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Sample records for chowagata kogyo senjo

  1. Alpha List of Prime Contract Awards. Oct 92-Sep 93. FY93. (Martinez Architects Inc. - Nihon Boshoku Kogyo KK)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    M0 11 46 14 -4CC--- -44- OD .4--44. .4 . SO 00 ( Palm N"j Go4.4-- cow Go -40) CN A Z 0 LL. if 0 1 00a .0 to Nao 4I inIn In In In~ *44 In in wNNN C 04...OOO OO >_>O_> _> _> _> _> _> ItI go • II OOO OOO OO OOa CV 0 OO O O OnI nI r acaI ni nI nI ItI ca- j0 1 * 4- )0 ncno n0 ncIInC)- "-41 4ý 40 If...a oCOC acac ac ocac ac acaI ac oC If U0 lt 11 11 1 00-4 11 >->>)’>) 11 1 moýCj 11 Nq 04 II .4 . 4ý4 ý 4-4 v- .4 q q 4 .4ý 4 4ý4 -4 .4ý 4ý 4 .4ý-4 .4

  2. Crystalline Forms in a Copolymer of Vinylidene Fluoride and Trifluoroethylene (52/48 Mol %).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    ethylene, provided by Daikin Kogyo Co., Ltd, Japan. 23 They had been prepared by bulk polymerization at 221C using a peroxide initiator, and were in...transition region. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank Drs. J. Sako of Daikin Kogyo Co., Ltd., and R. Ferren of Pennwalt Corp. for pro- vision of

  3. JPRS Report Science & Technology Japan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    34Ceramics Machining Handbook ," Nikkan Kogyo Shinbunsha (1987) p 211. 7. N. Yasunaga, "Ceramics Machining Handbook ," Nikkan Kogyo Shinbunsha (1987) p...a DNA library at the Clinical Research Center ( CRC ) of the Medical Research Council (MRC) to use the database and library as the core of technical...right track at last. It may be said that it started by the top-down method, but it is flowering from the bottom up. JPRS-JST-89-028 15 December 1989

  4. Travel Distance and Transformation of Injected Emulsified Zerovalent Iron Nanoparticles in the Subsurface During Two and Half Years

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) such as Toda Kogyo RNIP-10DS has been used for site remediation, yet information is lacking regarding how far injected NZVI can travel, how long it lasts, and how it transforms to other minerals in a groundwater system. Previously we reported effe...

  5. Travel Distance and Transformation of Injected Emulsified Zerovalent Iron Nanoparticles in the Subsurface During Two and Half Years

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) such as Toda Kogyo RNIP-10DS has been used for site remediation, yet information is lacking regarding how far injected NZVI can travel, how long it lasts, and how it transforms to other minerals in a groundwater system. Previously we reported effe...

  6. Phosphorus-Nitrogen Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    933 720 (1963). - 51- 57) V.B. Tolstoguzov, S.M. Zhlvukhin, and V.V. Kireev : UdSSR Pat. 158 415 (1963). 58) M. Yokoyama and F. Goda: Kogyo Kagaku...Tolstoguzov, and V.V. Kireev : Vysokomolekul. Soedin 6, 1111 (1964). 70) A. Winter-Klein, Verres et refract. 9, 147 (1955). 71) H. Moureau and P. Rocquet

  7. Historical Note on Cumulative Recorders Manufactured in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Toshio; Lattal, Kennon A

    2008-01-01

    The history of cumulative recorders manufactured in Japan between the early 1970s and the present is described. The first such instrument was the Tosoku–Kogyo Company's Model T-45A, followed thereafter by its Model T-45B, built on the same chassis as the T-45A, but with different electrical and mechanical components. When Tosoku–Kogyo closed its recorder operations, the recorder continued to be manufactured and sold by Okubo–Sokkouki as its Model OS 180. The appearance of such commercially manufactured cumulative recorders in countries other than the United States further attests to the internationalization of behavior analysis during the mid- to late-20th century. PMID:18683617

  8. A novel lithography process for 3D (three-dimensional) interconnect using an optical direct-writing exposure system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, T.; Sekiguchi, M.; Matsuo, M.; Kawasaki, A.; Hagiwara, K.; Matsui, H.; Kawamura, N.; Kishimoto, K.; Nakamura, A.; Washio, Y.

