corresponding ciphertext. The validity of the attack is verified by computer simulations.

  6. Patients’ Survival Expectations With and Without Their Chosen Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinping; Janisse, James; Ruterbusch, Julie J.; Ager, Joel; Liu, Joe; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Schwartz, Kendra L.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Overtreatment of screen-detected localized prostate cancer (LPC) is an important public health concern, since the survival benefit of aggressive treatment (surgery or radiation) has not been well established. We investigated the survival expectations of patients who had LPC with and without their chosen treatment. METHODS A population-based sample of 260 men (132 black, 128 white) 75 years old or younger with newly diagnosed LPC completed a self-administered survey. How long the patients expected to live with their chosen treatment, how long they would expect to live with no treatment, and factors associated with the difference in perceived life expectancy were assessed using multivariable analysis. RESULTS Without any treatment, 33% of patients expected that they would live less than 5 years, 41% 5 to 10 years, 21% 10 to 20 years, and 5% more than 20 years. With their chosen treatment, 3% of patients expected to live less than 5 years, 9% 5 to 10 years, 33% 10 to 20 years, and 55% more than 20 years. Treatment chosen, age, general health perception, and perceived cancer seriousness predicted the differences in perceived life expectancy, while race and actual tumor risk did not. After adjustment for other covariates, men who choose surgery or radiation expected greater gain in survival than men who chose watchful waiting or active surveillance. CONCLUSIONS Most patients with LPC underestimated their life expectancy without treatment and overestimated the gain in life expectancy with surgery or radiation. These unrealistic expectations may compromise patients’ ability to make informed treatment decisions and may contribute to overtreatment of LPC. Primary care physicians, when included in the decision process, should focus on helping patients develop realistic expectations and choices that support their treatment goals. PMID:27184990

  7. Communication of Contrast in the Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon with Other Pedal Tendons at the Master Knot of Henry.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sayed; Griffin, Nicole L; Ellis, Whitney; Meyr, Andrew J

    2017-03-01

    It is important to have a full appreciation of lower-extremity anatomical relationships before undertaking diabetic foot surgery. We sought to evaluate the potential for communication of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon with other pedal tendons and plantar foot compartments at the master knot of Henry and to provide cadaveric images and computed tomographic (CT) scans of such communications. Computed tomography and subsequent anatomical dissection were performed on embalmed cadaveric limbs. Initially, 5 to 10 mL (1:4 dilution) of iohexol and normal saline was injected into the FHL sheath as it coursed between the two hallux sesamoids. Subsequently, CT scans were obtained in the axial plane using a multidetector CT scanner with sagittal and coronal reformatted images. The limbs were then dissected for specific evaluation of the known variable intertendinous connections between the FHL and flexor digitorum longus (FDL) and quadratus plantae (QP) muscles. One cadaver demonstrated retrograde flow of contrast into the four individual tendons of the FDL, with observation of a large intertendinous slip between the FHL and FDL on dissection. Another cadaver demonstrated contrast filling in the QP with an associated intertendinous slip between the FHL and QP on dissection. These results indicate that the master knot of Henry (the location in the plantar aspect of the midfoot where the FHL and FDL tendons decussate, with the FDL passing superficially over the FHL) has at least the potential to serve as one source of communication in diabetic foot infections from the medial plantar compartment and FHL to the central and lateral compartments via the FDL and to the rearfoot via the QP.

  8. Relationship between peripheral nerve decompression and gain of pedal sensibility and balance in patients with peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Ducic, Ivica; Taylor, Nathan S; Dellon, A Lee

    2006-02-01

    This was an initial exploratory study to determine if decompression of the 4 medial ankle tunnels (neurolysis of the tibial, medial and lateral plantar, and calcaneal nerves) could lead to improved foot sensibility, increased proprioception and balance, and decreased falls in a population of patients with impaired lower extremity sensation. Fourteen patients with peripheral neuropathy were included in this study. Seventy-one percent of patients were females. Average age was 67 years. All patients were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively to assess their lower extremity sensibility, as well as their ability to stand still, maintaining their balance with their eyes open and then closed, which is defined as "sway." Lower extremity sensibility was measured with the Pressure-Specified Sensory Device (PSSD), which evaluates 1- and 2-point discrimination for the pulp of the big toe and medial heel. The MatScan Measurement System measured each patient's sway. Neuropathy was the result of diabetes in 72% of patients, a combination of diabetes and hypothyroidism in 7%, chemotherapy in 7%, and idiopathic in 14%. Eight patients underwent peripheral nerve decompression on 1 lower extremity, whereas 6 patients underwent bilateral lower extremity peripheral nerve decompression. Mean toe and heel sensibility improved 9% and 7%, respectively, in the unilateral group, whereas the bilateral group experienced an improvement in mean toe and heel sensibility of 42% (P = 0.02) and 32%, respectively. Preoperative and postoperative sway comparison in the unilateral group revealed a reduction in sway with eyes open and eyes closed by 5% and 31%, respectively. Comparison of preoperative and postoperative sway in the bilateral group showed a reduction with eyes open and eyes closed by 23% and 145% (P = 0.05), respectively. This initial study suggests that there may be benefit from bilateral lower extremity peripheral nerve decompression in helping improve pedal sensibility and balance

  9. Metabolic responses to submaximal treadmill walking and cycle ergometer pedalling in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lafortuna, C L; Lazzer, S; Agosti, F; Busti, C; Galli, R; Mazzilli, G; Sartorio, A

    2010-08-01

    Physical activity is essential in obesity management because of the impact of exercise-related energy expenditure (EE) and fat oxidation (Fox) rate on a daily balance, but the specific physiological effects of different exercise modalities are scarcely known in obese individuals. The objective of the study was to compare the metabolic responses to treadmill (TM) and cycle ergometer (CE) exercise in obese adolescents. Gas exchange, heart rate (HR), blood lactate (LA) concentration, EE and Fox were determined at different intensity levels (up to about 85% of maximal oxygen uptake) during TM and CE in 14 pubertal (Tanner stage: >3) obese (BMI SDS: 2.15-3.86) male adolescents (age: 13-18 years). At comparable HR, oxygen uptake, EE and Fox were higher, and LA lower, during TM than CE (P<0.05-0.001), suggesting that cycling imposes a metabolic involvement at the level of the single active muscles greater than walking. Therefore, due to different physiological responses to TM and CE, walking was more convenient than cycling in obese adolescents, permitting to attain the same EE at lower HR, with lower blood LA concentration and with greater Fox. These conclusions seem clinically relevant when using exercise as a part of multidisciplinary treatment for juvenile obesity and amelioration of related metabolic disturbances.

  10. The influence of magnesium supplementation on concentrations of chosen bioelements and toxic metals in adult human hair. Magnesium and chosen bioelements in hair.

    PubMed

    Kozielec, Tadeusz; Sałacka, Anna; Karakiewicz, Beata

    2004-09-01

    The basic functions of bioelements in biological systems is widely known. Depletion of bioelements and excess of toxic elements lead to impairment of metabolism in the living organism. The existence of magnesium deficiencies in the adult and pediatric populations may cause increased accumulation of toxic metals including lead and cadmium. Prevention of adverse effects of toxic metals may include supplementation with some bioelements and vitamins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of magnesium supplementation on concentrations of chosen bioelements and toxic metals in hair in the adult human population. The research was performed on 124 individuals (53 males and 71 females aged 19-72 years), inhabitants of the city of Szczecin. The concentrations of magnesium, zinc, copper, lead and cadmium were studied in hair. Measurements were performed using the inversion volt-amperometry method with application of an EDD-Tribo PC ETP volt-amperometer. Finally, the supplementation study enrolled 65 individuals with an increased concentration of lead. The studied individuals were divided into two groups: one treated group that enrolled 50 patients who were supplemented with magnesium and the control group that enrolled 15 persons receiving placebo. Finally, supplementation was completed by 32 individuals from the treated group and 10 individuals from the control group. Supplementation was performed using Slow-Mag-B6 preparation at the total daily dose of five tablets divided into 2-3 doses. One tablet contains 535 mg of magnesium chloride i.e. 64 mg of magnesium ions (5.26 mEgMg2) and 5 mg of vitamin B6. Supplementation was performed for a period of 3 months. The remaining individuals did not complete the supplementation due to various reasons; however, none of them resulted from the poor tolerance of the preparation or its adverse events. The results achieved underwent statistical analysis. The results of the study revealed a positive influence of

  11. GT3X+ accelerometer placement affects the reliability of step-counts measured during running and pedal-revolution counts measured during bicycling.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Anthony A; Stratford, Paul W; Brenneman, Elora C; Maly, Monica R

    2016-01-01

    Accelerometers provide a measure of step-count. Reliability and validity of step-count and pedal-revolution count measurements by the GT3X+ accelerometer, placed at different anatomical locations, is absent in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of step and pedal-revolution counts produced by the GT3X+ placed at different anatomical locations during running and bicycling. Twenty-two healthy adults (14 men and 8 women) completed running and bicycling activity bouts (5 minutes each) while wearing 6 accelerometers: 2 each at the waist, thigh and shank. Accelerometer and video data were collected during activity. Excellent reliability and validity were found for measurements taken from accelerometers mounted at the waist and shank during running (Reliability: intraclass correlation (ICC) ≥ 0.99; standard error of measurement (SEM) ≤1.0 steps; Pearson ≥ 0.99) and at the thigh and shank during bicycling (Reliability: ICC ≥ 0.99; SEM ≤1.0 revolutions; Pearson ≥ 0.99). Excellent reliability was found between measurements taken at the waist and shank during running (ICC ≥ 0.98; SEM ≤1.6 steps) and between measurements taken at the thigh and shank during bicycling (ICC ≥ 0.99; SEM ≤1.0 revolutions). These data suggest that the GT3X+ can be used for measuring step-count during running and pedal-revolution count during bicycling. Only shank placement is recommended for both activities.

  12. Prevalence of Tibial Artery and Pedal Arch Patency by Angiography in Patients With Critical Limb Ischemia and Noncompressible Ankle Brachial Index.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Mandeep Singh; Reed, Grant W; Grafmiller, Kevin; Gornik, Heather L; Shishehbor, Mehdi H

    2017-05-01

    Approximately 20% of patients undergoing ankle brachial index testing for critical limb ischemia have noncompressible vessels because of tibial artery calcification. This represents a clinical challenge in determining tibial artery patency. We sought to identify the prevalence of tibial artery and pedal arch patency by angiography in these patients. One hundred twenty-five limbs (of 89 patients) with critical limb ischemia and ankle brachial index ≥1.4 who underwent lower extremity angiograms within 1 year were included. Reviewers of angiography were blinded to results of physiological testing. Tibial artery vessels were classified as completely occluded, significantly stenosed (≥50%), or patent (<50% stenosis). The sensitivity of toe brachial index and pulse volume recording to predict tibial artery disease was also determined. Of 125 limbs with noncompressible ankle brachial index, 72 (57.6%) anterior tibial and 80 (64%) posterior tibial arteries were occluded. Another 23 (18.4%) anterior tibial and 13 (10.4%) posterior tibial arteries had ≥50% stenosis. Pulse volume recording was moderate to severely dampened in 54 of 119 (45.4%) limbs. Toe brachial index <0.7 was found in 75 of 83 (90.4%) limbs. Moderate to severe pulse volume recording dampening was 43.6% sensitive, whereas toe brachial index <0.7 was 89.7% sensitive in diagnosing occluded or significantly stenotic tibial artery disease. The pedal arch was absent or incomplete in 86 of 103 (83.5%) limbs. Among patients with critical limb ischemia and noncompressible ankle brachial index results, the prevalence of occlusive tibial and pedal arch disease is very high. Toe brachial index <0.7 is more sensitive in diagnosing occluded and significantly stenotic tibial artery disease in these patients compared with ankle pulse volume recording. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. A rating of perceived exertion scale using facial expressions for conveying exercise intensity for children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Lang; Chiou, Wen-Ko; Tzeng, Yu-Tung; Lu, Ching-Yu; Chen, Shih-Chi

    2017-01-01

    To design a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale using facial expressions and assessed the validity of the scale for both children and young adults. Pearson moment-product correlation analysis was used to assess the correlation among heart rate (HR), RPE and pedaling workload. Fifteen children and 15 young adults participated in the study. Each participant randomly performed 5 pedaling tests with one repetition based on their submaximal acceptable workloads. Under each load condition, participants pedaled on a cycle ergometer for 10min; subsequently, participants completed Borg category ratio (CR10) or facial RPE (FRPE) scale assessments. Participants' heart rates (HR) were used to compare their scores on the Borg CR10 and Facial RPE scales. The results show that both Borg CR10 and FRPE scales reflected different pedaling workload levels. For young adults, HR positively correlated with both RPE scores under the various workload levels (r=0.989 and 0.977, all p<0.005); for children, only FRPE scores were positively correlated with HR (r=0.908, p<0.05). In other words, FRPE scores effectively reflected the HR of children, whereas Borg CR10 scores did not. The children may not understand words as effectively as young adults did, however, they understand facial expressions. The FRPE scale proposed in this study may be available in some special cases because it can assess those who cannot comprehend the written words used for the scale. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chosen Listening Levels for Music With and Without the Use of Hearing Aids.

    PubMed

    Croghan, Naomi B H; Swanberg, Anne M; Anderson, Melinda C; Arehart, Kathryn H

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to describe chosen listening levels (CLLs) for recorded music for listeners with hearing loss in aided and unaided conditions. The study used a within-subject, repeated-measures design with 13 adult hearing-aid users. The music included rock and classical samples with different amounts of audio-industry compression limiting. CLL measurements were taken at ear level (i.e., at input to the hearing aid) and at the tympanic membrane. For aided listening, average CLLs were 69.3 dBA at the input to the hearing aid and 80.3 dBA at the tympanic membrane. For unaided listening, average CLLs were 76.9 dBA at the entrance to the ear canal and 77.1 dBA at the tympanic membrane. Although wide intersubject variability was observed, CLLs were not associated with audiometric thresholds. CLLs for rock music were higher than for classical music at the tympanic membrane, but no differences were observed between genres for ear-level CLLs. The amount of audio-industry compression had no significant effect on CLLs. By describing the levels of recorded music chosen by hearing-aid users, this study provides a basis for ecologically valid testing conditions in clinical and laboratory settings.

  15. A combinatorial approach to create artificial homing endonucleases cleaving chosen sequences

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Julianne; Grizot, Sylvestre; Arnould, Sylvain; Duclert, Aymeric; Epinat, Jean-Charles; Chames, Patrick; Prieto, Jesús; Redondo, Pilar; Blanco, Francisco J.; Bravo, Jerónimo; Montoya, Guillermo; Pâques, Frédéric; Duchateau, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Meganucleases, or homing endonucleases (HEs) are sequence-specific endonucleases with large (>14 bp) cleavage sites that can be used to induce efficient homologous gene targeting in cultured cells and plants. These findings have opened novel perspectives for genome engineering in a wide range of fields, including gene therapy. However, the number of identified HEs does not match the diversity of genomic sequences, and the probability of finding a homing site in a chosen gene is extremely low. Therefore, the design of artificial endonucleases with chosen specificities is under intense investigation. In this report, we describe the first artificial HEs whose specificity has been entirely redesigned to cleave a naturally occurring sequence. First, hundreds of novel endonucleases with locally altered substrate specificity were derived from I-CreI, a Chlamydomonas reinhardti protein belonging to the LAGLIDADG family of HEs. Second, distinct DNA-binding subdomains were identified within the protein. Third, we used these findings to assemble four sets of mutations into heterodimeric endonucleases cleaving a model target or a sequence from the human RAG1 gene. These results demonstrate that the plasticity of LAGLIDADG endonucleases allows extensive engineering, and provide a general method to create novel endonucleases with tailored specificities. PMID:17130168

  16. Neural networks type MLP in the process of identification chosen varieties of maize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boniecki, P.; Nowakowski, K.; Tomczak, R.

    2011-06-01

    During the adaptation process of the weights vector that occurs in the iterative presentation of the teaching vector, the the MLP type artificial neural network (MultiLayer Perceptron) attempts to learn the structure of the data. Such a network can learn to recognise aggregates of input data occurring in the input data set regardless of the assumed criteria of similarity and the quantity of the data explored. The MLP type neural network can be also used to detect regularities occurring in the obtained graphic empirical data. The neuronal image analysis is then a new field of digital processing of signals. It is possible to use it to identify chosen objects given in the form of bitmap. If at the network input, a new unknown case appears which the network is unable to recognise, it means that it is different from all the classes known previously. The MLP type artificial neural network taught in this way can serve as a detector signalling the appearance of a widely understood novelty. Such a network can also look for similarities between the known data and the noisy data. In this way, it is able to identify fragments of images presented in photographs of e.g. maze's grain. The purpose of the research was to use the MLP neural networks in the process of identification of chosen varieties of maize with the use of image analysis method. The neuronal classification shapes of grains was performed with the use of the Johan Gielis super formula.

  17. Chosen risk level during car-following in adverse weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Hjelkrem, Odd André; Ryeng, Eirin Olaussen

    2016-10-01

    This study examines how precipitation, light conditions and surface conditions affect the drivers' risk perception. An indicator CRI (Chosen Risk Index) is defined, which describes the chosen risk level for drivers in a car-following situation. The dataset contains about 70 000 observations of driver behaviour and weather status on a rural road. Based on the theory of risk homeostasis and an assumption that driving behaviour in situations with daylight, dry road and no precipitation reflects drivers' target level of risk, generalised linear models (GLM) were estimated for cars and trucks separately to reveal the effect of adverse weather conditions on risk perception. The analyses show that both car and truck drivers perceive the highest risk when driving on snow covered roads. For car drivers, a snow covered road in combination with moderate rain or light snow are the factors which lowers the CRI the most. For trucks, snow cover and partially covered roads significantly lowers the CRI, while precipitation did not seem to impose any higher risk. Interaction effects were found for car drivers only.

  18. Cream or foam in pedal skin care: towards the ideal vehicle for urea used against dry skin.

    PubMed

    Borelli, C; Bielfeldt, S; Borelli, S; Schaller, M; Korting, H C

    2011-02-01

    formulation of skin care preparations for not only dry skin but also in the context of pedal skin care.

  19. A method to determine the kinematics of the lower limbs of a subject pedaling a bicycle using encoders and accelerometers. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Shih-Ching

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research was to determine kinematic parameters of the lower limbs of a subject pedaling a bicycle. An existing measurement system was used as the basis to develop the model to determine position and acceleration of the limbs. The system consists of an ergometer instrumented to provide position of the pedal (foot), accelerometers to be attached to the lower limbs to measure accelerations, a recorder used for filtering, and a computer instrumented with an A/D board and a decoder board. The system is designed to read and record data from accelerometers and encoders. Software has been developed for data collection, analysis and presentation. Based on the measurement system, a two dimensional analytical model has been developed to determine configuration (position, orientation) and kinematics (velocities, accelerations). The model has been implemented in software and verified by simulation. An error analysis to determine the system's accuracy shows that the expected error is well within the specifications of practical applications. When the physical hardware is completed, NASA researchers hope to use the system developed to determine forces exerted by muscles and forces at articulations. This data will be useful in the development of countermeasures to minimize bone loss experienced by astronauts in microgravity conditions.

  20. A Computer-Controlled, MR-compatible Foot-Pedal Device to Study Dynamics of the Muscle Tendon Complex under Isometric, Concentric and Eccentric Contractions

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Shantanu; Shin, David D.; Hodgson, John A.; Kinugasa, Ryuta; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To design a computer-controlled, MR compatible foot pedal device that allows in vivo mapping of changes in morphology and in strain of different musculoskeletal components of the lower leg under passive, isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Materials and Methods A programmable servo-motor in the control room pumped hydraulic fluid to rotate a foot-pedal inside the magnet. Towards validating the performance of the device, six subjects were imaged with gated velocity-encoded phase-contrast (VE-PC) imaging to investigate dynamics of muscle and aponeurotic structures. Results Artifact-free VE-PC imaging clearly delineated different muscle compartments by differences in distribution of mechanical strains. High repeatability of contraction cycles allowed establishing that fascicles lengthened 6.1% more during passive compared to eccentric contractions. Aponeurosis separation during passive (range between three locations: −2.6~1.3 mm) and active (range: −2.4 ~1.6 mm) contractions were similar but significantly different from concentric (range: −0.9~3.3 mm), with proximal and distal regions showing mostly negative values for the first two modes, but positive for the last. Conclusion The device was sufficiently robust and artifact-free to accurately assess, using VE-PC imaging, physiologically important structure and dynamics of the musculo-tendon complex. PMID:22392816

  1. MNDO barrier heights for catalyzed bicycle-pedal, hula-twist, and ordinary cis-trans isomerizations of protonated retinal Schiff base

    SciTech Connect

    Seltzer, S.

    1987-03-18

    Energy barriers to dark cis-trans isomerization in a protonated retinal Schiff base model in the presence and absence of electrostatic and nucleophilic catalysts have been calculated by the MNDO method. Three general processes - ordinary double bond isomerization, concerted isomerization about two double bonds by bicycle-pedal motion, and one-step double bond and adjacent single bond isomerization by hula-twist motion - are considered. Point negative charges or negatively charged nucleophiles near the protonated nitrogen substantially increase the barrier to cis-trans isomerization over what they would be in the absence of these agents. Negative charge or a nucleophile near C13 lowers the barrier to bicycle-pedal isomerization. Dark isomerization by a hula-twist motion required greater energy and is not substantially aided by the placement of a negative charge or nucleophile near any of the skeletal atoms in the isomerizing system. The importance of this to the mechanism of dark-light adaptation of bacteriorhodopsin is discussed.

  2. Theoretical studies of bonding properties and vibrational spectra of chosen ladder-like silsesquioxane clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczypka, Wojciech; Jeleń, Piotr; Koleżyński, Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    In this work the DFT calculations were carried out by means of Gaussian 09 program using B3LYP XC functional and 6-311G(d) basis set for chosen ladder-like silsesquioxane model clusters. Vibrational frequencies computations and infrared spectra were obtained subsequently for above mentioned structures. The results of topological analysis of total electron density obtained in SCF calculations (Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules approach) and structural analysis based on Bond Valence Method are presented in order to analyze length and ramification of ladder-like structures and various functional group influence. The calculated infrared spectra show that peak derived from vibrations of Si-O “chains” is shifting towards lower frequencies with increasing length of the ladder while at the same time, the overall strains (BVM) are diminishing.

  3. Collapsing a perfect superposition to a chosen quantum state without measurement.

    PubMed

    Younes, Ahmed; Abdel-Aty, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Given a perfect superposition of [Formula: see text] states on a quantum system of [Formula: see text] qubits. We propose a fast quantum algorithm for collapsing the perfect superposition to a chosen quantum state [Formula: see text] without applying any measurements. The basic idea is to use a phase destruction mechanism. Two operators are used, the first operator applies a phase shift and a temporary entanglement to mark [Formula: see text] in the superposition, and the second operator applies selective phase shifts on the states in the superposition according to their Hamming distance with [Formula: see text]. The generated state can be used as an excellent input state for testing quantum memories and linear optics quantum computers. We make no assumptions about the used operators and applied quantum gates, but our result implies that for this purpose the number of qubits in the quantum register offers no advantage, in principle, over the obvious measurement-based feedback protocol.

  4. The structure and bonding properties of chosen phenyl ladder-like silsesquioxane clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleżyński, Andrzej; Jastrzębski, Witold; Szczypka, Wojciech; Kowalewska, Anna; Nowacka, Maria; Sitarz, Maciej

    2013-07-01

    The poly(phenyl silsesquioxanes) were synthesized at 30-36 °C via direct co-hydrolysis and condensation using sequential one batch, two-step reactions in the presence of potassium carbonate as the base catalyst and in the mixture THF/H2O. The structure and properties of the obtained materials were analyzed using NMR, TGA, SEC, XRD and FTIR methods. For chosen ladder-like phenyl silsesquioxane model clusters the DFT calculations by means of Gaussian09 program using B98 (DFT) method and a set 6-31G (d) of basis functions were carried out and respective infrared spectra were constructed and compared with the experimentally obtained ones. The results of topological analysis of total electron density obtained in SCF calculations (Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules approach) and structural analysis based on Bond Valence Method were used in detailed analysis of bonding properties in these clusters.

  5. Caught between intending and doing: older people ideating on a self-chosen death

    PubMed Central

    van Wijngaarden, Els; Leget, Carlo; Goossensen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this paper is to provide insight into what it means to live with the intention to end life at a self-chosen moment from an insider perspective. Setting Participants who lived independent or semidependent throughout the Netherlands. Participants 25 Dutch older citizens (mean age of 82 years) participated. They were ideating on a self-chosen death because they considered their lives to be no longer worth living. Inclusion criteria were that they: (1) considered their lives to be ‘completed’; (2) suffered from the prospect of living on; (3) currently wished to die; (4) were 70 years of age or older; (5) were not terminally ill; (6) considered themselves to be mentally competent; (7) considered their death wish reasonable. Design In this qualitative study, in-depth interviews were carried out in the participants’ everyday home environment (median lasting 1.56 h). Verbatim transcripts were analysed based on the principles of phenomenological thematic analysis. Results The liminality or ‘in-betweenness’ of intending and actually performing self-directed death (or not) is characterised as a constant feeling of being torn explicated by the following pairs of themes: (1) detachment and attachment; (2) rational and non-rational considerations; (3) taking control and lingering uncertainty; (4) resisting interference and longing for support; (5) legitimacy and illegitimacy. Conclusions Our findings show that the in-between period emerges as a considerable, existential challenge with both rational and non-rational concerns and thoughts, rather than a calculative, coherent sum of rational considerations. Our study highlights the need to take due consideration of all ambiguities and ambivalences present after a putatively rational decision has been made in order to develop careful policy and support for this particular group of older people. PMID:26781505

  6. Comparison of contraceptive method chosen by women with and without a recent history of induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Madden, Tessa; Secura, Gina M; Allsworth, Jenifer E; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2011-12-01

    Women undergoing induced abortion may be more motivated to choose long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), including the intrauterine device (IUD) and implant, than women without a history of abortion. Our objective was to determine whether the contraceptive method chosen is influenced by a recent history of induced abortion and access to immediate postabortion contraception. This was a subanalysis of the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. We compared contraception chosen by women with a recent history of abortion to women without a recent history. Participants with a recent history of abortion were divided into immediate postabortion contraception and delayed-start contraception groups. Data were available for 5083 women: 3410 women without a recent abortion history, 937 women who received immediate postabortion contraception and 736 women who received delayed-start postabortion contraception. Women offered immediate postabortion contraception were more than three times as likely to choose an IUD [adjusted relative risk (RR(adj)) 3.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.67-4.85] and 50% more likely to choose the implant (RR(adj) 1.51, 95%CI 1.12-2.03) compared to women without a recent abortion. There was no difference in contraceptive method selected among women offered delayed-start postabortion contraception compared to women without a recent abortion. Women offered immediate postabortion contraception are more likely to choose the IUD and implant than women without a recent abortion history. Increasing access to immediate postabortion LARC is essential to preventing repeat unintended pregnancies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Parent and child characteristics related to chosen adolescent alcohol and drug prevention program

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brenda A.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol–drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen characteristics interact with programs chosen. The two programs were: Family Matters (FM) (Bauman KE, Foshee VA, Ennett ST et al. Family Matters: a family-directed program designed to prevent adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Health Promot Pract 2001; 2: 81–96) and Strengthening Families Program (SFP) 10–14 (Spoth R, Redmond C, Lepper H. Alcohol initiation outcomes of universal family-focused preventive interventions: one- and two-year follow-ups of a controlled study. J Stud Alcohol Suppl 1999; 13: 103–11). A total of 272 families with an 11–12 years old enrolled in health care centers were in the choice condition of the larger study. SFP requires group meetings at specified times and thus demanded more specific time commitments from families. In contrast, FM is self-directed through booklets and is delivered in the home at a time chosen by the families. Mothers were significantly more likely to choose SFP when the adolescent had more problem behaviors. Mothers with greater education were more likely to choose FM. Findings may provide more real-world understanding of how some families are more likely to engage in one type of intervention over another. This understanding offers practical information for developing health promotion systems to service the diversity of families in the community. PMID:22156235

  8. Parent and child characteristics related to chosen adolescent alcohol and drug prevention program.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brenda A; Aalborg, Annette E; Byrnes, Hilary F; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol-drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen characteristics interact with programs chosen. The two programs were: Family Matters (FM) (Bauman KE, Foshee VA, Ennett ST et al. Family Matters: a family-directed program designed to prevent adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Health Promot Pract 2001; 2: 81-96) and Strengthening Families Program (SFP) 10-14 (Spoth R, Redmond C, Lepper H. Alcohol initiation outcomes of universal family-focused preventive interventions: one- and two-year follow-ups of a controlled study. J Stud Alcohol Suppl 1999; 13: 103-11). A total of 272 families with an 11-12 years old enrolled in health care centers were in the choice condition of the larger study. SFP requires group meetings at specified times and thus demanded more specific time commitments from families. In contrast, FM is self-directed through booklets and is delivered in the home at a time chosen by the families. Mothers were significantly more likely to choose SFP when the adolescent had more problem behaviors. Mothers with greater education were more likely to choose FM. Findings may provide more real-world understanding of how some families are more likely to engage in one type of intervention over another. This understanding offers practical information for developing health promotion systems to service the diversity of families in the community.

  9. Student-Chosen Criteria for Peer Assessment of Tertiary Rock Groups in Rehearsal and Performance: What's Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Diana; Encarnacao, John

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates criteria chosen by music students for peer and self assessment of both the rehearsal process and performance outcome of their rock groups. The student-chosen criteria and their explanations of these criteria were analysed in relation to Birkett's skills taxonomy of "soft" and "hard" skills. In the rehearsal process, students…

  10. 45 CFR 2550.40 - How does a State obtain Corporation authorization and approval for the entity it has chosen?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and approval for the entity it has chosen? 2550.40 Section 2550.40 Public Welfare Regulations Relating... Corporation authorization and approval for the entity it has chosen? (a) To receive approval of a State..., membership, authority, and duty requirements of this part. (For the AAE, a State must demonstrate why it is...

  11. Student-Chosen Criteria for Peer Assessment of Tertiary Rock Groups in Rehearsal and Performance: What's Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Diana; Encarnacao, John

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates criteria chosen by music students for peer and self assessment of both the rehearsal process and performance outcome of their rock groups. The student-chosen criteria and their explanations of these criteria were analysed in relation to Birkett's skills taxonomy of "soft" and "hard" skills. In the rehearsal process, students…

  12. On heart rate regulation in cycle-ergometer exercise.

    PubMed

    Argha, Ahmadreza; Su, Steven W; Lee, Sangwon; Nguyen, Hung; Celler, Branko G

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we have focused on the issue of regulating the human heart rate (HR) to a predefined reference trajectory, especially for cycle-ergometer exercise used for training or rehabilitation. As measuring HR is relatively easy compared to exercise intensity, it has been used in the wide range of training programs. The aim of this paper is to develop a non-model-based control strategy using proportional, integral and derivative (PID) controller/relay controller to regulate the HR to track a desired trajectory. In the case of using PID controller, the controller output signal is interpreted as a voice or auditory command, referred to as biofeedback, which can be heard by the exercising subject as a part of the control-loop. Alternatively, the relay controller output signals can be converted to some special words which can be recognised by the exerciser. However, in both cases, to effectively communicate to the user a change in exercise intensity, the timing of this feedback signal relative to the positions of the pedals becomes quite critical. A feedback signal delivered when the pedals are not in a suitable position to efficiently exert force may be ineffective and may lead to a cognitive disengagement of the user form the feedback controller. In this paper we examine the need and the consequence of synchronising the delivery of the feedback signal with an optimal and user specific placement of the pedal.

  13. Recycling and reuse of chosen kinds of waste materials in a building industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferek, B.; Harasymiuk, J.; Tyburski, J.

    2016-08-01

    The article describes the current state of knowledge and practice in Poland concerning recycling as a method of reuse of chosen groups of waste materials in building industry. The recycling of building scraps is imposed by environmental, economic and technological premises. The issue of usage of sewage residues is becoming a problem of ever -growing gravity as the presence of the increasing number of pernicious contaminants makes their utilization for agricultural purposes more and more limited. The strategies of using waste materials on Polish building sites were analyzed. The analysis of predispositions to salvage for a group of traditional materials, such as: timber, steel, building debris, insulation materials, plastics, and on the example of new materials, such as: artificial light aggregates made by appropriate mixing of siliceous aggregates, glass refuses and sewage residues in order to obtain a commodity which is apt for economic usage also was made in the article. The issue of recycling of waste materials originating from building operations will be presented in the context of the binding home and EU legal regulations. It was proved that the level of recycling of building wastes in Poland is considerably different from one which is achieved in the solid market economies, both in quantity and in assortment. The method of neutralization of building refuses in connection with special waste materials, which are sewage sludge that is presented in the article may be one of the alternative solutions to the problem of recycling of these wastes not only on the Polish scale.

  14. [Expression of the chosen proapoptotic and activation markers in adenoids in children with allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Zakrzewska, Anna; Kobos, Józef; Gryczyńska, Danuta

    2004-01-01

    Naive T cells can become either tolerant or immune as a result of their first encounter with antigen. Apoptosis is the most important immunoregulatory mechanism leading to either regional tolerant or autoimmunity and allergy. The lymphatic structure closest to the nasal mucosa is the adenoid, the part of NALT - Nasal Associated Lymphoid Tissue. The objective of this study was to find evidence for our hypothesis that allergic sensitization can occur in adenoid. Of special interest the activity of proapoptotic markers of adenoids lymphocytes in interfollicular areas. In this study the number of cells presenting expression of chosen antigens in adenoids of 20 allergic and 20 non-allergic children were evaluated. The number of positive cell for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD25, CD28, CTLA4(CD152), Fas, FasL, bcl-2, bcl-x were determined using immunohistochemical staining techniques. The eosinophils in the interfollicular space showed a trend to be more numerous in the allergic group (p < 0.005). The number of CD4, CD28, FasL, CTLA-4 and bcl-x positive cells was higher in adenoids allergic than non-allergic children. The differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05; p < 0.001). The result of this study showed that the activity of pro-apoptotic and proliferation markers of the adenoid of allergic children was more intensive than in other children. These findings support that allergic sensitization either is related to or takes place in the adenoid.

