Science.gov

Sample records for chosen pedal rate

  1. Crank inertial load affects freely chosen pedal rate during cycling.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ernst Albin; Jørgensen, Lars Vincents; Jensen, Kurt; Fregly, Benjamin Jon; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2002-02-01

    Cyclists seek to maximize performance during competition, and gross efficiency is an important factor affecting performance. Gross efficiency is itself affected by pedal rate. Thus, it is important to understand factors that affect freely chosen pedal rate. Crank inertial load varies greatly during road cycling based on the selected gear ratio. Nevertheless, the possible influence of crank inertial load on freely chosen pedal rate and gross efficiency has never been investigated. This study tested the hypotheses that during cycling with sub-maximal work rates, a considerable increase in crank inertial load would cause (1) freely chosen pedal rate to increase, and as a consequence, (2) gross efficiency to decrease. Furthermore, that it would cause (3) peak crank torque to increase if a constant pedal rate was maintained. Subjects cycled on a treadmill at 150 and 250W, with low and high crank inertial load, and with preset and freely chosen pedal rate. Freely chosen pedal rate was higher at high compared with low crank inertial load. Notably, the change in crank inertial load affected the freely chosen pedal rate as much as did the 100W increase in work rate. Along with freely chosen pedal rate being higher, gross efficiency at 250W was lower during cycling with high compared with low crank inertial load. Peak crank torque was higher during cycling at 90rpm with high compared with low crank inertial load. Possibly, the subjects increased the pedal rate to compensate for the higher peak crank torque accompanying cycling with high compared with low crank inertial load.

  2. The Reliability of Pedalling Rates Employed in Work Tests on the Bicycle Ergometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolonchuk, W. W.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a group of volunteer subjects could produce and maintain a pedalling cadence within an acceptable range of error. This, in turn, would aid in determining the reliability of pedalling rates employed in work tests on the bicycle ergometer. Forty male college students were randomly given four…

  3. Oxygen consumption of cycle ergometry is nonlinearly related to work rate and pedal rate.

    PubMed

    Londeree, B R; Moffitt-Gerstenberger, J; Padfield, J A; Lottmann, D

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop an equation to predict the oxygen cost of cycle ergometry. Forty subjects performed an incremental cycle ergometer test on three occasions at 50, 70, or 90 rpm in a counterbalanced order. Work rate was incremented every 5 or 6 min when steady rate values were achieved. To ensure accurate work rates, ergometer resistance was calibrated and flywheel revolutions were electronically measured. Oxygen consumption was measured with a computer interfaced system which provided results every minute. Oxygen consumption (mL.min-1) was the dependent variable, and independent variables were work rate (WR in kgm.min-1), pedal rate (rpm), weight (Kg), and gender (males, 0; females, 1). The following nonlinear equation was selected; VO2 = 0.42.WR1.2 + 0.00061.rpm3 + 6.35.Wt + 0.1136.RPM50.WR-0.10144.RPM90-WR-52-Gender, R2 = 0.9961, Sy.x = 106 mL.min-1, where RPM50: 50 rpm = 1, and RPM90: 90 rpm = 1, else = 0. It was concluded that the oxygen cost of cycle ergometry is nonlinearly related to work rate and pedal rate, linearly related to weight, and that females use less oxygen for a particular work rate.

  4. Exercise Therapy for Parkinson's Disease: Pedaling Rate Is Related to Changes in Motor Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Beall, Erik B.; Frankemolle, Anneke M.M.; Penko, Amanda; Phillips, Michael D.; Lowe, Mark J.; Alberts, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Forced-rate lower-extremity exercise has recently emerged as a potential safe and low-cost therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). The efficacy is believed to be dependent on pedaling rate, with rates above the subjects' voluntary exercise rates being most beneficial. In this study, we use functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to further elucidate the mechanism underlying this effect. Twenty-seven PD patients were randomized to complete 8 weeks of forced-rate exercise (FE) or voluntary-rate exercise (VE). Exercise was delivered using a specialized stationary bicycle, which can augment patients' voluntary exercise rates. The FE group received assistance from the cycle. Imaging was conducted at baseline, end of therapy, and after 4 weeks of follow-up. Functional connectivity (FC) was determined via seed-based correlation analysis, using activation-based seeds in the primary motor cortex (M1). The change in FC after exercise was compared using linear correlation with pedaling rate. Results of the correlation analysis showed a strong positive correlation between pedaling rate and change in FC from the most affected M1 to the ipsilateral thalamus. This effect persisted after 4 weeks of follow-up. These results indicate that a plausible mechanism for the therapeutic efficacy of high-rate exercise in PD is that it improves thalamo-cortical connectivity. PMID:26414696

  5. Exercise Therapy for Parkinson's Disease: Pedaling Rate Is Related to Changes in Motor Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Shah, Chintan; Beall, Erik B; Frankemolle, Anneke M M; Penko, Amanda; Phillips, Michael D; Lowe, Mark J; Alberts, Jay L

    2016-02-01

    Forced-rate lower-extremity exercise has recently emerged as a potential safe and low-cost therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). The efficacy is believed to be dependent on pedaling rate, with rates above the subjects' voluntary exercise rates being most beneficial. In this study, we use functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to further elucidate the mechanism underlying this effect. Twenty-seven PD patients were randomized to complete 8 weeks of forced-rate exercise (FE) or voluntary-rate exercise (VE). Exercise was delivered using a specialized stationary bicycle, which can augment patients' voluntary exercise rates. The FE group received assistance from the cycle. Imaging was conducted at baseline, end of therapy, and after 4 weeks of follow-up. Functional connectivity (FC) was determined via seed-based correlation analysis, using activation-based seeds in the primary motor cortex (M1). The change in FC after exercise was compared using linear correlation with pedaling rate. Results of the correlation analysis showed a strong positive correlation between pedaling rate and change in FC from the most affected M1 to the ipsilateral thalamus. This effect persisted after 4 weeks of follow-up. These results indicate that a plausible mechanism for the therapeutic efficacy of high-rate exercise in PD is that it improves thalamo-cortical connectivity.

  6. Pedaling rate is an important determinant of human oxygen uptake during exercise on the cycle ergometer

    PubMed Central

    Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E; Borrani, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of human oxygen uptake () during exercise is often used as an alternative when its direct measurement is not feasible. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) suggests estimating human during exercise on a cycle ergometer through an equation that considers individual's body mass and external work rate, but not pedaling rate (PR). We hypothesized that including PR in the ACSM equation would improve its prediction accuracy. Ten healthy male participants’ (age 19–48 years) were recruited and their steady-state was recorded on a cycle ergometer for 16 combinations of external work rates (0, 50, 100, and 150 W) and PR (50, 70, 90, and 110 revolutions per minute). was calculated by means of a new equation, and by the ACSM equation for comparison. Kinematic data were collected by means of an infrared 3-D motion analysis system in order to explore the mechanical determinants of . Including PR in the ACSM equation improved the accuracy for prediction of sub-maximal during exercise (mean bias 1.9 vs. 3.3 mL O2 kg−1 min−1) but it did not affect the accuracy for prediction of maximal (P > 0.05). Confirming the validity of this new equation, the results were replicated for data reported in the literature in 51 participants. We conclude that PR is an important determinant of human during cycling exercise, and it should be considered when predicting oxygen consumption. PMID:26371230

  7. Pedaling rate is an important determinant of human oxygen uptake during exercise on the cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E; Borrani, Fabio

    2015-09-01

    Estimation of human oxygen uptake (V˙o2) during exercise is often used as an alternative when its direct measurement is not feasible. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) suggests estimating human V˙o2 during exercise on a cycle ergometer through an equation that considers individual's body mass and external work rate, but not pedaling rate (PR). We hypothesized that including PR in the ACSM equation would improve its V˙o2 prediction accuracy. Ten healthy male participants' (age 19-48 years) were recruited and their steady-state V˙o2 was recorded on a cycle ergometer for 16 combinations of external work rates (0, 50, 100, and 150 W) and PR (50, 70, 90, and 110 revolutions per minute). V˙o2 was calculated by means of a new equation, and by the ACSM equation for comparison. Kinematic data were collected by means of an infrared 3-D motion analysis system in order to explore the mechanical determinants of V˙o2. Including PR in the ACSM equation improved the accuracy for prediction of sub-maximal V˙o2 during exercise (mean bias 1.9 vs. 3.3 mL O2 kg(-1) min(-1)) but it did not affect the accuracy for prediction of maximal V˙o2 (P > 0.05). Confirming the validity of this new equation, the results were replicated for data reported in the literature in 51 participants. We conclude that PR is an important determinant of human V˙o2 during cycling exercise, and it should be considered when predicting oxygen consumption.

  8. Electromyographic analysis of pedaling: a review.

    PubMed

    Hug, François; Dorel, Sylvain

    2009-04-01

    Although pedaling is constrained by the circular trajectory of the pedals, it is not a simple movement. This review attempts to provide an overview of the pedaling technique using an electromyographic (EMG) approach. Literature concerning the electromyographic analysis of pedaling is reviewed in an effort to make a synthesis of the available information, and to point out its relevance for researchers, clinicians and/or cycling/triathlon trainers. The first part of the review depicts methodological aspects of the EMG signal recording and processing. We show how the pattern of muscle activation during pedaling can be analyzed in terms of muscle activity level and muscle activation timing. Muscle activity level is generally quantified with root mean square or integrated EMG values. Muscle activation timing is studied by defining EMG signal onset and offset times that identify the duration of EMG bursts and, more recently, by the determination of a lag time maximizing the cross-correlation coefficient. In the second part of the review, we describe whether the patterns of the lower limb muscles activity are influenced by numerous factors affecting pedaling such as power output, pedaling rate, body position, shoe-pedal interface, training status and fatigue. Some research perspectives linked to pedaling performance are discussed throughout the manuscript and in the conclusion.

  9. Analysis of EMG measurements during bicycle pedalling.

    PubMed

    Jorge, M; Hull, M L

    1986-01-01

    Activity of eight leg muscles has been monitored for six test subjects while pedalling a bicycle on rollers in the laboratory. Each electromyogram (EMG) data channel was digitized at a sampling rate of 2 kHz by a minicomputer. Data analysis entailed generating plots of both EMG activity regions and integrated EMG (IEMG). For each test subject, data were recorded for five cases of pedalling conditions. The different pedalling conditions were defined to explore a variety of research hypotheses. This exploration has led to the following conclusions: Muscular activity levels of the quadriceps are influenced by the type of shoes worn and activity levels increase with soft sole shoes as opposed to cycling shoes with cleats and toeclips. EMG activity patterns are not strongly related to pedalling conditions (i.e. load, seat height and shoe type). The level of muscle activity, however, is significantly affected by pedalling conditions. Muscular activity bears a complex relationship with seat height and quadriceps activity level decreases with greater seat height. Agonist (i.e. hamstrings) and antagonist (i.e. quadriceps) muscles of the hip/knee are active simultaneously during leg extension. Regions of peak activity levels, however, do not overlap. The lack of significant cocontraction of agonist/antagonist muscles enables muscle forces during pedalling action to be computed by solving a series of equilibrium problems over different regions of the crank cycle. Regions are defined and a solution procedure is outlined.

  10. Haptic gas pedal feedback.

    PubMed

    Mulder, M; Mulder, M; van Paassen, M M; Abbink, D A

    2008-11-01

    Active driver support systems either automate a control task or present warnings to drivers when their safety is seriously degraded. In a novel approach, utilising neither automation nor discrete warnings, a haptic gas pedal (accelerator) interface was developed that continuously presents car-following support information, keeping the driver in the loop. This interface was tested in a fixed-base driving simulator. Twenty-one drivers between the ages of 24 and 30 years participated in a driving experiment to investigate the effects of haptic gas pedal feedback on car-following behaviour. Results of the experiment indicate that when haptic feedback was presented to the drivers, some improvement in car-following performance was achieved, while control activity decreased. Further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of the system in more varied driving conditions. Haptics is an under-used modality in the application of human support interfaces, which usually draw on vision or hearing. This study demonstrates how haptics can be used to create an effective driver support interface.

  11. Selection of Pedaling Load and Design of Electric-Cart Control System with Continuously Adjustable Pedal Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Jin-Hua; Ishii, Shota; Yokota, Sho; Sakuma, Yuji; Ohyama, Yasuhiro

    A previously developed electric cart was improved by installing a knob that allows the driver to continuously vary the pedal load between the strenuous and assisted modes. This paper explains how the pedal load is determined and a design method for the cart control system. First, the largest pedal load is determined from the standpoint of ergonomics on the basis of the rating of perceived exertion and the Karvonen formula with a special focus on the motor function of the elderly. Then, a gain-scheduling cart control system for any pedal load in the allowed range is described, and a stability condition is derived using dynamic parallel distributed compensation. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of the cart control system.

  12. Sensor-based nitrogen applications out-performed producer-chosen rates for corn in on-farm demonstrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal nitrogen fertilizer rate for corn can vary substantially within and among fields. Current N management practices do not address this variability. Crop reflectance sensors offer the potential to diagnose crop N need and control N application rates at a fine spatial scale. Our objective was...

  13. Asymmetrical Pedaling Patterns in Parkinson's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Penko, Amanda L.; Hirsch, Joshua R.; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Martin, Philip E.; Blackburn, Gordon; Alberts, Jay L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 1.5 million Americans are affected by Parkinson's disease [1] which includes the symptoms of postural instability and gait dysfunction. Currently, clinical evaluations of postural instability and gait dysfunction consist of a subjective rater assessment of gait patterns using items from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, and assessments can be insensitive to the effectiveness of medical interventions. Current research suggests the importance of cycling for Parkinson's disease patients, and while Parkinson's gait has been evaluated in previous studies, little is known about lower extremity control during cycling. The purpose of this study is to examine the lower extremity coordination patterns of Parkinson's patients during cycling. Methods Twenty five participants, ages 44-72, with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease participated in an exercise test on a cycle ergometer that was equipped with pedal force measurements. Crank torque, crank angle and power produced by right and left leg were measured throughout the test to calculate Symmetry Index at three stages of exercise (20 Watt, 60 Watt, maximum performance). Findings Decreases in Symmetry Index were observed for average power output in Parkinson's patients as workload increased. Maximum power Symmetry Index showed a significant difference in symmetry between performance at both the 20 Watt and 60 Watt stage and the maximal resistance stage. Minimum power Symmetry Index did not show significant differences across the stages of the test. While lower extremity asymmetries were present in Parkinson's patients during pedaling, these asymmetries did not correlate to postural instability and gait dysfunction Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores. Interpretation This pedaling analysis allows for a more sensitive measure of lower extremity function than the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and may help to provide unique insight into current and

  14. Development of objective discomfort evaluation indicators for a task-oriented motion using less constrained motion concept: application to automotive pedal clutching task.

    PubMed

    Romain, Pannetier; Xuguang, Wang

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method to develop objective discomfort evaluation indicators for a task oriented motion using the concept of less constrained movement. The basic idea is to compare imposed and less constrained movements in order to identify relevant biomechanical parameters for defining objective discomfort indicators. The task of automotive pedal clutching was chosen for illustrating the proposed method. Based on discomfort questionnaire and motion analysis of the experimental data, four discomfort indicators were proposed. Two of them were based on the ankle joint angle around flexion/extension axis at the beginning and the end of the clutch pedal depression. The third one was defined using knee flexion/extension joint torque at the end of the clutch pedal depression. The last indicator was defined as the relative lateral position of the heel compared to the average pedal lateral position for less constrained configurations. A global discomfort function was also defined as a weighted sum of all indicators. Globally, the proposed global discomfort indicator succeeded in differentiating the tested configurations in agreement with experimental observation. As expected, less discomfort rating is obtained for less constrained movement when compared with the corresponding imposed one.

  15. A Piloted Simulator Evaluation of Transport Aircraft Rudder Pedal Force/Feel Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    2008-01-01

    A piloted simulation study has been conducted in a fixed-base research simulator to assess the directional handling qualities for various rudder pedal feel characteristics for commercial transport airplanes. That is, the effects of static pedal force at maximum pedal travel, breakout force, and maximum pedal travel on handling qualities were studied. An artificial maneuver with a severe lateral wind shear and requiring runway tracking at an altitude of 50 feet in a crosswind was used to fully exercise the rudder pedals. Twelve active airline pilots voluntarily participated in the study and flew approximately 500 maneuvers. The pilots rated the maneuver performance with various rudder pedal feel characteristics using the Cooper- Harper rating scale. The test matrix had 15 unique combinations of the 3 static pedal feel characteristics. A 10-term, second-order equation for the Cooper-Harper pilot rating as a function of the 3 independent pedal feel parameters was fit to the data. The test matrix utilized a Central Composite Design that is very efficient for fitting an equation of this form. The equation was used to produce contour plots of constant pilot ratings as a function of two of the parameters with the third parameter held constant. These contour plots showed regions of good handling qualities as well as regions of degraded handling qualities. In addition, a numerical equation solver was used to predict the optimum parameter values (those with the lowest pilot rating). Quantitative pilot performance data were also analyzed. This analysis found that the peak values of the cross power spectra of the pedal force and heading angle could be used to quantify the tendency toward directional pilot induced oscillations (PIO). Larger peak values of the cross power spectra were correlated with larger (degraded) Cooper-Harper pilot ratings. Thus, the subjective data (Cooper-Harper pilot ratings) were consistent with the objective data (peak values of the cross power

  16. Safety Pedal for Foot-Operated Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    Ninged structure prevents inadvertent use. Forward motion of foot on yoke plate necessary to operate brake pedal. Downward force on yoke plate turns locking/releasing laver, which then pushes locking pin into indexing hole. New pedal improves both productivity and safety of power brakes and such other machines as metal shearers and punch presses.

  17. 16 CFR 1512.7 - Requirements for pedals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... only be on the surface presented to the rider's foot. (b) Toe clips. Pedals intended to be used only with toe clips shall have toe clips securely attached to them and need not have tread surfaces. Pedals designed for optional use of toe clips shall have tread surfaces. (c) Pedal reflectors. Pedals for...

  18. 16 CFR 1512.7 - Requirements for pedals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... only be on the surface presented to the rider's foot. (b) Toe clips. Pedals intended to be used only with toe clips shall have toe clips securely attached to them and need not have tread surfaces. Pedals designed for optional use of toe clips shall have tread surfaces. (c) Pedal reflectors. Pedals for...

  19. Use of the Wattbike Cycle Ergometer for Attenuation of Bilateral Pedaling Asymmetry in Trained Cyclists.

    PubMed

    Kell, David T; Greer, Beau K

    2017-02-01

    Kell, DT and Greer, BK. Use of the Wattbike cycle ergometer for attenuation of bilateral pedaling asymmetry in trained cyclists. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 468-473, 2017-Experienced cyclists typically pedal with a 5-20% bilateral asymmetry in regards to power output. The aim of this study was to determine if visual feedback (VF) through the Wattbike cycle ergometer is an effective tool in reducing bilateral pedaling asymmetry in trained cyclists. Twelve subjects completed three 10-minute cycling trials on the Wattbike at a power output consistent with 60% V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak. The 3 trials consisted of a baseline (BASE) trial in which cyclists pedaled without instruction, a conscious control (CC) trial during which cyclists attempted to pedal symmetrically, and another trial in which cyclists attempted to pedal symmetrically while using VF of their bilateral power outputs (%) through the Wattbike. Although the BASE trial was always performed first, the order of the CC and VF trials was counterbalanced to minimize the influence of the order effect. For the primary analysis, the Asymmetry Index percentages (AI%s) for the 3 trials were not significantly different (p > 0.05). However, secondary analysis of subjects who had baseline AI%s within the normal, reported range showed significantly decreased AI%s during the VF trial as compared with BASE (p ≤ 0.05). These results suggest that cyclists with normal AI%s can pedal more symmetrically while using VF of their asymmetry as opposed to merely attempting conscious correction without feedback. It is currently unknown whether adopting a more bilaterally symmetrical pedaling style will improve cycling performance or decrease injury rates in cyclists.

  20. Determination of the peak power output during maximal brief pedalling bouts.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Y; Mutoh, Y; Miyashita, M

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose an optimization procedure for determining power output during very brief maximal pedalling exercise. Twenty-six healthy male students (21-28 years) performed anaerobic tests on a Monark bicycle ergometer with maximal effort for less than 10 s at eight different loads ranging from 28.1 to 84.2 Nm in pedalling moment. The maximal pedalling rate was determined from the minimal time required for one rotation of the cycle wheel. Pedalling rate decreased linearly with the load. The relationship between load and pedalling rate was represented by two linear regression equations for each subject; one regression equation was determined from eight pairs of pedalling rates and loads (r less than -0.976) and the other from three pairs (at 28.1, 46.8, 65.5 Nm; r less than -0.969). The two regression coefficients of the respective regression equations were almost identical. Mean +/- S.D. of maximal power output (Pmax) which was determined for each subject based on the two linear regression equations for eight pairs and three pairs of pedalling rates and loads was 930 +/- 187 W (13.4 +/- 1.6 W kgBW-1) and 927 +/- 187 W (13.4 +/- 1.6 W kgBW-1), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the values of Pmax which were obtained from each equation. It was concluded that maximal anaerobic power could be simply determined by performing maximal cycling exercise at three different loads.

  1. Foot Pedals for Spacecraft Manual Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Morin, Lee M.; McCabe, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Fifty years ago, NASA decided that the cockpit controls in spacecraft should be like the ones in airplanes. But controls based on the stick and rudder may not be best way to manually control a vehicle in space. A different method is based on submersible vehicles controlled with foot pedals. A new pilot can learn the sub's control scheme in minutes and drive it hands-free. We are building a pair of foot pedals for spacecraft control, and will test them in a spacecraft flight simulator.

  2. Evaluation of mechanical tractor pedal extensions.

    PubMed

    Kelso, S A; Stangherlin, A M; Mann, D D

    2008-10-01

    Many farmers with disabilities choose to modify their work environments to accommodate their personal abilities; however, modified tractors may present greater risk to the operator as they are often one-of-a-kind designs that have not been subjected to rigorous safety testing. The objective of this research was to evaluate mechanical tractor pedal , extensions from a safety perspective. This objective was achieved by identifying potential hazards associated with the introduction of a pedal extension into the cab environment so that both existing and novel designs could be compared using a common methodology. Based on review of the published literature, 19 potential hazards associated with the introduction of a pedal extension into the cab of a tractor were identified. A hazard self-assessment worksheet (HSAW), created based on the 19 hazards, was validated through a pilot study. The overall inter-rater reliability and concurrent criterion validity proved to be acceptable. With the use of the HSAW six pedal extensions (three existing designs and three novel designs) were evaluated by 14 experts. Statistical analysis of the results did not identify a "best" design; however, several important trends were observed. Four of the six designs tended to block access to the exit path. The two designs that did not block access to the exit path might be considered to be the best designs for the tractors used in this study, but other designs likely would have been acceptable if they had been custom-fit for these tractors. The results of this research suggest that custom fabrication of pedal extensions for each specific tractor will likely yield the safest work environment for those who choose to use this assistive technology.

  3. Optimization of vehicle accelerator-brake pedal foot travel time.

    PubMed

    Glass, S W; Suggs, C W

    1977-12-01

    This study was directed towards reducing the lag time between stimulus and incidence of braking. The effect of the relative vertical heights of the brake and accelerator pedals on foot travel time was the subject of the first part of the investigation. In the second part, two new pedal designs in which the accelerator was mounted directly on the brake pedal were evaluated. A significant reduction in foot travel time of approximately 12.5% was realised by locating the accelerator pedal 25-50 mm (1-2 in) higher than the brake pedal. Mounting of the accelerator pedal adjacent to or directly on the brake pedal allowed reductions in braking lag time of 46% to 74%.

  4. Voluntary Movement Frequencies in Submaximal One- and Two-Legged Knee Extension Exercise and Pedaling

    PubMed Central

    Stang, Julie; Wiig, Håvard; Hermansen, Marte; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of behavior and control of human voluntary rhythmic stereotyped leg movements is useful in work to improve performance, function, and rehabilitation of exercising, healthy, and injured humans. The present study aimed at adding to the existing understanding within this field. To pursue the aim, correlations between freely chosen movement frequencies in relatively simple, single-joint, one- and two-legged knee extension exercise were investigated. The same was done for more complex, multiple-joint, one- and two-legged pedaling. These particular activities were chosen because they could be considered related to some extent, as they shared a key aspect of knee extension, and because they at the same time were different. The activities were performed at submaximal intensities, by healthy individuals (n = 16, thereof eight women; 23.4 ± 2.7 years; 1.70 ± 0.11 m; 68.6 ± 11.2 kg). High and fair correlations (R-values of 0.99 and 0.75) occurred between frequencies generated with the dominant leg and the nondominant leg during knee extension exercise and pedaling, respectively. Fair to high correlations (R-values between 0.71 and 0.95) occurred between frequencies performed with each of the two legs in an activity, and the two-legged frequency performed in the same type of activity. In general, the correlations were higher for knee extension exercise than for pedaling. Correlations between knee extension and pedaling frequencies were of modest occurrence. The correlations between movement frequencies generated separately by each of the legs might be interpreted to support the following working hypothesis, which was based on existing literature. It is likely that involved central pattern generators (CPGs) of the two legs share a common frequency generator or that separate frequency generators of each leg are attuned via interneuronal connections. Further, activity type appeared to be relevant. Thus, the apparent common rhythmogenesis for the two legs appeared

  5. Foot placement during error and pedal applications in naturalistic driving.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuqing; Boyle, Linda Ng; McGehee, Daniel; Roe, Cheryl A; Ebe, Kazutoshi; Foley, James

    2017-02-01

    Data from a naturalistic driving study was used to examine foot placement during routine foot pedal movements and possible pedal misapplications. The study included four weeks of observations from 30 drivers, where pedal responses were recorded and categorized. The foot movements associated with pedal misapplications and errors were the focus of the analyses. A random forest algorithm was used to predict the pedal application types based the video observations, foot placements, drivers' characteristics, drivers' cognitive function levels and anthropometric measurements. A repeated multinomial logit model was then used to estimate the likelihood of the foot placement given various driver characteristics and driving scenarios. The findings showed that prior foot location, the drivers' seat position, and the drive sequence were all associated with incorrect foot placement during an event. The study showed that there is a potential to develop a driver assistance system that can reduce the likelihood of a pedal error.

  6. A theoretical analysis of an optimal chainring shape to maximize crank power during isokinetic pedaling.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Jeffery W; Neptune, Richard R

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have sought to improve cycling performance by altering various aspects of the pedaling motion using novel crank-pedal mechanisms and non-circular chainrings. However, most designs have been based on empirical data and very few have provided significant improvements in cycling performance. The purpose of this study was to use a theoretical framework that included a detailed musculoskeletal model driven by individual muscle actuators, forward dynamic simulations and design optimization to determine if cycling performance (i.e., maximal power output) could be improved by optimizing the chainring shape to maximize average crank power during isokinetic pedaling conditions. The optimization identified a consistent non-circular chainring shape at pedaling rates of 60, 90 and 120 rpm with an average eccentricity of 1.29 that increased crank power by an average of 2.9% compared to a conventional circular chainring. The increase in average crank power was the result of the optimal chainrings slowing down the crank velocity during the downstroke (power phase) to allow muscles to generate power longer and produce more external work. The data also showed that chainrings with higher eccentricity increased negative muscle work following the power phase due to muscle activation-deactivation dynamics. Thus, the chainring shape that maximized average crank power balanced these competing demands by providing enough eccentricity to increase the external work generated by muscles during the power phase while minimizing negative work during the subsequent recovery phase.

  7. The effect of tempo on pedal timing in piano performance.

    PubMed

    Repp, B H

    1997-01-01

    The temporal coordination of hand and foot actions in piano performance is an interesting instance of highly practiced, perceptually guided complex motor behavior. To gain some insight into the nature of this coordination, ten pianists were asked to play two excerpts from the piano literature that required repeated use of the damper pedal to connect successive chords. Each excerpt was played at three prescribed tempos on a Yamaha Disklavier and was recorded in MIDI format. The question of interest was whether and how changes in tempo would affect the timing of pedal releases and depressions within the periods defined by successive manual chord onsets. Theoretical possibilities ranged from absolute invariance (variable phase relationships) to relative invariance of pedal timing (constant phase relationships). The results show that, typically, the timing of pedal actions is neither absolutely nor relatively invariant: As the tempo increases, both pedal releases and depressions usually occur a little sooner and pedal changes (release-depression sequences) are executed a little more quickly, but these effects are proportionally smaller than the changes in manual (and pedal) period duration. Since this may be due to unequal changes in peripheral hand and foot kinematics with tempo, it remains possible that there is invariance of either kind at the level of central motor commands. However, it is the peripheral timing that produces the acoustic consequences musicians try to achieve.

  8. Injuries to pedal cyclists on New Zealand roads, 1988-2007

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The risk of injury is one of the major barriers to engaging in cycling. We investigated exposure-based rates and profiles of traffic injuries sustained by pedal cyclists that resulted in death or hospital inpatient treatment in New Zealand, one of the most car dependent countries. Methods Pedal cyclist traffic injuries were identified from the Mortality Collection and the National Minimum Dataset. Total time spent cycling was used as the measure of exposure and computed from National Household Travel Surveys. Analyses were undertaken for the periods 1988-91, 1996-99 and 2003-07 in relation to other major road users and by age, gender and body region affected. A modified Barell matrix was used to characterise the profiles of pedal cyclist injuries by body region affected and nature of injury. Results Cyclists had the second highest rate of traffic injuries compared to other major road user categories and the rate increased from 1996-99 to 2003-07. During 2003-07, 31 injuries occurred per million hours spent cycling. Non-collision crashes (40%) and collisions with a car, pick-up truck or van (26%) accounted for two thirds of the cycling injuries. Children and adolescents aged under 15 years were at the highest risk, particularly of non-collision crashes. The rate of traumatic brain injuries fell from 1988-91 to 1996-99; however, injuries to other body parts increased steadily. Traumatic brain injuries were most common in collision cases whereas upper extremity fractures were most common in other crashes. Conclusions The burden of fatal and hospitalised injuries among pedal cyclists is considerable and has been increasing over the last decade. This underscores the development of road safety and injury prevention programmes for cyclists alongside the cycling promotion strategies. PMID:21034490

  9. Close up view of the pair of Rudder Pedals in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close up view of the pair of Rudder Pedals in the Commander's Satiation on the Flight Deck of the Orbiter Discovery. The rudder pedals command orbiter acceleration in yaw by positioning the rudder during atmospheric flight. However, because the flight control software automatically performs turn coordination during banking maneuvers, the rudder pedals are not operationally used during glided flight. It is not until after touchdown that the crew uses them for nose wheel steering during rollout. Depressing the upper portion of the rudder pedals provides braking. Differential braking may also be used for directional control during rollout. This view was take at Johnson Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  10. Altered muscle coordination when pedaling with independent cranks

    PubMed Central

    Hug, François; Boumier, Florian; Dorel, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Pedaling with independent cranks ensures each leg cycles independently of the other, and thus eliminates the contribution of the contralateral leg during the upstroke phase. Consequently the subject is required to actively pull-up the pedal to complete the cycle. The present study aimed to determine the acute effect of the use of independent cranks on muscle coordination during a submaximal pedaling exercise. Ten healthy males were asked to perform submaximal pedaling exercises at 100 Watts with normal fixed cranks (control condition) or independent cranks. Both 2-D pedal forces and electromyographic (EMG) SIGNALS of 10 lower limb muscles were recorded. When the mean EMG activity across the cycle was considered, the use of independent cranks significantly increased the activity level compared to control for Tibialis anterior (TA) (P = 0.0017; +336 ± 302%), Gastrocnemius medialis (GM) (P = 0.0005; +47 ± 25%), Rectus femoris (RF) (P = 0.005; +123 ± 153%), Biceps femoris (BF)—long head (P = 0.0001; +162 ± 97%), Semimembranosus (SM) (P = 0.0001; +304 ± 192%), and Tensor fascia latae (P = 0.0001; +586 ± 262%). The analysis of the four pedaling sectors revealed that the increased activity of hip and knee flexors mainly occurred during the top dead center and the upstroke phase. In addition, a high inter-individual variability was found in the way the participants adapted to pedaling with independent cranks. The present results showed that the enforced pull-up action required when using independent cranks was achieved by increasing the activation of hip and knee flexors. Further studies are needed to determine whether training with independent cranks has the potential to induce long-term changes in muscle coordination, and, if so, whether these changes are beneficial for cycling performance. PMID:24009587

  11. Altered muscle coordination when pedaling with independent cranks.

    PubMed

    Hug, François; Boumier, Florian; Dorel, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Pedaling with independent cranks ensures each leg cycles independently of the other, and thus eliminates the contribution of the contralateral leg during the upstroke phase. Consequently the subject is required to actively pull-up the pedal to complete the cycle. The present study aimed to determine the acute effect of the use of independent cranks on muscle coordination during a submaximal pedaling exercise. Ten healthy males were asked to perform submaximal pedaling exercises at 100 Watts with normal fixed cranks (control condition) or independent cranks. Both 2-D pedal forces and electromyographic (EMG) SIGNALS of 10 lower limb muscles were recorded. When the mean EMG activity across the cycle was considered, the use of independent cranks significantly increased the activity level compared to control for Tibialis anterior (TA) (P = 0.0017; +336 ± 302%), Gastrocnemius medialis (GM) (P = 0.0005; +47 ± 25%), Rectus femoris (RF) (P = 0.005; +123 ± 153%), Biceps femoris (BF)-long head (P = 0.0001; +162 ± 97%), Semimembranosus (SM) (P = 0.0001; +304 ± 192%), and Tensor fascia latae (P = 0.0001; +586 ± 262%). The analysis of the four pedaling sectors revealed that the increased activity of hip and knee flexors mainly occurred during the top dead center and the upstroke phase. In addition, a high inter-individual variability was found in the way the participants adapted to pedaling with independent cranks. The present results showed that the enforced pull-up action required when using independent cranks was achieved by increasing the activation of hip and knee flexors. Further studies are needed to determine whether training with independent cranks has the potential to induce long-term changes in muscle coordination, and, if so, whether these changes are beneficial for cycling performance.

  12. Study of alternate material for pedal ventilator kits. Final report May 79-May 80

    SciTech Connect

    Buday, J.M.

    1980-04-01

    The objective of this program was to conduct a study of alternate materials that could be utilized in the construction of a pedal ventilator kit (PVK). The goal of the study was to reduce unit cost in a large scale procurement. Cost savings and performance parameters were evaluated using the PVK developed in 1979 under Contract No. DCP01-78-C-0184 as a basis for comparison. A value analysis study was conducted on the PVK to determine viable material/design revisions that offered potential manufacturing economies. Based on the conclusions of the study, one optimum design was chosen for fabrication. Prior to fabrication, five breadboard support frames were constructed and tested. Fifteen fully assembled prototype pedal ventilator kits were constructed. Five of the PVK's were subsequently tested to assure compliance with performance and reliability requirements. Preliminary specifications and operating instructions were generated for the PVK. In addition, production cost estimates based on a procurement of 100,000 units were formulated for FEMA budgetary purposes.

  13. Intermuscular coherence contributions in synergistic muscles during pedaling.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Cristiano; Severini, Giacomo; Castronovo, Anna Margherita; Schmid, Maurizio; Conforto, Silvia

    2015-06-01

    The execution of rhythmical motor tasks requires the control of multiple skeletal muscles by the Central Nervous System (CNS), and the neural mechanisms according to which the CNS manages their coordination are not completely clear yet. In this study, we analyze the distribution of the neural drive shared across muscles that work synergistically during the execution of a free pedaling task. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from eight lower limb muscles of eleven healthy untrained participants during an unconstrained pedaling exercise. The coordinated activity of the lower limb muscles was described within the framework of muscle synergies, extracted through the application of nonnegative matrix factorization. Intermuscular synchronization was assessed by calculating intermuscular coherence between pairs of EMG signals from co-active, both synergistic and non-synergistic muscles within their periods of co-activation. The spatiotemporal structure of muscle coordination during pedaling was well represented by four muscle synergies for all the subjects. Significant coherence values within the gamma band (30-60 Hz) were identified only for one out of the four extracted muscle synergies. This synergy is mainly composed of the activity of knee extensor muscles, and its function is related to the power production and crank propelling during the pedaling cycle. In addition, a significant coherence peak was found in the lower frequencies for the GAM/SOL muscle pair, possibly related to the ankle stabilizing function of these two muscles during the pedaling task. No synchronization was found either for the other extracted muscle synergies or for pairs of co-active but non-synergistic muscles. The obtained results seem to suggest the presence of intermuscular synchronization only when a functional force production is required, with the observed gamma band contribution possibly reflecting a cortical drive to synergistic muscles during pedaling.

  14. Development and calibration of a pedal with force and moment sensors.

    PubMed

    Gurgel, Jonas; Porto, Flávia; Russomano, Thais; Cambraia, Rodrigo; de Azevedo, Dario F G; Glock, Flávio S; Beck, João Carlos Pinheiro; Helegda, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    An instrumented bicycle pedal was built and calibrated. The pedal has good linearity and sensibility, comparable to other instruments in the literature. This study aimed to perform accurate calibration of a tri-axial pedal, including forces applied, deformations, nonlinearities, hysteresis and standard error for each axis. Calibration was based on Hull and Davis method, which is based on the application of known loads on the pedal in order to create a calibration matrix.

  15. Effects of pedal type and pull-up action during cycling.

    PubMed

    Mornieux, G; Stapelfeldt, B; Gollhofer, A; Belli, A

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of different shoe-pedal interfaces and of an active pulling-up action during the upstroke phase on the pedalling technique. Eight elite cyclists (C) and seven non-cyclists (NC) performed three different bouts at 90 rev . min (-1) and 60 % of their maximal aerobic power. They pedalled with single pedals (PED), with clipless pedals (CLIP) and with a pedal force feedback (CLIPFBACK) where subjects were asked to pull up on the pedal during the upstroke. There was no significant difference for pedalling effectiveness, net mechanical efficiency (NE) and muscular activity between PED and CLIP. When compared to CLIP, CLIPFBACK resulted in a significant increase in pedalling effectiveness during upstroke (86 % for C and 57 % NC, respectively), as well as higher biceps femoris and tibialis anterior muscle activity (p < 0.001). However, NE was significantly reduced (p < 0.008) with 9 % and 3.3 % reduction for C and NC, respectively. Consequently, shoe-pedal interface (PED vs. CLIP) did not significantly influence cycling technique during submaximal exercise. However, an active pulling-up action on the pedal during upstroke increased the pedalling effectiveness, while reducing net mechanical efficiency.

  16. Treating calf and pedal vessel disease: the extremes of intervention.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Marco; Palena, Luis M

    2014-12-01

    Recent developments in catheter, balloon, and guidewire technology have increased the scope for endovascular treatments in the management of complex and challenging disease in the calf and foot. The antegrade femoral approach remains the starting point for most interventions, but there is a growing role for procedures performed from unconventional access such as the pedal arteries. This article reviews the indications for intervention, atypical access, and the choice of equipment for these extreme interventions.

  17. Successful Coronary Stent Retrieval From a Pedal Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Mariano, Enrica Versaci, Francesco; Gandini, Roberto; Simonetti, Giovanni; Di Vito, Livio; Romeo, Francesco

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this article is to report complications from a coronary drug-eluting stent lost in the peripheral circulation. We report the case of successful retrieval of a sirolimus coronary stent from a pedal artery in a young patient who underwent coronary angiography for previous anterior myocardial infarction. Recognition of stent embolization requires adequate removal of the device to avoid unwelcome clinical sequelae.

  18. Energy biomass characteristics of chosen plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyszlak-Bargłowicz, J.; Zając, G.; Piekarski, W.

    2012-04-01

    The chosen energy plants species: willow, mallow and Miscanthus are presented. Result of analysis of combustion heat and heating value of these species biomass indicate on possibility of their utilization as fuel for combustion and energy and heat production.

  19. A novel fMRI paradigm suggests that pedaling-related brain activation is altered after stroke.

    PubMed

    Promjunyakul, Nutta-On; Schmit, Brian D; Schindler-Ivens, Sheila M

    2015-01-01

    were examined separately, reduced brain activation volume reached statistical significance in BA6 [p = 0.04; 4,350 (2,347) μL stroke; 6,938 (3,134) μL control] and cerebellum [p = 0.001; 4,591 (1,757) μL stroke; 8,381 (2,835) μL control]. Regardless of whether activated regions were examined together or separately, there were no significant between-group differences in brain activation intensity [p = 0.17; 1.30 (0.25)% stroke; 1.16 (0.20)% control]. Reduced volume in the stroke group was not observed during lower limb tapping and could not be fully attributed to differences in head motion or movement rate. There was a tendency for pedaling-related brain activation volume to increase with increasing work performed by the paretic limb during pedaling (p = 0.08, r = 0.525). Hence, the results of this study provide two original and important contributions. First, we demonstrated that pedaling can be used with fMRI to examine brain activation associated with lower limb movement in people with stroke. Unlike previous lower limb movements examined with fMRI, pedaling involves continuous, reciprocal, multijoint movement of both limbs. In this respect, pedaling has many characteristics of functional lower limb movements, such as walking. Thus, the importance of our contribution lies in the establishment of a novel paradigm that can be used to understand how the brain adapts to stroke to produce functional lower limb movements. Second, preliminary observations suggest that brain activation volume is reduced during pedaling post-stroke. Reduced brain activation volume may be due to anatomic, physiology, and/or behavioral differences between groups, but methodological issues cannot be excluded. Importantly, brain action volume post-stroke was both task-dependent and mutable, which suggests that it could be modified through rehabilitation. Future work will explore these possibilities.

  20. A novel fMRI paradigm suggests that pedaling-related brain activation is altered after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Promjunyakul, Nutta-on; Schmit, Brian D.; Schindler-Ivens, Sheila M.

    2015-01-01

    regions were examined separately, reduced brain activation volume reached statistical significance in BA6 [p = 0.04; 4,350 (2,347) μL stroke; 6,938 (3,134) μL control] and cerebellum [p = 0.001; 4,591 (1,757) μL stroke; 8,381 (2,835) μL control]. Regardless of whether activated regions were examined together or separately, there were no significant between-group differences in brain activation intensity [p = 0.17; 1.30 (0.25)% stroke; 1.16 (0.20)% control]. Reduced volume in the stroke group was not observed during lower limb tapping and could not be fully attributed to differences in head motion or movement rate. There was a tendency for pedaling-related brain activation volume to increase with increasing work performed by the paretic limb during pedaling (p = 0.08, r = 0.525). Hence, the results of this study provide two original and important contributions. First, we demonstrated that pedaling can be used with fMRI to examine brain activation associated with lower limb movement in people with stroke. Unlike previous lower limb movements examined with fMRI, pedaling involves continuous, reciprocal, multijoint movement of both limbs. In this respect, pedaling has many characteristics of functional lower limb movements, such as walking. Thus, the importance of our contribution lies in the establishment of a novel paradigm that can be used to understand how the brain adapts to stroke to produce functional lower limb movements. Second, preliminary observations suggest that brain activation volume is reduced during pedaling post-stroke. Reduced brain activation volume may be due to anatomic, physiology, and/or behavioral differences between groups, but methodological issues cannot be excluded. Importantly, brain action volume post-stroke was both task-dependent and mutable, which suggests that it could be modified through rehabilitation. Future work will explore these possibilities. PMID:26089789

  1. Consistency of muscle synergies during pedaling across different mechanical constraints.

    PubMed

    Hug, François; Turpin, Nicolas A; Couturier, Antoine; Dorel, Sylvain

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether muscle synergies are constrained by changes in the mechanics of pedaling. The decomposition algorithm used to identify muscle synergies was based on two components: "muscle synergy vectors," which represent the relative weighting of each muscle within each synergy, and "synergy activation coefficients," which represent the relative contribution of muscle synergy to the overall muscle activity pattern. We hypothesized that muscle synergy vectors would remain fixed but that synergy activation coefficients could vary, resulting in observed variations in individual electromyographic (EMG) patterns. Eleven cyclists were tested during a submaximal pedaling exercise and five all-out sprints. The effects of torque, maximal torque-velocity combination, and posture were studied. First, muscle synergies were extracted from each pedaling exercise independently using non-negative matrix factorization. Then, to cross-validate the results, muscle synergies were extracted from the entire data pooled across all conditions, and muscle synergy vectors extracted from the submaximal exercise were used to reconstruct EMG patterns of the five all-out sprints. Whatever the mechanical constraints, three muscle synergies accounted for the majority of variability [mean variance accounted for (VAF) = 93.3 ± 1.6%, VAF (muscle) > 82.5%] in the EMG signals of 11 lower limb muscles. In addition, there was a robust consistency in the muscle synergy vectors. This high similarity in the composition of the three extracted synergies was accompanied by slight adaptations in their activation coefficients in response to extreme changes in torque and posture. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that these muscle synergies reflect a neural control strategy, with only a few timing adjustments in their activation regarding the mechanical constraints.

  2. Preliminary wind tunnel tests on the pedal wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinayagalingam, T.

    1980-06-01

    High solidity-low speed wind turbines are relatively simple to construct and can be used advantageously in many developing countries for such direct applications as water pumping. Established designs in this class, such as the Savonius and the American multiblade rotors, have the disadvantage that their moving surfaces require a rigid construction, thereby rendering large units uneconomical. In this respect, the pedal wind turbine recently reported by the author and which incorporates sail type rotors offers a number of advantages. This note reports preliminary results from a series of wind tunnel tests which were carried out to assess the aerodynamic torque and power characteristics of the turbine.

  3. Detection of intention of pedaling start cycle through EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Ugarte, Marisol; Hortal, Enrique; Costa, Alvaro; Ianez, Eduardo; Ubeda, Andres; Azorin, Jose M

    2016-08-01

    Recovery from cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is a growing research topic. Exoskeletons are being used for this purpose in combination with a volitional control algorithm. This work studied the intention of pedaling initiation movement, based on previous work, with different types of electrode configuration and different processing time windows. The main characteristic is to find alterations in the mu and beta frequency bands where ERD/ERS is produced. The results show that for the majority of the subjects this event is well detected with 8 or 9 electrodes and using time before and after the movement onset.

  4. Controllability of the better chosen partial networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xueming; Pan, Linqiang

    2016-08-01

    How to control large complex networks is a great challenge. Recent studies have proved that the whole network can be sufficiently steered by injecting control signals into a minimum set of driver nodes, and the minimum numbers of driver nodes for many real networks are high, indicating that it is difficult to control them. For some large natural and technological networks, it is impossible and not feasible to control the full network. For example, in biological networks like large-scale gene regulatory networks it is impossible to control all the genes. This prompts us to explore the question how to choose partial networks that are easy for controlling and important in networked systems. In this work, we propose a method to achieve this goal. By computing the minimum driver nodes densities of the partial networks of Erdös-Rényi (ER) networks, scale-free (SF) networks and 23 real networks, we find that our method performs better than random method that chooses nodes randomly. Moreover, we find that the nodes chosen by our method tend to be the essential elements of the whole systems, via studying the nodes chosen by our method of a real human signaling network and a human protein interaction network and discovering that the chosen nodes from these networks tend to be cancer-associated genes. The implementation of our method shows some interesting connections between the structure and the controllability of networks, improving our understanding of the control principles of complex systems.

  5. Development of Velocity Guidance Assistance System by Haptic Accelerator Pedal Reaction Force Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Feilong; Hayashi, Ryuzo; Raksincharoensak, Pongsathorn; Nagai, Masao

    This research proposes a haptic velocity guidance assistance system for realizing eco-driving as well as enhancing traffic capacity by cooperating with ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems). The proposed guidance system generates the desired accelerator pedal (abbreviated as pedal) stroke with respect to the desired velocity obtained from ITS considering vehicle dynamics, and provides the desired pedal stroke to the driver via a haptic pedal whose reaction force is controllable and guides the driver in order to trace the desired velocity in real time. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the feasibility of the haptic velocity guidance. A haptic velocity guidance system for research is developed on the Driving Simulator of TUAT (DS), by attaching a low-inertia, low-friction motor to the pedal, which does not change the original characteristics of the original pedal when it is not operated, implementing an algorithm regarding the desired pedal stroke calculation and the reaction force controller. The haptic guidance maneuver is designed based on human pedal stepping experiments. A simple velocity profile with acceleration, deceleration and cruising is synthesized according to naturalistic driving for testing the proposed system. The experiment result of 9 drivers shows that the haptic guidance provides high accuracy and quick response in velocity tracking. These results prove that the haptic guidance is a promising velocity guidance method from the viewpoint of HMI (Human Machine Interface).

  6. Biomechanical factors associated with shoe/pedal interfaces. Implications for injury.

    PubMed

    Gregor, R J; Wheeler, J B

    1994-02-01

    The principal demand on the body during cycling is on the lower extremities as they are responsible for producing a majority of the energy imparted to the bike. As a result the legs, due to high reactive forces between the foot and pedal, experience high loads on the joints. These loads may adversely affect joint tissues and contribute to overuse injuries, e.g. knee pain. The mechanical link between the leg and the bike is the shoe/pedal interface. This transmission site, by design, can either create smooth transfer of energy or abnormally high repetitive loads which are potentially injurious to the body. Incidence of lower extremity injury in cycling is high, and historically biomechanical analyses of this activity have focused their attention on either the rider or the bike, but not the link between the two. Recently, pedal designs have changed in response to complaints of sore knees with the development of pedals allowing varying degrees of float. This form of transmission is intended to enhance power transfer from rider to bike as well as minimise trauma to the legs by permitting the foot to rotate during the pedalling cycle in a toe-in/heel-out or heel-in/toe-out movement pattern. Recent evidence suggests this type of pedal design does reduce trauma and maintains power output. This article reviews common lower extremity overuse injuries and biomechanical factors during the pedalling cycle with the primary focus on the shoe/pedal interface. We will summarise information available on lower extremity kinematics and kinetics as well as recent data specifically related to shoe/pedal interface kinetics, evaluation of different pedal types-specifically comparison between clipless 'fixed' and clipless 'float' systems-and discuss their resultant effect on lower extremity dynamics and their implications for injury.