    2010-03-01

    A novel lithography process for 3D (Three-dimensional) interconnect was developed using an optical direct-writing exposure tool. A reflective IR (Infra-red) alignment system allows a direct detection of alignment marks both on front-side and back-side of wafer, and consequently allows feasible micro-fabrication for 3D interconnect using the reversed wafer. A combination of the optical direct-writing exposure tool of Dainippon Screen MFG. Co., Ltd. with the reflective IR alignment system and a high aspect chemically amplified resist of Tokyo Ohka Kogyo Co., Ltd. provides the lithography process exclusively for 12-inch wafer level 3D interconnect.

  9. The effective use of newspaper information in corporations (1) Centered around industrial and technical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    The author explains the such background that as information society has progressed, databases have become much more important than ever in effectively utilizing information resourses which newspaper companies hold. This explanation is also the report by a database producer of Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun newspaper article information. This database's coverage is all-directional in industry fields in order to meet the information needs there, being emphasized on advanced high-technology fields as well as new products. He introduces efficient searching methods including NK Thesaurus, corporate name code book. He also discusses the practices of the information use by showing some examples in which newspaper article data are actually used in industrial and technical fields.

  10. Best Practices and Testing Protocols for Benchmarking ORR Activities of Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts Using Rotating Disk Electrode

    DOE PAGES

    Kocha, Shyam S.; Shinozaki, Kazuma; Zack, Jason W.; ...

    2017-05-02

    Thin-film-rotating disk electrodes (TF-RDEs) are the half-cell electrochemical system of choice for rapid screening of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of novel Pt supported on carbon black supports (Pt/C) electrocatalysts. It has been shown that the magnitude of the measured ORR activity and reproducibility are highly dependent on the system cleanliness, evaluation protocols, and operating conditions as well as ink formulation, composition, film drying, and the resultant film thickness and uniformity. Accurate benchmarks of baseline Pt/C catalysts evaluated using standardized protocols and best practices are necessary to expedite ultra-low-platinum group metal (PGM) catalyst development that is crucial for the imminentmore » commercialization of fuel cell vehicles. We report results of evaluation in three independent laboratories of Pt/C electrocatalysts provided by commercial fuel cell catalyst manufacturers (Johnson Matthey, Umicore, Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo - TKK). The studies were conducted using identical evaluation protocols/ink formulation/film fabrication albeit employing unique electrochemical cell designs specific to each laboratory. Furthermore, the ORR activities reported in this work provide a baseline and criteria for selection and scale-up of novel high activity ORR electrocatalysts for implementation in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).« less

  11. Citicoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Silveri, M M; Dikan, J; Ross, A J; Jensen, J E; Kamiya, T; Kawada, Y; Renshaw, P F; Yurgelun-Todd, D A

    2008-11-01

    Citicoline supplementation has been used to ameliorate memory disturbances in older people and those with Alzheimer's disease. This study used MRS to characterize the effects of citicoline on high-energy phosphate metabolites and constituents of membrane synthesis in the frontal lobe. Phosphorus ((31)P) metabolite data were acquired using a three-dimensional chemical-shift imaging protocol at 4 T from 16 healthy men and women (mean +/- SD age 47.3 +/- 5.4 years) who orally self-administered 500 mg or 2000 mg Cognizin Citicoline (Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co., Ltd, Ibaraki, Japan) for 6 weeks. Individual (31)P metabolites were quantified in the frontal lobe (anterior cingulate cortex) and a comparison region (parieto-occipital cortex). Significant increases in phosphocreatine (+7%), beta-nucleoside triphosphates (largely ATP in brain, +14%) and the ratio of phosphocreatine to inorganic phosphate (+32%), as well as significant changes in membrane phospholipids, were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex after 6 weeks of citicoline treatment. These treatment-related alterations in phosphorus metabolites were not only regionally specific, but tended to be of greater magnitude in subjects who received the lower dose. These data show that citicoline improves frontal lobe bioenergetics and alters phospholipid membrane turnover. Citicoline supplementation may therefore help to mitigate cognitive declines associated with aging by increasing energy reserves and utilization, as well as increasing the amount of essential phospholipid membrane components needed to synthesize and maintain cell membranes.

