Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) such as Toda Kogyo RNIP-10DS has been used for site remediation, yet information is lacking regarding how far injected NZVI can travel, how long it lasts, and how it transforms to other minerals in a groundwater system. Previously we reported effe...
The author explains the such background that as information society has progressed, databases have become much more important than ever in effectively utilizing information resourses which newspaper companies hold. This explanation is also the report by a database producer of Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun newspaper article information. This database's coverage is all-directional in industry fields in order to meet the information needs there, being emphasized on advanced high-technology fields as well as new products. He introduces efficient searching methods including NK Thesaurus, corporate name code book. He also discusses the practices of the information use by showing some examples in which newspaper article data are actually used in industrial and technical fields.
Kobayashi, Noa; Sasaki, Ryunosuke; Horiuchi, Toshiyuki
Lithography has been generally used for printing two-dimensional patterns on flat wafers. Recently, however, it is also applied to a three-dimensional patterning for fabricating various MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) components. The purpose of this research is to develop a new method for fabricating micro-lens arrays. At first, resist (Tokyo Ohka Kogyo, PMER LA-900PM) mold patterns with densely arrayed square or hexagonal concaves were replicated by intentionally shifting the focal position of projection exposure. The size of resist-mold was 2 mm square, and the initial thickness of the resist was 10 μm. Next, the wafer with the concave resist patterns was cut into small chips, and each wafer chip was fixed at the bottom of a paper cup using an adhesive tape. Then the epoxy resin (Nissin resin, Crystal resin Neo) was poured on the concave resist-mold patterns, and the resin was coagulated. Afterward, the hardened resin was grooved along the wafer chip using a cutter knife, and the wafer chip with the resist-mold patterns was forcibly removed using a pair of tweezers. Finally, both sides of the resin block were polished, and the thickness was reduced. Although the transparency and roughness of the resin block surfaces should be improved, epoxy micro-lens arrays were certainly fabricated. The mean values of curvature radius and lens height were 28.3μm and 4.9 μm, respectively.
Matsuda, Takeya; Tanabe, Kouichi; Kannda, Hironobu
The development of technology in electronics, communications and measurements with digital equipment have spawned a lot of new measuring techniques in the fields of researches and thus the conventional research techniques will be replaced by the new ones. Concerning the fields of seafloor topography survey, narrow-multibeam echosounders designed for shallow water have been used in Japan since 5 years ago. This equipment enabled us to obtain bathymetric information in large features at one time more precisely compared with the conventional equipment which obtains seafloor topography as a collection of depths data measured at numerous points. In addition, GPS enabled us to obtain real-time information of its position anywhere on the globe with great precision in three dimensions. Consequently more discoveries in the fields of marine science will be made from the information of the more detailed seafloor topography. This paper will describe some ways to improve the narrow multibeam echosounder system designed for shallow water (SEABAT9001S, Reson) which we, Kokusai Kogyo Co., Ltd., have been working on, and its future prospects.
Arumugam, Balamurugan; Tamaki, Takanori; Yamaguchi, Takeo
Design of Pt alloy catalysts with enhanced activity and durability is a key challenge for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. In the present work, we compare the durability of the ordered intermetallic face-centered tetragonal (fct) PtFeCu catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) relative to its counterpart bimetallic catalysts, i.e., the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFe catalyst and the commercial catalyst from Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo, TKK-PtC. Although both fct catalysts initially exhibited an ordered structure and mass activity approximately 2.5 times higher than that of TKK-Pt/C, the presence of Cu at the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFeCu catalyst led to a significant enhancement in durability compared to that of the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFe catalyst. The ordered intermetallic fct-PtFeCu catalyst retained more than 70% of its mass activity and electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) over 10 000 durability cycles carried out at 60 °C. In contrast, the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFe catalyst maintained only about 40% of its activity. The temperature of the durability experiment is also shown to be important: the catalyst was more severely degraded at 60 °C than at room temperature. To obtain insight into the observed enhancement in durability of fct-PtFeCu catalyst, a postmortem analysis of the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFeCu catalyst was carried out using scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDX) line scan. The STEM-EDX line scans of the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFeCu catalyst over 10 000 durability cycles showed a smaller degree of Fe and Cu dissolution from the catalyst. Conversely, large dissolution of Fe was identified in the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFe catalyst, indicating a lesser retention of Fe that causes the destruction of ordered structure and gives rise to poor durability. The enhancement in the durability of the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFeCu catalyst is ascribed to
Su, Chunming; Puls, Robert W; Krug, Thomas A; Watling, Mark T; O'Hara, Suzanne K; Quinn, Jacqueline W; Ruiz, Nancy E
Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) such as Toda Kogyo RNIP-10DS has been used for site remediation, yet information is lacking regarding how far injected NZVI can travel, how long it lasts, and how it transforms to other minerals in a groundwater system. Previously we reported effective mass destruction of chlorinated ethenes dominated by tetrachloroethene (PCE) using emulsified zerovalent iron (EZVI) nanoparticles of RNIP-10DS in a shallow aquifer (1-6 m below ground surface, BGS) at Site 45, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina, USA. Here we report test results on transport and transformation of injected EZVI in the subsurface. We employed two EZVI delivery methods: pneumatic injection and direct injection. Effective delivery of EZVI to the targeted zone was achieved with pneumatic injection showing a travel distance from injection points of up to 2.1 m and direct injection showing a travel distance up to 0.89 m. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies on particles harvested from well purge waters indicated that injected black colored NZVI (α-Fe(0)) was transformed largely to black colored cube-like and plate-like magnetites (Fe3O4, 0.1-1 μm, 0-9 months), then to orange colored irregularly shaped lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH, 0.1-1 μm, 9 months to 2.5 years), then to yellowish lath-like goethite (α-FeOOH, 2-5 μm, 2.5 years) and ferrihydrite-like spherical particles (0.05-0.1 μm) in the top portion of the aquifer (1-2 m BGS). No α-Fe(0) was found in most monitoring wells three months after injection. The formed iron oxides appeared to have a wider range of particle size (submicron to 5 μm) than the pristine NZVI (35-140 nm). Injected NZVI was largely transformed to magnetite (0.1-1 μm) during two and half years in the lower portion of the aquifer (3-6 m).