  7. VRACK: measuring pedal kinematics during stationary bike cycling.

    PubMed

    Farjadian, Amir B; Kong, Qingchao; Gade, Venkata K; Deutsch, Judith E; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2013-06-01

    Ankle impairment and lower limb asymmetries in strength and coordination are common symptoms for individuals with selected musculoskeletal and neurological impairments. The virtual reality augmented cycling kit (VRACK) was designed as a compact mechatronics system for lower limb and mobility rehabilitation. The system measures interaction forces and cardiac activity during cycling in a virtual environment. The kinematics measurement was added to the system. Due to the constrained problem definition, the combination of inertial measurement unit (IMU) and Kalman filtering was recruited to compute the optimal pedal angular displacement during dynamic cycling exercise. Using a novel benchmarking method the accuracy of IMU-based kinematics measurement was evaluated. Relatively accurate angular measurements were achieved. The enhanced VRACK system can serve as a rehabilitation device to monitor biomechanical and physiological variables during cycling on a stationary bike.

  8. Suppose Freud had chosen Orestes instead.

    PubMed

    Clark, Margaret

    2009-04-01

    The paper argues that the story of Oedipus, however understood, conveys psychic truth of no greater or more central importance to human development than do the stories of many other myths. A distinction is made between sophisticated theories developed out of Freud's original concept of the Oedipus complex, and the adherence by some clinicians to his original sexual theory. The meaning of Sophocles' play Oedipus the King is found to lie in the clash between Oedipus' omnipotent narcissism (hubris) and the power of the unconscious psyche, rather than in cross-generational sex. Emphasis is placed on the clinical usefulness of understanding all myths symbolically. The Oresteia by Aeschylus is offered as a story about pre-Oedipal (in the Freudian sense) psychic states. This trilogy shows symbolically the developing of an ego, the establishment of moral judgement and the integration of our shadow (the Furies). It also shows the parallel development of structures of law in society to replace instinctive blood feuds. It is suggested that had Freud chosen Orestes instead of Oedipus, the course of both psychoanalysis and of Western society would have had a different emphasis.

  9. Foot force direction control during a pedaling task in individuals post-stroke

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Appropriate magnitude and directional control of foot-forces is required for successful execution of locomotor tasks. Earlier evidence suggested, following stroke, there is a potential impairment in foot-force control capabilities both during stationary force generation and locomotion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the foot-pedal surface interaction force components, in non-neurologically-impaired and stroke-impaired individuals, in order to determine how fore/aft shear-directed foot/pedal forces are controlled. Methods Sixteen individuals with chronic post-stroke hemiplegia and 10 age-similar non-neurologically-impaired controls performed a foot placement maintenance task under a stationary and a pedaling condition, achieving a target normal pedal force. Electromyography and force profiles were recorded. We expected generation of unduly large magnitude shear pedal forces and reduced participation of multiple muscles that can contribute forces in appropriate directions in individuals post-stroke. Results We found lower force output, inconsistent modulation of muscle activity and reduced ability to change foot force direction in the paretic limbs, but we did not observe unduly large magnitude shear pedal surface forces by the paretic limbs as we hypothesized. Conclusion These findings suggested the preservation of foot-force control capabilities post-stroke under minimal upright postural control requirements. Further research must be conducted to determine whether inappropriate shear force generation will be revealed under non-seated, postural demanding conditions, where subjects have to actively control for upright body suspension. PMID:24739234

  10. Characteristics of Maximum Performance of Pedaling Exercise in Recumbent and Supine Positions

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Morimasa; Tsutsumi, Toshihiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kurakane, Shizue; Chang, Hyukki

    2011-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of maximum pedaling performance in the recumbent and supine positions, maximum isokinetic leg muscle strength was measured in eight healthy male subjects during pedaling at three velocities (300°/s, 480°/s, and 660°/s), and maximum incremental tests were performed for each position. The maximum isokinetic muscle strength in the recumbent position was 210.0 ± 29.2 Nm at 300°/s, 158.4 ± 19.8 Nm at 480°/s, and 110.6 ± 13.2 at 660°/s. In contrast, the muscle strength in the supine position was 229.3 ± 36.7 Nm at 300°/s, 180. 7 ± 20.3 Nm at 480°/s, and 129.6 ± 14.0 Nm at 660°/s. Thus, the maximum isokinetic muscle strength showed significantly higher values in the supine position than in the recumbent position at all angular velocities. The knee and hip joint angles were measured at peak torque using a goniometer; the knee joint angle was not significantly different between both positions, whereas the hip joint angle was greater in the supine position than in the recumbent position (Supine position: 137.3 ± 9. 33 degree at 300°/s, 140.0 ± 11.13 degrees at 480°/s, and 141.0 ± 9.61 degrees at 660°/s. Recumbent position: 99.5 ± 12.21 degrees at 300°/s, 101.6 ± 12.29 degrees at 480°/s, and 105.8 ± 14.28 degrees at 660°/s). Peak oxygen uptake was higher in the recumbent position (50.3 ± 4.43 ml·kg-1·min-1) than in the supine position (48.7 ± 5.10 ml·kg-1·min-1). At maximum exertion, the heart rate and whole-body rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were unaffected by position, but leg muscle RPE was higher in the supine position (19.5 ± 0.53 than in the recumbent position (18.8 ± 0.71). These results suggest that the supine position is more suitable for muscle strength exertion than the recumbent position, and this may be due to different hip joint angles between the positions. On the contrary, the endurance capacity was higher in the recumbent position than in the supine position. Since leg muscle RPE was

  11. Effects of passive pedaling exercise on the intracortical inhibition in subjects with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Langthaler, Patrick B; Bathke, Arne C; Höller, Yvonne; Brigo, Francesco; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Christova, Monica; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-06-01

    Cortical reorganization can be induced by exercise below the level of the lesion after spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of passive and active pedaling exercise on leg motor cortical area excitability of subjects with traumatic SCI. Ten subjects with chronic cervical or thoracic SCI were enrolled in the study. We found a significant effect of pedaling on short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), which did not interact with the experimental condition (active vs. passive). This corresponded to a significant reduction of SICI in the subjects with SCI, together with no evidence that this pattern differed for passive vs. active pedaling. We found no significant effect of pedaling on intracortical facilitation. Our results showed that also passive cycling may be beneficial in activating motor cortical regions and possibly also facilitating motor recovery after SCI. The present study confirms and extends the findings of previous studies that have observed task-specific cortical activation during passive pedaling. Therefore passive exercise therapies when applied below the level of the lesion in subjects with SCI could promote cortical neuroplastic reorganization.

  12. Assessment of bilateral asymmetry in cycling using a commercial instrumented crank system and instrumented pedals.

    PubMed

    Bini, Rodrigo R; Hume, Patria A

    2014-09-01

    The accuracy of commercial instrumented crank systems for symmetry assessment in cycling has not been fully explored. Therefore, the authors' aims were to compare peak crank torque between a commercial instrumented crank system and instrumented pedals and to assess the effect of power output on bilateral asymmetries during cycling. Ten competitive cyclists performed an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. Forces and pedal angles were recorded using right and left instrumented pedals synchronized with crank-torque measurements using an instrumented crank system. Differences in right (dominant) and left (nondominant) peak torque and asymmetry index were assessed using effect sizes. In the 100- to 250-W power-output range, the instrumented pedal system recorded larger peak torque (dominant 55-122%, nondominant 23-99%) than the instrumented crank system. There was an increase in differences between dominant and nondominant crank torque as power output increased using the instrumented crank system (7% to 33%) and the instrumented pedals (9% to 66%). Lower-limb asymmetries in peak torque increased at higher power-output levels in favor of the dominant leg. Limitations in design of the instrumented crank system may preclude the use of this system to assess peak crank-torque symmetry.

  13. Interindividual variability of electromyographic patterns and pedal force profiles in trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Hug, François; Drouet, Jean Marc; Champoux, Yvan; Couturier, Antoine; Dorel, Sylvain

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether high inter-individual variability of the electromyographic (EMG) patterns during pedaling is accompanied by variability in the pedal force application patterns. Eleven male experienced cyclists were tested at two submaximal power outputs (150 and 250 W). Pedal force components (effective and total forces) and index of mechanical effectiveness were measured continuously using instrumented pedals and were synchronized with surface electromyography signals measured in ten lower limb muscles. The intersubject variability of EMG and mechanical patterns was assessed using standard deviation, mean deviation, variance ratio and coefficient of cross-correlation (_R(0), with lag time = 0). The results demonstrated a high intersubject variability of EMG patterns at both exercise intensities for biarticular muscles as a whole (and especially for Gastrocnemius lateralis and Rectus femoris) and for one monoarticular muscle (Tibialis anterior). However, this heterogeneity of EMG patterns is not accompanied by a so high intersubject variability in pedal force application patterns. A very low variability in the three mechanical profiles (effective force, total force and index of mechanical effectiveness) was obtained in the propulsive downstroke phase, although a greater variability in these mechanical patterns was found during upstroke and around the top dead center, and at 250 W when compared to 150 W. Overall, these results provide additional evidence for redundancy in the neuromuscular system.

  14. Ergonomic evaluation of brake pedal and push handle locations on hospital beds.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Wiggermann, Neal

    2017-04-01

    Transporting patients in hospital beds is a physically demanding activity performed by healthcare workers and bed design may moderate the risk of injury. Nine healthcare workers participated in a study to investigate how brake pedal location affected maximal voluntary exertion (MVE) force and the level of acceptable force for engagement. Preferred and acceptable push heights when maneuvering a bed were also evaluated. The method of limits was used to determine acceptable forces and push heights. Results demonstrated that pedal depth, clearance above, and clearance behind the pedal significantly affected MVE force and acceptable force. Preferred push height was approximately at elbow level and a single height would not accommodate the user population. These findings provide important considerations for hospital bed design. The method of limits was a valid and reliable approach for evaluating user acceptance of design inputs characterized by continuous variables and may be useful in other design evaluations.

  15. Plantar pressure of clipless and toe-clipped pedals in cyclists - A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Davis, Andrea; Pemberton, Troy; Ghosh, Subhajit; Maffulli, Nicola; Padhiar, Nat

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effect of clipless and toe-clipped pedals on plantar foot pressure while cycling. Seven bikers and 11 healthy volunteers were tested on a Giant ATX Team mountain bike, Tekscan Clinical 5.24 F-scan® system with an inner sole pressure sensor, a Tacx Cycle force One Turbo Trainer and a Cateye Mity 8 computerized speedometer were used. The subjects wore Shimano M037 shoes and used a standard clipless and toe-clipped pedal. The seat height was set at 100% of subject's trochanteric height. Plantar pressures were recorded over 12 consecutive crank cycles at a constant speed for each of the power outputs. The videos were analysed to record the pressure exerted at 12 positions on the foot for each variable. Whether there is any dominance of any of the metatarsals, and any difference in plantar pressures between clipped and clipless pedal. There was a significant difference in the pressure at many positions of the foot, but the sites were different for each individual. General regression analysis indicated that pedal type had a statistically significant effect on plantar pressure at the sites of 1(st) metatarsal (p=0.042), 3(rd) metatarsal (p<0.001), 5(th) metatarsal (<0.001), 2(nd) (p=0.018) and 5(th) toe (p<0.001), lateral midfoot (p<0.001) and central heel (p<0.001) areas. Clipless pedals produce higher pressures which are more spread across the foot than toe-clipped pedals. This may have implications for their use in the prevention and/or management of overuse injuries in the knee and foot.

  16. A novel technique for examining human brain activity associated with pedaling using fMRI.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Jay P; Verber, Matthew D; Wieser, Jon A; Schmit, Brian D; Schindler-Ivens, Sheila M

    2009-05-15

    Advances in neural imaging technologies, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have made it possible to obtain images of human brain activity during motor tasks. However, technical challenges have made it difficult to image the brain during multijoint lower limb movements like those involved in locomotion. We developed an MR compatible pedaling device and recorded human brain activity associated with rhythmic, alternating flexion and extension of the lower extremities. Ten volunteers pedaled at 30 RPM while recording fMRI signals in a GE 3T short bore MR scanner. We utilized a block design consisting of 3 runs of pedaling, each lasting 4 min. In a single run, subjects pedaled for 30 s and then rested for 30 s. This sequence was repeated 4 times. Conventional fMRI processing techniques, that correlate the entire BOLD signal with standard model, did not extract physiologically meaningful signal, likely due to magnetic field distortion caused by leg movement. Hence, we examined only the portion of the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal during movement-free periods. This technique takes advantage of the delayed nature of the BOLD signal and fits the falling portion of the signal after movement has stopped with a standard model. Using this approach, we observed physiologically plausible brain activity patterns associated with pedaling in the primary and secondary sensory and motor cortices and the cerebellum. To our knowledge, this is the first time that human brain activity associated with pedaling has been recorded with fMRI. This technique may be useful for advancing our understanding of supraspinal control of locomotor-like movements in health and disease.

  17. Crank inertial load has little effect on steady-state pedaling coordination.

    PubMed

    Fregly, B J; Zajac, F E; Dairaghi, C A

    1996-12-01

    Inertial load can affect the control of a dynamic system whenever parts of the system are accelerated or decelerated. During steady-state pedaling, because within-cycle variations in crank angular acceleration still exist, the amount of crank inertia present (which varies widely with road-riding gear ratio) may affect the within-cycle coordination of muscles. However, the effect of inertial load on steady-state pedaling coordination is almost always assumed to be negligible, since the net mechanical energy per cycle developed by muscles only depends on the constant cadence and workload. This study test the hypothesis that under steady-state conditions, the net joint torques produced by muscles at the hip, knee, and ankle are unaffected by crank inertial load. To perform the investigation, we constructed a pedaling apparatus which could emulate the low inertial load of a standard ergometer or the high inertial load of a road bicycle in high gear. Crank angle and bilateral pedal force and angle data were collected from ten subjects instructed to pedal steadily (i.e., constant speed across cycles) and smoothly (i.e., constant speed within a cycle) against both inertias at a constant workload. Virtually no statistically significant changes were found in the net hip and knee muscle joint torques calculated from an inverse dynamics analysis. Though the net ankle muscle joint torque, as well as the one- and two-legged crank torque, showed statistically significant increases at the higher inertia, the changes were small. In contrast, large statistically significant reductions were found in crank kinematic variability both within a cycle and between cycles (i.e., cadence), primarily because a larger inertial load means a slower crank dynamic response. Nonetheless, the reduction in cadence variability was somewhat attenuated by a large statistically significant increase in one-legged crank torque variability. We suggest, therefore, that muscle coordination during steady

  18. Engineer pedals STS-37 CETA electrical cart along track in JSC MAIL Bldg 9A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas engineer Gary Peters operates crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Peters, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots and positioned in portable foot restraint (PFR), is suspended above CETA cart and track via harness to simulate weightlessness. The electrical cart is moved by electricity generated from turning hand pedals. CETA will be tested in orbit in the payload bay of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during STS-37.

  19. Undergraduates as Environmental Educators: The Pedal and Paddle Pollution Tour Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronje, Ruth Johnson; Neff, Paula Kleintjes; Mowry, Donald; Running, Garry L.

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduates can become effective agents of environmental outreach when challenged to produce evidence-based messages to inform the public about local environmental issues. We recount our experience partnering our undergraduate students with community organizations dedicated to water stewardship to create a "Pedal and Paddle Pollution…

  20. Using Accelerator Pedal Force to Increase Seat Belt Use of Service Vehicle Drivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Houten, Ron; Hilton, Bryan; Schulman, Richard; Reagan, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a device that applied a sustained increase in accelerator pedal back force whenever drivers exceeded a preset speed criterion without buckling their seat belts. This force was removed once the belt was fastened. Participants were 6 commercial drivers who operated carpet-cleaning vans. During baseline, no contingency was in…

  1. Influence of different racing positions on mechanical and electromyographic patterns during pedalling.

    PubMed

    Dorel, S; Couturier, A; Hug, F

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, in comparison with standard postures, aero posture (AP) would modify the coordination of lower limb muscles during pedalling and consequently would influence the pedal force production. Twelve triathletes were asked to pedal at an intensity near the ventilatory threshold (VT+Delta20%) and at an intenisty corresponding to the respiratory compensation point (RCP). For each intensity, subjects were tested under three positions: (1) upright posture (UP), (2) dropped posture (DP), and (3) AP. Gas exchanges, surface electromyography and pedal effective force were continuously recorded. No significant difference was found for the gas-exchange variables among the three positions. Data illustrate a significant increase [gluteus maximus (GMax), vastus medialis (VM)] and decrease [rectus femoris (RF)] in electromyography (EMG) activity level in AP compared with UP at RCP. A significant shift forward of the EMG patterns (i.e. later onset of activation) was observed for RF (at VT+Delta20% and RCP), GMax, VL, and VM (at RCP) in AP compared with UP. These EMG changes are closely related to alteration of force profile in AP (higher downstroke positive peak force, lower upstroke negative peak force, and later occurrence of these peaks along the crank cycle).

  2. Cars Gone Wild: The Major Contributor to Unintended Acceleration in Automobiles is Pedal Error.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Richard A; Young, Douglas E

    2010-01-01

    "Unintended-acceleration" automobile accidents typically begin when the driver first enters the car, starts the engine, and intends to press his/her right foot on the brake while shifting from Park to a drive gear (Drive or Reverse). The driver reports an unintended (uncommanded) full-throttle acceleration, coupled with a loss of braking, until the episode ends in a crash. Pedal misapplications - where the right foot contacts the accelerator instead of the brake that was intended - have been linked to these accidents (Schmidt, 1989, 1993) which, in the 1980s, were thought to occur only at the start of a driving cycle (and/or with the car in Park). But, in 1997, we identified over 200 pedal errors as the cause of accidents reported in the North Carolina database; these crashes occurred during the driving cycle (Schmidt et al., 1997), and/or with the vehicle in a gear other than Park. Our present work provides a more thorough analysis of these North Carolina Police Accident Reports from 1979 to 1995. The vast majority of pedal misapplications (over 92%) (a) occurred during the driving cycle, (b) were generally in "unhurried" conditions, and (c) were categorically separate from those events referred to as unintended-acceleration episodes at start-up. These ideas are explanatory for the recent (2009-2010) surge of unintended-acceleration reports, perhaps even suggesting that all of these crashes are caused by pedal errors, and that none of them are based on some vehicle defect(s).

  3. PyPedal, an open source software package for pedigree analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The open source software package PyPedal (http://pypedal.sourceforge.net/) was first released in 2002, and provided users with a set of simple tools for manipulating pedigrees. Its flexibility has been demonstrated by its used in a number of settings for large and small populations. After substantia...

  4. Motor adaptations to unilateral quadriceps fatigue during a bilateral pedaling task.

    PubMed

    Brøchner Nielsen, N-P; Hug, F; Guével, A; Fohanno, V; Lardy, J; Dorel, S

    2016-12-20

    This study was designed to investigate how motor coordination adapts to unilateral fatigue of the quadriceps during a constant-load bilateral pedaling task. We first hypothesized that this local fatigue would not be compensated within the fatigued muscles leading to a decreased knee extension power. Then, we aimed to determine whether this decrease would be compensated by between-joints compensations within the ipsilateral leg and/or an increased contribution of the contralateral leg. Fifteen healthy volunteers were tested during pedaling at 350 W before and after a fatigue protocol consisting of 15 minutes of electromyostimulation on the quadriceps muscle. Motor coordination was assessed from myoelectrical activity (22 muscles) and joint powers calculated through inverse dynamics. Maximal knee extension torque decreased by 28.3%±6.8% (P<.0005) immediately after electromyostimulation. A decreased knee extension power produced by the ipsilateral leg was observed during pedaling (-22.8±12.3 W, -17.0%±9.4%; P<.0005). To maintain the task goal, participants primarily increased the power produced by the non-fatigued contralateral leg during the flexion phase. This was achieved by an increase in hip flexion power confirmed by a higher activation of the tensor fascia latae. These results suggest no adjustment of neural drive to the fatigued muscles and demonstrate no concurrent ipsilateral compensation by the non-fatigued muscles involved in the extension pedaling phase. Although interindividual variability was observed, findings provide evidence that participants predominantly adapted by compensating with the contralateral leg during its flexion phase. Both neural (between legs) and mechanical (between pedals) couplings and the minimization of cost functions might explain these results.

  5. Effects of an active accelerator pedal on driver behaviour and traffic safety after long-term use in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Várhelyi, András; Hjälmdahl, Magnus; Hydén, Christer; Draskóczy, Magda

    2004-09-01

    The long-term effects of the active accelerator pedal (AAP) were evaluated in the city of Lund in 2000 and 2001. The system, installed in 284 vehicles, produced a counterforce in the accelerator pedal at the speed limit. It could, however be overridden by pressing the accelerator pedal harder. The results showed that test drivers' compliance with the speed limits improved considerably. Reduction in average speeds and less speed variation by the test vehicles indicate a great traffic-safety potential. Travel times were unaffected, while emission volumes decreased significantly.

  6. The natural history of pedal puncture wounds in diabetics: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Surgeons usually witness only the limb-threatening stages of infected, closed pedal puncture wounds in diabetics. Given that this catastrophic outcome often represents failure of conservative management of pre-infected wounds, some suggest consideration of invasive intervention (coring or laying-open) for pre-infected wounds in hope of preventing contamination from evolving into infection, there being no evidence based guidelines. However, an invasive pre-emptive approach is only justifiable if the probability of progression to catastrophic infection is very high. Literature search revealed no prior studies on the natural history of closed pedal puncture wounds in diabetics. Methods A survey was conducted via an interviewer-administered questionnaire on 198 adult diabetics resident in the parish of St. James, Jamaica. The sample was selected using a purposive technique designed to mirror the social gradient and residential distribution of the target population and is twice the number needed to detect a prevalence of puncture wounds of 14% with a range of 7-21% in a random sample of the estimated adult diabetic population. Results The prevalence of a history of at least one closed pedal puncture wound since diagnosis of diabetes was 25.8% (CI; 19.6-31.9%). The only modifiable variable associated at the 5% level of significance with risk of pedal puncture wound, after adjustment by multivariable logistic regression, was site of interview/paying status, a variable substantially reflective of income more so than quality-of-care. Of 77 reported episodes of closed pedal puncture wound among 51 participants, 45.4% healed without medical intervention, 27.3% healed after non-surgical treatment by a doctor and 27.3% required surgical intervention ranging from debridement to below-knee amputation. Anesthetic foot (failure to feel the puncture) and sole of the forefoot as site of puncture were the variables significantly associated with risk of requiring surgical

  7. Comparing ICD-10 external cause codes for pedal cyclists with self-reported crash details.

    PubMed

    Beck, Ben; Ekegren, Christina L; Cameron, Peter; Stevenson, Mark; Judson, Rodney; Bucknill, Andrew; Edwards, Elton; Gabbe, Belinda

    2017-02-16

    Accurate coding of injury event information is critical in developing targeted injury prevention strategies. However, little is known about the validity of the most universally used coding system, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), in characterising crash counterparts in pedal cycling events. This study aimed to determine the agreement between hospital-coded ICD-10-AM (Australian modification) external cause codes with self-reported crash characteristics in a sample of pedal cyclists admitted to hospital following bicycle crashes. Interview responses from 141 injured cyclists were mapped to a single ICD-10-AM external cause code for comparison with ICD-10-AM external cause codes from hospital administrative data. The percentage of agreement was 77.3% with a κ value of 0.68 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.77), indicating substantial agreement. Nevertheless, studies reliant on ICD-10 codes from administrative data should consider the 23% level of disagreement when characterising crash counterparts in cycling crashes.

  8. The control of brain mitochondrial energization by cytosolic calcium: the mitochondrial gas pedal.

    PubMed

    Gellerich, Frank Norbert; Gizatullina, Zemfira; Gainutdinov, Timur; Muth, Katharina; Seppet, Enn; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Vielhaber, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    This review focuses on problems of the intracellular regulation of mitochondrial function in the brain via the (i) supply of mitochondria with ADP by means of ADP shuttles and channels and (ii) the Ca(2+) control of mitochondrial substrate supply. The permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane for adenine nucleotides is low. Therefore rate dependent concentration gradients exist between the mitochondrial intermembrane space and the cytosol. The existence of dynamic ADP gradients is an important precondition for the functioning of ADP shuttles, for example CrP-shuttle. Cr at mM concentrations instead of ADP diffuses from the cytosol through the porin pores into the intermembrane space. The CrP-shuttle isoenzymes work in different directions which requires different metabolite concentrations mainly caused by dynamic ADP compartmentation. The ADP shuttle mechanisms alone cannot explain the load dependent changes in mitochondrial energization, and a complete model of mitochondrial regulation have to account the Ca(2+) -dependent substrate supply too. According to the old paradigmatic view, Ca(2+) (cyt) taken up by the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter activates dehydrogenases within the matrix. However, recently it was found that Ca(2+) (cyt) at low nM concentrations exclusively activates the state 3 respiration via aralar, the mitochondrial glutamate/aspartate carrier. At higher Ca(2+) (cyt) (> 500 nM), brain mitochondria take up Ca(2+) for activation of substrate oxidation rates. Since brain mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation is only slightly influenced by Ca(2+) (cyt) , it was proposed that the cytosolic formation of pyruvate from its precursors is tightly controlled by the Ca(2+) dependent malate/aspartate shuttle. At low (50-100 nM) Ca(2+) (cyt) the pyruvate formation is suppressed, providing a substrate limitation control in neurons. This so called "gas pedal" mechanism explains why the energy metabolism of neurons in the nucleus suprachiasmaticus could be down

  9. Electromyographic Analysis of the Peroneous Longus during Bicycle Ergometry across Work Load and Pedal Type.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    monitored with EMG . These muscles consisted of flexors and extensors of the hip , knee, and ankle, but did not include the peroneous longus. The...electrodes but a curvilinear relationship with bipolar electrodes. 3 5 Vigreux and associates reported stronger EMG signals with longitudinal place- ment...pedaling is not known. The purpose of this study was to analyze the electromyo- graphic ( EMG ) activity of the peroneous longus across work load (1, 2, and

  10. USING ACCELERATOR PEDAL FORCE TO INCREASE SEAT BELT USE OF SERVICE VEHICLE DRIVERS

    PubMed Central

    Van Houten, Ron; Hilton, Bryan; Schulman, Richard; Reagan, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a device that applied a sustained increase in accelerator pedal back force whenever drivers exceeded a preset speed criterion without buckling their seat belts. This force was removed once the belt was fastened. Participants were 6 commercial drivers who operated carpet-cleaning vans. During baseline, no contingency was in place for unbuckled trips. The pedal resistance was introduced via a multiple baseline design across groups. On the first day of treatment, the device was explained and demonstrated for all drivers of the vehicle. The treatment was associated with an immediate sustained increase in seat belt compliance to 100%. Occasionally, drivers initially did not buckle during a trip and encountered the force. In all instances, they buckled within less than 25 s. These results suggest that the increased force was sufficient to set up an establishing operation to reinforce seat belt buckling negatively. Drivers indicated that they were impressed with the device and would not drive very long unbelted with the pedal force in place. PMID:21541142

  11. Effects of leg pedaling on early latency cutaneous reflexes in upper limb muscles.

    PubMed

    Sasada, Syusaku; Tazoe, Toshiki; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Zehr, E Paul; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi

    2010-07-01

    The functional coupling of neural circuits between the upper and lower limbs involving rhythmic movements is of interest to both motor control research and rehabilitation science. This coupling can be detected by examining the effect of remote rhythmic limb movement on the modulation of reflex amplitude in stationary limbs. The present study investigated the extent to which rhythmic leg pedaling modulates the amplitude of an early latency (peak 30-70 ms) cutaneous reflex (ELCR) in the upper limb muscles. Thirteen neurologically intact volunteers performed leg pedaling (60 or 90 rpm) while simultaneously contracting their arm muscles isometrically. Control experiments included isolated isometric contractions and discrete movements of the leg. ELCRs were evoked by stimulation of the superficial radial nerve with a train of rectangular pulses (three pulses at 333 Hz, intensity 2.0- to 2.5-fold perceptual threshold). Reflex amplitudes were significantly increased in the flexor carpi radialis and posterior deltoid and significantly decreased in the biceps brachii muscles during leg pedaling compared with that during stationary isometric contraction of the lower leg muscles. This effect was also sensitive to cadence. No significant modulation was seen during the isometric contractions or discrete movements of the leg. Additionally, there was no phase-dependent modulation of the ELCR. These findings suggest that activation of the rhythm generating system of the legs affects the excitability of the early latency cutaneous reflex pathways in the upper limbs.

  12. Associative Self-Anchoring Interacts with Obtainability of Chosen Objects

    PubMed Central

    Prévost, Charlotte; Bolger, Niall; Mobbs, Dean

    2016-01-01

    While there is evidence that implicit self-esteem transfers to chosen objects (associative self-anchoring), it is still unknown whether this phenomenon extends to explicit self-esteem. Moreover, whether the knowledge that these objects might belong to the self in the future or not affects the evaluation of these objects has received little attention. Here, we demonstrate that evaluations of chosen objects are further enhanced when they are obtainable as compared to when they are not in participants with high explicit self-esteem, whereas participants with low explicit self-esteem exhibit the opposite pattern. These findings extend previous results and shed new light on the role of self-esteem in altering preferences for chosen objects depending on their obtainability. PMID:26913011

  13. Surgical treatment of limb- and life-threatening infections in the feet of patients with diabetes and at least one palpable pedal pulse: successes and lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Lázaro-Martínez, Jose L; Hernández-Herrero, Cristina; Campillo-Vilorio, Nalini; Quintana-Marrero, Yurena; García-Morales, Esther; Hernández-Herrero, Maria J

    2011-12-01

    Outcomes of surgically treated limb- and life-threatening infections in patients with diabetes and a well-vascularized foot based only on the palpation of foot pulses are not well known. The authors retrospectively studied a series of 173 patients with diabetes and limb- (moderate) or life- (severe) threatening infections with at least one palpable pedal pulse who were admitted to their department for the treatment of infected diabetic foot from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2009. A total of 141 patients (81.5%) presented with limb-threatening/moderate infections and 32 (18.5%) with life-threatening/severe infections. In all, 49 patients (28.3%) presented with soft tissue infections only, 90 (52%) with osteomyelitis and 34 (19.7%) with a combined infection. Amputation was needed in 74 patients (42.7%), of whom 6 needed a major amputation (3.5% of overall). A total of 99 (57.2%) patients were treated by conservative surgery. Four patients (2.3%) died during the postoperative period (30 days). Limb salvage was achieved in 167 (96.5%) of the patients who were followed up until healing. Healing of the wounds by secondary intention was achieved in a median of 72 days. Clinical results permit the observation that a high rate of limb salvage can be achieved after the surgical treatment of limb- and life-threatening infections in patients with at least one palpable pedal pulse.

  14. Work and power outputs determined from pedalling and flywheel friction forces during brief maximal exertion on a cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Hibi, N; Fujinaga, H; Ishii, K

    1996-01-01

    Work and power outputs during short-term, maximal exertion on a friction loaded cycle ergometer are usually calculated from the friction force applied to the flywheel. The inertia of the flywheel is sometimes taken into consideration, but the effects of internal resistances and other factors have been ignored. The purpose of this study was to estimate their effects by comparing work or power output determined from the force exerted on the pedals (pedalling force) with work or power output determined from the friction force and the moment of inertia of the rotational parts. A group of 22 male college students accelerated a cycle ergometer as rapidly as possible for 3 s. The total work output determined from the pedalling force (TWp) was significantly greater than that calculated from the friction force and the moment of inertia (TWf). Power output determined from the pedalling force during each pedal stroke (SPp) was also significantly greater than that calculated from the friction force and the moment of inertia. Percentage difference (% diff), defined by % diff = ¿(TWp - TWf)/TWf¿ x 100, ranged from 16.8% to 49.3% with a mean value of 30.8 (SD 9.1)%. It was observed that % diff values were higher in subjects with greater TWp or greater maximal SPp. These results would indicate that internal resistances and other factors, such as the deformation of the chain and the vibrations of the entire system, may have significant effects on the measurements of work and power outputs. The effects appear to depend on the magnitudes of pedalling force and pedal velocity.

  15. Ciba chosen in EPA`s environmental leadership program

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.

    1995-04-19

    Ciba`s St. Gabriel, LA plant site is among 12 chosen to participate in EPA`s new Environmental Leadership Program (ELP). Facilities in the one-year pilot program will develop innovative environmental management techniques, including self-audits whose results will be shared with EPA. Routine state and federal inspections will be suspended during the pilot period, but the manufacturing facilities will disclose any actual or suspected violations, with a limited period in which to correct them.

  16. The influence of seat configuration on maximal average crank power during pedaling: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Jeffery W; Neptune, Richard R

    2010-11-01

    Manipulating seat configuration (i.e., seat tube angle, seat height and pelvic orientation) alters the bicycle-rider geometry, which influences lower extremity muscle kinematics and ultimately muscle force and power generation during pedaling. Previous studies have sought to identify the optimal configuration, but isolating the effects of specific variables on rider performance from the confounding effect of rider adaptation makes such studies challenging. Of particular interest is the influence of seat tube angle on rider performance, as seat tube angle varies across riding disciplines (e.g., road racers vs. triathletes). The goals of the current study were to use muscle-actuated forward dynamics simulations of pedaling to 1) identify the overall optimal seat configuration that produces maximum crank power and 2) systematically vary seat tube angle to assess how it influences maximum crank power. The simulations showed that a seat height of 0.76 m (or 102% greater than trochanter height), seat tube angle of 85.1 deg, and pelvic orientation of 20.5 deg placed the major power-producing muscles on more favorable regions of the intrinsic force-length-velocity relationships to generate a maximum average crank power of 981 W. However, seat tube angle had little influence on crank power, with maximal values varying at most by 1% across a wide range of seat tube angles (65 to 110 deg). The similar power values across the wide range of seat tube angles were the result of nearly identical joint kinematics, which occurred using a similar optimal seat height and pelvic orientation while systematically shifting the pedal angle with increasing seat tube angles.

  17. Intra-session repeatability of lower limb muscles activation pattern during pedaling.

    PubMed

    Dorel, Sylvain; Couturier, Antoine; Hug, François

    2008-10-01

    Assessment of intra-session repeatability of muscle activation pattern is of considerable relevance for research settings, especially when used to determine changes over time. However, the repeatability of lower limb muscles activation pattern during pedaling is not fully established. Thus, we tested the intra-session repeatability of the activation pattern of 10 lower limb muscles during a sub-maximal cycling exercise. Eleven triathletes participated to this study. The experimental session consisted in a reference sub-maximal cycling exercise (i.e. 150 W) performed before and after a 53-min simulated training session (mean power output=200+/-12 W). Repeatability of EMG patterns was assessed in terms of muscle activity level (i.e. RMS of the mean pedaling cycle and burst) and muscle activation timing (i.e. onset and offset of the EMG burst) for the 10 following lower limb muscles: gluteus maximus (GMax), semimembranosus (SM), Biceps femoris (BF), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), gastrocnemius medianus (GM) and lateralis (GL), soleus (SOL) and tibialis anterior (TA). No significant differences concerning the muscle activation level were found between test and retest for all the muscles investigated. Only VM, SOL and TA showed significant differences in muscle activation timing parameters. Whereas ICC and SEM values confirmed this weak repeatability, cross-correlation coefficients suggest a good repeatability of the activation timing parameters for all the studied muscles. Overall, the main finding of this work is the good repeatability of the EMG pattern during pedaling both in term of muscle activity level and muscle activation timing.

  18. Effects of hyperventilation on repeated pedaling sprint performance: short vs. long intervention duration.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Akihiro; Naito, Hisashi; Chow, Chin-Moi

    2017-01-20

    Previously, hyperventilation (HV) induced respiratory alkalosis, implemented during the last 30-s of each 60-s recovery that separated repeated pedaling sprints, has been shown to attenuate performance decrement. The present study investigated whether the ergogenic effects of HV would hold if the HV duration was shortened or extended. Seventeen power-trained athletes performed 10-s × 10 sets of standing pedaling sprints on a cycle ergometer, with 60-s inter-set recovery and the load (kp) set at 0.075 × body mass, under three breathing conditions: control, HV of 15-s (HVshort), and HV of 45-s (HVlong). Subjects breathed spontaneously during each 60-s recovery for the control condition. Under HVshort and HVlong conditions, subjects hyperventilated at 60 breaths/min with near-maximum tidal volume during the last 15-s or 45-s respectively of each recovery period. Peak and mean pedaling power outputs (POpeak and POmean) were documented for each sprint set to compare performance decrements between conditions. No significant condition effect or condition × time interaction was found for POpeak and POmean. The lack of ergogenic effects with HVlong may be ascribed to a complex interaction between the positive (augmented buffering effects) and negative effects of hyperventilation (decreased aerobic energy metabolism and exaggerated discomfort sensation of increased ventilatory work). For HVshort, the implemented duration may have been too short to yield positive physiological effects. A practical implication is that ergogenic effects may be impaired when hyperventilation is too short or too long, with the duration of around 30-s being the target for this exercise type.

  19. Engineers test STS-37 CETA electrical hand pedal cart in JSC MAIL Bldg 9A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas engineers Noland Talley (left) and Gary Peters (center) and ILC-Dover engineer Richard Richard Smallcombe prepare test setup for the evaluation of the crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Peters, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots and positioned in portable foot restraint (PFR), is suspended above CETA cart and track via harness to simulate weightlessness. CETA will be tested in orbit in the payload bay of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during STS-37.

  20. Lower Wingate Test Power Outcomes From "All-Out" Pretest Pedaling Cadence Compared With Moderate Cadence.

    PubMed

    Lunn, William R; Zenoni, Maria A; Crandall, Ian H; Dress, Ashley E; Berglund, Michelle L

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different pretest pedaling cadences on power outcomes obtained during the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). Vigorously exercising adult men (n = 14, 24.9 ± 1.2 years) and women (n = 14, 20.4 ± 0.6 years) participated in a randomized crossover study during which they performed the 30-second WAnT on a mechanically braked cycle ergometer (0.075 kg·kg(-1) body weight) under 2 conditions. Participants pedaled maximally with an unloaded flywheel during 5 seconds before resistance was applied and the test began (FAST). In another trial, participants maintained a moderate cadence (80 revolutions per minute [rpm]) during 5 seconds before the test began (MOD). All other components of the WAnT were identical. Peak power (PP), mean power (MP), minimum power (MinP), fatigue index (%FAT), and maximum cadence during test were recorded. Comparisons were made using a 2 × 2 factorial repeated-measures analysis of variance. Regardless of gender, the FAST condition resulted in 22.2% lower PP (612.6 ± 33.0 W vs. 788.3 ± 43.5 W), 13.3% lower MP (448.4 ± 22.2 W vs. 517.2 ± 26.4 W), 11.7% lower MinP (280.9 ± 14.8 W vs. 318.3 ± 17.2 W), and 9.0% lower %FAT (53.5 ± 1.3% vs. 58.8 ± 1.5%) than MOD condition (p < 0.01; mean ± SD). Similar outcomes were observed within gender. The authors conclude that practitioners of the WAnT should instruct participants to maintain a moderate pedal cadence (∼80 rpm) during 5 seconds before the test commences to avoid bias from software sampling and peripheral fatigue. Standardizing the pretest pedal cadence will be important to exercise testing professionals who compare data with norms or generate norms for specific populations.

  1. Fully automatic control of paraplegic FES pedaling using higher-order sliding mode and fuzzy logic control.

    PubMed

    Farhoud, Aidin; Erfanian, Abbas

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a fully automatic robust control strategy is proposed for control of paraplegic pedaling using functional electrical stimulation (FES). The method is based on higher-order sliding mode (HOSM) control and fuzzy logic control. In FES, the strength of muscle contraction can be altered either by varying the pulse width (PW) or by the pulse amplitude (PA) of the stimulation signal. The proposed control strategy regulates simultaneously both PA and PW (i.e., PA/PW modulation). A HOSM controller is designed for regulating the PW and a fuzzy logic controller for the PA. The proposed control scheme is free-model and does not require any offline training phase and subject-specific information. Simulation studies on a virtual patient and experiments on three paraplegic subjects demonstrate good tracking performance and robustness of the proposed control strategy against muscle fatigue and external disturbances during FES-induced pedaling. The results of simulation studies show that the power and cadence tracking errors are 5.4% and 4.8%, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the proposed controller can improve pedaling system efficacy and increase the endurance of FES pedaling. The average of power tracking error over three paraplegic subjects is 7.4±1.4% using PA/PW modulation, while the tracking error is 10.2±1.2% when PW modulation is used. The subjects could pedal for 15 min with about 4.1% power loss at the end of experiment using proposed control strategy, while the power loss is 14.3% using PW modulation. The controller could adjust the stimulation intensity to compensate the muscle fatigue during long period of FES pedaling.

  2. 3D DCE-MRA of pedal arteries in patients with diabetes mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamyshevskaya, M.; Zavadovskaya, V.; Zorkaltsev, M.; Udodov, V.; Grigorev, E.

    2016-02-01

    Purpose was identification and evaluation of pedal vascularization in diabetic patients of using contrast MR-angiography (3D DCE-MRA). 23 diabetic feet of 23 patients (15 male, 8 female; mean age 56 ± 14.6) underwent 3D DCE-MRA (Gadobutrol 15ml) at 1.5 T. Imaging analysis included blood-flow's speed, vascular architectonic's condition and character of contrast's accumulation. Osteomyelitis was verified by surgery in 15 cases. All patients were divided in 3 groups: neuropathic, neuroischemic, ischemic forms of diabetic foot. First- pass MRA detected significant delay of contrast's arrival in ischemic group. There were no significant differences between the values of neuropathic and neuroischemic forms of diabetic foot. Pedal vessels in patients were absent. Contrast MRA revealed three types of contrast distribution in soft tissues: uniform, local increase and local absence. Osteomyelitis was associated with diffuse enhanced contrast accumulation in all cases. In summary, MRI blood vessel imaging is a promising and valuable method for examining peripheral arterial changes in diabetic foot and might be useful for treatment planning in different forms of diabetic foot.

  3. Pedal proportions of Poposaurus gracilis: convergence and divergence in the feet of archosaurs.

    PubMed

    Farlow, James O; Schachner, Emma R; Sarrazin, John Cody; Klein, Hendrik; Currie, Philip J

    2014-06-01

    The crocodile-line basal suchian Poposaurus gracilis had body proportions suggesting that it was an erect, bipedal form like many dinosaurs, prompting questions of whether its pedal proportions, and the shape of its footprint, would likewise "mimic" those of bipedal dinosaurs. We addressed these questions through a comparison of phalangeal, digital, and metatarsal proportions of Poposaurus with those of extinct and extant crocodile-line archosaurs, obligate or facultatively bipedal non-avian dinosaurs, and ground birds of several clades, as well as a comparison of the footprint reconstructed from the foot skeleton of Poposaurus with known early Mesozoic archosaurian ichnotaxa. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of phalangeal and digital dimensions showed numerous instances of convergence in pedal morphology among disparate archosaurian clades. Overall, the foot of Poposaurus is indeed more like that of bipedal dinosaurs than other archosaur groups, but is not exactly like the foot of any particular bipedal dinosaur clade. Poposaurus likely had a digitigrade stance, and its footprint shape could have resembled grallatorid ichnotaxa, unless digit I of the foot of Poposaurus commonly left an impression.

  4. Pedal-plantar loop technique for a challenging below-the-knee chronic total occlusion: a novel approach to percutaneous revascularization in critical lower limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, Massimiliano; Dalla Paola, Luca; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe

    2007-02-01

    Arterial revascularization by means of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is a mainstay in the management of patients with peripheral artery disease and critical limb ischemia (CLI). However, when employing standard approaches, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of below-the-knee arteries may fail in up to 20% of cases. In the present article, we report on a novel interventional strategy, the pedal-plantar loop technique, which we successfully employed in a patient with critical lower limb ischemia. This technique may sensibly increase success rates of PTA in very challenging total occlusions of below-the-knee arteries (e.g., those lacking a proximal occlusion stump). Technical points pertinent to this case are clearly illustrated, including the need to accurately choose guidewires and balloons of appropriate length, and the extensive use of the subintimal angioplasty technique.

  5. Effects of the rotor pedalling system on the performance of trained cyclists during incremental and constant-load cycle-ergometer tests.

    PubMed

    Lucía, A; Balmer, J; Davison, R C R; Pérez, M; Santalla, A; Smith, P M

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Rotor, a new cycle crank configuration that effectively allows the pedals to move independently throughout the duty cycle, on indices of endurance cycling performance in trained cyclists. Ten cyclists (5 Rotor users and 5 non-users; age (mean +/- SD): 22 +/- 5 y; VO(2)max: 69.5 +/- 5.1 mL. kg(-1).min(-1)) volunteered to participate in the study. On four separate days, the subjects performed four cycle-ergometer tests, i.e. two incremental tests and two 20-min tests. An imposed crank rate of 75 rev.min(-1) was used during all tests. The incremental protocol started at 112.5 W, and the power output was increased by 37.5 W every 3 min until volitional exhaustion. The 20-min tests were performed at a fixed power output equivalent to 80 % of the highest power output that the cyclists maintained for a complete 3-min period during incremental tests. Both types of tests were performed with the conventional crank system and the Rotor following a counter-balanced, cross-over design. Gas exchange parameters were measured in all the tests and blood lactate was determined at the end of each 3-min period (incremental tests) and at the end of the 20-min tests. A three factor (pedalling system used during the tests x habitual pedalling system x power output [incremental tests] or time [20-min tests]) ANOVA with repeated measures on power output (incremental tests) or time (20-min tests) was used to analyse several indices of performance, e.g. peak power output, VO(2)max, lactate threshold, onset of blood lactate accumulation, economy, delta, and gross efficiency. No differences (p > 0.05) were found between the Rotor and conventional systems for any of the aforementioned variables. It seems that the theoretical advantage brought about by the Rotor system, i.e. improved contra-lateral cooperation of both legs, would be minimized in trained cyclists. Although field studies are needed to assess the possible implications, in terms

  6. Silicon Nanowire Growth at Chosen Positions and Orientations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getty, Stephanie A.

    2009-01-01

    It is now possible to grow silicon nanowires at chosen positions and orientations by a method that involves a combination of standard microfabrication processes. Because their positions and orientations can be chosen with unprecedented precision, the nanowires can be utilized as integral parts of individually electronically addressable devices in dense arrays. Nanowires made from silicon and perhaps other semiconductors hold substantial promise for integration into highly miniaturized sensors, field-effect transistors, optoelectronic devices, and other electronic devices. Like bulk semiconductors, inorganic semiconducting nanowires are characterized by electronic energy bandgaps that render them suitable as means of modulating or controlling electronic signals through electrostatic gating, in response to incident light, or in response to molecules of interest close to their surfaces. There is now potential for fabricating arrays of uniform, individually electronically addressable nanowires tailored to specific applications. The method involves formation of metal catalytic particles at the desired positions on a substrate, followed by heating the substrate in the presence of silane gas. The figure illustrates an example in which a substrate includes a silicon dioxide surface layer that has been etched into an array of pillars and the catalytic (in this case, gold) particles have been placed on the right-facing sides of the pillars. The catalytic thermal decomposition of the silane to silicon and hydrogen causes silicon columns (the desired nanowires) to grow outward from the originally catalyzed spots on the substrate, carrying the catalytic particles at their tips. Thus, the position and orientation of each silicon nanowire is determined by the position of its originally catalyzed spot on the substrate surface, and the orientation of the nanowire is perpendicular to the substrate surface at the originally catalyzed spot.

  7. [Theory of resilience. Key conceptual constructs and chosen issues].

    PubMed

    Borucka, Anna; Ostaszewski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to familiarize readers with key conceptual constructs related to resilience theory. This theory explains the phenomenon of children's and adolescents' positive adaptation despite various adverse life conditions and traumatic events. The resilience theory emphasizes the importance (relevance) of positive factors and mechanisms for child and adolescent development. Thus, it could be very useful for developing primary prevention and mental health promotion programmes among children and youth. This article is based on a review of publications written by significant resiliency researchers: M Rutter, N. Garmezy, E. Werner, S. Luthar, A. Sameroff, K. Kumpfer, A. Masten, M. Zimmerman, D. Cicchetti. More than 20 articles and book chapters published during the past 25 years were taken into consideration. They were chosen from the electronic database available at the University of Michigan and SAMSHA, and publications available in Poland. Several resilience definitions are mentioned, indicating the interactive and dynamic process of positive adaptation. These definitions encompass the impact of both risk and positive factors (and their interaction) on the individual's behavior, competence and health. The key conceptual constructs such as risk, risk factors, positive factors, resilience models and mechanisms are described in this article. The differences between the risk and protective mechanism are also presented. The difficulties related to operationalization of the key resilience constructs in empirical research are discussed. Common difficulties are related for example to clear criteria for risk and positive adaptation, and for risk group selection.

  8. [Clinical research IV. Relevancy of the statistical test chosen].

    PubMed

    Talavera, Juan O; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    When we look at the difference between two therapies or the association of a risk factor or prognostic indicator with its outcome, we need to evaluate the accuracy of the result. This assessment is based on a judgment that uses information about the study design and statistical management of the information. This paper specifically mentions the relevance of the statistical test selected. Statistical tests are chosen mainly from two characteristics: the objective of the study and type of variables. The objective can be divided into three test groups: a) those in which you want to show differences between groups or inside a group before and after a maneuver, b) those that seek to show the relationship (correlation) between variables, and c) those that aim to predict an outcome. The types of variables are divided in two: quantitative (continuous and discontinuous) and qualitative (ordinal and dichotomous). For example, if we seek to demonstrate differences in age (quantitative variable) among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with and without neurological disease (two groups), the appropriate test is the "Student t test for independent samples." But if the comparison is about the frequency of females (binomial variable), then the appropriate statistical test is the χ(2).