  12. Technology for fabricating micro-lens arrays utilizing lithographically replicated concave resist patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Noa; Sasaki, Ryunosuke; Horiuchi, Toshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    Lithography has been generally used for printing two-dimensional patterns on flat wafers. Recently, however, it is also applied to a three-dimensional patterning for fabricating various MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) components. The purpose of this research is to develop a new method for fabricating micro-lens arrays. At first, resist (Tokyo Ohka Kogyo, PMER LA-900PM) mold patterns with densely arrayed square or hexagonal concaves were replicated by intentionally shifting the focal position of projection exposure. The size of resist-mold was 2 mm square, and the initial thickness of the resist was 10 μm. Next, the wafer with the concave resist patterns was cut into small chips, and each wafer chip was fixed at the bottom of a paper cup using an adhesive tape. Then the epoxy resin (Nissin resin, Crystal resin Neo) was poured on the concave resist-mold patterns, and the resin was coagulated. Afterward, the hardened resin was grooved along the wafer chip using a cutter knife, and the wafer chip with the resist-mold patterns was forcibly removed using a pair of tweezers. Finally, both sides of the resin block were polished, and the thickness was reduced. Although the transparency and roughness of the resin block surfaces should be improved, epoxy micro-lens arrays were certainly fabricated. The mean values of curvature radius and lens height were 28.3μm and 4.9 μm, respectively.

  13. High-definition projection screen based on multiple light scattering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hiromasa; Okumura, Takamitsu; Tagaya, Akihiro; Higuchi, Eizaburo; Koike, Yasuhiro

    2004-05-01

    A novel rear projection screen (Blue Ocean screen, Nitto Jyushi Kogyo, Co., Ltd.) has been developed. Blue Ocean screen is a single polymer plate requiring no lens element. The projected image is formed on the screen surface by the multiple light scattering. An image light is multiply scattered and is converted into homogeneous light distribution efficiently due to the internal particles of micron order dispersed in the acrylic polymer matrix. An ambient light is reduced by the dye molecules doped in the polymer and the anti-reflective coating on the screen surface. The condition of the particles and the concentration of the dye molecules have been optimized by the ray tracing simulation program based on Mie scattering theory using a Monte Carlo method. The screen containing the particles of optimum condition exhibits the wide viewing angle, the well-controlled color balance, and the high sharpness level at the same time. The contrast level of the projected image in ambient light is improved by controlling the concentration of the dye molecules. This paper describes the optimization obtained theoretically and experimentally, and demonstrates the advantage of Blue Ocean screen.

  14. Self-assembled complexes of non-cross-linked amphiphilic polymeric ligands with inorganic species: highly active and reusable solid-phase polymeric catalysts.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yoichi M A

    2005-07-01

    I present herein the development of highly active and reusable polymeric catalysts produced by self-assembly process of non-cross-linked amphiphilic polymeric ligands with inorganic species. Thus, PWAA 1 prepared from H3PW12O40 and poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-(acrylamide with ammonium salt)] is suitable for oxidation of alcohols, amines, and sulfides in aqueous hydrogen peroxide. PdAS 2 produced by self-organization of (NH4)2PdCl4 and poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide)10-co-diphenylphosphinostyrene] is an excellent recyclable catalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura reaction in water, water-organic solvent, and organic solvent. It is commercially available from Tokyo Kasei Kogyo (TCI). PdAS-V 3 assembled from (NH4)2PdCl4 and poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide)5-co-diphenylphosphinostyrene] provides recycling system of itself for Mizorogi-Heck reaction. TiSS 4 made from Ti(O-i-Pr)4 and poly(styryl-linked binaphtholate-co-styrene) promotes an enantioselective carbonyl-ene reaction as a recyclable catalyst.

