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... Exports Aico Laboratories Ltd. Baoding Mantong Fine Chemistry Co., Ltd. Beijing Onlystar Technology Co..., Ltd. Tianjin Tiancheng Pharmaceutical Company..... Yuki Gosei Kogyo Co., Ltd. Countervailing...
ethylene, provided by Daikin Kogyo Co., Ltd, Japan. 23 They had been prepared by bulk polymerization at 221C using a peroxide initiator, and were in...transition region. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank Drs. J. Sako of Daikin Kogyo Co., Ltd., and R. Ferren of Pennwalt Corp. for pro- vision of
preceding study 8 , and had been kindly supplied by 9 Daikin Kogyo Co., Ltd., Japan ; an experimental sample of poly- 9 trifluoroethylene was kindly...gradual lattice changes to the final helical structure. ACKNOWLEDGEUMENTS Thanks are due to Drs. J. Sako of Daikin Kogyo Co., Ltd., and R. Ferren of
933 720 (1963). - 51- 57) V.B. Tolstoguzov, S.M. Zhlvukhin, and V.V. Kireev : UdSSR Pat. 158 415 (1963). 58) M. Yokoyama and F. Goda: Kogyo Kagaku...Tolstoguzov, and V.V. Kireev : Vysokomolekul. Soedin 6, 1111 (1964). 70) A. Winter-Klein, Verres et refract. 9, 147 (1955). 71) H. Moureau and P. Rocquet
Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) such as Toda Kogyo RNIP-10DS has been used for site remediation, yet information is lacking regarding how far injected NZVI can travel, how long it lasts, and how it transforms to other minerals in a groundwater system. Previously we reported effe...
Azuma, T.; Sekiguchi, M.; Matsuo, M.; Kawasaki, A.; Hagiwara, K.; Matsui, H.; Kawamura, N.; Kishimoto, K.; Nakamura, A.; Washio, Y.
A novel lithography process for 3D (Three-dimensional) interconnect was developed using an optical direct-writing exposure tool. A reflective IR (Infra-red) alignment system allows a direct detection of alignment marks both on front-side and back-side of wafer, and consequently allows feasible micro-fabrication for 3D interconnect using the reversed wafer. A combination of the optical direct-writing exposure tool of Dainippon Screen MFG. Co., Ltd. with the reflective IR alignment system and a high aspect chemically amplified resist of Tokyo Ohka Kogyo Co., Ltd. provides the lithography process exclusively for 12-inch wafer level 3D interconnect.
The author explains the such background that as information society has progressed, databases have become much more important than ever in effectively utilizing information resourses which newspaper companies hold. This explanation is also the report by a database producer of Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun newspaper article information. This database's coverage is all-directional in industry fields in order to meet the information needs there, being emphasized on advanced high-technology fields as well as new products. He introduces efficient searching methods including NK Thesaurus, corporate name code book. He also discusses the practices of the information use by showing some examples in which newspaper article data are actually used in industrial and technical fields.
Kobayashi, Noa; Sasaki, Ryunosuke; Horiuchi, Toshiyuki
Lithography has been generally used for printing two-dimensional patterns on flat wafers. Recently, however, it is also applied to a three-dimensional patterning for fabricating various MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) components. The purpose of this research is to develop a new method for fabricating micro-lens arrays. At first, resist (Tokyo Ohka Kogyo, PMER LA-900PM) mold patterns with densely arrayed square or hexagonal concaves were replicated by intentionally shifting the focal position of projection exposure. The size of resist-mold was 2 mm square, and the initial thickness of the resist was 10 μm. Next, the wafer with the concave resist patterns was cut into small chips, and each wafer chip was fixed at the bottom of a paper cup using an adhesive tape. Then the epoxy resin (Nissin resin, Crystal resin Neo) was poured on the concave resist-mold patterns, and the resin was coagulated. Afterward, the hardened resin was grooved along the wafer chip using a cutter knife, and the wafer chip with the resist-mold patterns was forcibly removed using a pair of tweezers. Finally, both sides of the resin block were polished, and the thickness was reduced. Although the transparency and roughness of the resin block surfaces should be improved, epoxy micro-lens arrays were certainly fabricated. The mean values of curvature radius and lens height were 28.3μm and 4.9 μm, respectively.