  9. Human endogenous retroviruses and chosen disease parameters in morphea

    PubMed Central

    Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Szramka-Pawlak, Beata; Żaba, Ryszard; Osmola-Mańkowska, Agnieszka; Silny, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Morphea (localized scleroderma) is a relatively rare disease characterized by excessive skin fibrosis. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) are largely distributed within the human genome with hundreds of thousands of elements. The HERV have been widely studied in autoimmune disorders, yet hardly ever assessed in diseases with a good prognosis such as morphea. Aim In this study we focus on the possible relations between the expression of chosen HERV and factors influencing the pathomechanism of the disease, such as age, sex, titres of anti-nuclear antibodies, as well as duration, activity, and severity of the disease (LoSSI index). Material and methods Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting six HERV sequences of interest were performed on samples derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and skin biopsies. Results In PBMC we found a statistically significant negative correlation between HERV-W env expression and LoSSI index (p = 0.01). Additionally, HERV-W env was downregulated in patients with the active form of morphea. In all other cases we found no correlation whatsoever nor statistically significant differences below the p = 0.05 threshold. Conclusions Morphea seems to be an autoimmune disease where the impact of HERV is not so apparent. It seems that probing many patients for the expression of just a few sequences is not as effective as previously expected. For initial studies of HERV in other diseases we recommend high throughput techniques such as HERV-dedicated DNA microarrays or massive parallel sequencing. PMID:28261031

  10. Dopamine neurons learn relative chosen value from probabilistic rewards

    PubMed Central

    Lak, Armin; Stauffer, William R; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Economic theories posit reward probability as one of the factors defining reward value. Individuals learn the value of cues that predict probabilistic rewards from experienced reward frequencies. Building on the notion that responses of dopamine neurons increase with reward probability and expected value, we asked how dopamine neurons in monkeys acquire this value signal that may represent an economic decision variable. We found in a Pavlovian learning task that reward probability-dependent value signals arose from experienced reward frequencies. We then assessed neuronal response acquisition during choices among probabilistic rewards. Here, dopamine responses became sensitive to the value of both chosen and unchosen options. Both experiments showed also the novelty responses of dopamine neurones that decreased as learning advanced. These results show that dopamine neurons acquire predictive value signals from the frequency of experienced rewards. This flexible and fast signal reflects a specific decision variable and could update neuronal decision mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18044.001 PMID:27787196

  11. The influence of the rotational energy of a flywheel on the load pulse sum during pedalling on a cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Voigt, B; von Kiparski, R

    1989-01-01

    Employing seven male subjects, the influence of four different ergometer flywheels with the moments of inertia at the crankshaft (J') = 5.5, 10.5, 16.5, and 19.5 kg.m2 on 6-min load pulse sum (LPS), the heart rate integrated over 6-min was investigated. The J' was demonstrated to influence LPS at each of the corresponding rotational energies of the flywheels (75, 144, 226 and 276 J at 50 rev.min-1) in the four work-load steps (50, 100, 150 and 200 W). Between the values J' = 5.5 kg.m2 and 10.5 kg.m2 the LPS decreases, to rise again in the range J' = 10.5 kg.m2-19.5 kg.m2. For equal work-loads the minimum LPS was reached at a J' of 10.5 kg.m2. For the workloads of 100, 150 and 200 W it was possible to show statistically significant differences. The moment of inertia of ergometer flywheels J has a smoothing effect on the fluctuations of the rotational speed which are unavoidable during work on a cycle ergometer. The flywheel stores the leg forces acting on the pedals as rotational energy and opposes any rotational acceleration. If the J used is too small, equalization of the fluctuations of the rotational speed remains unsatisfactory. Flywheels with larger J require larger torques at the crankshaft for acceleration. For the most effective delivery of work to a cycle ergometer, an optimal rotational energy of the flywheel was found. For equal physical work, smaller or larger rotational energies require a larger expenditure of biological energy. A J' = 11 +/- 2 kg.m2 was incorporated into the draft for the German standard DIN 13,405 -- cycle-type ergometers.

  12. The unique sound of the uni-vibe pedal: Part II. Transient behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahlweg, Cornelius F.; Rothe, Hendrik

    2013-09-01

    The Uni-Vibe is an effect pedal mostly used by electric guitar players. It is based on an opto-electronically controlled all-pass chain. In last year's paper on the subject an idealized system model was derived, which lead to deeper discussion of the musical consequences of the effect in terms of harmonic analysis of single tones and chords in clean and distorted mode. As a direct continuation the present paper deals with the transient behaviour of the device. The transient response is essential for understanding the special sound character, the reaction on picking techniques and the interaction with certain instruments. Therefore the system model is expanded and the pulse response of the idealized time invariant system is derived.

  13. American alligator proximal pedal phalanges resemble human finger bones: Diagnostic criteria for forensic investigators.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Joseph V; Binetti, Katie M

    2014-07-01

    A scientific approach to bone and tooth identification requires analysts to pursue the goal of empirical falsification. That is, they may attribute a questioned specimen to element and taxon only after having ruled out all other possible attributions. This requires analysts to possess a thorough understanding of both human and non-human osteology, particularly so for remains that may be morphologically similar across taxa. To date, forensic anthropologists have identified several potential 'mimics' for human skeletal remains, including pig teeth and bear paws. Here we document another possible mimic for isolated human skeletal elements--the proximal pedal phalanges of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) closely resemble the proximal and intermediate hand phalanges of adult humans. We detail morphological similarities and differences between these elements, with the goal of providing sufficient information for investigators to confidently falsify the hypothesis that a questioned phalanx is derived from an American alligator.

  14. INTERVENTION AT THE FOOT-SHOE-PEDAL INTERFACE IN COMPETITIVE CYCLISTS

    PubMed Central

    Vicenzino, Bill; Sisto, Sue Ann

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Competitive cyclists are susceptible to injury from the highly repetitive nature of pedaling during training and racing. Deviation from an optimal movement pattern is often cited as a factor contributing to tissue stress with specific concern for excessive frontal plane knee motion. Wedges and orthoses are increasingly used at the foot-shoe-pedal-interface (FSPI) in cycling shoes to alter the kinematics of the lower limb while cycling. Determination of the effect of FSPI alteration on cycling kinematics may offer a simple, inexpensive tool to reduce anterior knee pain in recreational and competitive cyclists. There have been a limited number of experimental studies examining the effect of this intervention in cyclists, and there is little agreement upon which FSPI interventions can prevent or treat knee injury. The purpose of this review is to provide a broader review of the literature than has been performed to date, and to critically examine the literature examining the evidence for FSPI intervention in competitive cyclists. Methods Current literature examining the kinematic response to intervention at the FSPI while cycling was reviewed. A multi-database search was performed in PubMed, EBSCO, Scopus, CINAHL and SPORTdiscus. Eleven articles were reviewed, and a risk of bias assessment performed according to guidelines developed by the Cochrane Bias Methods Group. Papers with a low risk of bias were selected for review, but two papers with higher risk of bias were included as there were few high quality studies available on this topic. Results Seven of the eleven papers had low bias in sequence generation i.e. random allocation to the test condition, only one paper had blinding to group allocation, all papers had detailed but non-standardized methodology, and incomplete data reporting, but were generally free of other bias sources. Conclusions Wedges and orthoses at the FSPI alter kinematics of the lower limb while cycling, although conclusions

  15. Affective imaging: psychological and physiological reactions to individually chosen images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorovskaya, Elena A.; Miller, Paige; Prabhu, Girish; Horwitz, Cecelia; Matraszek, Tomasz; Parks, Peter; Blazey, Richard; Endrikhovski, Serguei

    2001-06-01

    In a series of experiments, observers' cognitive and psychophysiological responses to pictorial stimuli were evaluated. In the first experiment, subjects were viewing a set of randomly presented images. After each image presentation, they rates every image on a number of cognitive scales. In the second experiment, images producing certain physiological effects - deactivating, neutral, or activating - were individually selected based on the results of the first experiment and shown to the subjects again. Psychophysiological measurements included electrocardiogram, hand temperature, muscle tension, eye movements, blood oxygen, respiration, and galvanic skin response. Our result indicate that images produced significant emotional changes based on verbal and physiological assessment. The changes were in agreement with the predictions derived from the metric that we developed in a number of cases that exceeded the change level. The direction of changes corresponded to previous findings reported elsewhere.

  16. Differential expression profile of membrane proteins in Aplysia pleural–pedal ganglia under the stress of methyl parathion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Ying; Huang, Lin; Zhang, Yong; Ke, Cai-Huan; Huang, He-Qing

    2014-03-01

    This study was aimed to analyze the alteration of membrane protein profiles in Aplysia juliana Quoy & Gaimard (A. juliana) pleural–pedal ganglia under MP exposure. Both the results of GC–MS analysis and the activity assay of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) reveal that MP toxicological effects on Aplysia left and right pleural–pedal ganglia are different under 7 and 14 days of exposure. Therefore, Aplysia were subjected for exposure at two concentrations (1 and 2 mg/l) of MP for 7 and 14 days for membrane proteomic study. As a result, 19 and 14 protein spots were differentially expressed in A. juliana left pleural–pedal ganglia under 7 and 14 days treatment, and 20 and 14 protein spots found with differential expressions in their right ganglia under the same treatment, respectively. Several proteins with expression variations were detected from both the left and right pleural–pedal ganglia; however, most proteins have distinctive expressions, indicating different mechanisms might be involved in initiating MP toxicology in left and right ganglia. Among the total differential protein spots obtained, 29 proteins were classed as membrane proteins. These proteins are mainly involved in the metabolism process, cell redox homeostasis, signal transduction, immunology, intracellular transport and catalysis, indicating MP toxicity in mollusks seems to be complex and diverse. Some differentially expressed proteins were further confirmed by Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. These results might provide renovated insights to reveal the mechanism of MP-induced neurotoxicity, and the novel candidate biomarkers might have potential application for environmental evaluation of MP pollution level.

  17. The pes of Australovenator wintonensis (Theropoda: Megaraptoridae): analysis of the pedal range of motion and biological restoration

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Alex G.; Klinkhamer, Ada J.; Elliott, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The pedal range of motion in Australovenator wintonensis is investigated to determine what influence soft tissue had on range of motion in the foot. Fortunately, the theropod pes shares a close morphology with extant large cursorial birds. Therefore, to better understand the pedal range of motion of Australovenator, the pedal range of motion of Dromaius novaehollandiae (commonly known as the emu) was analysed with and without soft tissue. We used a variety of innovative digital techniques to analyse the range of motion and biologically restore the Australovenator pes. Computed tomography scans of Dromaius pes in fully flexed and fully extended positions provided the soft tissue range of motion limits. The bone on bone range of motion of the same specimen was replicated following the removal of soft tissue. It was identified that there was an increase in range of motion potential with the removal of soft tissue. This variation provided a guide to develop the potential range of motion of a fully fleshed Australovenator pes. Additionally, the dissection of the Dromaius pes provided a guide enabling the replication of the corresponding soft tissue and keratin sheaths of the Australovenator pes. PMID:27547591

  18. Muscular activity level during pedalling is not affected by crank inertial load.

    PubMed

    Duc, S; Villerius, V; Bertucci, W; Pernin, J N; Grappe, F

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of gear ratio (GR) and thus crank inertial load (CIL), on the activity levels of lower limb muscles. Twelve competitive cyclists performed three randomised trials with their own bicycle equipped with a SRM crankset and mounted on an Axiom ergometer. The power output ( approximately 80% of maximal aerobic power) and the pedalling cadence were kept constant for each subject across all trials but three different GR (low, medium and high) were indirectly obtained for each trial by altering the electromagnetic brake of the ergometer. The low, medium and high GR (mean +/- SD) resulted in CIL of 44 +/- 3.7, 84 +/- 6.5 and 152 +/- 17.9 kg.m(2), respectively. Muscular activity levels of the gluteus maximus (GM), the vastus medialis (VM), the vastus lateralis (VL), the rectus femoris (RF), the medial hamstrings (MHAM), the gastrocnemius (GAS) and the soleus (SOL) muscles were quantified and analysed by mean root mean square (RMS(mean)). The muscular activity levels of the measured lower limb muscles were not significantly affected when the CIL was increased approximately four fold. This suggests that muscular activity levels measured on different cycling ergometers (with different GR and flywheel inertia) can be compared among each other, as they are not influenced by CIL.

  19. Digits Lost or Gained? Evidence for Pedal Evolution in the Dwarf Salamander Complex (Eurycea, Plethodontidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Change in digit number, particularly digit loss, has occurred repeatedly over the evolutionary history of tetrapods. Although digit loss has been documented among distantly related species of salamanders, it is relatively uncommon in this amphibian order. For example, reduction from five to four toes appears to have evolved just three times in the morphologically and ecologically diverse family Plethodontidae. Here we report a molecular phylogenetic analysis for one of these four-toed lineages – the Eurycea quadridigitata complex (dwarf salamanders) – emphasizing relationships to other species in the genus. A multilocus phylogeny reveals that dwarf salamanders are paraphyletic with respect to a complex of five-toed, paedomorphic Eurycea from the Edwards Plateau in Texas. We use this phylogeny to examine evolution of digit number within the dwarf−Edwards Plateau clade, testing contrasting hypotheses of digit loss (parallelism among dwarf salamanders) versus digit gain (re-evolution in the Edwards Plateau complex). Bayes factors analysis provides statistical support for a five-toed common ancestor at the dwarf-Edwards node, favoring, slightly, the parallelism hypothesis for digit loss. More importantly, our phylogenetic results pinpoint a rare event in the pedal evolution of plethodontid salamanders. PMID:22649536

  20. Cortical current density oscillations in the motor cortex are correlated with muscular activity during pedaling exercise.

    PubMed

    Schneider, S; Rouffet, D M; Billaut, F; Strüder, H K

    2013-01-03

    Despite modern imaging techniques, assessing and localizing changes in brain activity during whole-body exercise is still challenging. Using an active electroencephalography (EEG) system in combination with source localization algorithms, this study aimed to localize brain cortical oscillations patterns in the motor cortex and to correlate these with surface electromyography (EMG)-detected muscular activity during pedaling exercise. Eight subjects performed 2-min isokinetic (90 rpm) cycling bouts at intensities ranging from 1 to 5 Wkg(-1) body mass on a cycle ergometer. These bouts were interspersed by a minimum of 2 min of passive rest to limit to development of peripheral muscle fatigue. Brain cortical activity within the motor cortex was analyzed using a 32-channel active EEG system combined with source localization algorithms. EMG activity was recorded from seven muscles on each lower limb. EEG and EMG activity revealed comparatively stable oscillations across the different exercise intensities. More importantly, the oscillations in cortical activity within the motor cortex were significantly correlated with EMG activity during the high-intensity cycling bouts. This study demonstrates that it is possible to localize oscillations in brain cortical activity during moderate- to high-intensity cycling exercise using EEG in combination with source localization algorithms, and that these oscillations match the activity of the active muscles in time and amplitude. Results of this study might help to further evaluate the effects of central vs. peripheral fatigue during exercise.

  1. Abdominal Aortic Hemodynamics in Intermittent Claudication Patients at Rest and During Dynamic Pedaling Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Christopher P.; Taylor, Charles A.; Dalman, Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lower extremity exercise has been shown to eliminate adverse hemodynamics conditions, such as low and oscillating blood flow and wall shear stress, in the abdominal aortas of healthy young and older adults. Methods We use cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging and a custom MRI-compatible exercise cycle to quantify hemodynamic changes due to pedaling exercise in patients diagnosed with intermittent claudication. Results and Conclusions With only an average heart increase of 35±18% and exercise workload of 36±16 Watts, the patients experienced approximately 3- and 6-fold increases in blood flow, and 4- and 16-fold increases in wall shear stress at the supraceliac and infrarenal aortic locations, respectively. Also, all oscillations in flow and shear stress at rest were eliminated with exercise. Claudication patients experience 3 to 4-fold lower oscillations in flow and shear stress at rest as compared to healthy age-matched controls, likely due to reduced distal arterial compliance as a result of distal atherosclerosis. The magnitude of flow and shear oscillatory indices may be good indicators of distal arterial compliance and health, and may provide predictive power for the efficacy of focal interventions. PMID:26315797

  2. Diagnosis of pedal osteomyelitis in diabetic patients using current scintigraphic techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, A.M.; Tindel, N.L.; Alavi, A. )

    1989-10-01

    Seventy-seven diabetic patients with suspected osteomyelitis of the foot were evaluated by three-phase bone scintigraphy (TPBS), indium 111-labeled white blood cell scintigraphy (WBCS), roentgenography, or some combination thereof. Retrospective analysis after clinical and pathologic follow-up indicated that the sensitivity of TPBS alone in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis was 100%, with a specificity of only 38% and an accuracy of 63%; the sensitivity of WBCS alone was 100%, with a specificity of 78% and an accuracy of 87%; and the combination of TPBS and WBCS yielded a sensitivity of 100%, with a specificity of 79% and an accuracy of 87%. Roentgenography yielded a sensitivity of 69%, with a specificity of 82% and an accuracy of 76%. The results of this study demonstrate that WBCS is superior to TPBS in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot, and TPBS adds little when viewed in conjunction with WBCS. Based on our observations and because of the high prevalence of neuropathic joint disease and other causes of false-positive bone scans, we believe that WBCS alone is adequate for evaluation of suspected pedal osteomyelitis in diabetic patients, particularly when the suspected lesion is located in the tarsometatarsal region in contrast to the toe region (7% vs 44% specificity and 28% vs 69% accuracy, respectively, for TPBS in these two regions, compared with 100% vs 68% specificity and 100% vs 80% accuracy, respectively, for WBCS in the same two regions).

  3. Lower Wingate Test Power Outcomes from 'All-Out' Pre-Test Pedaling Cadence Compared to Moderate Cadence.

    PubMed

    Lunn, William R; Zenoni, Maria A; Crandall, Ian H; Dress, Ashley E; Berglund, Michelle L

    2013-11-20

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different pre-test pedaling cadences on power outcomes obtained during the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). Vigorously-exercising adult males (n = 14, 24.9 ± 1.2 y) and females (n = 14, 20.4 ± 0.6 y) participated in a randomized, crossover study during which they performed the 30-s WAnT on a mechanically-braked cycle ergometer (0.075 kg/kg body weight) under two conditions. Participants pedaled maximally with an unloaded flywheel during 5 s before resistance was applied and the test began (FAST). In another trial, participants maintained a moderate cadence (80 rpm) during 5 s before test start (MOD). All other components of the WAnT were identical. Peak power (PP), mean power (MP), minimum power (MinP), fatigue index (%FAT) and maximum cadence during test (maxRPM) were recorded. Comparisons were made using a 2x2 factorial RMANOVA. Regardless of gender, the FAST condition resulted in 22.2% lower PP (612.6 ± 33.0 W vs. 788.3 ± 43.5 W), 13.3 % lower MP (448.4 ± 22.2 W vs. 517.2 ± 26.4 W), 11.7% lower MinP (280.9 ± 14.8 W vs. 318.3 ± 17.2 W), and 9.0% lower %FAT (53.5 ± 1.3 % vs. 58.8 ± 1.5 %) than in MOD (p < 0.01; means ± sd). Similar outcomes were observed within gender. The authors conclude that practitioners of the WAnT should instruct participants to maintain a moderate pedal cadence (∼80 rpm) during the 5 s before the test commences to avoid bias from software sampling and peripheral fatigue. Standardizing the pre-test pedal cadence will be important to exercise testing professionals who compare data to norms or generate norms for specific populations.

  4. Integrated inertial sensors and mobile computing for real-time cycling performance guidance via pedaling profile classification.

    PubMed

    Xu, James Y; Nan, Xiaomeng; Ebken, Victor; Wang, Yan; Pottie, Greg J; Kaiser, William J

    2015-03-01

    Today, the bicycle is utilized as a daily commute tool, a physical rehabilitation asset, and sporting equipment, prompting studies into the biomechanics of cycling. Of the number of important parameters that affect cycling efficiency, the foot angle profile is one of the most important as it correlates directly with the effective force applied to the bike. However, there has been no compact and portable solution for measuring the foot angle and for providing the cyclist with real-time feedback due to a number of difficulties of the current tracking and sensing technologies and the myriad types of bikes available. This paper presents a novel sensing and mobile computing system for classifying the foot angle profiles during cycling and for providing real-time guidance to the user to achieve the correct profile. Continuous foot angle tracking is firstly converted into a discrete problem requiring only recognition of acceleration profiles of the foot using a single shoe mounted tri-axial accelerometer during each pedaling cycle. A classification method is then applied to identify the pedaling profile. Finally, a mobile solution is presented to provide real-time signal processing and guidance.

  5. Identification with Stimuli Moderates Women's Affective and Testosterone Responses to Self-Chosen Erotica.

    PubMed

    Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M

    2016-11-01

    Sexual thoughts are sufficient to increase testosterone (T) in women, yet erotic films are not. A key confound in past studies is autonomy in stimulus selection: women choose the content of their sexual thoughts but films have been selected by researchers. We hypothesized that self-chosen erotic films, compared to researcher-chosen erotic films, would (1) increase women's self-reported arousal, enjoyment, and identification with stimuli, and decrease negative affect; and (2) increase T. Participants (N = 116 women) were randomly assigned to a neutral documentary condition or one of three erotic film conditions: high choice (self-chosen erotica from participants' own sources), moderate choice (self-chosen erotica from films preselected by sexuality researchers), or no choice (researcher-chosen erotica). Participants provided saliva samples for T before and after viewing the film in the privacy of their homes. Compared to researcher-chosen erotica, self-chosen erotica increased self-reported arousal and enjoyment, but also unexpectedly disgust, guilt, and embarrassment. Self-chosen erotica only marginally increased identification with stimuli compared to researcher-chosen erotica. Overall, film condition did not affect T, but individual differences in identification moderated T responses: among women reporting lower levels of identification, the moderate choice condition decreased T compared to the no choice condition, but this difference was not observed among women with higher identification. These results highlight the importance of cognitive/emotional factors like identification for sexually modulated T. However, self-chosen erotica results in more ambivalent rather than unequivocally positive cognitive/emotional responses, perhaps because stigma associated with viewing erotica for women becomes more salient when choosing stimuli.

  6. Influence of two pedalling rate conditions on mechanical output and physiological responses during all-out intermittent exercise.

    PubMed

    Dorel, Sylvain; Bourdin, Muriel; Van Praagh, Emmanuel; Lacour, Jean-René; Hautier, Christophe André

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two cycling velocities on power output and concomitant metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses to repeated all-out exercises. Mean power output (P(m)), total work ( W(tot)), total oxygen consumption (VO(2tot)) and blood lactate accumulation (delta[La](b)) were evaluated in 13 male subjects who performed two series of twelve 5-s bouts of sprint cycling. Recovery periods of 45-s were allowed between trials. One series was executed at optimal velocity (V(opt): velocity for greatest power) and the other one at 50% V(opt) (0.5 V(opt)). Velocities obtained in these conditions were V(opt=)116.6 (4.7) rpm; 0.5V(opt)=60.6 (4.9) rpm. After a phase of adaptation in oxygen uptake in the first part of the series, the data from the 6th to the 12th sprint were as follows: P(m), 924.6 (73.9) versus 689.2 (61.8) W; W(tot), 29.95 (4.14) versus 22.04 (3.17) kJ; VO(2tot), 12.80 (1.36) versus 10.58 (1.37) l; delta[La](b), 2.72 (1.22) versus 0.64 (0.79) mmol x l(-1), respectively (P<0.001). Both W(tot) and VO(2tot) were consistently higher at optimal velocity (+21 and +35.8%, respectively). The present findings demonstrate that during intermittent short-term all-out exercise requiring maximal activation, the energy turnover is not necessarily maximal. It depends on muscle contraction velocity. The increase, lower than expected, in metabolic response from 0.5 V(opt) to V(opt) suggests also that mechanical efficiency is higher at V(opt).

  7. Method for producing solid or hollow spherical particles of chosen chemical composition and of uniform size

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D.

    1988-01-01

    A method is provided for producing commercially large quantities of high melting temperature solid or hollow spherical particles of a predetermined chemical composition and having a uniform and controlled size distribution. An end (18, 50, 90) of a solid or hollow rod (20, 48, 88) of the material is rendered molten by a laser beam (14, 44, 82). Because of this, there is no possibility of the molten rod material becoming contaminated with extraneous material. In various aspects of the invention, an electric field is applied to the molten rod end (18, 90), and/or the molten rod end (50, 90) is vibrated. In a further aspect of the invention, a high-frequency component is added to the electric field applied to the molten end of the rod (90). By controlling the internal pressure of the rod, the rate at which the rod is introduced into the laser beam, the environment of the process, the vibration amplitude and frequency of the molten rod end, the electric field intensity applied to the molten rod end, and the frequency and intensity of the component added to the electric field, the uniformity and size distribution of the solid or hollow spherical particles (122) produced by the inventive method is controlled. The polarity of the electric field applied to the molten rod end can be chosen to eliminate backstreaming electrons, which tend to produce run-away heating in the rod, from the process.

  8. Cannabidiol Attenuates the Appetitive Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Humans Smoking Their Chosen Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Celia JA; Freeman, Tom P; Schafer, Gráinne L; Curran, H Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide cannabis dependence is increasing, as is the concentration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in street cannabis. At the same time, the concentration of the second most abundant cannabinoid in street cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), is decreasing. These two cannabinoids have opposing effects both pharmacologically and behaviorally when administered in the laboratory. No research has yet examined how the ratio of these constituents impacts on the appetitive/reinforcing effects of cannabis in humans. A total of 94 cannabis users were tested 7 days apart, once while non-intoxicated and once while acutely under the influence of their own chosen smoked cannabis on dependence-related measures. Using an unprecedented methodology, a sample of cannabis (as well as saliva) was collected from each user and analyzed for levels of cannabinoids. On the basis of CBD : THC ratios in the cannabis, individuals from the top and bottom tertiles were directly compared on indices of the reinforcing effects of drugs, explicit liking, and implicit attentional bias to drug stimuli. When intoxicated, smokers of high CBD : THC strains showed reduced attentional bias to drug and food stimuli compared with smokers of low CBD : THC. Those smoking higher CBD : THC strains also showed lower self-rated liking of cannabis stimuli on both test days. Our findings suggest that CBD has potential as a treatment for cannabis dependence. The acute modulation of the incentive salience of drug cues by CBD may possibly generalize to a treatment for other addictive disorders. PMID:20428110

  9. A method for the determination of confidence limits for the P/2e- ratio for chosen values of ymaxatp form the results of continuous culture experiments.

    PubMed

    Boender, R J; Stouthamer, A H

    1977-04-01

    A model is described, which allows the determination of 95% confidence limits for the maintenance coefficient and the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation for chosen values of the growth yield for ATP corrected for energy maintenace (YmaxATP). As experimental data the specific rates of substrate consumption, product formation and oxygen uptake in chemostat cultures at various growth rates are use.

  10. The critical power function is dependent on the duration of the predictive exercise tests chosen.

    PubMed

    Bishop, D; Jenkins, D G; Howard, A

    1998-02-01

    The linear relationship between work accomplished (W(lim)) and time to exhaustion (t(lim)) can be described by the equation: W(lim) = a + CP x t(lim). Critical power (CP) is the slope of this line and is thought to represent a maximum rate of ATP synthesis without exhaustion, presumably an inherent characteristic of the aerobic energy system. The present investigation determined whether the choice of predictive tests would elicit significant differences in the estimated CP. Ten female physical education students completed, in random order and on consecutive days, five all-out predictive tests at preselected constant-power outputs. Predictive tests were performed on an electrically-braked cycle ergometer and power loadings were individually chosen so as to induce fatigue within approximately 1-10 mins. CP was derived by fitting the linear W(lim)-t(lim) regression and calculated three ways: 1) using the first, third and fifth W(lim)-t(lim) coordinates (I135), 2) using coordinates from the three highest power outputs (I123; mean t(lim) = 68-193 s) and 3) using coordinates from the lowest power outputs (I345; mean t(lim) = 193-485 s). Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that CPI123 (201.0+/-37.9W) > CPI135 (176.1+/-27.6W) > CPI345 (164.0+/-22.8W) (P<0.05). When the three sets of data were used to fit the hyperbolic Power-t(lim) regression, statistically significant differences between each CP were also found (P<0.05). The shorter the predictive trials, the greater the slope of the W(lim)-t(lim) regression; possibly because of the greater influence of 'aerobic inertia' on these trials. This may explain why CP has failed to represent a maximal, sustainable work rate. The present findings suggest that if CP is to represent the highest power output that an individual can maintain "for a very long time without fatigue" then CP should be calculated over a range of predictive tests in which the influence of aerobic inertia is minimised.

  11. Student Self-Efficacy in a Chosen Business Career Path: The Influence of Cognitive Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Joseph T.; Czyzewski, Alan; Sherwood, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    An important dimension of university students' academic success is retention in their chosen major. When students do switch majors or interrupt their education, it is largely due to their lack of confidence about doing well academically, as well as perceived chances of success in the career area related to university major. A term often used for…

  12. Variables Related to the Type of Postsecondary Education Experience Chosen by Young Adults with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robert J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study found that the postsecondary education experience (junior college, community college, 4-year college/university, military, or private training) chosen by 225 young adults with learning disabilities was related to use of community resources; community mobility; participation in vocational education while in high school; autonomy; peer…

  13. Investigating pianists' individuality in the performance of five timbral nuances through patterns of articulation, touch, dynamics, and pedaling

    PubMed Central

    Bernays, Michel; Traube, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Timbre is an essential expressive feature in piano performance. Concert pianists use a vast palette of timbral nuances to color their performances at the microstructural level. Although timbre is generally envisioned in the pianistic community as an abstract concept carried through an imaged vocabulary, performers may share some common strategies of timbral expression in piano performance. Yet there may remain further leeway for idiosyncratic processes in the production of piano timbre nuances. In this study, we examined the patterns of timbral expression in performances by four expert pianists. Each pianist performed four short pieces, each with five different timbral intentions (bright, dark, dry, round, and velvety). The performances were recorded with the high-accuracy Bösendorfer CEUS system. Fine-grained performance features of dynamics, touch, articulation and pedaling were extracted. Reduced PCA performance spaces and descriptive performance portraits confirmed that pianists exhibited unique, specific profiles for different timbral intentions, derived from underlying traits of general individuality, while sharing some broad commonalities of dynamics and articulation for each timbral intention. These results confirm that pianists' abstract notions of timbre correspond to reliable patterns of performance technique. Furthermore, these effects suggest that pianists can express individual styles while complying with specific timbral intentions. PMID:24624099

  14. Aborted double bicycle-pedal isomerization with hydrogen bond breaking is the primary event of bacteriorhodopsin proton pumping.

    PubMed

    Altoè, Piero; Cembran, Alessandro; Olivucci, Massimo; Garavelli, Marco

    2010-11-23

    Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations based on ab initio multiconfigurational second order perturbation theory are employed to construct a computer model of Bacteriorhodopsin that reproduces the observed static and transient electronic spectra, the dipole moment changes, and the energy stored in the photocycle intermediate K. The computed reaction coordinate indicates that the isomerization of the retinal chromophore occurs via a complex motion accounting for three distinct regimes: (i) production of the excited state intermediate I, (ii) evolution of I toward a conical intersection between the excited state and the ground state, and (iii) formation of K. We show that, during stage ii, a space-saving mechanism dominated by an asynchronous double bicycle-pedal deformation of the C10═C11─C12═C13─C14═N moiety of the chromophore dominates the isomerization. On this same stage a N─H/water hydrogen bond is weakened and initiates a breaking process that is completed during stage iii.

  15. 41 CFR 301-74.6 - What can we do if we cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per diem rate? 301-74.6 Section 301-74.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.6...

  16. 41 CFR 301-74.6 - What can we do if we cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per diem rate? 301-74.6 Section 301-74.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.6...

  17. 41 CFR 301-74.6 - What can we do if we cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per diem rate? 301-74.6 Section 301-74.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.6...

  18. 41 CFR 301-74.6 - What can we do if we cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per diem rate? 301-74.6 Section 301-74.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.6...

  19. 41 CFR 301-74.6 - What can we do if we cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cannot find an appropriate conference facility at the chosen locality per diem rate? 301-74.6 Section 301-74.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.6...

  20. Influence of pedal cadence on the respiratory compensation point and its relation to critical power.

    PubMed

    Broxterman, R M; Ade, C J; Barker, T; Barstow, T J

    2015-03-01

    It is not known if the respiratory compensation point (RCP) is a distinct work rate (Watts (W)) or metabolic rate V̇(O2) and if the RCP is mechanistically related to critical power (CP). To examine these relationships, 10 collegiate men athletes performed cycling incremental and constant-power tests at 60 and 100 rpm to determine RCP and CP. RCP work rate was significantly (p≤0.05) lower for 100 than 60 rpm (197±24 W vs. 222±24 W), while RCP V̇(O2) was not significantly different (3.00±0.33 l min(-1) vs. 3.12±0.41 l min(-1)). CP at 60 rpm (214±51 W; V̇(O2): 3.01±0.69 l min(-1)) and 100 rpm (196±46 W; V̇(O2): 2.95±0.54 l min(-1)) were not significantly different from RCP. However, RCP and CP were not significantly correlated. These findings demonstrate that RCP represents a distinct metabolic rate, which can be achieved at different power outputs, but that RCP and CP are not equivalent parameters and should not, therefore, be used synonymously.

  1. The influence of magnesium supplementation on concentrations of chosen bioelements and toxic metals in adult human hair. Magnesium and chosen bioelements in hair.

    PubMed

    Kozielec, Tadeusz; Sałacka, Anna; Karakiewicz, Beata

    2004-09-01

    The basic functions of bioelements in biological systems is widely known. Depletion of bioelements and excess of toxic elements lead to impairment of metabolism in the living organism. The existence of magnesium deficiencies in the adult and pediatric populations may cause increased accumulation of toxic metals including lead and cadmium. Prevention of adverse effects of toxic metals may include supplementation with some bioelements and vitamins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of magnesium supplementation on concentrations of chosen bioelements and toxic metals in hair in the adult human population. The research was performed on 124 individuals (53 males and 71 females aged 19-72 years), inhabitants of the city of Szczecin. The concentrations of magnesium, zinc, copper, lead and cadmium were studied in hair. Measurements were performed using the inversion volt-amperometry method with application of an EDD-Tribo PC ETP volt-amperometer. Finally, the supplementation study enrolled 65 individuals with an increased concentration of lead. The studied individuals were divided into two groups: one treated group that enrolled 50 patients who were supplemented with magnesium and the control group that enrolled 15 persons receiving placebo. Finally, supplementation was completed by 32 individuals from the treated group and 10 individuals from the control group. Supplementation was performed using Slow-Mag-B6 preparation at the total daily dose of five tablets divided into 2-3 doses. One tablet contains 535 mg of magnesium chloride i.e. 64 mg of magnesium ions (5.26 mEgMg2) and 5 mg of vitamin B6. Supplementation was performed for a period of 3 months. The remaining individuals did not complete the supplementation due to various reasons; however, none of them resulted from the poor tolerance of the preparation or its adverse events. The results achieved underwent statistical analysis. The results of the study revealed a positive influence of

  2. Metabolic responses to submaximal treadmill walking and cycle ergometer pedalling in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lafortuna, C L; Lazzer, S; Agosti, F; Busti, C; Galli, R; Mazzilli, G; Sartorio, A

    2010-08-01

    Physical activity is essential in obesity management because of the impact of exercise-related energy expenditure (EE) and fat oxidation (Fox) rate on a daily balance, but the specific physiological effects of different exercise modalities are scarcely known in obese individuals. The objective of the study was to compare the metabolic responses to treadmill (TM) and cycle ergometer (CE) exercise in obese adolescents. Gas exchange, heart rate (HR), blood lactate (LA) concentration, EE and Fox were determined at different intensity levels (up to about 85% of maximal oxygen uptake) during TM and CE in 14 pubertal (Tanner stage: >3) obese (BMI SDS: 2.15-3.86) male adolescents (age: 13-18 years). At comparable HR, oxygen uptake, EE and Fox were higher, and LA lower, during TM than CE (P<0.05-0.001), suggesting that cycling imposes a metabolic involvement at the level of the single active muscles greater than walking. Therefore, due to different physiological responses to TM and CE, walking was more convenient than cycling in obese adolescents, permitting to attain the same EE at lower HR, with lower blood LA concentration and with greater Fox. These conclusions seem clinically relevant when using exercise as a part of multidisciplinary treatment for juvenile obesity and amelioration of related metabolic disturbances.

  3. A combinatorial approach to create artificial homing endonucleases cleaving chosen sequences

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Julianne; Grizot, Sylvestre; Arnould, Sylvain; Duclert, Aymeric; Epinat, Jean-Charles; Chames, Patrick; Prieto, Jesús; Redondo, Pilar; Blanco, Francisco J.; Bravo, Jerónimo; Montoya, Guillermo; Pâques, Frédéric; Duchateau, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Meganucleases, or homing endonucleases (HEs) are sequence-specific endonucleases with large (>14 bp) cleavage sites that can be used to induce efficient homologous gene targeting in cultured cells and plants. These findings have opened novel perspectives for genome engineering in a wide range of fields, including gene therapy. However, the number of identified HEs does not match the diversity of genomic sequences, and the probability of finding a homing site in a chosen gene is extremely low. Therefore, the design of artificial endonucleases with chosen specificities is under intense investigation. In this report, we describe the first artificial HEs whose specificity has been entirely redesigned to cleave a naturally occurring sequence. First, hundreds of novel endonucleases with locally altered substrate specificity were derived from I-CreI, a Chlamydomonas reinhardti protein belonging to the LAGLIDADG family of HEs. Second, distinct DNA-binding subdomains were identified within the protein. Third, we used these findings to assemble four sets of mutations into heterodimeric endonucleases cleaving a model target or a sequence from the human RAG1 gene. These results demonstrate that the plasticity of LAGLIDADG endonucleases allows extensive engineering, and provide a general method to create novel endonucleases with tailored specificities. PMID:17130168

  4. Neural networks type MLP in the process of identification chosen varieties of maize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boniecki, P.; Nowakowski, K.; Tomczak, R.

    2011-06-01

    During the adaptation process of the weights vector that occurs in the iterative presentation of the teaching vector, the the MLP type artificial neural network (MultiLayer Perceptron) attempts to learn the structure of the data. Such a network can learn to recognise aggregates of input data occurring in the input data set regardless of the assumed criteria of similarity and the quantity of the data explored. The MLP type neural network can be also used to detect regularities occurring in the obtained graphic empirical data. The neuronal image analysis is then a new field of digital processing of signals. It is possible to use it to identify chosen objects given in the form of bitmap. If at the network input, a new unknown case appears which the network is unable to recognise, it means that it is different from all the classes known previously. The MLP type artificial neural network taught in this way can serve as a detector signalling the appearance of a widely understood novelty. Such a network can also look for similarities between the known data and the noisy data. In this way, it is able to identify fragments of images presented in photographs of e.g. maze's grain. The purpose of the research was to use the MLP neural networks in the process of identification of chosen varieties of maize with the use of image analysis method. The neuronal classification shapes of grains was performed with the use of the Johan Gielis super formula.

  5. Chosen risk level during car-following in adverse weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Hjelkrem, Odd André; Ryeng, Eirin Olaussen

    2016-10-01

    This study examines how precipitation, light conditions and surface conditions affect the drivers' risk perception. An indicator CRI (Chosen Risk Index) is defined, which describes the chosen risk level for drivers in a car-following situation. The dataset contains about 70 000 observations of driver behaviour and weather status on a rural road. Based on the theory of risk homeostasis and an assumption that driving behaviour in situations with daylight, dry road and no precipitation reflects drivers' target level of risk, generalised linear models (GLM) were estimated for cars and trucks separately to reveal the effect of adverse weather conditions on risk perception. The analyses show that both car and truck drivers perceive the highest risk when driving on snow covered roads. For car drivers, a snow covered road in combination with moderate rain or light snow are the factors which lowers the CRI the most. For trucks, snow cover and partially covered roads significantly lowers the CRI, while precipitation did not seem to impose any higher risk. Interaction effects were found for car drivers only.

  6. Collapsing a perfect superposition to a chosen quantum state without measurement.

    PubMed

    Younes, Ahmed; Abdel-Aty, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Given a perfect superposition of [Formula: see text] states on a quantum system of [Formula: see text] qubits. We propose a fast quantum algorithm for collapsing the perfect superposition to a chosen quantum state [Formula: see text] without applying any measurements. The basic idea is to use a phase destruction mechanism. Two operators are used, the first operator applies a phase shift and a temporary entanglement to mark [Formula: see text] in the superposition, and the second operator applies selective phase shifts on the states in the superposition according to their Hamming distance with [Formula: see text]. The generated state can be used as an excellent input state for testing quantum memories and linear optics quantum computers. We make no assumptions about the used operators and applied quantum gates, but our result implies that for this purpose the number of qubits in the quantum register offers no advantage, in principle, over the obvious measurement-based feedback protocol.

  7. Theoretical studies of bonding properties and vibrational spectra of chosen ladder-like silsesquioxane clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczypka, Wojciech; Jeleń, Piotr; Koleżyński, Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    In this work the DFT calculations were carried out by means of Gaussian 09 program using B3LYP XC functional and 6-311G(d) basis set for chosen ladder-like silsesquioxane model clusters. Vibrational frequencies computations and infrared spectra were obtained subsequently for above mentioned structures. The results of topological analysis of total electron density obtained in SCF calculations (Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules approach) and structural analysis based on Bond Valence Method are presented in order to analyze length and ramification of ladder-like structures and various functional group influence. The calculated infrared spectra show that peak derived from vibrations of Si-O “chains” is shifting towards lower frequencies with increasing length of the ladder while at the same time, the overall strains (BVM) are diminishing.

  8. The structure and bonding properties of chosen phenyl ladder-like silsesquioxane clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleżyński, Andrzej; Jastrzębski, Witold; Szczypka, Wojciech; Kowalewska, Anna; Nowacka, Maria; Sitarz, Maciej

    2013-07-01

    The poly(phenyl silsesquioxanes) were synthesized at 30-36 °C via direct co-hydrolysis and condensation using sequential one batch, two-step reactions in the presence of potassium carbonate as the base catalyst and in the mixture THF/H2O. The structure and properties of the obtained materials were analyzed using NMR, TGA, SEC, XRD and FTIR methods. For chosen ladder-like phenyl silsesquioxane model clusters the DFT calculations by means of Gaussian09 program using B98 (DFT) method and a set 6-31G (d) of basis functions were carried out and respective infrared spectra were constructed and compared with the experimentally obtained ones. The results of topological analysis of total electron density obtained in SCF calculations (Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules approach) and structural analysis based on Bond Valence Method were used in detailed analysis of bonding properties in these clusters.

  9. Caught between intending and doing: older people ideating on a self-chosen death

    PubMed Central

    van Wijngaarden, Els; Leget, Carlo; Goossensen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this paper is to provide insight into what it means to live with the intention to end life at a self-chosen moment from an insider perspective. Setting Participants who lived independent or semidependent throughout the Netherlands. Participants 25 Dutch older citizens (mean age of 82 years) participated. They were ideating on a self-chosen death because they considered their lives to be no longer worth living. Inclusion criteria were that they: (1) considered their lives to be ‘completed’; (2) suffered from the prospect of living on; (3) currently wished to die; (4) were 70 years of age or older; (5) were not terminally ill; (6) considered themselves to be mentally competent; (7) considered their death wish reasonable. Design In this qualitative study, in-depth interviews were carried out in the participants’ everyday home environment (median lasting 1.56 h). Verbatim transcripts were analysed based on the principles of phenomenological thematic analysis. Results The liminality or ‘in-betweenness’ of intending and actually performing self-directed death (or not) is characterised as a constant feeling of being torn explicated by the following pairs of themes: (1) detachment and attachment; (2) rational and non-rational considerations; (3) taking control and lingering uncertainty; (4) resisting interference and longing for support; (5) legitimacy and illegitimacy. Conclusions Our findings show that the in-between period emerges as a considerable, existential challenge with both rational and non-rational concerns and thoughts, rather than a calculative, coherent sum of rational considerations. Our study highlights the need to take due consideration of all ambiguities and ambivalences present after a putatively rational decision has been made in order to develop careful policy and support for this particular group of older people. PMID:26781505

  10. Cream or foam in pedal skin care: towards the ideal vehicle for urea used against dry skin.

    PubMed

    Borelli, C; Bielfeldt, S; Borelli, S; Schaller, M; Korting, H C

    2011-02-01

    formulation of skin care preparations for not only dry skin but also in the context of pedal skin care.

  11. A method to determine the kinematics of the lower limbs of a subject pedaling a bicycle using encoders and accelerometers. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Shih-Ching

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research was to determine kinematic parameters of the lower limbs of a subject pedaling a bicycle. An existing measurement system was used as the basis to develop the model to determine position and acceleration of the limbs. The system consists of an ergometer instrumented to provide position of the pedal (foot), accelerometers to be attached to the lower limbs to measure accelerations, a recorder used for filtering, and a computer instrumented with an A/D board and a decoder board. The system is designed to read and record data from accelerometers and encoders. Software has been developed for data collection, analysis and presentation. Based on the measurement system, a two dimensional analytical model has been developed to determine configuration (position, orientation) and kinematics (velocities, accelerations). The model has been implemented in software and verified by simulation. An error analysis to determine the system's accuracy shows that the expected error is well within the specifications of practical applications. When the physical hardware is completed, NASA researchers hope to use the system developed to determine forces exerted by muscles and forces at articulations. This data will be useful in the development of countermeasures to minimize bone loss experienced by astronauts in microgravity conditions.

  12. 45 CFR 2550.40 - How does a State obtain Corporation authorization and approval for the entity it has chosen?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and approval for the entity it has chosen? 2550.40 Section 2550.40 Public Welfare Regulations Relating... Corporation authorization and approval for the entity it has chosen? (a) To receive approval of a State..., membership, authority, and duty requirements of this part. (For the AAE, a State must demonstrate why it...

  13. Student-Chosen Criteria for Peer Assessment of Tertiary Rock Groups in Rehearsal and Performance: What's Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Diana; Encarnacao, John

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates criteria chosen by music students for peer and self assessment of both the rehearsal process and performance outcome of their rock groups. The student-chosen criteria and their explanations of these criteria were analysed in relation to Birkett's skills taxonomy of "soft" and "hard" skills. In the rehearsal process, students…

  14. The extracellular loop of IRT1 ZIP protein--the chosen one for zinc?

    PubMed

    Potocki, Slawomir; Valensin, Daniela; Camponeschi, Francesca; Kozlowski, Henryk

    2013-10-01

    Zinc complexes with the extracellular loop of IRT1 (iron-regulated transporter 1), a ZIP (ZRT/IRT - Related Protein) family protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, have been studied. This unstructured fragment is responsible for metal selectivity and is located between the II and III transmembrane domains of IRT1. Zinc complexes with the Ac-(95)MHVLPDSFEMLSSICLEENPWHK(117)-NH2 peptide (IRT1), revealed surprisingly high thermodynamic stability. Additionally, an N-terminal fragment of human/mouse ZIP 13 zinc transporter (MPGCPCPGCGMACPR-NH2, later called ZIP13+C), has been chosen for the thermodynamic stability comparison studies. The relative ZIP13+C stability has been shown using several Zn(2+) complexes with artificially arranged multi-cysteine sequences. An interesting coordination mode has been proposed for the IRT1-Zn(2+) complex, in which imidazoles from two histidines (His-96 and His-116), a cysteine thiolate (Cys-109) and one of a glutamic acid carboxyl group are involved. All data were collected using potentiometric, NMR and mass spectrometric methods.

  15. Are nest sites actively chosen? Testing a common assumption for three non-resource limited birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodenough, A. E.; Elliot, S. L.; Hart, A. G.

    2009-09-01

    Many widely-accepted ecological concepts are simplified assumptions about complex situations that remain largely untested. One example is the assumption that nest-building species choose nest sites actively when they are not resource limited. This assumption has seen little direct empirical testing: most studies on nest-site selection simply assume that sites are chosen actively (and seek explanations for such behaviour) without considering that sites may be selected randomly. We used 15 years of data from a nestbox scheme in the UK to test the assumption of active nest-site choice in three cavity-nesting bird species that differ in breeding and migratory strategy: blue tit ( Cyanistes caeruleus), great tit ( Parus major) and pied flycatcher ( Ficedula hypoleuca). Nest-site selection was non-random (implying active nest-site choice) for blue and great tits, but not for pied flycatchers. We also considered the relative importance of year-specific and site-specific factors in determining occupation of nest sites. Site-specific factors were more important than year-specific factors for the tit species, while the reverse was true for pied flycatchers. Our results show that nest-site selection, in birds at least, is not always the result of active choice, such that choice should not be assumed automatically in studies of nesting behaviour. We use this example to highlight the need to test key ecological assumptions empirically, and the importance of doing so across taxa rather than for single "model" species.

  16. Recycling and reuse of chosen kinds of waste materials in a building industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferek, B.; Harasymiuk, J.; Tyburski, J.