  15. Risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia differ depending on the control group chosen

    PubMed Central

    POGORZELSKA-MAZIARZ, M.; FURUYA, E. Y.; LARSON, E. L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia cause significant morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Using a nested case-control design, 204 MRSA bacteraemia cases were compared to 301 unmatched methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteraemia controls and were matched 1:2 with non-infected controls. The independent risk factors for MRSA bacteraemia compared to MSSA bacteraemia were older age (P=0·048), major organ transplant during current hospital stay (P=0·016) and quinolone use (P=0·016). Cases were more likely than non-infected controls to have renal failure (P=0·003), cirrhosis (P=0·013), and a central venous catheter (P=0·003) after controlling for other risk factors. This large case-control study made it possible to assess risk factors for MRSA bacteraemia using two sets of controls and showed that risk factors differed greatly depending on the control group chosen. These results confirm the need for careful selection of appropriate control groups and the need to carefully adjust for underlying severity of illness. PMID:23425708

  16. The extracellular loop of IRT1 ZIP protein--the chosen one for zinc?

    PubMed

    Potocki, Slawomir; Valensin, Daniela; Camponeschi, Francesca; Kozlowski, Henryk

    2013-10-01

    Zinc complexes with the extracellular loop of IRT1 (iron-regulated transporter 1), a ZIP (ZRT/IRT - Related Protein) family protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, have been studied. This unstructured fragment is responsible for metal selectivity and is located between the II and III transmembrane domains of IRT1. Zinc complexes with the Ac-(95)MHVLPDSFEMLSSICLEENPWHK(117)-NH2 peptide (IRT1), revealed surprisingly high thermodynamic stability. Additionally, an N-terminal fragment of human/mouse ZIP 13 zinc transporter (MPGCPCPGCGMACPR-NH2, later called ZIP13+C), has been chosen for the thermodynamic stability comparison studies. The relative ZIP13+C stability has been shown using several Zn(2+) complexes with artificially arranged multi-cysteine sequences. An interesting coordination mode has been proposed for the IRT1-Zn(2+) complex, in which imidazoles from two histidines (His-96 and His-116), a cysteine thiolate (Cys-109) and one of a glutamic acid carboxyl group are involved. All data were collected using potentiometric, NMR and mass spectrometric methods.

  17. The effect of exercise-induced arousal on chosen tempi for familiar melodies.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Halpern, Andrea R; Grierson, Mick; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-04-01

    Many previous studies have shown that arousal affects time perception, suggesting a direct influence of arousal on the speed of the pacemaker of the internal clock. However, it is unknown whether arousal influences the mental representation of tempo (speed) for highly familiar and complex stimuli, such as well-known melodies, that have long-term representations in memory. Previous research suggests that mental representations of the tempo of familiar melodies are stable over time; the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these representations can be systematically altered via an increase in physiological arousal. Participants adjusted the tempo of 14 familiar melodies in real time until they found a tempo that matched their internal representation of the appropriate tempo for that piece. The task was carried out before and after a physiologically arousing (exercise) or nonarousing (anagrams) manipulation. Participants completed this task both while hearing the melodies aloud and while imagining them. Chosen tempi increased significantly following exercise-induced arousal, regardless of whether a melody was heard aloud or imagined. These findings suggest that a change in internal clock speed affects temporal judgments even for highly familiar and complex stimuli such as music.

  18. Hyperspectral imaging sensor array based on diffractively driving infrared beams with chosen wavelength into designated subsensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yong; Zhang, Xinyu; Sang, Hongshi; Zhang, Tianxu; Xie, Changsheng

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, an integrated hyperspectral imaging sensor array technology by using arrayed diffractive micro-optics elements for driving infrared beams with chosen wavelength into designated subsensors is proposed. The diffractive optical element, which can be treated as a functioned microlens here, collect the incident Gaussian beam or other types of infrared beams out-from targets and then concentrate the incident light into desired monochromatic point pattern or arbitrary distinct hyperspectral image at the imaging plane based on phase transformation and diffraction propagation process. For the incident infrared beams with different wavelengths, the arrayed diffractive micro-optics elements is designed based on the diffractive integral theory, and the weighted iterative phase retrieval algorithm is modeled so as to obtain the needed phase distribution, and therefore the frequency spectrum of the incident beams can be separated locally in different locations over the focal plane according to designated wavelength. We can then achieve beam-splitting imaging by placing sensor array (4×4 pixels per subsensor) on the focal plane at locations that correspond to different wavelengths. Simulation results demonstrate that the designed elements can successfully implement both the functions of demultiplexing different wavelength beams and focusing each component at a pre-designated position simultaneously.

  19. Are nest sites actively chosen? Testing a common assumption for three non-resource limited birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodenough, A. E.; Elliot, S. L.; Hart, A. G.

    2009-09-01

    Many widely-accepted ecological concepts are simplified assumptions about complex situations that remain largely untested. One example is the assumption that nest-building species choose nest sites actively when they are not resource limited. This assumption has seen little direct empirical testing: most studies on nest-site selection simply assume that sites are chosen actively (and seek explanations for such behaviour) without considering that sites may be selected randomly. We used 15 years of data from a nestbox scheme in the UK to test the assumption of active nest-site choice in three cavity-nesting bird species that differ in breeding and migratory strategy: blue tit ( Cyanistes caeruleus), great tit ( Parus major) and pied flycatcher ( Ficedula hypoleuca). Nest-site selection was non-random (implying active nest-site choice) for blue and great tits, but not for pied flycatchers. We also considered the relative importance of year-specific and site-specific factors in determining occupation of nest sites. Site-specific factors were more important than year-specific factors for the tit species, while the reverse was true for pied flycatchers. Our results show that nest-site selection, in birds at least, is not always the result of active choice, such that choice should not be assumed automatically in studies of nesting behaviour. We use this example to highlight the need to test key ecological assumptions empirically, and the importance of doing so across taxa rather than for single "model" species.

  20. Comparison of Chosen Physical Fitness Characteristics of Turkish Professional Basketball Players by Division and Playing Position

    PubMed Central

    Köklü, Yusuf; Alemdaroğlu, Utku; Koçak, Fatma Ünver; Erol, A. Emre; Fındıkoğlu, Gülin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare chosen physical fitness characteristics of Turkish professional basketball players in different divisions (first and second division) and playing positions. Forty-five professional male basketball players (14 guards, 15 forwards, 16 centers) participated in this study voluntarily. For each player, anthropometric measurements were performed, as well as a multi-stage 20 m shuttle run, isokinetic leg strength, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), 10–30 meter single-sprint and T-drill agility tests. The differences in terms of division were evaluated by independent t-test and the differences by playing position were evaluated by one-way ANOVA with Post Hoc Tukey test. First division players’ CMJ measurements were significantly higher than those of second division players’ (p≤0.05), whereas second division players’ 10 m sprint times were significantly better than those of first division players’ (p≤0.05). In addition, forwards and centers were significantly taller than guards. Centers were significantly heavier and their T-drill test performances were inferior to those of forwards and guards (p≤0.05). Moreover, guards had a significantly higher maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) than centers. Guards and forwards showed significantly better performance in the 10 and 30 m sprint tests than centers (p≤0.05). Forwards and centers had significantly better left leg flexor strength at 180°.s−1(p≤0.05). In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that physical performance of professional basketball players differed among guards, forwards and centers, whereas there were not significant differences between first and second division players. According to the present study, court positions have different demands and physical attributes which are specific to each playing position in professional basketball players. Therefore, these results suggest that coaches should tailor fitness programs

  1. Comparison of chosen physical fitness characteristics of Turkish professional basketball players by division and playing position.

    PubMed

    Köklü, Yusuf; Alemdaroğlu, Utku; Koçak, Fatma Ünver; Erol, A Emre; Fındıkoğlu, Gülin

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare chosen physical fitness characteristics of Turkish professional basketball players in different divisions (first and second division) and playing positions. Forty-five professional male basketball players (14 guards, 15 forwards, 16 centers) participated in this study voluntarily. For each player, anthropometric measurements were performed, as well as a multi-stage 20 m shuttle run, isokinetic leg strength, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), 10-30 meter single-sprint and T-drill agility tests. The differences in terms of division were evaluated by independent t-test and the differences by playing position were evaluated by one-way ANOVA with Post Hoc Tukey test. First division players' CMJ measurements were significantly higher than those of second division players' (p≤0.05), whereas second division players' 10 m sprint times were significantly better than those of first division players' (p≤0.05). In addition, forwards and centers were significantly taller than guards. Centers were significantly heavier and their T-drill test performances were inferior to those of forwards and guards (p≤0.05). Moreover, guards had a significantly higher maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) than centers. Guards and forwards showed significantly better performance in the 10 and 30 m sprint tests than centers (p≤0.05). Forwards and centers had significantly better left leg flexor strength at 180°.s(-1)(p≤0.05). In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that physical performance of professional basketball players differed among guards, forwards and centers, whereas there were not significant differences between first and second division players. According to the present study, court positions have different demands and physical attributes which are specific to each playing position in professional basketball players. Therefore, these results suggest that coaches should tailor fitness programs according to

  2. Acute caffeine ingestion's increase of voluntarily chosen resistance-training load after limited sleep.

    PubMed

    Cook, Christian; Beaven, C Martyn; Kilduff, Liam P; Drawer, Scott

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether caffeine ingestion would increase the workload voluntarily chosen by athletes in a limited-sleep state. In a double-blind, crossover study, 16 professional rugby players ingested either a placebo or 4 mg/kg caffeine 1 hr before exercise. Athletes classified themselves into nondeprived (8 hr+) or sleep-deprived states (6 hr or less). Exercise comprised 4 sets of bench press, squats, and bent rows at 85% 1-repetition maximum. Athletes were asked to perform as many repetitions on each set as possible without failure. Saliva was collected before administration of placebo or caffeine and again before and immediately after exercise and assayed for testosterone and cortisol. Sleep deprivation produced a very large decrease in total load (p = 1.98 × 10(-7)). Caffeine ingestion in the nondeprived state resulted in a moderate increase in total load, with a larger effect in the sleep-deprived state, resulting in total load similar to those observed in the nondeprived placebo condition. Eight of the 16 athletes were identified as caffeine responders. Baseline testosterone was higher (p < .05) and cortisol trended lower in non-sleep-deprived athletes. Changes in hormones from predose to preexercise correlated to individual workload responses to caffeine. Testosterone response to exercise increased with caffeine compared with placebo, as did cortisol response. Caffeine increased voluntary workload in professional athletes, even more so under conditions of self-reported limited sleep. Caffeine may prove worthwhile when athletes are tired, especially in those identified as responders.

  3. Pedal angiography in peripheral arterial occlusive disease: first-pass i.v. contrast-enhanced MR angiography with blood pool contrast medium versus intraarterial digital subtraction angiography.

    PubMed

    Kos, Sebastian; Reisinger, Clemens; Aschwanden, Markus; Bongartz, Georg M; Jacob, Augustinus L; Bilecen, Deniz

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate first-pass i.v. gadofosveset-enhanced MR angiography in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease for visualization of the pedal arteries and stenosis or occlusion of those arteries with intraarterial digital subtraction angiography as the reference standard. Twenty patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (nine women, 11 men; age-range 58-83 years) were prospectively enrolled. Gadofosveset first-pass contrast-enhanced MR angiography was performed with a 1.5-T system, a dedicated foot coil, and cuff compression to the calf. Arterial segments were assessed for degree of arterial stenosis, arterial visibility, diagnostic utility, and venous contamination. Detection of vessel stenosis or occlusion was evaluated in comparison with findings at digital subtraction angiography. The unpaired Student's t test was used to test arterial visibility with the two techniques. First-pass MR angiography with gadofosveset had good diagnostic utility in 83.9% of all segments and no venous contamination in 96.8% of all segments. There was no difference between the performance of intraarterial digital subtraction angiography and that of i.v. contrast-enhanced MR angiography in arterial visibility overall (p = 0.245) or in subgroup analysis of surgical arterial bypass targets (p = 0.202). The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of i.v. gadofosveset-enhanced MR angiography for characterization of clinically significant stenosis and occlusion were 91.4%, 96.1%, and 93.9%. In the subgroup analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 85.5%, 96.5%, and 92.1%. Gadofosveset-enhanced MR angiography of the pedal arteries in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease has arterial visibility equal to that of digital subtraction angiography and facilitates depiction of clinically significant stenosis and occlusion.

  4. [Assessment of chosen cognitive functions in children and adolescents with primary headaches].

    PubMed

    Zgorzalewicz, Małgorzata; Mojs, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Foundations and aim of the study: Right development of cognitive functions is one of the basal factors, which determines good realization of the developmental tasks, for example achievement in education. Primary headaches especially migraine can be one of the important factor disturbing cognitive functioning of children and adolescents. The aim of the study was to estimate the level of some chosen aspects of cognitive and intellectual functioning of children and adolescents with primary headaches: migraine and tension type (TTH). 90 patients with migraine and 35 with TTH were diagnosed according to the classification of the International Headache Society (IHS 2004). Both groups matched each other according to distribution and averages in sex, age, age of the disease occurrence and time of its duration. The methods used in the study were Raven Test (intelligence), Benton Visual Retention Test form C and D, method A (short term memory for visual modality), Ten Words Test as a shortened version of RAVLT (abilities of learning processes and memory), Loretta Bender Gestalt Test and Bender-Koppitz Test (visuomotor integration and visual perception). The significant difference in the level of intelligence was stated between the examined groups. Children with migraine, especially without aura, in comparison to peers with TTH reached better results in Raven Test. The analysis of the results of the Benton Test in the number of correct and incorrect reproduced tables shows that children with migraine have poorer results. The percentage of correct answers in area of the level of visuomotor intergration was lower in the group with migraine (64%) than in the group with TTH (76%). Patients with migraine mainly with aura (41%) got lower results in Ten Word Test, which estimates the sum of gained results in five trials, and a percentage of correct answers in comparison to the group with TTH (60%). Patients with migraine in comparison to children with TTH show important disturbances

  5. Randomly chosen chaotic maps can give rise to nearly ordered behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarsky, Abraham; Góra, Paweł; Islam, Md. Shafiqul

    2005-10-01

    Parrondo’s paradox [J.M.R. Parrondo, G.P. Harmer, D. Abbott, New paradoxical games based on Brownian ratchets, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (2000), 5226-5229] (see also [O.E. Percus, J.K. Percus, Can two wrongs make a right? Coin-tossing games and Parrondo’s paradox, Math. Intelligencer 24 (3) (2002) 68-72]) states that two losing gambling games when combined one after the other (either deterministically or randomly) can result in a winning game: that is, a losing game followed by a losing game = a winning game. Inspired by this paradox, a recent study [J. Almeida, D. Peralta-Salas, M. Romera, Can two chaotic systems give rise to order? Physica D 200 (2005) 124-132] asked an analogous question in discrete time dynamical system: can two chaotic systems give rise to order, namely can they be combined into another dynamical system which does not behave chaotically? Numerical evidence is provided in [J. Almeida, D. Peralta-Salas, M. Romera, Can two chaotic systems give rise to order? Physica D 200 (2005) 124-132] that two chaotic quadratic maps, when composed with each other, create a new dynamical system which has a stable period orbit. The question of what happens in the case of random composition of maps is posed in [J. Almeida, D. Peralta-Salas, M. Romera, Can two chaotic systems give rise to order? Physica D 200 (2005) 124-132] but left unanswered. In this note we present an example of a dynamical system where, at each iteration, a map is chosen in a probabilistic manner from a collection of chaotic maps. The resulting random map is proved to have an infinite absolutely continuous invariant measure (acim) with spikes at two points. From this we show that the dynamics behaves in a nearly ordered manner. When the foregoing maps are applied one after the other, deterministically as in [O.E. Percus, J.K. Percus, Can two wrongs make a right? Coin-tossing games and Parrondo’s paradox, Math. Intelligencer 24 (3) (2002) 68-72], the resulting composed map has a periodic orbit

  6. [The occurrence of fasciola hepatica in chosen regions of Poland based on molecular and serological methods].

    PubMed

    Kozak-Cieszczyk, Monika

    2006-01-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by the liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) is an important issue for both human and animal health. The disease evokes economic losses which are a consequence of impaired animal productivity leading to higher costs of meat and milk production, as well as liver condemnation. The goals of this thesis were to: (1) elaborate a molecular method--PCR for the detection of F. hepatica DNA in intermediate and definite hosts; (2) estimate the usefulness of a recombinated cysteine proteinase produced in E. coli in the form of inclusive bodies in serological diagnosis of F. hepatica infection in definite hosts, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); (3) conduct field research on the prevalence of infection among intermediate and definitive hosts (cattle) in chosen regions of Poland, utilizing the elaborated methods. Based on the results obtained in this study, it was established that it is possible to detect F. hepatica DNA in the feces of definite hosts with the elaborated PCR method. The amplification of a 124 base pair tandem repeat allows the detection of fluke larval stages in intermediate hosts within 12 hours of exposure and F. hepatica infection in definite hosts (by the 5th week in rats, 8th week in sheep and 10th week in cattle). Therefore, the PCR test is more sensitive than traditional microscopic methods. Furthermore, it was determined that, the recombinated cysteine proteinase in the form of inclusive bodies, after solubillization exhibits antigenic properties of the native protein and the ELISA method based on this antigen may be useful as a tool for diagnosing fasciolosis in sheep and cattle, in both serum and milk samples. The test achieves a greater sensitivity and specificity than an ELISA based on native excretory-secretory antigens. The results of field research indicate that Fasciola hepatica is a frequent parasite of cattle in central and eastern Poland. The mean prevalence was 34.86% (+/- 16.95) in all studied areas. The

  7. Don’t Always Prefer My Chosen Objects: Low Level of Trait Autonomy and Autonomy Deprivation Decreases Mere Choice Effect

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Zhe; Tao, Tuoxin; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Choice effect is a robust phenomenon in which even “mere choice” that does not include actual choosing actions could result in more preference for the self-chosen objects over other-chosen objects. In the current research, we proposed that autonomy would impact the mere choice effect. We conducted two studies to examine the hypothesis. The results showed that the mere choice effect measured by Implicit Association Test (IAT) significantly decreased for participants with lower levels of trait autonomy (Study 1) and when participants were primed to experience autonomy deprivation (Study 2). The theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:27148132

  8. First-Year Pharmacy Students' Views on Their Chosen Professional Career.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Askin, Fergal; Hall, Maurice

    2016-11-25

    Objective. To investigate what factors influenced students to study pharmacy and determine in which sector they hoped to gain employment, both in the short and longer term. Methods. First-year pharmacy students (n=124) were invited to complete a paper-based, self-administered questionnaire consisting of 4 sections. Descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests were conducted. Results. One hundred (96.8% response rate) students completed the questionnaire (22.5% male; 77.5% female). Key influential factors for choosing pharmacy included: enjoyment of science at school, a desire to improve people's health and wellbeing, and to work in health care. Career aspirations were to work in a hospital or in community practice rather than in industry or academia. Conclusions. Students choose pharmacy as a career primarily for altruistic and clinical reasons. This research provides information for pharmacy schools about the career aspirations of students and data from future pharmacists is potentially helpful to pharmacy professional organizations and potential employers.

  9. Stability of chosen beta-adrenolytic drugs of different polarity in basic environment.

    PubMed

    Kwiecień, Anna; Krzek, Jan; Zylewski, Marek

    2008-01-01

    The stability of atenolol, acebutolol, and propranolol was investigated in sodium hydroxide solutions at concentrations of 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 1 M at 3 temperatures ranging from 37 to 95 degrees C. The degradation processes that occurred in drugs under investigation were described with kinetic parameters (k, t0.1, and t0.5) and energy of activation (Ea). It was found that the stability of the drugs increased toward lipophilic propranolol in the assumed experimental model. The rate constants k decreased, contrary to t0.1, t0.5, and Ea, which varied comparably to log P (partition coefficient), thus increasing from the most hydrophilic atenolol, through acebutolol of lower polarity, to the most lipophilic propranolol. The identification of degradation products was performed with the application of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry and thin-layer chromatography-densitometry and data from the literature.

  10. First-Year Pharmacy Students’ Views on Their Chosen Professional Career

    PubMed Central

    Askin, Fergal; Hall, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate what factors influenced students to study pharmacy and determine in which sector they hoped to gain employment, both in the short and longer term. Methods. First-year pharmacy students (n=124) were invited to complete a paper-based, self-administered questionnaire consisting of 4 sections. Descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests were conducted. Results. One hundred (96.8% response rate) students completed the questionnaire (22.5% male; 77.5% female). Key influential factors for choosing pharmacy included: enjoyment of science at school, a desire to improve people’s health and wellbeing, and to work in health care. Career aspirations were to work in a hospital or in community practice rather than in industry or academia. Conclusions. Students choose pharmacy as a career primarily for altruistic and clinical reasons. This research provides information for pharmacy schools about the career aspirations of students and data from future pharmacists is potentially helpful to pharmacy professional organizations and potential employers. PMID:28090099

  11. 45 CFR 2550.40 - How does a State obtain Corporation authorization and approval for the entity it has chosen?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How does a State obtain Corporation authorization and approval for the entity it has chosen? 2550.40 Section 2550.40 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE REQUIREMENTS AND...

  12. 45 CFR 2550.40 - How does a State obtain Corporation authorization and approval for the entity it has chosen?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does a State obtain Corporation authorization and approval for the entity it has chosen? 2550.40 Section 2550.40 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE REQUIREMENTS AND...

  13. 45 CFR 2550.40 - How does a State obtain Corporation authorization and approval for the entity it has chosen?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does a State obtain Corporation authorization and approval for the entity it has chosen? 2550.40 Section 2550.40 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE REQUIREMENTS AND...

  14. 78 FR 10692 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  15. Psychological distress and post-abortion contraceptive method effectiveness level chosen at an urban clinic.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Julia R; Tschann, Jeanne M; Henderson, Jillian T; Drey, Eleanor A; Steinauer, Jody E; Harper, Cynthia C

    2013-12-01

    We investigated whether more psychological distress before an abortion is associated with the effectiveness of contraception selected (low, moderate, or high effectiveness) at an abortion clinic visit. Using data from 253 women attending an urban abortion clinic that primarily serves low-income women, we tested the association between pre-abortion psychological distress and the effectiveness level of post-abortion contraceptive choice. Based on typical use failure rates, we classified effectiveness of contraceptive choice into three levels-low, moderate, and high effectiveness. We measured psychological distress with four validated measures of depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms, and negative affect, as well as with a global measure comprising these four measures. We used multivariable ordinal logistic regression to measure the association of each psychological distress measure with post-abortion contraceptive method effectiveness level, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, pregnancy history, trimester of abortion, and importance of avoiding pregnancy in the next year. We found that compared to women experiencing less stress symptoms, negative affect and global psychological distress, women experiencing more stress symptoms [AOR=1.028, 95% CI: 1.001-1.050], negative affect [AOR=1.05, 95% CI: 1.01-1.09] and global psychological distress [AOR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.09-1.95] were more likely to choose more effective versus less effective methods, p<.05, in adjusted models. Using dichotomous psychological measures we found similar results. Women experiencing more psychological distress before an abortion selected more effective contraceptive methods after their abortion. Future research should examine whether this distress is associated with subsequent contraceptive use or continuation. The current study suggests that contraceptive providers should not assume that women experiencing more psychological distress prefer to use less effective contraceptive methods.

  16. Analysis of Chosen Variables Psychological Determining the Occurrence of Mood Disorders After Childbirth.

    PubMed

    Kaźmierczak, Marzena; Gierszewska, Małgorzata; Mieczkowska, Estera; Gebuza, Grażyna; Banaszkiewicz, Mariola

    2015-01-01

    Psychological factors are one of many that contribute to the increased risk of a psychiatric disorder's occurrence after childbirth. The aim of this work was to determine the relation between psychological variables, such as sense of self-efficacy and dispositional optimism, and the risk of mood disorder's occurrence in women after childbirth. Two hundred eighty five women, who gave birth in the University Hospital no. 2 in Bydgoszcz, took part in the study. To measure the risk occurrence of mood disorder symptoms after childbirth the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EDPS) was used. Obtaining a score of 12 or more points out of 30 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was an indicator of mood disorders. To study psychological variables the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) and Life Orientation Test (LOT-R) were used. Twenty three point two percent of women obtained 12 or more points in the EDPS scale. The average result in GSES scale for all women who took part in the study was 30.80 and indicated a high estimation of women's own capabilities in dealing with new situations. Obtained results indicated a surprisingly small group of women with low estimation of their own capabilities (n = 15). However, negative correlation between EDPS and GSES parameters, on a statistically significant level (p < 0.0001) was found (r = 0.27). In the course of analysis of the results concerning optimism-pessimism dimension rated with LOT-R, the average result was calculated to be 15.6. In the same group, 61 women showed pessimistic tendencies, and 23 (34.8%) suffered from mood disorders. Scores obtained in EDPS negatively correlated with the results in LOT-R (r = -0.43) and are statistically significant (p < 0.0001). In the first week after childbirth, one-fourth of women are in danger of the occurrence of mood disorders. There is a negative correlation between the sense of self-efficacy and dispositional optimism and risk of occurrence of mood disorders after childbirth.

  17. An evaluation of the Exer-Genie exerciser and the Collins pedal mode ergometer for developing physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olree, H. D.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments that were conducted over a 52-month period showed that isometric and isotonic training on the Exer-Genie gave negligible increases in cardiorespiratory fitness whereas training on the ergometer at a programmed pulse rate increased fitness moderately.

  18. Pedal Claw Curvature in Birds, Lizards and Mesozoic Dinosaurs – Complicated Categories and Compensating for Mass-Specific and Phylogenetic Control

    PubMed Central

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V.; Miller, Charlotte E.; Naish, Darren; Rayfield, Emily J.; Hone, David W. E.

    2012-01-01

    Pedal claw geometry can be used to predict behaviour in extant tetrapods and has frequently been used as an indicator of lifestyle and ecology in Mesozoic birds and other fossil reptiles, sometimes without acknowledgement of the caveat that data from other aspects of morphology and proportions also need to be considered. Variation in styles of measurement (both inner and outer claw curvature angles) has made it difficult to compare results across studies, as have over-simplified ecological categories. We sought to increase sample size in a new analysis devised to test claw geometry against ecological niche. We found that taxa from different behavioural categories overlapped extensively in claw geometry. Whilst most taxa plotted as predicted, some fossil taxa were recovered in unexpected positions. Inner and outer claw curvatures were statistically correlated, and both correlated with relative claw robusticity (mid-point claw height). We corrected for mass and phylogeny, as both likely influence claw morphology. We conclude that there is no strong mass-specific effect on claw curvature; furthermore, correlations between claw geometry and behaviour are consistent across disparate clades. By using independent contrasts to correct for phylogeny, we found little significant relationship between claw geometry and behaviour. ‘Ground-dweller’ claws are less curved and relatively dorsoventrally deep relative to those of other behavioural categories; beyond this it is difficult to assign an explicit category to a claw based purely on geometry. PMID:23227184

  19. Pedal claw curvature in birds, lizards and mesozoic dinosaurs--complicated categories and compensating for mass-specific and phylogenetic control.

    PubMed

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V; Miller, Charlotte E; Naish, Darren; Rayfield, Emily J; Hone, David W E

    2012-01-01

    Pedal claw geometry can be used to predict behaviour in extant tetrapods and has frequently been used as an indicator of lifestyle and ecology in Mesozoic birds and other fossil reptiles, sometimes without acknowledgement of the caveat that data from other aspects of morphology and proportions also need to be considered. Variation in styles of measurement (both inner and outer claw curvature angles) has made it difficult to compare results across studies, as have over-simplified ecological categories. We sought to increase sample size in a new analysis devised to test claw geometry against ecological niche. We found that taxa from different behavioural categories overlapped extensively in claw geometry. Whilst most taxa plotted as predicted, some fossil taxa were recovered in unexpected positions. Inner and outer claw curvatures were statistically correlated, and both correlated with relative claw robusticity (mid-point claw height). We corrected for mass and phylogeny, as both likely influence claw morphology. We conclude that there is no strong mass-specific effect on claw curvature; furthermore, correlations between claw geometry and behaviour are consistent across disparate clades. By using independent contrasts to correct for phylogeny, we found little significant relationship between claw geometry and behaviour. 'Ground-dweller' claws are less curved and relatively dorsoventrally deep relative to those of other behavioural categories; beyond this it is difficult to assign an explicit category to a claw based purely on geometry.

  20. Correlated-imaging-based chosen plaintext attack on general cryptosystems composed of linear canonical transforms and phase encodings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jingjing; Liu, Wei; Liu, Zhengjun; Liu, Shutian

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a chosen-plaintext attack scheme on general optical cryptosystems that use linear canonical transform and phase encoding based on correlated imaging. The plaintexts are chosen as Gaussian random real number matrixes, and the corresponding ciphertexts are regarded as prior knowledge of the proposed attack method. To establish the reconstruct of the secret plaintext, correlated imaging is employed using the known resources. Differing from the reported attack methods, there is no need to decipher the distribution of the decryption key. The original secret image can be directly recovered by the attack in the absence of decryption key. In addition, the improved cryptosystems combined with pixel scrambling operations are also vulnerable to the proposed attack method. Necessary mathematical derivations and numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the validity of the proposed attack scheme.

  1. Applications of Reaction Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an assignment in which students are to research and report on a chemical reaction whose increased or decreased rate is of practical importance. Specifically, students are asked to represent the reaction they have chosen with an acceptable chemical equation, identify a factor that influences its rate and explain how and why it…

  2. Ocean drilling ship chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Sedco/BP 471, owned jointly by Sedco, Inc., of Dallas, Tex., and British Petroleum, has been selected as the drill ship for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The contract, with a specified initial term of 4 years with 10 1-year options after that, is expected to be signed by mid March by Texas A&M University, the ODP science operator, and Sedco, Inc. Texas A&M will develop the design for scientific and laboratory spaces aboard the Sedco/BP 471 and will oversee the ship conversion. Testing and shakedown of the ship is scheduled for the coming autumn; the first scientific cruise is scheduled for next January.One year ago, the commercial drilling market sagged, opening up the option for leasing a commercial drill ship (Eos, February 22, 1983, p. 73). Previously, the ship of choice had been the Glomar Explorer; rehabilitating the former CIA salvage ship would have been extremely expensive, however.

  3. Top STS Winners Chosen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the first, second, and third place winners in the 47th annual Westinghouse Science Talent Search. Describes student research projects dealing with electromagnetic and gravitational fields, cryptosporidiosis (a chronic diarrhea), and genetic factors of a nitrogen-fixing bacterium. (TW)

  4. 2011 Einstein Fellows Chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    ASA has announced the selection of the 2011 Einstein Fellows who will conduct research related to NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program, which aims to expand our knowledge of the origin, evolution, and fate of the Universe. The Einstein Fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years, and the Fellows may pursue their research at a host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new Fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2011. The new Einstein Fellows and their host institutions are listed below: * Akos Bogdan (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.) * Samuel Gralla (University of Maryland, College Park, Md.) * Philip Hopkins (University of California at Berkeley) * Matthew Kunz (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.) * Laura Lopez (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.) * Amy Reines (National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, Virg.) * Rubens Reis (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) * Ken Shen (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif.) * Jennifer Siegal-Gaskins (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) * Lorenzo Sironi (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.) NASA has two other astrophysics theme-based fellowship programs: the Sagan Fellowship Program, which supports research into exoplanet exploration, and the Hubble Fellowship Program, which supports research into cosmic origins. More information on the Einstein Fellowships can be found at: http://cxc.harvard.edu/fellows/

  5. Top STS Winners Chosen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the first, second, and third place winners in the 47th annual Westinghouse Science Talent Search. Describes student research projects dealing with electromagnetic and gravitational fields, cryptosporidiosis (a chronic diarrhea), and genetic factors of a nitrogen-fixing bacterium. (TW)

  6. 2010 Einstein Fellows Chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-02-01

    NASA has announced the selection of the 2010 Einstein Fellows who will conduct research related to NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program, which aims to expand our knowledge of the origin, evolution, and fate of the Universe. The Einstein Fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years, and the Fellows may pursue their research at a host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new Fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2010. The new Einstein Fellows and their host institutions are listed below: * Simona Giacintucci (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.) * Boaz Katz (Institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton, N.J.) * Matthew Kerr (Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calif.) * Matthew Kistler (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) * Emily Levesque (University of Colorado, Boulder) * Xin Liu (Harvard, Cambridge, Mass.) * Tony Mroczkowski (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia) * Ryan O'Leary (University of California at Berkeley) * Dov Poznanski (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Berkeley, Calif.) * Nicolas Yunes (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.) The Einstein Fellowships are administered for NASA by the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Along with the Hubble and Sagan Fellowships, the Einstein Fellowships are made possible by the Astrophysics Division within NASA's Science Mission Directorate. More information on the Einstein Fellowships can be found at: http://cxc.harvard.edu/fellows/CfPfellow.2009.html

  7. The influence of speed, cyclists' age, pedaling frequency, and observer age on observers' time to arrival judgments of approaching bicycles and e-bikes.