Suzuki, Hiromasa; Okumura, Takamitsu; Tagaya, Akihiro; Higuchi, Eizaburo; Koike, Yasuhiro
A novel rear projection screen (Blue Ocean screen, Nitto Jyushi Kogyo, Co., Ltd.) has been developed. Blue Ocean screen is a single polymer plate requiring no lens element. The projected image is formed on the screen surface by the multiple light scattering. An image light is multiply scattered and is converted into homogeneous light distribution efficiently due to the internal particles of micron order dispersed in the acrylic polymer matrix. An ambient light is reduced by the dye molecules doped in the polymer and the anti-reflective coating on the screen surface. The condition of the particles and the concentration of the dye molecules have been optimized by the ray tracing simulation program based on Mie scattering theory using a Monte Carlo method. The screen containing the particles of optimum condition exhibits the wide viewing angle, the well-controlled color balance, and the high sharpness level at the same time. The contrast level of the projected image in ambient light is improved by controlling the concentration of the dye molecules. This paper describes the optimization obtained theoretically and experimentally, and demonstrates the advantage of Blue Ocean screen.
Yamada, Yoichi M A
I present herein the development of highly active and reusable polymeric catalysts produced by self-assembly process of non-cross-linked amphiphilic polymeric ligands with inorganic species. Thus, PWAA 1 prepared from H3PW12O40 and poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-(acrylamide with ammonium salt)] is suitable for oxidation of alcohols, amines, and sulfides in aqueous hydrogen peroxide. PdAS 2 produced by self-organization of (NH4)2PdCl4 and poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide)10-co-diphenylphosphinostyrene] is an excellent recyclable catalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura reaction in water, water-organic solvent, and organic solvent. It is commercially available from Tokyo Kasei Kogyo (TCI). PdAS-V 3 assembled from (NH4)2PdCl4 and poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide)5-co-diphenylphosphinostyrene] provides recycling system of itself for Mizorogi-Heck reaction. TiSS 4 made from Ti(O-i-Pr)4 and poly(styryl-linked binaphtholate-co-styrene) promotes an enantioselective carbonyl-ene reaction as a recyclable catalyst.
Yamada, Yoichi M A
Highly active and reusable polymeric catalysts were produced by a self-assembly process of non-cross-linked amphiphilic polymeric ligands with inorganic species. Thus a new insoluble tungsten polymeric catalyst PWAA 1 was prepared from H(3)PW(12)O(40) and poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-(acrylamide with ammonium salt)], which was suitable for the oxidation of alcohols, amines, and sulfides in aqueous hydrogen peroxide. A new insoluble palladium polymeric catalyst PdAS 2 was produced by self-organization of (NH(4))(2)PdCl(4) and poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide)(10)-co-diphenylphosphinostyrene], which is an excellent recyclable catalyst for the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction in water, water-organic solvents, and organic solvents. It is commercially available from Tokyo Kasei Kogyo (TCI). An improved insoluble palladium polymeric catalyst PdAS-V 3 was assembled from (NH(4))(2)PdCl(4) and poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide)(5)-co-diphenylphosphinostyrene], providing a reusable system for the Mizorogi-Heck reaction. A solid-phase titanium asymmetric polymeric catalyst TiSS 4 was made from Ti (O-i-Pr)(4) and poly(styryl-linked binaphtholate-co-styrene) which promotes an enantioselective carbonyl-ene reaction as a recyclable catalyst.