    2016-08-01

    The article describes the current state of knowledge and practice in Poland concerning recycling as a method of reuse of chosen groups of waste materials in building industry. The recycling of building scraps is imposed by environmental, economic and technological premises. The issue of usage of sewage residues is becoming a problem of ever -growing gravity as the presence of the increasing number of pernicious contaminants makes their utilization for agricultural purposes more and more limited. The strategies of using waste materials on Polish building sites were analyzed. The analysis of predispositions to salvage for a group of traditional materials, such as: timber, steel, building debris, insulation materials, plastics, and on the example of new materials, such as: artificial light aggregates made by appropriate mixing of siliceous aggregates, glass refuses and sewage residues in order to obtain a commodity which is apt for economic usage also was made in the article. The issue of recycling of waste materials originating from building operations will be presented in the context of the binding home and EU legal regulations. It was proved that the level of recycling of building wastes in Poland is considerably different from one which is achieved in the solid market economies, both in quantity and in assortment. The method of neutralization of building refuses in connection with special waste materials, which are sewage sludge that is presented in the article may be one of the alternative solutions to the problem of recycling of these wastes not only on the Polish scale.

  17. The effect of exercise-induced arousal on chosen tempi for familiar melodies.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Halpern, Andrea R; Grierson, Mick; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-04-01

    Many previous studies have shown that arousal affects time perception, suggesting a direct influence of arousal on the speed of the pacemaker of the internal clock. However, it is unknown whether arousal influences the mental representation of tempo (speed) for highly familiar and complex stimuli, such as well-known melodies, that have long-term representations in memory. Previous research suggests that mental representations of the tempo of familiar melodies are stable over time; the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these representations can be systematically altered via an increase in physiological arousal. Participants adjusted the tempo of 14 familiar melodies in real time until they found a tempo that matched their internal representation of the appropriate tempo for that piece. The task was carried out before and after a physiologically arousing (exercise) or nonarousing (anagrams) manipulation. Participants completed this task both while hearing the melodies aloud and while imagining them. Chosen tempi increased significantly following exercise-induced arousal, regardless of whether a melody was heard aloud or imagined. These findings suggest that a change in internal clock speed affects temporal judgments even for highly familiar and complex stimuli such as music.

  18. Comparison of chosen physical fitness characteristics of Turkish professional basketball players by division and playing position.

    PubMed

    Köklü, Yusuf; Alemdaroğlu, Utku; Koçak, Fatma Ünver; Erol, A Emre; Fındıkoğlu, Gülin

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare chosen physical fitness characteristics of Turkish professional basketball players in different divisions (first and second division) and playing positions. Forty-five professional male basketball players (14 guards, 15 forwards, 16 centers) participated in this study voluntarily. For each player, anthropometric measurements were performed, as well as a multi-stage 20 m shuttle run, isokinetic leg strength, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), 10-30 meter single-sprint and T-drill agility tests. The differences in terms of division were evaluated by independent t-test and the differences by playing position were evaluated by one-way ANOVA with Post Hoc Tukey test. First division players' CMJ measurements were significantly higher than those of second division players' (p≤0.05), whereas second division players' 10 m sprint times were significantly better than those of first division players' (p≤0.05). In addition, forwards and centers were significantly taller than guards. Centers were significantly heavier and their T-drill test performances were inferior to those of forwards and guards (p≤0.05). Moreover, guards had a significantly higher maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) than centers. Guards and forwards showed significantly better performance in the 10 and 30 m sprint tests than centers (p≤0.05). Forwards and centers had significantly better left leg flexor strength at 180°.s(-1)(p≤0.05). In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that physical performance of professional basketball players differed among guards, forwards and centers, whereas there were not significant differences between first and second division players. According to the present study, court positions have different demands and physical attributes which are specific to each playing position in professional basketball players. Therefore, these results suggest that coaches should tailor fitness programs according to

  19. [The occurrence of fasciola hepatica in chosen regions of Poland based on molecular and serological methods].

    PubMed

    Kozak-Cieszczyk, Monika

    2006-01-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by the liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) is an important issue for both human and animal health. The disease evokes economic losses which are a consequence of impaired animal productivity leading to higher costs of meat and milk production, as well as liver condemnation. The goals of this thesis were to: (1) elaborate a molecular method--PCR for the detection of F. hepatica DNA in intermediate and definite hosts; (2) estimate the usefulness of a recombinated cysteine proteinase produced in E. coli in the form of inclusive bodies in serological diagnosis of F. hepatica infection in definite hosts, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); (3) conduct field research on the prevalence of infection among intermediate and definitive hosts (cattle) in chosen regions of Poland, utilizing the elaborated methods. Based on the results obtained in this study, it was established that it is possible to detect F. hepatica DNA in the feces of definite hosts with the elaborated PCR method. The amplification of a 124 base pair tandem repeat allows the detection of fluke larval stages in intermediate hosts within 12 hours of exposure and F. hepatica infection in definite hosts (by the 5th week in rats, 8th week in sheep and 10th week in cattle). Therefore, the PCR test is more sensitive than traditional microscopic methods. Furthermore, it was determined that, the recombinated cysteine proteinase in the form of inclusive bodies, after solubillization exhibits antigenic properties of the native protein and the ELISA method based on this antigen may be useful as a tool for diagnosing fasciolosis in sheep and cattle, in both serum and milk samples. The test achieves a greater sensitivity and specificity than an ELISA based on native excretory-secretory antigens. The results of field research indicate that Fasciola hepatica is a frequent parasite of cattle in central and eastern Poland. The mean prevalence was 34.86% (+/- 16.95) in all studied areas. The

  20. Randomly chosen chaotic maps can give rise to nearly ordered behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarsky, Abraham; Góra, Paweł; Islam, Md. Shafiqul

    2005-10-01

    Parrondo’s paradox [J.M.R. Parrondo, G.P. Harmer, D. Abbott, New paradoxical games based on Brownian ratchets, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (2000), 5226-5229] (see also [O.E. Percus, J.K. Percus, Can two wrongs make a right? Coin-tossing games and Parrondo’s paradox, Math. Intelligencer 24 (3) (2002) 68-72]) states that two losing gambling games when combined one after the other (either deterministically or randomly) can result in a winning game: that is, a losing game followed by a losing game = a winning game. Inspired by this paradox, a recent study [J. Almeida, D. Peralta-Salas, M. Romera, Can two chaotic systems give rise to order? Physica D 200 (2005) 124-132] asked an analogous question in discrete time dynamical system: can two chaotic systems give rise to order, namely can they be combined into another dynamical system which does not behave chaotically? Numerical evidence is provided in [J. Almeida, D. Peralta-Salas, M. Romera, Can two chaotic systems give rise to order? Physica D 200 (2005) 124-132] that two chaotic quadratic maps, when composed with each other, create a new dynamical system which has a stable period orbit. The question of what happens in the case of random composition of maps is posed in [J. Almeida, D. Peralta-Salas, M. Romera, Can two chaotic systems give rise to order? Physica D 200 (2005) 124-132] but left unanswered. In this note we present an example of a dynamical system where, at each iteration, a map is chosen in a probabilistic manner from a collection of chaotic maps. The resulting random map is proved to have an infinite absolutely continuous invariant measure (acim) with spikes at two points. From this we show that the dynamics behaves in a nearly ordered manner. When the foregoing maps are applied one after the other, deterministically as in [O.E. Percus, J.K. Percus, Can two wrongs make a right? Coin-tossing games and Parrondo’s paradox, Math. Intelligencer 24 (3) (2002) 68-72], the resulting composed map has a periodic orbit

  1. Don’t Always Prefer My Chosen Objects: Low Level of Trait Autonomy and Autonomy Deprivation Decreases Mere Choice Effect

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Zhe; Tao, Tuoxin; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Choice effect is a robust phenomenon in which even “mere choice” that does not include actual choosing actions could result in more preference for the self-chosen objects over other-chosen objects. In the current research, we proposed that autonomy would impact the mere choice effect. We conducted two studies to examine the hypothesis. The results showed that the mere choice effect measured by Implicit Association Test (IAT) significantly decreased for participants with lower levels of trait autonomy (Study 1) and when participants were primed to experience autonomy deprivation (Study 2). The theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:27148132

  2. First-Year Pharmacy Students’ Views on Their Chosen Professional Career

    PubMed Central

    Askin, Fergal; Hall, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate what factors influenced students to study pharmacy and determine in which sector they hoped to gain employment, both in the short and longer term. Methods. First-year pharmacy students (n=124) were invited to complete a paper-based, self-administered questionnaire consisting of 4 sections. Descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests were conducted. Results. One hundred (96.8% response rate) students completed the questionnaire (22.5% male; 77.5% female). Key influential factors for choosing pharmacy included: enjoyment of science at school, a desire to improve people’s health and wellbeing, and to work in health care. Career aspirations were to work in a hospital or in community practice rather than in industry or academia. Conclusions. Students choose pharmacy as a career primarily for altruistic and clinical reasons. This research provides information for pharmacy schools about the career aspirations of students and data from future pharmacists is potentially helpful to pharmacy professional organizations and potential employers. PMID:28090099

  3. 78 FR 10692 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  4. 45 CFR 2550.40 - How does a State obtain Corporation authorization and approval for the entity it has chosen?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How does a State obtain Corporation authorization and approval for the entity it has chosen? 2550.40 Section 2550.40 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE REQUIREMENTS AND...

  5. 45 CFR 2550.40 - How does a State obtain Corporation authorization and approval for the entity it has chosen?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does a State obtain Corporation authorization and approval for the entity it has chosen? 2550.40 Section 2550.40 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE REQUIREMENTS AND...

  6. 45 CFR 2550.40 - How does a State obtain Corporation authorization and approval for the entity it has chosen?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does a State obtain Corporation authorization and approval for the entity it has chosen? 2550.40 Section 2550.40 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE REQUIREMENTS AND...

  7. Applications of Reaction Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an assignment in which students are to research and report on a chemical reaction whose increased or decreased rate is of practical importance. Specifically, students are asked to represent the reaction they have chosen with an acceptable chemical equation, identify a factor that influences its rate and explain how and why it…

  8. Correlated-imaging-based chosen plaintext attack on general cryptosystems composed of linear canonical transforms and phase encodings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jingjing; Liu, Wei; Liu, Zhengjun; Liu, Shutian

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a chosen-plaintext attack scheme on general optical cryptosystems that use linear canonical transform and phase encoding based on correlated imaging. The plaintexts are chosen as Gaussian random real number matrixes, and the corresponding ciphertexts are regarded as prior knowledge of the proposed attack method. To establish the reconstruct of the secret plaintext, correlated imaging is employed using the known resources. Differing from the reported attack methods, there is no need to decipher the distribution of the decryption key. The original secret image can be directly recovered by the attack in the absence of decryption key. In addition, the improved cryptosystems combined with pixel scrambling operations are also vulnerable to the proposed attack method. Necessary mathematical derivations and numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the validity of the proposed attack scheme.

  9. An evaluation of the Exer-Genie exerciser and the Collins pedal mode ergometer for developing physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olree, H. D.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments that were conducted over a 52-month period showed that isometric and isotonic training on the Exer-Genie gave negligible increases in cardiorespiratory fitness whereas training on the ergometer at a programmed pulse rate increased fitness moderately.

  10. Ocean drilling ship chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Sedco/BP 471, owned jointly by Sedco, Inc., of Dallas, Tex., and British Petroleum, has been selected as the drill ship for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The contract, with a specified initial term of 4 years with 10 1-year options after that, is expected to be signed by mid March by Texas A&M University, the ODP science operator, and Sedco, Inc. Texas A&M will develop the design for scientific and laboratory spaces aboard the Sedco/BP 471 and will oversee the ship conversion. Testing and shakedown of the ship is scheduled for the coming autumn; the first scientific cruise is scheduled for next January.One year ago, the commercial drilling market sagged, opening up the option for leasing a commercial drill ship (Eos, February 22, 1983, p. 73). Previously, the ship of choice had been the Glomar Explorer; rehabilitating the former CIA salvage ship would have been extremely expensive, however.

  11. 2011 Einstein Fellows Chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    ASA has announced the selection of the 2011 Einstein Fellows who will conduct research related to NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program, which aims to expand our knowledge of the origin, evolution, and fate of the Universe. The Einstein Fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years, and the Fellows may pursue their research at a host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new Fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2011. The new Einstein Fellows and their host institutions are listed below: * Akos Bogdan (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.) * Samuel Gralla (University of Maryland, College Park, Md.) * Philip Hopkins (University of California at Berkeley) * Matthew Kunz (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.) * Laura Lopez (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.) * Amy Reines (National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, Virg.) * Rubens Reis (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) * Ken Shen (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif.) * Jennifer Siegal-Gaskins (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) * Lorenzo Sironi (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.) NASA has two other astrophysics theme-based fellowship programs: the Sagan Fellowship Program, which supports research into exoplanet exploration, and the Hubble Fellowship Program, which supports research into cosmic origins. More information on the Einstein Fellowships can be found at: http://cxc.harvard.edu/fellows/

  12. Top STS Winners Chosen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the first, second, and third place winners in the 47th annual Westinghouse Science Talent Search. Describes student research projects dealing with electromagnetic and gravitational fields, cryptosporidiosis (a chronic diarrhea), and genetic factors of a nitrogen-fixing bacterium. (TW)

  13. Pedal claw curvature in birds, lizards and mesozoic dinosaurs--complicated categories and compensating for mass-specific and phylogenetic control.

    PubMed

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V; Miller, Charlotte E; Naish, Darren; Rayfield, Emily J; Hone, David W E

    2012-01-01

    Pedal claw geometry can be used to predict behaviour in extant tetrapods and has frequently been used as an indicator of lifestyle and ecology in Mesozoic birds and other fossil reptiles, sometimes without acknowledgement of the caveat that data from other aspects of morphology and proportions also need to be considered. Variation in styles of measurement (both inner and outer claw curvature angles) has made it difficult to compare results across studies, as have over-simplified ecological categories. We sought to increase sample size in a new analysis devised to test claw geometry against ecological niche. We found that taxa from different behavioural categories overlapped extensively in claw geometry. Whilst most taxa plotted as predicted, some fossil taxa were recovered in unexpected positions. Inner and outer claw curvatures were statistically correlated, and both correlated with relative claw robusticity (mid-point claw height). We corrected for mass and phylogeny, as both likely influence claw morphology. We conclude that there is no strong mass-specific effect on claw curvature; furthermore, correlations between claw geometry and behaviour are consistent across disparate clades. By using independent contrasts to correct for phylogeny, we found little significant relationship between claw geometry and behaviour. 'Ground-dweller' claws are less curved and relatively dorsoventrally deep relative to those of other behavioural categories; beyond this it is difficult to assign an explicit category to a claw based purely on geometry.

  14. Pedal Claw Curvature in Birds, Lizards and Mesozoic Dinosaurs – Complicated Categories and Compensating for Mass-Specific and Phylogenetic Control

    PubMed Central

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V.; Miller, Charlotte E.; Naish, Darren; Rayfield, Emily J.; Hone, David W. E.

    2012-01-01

    Pedal claw geometry can be used to predict behaviour in extant tetrapods and has frequently been used as an indicator of lifestyle and ecology in Mesozoic birds and other fossil reptiles, sometimes without acknowledgement of the caveat that data from other aspects of morphology and proportions also need to be considered. Variation in styles of measurement (both inner and outer claw curvature angles) has made it difficult to compare results across studies, as have over-simplified ecological categories. We sought to increase sample size in a new analysis devised to test claw geometry against ecological niche. We found that taxa from different behavioural categories overlapped extensively in claw geometry. Whilst most taxa plotted as predicted, some fossil taxa were recovered in unexpected positions. Inner and outer claw curvatures were statistically correlated, and both correlated with relative claw robusticity (mid-point claw height). We corrected for mass and phylogeny, as both likely influence claw morphology. We conclude that there is no strong mass-specific effect on claw curvature; furthermore, correlations between claw geometry and behaviour are consistent across disparate clades. By using independent contrasts to correct for phylogeny, we found little significant relationship between claw geometry and behaviour. ‘Ground-dweller’ claws are less curved and relatively dorsoventrally deep relative to those of other behavioural categories; beyond this it is difficult to assign an explicit category to a claw based purely on geometry. PMID:23227184

  15. What's on Your Mind? Conversation Topics Chosen by People With Degenerative Cognitive-Linguistic Disorders for Communication Boards

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Darlene; Ettinger, Olivia; Mooney, Aimee; Noethe, Glory; Rowland, Charity

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Conversational topics chosen by a group of adults with degenerative cognitive-linguistic disorders for personalized communication board development were examined. The patient-generated themes commonly selected are presented to guide treatment planning and communication board development. Method Communication boards were created for 109 adults as part of a larger research project. One autobiographical topic that each participant would enjoy discussing multiple times was represented on each communication board with 16 pictures and word labels. For this review, topics were collapsed into general themes through a consensus process and examined by gender and age. Results Sixty unique conversational topics were identified from 109 participants and collapsed into 9 general themes: Hobbies, Family, Travel, Work, Home/Places I've Lived, Sports/Fitness, Religion, Animals, and World War II. Age and gender produced variations in themes chosen, though no significance in rank orders was found across groups. Conclusions Topics selected by adults with degenerative cognitive-linguistic disorders for communication boards resemble common conversational adult themes and do not center around basic needs or medical issues. Differences in gender and age for topic selection tend to be based on traditional roles. These general themes should be used when creating personalized communication boards for those who benefit from conversational aids. PMID:25835511

  16. 40 CFR 60.4410 - How do I establish a valid parameter range if I have chosen to continuously monitor parameters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... range if I have chosen to continuously monitor parameters? 60.4410 Section 60.4410 Protection of... § 60.4410 How do I establish a valid parameter range if I have chosen to continuously monitor... operating ranges, for purposes of the parameter monitoring plan for the affected unit, as specified in §...

  17. 40 CFR 60.4410 - How do I establish a valid parameter range if I have chosen to continuously monitor parameters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... range if I have chosen to continuously monitor parameters? 60.4410 Section 60.4410 Protection of... § 60.4410 How do I establish a valid parameter range if I have chosen to continuously monitor... operating ranges, for purposes of the parameter monitoring plan for the affected unit, as specified in §...

  18. 40 CFR 60.4410 - How do I establish a valid parameter range if I have chosen to continuously monitor parameters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... range if I have chosen to continuously monitor parameters? 60.4410 Section 60.4410 Protection of... § 60.4410 How do I establish a valid parameter range if I have chosen to continuously monitor... operating ranges, for purposes of the parameter monitoring plan for the affected unit, as specified in §...

  19. 40 CFR 60.4410 - How do I establish a valid parameter range if I have chosen to continuously monitor parameters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... range if I have chosen to continuously monitor parameters? 60.4410 Section 60.4410 Protection of... § 60.4410 How do I establish a valid parameter range if I have chosen to continuously monitor... operating ranges, for purposes of the parameter monitoring plan for the affected unit, as specified in §...

  20. 40 CFR 60.4410 - How do I establish a valid parameter range if I have chosen to continuously monitor parameters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... range if I have chosen to continuously monitor parameters? 60.4410 Section 60.4410 Protection of... § 60.4410 How do I establish a valid parameter range if I have chosen to continuously monitor... operating ranges, for purposes of the parameter monitoring plan for the affected unit, as specified in §...

  1. Impact of the chosen turbulent flow empirical model on the prediction of sound radiation and vibration by aircraft panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Joana

    2016-07-01

    A precise definition of the turbulent boundary layer excitation is required to accurately predict the sound radiation and surface vibration levels, produced by an aircraft panel excited turbulent flow during flight. Hence, any existing inaccuracy on turbulent boundary layer excitation models leads to an inaccurate prediction of the panel response. A number of empirical models have been developed over the years to provide the turbulent boundary layer wall pressure spectral density. However, different empirical models provide dissimilar predictions for the wall pressure spectral density. The objective of the present study is to investigate and quantify the impact of the chosen empirical model on the predicted radiated sound power, and on the predicted panel surface acceleration levels. This study provides a novel approach and a detailed analysis on the use of different turbulent boundary layer wall pressure empirical models, and impact on mathematical predictions. Closed-form mathematical relationships are developed, and recommendations are provided for the level of deviation and uncertainty associated to different models, in relation to a baseline model, both for panel surface acceleration and radiated sound power.

  2. Chosen risk factors for osteoporosis and the level of knowledge about the disease in peri- and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kulik, Teresa; Dziedzic, Małgorzata A.; Żołnierczuk-Kieliszek, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Osteoporosis as a chronic disease, affecting especially women in postmenopausal age, is an important, social and economic health problem especially of women of today's world. The aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge of women in the peri- and postmenopausal period about the prevention of osteoporosis and show the influence of chosen risk factors on the level of this knowledge. Material and methods A group of 300 women aged 45-65, being patients of healthcare centres in Chełm, Lublin and Zamość (Lublin voivodeship, south-eastern Poland) were included in the study. The purposive sampling was used. Osteoporosis Knowledge Test (OKT) 2011 was the research tool. Gathered material was subjected to descriptive and statistical analysis. Tukey's test, t-student test and variance analysis (ANOVA) were all applied. An accepted p materiality level was < 0.05 and p < 0.01. Results Respondents presented the average level of knowledge about the role of physical activity in the prevention of osteoporosis (M = 13.93) and a low level of knowledge about well-balanced diet rich in calcium (M = 9.77). The knowledge about risk factors, screening and treatment remained on the average level (M = 8.00). An influence of socio-demographic factors on the level of knowledge was shown. Also some behaviours, associated with the lifestyle indeed influenced the level of this knowledge. Conclusions Professional educational programs on osteoporosis should be implemented in the population of Polish peri- and postmenopausal women. PMID:26327885

  3. B2, B7 or B10: Which palm-based blend mandate wise to be chosen in Malaysia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applanaidu, Shri-Dewi; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Ali, Anizah Md.

    2015-12-01

    The diminishing fossil energy resources, coupled with heightened interest in the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions and concerns about energy security have motivated Malaysia to produce palm-based biodiesel and it has been started to be exported since 2006. In line with this issue, the government in Malaysia launched the palm-based biodiesel blending mandate of five percent (B5) in the federal administration of Putrajaya on 1st June 2011. This was then followed by four states: Malacca on July 11, Negeri Sembilan on August 1, Kuala Lumpur on September 1 and Selangor on October 1 of the same year but it is yet to be implemented nationwide. However what is the wise blend mandate to be chosen? Thus, this paper seeks to examine the possible impact of various blend mandates implementation (B2, B7 and B10) on the palm oil industry market variables (stock and price) since the main aim of biodiesel industry in Malaysia is to reduce domestic palm oil stock to below one million tones and provide a floor price to support Crude Palm Oil (CPO) prices at RM2,000 per tonne. A structural econometric model consisting of nine structural equations and three identities was proposed in this study. The model has been estimated by two stage least squares (2SLS) method using annual data for the period 1976-2013. The study indicates that counterfactual simulation of a decrease from B5 to B2 predicts a decrease (11.2 per cent) in CPO domestic consumption for biodiesel usage, 731.02 per cent reduction in CPO stock and an increase of 27.41 percent in domestic price of CPO. However the increase in the blend mandate from B5 to B7 and B10 suggest that domestic consumption of CPO for biodiesel purpose increase 7.40 and 18.55 percent respectively. The interesting findings in this study suggest that no matter whether Malaysian government increase or decrease the blend mandate the increase in the price of CPO are the same with an increase of is 27.41 percent. Hence, this study suggests that the

  4. B2, B7 or B10: Which palm-based blend mandate wise to be chosen in Malaysia?

    SciTech Connect

    Applanaidu, Shri-Dewi Ali, Anizah Md.; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2015-12-11

    The diminishing fossil energy resources, coupled with heightened interest in the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions and concerns about energy security have motivated Malaysia to produce palm-based biodiesel and it has been started to be exported since 2006. In line with this issue, the government in Malaysia launched the palm-based biodiesel blending mandate of five percent (B5) in the federal administration of Putrajaya on 1{sup st} June 2011. This was then followed by four states: Malacca on July 11, Negeri Sembilan on August 1, Kuala Lumpur on September 1 and Selangor on October 1 of the same year but it is yet to be implemented nationwide. However what is the wise blend mandate to be chosen? Thus, this paper seeks to examine the possible impact of various blend mandates implementation (B2, B7 and B10) on the palm oil industry market variables (stock and price) since the main aim of biodiesel industry in Malaysia is to reduce domestic palm oil stock to below one million tones and provide a floor price to support Crude Palm Oil (CPO) prices at RM2,000 per tonne. A structural econometric model consisting of nine structural equations and three identities was proposed in this study. The model has been estimated by two stage least squares (2SLS) method using annual data for the period 1976-2013. The study indicates that counterfactual simulation of a decrease from B5 to B2 predicts a decrease (11.2 per cent) in CPO domestic consumption for biodiesel usage, 731.02 per cent reduction in CPO stock and an increase of 27.41 percent in domestic price of CPO. However the increase in the blend mandate from B5 to B7 and B10 suggest that domestic consumption of CPO for biodiesel purpose increase 7.40 and 18.55 percent respectively. The interesting findings in this study suggest that no matter whether Malaysian government increase or decrease the blend mandate the increase in the price of CPO are the same with an increase of is 27.41 percent. Hence, this study suggests that

  5. 40 CFR 60.4405 - How do I perform the initial performance test if I have chosen to install a NOX-diluent CEMS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... performance test if I have chosen to install a NOX-diluent CEMS? 60.4405 Section 60.4405 Protection of... § 60.4405 How do I perform the initial performance test if I have chosen to install a NOX-diluent CEMS? If you elect to install and certify a NOX-diluent CEMS under § 60.4345, then the initial...

  6. Has President Obama Chosen the Right Strategic Approach to Iran With the 2013 Dual Track Policy of Diplomacy and Sanctions?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    Afghanistan and Pakistan has used suicide tactics to indiscriminately kill men, women and children. 7...to bully , entice, and persuade warring factions that it is in their best interest to follow Tehran’s direction: often waiting for local groups to...global economic power, yet its economy is ‘morbidly inefficient’113 with 24 per cent youth unemployment114 and an official inflation rate of 38.4 per

  7. Investigation of path dependence in commercial lithium-ion cells chosen for plug-in hybrid vehicle duty cycle protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Sazhin, Sergiy V.; Jamison, David K.; Michelbacher, Christopher J.; Liaw, Bor Yann; Dubarry, Matthieu; Cugnet, Mikael

    There is a growing need to explore path dependence of aging processes in batteries developed for long-term usage, such as lithium-ion cells used in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) or plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) applications that may then be "retired" to be utilized in grid applications. To better understand the foremost influences on path dependence in the PHEV context, this work aims to bridge the gap between ideal laboratory test conditions and PHEV field conditions by isolating the predominant aging factors in PHEV service, which would include, for example, the nature and frequency of duty cycles, as well as the frequency and severity of thermal cycles. These factors are studied in controlled and repeatable laboratory conditions to facilitate mechanistic evaluation of aging processes. This work is a collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI). Commercial lithium-ion cells of the Sanyo Y type (18650 configuration) are used in this work covering two initial independent studies of path dependence issues. The first study considers how the magnitude of power pulses and charging rates affect the aging rate, while the second seeks to answer whether thermal cycling has an accelerating effect on cell aging. While this work is in early stages of testing, initial data trends show that cell aging is indeed accelerated under conditions of high discharge pulse power, higher charge rates, and thermal cycling. Such information is useful in developing accurate predictive models for estimating end-of-life conditions.

  8. Effect of muscle temperature on rate of oxygen uptake during exercise in humans at different contraction frequencies.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Richard A; Ball, Derek; Sargeant, Anthony J

    2002-04-01

    The effect of elevated human muscle temperature on energy turnover was investigated during cycling exercise (at 85 % of (VO(2)max)) at a contraction frequency of 60 revs min(-1). Muscle temperature was passively elevated prior to exercise by immersion of the legs in a hot water bath (42 degrees C). During exercise at this low pedalling rate, total energy turnover was higher (P<0.05) when muscle temperature was elevated compared with normal temperature (70.4+/-3.7 versus 66.9+/-2.4 kJ min(-1), respectively). Estimated net mechanical efficiency was found to be lower when muscle temperature was elevated. A second experiment was conducted in which the effect of elevated human muscle temperature on energy turnover was investigated during cycling exercise (at 85 % of (VO(2)max)) at a contraction frequency of 120 revs min(-1). Under the conditions of a high pedalling frequency, an elevated muscle temperature resulted in a lower energy turnover (P<0.05) compared with the normal muscle temperature (64.9+/-3.7 versus 69.0+/-4.7 kJ min(-1), respectively). The estimated net mechanical efficiency was therefore higher when muscle temperature was elevated. We propose that, in these experiments, prior heating results in an inappropriately fast rate of cross-bridge cycling when exercising at 60 revs min(-1), leading to an increased energy turnover and decreased efficiency. However, at the faster pedalling rate, the effect of heating the muscle shifts the efficiency/velocity relationship to the right so that cross-bridge detachment is more appropriately matched to the contraction velocity and, hence, energy turnover is reduced.

  9. Kernel reconstruction methods for Doppler broadening - Temperature interpolation by linear combination of reference cross sections at optimally chosen temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducru, Pablo; Josey, Colin; Dibert, Karia; Sobes, Vladimir; Forget, Benoit; Smith, Kord

    2017-04-01

    This article establishes a new family of methods to perform temperature interpolation of nuclear interactions cross sections, reaction rates, or cross sections times the energy. One of these quantities at temperature T is approximated as a linear combination of quantities at reference temperatures (Tj). The problem is formalized in a cross section independent fashion by considering the kernels of the different operators that convert cross section related quantities from a temperature T0 to a higher temperature T - namely the Doppler broadening operation. Doppler broadening interpolation of nuclear cross sections is thus here performed by reconstructing the kernel of the operation at a given temperature T by means of linear combination of kernels at reference temperatures (Tj). The choice of the L2 metric yields optimal linear interpolation coefficients in the form of the solutions of a linear algebraic system inversion. The optimization of the choice of reference temperatures (Tj) is then undertaken so as to best reconstruct, in the L∞ sense, the kernels over a given temperature range [Tmin ,Tmax ]. The performance of these kernel reconstruction methods is then assessed in light of previous temperature interpolation methods by testing them upon isotope 238U. Temperature-optimized free Doppler kernel reconstruction significantly outperforms all previous interpolation-based methods, achieving 0.1% relative error on temperature interpolation of 238U total cross section over the temperature range [ 300 K , 3000 K ] with only 9 reference temperatures.

  10. Kernel reconstruction methods for Doppler broadening — Temperature interpolation by linear combination of reference cross sections at optimally chosen temperatures

    DOE PAGES

    Ducru, Pablo; Josey, Colin; Dibert, Karia; ...

    2017-01-25

    This paper establishes a new family of methods to perform temperature interpolation of nuclear interactions cross sections, reaction rates, or cross sections times the energy. One of these quantities at temperature T is approximated as a linear combination of quantities at reference temperatures (Tj). The problem is formalized in a cross section independent fashion by considering the kernels of the different operators that convert cross section related quantities from a temperature T0 to a higher temperature T — namely the Doppler broadening operation. Doppler broadening interpolation of nuclear cross sections is thus here performed by reconstructing the kernel of themore » operation at a given temperature T by means of linear combination of kernels at reference temperatures (Tj). The choice of the L2 metric yields optimal linear interpolation coefficients in the form of the solutions of a linear algebraic system inversion. The optimization of the choice of reference temperatures (Tj) is then undertaken so as to best reconstruct, in the L∞ sense, the kernels over a given temperature range [Tmin,Tmax]. The performance of these kernel reconstruction methods is then assessed in light of previous temperature interpolation methods by testing them upon isotope 238U. Temperature-optimized free Doppler kernel reconstruction significantly outperforms all previous interpolation-based methods, achieving 0.1% relative error on temperature interpolation of 238U total cross section over the temperature range [300 K,3000 K] with only 9 reference temperatures.« less

  11. Muscular efficiency during steady-rate exercise: effects of speed and work rate.

    PubMed

    Gaesser, G A; Brooks, G A

    1975-06-01

    In a comparison of traditional and theoretical exercise efficiency calculations male subjects were studied during steady-rate cycle ergometer exercises of "0," 200, 400, 600, and 800 kgm/min while pedaling at 40, 60, 80, and 100 rpm. Gross (no base-line correction), net (resting metabolism as base-line correction), work (unloading cycling as base-line correction), and delta (measurable work rate as base-line correction) efficiencies were computed. The result that gross (range 7.5-20.4%) and net (9.8-24.1%) efficiencies increased with increments in work rate was considered to be an artifact of calculation. A LINEAR OR SLIGHTLY EXPONENTIAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CALORIC OUTPUT AND WORK RATE DICTATES EITHER CONSTANT OR DECREASING EFFICIENCY WITH INCREMENTS IN WORK. The delta efficiency (24.4-34.0%) definition produced this result. Due to the difficulty in obtaining 0 work equivalents, the work efficiency definition proved difficult to apply. All definitions yielded the result of decreasing efficiency with increments in speed. Since the theoretical-thermodynamic computation (assuming mitochondrial P/O = 3.0 and delta G = -11.0 kcal/mol for ATP) holds only for CHO, the traditional mode of computation (based upon VO2 and R) was judged to be superior since R less than 1.0. Assuming a constant phosphorylative-coupling efficiency of 60%, the mechanical contraction-coupling efficiency appears to vary between 41 and 57%.

  12. Cesarsky chosen as nuclear adviser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumé, Belle

    2009-06-01

    The astronomer Catherine Cesarsky has been appointed high commissioner of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). Cesarsky will be responsible for advising the French government on policy in all areas in which the CEA is involved. The first woman to hold the post since the CEA was founded in 1945, she succeeds the chemist Bernard Bigot, who has moved sideways to become the agency's general administrator.

  13. Multi-site effectiveness trials of treatments for substance abuse and co-occurring problems: Have we chosen the best designs?

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Edward V.; Ball, Samuel; Booth, Robert; Brigham, Gregory; Calsyn, Donald A.; Carroll, Kathleen; Feaster, Daniel J.; Hien, Denise; Hubbard, Robert L.; Ling, Walter; Petry, Nancy M.; Rotrosen, John; Selzer, Jeffrey; Stitzer, Maxine; Tross, Susan; Wakim, Paul; Winhusen, Theresa; Woody, George

    2010-01-01

    Multi-site effectiveness trials such as those carried out in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) are a critical step in the development and dissemination of evidence-based treatments, because they address how such treatments perform in real-world clinical settings. As Brigham and colleagues summarized in a recent article (Brigham, Feaster, Wakim, & Dempsey, 2009), several possible experimental designs may be chosen for such effectiveness trials. These include: 1) A new treatment intervention (Tx) is compared to an existing mode of community based treatment as usual (TAU): Tx versus TAU; 2) A new intervention is added to TAU and compared to TAU alone: Tx + TAU versus TAU; or 3) A new intervention is added to TAU and compared to a control condition added to TAU: Tx + TAU versus control + TAU. Each of these designs addresses a different question and has different potential strengths and weaknesses. As of December 2009, the primary outcome paper had been published for 16 of the multi-site randomized clinical trials conducted in the CTN, testing various treatments for drug abuse, HIV risk behavior, or related problems. This paper systematically examines, for each of the completed trials, the experimental design type chosen and its original rationale, the main findings of the trial, and the strengths and weaknesses of the design in hindsight. Based on this review, recommendations are generated to inform the design of future effectiveness trials on treatments for substance abuse, HIV risk, and other behavioral health problems. PMID:20307801

  14. Intraperitoneal Continuous-Rate Infusion for the Maintenance of Anesthesia in Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus)

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Rebecca L; Terzi, Matthew C; Jaber, Samer M; Hankenson, F Claire; McKinstry-Wu, Andrew; Kelz, Max B; Marx, James O

    2016-01-01

    Intraperitoneal injectable anesthetics are often used to achieve surgical anesthesia in laboratory mice. Because bolus redosing of injectable anesthetics can cause unacceptably high mortality, we evaluated intraperitoneal continuous-rate infusion (CRI) of ketamine with or without xylazine for maintaining surgical anesthesia for an extended period of time. Anesthesia was induced in male C57BL/6J mice by using ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (8 mg/kg) without or with acepromazine at 0.1 mg/kg or 0.5 mg/kg. At 10 min after induction, CRI for 90 min was initiated and comprised 25%, 50%, or 100% of the initial ketamine dose per hour or 50% of the initial doses of both ketamine and xylazine. Anesthetic regimens were compared on the basis of animal immobility, continuous surgical depth of anesthesia as determined by the absence of a pedal withdrawal reflex, and mortality. Consistent with previous studies, the response to anesthetics was highly variable. Regimens that provided the longest continuous surgical plane of anesthesia with minimal mortality were ketamine–xylazine–acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg) with CRI of 100% of the initial ketamine dose and ketamine–xylazine–acepromazine (0.5 mg/kg) with CRI of 50% of the initial ketamine and xylazine doses. In addition, heart rate and respiratory rate did not increase consistently in response to a noxious stimulus during CRI anesthesia, even when mice exhibited a positive pedal withdrawal reflex, suggesting that these parameters are unreliable indicators of anesthetic depth during ketamine–xylazine anesthesia in mice. We conclude that intraperitoneal CRI anesthesia in mice prolongs injectable anesthesia more consistently and with lower mortality than does bolus redosing. PMID:27657709

  15. Heart rate regulation during cycle-ergometer exercise via event-driven biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Argha, Ahmadreza; Su, Steven W; Celler, Branko G

    2017-03-01

    This paper is devoted to the problem of regulating the heart rate response along a predetermined reference profile, for cycle-ergometer exercises designed for training or cardio-respiratory rehabilitation. The controller designed in this study is a non-conventional, non-model-based, proportional, integral and derivative (PID) controller. The PID controller commands can be transmitted as biofeedback auditory commands, which can be heard and interpreted by the exercising subject to increase or reduce exercise intensity. However, in such a case, for the purposes of effectively communicating to the exercising subject a change in the required exercise intensity, the timing of this feedback signal relative to the position of the pedals becomes critical. A feedback signal delivered when the pedals are not in a suitable position to efficiently exert force may be ineffective and this may, in turn, lead to the cognitive disengagement of the user from the feedback controller. This note examines a novel form of control system which has been expressly designed for this project. The system is called an "actuator-based event-driven control system". The proposed control system was experimentally verified using 24 healthy male subjects who were randomly divided into two separate groups, along with cross-validation scheme. A statistical analysis was employed to test the generalisation of the PID tunes, derived based on the average transfer functions of the two groups, and it revealed that there were no significant differences between the mean values of root mean square of the tracking error of two groups (3.9 vs. 3.7 bpm, [Formula: see text]). Furthermore, the results of a second statistical hypothesis test showed that the proposed PID controller with novel synchronised biofeedback mechanism has better performance compared to a conventional PID controller with a fixed-rate biofeedback mechanism (Group 1: 3.9 vs. 5.0 bpm, Group 2: 3.7 vs. 4.4 bpm, [Formula: see text]).

  16. A comparison of the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of chosen combinations of oximes with individual oximes against VX in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Sepsova, Vendula; Caisberger, Filip; Bajgar, Jiri

    2011-10-01

    The ability of 2 combinations of oximes (HI-6 + trimedoxime and HI-6 + K203) to reactivate VX-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and reduce acute toxicity of VX was compared with the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of antidotal treatment involving a single oxime (HI-6, trimedoxime, K203) in rats and mice. Our results showed that the reactivating efficacy of both combinations of oximes studied in rats is significantly higher than the reactivating efficacy of all individual oximes in diaphragm and roughly corresponds to the most effective individual oxime in blood and brain. Both combinations of oximes were found to be more effective in the reduction of acute lethal toxicity of VX in mice than the antidotal treatment involving the most efficacious individual oxime although the difference is not significant. Based on the obtained data, we can conclude that the antidotal treatment involving the chosen combinations of oximes brings benefit for the reactivation of VX-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in rats and for the antidotal treatment of VX-induced acute poisoning in mice.

  17. The AL 333-160 fourth metatarsal from Hadar compared to that of humans, great apes, baboons and proboscis monkeys: non-conclusive evidence for pedal arches or obligate bipedality in Hadar hominins.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, P J; Sarmiento, E E; Meldrum, D J

    2012-10-01

    Based on comparisons to non-statistically representative samples of humans and two great ape species (i.e. common chimpanzees Pan troglodytes and lowland gorillas Gorilla gorilla), Ward et al. (2011) concluded that a complete hominin fourth metatarsal (4th MT) from Hadar, AL 333-160, belonged to a committed terrestrial biped with fixed transverse and longitudinal pedal arches, which was no longer under selection favoring substantial arboreal behaviors. According to Ward et al., the Hadar 4th MT had (1) a torsion value indicating a transverse arch, (2) sagittal plane angles between the diaphyseal long axis and the planes of the articular surfaces indicating a longitudinal arch, and (3) a narrow mediolateral to dorsoplantar base ratio, an ectocuneiform facet, and tarsal articular surface contours all indicating a rigid foot without an ape-like mid-tarsal break. Comparisons of the Hadar 4th MT characters to those of statistically representative samples of humans, all five great ape species, baboons and proboscis monkeys show that none of the correlations Ward et al. make to localized foot function were supported by this analysis. The Hadar 4th MT characters are common to catarrhines that have a midtarsal break and lack fixed transverse or longitudinal arches. Further comparison of the AL 333-160 4th MT length, and base, midshaft and head circumferences to those of catarrhines with field collected body weights show that this bone is uniquely short with a large base. Its length suggests the AL 333-160 individual was a poor leaper with limited arboreal behaviors and lacked a longitudinal arch, i.e. its 4th MT long axis was usually held perpendicular to gravity. Its large base implies cuboid-4th MT joint mobility. A relatively short 4th MT head circumference indicates AL 333-160 had small proximal phalanges with a restricted range of mobility. Overall, AL 333-160 is most similar to the 4th MT of eastern gorillas, a slow moving quadruped that sacrifices arboreal behaviors

  18. Does obtaining an initial magnetic resonance imaging decrease the reamputation rates in the diabetic foot?

    PubMed Central

    Jbara, Marlena; Gokli, Ami; Beshai, Sally; Lesser, Martin L.; Hanna, Shirley; Lin, Cheryl; Zeb, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Objective Diabetes mellitus (DM) through its over glycosylation of neurovascular structures and resultant peripheral neuropathy continues to be the major risk factor for pedal amputation. Repetitive trauma to the insensate foot results in diabetic foot ulcers, which are at high risk to develop osteomyelitis. Many patients who present with diabetic foot complications will undergo one or more pedal amputations during the course of their disease. The purpose of this study was to determine if obtaining an initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), prior to the first amputation, is associated with a decreased rate of reamputation in the diabetic foot. Our hypothesis was that the rate of reamputation may be associated with underutilization of obtaining an initial MRI, useful in presurgical planning. This study was designed to determine whether there was an association between the reamputation rate in diabetic patients and utilization of MRI in the presurgical planning and prior to initial forefoot amputations. Methods Following approval by our institutional review board, our study design consisted of a retrospective cohort analysis of 413 patients at Staten Island University Hospital, a 700-bed tertiary referral center between 2008 and 2013 who underwent an initial great toe (hallux) amputation. Of the 413 patients with a hallux amputation, there were 368 eligible patients who had a history of DM with documented hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) within 3 months of the initial first ray (hallux and first metatarsal) amputation and available radiographic data. Statistical analysis compared the incidence rates of reamputation between patients who underwent initial MRI and those who did not obtain an initial MRI prior to their first amputation. The reamputation rate was compared after adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity, HbA1c, cardiovascular disease, hypoalbuminemia, smoking, body mass index, and prior antibiotic treatment. Results The results of our statistical analysis failed to

  19. Responding to Student Writing: Keep Pedaling!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jago, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the author's goal of helping students see how mistakes in their writing distract readers and how errors have influenced the grade. Recommends the careful use of the "red pen" noting that it is easy to forget its power. Suggests that teachers use this power to help students grow as writers. (SG)

  20. Reading Rate, Readability, and Variations in Task-Induced Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coke, Esther U.

    1976-01-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that task variables account for previous findings that reading rate is unaffected by readability. The findings suggest that when appropriate reading tasks are chosen, reading rate can be used to infer underlying processes in reading. (Author/DEP)

  1. Exploring College Decision-Making: A Disconnect in Student Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Suzanne

    This study used information from the College Board's Admitted Student Questionnaire (ASQ) to investigate how enrolling students rate college choice factors in general and how they rate the colleges in which they have chosen to enroll. The sample included 68,428 admitted freshmen student responses to the ASQ, representing 122 institutions. Findings…

  2. Entanglement rates for bipartite open systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vershynina, Anna

    2015-08-01

    We provide an upper bound on the maximal rate at which irreversible quantum dynamics can generate entanglement in a bipartite system. The generator of irreversible dynamics consists of a Hamiltonian and dissipative terms in Lindblad form. The relative entropy of entanglement is chosen as a measure of entanglement in an ancilla-free system. We provide an upper bound on the entangling rate which has a logarithmic dependence on a dimension of a smaller system in a bipartite cut. We also investigate the rate of change of quantum mutual information in an ancilla-assisted system and provide an upper bound independent of dimension of ancillas.

  3. Block adaptive rate controlled image data compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.; Hilbert, E.; Lee, J.-J.; Schlutsmeyer, A.

    1979-01-01

    A block adaptive rate controlled (BARC) image data compression algorithm is described. It is noted that in the algorithm's principal rate controlled mode, image lines can be coded at selected rates by combining practical universal noiseless coding techniques with block adaptive adjustments in linear quantization. Compression of any source data at chosen rates of 3.0 bits/sample and above can be expected to yield visual image quality with imperceptible degradation. Exact reconstruction will be obtained if the one-dimensional difference entropy is below the selected compression rate. It is noted that the compressor can also be operated as a floating rate noiseless coder by simply not altering the input data quantization. Here, the universal noiseless coder ensures that the code rate is always close to the entropy. Application of BARC image data compression to the Galileo orbiter mission of Jupiter is considered.

  4. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos. The effect of silver nanoparticles and ATP on expression of chosen genes involved in myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane; Hotowy, Anna; Jaworski, Sławomir; Prasek, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces post-hatch mortality and skeletal disorders and increases muscle growth and breast meat yield. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a "ready for use" energetic molecule, while nanoparticles of silver (Nano-Ag) may penetrate tissues as well as cells and localise inside cells. In this investigation, we hypothesised that silver nanoparticles could be used as a protective carrier for ATP as well as an active agent. ATP and/or an ATP complex with Nano-Ag would be delivered to the muscle cells as a gene expression regulator and promoter of growth and development of embryo breast muscle. A collection of 160 broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases expression of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Na(+)/K(+) transporting ATPase (ATP1A1), which may indicate that an extra energy source can enhance molecular mechanisms of muscle cell proliferation. Nano-Ag also up-regulated expression of FGF2, VEGF, ATP1A1 and, also up-regulated expression of myogenic differentiation 1(MyoD1), affecting cell differentiation. The results indicate that ATP and Nano-Ag may accelerate growth and maturation of muscle cells.

  5. Who gets antidotes? choosing the chosen few.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Nicholas A; Dawson, Andrew H; Juurlink, David N; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2016-03-01

    An understanding of mechanisms, potential benefits and risks of antidotes is essential for clinicians who manage poisoned patients. Of the dozens of antidotes currently available, only a few are regularly used. These include activated charcoal, acetylcysteine, naloxone, sodium bicarbonate, atropine, flumazenil, therapeutic antibodies and various vitamins. Even then, most are used in a minority of poisonings. There is little randomized trial evidence to support the use of most antidotes. Consequently, decisions about when to use them are often based on a mechanistic understanding of the poisoning and the expected influence of the antidote on the patient's clinical course. For some antidotes, such as atropine and insulin, the doses employed can be orders of magnitude higher than standard dosing. Importantly, most poisoned patients who reach hospital can recover with supportive care alone. In low risk patients, the routine use of even low risk antidotes such as activated charcoal is unwarranted. In more serious poisonings, decisions regarding antidote use are generally guided by a risk/benefit assessment based on low quality evidence.

  6. Wastewater Disinfectants: Many Called--Few Chosen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Gives a comparative study of disinfectants used to rid wastewater of pathogens. Concentrates on the effects of chlorine and ozone, with some mention of ultra-violet irradiation, bromine chloride, and chlorine dioxide. (MA)

  7. Evaluating sensor linearity of chosen infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczykowski, P.; Orych, A.; Jenerowicz, A.; Karcz, P.

    2014-11-01

    The paper describes a series of experiments conducted as part of the IRAMSWater Project, the aim of which is to establish methodologies for detecting and identifying pollutants in water bodies using aerial imagery data. The main idea is based on the hypothesis, that it is possible to identify certain types of physical, biological and chemical pollutants based on their spectral reflectance characteristics. The knowledge of these spectral curves is then used to determine very narrow spectral bands in which greatest reflectance variations occur between these pollutants. A frame camera is then equipped with a band pass filter, which allows only the selected bandwidth to be registered. In order to obtain reliable reflectance data straight from the images, the team at the Military University of Technology had developed a methodology for determining the necessary acquisition parameters for the sensor (integration time and f-stop depending on the distance from the scene and it's illumination). This methodology however is based on the assumption, that the imaging sensors have a linear response. This paper shows the results of experiments used to evaluate this linearity.

  8. The Called, Chosen, and Faithful Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Hartwell T. Paul

    2009-01-01

    Leaders are made, not born. Like so many other of life's complex issues, the question of nature vs. nurture in leadership is one that is analyzed, researched, and debated by educators, philosophers, social scientist, and even leaders themselves. Leadership has been dissected as to personality, character, and behavior. Researchers have developed…

  9. Uncertainty Analysis for Photovoltaic Degradation Rates (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Hansen, C.