    PubMed

    Schleinitz, Katja; Petzoldt, Tibor; Krems, Josef F; Gehlert, Tina

    2016-07-01

    Given their potential to reach higher speed levels than conventional bicycles, the growing market share of e-bikes has been the reason for increased concerns regarding road safety. Previous studies have shown a clear relationship between object approach speed and an observers' judgment of when the object would reach a predefined position (i.e., time to arrival, TTA), with higher speed resulting in longer TTA estimates. Since TTA estimates have been linked to road users' decisions of whether or not to cross or turn in front of approaching vehicles, the higher potential speeds of e-bikes might result in an increased risk for traffic conflicts. The goal of the two experiments presented in this paper was to examine the influence of speed and a variety of other factors on TTA estimation for conventional bicycles and for e-bikes. In both experiments, participants from two age groups (20-45 years old and 65 years or older) watched video sequences of bicycles approaching at different speeds (15-25km/h) and were asked to judge the TTA at the moment the video was stopped. The results of both experiments showed that an increase in bicycle approach speed resulted in longer TTA estimates (measured as the proportion of estimated TTA relative to actual TTA) for both bicycle types (ηp(2)Exp.1=.489, ηp(2)Exp.2=.705). Compared to younger observers, older observers provided shorter estimates throughout (Exp. I: MDiff=0.35, CI [0.197, 0.509], ηp(2)=.332, Exp. II: MDiff=0.50, CI [.317, 0.682], ηp(2)=.420). In Experiment I, TTA estimates for the conventional bicycle were significantly shorter than for the e-bike (MDiff=0.03, CI [.007, 0.044], ηp(2)=.154), as were the estimates for the elder cyclist compared to the younger one (MDiff=0.05, CI [.025, 0.066], ηp(2)=.323). We hypothesized that the cause for this effect might lie in the seemingly reduced pedaling effort for the e-bike as a result of the motor assistance it provides. Experiment II was able to show that a high pedaling

  8. Pedal peptide/orcokinin-type neuropeptide signaling in a deuterostome: the anatomy and pharmacology of starfish myorelaxant peptide in Asterias rubens.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming; Egertová, Michaela; Zampronio, Cleidiane G; Jones, Alexandra M; Elphick, Maurice R

    2017-08-28

    Pedal peptide (PP) and orcokinin (OK) are related neuropeptides that were discovered in protostomian invertebrates (mollusks, arthropods). However, analysis of genome/transcriptome sequence data has revealed that PP/OK-type neuropeptides also occur in a deuterostomian phylum-the echinoderms. Furthermore, a PP/OK-type neuropeptide (starfish myorelaxant peptide, SMP) was recently identified as a muscle relaxant in the starfish Patiria pectinifera. Here mass spectrometry was used to identify five neuropeptides (ArPPLN1a-e) derived from the SMP precursor (PP-like neuropeptide precursor 1; ArPPLNP1) in the starfish Asterias rubens. Analysis of the expression of ArPPLNP1 and neuropeptides derived from this precursor in A. rubens using mRNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed a widespread pattern of expression, with labeled cells and/or processes present in the radial nerve cords, circumoral nerve ring, digestive system (e.g., cardiac stomach) and body wall-associated muscles (e.g., apical muscle) and appendages (e.g., tube feet and papulae). Furthermore, our data provide the first evidence that neuropeptides are present in the lateral motor nerves and in nerve processes innervating interossicular muscles. In vitro pharmacological tests with SMP (ArPPLN1b) revealed that it causes dose-dependent relaxation of apical muscle, tube foot and cardiac stomach preparations from A. rubens. Collectively, these anatomical and pharmacological data indicate that neuropeptides derived from ArPPLNP1 act as inhibitory neuromuscular transmitters in starfish, which contrasts with the myoexcitatory actions of PP/OK-type neuropeptides in protostomian invertebrates. Thus, the divergence of deuterostomes and protostomes may have been accompanied by an inhibitory-excitatory transition in the roles of PP/OK-type neuropeptides as regulators of muscle activity. © 2017 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Blood gas analysis, blood saturation and chosen parameters of spirometric examination in NSCLC patients undergoing chemotherapy and pulmonary rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Tokarski, Sławomir; Tokarska, Kamila; Schwarz, Ewa; Obrebska, Agnieszka; Mejer, Anna; Kowalski, Jan

    2014-04-01

    In industrialized countries lung cancer is associated with highest mortality among carcinoma. Progression of the disease is associated with diminished tolerance for physical activities, aggravated dyspnea and lowering of life quality. The aim of study was the evaluation of blood gas, blood saturation and chosen parameters of spirometric examination in NSCLC patients undergoing chemotherapy and pulmonary rehabilitation. Analysis of capillary blood was done using RapidPoint 405 Siemens device. Spirometric examination was done using PNEUMO abcMED device. Forty-nine patients with inoperable NSCLC were subjected to the examination. This included 38 men and 11 women aged between 46-75 years (mean age 63 +/- 7.5 years) who were separated into two groups: group I--25 patients undergoing standard chemotherapy (group C); group II--24 patients undergoing standard chemotherapy and pulmonary rehabilitation (group CK). All patients were subjected to blood gas analysis, blood saturation analysis and spirometric examination twice, before and after first-line chemotherapy Increase of pO2 and SaO2 in blood, and FEV1 and FVC in spirometric examination was significantly higher in patients undergoing pulmonary rehabilitation and chemotherapy (group II) (p < 0.05) in comparison to NSCLC patients undergoing only chemotherapy (group I). Pulmonary rehabilitation of NSCLC patients undergoing first-line chemotherapy results in improvement of indicators of blood gas, blood saturation analysis and chosen parameters of spirometric analysis. Pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with lung cancer seems to be an important form of supplementary treatment.

  10. What's on Your Mind? Conversation Topics Chosen by People With Degenerative Cognitive-Linguistic Disorders for Communication Boards.

    PubMed

    Fried-Oken, Melanie; Daniels, Darlene; Ettinger, Olivia; Mooney, Aimee; Noethe, Glory; Rowland, Charity

    2015-05-01

    Conversational topics chosen by a group of adults with degenerative cognitive-linguistic disorders for personalized communication board development were examined. The patient-generated themes commonly selected are presented to guide treatment planning and communication board development. Communication boards were created for 109 adults as part of a larger research project. One autobiographical topic that each participant would enjoy discussing multiple times was represented on each communication board with 16 pictures and word labels. For this review, topics were collapsed into general themes through a consensus process and examined by gender and age. Sixty unique conversational topics were identified from 109 participants and collapsed into 9 general themes: Hobbies, Family, Travel, Work, Home/Places I've Lived, Sports/Fitness, Religion, Animals, and World War II. Age and gender produced variations in themes chosen, though no significance in rank orders was found across groups. Topics selected by adults with degenerative cognitive-linguistic disorders for communication boards resemble common conversational adult themes and do not center around basic needs or medical issues. Differences in gender and age for topic selection tend to be based on traditional roles. These general themes should be used when creating personalized communication boards for those who benefit from conversational aids.

  11. What's on Your Mind? Conversation Topics Chosen by People With Degenerative Cognitive-Linguistic Disorders for Communication Boards

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Darlene; Ettinger, Olivia; Mooney, Aimee; Noethe, Glory; Rowland, Charity

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Conversational topics chosen by a group of adults with degenerative cognitive-linguistic disorders for personalized communication board development were examined. The patient-generated themes commonly selected are presented to guide treatment planning and communication board development. Method Communication boards were created for 109 adults as part of a larger research project. One autobiographical topic that each participant would enjoy discussing multiple times was represented on each communication board with 16 pictures and word labels. For this review, topics were collapsed into general themes through a consensus process and examined by gender and age. Results Sixty unique conversational topics were identified from 109 participants and collapsed into 9 general themes: Hobbies, Family, Travel, Work, Home/Places I've Lived, Sports/Fitness, Religion, Animals, and World War II. Age and gender produced variations in themes chosen, though no significance in rank orders was found across groups. Conclusions Topics selected by adults with degenerative cognitive-linguistic disorders for communication boards resemble common conversational adult themes and do not center around basic needs or medical issues. Differences in gender and age for topic selection tend to be based on traditional roles. These general themes should be used when creating personalized communication boards for those who benefit from conversational aids. PMID:25835511

  12. Electronic structure and biological activity of chosen DDT-type insecticides studied by 35Cl-NQR.

    PubMed

    Jadzyn, Maciej; Nogaj, Bolesław

    2009-02-01

    A correlation between the electronic structure and biological activity of chosen dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-type insecticides: 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane, 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene, 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanoic acid and 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone (used in agriculture) has been analysed on the basis of the (35)Cl-nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy. The (35)Cl-NQR resonance frequencies measured at 77 K have been correlated with the lethal dose (LD(50)) parameter that characterises the biological activity of these insecticides. 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. 40 CFR 60.4410 - How do I establish a valid parameter range if I have chosen to continuously monitor parameters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... range if I have chosen to continuously monitor parameters? 60.4410 Section 60.4410 Protection of... § 60.4410 How do I establish a valid parameter range if I have chosen to continuously monitor... operating ranges, for purposes of the parameter monitoring plan for the affected unit, as specified in §...

  14. 40 CFR 60.4410 - How do I establish a valid parameter range if I have chosen to continuously monitor parameters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... range if I have chosen to continuously monitor parameters? 60.4410 Section 60.4410 Protection of... § 60.4410 How do I establish a valid parameter range if I have chosen to continuously monitor... operating ranges, for purposes of the parameter monitoring plan for the affected unit, as specified in §...

  15. Subject-chosen activities in occupational therapy for the improvement of psychiatric symptoms of inpatients with chronic schizophrenia: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hoshii, Junko; Yotsumoto, Kayano; Tatsumi, Eri; Tanaka, Chito; Mori, Takashi; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2013-07-01

    To compare the therapeutic effects of subject-chosen and therapist-chosen activities in occupational therapy for inpatients with chronic schizophrenia. Prospective comparative study. A psychiatric hospital in Japan. Fifty-nine patients with chronic schizophrenia who had been hospitalized for many years. The subjects received six-months occupational therapy, participating in either activities of their choice (subject-chosen activity group, n = 30) or activities chosen by occupational therapists based on treatment recommendations and patient consent (therapist-chosen activity group, n = 29). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale were used to evaluate psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial function, respectively. After six-months occupational therapy, suspiciousness and hostility scores of the positive scale and preoccupation scores of the general psychopathology scale significantly improved in the subject-chosen activity group compared with the therapist-chosen activity group, with 2(2) (median (interquartile range)) and 3(1.25), 2(1) and 2.5(1), and 2(1) and 3(1), respectively. There were no significant differences in psychosocial functions between the two groups. In within-group comparisons before and after occupational therapy, suspiciousness scores of the positive scale, preoccupation scores of the general psychopathology scale, and psychosocial function significantly improved only in the subject-chosen activity group, with 3(1) to 2(2), 3(1) to 2(1), and 40(9) to 40(16) respectively, but not in the therapist-chosen activity group. The results suggested that the subject-chosen activities in occupational therapy could improve the psychiatric symptoms, suspiciousness, and preoccupation of the inpatients with chronic schizophrenia.

  16. Impact of the chosen turbulent flow empirical model on the prediction of sound radiation and vibration by aircraft panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Joana

    2016-07-01

    A precise definition of the turbulent boundary layer excitation is required to accurately predict the sound radiation and surface vibration levels, produced by an aircraft panel excited turbulent flow during flight. Hence, any existing inaccuracy on turbulent boundary layer excitation models leads to an inaccurate prediction of the panel response. A number of empirical models have been developed over the years to provide the turbulent boundary layer wall pressure spectral density. However, different empirical models provide dissimilar predictions for the wall pressure spectral density. The objective of the present study is to investigate and quantify the impact of the chosen empirical model on the predicted radiated sound power, and on the predicted panel surface acceleration levels. This study provides a novel approach and a detailed analysis on the use of different turbulent boundary layer wall pressure empirical models, and impact on mathematical predictions. Closed-form mathematical relationships are developed, and recommendations are provided for the level of deviation and uncertainty associated to different models, in relation to a baseline model, both for panel surface acceleration and radiated sound power.

  17. [Assessment of knowledge about first aid among the teachers of chosen high schools in the Western Pomerania region].

    PubMed

    Wiśniewski, Jakub; Majewski, Włodzimierz D

    2007-01-01

    Increasing susceptibility to trauma among Polish society, which concerns school pupils as well, requires defining causes of the problem and establishing directions of activity in order to reduce the frequency of trauma and its unfavorable consequences. Investigation of a level of knowledge and an attitude of teachers of chosen secondary schools towards giving the first aid in the West Pomeranian voivodeship. The survey was carried out among 100 teachers from two high schools of which one is situated in a city of Szczecin (50) and the other in a smaller town of Gryfice (50). A standardized questionnaire, which was previously applied to investigate a problem of giving the first aid among Polish society, was used as a diagnostic tool. Although majority of respondents took part in first aid courses while acquiring different ranks and qualifications, the survey has confirmed that the level of knowledge about giving the first aid is insufficient. The half of respondents know rules of giving first aid, and one third declares that can put these rules into the practice. A large part of respondents demonstrates rather passive attitude towards giving the first aid in case of emergency. There are no major differences in the level of knowledge about first aid between teachers from a large city and a small town. A systemic solutions for improvement of the knowledge of rules of giving the first aid among teachers and pupils are mandatory. The authors of this paper propose cyclical training courses for teachers led by medical professionals, and further courses for pupils led by those teachers in collaboration with students of the last year of paramedical studies.

  18. Effect of sodium selenite on chosen anti- and pro-oxidative parameters in rats treated with lithium: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Musik, Irena; Kocot, Joanna; Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Selenium is an essential element of antioxidant properties. Lithium is widely used in medicine but its administration can cause numerous side effects including oxidative stress. The present study aimed at evaluating if sodium selenite could influence chosen anti- and pro-oxidant parameters in rats treated with lithium. The experiment was performed on four groups of Wistar rats: I (control) - treated with saline; II (Li) - treated with lithium (2.7 mgLi/kg b.w. as Li2CO3), III (Se) - treated with selenium (0.5 mgSe/kg b.w. as Na2SeO3), IV (Li+Se) - treated with Li2CO3 and Na2SeO3 together at the same doses as in group II and III, respectively. All treatments were performed by stomach tube for three weeks in form of water solutions. The following anti- and pro-oxidant parameters: total antioxidant status (TAS) value, catalase (CAT) activity, concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in plasma as well as whole blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured. Selenium given alone markedly enhanced whole blood GPx and diminished plasma CAT vs. Lithium significantly decreased plasma CAT and slightly increased AA vs. Selenium co-administration restored these parameters to the values observed in control animals. Furthermore, selenium co-administration significantly increased GPx in Li-treated rats. All other parameters (TAS, SOD and MDA) were not affected by lithium and/or selenium. Further research seems to be warranted to decide if application of selenium as an adjuvant in lithium therapy is worth considering. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. Chosen risk factors for osteoporosis and the level of knowledge about the disease in peri- and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kulik, Teresa; Dziedzic, Małgorzata A.; Żołnierczuk-Kieliszek, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Osteoporosis as a chronic disease, affecting especially women in postmenopausal age, is an important, social and economic health problem especially of women of today's world. The aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge of women in the peri- and postmenopausal period about the prevention of osteoporosis and show the influence of chosen risk factors on the level of this knowledge. Material and methods A group of 300 women aged 45-65, being patients of healthcare centres in Chełm, Lublin and Zamość (Lublin voivodeship, south-eastern Poland) were included in the study. The purposive sampling was used. Osteoporosis Knowledge Test (OKT) 2011 was the research tool. Gathered material was subjected to descriptive and statistical analysis. Tukey's test, t-student test and variance analysis (ANOVA) were all applied. An accepted p materiality level was < 0.05 and p < 0.01. Results Respondents presented the average level of knowledge about the role of physical activity in the prevention of osteoporosis (M = 13.93) and a low level of knowledge about well-balanced diet rich in calcium (M = 9.77). The knowledge about risk factors, screening and treatment remained on the average level (M = 8.00). An influence of socio-demographic factors on the level of knowledge was shown. Also some behaviours, associated with the lifestyle indeed influenced the level of this knowledge. Conclusions Professional educational programs on osteoporosis should be implemented in the population of Polish peri- and postmenopausal women. PMID:26327885

  20. Sensitivity of Simulated Convection-Driven Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange in WRF-Chem to Chosen Model Parameterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phoenix, D. B.; Homeyer, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    Tropopause-penetrating convection is capable of rapidly transporting air from the lower troposphere to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). Since the vertical redistribution of gases in the atmosphere by convection can have important impacts on the chemistry of the UTLS, the radiative budget, and climate, it has become a recent focus of observational and modeling studies. Despite being otherwise limited in space and time, recent aircraft observations from field campaigns such as the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) experiment have provided new high-resolution observations of convective transport. Modeling studies, on the other hand, offer the advantage of providing output related to the physical, dynamical, and chemical characteristics of storms and their environments at fine spatial and temporal scales. Since these characteristics of simulated convection depend on the chosen model design, we examine the sensitivity of simulated convective transport to the choice of physical and chemical parameterizations in the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for several DC3 cases in this study. In particular, we conduct sensitivity tests for the choice of 1) bulk microphysics parameterization, 2) planetary boundary layer parameterization, and 3) chemical mechanism. Model output is evaluated using ground-based radar observations of each storm and in situ trace gas observations from two aircraft operated during the DC3 experiment. Model results show measurable sensitivity of the physical characteristics of a storm and the transport of water vapor and additional trace gases into the UTLS to the choice of microphysics parameterization. The physical characteristics of the storm and transport of insoluble trace gases are largely insensitive to choice of PBL scheme and chemical mechanism, though several soluble trace gases (e.g., SO2, CH2O, NH3) exhibit some measurable sensitivity.

  1. Rate My Stake: Interpretation of Ordinal Stake Ratings

    Treesearch

    Patricia Lebow; Grant Kirker

    2014-01-01

    Ordinal rating systems are commonly employed to evaluate biodeterioration of wood exposed outdoors over long periods of time. The purpose of these ratings is to compare the durability of test systems to nondurable wood products or known durable wood products. There are many reasons why these systems have evolved as the chosen method of evaluation, including having an...

  2. 40 CFR 60.4405 - How do I perform the initial performance test if I have chosen to install a NOX-diluent CEMS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... performance test if I have chosen to install a NOX-diluent CEMS? 60.4405 Section 60.4405 Protection of... § 60.4405 How do I perform the initial performance test if I have chosen to install a NOX-diluent CEMS? If you elect to install and certify a NOX-diluent CEMS under § 60.4345, then the initial...

  3. B2, B7 or B10: Which palm-based blend mandate wise to be chosen in Malaysia?

    SciTech Connect

    Applanaidu, Shri-Dewi Ali, Anizah Md.; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2015-12-11

    The diminishing fossil energy resources, coupled with heightened interest in the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions and concerns about energy security have motivated Malaysia to produce palm-based biodiesel and it has been started to be exported since 2006. In line with this issue, the government in Malaysia launched the palm-based biodiesel blending mandate of five percent (B5) in the federal administration of Putrajaya on 1{sup st} June 2011. This was then followed by four states: Malacca on July 11, Negeri Sembilan on August 1, Kuala Lumpur on September 1 and Selangor on October 1 of the same year but it is yet to be implemented nationwide. However what is the wise blend mandate to be chosen? Thus, this paper seeks to examine the possible impact of various blend mandates implementation (B2, B7 and B10) on the palm oil industry market variables (stock and price) since the main aim of biodiesel industry in Malaysia is to reduce domestic palm oil stock to below one million tones and provide a floor price to support Crude Palm Oil (CPO) prices at RM2,000 per tonne. A structural econometric model consisting of nine structural equations and three identities was proposed in this study. The model has been estimated by two stage least squares (2SLS) method using annual data for the period 1976-2013. The study indicates that counterfactual simulation of a decrease from B5 to B2 predicts a decrease (11.2 per cent) in CPO domestic consumption for biodiesel usage, 731.02 per cent reduction in CPO stock and an increase of 27.41 percent in domestic price of CPO. However the increase in the blend mandate from B5 to B7 and B10 suggest that domestic consumption of CPO for biodiesel purpose increase 7.40 and 18.55 percent respectively. The interesting findings in this study suggest that no matter whether Malaysian government increase or decrease the blend mandate the increase in the price of CPO are the same with an increase of is 27.41 percent. Hence, this study suggests that

  4. B2, B7 or B10: Which palm-based blend mandate wise to be chosen in Malaysia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applanaidu, Shri-Dewi; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Ali, Anizah Md.

    2015-12-01

    The diminishing fossil energy resources, coupled with heightened interest in the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions and concerns about energy security have motivated Malaysia to produce palm-based biodiesel and it has been started to be exported since 2006. In line with this issue, the government in Malaysia launched the palm-based biodiesel blending mandate of five percent (B5) in the federal administration of Putrajaya on 1st June 2011. This was then followed by four states: Malacca on July 11, Negeri Sembilan on August 1, Kuala Lumpur on September 1 and Selangor on October 1 of the same year but it is yet to be implemented nationwide. However what is the wise blend mandate to be chosen? Thus, this paper seeks to examine the possible impact of various blend mandates implementation (B2, B7 and B10) on the palm oil industry market variables (stock and price) since the main aim of biodiesel industry in Malaysia is to reduce domestic palm oil stock to below one million tones and provide a floor price to support Crude Palm Oil (CPO) prices at RM2,000 per tonne. A structural econometric model consisting of nine structural equations and three identities was proposed in this study. The model has been estimated by two stage least squares (2SLS) method using annual data for the period 1976-2013. The study indicates that counterfactual simulation of a decrease from B5 to B2 predicts a decrease (11.2 per cent) in CPO domestic consumption for biodiesel usage, 731.02 per cent reduction in CPO stock and an increase of 27.41 percent in domestic price of CPO. However the increase in the blend mandate from B5 to B7 and B10 suggest that domestic consumption of CPO for biodiesel purpose increase 7.40 and 18.55 percent respectively. The interesting findings in this study suggest that no matter whether Malaysian government increase or decrease the blend mandate the increase in the price of CPO are the same with an increase of is 27.41 percent. Hence, this study suggests that the

  5. Working environment and specialty of choice chosen by the dental students at Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sam, George; Alghmlas, Abdullah Saud; Alrashed, Muath I.; Alaskar, Ziyad A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the specialty chosen by the dental students for postgraduate studies and the future aspirations of students in a Saudi Arabia dental college. Materials and Methods: Of the total number of 120 questionnaires that were distributed, 107 subjects responded with selective responses and a response rate of 89%. A descriptive survey was conducted using one of the questionnaires among the students of dentistry at the dental college, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj among male students (men's college) for a period of 2 months. The data were analyzed using the statistical software program, predictive analytics software Statistics version 22.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: A hundred and seven of the 120 students took part in the study. A passion for orthodontics (42.9%) was reported to be the most important factor that influenced the decision to pursue specialty training in orthodontics followed by intellectual stimulation/challenge (25%). The decision to pursue orthodontics was made by 32.1% of the respondents while in dental school; 35.7% took the decision after completing dental school during private practice and 14.3% during a dental residency, whereas 3.6% had already decided before initiating their dental school studies. Working in a private practice environment was preferred by 11 residents (39.3%). Only four residents indicated that they would most likely be practicing in an academic setting while 10 were undecided. Conclusions: The zest for nonclinical specialties is less among students at Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University's dental college, Saudi Arabia. PMID:27195220

  6. Working environment and specialty of choice chosen by the dental students at Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sam, George; Alghmlas, Abdullah Saud; Alrashed, Muath I; Alaskar, Ziyad A

    2016-04-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the specialty chosen by the dental students for postgraduate studies and the future aspirations of students in a Saudi Arabia dental college. Of the total number of 120 questionnaires that were distributed, 107 subjects responded with selective responses and a response rate of 89%. A descriptive survey was conducted using one of the questionnaires among the students of dentistry at the dental college, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj among male students (men's college) for a period of 2 months. The data were analyzed using the statistical software program, predictive analytics software Statistics version 22.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). A hundred and seven of the 120 students took part in the study. A passion for orthodontics (42.9%) was reported to be the most important factor that influenced the decision to pursue specialty training in orthodontics followed by intellectual stimulation/challenge (25%). The decision to pursue orthodontics was made by 32.1% of the respondents while in dental school; 35.7% took the decision after completing dental school during private practice and 14.3% during a dental residency, whereas 3.6% had already decided before initiating their dental school studies. Working in a private practice environment was preferred by 11 residents (39.3%). Only four residents indicated that they would most likely be practicing in an academic setting while 10 were undecided. The zest for nonclinical specialties is less among students at Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University's dental college, Saudi Arabia.

  7. Investigation of path dependence in commercial lithium-ion cells chosen for plug-in hybrid vehicle duty cycle protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Sazhin, Sergiy V.; Jamison, David K.; Michelbacher, Christopher J.; Liaw, Bor Yann; Dubarry, Matthieu; Cugnet, Mikael

    There is a growing need to explore path dependence of aging processes in batteries developed for long-term usage, such as lithium-ion cells used in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) or plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) applications that may then be "retired" to be utilized in grid applications. To better understand the foremost influences on path dependence in the PHEV context, this work aims to bridge the gap between ideal laboratory test conditions and PHEV field conditions by isolating the predominant aging factors in PHEV service, which would include, for example, the nature and frequency of duty cycles, as well as the frequency and severity of thermal cycles. These factors are studied in controlled and repeatable laboratory conditions to facilitate mechanistic evaluation of aging processes. This work is a collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI). Commercial lithium-ion cells of the Sanyo Y type (18650 configuration) are used in this work covering two initial independent studies of path dependence issues. The first study considers how the magnitude of power pulses and charging rates affect the aging rate, while the second seeks to answer whether thermal cycling has an accelerating effect on cell aging. While this work is in early stages of testing, initial data trends show that cell aging is indeed accelerated under conditions of high discharge pulse power, higher charge rates, and thermal cycling. Such information is useful in developing accurate predictive models for estimating end-of-life conditions.

  8. Effect of muscle temperature on rate of oxygen uptake during exercise in humans at different contraction frequencies.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Richard A; Ball, Derek; Sargeant, Anthony J

    2002-04-01

    The effect of elevated human muscle temperature on energy turnover was investigated during cycling exercise (at 85 % of (VO(2)max)) at a contraction frequency of 60 revs min(-1). Muscle temperature was passively elevated prior to exercise by immersion of the legs in a hot water bath (42 degrees C). During exercise at this low pedalling rate, total energy turnover was higher (P<0.05) when muscle temperature was elevated compared with normal temperature (70.4+/-3.7 versus 66.9+/-2.4 kJ min(-1), respectively). Estimated net mechanical efficiency was found to be lower when muscle temperature was elevated. A second experiment was conducted in which the effect of elevated human muscle temperature on energy turnover was investigated during cycling exercise (at 85 % of (VO(2)max)) at a contraction frequency of 120 revs min(-1). Under the conditions of a high pedalling frequency, an elevated muscle temperature resulted in a lower energy turnover (P<0.05) compared with the normal muscle temperature (64.9+/-3.7 versus 69.0+/-4.7 kJ min(-1), respectively). The estimated net mechanical efficiency was therefore higher when muscle temperature was elevated. We propose that, in these experiments, prior heating results in an inappropriately fast rate of cross-bridge cycling when exercising at 60 revs min(-1), leading to an increased energy turnover and decreased efficiency. However, at the faster pedalling rate, the effect of heating the muscle shifts the efficiency/velocity relationship to the right so that cross-bridge detachment is more appropriately matched to the contraction velocity and, hence, energy turnover is reduced.

  9. Kernel reconstruction methods for Doppler broadening — Temperature interpolation by linear combination of reference cross sections at optimally chosen temperatures

    DOE PAGES

    Ducru, Pablo; Josey, Colin; Dibert, Karia; ...

    2017-01-25

    This paper establishes a new family of methods to perform temperature interpolation of nuclear interactions cross sections, reaction rates, or cross sections times the energy. One of these quantities at temperature T is approximated as a linear combination of quantities at reference temperatures (Tj). The problem is formalized in a cross section independent fashion by considering the kernels of the different operators that convert cross section related quantities from a temperature T0 to a higher temperature T — namely the Doppler broadening operation. Doppler broadening interpolation of nuclear cross sections is thus here performed by reconstructing the kernel of themore » operation at a given temperature T by means of linear combination of kernels at reference temperatures (Tj). The choice of the L2 metric yields optimal linear interpolation coefficients in the form of the solutions of a linear algebraic system inversion. The optimization of the choice of reference temperatures (Tj) is then undertaken so as to best reconstruct, in the L∞ sense, the kernels over a given temperature range [Tmin,Tmax]. The performance of these kernel reconstruction methods is then assessed in light of previous temperature interpolation methods by testing them upon isotope 238U. Temperature-optimized free Doppler kernel reconstruction significantly outperforms all previous interpolation-based methods, achieving 0.1% relative error on temperature interpolation of 238U total cross section over the temperature range [300 K,3000 K] with only 9 reference temperatures.« less

  10. Kernel reconstruction methods for Doppler broadening - Temperature interpolation by linear combination of reference cross sections at optimally chosen temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducru, Pablo; Josey, Colin; Dibert, Karia; Sobes, Vladimir; Forget, Benoit; Smith, Kord

    2017-04-01

    This article establishes a new family of methods to perform temperature interpolation of nuclear interactions cross sections, reaction rates, or cross sections times the energy. One of these quantities at temperature T is approximated as a linear combination of quantities at reference temperatures (Tj). The problem is formalized in a cross section independent fashion by considering the kernels of the different operators that convert cross section related quantities from a temperature T0 to a higher temperature T - namely the Doppler broadening operation. Doppler broadening interpolation of nuclear cross sections is thus here performed by reconstructing the kernel of the operation at a given temperature T by means of linear combination of kernels at reference temperatures (Tj). The choice of the L2 metric yields optimal linear interpolation coefficients in the form of the solutions of a linear algebraic system inversion. The optimization of the choice of reference temperatures (Tj) is then undertaken so as to best reconstruct, in the L∞ sense, the kernels over a given temperature range [Tmin ,Tmax ]. The performance of these kernel reconstruction methods is then assessed in light of previous temperature interpolation methods by testing them upon isotope 238U. Temperature-optimized free Doppler kernel reconstruction significantly outperforms all previous interpolation-based methods, achieving 0.1% relative error on temperature interpolation of 238U total cross section over the temperature range [ 300 K , 3000 K ] with only 9 reference temperatures.

  11. [The influence of training on rehabilitation and keep-fit tables on the chosen parameters of body weight].

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Joanna; Wojciechowski, Jarosław; Leszczyński, Ryszard; Błaszczyk, Jan

    2010-01-01

    More and more people in the world contend with overweight or obesity, and this phenomenon at the moment is being recognized as one of the most important problems of modern civilization observed in many developed countries. Change of the lifestyle connected with turning from the active life to the more sedentary one and bad eating habits led to the development of overweight and obesity at an alarmingly fast rate with the parallel development of interests directed on conducting the research and looking for the effective methods of fighting against the overweight and obesity. The aim of the study was to evaluate some parameters of body weight among people being put on the healthy training on the rehabilitation and keep-fit tables Slender-Life. A group of 50 patients treated in sanatorium were included into the observation. Double measurement of body weight and thickness of the skin and fat were performed during the first and last days of the fifteen day training on the formerly mentioned tables. The statistically important decrease of examined parameters including the real body weight, fat mass, the BMI indication and the thickness of the skin and fat folds was detected. The healthy training on the rehabilitation and keep-fit tables Slender-Life causes the increase of the body fat-free weight. The positive acceptation of the rehabilitation on tables Slender-Life proves it should be applied.

  12. 40 CFR 60.4410 - How do I establish a valid parameter range if I have chosen to continuously monitor parameters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I establish a valid parameter range if I have chosen to continuously monitor parameters? 60.4410 Section 60.4410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of...

  13. Factors That Female Higher Education Faculty in Select Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Fields Perceive as Being Influential to Their Success and Persistence in Their Chosen Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opare, Phyllis Bernice

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine factors female higher education faculty in select science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields perceived as influential to their success and persistence in their chosen professions. Females are underrepresented in STEM professions including academia, despite the fact that female…

  14. [Differentiation of the premature mortality caused by the cardiovascular diseases in the chosen districts of the Upper Silesia region].

    PubMed

    Wozniak-Holecka, Joanna; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Holecki, Tomasz

    2007-01-01

    Environmental factors are a significant cause of many civilization-related diseases, including diseases of the circulatory system which have been the main causes of death in Poland for years. The aim of the research was evaluation of the intensity and changes in premature deaths due to diseases of the circulatory system in the population of the Upper Silesia Region at the beginning of the XXI century within particular districts. For the needs of the analysis, the premature deaths are represented by deaths before the age of 65 years. The premature death date was calculated as a quotient of the number of total deaths, which occurred before the age of 65 years and the number of inhabitants at the ages from 0-64 years in given districts. The research was planned as an analysis of secondary epidemiological data obtained from the State Office of Statistics. The results were prepared using the Statistics v.6.0i program and have been placed in tables and graphs separately for general and premature deaths. Deaths due to diseases of the circulatory system are still the main causes of death both for the crude and the premature ones in districts selected for research. The worst health situation can be noted in Katowice where both the rate of crude and premature deaths has considerably risen. The diseases of the circulatory system are the most frequent causes of death among women who begin suffering from heart diseases on average several years later then men. Such an alarming health situation in the population of Silesia requires organized preventive actions such as introduction of prevention and promotion health programs on a mass scale.

  15. Muscular efficiency during steady-rate exercise: effects of speed and work rate.

    PubMed

    Gaesser, G A; Brooks, G A

    1975-06-01

    In a comparison of traditional and theoretical exercise efficiency calculations male subjects were studied during steady-rate cycle ergometer exercises of "0," 200, 400, 600, and 800 kgm/min while pedaling at 40, 60, 80, and 100 rpm. Gross (no base-line correction), net (resting metabolism as base-line correction), work (unloading cycling as base-line correction), and delta (measurable work rate as base-line correction) efficiencies were computed. The result that gross (range 7.5-20.4%) and net (9.8-24.1%) efficiencies increased with increments in work rate was considered to be an artifact of calculation. A LINEAR OR SLIGHTLY EXPONENTIAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CALORIC OUTPUT AND WORK RATE DICTATES EITHER CONSTANT OR DECREASING EFFICIENCY WITH INCREMENTS IN WORK. The delta efficiency (24.4-34.0%) definition produced this result. Due to the difficulty in obtaining 0 work equivalents, the work efficiency definition proved difficult to apply. All definitions yielded the result of decreasing efficiency with increments in speed. Since the theoretical-thermodynamic computation (assuming mitochondrial P/O = 3.0 and delta G = -11.0 kcal/mol for ATP) holds only for CHO, the traditional mode of computation (based upon VO2 and R) was judged to be superior since R less than 1.0. Assuming a constant phosphorylative-coupling efficiency of 60%, the mechanical contraction-coupling efficiency appears to vary between 41 and 57%.

  16. Investigation of Path Dependence in Commercial Li-ion Cells Chosen for PHEV Duty Cycle Protocols (paper)

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Gering

    2011-04-01

    Path dependence is emerging as a premier issue of how electrochemical cells age in conditions that are diverse and variable in the time domain. For example, lithium-ion cells in a vehicle configuration will experience a variable combination of usage and rest periods over a range of temperature and state of charge (SOC). This is complicated by the fact that some aging can actually become worse (or better) when a lithium-ion cell is idle for extended periods under calendar-life (calL) aging, as opposed to cycle-life (cycL) conditions where the cell is used within a predictable schedule. The purpose of this study is to bridge the gap between highly idealized and controlled laboratory test conditions and actual field conditions regarding PHEV applications, so that field-type aging mechanisms can be mimicked and quantified in a repeatable laboratory setting. The main parameters are the magnitude and frequency of the thermal cycling, looking at isothermal, mild, and severe scenarios. To date, little is known about Li-ion aging effects caused by thermal cycling superimposed onto electrochemical cycling, and related path dependence. This scenario is representative of what Li-ion batteries will experience in vehicle service, where upon the typical start of a HEV/PHEV, the batteries will be cool or cold, will gradually warm up to normal temperature and operate there for a time, then will cool down after the vehicle is turned off. Such thermal cycling will occur thousands of times during the projected life of a HEV/PHEV battery pack. We propose to quantify the effects of thermal cycling on Li-ion batteries using a representative chemistry that is commercially available. The secondary Li-ion cells used in this study are of the 18650 configuration, have a nominal capacity rating of 1.9 Ah, and consist of a {LiMn2O4 + LiMn(1/3)Ni(1/3)Co(1/3)O2} cathode and a graphite anode. Electrochemical cycling is based on PHEV-relevant cycle-life protocols that are a combination of charge

  17. Cesarsky chosen as nuclear adviser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumé, Belle

    2009-06-01

    The astronomer Catherine Cesarsky has been appointed high commissioner of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). Cesarsky will be responsible for advising the French government on policy in all areas in which the CEA is involved. The first woman to hold the post since the CEA was founded in 1945, she succeeds the chemist Bernard Bigot, who has moved sideways to become the agency's general administrator.