Silveri, M M; Dikan, J; Ross, A J; Jensen, J E; Kamiya, T; Kawada, Y; Renshaw, P F; Yurgelun-Todd, D A
Citicoline supplementation has been used to ameliorate memory disturbances in older people and those with Alzheimer's disease. This study used MRS to characterize the effects of citicoline on high-energy phosphate metabolites and constituents of membrane synthesis in the frontal lobe. Phosphorus ((31)P) metabolite data were acquired using a three-dimensional chemical-shift imaging protocol at 4 T from 16 healthy men and women (mean +/- SD age 47.3 +/- 5.4 years) who orally self-administered 500 mg or 2000 mg Cognizin Citicoline (Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co., Ltd, Ibaraki, Japan) for 6 weeks. Individual (31)P metabolites were quantified in the frontal lobe (anterior cingulate cortex) and a comparison region (parieto-occipital cortex). Significant increases in phosphocreatine (+7%), beta-nucleoside triphosphates (largely ATP in brain, +14%) and the ratio of phosphocreatine to inorganic phosphate (+32%), as well as significant changes in membrane phospholipids, were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex after 6 weeks of citicoline treatment. These treatment-related alterations in phosphorus metabolites were not only regionally specific, but tended to be of greater magnitude in subjects who received the lower dose. These data show that citicoline improves frontal lobe bioenergetics and alters phospholipid membrane turnover. Citicoline supplementation may therefore help to mitigate cognitive declines associated with aging by increasing energy reserves and utilization, as well as increasing the amount of essential phospholipid membrane components needed to synthesize and maintain cell membranes.
Lysine fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum was developed in 1958 by Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co. Ltd. (current Kyowa Hakko Bio Co. Ltd.) and is the second oldest amino acid fermentation process after glutamate fermentation. The fundamental mechanism of lysine production, discovered in the early stages of the process's history, gave birth to the concept known as "metabolic regulatory fermentation," which is now widely applied to metabolite production. After the development of rational metabolic engineering, research on lysine production first highlighted the need for engineering of the central metabolism from the viewpoints of precursor supply and NADPH regeneration. Furthermore, the existence of active export systems for amino acids was first demonstrated for lysine in C. glutamicum, and this discovery has resulted in the current recognition of such exporters as an important consideration in metabolite production. Lysine fermentation is also notable as the first process to which genomics was successfully applied to improve amino acid production. The first global "genome breeding" strategy was developed using a lysine producer as a model; this has since led to new lysine producers that are more efficient than classical industrial producers. These advances in strain development technology, combined with recent systems-level approaches, have almost achieved the optimization of entire cellular systems as cell factories for lysine production. In parallel, the continuous improvement of the process has resulted not only in fermentation processes with reduced load on downstream processing but also in commercialization of various product forms according to their intended uses. Nowadays lysine fermentation underpins a giant lysine demand of more than 2 million metric tons per year.
Ishigure, Takaaki; Nitta, Yosuke
We successfully fabricate a polymer optical waveguide with multiple graded-index (GI) cores directly on a substrate utilizing the soft-lithography method. A UV-curable polymer (TPIR-202) supplied from Tokyo Ohka Kogyo Co., Ltd. is used, and the GI cores are formed during the curing process of the core region, which is similar to the preform process we previously reported. We experimentally confirm that near parabolic refractive index profiles are formed in the parallel cores (more than 50 channels) with 40 microm x 40 microm size at 250-microm pitch. Although the loss is still as high as 0.1 approximately 0.3 dB/cm at 850 nm, which is mainly due to scattering loss inherent to the polymer matrix, the scattering loss attributed to the waveguide's structural irregularity could be sufficiently reduced by a graded refractive index profile. For comparison, we fabricate step-index (SI)-core waveguides with the same materials by means of the same process. Then, we evaluate the inter-channel crosstalk in the SI- and GI-core waveguides under almost the same conditions. It is noteworthy that remarkable crosstalk reduction (5 dB and beyond) is confirmed in the GI-core waveguides, since the propagating modes in GI-cores are tightly confined near the core center and less optical power is found near the core cladding boundary. This significant improvement in the inter-channel crosstalk allows the GI-core waveguides to be utilized for extra high-density on-board optical interconnections.