    2014-04-01

    Dependable and predictable energy production is the key to the long-term success of the PV industry. PV systems show over the lifetime of their exposure a gradual decline that depends on many different factors such as module technology, module type, mounting configuration, climate etc. When degradation rates are determined from continuous data the statistical uncertainty is easily calculated from the regression coefficients. However, total uncertainty that includes measurement uncertainty and instrumentation drift is far more difficult to determine. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was chosen to investigate a comprehensive uncertainty analysis. The most important effect for degradation rates is to avoid instrumentation that changes over time in the field. For instance, a drifting irradiance sensor, which can be achieved through regular calibration, can lead to a substantially erroneous degradation rates. However, the accuracy of the irradiance sensor has negligible impact on degradation rate uncertainty emphasizing that precision (relative accuracy) is more important than absolute accuracy.

  10. Shock tube measurements of specific reaction rates in branched chain CH4-CO-O2 system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, T. A.; Brokaw, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Rate constants of two elementary bimolecular reactions involved in the oxidation of methane were determined by monitoring the exponential growth of CO flame band emission behind incident shocks in three suitably chosen gas mixtures.

  11. Influence of changing travel patterns on child death rates from injury: trend analysis.

    PubMed Central

    DiGuiseppi, C.; Roberts, I.; Li, L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in child mortality from unintentional injury between 1985 and 1992 and to find how changes in modes of travel contributed to these trends. DESIGN: Poisson regression modelling using data from death certificates, censuses, and national travel surveys. SETTING: England and Wales. SUBJECTS: Resident children aged 0-14. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Deaths from unintentional injury and poisoning. RESULTS: Child deaths from injury declined by 34% (95% confidence interval 28% to 40%) per 100,000 population between 1985 and 1992. Substantial decreases in each of the leading causes of death from injury contributed to this overall decline. On average, children walked and cycled less distance and travelled substantially more miles by car in 1992 compared with 1985. Deaths from road traffic accidents declined for pedestrians by 24% per mile walked and for cyclists by 20% per mile cycled, substantially less than the declines per 100,000 population of 37% and 38% respectively. In contrast, deaths of occupants of motor vehicles declined by 42% per mile travelled by car compared with a 21% decline per 100,000 population. CONCLUSIONS: If trends in child mortality from injury continue the government's target to reduce the rate by 33% by the year 2005 will be achieved. A substantial proportion of the decline in pedestrian traffic and pedal cycling deaths, however, seems to have been achieved at the expense of children's walking and cycling activities. Changes in travel patterns may exact a considerable price in terms of future health problems. PMID:9116546

  12. Effect of blood volume in resting muscle on heart rate upward drift during moderately prolonged exercise.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Takehide; Matsuura, Ryouta; Arimitsu, Takuma; Yunoki, Takahiro; Yano, Tokuo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the increase in blood volume in resting muscle during moderately prolonged exercise is related to heart rate (HR) upward drift. Eight healthy men completed both arm-cranking moderately prolonged exercise (APE) and leg-pedaling moderately prolonged exercise (LPE) for 30 min. Exercise intensity was 120 bpm of HR that was determined by ramp incremental exercise. During both APE and LPE, HR significantly increased from 3 to 30 min (from 108±9.3 to 119±12 bpm and from 112±8.9 to 122±11 bpm, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between HR in APE and that in LPE. Oxygen uptake was maintained throughout the two exercises. Skin blood flow, deep temperature, and total Hb (blood volume) in resting muscle continuously increased for 30 min of exercise during both APE and LPE. During both APE and LPE, there was a significant positive correlation between total Hb and deep temperature in all subjects. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between HR and total Hb (in seven out of eight subjects) during LPE. However, during APE, there was no positive correlation between HR and total Hb (r=0.391). These findings suggest that an increase of blood pooling in resting muscle could be proposed as one of the mechanisms underlying HR upward drift during moderately prolonged exercise.

  13. Urban-rural variation in mortality and hospital admission rates for unintentional injury in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Boland, M; Staines, A; Fitzpatrick, P; Scallan, E

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore urban-rural differences in the mortality and hospital admission rates for unintentional injuries in the Republic of Ireland. Design: Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) in residents of urban and non-city areas (called rural areas) from all causes of unintentional injury were calculated using Central Statistics Office mortality data from 1980–2000. Hospital admission data (Hospital In-Patient Enquiry) from 1993–2000 were used to calculate standardised hospital admission ratios (SARs) in urban and rural residents. Population data were obtained from the 1981, 1986, 1991, and 1996 censuses. Results: The rate of unintentional injury mortality was significantly higher in rural residents for all-cause unintentional injury mortality (SMR 103.0, 95% confidence interval 101 to 105), and specifically for deaths related to motor vehicle trauma (MVT), drowning, machinery, and firearms. There were significantly higher SMRs in urban residents for falls and poisoning. The rate of unintentional injury hospital admission was significantly higher in rural residents for all-cause unintentional injury (SAR 104.6, 95% confidence interval 104 to 105) and specifically for injuries from falls, MVT, being struck by or against an object, injuries in pedal cyclists, fire/burn injuries, and machinery injuries. SARs were significantly higher in residents of urban areas for poisoning and injuries in pedestrians. Conclusions: There are urban-rural differences in mortality and admissions for injuries in Ireland. Possible reasons for the higher rural mortality rates are higher case fatality in MVT and rural exposure to hazardous farm machinery, firearms, and open areas of water. This information could assist in targeting prevention programmes under the proposed National Injury Prevention Strategy. PMID:15691988

  14. Quantum mechanical calculation of Rydberg-Rydberg autoionization rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiffner, Martin; Ceresoli, Davide; Li, Wenhui; Jaksch, Dieter

    2016-10-01

    We present quantum mechanical calculations of autoionization rates for two rubidium Rydberg atoms with weakly overlapping electron clouds. We neglect exchange effects and consider tensor products of independent atom states forming an approximate basis of the two-electron state space. We consider large sets of two-atom states with randomly chosen quantum numbers and find that the charge overlap between the two Rydberg electrons allows one to characterise the magnitude of the autoionization rates. If the electron clouds overlap by more than one percent, the autoionization rates increase approximately exponentially with the charge overlap. This finding is independent of the energy of the initial state.

  15. Thermoneutral immersion exercise accelerates heart rate recovery: A potential novel training modality.

    PubMed

    Garzon, Mauricio; Dupuy, Olivier; Bosquet, Laurent; Nigam, Anil; Comtois, Alain Steve; Juneau, Martin; Gayda, Mathieu

    2017-04-01

    This study compared heart rate recovery (HRR) after incremental maximal exercise performed at the same external power output (Pext) on dry land ergocycle (DE) vs. immersible ergocycle (IE). Fifteen young healthy participants (30 ± 7 years, 13 men and 2 women) performed incremental maximal exercise tests on DE and on IE. The initial Pext on DE was 25 W and was increased by 25 W/min at a pedalling cadence between 60 and 80 rpm, while during IE immersion at chest level in thermoneutral water (30°C), the initial Pext deployment was at a cadence of 40 rpm which was increased by 10 rpm until 70 rpm and thereafter by 5 rpm until exhaustion. Gas exchange and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously during exercise and recovery for 5 min. Maximal HR (DE: 176 ± 15 vs. IE 169 ± 12 bpm) reached by the subjects in the two conditions did not differ (P > .05). Parasympathetic reactivation parameters (ΔHR from 10 to 300 s) were compared during the DE and IE HR recovery recordings. During the IE recovery, parasympathetic reactivation in the early phase was more predominant (HRR at Δ10-Δ60 s, P < .05), but similar in the late phase (HRR at Δ120-Δ300 s, P > .05) when compared to the DE condition. In conclusion, incremental maximal IE exercise at chest level immersion in thermoneutral water accelerates the early phase parasympathetic reactivation compared to DE in healthy young participants.

  16. Comparison of baseline characteristics and clinical course in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes among whom different types of oral hypoglycemic agents were chosen by diabetes specialists as initial monotherapy (JDDM 42)

    PubMed Central

    Fujihara, Kazuya; Igarashi, Risa; Matsunaga, Satoshi; Matsubayashi, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Takaho; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Tanaka, Shiro; Shimano, Hitoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Katsuya; Kawai, Koichi; Sone, Hirohito

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the relationships between patient factors and the antihyperglycemic agents that have been prescribed as initial therapy by diabetes specialists for patients with type 2 diabetes. Moreover, there has been little clarification of the subsequent usage patterns and related factors that influenced the continuation or discontinuation of the drug or the addition of another drug. To provide information on these issues, we evaluated the clinical characteristics of Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes for whom different types of oral hypoglycemic agents (i.e., either sulfonylureas, biguanides, or DPP-4 inhibitors (DPP-4Is)) were chosen as initial monotherapy by diabetes specialists and evaluated subsequent usage patterns. Prescription data on 3 different antidiabetic agents from December 2009 to March 2015 from diabetes specialists’ patient registries were used to identify variables at baseline related to initial prescriptions; also, the addition of another hypoglycemic drug or discontinuation of the initial therapy was evaluated 1 year after the initial prescription. Analyzed were data on 2666 patients who received initial monotherapy with either a sulfonylurea (305 patients), biguanide (951 patients), or DPP-4I (1410 patients). Patients administered sulfonylureas were older, had a lower body mass index (BMI), longer duration of diabetes, and worse glycemic control than recipients of biguanides. Use of biguanides was related to younger age, short duration of diabetes, and obesity but was negatively associated with poor glycemic control. Older age but neither obesity nor poor glycemic control was associated with DPP-4Is. In all 3 groups a high HbA1c value was related to adding another hypoglycemic agent to the initial therapy. Moreover, adding another drug to a DPP-4I was related to a younger age and higher BMI. Patients’ age, duration of diabetes, obesity, and glycemic control at baseline influenced the choice of hypoglycemic agents

  17. Electronic flow rate controller for a portable insulin infusion pump.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, R T; Zinman, B; Marliss, E B; Albisser, A M

    1980-01-01

    An electronic controller is described that regulates the flow of infusate by controlling the fraction of time that a pump is energized. Using the integral programming capability of the device, any one of 256 possible basal rates between 0 and 49.6% of the maximum rate can be chosen. An externally triggerable single meal-associated pulse can also be configured. The rate during the meal pulse can be any one of the 255 equally spaced rates in the range of 0--99.7%. The duration of this pulse can be chosen in 3-min steps to a maximum of 12.75 h, after which the rate automatically returns to the basal value. The controller consumes a minimum amount of power and can continuously operate a dc motor-driven pump at 3.0 V for 36 h. It drives the pump in an on-off mode in order to control the average flow rate digitally. In this way a significant reduction in the power requirements is realized and the system can be run for many days using small rechargeable batteries. One year of experience with 20 of these controllers was obtained in the research laboratory and clinical investigation unit. The results of this experience indicated the reliability and precision of these controllers, gave insight into their modes of failure, and provided valuable biomedical data for their improvement.

  18. Rating Movies and Rating the Raters Who Rate Them.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2009-11-01

    The movie distribution company Netflix has generated considerable buzz in the statistics community by offering a million dollar prize for improvements to its movie rating system. Among the statisticians and computer scientists who have disclosed their techniques, the emphasis has been on machine learning approaches. This article has the modest goal of discussing a simple model for movie rating and other forms of democratic rating. Because the model involves a large number of parameters, it is nontrivial to carry out maximum likelihood estimation. Here we derive a straightforward EM algorithm from the perspective of the more general MM algorithm. The algorithm is capable of finding the global maximum on a likelihood landscape littered with inferior modes. We apply two variants of the model to a dataset from the MovieLens archive and compare their results. Our model identifies quirky raters, redefines the raw rankings, and permits imputation of missing ratings. The model is intended to stimulate discussion and development of better theory rather than to win the prize. It has the added benefit of introducing readers to some of the issues connected with analyzing high-dimensional data.

  19. Intergenerational transfers and the social discount rate

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, R.B.; Norgaard, R.B.

    1992-08-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between intergenerational asset transfers and the choice of the discount rate for use in cost-benefit analysis in a model of a competitive overlapping generations economy constrained by a socially managed exhaustible resource. Provided that there are no distortions in capital markets and that all agents hold perfect foresight, cost-benefit techniques will result in a Pareto efficient resource allocation if the discount rate is set equal to the market rate of interest. But since the path of the interest rate depends on the level of intergenerational transfers, cost-benefit techniques do not ensure a socially desirable distribution of welfare between generations; a social optimum will result only if intergenerational transfers are properly chosen and enforced. Decentralized private altruism may result in intergenerational transfers that both present and future individuals would agree are too small if members of the present generation attach positive weight to the general welfare of future generations, not simply their personal descendants. In a world where intergenerational transfers are non-optimal, second-best policy-making may imply a constrained optimum that is inefficient. Together, these findings suggest that cost-benefit analysis is at best a partial criterion to policy formulation that should be used only in conjunction with ethical principles that define the proper distribution of welfare between present and future generations.

  20. Study of Alternate Material for Pedal Ventilator Kits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    1 52 105 577 Polyphenylene Sulfide 40 1 60 205 11 .85 50 1,70 220 1351 ’All Compos tons Are Gl3iss-Reinforced’Filed With The Exception Of "Minion...1.17-1.34 Styrene Acrylonitrile Copolymer 1.07 45 1.74 ABS 1.04-1.06 48 1.80-1.84 .Cellulose Acetate Butyrate 1.19 89 3.83 Modified Polyphenylene ...1.13 76 310 Styrene Acrylonitrile 20 1.22 73 3 22 30 1.31 75 355 ABS 20 1.22 77 329 30 1.28 77 356 Polyphenylene Oxide (modified) 20 1.21 127.5 5.5’ 30

  1. Pedal Presentation of Superficial Acral FibromyxomaA Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Robin; Kafka, Rene; Jules, Kevin; Bakotic, Bradley W

    2017-01-01

    Superficial acral fibromyxoma is a benign and slow-growing solitary soft-tissue neoplasm. Since being described in 2001, more than 100 cases of superficial acral fibromyxoma on the foot have been reported worldwide, none of which have been reported in the podiatric medical literature. Only nine cases of superficial acral fibromyxoma have been reported with presentation on the plantar heel. We report an unusual case of a 47-year-old Jamaican woman with a painful, erythematous nodule on her right heel that was diagnosed as superficial acral fibromyxoma.

  2. The unique sound of the Uni-Vibe pedal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahlweg, Cornelius; Rothe, Hendrik

    2012-10-01

    A short paper covering optics and music: the Uni-Vibe, which is responsible for the unique sound of Hendrix' Woodstock performance, is one of many phasing devices based on photo conductive cells used as variable resistors. However, its sound is well distinguishable from other phasers. In the paper we shall discuss the basic properties and try to qualify and quantify the effect on the spectra of certain chords. The present paper is a side effect of the musical interests of the authors and is triggered by the announcement of the Novel Systems Session including the topics 'Optics and Music' and Historical Devices.

  3. Bicycle Riding: Pedaling Made Possible through Positive Behavioral Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Michael J.; Shapiro, Robert L.; Ainsleigh, Susan A.

    2005-01-01

    This study demonstrated how the tenets of positive behavior support could be used to teach an educational activity. Emphasis was placed on the implementation of practical strategies to minimize errors during instruction and maximize positive outcomes. A 9-year-old boy with Asperger syndrome served as the participant, and the skill targeted for…

  4. The rating reliability calculator

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, David J

    2004-01-01

    Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program. PMID:15117416

  5. Glomerular filtration rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007305.htm Glomerular filtration rate To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check ...

  6. Determinants of metabolic cost during submaximal cycling.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, J; Durstine, J L; Hand, G A; Martin, J C

    2002-09-01

    The metabolic cost of producing submaximal cycling power has been reported to vary with pedaling rate. Pedaling rate, however, governs two physiological phenomena known to influence metabolic cost and efficiency: muscle shortening velocity and the frequency of muscle activation and relaxation. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relative influence of those two phenomena on metabolic cost during submaximal cycling. Nine trained male cyclists performed submaximal cycling at power outputs intended to elicit 30, 60, and 90% of their individual lactate threshold at four pedaling rates (40, 60, 80, 100 rpm) with three different crank lengths (145, 170, and 195 mm). The combination of four pedaling rates and three crank lengths produced 12 pedal speeds ranging from 0.61 to 2.04 m/s. Metabolic cost was determined by indirect calorimetery, and power output and pedaling rate were recorded. A stepwise multiple linear regression procedure selected mechanical power output, pedal speed, and pedal speed squared as the main determinants of metabolic cost (R(2) = 0.99 +/- 0.01). Neither pedaling rate nor crank length significantly contributed to the regression model. The cost of unloaded cycling and delta efficiency were 150 metabolic watts and 24.7%, respectively, when data from all crank lengths and pedal speeds were included in a regression. Those values increased with increasing pedal speed and ranged from a low of 73 +/- 7 metabolic watts and 22.1 +/- 0.3% (145-mm cranks, 40 rpm) to a high of 297 +/- 23 metabolic watts and 26.6 +/- 0.7% (195-mm cranks, 100 rpm). These results suggest that mechanical power output and pedal speed, a marker for muscle shortening velocity, are the main determinants of metabolic cost during submaximal cycling, whereas pedaling rate (i.e., activation-relaxation rate) does not significantly contribute to metabolic cost.

  7. Handbook of noise ratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearsons, K. S.; Bennett, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The handbook was compiled to provide information in a concise form, describing the multitude of noise rating schemes. It is hoped that by describing the noise rating methods in a single volume the user will have better access to the definitions, application and calculation procedures of the current noise rating methods.

  8. Improved entropy rate estimation in physiological data.

    PubMed

    Lake, D E

    2011-01-01

    Calculating entropy rate in physiologic signals has proven very useful in many settings. Common entropy estimates for this purpose are sample entropy (SampEn) and its less robust elder cousin, approximate entropy (ApEn). Both approaches count matches within a tolerance r for templates of length m consecutive observations. When physiologic data records are long and well-behaved, both approaches work very well for a wide range of m and r. However, more attention to the details of the estimation algorithm is needed for short records and signals with anomalies. In addition, interpretation of the magnitude of these estimates is highly dependent on how r is chosen and precludes comparison across studies with even slightly different methodologies. In this paper, we summarize recent novel approaches to improve the accuracy of entropy estimation. An important (but not necessarily new) alternative to current approaches is to develop estimates that convert probabilities to densities by normalizing by the matching region volume. This approach leads to a novel concept introduced here of reporting entropy rate in equivalent Gaussian white noise units. Another approach is to allow r to vary so that a pre-specified number of matches are found, called the minimum numerator count, to ensure confident probability estimation. The approaches are illustrated using a simple example of detecting abnormal cardiac rhythms in heart rate records.

  9. Magnetic fields and galactic star formation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, Sven Van; Tan, Jonathan C.; Falle, Sam A. E. G.

    2015-02-10

    The regulation of galactic-scale star formation rates (SFRs) is a basic problem for theories of galaxy formation and evolution: which processes are responsible for making observed star formation rates so inefficient compared to maximal rates of gas content divided by dynamical timescale? Here we study the effect of magnetic fields of different strengths on the evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) within a kiloparsec patch of a disk galaxy and resolving scales down to ≃0.5 pc. Including an empirically motivated prescription for star formation from dense gas (n{sub H}>10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}) at an efficiency of 2% per local free-fall time, we derive the amount of suppression of star formation by magnetic fields compared to the nonmagnetized case. We find GMC fragmentation, dense clump formation, and SFR can be significantly affected by the inclusion of magnetic fields, especially in our strongest investigated B-field case of 80 μG. However, our chosen kiloparsec-scale region, extracted from a global galaxy simulation, happens to contain a starbursting cloud complex that is only modestly affected by these magnetic fields and likely requires internal star formation feedback to regulate its SFR.

  10. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  11. Chalcopyrite leaching: The rate controlling factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Kawashima, N.; Kaplun, K.; Absolon, V. J.; Gerson, A. R.

    2010-05-01

    The processes that determine the rate of chalcopyrite leaching are central to understanding how chalcopyrite (CuFeS 2) behaves under the environmentally adverse conditions of acid rock drainage. To this end the effect of the acid anion on chalcopyrite leach rates using a variety of acidic media (H 2SO 4, HClO 4, HCl and H 2SO 4 with 0.25 M NaCl) under carefully controlled solution conditions (pH 1 and 2, Eh 750 mV (SHE) and 75 °C) has been examined. These conditions have been chosen to enable sufficient leach rates for accurate experimental determination and to compare to the previous mechanistic analysis carried out by Harmer et al. (2006). Extensive surface analysis of leach residues demonstrated that variations in the surface speciation could not be responsible for the observed variations in leach rate. The rate of Cu release, however, was found to be first order with respect to Fe 3+ activity and inversely proportional with respect to H + activity to the power of 0.7: {1}/{S}{dC}/{dt}=(2.0±0.2){a}/{aH0.7} where S is the relative surface area, C is concentration of Cu in the solution (M), t is the time (h), 2.0 is the rate constant (M 0.7 h -1) and a and a are Fe 3+ and H + activities, respectively (M). The rate model was further validated against additional leaches carried out in H 2SO 4 media with the initial addition of Fe 3+ (8 mM as Fe 2(SO 4) 3) at 75 °C under various pH and Eh regimes. The only condition under which this rate model was found not to hold was at simultaneously low a and high a, that is at pH 1 and a<5×10-5M, where the concentration of dissolved O 2 may be leach rate determining.

  12. Beware Capital Charge Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-04-15

    The capital charge rate has a material effect in cost comparisons. Care should be taken to calculate it correctly and use it properly. The most common mistake is to use a nominal, rather than real, capital charge rate. To make matters worse, the common short-cut formula does not work well. (author)

  13. Metabolic rate measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koester, K.; Crosier, W.

    1980-01-01

    The Metabolic Rate Measurement System (MRMS) is an uncomplicated and accurate apparatus for measuring oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production of a test subject. From this one can determine the subject's metabolic rate for a variety of conditions, such as resting or light exercise. MRMS utilizes an LSI/11-03 microcomputer to monitor and control the experimental apparatus.

  14. Scaling metabolic rate fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Labra, Fabio A.; Marquet, Pablo A.; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Complex ecological and economic systems show fluctuations in macroscopic quantities such as exchange rates, size of companies or populations that follow non-Gaussian tent-shaped probability distributions of growth rates with power-law decay, which suggests that fluctuations in complex systems may be governed by universal mechanisms, independent of particular details and idiosyncrasies. We propose here that metabolic rate within individual organisms may be considered as an example of an emergent property of a complex system and test the hypothesis that the probability distribution of fluctuations in the metabolic rate of individuals has a “universal” form regardless of body size or taxonomic affiliation. We examined data from 71 individuals belonging to 25 vertebrate species (birds, mammals, and lizards). We report three main results. First, for all these individuals and species, the distribution of metabolic rate fluctuations follows a tent-shaped distribution with power-law decay. Second, the standard deviation of metabolic rate fluctuations decays as a power-law function of both average metabolic rate and body mass, with exponents −0.352 and −1/4 respectively. Finally, we find that the distributions of metabolic rate fluctuations for different organisms can all be rescaled to a single parent distribution, supporting the existence of general principles underlying the structure and functioning of individual organisms. PMID:17578913

  15. Infectious diseases and global warming: Tracking disease incidence rates globally

    SciTech Connect

    Low, N.C.

    1995-09-01

    Given the increasing importance of impact of global warming on public health, there is no global database system to monitor infectious disease and disease in general, and to which global data of climate change and environmental factors, such as temperature, greenhouse gases, and human activities, e.g., coastal development, deforestation, can be calibrated, investigated and correlated. The author proposes the diseases incidence rates be adopted as the basic global measure of morbidity of infectious diseases. The importance of a correctly chosen measure of morbidity of disease is presented. The importance of choosing disease incidence rates as the measure of morbidity and the mathematical foundation of which are discussed. The author further proposes the establishment of a global database system to track the incidence rates of infectious diseases. Only such a global system can be used to calibrate and correlate other globally tracked climatic, greenhouse gases and environmental data. The infrastructure and data sources for building such a global database is discussed.

  16. The Three Tales Chosen, the Establishment of the Texts and the Charting of Deviations, with a Collation of the "Original Tales," the Check Translations, and the Danish and Turkish Texts. Fairytale: An Interdisciplinary Turco-Danish Study of the Collective v. the Individual Nature of the Response to Literature. Report No. 11. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollerup, Cay; And Others

    Part of the interdisciplinary Turko-Danish Fairytale Project, this paper provides information about the three fairy tales chosen for study: "The Snake, the Fox, and the Man,""The Gold Apple," and "Per Smed's Whip." Various sections of the paper contain descriptions of the following: (1) the selection procedures, (2)…

  17. National ART Success Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2: ART Cycles using fresh nondonor eggs or embryos What are the steps for an ART cycle ... 37MB] Section 3: ART Cycles using frozen nondonor embryos Did implantation rates differ by a woman’s age? [ ...

  18. The ratings game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braben, Donald W.

    2009-04-01

    How sad to read a supposedly serious debate among distinguished physicists (February p19) about which combinations of the latest Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) ratings represent a university physics department's true strengths.

  19. Rating the Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovic, Paul; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Explains how people arrive at personal hazard assessments. Explores why people overestimate some hazards and underestimate others. Examines risk ratings for activities and technologies such as nuclear power, motor vehicles, pesticides, and vaccinations. (MA)

  20. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  1. Video Slope Rate Detector.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The patent describes an apparatus for measuring the rate of change of voltage and the polarity of a pulse having a two input terminal differential amplifier with a delay line connected to one of the input terminals.

  2. Rating Your Cash Manager?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, George A.; Johannisson, Eric E.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of a public cash management policy should include safety, liquidity, yield, and legality. Contains a cash management policy/procedure checklist, a test for cash managers, and a formula for calculating the rate of return. (MLF)

  3. Burning Rate Emulator

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Burning Rate Emulator is a gas fuel investigation attempting to emulate the burning of solids to improve our understanding of materials''flammability over a wide range of conditions. The approa...

  4. Heart Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the mid 70's, NASA saw a need for a long term electrocardiographic electrode suitable for use on astronauts. Heart Rate Inc.'s insulated capacitive electrode is constructed of thin dielectric film applied to stainless steel surface, originally developed under a grant by Texas Technical University. HRI, Inc. was awarded NASA license and continued development of heart rate monitor for use on exercise machines for physical fitness and medical markets.

  5. Rates of Gravel Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment transfers in gravel-bed rivers involve the three-dimensional dispersion of mixed size sediment. From a kinematics standpoint, few studies are available to inform on the streamwise and vertical rates of sediment dispersion in natural channels. This research uses a gravel tracing program to quantify dispersion rates over 19 flood seasons. Empirical observations come from Carnation Creek, a small gravel-bed river with large woody debris located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. Frequent floods and the relatively limited armor layer facilitate streambed activity and relatively high bedload transport rates, typically under partial sediment transport conditions. Over 2500 magnetically tagged stones, ranging in size from 16 to 180 mm, were deployed on the bed surface between 1989 and 1992 in four generations. To quantify gravel dispersion over distances up to 2.6 km, observations are taken from 11 recoveries. Over 280 floods capable of moving bedload occurred during this period, with five exceeding the estimated bankfull discharge. Streamwise dispersion is quantified by virtual velocity, while dispersion into the streambed is quantified by a vertical burial rate. The temporal trend in streamwise dispersion rates is described by a power function. Initial virtual velocities decline rapidly from around 1.4 m/hr to approach an asymptote value of about 0.2 m/hr. The rapid change corresponds to a significant increase in the proportion of buried tracers due to vertical mixing. Initial burial rates reflect the magnitude of the first flood after tracer deployment and range from 0.07 to 0.46 cm/hr depending on tracer generation. Burial rates converge to about 0.06 cm/hr after the fourth flood season and then gradually decline to about 0.01 cm/hr. Thus, the rate of streamwise dispersion exceeds that of vertical dispersion by three orders of magnitude when the movement of sediment routinely activated by floods is considered.

  6. [Determination of the anaerobic threshold by the rate of ventilation and cardio interval variability].

    PubMed

    Seluianov, V N; Kalinin, E M; Pak, G D; Maevskaia, V I; Konrad, A H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop methods for determining the anaerobic threshold according to the rate of ventilation and cardio interval variability during the test with stepwise increases load on the cycle ergometer and treadmill. In the first phase developed the method for determining the anaerobic threshold for lung ventilation. 49 highly skilled skiers took part in the experiment. They performed a treadmill ski-walking test with sticks with gradually increasing slope from 0 to 25 degrees, the slope increased by one degree every minute. In the second phase we developed a method for determining the anaerobic threshold according dynamics ofcardio interval variability during the test. The study included 86 athletes of different sports specialties who performed pedaling on the cycle ergometer "Monarch" in advance. Initial output was 25 W, power increased by 25 W every 2 min. The pace was steady--75 rev/min. Measurement of pulmonary ventilation and oxygen and carbon dioxide content was performed using gas analyzer COSMED K4. Sampling of arterial blood was carried from the ear lobe or finger, blood lactate concentration was determined using an "Akusport" instrument. RR-intervals registration was performed using heart rate monitor Polar s810i. As a result, it was shown that the graphical method for determining the onset of anaerobic threshold ventilation (VAnP) coincides with the accumulation of blood lactate 3.8 +/- 0.1 mmol/l when testing on a treadmill and 4.1 +/- 0.6 mmol/1 on the cycle ergometer. The connection between the measure of oxygen consumption at VAnP and the dispersion of cardio intervals (SD1), derived regression equation: VO2AnT = 0.35 + 0.01SD1W + 0.0016SD1HR + + 0.106SD1(ms), l/min; (R = 0.98, error evaluation function 0.26 L/min, p < 0.001), where W (W)--Power, HR--heart rate (beats/min), SD1--cardio intervals dispersion (ms) at the moment of registration of cardio interval threshold.

  7. Heart Rate Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Under a NASA grant, Dr. Robert M. Davis and Dr. William M. Portnoy came up with a new type of electrocardiographic electrode that would enable long term use on astronauts. Their invention was an insulated capacitive electrode constructed of a thin dielectric film. NASA subsequently licensed the electrode technology to Richard Charnitski, inventor of the VersaClimber, who founded Heart Rate, Inc., to further develop and manufacture personal heart monitors and to produce exercise machines using the technology for the physical fitness, medical and home markets. Same technology is on both the Home and Institutional Model VersaClimbers. On the Home Model an infrared heart beat transmitter is worn under exercise clothing. Transmitted heart rate is used to control the work intensity on the VersaClimber using the heart rate as the speedometer of the exercise. This offers advantages to a full range of users from the cardiac rehab patient to the high level physical conditioning of elite athletes. The company manufactures and markets five models of the 1*2*3 HEART RATE monitors that are used wherever people exercise to accurately monitor their heart rate. Company is developing a talking heart rate monitor that works with portable headset radios. A version of the heart beat transmitter will be available to the manufacturers of other aerobic exercise machines.

  8. Hydration rate of obsidian.

    PubMed

    Friedman, I; Long, W

    1976-01-30

    The hydration rates of 12 obsidian samples of different chemical compositions were measured at temperatures from 95 degrees to 245 degrees C. An expression relating hydration rate to temperature was derived for each sample. The SiO(2) content and refractive index are related to the hydration rate, as are the CaO, MgO, and original water contents. With this information it is possible to calculate the hydration rate of a sample from its silica content, refractive index, or chemical index and a knowledge of the effective temperature at which the hydration occurred. The effective hydration temperature can be either measured or approximated from weather records. Rates have been calculated by both methods, and the results show that weather records can give a good approximation to the true EHT, particularly in tropical and subtropical climates. If one determines the EHT by any of the methods suggested, and also measures or knows the rate of hydration of the particular obsidian used, it should be possible to carry out absolute dating to +/- 10 percent of the true age over periods as short as several years and as long as millions of years.

  9. An Application of the Facet-Factorial Approach to Scale Construction in Development of a Rating Scale for High School Marching Band Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Travis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument through facet-factorial analysis to assess high school marching band performance. Forty-one items were chosen to define subscales for the Marching Band Performance Rating Scale - Music and 31 items for the Marching Band Performance Rating Scale - Visual. To examine the stability…

  10. Shock tube measurements of specific reaction rates in the branched chain CH4-CO-O2 system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, T. A.; Brokaw, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Rate constants of two elementary bimolecular reactions involved in the oxidation of methane have been determined by monitoring the exponential growth of CO flame band emission behind incident shocks in three suitably chosen gas mixtures. The data do not support a mechanism which invokes the four center process CH3 + O2 yields CH2O + OH for the reaction of methyl with oxygen.

  11. Heart rate turbulence.

    PubMed

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is a baroreflex-mediated biphasic reaction of heart rate in response to premature ventricular beats. Heart rate turbulence is quantified by: turbulence onset (TO) reflecting the initial acceleration of heart rate following premature beat and turbulence slope (TS) describing subsequent deceleration of heart rate. Abnormal HRT identifies patients with autonomic dysfunction or impaired baroreflex sensitivity due to variety of disorders, but also may reflect changes in autonomic nervous system induced by different therapeutic modalities such as drugs, revascularization, or cardiac resynchronization therapy. More importantly, impaired HRT has been shown to identify patients at high risk of all-cause mortality and sudden death, particularly in postinfarction and congestive heart failure patients. It should be emphasized that abnormal HRT has a well-established role in stratification of postinfarction and heart failure patients with relatively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. The ongoing clinical trials will document whether HRT can be used to guide implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators in this subset of patients, not covered yet by ICD guidelines. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art knowledge regarding clinical significance of HRT in detection of autonomic dysfunction and regarding the prognostic significance of this parameter in predicting all-cause mortality and sudden death.

  12. Optical rate sensor algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhde-Lacovara, Jo A.

    1989-01-01

    Optical sensors, in particular Charge Coupled Device (CCD) arrays, will be used on Space Station to track stars in order to provide inertial attitude reference. Algorithms are presented to derive attitude rate from the optical sensors. The first algorithm is a recursive differentiator. A variance reduction factor (VRF) of 0.0228 was achieved with a rise time of 10 samples. A VRF of 0.2522 gives a rise time of 4 samples. The second algorithm is based on the direct manipulation of the pixel intensity outputs of the sensor. In 1-dimensional simulations, the derived rate was with 0.07 percent of the actual rate in the presence of additive Gaussian noise with a signal to noise ratio of 60 dB.

  13. The effect of crank rate strategy on peak aerobic power and peak physiological responses during arm crank ergometry.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul M; Doherty, Mike; Price, Michael J

    2007-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine whether the use of an imposed or freely chosen crank rate would influence submaximal and peak physiological responses during arm crank ergometry. Fifteen physically active men participated in the study. Their mean age, height, and body mass were 25.9 (s = 6.2) years, 1.80 (s = 0.10) m, and 78.4 (s = 6.1) kg, respectively. The participants performed two incremental peak oxygen consumption (VO(2peak)) tests using an electronically braked ergometer. One test was performed using an imposed crank rate of 80 rev x min(-1), whereas in the other the participants used spontaneously chosen crank rates. The order in which the tests were performed was randomized, and they were separated by at least 2 days. Respiratory data were collected using an on-line gas analysis system, and fingertip capillary blood samples ( approximately 20 microl) were collected for the determination of blood lactate concentration. Heart rate was also recorded throughout the tests. Time to exhaustion was measured and peak aerobic power calculated. Submaximal data were analysed using separate two-way repeated-measures analyses of variance, while differences in peak values were analysed using separate paired t-tests. Variations in spontaneously chosen crank rate were assessed using a one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. Agreement between the crank rate strategies for the assessment of peak values was examined by calculating intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and 95% limits of agreement (95% LoA). While considerable between-participant variations in spontaneously chosen crank rate were observed, the mean value was not different (P > 0.05) from the imposed crank rate of 80 rev x min(-1) at any point. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed for submaximal data between crank strategies. Furthermore, mean peak minute power [158 (s = 20) vs. 158 (s = 18) W], time to exhaustion [739 (s = 118) vs. 727 (s = 111) s], and VO(2peak)[3.09 (s = 0

  14. Currency Exchange Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siler, Carl R.

    This curriculum unit of the Muncie (Indiana) Southside High School is to simulate the dynamics of foreign currency exchange rates from the perspectives of: (1) a major U.S. corporation, ABB Power T & D Company, Inc., of Muncie, Indiana, a manufacturer of large power transformers for the domestic and foreign markets; and (2) individual…

  15. Poetry Methods Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Donald R.

    Designed to assess high school teachers' attitudes about teaching poetry, this questionnaire asked teachers to respond to a 38-item poetry methods rating scale (PMRS) on a seven-point scale (from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree"). The items for the questionnaire were derived from a study of popular methods texts for…

  16. Target Heart Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Lower Your Sodium in 21 Days! Learn how you can lower your sodium and change your salty ways in 21 Days! Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Target Heart Rates 4 Heart ...

  17. Modelling Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linacre, John M.

    Determination of the intentions of the test developer is fundamental to the choice of the analytical model for a rating scale. For confirmatory analysis, the developer's intentions inform the choice of the general form of the model, representing the manner in which the respondent interacts with the scale; these intentions also inform the choice of…

  18. Paradoxes in Film Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    The author selected a simple random sample of 100 movies from the "Movie and Video Guide" (1996), by Leonard Maltin. The author's intent was to obtain some basic information on the population of roughly 19,000 movies through a small sample. The "Movie and Video Guide" by Leonard Maltin is an annual ratings guide to movies. While not all films ever…

  19. What's in a Rating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Brian A.; Walsh, Elias

    2011-01-01

    We examine the relationship between the formal ratings that principals give teachers and a variety of observable teacher characteristics, including proxies for productivity. Prior work has shown that principals can differentiate between more and less effective teachers, especially at the tails of the quality distribution, and that subjective…

  20. Variable Rate Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systems are available to producers with the ability to make variable-rate applications of defoliants, fertilizer, lime, pesticides, plant growth regulators, and seed. These systems could potentially offer a producer great cost savings; however, the full potential of these benefits and savings cannot...

  1. Variable rate irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systems are available to producers to make variable-rate applications of defoliants, fertilizer, lime, pesticides, plant growth regulators, and seed. These systems could potentially offer cost savings to a producer; however, the full potential of the benefits and savings cannot be realized if water ...

  2. Variable rate irrigation (VRI)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) technology is now offered by all major manufacturers of moving irrigation systems, mostly on center pivot irrigation systems. Variable irrigation depths may be controlled by sector only, in which case only the speed of the irrigation lateral is regulated. Or, variable ...

  3. Snowmelt rate dictates streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, Theodore B.; Molotch, Noah P.; Livneh, Ben; Harpold, Adrian A.; Knowles, John F.; Schneider, Dominik

    2016-08-01

    Declining mountain snowpack and earlier snowmelt across the western United States has implications for downstream communities. We present a possible mechanism linking snowmelt rate and streamflow generation using a gridded implementation of the Budyko framework. We computed an ensemble of Budyko streamflow anomalies (BSAs) using Variable Infiltration Capacity model-simulated evapotranspiration, potential evapotranspiration, and estimated precipitation at 1/16° resolution from 1950 to 2013. BSA was correlated with simulated baseflow efficiency (r2 = 0.64) and simulated snowmelt rate (r2 = 0.42). The strong correlation between snowmelt rate and baseflow efficiency (r2 = 0.73) links these relationships and supports a possible streamflow generation mechanism wherein greater snowmelt rates increase subsurface flow. Rapid snowmelt may thus bring the soil to field capacity, facilitating below-root zone percolation, streamflow, and a positive BSA. Previous works have shown that future increases in regional air temperature may lead to earlier, slower snowmelt and hence decreased streamflow production via the mechanism proposed by this work.

  4. Constant-load versus heart rate-targeted exercise - Responses of systolic intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, V. Q.; Spodick, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Various systolic intervals were measured prior to and during heart rate-targeted bicycle ergometer exercise. There were striking similarities within each matched exercise set for Q-Im, isovolumetric contraction time, preejection period (PEP), and PEP/left ventricular ejection time (LVET). LVET was significantly shorter for rate-targeted exercise. It is concluded that either constant-load or rate-targeted bicycle ergometry may be used with the choice of method determined by the purpose of the protocol, and that systolic intervals (except LVET) should not be much altered owing to the method chosen.

  5. High data rate x-band transmitter for low Earth orbit satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, O.; Sunay, H.; Ismailoglu, Neslin; Kirdmaz; Dudak, Celal

    2004-11-01

    Small satellite communication systems require high data rate, high-efficiency and simple transmitters, without sacrificing efficiency and linearity depending on the modulation scheme. Main purpose of this study is to design a low power, simple and low weight transmitter with data rates up to 100 Mbps, BPSK/QPSK/OQPSK modulation and 7W output power at 8.2 GHz for low earth orbit (LEO) satellites in order to satisfy the high data rate demand. Output power of the transmitter is chosen to be 7W (38.5 dBm), which satisfies the link budget for LEO at 680 km and BER performance of 1e-6 .

  6. Phenomenology of the term structure of interest rates with Padé Approximants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuyts, Jean; Platten, Isabelle

    2001-10-01

    The classical approach in finance attempts to model the term structure of interest rates using specified stochastic processes and the no arbitrage argument. Up to now, no universally accepted theory has been obtained for the description of experimental data. We have chosen a more phenomenological approach. It is based on results obtained some 20 years ago by physicists, results which show that Padé Approximants are most suitable for approximating large classes of functions in a very precise and coherent way. In this paper, we have chosen to compare the Padé Approximants with very low indices with the experimental densities of interest rates variations. We have shown that the data published by the Federal Reserve System in the United States are very well reproduced with two parameters only. These parameters are rather simple functions of the lag and of the maturity and are directly related to the moments of the distributions.

  7. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  8. Hybrid empirical mode decomposition- ARIMA for forecasting exchange rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadan, Siti Sarah; Shabri, Ani; Ismail, Shuhaida

    2015-02-01

    This paper studied the forecasting of monthly Malaysian Ringgit (MYR)/ United State Dollar (USD) exchange rates using the hybrid of two methods which are the empirical model decomposition (EMD) and the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA). MYR is pegged to USD during the Asian financial crisis causing the exchange rates are fixed to 3.800 from 2nd of September 1998 until 21st of July 2005. Thus, the chosen data in this paper is the post-July 2005 data, starting from August 2005 to July 2010. The comparative study using root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) showed that the EMD-ARIMA outperformed the single-ARIMA and the random walk benchmark model.

  9. Optimal Control of Markov Processes with Age-Dependent Transition Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Mrinal K. Saha, Subhamay

    2012-10-15

    We study optimal control of Markov processes with age-dependent transition rates. The control policy is chosen continuously over time based on the state of the process and its age. We study infinite horizon discounted cost and infinite horizon average cost problems. Our approach is via the construction of an equivalent semi-Markov decision process. We characterise the value function and optimal controls for both discounted and average cost cases.

  10. 78 FR 18664 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... constitution or laws of a given State, the maximum interest rate will be the rate permitted by the constitution... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  11. 77 FR 20476 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... constitution or laws of a given State, the maximum interest rate will be the rate permitted by the constitution... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  12. 75 FR 81326 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... constitution or laws of a given State, the maximum interest rate will be the rate permitted by the constitution... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  13. 78 FR 62932 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... constitution or laws of a given State, the maximum interest rate will be the rate permitted by the constitution... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  14. Sequoia Messaging Rate Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Friedley, Andrew

    2008-01-22

    The purpose of this benchmark is to measure the maximal message rate of a single compute node. The first num_cores ranks are expected to reside on the 'core' compute node for which message rate is being tested. After that, the next num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the first core rank, the next set of num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the second core rank, and so on. For example, testing an 8-core node (num_cores = 8) with 4 neighbors (num_nbors = 4) requires 8 + 8 * 4 - 40 ranks. The first 8 of those 40 ranks are expected to be on the 'core' node being benchmarked, while the rest of the ranks are on separate nodes.

  15. Rotational rate sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  16. Composite rating scales.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2010-02-15

    Rating scales are instruments that are very frequently used by clinicians to perform patient assessments. Typically, rating scales grade the attribute on an ordinal level of measurement, i.e., a rank ordering, meaning that the numbers assigned to the different ranks (item scores) do not represent 'real numbers' or 'physical magnitudes'. Single-item scales have some advantages, such as simplicity and low respondent burden, but they may also suffer from disadvantages, such as ambiguous score meanings and low responsiveness. Multi-item scales, in contrast, seem more adequate for assessment of complex constructs, allowing for detailed evaluation. Total scores representing the value of the construct may be quite precise and thus the responsiveness of the scale may be high. The most common strategy for obtaining the total score is the sum of the item scores, a strategy that constitutes one of the most important problems with these types of scales. A summative score of ordinal figures is not a 'real magnitude' and may have little sense. This paper is a review of the theoretical frameworks of the main theories used to develop rating scales (Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory). Bearing in mind that no alternative is perfect, additional research in this field and judicious decisions are called for.

  17. Injection rate control cam

    SciTech Connect

    Perr, J.P.; Liang, E.; Yu, R.C.; Ghuman, A.S.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a cam for controlling the injection rate of fuel in a fuel injection system of an engine. The fuel injection system including a cyclically operating unit injector having a body, an injector plunger mounted for reciprocating movement in the injector body between an advanced position and a retracted portion to pump into the engine during each cycle a variable quantity of fuel up to a maximum quantity under rated engine conditions, and a drive train for converting rotational movement of the cam into reciprocating movement of the pumping plunger depending on the profile of the cam. The cam profile comprises at least a plunger retraction segment and a plunger advancement segment for controlling the velocity if injector plunger retraction and advancement, respectively, the plunger advancement segment including a pre-injection subsequent shaped to cause an initial quantity of fuel to be injected into the engine during each cycle at rated engine conditions while the pre-injection subsegment is in contact with the drive train, and an injection subsegment following the pre-injection subsegment.

  18. Constituents of response rates

    PubMed Central

    Pear, Joseph J.; Rector, Brian L.

    1979-01-01

    Response rate and the proportion of time pigeons allocated to a key-pecking activity were measured on several basic types of reinforcement schedules. Reinforcement frequency was varied within each type of basic schedule, and the effects on two constituents of response rate were noted. Propensity, the proportion of time the birds spent on a platform in front of the key, showed very consistent effects as reinforcement frequency varied: in general, it decreased when reinforcement frequency markedly decreased and it increased when reinforcement frequency increased. Speed, key pecks per unit of time spent on the platform, showed inconsistent effects when reinforcement frequency varied. Consequently, response rate showed less consistent effects than did propensity. Cumulative response records demonstrated the existence of several different types of transitions or boundary states between the key-pecking activity and other activities. The types of transitions that occurred between activities depended on both the type of reinforcement schedule and the frequency of reinforcement. The propensity data support the position that general laws of behavior can be based on temporal measures of behavior. The speed data suggest that, if a complete assessment of the dynamic properties of behavior is to be achieved, measures of behavior must incorporate the structural variations in the operant unit. PMID:16812155

  19. Absolute rate of the reaction of atomic hydrogen with ethylene from 198 to 320 K at high pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Michael, J. V.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The rate constant for the H+C2H4 reaction has been measured as a function of temperature. Experiments were performed with high pressures of Ar heat bath gas at seven temperatures from 198 to 320 K with the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence (FP-RF) technique. Pressures were chosen so as to isolate the addition rate constant k1. The results are well represented by an Arrhenius expression. The results are compared with other studies and are theoretically discussed.

  20. [Influence of chosen metals on the citric acid cycle].

    PubMed

    Rojczyk-Gołebiewska, Ewa; Kucharzewski, Marek

    2013-03-01

    Industrial activity growth influenced not only technological progress, but also had negative effects on human natural environment. It results among others in increased human exposition to heavy metals. In case of detoxication mechanisms disturbance in organism, heavy metals cumulate in tissues causing mutations and disrupting metabolism, including Krebs cycle. Recent studies have revealed that iron, zinc and manganese have especially strong influence on Krebs cycle. These elements act as cofactors or inhibitors regulating activity of particular enzymes of this cycle, which has a reflection in cellular energy production disturbances.

  1. 'Headless' Chosen for Attempt to Move a Martian Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A rock informally named 'Headless,' on the north side of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, has been selected for an attempt to slide the rock aside with the lander's robotic arm.

    Moving rocks is not among the many tasks the arm was designed to do, but if the maneuver can be accomplished, scientists on the Phoenix team hope to check whether the depth to a subsurface ice layer is any different underneath the area where the rock now sits.

    Headless is about 19 centimeters (7 inches) long, 10 centimeters (4 inches) wide, extends 2 to 3 centimetes (about 1 inch) above the surface.

    This image, originally posted on Aug. 27, 2008 without the label on Headless, is a mosaic of images taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Phoenix, showing the workspace reachable with the robotic arm. The camera took the images during the early afternoon of the mission's 90th Martian day, corresponding to overnight Aug. 25 to Aug. 26.

    The shadow of the the camera itself, atop its mast, is just left of the center of the image and roughly a third of a meter (one foot) wide.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. E-Prime, E-Choice, E-Chosen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohrey, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    Argues that a complete alteration of English to the form called "E-Prime" (a form of English that eliminates all forms of the verb "to be") is not possible and would result in losing important speech patterns, such as identities and identification. Lists patterns of identification. Concludes by advocating "E-Choice"…

  3. Evaluation of chosen fruit seeds oils as potential biofuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbede, O. O.; Alade, A. O.; Adebayo, G. A.; Salam, K. K.; Bakare, T.

    2012-04-01

    Oils available in mango, tangerine and African star seeds were extracted and characterized to determine their fuel worthiness for biofuel production. Furthermore, the fuel properties of the three oils were within the range observed for some common oil seeds like rapeseed, soybean and sunflower, which are widely sourced for the production of biodiesel on an industrial scale. The low iodine values of the oil extend their applications as non-drying oil for lubrication purposes, however, the fuel properties exhibited by the oils enlist them as potential oil seeds for the production of biofuel and further research on the improvement of their properties will make them suitable biofuel of high economic values.

  4. Chosen Striking Location and the User-Tool-Environment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagman, Jeffrey B.; Taylor, Kona R.