  18. AGU Congressional Science Fellows Chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    AGU announces its two newest Congressional Science Fellows—Laura Sherman and Charles Podolak—who will work on science issues in a congressional office from September 2014 until August 2015. The program is run by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and trains scientists in the inner workings of congressional offices before helping them find a position. AGU has sponsored fellows in the program for 37 years, during which AGU fellows have worked on climate change, energy, water, security, and many more critical issues that rely on scientific understanding and affect the lives of the general public every day.

  19. Multi-site effectiveness trials of treatments for substance abuse and co-occurring problems: Have we chosen the best designs?

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Edward V.; Ball, Samuel; Booth, Robert; Brigham, Gregory; Calsyn, Donald A.; Carroll, Kathleen; Feaster, Daniel J.; Hien, Denise; Hubbard, Robert L.; Ling, Walter; Petry, Nancy M.; Rotrosen, John; Selzer, Jeffrey; Stitzer, Maxine; Tross, Susan; Wakim, Paul; Winhusen, Theresa; Woody, George

    2010-01-01

    Multi-site effectiveness trials such as those carried out in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) are a critical step in the development and dissemination of evidence-based treatments, because they address how such treatments perform in real-world clinical settings. As Brigham and colleagues summarized in a recent article (Brigham, Feaster, Wakim, & Dempsey, 2009), several possible experimental designs may be chosen for such effectiveness trials. These include: 1) A new treatment intervention (Tx) is compared to an existing mode of community based treatment as usual (TAU): Tx versus TAU; 2) A new intervention is added to TAU and compared to TAU alone: Tx + TAU versus TAU; or 3) A new intervention is added to TAU and compared to a control condition added to TAU: Tx + TAU versus control + TAU. Each of these designs addresses a different question and has different potential strengths and weaknesses. As of December 2009, the primary outcome paper had been published for 16 of the multi-site randomized clinical trials conducted in the CTN, testing various treatments for drug abuse, HIV risk behavior, or related problems. This paper systematically examines, for each of the completed trials, the experimental design type chosen and its original rationale, the main findings of the trial, and the strengths and weaknesses of the design in hindsight. Based on this review, recommendations are generated to inform the design of future effectiveness trials on treatments for substance abuse, HIV risk, and other behavioral health problems. PMID:20307801

  20. Attitudes of European physiotherapy students towards their chosen career in the context of different educational systems and legal regulations pertaining to the practice of physiotherapy: implications for university curricula.

    PubMed

    Gotlib, Joanna; Białoszewski, Dariusz; Opavsky, Jaroslav; Garrod, Rachel; Fuertes, Nicolas Estévez; Gallardo, Lucia Pérez; Lourido, Berta Paz; Monterde, Sonia; Serrano, Carmen Suarez; Sacco, Marc; Kunicka, Irena

    2012-03-01

    Differences in the organisation of educational systems and regulations pertaining to the practice of a profession can influence the attitudes of students towards their chosen career and their perceptions of employment possibilities. The aim of this paper was to discuss the different educational systems and legal regulations pertaining to the practice of physiotherapy in selected countries of the European Union (EU), and to present some conclusions regarding the influence of these differences on the perceptions of first-year physiotherapy students on their chosen career. Quantitative questionnaire-based study. Twenty-one university-level schools in the Czech Republic, Latvia, Malta, Poland, Spain and the U.K. Six hundred and sixty-seven first-year physiotherapy students. The mean response rate was 74%. Most students (79%) reported that a personal interest was the main reason why they had decided to study physiotherapy (79%). Most students from Spain and the Czech Republic reported that, on completion of their studies, they would like to work as physiotherapists (61/120, 51% Czech Republic; 140/250, 56% Spain), compared with only 4% of Polish students (P<0.001). Most students from Poland and Spain were not familiar with employment opportunities in their respective countries (202/250, 81% Spain; 212/250, 85% Poland), and claimed that it is difficult to find employment as a physiotherapist in their country. Most students from the Czech Republic, Latvia, Malta, Poland, Spain and the U.K. claimed that it is easy to find a job in other EU countries. Most physiotherapy students chose their course because of an interest in physiotherapy. They were not familiar with employment possibilities for graduates, and believed that it is easier to find work in other EU countries. Both factors may further aggravate the problem of unemployment among physiotherapists. Copyright © 2011 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characteristics and attitudes of women in relation to chosen fertility preservation techniques: a prospective, multicenter questionnaire-based study with 144 participants.

    PubMed

    von Wolff, Michael; Giesecke, Dagmar; Germeyer, Ariane; Lawrenz, Barbara; Henes, Melanie; Nawroth, Frank; Friebel, Stefanie; Rohde, Anke; Giesecke, Peter; Denschlag, Dominik

    2016-06-01

    What are the patients attitudes about their fertility and about the counselling process at the time when fertility preservation counselling is performed? A survey regarding fertility concerns and counselling performance in relation to the chosen fertility preservation procedure such as no treatment, GnRH agonists, and freezing of ovarian tissue or oocytes/zygotes was prospectively conducted in four university centres and one private centre, all belonging to the network FertiPROTEKT in Germany and Switzerland. All women (n=145) received a questionnaire at the first counselling appointment. The mean age of the patients was 30 years (±5.8, range 17-43 years). 91% were referred by their treating oncologists. Single patients preferred invasive strategies, such as freezing of oocytes/zygotes (44.3%) or freezing of ovarian tissue (36%), whereas only 19.7% opted for no treatment/GnRH agonists. In married couples, the proportions were 28.9%, 31.1% and 40.0% respectively. Women without children also opted more frequently for invasive strategies, such as freezing of oocytes/zygotes (84.5%) or freezing of ovarian tissue (74.1%), and less frequently for no treatment/GnRH agonists (63.3%). Physical and psychological status, current and future fertility concerns and satisfaction with the counselling process were equal in all treatment groups. As fertility concerns and attitudes about the counselling process were independent from the fertility preservation procedure chosen, the preferred treatment can hardly be predicted and therefore all women should be counselled about all possible fertility preservation techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intraperitoneal Continuous-Rate Infusion for the Maintenance of Anesthesia in Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus)

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Rebecca L; Terzi, Matthew C; Jaber, Samer M; Hankenson, F Claire; McKinstry-Wu, Andrew; Kelz, Max B; Marx, James O

    2016-01-01

    Intraperitoneal injectable anesthetics are often used to achieve surgical anesthesia in laboratory mice. Because bolus redosing of injectable anesthetics can cause unacceptably high mortality, we evaluated intraperitoneal continuous-rate infusion (CRI) of ketamine with or without xylazine for maintaining surgical anesthesia for an extended period of time. Anesthesia was induced in male C57BL/6J mice by using ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (8 mg/kg) without or with acepromazine at 0.1 mg/kg or 0.5 mg/kg. At 10 min after induction, CRI for 90 min was initiated and comprised 25%, 50%, or 100% of the initial ketamine dose per hour or 50% of the initial doses of both ketamine and xylazine. Anesthetic regimens were compared on the basis of animal immobility, continuous surgical depth of anesthesia as determined by the absence of a pedal withdrawal reflex, and mortality. Consistent with previous studies, the response to anesthetics was highly variable. Regimens that provided the longest continuous surgical plane of anesthesia with minimal mortality were ketamine–xylazine–acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg) with CRI of 100% of the initial ketamine dose and ketamine–xylazine–acepromazine (0.5 mg/kg) with CRI of 50% of the initial ketamine and xylazine doses. In addition, heart rate and respiratory rate did not increase consistently in response to a noxious stimulus during CRI anesthesia, even when mice exhibited a positive pedal withdrawal reflex, suggesting that these parameters are unreliable indicators of anesthetic depth during ketamine–xylazine anesthesia in mice. We conclude that intraperitoneal CRI anesthesia in mice prolongs injectable anesthesia more consistently and with lower mortality than does bolus redosing. PMID:27657709

  3. Cardiovascular and Muscular Consequences of Work-Matched Interval-Type of Concentric and Eccentric Pedaling Exercise on a Soft Robot.

    PubMed

    Flück, Martin; Bosshard, Rebekka; Lungarella, Max

    2017-01-01

    after eccentric and concentric exercise. The results highlight that the deployed interval-type of eccentric leg exercise reduces metabolic strain of the cardiovasculature and muscle compared to concentric exercise, to recommended levels for cardio-rehabilitation (i.e., 50-70% of peak heart rate). Increases in blood glucose concentration indicate that resistance to contraction-induced glucose uptake after the deployed eccentric protocol is unrelated to muscle fatigue.

  4. Cardiovascular and Muscular Consequences of Work-Matched Interval-Type of Concentric and Eccentric Pedaling Exercise on a Soft Robot

    PubMed Central

    Flück, Martin; Bosshard, Rebekka; Lungarella, Max

    2017-01-01

    reduced after eccentric and concentric exercise. The results highlight that the deployed interval-type of eccentric leg exercise reduces metabolic strain of the cardiovasculature and muscle compared to concentric exercise, to recommended levels for cardio-rehabilitation (i.e., 50–70% of peak heart rate). Increases in blood glucose concentration indicate that resistance to contraction-induced glucose uptake after the deployed eccentric protocol is unrelated to muscle fatigue. PMID:28912726

  5. The AL 333-160 fourth metatarsal from Hadar compared to that of humans, great apes, baboons and proboscis monkeys: non-conclusive evidence for pedal arches or obligate bipedality in Hadar hominins.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, P J; Sarmiento, E E; Meldrum, D J

    2012-10-01

    Based on comparisons to non-statistically representative samples of humans and two great ape species (i.e. common chimpanzees Pan troglodytes and lowland gorillas Gorilla gorilla), Ward et al. (2011) concluded that a complete hominin fourth metatarsal (4th MT) from Hadar, AL 333-160, belonged to a committed terrestrial biped with fixed transverse and longitudinal pedal arches, which was no longer under selection favoring substantial arboreal behaviors. According to Ward et al., the Hadar 4th MT had (1) a torsion value indicating a transverse arch, (2) sagittal plane angles between the diaphyseal long axis and the planes of the articular surfaces indicating a longitudinal arch, and (3) a narrow mediolateral to dorsoplantar base ratio, an ectocuneiform facet, and tarsal articular surface contours all indicating a rigid foot without an ape-like mid-tarsal break. Comparisons of the Hadar 4th MT characters to those of statistically representative samples of humans, all five great ape species, baboons and proboscis monkeys show that none of the correlations Ward et al. make to localized foot function were supported by this analysis. The Hadar 4th MT characters are common to catarrhines that have a midtarsal break and lack fixed transverse or longitudinal arches. Further comparison of the AL 333-160 4th MT length, and base, midshaft and head circumferences to those of catarrhines with field collected body weights show that this bone is uniquely short with a large base. Its length suggests the AL 333-160 individual was a poor leaper with limited arboreal behaviors and lacked a longitudinal arch, i.e. its 4th MT long axis was usually held perpendicular to gravity. Its large base implies cuboid-4th MT joint mobility. A relatively short 4th MT head circumference indicates AL 333-160 had small proximal phalanges with a restricted range of mobility. Overall, AL 333-160 is most similar to the 4th MT of eastern gorillas, a slow moving quadruped that sacrifices arboreal behaviors

  6. Changes in blood morphology and chosen biochemical parameters in ultra-marathon runners during a 100-km run in relation to the age and speed of runners.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębski, Zbigniew; Żychowska, Małgorzata; Jastrzębska, Maria; Prusik, Krzysztof; Prusik, Katarzyna; Kortas, Jakub; Ratkowski, Wojciech; Konieczna, Anna; Radzimiński, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to reveal morphology, electrolyte and chosen biochemical parameters in terms of health risk in runners in reference to their age and running speed in the case of running a distance of 100 km, which occur after 12 h or 24 h of recovery. Fourteen experienced, male, amateur, ultra-marathon runners, divided into two age and two speed groups took part in the 100-km run. Blood samples for analyses indexes were collected from the ulnar vein just before the run, after 25 km, 50 km, 75 km and 100 km, as well as 12 h and 24 h after termination of the run. The sustained ultramarathon run along with the distance covered (p < 0.05) caused an increase in myoglobin (max 90-fold), bilirubin (max 2.8-fold) and total antioxidant status (max 1.15-fold), which also continued during the recovery. Significant changes in the number of white blood cells were observed with each sequential course and could be associated with muscle damage. The electrolyte showed changes towards slight hyperkalemia, but no changes in natrium and calcium concentrations. There were no significant differences between the age and speed groups for all the parameters after completing the 100-km run as well as after 12 h and 24 h of recovery. Considering changes in blood morphology and chosen biochemical parameters in ultra-marathon runners during a 100-km run it can be stated that such an exhausting effort may be dangerous for human health due to metabolic changes and large damage to the organs. Negative metabolic changes are independent of age of an ultramarathon runner and occur both in younger (32±5.33 years) and older participants (50.56±9.7 years). It can be concluded that organ damage and negative metabolic changes during a 100-km run occur similarly in participants less experienced as well as in well trained runners. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(5):801-814. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  7. Heart rate regulation during cycle-ergometer exercise via event-driven biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Argha, Ahmadreza; Su, Steven W; Celler, Branko G

    2017-03-01

    This paper is devoted to the problem of regulating the heart rate response along a predetermined reference profile, for cycle-ergometer exercises designed for training or cardio-respiratory rehabilitation. The controller designed in this study is a non-conventional, non-model-based, proportional, integral and derivative (PID) controller. The PID controller commands can be transmitted as biofeedback auditory commands, which can be heard and interpreted by the exercising subject to increase or reduce exercise intensity. However, in such a case, for the purposes of effectively communicating to the exercising subject a change in the required exercise intensity, the timing of this feedback signal relative to the position of the pedals becomes critical. A feedback signal delivered when the pedals are not in a suitable position to efficiently exert force may be ineffective and this may, in turn, lead to the cognitive disengagement of the user from the feedback controller. This note examines a novel form of control system which has been expressly designed for this project. The system is called an "actuator-based event-driven control system". The proposed control system was experimentally verified using 24 healthy male subjects who were randomly divided into two separate groups, along with cross-validation scheme. A statistical analysis was employed to test the generalisation of the PID tunes, derived based on the average transfer functions of the two groups, and it revealed that there were no significant differences between the mean values of root mean square of the tracking error of two groups (3.9 vs. 3.7 bpm, [Formula: see text]). Furthermore, the results of a second statistical hypothesis test showed that the proposed PID controller with novel synchronised biofeedback mechanism has better performance compared to a conventional PID controller with a fixed-rate biofeedback mechanism (Group 1: 3.9 vs. 5.0 bpm, Group 2: 3.7 vs. 4.4 bpm, [Formula: see text]).

  8. A comparison of the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of chosen combinations of oximes with individual oximes against VX in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Sepsova, Vendula; Caisberger, Filip; Bajgar, Jiri

    2011-10-01

    The ability of 2 combinations of oximes (HI-6 + trimedoxime and HI-6 + K203) to reactivate VX-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and reduce acute toxicity of VX was compared with the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of antidotal treatment involving a single oxime (HI-6, trimedoxime, K203) in rats and mice. Our results showed that the reactivating efficacy of both combinations of oximes studied in rats is significantly higher than the reactivating efficacy of all individual oximes in diaphragm and roughly corresponds to the most effective individual oxime in blood and brain. Both combinations of oximes were found to be more effective in the reduction of acute lethal toxicity of VX in mice than the antidotal treatment involving the most efficacious individual oxime although the difference is not significant. Based on the obtained data, we can conclude that the antidotal treatment involving the chosen combinations of oximes brings benefit for the reactivation of VX-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in rats and for the antidotal treatment of VX-induced acute poisoning in mice.

  9. Responding to Student Writing: Keep Pedaling!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jago, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the author's goal of helping students see how mistakes in their writing distract readers and how errors have influenced the grade. Recommends the careful use of the "red pen" noting that it is easy to forget its power. Suggests that teachers use this power to help students grow as writers. (SG)

  10. Does obtaining an initial magnetic resonance imaging decrease the reamputation rates in the diabetic foot?

    PubMed Central

    Jbara, Marlena; Gokli, Ami; Beshai, Sally; Lesser, Martin L.; Hanna, Shirley; Lin, Cheryl; Zeb, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Objective Diabetes mellitus (DM) through its over glycosylation of neurovascular structures and resultant peripheral neuropathy continues to be the major risk factor for pedal amputation. Repetitive trauma to the insensate foot results in diabetic foot ulcers, which are at high risk to develop osteomyelitis. Many patients who present with diabetic foot complications will undergo one or more pedal amputations during the course of their disease. The purpose of this study was to determine if obtaining an initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), prior to the first amputation, is associated with a decreased rate of reamputation in the diabetic foot. Our hypothesis was that the rate of reamputation may be associated with underutilization of obtaining an initial MRI, useful in presurgical planning. This study was designed to determine whether there was an association between the reamputation rate in diabetic patients and utilization of MRI in the presurgical planning and prior to initial forefoot amputations. Methods Following approval by our institutional review board, our study design consisted of a retrospective cohort analysis of 413 patients at Staten Island University Hospital, a 700-bed tertiary referral center between 2008 and 2013 who underwent an initial great toe (hallux) amputation. Of the 413 patients with a hallux amputation, there were 368 eligible patients who had a history of DM with documented hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) within 3 months of the initial first ray (hallux and first metatarsal) amputation and available radiographic data. Statistical analysis compared the incidence rates of reamputation between patients who underwent initial MRI and those who did not obtain an initial MRI prior to their first amputation. The reamputation rate was compared after adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity, HbA1c, cardiovascular disease, hypoalbuminemia, smoking, body mass index, and prior antibiotic treatment. Results The results of our statistical analysis failed to

  11. [Ability of French General Practitioners to detect common mental disorders identified using the Patient Health Questionnaire: Has this changed with the introduction of gatekeeping and registration with a chosen doctor?

    PubMed

    Norton, J; David, M; Gandubert, C; Bouvier, C; Gutierrez, L-A; Frangeuil, A; Macgregor, A; Oude Engberink, A; Mann, A; Capdevielle, D

    2016-10-14

    The general practitioner (GP) is the most frequently consulted health professional by patients with common mental disorders (CMD). Yet approximately half of cases are not detected by the GP. Many factors linked to the patient, the doctor and the health care system influence detection. For example, detection rates are higher when patients are better known to their GP. On the other hand, patients visiting a different GP for reasons of dissatisfaction with previous care are more likely to be detected on the survey-day. In France, a form of gatekeeping was introduced in 2005 to encourage patients to register with a doctor (most often a GP) of their choice (known as the Preferred Doctor), responsible for care coordination and referral if necessary to secondary care. Visiting a different GP, other than for non-avoidable reasons (for e.g. GP unreachable, patient on holiday), is still possible but financially sanctioned with lower reimbursement rates. We aimed to compare GP detection rates before and after the introduction of this gatekeeping scheme. Patient service use behaviour such as doctor-shopping and GP referral to secondary care were also compared. Two cross-sectional surveys using the same study methods were carried out 10 years apart. In 2003, 46 GPs and 1151 patients participated (approximately 25 patients per GP), with a 32.7% GP participation rate. In 2013, 38 GPs participated (of which 29 had participated in the previous study, with a 85.3% "recapture" rate) and 1133 patients (approximately 30 patients per GP). Patient participation rates were 89.8% and 67%, respectively. Patients completed self-report questionnaires in the waiting room of which the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and an adapted version of the Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI) on contacts with health care services in the previous six months. For each patient, the GP completed a questionnaire giving his rating of psychiatric illness on a five-point scale

  12. Reading Rate, Readability, and Variations in Task-Induced Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coke, Esther U.

    1976-01-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that task variables account for previous findings that reading rate is unaffected by readability. The findings suggest that when appropriate reading tasks are chosen, reading rate can be used to infer underlying processes in reading. (Author/DEP)

  13. Reading Rate, Readability, and Variations in Task-Induced Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coke, Esther U.

    1976-01-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that task variables account for previous findings that reading rate is unaffected by readability. The findings suggest that when appropriate reading tasks are chosen, reading rate can be used to infer underlying processes in reading. (Author/DEP)

  14. Exploring College Decision-Making: A Disconnect in Student Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Suzanne

    This study used information from the College Board's Admitted Student Questionnaire (ASQ) to investigate how enrolling students rate college choice factors in general and how they rate the colleges in which they have chosen to enroll. The sample included 68,428 admitted freshmen student responses to the ASQ, representing 122 institutions. Findings…

  15. Terrestrialization, Miniaturization and Rates of Diversification in African Puddle Frogs (Anura: Phrynobatrachidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zimkus, Breda M.; Lawson, Lucinda; Loader, Simon P.; Hanken, James

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrialization, the evolution of non-aquatic oviposition, and miniaturization, the evolution of tiny adult body size, are recurring trends in amphibian evolution, but the relationships among the traits that characterize these phenomena are not well understood. Furthermore, these traits have been identified as possible “key innovations” that are predicted to increase rates of speciation in those lineages in which they evolve. We examine terrestrialization and miniaturization in sub-Saharan puddle frogs (Phrynobatrachidae) in a phylogenetic context to investigate the relationship between adaptation and diversification through time. We use relative dating techniques to ascertain if character trait shifts are associated with increased diversification rates, and we evaluate the likelihood that a single temporal event can explain the evolution of those traits. Results indicate alternate reproductive modes evolved independently in Phrynobatrachus at least seven times, including terrestrial deposition of eggs and terrestrial, non-feeding larvae. These shifts towards alternate reproductive modes are not linked to a common temporal event. Contrary to the “key innovations” hypothesis, clades that exhibit alternate reproductive modes have lower diversification rates than those that deposit eggs aquatically. Adult habitat, pedal webbing and body size have no effect on diversification rates. Though these traits putatively identified as key innovations for Phrynobatrachus do not seem to be associated with increased speciation rates, they may still provide opportunities to extend into new niches, thus increasing overall diversity. PMID:22509392

  16. Entanglement rates for bipartite open systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vershynina, Anna

    2015-08-01

    We provide an upper bound on the maximal rate at which irreversible quantum dynamics can generate entanglement in a bipartite system. The generator of irreversible dynamics consists of a Hamiltonian and dissipative terms in Lindblad form. The relative entropy of entanglement is chosen as a measure of entanglement in an ancilla-free system. We provide an upper bound on the entangling rate which has a logarithmic dependence on a dimension of a smaller system in a bipartite cut. We also investigate the rate of change of quantum mutual information in an ancilla-assisted system and provide an upper bound independent of dimension of ancillas.

  17. Block adaptive rate controlled image data compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.; Hilbert, E.; Lee, J.-J.; Schlutsmeyer, A.

    1979-01-01

    A block adaptive rate controlled (BARC) image data compression algorithm is described. It is noted that in the algorithm's principal rate controlled mode, image lines can be coded at selected rates by combining practical universal noiseless coding techniques with block adaptive adjustments in linear quantization. Compression of any source data at chosen rates of 3.0 bits/sample and above can be expected to yield visual image quality with imperceptible degradation. Exact reconstruction will be obtained if the one-dimensional difference entropy is below the selected compression rate. It is noted that the compressor can also be operated as a floating rate noiseless coder by simply not altering the input data quantization. Here, the universal noiseless coder ensures that the code rate is always close to the entropy. Application of BARC image data compression to the Galileo orbiter mission of Jupiter is considered.

  18. Comparison of the effect of the chosen species of saprotrophic fungi on the development of Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum eggs.

    PubMed

    Mazurkiewicz-Zapałowicz, Kinga; Jaborowska-Jarmoluk, Magdalena; Kołodziejczyk, Lidia; Kuźna-Grygiel, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    The study aim was to compare the antagonistic interaction between saprotrophic soil fungi and embryonic development of geohelminths Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum. The experimental cultures were fertilized eggs of T.canis and A. suum incubated together with mycelium of strains: Fusarium culmorum, Metarhizium anisopliae,Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Trichoderma viride and Trichothecium roseum. In the control cultures the eggs of both nematode species were incubated without fungi. The experiment was conducted at temp. 26°C for 60 days. Compared with the control, all of the tested species of fungi significantly extended the embryonic development of both T. canis and A. suum. Most inhibitory effect on the rate of embryonic development of T. canis and A. suum had three fungal species: P. fumosoreus, M. anisopliae and T. viride. Compared with the control, on the 60th day of incubation in the presence of each of the tested fungal species, a larger percentage (p<0.05) of morphological abnormalities was stated in developing embryos of T. canis (49–69%) than in A. suum (15.1–67.7%). Among the examined fungal species, only incubation with P. fumosoroseus resulted in significantly greater (p<0.05) incidence of embryonic malformations(embryopathies) in T. canis, as compared with A. suum. Also the percentage of dead larvae of T. canis in the control and in cultures with fungi (12% and 100%, respectively) was significantly higher in comparison with A. suum (0.5% and 10.3–36%, respectively). The highest percentage of non-viable larvae of A. suum was found in the presence of P.fumosoroseus, and the lowest in the presence of M. anisopliae. Findings may indicate that T. canis eggs are more sensitive to antagonistic interaction of the examined fungal strains than A. suum eggs.

  19. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos. The effect of silver nanoparticles and ATP on expression of chosen genes involved in myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane; Hotowy, Anna; Jaworski, Sławomir; Prasek, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces post-hatch mortality and skeletal disorders and increases muscle growth and breast meat yield. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a "ready for use" energetic molecule, while nanoparticles of silver (Nano-Ag) may penetrate tissues as well as cells and localise inside cells. In this investigation, we hypothesised that silver nanoparticles could be used as a protective carrier for ATP as well as an active agent. ATP and/or an ATP complex with Nano-Ag would be delivered to the muscle cells as a gene expression regulator and promoter of growth and development of embryo breast muscle. A collection of 160 broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases expression of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Na(+)/K(+) transporting ATPase (ATP1A1), which may indicate that an extra energy source can enhance molecular mechanisms of muscle cell proliferation. Nano-Ag also up-regulated expression of FGF2, VEGF, ATP1A1 and, also up-regulated expression of myogenic differentiation 1(MyoD1), affecting cell differentiation. The results indicate that ATP and Nano-Ag may accelerate growth and maturation of muscle cells.

  20. Who gets antidotes? choosing the chosen few.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Nicholas A; Dawson, Andrew H; Juurlink, David N; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2016-03-01

    An understanding of mechanisms, potential benefits and risks of antidotes is essential for clinicians who manage poisoned patients. Of the dozens of antidotes currently available, only a few are regularly used. These include activated charcoal, acetylcysteine, naloxone, sodium bicarbonate, atropine, flumazenil, therapeutic antibodies and various vitamins. Even then, most are used in a minority of poisonings. There is little randomized trial evidence to support the use of most antidotes. Consequently, decisions about when to use them are often based on a mechanistic understanding of the poisoning and the expected influence of the antidote on the patient's clinical course. For some antidotes, such as atropine and insulin, the doses employed can be orders of magnitude higher than standard dosing. Importantly, most poisoned patients who reach hospital can recover with supportive care alone. In low risk patients, the routine use of even low risk antidotes such as activated charcoal is unwarranted. In more serious poisonings, decisions regarding antidote use are generally guided by a risk/benefit assessment based on low quality evidence.

  1. Wastewater Disinfectants: Many Called--Few Chosen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Gives a comparative study of disinfectants used to rid wastewater of pathogens. Concentrates on the effects of chlorine and ozone, with some mention of ultra-violet irradiation, bromine chloride, and chlorine dioxide. (MA)

  2. The Called, Chosen, and Faithful Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Hartwell T. Paul

    2009-01-01

    Leaders are made, not born. Like so many other of life's complex issues, the question of nature vs. nurture in leadership is one that is analyzed, researched, and debated by educators, philosophers, social scientist, and even leaders themselves. Leadership has been dissected as to personality, character, and behavior. Researchers have developed…

  3. Wastewater Disinfectants: Many Called--Few Chosen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Gives a comparative study of disinfectants used to rid wastewater of pathogens. Concentrates on the effects of chlorine and ozone, with some mention of ultra-violet irradiation, bromine chloride, and chlorine dioxide. (MA)

  4. Evaluating sensor linearity of chosen infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczykowski, P.; Orych, A.; Jenerowicz, A.; Karcz, P.

    2014-11-01

    The paper describes a series of experiments conducted as part of the IRAMSWater Project, the aim of which is to establish methodologies for detecting and identifying pollutants in water bodies using aerial imagery data. The main idea is based on the hypothesis, that it is possible to identify certain types of physical, biological and chemical pollutants based on their spectral reflectance characteristics. The knowledge of these spectral curves is then used to determine very narrow spectral bands in which greatest reflectance variations occur between these pollutants. A frame camera is then equipped with a band pass filter, which allows only the selected bandwidth to be registered. In order to obtain reliable reflectance data straight from the images, the team at the Military University of Technology had developed a methodology for determining the necessary acquisition parameters for the sensor (integration time and f-stop depending on the distance from the scene and it's illumination). This methodology however is based on the assumption, that the imaging sensors have a linear response. This paper shows the results of experiments used to evaluate this linearity.

  5. Transparency in nursing leadership: a chosen ethic.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2009-01-01

    The concept of transparency has been viewed as an essential leadership attribute or element in healthcare organizational structures and processes. While viewed as something that is desired and valued, there is a lack of nursing disciplinary literature that defines the concept and its possible meanings. This column provides a beginning definition of transparency from the humanbecoming nursing theoretical perspective and launches a discussion with potential ethical implications for leadership in nursing practice and education.

  6. Shock tube measurements of specific reaction rates in branched chain CH4-CO-O2 system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, T. A.; Brokaw, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Rate constants of two elementary bimolecular reactions involved in the oxidation of methane were determined by monitoring the exponential growth of CO flame band emission behind incident shocks in three suitably chosen gas mixtures.

  7. Uncertainty Analysis for Photovoltaic Degradation Rates (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Hansen, C.

    2014-04-01

    Dependable and predictable energy production is the key to the long-term success of the PV industry. PV systems show over the lifetime of their exposure a gradual decline that depends on many different factors such as module technology, module type, mounting configuration, climate etc. When degradation rates are determined from continuous data the statistical uncertainty is easily calculated from the regression coefficients. However, total uncertainty that includes measurement uncertainty and instrumentation drift is far more difficult to determine. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was chosen to investigate a comprehensive uncertainty analysis. The most important effect for degradation rates is to avoid instrumentation that changes over time in the field. For instance, a drifting irradiance sensor, which can be achieved through regular calibration, can lead to a substantially erroneous degradation rates. However, the accuracy of the irradiance sensor has negligible impact on degradation rate uncertainty emphasizing that precision (relative accuracy) is more important than absolute accuracy.

  8. Life cycle costing with a discount rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C.

    1978-01-01

    This article studies life cycle costing for a capability needed for the indefinite future, and specifically investigates the dependence of optimal policies on the discount rate chosen. The two costs considered are reprocurement cost and maintenance and operations (M and O) cost. The procurement price is assumed known, and the M and O costs are assumed to be a known function, in fact, a non-decreasing function, of the time since last reprocurement. The problem is to choose the optimum reprocurement time so as to minimize the quotient of the total cost over a reprocurement period divided by the period. Or one could assume a discount rate and try to minimize the total discounted costs into the indefinite future. It is shown that the optimum policy in the presence of a small discount rate hardly depends on the discount rate at all, and leads to essentially the same policy as in the case in which discounting is not considered.

  9. Influence of changing travel patterns on child death rates from injury: trend analysis.

    PubMed Central

    DiGuiseppi, C.; Roberts, I.; Li, L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in child mortality from unintentional injury between 1985 and 1992 and to find how changes in modes of travel contributed to these trends. DESIGN: Poisson regression modelling using data from death certificates, censuses, and national travel surveys. SETTING: England and Wales. SUBJECTS: Resident children aged 0-14. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Deaths from unintentional injury and poisoning. RESULTS: Child deaths from injury declined by 34% (95% confidence interval 28% to 40%) per 100,000 population between 1985 and 1992. Substantial decreases in each of the leading causes of death from injury contributed to this overall decline. On average, children walked and cycled less distance and travelled substantially more miles by car in 1992 compared with 1985. Deaths from road traffic accidents declined for pedestrians by 24% per mile walked and for cyclists by 20% per mile cycled, substantially less than the declines per 100,000 population of 37% and 38% respectively. In contrast, deaths of occupants of motor vehicles declined by 42% per mile travelled by car compared with a 21% decline per 100,000 population. CONCLUSIONS: If trends in child mortality from injury continue the government's target to reduce the rate by 33% by the year 2005 will be achieved. A substantial proportion of the decline in pedestrian traffic and pedal cycling deaths, however, seems to have been achieved at the expense of children's walking and cycling activities. Changes in travel patterns may exact a considerable price in terms of future health problems. PMID:9116546

  10. Effect of blood volume in resting muscle on heart rate upward drift during moderately prolonged exercise.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Takehide; Matsuura, Ryouta; Arimitsu, Takuma; Yunoki, Takahiro; Yano, Tokuo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the increase in blood volume in resting muscle during moderately prolonged exercise is related to heart rate (HR) upward drift. Eight healthy men completed both arm-cranking moderately prolonged exercise (APE) and leg-pedaling moderately prolonged exercise (LPE) for 30 min. Exercise intensity was 120 bpm of HR that was determined by ramp incremental exercise. During both APE and LPE, HR significantly increased from 3 to 30 min (from 108±9.3 to 119±12 bpm and from 112±8.9 to 122±11 bpm, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between HR in APE and that in LPE. Oxygen uptake was maintained throughout the two exercises. Skin blood flow, deep temperature, and total Hb (blood volume) in resting muscle continuously increased for 30 min of exercise during both APE and LPE. During both APE and LPE, there was a significant positive correlation between total Hb and deep temperature in all subjects. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between HR and total Hb (in seven out of eight subjects) during LPE. However, during APE, there was no positive correlation between HR and total Hb (r=0.391). These findings suggest that an increase of blood pooling in resting muscle could be proposed as one of the mechanisms underlying HR upward drift during moderately prolonged exercise.