  15. [Development of novel solid-phase polymeric catalysts for organic syntheses].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yoichi M A

    2005-10-01

    Highly active and reusable polymeric catalysts were produced by a self-assembly process of non-cross-linked amphiphilic polymeric ligands with inorganic species. Thus a new insoluble tungsten polymeric catalyst PWAA 1 was prepared from H(3)PW(12)O(40) and poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-(acrylamide with ammonium salt)], which was suitable for the oxidation of alcohols, amines, and sulfides in aqueous hydrogen peroxide. A new insoluble palladium polymeric catalyst PdAS 2 was produced by self-organization of (NH(4))(2)PdCl(4) and poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide)(10)-co-diphenylphosphinostyrene], which is an excellent recyclable catalyst for the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction in water, water-organic solvents, and organic solvents. It is commercially available from Tokyo Kasei Kogyo (TCI). An improved insoluble palladium polymeric catalyst PdAS-V 3 was assembled from (NH(4))(2)PdCl(4) and poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide)(5)-co-diphenylphosphinostyrene], providing a reusable system for the Mizorogi-Heck reaction. A solid-phase titanium asymmetric polymeric catalyst TiSS 4 was made from Ti (O-i-Pr)(4) and poly(styryl-linked binaphtholate-co-styrene) which promotes an enantioselective carbonyl-ene reaction as a recyclable catalyst.

  16. Successful treatment with a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (IDEC-C2B8, rituximab) for a patient with relapsed mantle cell lymphoma who developed a human anti-chimeric antibody.

    PubMed

    Maeda, T; Yamada, Y; Tawara, M; Yamasaki, R; Yakata, Y; Tsutsumi, C; Onimaru, Y; Kamihira, S; Tomonaga, M

    2001-07-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) has a poor prognosis without cure; the median overall survival ranges only from 3 to 4 years irrespective of conventional therapeutic regimens. IDEC-C2B8 (rituximab), a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the B-cell-specific antigen CD20, induces an evaluable clinical response in patients with MCL with mild toxicities. However, the single agent rituximab cannot cure MCL. Due to its low immunogenicity, an antibody against IDEC-C2B8 (human antichimeric antibody [HACA]) has rarely been produced in vivo. We report a patient with relapsed MCL who was successfully treated with IDEC-C2B8 for over a year although she developed HACA 6 months after the initial administration of IDEC-C2B8 in the phase II clinical trial conducted by Zenyaku Kogyo Co. Ltd. We followed the pharmacokinetics of IDEC-C2B8, the serum HACA titer, and the number of B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood in relation to clinical response. The HACA became undetectable soon after subsequent administrations of IDEC-C2B8. When the serum level of IDEC-C2B8 was kept elevated, clinical responses were apparently observed and HACA disappeared during this response period. There were no significant clinical toxicities related to the appearance of HACA. The present findings suggested that IDEC-C2B8 is effective and safe even in patients who have developed HACA.

  17. Novel Laser Scan Lithography onto Deep Inside Surfaces of Fine Pipes Using a Reflection Rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitou, Kenta; Horiuchi, Toshiyuki

    2009-04-01

    A novel laser scan lithography for patterning in deep fine pipes using a reflection rod was developed. As a previous research, patterning results using an optical fiber rod or a light-emitting diode (LED) rod were reported. However, the minimum inner diameter was 6 mm, and the pattern width was approximately 200 µm. Here, more precise patterning onto the inside of much finer pipes using a novel reflection rod is demonstrated. A violet laser beam of 408 nm wavelength was shaped using a micropinhole and focused onto the inner surface of the pipe by way of a reflection rod of 500 µm diameter. The tip of the reflection rod was cut and polished in 45° mirror surface and the laser beam was bent in a right angle when reflected on the mirror surface. A beam spot observation system composed of a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and a television monitor was also added to observe the laser beam spot during the exposure. Specimen pipes were coated with 1-µm-thick positive THMR iP-3300 (Tokyo Ohka Kogyo) resist and scanned using a linear stage and a rotation stage and exposed to the laser light. The inside lithography was demonstrated for fine pipes of 1 mm inner diameter. Helical patterns with space widths of 9-20 µm were successfully delineated even at the deep inside position 20 mm away from the pipe entrance. Dense helical patterns of 100 µm narrow pitch and 12 µm space width and character patterns of 15 µm space width were also successfully delineated.