Saitou, Kenta; Horiuchi, Toshiyuki
A novel laser scan lithography for patterning in deep fine pipes using a reflection rod was developed. As a previous research, patterning results using an optical fiber rod or a light-emitting diode (LED) rod were reported. However, the minimum inner diameter was 6 mm, and the pattern width was approximately 200 µm. Here, more precise patterning onto the inside of much finer pipes using a novel reflection rod is demonstrated. A violet laser beam of 408 nm wavelength was shaped using a micropinhole and focused onto the inner surface of the pipe by way of a reflection rod of 500 µm diameter. The tip of the reflection rod was cut and polished in 45° mirror surface and the laser beam was bent in a right angle when reflected on the mirror surface. A beam spot observation system composed of a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and a television monitor was also added to observe the laser beam spot during the exposure. Specimen pipes were coated with 1-µm-thick positive THMR iP-3300 (Tokyo Ohka Kogyo) resist and scanned using a linear stage and a rotation stage and exposed to the laser light. The inside lithography was demonstrated for fine pipes of 1 mm inner diameter. Helical patterns with space widths of 9-20 µm were successfully delineated even at the deep inside position 20 mm away from the pipe entrance. Dense helical patterns of 100 µm narrow pitch and 12 µm space width and character patterns of 15 µm space width were also successfully delineated.
The article that follows examines the competition policy reflected in the decisions of the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in its patent cases. The court's views on this subject have been manifested most plainly in decisions that have transformed the law concerning infringement under the doctrine of equivalents and claim construction. In both categories, the court narrowed patent scope by reason of its desire to protect competitors. The article argues that the court's premise in prescribing narrower claim scope reflected an incomplete view of competition policy. The court's analysis overlooked the benefits to competition provided by patents, which stimulate inventions and their development. The article traces the development of antitrust jurisprudence and demonstrates how respect for the contribution of patents to competition and skepticism of free-riding has evolved, particularly beginning in the 1970s. The article draws a parallel between the Court's reasoning about competition policy, on the one hand, and the rejected views of Justices Hugo Black and William O. Douglas and abandoned patent-antitrust jurisprudence, on the other. The Federal Circuit's decision in Festo Corp. v. Shoketsu Kinzoku Kogyo Kabushiki Co., Ltd., 234 F.3d 558 (Fed. Cir. 2000), on the subject of equivalents is considered in the paper. In that decision, the majority adopted a new rule that completely barred infringement under the doctrine of equivalents of any claim limitation where, in prosecution, there had been a narrowing amendment relating to patentability. In the past, prosecution estoppel foreclosing equivalents had been subject to a "flexible bar," which, in some circumstances, allowed for equivalence notwithstanding such an amendment. The article points out that because almost all patents are amended during prosecution, the effect would be to allow widespread copying of patented inventions by trivial modifications of any narrowed claim limitation. The incentive to innovate
Na, Younghwa; Wang, Shuang; Kohn, Harold
The Kyowa Hakko Kogyo and Bristol-Myers Squibb companies reported that select mitomycin C(7) aminoethylene disulfides displayed improved pharmacological profiles compared with mitomycin C (1). Mechanisms have been advanced for these mitomycins that differ from 1. Central to many of these hypotheses is the intermediate generation of 7-N-(2-mercaptoethyl)mitomycin C (5). Thiol 5 has been neither isolated nor characterized. Two efficient methods were developed for mitomycin (porfiromycin) C(7)-substituted thiols. In the first method, the thiol was produced by a thiol-mediated disulfide exchange process using an activated mixed mitomycin disulfide. In the second route, the thiol was generated by base-mediated cleavage of a porfiromycin C(7)-substituted thiol ester. We selected four thiols, 7-N-(2-mercaptoethyl)mitomycin C (5), 7-N-(2-mercaptoethyl)porfiromycin (12), 7-N-(2-mercapto-2-methylpropyl)mitomycin C (13), and 7-N-(3-mercaptopropyl)porfiromycin (14), for study. Thiols 5 and 12-14 differed in the composition of the alkyl linker that bridged the thiol with the mitomycin (porfiromycin) C(7) amino substituent. Thiol generation was documented by HPLC and spectroscopic studies and by thiol-trapping experiments. The linker