  11. Urban-rural variation in mortality and hospital admission rates for unintentional injury in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Boland, M; Staines, A; Fitzpatrick, P; Scallan, E

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore urban-rural differences in the mortality and hospital admission rates for unintentional injuries in the Republic of Ireland. Design: Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) in residents of urban and non-city areas (called rural areas) from all causes of unintentional injury were calculated using Central Statistics Office mortality data from 1980–2000. Hospital admission data (Hospital In-Patient Enquiry) from 1993–2000 were used to calculate standardised hospital admission ratios (SARs) in urban and rural residents. Population data were obtained from the 1981, 1986, 1991, and 1996 censuses. Results: The rate of unintentional injury mortality was significantly higher in rural residents for all-cause unintentional injury mortality (SMR 103.0, 95% confidence interval 101 to 105), and specifically for deaths related to motor vehicle trauma (MVT), drowning, machinery, and firearms. There were significantly higher SMRs in urban residents for falls and poisoning. The rate of unintentional injury hospital admission was significantly higher in rural residents for all-cause unintentional injury (SAR 104.6, 95% confidence interval 104 to 105) and specifically for injuries from falls, MVT, being struck by or against an object, injuries in pedal cyclists, fire/burn injuries, and machinery injuries. SARs were significantly higher in residents of urban areas for poisoning and injuries in pedestrians. Conclusions: There are urban-rural differences in mortality and admissions for injuries in Ireland. Possible reasons for the higher rural mortality rates are higher case fatality in MVT and rural exposure to hazardous farm machinery, firearms, and open areas of water. This information could assist in targeting prevention programmes under the proposed National Injury Prevention Strategy. PMID:15691988

  12. Quantum mechanical calculation of Rydberg-Rydberg autoionization rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiffner, Martin; Ceresoli, Davide; Li, Wenhui; Jaksch, Dieter

    2016-10-01

    We present quantum mechanical calculations of autoionization rates for two rubidium Rydberg atoms with weakly overlapping electron clouds. We neglect exchange effects and consider tensor products of independent atom states forming an approximate basis of the two-electron state space. We consider large sets of two-atom states with randomly chosen quantum numbers and find that the charge overlap between the two Rydberg electrons allows one to characterise the magnitude of the autoionization rates. If the electron clouds overlap by more than one percent, the autoionization rates increase approximately exponentially with the charge overlap. This finding is independent of the energy of the initial state.

  13. Comparison of baseline characteristics and clinical course in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes among whom different types of oral hypoglycemic agents were chosen by diabetes specialists as initial monotherapy (JDDM 42)

    PubMed Central

    Fujihara, Kazuya; Igarashi, Risa; Matsunaga, Satoshi; Matsubayashi, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Takaho; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Tanaka, Shiro; Shimano, Hitoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Katsuya; Kawai, Koichi; Sone, Hirohito

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the relationships between patient factors and the antihyperglycemic agents that have been prescribed as initial therapy by diabetes specialists for patients with type 2 diabetes. Moreover, there has been little clarification of the subsequent usage patterns and related factors that influenced the continuation or discontinuation of the drug or the addition of another drug. To provide information on these issues, we evaluated the clinical characteristics of Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes for whom different types of oral hypoglycemic agents (i.e., either sulfonylureas, biguanides, or DPP-4 inhibitors (DPP-4Is)) were chosen as initial monotherapy by diabetes specialists and evaluated subsequent usage patterns. Prescription data on 3 different antidiabetic agents from December 2009 to March 2015 from diabetes specialists’ patient registries were used to identify variables at baseline related to initial prescriptions; also, the addition of another hypoglycemic drug or discontinuation of the initial therapy was evaluated 1 year after the initial prescription. Analyzed were data on 2666 patients who received initial monotherapy with either a sulfonylurea (305 patients), biguanide (951 patients), or DPP-4I (1410 patients). Patients administered sulfonylureas were older, had a lower body mass index (BMI), longer duration of diabetes, and worse glycemic control than recipients of biguanides. Use of biguanides was related to younger age, short duration of diabetes, and obesity but was negatively associated with poor glycemic control. Older age but neither obesity nor poor glycemic control was associated with DPP-4Is. In all 3 groups a high HbA1c value was related to adding another hypoglycemic agent to the initial therapy. Moreover, adding another drug to a DPP-4I was related to a younger age and higher BMI. Patients’ age, duration of diabetes, obesity, and glycemic control at baseline influenced the choice of hypoglycemic agents

  14. Influence of running stride frequency in heart rate variability analysis during treadmill exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Bailón, Raquel; Garatachea, Nuria; de la Iglesia, Ignacio; Casajús, Jose Antonio; Laguna, Pablo

    2013-07-01

    The analysis and interpretation of heart rate variability (HRV) during exercise is challenging not only because of the nonstationary nature of exercise, the time-varying mean heart rate, and the fact that respiratory frequency exceeds 0.4 Hz, but there are also other factors, such as the component centered at the pedaling frequency observed in maximal cycling tests, which may confuse the interpretation of HRV analysis. The objectives of this study are to test the hypothesis that a component centered at the running stride frequency (SF) appears in the HRV of subjects during maximal treadmill exercise testing, and to study its influence in the interpretation of the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components of HRV during exercise. The HRV of 23 subjects during maximal treadmill exercise testing is analyzed. The instantaneous power of different HRV components is computed from the smoothed pseudo-Wigner-Ville distribution of the modulating signal assumed to carry information from the autonomic nervous system, which is estimated based on the time-varying integral pulse frequency modulation model. Besides the LF and HF components, the appearance is revealed of a component centered at the running SF as well as its aliases. The power associated with the SF component and its aliases represents 22±7% (median±median absolute deviation) of the total HRV power in all the subjects. Normalized LF power decreases as the exercise intensity increases, while normalized HF power increases. The power associated with the SF does not change significantly with exercise intensity. Consideration of the running SF component and its aliases is very important in HRV analysis since stride frequency aliases may overlap with LF and HF components.

  15. Thermoneutral immersion exercise accelerates heart rate recovery: A potential novel training modality.

    PubMed

    Garzon, Mauricio; Dupuy, Olivier; Bosquet, Laurent; Nigam, Anil; Comtois, Alain Steve; Juneau, Martin; Gayda, Mathieu

    2017-04-01

    This study compared heart rate recovery (HRR) after incremental maximal exercise performed at the same external power output (Pext) on dry land ergocycle (DE) vs. immersible ergocycle (IE). Fifteen young healthy participants (30 ± 7 years, 13 men and 2 women) performed incremental maximal exercise tests on DE and on IE. The initial Pext on DE was 25 W and was increased by 25 W/min at a pedalling cadence between 60 and 80 rpm, while during IE immersion at chest level in thermoneutral water (30°C), the initial Pext deployment was at a cadence of 40 rpm which was increased by 10 rpm until 70 rpm and thereafter by 5 rpm until exhaustion. Gas exchange and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously during exercise and recovery for 5 min. Maximal HR (DE: 176 ± 15 vs. IE 169 ± 12 bpm) reached by the subjects in the two conditions did not differ (P > .05). Parasympathetic reactivation parameters (ΔHR from 10 to 300 s) were compared during the DE and IE HR recovery recordings. During the IE recovery, parasympathetic reactivation in the early phase was more predominant (HRR at Δ10-Δ60 s, P < .05), but similar in the late phase (HRR at Δ120-Δ300 s, P > .05) when compared to the DE condition. In conclusion, incremental maximal IE exercise at chest level immersion in thermoneutral water accelerates the early phase parasympathetic reactivation compared to DE in healthy young participants.

  16. Electronic flow rate controller for a portable insulin infusion pump.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, R T; Zinman, B; Marliss, E B; Albisser, A M

    1980-01-01

    An electronic controller is described that regulates the flow of infusate by controlling the fraction of time that a pump is energized. Using the integral programming capability of the device, any one of 256 possible basal rates between 0 and 49.6% of the maximum rate can be chosen. An externally triggerable single meal-associated pulse can also be configured. The rate during the meal pulse can be any one of the 255 equally spaced rates in the range of 0--99.7%. The duration of this pulse can be chosen in 3-min steps to a maximum of 12.75 h, after which the rate automatically returns to the basal value. The controller consumes a minimum amount of power and can continuously operate a dc motor-driven pump at 3.0 V for 36 h. It drives the pump in an on-off mode in order to control the average flow rate digitally. In this way a significant reduction in the power requirements is realized and the system can be run for many days using small rechargeable batteries. One year of experience with 20 of these controllers was obtained in the research laboratory and clinical investigation unit. The results of this experience indicated the reliability and precision of these controllers, gave insight into their modes of failure, and provided valuable biomedical data for their improvement.

  17. The unique sound of the Uni-Vibe pedal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahlweg, Cornelius; Rothe, Hendrik

    2012-10-01

    A short paper covering optics and music: the Uni-Vibe, which is responsible for the unique sound of Hendrix' Woodstock performance, is one of many phasing devices based on photo conductive cells used as variable resistors. However, its sound is well distinguishable from other phasers. In the paper we shall discuss the basic properties and try to qualify and quantify the effect on the spectra of certain chords. The present paper is a side effect of the musical interests of the authors and is triggered by the announcement of the Novel Systems Session including the topics 'Optics and Music' and Historical Devices.

  18. Bicycle Riding: Pedaling Made Possible through Positive Behavioral Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Michael J.; Shapiro, Robert L.; Ainsleigh, Susan A.

    2005-01-01

    This study demonstrated how the tenets of positive behavior support could be used to teach an educational activity. Emphasis was placed on the implementation of practical strategies to minimize errors during instruction and maximize positive outcomes. A 9-year-old boy with Asperger syndrome served as the participant, and the skill targeted for…

  19. Pedal Presentation of Superficial Acral FibromyxomaA Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Robin; Kafka, Rene; Jules, Kevin; Bakotic, Bradley W

    2017-01-01

    Superficial acral fibromyxoma is a benign and slow-growing solitary soft-tissue neoplasm. Since being described in 2001, more than 100 cases of superficial acral fibromyxoma on the foot have been reported worldwide, none of which have been reported in the podiatric medical literature. Only nine cases of superficial acral fibromyxoma have been reported with presentation on the plantar heel. We report an unusual case of a 47-year-old Jamaican woman with a painful, erythematous nodule on her right heel that was diagnosed as superficial acral fibromyxoma.

  20. Study of Alternate Material for Pedal Ventilator Kits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    1 52 105 577 Polyphenylene Sulfide 40 1 60 205 11 .85 50 1,70 220 1351 ’All Compos tons Are Gl3iss-Reinforced’Filed With The Exception Of "Minion...1.17-1.34 Styrene Acrylonitrile Copolymer 1.07 45 1.74 ABS 1.04-1.06 48 1.80-1.84 .Cellulose Acetate Butyrate 1.19 89 3.83 Modified Polyphenylene ...1.13 76 310 Styrene Acrylonitrile 20 1.22 73 3 22 30 1.31 75 355 ABS 20 1.22 77 329 30 1.28 77 356 Polyphenylene Oxide (modified) 20 1.21 127.5 5.5’ 30

  1. PEDALE--A Peer Education Diagnostic and Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konert, Johannes; Richter, Kristina; Mehm, Florian; Gobel, Stefan; Bruder, Regina; Steinmetz, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The basis for individual students' instructional support by teachers is an individual diagnosis of one's learning advances and difficulties. Even though sophisticated diagnostic tools exist, it remains an open question how diagnosis and learning can be merged into a consistent pedagogical method to support both teachers and students with feedback…

  2. Bicycle Riding: Pedaling Made Possible through Positive Behavioral Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Michael J.; Shapiro, Robert L.; Ainsleigh, Susan A.

    2005-01-01

    This study demonstrated how the tenets of positive behavior support could be used to teach an educational activity. Emphasis was placed on the implementation of practical strategies to minimize errors during instruction and maximize positive outcomes. A 9-year-old boy with Asperger syndrome served as the participant, and the skill targeted for…

  3. "We will remember them": a mixed-method study to explore which post-funeral remembrance activities are most significant and important to bereaved people living with loss, and why those particular activities are chosen.

    PubMed

    Vale-Taylor, P

    2009-09-01

    In an increasingly secular age in which society no longer offers a code of behaviour for those who are bereaved as in Victorian times, the majority of people do not seek support from church-based rituals of remembrance. Most hospices provide religious Services of Remembrance and Thanksgiving or non-faith remembrance gatherings for families and friends, and although these are usually well attended, the average number of families represented is usually less than 20% raising the question of whether alternative support should be offered to the remaining majority of families. This study explored which post-funeral remembrance activities are most significant and important to people living with death-related loss, and why those particular activities are chosen. A total of 43 participants took part in a mixed-method study using 2 different data sets: a self-report questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. To add further contextual data to support the study, a third dataset was created when six hospice bereavement counsellors met as a Focus Group. Results indicated that although formal remembrance events are valued, informal rituals created by the bereaved are more important and significant to them. Results could be divided into four different categories: rituals to maintain a 'direct link', or those undertaken 'for' the deceased, rituals that remember the deceased within the community and those viewed as an act of remembrance. The most common reason for choosing a ritual was to keep a bond with the deceased or ensure that the deceased was remembered by others. Remembrance and ritual is personal to each individual and is dynamic, altering from day to day. Remembrance appears to be a journey made up of many small daily rituals, some of which are generic to bereaved people and some of which are highly individualistic. For the majority of people, their informal rituals are far more important than the large planned events that hospices offer because the informal rituals

  4. Determination of flow-rate characteristics and parameters of piezo pilot valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takosoglu, Jakub; Laski, Paweł; Blasiak, Slawomir; Bracha, Gabriel; Pietrala, Dawid; Zwierzchowski, Jaroslaw; Nowakowski, Lukas

    Pneumatic directional valves are used in most industrial pneumatic systems. Most of them are two-stage valves controlled by a pilot valve. Pilot valves are often chosen randomly. Experimental studies in order to determine the flow-rate characteristics and parameters of pilot valves were not conducted. The paper presents experimental research of two piezo pilot valves.

  5. Determination of flow-rate characteristics and parameters of piezo pilot valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takosoglu, Jakub; Laski, Paweł; Blasiak, Slawomir; Bracha, Gabriel; Pietrala, Dawid; Zwierzchowski, Jaroslaw; Nowakowski, Lukas

    2016-11-01

    Pneumatic directional valves are used in most industrial pneumatic systems. Most of them are two-stage valves controlled by a pilot valve. Pilot valves are often chosen randomly. Experimental studies in order to determine the flow-rate characteristics and parameters of pilot valves were not conducted. The paper presents experimental research of two piezo pilot valves.

  6. Intergenerational transfers and the social discount rate

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, R.B.; Norgaard, R.B.

    1992-08-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between intergenerational asset transfers and the choice of the discount rate for use in cost-benefit analysis in a model of a competitive overlapping generations economy constrained by a socially managed exhaustible resource. Provided that there are no distortions in capital markets and that all agents hold perfect foresight, cost-benefit techniques will result in a Pareto efficient resource allocation if the discount rate is set equal to the market rate of interest. But since the path of the interest rate depends on the level of intergenerational transfers, cost-benefit techniques do not ensure a socially desirable distribution of welfare between generations; a social optimum will result only if intergenerational transfers are properly chosen and enforced. Decentralized private altruism may result in intergenerational transfers that both present and future individuals would agree are too small if members of the present generation attach positive weight to the general welfare of future generations, not simply their personal descendants. In a world where intergenerational transfers are non-optimal, second-best policy-making may imply a constrained optimum that is inefficient. Together, these findings suggest that cost-benefit analysis is at best a partial criterion to policy formulation that should be used only in conjunction with ethical principles that define the proper distribution of welfare between present and future generations.

  7. Intergenerational transfers and the social discount rate

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, R.B.; Norgaard, R.B.

    1992-08-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between intergenerational asset transfers and the choice of the discount rate for use in cost-benefit analysis in a model of a competitive overlapping generations economy constrained by a socially managed exhaustible resource. Provided that there are no distortions in capital markets and that all agents hold perfect foresight, cost-benefit techniques will result in a Pareto efficient resource allocation if the discount rate is set equal to the market rate of interest. But since the path of the interest rate depends on the level of intergenerational transfers, cost-benefit techniques do not ensure a socially desirable distribution of welfare between generations; a social optimum will result only if intergenerational transfers are properly chosen and enforced. Decentralized private altruism may result in intergenerational transfers that both present and future individuals would agree are too small if members of the present generation attach positive weight to the general welfare of future generations, not simply their personal descendants. In a world where intergenerational transfers are non-optimal, second-best policy-making may imply a constrained optimum that is inefficient. Together, these findings suggest that cost-benefit analysis is at best a partial criterion to policy formulation that should be used only in conjunction with ethical principles that define the proper distribution of welfare between present and future generations.

  8. Rating Movies and Rating the Raters Who Rate Them

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The movie distribution company Netflix has generated considerable buzz in the statistics community by offering a million dollar prize for improvements to its movie rating system. Among the statisticians and computer scientists who have disclosed their techniques, the emphasis has been on machine learning approaches. This article has the modest goal of discussing a simple model for movie rating and other forms of democratic rating. Because the model involves a large number of parameters, it is nontrivial to carry out maximum likelihood estimation. Here we derive a straightforward EM algorithm from the perspective of the more general MM algorithm. The algorithm is capable of finding the global maximum on a likelihood landscape littered with inferior modes. We apply two variants of the model to a dataset from the MovieLens archive and compare their results. Our model identifies quirky raters, redefines the raw rankings, and permits imputation of missing ratings. The model is intended to stimulate discussion and development of better theory rather than to win the prize. It has the added benefit of introducing readers to some of the issues connected with analyzing high-dimensional data. PMID:20802818

  9. Rating Movies and Rating the Raters Who Rate Them.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2009-11-01

    The movie distribution company Netflix has generated considerable buzz in the statistics community by offering a million dollar prize for improvements to its movie rating system. Among the statisticians and computer scientists who have disclosed their techniques, the emphasis has been on machine learning approaches. This article has the modest goal of discussing a simple model for movie rating and other forms of democratic rating. Because the model involves a large number of parameters, it is nontrivial to carry out maximum likelihood estimation. Here we derive a straightforward EM algorithm from the perspective of the more general MM algorithm. The algorithm is capable of finding the global maximum on a likelihood landscape littered with inferior modes. We apply two variants of the model to a dataset from the MovieLens archive and compare their results. Our model identifies quirky raters, redefines the raw rankings, and permits imputation of missing ratings. The model is intended to stimulate discussion and development of better theory rather than to win the prize. It has the added benefit of introducing readers to some of the issues connected with analyzing high-dimensional data.

  10. Influence of work rate on dynamics of O2 uptake under hypoxic conditions in humans.

    PubMed

    Hotta, N; Abe, D; Yoshida, T; Aoki, T; Fukuoka, Y

    2008-06-01

    It was the purpose of the investigation to determine whether an altered work rate could influence the oxygen uptake (V.O(2)) and heart rate (HR) dynamics at hypoxia and normoxia. Ten males performed a cycle exercise with 2 repetitions of 6 min each at a constant work load while breathing one of two inspiratory O(2) fractions (FIO(2)): 0.12 (moderate hypoxia) and 0.21 (normoxia). Each test began with unloaded pedaling. This was followed by three constant loads, which were 40%, 60%, and 80% of the subject's gas exchange threshold (GET) in hypoxia (F(I)O(2) = 0.12), with the 80% GET load repeated under normoxia (room air). V.O(2) was measured on a breath-by-breath basis and beat-by-beat HR via ECG, and the half time (t1/2) of each parameter was established, following interpolation data. There were no remarkable differences in t1/2 V.O(2) dynamics among the 40%, 60% and 80% GET; however, the differences became significant at hypoxia compared with normoxia. The HR dynamics were significantly faster in normoxia compared with hypoxia, independent of work rates. During steady-state exercise, the alterations in HR and cardiac output (Q) using the acetylene rebreathing method depended on increases in the work rate, and a significantly increase in at 80% GET was observed when compared with normoxia. Increases of stroke volume (SV) were unaffected by altered work rates and inspired O(2) concentrations. The arteriovenous oxygen difference (Ca-vO(2)) at a steady-state of exercise increased proportionally with the work rate under hypoxia, and a much greater Ca-vO(2) was observed during normoxic exercise than under hypoxia. These results seem to suggest that in humans, O(2) uptake dynamics are affected by lower O(2), not by changing work rates at hypoxia, to which the interaction between lower O(2) utilization in exercising muscles and hypoxic-induced greater blood flow can be attributed.

  11. Determinants of metabolic cost during submaximal cycling.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, J; Durstine, J L; Hand, G A; Martin, J C

    2002-09-01

    The metabolic cost of producing submaximal cycling power has been reported to vary with pedaling rate. Pedaling rate, however, governs two physiological phenomena known to influence metabolic cost and efficiency: muscle shortening velocity and the frequency of muscle activation and relaxation. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relative influence of those two phenomena on metabolic cost during submaximal cycling. Nine trained male cyclists performed submaximal cycling at power outputs intended to elicit 30, 60, and 90% of their individual lactate threshold at four pedaling rates (40, 60, 80, 100 rpm) with three different crank lengths (145, 170, and 195 mm). The combination of four pedaling rates and three crank lengths produced 12 pedal speeds ranging from 0.61 to 2.04 m/s. Metabolic cost was determined by indirect calorimetery, and power output and pedaling rate were recorded. A stepwise multiple linear regression procedure selected mechanical power output, pedal speed, and pedal speed squared as the main determinants of metabolic cost (R(2) = 0.99 +/- 0.01). Neither pedaling rate nor crank length significantly contributed to the regression model. The cost of unloaded cycling and delta efficiency were 150 metabolic watts and 24.7%, respectively, when data from all crank lengths and pedal speeds were included in a regression. Those values increased with increasing pedal speed and ranged from a low of 73 +/- 7 metabolic watts and 22.1 +/- 0.3% (145-mm cranks, 40 rpm) to a high of 297 +/- 23 metabolic watts and 26.6 +/- 0.7% (195-mm cranks, 100 rpm). These results suggest that mechanical power output and pedal speed, a marker for muscle shortening velocity, are the main determinants of metabolic cost during submaximal cycling, whereas pedaling rate (i.e., activation-relaxation rate) does not significantly contribute to metabolic cost.

  12. The rating reliability calculator

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, David J

    2004-01-01

    Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program. PMID:15117416

  13. Magnetic fields and galactic star formation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, Sven Van; Tan, Jonathan C.; Falle, Sam A. E. G.

    2015-02-10

    The regulation of galactic-scale star formation rates (SFRs) is a basic problem for theories of galaxy formation and evolution: which processes are responsible for making observed star formation rates so inefficient compared to maximal rates of gas content divided by dynamical timescale? Here we study the effect of magnetic fields of different strengths on the evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) within a kiloparsec patch of a disk galaxy and resolving scales down to ≃0.5 pc. Including an empirically motivated prescription for star formation from dense gas (n{sub H}>10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}) at an efficiency of 2% per local free-fall time, we derive the amount of suppression of star formation by magnetic fields compared to the nonmagnetized case. We find GMC fragmentation, dense clump formation, and SFR can be significantly affected by the inclusion of magnetic fields, especially in our strongest investigated B-field case of 80 μG. However, our chosen kiloparsec-scale region, extracted from a global galaxy simulation, happens to contain a starbursting cloud complex that is only modestly affected by these magnetic fields and likely requires internal star formation feedback to regulate its SFR.

  14. Magnetic Fields and Galactic Star Formation Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loo, Sven; Tan, Jonathan C.; Falle, Sam A. E. G.

    2015-02-01

    The regulation of galactic-scale star formation rates (SFRs) is a basic problem for theories of galaxy formation and evolution: which processes are responsible for making observed star formation rates so inefficient compared to maximal rates of gas content divided by dynamical timescale? Here we study the effect of magnetic fields of different strengths on the evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) within a kiloparsec patch of a disk galaxy and resolving scales down to ≃ 0.5 pc. Including an empirically motivated prescription for star formation from dense gas ({{n}H}\\gt {{10}5} c{{m}-3}) at an efficiency of 2% per local free-fall time, we derive the amount of suppression of star formation by magnetic fields compared to the nonmagnetized case. We find GMC fragmentation, dense clump formation, and SFR can be significantly affected by the inclusion of magnetic fields, especially in our strongest investigated B-field case of 80 μG. However, our chosen kiloparsec-scale region, extracted from a global galaxy simulation, happens to contain a starbursting cloud complex that is only modestly affected by these magnetic fields and likely requires internal star formation feedback to regulate its SFR.

  15. Improved entropy rate estimation in physiological data.

    PubMed

    Lake, D E

    2011-01-01

    Calculating entropy rate in physiologic signals has proven very useful in many settings. Common entropy estimates for this purpose are sample entropy (SampEn) and its less robust elder cousin, approximate entropy (ApEn). Both approaches count matches within a tolerance r for templates of length m consecutive observations. When physiologic data records are long and well-behaved, both approaches work very well for a wide range of m and r. However, more attention to the details of the estimation algorithm is needed for short records and signals with anomalies. In addition, interpretation of the magnitude of these estimates is highly dependent on how r is chosen and precludes comparison across studies with even slightly different methodologies. In this paper, we summarize recent novel approaches to improve the accuracy of entropy estimation. An important (but not necessarily new) alternative to current approaches is to develop estimates that convert probabilities to densities by normalizing by the matching region volume. This approach leads to a novel concept introduced here of reporting entropy rate in equivalent Gaussian white noise units. Another approach is to allow r to vary so that a pre-specified number of matches are found, called the minimum numerator count, to ensure confident probability estimation. The approaches are illustrated using a simple example of detecting abnormal cardiac rhythms in heart rate records.

  16. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir 2013 ART Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report [PDF - 1MB] Bookmarks and thumbnails are available ...

  17. THE NORMATIVE INTEREST RATE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The normative interest rate is defined as the discount rate the government ought to use in making its investment decisions. In the following sections...various alternative ways of setting the level of the normative interest rate are examined. The return on the marginal private investment, the...national time preference, and the long-term interest rate at which the government can borrow are all rejected on the basis that they are merely adaptive to

  18. Rating Variable Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Dirk D.; Rain, Jeffrey S.

    Many empirical studies have examined factors that influence ratings of performance. This study examined the rating variable performance of a single individual. Serial position of a single poor or good performance in a series of otherwise good or poor performances was manipulated to examine its effects on both ratings and recommended actions toward…

  19. Handbook of noise ratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearsons, K. S.; Bennett, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The handbook was compiled to provide information in a concise form, describing the multitude of noise rating schemes. It is hoped that by describing the noise rating methods in a single volume the user will have better access to the definitions, application and calculation procedures of the current noise rating methods.

  20. Rate theories for biologists

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Some of the rate theories that are most useful for modeling biological processes are reviewed. By delving into some of the details and subtleties in the development of the theories, the review will hopefully help the reader gain a more than superficial perspective. Examples are presented to illustrate how rate theories can be used to generate insight at the microscopic level into biomolecular behaviors. Attempt is made to clear up a number of misconceptions in the literature regarding popular rate theories, including the appearance of Planck’s constant in the transition-state theory and the Smoluchowski result as an upper limit for protein-protein and protein-DNA association rate constants. Future work in combining the implementation of rate theories through computer simulations with experimental probes of rate processes, and in modeling effects of intracellular environments so theories can be used for generating rate constants for systems biology studies is particularly exciting. PMID:20691138

  1. Rate theories for biologists.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2010-05-01

    Some of the rate theories that are most useful for modeling biological processes are reviewed. By delving into some of the details and subtleties in the development of the theories, the review will hopefully help the reader gain a more than superficial perspective. Examples are presented to illustrate how rate theories can be used to generate insight at the microscopic level into biomolecular behaviors. An attempt is made to clear up a number of misconceptions in the literature regarding popular rate theories, including the appearance of Planck's constant in the transition-state theory and the Smoluchowski result as an upper limit for protein-protein and protein-DNA association rate constants. Future work in combining the implementation of rate theories through computer simulations with experimental probes of rate processes, and in modeling effects of intracellular environments so that theories can be used for generating rate constants for systems biology studies is particularly exciting.

  2. Milk Flow Rates from bottle nipples used after hospital discharge.

    PubMed

    Pados, Britt Frisk; Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne M; Estrem, Hayley; Nix, W Brant

    To test the milk flow rates and variability in flow rates of bottle nipples used after hospital discharge. Twenty-six nipple types that represented 15 common brands as well as variety in price per nipple and store location sold (e.g., Babies R' Us, Walmart, Dollar Store) were chosen for testing. Ten of each nipple type (n = 260 total) were tested by measuring the amount of infant formula expressed in 1 minute using a breast pump. Mean milk flow rate (mL/min) and coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated. Flow rates of nipples within brand were compared statistically. Milk flow rates varied from 1.68 mL/min for the Avent Natural Newborn Flow to 85.34 mL/min for the Dr. Brown's Standard Y-cut. Variability between nipple types also varied widely, from .03 for the Dr. Brown's Standard Level 3 to .37 for MAM Nipple 1 Slow Flow. The extreme range of milk flow rates found may be significant for medically fragile infants being discharged home who are continuing to develop oral feeding skills. The name of the nipple does not provide clear information about the flow rate to guide parents in decision making. Variability in flow rates within nipples of the same type may complicate oral feeding for the medically fragile infant who may not be able to adapt easily to change in flow rates. Both flow rate and variability should be considered when guiding parents to a nipple choice.

  3. Impact of selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test results on the appropriateness of antibiotics chosen by French general practitioners in urinary tract infections: a randomised controlled case-vignette study.

    PubMed

    Bourdellon, Loic; Thilly, Nathalie; Fougnot, Sébastien; Pulcini, Céline; Henard, Sandrine

    2017-08-01

    Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is a potential intervention for laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of AST reporting on the appropriateness of antibiotics selected by French general practitioners for urinary tract infections (UTIs). A randomised controlled case-vignette study in a region of northeast France surveyed general practitioners between July and October 2015 on treatment of four clinical cases of community-acquired Escherichia coli UTIs (two cases of complicated cystitis, one of acute pyelonephritis and one male UTI). In Group A, selective reporting of AST results was used for the first two cases and complete reporting for the other two cases; these were reversed in Group B. The overall participation rate was 131/198 (66.2%). Provision of selective AST results significantly increased the rate of adherence to national guidelines for first-line antibiotic treatment in Cases 1, 3 and 4 by 22.4% (55.2% vs. 32.8%, P = 0.01), 67.5% (75.0% vs. 7.5%, P <0.001) and 36.3% (45.3% vs. 9.0%, P <0.001), respectively. The improvement in compliance was not significant for Case 2. Prescriptions of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins decreased by 25.0% to 45.0%, depending on the clinical vignette. Most (106/131, 81.0%) participants favoured the routine use of selective reporting of AST results. In conclusion, selective reporting of AST results seems to improve antibiotic prescribing practices in primary care, and may be considered a key element of antimicrobial stewardship programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  4. Measuring zebrafish turning rate.

    PubMed

    Mwaffo, Violet; Butail, Sachit; di Bernardo, Mario; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    Zebrafish is becoming a popular animal model in preclinical research, and zebrafish turning rate has been proposed for the analysis of activity in several domains. The turning rate is often estimated from the trajectory of the fish centroid that is output by commercial or custom-made target tracking software run on overhead videos of fish swimming. However, the accuracy of such indirect methods with respect to the turning rate associated with changes in heading during zebrafish locomotion is largely untested. Here, we compare two indirect methods for the turning rate estimation using the centroid velocity or position data, with full shape tracking for three different video sampling rates. We use tracking data from the overhead video recorded at 60, 30, and 15 frames per second of zebrafish swimming in a shallow water tank. Statistical comparisons of absolute turning rate across methods and sampling rates indicate that, while indirect methods are indistinguishable from full shape tracking, the video sampling rate significantly influences the turning rate measurement. The results of this study can aid in the selection of the video capture frame rate, an experimental design parameter in zebrafish behavioral experiments where activity is an important measure.

  5. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  6. Low doses of caffeine reduce heart rate during submaximal cycle ergometry

    PubMed Central

    McClaran, Steven R; Wetter, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiovascular effects of two low-levels of caffeine ingestion in non habitual caffeine users at various submaximal and maximal exercise intensities. Methods Nine male subjects (19–25 yr; 83.3 ± 3.1 kg; 184 ± 2 cm), underwent three testing sessions administered in a randomized and double-blind fashion. During each session, subjects were provided 4 oz of water and a gelatin capsule containing a placebo, 1.5 mg/kg caffeine, or 3.0 mg/kg caffeine. After thirty minutes of rest, a warm-up (30 Watts for 2 min) the pedal rate of 60 rpm was maintained at a steady-state output of 60 watts for five minutes; increased to 120 watts for five minutes and to 180 watts for five minutes. After a 2 min rest the workload was 180 watts for one minute and increased by 30 watts every minute until exhaustion. Heart rate (HR) was measured during the last 15-seconds of each minute of submaximal exercise. Systolic blood pressure (BP) was measured at rest and during each of the three sub-maximal steady state power outputs. Minute ventilation (VE), Tidal volume (VT), Breathing frequency (Bf), Rating of perceived exertion (RPE), Respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and Oxygen consumption (VO2) were measured at rest and during each minute of exercise. Results Caffeine at 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg body weight significantly lowered (p < 0.05) HR during all three submaximal exercise intensities compared to placebo (range – 4 to 7 bpm lower) but not at rest or maximal exercise. BP was significantly higher (p < 0.05) at rest and after the 3 mg/kg caffeine vs placebo (116 ± 13 vs 123 ± 10 mm Hg). Neither dose of caffeine had any effect on BP during submaximal exercise. Caffeine had no effect on VE, VT, VO2, RPE, maximal power output or time to exhaustion. Conclusion In non habitual caffeine users it appears that consuming a caffeine pill (1.5 & 3.0 mg/kg) at a dose comparable to 1–3 cups of coffee lowers heart rate during submaximal exercise but

  7. Reducing conflict and containment rates on acute psychiatric wards: The Safewards cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Len; James, Karen; Quirk, Alan; Simpson, Alan; Stewart, Duncan; Hodsoll, John

    2015-09-01

    Acute psychiatric wards manage patients whose actions may threaten safety (conflict). Staff act to avert or minimise harm (containment). The Safewards model enabled the identification of ten interventions to reduce the frequency of both. To test the efficacy of these interventions. A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial with psychiatric hospitals and wards as the units of randomisation. The main outcomes were rates of conflict and containment. Staff and patients in 31 randomly chosen wards at 15 randomly chosen hospitals. For shifts with conflict or containment incidents, the experimental condition reduced the rate of conflict events by 15% (95% CI 5.7-23.7%) [corrected] relative to the control intervention. The rate of containment events for the experimental intervention was reduced by 23.2% (95% CI 9.9-35.5%). [corrected] Simple interventions aiming to improve staff relationships with patients can reduce the frequency of conflict and containment. IRSCTN38001825. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chalcopyrite leaching: The rate controlling factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Kawashima, N.; Kaplun, K.; Absolon, V. J.; Gerson, A. R.