    2004-01-01

    Controlling a hand-held tool requires that the tool user bring the tool into contact with an environmental surface in a task-appropriate manner. This, in turn, requires applying muscular forces so as to overcome how the object resists being moved about its various axes. Perceived properties of hand-held objects tend to be constrained by inertial…

  5. Chosen aspects of modeling and control of quadrotor platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawiski, Radosław; Błachuta, Marian

    2012-11-01

    This article is presenting the extended model of quadrotor platform together with a bespoken control system based on optimal approach. It highlights particular aspects of the derived model, such as inclusion of rotor gyroscopic effects and thrust generation based on momentum theory. The controller's behavior is tested by simulations. Comparisons with literature-available solutions to the problem of full quadrotor optimal control are made and important differences exposed. Conclusions are drawn and future work proposed.

  6. [Time based management in health care system: the chosen aspects].

    PubMed

    Kobza, Joanna; Syrkiewicz-Świtała, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Time-based management (TBM) is the key element of the whole management process. For many years in health care systems of highly developed countries modern and effective methods of time-based management have been implemented in both primary health care and hospitals (emergency departments and operating rooms). Over the past two decades a systematic review of Polish literature (since 1990) and peer reviewed articles published in international journals based on PubMed/Medline (2001-2011) have been carried out. The collected results indicate that the demographic and health changes in the populations are one of the main challenges facing general practitioners in the nearest future. Time-based management needs new and effective tools and skills, i.e., identification of priorities, well designed planning, delegation of the tasks, proper coordination, and creation of primary care teams that include additional members and human resources management. Proper reimbursement of health services, development of IT in health care system, better collection, storage, processing, analysis and exchange of information and research findings will also be needed. The use of innovative technologies, like telemedicine consultations, provides the possibility of reducing waiting time for diagnosis and treatment and in some cases could be applied in terms of secondary care. To improve the efficiency of operating rooms it is necessary to introduce different solutions, such as operating room coordinator involvement, application of automation to guide decision-making or use of robotic tools to assist surgical procedures. Overcrowded emergency departments have a major detrimental effect on the quality of hospital functions, therefore, efforts should be made to reduce them. Time-based management training among physicians and health care management in Poland, as well as the implementation of practice-based solutions still applied in highly developed countries seem to be necessary.

  7. Clinical rating scales.

    PubMed

    Relja, Maja

    2012-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), rating scales are used to assess the degree of disease-related disability and to titrate long-term treatment to each phase of the disease. Recognition of non-motor symptoms required modification of existing widely used scales to integrate non-motor elements. In addition, new scales have been developed for the assessment of non-motor symptoms. In this article, assessment of PD patients will be discussed, particularly for non-motor symptoms such as pain and fatigue.

  8. "You Have Not Chosen Me, I Have Chosen You": The Next Generation of Leaders for Catholic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Claire M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the issue of recruiting effective, faith-filled leaders for Catholic schools. Potential solutions parallel those identified with respect to teacher shortage: the need to address compensation concerns; additional research and data collection; implementation of creative, year-round marketing and recruitment efforts at diocesan and national…

  9. Characteristics of a magnetorheological fluid in high shear rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Takehito; Abe, Isao; Inoue, Akio; Iwasaki, Akihiko; Okada, Katsuhiko

    2016-11-01

    The information on the properties of the magnetorheological fluid (MRF) in high shear rate, in particular a shear rate greater than 10 000 s-1, is important for the design of devices utilizing the MRF with very narrow fluid gaps, which are used in high-speed applications. However, very little research has been conducted on this subject. The objective of this study is to provide such information. MRF-140CG (Lord Corp.) is chosen as an example MRF. The plastic viscosity, thermal sensitivity, and durability of the fluid, especially under a shear rate greater than 10 000 s-1, are reported. The plastic viscosity is almost constant under a wide range of magnetic input. In contrast, MRF-140CG is sensitive to the shear rate; its sensitivity is relatively low at high shear rates. The thermal sensitivity shows negative values, and the effect of temperature decreases with increasing magnetic input. According to the result of the duration test at 30 000 s-1 and at a temperature of 120 °C, the lifetime dissipation energy is 5.48 MJ ml-1.

  10. Lindblad rate equations

    SciTech Connect

    Budini, Adrian A.

    2006-11-15

    In this paper we derive an extra class of non-Markovian master equations where the system state is written as a sum of auxiliary matrixes whose evolution involve Lindblad contributions with local coupling between all of them, resembling the structure of a classical rate equation. The system dynamics may develop strong nonlocal effects such as the dependence of the stationary properties with the system initialization. These equations are derived from alternative microscopic interactions, such as complex environments described in a generalized Born-Markov approximation and tripartite system-environment interactions, where extra unobserved degrees of freedom mediates the entanglement between the system and a Markovian reservoir. Conditions that guarantee the completely positive condition of the solution map are found. Quantum stochastic processes that recover the system dynamics in average are formulated. We exemplify our results by analyzing the dynamical action of nontrivial structured dephasing and depolarizing reservoirs over a single qubit.

  11. Vital Signs Rate Meter.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    S15 VITAL SIGNS RTE NETER(U) TEXAS R FW4D A UNIV COLLEGE 1/1 STATION IENGINEERING PROGM C S LESSAD ET RL. SEP 8? USRFSN-TR-$?-14 F33615-S3-D-0602...UNCLMSIFIED F/O 6/12 ML IIB 125 11 128 11.2.5_ ka7 U S S SS S S S S S0 02.2 36 * . * * * . - * . - .. . - - . Q -- .* USAFSAM-TR-87-1 4 VITAL SIGNS RATE...UNIT ELEMENT NO. INO.I NO. IACESSION NO. 622027 2729 02 21 11 TITLE ft ml’S111111:1111"ll vital Signs Rae ~t= 12. PERSONAL AUTWOR(S) Lessard, Cierles

  12. Heart-Rate and Breath-Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Circuit requiring only four integrated circuits (IC's) measures both heart rate and breath rate. Phase-locked loops lock on heart-rate and respiration-rate input signals. Each loop IC contains two phase comparators. Positive-edge-triggered circuit used in making monitors insensitive to dutycycle variations.

  13. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...

  14. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...

  15. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...

  16. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...

  17. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...

  18. Estimation of the Dose and Dose Rate Effectiveness Factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2013-01-01

    Current models to estimate radiation risk use the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort that received high doses and high dose rates of radiation. Transferring risks from these high dose rates to the low doses and dose rates received by astronauts in space is a source of uncertainty in our risk calculations. The solid cancer models recommended by BEIR VII [1], UNSCEAR [2], and Preston et al [3] is fitted adequately by a linear dose response model, which implies that low doses and dose rates would be estimated the same as high doses and dose rates. However animal and cell experiments imply there should be curvature in the dose response curve for tumor induction. Furthermore animal experiments that directly compare acute to chronic exposures show lower increases in tumor induction than acute exposures. A dose and dose rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) has been estimated and applied to transfer risks from the high doses and dose rates of the LSS cohort to low doses and dose rates such as from missions in space. The BEIR VII committee [1] combined DDREF estimates using the LSS cohort and animal experiments using Bayesian methods for their recommendation for a DDREF value of 1.5 with uncertainty. We reexamined the animal data considered by BEIR VII and included more animal data and human chromosome aberration data to improve the estimate for DDREF. Several experiments chosen by BEIR VII were deemed inappropriate for application to human risk models of solid cancer risk. Animal tumor experiments performed by Ullrich et al [4], Alpen et al [5], and Grahn et al [6] were analyzed to estimate the DDREF. Human chromosome aberration experiments performed on a sample of astronauts within NASA were also available to estimate the DDREF. The LSS cohort results reported by BEIR VII were combined with the new radiobiology results using Bayesian methods.

  19. Consumers Union rates condoms.

    PubMed

    1980-05-01

    In an effort to provide some insights as to why and how condoms fail, the Consumers Union of the United States tested brandname condoms for leakage, bursting, tensile strength and heat deterioration and surveyed 1900 women and men who used the method for birth control. The highest-ranked latex condoms were Nuform, Trojan Plus, Conceptrol Shield and Horizon Nuda. Least preferred were Sheik No. 22 unlubricated condoms and Trojan unlubricated. Preferences among skin condoms were Fourex Capsuled and Klingtite Naturalamb. Obvious advantages of the condom method of contraception, in addition to its potentially high success rate, include the following: 1) protection against venereal disease; 2) lack of side effects; 3) simplicity of method; and 4) reasonable price. 1/2 of the 1900 respondentes cited interruption of lovemaking, reduced sensitivity and mere awareness of condom presence as reasons why the method impaired sexual pleasure. Almost 1/4 of the respondents disliked the need for prompt withdrawal in order to avoid spillage, and some feared vigorous intercourse would result in the condom slipping off.

  20. Rates of Earth degassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onions, R. K.

    1994-01-01

    The degassing of the Earth during accretion is constrained by Pu-U-I-Xe systematics. Degassing was much more efficient during the first 100-200 Ma than subsequently, and it was more complete for Xe than for the lighter gases. More than 90 percent of the degassed Xe escaped from the atmosphere during this period. The combination of fractional degassing of melts and rare gas escape from the atmosphere is able to explain the deficit of terrestrial Xe as a simple consequence of this early degassing history. By the time Xe was quantitatively retained in the atmosphere, the abundances of Kr and the lighter gases in the Earth's interior were similar to or higher than the present-day atmospheric abundances. Subsequent transfer of these lighter rare gases into the atmosphere requires a high rate of post-accretion degassing and melt production. Considerations of Pu-U-Xe systematics suggest that relatively rapid post-accretion degassing was continued to ca. 4.1-4.2 Ga. The present-day degassing history of the Earth is investigated through consideration of rare gas isotope abundances. Although the Earth is a highly degassed body, depleted in rare gases by many orders of magnitude relative to their solar abundances, it is at the present-day losing primordial rare gases which were trapped at the time of accretion.

  1. Combined heart rate variability and dynamic measures for quantitatively characterizing the cardiac stress status during cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szi-Wen; Liaw, Jiunn-Woei; Chang, Ya-Ju; Chuang, Li-Ling; Chien, Chun-Tse

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to seek for different ways of measuring cardiac stress in terms of heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate (HR) dynamics, and to develop a novel index that can effectively summarize the information reflected by these measures to continuously and quantitatively characterize the cardiac stress status during physical exercise. Standard deviation, spectral measure of HRV as well as a nonlinear detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) based fractal-like behavior measure of HR dynamics were all evaluated on the RR time series derived from windowed electrocardiogram (ECG) data for the subjects undergoing cycling exercise. We recruited eleven young healthy subjects in our tests. Each subject was asked to maintain a fixed speed under a constant load during the pedaling test. We obtained the running estimates of the standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval (SDNN), the high-fidelity power spectral density (PSD) of HRV, and the DFA scaling exponent α, respectively. A trend analysis and a multivariate linear regression analysis of these measures were then performed. Numerical experimental results produced by our analyses showed that a decrease in both SDNN and α was seen during the cycling exercise, while there was no significant correlation between the standard lower frequency to higher frequency (LF-to-HF) spectral power ratio of HRV and the exercise intensity. In addition, while the SDNN and α were both negatively correlated with the Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale value, it seemed that the LF-to-HF power ratio might not have substantial impact on the Borg value, suggesting that the SDNN and α may be further used as features to detect the cardiac stress status during the physical exercise. We further approached this detection problem by applying a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to both feature candidates for the task of cardiac stress stratification. As a result, a time-varying parameter, referred to as the cardiac

  2. Performance Ratings and Librarians Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peele, David

    1970-01-01

    Two aspects of rating personnel performance are explored: (1) the rating form and some guidelines for filling it in and (2) the right of the librarian who is being rated to discuss or appeal a rating he believes to be biased. (NH)

  3. 78 FR 14821 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission, Interior. ACTION... Commission has adopted its 2013 preliminary annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.074% (.00074) for tier... preliminary fee rate on Class II revenues shall be one-half of the annual fee rate, which is 0.037%...

  4. 77 FR 41202 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.074% (.00074) for tier 2 for calendar year 2012. These rates... Commission. If a Tribe has a certificate of self-regulation under 25 CFR part 518, the final fee rate...

  5. 76 FR 7879 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... preliminary annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.074% (.00074) for tier 2 for calendar year 2011. These... fee rate on class II revenues for calendar year 2011 shall be one-half of the annual fee rate,...

  6. 75 FR 5342 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... preliminary annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.060% (.00060) for tier 2 for calendar year 2010. These... fee rate on class II revenues for calendar year 2010 shall be one-half of the annual fee rate,...

  7. 76 FR 38207 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.074% (.00074) for tier 2 for calendar year 2011. These rates... Commission. If a tribe has a certificate of self-regulation under 25 CFR part 518, the final fee rate...

  8. 77 FR 5267 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... preliminary annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.074% (.00074) for tier 2 for calendar year 2012. These... fee rate on class II revenues for calendar year 2012 shall be one-half of the annual fee rate,...

  9. Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to previous research on sequential ratings of student performance, this study found that professional essay raters of a large-scale standardized testing program produced ratings that were drawn toward previous ratings, creating an assimilation effect. Longer intervals between the two adjacent ratings and higher degree of agreement with…

  10. Survival rate of preserved cultures contained in baker's vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kornacki, K; Klebukowska, I; Sienkiewicz, J

    2001-01-01

    The studies comprised the preparation and preservation, by the method of spray-drying, of baker's vaccine composed of lactic acid bacteria. The selection of particular strains was conducted taking into consideration the fermentation activity and growth dynamics of Lactobacillus rods isolated from plant material. Mixed vaccine was composed of chosen monocultures, characterized by the highest acidifying activity (4 strains). Before the vaccine was preserved, it had been used for making bread leaven (of rye flour) whose activity and usefulness for rye bread production was then determined The vaccine was subjected to spray-drying. The survival rate of Lactobacillus rods was determined directly after drying and during storage. It was found that the parameters of spray-drying applied in the experiment caused a considerable reduction in the number of vaccine components--by 2 log on average.

  11. Oxidation kinetics of zinc sulfide: determination of intrinsic rate constant

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhu, G.M.

    1983-06-01

    An initial reaction rate study was done with the help of a thermogravimetric technique. Energy dispersive x-ray analyses on partially oxidized zinc sulfide pellets with a sintered porosity of 72.4% indicated flat sulfur intensity profiles within pellets reacted below 560/sup 0/C, which suggested a homogeneous reaction mechanism. Therefore, reaction temperatures below 600/sup 0/C were chosen for the reaction rate studies. Initial reaction rate studies on 72.4, 58.2, and 34.0% porous, cylindrical zinc sulfide pellets and the corresponding Arrhenius plot suggested chemical control in the temperature range from 480 to 565/sup 0/C. The corresponding intrinsic rate constant is correlated as k = 3.45 x 10/sup 17/ exp (- 86051/RT) cm/s. The variation in sulfur intensity within sintered pellets having a porosity of 72.4% that were reacted at temperatures above 560/sup 0/C indicated that the pore diffusion resistance gradually became comparable to the chemical reaction resistance leading to a mixed control mechanism above 570/sup 0/C. The critical temperature at which this shift occurred, increased with pellet porosity.

  12. Material properties of bovine intervertebral discs across strain rates.

    PubMed

    Newell, Nicolas; Grigoriadis, Grigorios; Christou, Alexandros; Carpanen, Diagarajen; Masouros, Spyros D

    2017-01-01

    The intervertebral disc (IVD) is a complex structure responsible for distributing compressive loading to adjacent vertebrae and allowing the vertebral column to bend and twist. To study the mechanical behaviour of individual components of the IVD, it is common for specimens to be dissected away from their surrounding tissues for mechanical testing. However, disrupting the continuity of the IVD to obtain material properties of each component separately may result in erroneous values. In this study, an inverse finite element (FE) modelling optimisation algorithm has been used to obtain material properties of the IVD across strain rates, therefore bypassing the need to harvest individual samples of each component. Uniaxial compression was applied to ten fresh-frozen bovine intervertebral discs at strain rates of 10(-3)-1/s. The experimental data were fed into the inverse FE optimisation algorithm and each experiment was simulated using the subject specific FE model of the respective specimen. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the IVD's response was most dependent upon the Young's modulus (YM) of the fibre bundles and therefore this was chosen to be the parameter to optimise. Based on the obtained YM values for each test corresponding to a different strain rate (ε̇), the following relationship was derived:YM=35.5lnε̇+527.5. These properties can be used in finite element models of the IVD that aim to simulate spinal biomechanics across loading rates.

  13. A generic rate law for surface-active enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kartal, Onder; Ebenhöh, Oliver

    2013-09-02

    Many biochemical reactions are confined to interfaces, such as membranes or cell walls. Despite their importance, no canonical rate laws describing the kinetics of surface-active enzymes exist. Combining the approach chosen by Michaelis and Menten 100 years ago with concepts from surface chemical physics, we here present an approach to derive generic rate laws of enzymatic processes at surfaces. We illustrate this by a simple reversible conversion on a surface to stress key differences to the classical case in solution. The available area function, a concept from surface physics which enters the rate law, covers different models of adsorption and presents a unifying perspective on saturation effects and competition between enzymes. A remarkable implication is the direct dependence of the rate of a given enzyme on all other enzymatic species able to bind at the surface. The generic approach highlights general principles of the kinetics of surface-active enzymes and allows to build consistent mathematical models of more complex pathways involving reactions at interfaces.

  14. The Star Rating System and Medicare Advantage Plans.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Lisa

    2015-05-05

    With nearly 30 percent of Medicare beneficiaries opting to enroll in Medicare Advantage (MA) plans instead of fee-for-service Medicare, it's safe to say the MA program is quite popular. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) administers a Star Ratings program for MA plans, which offers measures of quality and service among the plans that are used not only to help beneficiaries choose plans but also to award additional payments to plans that meet high standards. These additional payments, in turn, are used by plans to provide additional benefits to beneficiaries or to reduce cost sharing--added features that are likely to factor into beneficiaries' choice of MA plans. The Star Ratings program is also meant to drive improvements in the quality of plans, and this secondary effort seems to have been successful. Despite this success, issues with the Star Ratings system remain, including: how performance metrics are developed, chosen, and maintained; how differences among beneficiary populations (particularly with regard to the dually eligible and those receiving low-income subsidies) should be recognized; and the extent to which health plans can control the variables on which they are being measured. Because the Star Ratings approach has been extended to providers of health care as well--hospitals, nursing homes, and dialysis facilities--these issues are worth exploring as CMS fine-tunes its methods of measurement.

  15. On the stability of robotic systems with random communication rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Yun, X.; Paul, R. P.

    1989-01-01

    Control problems of sampled data systems which are subject to random sample rate variations and delays are studied. Due to the rapid growth of the use of computers more and more systems are controlled digitally. Complex systems such as space telerobotic systems require the integration of a number of subsystems at different hierarchical levels. While many subsystems may run on a single processor, some subsystems require their own processor or processors. The subsystems are integrated into functioning systems through communications. Communications between processes sharing a single processor are also subject to random delays due to memory management and interrupt latency. Communications between processors involve random delays due to network access and to data collisions. Furthermore, all control processes involve delays due to casual factors in measuring devices and to signal processing. Traditionally, sampling rates are chosen to meet the worst case communication delay. Such a strategy is wasteful as the processors are then idle a great proportion of the time; sample rates are not as high as possible resulting in poor performance or in the over specification of control processors; there is the possibility of missing data no matter how low the sample rate is picked. Asymptotical stability with probability one for randomly sampled multi-dimensional linear systems is studied. A sufficient condition for the stability is obtained. This condition is so simple that it can be applied to practical systems. A design procedure is also shown.

  16. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  17. Feedback of mechanical effectiveness induces adaptations in motor modules during cycling

    PubMed Central

    De Marchis, Cristiano; Schmid, Maurizio; Bibbo, Daniele; Castronovo, Anna Margherita; D'Alessio, Tommaso; Conforto, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have reported evidence that the motor system may rely on a modular organization, even if this behavior has yet to be confirmed during motor adaptation. The aim of the present study is to investigate the modular motor control mechanisms underlying the execution of pedaling by untrained subjects in different biomechanical conditions. We use the muscle synergies framework to characterize the muscle coordination of 11 subjects pedaling under two different conditions. The first one consists of a pedaling exercise with a strategy freely chosen by the subjects (Preferred Pedaling Technique, PPT), while the second condition constrains the gesture by means of a real time visual feedback of mechanical effectiveness (Effective Pedaling Technique, EPT). Pedal forces, recorded using a pair of instrumented pedals, were used to calculate the Index of Effectiveness (IE). EMG signals were recorded from eight muscles of the dominant leg and Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) was applied for the extraction of muscle synergies. All the synergy vectors, extracted cycle by cycle for each subject, were pooled across subjects and conditions and underwent a 2-dimensional Sammon's non-linear mapping. Seven representative clusters were identified on the Sammon's projection, and the corresponding eight-dimensional synergy vectors were used to reconstruct the repertoire of muscle activation for all subjects and all pedaling conditions (VAF > 0.8 for each individual muscle pattern). Only 5 out of the 7 identified modules were used by the subjects during the PPT pedaling condition, while 2 additional modules were found specific for the pedaling condition EPT. The temporal recruitment of three identified modules was highly correlated with IE. The structure of the identified modules was found similar to that extracted in other studies of human walking, partly confirming the existence of shared and task specific muscle synergies, and providing further evidence on the modularity

  18. Textbook Deficiencies: Ambiguities in Chemical Kinetics Rates and Rate Constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quisenberry, Keith T.; Tellinghuisen, Joel

    2006-03-01

    Balanced chemical reactions often have at least some stoichiometry coefficients that are not unity. To avoid ambiguity in defining the kinetics rate for a reaction, the IUPAC has established the convention, rate = (1/ν i )/(d[A i ]/d t ) relating the reaction rate to the rate of change of concentration of any reactant or product A i and its stoichiometry number ν i (negative for reactants, positive for products). The rate is a product of the rate constant k and some function of the concentrations of reactants and products that must be determined experimentally. While most general chemistry textbooks correctly state this convention, most also proceed to ignore it in subsequent development, particularly in the use of integrated rate laws and the definition of the reaction half-life. We recommend that in future editions, authors make it clear that (i) the reaction rate and rate constant cannot be defined unambiguously without explicitly stating the reaction for which they apply and therefore (ii) the relation between the half-life, which is a physical property of the reaction system, and the rate constant depends upon how the reaction is written. The errors have arisen in part because most texts simply state the integrated rate expressions for first- and second-order reactions without deriving them. It is both appropriate and easy to include such derivations in texts oriented toward students intending careers in science, engineering, and medicine.

  19. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  20. Survival Rates for Thymus Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Survival Rates for Thymus Cancer Survival rates are often used by doctors ... Ask Your Doctor About Thymus Cancer? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  1. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  2. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) ... incidence data are currently available. Rates of Getting Lung Cancer by State The number of people who ...

  3. MEMS Rate Sensors for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambino, Joel P.

    1999-01-01

    Micromachined Electro Mechanical System Rate sensors offer many advantages that make them attractive for space use. They are smaller, consume less power, and cost less than the systems currently available. MEMS Rate Sensors however, have not been optimized for use on spacecraft. This paper describes an approach to developing MEMS Rate Sensors systems for space use.

  4. 75 FR 44807 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.060% (.00060) for tier 2 for calendar year 2010. These rates... Commission. If a tribe has a certificate of self-regulation under 25 CFR part 518, the preliminary fee...

  5. Rate and Occupancy Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-Atlantic Association of Coll. and Univ. Housing Officers.

    In its annual effort to determine rate and occupancy trends in the Mid-Atlantic region, MACUHO surveyed by questionnaire the chief housing officers on its mailing list and received 99 usable responses, compared with 65 the previous year. The average double room rate was reported to be $691, compared with $646 in 1975; the average board rate rose…

  6. Oxygen cost of internal work during cycling.

    PubMed

    Francescato, M P; Girardis, M; di Prampero, P E

    1995-01-01

    The energy cost of internal work and its relationships with lower limb mass and pedalling frequency were studied in four male subjects [age 22.2 (SD 1.5) years, body mass 81.0 (SD 5.1) kg, maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) above resting 3.06 (SD 0.4) l.min-1]. The subjects cycled at 40, 60, 80 and 100 rpm and at five different exercise intensities for every pedalling frequency (unloaded condition, UL); the same exercises were repeated after having increased the lower limbs' masses by 40% (loaded condition, L). The exercise intensities were chosen so that the oxygen consumption (VO2) did not exceed 75% of VO2max. For all the subjects and all the conditions, the rate of VO2 above resting increased linearly with the mechanical power (W). The y-intercepts of the linear regressions of VO2 on W, normalised per kilogram of overall lower limbs mass were the same in both UL and L and increased with the 4.165 power of pedalling frequency (fp). These intercepts were taken to represent the metabolic counterpart of the internal power dissipation in cycling; they amounted to 0.78, 0.34, 3.29 and 10.30 W.kg-1 for pedalling frequencies of 40, 60, 80 and 100 rpm respectively. The slope of the regression lines (delta W/delta VO2) represents the delta efficiency of cycle ergometer exercise; this was also affected by fp, ranging, on average, from 22.9% to 32.0%. These data allowed us to obtain a comprehensive description of the effects of fp (per minute), exercise intensity (W, watts) and lower limbs' mass with or without added loads (mL, kg), on VO2 (ml.min-1) during cycling: VO2 = [mL.(4.3.10(-8).fp4.165/0.35)] + (1/[(3.594.10(-5).fp2 - 0.003.fp + 0.326).0.35]).W. The mean percentage error between the VO2 predicted from this equation and the actual value was 12.6%. This equation showed that the fraction of the overall VO2 due to internal work, for a normal 70-kg subject pedalling at 60 rpm and 100 W was of the order of 0.2.

  7. Drilling Penetration Rate Estimation using Rock Drillability Characterization Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, Abbas; Qao, Qi; Chanda, Emmanuel

    2016-10-01

    Rock drilling Penetration Rate (PR) is influenced by many parameters including rock properties, machine parameters of the chosen rig and the working process. Five datasets were utilized to quantitatively assess the effect of various rock properties on PR. The datasets consisted of two sets of diamond and percussive drilling and one set of rotary drilling data. A new rating system called Rock Drillability Characterization index (RDCi) is proposed to predict PR for different drilling methods. This drillability model incorporates the uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock, the P-wave velocity and the density of rock. The RDCi system is further applied to predict PR in the diamond rotary drilling, non-coring rotary drilling and percussive drilling. Strong correlations between PR and RDCi values were observed indicating that the developed drillability rating model is relevant and can be utilized to effectively predict the rock drillability in any operating environment. A practical procedure for predicting PR using the RDCi was established. The drilling engineers can follow this procedure to use RDCi as an effective method to estimate drillability.

  8. Initial SB4 Melt Rate Furnace Testing (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M

    2005-07-29

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is presently vitrifying Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) and preparing to process Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) in late 2006 or early 2007. The final composition of SB4 has not been finalized, as various blending and/or washing strategies are still being considered. SB4 will be comprised of the contents of Tanks 5, 6, 7, 8, and 11 (which will be transferred to Tank 51) along with plutonium and neptunium solutions from F and H Canyons, and possibly material from Tank 4. Tank 4 was originally included in projections, but plans have since changed (after completion of these tests) and Tank 4 is no longer part of SB4 due to problems with sludge removal. Even though the final SB4 composition was not finalized at the time of this study, there were 20 bounding options documented that could be used for preliminary melt rate tests. At the time of these tests, the SB4 compositions described as ''SB4 1200 canister baseline'' and ''SB4 1200 canister baseline (one less washed)'' documented elsewhere were chosen for these tests. The 1200 canister describes the number of equivalent canisters that would be produced from the beginning of the current contract period before SB3 is blended with SB4. These compositions were chosen as they had the highest amount of SB4 in the blend and were therefore considered as worse case SB4 feeds with regards to melt rate. This is because SB4 has higher alumina levels of any sludge batch yet processed and alumina has a negative impact on the DWPF melt rate. This baseline sludge includes Tank 4 but does not include auxiliary waste streams such as the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) stream, which contains monosodium titanate (MST), entrained sludge, and various soluble sodium compounds as the result of filter cleaning and stream adjustment for transfer. These preliminary dry-fed Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) tests were needed to initially evaluate melt rate/waste throughput. This study addressed SB4 with Frits 418 and 320, the impact

  9. Effect of Different Polymer Concentration on Drug Release Rate and Physicochemical Properties of Mucoadhesive Gastroretentive Tablets.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shweta; Murthy, R S R

    2015-01-01

    Mucoadhesive tablets have emerged as potential candidates for gastroretentive drug delivery providing controlled release along with prolonged gastric residence time. Gastroretentive mucoadhesive tablets could result in increased bioavailability due to prolonged gastric residence time. A hydrophilic matrix system was developed as mucoadhesion is achievable on appropriate wetting and swelling of the polymers used. The polymers were so chosen so as to provide a balance between swelling, mucoadhesion and drug release. The polymers chosen were hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M, chitosan, and Carbopol 934. The concentrations of these polymers used has a great impact on the physicochemical properties of the resulting formulation. The tablets were formulated using wet granulation method and tranexamic acid was used as the model drug. The prepared tablets were characterized for size, shape, appearance, hardness, friability, weight variation, swelling, mucoadhesion and in vitro drug release. Several batches of tablets were prepared by varying the ratio of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M and Chitosan. The batches having a greater ratio of chitosan showed higher rate of swelling, greater erosion, less mucoadhesion and faster release rate of the drug whereas the batches having greater ratio of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M showed lesser rate of swelling, less erosion, better mucoadhesion and a smaller drug release rate. The level of carbopol was kept constant in all the batches.

  10. Effect of Different Polymer Concentration on Drug Release Rate and Physicochemical Properties of Mucoadhesive Gastroretentive Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shweta; Murthy, R. S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Mucoadhesive tablets have emerged as potential candidates for gastroretentive drug delivery providing controlled release along with prolonged gastric residence time. Gastroretentive mucoadhesive tablets could result in increased bioavailability due to prolonged gastric residence time. A hydrophilic matrix system was developed as mucoadhesion is achievable on appropriate wetting and swelling of the polymers used. The polymers were so chosen so as to provide a balance between swelling, mucoadhesion and drug release. The polymers chosen were hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M, chitosan, and Carbopol 934. The concentrations of these polymers used has a great impact on the physicochemical properties of the resulting formulation. The tablets were formulated using wet granulation method and tranexamic acid was used as the model drug. The prepared tablets were characterized for size, shape, appearance, hardness, friability, weight variation, swelling, mucoadhesion and in vitro drug release. Several batches of tablets were prepared by varying the ratio of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M and Chitosan. The batches having a greater ratio of chitosan showed higher rate of swelling, greater erosion, less mucoadhesion and faster release rate of the drug whereas the batches having greater ratio of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M showed lesser rate of swelling, less erosion, better mucoadhesion and a smaller drug release rate. The level of carbopol was kept constant in all the batches. PMID:26997698

  11. Physical mechanisms underlying the strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior of kangaroo shoulder cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibbotuwawa, Namal; Oloyede, Adekunle; Li, Tong; Singh, Sanjleena; Senadeera, Wijitha; Gu, YuanTong

    2015-09-01

    Due to anatomical and biomechanical similarities to human shoulder, kangaroo was chosen as a model to study shoulder cartilage. Comprehensive enzymatic degradation and indentation tests were applied on kangaroo shoulder cartilage to study mechanisms underlying its strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior. We report that superficial collagen plays a more significant role than proteoglycans in facilitating strain-rate-dependent behavior of the kangaroo shoulder cartilage. By comparing the mechanical properties of degraded and normal cartilages, it was noted that proteoglycan and collagen degradation significantly compromised strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior of the cartilage. Superficial collagen contributed equally to the tissue behavior at all strain-rates. This is different to the studies reported on knee cartilage and confirms the importance of superficial collagen on shoulder cartilage mechanical behavior. A porohyperelastic numerical model also indicated that collagen disruption would lead to faster damage of the shoulder cartilage than when proteoglycans are depleted.

  12. Growth rate hypothesis and efficiency of protein synthesis under different sulphate concentrations in two green algae.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Mario; Palmucci, Matteo; Raven, John A

    2015-11-01

    The growth rate hypothesis (GRH) predicts a positive correlation between growth rate and RNA content because growth depends upon the protein synthesis machinery. The application of this hypothesis to photoautotrophic organisms has been questioned. We tested the GRH on one prasinophycean, Tetraselmis suecica, and one chlorophycean, Dunaliella salina, grown at three sulphate concentrations. Sulphate was chosen because its concentration in the oceans increased through geological time and apparently had a role in the evolutionary trajectories of phytoplankton. Cell protein content and P quota were positively related to the RNA content (r = 0.62 and r = 0.74, respectively). The correlation of the RNA content with growth rates (r = 0.95) indicates that the GRH was valid for these species when growth rates were below 0.82 d(-1) .

  13. Controlling hydrolysis reaction rates with binary ionic liquid mixtures by tuning hydrogen-bonding interactions.

    PubMed

    Weber, Cameron C; Masters, Anthony F; Maschmeyer, Thomas

    2012-02-16

    The ability of a binary ionic liquid (IL) system consisting of a phosphonium transition state analogue (TSA) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([BMIM][NTf(2)]) to accelerate the rate of the well-studied hydrolysis of a tert-alkyl picolinium salt by influencing the solvent structure was investigated. A significant rate enhancement was observed in the presence of the TSA; however, comparison with other cations illustrated that this enhancement was not unique to the chosen TSA. Instead, the rate enhancements were correlated with the dilution of hydrogen bonding by the added cations. This phenomenon was further examined by the use of 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([BMMIM][NTf(2)]) as a cosolvent and the use of Reichardt's dye to measure the extent of hydrogen bonding on solutes in these systems. The rate increases are rationalized in terms of weaker hydrogen bonding from the solvent system to water.

  14. Heart rate monitoring mobile applications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Total number of times a heart beats in a minute is known as the heart rate. Traditionally, heart rate was measured using clunky gadgets but these days it can be measured with a smartphone’s camera. This can help you measure your heart rate anywhere and at anytime, especially during workouts so you can adjust your workout intensity to achieve maximum health benefits. With simple and easy to use mobile app, ‘Unique Heart Rate Monitor’, you can also maintain your heart rate history for personal reflection and sharing with a provider. PMID:28293594

  15. Discharge ratings at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    A discharge rating is the relation of the discharge at a gaging station to stage and sometimes also to other variables. This chapter of 'Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations' describes the procedures commonly used to develop simple ratings where discharge is related only to stage and the most frequently encountered types of complex ratings where additional factors such as rate of change in stage, water-surface slope, or index velocity are used. Fundamental techniques of logarithmic plotting and the applications of simple storage routing to rating development are demonstrated. Computer applications, especially for handheld programmable calculators, and data handling are stressed.

  16. The Galactic Nova Rate Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafter, A. W.

    2017-01-01

    Despite its fundamental importance, a reliable estimate of the Galactic nova rate has remained elusive. Here, the overall Galactic nova rate is estimated by extrapolating the observed rate for novae reaching m≤slant 2 to include the entire Galaxy using a two component disk plus bulge model for the distribution of stars in the Milky Way. The present analysis improves on previous work by considering important corrections for incompleteness in the observed rate of bright novae and by employing a Monte Carlo analysis to better estimate the uncertainty in the derived nova rates. Several models are considered to account for differences in the assumed properties of bulge and disk nova populations and in the absolute magnitude distribution. The simplest models, which assume uniform properties between bulge and disk novae, predict Galactic nova rates of ∼50 to in excess of 100 per year, depending on the assumed incompleteness at bright magnitudes. Models where the disk novae are assumed to be more luminous than bulge novae are explored, and predict nova rates up to 30% lower, in the range of ∼35 to ∼75 per year. An average of the most plausible models yields a rate of {50}-23+31 yr‑1, which is arguably the best estimate currently available for the nova rate in the Galaxy. Virtually all models produce rates that represent significant increases over recent estimates, and bring the Galactic nova rate into better agreement with that expected based on comparison with the latest results from extragalactic surveys.

  17. Relaxed Poisson cure rate models.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Josemar; Cordeiro, Gauss M; Cancho, Vicente G; Balakrishnan, N

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to make the standard promotion cure rate model (Yakovlev and Tsodikov, ) more flexible by assuming that the number of lesions or altered cells after a treatment follows a fractional Poisson distribution (Laskin, ). It is proved that the well-known Mittag-Leffler relaxation function (Berberan-Santos, ) is a simple way to obtain a new cure rate model that is a compromise between the promotion and geometric cure rate models allowing for superdispersion. So, the relaxed cure rate model developed here can be considered as a natural and less restrictive extension of the popular Poisson cure rate model at the cost of an additional parameter, but a competitor to negative-binomial cure rate models (Rodrigues et al., ). Some mathematical properties of a proper relaxed Poisson density are explored. A simulation study and an illustration of the proposed cure rate model from the Bayesian point of view are finally presented.

  18. Saturn component failure rate and failure rate modifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Failure mode frequency ratios, environmental adjustment factors, and failure rates for mechanical and electromechanical component families are presented. The failure rates and failure rate modifiers resulted from a series of studies whose purpose was to provide design, tests, reliability, and systems engineers with accurate, up-to-date failure rate information. The results of the studies were achieved through an extensive engineering analysis of the Saturn Program test data and Unsatisfactory Condition Reports (UCR's) and the application of mathematical techniques developed for the studies.

  19. Music close to one's heart: heart rate variability with music, diagnostic with e-bra and smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, Shantala; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Rai, Pratyush; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-04-01

    Music is a powerful elicitor of emotions. Emotions evoked by music, through autonomic correlates have been shown to cause significant modulation of parameters like heart rate and blood pressure. Consequently, Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis can be a powerful tool to explore evidence based therapeutic functions of music and conduct empirical studies on effect of musical emotion on heart function. However, there are limitations with current studies. HRV analysis has produced variable results to different emotions evoked via music, owing to variability in the methodology and the nature of music chosen. Therefore, a pragmatic understanding of HRV correlates of musical emotion in individuals listening to specifically chosen music whilst carrying out day to day routine activities is needed. In the present study, we aim to study HRV as a single case study, using an e-bra with nano-sensors to record heart rate in real time. The e-bra developed previously, has several salient features that make it conducive for this study- fully integrated garment, dry electrodes for easy use and unrestricted mobility. The study considers two experimental conditions:- First, HRV will be recorded when there is no music in the background and second, when music chosen by the researcher and by the subject is playing in the background.

  20. Field measurement of ventilation rates.

    PubMed

    Persily, A K

    2016-02-01

    Ventilation rates have significant impacts on building energy use and indoor contaminant concentrations, making them key parameters in building performance. Ventilation rates have been measured in buildings for many decades, and there are mature measurement approaches available to researchers and others who need to know actual ventilation rates in buildings. Despite the fact that ventilation rates are critical in interpreting indoor concentration measurements, it is disconcerting how few Indoor Air Quality field studies measure ventilation rates or otherwise characterize the ventilation design of the study building(s). This paper summarizes parameters of interest in characterizing building ventilation, available methods for quantifying these parameters, and challenges in applying these methods to different types of buildings and ventilation systems. These parameters include whole-building air change rates, system outdoor air intake rates, and building infiltration rates. Tracer gas methods are reviewed as well as system airflow rate measurements using, for example, duct traverses. Several field studies of ventilation rates conducted over the past 75 years are described to highlight the approaches employed and the findings obtained.

  1. Trends in Suicide Methods and Rates among Older Adults in South Korea: A Comparison with Japan

    PubMed Central

    Park, Subin; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Lee, Su Yeon; Lee, Go Eun; Ahn, Myung Hee; Yi, Ki Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lethality of the chosen method during a suicide attempt is a strong risk factor for completion of suicide. We examined whether annual changes in the pattern of suicide methods is related to annual changes in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea and Japan. Methods We analyzed annual the World Health Organization data on rates and methods of suicide from 2000 to 2011 in South Korea and Japan. Results For Korean older adults, there was a significant positive correlation between suicide rate and the rate of hanging or the rate of jumping, and a significant negative correlation between suicide rate and the rate of poisoning. Among older adults in Japan, annual changes in the suicide rate and the pattern of suicide methods were less conspicuous, and no correlation was found between them. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that the increasing use of lethal suicide methods has contributed to the rise in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea. Targeted efforts to reduce the social acceptability and accessibility of lethal suicide methods might lead to lower suicide rate among older adults in South Korea. PMID:27081378

  2. Effect of storage temperature on crystal formation rate and growth rate of calcium lactate crystals on smoked Cheddar cheeses.

    PubMed

    Rajbhandari, P; Patel, J; Valentine, E; Kindstedt, P S

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that storage temperature influences the formation of calcium lactate crystals on vacuum-packaged Cheddar cheese surfaces. However, the mechanisms by which crystallization is modulated by storage temperature are not completely understood. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of storage temperature on smoked Cheddar cheese surfaces for (1) the number of discrete visible crystals formed per unit of cheese surface area; (2) growth rate and shape of discrete crystals (as measured by area and circularity); (3) percentage of total cheese surface area occupied by crystals. Three vacuum-packaged, random weight (∼300 g) retail samples of naturally smoked Cheddar cheese, produced from the same vat of cheese, were obtained from a retail source. The samples were cut parallel to the longitudinal axis at a depth of 10mm from the 2 surfaces to give six 10-mm-thick slabs, 4 of which were randomly assigned to 4 different storage temperature treatments: 1, 5, 10°C, and weekly cycling between 1 and 10°C. Samples were stored for 30 wk. Following the onset of visible surface crystals, digital photographs of surfaces were taken every other week and evaluated by image analysis for number of discrete crystal regions and total surface area occupied by crystals. Specific discrete crystals were chosen and evaluated biweekly for radius, area, and circularity. The entire experiment was conducted in triplicate. The effects of cheese surface, storage temperature, and storage time on crystal number and total crystal area were evaluated by ANOVA, according to a repeated-measures design. The number of discrete crystal regions increased significantly during storage but at different rates for different temperature treatments. Total crystal area also increased significantly during storage, at rates that varied with temperature treatment. Storage temperature did not appear to have a major effect on the growth rates and shapes of the individual crystals

  3. A Burning Rate Emulator (BRE) for Study in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markan, A.; Sunderland, P. B.; Quintiere, J. G.; DeRis, J.; Stocker, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    A gas-fueled burner, the Burning Rate Emulator (BRE), is used to emulate condensed-phase fuel flames. The design has been validated to easily measure the burning behavior of condensed-phase fuels by igniting a controlled stream of gas fuel and diluent. Four properties, including the heat of combustion, the heat of gasification, the surface temperature, and the laminar smoke point, are assumed to be sufficient to define the steady burning rate of a condensed-phase fuel. The heat of gasification of the fuel is determined by measuring the heat flux and the fuel flow rate. Microgravity BRE tests in the NASA 5.2 s drop facility have examined the burning of pure methane and ethylene (pure and 50 in N2 balance). Fuel flow rates, chamber oxygen concentration and initial pressure have been varied. Two burner sizes, 25 and 50 mm respectively, are chosen to examine the nature of initial microgravity burning. The tests reveal bubble-like flames that increase within the 5.2s drop but the heat flux received from the flame appears to asymptotically approach steady state. Portions of the methane flames appear to locally detach and extinguish at center, while its shape remains fixed, but growing. The effective heat of gasification is computed from the final measured net heat flux and the fuel flow rate under the assumption of an achieved steady burning. Heat flux (or mass flux) and flame position are compared with stagnant layer burning theory. The analysis offers the prospect of more complete findings from future longer duration ISS experiments.

  4. Conducting Market Rate Surveys and Establishing Rate Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric; Collins, Ray; Stoney, Louise

    Market rate surveys and the rate-setting policies and reimbursement rules informed by them are at the core of the market-based approach to child care and are central to the delicate balancing act of ensuring access to subsidized care while at the same time promoting the quality of child care. This report provides an overview of the market-based…

  5. 15 CFR 700.3 - Priority ratings and rated orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Overview § 700.3 Priority ratings and rated orders. (a... for items that the person normally supplies. The existence of previously accepted unrated or lower... contractor to subcontractor to suppliers throughout the procurement chain. (e) Persons may place a...

  6. Mortality rates decline in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1991-11-01

    Experiencing remarkable decreases in mortality rates over the past 3 decades, Malaysia currently has one of the lowest mortality rates among developing countries, a rate that compares favorably with those of developed countries. Between 1957 and 1989, the crude death rate dropped from 12.4/1000 population to 4.6. Over the same period, Malaysia recorded even greater decreases in the infant mortality rate, from 75.5/1000 births to 15.2. The Maternal mortality rate also declined from 1.48 in 1970 to 0.24 in 1988. The data indicates that mortality rates vary from state to state, and that rural areas have a higher mortality than urban areas. According to a study by the National Population and Family Development Board, the use of maternal and child health services has played an important role in reducing neonatal, perinatal, infant, child, and maternal mortality rates. Nearly all women in Malaysia receive antenatal services. While the country has achieved great gains on mortality rates, programs focusing on specific age and socioeconomic groups could lead to even greater reductions. The Minister for National Unity and Social Development, Dato Napsiah Omar, has called for the development of programs designed to improve the population's quality of life.

  7. Multi-calculation rate simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Akhter, M.

    1977-01-01

    It is common in real time simulations of large aerospace systems to separate the high and low frequency subsystems within the simulation and perform the integrations of the subsystems at different calculation rates. This is done to strike a balance between accuracy of calculation and capacity of the digital computer. Questions arising as to the accuracy of this structure compared to single calculation rates were studied using a linear aircraft model. Also investigated were interactions arising to cause errors worse than those expected. Problems are specifically identified and guidelines are given for selection of sample rates for multiple rate simulations.

  8. Heart Rate and Respiratory Rate Influence on Heart Rate Variability Repeatability: Effects of the Correction for the Prevailing Heart Rate

    PubMed Central

    Gąsior, Jakub S.; Sacha, Jerzy; Jeleń, Piotr J.; Zieliński, Jakub; Przybylski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with average heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RespRate), alterations in these parameters may impose changes in HRV. Hence the repeatability of HRV measurements may be affected by differences in HR and RespRate. The study aimed to evaluate HRV repeatability and its association with changes in HR and RespRate. Methods: Forty healthy volunteers underwent two ECG examinations 7 days apart. Standard HRV indices were calculated from 5-min ECG recordings. The ECG-derived respiration signal was estimated to assess RespRate. To investigate HR impact on HRV, HRV parameters were corrected for prevailing HR. Results: Differences in HRV parameters between the measurements were associated with the changes in HR and RespRate. However, in multiple regression analysis only HR alteration proved to be independent determinant of the HRV differences—every change in HR by 1 bpm changed HRV values by 16.5% on average. After overall removal of HR impact on HRV, coefficients of variation of the HRV parameters significantly dropped on average by 26.8% (p < 0.001), i.e., by the same extent HRV reproducibility improved. Additionally, the HRV correction for HR decreased association between RespRate and HRV. Conclusions: In stable conditions, HR but not RespRate is the most powerful factor determining HRV reproducibility and even a minimal change of HR may considerably alter HRV. However, the removal of HR impact may significantly improve HRV repeatability. The association between HRV and RespRate seems to be, at least in part, HR dependent. PMID:27588006

  9. Everything you always wanted to hear about rate making but were afraid to ask

    SciTech Connect

    Cady, W.A.

    1983-08-04

    Rate making is a complicated and time-consuming procedure. That it could benefit from judiciously chosen reforms is beyond question. This article covers several major areas of contention within the regulatory arena, all of which have been the subject of considerable debate in recent years. In an effort to find a compromise position between extremes, the author makes three specific suggestions that, if adopted, could enable parties involved to devote their time and resources to more fundamental questions regarding the regulated utility industries. 3 references.

  10. Using the Lomb periodogram for non-contact estimation of respiration rates.

    PubMed

    Vasu, V; Fox, N; Heneghan, C; Sezer, S

    2010-01-01

    We describe a contact-less method for measurement of respiration rate during sleep using a 5.8GHz radio-frequency bio-motion sensor. The sensor operates by sensing phase shifts in reflected radio waves from the torso caused by respiratory movements and other bodily movements such as twitches, positional changes etc. These non-respiratory motion artefacts can obscure reliable estimation of breathinig rates if conventional spectral analysis is used. This paper reports on the accuracy of the respiration rate estimates obtained via algorithmic approaches using Lomb-periodogram based analysis (which can deal with missing or corrupted data), as compared to conventional spectral analysis. Gold-standard respiration rates are derived by expert scoring of respiration rates measured through polysomnography (PSG) from sensors (Respiratory Inductance Plethysmography (RIP) belts) in contact with the subject in an accredited sleep laboratory. Specifically, respiration rates for 15-minute segments chosen from 10 subjects free of Sleep-Disorded Breathing (AHI〈5) were selected for analysis in this paper. Comparison to the expert annotation indicates strong agreement, with the Lomb-periodogram respiration rates with the average error between the measurements being less than 0.4 breaths/min and a standard deviation of 0.3 breaths/minute. Moreover, we showed that the proposed algorithm could track respiration rate over the complete night's recordings for those 10 subjects. We conclude that the non-contact biomotion sensor may provide a promising approach to continuous respiration rate monitoring of reasonable accuracy.