affected the structure of the thiol species and the stability of the thiol. We observed that thiols 5 and 12 existed largely as their cyclic isomers. Evidence is presented that cyclization predominantly occurred at the mitomycin C(7) position. Correspondingly, alkyl linker substitution (13) or extension of the linker to three carbons (14) led to enhanced thiol stability and the predominant formation of the free thiol species. The dominant reaction of thiols 5 and 12-14 or their isomers was dimerization, and we found no evidence that thiol formation led to mitosene production and aziridine ring-opening. These findings indicated that thiol generation was not sufficient for mitomycin ring activation. The potential pharmacological advantages of
Su, Chunming; Puls, Robert W; Krug, Thomas A; Watling, Mark T; O'Hara, Suzanne K; Quinn, Jacqueline W; Ruiz, Nancy E
Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) such as Toda Kogyo RNIP-10DS has been used for site remediation, yet information is lacking regarding how far injected NZVI can travel, how long it lasts, and how it transforms to other minerals in a groundwater system. Previously we reported effective mass destruction of chlorinated ethenes dominated by tetrachloroethene (PCE) using emulsified zerovalent iron (EZVI) nanoparticles of RNIP-10DS in a shallow aquifer (1-6 m below ground surface, BGS) at Site 45, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina, USA. Here we report test results on transport and transformation of injected EZVI in the subsurface. We employed two EZVI delivery methods: pneumatic injection and direct injection. Effective delivery of EZVI to the targeted zone was achieved with pneumatic injection showing a travel distance from injection points of up to 2.1 m and direct injection showing a travel distance up to 0.89 m. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies on particles harvested from well purge waters indicated that injected black colored NZVI (α-Fe(0)) was transformed largely to black colored cube-like and plate-like magnetites (Fe3O4, 0.1-1 μm, 0-9 months), then to orange colored irregularly shaped lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH, 0.1-1 μm, 9 months to 2.5 years), then to yellowish lath-like goethite (α-FeOOH, 2-5 μm, 2.5 years) and ferrihydrite-like spherical particles (0.05-0.1 μm) in the top portion of the aquifer (1-2 m BGS). No α-Fe(0) was found in most monitoring wells three months after injection. The formed iron oxides appeared to have a wider range of particle size (submicron to 5 μm) than the pristine NZVI (35-140 nm). Injected NZVI was largely transformed to magnetite (0.1-1 μm) during two and half years in the lower portion of the aquifer (3-6 m).
Sasaki, T.; Ueta, K.; Inoue, D.; Aoyagi, Y.; Yanagida, M.; Ichikawa, K.; Goto, N.
It is important to evaluate the magnitude of earthquake caused by multiple active faults, taking into account the simultaneous effects. The simultaneity of adjacent active faults are often decided on the basis of geometric distances except for known these paleoseismic records. We have been studied the step area between the Nukumi fault and the Neodani fault, which appeared as consecutive ruptures in the 1891 Nobi earthquake, since 2009. The purpose of this study is to establish innovation in valuation technique of the simultaneity of adjacent active faults in addition to the paleoseismic record and the geometric distance. Geomorphological, geological and reconnaissance microearthquake surveys are concluded. The present work is intended to clarify the distribution of tectonic geomorphology along the Nukumi fault and the Neodani fault by high-resolution interpretations of airborne LiDAR DEM and aerial photograph, and the field survey of outcrops and location survey. The study area of this work is the southeastern Nukumi fault and the northwestern Neodani fault. We interpret DEM using shaded relief map and stereoscopic bird's-eye view made from 2m mesh DEM data which is obtained by airborne laser scanner of Kokusai Kogyo Co., Ltd. Aerial photographic survey is for confirmation of DEM interpretation using 1/16,000 scale photo. As a result of topographic survey, we found consecutive tectonic topography which is left lateral displacement of ridge and valley lines and reverse scarplets along the Nukumi fault and the Neodani fault . From Ogotani 2km southeastern of Nukumi pass which is located at the southeastern end of surface rupture along the Nukumi fault by previous study to Neooppa 9km southeastern of Nukumi pass, we can interpret left lateral topographies and small uphill-facing fault scarps on the terrace surface by detail DEM investigation. These topographies are unrecognized by aerial photographic survey because of heavy vegetation. We have found several new