    2010-05-01

    The processes that determine the rate of chalcopyrite leaching are central to understanding how chalcopyrite (CuFeS 2) behaves under the environmentally adverse conditions of acid rock drainage. To this end the effect of the acid anion on chalcopyrite leach rates using a variety of acidic media (H 2SO 4, HClO 4, HCl and H 2SO 4 with 0.25 M NaCl) under carefully controlled solution conditions (pH 1 and 2, Eh 750 mV (SHE) and 75 °C) has been examined. These conditions have been chosen to enable sufficient leach rates for accurate experimental determination and to compare to the previous mechanistic analysis carried out by Harmer et al. (2006). Extensive surface analysis of leach residues demonstrated that variations in the surface speciation could not be responsible for the observed variations in leach rate. The rate of Cu release, however, was found to be first order with respect to Fe 3+ activity and inversely proportional with respect to H + activity to the power of 0.7: {1}/{S}{dC}/{dt}=(2.0±0.2){a}/{aH0.7} where S is the relative surface area, C is concentration of Cu in the solution (M), t is the time (h), 2.0 is the rate constant (M 0.7 h -1) and a and a are Fe 3+ and H + activities, respectively (M). The rate model was further validated against additional leaches carried out in H 2SO 4 media with the initial addition of Fe 3+ (8 mM as Fe 2(SO 4) 3) at 75 °C under various pH and Eh regimes. The only condition under which this rate model was found not to hold was at simultaneously low a and high a, that is at pH 1 and a<5×10-5M, where the concentration of dissolved O 2 may be leach rate determining.

  9. The Three Tales Chosen, the Establishment of the Texts and the Charting of Deviations, with a Collation of the "Original Tales," the Check Translations, and the Danish and Turkish Texts. Fairytale: An Interdisciplinary Turco-Danish Study of the Collective v. the Individual Nature of the Response to Literature. Report No. 11. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollerup, Cay; And Others

    Part of the interdisciplinary Turko-Danish Fairytale Project, this paper provides information about the three fairy tales chosen for study: "The Snake, the Fox, and the Man,""The Gold Apple," and "Per Smed's Whip." Various sections of the paper contain descriptions of the following: (1) the selection procedures, (2)…

  10. The Three Tales Chosen, the Establishment of the Texts and the Charting of Deviations, with a Collation of the "Original Tales," the Check Translations, and the Danish and Turkish Texts. Fairytale: An Interdisciplinary Turco-Danish Study of the Collective v. the Individual Nature of the Response to Literature. Report No. 11. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollerup, Cay; And Others

    Part of the interdisciplinary Turko-Danish Fairytale Project, this paper provides information about the three fairy tales chosen for study: "The Snake, the Fox, and the Man,""The Gold Apple," and "Per Smed's Whip." Various sections of the paper contain descriptions of the following: (1) the selection procedures, (2)…

  11. Infectious diseases and global warming: Tracking disease incidence rates globally

    SciTech Connect

    Low, N.C.

    1995-09-01

    Given the increasing importance of impact of global warming on public health, there is no global database system to monitor infectious disease and disease in general, and to which global data of climate change and environmental factors, such as temperature, greenhouse gases, and human activities, e.g., coastal development, deforestation, can be calibrated, investigated and correlated. The author proposes the diseases incidence rates be adopted as the basic global measure of morbidity of infectious diseases. The importance of a correctly chosen measure of morbidity of disease is presented. The importance of choosing disease incidence rates as the measure of morbidity and the mathematical foundation of which are discussed. The author further proposes the establishment of a global database system to track the incidence rates of infectious diseases. Only such a global system can be used to calibrate and correlate other globally tracked climatic, greenhouse gases and environmental data. The infrastructure and data sources for building such a global database is discussed.

  12. Target Heart Rate Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... workout Enter your age to find a target heart rate during exercise. You'll get the most out of your activities by staying within this range of heartbeats/minute. Please enter your age in years Calculate Your target heart rate is beats per minute. How to Check Your ...

  13. Reduced journal rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The American Institute of Physics (AIP) offers reduced rates for subscriptions to its journals to individual members of affiliated societies, including AGU. The offer is limited to one subscription per person to each journal.Rates for 1985 for AGU members are listed below

  14. Metabolic rate measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koester, K.; Crosier, W.

    1980-01-01

    The Metabolic Rate Measurement System (MRMS) is an uncomplicated and accurate apparatus for measuring oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production of a test subject. From this one can determine the subject's metabolic rate for a variety of conditions, such as resting or light exercise. MRMS utilizes an LSI/11-03 microcomputer to monitor and control the experimental apparatus.

  15. Beware Capital Charge Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-04-15

    The capital charge rate has a material effect in cost comparisons. Care should be taken to calculate it correctly and use it properly. The most common mistake is to use a nominal, rather than real, capital charge rate. To make matters worse, the common short-cut formula does not work well. (author)

  16. Scaling metabolic rate fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Labra, Fabio A.; Marquet, Pablo A.; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Complex ecological and economic systems show fluctuations in macroscopic quantities such as exchange rates, size of companies or populations that follow non-Gaussian tent-shaped probability distributions of growth rates with power-law decay, which suggests that fluctuations in complex systems may be governed by universal mechanisms, independent of particular details and idiosyncrasies. We propose here that metabolic rate within individual organisms may be considered as an example of an emergent property of a complex system and test the hypothesis that the probability distribution of fluctuations in the metabolic rate of individuals has a “universal” form regardless of body size or taxonomic affiliation. We examined data from 71 individuals belonging to 25 vertebrate species (birds, mammals, and lizards). We report three main results. First, for all these individuals and species, the distribution of metabolic rate fluctuations follows a tent-shaped distribution with power-law decay. Second, the standard deviation of metabolic rate fluctuations decays as a power-law function of both average metabolic rate and body mass, with exponents −0.352 and −1/4 respectively. Finally, we find that the distributions of metabolic rate fluctuations for different organisms can all be rescaled to a single parent distribution, supporting the existence of general principles underlying the structure and functioning of individual organisms. PMID:17578913

  17. Extended rate equations

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, B.W.

    1981-01-30

    The equations of motion are discussed which describe time dependent population flows in an N-level system, reviewing the relationship between incoherent (rate) equations, coherent (Schrodinger) equations, and more general partially coherent (Bloch) equations. Approximations are discussed which replace the elaborate Bloch equations by simpler rate equations whose coefficients incorporate long-time consequences of coherence.

  18. An Application of the Facet-Factorial Approach to Scale Construction in Development of a Rating Scale for High School Marching Band Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Travis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument through facet-factorial analysis to assess high school marching band performance. Forty-one items were chosen to define subscales for the Marching Band Performance Rating Scale - Music and 31 items for the Marching Band Performance Rating Scale - Visual. To examine the stability…

  19. An Application of the Facet-Factorial Approach to Scale Construction in Development of a Rating Scale for High School Marching Band Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Travis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument through facet-factorial analysis to assess high school marching band performance. Forty-one items were chosen to define subscales for the Marching Band Performance Rating Scale - Music and 31 items for the Marching Band Performance Rating Scale - Visual. To examine the stability…

  20. [Determination of the anaerobic threshold by the rate of ventilation and cardio interval variability].

    PubMed

    Seluianov, V N; Kalinin, E M; Pak, G D; Maevskaia, V I; Konrad, A H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop methods for determining the anaerobic threshold according to the rate of ventilation and cardio interval variability during the test with stepwise increases load on the cycle ergometer and treadmill. In the first phase developed the method for determining the anaerobic threshold for lung ventilation. 49 highly skilled skiers took part in the experiment. They performed a treadmill ski-walking test with sticks with gradually increasing slope from 0 to 25 degrees, the slope increased by one degree every minute. In the second phase we developed a method for determining the anaerobic threshold according dynamics ofcardio interval variability during the test. The study included 86 athletes of different sports specialties who performed pedaling on the cycle ergometer "Monarch" in advance. Initial output was 25 W, power increased by 25 W every 2 min. The pace was steady--75 rev/min. Measurement of pulmonary ventilation and oxygen and carbon dioxide content was performed using gas analyzer COSMED K4. Sampling of arterial blood was carried from the ear lobe or finger, blood lactate concentration was determined using an "Akusport" instrument. RR-intervals registration was performed using heart rate monitor Polar s810i. As a result, it was shown that the graphical method for determining the onset of anaerobic threshold ventilation (VAnP) coincides with the accumulation of blood lactate 3.8 +/- 0.1 mmol/l when testing on a treadmill and 4.1 +/- 0.6 mmol/1 on the cycle ergometer. The connection between the measure of oxygen consumption at VAnP and the dispersion of cardio intervals (SD1), derived regression equation: VO2AnT = 0.35 + 0.01SD1W + 0.0016SD1HR + + 0.106SD1(ms), l/min; (R = 0.98, error evaluation function 0.26 L/min, p < 0.001), where W (W)--Power, HR--heart rate (beats/min), SD1--cardio intervals dispersion (ms) at the moment of registration of cardio interval threshold.

  1. Shock tube measurements of specific reaction rates in the branched chain CH4-CO-O2 system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, T. A.; Brokaw, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Rate constants of two elementary bimolecular reactions involved in the oxidation of methane have been determined by monitoring the exponential growth of CO flame band emission behind incident shocks in three suitably chosen gas mixtures. The data do not support a mechanism which invokes the four center process CH3 + O2 yields CH2O + OH for the reaction of methyl with oxygen.

  2. Understanding the Effect of Response Rate and Class Size Interaction on Students Evaluation of Teaching in a Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Kuwaiti, Ahmed; AlQuraan, Mahmoud; Subbarayalu, Arun Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the interaction between response rate and class size and its effects on students' evaluation of instructors and the courses offered at a higher education Institution in Saudi Arabia. Study Design: A retrospective study design was chosen. Methods: One thousand four hundred and forty four different courses…

  3. The ratings game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braben, Donald W.

    2009-04-01

    How sad to read a supposedly serious debate among distinguished physicists (February p19) about which combinations of the latest Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) ratings represent a university physics department's true strengths.

  4. Rating Your Cash Manager?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, George A.; Johannisson, Eric E.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of a public cash management policy should include safety, liquidity, yield, and legality. Contains a cash management policy/procedure checklist, a test for cash managers, and a formula for calculating the rate of return. (MLF)

  5. Historical Permit Fee Rates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site will provide basic information on clean air permitting under the title V operating permits program, provide access to state and regional permitting programs, and maintain access to proposed and final regulatory requirements. Historical fee rates.

  6. Handbook of noise ratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearsons, K. S.; Bennett, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Handbook announced in Tech Brief is compendium of information describing multifarious noise methods now in use. Reference material gives user better access to definitions, application, and calculation procedures of current noise rating methods.

  7. Video Slope Rate Detector.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The patent describes an apparatus for measuring the rate of change of voltage and the polarity of a pulse having a two input terminal differential amplifier with a delay line connected to one of the input terminals.

  8. Rating the Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovic, Paul; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Explains how people arrive at personal hazard assessments. Explores why people overestimate some hazards and underestimate others. Examines risk ratings for activities and technologies such as nuclear power, motor vehicles, pesticides, and vaccinations. (MA)

  9. Rating Your Cash Manager?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, George A.; Johannisson, Eric E.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of a public cash management policy should include safety, liquidity, yield, and legality. Contains a cash management policy/procedure checklist, a test for cash managers, and a formula for calculating the rate of return. (MLF)

  10. Burning Rate Emulator

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Burning Rate Emulator is a gas fuel investigation attempting to emulate the burning of solids to improve our understanding of materials''flammability over a wide range of conditions. The approa...

  11. Rating the Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovic, Paul; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Explains how people arrive at personal hazard assessments. Explores why people overestimate some hazards and underestimate others. Examines risk ratings for activities and technologies such as nuclear power, motor vehicles, pesticides, and vaccinations. (MA)

  12. High population increase rates.

    PubMed

    1991-09-01

    In addition to its economic and ethnic difficulties, the USSR faces several pressing demographic problems, including high population increase rates in several of its constituent republics. It has now become clear that although the country's rigid centralized planning succeeded in covering the basic needs of people, it did not lead to welfare growth. Since the 1970s, the Soviet economy has remained sluggish, which as led to increase in the death and birth rates. Furthermore, the ideology that held that demography could be entirely controlled by the country's political and economic system is contradicted by current Soviet reality, which shows that religion and ethnicity also play a significant role in demographic dynamics. Currently, Soviet republics fall under 2 categories--areas with high or low natural population increase rates. Republics with low rates consist of Christian populations (Armenia, Moldavia, Georgia, Byelorussia, Russia, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine), while republics with high rates are Muslim (Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kirgizia, Azerbaijan Kazakhstan). The later group has natural increase rates as high as 3.3%. Although the USSR as a whole is not considered a developing country, the later group of republics fit the description of the UNFPA's priority list. Another serious demographic issue facing the USSR is its extremely high rate of abortion. This is especially true in the republics of low birth rates, where up to 60% of all pregnancies are terminated by induced abortions. Up to 1/5 of the USSR's annual health care budget is spent on clinical abortions -- money which could be better spent on the production of contraceptives. Along with the recent political and economic changes, the USSR is now eager to deal with its demographic problems.

  13. Heart Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the mid 70's, NASA saw a need for a long term electrocardiographic electrode suitable for use on astronauts. Heart Rate Inc.'s insulated capacitive electrode is constructed of thin dielectric film applied to stainless steel surface, originally developed under a grant by Texas Technical University. HRI, Inc. was awarded NASA license and continued development of heart rate monitor for use on exercise machines for physical fitness and medical markets.

  14. Rates of Gravel Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment transfers in gravel-bed rivers involve the three-dimensional dispersion of mixed size sediment. From a kinematics standpoint, few studies are available to inform on the streamwise and vertical rates of sediment dispersion in natural channels. This research uses a gravel tracing program to quantify dispersion rates over 19 flood seasons. Empirical observations come from Carnation Creek, a small gravel-bed river with large woody debris located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. Frequent floods and the relatively limited armor layer facilitate streambed activity and relatively high bedload transport rates, typically under partial sediment transport conditions. Over 2500 magnetically tagged stones, ranging in size from 16 to 180 mm, were deployed on the bed surface between 1989 and 1992 in four generations. To quantify gravel dispersion over distances up to 2.6 km, observations are taken from 11 recoveries. Over 280 floods capable of moving bedload occurred during this period, with five exceeding the estimated bankfull discharge. Streamwise dispersion is quantified by virtual velocity, while dispersion into the streambed is quantified by a vertical burial rate. The temporal trend in streamwise dispersion rates is described by a power function. Initial virtual velocities decline rapidly from around 1.4 m/hr to approach an asymptote value of about 0.2 m/hr. The rapid change corresponds to a significant increase in the proportion of buried tracers due to vertical mixing. Initial burial rates reflect the magnitude of the first flood after tracer deployment and range from 0.07 to 0.46 cm/hr depending on tracer generation. Burial rates converge to about 0.06 cm/hr after the fourth flood season and then gradually decline to about 0.01 cm/hr. Thus, the rate of streamwise dispersion exceeds that of vertical dispersion by three orders of magnitude when the movement of sediment routinely activated by floods is considered.

  15. Noninvasive Heart Rate Monitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-31

    plethysmography can be applied to various parts of the body such as finger, toe, ear, forehead, neck, wrist and so on. The choice of location is predicated upon...frequency, hydrostatic, cardiac vibration wave is also explored. 3 2.0 METHODOLOGY The basic methodology and underlying principle of the heart rate monitor...regarding heart rate can be extracted in a number of ways. In the present application, the Doppler effect will be utilized. The principle of

  16. Heart Rate Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Under a NASA grant, Dr. Robert M. Davis and Dr. William M. Portnoy came up with a new type of electrocardiographic electrode that would enable long term use on astronauts. Their invention was an insulated capacitive electrode constructed of a thin dielectric film. NASA subsequently licensed the electrode technology to Richard Charnitski, inventor of the VersaClimber, who founded Heart Rate, Inc., to further develop and manufacture personal heart monitors and to produce exercise machines using the technology for the physical fitness, medical and home markets. Same technology is on both the Home and Institutional Model VersaClimbers. On the Home Model an infrared heart beat transmitter is worn under exercise clothing. Transmitted heart rate is used to control the work intensity on the VersaClimber using the heart rate as the speedometer of the exercise. This offers advantages to a full range of users from the cardiac rehab patient to the high level physical conditioning of elite athletes. The company manufactures and markets five models of the 1*2*3 HEART RATE monitors that are used wherever people exercise to accurately monitor their heart rate. Company is developing a talking heart rate monitor that works with portable headset radios. A version of the heart beat transmitter will be available to the manufacturers of other aerobic exercise machines.

  17. Hydration rate of obsidian.

    PubMed

    Friedman, I; Long, W

    1976-01-30

    The hydration rates of 12 obsidian samples of different chemical compositions were measured at temperatures from 95 degrees to 245 degrees C. An expression relating hydration rate to temperature was derived for each sample. The SiO(2) content and refractive index are related to the hydration rate, as are the CaO, MgO, and original water contents. With this information it is possible to calculate the hydration rate of a sample from its silica content, refractive index, or chemical index and a knowledge of the effective temperature at which the hydration occurred. The effective hydration temperature can be either measured or approximated from weather records. Rates have been calculated by both methods, and the results show that weather records can give a good approximation to the true EHT, particularly in tropical and subtropical climates. If one determines the EHT by any of the methods suggested, and also measures or knows the rate of hydration of the particular obsidian used, it should be possible to carry out absolute dating to +/- 10 percent of the true age over periods as short as several years and as long as millions of years.

  18. Modelling Heart Rate Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Zakynthinaki, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate kinetics in response to movement (exercise). Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual’s cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects) but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women). PMID:25876164

  19. Modelling heart rate kinetics.

    PubMed

    Zakynthinaki, Maria S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate kinetics in response to movement (exercise). Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual's cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects) but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women).

  20. The effect of crank rate strategy on peak aerobic power and peak physiological responses during arm crank ergometry.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul M; Doherty, Mike; Price, Michael J

    2007-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine whether the use of an imposed or freely chosen crank rate would influence submaximal and peak physiological responses during arm crank ergometry. Fifteen physically active men participated in the study. Their mean age, height, and body mass were 25.9 (s = 6.2) years, 1.80 (s = 0.10) m, and 78.4 (s = 6.1) kg, respectively. The participants performed two incremental peak oxygen consumption (VO(2peak)) tests using an electronically braked ergometer. One test was performed using an imposed crank rate of 80 rev x min(-1), whereas in the other the participants used spontaneously chosen crank rates. The order in which the tests were performed was randomized, and they were separated by at least 2 days. Respiratory data were collected using an on-line gas analysis system, and fingertip capillary blood samples ( approximately 20 microl) were collected for the determination of blood lactate concentration. Heart rate was also recorded throughout the tests. Time to exhaustion was measured and peak aerobic power calculated. Submaximal data were analysed using separate two-way repeated-measures analyses of variance, while differences in peak values were analysed using separate paired t-tests. Variations in spontaneously chosen crank rate were assessed using a one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. Agreement between the crank rate strategies for the assessment of peak values was examined by calculating intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and 95% limits of agreement (95% LoA). While considerable between-participant variations in spontaneously chosen crank rate were observed, the mean value was not different (P > 0.05) from the imposed crank rate of 80 rev x min(-1) at any point. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed for submaximal data between crank strategies. Furthermore, mean peak minute power [158 (s = 20) vs. 158 (s = 18) W], time to exhaustion [739 (s = 118) vs. 727 (s = 111) s], and VO(2peak)[3.09 (s = 0

  1. Short-term heart rate variability in asthmatic obese children: effect of exhaustive exercise and different humidity conditions.

    PubMed

    Rezvan, K; Dabidi Roshan, V; Mahmudi, S A

    2015-11-01

    Asthmatic obese children experience changes in functional capacity and autonomic control. Previous heart rate variability (HRV) studies were based on 24-hour recordings, little research has been conducted on the short-term HRV in asthmatic obese children, primarily during physical effort indifferent environmental humidity conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aerobic activity on short-term HRV in asthmatic obese children under two different environmental humidity conditions. Ten obese boys with mild asthma as experimental group and 15 obese healthy boys with the same conditions were involved as a control group. Protocol included progressive and exhaustive aerobic activities on a calibrated ergometer pedal bicycle in two various environmental humidity 35±5% and 65±5%. HRV was measured by PADSY MEDSET Holter monitoring device during three phases; pre-test, mid-test and post-test. Then, short-term HRV was assessed from calculation of the mean R-R interval measured on HRV at each phases. HRV significantly decreased at mid-test and post-test among asthmatic and health children. However, the aforesaid changes were significantly higher in the asthmatic than health children following. Moreover, decrease of short-term HRV was significantly greater in the 35±5% than 65±5% environmental humidity. Our findings suggest from the autonomic standpoint, asthmatic and non-asthmatic children respond differently to exhaustive exercise induced stress. Aerobic exercise at an environment with high humidity compared with the low humidity appears to have additional benefits on short-term HRV in that it enhances the parasympathetic and autonomic modulation of the heart in asthmatic obese children.

  2. Cooling Rates of Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Hewins, R. H.; Eiben, B. A.

    1995-09-01

    Cooling rates for chondrules are among many aspects of chondrule forming events currently under debate and estimates by different authors vary considerably. Calculations based on radiation from isolated chondrules yield an extremely high cooling rate of ~10^5 degrees C/hr [1]. The cooling rates derived from previous petrological and experimental studies are much lower but inconsistent, ranging from 5 - 100 degrees C/hr [2] to ~1000 degrees C/hr [3]. Since cooling rates bear important information about the chondrule-forming environment, they need to be more tightly constrained. Here we re-evaluate the chondrule cooling rates based on the results of our recent flash heating experiments, mainly the volatile loss data, as well as textures, and olivine zoning profiles of the chondrule analog materials. Linear cooling vs. cooling curves. Many previous studies either assumed or used linear cooling rates for chondrules [2,3]. In reality, even with simple radiative cooling, the cooling rates should have followed a non-linear path, according to the Stefan- Boltzmann law. We used non-linear cooling rates throughout our experiments, and our observations show that the initial cooling rate at the high temperature end of a specific cooling curve affects chondrule properties most. Volatile loss results. Our Na and S loss experiments [4] have shown that to reproduce the very high Na contents [5,6] and primary sulfide [7] found in some natural chondrules, heating has to be brief, but fast cooling and relatively high fO2 are also essential. With an fO2 of ~10^(-10) atm, for a type II chondrule flash heated to its liquidus temperature, cooling curves beginning at ~2500 degrees C/hr are necessary to retain >90% of its original Na content or part of its S, unless the ambient gas is very enriched in these elements [8]. Under lower fO2, or for type I chondrule composition, even higher cooling rates are required. Textures and olivine zoning with ~10^1 - ~10^3 degrees C/hr initial cooling

  3. Heart rate turbulence.

    PubMed

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is a baroreflex-mediated biphasic reaction of heart rate in response to premature ventricular beats. Heart rate turbulence is quantified by: turbulence onset (TO) reflecting the initial acceleration of heart rate following premature beat and turbulence slope (TS) describing subsequent deceleration of heart rate. Abnormal HRT identifies patients with autonomic dysfunction or impaired baroreflex sensitivity due to variety of disorders, but also may reflect changes in autonomic nervous system induced by different therapeutic modalities such as drugs, revascularization, or cardiac resynchronization therapy. More importantly, impaired HRT has been shown to identify patients at high risk of all-cause mortality and sudden death, particularly in postinfarction and congestive heart failure patients. It should be emphasized that abnormal HRT has a well-established role in stratification of postinfarction and heart failure patients with relatively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. The ongoing clinical trials will document whether HRT can be used to guide implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators in this subset of patients, not covered yet by ICD guidelines. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art knowledge regarding clinical significance of HRT in detection of autonomic dysfunction and regarding the prognostic significance of this parameter in predicting all-cause mortality and sudden death.

  4. Phenomenology of the term structure of interest rates with Padé Approximants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuyts, Jean; Platten, Isabelle

    2001-10-01

    The classical approach in finance attempts to model the term structure of interest rates using specified stochastic processes and the no arbitrage argument. Up to now, no universally accepted theory has been obtained for the description of experimental data. We have chosen a more phenomenological approach. It is based on results obtained some 20 years ago by physicists, results which show that Padé Approximants are most suitable for approximating large classes of functions in a very precise and coherent way. In this paper, we have chosen to compare the Padé Approximants with very low indices with the experimental densities of interest rates variations. We have shown that the data published by the Federal Reserve System in the United States are very well reproduced with two parameters only. These parameters are rather simple functions of the lag and of the maturity and are directly related to the moments of the distributions.

  5. Constant-load versus heart rate-targeted exercise - Responses of systolic intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, V. Q.; Spodick, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Various systolic intervals were measured prior to and during heart rate-targeted bicycle ergometer exercise. There were striking similarities within each matched exercise set for Q-Im, isovolumetric contraction time, preejection period (PEP), and PEP/left ventricular ejection time (LVET). LVET was significantly shorter for rate-targeted exercise. It is concluded that either constant-load or rate-targeted bicycle ergometry may be used with the choice of method determined by the purpose of the protocol, and that systolic intervals (except LVET) should not be much altered owing to the method chosen.

  6. High data rate x-band transmitter for low Earth orbit satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, O.; Sunay, H.; Ismailoglu, Neslin; Kirdmaz; Dudak, Celal

    2004-11-01

    Small satellite communication systems require high data rate, high-efficiency and simple transmitters, without sacrificing efficiency and linearity depending on the modulation scheme. Main purpose of this study is to design a low power, simple and low weight transmitter with data rates up to 100 Mbps, BPSK/QPSK/OQPSK modulation and 7W output power at 8.2 GHz for low earth orbit (LEO) satellites in order to satisfy the high data rate demand. Output power of the transmitter is chosen to be 7W (38.5 dBm), which satisfies the link budget for LEO at 680 km and BER performance of 1e-6 .

  7. 77 FR 59447 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Doc No: 2012-23732] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate... direct loan. This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans...

  8. 78 FR 39434 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... Doc No: 2013-15648] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate... direct loan. This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans...

  9. 77 FR 76586 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... Doc No: 2012-31295] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate... direct loan. This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans...

  10. Noninvasive Heart Rate Monitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    NUMOEN2. GVT ACCESSION NO.2 ReCIPICUTS CATALOG NUMOeaR 14 -A674P ;-FR 4. TITLE (end S.dU. L TYPE OF RgPORT & PCFmOO covgeno Noninvasive Heart Rate monitor...WHNWIM AMINOw3 I& SUPPLEMENTARYV NOTES A9-W A IS. KCY WORDS (Canam. an ,. d" it4 II wooe.p ad IiEEr 6F AAm Heart Raet Monitor; Doppler Detector...of using a handheld, battery operated, cv microwave radar, operating at 2.45 GHs, for use as a heart rate monitor under chemically contaminated

  11. Weather Balloon Ascent Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Mark

    2016-05-01

    The physics of a weather balloon is analyzed. The surprising aspect of the motion of these balloons is that they ascend to great altitudes (typically 35 km) at a more or less constant rate. Such behavior is not surprising near the ground—say for a helium-filled party balloon rising from street level to the top of the Empire State building—but it is unexpected for a balloon that rises to altitudes where the air is rarefied. We show from elementary physical laws why the ascent rate is approximately constant.

  12. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  13. Optimal Control of Markov Processes with Age-Dependent Transition Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Mrinal K. Saha, Subhamay

    2012-10-15

    We study optimal control of Markov processes with age-dependent transition rates. The control policy is chosen continuously over time based on the state of the process and its age. We study infinite horizon discounted cost and infinite horizon average cost problems. Our approach is via the construction of an equivalent semi-Markov decision process. We characterise the value function and optimal controls for both discounted and average cost cases.

  14. Computation of infrared cooling rates in the water vapor bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, M. D.; Arking, A.

    1978-01-01

    A fast but accurate method for calculating the infrared radiative terms due to water vapor has been developed. It makes use of the far wing approximation to scale transmission along an inhomogeneous path to an equivalent homogeneous path. Rather than using standard conditions for scaling, the reference temperatures and pressures are chosen in this study to correspond to the regions where cooling is most significant. This greatly increased the accuracy of the new method. Compared to line by line calculations, the new method has errors up to 4% of the maximum cooling rate, while a commonly used method based upon the Goody band model (Rodgers and Walshaw, 1966) introduces errors up to 11%. The effect of temperature dependence of transmittance has also been evaluated; the cooling rate errors range up to 11% when the temperature dependence is ignored. In addition to being more accurate, the new method is much faster than those based upon the Goody band model.

  15. Hybrid empirical mode decomposition- ARIMA for forecasting exchange rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadan, Siti Sarah; Shabri, Ani; Ismail, Shuhaida

    2015-02-01

    This paper studied the forecasting of monthly Malaysian Ringgit (MYR)/ United State Dollar (USD) exchange rates using the hybrid of two methods which are the empirical model decomposition (EMD) and the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA). MYR is pegged to USD during the Asian financial crisis causing the exchange rates are fixed to 3.800 from 2nd of September 1998 until 21st of July 2005. Thus, the chosen data in this paper is the post-July 2005 data, starting from August 2005 to July 2010. The comparative study using root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) showed that the EMD-ARIMA outperformed the single-ARIMA and the random walk benchmark model.

  16. Paradoxes in Film Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    The author selected a simple random sample of 100 movies from the "Movie and Video Guide" (1996), by Leonard Maltin. The author's intent was to obtain some basic information on the population of roughly 19,000 movies through a small sample. The "Movie and Video Guide" by Leonard Maltin is an annual ratings guide to movies. While not all films ever…

  17. Paradoxes in Film Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    The author selected a simple random sample of 100 movies from the "Movie and Video Guide" (1996), by Leonard Maltin. The author's intent was to obtain some basic information on the population of roughly 19,000 movies through a small sample. The "Movie and Video Guide" by Leonard Maltin is an annual ratings guide to movies. While not all films ever…

  18. Toy Stories: Modeling Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Patricia E.

    2015-01-01

    Elementary school mathematics is increasingly recognized for its crucial role in developing the foundational skills and understandings for algebra. In this article, the author uses a lesson to introduce the concept of "rates"--comparing two different types and units of measure--and how to graph them. Described is the lesson and shared…

  19. Variable Rate Irrigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Systems are available to producers with the ability to make variable-rate applications of defoliants, fertilizer, lime, pesticides, plant growth regulators, and seed. These systems could potentially offer a producer great cost savings; however, the full potential of these benefits and savings cannot...

  20. Variable rate irrigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Systems are available to producers to make variable-rate applications of defoliants, fertilizer, lime, pesticides, plant growth regulators, and seed. These systems could potentially offer cost savings to a producer; however, the full potential of the benefits and savings cannot be realized if water ...

  1. Variable rate irrigation (VRI)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) technology is now offered by all major manufacturers of moving irrigation systems, mostly on center pivot irrigation systems. Variable irrigation depths may be controlled by sector only, in which case only the speed of the irrigation lateral is regulated. Or, variable ...

  2. Snowmelt rate dictates streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, Theodore B.; Molotch, Noah P.; Livneh, Ben; Harpold, Adrian A.; Knowles, John F.; Schneider, Dominik

    2016-08-01

    Declining mountain snowpack and earlier snowmelt across the western United States has implications for downstream communities. We present a possible mechanism linking snowmelt rate and streamflow generation using a gridded implementation of the Budyko framework. We computed an ensemble of Budyko streamflow anomalies (BSAs) using Variable Infiltration Capacity model-simulated evapotranspiration, potential evapotranspiration, and estimated precipitation at 1/16° resolution from 1950 to 2013. BSA was correlated with simulated baseflow efficiency (r2 = 0.64) and simulated snowmelt rate (r2 = 0.42). The strong correlation between snowmelt rate and baseflow efficiency (r2 = 0.73) links these relationships and supports a possible streamflow generation mechanism wherein greater snowmelt rates increase subsurface flow. Rapid snowmelt may thus bring the soil to field capacity, facilitating below-root zone percolation, streamflow, and a positive BSA. Previous works have shown that future increases in regional air temperature may lead to earlier, slower snowmelt and hence decreased streamflow production via the mechanism proposed by this work.

  3. Rating helicopter noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leverton, J. W.; Southwood, B. J.; Pike, A. C.

    1978-01-01

    The effectiveness of the EPNL procedure in quantifying helicopter blade slap and tail rotor noise heard on approach some distance from the flyover position is addressed. Alternative methods of rating helicopter noise are reviewed including correction procedures to the EPNL concept which account for blade slap and tail rotor noise. The impact of the use of such corrections is examined.

  4. Currency Exchange Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siler, Carl R.

    This curriculum unit of the Muncie (Indiana) Southside High School is to simulate the dynamics of foreign currency exchange rates from the perspectives of: (1) a major U.S. corporation, ABB Power T & D Company, Inc., of Muncie, Indiana, a manufacturer of large power transformers for the domestic and foreign markets; and (2) individual…

  5. Poetry Methods Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Donald R.

    Designed to assess high school teachers' attitudes about teaching poetry, this questionnaire asked teachers to respond to a 38-item poetry methods rating scale (PMRS) on a seven-point scale (from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree"). The items for the questionnaire were derived from a study of popular methods texts for…

  6. What's in a Rating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Brian A.; Walsh, Elias

    2011-01-01

    We examine the relationship between the formal ratings that principals give teachers and a variety of observable teacher characteristics, including proxies for productivity. Prior work has shown that principals can differentiate between more and less effective teachers, especially at the tails of the quality distribution, and that subjective…

  7. Understanding Rates of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Aurelia; Russell, Larry

    This paper presents three activities on how to analyze rates of change in real-life situations using TI-83 calculators and computer-based laboratories. Activities include 24 hour temperature data, the temperature of a light bulb, and an M&M toss. Each section contains descriptions of equipment/materials, data collection, and data analysis. The…

  8. Absolute rate of the reaction of atomic hydrogen with ethylene from 198 to 320 K at high pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Michael, J. V.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The rate constant for the H+C2H4 reaction has been measured as a function of temperature. Experiments were performed with high pressures of Ar heat bath gas at seven temperatures from 198 to 320 K with the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence (FP-RF) technique. Pressures were chosen so as to isolate the addition rate constant k1. The results are well represented by an Arrhenius expression. The results are compared with other studies and are theoretically discussed.