  11. Rating Openness: A Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strachan, Angus; And Others

    This training manual explains the process of rating client openness from a short sample of dyadic help-intended interactions. The overview of client openness includes a discussion of the 10-week undergraduate program which teaches students to assess client openness based on behavioral ratings from the Group Assessment of Interpersonal Traits…

  12. Descriptive Analysis of Student Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marasini, Donata; Quatto, Piero

    2011-01-01

    Let X be a statistical variable representing student ratings of University teaching. It is natural to assume for X an ordinal scale consisting of k categories (in ascending order of satisfaction). At first glance, student ratings can be summarized by a location index (such as the mode or the median of X) associated with a convenient measure of…

  13. Rating scales and Rasch measurement.

    PubMed

    Andrich, David

    2011-10-01

    Assessments with ratings in ordered categories have become ubiquitous in health, biological and social sciences. Ratings are used when a measuring instrument of the kind found in the natural sciences is not available to assess some property in terms of degree - for example, greater or smaller, better or worse, or stronger or weaker. The handling of ratings has ranged from the very elementary to the highly sophisticated. In an elementary form, and assumed in classical test theory, the ratings are scored with successive integers and treated as measurements; in a sophisticated form, and used in modern test theory, the ratings are characterized by probabilistic response models with parameters for persons and the rating categories. Within modern test theory, two paradigms, similar in many details but incompatible on crucial points, have emerged. For the purposes of this article, these are termed the statistical modeling and experimental measurement paradigms. Rather than reviewing a compendium of available methods and models for analyzing ratings in detail, the article focuses on the incompatible differences between these two paradigms, with implications for choice of model and inferences. It shows that the differences have implications for different roles for substantive researchers and psychometricians in designing instruments with rating scales. To illustrate these differences, an example is provided.

  14. The Psychological Maltreatment Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brassard, Marla R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The Psychological Maltreatment Rating Scales (PMRS) were developed for assessing psychological maltreatment in the mother-child interaction, and were used to rate the videotaped interaction of 49 high-risk mother-child dyads and predict child protective service involvements. The PMRS was found to be a moderately reliable and valid measure.…

  15. Matching and Conditioned Reinforcement Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina

    2006-01-01

    Attempts to examine the effects of variations in relative conditioned reinforcement rate on choice have been confounded by changes in rates of primary reinforcement or changes in the value of the conditioned reinforcer. To avoid these problems, this experiment used concurrent observing responses to examine sensitivity of choice to relative…

  16. Value of IDEA Ratings Questioned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2010-01-01

    Just as it has every June since 2006, the U.S. Department of Education last month delivered a rating to each state and territory based on the performance of its special education programs. The ratings, intended to fulfill the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act's requirement that "measurable" and "rigorous" targets be…

  17. Rating Scale Instruments and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Robert F.; Romanoski, Joseph T.

    2006-01-01

    The article examines theoretical issues associated with measurement in the human sciences and ensuring data from rating scale instruments are measures. An argument is made that using raw scores from rating scale instruments for subsequent arithmetic operations and applying linear statistics is less preferable than using measures. These theoretical…

  18. Evolution & the Cesarean Section Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." This was the title of an essay by geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky writing in 1973. Many causes have been given for the increased Cesarean section rate in developed countries, but biologic evolution has not been one of them. The C-section rate will continue to rise, because the…

  19. Quantum rate-distortion coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, Howard

    2000-10-01

    I introduce rate-distortion theory for the coding of quantum information, and derive a lower bound, involving the coherent information, on the rate at which qubits must be used to store or compress an entangled quantum source with a given maximum level of distortion per source emission.

  20. Predicting the Divorce Rate: Down?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Theodore D.

    1983-01-01

    Predicted a decline in the divorce rate based on 10 factors including: decline in marriage rate, older age at marriage, mental health improvement, upper limit on employed women, less migration, end of the cultural revolution, exhaustion of latency effect of no-fault divorce, and fear of the consequences of divorce. (JAC)

  1. What Is a Reaction Rate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Guy

    2005-01-01

    The definition of reaction rate is derived and demonstrations are made for the care to be taken while using the term. Reaction rate can be in terms of a reaction property, the extent of reaction and thus it is possible to give a definition applicable in open and closed systems.

  2. The Logic of Collective Rating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nax, Heinrich

    2016-05-01

    The introduction of participatory rating mechanisms on online sales platforms has had substantial impact on firms' sales and profits. In this note, we develop a dynamic model of consumer influences on ratings and of rating influences on consumers, focussing on standard 5-star mechanisms as implemented by many platforms. The key components of our social influence model are the consumer trust in the `wisdom of crowds' during the purchase phase and indirect reciprocity during the rating decision. Our model provides an overarching explanation for well-corroborated empirical regularities. We quantify the performance of the voluntary rating mechanism in terms of realized consumer surplus with the no-mechanism and full-information benchmarks, and identify how it could be improved.

  3. Innovative Rates Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-21

    Title II of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) as amended by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) provided financial assistance to state utility regulatory commissions, nonregulated electric utilities, and the Tennessee Valley Authority through the Innovative Rates Program. The financial assistance was to be used to plan or carry out electric utility regulatory rate reform initiatives relating to innovative rate structures that encourage conservation of energy, electric utility efficiency and reduced costs, and equitable rates to consumers. The Federal and local objectives of the project are described. Activities planned and accomplishments are summarized for the following: project management, data collection, utility bill evaluation, billing enclosure/mailing evaluation, media program evaluation, display evaluation, rate study sessions evaluation, speakers bureau evaluation, and individual customer contacts. A timetable/milestone chart and financial information are included. (MHR)

  4. High Rate Digital Demodulator ASIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghuman, Parminder; Sheikh, Salman; Koubek, Steve; Hoy, Scott; Gray, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    The architecture of High Rate (600 Mega-bits per second) Digital Demodulator (HRDD) ASIC capable of demodulating BPSK and QPSK modulated data is presented in this paper. The advantages of all-digital processing include increased flexibility and reliability with reduced reproduction costs. Conventional serial digital processing would require high processing rates necessitating a hardware implementation in other than CMOS technology such as Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) which has high cost and power requirements. It is more desirable to use CMOS technology with its lower power requirements and higher gate density. However, digital demodulation of high data rates in CMOS requires parallel algorithms to process the sampled data at a rate lower than the data rate. The parallel processing algorithms described here were developed jointly by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The resulting all-digital receiver has the capability to demodulate BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, and DQPSK at data rates in excess of 300 Mega-bits per second (Mbps) per channel. This paper will provide an overview of the parallel architecture and features of the HRDR ASIC. In addition, this paper will provide an over-view of the implementation of the hardware architectures used to create flexibility over conventional high rate analog or hybrid receivers. This flexibility includes a wide range of data rates, modulation schemes, and operating environments. In conclusion it will be shown how this high rate digital demodulator can be used with an off-the-shelf A/D and a flexible analog front end, both of which are numerically computer controlled, to produce a very flexible, low cost high rate digital receiver.

  5. Accurate transition rates for intercombination lines of singly ionized nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayal, S. S.

    2011-01-01

    The transition energies and rates for the 2s22p2 3P1,2-2s2p3 5S2o and 2s22p3s-2s22p3p intercombination transitions have been calculated using term-dependent nonorthogonal orbitals in the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock approach. Several sets of spectroscopic and correlation nonorthogonal functions have been chosen to describe adequately term dependence of wave functions and various correlation corrections. Special attention has been focused on the accurate representation of strong interactions between the 2s2p3 1,3P1o and 2s22p3s 1,3P1olevels. The relativistic corrections are included through the one-body mass correction, Darwin, and spin-orbit operators and two-body spin-other-orbit and spin-spin operators in the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. The importance of core-valence correlation effects has been examined. The accuracy of present transition rates is evaluated by the agreement between the length and velocity formulations combined with the agreement between the calculated and measured transition energies. The present results for transition probabilities, branching fraction, and lifetimes have been compared with previous calculations and experiments.

  6. Accurate transition rates for intercombination lines of singly ionized nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Tayal, S. S.

    2011-01-15

    The transition energies and rates for the 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 2} {sup 3}P{sub 1,2}-2s2p{sup 3} {sup 5}S{sub 2}{sup o} and 2s{sup 2}2p3s-2s{sup 2}2p3p intercombination transitions have been calculated using term-dependent nonorthogonal orbitals in the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock approach. Several sets of spectroscopic and correlation nonorthogonal functions have been chosen to describe adequately term dependence of wave functions and various correlation corrections. Special attention has been focused on the accurate representation of strong interactions between the 2s2p{sup 3} {sup 1,3}P{sub 1}{sup o} and 2s{sup 2}2p3s {sup 1,3}P{sub 1}{sup o}levels. The relativistic corrections are included through the one-body mass correction, Darwin, and spin-orbit operators and two-body spin-other-orbit and spin-spin operators in the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. The importance of core-valence correlation effects has been examined. The accuracy of present transition rates is evaluated by the agreement between the length and velocity formulations combined with the agreement between the calculated and measured transition energies. The present results for transition probabilities, branching fraction, and lifetimes have been compared with previous calculations and experiments.

  7. Handling high data rate detectors at Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, U. K.; Rees, N.; Basham, M.; Ferner, F. J. K.

    2013-03-01

    An increasing number of area detectors, in use at Diamond Light Source, produce high rates of data. In order to capture, store and process this data High Performance Computing (HPC) systems have been implemented. This paper will present the architecture and usage for handling high rate data: detector data capture, large volume storage and parallel processing. The EPICS area Detector frame work has been adopted to abstract the detectors for common tasks including live processing, file format and storage. The chosen data format is HDF5 which provides multidimensional data storage and NeXuS compatibility. The storage system and related computing infrastructure include: a centralised Lustre based parallel file system, a dedicated network and a HPC cluster. A well defined roadmap is in place for the evolution of this to meet demand as the requirements and technology advances. For processing the science data the HPC cluster allow efficient parallel computing, on a mixture of ×86 and GPU processing units. The nature of the Lustre storage system in combination with the parallel HDF5 library allow efficient disk I/O during computation jobs. Software developments, which include utilising optimised parallel file reading for a variety of post processing techniques, are being developed in collaboration as part of the Pan-Data EU Project (www.pan-data.eu). These are particularly applicable to tomographic reconstruction and processing of non crystalline diffraction data.

  8. Compressive phase-only filtering at extreme compression rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor-Calle, David; Pastuszczak, Anna; Mikołajczyk, Michał; Kotyński, Rafał

    2017-01-01

    We introduce an efficient method for the reconstruction of the correlation between a compressively measured image and a phase-only filter. The proposed method is based on two properties of phase-only filtering: such filtering is a unitary circulant transform, and the correlation plane it produces is usually sparse. Thanks to these properties, phase-only filters are perfectly compatible with the framework of compressive sensing. Moreover, the lasso-based recovery algorithm is very fast when phase-only filtering is used as the compression matrix. The proposed method can be seen as a generalization of the correlation-based pattern recognition technique, which is hereby applied directly to non-adaptively acquired compressed data. At the time of measurement, any prior knowledge of the target object for which the data will be scanned is not required. We show that images measured at extremely high compression rates may still contain sufficient information for target classification and localization, even if the compression rate is high enough, that visual recognition of the target in the reconstructed image is no longer possible. The method has been applied by us to highly undersampled measurements obtained from a single-pixel camera, with sampling based on randomly chosen Walsh-Hadamard patterns.

  9. Measurement of fracture properties of concrete at high strain rates.

    PubMed

    Rey-De-Pedraza, V; Cendón, D A; Sánchez-Gálvez, V; Gálvez, F

    2017-01-28

    An analysis of the spalling technique of concrete bars using the modified Hopkinson bar was carried out. A new experimental configuration is proposed adding some variations to previous works. An increased length for concrete specimens was chosen and finite-element analysis was used for designing a conic projectile to obtain a suitable triangular impulse wave. The aim of this initial work is to establish an experimental framework which allows a simple and direct analysis of concrete subjected to high strain rates. The efforts and configuration of these primary tests, as well as the selected geometry and dimensions for the different elements, have been focused to achieve a simple way of identifying the fracture position and so the tensile strength of tested specimens. This dynamic tensile strength can be easily compared with previous values published in literature giving an idea of the accuracy of the method and technique proposed and the possibility to extend it in a near future to obtain other mechanical properties such as the fracture energy. The tests were instrumented with strain gauges, accelerometers and high-speed camera in order to validate the results by different ways. Results of the dynamic tensile strength of the tested concrete are presented.This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  10. Measurement of fracture properties of concrete at high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey-De-Pedraza, V.; Cendón, D. A.; Sánchez-Gálvez, V.; Gálvez, F.

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of the spalling technique of concrete bars using the modified Hopkinson bar was carried out. A new experimental configuration is proposed adding some variations to previous works. An increased length for concrete specimens was chosen and finite-element analysis was used for designing a conic projectile to obtain a suitable triangular impulse wave. The aim of this initial work is to establish an experimental framework which allows a simple and direct analysis of concrete subjected to high strain rates. The efforts and configuration of these primary tests, as well as the selected geometry and dimensions for the different elements, have been focused to achieve a simple way of identifying the fracture position and so the tensile strength of tested specimens. This dynamic tensile strength can be easily compared with previous values published in literature giving an idea of the accuracy of the method and technique proposed and the possibility to extend it in a near future to obtain other mechanical properties such as the fracture energy. The tests were instrumented with strain gauges, accelerometers and high-speed camera in order to validate the results by different ways. Results of the dynamic tensile strength of the tested concrete are presented. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  11. The Average of Rates and the Average Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Defines arithmetic, harmonic, and weighted harmonic means, and discusses their properties. Describes the application of these properties in problems involving fuel economy estimates and average rates of motion. Gives example problems and solutions. (CW)

  12. Low rate deep level transient spectroscopy - a powerful tool for defect characterization in wide bandgap semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Florian; von Wenckstern, Holger; Breitenstein, Otwin; Pickenhain, Rainer; Grundmann, Marius

    2014-02-01

    We present an overview of implementation and application of low rate Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy (LR-DLTS). In conventional DLTS the sensitivity of the capacitance meter must be chosen so low that the whole capacitance drift range between lowest and highest temperature can be measured. In LR-DLTS the bridge is automatically balanced (capacitance and conductivity) after each measured transient. Thus, the highest available sensitivity still avoiding an overload can be used. With LR-DLTS it is now possible to extend the rate windows to the mHz range while preserving highest possible sensitivity. This allows the detection of energetically close levels and levels with large thermal activation energy. Also low emission rates in optical DLTS can be detected this way.

  13. Identification of consistency in rating curve data: Bidirectional Reach (BReach)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eerdenbrugh, Katrien; Van Hoey, Stijn; Verhoest, Niko E. C.

    2016-04-01

    Before calculating rating curve discharges, it is crucial to identify possible interruptions in data consistency. In this research, a methodology to perform this preliminary analysis is developed and validated. This methodology, called Bidirectional Reach (BReach), evaluates in each data point results of a rating curve model with randomly sampled parameter sets. The combination of a parameter set and a data point is classified as non-acceptable if the deviation between the accompanying model result and the measurement exceeds observational uncertainty. Moreover, a tolerance degree that defines satisfactory behavior of a sequence of model results is chosen. This tolerance degree equals the percentage of observations that are allowed to have non-acceptable model results. Subsequently, the results of the classification is used to assess the maximum left and right reach for each data point of a chronologically sorted time series. This maximum left and right reach in a gauging point represent the data points in the direction of the previous respectively the following observations beyond which none of the sampled parameter sets both are satisfactory and result in an acceptable deviation. This analysis is repeated for a variety of tolerance degrees. Plotting results of this analysis for all data points and all tolerance degrees in a combined BReach plot enables the detection of changes in data consistency. Moreover, if consistent periods are detected, limits of these periods can be derived. The methodology is validated with various synthetic stage-discharge data sets and proves to be a robust technique to investigate temporal consistency of rating curve data. It provides satisfying results despite of low data availability, large errors in the estimated observational uncertainty, and a rating curve model that is known to cover only a limited part of the observations.

  14. The Airline Quality Rating 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1999-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1999, reflects an updated approach to calculating monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1998. AQR scores for the calendar year 1998 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 1998. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, major airlines comparative performance for the calendar year 1998 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 1998, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1997, using the updated criteria, are included to provide a reference point regarding quality in the industry.

  15. The Airline Quality Rating 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2001-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2001, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2000. AQR scores for the calendar year 2000 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2001 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 2000. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, major airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2000 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 2000, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1999 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  16. Heart rates during competitive orienteering.

    PubMed

    Bird, S R; Bailey, R; Lewis, J

    1993-03-01

    This study investigated the heart rate profiles of 16 experienced, competitive orienteers (aged 15-62 years) during three competitive events. Each competitor was assessed over three different types of course which were classified as: fast run (FR), slow run (SR) and highly physical (HP). The results showed that all subjects recorded heart rates that were between 140 and 180 beats min-1 for the majority of each event (irrespective of age or course type). The heart rate data indicated that the activity was largely aerobic but varied in intensity, with phases of strenuous anaerobic work. The type of course was shown significantly (analysis of variance; P < 0.001) to affect the mean heart rate attained by each orienteer (FR = 160, HP = 158, SR = 150 beats min-1), with courses that required more technical skill and hence slower running producing lower mean heart rates; although the general physical demands were similar for all courses. The older orienteers (> 45 years) recorded heart rate profiles that were similar to those of the young orienteers with no correlation being found between age and mean heart rate while exercising.

  17. Heart rates during competitive orienteering.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, S R; Bailey, R; Lewis, J

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the heart rate profiles of 16 experienced, competitive orienteers (aged 15-62 years) during three competitive events. Each competitor was assessed over three different types of course which were classified as: fast run (FR), slow run (SR) and highly physical (HP). The results showed that all subjects recorded heart rates that were between 140 and 180 beats min-1 for the majority of each event (irrespective of age or course type). The heart rate data indicated that the activity was largely aerobic but varied in intensity, with phases of strenuous anaerobic work. The type of course was shown significantly (analysis of variance; P < 0.001) to affect the mean heart rate attained by each orienteer (FR = 160, HP = 158, SR = 150 beats min-1), with courses that required more technical skill and hence slower running producing lower mean heart rates; although the general physical demands were similar for all courses. The older orienteers (> 45 years) recorded heart rate profiles that were similar to those of the young orienteers with no correlation being found between age and mean heart rate while exercising. PMID:8457815

  18. The Airline Quality Rating 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores far the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elemnts in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for U.S. airlines that have at least 1% of domestic passenger volume during 2003. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2003 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2003, and industry results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2002 are included, where available, to provide historical perspective

  19. The Airline Quality Rating 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2002-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2002, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2001. AQR scores for the calendar year 2001 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2002 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 11 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2001. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2001 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2001, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2000 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  20. The Airline Quality Rating 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2003-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2003, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2002. AQR scores for the calendar year 2002 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2003 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 10 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2002. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of ontime arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2002 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2002, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2001 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  1. The Airline Quality Rating 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Mary M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores for the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for U.S. airlines that have at least 1 % of domestic passenger volume during 2003. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2003 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2003, and industry results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2002 are included, where available, to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  2. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    PubMed

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise.

  3. 78 FR 62627 - Sam Rayburn Dam Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... pursuant to the following rate schedule: Rate Schedule SRD-13, Wholesale Rates for Hydro Power and Energy... supersedes the existing rate schedule shown below: Rate Schedule SRD-08, Wholesale Rates for Hydro Power and... SOUTHWESTERN POWER ADMINISTRATION RATE SCHEDULE SRD-13 \\1\\ WHOLESALE RATES FOR HYDRO POWER AND ENERGY SOLD...

  4. 77 FR 2521 - Integrated System Power Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... Southwestern Power Administration Integrated System Power Rates AGENCY: Southwestern Power Administration, DOE... System pursuant to the Integrated System Rate Schedules which supersede the existing rate schedules... Integrated System pursuant to the following Integrated System Rate Schedules: Rate Schedule P-11,...

  5. Confidence rating for eutrophication assessments.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Uwe H; Topcu, Dilek H

    2014-05-15

    Confidence of monitoring data is dependent on their variability and representativeness of sampling in space and time. Whereas variability can be assessed as statistical confidence limits, representative sampling is related to equidistant sampling, considering gradients or changing rates at sampling gaps. By the proposed method both aspects are combined, resulting in balanced results for examples of total nitrogen concentrations in the German Bight/North Sea. For assessing sampling representativeness surface areas, vertical profiles and time periods are divided into regular sections for which individually the representativeness is calculated. The sums correspond to the overall representativeness of sampling in the defined area/time period. Effects of not sampled sections are estimated along parallel rows by reducing their confidence, considering their distances to next sampled sections and the interrupted gradients/changing rates. Confidence rating of time sections is based on maximum differences of sampling rates at regular time steps and related means of concentrations.

  6. Documentation for POTW Removal Rates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Table VI of the RFI presents removal and destruction rates for toxic chemicals sent to POTWs, based on experimental and estimated data compiled by the Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) Program.

  7. TRMM Sees Chantal's Rainfall Rates

    NASA Video Gallery

    On July 8, NASA's TRMM satellite saw Tropical Storm Chantal's heaviest rainfall happening at a rate of over 115.5 mm/hr. (~4.5 inches) near Chantal's center where thunderstorms reached heights of o...

  8. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate (Pulse) Updated:Jan 18,2017 ... content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  9. High Rate GPS on Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattia, M.

    2005-12-01

    The high rate GPS data processing can be considered as the "new deal" in geodetic monitoring of active volcanoes. Before an eruption, infact, transient episodes of ground displacements related to the dynamics of magmatic fluids can be revealed through a careful analysis of high rate GPS data. In the very first phases of an eruption the real time processing of high rate GPS data can be used by the authorities of Civil Protection to follow the opening of fractures field on the slopes of the volcanoes. During an eruption large explosions, opening of vents, migration of fractures fields, landslides and other dangerous phenomena can be followed and their potential of damage estimated by authorities. Examples from the recent eruption of Stromboli volcano and from the current activities of high rate GPS monitoring on Mt. Etna are reported, with the aim to show the great potential and the perspectives of this technique.

  10. Tropical Storm Faxai's Rainfall Rates

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows Tropical Storm Faxai's rainfall rates on March 2 from a TRMM TMI/PR rainfall analysis being faded in over infrared cloud data from the TRMM VIRS instrument. Credit: SSAI/NASA, ...

  11. Results of Propellant Mixing Variable Study Using Precise Pressure-Based Burn Rate Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanski, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    A designed experiment was conducted in which three mix processing variables (pre-curative addition mix temperature, pre-curative addition mixing time, and mixer speed) were varied to estimate their effects on within-mix propellant burn rate variability. The chosen discriminator for the experiment was the 2-inch diameter by 4-inch long (2x4) Center-Perforated (CP) ballistic evaluation motor. Motor nozzle throat diameters were sized to produce a common targeted chamber pressure. Initial data analysis did not show a statistically significant effect. Because propellant burn rate must be directly related to chamber pressure, a method was developed that showed statistically significant effects on chamber pressure (either maximum or average) by adjustments to the process settings. Burn rates were calculated from chamber pressures and these were then normalized to a common pressure for comparative purposes. The pressure-based method of burn rate determination showed significant reduction in error when compared to results obtained from the Brooks' modification of the propellant web-bisector burn rate determination method. Analysis of effects using burn rates calculated by the pressure-based method showed a significant correlation of within-mix burn rate dispersion to mixing duration and the quadratic of mixing duration. The findings were confirmed in a series of mixes that examined the effects of mixing time on burn rate variation, which yielded the same results.

  12. Multi-rate demodulator architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherry, Michael A.; Caso, Gregory S.

    1991-01-01

    A unique digital multi-rate demodulator (MRD) architecture is presented for onboard satellite communications processing. The multi-rate feature enables the same demodulator hardware to process either one wideband channel (WBC), or process up to thirty-two independent narrowband channels (NBC) that are time division multiplexed (TDM). The MRD can process many quadrature modulation format such as offset quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK). Possible applications include voice and data transmission for commercial or military users.

  13. Multi-rate demodulator architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherry, Michael A.; Caso, Gregory S.

    1991-11-01

    A unique digital multi-rate demodulator (MRD) architecture is presented for onboard satellite communications processing. The multi-rate feature enables the same demodulator hardware to process either one wideband channel (WBC), or process up to thirty-two independent narrowband channels (NBC) that are time division multiplexed (TDM). The MRD can process many quadrature modulation format such as offset quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK). Possible applications include voice and data transmission for commercial or military users.

  14. Bulk Etch Rate and Swell Rate of CR-39

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, David; Ume, Rubab; Sheets, Rebecca; Regan, Sean; Sangster, Craig; Padalino, Stephen; McLean, James

    2016-10-01

    The use of CR-39 plastic as a Solid State Nuclear Track Detector is an effective technique for obtaining data in high-energy particle experiments including inertial confinement fusion. To reveal particle tracks after irradiation, CR-39 is chemically etched in NaOH at 80°C, producing micron-scale signal pits at the nuclear track sites. The development of these pits depends on both the bulk etch rate and the faster etch rate along the track, and is complicated by swelling as water is absorbed. Contrary to common etching models, we find the bulk etch rate to be depth dependent within 15 μ m of the surface, as revealed by swelling TASTRACK CR-39 pieces to their maximum capacity prior to etching. The bulk etch rate was measured using the standard mass method as well as the fission fragment track diameter method. Combining models of swelling and etching rates predicts the progress of bulk etching during a standard etch, without pre-swelling. This result has implications for the understanding the chemistry of the etch process, as well as the outcome of CR-39 surface preparation methods. Funded in part by a LLE contract through the DOE.

  15. Conditioned inhibition and reinforcement rate.

    PubMed

    Harris, Justin A; Kwok, Dorothy W S; Andrew, Benjamin J

    2014-07-01

    We investigated conditioned inhibition in a magazine approach paradigm. Rats were trained on a feature negative discrimination between an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) reinforced at one rate versus a compound of that CS and a visual stimulus (L) reinforced at a lower rate. This training established L as a conditioned inhibitor. We then tested the inhibitory strength of L by presenting it in compound with other auditory CSs. L reduced responding when tested with a CS that had been reinforced at a high rate, but had less or even no inhibitory effect when tested with a CS that had been reinforced at a low rate. The inhibitory strength of L was greater if it signaled a decrease in reinforcement from an already low rate than if it signaled an equivalent decrease in reinforcement from a high rate. We conclude that the strength of inhibition is not a linear function of the change in reinforcement that it signals. We discuss the implications of this finding for models of learning (e.g., Rescorla & Wagner, 1972) that identify inhibition with a difference (subtraction) rule.

  16. Vaccination coverage rates for 1986.

    PubMed

    1987-10-01

    This article sets forth data on vaccination coverage rates in children under 1 year of age in the individual countries of Latin America and the Caribbean in 1986. In the Region of the Americas as a whole, the 1986 coverage rate was 80% for oral poliovaccine, 54% for DPT, 55% for measles, and 63% for BCG. Vaccination coverage rates increased over 1985 levels for all but measles, which showed a 5% decline due to decreases in Brazil and Mexico. In the Caribbean subregion, the majority of country coverage rates for DPT and oral poliovirus vaccine are equal to or above 80%, while measles coverage rates are generally below 50%. In Central America, vaccine coverage rates with all antigens except BCG showed significant increases between 1985 and 1986. In Central America, coverage ranged from above 80% for oral poliovirus vaccine and DPT in Belize, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua, to below 40% in Guatemala. In general, countries in the region are improving vaccination performance as a result of establishment of vaccination days or campaigns and acceleration of the Expanded Program on Immunization. However, much work remains to be done if the goal of 100% immunization of children and women of childbearing age by 1990 is to be met.

  17. Civilian residential fire fatality rates: Six high-rate states versus six low-rate states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. R., Jr.; Helzer, S. G.

    1983-08-01

    Results of an analysis of 1,600 fire fatalities occurring in six states with high fire-death rates and six states with low fire-death rates are presented. Reasons for the differences in rates are explored, with special attention to victim age, sex, race, and condition at time of ignition. Fire cause patterns are touched on only lightly but are addressed more extensively in the companion piece to this report, "Rural and Non-Rural Civilian Residential Fire Fatalities in Twelve States', NBSIR 82-2519.

  18. Matching and conditioned reinforcement rate.

    PubMed

    Shahan, Timothy A; Podlesnik, Christopher A; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina

    2006-03-01

    Attempts to examine the effects of variations in relative conditioned reinforcement rate on choice have been confounded by changes in rates of primary reinforcement or changes in the value of the conditioned reinforcer. To avoid these problems, this experiment used concurrent observing responses to examine sensitivity of choice to relative conditioned reinforcement rate. In the absence of observing responses, unsignaled periods of food delivery on a variable-interval 90-s schedule alternated with extinction on a center key (i.e., a mixed schedule was in effect). Two concurrently available observing responses produced 15-s access to a stimulus differentially associated with the schedule of food delivery (S+). The relative rate of S+ deliveries arranged by independent variable-interval schedules for the two observing responses varied across conditions. The relation between the ratio of observing responses and the ratio of S+ deliveries was well described by the generalized matching law, despite the absence of changes in the rate of food delivery. In addition, the value of the S+ deliveries likely remained constant across conditions because the ratio of S+ to mixed schedule food deliveries remained constant. Assuming that S+ deliveries serve as conditioned reinforcers, these findings are consistent with the functional similarity between primary and conditioned reinforcers suggested by general choice theories based on the concatenated matching law (e.g., contextual choice and hyperbolic value-added models). These findings are inconsistent with delay reduction theory, which has no terms for the effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement in the absence of changes in rate of primary reinforcement.

  19. Improved hepatitis B vaccination rates in ESRD patients in California.

    PubMed

    Brown, J; Peters, V

    2000-10-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Survey of Dialysis Associated Diseases, California, which includes Network 17 and 18, had one of the lowest hepatitis B vaccination rates in the country for 1994, 1995, and 1996. With 3 outbreaks of hepatitis B (HBV) in California in 1994, hepatitis B vaccination was chosen as a quality improvement project in both Network 17 and 18. With input from both Medical Review Boards and HCFA Region X, a project was formulated which focused on the improvement of the number of facilities which had hepatitis B vaccination rates which are greater than 50%. The overall purpose of both projects was to: (1) achieve access to preventative services for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) Medicare beneficiaries; (2) increase the number of ESRD patients in California who are vaccinated for HBV; (3) eliminate dialysis in California as an independent risk factor for contracting HBV; (4) decrease the number of ESRD facilities with HBV vaccination rates of 0%; and (5) increase the number of ESRD facilities with HBV vaccination rates greater than 50%. In 1998, both Network 17 and 18 denominators were adjusted to reflect the population which is eligible for vaccination. Because of historically low vaccination rate in California, the 1998 data collection sought to ascertain precise numbers for the ESRD patient population. Data were used from the 1996 and 1997 CDC Survey of Dialysis Associated Diseases from baseline measurements of HBV vaccination rates for all facilities in both Network 17 and 18. The CDC did not conduct a survey in 1998, however, Network 17 and 18 conducted a survey of dialysis associated diseases for all of California ESRD facilities. A data collection tool was designed to gather information on processes and outcomes in each facility. This allowed a continuous quality improvement (CQI)-based approach to analyze the problem, where tools like cause/effect and Pareto diagrams provided information on factors and issues affecting

  20. High Data Rate Quantum Cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiat, Paul; Christensen, Bradley; McCusker, Kevin; Kumor, Daniel; Gauthier, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    While quantum key distribution (QKD) systems are now commercially available, the data rate is a limiting factor for some desired applications (e.g., secure video transmission). Most QKD systems receive at most a single random bit per detection event, causing the data rate to be limited by the saturation of the single-photon detectors. Recent experiments have begun to explore using larger degree of freedoms, i.e., temporal or spatial qubits, to optimize the data rate. Here, we continue this exploration using entanglement in multiple degrees of freedom. That is, we use simultaneous temporal and polarization entanglement to reach up to 8.3 bits of randomness per coincident detection. Due to current technology, we are unable to fully secure the temporal degree of freedom against all possible future attacks; however, by assuming a technologically-limited eavesdropper, we are able to obtain 23.4 MB/s secure key rate across an optical table, after error reconciliation and privacy amplification. In this talk, we will describe our high-rate QKD experiment, with a short discussion on our work towards extending this system to ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore communication, aiming to secure the temporal degree of freedom and to implement a 30-km free-space link over a marine environment.

  1. When Rating Systems Do Not Rate: Evaluating ERA's Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henman, Paul; Brown, Scott D.; Dennis, Simon

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, the Australian Government's Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) assessment of research quality declined to rate 1.5 per cent of submissions from universities. The public debate focused on practices of gaming or "coding errors" within university submissions as the reason for this outcome. The issue was about the…

  2. Determination of diffusion rate parameters in unequilibrated systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kohls, J.F.

    1980-05-06

    A mathematical method of determining the required rate parameters has been developed using the unequilibrated portion of the throughput rate curve. The developed method, termed the stabilized search method, has been verified against both simulated data and actual experimental equilibrated data. Studies performed with simulated permeation data demonstrate that the accuracy of the determined parameters is dependent upon the accuracy of the data used. To quantitatively assess the accuracy of the stabilized search method, several values of diffusivity were used to generate groups of simulated permeation data, each with known solubility and magnitude of random error. The magnitudes of the errors used were chosen to approximate actual experimental permeation rate data. Each group of data was then analyzed using the stabilized search method. The accuracy of the method was evaluated using the calculated diffusivity, solubility, and permeability values in comparison to their actual values. Results showed that the value of diffusivity generated from the data is tolerant of random errors and can be accurately evaluated from data with a 20 percent random error component. The solubility and permeability values are more sensitive to random error. The accuracy to which they can be determined is approximately equal to the random error. Several other modes of error encroachment are discussed and their relative contributions to the possible overall error assessed. A prediction of parameters was made from six sets of experimental permeation data; data was gathered using a leak detector with a 10 to 20% experimental error. Predicted parametric values yield calculated equilibrium throughputs with an average error of 15%.

  3. Vertical Finger Displacement is Reduced in Index Finger Tapping During Repeated Bout Rate Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Mora-Jensen, Mark Holten; Madeleine, Pascal; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2016-12-21

    The present study tested 1) whether a recently reported phenomenon of repeated bout rate enhancement in finger tapping (i.e. a cumulating increase in freely chosen finger tapping frequency following submaximal muscle activation in form of externally unloaded voluntary tapping) could be replicated, and 2) the hypotheses that the faster tapping was accompanied by changed vertical displacement of the fingertip and by changed peak force during tapping. Right-handed, healthy, and recreationally active individuals (n=24) performed two 3-min index finger tapping bouts at freely chosen tapping frequency, separated by 10 min rest. The recently reported phenomenon of repeated bout rate enhancement was replicated. The faster tapping (8.8±18.7 taps min-1, corresponding to 6.0±11.0%, p=.033) was accompanied by reduced vertical displacement (1.6±2.9 mm, corresponding to 6.3±14.9%, p=.012) of the fingertip. Concurrently, peak force was unchanged. The present study points at separate control mechanisms governing kinematics and kinetics during finger tapping.

  4. High-Data-Rate Quadrax Cable Microwave Characterization at the NASA Glenn Structural Dynamics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theofylaktos, Onoufrios; Warner, Joseph D.; Sheehe, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was performed to determine the degradation in the bit-error-rate (BER) in the high-data-rate cables chosen for the Orion Service Module due to extreme launch conditions of vibrations with a magnitude of 60g. The cable type chosen for the Orion Service Module was no. 8 quadrax cable. The increase in electrical noise induced on these no. 8 quadrax cables was measured at the NASA Glenn vibration facility in the Structural Dynamics Laboratory. The intensity of the vibrations was set at 32g, which was the maximum available level at the facility. The cable lengths used during measurements were 1, 4, and 8 m. The noise measurements were done in an analog fashion using a performance network analyzer (PNA) by recording the standard deviation of the transmission scattering parameter S(sub 21) over the frequency range of 100 to 900 MHz. The standard deviation of S(sub 210 was measured before, during, and after the vibration of the cables at the vibration facility. We observed an increase in noise by a factor of 2 to 6. From these measurements we estimated the increase expected in the BER for a cable length of 25 m and concluded that these findings are large enough that the noise increase due to vibration must be taken in to account for the design of the communication system for a BER of 10(exp -8).

  5. LINEAR COUNT-RATE METER

    DOEpatents

    Henry, J.J.

    1961-09-01

    A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.

  6. Dual physiological rate measurement instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tommy G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The object of the invention is to provide an instrument for converting a physiological pulse rate into a corresponding linear output voltage. The instrument which accurately measures the rate of an unknown rectangular pulse wave over an extended range of values comprises a phase-locked loop including a phase comparator, a filtering network, and a voltage-controlled oscillator, arranged in cascade. The phase comparator has a first input responsive to the pulse wave and a second input responsive to the output signal of the voltage-controlled oscillator. The comparator provides a signal dependent on the difference in phase and frequency between the signals appearing on the first and second inputs. A high-input impedance amplifier accepts an output from the filtering network and provides an amplified output DC signal to a utilization device for providing a measurement of the rate of the pulse wave.

  7. MEMS Rate Sensors for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambino, Joel

    2000-01-01

    Micromachined Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) Rate Sensors are an enabling technology for Nanosatellites. The recent award of a Nanosatellite program to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) underscores the urgency of the development of these systems for space use. The Guidance Navigation and Control Center (GNCC) at the GSFC is involved in several efforts to develop this technology. The GNCC seeks to improve the performance of these sensors and develop flight ready systems for spacecraft use by partnering with industry leaders in MEMS Rate Sensor development. This paper introduces Microgyros and discusses the efforts in progress at the GNCC to improve the performance of these units and develop MEMS Rate Sensors for space use.

  8. Estimation of spontaneous mutation rates.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Loki; Berry, Charles C; Gasche, Christoph

    2003-09-01

    Spontaneous or randomly occurring mutations play a key role in cancer progression. Estimation of the mutation rate of cancer cells can provide useful information about the disease. To ascertain these mutation rates, we need mathematical models that describe the distribution of mutant cells. In this investigation, we develop a discrete time stochastic model for a mutational birth process. We assume that mutations occur concurrently with mitosis so that when a nonmutant parent cell splits into two progeny, one of these daughter cells could carry a mutation. We propose an estimator for the mutation rate and investigate its statistical properties via theory and simulations. A salient feature of this estimator is the ease with which it can be computed. The methods developed herein are applied to a human colorectal cancer cell line and compared to existing continuous time models.

  9. Injury rates in Shotokan karate

    PubMed Central

    Critchley, G. R.; Mannion, S.; Meredith, C.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document the injury rate in three British Shotokan karate championships in consecutive years. In these tournaments strict rules governed contact, with only "light" or "touch" contact allowed. Protective padding for the head, hands, or feet was prohibited. METHODS: Prospective recording of injuries resulting from 1770 bouts in three national competitions of 1996, 1997, and 1998. Details of ages and years of karate experience were also obtained. RESULTS: 160 injuries were sustained in 1770 bouts. The overall rate of injury was 0.09 per bout and 0.13 per competitor. 91 (57%) injuries were to the head. The average age of those injured was 22 years, with an average of nine years of experience in karate. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of protective padding does not result in higher injury rates than in most other series of Shotokan karate injuries. Strict refereeing is essential, however, to maintain control and minimise contact. 


 PMID:10378069

  10. Calculating transient rates from surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, D.; van der Horst, A. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Rowlinson, A.

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a method to determine the transient surface density and transient rate for any given survey, using Monte Carlo simulations. This method allows us to determine the transient rate as a function of both the flux and the duration of the transients in the whole flux-duration plane rather than one or a few points as currently available methods do. It is applicable to every survey strategy that is monitoring the same part of the sky, regardless the instrument or wavelength of the survey, or the target sources. We have simulated both top-hat and Fast Rise Exponential Decay light curves, highlighting how the shape of the light curve might affect the detectability of transients. Another application for this method is to estimate the number of transients of a given kind that are expected to be detected by a survey, provided that their rate is known.

  11. Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

  12. Recent deformation rates on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Robert E.

    1994-11-01

    Constraints on the recent geological evolution of Venus may be provided by quantitative estimates of the rates of the principal resurfacing processes, volcanism and tectonism. This paper focuses on the latter, using impact craters as strain indicators. The total postimpact tectonic strain lies in the range 0.5-6.5%, which defines a recent mean strain rate of 10-18-10-17/s when divided by the mean surface age. Interpretation of the cratering record as one of pure production requires a decline in resurfacing rates at about 500 Ma (catastrophic resurfacing model). If distributed tectonic resurfacing contributed strongly before that time, as suggested by the widespread occurrence of tessera as inliers, the mean global strain rate must have been at least approximately 10-15/s, which is also typical of terrestrial active margins. Numerical calculations of the response of the lithosphere to inferred mantle convective forces were performed to test the hypothesis that a decrease in surface strain rate by at least two orders of magnitude could be caused by a steady decline in heat flow over the last billion years. Parameterized convection models predict that the mean global thermal gradient decreases by only about 5 K/km over this time; even with the exponential dependence of viscosity upon temperature, the surface strain rate drops by little more than one order of magnitude. Strongly unsteady cooling and very low thermal gradients today are necessary to satisfy the catastrophic model. An alternative, uniformitarian resurfacing hypothesis holds that Venus is resurfaced in quasi-random 'patches' several hundred kilometers in size that occur in response to changing mantle convection patterns.

  13. High Data Rate Instrument Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schober, Wayne; Lansing, Faiza; Wilson, Keith; Webb, Evan

    1999-01-01

    The High Data Rate Instrument Study was a joint effort between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The objectives were to assess the characteristics of future high data rate Earth observing science instruments and then to assess the feasibility of developing data processing systems and communications systems required to meet those data rates. Instruments and technology were assessed for technology readiness dates of 2000, 2003, and 2006. The highest data rate instruments are hyperspectral and synthetic aperture radar instruments which are capable of generating 3.2 Gigabits per second (Gbps) and 1.3 Gbps, respectively, with a technology readiness date of 2003. These instruments would require storage of 16.2 Terebits (Tb) of information (RF communications case of two orbits of data) or 40.5 Tb of information (optical communications case of five orbits of data) with a technology readiness date of 2003. Onboard storage capability in 2003 is estimated at 4 Tb; therefore, all the data created cannot be stored without processing or compression. Of the 4 Tb of stored data, RF communications can only send about one third of the data to the ground, while optical communications is estimated at 6.4 Tb across all three technology readiness dates of 2000, 2003, and 2006 which were used in the study. The study includes analysis of the onboard processing and communications technologies at these three dates and potential systems to meet the high data rate requirements. In the 2003 case, 7.8% of the data can be stored and downlinked by RF communications while 10% of the data can be stored and downlinked with optical communications. The study conclusion is that only 1 to 10% of the data generated by high data rate instruments will be sent to the ground from now through 2006 unless revolutionary changes in spacecraft design and operations such as intelligent data extraction are developed.

  14. On A Theory of Rates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    asexual . In asexual reproduction , one parent divides into two or more o¤spring. In sexual reproduction , two parents must mate to produce one or more o...spring, n. In terms of rates, asexual reproduction produces n o¤spring, where n may be the ex- pected value of some random variable, so we have a rate of...increase of asexually reproducing population as rasexual n 1 t N (t) ; (210) where: t = the time between reproductions (assuming these times are

  15. On a Theory of Rates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    take two forms (that we know of): sexual and asexual . In asexual reproduction , one parent divides into two or more o¤spring. In sexual reproduction , two...parents must mate to produce one or more o¤spring, n. In terms of rates, asexual reproduction produces n o¤spring, where n may be the ex- pected...especially for the asexual reproduction forms. This is a rather obvious example where rate theory produces something strikingly di¤erent from what is

  16. Exchange Rates and Old People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, James J.

    1980-01-01

    Extends earlier work on aging as a process of exchange by focusing on the issue of exchange rates and how they are negotiated. Access to power resources declines with age, placing the old person in the position of negotiating from weakness. (Author)

  17. Rate determination from vector observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Jerold L.

    1993-01-01

    Vector observations are a common class of attitude data provided by a wide variety of attitude sensors. Attitude determination from vector observations is a well-understood process and numerous algorithms such as the TRIAD algorithm exist. These algorithms require measurement of the line of site (LOS) vector to reference objects and knowledge of the LOS directions in some predetermined reference frame. Once attitude is determined, it is a simple matter to synthesize vehicle rate using some form of lead-lag filter, and then, use it for vehicle stabilization. Many situations arise, however, in which rate knowledge is required but knowledge of the nominal LOS directions are not available. This paper presents two methods for determining spacecraft angular rates from vector observations without a priori knowledge of the vector directions. The first approach uses an extended Kalman filter with a spacecraft dynamic model and a kinematic model representing the motion of the observed LOS vectors. The second approach uses a 'differential' TRIAD algorithm to compute the incremental direction cosine matrix, from which vehicle rate is then derived.

  18. Heterozygosity increases microsatellite mutation rate

    PubMed Central

    Amos, William

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing of families of Arabidopsis has recently lent strong support to the heterozygote instability (HI) hypothesis that heterozygosity locally increases mutation rate. However, there is an important theoretical difference between the impact on base substitutions, where mutation rate increases in regions surrounding a heterozygous site, and the impact of HI on sequences such as microsatellites, where mutations are likely to occur at the heterozygous site itself. At microsatellite loci, HI should create a positive feedback loop, with heterozygosity and mutation rate mutually increasing each other. Direct support for HI acting on microsatellites is limited and contradictory. I therefore analysed AC microsatellites in 1163 genome sequences from the 1000 genomes project. I used the presence of rare alleles, which are likely to be very recent in origin, as a surrogate measure of mutation rate. I show that rare alleles are more likely to occur at locus-population combinations with higher heterozygosity even when all populations carry exactly the same number of alleles. PMID:26740567

  19. Frame Rate and Human Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.

  20. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

  1. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Zbigniew; Falkowski, Paul

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between Successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz.

  2. NASA Human-Rating Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank; Harkins, Wil; Stamatelatos, Michael

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Procedural Requirements 87052B defines the Human-Rating Certification process and related technical requirements for human spaceflight programs developed by and for NASA. The document specifies Agency-level responsibilities related to the certification, processes to be established by the program, and technical requirements.

  3. Divergent Thinking and Interview Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batey, Mark; Rawles, Richard; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    This study examined divergent thinking (DT) test scores of applicants taking part in a selection procedure for an undergraduate psychology degree (N = 370). Interviewers made six specific (creative intelligence, motivation, work habits, emotional stability, sociability, and social responsibility) and one overall recommendation rating on each…

  4. Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

  5. Alternative Schools and Dropout Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Earl J.

    National dropou figures hover around 46 percent, according to the U.S. Office of Education. School business partnerships, including occupational training, counseling, and preemployment experience, have been effective in reducing the dropout rate in many schools. The use of computers in teaching traditional subjects has proved attractive to…

  6. Variable gas leak rate valve

    DOEpatents

    Eernisse, Errol P.; Peterson, Gary D.

    1976-01-01

    A variable gas leak rate valve which utilizes a poled piezoelectric element to control opening and closing of the valve. The gas flow may be around a cylindrical rod with a tubular piezoelectric member encircling the rod for seating thereagainst to block passage of gas and for reopening thereof upon application of suitable electrical fields.

  7. Metabolic rate meter and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, T. I.; Ruderman, I. W. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A method is described for measuring the dynamic metabolic rate of a human or animal. The ratio of the exhaled carbon dioxide to a known amount of C(13)02 introduced into the exhalation is determined by mass spectrometry. This provides an instantaneous measurement of the carbon dioxide generated.

  8. 76 FR 8946 - Security Ratings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 200, 229, 230, 232, 239, 240, and 249 RIN 3235-AK18 Security Ratings AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This is one of several releases that...

  9. Cohort Default Rates in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Shannon M.

    2011-01-01

    Burgeoning student loan debt indicates problems not only for the country's borrowers but also for the postsecondary system. The rise in student loan defaults signifies a rise in institutional cohort default rates (CDRs)--a measure of accountability that informs the government and the general public how well an institution prepares its students for…

  10. 78 FR 15973 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission Fee Rate Correction In notice document 2013-05334, appearing on page 14821 in the issue of Thursday, March 7, 2013, make the following correction: On page 14821, in...

  11. Survival rates in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilmott, R W; Tyson, S L; Dinwiddie, R; Matthew, D J

    1983-01-01

    Life tables were calculated for 273 British children with cystic fibrosis for the period 1974-9. There was a marked improvement in survival rates in the meconium ileus group compared with the 1969-73 data, but there was little improvement in patients presenting later with other symptoms. PMID:6639137

  12. Copiea - excretion rates of salamaders

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stoichiometry of excreta and excretion rates of a stream-dwelling plethodontid salamander in Cincinnati, OH, USAThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Milanovich , J., and M. Hopton. Stoichiometry of excreta in larval stream salamanders: implications regarding the ecological roles of salamanders. FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA, USA, 00, (2012).

  13. PBXN-110 Burn Rate Estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, E

    2008-08-11

    It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.

  14. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  15. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Marcic, Milan

    2006-01-01

    A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped with multi-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changing hydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paper allows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injection rates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today known measuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate in diesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possible differences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformational measuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation of membrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. The pressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For each hole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into which fuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. During measurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain an overpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into the graduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.The membrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane and forming the full Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shape and temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  16. Rating of acceptable load in manual sorting of postal parcels.

    PubMed

    Stålhammar, H R; Louhevaara, V; Troup, J D

    1996-10-01

    The psychophysical test, the rating of acceptable load (RAL) were used to assess acceptable weights for dynamic lifting in postal workers engaged in sorting parcels. The standard test (RALSt) and a work-simulating test (RALW) were administered to 103 volunteers: all experienced male sorters. In the RALSt, subjects selected the weight which would be acceptable for lifting in a box with handles from table to floor and back to the table once every 5 min for the working day. for the RALW, the box was without handles and the weight was chosen to be acceptable for transfer 4-6 times/min from a table to the parcel container and back to the table. Both tests were made during normal working hours at postal sorting centres. The overall means for RALSt and RALW were 16.4 kg and 9.4 kg respectively (p < 0.001): both being substantially higher than the average parcel weight of 4 kg. The RALSt and RALW tests proved to be repetitive and sensitive for differentiating the effects of load and task variable in actual manual material handling. Thus they appear to be applicable to the evaluation of manual materials handling problems.