  9. Saturn's magnetospheric refresh rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rymer, A. M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Hill, T. W.; Kronberg, E. A.; Krupp, N.; Jackman, C. M.

    2013-06-01

    A 2-3 day periodicity observed in Jupiter's magnetosphere (superposed on the giant planet's 9.5 h rotation rate) has been associated with a characteristic mass-loading/unloading period at Jupiter. We follow a method derived by Kronberg et al. () and find, consistent with their results, that this period is most likely to fall between 1.5 and 3.9 days. Assuming the same process operates at Saturn, we argue, based on equivalent scales at the two planets, that its period should be 4 to 6 times faster at Saturn and therefore display a period of 8 to 18 h. Applying the method of Kronberg et al. for the mass-loading source rates estimated by Smith et al. () based on data from the third and fifth Cassini-Enceladus encounters, we estimate that the expected magnetospheric refresh rate varies from 8 to 31 h, a range that includes Saturn's rotation rate of ~10.8 h. The magnetospheric period we describe is proportional to the total mass-loading rate in the system. The period is, therefore, faster (1) for increased outgassing from Enceladus, (2) near Saturn solstice (when the highest proportion of the rings is illuminated), and (3) near solar maximum when ionization by solar photons maximizes. We do not claim to explain the few percent jitter in period derived from Saturn Kilometric Radiation with this model, nor do we address the observed difference in period observed in the north and south hemispheres.

  10. Evaluation of chosen fruit seeds oils as potential biofuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbede, O. O.; Alade, A. O.; Adebayo, G. A.; Salam, K. K.; Bakare, T.

    2012-04-01

    Oils available in mango, tangerine and African star seeds were extracted and characterized to determine their fuel worthiness for biofuel production. Furthermore, the fuel properties of the three oils were within the range observed for some common oil seeds like rapeseed, soybean and sunflower, which are widely sourced for the production of biodiesel on an industrial scale. The low iodine values of the oil extend their applications as non-drying oil for lubrication purposes, however, the fuel properties exhibited by the oils enlist them as potential oil seeds for the production of biofuel and further research on the improvement of their properties will make them suitable biofuel of high economic values.

  11. Chosen Striking Location and the User-Tool-Environment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagman, Jeffrey B.; Taylor, Kona R.

    2004-01-01

    Controlling a hand-held tool requires that the tool user bring the tool into contact with an environmental surface in a task-appropriate manner. This, in turn, requires applying muscular forces so as to overcome how the object resists being moved about its various axes. Perceived properties of hand-held objects tend to be constrained by inertial…

  12. On the gauge chosen by the bosonic open string

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesando, Igor

    2017-05-01

    String theory gives S matrix elements from which is not possible to read any gauge information. Using factorization we go off shell in the simplest and most naive way and we read which are the vertices suggested by string. To compare with the associated Effective Field Theory it is natural to use color ordered vertices. The α‧ = 0 color ordered vertices suggested by string theory are more efficient than the usual ones since the three gluon color ordered vertex has three terms instead of six and the four gluon one has one term instead of three. They are written in the so called Gervais-Neveu gauge. The full Effective Field Theory is in a generalization of the Gervais-Neveu gauge with α‧ corrections. Moreover a field redefinition is required to be mapped to the field used by string theory. We also give an intuitive way of understanding why string choose this gauge in terms of the minimal number of couplings necessary to reproduce the non-abelian amplitudes starting from color ordered ones.

  13. [Influence of chosen metals on the citric acid cycle].

    PubMed

    Rojczyk-Gołebiewska, Ewa; Kucharzewski, Marek

    2013-03-01

    Industrial activity growth influenced not only technological progress, but also had negative effects on human natural environment. It results among others in increased human exposition to heavy metals. In case of detoxication mechanisms disturbance in organism, heavy metals cumulate in tissues causing mutations and disrupting metabolism, including Krebs cycle. Recent studies have revealed that iron, zinc and manganese have especially strong influence on Krebs cycle. These elements act as cofactors or inhibitors regulating activity of particular enzymes of this cycle, which has a reflection in cellular energy production disturbances.

  14. 'Headless' Chosen for Attempt to Move a Martian Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A rock informally named 'Headless,' on the north side of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, has been selected for an attempt to slide the rock aside with the lander's robotic arm.

    Moving rocks is not among the many tasks the arm was designed to do, but if the maneuver can be accomplished, scientists on the Phoenix team hope to check whether the depth to a subsurface ice layer is any different underneath the area where the rock now sits.

    Headless is about 19 centimeters (7 inches) long, 10 centimeters (4 inches) wide, extends 2 to 3 centimetes (about 1 inch) above the surface.

    This image, originally posted on Aug. 27, 2008 without the label on Headless, is a mosaic of images taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Phoenix, showing the workspace reachable with the robotic arm. The camera took the images during the early afternoon of the mission's 90th Martian day, corresponding to overnight Aug. 25 to Aug. 26.

    The shadow of the the camera itself, atop its mast, is just left of the center of the image and roughly a third of a meter (one foot) wide.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Chosen aspects of modeling and control of quadrotor platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawiski, Radosław; Błachuta, Marian

    2012-11-01

    This article is presenting the extended model of quadrotor platform together with a bespoken control system based on optimal approach. It highlights particular aspects of the derived model, such as inclusion of rotor gyroscopic effects and thrust generation based on momentum theory. The controller's behavior is tested by simulations. Comparisons with literature-available solutions to the problem of full quadrotor optimal control are made and important differences exposed. Conclusions are drawn and future work proposed.

  16. [Time based management in health care system: the chosen aspects].

    PubMed

    Kobza, Joanna; Syrkiewicz-Świtała, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Time-based management (TBM) is the key element of the whole management process. For many years in health care systems of highly developed countries modern and effective methods of time-based management have been implemented in both primary health care and hospitals (emergency departments and operating rooms). Over the past two decades a systematic review of Polish literature (since 1990) and peer reviewed articles published in international journals based on PubMed/Medline (2001-2011) have been carried out. The collected results indicate that the demographic and health changes in the populations are one of the main challenges facing general practitioners in the nearest future. Time-based management needs new and effective tools and skills, i.e., identification of priorities, well designed planning, delegation of the tasks, proper coordination, and creation of primary care teams that include additional members and human resources management. Proper reimbursement of health services, development of IT in health care system, better collection, storage, processing, analysis and exchange of information and research findings will also be needed. The use of innovative technologies, like telemedicine consultations, provides the possibility of reducing waiting time for diagnosis and treatment and in some cases could be applied in terms of secondary care. To improve the efficiency of operating rooms it is necessary to introduce different solutions, such as operating room coordinator involvement, application of automation to guide decision-making or use of robotic tools to assist surgical procedures. Overcrowded emergency departments have a major detrimental effect on the quality of hospital functions, therefore, efforts should be made to reduce them. Time-based management training among physicians and health care management in Poland, as well as the implementation of practice-based solutions still applied in highly developed countries seem to be necessary.

  17. E-Prime, E-Choice, E-Chosen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohrey, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    Argues that a complete alteration of English to the form called "E-Prime" (a form of English that eliminates all forms of the verb "to be") is not possible and would result in losing important speech patterns, such as identities and identification. Lists patterns of identification. Concludes by advocating "E-Choice"…

  18. The Aral Sea disaster and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Crighton, Eric J; Elliott, Susan J; Upshur, Ross; van der Meer, Joost; Small, Ian

    2003-06-01

    This study examined the effect of psychosocial factors and environmental perceptions on self-rated health in the environmentally devastated Aral Sea area of Karakalpakstan. Self-rated health was assessed using a questionnaire on 881 randomly selected individuals from three communities. Communities were chosen based on relative differences with regards to economic and ethnic characteristics, and distance from the sea coast. Consistent with mortality rates in the area, the prevalence of 'poor' self-rated health was high. Factors negatively associated with self-rated health include psychosocial impacts and reported environmental concern, as well as community of residence and age. These results demonstrate that the population has a poor perception of their own health, a significant finding given that self-rated health is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality. It is also clear that psychosocial health is strongly associated with health perceptions. Thus, to improve the overall health of this population, health remediation measures must address physical as well as psychosocial health problems.

  19. Unusual ISS Rate Signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laible, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    On November 23, 2011 International Space Station Guidance, Navigation, and Control reported unusual pitch rate disturbance. These disturbances were an order of magnitude greater than nominal rates. The Loads and Dynamics team was asked to review and analyze current accelerometer data to investigate this disturbance. This paper will cover the investigation process under taken by the Loads and Dynamics group. It will detail the accelerometers used and analysis performed. The analysis included performing Frequency Fourier Transform of the data to identify the mode of interest. This frequency data is then reviewed with modal analysis of the ISS system model. Once this analysis is complete and the disturbance quantified, a forcing function was produced to replicate the disturbance. This allows the Loads and Dynamics team to report the load limit values for the 100's of interfaces on the ISS.

  20. Sequoia Messaging Rate Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Friedley, Andrew

    2008-01-22

    The purpose of this benchmark is to measure the maximal message rate of a single compute node. The first num_cores ranks are expected to reside on the 'core' compute node for which message rate is being tested. After that, the next num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the first core rank, the next set of num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the second core rank, and so on. For example, testing an 8-core node (num_cores = 8) with 4 neighbors (num_nbors = 4) requires 8 + 8 * 4 - 40 ranks. The first 8 of those 40 ranks are expected to be on the 'core' node being benchmarked, while the rest of the ranks are on separate nodes.

  1. Donation rates: what matters?

    PubMed

    Mizraji, R; Godino, M; Tommasino, N; Alvarez, I

    2014-11-01

    The increase in the number of donors is the main objective of all transplantation organizations around the world. Further understanding of the factors involved in increasing donation rates is very important for planning future strategies to improve outcomes in each country. With this purpose we analyzed the relationship between social and economic factors of the countries and organizational aspects of health systems and institutions dedicated to transplantation in relation to the number of actual donors per million population. We analyzed rates of deceased donors per million population of Latin America, North America, and Europe (20 countries) and correlated them with the human development index and its most important indicators. We also studied the correlation with spending on health and organizational aspects of the health system. On the one hand, we found that donation rates (DRs) per million population (pmp) were not statistically significantly correlated with the human development index (significant correlation 0.61 and 0.181). There is a correlation, albeit weak, between observed donation rates and gross domestic product (GDP) of each country (significance, 0.04; correlation, 0.46). On the other hand, there exists a strong correlation between the percentage of GDP spent on health and DRs pmp (significance, 0.01; correlation, 0.53). Those countries with an integrated national health system (P = .01) and a higher percentage of hospitals with intrahospital transplantation coordinators (P = .001) had higher DRs pmp. The best DRs are closely linked to organizational aspects of the donation system in particular and the health system in general. There is a weak correlation between observed DRs and socio-economic and development indicators of countries. These data should be taken into account in planning future strategies to increase DRs, health plan policies, and investments.

  2. Rotational rate sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  3. Constituents of response rates

    PubMed Central

    Pear, Joseph J.; Rector, Brian L.

    1979-01-01

    Response rate and the proportion of time pigeons allocated to a key-pecking activity were measured on several basic types of reinforcement schedules. Reinforcement frequency was varied within each type of basic schedule, and the effects on two constituents of response rate were noted. Propensity, the proportion of time the birds spent on a platform in front of the key, showed very consistent effects as reinforcement frequency varied: in general, it decreased when reinforcement frequency markedly decreased and it increased when reinforcement frequency increased. Speed, key pecks per unit of time spent on the platform, showed inconsistent effects when reinforcement frequency varied. Consequently, response rate showed less consistent effects than did propensity. Cumulative response records demonstrated the existence of several different types of transitions or boundary states between the key-pecking activity and other activities. The types of transitions that occurred between activities depended on both the type of reinforcement schedule and the frequency of reinforcement. The propensity data support the position that general laws of behavior can be based on temporal measures of behavior. The speed data suggest that, if a complete assessment of the dynamic properties of behavior is to be achieved, measures of behavior must incorporate the structural variations in the operant unit. PMID:16812155

  4. Injection rate control cam

    SciTech Connect

    Perr, J.P.; Liang, E.; Yu, R.C.; Ghuman, A.S.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a cam for controlling the injection rate of fuel in a fuel injection system of an engine. The fuel injection system including a cyclically operating unit injector having a body, an injector plunger mounted for reciprocating movement in the injector body between an advanced position and a retracted portion to pump into the engine during each cycle a variable quantity of fuel up to a maximum quantity under rated engine conditions, and a drive train for converting rotational movement of the cam into reciprocating movement of the pumping plunger depending on the profile of the cam. The cam profile comprises at least a plunger retraction segment and a plunger advancement segment for controlling the velocity if injector plunger retraction and advancement, respectively, the plunger advancement segment including a pre-injection subsequent shaped to cause an initial quantity of fuel to be injected into the engine during each cycle at rated engine conditions while the pre-injection subsegment is in contact with the drive train, and an injection subsegment following the pre-injection subsegment.

  5. Increasing rates of depression.

    PubMed

    Klerman, G L; Weissman, M M

    1989-04-21

    Several recent, large epidemiologic and family studies suggest important temporal changes in the rates of major depression: an increase in the rates in the cohorts born after World War II; a decrease in the age of onset with an increase in the late teenaged and early adult years; an increase between 1960 and 1975 in the rates of depression for all ages; a persistent gender effect, with the risk of depression consistently two to three times higher among women than men across all adult ages; a persistent family effect, with the risk about two to three times higher in first-degree relatives as compared with controls; and the suggestion of a narrowing of the differential risk to men and women due to a greater increase in risk of depression among young men. These trends, drawn from studies using comparable methods and modern diagnostic criteria, are evident in the United States, Sweden, Germany, Canada, and New Zealand, but not in comparable studies conducted in Korea and Puerto Rico and of Mexican-Americans living in the United States. These cohort changes cannot be fully attributed to artifacts of reporting, recall, mortality, or labeling and have implications for understanding the etiology of depression and for clinical practice.

  6. Homicide Rates in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Laima, Sigitas; Andriuskeviciute, Gerda; Jurolaic, Eleonora; Jasulaitis, Algimantas

    2017-08-15

    Homicide rate in Lithuania between 2004 and 2013 decreased and reached an average of 6.7 per 100,000 people in 2013. The data regarding forensic autopsies of intentional homicide victims were obtained from the State Forensic Medicine Service. Spearman's correlation test was used to assess trends in the homicide rates. A significant correlation was observed between homicide distribution and the following variables: Lithuania's gross domestic product (r = -0.85, p = 0.003), the number of alcohol intoxication cases of victims (r = 0.97, p < 0.05). After regression model adjustments, these variables remained significantly associated with the homicide distribution (p < 0.05). 73% of victims were men, with a mean age of 45.5 ± 15. Alcohol intoxication was present in 58% of victims. 66% of homicides were carried out indoors, 57% in urban area. The presented findings help decide which prevention programs may be the most effective in homicide rate reduction. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Composite rating scales.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2010-02-15

    Rating scales are instruments that are very frequently used by clinicians to perform patient assessments. Typically, rating scales grade the attribute on an ordinal level of measurement, i.e., a rank ordering, meaning that the numbers assigned to the different ranks (item scores) do not represent 'real numbers' or 'physical magnitudes'. Single-item scales have some advantages, such as simplicity and low respondent burden, but they may also suffer from disadvantages, such as ambiguous score meanings and low responsiveness. Multi-item scales, in contrast, seem more adequate for assessment of complex constructs, allowing for detailed evaluation. Total scores representing the value of the construct may be quite precise and thus the responsiveness of the scale may be high. The most common strategy for obtaining the total score is the sum of the item scores, a strategy that constitutes one of the most important problems with these types of scales. A summative score of ordinal figures is not a 'real magnitude' and may have little sense. This paper is a review of the theoretical frameworks of the main theories used to develop rating scales (Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory). Bearing in mind that no alternative is perfect, additional research in this field and judicious decisions are called for.

  8. Milk flow rates from bottle nipples used after hospital discharge

    PubMed Central

    Pados, Britt Frisk; Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne M.; Estrem, Hayley; Nix, W. Brant

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To test the milk flow rates and variability in flow rates of bottle nipples used after hospital discharge. Study Design and Methods Twenty-six nipple types that represented 15 common brands as well as variety in price per nipple and store location sold (e.g., Babies R’ Us, Walmart, Dollar Store) were chosen for testing. Ten of each nipple type (n=260 total) were tested by measuring the amount of infant formula expressed in one minute using a breast pump. Mean milk flow rate (mL/min) and coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated. Flow rates of nipples within brand were compared statistically. Results Milk flow rates varied from 1.68 mL/min for the Avent Natural Newborn Flow to 85.34 mL/min for the Dr. Brown’s Standard Y-cut. Variability between nipple types also varied widely, from .03 for the Dr. Brown’s Standard Level 3 to .37 for MAM Nipple 1 Slow Flow. Clinical Implications The extreme range of milk flow rates found may be significant for medically fragile infants being discharged home who are continuing to develop oral feeding skills. The name of the nipple does not provide clear information about the flow rate to guide parents in decision-making. Variability in flow rates within nipples of the same type may complicate oral feeding for the medically fragile infant who may not be able to adapt easily to change in flow rates. Both flow rate and variability should be considered when guiding parents to a nipple choice. PMID:27008466

  9. "You Have Not Chosen Me, I Have Chosen You": The Next Generation of Leaders for Catholic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Claire M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the issue of recruiting effective, faith-filled leaders for Catholic schools. Potential solutions parallel those identified with respect to teacher shortage: the need to address compensation concerns; additional research and data collection; implementation of creative, year-round marketing and recruitment efforts at diocesan and national…

  10. Controlling the local false discovery rate in the adaptive Lasso

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Joshua N.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Carroll, Raymond J.; Müller, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    The Lasso shrinkage procedure achieved its popularity, in part, by its tendency to shrink estimated coefficients to zero, and its ability to serve as a variable selection procedure. Using data-adaptive weights, the adaptive Lasso modified the original procedure to increase the penalty terms for those variables estimated to be less important by ordinary least squares. Although this modified procedure attained the oracle properties, the resulting models tend to include a large number of “false positives” in practice. Here, we adapt the concept of local false discovery rates (lFDRs) so that it applies to the sequence, λn, of smoothing parameters for the adaptive Lasso. We define the lFDR for a given λn to be the probability that the variable added to the model by decreasing λn to λn−δ is not associated with the outcome, where δ is a small value. We derive the relationship between the lFDR and λn, show lFDR=1 for traditional smoothing parameters, and show how to select λn so as to achieve a desired lFDR. We compare the smoothing parameters chosen to achieve a specified lFDR and those chosen to achieve the oracle properties, as well as their resulting estimates for model coefficients, with both simulation and an example from a genetic study of prostate specific antigen. PMID:23575212

  11. Reduced Heart Rate Volatility

    PubMed Central

    Grogan, Eric L.; Morris, John A.; Norris, Patrick R.; France, Daniel J.; Ozdas, Asli; Stiles, Renée A.; Harris, Paul A.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Speroff, Theodore

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine if using dense data capture to measure heart rate volatility (standard deviation) measured in 5-minute intervals predicts death. Background: Fundamental approaches to assessing vital signs in the critically ill have changed little since the early 1900s. Our prior work in this area has demonstrated the utility of densely sampled data and, in particular, heart rate volatility over the entire patient stay, for predicting death and prolonged ventilation. Methods: Approximately 120 million heart rate data points were prospectively collected and archived from 1316 trauma ICU patients over 30 months. Data were sampled every 1 to 4 seconds, stored in a relational database, linked to outcome data, and de-identified. HR standard deviation was continuously computed over 5-minute intervals (CVRD, cardiac volatility–related dysfunction). Logistic regression models incorporating age and injury severity score were developed on a test set of patients (N = 923), and prospectively analyzed in a distinct validation set (N = 393) for the first 24 hours of ICU data. Results: Distribution of CVRD varied by survival in the test set. Prospective evaluation of the model in the validation set gave an area in the receiver operating curve of 0.81 with a sensitivity and specificity of 70.1 and 80.0, respectively. CVRD predict death as early as 24 hours in the validation set. Conclusions: CVRD identifies a subgroup of patients with a high probability of dying. Death is predicted within first 24 hours of stay. We hypothesize CVRD is a surrogate for autonomic nervous system dysfunction. PMID:15319726

  12. Clinical rating scales.

    PubMed

    Relja, Maja

    2012-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), rating scales are used to assess the degree of disease-related disability and to titrate long-term treatment to each phase of the disease. Recognition of non-motor symptoms required modification of existing widely used scales to integrate non-motor elements. In addition, new scales have been developed for the assessment of non-motor symptoms. In this article, assessment of PD patients will be discussed, particularly for non-motor symptoms such as pain and fatigue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparison of heart rate responses in racquet games.

    PubMed Central

    Docherty, D.

    1982-01-01

    The present study investigated the heart rate response to playing tennis with special reference to the skill levels and ages of the participants. Data obtained in a similar manner during earlier studies of badminton and squash players were compared with that obtained during tennis. The number of rallies, mean rally time and actual playing time in 30 minutes of play was also compared for the different skill levels and sports. Results showed that playing tennis raised the players' heart rates to 68-70% of their predicted maximum heart rate (PMHR). Playing squash and badminton could raise heart rates to 80-85% of the players' PMHR which was significantly higher than the values obtained for tennis. The actual skill level of the participants within their chosen sport did not have a significant effect in predicting the physical demands of squash or tennis but was important in predicting the heart rate response of badminton players. The more skillful the badminton player the greater the cardiac response as a result of game play. Analysis of time spent in actual play revealed that tennis players were involved in play for only five of the thirty minutes of game play, compared to 15 and 10 min respectively for squash and badminton. Skill level within each sport was only a significant factor in predicting length of play for squash players in which the medium and highly skilled groups played significantly longer than those of a lower level of skill. Images p96-a PMID:7104564

  14. Characteristics of a magnetorheological fluid in high shear rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Takehito; Abe, Isao; Inoue, Akio; Iwasaki, Akihiko; Okada, Katsuhiko

    2016-11-01

    The information on the properties of the magnetorheological fluid (MRF) in high shear rate, in particular a shear rate greater than 10 000 s-1, is important for the design of devices utilizing the MRF with very narrow fluid gaps, which are used in high-speed applications. However, very little research has been conducted on this subject. The objective of this study is to provide such information. MRF-140CG (Lord Corp.) is chosen as an example MRF. The plastic viscosity, thermal sensitivity, and durability of the fluid, especially under a shear rate greater than 10 000 s-1, are reported. The plastic viscosity is almost constant under a wide range of magnetic input. In contrast, MRF-140CG is sensitive to the shear rate; its sensitivity is relatively low at high shear rates. The thermal sensitivity shows negative values, and the effect of temperature decreases with increasing magnetic input. According to the result of the duration test at 30 000 s-1 and at a temperature of 120 °C, the lifetime dissipation energy is 5.48 MJ ml-1.

  15. PULSE RATE DIVIDER

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, H.C. Jr.

    1962-12-18

    A compact pulse-rate divider circuit affording low impedance output and high input pulse repetition rates is described. The circuit features a single secondary emission tube having a capacitor interposed between its dynode and its control grid. An output pulse is produced at the anode of the tube each time an incoming pulse at the control grid drives the tube above cutoff and the duration of each output pulse corresponds to the charging time of the capacitor. Pulses incoming during the time the grid bias established by the discharging capacitor is sufficiently negative that the pulses are unable to drive the tube above cutoff do not produce output pulses at the anode; these pulses are lost and a dividing action is thus produced by the circuit. The time constant of the discharge path may be vanied to vary in turn the division ratio of the circuit; the time constant of the charging circuit may be varied to vary the width of the output pulses. (AEC)

  16. 77 FR 20476 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 2.250 (2 \\1/4\\) percent for the April-June quarter of FY 2012. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...

  17. 75 FR 17453 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 4.000 (4) percent for the April-June quarter of FY 2010. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...

  18. 75 FR 37872 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 4.000 (4) percent for the July-September quarter of FY 2010. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...

  19. 77 FR 39560 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 2.500 (2\\1/2\\) percent for the July-September quarter of FY 2012. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...

  20. 78 FR 18664 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 2.500 (2\\1/2\\) percent for the April-June quarter of FY 2013. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...

  1. 75 FR 81326 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 3.000 (3) percent for the January-March quarter of FY 2011. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...

  2. 76 FR 18821 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 3.750 (3\\3/4\\) percent for the April-June quarter of FY 2011. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...

  3. 76 FR 38717 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This ] rate will be 3.625 (3\\5/8\\) percent for the July-September quarter of FY 2011. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...

  4. 76 FR 77581 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 2.375 (2\\3/8\\) percent for the January-March quarter of FY 2012. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...

  5. 78 FR 62932 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 3.125 (3\\1/8\\) percent for the October-December quarter of FY 2014. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...

  6. 75 FR 60152 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 3.250 (3\\1/4\\) percent for the October-December quarter of FY 2011. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...

  7. Lindblad rate equations

    SciTech Connect

    Budini, Adrian A.

    2006-11-15

    In this paper we derive an extra class of non-Markovian master equations where the system state is written as a sum of auxiliary matrixes whose evolution involve Lindblad contributions with local coupling between all of them, resembling the structure of a classical rate equation. The system dynamics may develop strong nonlocal effects such as the dependence of the stationary properties with the system initialization. These equations are derived from alternative microscopic interactions, such as complex environments described in a generalized Born-Markov approximation and tripartite system-environment interactions, where extra unobserved degrees of freedom mediates the entanglement between the system and a Markovian reservoir. Conditions that guarantee the completely positive condition of the solution map are found. Quantum stochastic processes that recover the system dynamics in average are formulated. We exemplify our results by analyzing the dynamical action of nontrivial structured dephasing and depolarizing reservoirs over a single qubit.

  8. Vital Signs Rate Meter.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    S15 VITAL SIGNS RTE NETER(U) TEXAS R FW4D A UNIV COLLEGE 1/1 STATION IENGINEERING PROGM C S LESSAD ET RL. SEP 8? USRFSN-TR-$?-14 F33615-S3-D-0602...UNCLMSIFIED F/O 6/12 ML IIB 125 11 128 11.2.5_ ka7 U S S SS S S S S S0 02.2 36 * . * * * . - * . - .. . - - . Q -- .* USAFSAM-TR-87-1 4 VITAL SIGNS RATE...UNIT ELEMENT NO. INO.I NO. IACESSION NO. 622027 2729 02 21 11 TITLE ft ml’S111111:1111"ll vital Signs Rae ~t= 12. PERSONAL AUTWOR(S) Lessard, Cierles

  9. All about Heart Rate (Pulse)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More All About Heart Rate (Pulse) Updated:Aug 22,2017 ... Blood Pressure is Diagnosed BP vs. Heart Rate All About Heart Rate (Pulse) Low Blood Pressure Resistant ...

  10. Estimation of the Dose and Dose Rate Effectiveness Factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2013-01-01

    Current models to estimate radiation risk use the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort that received high doses and high dose rates of radiation. Transferring risks from these high dose rates to the low doses and dose rates received by astronauts in space is a source of uncertainty in our risk calculations. The solid cancer models recommended by BEIR VII [1], UNSCEAR [2], and Preston et al [3] is fitted adequately by a linear dose response model, which implies that low doses and dose rates would be estimated the same as high doses and dose rates. However animal and cell experiments imply there should be curvature in the dose response curve for tumor induction. Furthermore animal experiments that directly compare acute to chronic exposures show lower increases in tumor induction than acute exposures. A dose and dose rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) has been estimated and applied to transfer risks from the high doses and dose rates of the LSS cohort to low doses and dose rates such as from missions in space. The BEIR VII committee [1] combined DDREF estimates using the LSS cohort and animal experiments using Bayesian methods for their recommendation for a DDREF value of 1.5 with uncertainty. We reexamined the animal data considered by BEIR VII and included more animal data and human chromosome aberration data to improve the estimate for DDREF. Several experiments chosen by BEIR VII were deemed inappropriate for application to human risk models of solid cancer risk. Animal tumor experiments performed by Ullrich et al [4], Alpen et al [5], and Grahn et al [6] were analyzed to estimate the DDREF. Human chromosome aberration experiments performed on a sample of astronauts within NASA were also available to estimate the DDREF. The LSS cohort results reported by BEIR VII were combined with the new radiobiology results using Bayesian methods.

  11. 75 FR 41876 - Disclosure of Adjustable Rate Mortgages (ARMs) Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Disclosure of Adjustable Rate Mortgages (ARMs) Rates AGENCY: Office of the Chief... mortgage amount. DATES: Comments Due Date: August 18, 2010. ADDRESSES: Interested persons are invited to... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Disclosure of Adjustable Rate Mortgages (ARMs) Rates...

  12. Heart-Rate and Breath-Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Circuit requiring only four integrated circuits (IC's) measures both heart rate and breath rate. Phase-locked loops lock on heart-rate and respiration-rate input signals. Each loop IC contains two phase comparators. Positive-edge-triggered circuit used in making monitors insensitive to dutycycle variations.

  13. Heart-Rate and Breath-Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Circuit requiring only four integrated circuits (IC's) measures both heart rate and breath rate. Phase-locked loops lock on heart-rate and respiration-rate input signals. Each loop IC contains two phase comparators. Positive-edge-triggered circuit used in making monitors insensitive to dutycycle variations.

  14. Combined heart rate variability and dynamic measures for quantitatively characterizing the cardiac stress status during cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szi-Wen; Liaw, Jiunn-Woei; Chang, Ya-Ju; Chuang, Li-Ling; Chien, Chun-Tse

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to seek for different ways of measuring cardiac stress in terms of heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate (HR) dynamics, and to develop a novel index that can effectively summarize the information reflected by these measures to continuously and quantitatively characterize the cardiac stress status during physical exercise. Standard deviation, spectral measure of HRV as well as a nonlinear detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) based fractal-like behavior measure of HR dynamics were all evaluated on the RR time series derived from windowed electrocardiogram (ECG) data for the subjects undergoing cycling exercise. We recruited eleven young healthy subjects in our tests. Each subject was asked to maintain a fixed speed under a constant load during the pedaling test. We obtained the running estimates of the standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval (SDNN), the high-fidelity power spectral density (PSD) of HRV, and the DFA scaling exponent α, respectively. A trend analysis and a multivariate linear regression analysis of these measures were then performed. Numerical experimental results produced by our analyses showed that a decrease in both SDNN and α was seen during the cycling exercise, while there was no significant correlation between the standard lower frequency to higher frequency (LF-to-HF) spectral power ratio of HRV and the exercise intensity. In addition, while the SDNN and α were both negatively correlated with the Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale value, it seemed that the LF-to-HF power ratio might not have substantial impact on the Borg value, suggesting that the SDNN and α may be further used as features to detect the cardiac stress status during the physical exercise. We further approached this detection problem by applying a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to both feature candidates for the task of cardiac stress stratification. As a result, a time-varying parameter, referred to as the cardiac

  15. Survival rate of preserved cultures contained in baker's vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kornacki, K; Klebukowska, I; Sienkiewicz, J

    2001-01-01

    The studies comprised the preparation and preservation, by the method of spray-drying, of baker's vaccine composed of lactic acid bacteria. The selection of particular strains was conducted taking into consideration the fermentation activity and growth dynamics of Lactobacillus rods isolated from plant material. Mixed vaccine was composed of chosen monocultures, characterized by the highest acidifying activity (4 strains). Before the vaccine was preserved, it had been used for making bread leaven (of rye flour) whose activity and usefulness for rye bread production was then determined The vaccine was subjected to spray-drying. The survival rate of Lactobacillus rods was determined directly after drying and during storage. It was found that the parameters of spray-drying applied in the experiment caused a considerable reduction in the number of vaccine components--by 2 log on average.

  16. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without regard...

  17. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without regard...

  18. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without regard...

  19. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without regard...

  20. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without regard...

  1. Rates of Earth degassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onions, R. K.

    1994-01-01

    The degassing of the Earth during accretion is constrained by Pu-U-I-Xe systematics. Degassing was much more efficient during the first 100-200 Ma than subsequently, and it was more complete for Xe than for the lighter gases. More than 90 percent of the degassed Xe escaped from the atmosphere during this period. The combination of fractional degassing of melts and rare gas escape from the atmosphere is able to explain the deficit of terrestrial Xe as a simple consequence of this early degassing history. By the time Xe was quantitatively retained in the atmosphere, the abundances of Kr and the lighter gases in the Earth's interior were similar to or higher than the present-day atmospheric abundances. Subsequent transfer of these lighter rare gases into the atmosphere requires a high rate of post-accretion degassing and melt production. Considerations of Pu-U-Xe systematics suggest that relatively rapid post-accretion degassing was continued to ca. 4.1-4.2 Ga. The present-day degassing history of the Earth is investigated through consideration of rare gas isotope abundances. Although the Earth is a highly degassed body, depleted in rare gases by many orders of magnitude relative to their solar abundances, it is at the present-day losing primordial rare gases which were trapped at the time of accretion.

  2. Improved observations of turbulence dissipation rates from wind profiling radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, Katherine; Bianco, Laura; Wilczak, James M.

    2017-07-01

    Observations of turbulence dissipation rates in the planetary boundary layer are crucial for validation of parameterizations in numerical weather prediction models. However, because dissipation rates are difficult to obtain, they are infrequently measured through the depth of the boundary layer. For this reason, demonstrating the ability of commonly used wind profiling radars (WPRs) to estimate this quantity would be greatly beneficial. During the XPIA field campaign at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory, two WPRs operated in an optimized configuration, using high spectral resolution for increased accuracy of Doppler spectral width, specifically chosen to estimate turbulence from a vertically pointing beam. Multiple post-processing techniques, including different numbers of spectral averages and peak processing algorithms for calculating spectral moments, were evaluated to determine the most accurate procedures for estimating turbulence dissipation rates using the information contained in the Doppler spectral width, using sonic anemometers mounted on a 300 m tower for validation. The optimal settings were determined, producing a low bias, which was later corrected. Resulting estimations of turbulence dissipation rates correlated well (R2 = 0. 54 and 0. 41) with the sonic anemometers, and profiles up to 2 km from the 449 MHz WPR and 1 km from the 915 MHz WPR were observed.

  3. Material properties of bovine intervertebral discs across strain rates.

    PubMed

    Newell, Nicolas; Grigoriadis, Grigorios; Christou, Alexandros; Carpanen, Diagarajen; Masouros, Spyros D

    2017-01-01

    The intervertebral disc (IVD) is a complex structure responsible for distributing compressive loading to adjacent vertebrae and allowing the vertebral column to bend and twist. To study the mechanical behaviour of individual components of the IVD, it is common for specimens to be dissected away from their surrounding tissues for mechanical testing. However, disrupting the continuity of the IVD to obtain material properties of each component separately may result in erroneous values. In this study, an inverse finite element (FE) modelling optimisation algorithm has been used to obtain material properties of the IVD across strain rates, therefore bypassing the need to harvest individual samples of each component. Uniaxial compression was applied to ten fresh-frozen bovine intervertebral discs at strain rates of 10(-3)-1/s. The experimental data were fed into the inverse FE optimisation algorithm and each experiment was simulated using the subject specific FE model of the respective specimen. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the IVD's response was most dependent upon the Young's modulus (YM) of the fibre bundles and therefore this was chosen to be the parameter to optimise. Based on the obtained YM values for each test corresponding to a different strain rate (ε̇), the following relationship was derived:YM=35.5lnε̇+527.5. These properties can be used in finite element models of the IVD that aim to simulate spinal biomechanics across loading rates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The Star Rating System and Medicare Advantage Plans.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Lisa

    2015-05-05

    With nearly 30 percent of Medicare beneficiaries opting to enroll in Medicare Advantage (MA) plans instead of fee-for-service Medicare, it's safe to say the MA program is quite popular. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) administers a Star Ratings program for MA plans, which offers measures of quality and service among the plans that are used not only to help beneficiaries choose plans but also to award additional payments to plans that meet high standards. These additional payments, in turn, are used by plans to provide additional benefits to beneficiaries or to reduce cost sharing--added features that are likely to factor into beneficiaries' choice of MA plans. The Star Ratings program is also meant to drive improvements in the quality of plans, and this secondary effort seems to have been successful. Despite this success, issues with the Star Ratings system remain, including: how performance metrics are developed, chosen, and maintained; how differences among beneficiary populations (particularly with regard to the dually eligible and those receiving low-income subsidies) should be recognized; and the extent to which health plans can control the variables on which they are being measured. Because the Star Ratings approach has been extended to providers of health care as well--hospitals, nursing homes, and dialysis facilities--these issues are worth exploring as CMS fine-tunes its methods of measurement.

  5. A generic rate law for surface-active enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kartal, Onder; Ebenhöh, Oliver

    2013-09-02

    Many biochemical reactions are confined to interfaces, such as membranes or cell walls. Despite their importance, no canonical rate laws describing the kinetics of surface-active enzymes exist. Combining the approach chosen by Michaelis and Menten 100 years ago with concepts from surface chemical physics, we here present an approach to derive generic rate laws of enzymatic processes at surfaces. We illustrate this by a simple reversible conversion on a surface to stress key differences to the classical case in solution. The available area function, a concept from surface physics which enters the rate law, covers different models of adsorption and presents a unifying perspective on saturation effects and competition between enzymes. A remarkable implication is the direct dependence of the rate of a given enzyme on all other enzymatic species able to bind at the surface. The generic approach highlights general principles of the kinetics of surface-active enzymes and allows to build consistent mathematical models of more complex pathways involving reactions at interfaces.

  6. Improved observations of turbulence dissipation rates from wind profiling radars

    DOE PAGES

    McCaffrey, Katherine; Bianco, Laura; Wilczak, James M.

    2017-07-20

    Observations of turbulence dissipation rates in the planetary boundary layer are crucial for validation of parameterizations in numerical weather prediction models. However, because dissipation rates are difficult to obtain, they are infrequently measured through the depth of the boundary layer. For this reason, demonstrating the ability of commonly used wind profiling radars (WPRs) to estimate this quantity would be greatly beneficial. During the XPIA field campaign at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory, two WPRs operated in an optimized configuration, using high spectral resolution for increased accuracy of Doppler spectral width, specifically chosen to estimate turbulence from a vertically pointing beam. Multiplemore » post-processing techniques, including different numbers of spectral averages and peak processing algorithms for calculating spectral moments, were evaluated to determine the most accurate procedures for estimating turbulence dissipation rates using the information contained in the Doppler spectral width, using sonic anemometers mounted on a 300 m tower for validation. Furthermore, the optimal settings were determined, producing a low bias, which was later corrected. Resulting estimations of turbulence dissipation rates correlated well (R2 = 0.54 and 0.41) with the sonic anemometers, and profiles up to 2 km from the 449 MHz WPR and 1 km from the 915 MHz WPR were observed.« less

  7. Improved observations of turbulence dissipation rates from wind profiling radars

    SciTech Connect

    McCaffrey, Katherine; Bianco, Laura; Wilczak, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Observations of turbulence dissipation rates in the planetary boundary layer are crucial for validation of parameterizations in numerical weather prediction models. However, because dissipation rates are difficult to obtain, they are infrequently measured through the depth of the boundary layer. For this reason, demonstrating the ability of commonly used wind profiling radars (WPRs) to estimate this quantity would be greatly beneficial. During the XPIA field campaign at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory, two WPRs operated in an optimized configuration, using high spectral resolution for increased accuracy of Doppler spectral width, specifically chosen to estimate turbulence from a vertically pointing beam. Multiple post-processing techniques, including different numbers of spectral averages and peak processing algorithms for calculating spectral moments, were evaluated to determine the most accurate procedures for estimating turbulence dissipation rates using the information contained in the Doppler spectral width, using sonic anemometers mounted on a 300 m tower for validation. The optimal settings were determined, producing a low bias, which was later corrected. Resulting estimations of turbulence dissipation rates correlated well (R2 = 0. 54 and 0. 41) with the sonic anemometers, and profiles up to 2 km from the 449 MHz WPR and 1 km from the 915 MHz WPR were observed.

  8. Oxidation kinetics of zinc sulfide: determination of intrinsic rate constant

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhu, G.M.

    1983-06-01

    An initial reaction rate study was done with the help of a thermogravimetric technique. Energy dispersive x-ray analyses on partially oxidized zinc sulfide pellets with a sintered porosity of 72.4% indicated flat sulfur intensity profiles within pellets reacted below 560/sup 0/C, which suggested a homogeneous reaction mechanism. Therefore, reaction temperatures below 600/sup 0/C were chosen for the reaction rate studies. Initial reaction rate studies on 72.4, 58.2, and 34.0% porous, cylindrical zinc sulfide pellets and the corresponding Arrhenius plot suggested chemical control in the temperature range from 480 to 565/sup 0/C. The corresponding intrinsic rate constant is correlated as k = 3.45 x 10/sup 17/ exp (- 86051/RT) cm/s. The variation in sulfur intensity within sintered pellets having a porosity of 72.4% that were reacted at temperatures above 560/sup 0/C indicated that the pore diffusion resistance gradually became comparable to the chemical reaction resistance leading to a mixed control mechanism above 570/sup 0/C. The critical temperature at which this shift occurred, increased with pellet porosity.

  9. On the Determination of Magnesium Degradation Rates under Physiological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nidadavolu, Eshwara Phani Shubhakar; Feyerabend, Frank; Ebel, Thomas; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Dahms, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The current physiological in vitro tests of Mg degradation follow the procedure stated according to the ASTM standard. This standard, although useful in predicting the initial degradation behavior of an alloy, has its limitations in interpreting the same for longer periods of immersion in cell culture media. This is an important consequence as the alloy’s degradation is time dependent. Even if two different alloys show similar corrosion rates in a short term experiment, their degradation characteristics might differ with increased immersion times. Furthermore, studies concerning Mg corrosion extrapolate the corrosion rate from a single time point measurement to the order of a year (mm/y), which might not be appropriate because of time dependent degradation behavior. In this work, the above issues are addressed and a new methodology of performing long-term immersion tests in determining the degradation rates of Mg alloys was put forth. For this purpose, cast and extruded Mg-2Ag and powder pressed and sintered Mg-0.3Ca alloy systems were chosen. DMEM Glutamax +10% FBS (Fetal Bovine Serum) +1% Penicillin streptomycin was used as cell culture medium. The advantages of such a method in predicting the degradation rates in vivo deduced from in vitro experiments are discussed. PMID:28773749

  10. On the Determination of Magnesium Degradation Rates under Physiological Conditions.

    PubMed

    Nidadavolu, Eshwara Phani Shubhakar; Feyerabend, Frank; Ebel, Thomas; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Dahms, Michael

    2016-07-28

    The current physiological in vitro tests of Mg degradation follow the procedure stated according to the ASTM standard. This standard, although useful in predicting the initial degradation behavior of an alloy, has its limitations in interpreting the same for longer periods of immersion in cell culture media. This is an important consequence as the alloy's degradation is time dependent. Even if two different alloys show similar corrosion rates in a short term experiment, their degradation characteristics might differ with increased immersion times. Furthermore, studies concerning Mg corrosion extrapolate the corrosion rate from a single time point measurement to the order of a year (mm/y), which might not be appropriate because of time dependent degradation behavior. In this work, the above issues are addressed and a new methodology of performing long-term immersion tests in determining the degradation rates of Mg alloys was put forth. For this purpose, cast and extruded Mg-2Ag and powder pressed and sintered Mg-0.3Ca alloy systems were chosen. DMEM Glutamax +10% FBS (Fetal Bovine Serum) +1% Penicillin streptomycin was used as cell culture medium. The advantages of such a method in predicting the degradation rates in vivo deduced from in vitro experiments are discussed.

  11. On the stability of robotic systems with random communication rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Yun, X.; Paul, R. P.

    1989-01-01

    Control problems of sampled data systems which are subject to random sample rate variations and delays are studied. Due to the rapid growth of the use of computers more and more systems are controlled digitally. Complex systems such as space telerobotic systems require the integration of a number of subsystems at different hierarchical levels. While many subsystems may run on a single processor, some subsystems require their own processor or processors. The subsystems are integrated into functioning systems through communications. Communications between processes sharing a single processor are also subject to random delays due to memory management and interrupt latency. Communications between processors involve random delays due to network access and to data collisions. Furthermore, all control processes involve delays due to casual factors in measuring devices and to signal processing. Traditionally, sampling rates are chosen to meet the worst case communication delay. Such a strategy is wasteful as the processors are then idle a great proportion of the time; sample rates are not as high as possible resulting in poor performance or in the over specification of control processors; there is the possibility of missing data no matter how low the sample rate is picked. Asymptotical stability with probability one for randomly sampled multi-dimensional linear systems is studied. A sufficient condition for the stability is obtained. This condition is so simple that it can be applied to practical systems. A design procedure is also shown.

  12. Feedback of mechanical effectiveness induces adaptations in motor modules during cycling

    PubMed Central

    De Marchis, Cristiano; Schmid, Maurizio; Bibbo, Daniele; Castronovo, Anna Margherita; D'Alessio, Tommaso; Conforto, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have reported evidence that the motor system may rely on a modular organization, even if this behavior has yet to be confirmed during motor adaptation. The aim of the present study is to investigate the modular motor control mechanisms underlying the execution of pedaling by untrained subjects in different biomechanical conditions. We use the muscle synergies framework to characterize the muscle coordination of 11 subjects pedaling under two different conditions. The first one consists of a pedaling exercise with a strategy freely chosen by the subjects (Preferred Pedaling Technique, PPT), while the second condition constrains the gesture by means of a real time visual feedback of mechanical effectiveness (Effective Pedaling Technique, EPT). Pedal forces, recorded using a pair of instrumented pedals, were used to calculate the Index of Effectiveness (IE). EMG signals were recorded from eight muscles of the dominant leg and Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) was applied for the extraction of muscle synergies. All the synergy vectors, extracted cycle by cycle for each subject, were pooled across subjects and conditions and underwent a 2-dimensional Sammon's non-linear mapping. Seven representative clusters were identified on the Sammon's projection, and the corresponding eight-dimensional synergy vectors were used to reconstruct the repertoire of muscle activation for all subjects and all pedaling conditions (VAF > 0.8 for each individual muscle pattern). Only 5 out of the 7 identified modules were used by the subjects during the PPT pedaling condition, while 2 additional modules were found specific for the pedaling condition EPT. The temporal recruitment of three identified modules was highly correlated with IE. The structure of the identified modules was found similar to that extracted in other studies of human walking, partly confirming the existence of shared and task specific muscle synergies, and providing further evidence on the modularity

  13. Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to previous research on sequential ratings of student performance, this study found that professional essay raters of a large-scale standardized testing program produced ratings that were drawn toward previous ratings, creating an assimilation effect. Longer intervals between the two adjacent ratings and higher degree of agreement with…

  14. Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to previous research on sequential ratings of student performance, this study found that professional essay raters of a large-scale standardized testing program produced ratings that were drawn toward previous ratings, creating an assimilation effect. Longer intervals between the two adjacent ratings and higher degree of agreement with…

  15. Performance Ratings and Librarians Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peele, David

    1970-01-01

    Two aspects of rating personnel performance are explored: (1) the rating form and some guidelines for filling it in and (2) the right of the librarian who is being rated to discuss or appeal a rating he believes to be biased. (NH)

  16. Oxygen cost of internal work during cycling.

    PubMed

    Francescato, M P; Girardis, M; di Prampero, P E

    1995-01-01

    The energy cost of internal work and its relationships with lower limb mass and pedalling frequency were studied in four male subjects [age 22.2 (SD 1.5) years, body mass 81.0 (SD 5.1) kg, maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) above resting 3.06 (SD 0.4) l.min-1]. The subjects cycled at 40, 60, 80 and 100 rpm and at five different exercise intensities for every pedalling frequency (unloaded condition, UL); the same exercises were repeated after having increased the lower limbs' masses by 40% (loaded condition, L). The exercise intensities were chosen so that the oxygen consumption (VO2) did not exceed 75% of VO2max. For all the subjects and all the conditions, the rate of VO2 above resting increased linearly with the mechanical power (W). The y-intercepts of the linear regressions of VO2 on W, normalised per kilogram of overall lower limbs mass were the same in both UL and L and increased with the 4.165 power of pedalling frequency (fp). These intercepts were taken to represent the metabolic counterpart of the internal power dissipation in cycling; they amounted to 0.78, 0.34, 3.29 and 10.30 W.kg-1 for pedalling frequencies of 40, 60, 80 and 100 rpm respectively. The slope of the regression lines (delta W/delta VO2) represents the delta efficiency of cycle ergometer exercise; this was also affected by fp, ranging, on average, from 22.9% to 32.0%. These data allowed us to obtain a comprehensive description of the effects of fp (per minute), exercise intensity (W, watts) and lower limbs' mass with or without added loads (mL, kg), on VO2 (ml.min-1) during cycling: VO2 = [mL.(4.3.10(-8).fp4.165/0.35)] + (1/[(3.594.10(-5).fp2 - 0.003.fp + 0.326).0.35]).W. The mean percentage error between the VO2 predicted from this equation and the actual value was 12.6%. This equation showed that the fraction of the overall VO2 due to internal work, for a normal 70-kg subject pedalling at 60 rpm and 100 W was of the order of 0.2.

  17. Association between heart rate variability and manual pulse rate.

    PubMed

    Hart, John

    2013-09-01

    One model for neurological assessment in chiropractic pertains to autonomic variability, tested commonly with heart rate variability (HRV). Since HRV may not be convenient to use on all patient visits, more user-friendly methods may help fill-in the gaps. Accordingly, this study tests the association between manual pulse rate and heart rate variability. The manual rates were also compared to the heart rate derived from HRV. Forty-eight chiropractic students were examined with heart rate variability (SDNN and mean heart rate) and two manual radial pulse rate measurements. Inclusion criteria consisted of participants being chiropractic students. Exclusion criteria for 46 of the participants consisted of a body mass index being greater than 30, age greater than 35, and history of: a) dizziness upon standing, b) treatment of psychiatric disorders, and c) diabetes. No exclusion criteria were applied to the remaining two participants who were also convenience sample volunteers. Linear associations between the manual pulse rate methods and the two heart rate variability measures (SDNN and mean heart) were tested with Pearson's correlation and simple linear regression. Moderate strength inverse (expected) correlations were observed between both manual pulse rate methods and SDNN (r = -0.640, 95% CI -0.781, -0.435; r = -0.632, 95% CI -0.776, -0.425). Strong direct (expected) relationships were observed between the manual pulse rate methods and heart rate derived from HRV technology (r = 0.934, 95% CI 0.885, 0.962; r = 0.941, 95% CI 0.897, 0.966). Manual pulse rates may be a useful option for assessing autonomic variability. Furthermore, this study showed a strong relationship between manual pulse rates and heart rate derived from HRV technology.

  18. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  19. Effect of Different Polymer Concentration on Drug Release Rate and Physicochemical Properties of Mucoadhesive Gastroretentive Tablets.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shweta; Murthy, R S R

    2015-01-01

    Mucoadhesive tablets have emerged as potential candidates for gastroretentive drug delivery providing controlled release along with prolonged gastric residence time. Gastroretentive mucoadhesive tablets could result in increased bioavailability due to prolonged gastric residence time. A hydrophilic matrix system was developed as mucoadhesion is achievable on appropriate wetting and swelling of the polymers used. The polymers were so chosen so as to provide a balance between swelling, mucoadhesion and drug release. The polymers chosen were hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M, chitosan, and Carbopol 934. The concentrations of these polymers used has a great impact on the physicochemical properties of the resulting formulation. The tablets were formulated using wet granulation method and tranexamic acid was used as the model drug. The prepared tablets were characterized for size, shape, appearance, hardness, friability, weight variation, swelling, mucoadhesion and in vitro drug release. Several batches of tablets were prepared by varying the ratio of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M and Chitosan. The batches having a greater ratio of chitosan showed higher rate of swelling, greater erosion, less mucoadhesion and faster release rate of the drug whereas the batches having greater ratio of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M showed lesser rate of swelling, less erosion, better mucoadhesion and a smaller drug release rate. The level of carbopol was kept constant in all the batches.

  20. Effect of Different Polymer Concentration on Drug Release Rate and Physicochemical Properties of Mucoadhesive Gastroretentive Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shweta; Murthy, R. S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Mucoadhesive tablets have emerged as potential candidates for gastroretentive drug delivery providing controlled release along with prolonged gastric residence time. Gastroretentive mucoadhesive tablets could result in increased bioavailability due to prolonged gastric residence time. A hydrophilic matrix system was developed as mucoadhesion is achievable on appropriate wetting and swelling of the polymers used. The polymers were so chosen so as to provide a balance between swelling, mucoadhesion and drug release. The polymers chosen were hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M, chitosan, and Carbopol 934. The concentrations of these polymers used has a great impact on the physicochemical properties of the resulting formulation. The tablets were formulated using wet granulation method and tranexamic acid was used as the model drug. The prepared tablets were characterized for size, shape, appearance, hardness, friability, weight variation, swelling, mucoadhesion and in vitro drug release. Several batches of tablets were prepared by varying the ratio of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M and Chitosan. The batches having a greater ratio of chitosan showed higher rate of swelling, greater erosion, less mucoadhesion and faster release rate of the drug whereas the batches having greater ratio of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M showed lesser rate of swelling, less erosion, better mucoadhesion and a smaller drug release rate. The level of carbopol was kept constant in all the batches. PMID:26997698

  1. Drilling Penetration Rate Estimation using Rock Drillability Characterization Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, Abbas; Qao, Qi; Chanda, Emmanuel

    2016-10-01

    Rock drilling Penetration Rate (PR) is influenced by many parameters including rock properties, machine parameters of the chosen rig and the working process. Five datasets were utilized to quantitatively assess the effect of various rock properties on PR. The datasets consisted of two sets of diamond and percussive drilling and one set of rotary drilling data. A new rating system called Rock Drillability Characterization index (RDCi) is proposed to predict PR for different drilling methods. This drillability model incorporates the uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock, the P-wave velocity and the density of rock. The RDCi system is further applied to predict PR in the diamond rotary drilling, non-coring rotary drilling and percussive drilling. Strong correlations between PR and RDCi values were observed indicating that the developed drillability rating model is relevant and can be utilized to effectively predict the rock drillability in any operating environment. A practical procedure for predicting PR using the RDCi was established. The drilling engineers can follow this procedure to use RDCi as an effective method to estimate drillability.

  2. Controlling hydrolysis reaction rates with binary ionic liquid mixtures by tuning hydrogen-bonding interactions.

    PubMed

    Weber, Cameron C; Masters, Anthony F; Maschmeyer, Thomas

    2012-02-16

    The ability of a binary ionic liquid (IL) system consisting of a phosphonium transition state analogue (TSA) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([BMIM][NTf(2)]) to accelerate the rate of the well-studied hydrolysis of a tert-alkyl picolinium salt by influencing the solvent structure was investigated. A significant rate enhancement was observed in the presence of the TSA; however, comparison with other cations illustrated that this enhancement was not unique to the chosen TSA. Instead, the rate enhancements were correlated with the dilution of hydrogen bonding by the added cations. This phenomenon was further examined by the use of 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([BMMIM][NTf(2)]) as a cosolvent and the use of Reichardt's dye to measure the extent of hydrogen bonding on solutes in these systems. The rate increases are rationalized in terms of weaker hydrogen bonding from the solvent system to water.

  3. Growth rate hypothesis and efficiency of protein synthesis under different sulphate concentrations in two green algae.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Mario; Palmucci, Matteo; Raven, John A

    2015-11-01

    The growth rate hypothesis (GRH) predicts a positive correlation between growth rate and RNA content because growth depends upon the protein synthesis machinery. The application of this hypothesis to photoautotrophic organisms has been questioned. We tested the GRH on one prasinophycean, Tetraselmis suecica, and one chlorophycean, Dunaliella salina, grown at three sulphate concentrations. Sulphate was chosen because its concentration in the oceans increased through geological time and apparently had a role in the evolutionary trajectories of phytoplankton. Cell protein content and P quota were positively related to the RNA content (r = 0.62 and r = 0.74, respectively). The correlation of the RNA content with growth rates (r = 0.95) indicates that the GRH was valid for these species when growth rates were below 0.82 d(-1) .

  4. Physical mechanisms underlying the strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior of kangaroo shoulder cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibbotuwawa, Namal; Oloyede, Adekunle; Li, Tong; Singh, Sanjleena; Senadeera, Wijitha; Gu, YuanTong

    2015-09-01

    Due to anatomical and biomechanical similarities to human shoulder, kangaroo was chosen as a model to study shoulder cartilage. Comprehensive enzymatic degradation and indentation tests were applied on kangaroo shoulder cartilage to study mechanisms underlying its strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior. We report that superficial collagen plays a more significant role than proteoglycans in facilitating strain-rate-dependent behavior of the kangaroo shoulder cartilage. By comparing the mechanical properties of degraded and normal cartilages, it was noted that proteoglycan and collagen degradation significantly compromised strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior of the cartilage. Superficial collagen contributed equally to the tissue behavior at all strain-rates. This is different to the studies reported on knee cartilage and confirms the importance of superficial collagen on shoulder cartilage mechanical behavior. A porohyperelastic numerical model also indicated that collagen disruption would lead to faster damage of the shoulder cartilage than when proteoglycans are depleted.

  5. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  6. Content and ratings of mature-rated video games.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Tepichin, Karen; Haninger, Kevin

    2006-04-01

    To quantify the depiction of violence, blood, sexual themes, profanity, substances, and gambling in video games rated M (for "mature") and to measure agreement between the content observed and the rating information provided to consumers on the game box by the Entertainment Software Rating Board. We created a database of M-rated video game titles, selected a random sample, recorded at least 1 hour of game play, quantitatively assessed the content, performed statistical analyses to describe the content, and compared our observations with the Entertainment Software Rating Board content descriptors and results of our prior studies. Harvard University, Boston, Mass. Authors and 1 hired game player. M-rated video games. Percentages of game play depicting violence, blood, sexual themes, gambling, alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs; use of profanity in dialogue, song lyrics, or gestures. Although the Entertainment Software Rating Board content descriptors for violence and blood provide a good indication of such content in the game, we identified 45 observations of content that could warrant a content descriptor in 29 games (81%) that lacked these content descriptors. M-rated video games are significantly more likely to contain blood, profanity, and substances; depict more severe injuries to human and nonhuman characters; and have a higher rate of human deaths than video games rated T (for "teen"). Parents and physicians should recognize that popular M-rated video games contain a wide range of unlabeled content and may expose children and adolescents to messages that may negatively influence their perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors.

  7. Textbook Deficiencies: Ambiguities in Chemical Kinetics Rates and Rate Constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quisenberry, Keith T.; Tellinghuisen, Joel

    2006-03-01

    Balanced chemical reactions often have at least some stoichiometry coefficients that are not unity. To avoid ambiguity in defining the kinetics rate for a reaction, the IUPAC has established the convention, rate = (1/ν i )/(d[A i ]/d t ) relating the reaction rate to the rate of change of concentration of any reactant or product A i and its stoichiometry number ν i (negative for reactants, positive for products). The rate is a product of the rate constant k and some function of the concentrations of reactants and products that must be determined experimentally. While most general chemistry textbooks correctly state this convention, most also proceed to ignore it in subsequent development, particularly in the use of integrated rate laws and the definition of the reaction half-life. We recommend that in future editions, authors make it clear that (i) the reaction rate and rate constant cannot be defined unambiguously without explicitly stating the reaction for which they apply and therefore (ii) the relation between the half-life, which is a physical property of the reaction system, and the rate constant depends upon how the reaction is written. The errors have arisen in part because most texts simply state the integrated rate expressions for first- and second-order reactions without deriving them. It is both appropriate and easy to include such derivations in texts oriented toward students intending careers in science, engineering, and medicine.

  8. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  9. Survival Rates for Thymus Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Survival Rates for Thymus Cancer Survival rates are often used by doctors ... Ask Your Doctor About Thymus Cancer? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  10. All about Heart Rate (Pulse)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More All About Heart Rate (Pulse) Updated:Apr 19,2016 ... are the Symptoms of High Blood Pressure? 7 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) 8 Tachycardia | Fast Heart ...

  11. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) ... incidence data are currently available. Rates of Getting Lung Cancer by State The number of people who ...

  12. Music close to one's heart: heart rate variability with music, diagnostic with e-bra and smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, Shantala; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Rai, Pratyush; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-04-01

    Music is a powerful elicitor of emotions. Emotions evoked by music, through autonomic correlates have been shown to cause significant modulation of parameters like heart rate and blood pressure. Consequently, Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis can be a powerful tool to explore evidence based therapeutic functions of music and conduct empirical studies on effect of musical emotion on heart function. However, there are limitations with current studies. HRV analysis has produced variable results to different emotions evoked via music, owing to variability in the methodology and the nature of music chosen. Therefore, a pragmatic understanding of HRV correlates of musical emotion in individuals listening to specifically chosen music whilst carrying out day to day routine activities is needed. In the present study, we aim to study HRV as a single case study, using an e-bra with nano-sensors to record heart rate in real time. The e-bra developed previously, has several salient features that make it conducive for this study- fully integrated garment, dry electrodes for easy use and unrestricted mobility. The study considers two experimental conditions:- First, HRV will be recorded when there is no music in the background and second, when music chosen by the researcher and by the subject is playing in the background.

  13. Initial SB4 Melt Rate Furnace Testing (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M

    2005-07-29

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is presently vitrifying Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) and preparing to process Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) in late 2006 or early 2007. The final composition of SB4 has not been finalized, as various blending and/or washing strategies are still being considered. SB4 will be comprised of the contents of Tanks 5, 6, 7, 8, and 11 (which will be transferred to Tank 51) along with plutonium and neptunium solutions from F and H Canyons, and possibly material from Tank 4. Tank 4 was originally included in projections, but plans have since changed (after completion of these tests) and Tank 4 is no longer part of SB4 due to problems with sludge removal. Even though the final SB4 composition was not finalized at the time of this study, there were 20 bounding options documented that could be used for preliminary melt rate tests. At the time of these tests, the SB4 compositions described as ''SB4 1200 canister baseline'' and ''SB4 1200 canister baseline (one less washed)'' documented elsewhere were chosen for these tests. The 1200 canister describes the number of equivalent canisters that would be produced from the beginning of the current contract period before SB3 is blended with SB4. These compositions were chosen as they had the highest amount of SB4 in the blend and were therefore considered as worse case SB4 feeds with regards to melt rate. This is because SB4 has higher alumina levels of any sludge batch yet processed and alumina has a negative impact on the DWPF melt rate. This baseline sludge includes Tank 4 but does not include auxiliary waste streams such as the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) stream, which contains monosodium titanate (MST), entrained sludge, and various soluble sodium compounds as the result of filter cleaning and stream adjustment for transfer. These preliminary dry-fed Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) tests were needed to initially evaluate melt rate/waste throughput. This study addressed SB4 with Frits 418 and 320, the impact

  14. MEMS Rate Sensors for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambino, Joel P.

    1999-01-01

    Micromachined Electro Mechanical System Rate sensors offer many advantages that make them attractive for space use. They are smaller, consume less power, and cost less than the systems currently available. MEMS Rate Sensors however, have not been optimized for use on spacecraft. This paper describes an approach to developing MEMS Rate Sensors systems for space use.

  15. Rate and Occupancy Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-Atlantic Association of Coll. and Univ. Housing Officers.

    In its annual effort to determine rate and occupancy trends in the Mid-Atlantic region, MACUHO surveyed by questionnaire the chief housing officers on its mailing list and received 99 usable responses, compared with 65 the previous year. The average double room rate was reported to be $691, compared with $646 in 1975; the average board rate rose…

  16. Heart rate monitoring mobile applications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Total number of times a heart beats in a minute is known as the heart rate. Traditionally, heart rate was measured using clunky gadgets but these days it can be measured with a smartphone’s camera. This can help you measure your heart rate anywhere and at anytime, especially during workouts so you can adjust your workout intensity to achieve maximum health benefits. With simple and easy to use mobile app, ‘Unique Heart Rate Monitor’, you can also maintain your heart rate history for personal reflection and sharing with a provider. PMID:28293594

  17. Discharge ratings at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    A discharge rating is the relation of the discharge at a gaging station to stage and sometimes also to other variables. This chapter of 'Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations' describes the procedures commonly used to develop simple ratings where discharge is related only to stage and the most frequently encountered types of complex ratings where additional factors such as rate of change in stage, water-surface slope, or index velocity are used. Fundamental techniques of logarithmic plotting and the applications of simple storage routing to rating development are demonstrated. Computer applications, especially for handheld programmable calculators, and data handling are stressed.

  18. The Galactic Nova Rate Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafter, A. W.

    2017-01-01

    Despite its fundamental importance, a reliable estimate of the Galactic nova rate has remained elusive. Here, the overall Galactic nova rate is estimated by extrapolating the observed rate for novae reaching m≤slant 2 to include the entire Galaxy using a two component disk plus bulge model for the distribution of stars in the Milky Way. The present analysis improves on previous work by considering important corrections for incompleteness in the observed rate of bright novae and by employing a Monte Carlo analysis to better estimate the uncertainty in the derived nova rates. Several models are considered to account for differences in the assumed properties of bulge and disk nova populations and in the absolute magnitude distribution. The simplest models, which assume uniform properties between bulge and disk novae, predict Galactic nova rates of ∼50 to in excess of 100 per year, depending on the assumed incompleteness at bright magnitudes. Models where the disk novae are assumed to be more luminous than bulge novae are explored, and predict nova rates up to 30% lower, in the range of ∼35 to ∼75 per year. An average of the most plausible models yields a rate of {50}-23+31 yr‑1, which is arguably the best estimate currently available for the nova rate in the Galaxy. Virtually all models produce rates that represent significant increases over recent estimates, and bring the Galactic nova rate into better agreement with that expected based on comparison with the latest results from extragalactic surveys.

  19. Effect of storage temperature on crystal formation rate and growth rate of calcium lactate crystals on smoked Cheddar cheeses.

    PubMed

    Rajbhandari, P; Patel, J; Valentine, E; Kindstedt, P S

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that storage temperature influences the formation of calcium lactate crystals on vacuum-packaged Cheddar cheese surfaces. However, the mechanisms by which crystallization is modulated by storage temperature are not completely understood. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of storage temperature on smoked Cheddar cheese surfaces for (1) the number of discrete visible crystals formed per unit of cheese surface area; (2) growth rate and shape of discrete crystals (as measured by area and circularity); (3) percentage of total cheese surface area occupied by crystals. Three vacuum-packaged, random weight (∼300 g) retail samples of naturally smoked Cheddar cheese, produced from the same vat of cheese, were obtained from a retail source. The samples were cut parallel to the longitudinal axis at a depth of 10mm from the 2 surfaces to give six 10-mm-thick slabs, 4 of which were randomly assigned to 4 different storage temperature treatments: 1, 5, 10°C, and weekly cycling between 1 and 10°C. Samples were stored for 30 wk. Following the onset of visible surface crystals, digital photographs of surfaces were taken every other week and evaluated by image analysis for number of discrete crystal regions and total surface area occupied by crystals. Specific discrete crystals were chosen and evaluated biweekly for radius, area, and circularity. The entire experiment was conducted in triplicate. The effects of cheese surface, storage temperature, and storage time on crystal number and total crystal area were evaluated by ANOVA, according to a repeated-measures design. The number of discrete crystal regions increased significantly during storage but at different rates for different temperature treatments. Total crystal area also increased significantly during storage, at rates that varied with temperature treatment. Storage temperature did not appear to have a major effect on the growth rates and shapes of the individual crystals

  20. Relaxed Poisson cure rate models.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Josemar; Cordeiro, Gauss M; Cancho, Vicente G; Balakrishnan, N

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to make the standard promotion cure rate model (Yakovlev and Tsodikov, ) more flexible by assuming that the number of lesions or altered cells after a treatment follows a fractional Poisson distribution (Laskin, ). It is proved that the well-known Mittag-Leffler relaxation function (Berberan-Santos, ) is a simple way to obtain a new cure rate model that is a compromise between the promotion and geometric cure rate models allowing for superdispersion. So, the relaxed cure rate model developed here can be considered as a natural and less restrictive extension of the popular Poisson cure rate model at the cost of an additional parameter, but a competitor to negative-binomial cure rate models (Rodrigues et al., ). Some mathematical properties of a proper relaxed Poisson density are explored. A simulation study and an illustration of the proposed cure rate model from the Bayesian point of view are finally presented.