  17. Approximate Minimum Bit Error Rate Equalization for Fading Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Lorant; Levendovszky, Janos; Olah, Andras; Treplan, Gergely

    2010-12-01

    A novel channel equalizer algorithm is introduced for wireless communication systems to combat channel distortions resulting from multipath propagation. The novel algorithm is based on minimizing the bit error rate (BER) using a fast approximation of its gradient with respect to the equalizer coefficients. This approximation is obtained by estimating the exponential summation in the gradient with only some carefully chosen dominant terms. The paper derives an algorithm to calculate these dominant terms in real-time. Summing only these dominant terms provides a highly accurate approximation of the true gradient. Combined with a fast adaptive channel state estimator, the new equalization algorithm yields better performance than the traditional zero forcing (ZF) or minimum mean square error (MMSE) equalizers. The performance of the new method is tested by simulations performed on standard wireless channels. From the performance analysis one can infer that the new equalizer is capable of efficient channel equalization and maintaining a relatively low bit error probability in the case of channels corrupted by frequency selectivity. Hence, the new algorithm can contribute to ensuring QoS communication over highly distorted channels.

  18. Rates of bicycle helmet use in an affluent Michigan County.

    PubMed

    Jacques, L B

    1994-01-01

    Bicycle helmet use in the United States has remained low despite clear demonstration of its beneficial effect on reducing the incidence of serious head injury. Several interventions have been reported, with variable results and costs. Much of the recent literature has focused on child cyclists and on demographic factors associated with helmet use. This paper reports on helmet use by children and adults in a sample of 652 riders in an affluent southeast Michigan region, chosen to minimize the effect of previously recognized socioeconomic negative predictors that are not readily changed by intervention. Subjects were classified by age, sex, location, riding surface, type of bicycle, child bicycle seat use, child bicycle trailer use, and helmet use by companions. Overall helmet use was 24 percent; infants and toddlers had the highest rate of helmet use at 61 percent, followed by adults at 26 percent and school-aged children at 17 percent. The strongest predictor of helmet use in all age categories was the presence of a helmeted companion. Adult helmet use was also positively predicted by riding in the street and by riding a racing-type bicycle. The use of a city-type bicycle negatively predicted helmet use. For non-adults, female sex and the use of a child seat or trailer were positive predictors. Fostering peer pressure to increase helmet use may be an effective yet relatively inexpensive way to achieve the goal of widespread use of bicycle helmets.

  19. Rates of bicycle helmet use in an affluent Michigan County.

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, L B

    1994-01-01

    Bicycle helmet use in the United States has remained low despite clear demonstration of its beneficial effect on reducing the incidence of serious head injury. Several interventions have been reported, with variable results and costs. Much of the recent literature has focused on child cyclists and on demographic factors associated with helmet use. This paper reports on helmet use by children and adults in a sample of 652 riders in an affluent southeast Michigan region, chosen to minimize the effect of previously recognized socioeconomic negative predictors that are not readily changed by intervention. Subjects were classified by age, sex, location, riding surface, type of bicycle, child bicycle seat use, child bicycle trailer use, and helmet use by companions. Overall helmet use was 24 percent; infants and toddlers had the highest rate of helmet use at 61 percent, followed by adults at 26 percent and school-aged children at 17 percent. The strongest predictor of helmet use in all age categories was the presence of a helmeted companion. Adult helmet use was also positively predicted by riding in the street and by riding a racing-type bicycle. The use of a city-type bicycle negatively predicted helmet use. For non-adults, female sex and the use of a child seat or trailer were positive predictors. Fostering peer pressure to increase helmet use may be an effective yet relatively inexpensive way to achieve the goal of widespread use of bicycle helmets. PMID:8153282

  20. 45 CFR 800.202 - Rating factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROGRAM Premiums, Rating Factors, Medical Loss Ratios, and Risk Adjustment § 800.202 Rating factors. (a... Act. (c) Age rating. For age rating, an MSPP issuer must use the ratio established by the State...

  1. 45 CFR 800.202 - Rating factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROGRAM Premiums, Rating Factors, Medical Loss Ratios, and Risk Adjustment § 800.202 Rating factors. (a... Act. (c) Age rating. For age rating, an MSPP issuer must use the ratio established by the State...

  2. Compendium of photovoltaic degradation rates: Photovoltaic degradation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Dirk C.; Kurtz, Sarah R.; VanSant, Kaitlyn; Newmiller, Jeff

    2016-02-07

    Published data on photovoltaic (PV) degradation measurements were aggregated and re-examined. The subject has seen an increased interest in recent years resulting in more than 11 000 degradation rates in almost 200 studies from 40 different countries. As studies have grown in number and size, we found an impact from sampling bias attributable to size and accuracy. Because of the correlational nature of this study we examined the data in several ways to minimize this bias. We found median degradation for x-Si technologies in the 0.5-0.6%/year range with the mean in the 0.8-0.9%/year range. Hetero-interface technology (HIT) and microcrystalline silicon (..mu..c-Si) technologies, although not as plentiful, exhibit degradation around 1%/year and resemble thin-film products more closely than x-Si. Several studies showing low degradation for copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) have emerged. Higher degradation for cadmium telluride (CdTe) has been reported, but these findings could reflect a convolution of less accurate studies and longer stabilization periods for some products. Significant deviations for beginning-of-life measurements with respect to nameplate rating have been documented over the last 35 years. Therefore, degradation rates that use nameplate rating as reference may be significantly impacted. Studies that used nameplate rating as reference but used solar simulators showed less variation than similar studies using outdoor measurements, even when accounting for different climates. This could be associated with confounding effects of measurement uncertainty and soiling that take place outdoors. Hotter climates and mounting configurations that lead to sustained higher temperatures may lead to higher degradation in some, but not all, products. Wear-out non-linearities for the worst performing modules have been documented in a few select studies that took multiple measurements of an ensemble of modules during the lifetime of the system. However, the majority

  3. Noise-induced convergence of the low flow rate chaos in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Minoru; Nakaiwa, Masaru; Akiya, Takaji; Ohmori, Takao; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko

    The effect of noise on the low flow-rate chaos in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction was studied. The chaos was simulated using the three-variable model of Györgyi and Field. Gaussian white noise was imposed on the flow-rate of the reactant solutions fed into CSTR to simulate the so-called type P noise. The range of average noise amplitudes was chosen between 0.01% and 1% related to the inverse residence time. The calculated time series were analyzed on the basis of their Fourier spectra, maximum Lyapunov exponent, Kolmogorov entropies, return maps and invariant density. We found that the noise induces partial order of the period-3-like oscillations in the low flowrate chaos.

  4. Friction coefficients and wear rates of different orthodontic archwires in artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, M V; Espinar, E; Llamas, J M; Rupérez, E; Manero, J M; Barrera, J M; Solano, E; Gil, F J

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of the nature of the orthodontic archwires on the friction coefficient and wear rate against materials used commonly as brackets (Ti-6Al-4V and 316L Stainless Steel). The materials selected as orthodontic archwires were ASI304 stainless steel, NiTi, Ti, TiMo and NiTiCu. The array archwire's materials selected presented very similar roughness but different hardness. Materials were chosen from lower and higher hardness degrees than that of the brackets. Wear tests were carried out at in artificial saliva at 37 °C. Results show a linear relationship between the hardness of the materials and the friction coefficients. The material that showed lower wear rate was the ASI304 stainless steel. To prevent wear, the wire and the brackets have high hardness values and in the same order of magnitude.

  5. Evolutionary entropy: a predictor of body size, metabolic rate and maximal life span.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, Lloyd; Legendre, Stéphane; Harremöes, Peter

    2009-05-01

    Body size of organisms spans 24 orders of magnitude, and metabolic rate and life span present comparable differences across species. This article shows that this variation can be explained in terms of evolutionary entropy, a statistical parameter which characterizes the robustness of a population, and describes the uncertainty in the age of the mother of a randomly chosen newborn. We show that entropy also has a macroscopic description: It is linearly related to the logarithm of the variables body size, metabolic rate, and life span. Furthermore, entropy characterizes Darwinian fitness, the efficiency with which a population acquires and converts resources into viable offspring. Accordingly, entropy predicts the outcome of natural selection in populations subject to different classes of ecological constraints. This predictive property, when integrated with the macroscopic representation of entropy, is the basis for enormous differences in morphometric and life-history parameters across species.

  6. The role and importance of porosity in the deflagration rates of HMX-based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, E A; Hsu, P C; Springer, H K

    2011-03-15

    The deflagration behavior of thermally damaged HMX-based materials will be discussed. Strands of material were burned at pressures ranging from 10-300 MPa using the LLNL high pressure strand burner. Strands were heated in-situ and burned while still hot; temperatures range from 90-200 C and were chosen in order to allow for thermal damage of the material without significant decomposition of the HMX. The results indicate that multiple variables affect the burn rate but the most important are the polymorph of HMX and the nature and thermal stability of the non-HE portion of the material. Characterization of the strands indicate that the thermal soak produces significant porosity and permeability in the sample allowing for significantly faster burning due to the increased surface area and new pathways for flame spread into the material. Specifically, the deflagration rates of heated PBXN-9, LX-10, and PBX-9501 will be discussed and compared.

  7. 13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a...

  8. The instantaneous frequency rate spectrogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    An accelerogram of the instantaneous phase of signal components referred to as an instantaneous frequency rate spectrogram (IFRS) is presented as a joint time-frequency distribution. The distribution is directly obtained by processing the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) locally. A novel approach to amplitude demodulation based upon the reassignment method is introduced as a useful by-product. Additionally, an estimator of energy density versus the instantaneous frequency rate (IFR) is proposed and referred to as the IFR profile. The energy density is estimated based upon both the classical energy spectrogram and the IFRS smoothened by the median filter. Moreover, the impact of an analyzing window width, additive white Gaussian noise and observation time is tested. Finally, the introduced method is used for the analysis of the acoustic emission of an automotive engine. The recording of the engine of a Lamborghini Gallardo is analyzed as an example.

  9. Kepler Reliability and Occurrence Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Steve

    2016-10-01

    The Kepler mission has produced tables of exoplanet candidates (``KOI table''), as well as tables of transit detections (``TCE table''), hosted at the Exoplanet Archive (http://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu). Transit detections in the TCE table that are plausibly due to a transiting object are selected for inclusion in the KOI table. KOI table entries that have not been identified as false positives (FPs) or false alarms (FAs) are classified as planet candidates (PCs, Mullally et al. 2015). A subset of PCs have been confirmed as planetary transits with greater than 99% probability, but most PCs have <99% probability of being true planets. The fraction of PCs that are true transiting planets is the PC reliability rate. The overall PC population is believed to have a reliability rate >90% (Morton & Johnson 2011).

  10. Rate processes in gas phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, C. F.

    1983-01-01

    Reaction-rate theory and experiment are given a critical review from the engineers' point of view. Rates of heavy-particle, collision-induced reaction in gas phase are formulated in terms of the cross sections and activation energies for reaction. The effect of cross section function shape and of excited state contributions to reaction both cause the slope of Arrhenius plots to differ from the true activation energy, except at low temperature. The master equations for chemically reacting gases are introduced, and dissociation and ionization reactions are shown to proceed primarily from excited states about kT from the dissociation or ionization limit. Collision-induced vibration, vibration-rotation, and pure rotation transitions are treated, including three-dimensional effects and conservation of energy, which have usually been ignored. The quantum theory of transitions at potential surface crossing is derived, and results are found to be in fair agreement with experiment in spite of some questionable approximations involved.

  11. Self-similar aftershock rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise—an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes—the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  12. Self-similar aftershock rates.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise-an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes-the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  13. Reaction Rate Data Number 59.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    18 9. Naval Research Laboratory — Parameterization of the Atmospheric Heating Rate from 15 to 120 km due to 02 and 03 A bsorption of Solar Radiation...Photodissociation Spectroscopy of (‘03 19 12. United Technologies Research Center — Calculatiomi of Energe tics of Selected Atmospheric Systems 19 AUTHOR...the (354) and (52’) ions. 11. Photodissociation Spectroscopy of (‘03 — J. T. Moseley, PC’, Cosbv . and J R. Peterson, Stan- ford Research Institute

  14. Growth rate for blackhole instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, Kartik; Wald, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Hollands and Wald showed that dynamic stability of stationary axisymmetric black holes is equivalent to positivity of canonical energy on a space of linearised axisymmetric perturbations satisfying certain boundary and gauge conditions. Using a reflection isometry of the background, we split the energy into kinetic and potential parts. We show that the kinetic energy is positive. In the case that potential energy is negative, we show existence of exponentially growing perturbations and further obtain a variational formula for the growth rate.

  15. 76 FR 46603 - Security Ratings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...In light of the provisions of Section 939A of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, we are adopting amendments to replace rule and form requirements under the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for securities offering or issuer disclosure rules that rely on, or make special accommodations for, security ratings (for example, Forms S-3 and F-3......

  16. Statistics of Instantaneous Rainfall Rates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    INSTANTANEOUS RAINFALL RATES Douglas M.A. Jones Wayne M. Wendland State Water Surveys Division University of Illinois C)C) Urbana, Illinois 61801 ’.3 4 Final...NAME %D %tnDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASKState Water Survey AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS University of Illinois 62101F Urbana, Illinois 61801...distribution unlimited 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the obstract entered in Block 20, If different from Report) 18. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES I. KEY WORDS (Continue

  17. NREL module energy rating methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J.; Kroposki, B.

    1995-11-01

    The goals of this project were to develop a tool for: evaluating one module in different climates; comparing different modules; provide a Q&D method for estimating periodic energy production; provide an achievable module rating; provide an incentive for manufacturers to optimize modules to non-STC conditions; and to have a consensus-based, NREL-sponsored activity. The approach taken was to simulate module energy for five reference days of various weather conditions. A performance model was developed.

  18. Analysis of hospitalization rates by electoral ward: relationship to accessibility and deprivation data.

    PubMed

    Slack, R; Ferguson, B; Ryder, S

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the relevance of access to hospital services in explaining utilization rates at a District Health Authority level in the UK. In order to test the hypothesis that access is important, it is necessary to develop a means of scoring access factors and then combining these scores with other more recognized influences on hospitalization rates e.g. deprivation measures. Acknowledging that hospitalization rates are not merely products of a population's socio-economic characteristics, the effect of accessibility to hospital services for the resident population is investigated through the derivation of an access score using both private and public transport from electoral ward of residence. Deprivation and accessibility to services were both found to be significant factors in determining hospitalization rates at electoral ward level. The chosen supply variable--number of GPs--was not found to be significant in any of the models developed using linear regression techniques. To conclude, it appears that access plays an important role in determining hospitalization rates within a given population. If high hospitalization rates are accepted as an indicator of effectively met demand then policy makers may have to consider increasing the accessibility of hospital services.

  19. Understanding High Rate Behavior Through Low Rate Analog

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-28

    Transition Temperature[°C] 82.4 -20 Melting Point [°C] 100-260 40-50 Thermal conductivity [W·m -1 ·K -1 ] 0.14–0.28 0.14–0.17 Table 2. The four PVC...13) Here, the thermal diffusivity, α, is first calculated from the conductivity , k, density, ρ, and specific heat capacity, C; alternatively the...chapter. Furthermore, the low thermal conductivity means that specimen heating also occurs at lower strain rates than for PVC. Before performing

  20. 1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

  1. Non-contact Laser-based Human Respiration Rate Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalise, L.; Marchionni, P.; Ercoli, I.

    2011-08-01

    At present the majority of the instrumentation, used in clinical environments, to measure human respiration rate are based on invasive and contact devices. The gold standard instrument is considered the spirometer which is largely used; it needs a direct contact and requires a collaboration by the patient. Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDVi) is an optical, non-contact measurement system for the assessment of a surface velocity and displacement. LDVi has already been used for the measurement of the cardiac activity and for the measurement of the chest-wall displacements. The aims of this work are to select the best measurement point on the thoracic surface for LDVi monitoring of the respiration rate (RR) and to compare measured data with the RR valued provided by the spirometer. The measurement system is composed by a LDV system and a data acquisition board installed on a PC. Tests were made on 10 different point of the thorax for each patient. Patients population was composed by 33 subjects (17 male and 16 female). The optimal measurement point was chosen considering the maximum peak-to-peak value of the displacement measured by LDV. Before extracting RR we have used a special wavelet decomposition for better selection of the expiration peaks. A standard spirometer was used for the validation of the data. From tests it results that the optimal measurement point, namely is located on the inferior part of the thoracic region (left, front side). From our tests we have obtained a close correlation between the RR values measured by the spirometer and those measured by the proposed method: a difference of 14±211 ms on the RR value is reported for the entire population of 33 subjects. Our method allows a no-contact measurement of lungs activity (respiration period), reducing the electric and biological risks. Moreover it allows to measure in critical environment like in RMN or in burned skin where is difficult or impossible to apply electrodes.

  2. Rotation Rate of Saturn's Magnetosphere using CAPS Plasma Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E.; Cooper, J.; Hartle, R.; Simpson, D.; Johnson, R.; Thomsen, M.; Arridge, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present the present status of an investigation of the rotation rate of Saturn's magnetosphere using a 3D velocity moment technique being developed at Goddard which is similar to the 2D version used by Sittler et al. for SOI and similar to that used by Thomsen et al.. This technique allows one to nearly cover the full energy range of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) IMS from 1 V . E/Q < 50 kV. Since our technique maps the observations into a local inertial frame, it does work during roll maneuvers. We make comparisons with the bi-Maxwellian fitting technique developed by Wilson et al. and the similar velocity moment technique by Thomsen et al. . We concentrate our analysis when ion composition data is available, which is used to weight the non-compositional data, referred to as singles data, to separate H+, H2+ and water group ions (W+) from each other. The chosen periods have high enough telemetry rates (4 kbps or higher) so that coincidence ion data, similar to that used by Sittler et al. for SOI is available. The ion data set is especially valuable for measuring flow velocities for protons, which are more difficult to derive using singles data within the inner magnetosphere, where the signal is dominated by heavy ions (i.e., proton peak merges with W+ peak as low energy shoulder). Our technique uses a flux function, which is zero in the proper plasma flow frame, to estimate fluid parameter uncertainties. The comparisons investigate the experimental errors and potential for systematic errors in the analyses, including ours. The rolls provide the best data set when it comes to getting 4PI coverage of the plasma but are more susceptible to time aliasing effects. In the future we will then make comparisons with magnetic field observations, Saturn ionosphere conductivities as presently known and the field aligned currents necessary for the planet to enforce corotation of the rotating plasma.

  3. Performance Evaluation of High-Rate GPS Seismometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, T.; Ebinuma, T.

    2011-12-01

    High-rate GPS observations with higher than once-per-second sampling are getting increasingly important for seismology. Unlike a traditional seismometer which measures short period vibration using accelerometers, the GPS receiver can measure its antenna position directly and record long period seismic wave and permanent displacements as well. The high-rate GPS observations are expected to provide new insights in understanding the whole aspects of earthquake process. In this study, we investigated dynamic characteristics of the high-rate GPS receivers capable of outputting the observations at up to 50Hz. This higher output rate, however, doesn't mean higher dynamics range of the GPS observations. Since many GPS receivers are designed for low dynamics applications, such as static survey, personal and car navigation, the bandwidth of the loop filters tend to be narrower in order to reduce the noise level of the observations. The signal tracking loop works like a low-pass filter. Thus the narrower the bandwidth, the lower the dynamics range. In order to extend this dynamical limit, high-rate GPS receivers might use wider loop bandwidth for phase tracking. In this case, the GPS observations are degraded by higher noise level in return. In addition to the limitation of the loop bandwidth, higher acceleration due to earthquake may cause the steady state error in the signal tracking loop. As a result, kinematic solutions experience undesirable position offsets, or the receiver may lose the GPS signals in an extreme case. In order to examine those effects for the high-rate GPS observations, we made an experiment using a GPS signal simulator and several geodetic GPS receivers, including Trimble Net-R8, NovAtel OEMV, Topcon Net-G3A, and Javad SIGMA-G2T. We set up the zero-baseline simulation scenario in which the rover receiver was vibrating in a periodic motion with the frequency from 1Hz to 10Hz around the reference station. The amplitude of the motion was chosen to provide

  4. Atmospheric radiation flight dose rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. K.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting space weather observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes that will eventually be transitioned into air traffic management operations. The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) both are providing dose rate measurements. Both activities are under the ARMAS goal of providing the "weather" of the radiation environment to improve aircraft crew and passenger safety. Over 5-dozen ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The real-time radiation exposure is computed as an effective dose rate (body-averaged over the radiative-sensitive organs and tissues in units of microsieverts per hour); total ionizing dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into effective dose rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users via the web and smart phone apps. Flight altitudes now exceed 60,000 ft. and extend above commercial aviation altitudes into the stratosphere. In this presentation we describe recent ARMAS and USEWX results.

  5. NPP ATMS Snowfall Rate Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, Huan; Ferraro, Ralph; Kongoli, Cezar; Wang, Nai-Yu; Dong, Jun; Zavodsky, Bradley; Yan, Banghua

    2015-01-01

    Passive microwave measurements at certain high frequencies are sensitive to the scattering effect of snow particles and can be utilized to retrieve snowfall properties. Some of the microwave sensors with snowfall sensitive channels are Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) and Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). ATMS is the follow-on sensor to AMSU and MHS. Currently, an AMSU and MHS based land snowfall rate (SFR) product is running operationally at NOAA/NESDIS. Based on the AMSU/MHS SFR, an ATMS SFR algorithm has been developed recently. The algorithm performs retrieval in three steps: snowfall detection, retrieval of cloud properties, and estimation of snow particle terminal velocity and snowfall rate. The snowfall detection component utilizes principal component analysis and a logistic regression model. The model employs a combination of temperature and water vapor sounding channels to detect the scattering signal from falling snow and derive the probability of snowfall (Kongoli et al., 2015). In addition, a set of NWP model based filters is also employed to improve the accuracy of snowfall detection. Cloud properties are retrieved using an inversion method with an iteration algorithm and a two-stream radiative transfer model (Yan et al., 2008). A method developed by Heymsfield and Westbrook (2010) is adopted to calculate snow particle terminal velocity. Finally, snowfall rate is computed by numerically solving a complex integral. NCEP CMORPH analysis has shown that integration of ATMS SFR has improved the performance of CMORPH-Snow. The ATMS SFR product is also being assessed at several NWS Weather Forecast Offices for its usefulness in weather forecast.

  6. Students' ratings of teacher practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, T.; Harris, G.; Liu, X.; Aguirre-Munoz, Z.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we explore a novel approach for assessing the impact of a professional development programme on classroom practice of in-service middle school mathematics teachers. The particular focus of this study is the assessment of the impact on teachers' employment of strategies used in the classroom to foster the mathematical habits of mind and mathematical self-efficacy of their students. We describe the creation and testing of a student survey designed to assess teacher classroom practice based primarily on students' ratings of teacher practices.

  7. Double White Dwarf Merger Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toonen, Silvia; Nelemans, Gijs; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are very successfully used as standard candles on cosmological distance scales, but so far the nature of the progenitor(s) is unclear. A possible scenario for SNe Ia are merging carbon/oxygen white dwarfs with a combined mass exceeding the Chandrasekhar mass. We determine the theoretical rates and delay time distribution of these mergers for two different common envelope prescriptions and metallicities. The shape of the delay time distributions is rather insensitive to the assumptions. The normalization is a factor ~3-13 too low compared to observations.

  8. Multifractality and heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassi, Roberto; Signorini, Maria Gabriella; Cerutti, Sergio

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we participate to the discussion set forth by the editor of Chaos for the controversy, "Is the normal heart rate chaotic?" Our objective was to debate the question, "Is there some more appropriate term to characterize the heart rate variability (HRV) fluctuations?" We focused on the ≈24 h RR series prepared for this topic and tried to verify with two different techniques, generalized structure functions and wavelet transform modulus maxima, if they might be described as being multifractal. For normal and congestive heart failure subjects, the hq exponents showed to be decreasing for increasing q with both methods, as it should be for multifractal signals. We then built 40 surrogate series to further verify such hypothesis. For most of the series (≈75%-80% of cases) multifractality stood the test of the surrogate data employed. On the other hand, series coming from patients in atrial fibrillation showed a small, if any, degree of multifractality. The population analyzed is too small for definite conclusions, but the study supports the use of multifractal series to model HRV. Also it suggests that the regulatory action of autonomous nervous system might play a role in the observed multifractality.

  9. The current martian cratering rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daubar, I. J.; McEwen, A. S.; Byrne, S.; Kennedy, M. R.; Ivanov, B.

    2013-07-01

    The discovery of 248 dated impact sites known to have formed within the last few decades allows us to refine the current cratering rate and slope of the production function at Mars. We use a subset of 44 of these new craters that were imaged before and after impact by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera - a thoroughly searched data set that minimizes biases from variable image resolutions. We find the current impact rate is 1.65 × 10-6 craters with an effective diameter ⩾3.9 m/km2/yr, with a differential slope (power-law exponent) of -2.45 ± 0.36. This results in model ages that are factors of three to five below the Hartmann (Hartmann, W.K. [2005]. Icarus 174, 294-320) and Neukum et al. (Neukum, G., Ivanov, B.A., Hartmann, W.K. [2001]. Space Sci. Rev. 96, 55-86)/Ivanov (Ivanov, B.A. [2001]. Space Sci. Rev. 96, 87-104) model production functions where they overlap in diameter. The best-fit production function we measure has a shallower slope than model functions at these sizes, but model function slopes are within the statistical errors. More than half of the impacts in this size range form clusters, which is another reason to use caution when estimating surface ages using craters smaller than ˜50 m in diameter.

  10. Dual Brushless Resolver Rate Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A resolver rate sensor is disclosed in which dual brushless resolvers are mechanically coupled to the same output shaft. Diverse inputs are provided to each resolver by providing the first resolver with a DC input and the second resolver with an AC sinusoidal input. A trigonometric identity in which the sum of the squares of the sin and cosine components equal one is used to advantage in providing a sensor of increased accuracy. The first resolver may have a fixed or variable DC input to permit dynamic adjustment of resolver sensitivity thus permitting a wide range of coverage. In one embodiment of the invention the outputs of the first resolver are directly inputted into two separate multipliers and the outputs of the second resolver are inputted into the two separate multipliers, after being demodulated in a pair of demodulator circuits. The multiplied signals are then added in an adder circuit to provide a directional sensitive output. In another embodiment the outputs from the first resolver is modulated in separate modulator circuits and the output from the modulator circuits are used to excite the second resolver. The outputs from the second resolver are demodulated in separate demodulator circuit and added in an adder circuit to provide a direction sensitive rate output.

  11. 76 FR 59767 - Interest Rates; Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... rate or, if that exceeds the maximum interest rate permitted by the constitution or laws of a given State, the maximum interest rate will be the rate permitted by the constitution or laws of the given... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates; Notice AGENCY: Small Business Administration. The Small Business...

  12. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  13. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  14. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  15. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  16. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  17. 48 CFR 42.704 - Billing rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Billing rates. 42.704... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 42.704 Billing rates. (a) The contracting... final indirect cost rates also shall be responsible for determining the billing rates. (b)...

  18. 48 CFR 42.704 - Billing rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Billing rates. 42.704... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 42.704 Billing rates. (a) The contracting... final indirect cost rates also shall be responsible for determining the billing rates. (b)...

  19. 7 CFR 4279.125 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... applicant and may be either fixed or variable as long as it is a legal rate. Interest rates will not be more... market and pass interest-rate savings on to the borrower. (a) A variable interest rate agreed to by the.... The variable interest rate may be adjusted at different intervals during the term of the loan, but...

  20. 7 CFR 4279.125 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applicant and may be either fixed or variable as long as it is a legal rate. Interest rates will not be more... market and pass interest-rate savings on to the borrower. (a) A variable interest rate agreed to by the.... The variable interest rate may be adjusted at different intervals during the term of the loan, but...

  1. Contactless vision-based pulse rate detection of Infants Under Neurological Examinations.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Arindam; Behera, Santosh Kumar; Dogra, Debi Prosad; Bhaskar, Harish

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for detecting variations in the Pulse Rate (PR) of infants undergoing the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examinations (HINE) using video data. As in every other medical examination the measurement of the PR is critical to underpin the physiological state of living beings. During HINE, measuring the infant's PR is important as its variations against physical conditions, age and other factors must be studied and correlated against developmental scores. However, this becomes highly complicated with active infants where their movements often lead to inconsistent PR estimation. We propose the use of a non-linear dimensionality reduction technique, called Laplacian Eigenmap (LE), to uncover the pulse information encapsulated within the high dimensional visual manifold characterized by normalized RGB feature vectors. Furthermore, low-level image filtering is applied to accurately detect PR within a chosen region-of-interest (ROI) from different parts of the infant's body. For validation and analysis, a set of 14 video sequences of infants undergoing five important tests of HINE have been chosen. Experimental results suggest that a bi-parametrized combination of color features from the RG and GB channels provide more valuable information in comparison to the RB and RGB channels. Results have demonstrated that this contactless method of PR detection has promising prospects for its future use in other clinical examinations of infants.

  2. Testing the equality of two Poisson means using the rate ratio.

    PubMed

    Ng, Hon Keung Tony; Tang, Man-Lai

    2005-03-30

    In this article, we investigate procedures for comparing two independent Poisson variates that are observed over unequal sampling frames (i.e. time intervals, populations, areas or any combination thereof). We consider two statistics (with and without the logarithmic transformation) for testing the equality of two Poisson rates. Two methods for implementing these statistics are reviewed. They are (1) the sample-based method, and (2) the constrained maximum likelihood estimation (CMLE) method. We conduct an empirical study to evaluate the performance of different statistics and methods. Generally, we find that the CMLE method works satisfactorily only for the statistic without the logarithmic transformation (denoted as W(2)) while sample-based method performs better for the statistic using the logarithmic transformation (denoted as W(3)). It is noteworthy that both statistics perform well for moderate to large Poisson rates (e.g. > or =10). For small Poisson rates (e.g. <10), W(2) can be liberal (e.g. actual type I error rate/nominal level > or =1.2) while W(3) can be conservative (e.g. actual type I error rate/nominal level < or =0.8). The corresponding sample size formulae are provided and valid in the sense that the simulated powers associated with the approximate sample size formulae are generally close to the pre-chosen power level. We illustrate our methodologies with a real example from a breast cancer study.

  3. Influence of Finite Element Software on Energy Release Rates Computed Using the Virtual Crack Closure Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald; Goetze, Dirk; Ransom, Jonathon (Technical Monitor)

    2006-01-01

    Strain energy release rates were computed along straight delamination fronts of Double Cantilever Beam, End-Notched Flexure and Single Leg Bending specimens using the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT). Th e results were based on finite element analyses using ABAQUS# and ANSYS# and were calculated from the finite element results using the same post-processing routine to assure a consistent procedure. Mixed-mode strain energy release rates obtained from post-processing finite elem ent results were in good agreement for all element types used and all specimens modeled. Compared to previous studies, the models made of s olid twenty-node hexahedral elements and solid eight-node incompatible mode elements yielded excellent results. For both codes, models made of standard brick elements and elements with reduced integration did not correctly capture the distribution of the energy release rate acr oss the width of the specimens for the models chosen. The results suggested that element types with similar formulation yield matching results independent of the finite element software used. For comparison, m ixed-mode strain energy release rates were also calculated within ABAQUS#/Standard using the VCCT for ABAQUS# add on. For all specimens mod eled, mixed-mode strain energy release rates obtained from ABAQUS# finite element results using post-processing were almost identical to re sults calculated using the VCCT for ABAQUS# add on.

  4. A mechanised microirrigation system.

    PubMed

    Gould, J S; Henson, P G; Gould, S H

    1979-10-01

    A mechanised microirrigation system for microvascular surgery, which is operated by a foot pedal, utilises a large sterile reservoir, and allows control of flow rate and volume, has been designed for use in the laboratory and operating room.

  5. Mortality rates among wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Hill, K; Boesch, C; Goodall, J; Pusey, A; Williams, J; Wrangham, R

    2001-05-01

    In order to compare evolved human and chimpanzees' life histories we present a synthetic life table for free-living chimpanzees, derived from data collected in five study populations (Gombe, Taï, Kibale, Mahale, Bossou). The combined data from all populations represent 3711 chimpanzee years at risk and 278 deaths. Males show higher mortality than females and data suggest some inter-site variation in mortality. Despite this variation, however, wild chimpanzees generally have a life expectancy at birth of less than 15 years and mean adult lifespan (after sexual maturity) is only about 15 years. This is considerably lower survival than that reported for chimpanzees in zoos or captive breeding colonies, or that measured among modern human hunter-gatherers. The low mortality rate of human foragers relative to chimpanzees in the early adult years may partially explain why humans have evolved to senesce later than chimpanzees, and have a longer juvenile period.

  6. 78 FR 73821 - Publication of Depreciation Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Rural Utilities Service Publication of Depreciation Rates AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service. ACTION: Notice of Depreciation Rates for Telecommunications Plant. SUMMARY: The United States Department of... Telecommunications Program. RUS announces the depreciation rates for telecommunications plant for the period...

  7. Calculation of molecular excitation rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, George

    1993-01-01

    State-to-state collisional excitation rates for interstellar molecules observed by radio astronomers continue to be required to interpret observed line intensities in terms of local temperatures and densities. A problem of particular interest is collisional excitation of water which is important for modeling the observed interstellar masers. In earlier work supported by a different NASA Grant, excitation of water in collisions with He atoms was studied; after many years of successively more refined calculations that problem now seems to be well understood, and discrepancies with earlier experimental data for related (pressure broadening) phenomena are believed to reflect experimental errors. Because of interstellar abundances, excitation by H2, the dominant interstellar species, is much more important than excitation by He, although it has been argued that rates for excitation by these are similar. Under the current grant theoretical study of this problem has begun which is greatly complicated by the additional degrees of freedom which must be included both in determining the interaction potential and also in the molecular scattering calculation. We have now computed the interaction forces for nearly a thousand molecular geometries and are close to having an acceptable global fit to these points which is necessary for the molecular dynamics calculations. Also, extensive modifications have been made to the molecular scattering code, MOLSCAT. These included coding the rotational basis sets and coupling matrix elements required for collisions of an asymmetric top with a linear rotor. A new method for numerical solution of the coupled equations has been incorporated. Because of the long-ranged nature of the water-hydrogen interaction it is necessary to integrate the equations to rather large intermolecular separations, and the integration methods previously available in MOLSCAT are not ideal for such cases. However, the method used by Alexander in his HIBRIDON code is

  8. A local index of Maritime Continent intraseasonal variability based on rain rates over the land and sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, C. L.; Lane, T. P.; Wheeler, M. C.

    2016-09-01

    A local index for describing intraseasonal variability over the Maritime Continent is developed. The index is based on the ratio of area-averaged rain rate over the land to that over the sea. It takes advantage of the fact that the main convective envelope of intraseasonal variability events tends to modulate the diurnal precipitation cycle over the land over the entire Maritime Continent. Lagged analysis is used to create composite intraseasonal variability events, where "day 0" is chosen according to when the normalized rain rate over the sea becomes greater than that over the land. The index identifies intraseasonal variability events associated with the Madden Julian Oscillation as well as equatorial Kelvin waves and westward propagating equatorial Rossby waves. The results suggest a similar local impact of all such events in suppressing the rain rate over land relative to that over the sea when the main convective envelope approaches.

  9. Pedal Gangrenous Changes in the Digits of an Adolescent With Ulcerative Colitis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bhoola, Prashant H; Shtofmakher, Garry; Bahri, Ankur; Patel, Ankur A; Barlizo, Sharon R; Trepal, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the colon and is occasionally associated with thrombosis. We report the case of an adolescent with ulcerative colitis who presented with bilateral gangrenous toes without signs of ascending cellulitis. Radiographs indicated the presence of bilateral and erosive changes in the distal phalanges. The vascular team referred the patient for podiatric intervention for distal vasculitis and thrombosis of the digital vessels. Transphalangeal amputations were performed, and postoperative antibiotics were initiated. The surgical sites healed uneventfully, and the patient was able to resume daily activities. Thrombosis of the foot in the context of ulcerative colitis is a rare, but serious, complication that can lead to serious comorbidities, including amputation.

  10. Beyond Robotic Wastelands of Time: Abandoned Pedagogical Agents and "New" Pedalled Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savin-Baden, Maggi; Tombs, Gemma; Bhakta, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Chatbots, known as pedagogical agents in educational settings, have a long history of use, beginning with Alan Turing's work. Since then online chatbots have become embedded into the fabric of technology. Yet understandings of these technologies are inchoate and often untheorised. Integration of chatbots into educational settings over the past…

  11. Relationship between loss of pedal sensibility, balance, and falls in patients with peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Ducic, Ivica; Short, Kelly W; Dellon, A Lee

    2004-06-01

    : The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between balance and foot sensibility in a population of patients with impaired lower extremity sensation. The hypothesis was that increasing impairment of sensation correlates with impaired balance. To date, no report has investigated the relationship between loss of balance with the degree of sensibility in the foot in a population with neuropathy. Ten control subjects and 35 patients with sensory abnormalities and balance problems related to a neuropathy were evaluated. The MatScan Measurement System was used to measure their ability to stand still, maintaining their balance with their eyes open and then with their eyes shut. The degree to which the person moves while attempting to stand still is defined as "sway," which was recorded for normal and neuropathy patients. Sensibility of the foot was measured with the Pressure-Specified Sensory Device, which is noninvasive and nonpainful. The 1- and 2-point static touch thresholds are measured for the pulp of the big toe, medial heel, and the dorsum of the foot. Loss of 2- or 1-point sensation was recorded as sensibility score and compared with controls. Statistical analysis of data and their comparisons for the 2 groups was completed. There were 55% females in control and 64% in neuropathy patients, whereas average age was 50 and 62 years, respectively. Neuropathy was the result of diabetes in 64.5%, hypothyroidism in 19.3%, their combination in 13%, and of unknown etiology in the remaining 19% of patients. Controls had significantly lower mean sway than neuropathy patients (22.9 +/- 9% vs. 189.5 +/- 180%, P = 0.006). Likewise, sensibility score for normal and neuropathy patients was also significantly different (31.4 +/- 9% vs. 232.8 +/- 59%, P <0.0001). When compared with the controls, 99% upper limit of confidence, sensibility in the neuropathy group at the hallux pulp was abnormal at a level consistent with axonal loss in 52% and was completely absent in the remaining 48%. Similarly, at the heel, sensibility was normal in 6.5%, abnormal at a level consistent with axonal loss in 71%, and absent in the remaining 22.5%. The correlation coefficient between sway and sensibility score was 0.36. The results of this investigation for the first time document the intuitive relationship between increasing loss of foot sensibility and increasing loss of balance. These measurements can now be used prospectively to evaluate whether restoration of sensation to patients with neuropathy, through peripheral nerve decompression, can improve balance and reduce falls/fractures in this patient population.

  12. Rhesus leg muscle EMG activity during a foot pedal pressing task on Bion 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, J. A.; Riazansky, S. N.; Goulet, C.; Badakva, A. M.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Recktenwald, M. R.; McCall, G.; Roy, R. R.; Fanton, J. W.; Edgerton, V. R.

    2000-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to perform a foot lever pressing task for a food reward. EMG activity was recorded from selected lower limb muscles of 2 animals before, during, and after a 14-day spaceflight and from 3 animals during a ground-based simulation of the flight. Integrated EMG activity was calculated for each muscle during the 20-min test. Comparisons were made between data recorded before any experimental manipulations and during flight or flight simulation. Spaceflight reduced soleus (Sol) activity to 25% of preflight levels, whereas it was reduced to 50% of control in the flight simulation. During flight, medial gastrocnemius (MG) activity was reduced to 25% of preflight activity, whereas the simulation group showed normal activity levels throughout all tests. The change in MG activity was apparent in the first inflight recording, suggesting that some effect of microgravity on MG activity was immediate.

  13. Velocity control with disturbance observer for pedal-assisted electric bikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shyue-Bin; Chen, Pang-Chia; Chuang, Hung-Shiang; Hsiao, Chih-Ching

    2012-11-01

    This paper proposes a velocity control approach for light electric bicycles with human power assistance. A disturbance observer mechanism is used to estimate the sum of the human torque and resistance torques. The resulting vehicle velocity control provides better battery energy efficiency by knowledge of the instantaneous human torque assistance and better speed control by knowledge of the instantaneous resistive torque. The disturbance observer is tuned in terms of the DC gain of a low-passed Q-filter for both open-loop and closed-loop schemes. Assuming that the slow varying nature of the disturbance has been properly estimated and compensated, the torque control law is designed via an optimal control approach to achieve multi-objective performances regarding the external disturbance input, control signal magnitude, and velocity tracking error. The three main parameters of the electric bike, including the moment of inertia, the radius of tyre and the vehicle weight are allowed to be variational. Specifically, the deviation of the inertia moment and deviation of the tyre radius are addressed during the controller design in terms of linear matrix inequalities. On the other hand, the effect of vehicle weight deviation on the system behaviour is evaluated when the vehicle is implemented with the constructed control law. Based on the parameters and specifications of the EL-168 electric bike produced by KENTFA Advanced Technology, Taiwan, the design results are verified through time-response simulations.

  14. OX40 Agonists and Combination Immunotherapy: Putting the Pedal to the Metal

    PubMed Central

    Linch, Stefanie N.; McNamara, Michael J.; Redmond, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the therapeutic efficacy of immunotherapy, a class of cancer treatments that utilize the patient’s own immune system to destroy cancerous cells. Within a tumor the presence of a family of negative regulatory molecules, collectively known as “checkpoint inhibitors,” can inhibit T cell function to suppress anti-tumor immunity. Checkpoint inhibitors, such as CTLA-4 and PD-1, attenuate T cell proliferation and cytokine production. Targeted blockade of CTLA-4 or PD-1 with antagonist monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) releases the “brakes” on T cells to boost anti-tumor immunity. Generating optimal “killer” CD8 T cell responses also requires T cell receptor activation plus co-stimulation, which can be provided through ligation of tumor necrosis factor receptor family members, including OX40 (CD134) and 4-1BB (CD137). OX40 is of particular interest as treatment with an activating (agonist) anti-OX40 mAb augments T cell differentiation and cytolytic function leading to enhanced anti-tumor immunity against a variety of tumors. When used as single agents, these drugs can induce potent clinical and immunologic responses in patients with metastatic disease. However, each of these agents only benefits a subset of patients, highlighting the critical need for more effective combinatorial therapeutic strategies. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which OX40 agonists synergize with checkpoint inhibitor blockade to augment T cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity and the potential opportunities for clinical translation of combinatorial immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:25763356

  15. Rate of runaway evaporative cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Groep, J. van de; Straten, P. van der; Vogels, J. M.

    2011-09-15

    Evaporative cooling is a process that is essential in creating Bose-Einstein condensates in dilute atomic gasses. This process has often been simulated based on a model using a truncated Boltzmann distribution. This model assumes that the energy distribution up to the threshold energy can still be described by a Boltzmann distribution: it assumes detailed balance up to the threshold energy. However, the evolution of the distribution function in time is not taken into account. Here we solve the kinetic Boltzmann equation for a gas undergoing evaporative cooling in a harmonic and linear trap in order to determine the evolution of the energy distribution. The magnitude of the discrepancy with the truncated Boltzmannmodel is calculated by including a polynomial expansion of the distribution function. We find that up to 35% fewer particles are found in the high-energy tail of the distribution with respect to the truncated Boltzmann distribution and up to 15% more collisions are needed to reach quantum degeneracy. Supported by a detailed investigation of the particle loss rate at different energies, we conclude that the limited occupation of high-energy states during the evaporation process causes the lowering of the evaporation speed and efficiency.

  16. Flow rate logging seepage meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reay, William G. (Inventor); Walthall, Harry G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

  17. 12 CFR 614.4155 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... rate plan adopted shall be reviewed on a continuing basis by the board, as well as in conjunction with its review and approval of the institution's operational and strategic business plan. ... pursuant to an interest rate plan within which management may establish rates. Any interest rate plan...

  18. 12 CFR 614.4155 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... rate plan adopted shall be reviewed on a continuing basis by the board, as well as in conjunction with its review and approval of the institution's operational and strategic business plan. ... pursuant to an interest rate plan within which management may establish rates. Any interest rate plan...

  19. Student Ratings: The Need for Comparative Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashin, William E.

    There are four reasons why comparative data is needed for student ratings of faculty performance: (1) the considerable inflation of student ratings; (2) the great variability in the way students rate different items; (3) because student rating systems must be flexible and comparable; and (4) because of factors (such as student motivation, class…

  20. How Boards and Presidents Influence Credit Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kedem, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Moody's Investors Service provides credit ratings for hundreds of private and public colleges and universities--ratings that can strongly influence the interest rates higher-education institutions can obtain when they want to borrow money. How colleges are governed and managed are key determinants of those credit ratings, especially in an…

  1. Retention Rate by Ethnicity. Information Capsule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Anne

    This document discusses retention rate based on ethnicity for Miami-Dade Community College (M-DCC) for December 2002. The study found that the 2001 Fall-Spring retention rates increased among all ethnic groups. The total college retention rate rose by 2.7 percentage points to 75.2%. Among individual groups, the highest retention rate of 76.9% was…

  2. Base Rates: Both Neglected and Intuitive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennycook, Gordon; Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J.; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    Base-rate neglect refers to the tendency for people to underweight base-rate probabilities in favor of diagnostic information. It is commonly held that base-rate neglect occurs because effortful (Type 2) reasoning is required to process base-rate information, whereas diagnostic information is accessible to fast, intuitive (Type 1) processing…

  3. 19 CFR 159.33 - Proclaimed rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.33 Proclaimed rate. If a rate of... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proclaimed rate. 159.33 Section 159.33 Customs... currency involved, such proclaimed rate shall be used unless it varies by 5 percent or more from...

  4. 19 CFR 159.33 - Proclaimed rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.33 Proclaimed rate. If a rate of... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Proclaimed rate. 159.33 Section 159.33 Customs... currency involved, such proclaimed rate shall be used unless it varies by 5 percent or more from...

  5. 75 FR 1363 - Integrated System Power Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... Southwestern Power Administration Integrated System Power Rates AGENCY: Southwestern Power Administration, DOE... System pursuant to the following Integrated System Rate Schedules: Rate Schedule P-09, Wholesale Rates...) Administrator has determined based on the 2009 Integrated System Current Power Repayment Study, that...

  6. 76 FR 48159 - Integrated System Power Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Southwestern Power Administration Integrated System Power Rates AGENCY: Southwestern Power Administration, DOE... facilities. The Administrator has developed proposed Integrated System rates, which are supported by a rate... 24 projects are repaid via revenues received under the Integrated System rates, as are those...

  7. 78 FR 62616 - Integrated System Power Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Southwestern Power Administration Integrated System Power Rates AGENCY: Southwestern Power Administration, DOE... Integrated System pursuant to the Integrated System Rate Schedules to supersede the existing rate schedules... into effect on an interim basis, increases the power rates for the Integrated System pursuant to...

  8. 48 CFR 942.704 - Billing rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Billing rates. 942.704... ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 942.704 Billing rates. (b) When the contracting officer or auditor responsible for establishing billing rates, in accordance with 48 CFR 42.704, has not...

  9. 48 CFR 942.704 - Billing rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Billing rates. 942.704... ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 942.704 Billing rates. (b) When the contracting officer or auditor responsible for establishing billing rates, in accordance with 48 CFR 42.704, has not...

  10. 7 CFR 1779.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... will be negotiated between the lender and the borrower. They may be either fixed or variable rates... course of business and are subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication. A variable interest rate must be tied to a base rate published periodically in a recognized national...

  11. 7 CFR 1779.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... will be negotiated between the lender and the borrower. They may be either fixed or variable rates... course of business and are subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication. A variable interest rate must be tied to a base rate published periodically in a recognized national...

  12. 7 CFR 3575.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... negotiated between the lender and the borrower. They may be either fixed or variable rates. Interest rates... business and are subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication. A variable interest... more often than quarterly). (2) The lender must incorporate within the variable rate note,...

  13. 7 CFR 3575.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... negotiated between the lender and the borrower. They may be either fixed or variable rates. Interest rates... business and are subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication. A variable interest... more often than quarterly). (2) The lender must incorporate within the variable rate note,...

  14. 12 CFR 614.4155 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pursuant to an interest rate plan within which management may establish rates. Any interest rate plan shall... management may adjust rates, and provide the upper and lower limits on management authority. Any interest... its review and approval of the institution's operational and strategic business plan....

  15. 12 CFR 614.4155 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pursuant to an interest rate plan within which management may establish rates. Any interest rate plan shall... management may adjust rates, and provide the upper and lower limits on management authority. Any interest... its review and approval of the institution's operational and strategic business plan....

  16. 12 CFR 614.4155 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pursuant to an interest rate plan within which management may establish rates. Any interest rate plan shall... management may adjust rates, and provide the upper and lower limits on management authority. Any interest... its review and approval of the institution's operational and strategic business plan....

  17. Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex “Incidence rate” means how many people out ... individual years. Death Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex From 1999–2013, the rate of people dying ...

  18. Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex “Incidence rate” means how many people out ... individual years. Death Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex From 1999–2013, the rate of people dying ...

  19. Dual-Rate Transmission Reduces Weather Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    Scheme ensures maximum data received on average. Dual-rate scheme for maximizing data returned during spacecraft mission, adaptable, as is or with modifications, to high-frequency terrestrial data transmission. Data rate fixed in advance at minimum value guarantees reasonable prospect of success during bad weather. Dualrate strategy yields net data rate 2.5 times best achievable with single transmission rate.

  20. Heart Rate and Behavior of Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boomsma, Dorret I.; Plomin, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Genetic and environmental influences on heart rate were studied in samples of twin pairs in middle childhood. Heart rate was measured in resting situation and under two task conditions. Heart rate was related to parental ratings of shyness, emotionality, and selective attention measure. Multivariate analysis suggested that covariance between heart…