  18. Polymer optical waveguide with multiple graded-index cores for on-board interconnects fabricated using soft-lithography.

    PubMed

    Ishigure, Takaaki; Nitta, Yosuke

    2010-06-21

    We successfully fabricate a polymer optical waveguide with multiple graded-index (GI) cores directly on a substrate utilizing the soft-lithography method. A UV-curable polymer (TPIR-202) supplied from Tokyo Ohka Kogyo Co., Ltd. is used, and the GI cores are formed during the curing process of the core region, which is similar to the preform process we previously reported. We experimentally confirm that near parabolic refractive index profiles are formed in the parallel cores (more than 50 channels) with 40 microm x 40 microm size at 250-microm pitch. Although the loss is still as high as 0.1 approximately 0.3 dB/cm at 850 nm, which is mainly due to scattering loss inherent to the polymer matrix, the scattering loss attributed to the waveguide's structural irregularity could be sufficiently reduced by a graded refractive index profile. For comparison, we fabricate step-index (SI)-core waveguides with the same materials by means of the same process. Then, we evaluate the inter-channel crosstalk in the SI- and GI-core waveguides under almost the same conditions. It is noteworthy that remarkable crosstalk reduction (5 dB and beyond) is confirmed in the GI-core waveguides, since the propagating modes in GI-cores are tightly confined near the core center and less optical power is found near the core cladding boundary. This significant improvement in the inter-channel crosstalk allows the GI-core waveguides to be utilized for extra high-density on-board optical interconnections.

  19. Lysine Fermentation: History and Genome Breeding.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Masato

    2016-11-11

    Lysine fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum was developed in 1958 by Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co. Ltd. (current Kyowa Hakko Bio Co. Ltd.) and is the second oldest amino acid fermentation process after glutamate fermentation. The fundamental mechanism of lysine production, discovered in the early stages of the process's history, gave birth to the concept known as "metabolic regulatory fermentation," which is now widely applied to metabolite production. After the development of rational metabolic engineering, research on lysine production first highlighted the need for engineering of the central metabolism from the viewpoints of precursor supply and NADPH regeneration. Furthermore, the existence of active export systems for amino acids was first demonstrated for lysine in C. glutamicum, and this discovery has resulted in the current recognition of such exporters as an important consideration in metabolite production. Lysine fermentation is also notable as the first process to which genomics was successfully applied to improve amino acid production. The first global "genome breeding" strategy was developed using a lysine producer as a model; this has since led to new lysine producers that are more efficient than classical industrial producers. These advances in strain development technology, combined with recent systems-level approaches, have almost achieved the optimization of entire cellular systems as cell factories for lysine production. In parallel, the continuous improvement of the process has resulted not only in fermentation processes with reduced load on downstream processing but also in commercialization of various product forms according to their intended uses. Nowadays lysine fermentation underpins a giant lysine demand of more than 2 million metric tons per year.

  20. Olopatadine hydrochloride accelerates the recovery of skin barrier function in mice.

    PubMed

    Amano, T; Takeda, T; Yano, H; Tamura, T

    2007-05-01

    The skin barrier function in patients with atopic dermatitis is disrupted and prolonged topical steroid therapy produces epidermal barrier disturbance. Olopatadine hydrochloride (olopatadine; Allelock; Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co., Ltd, Shizuoka, Japan) is an antiallergic drug with histamine H(1) receptor antagonistic action. This drug alleviates skin inflammation and decreases the number of scratching episodes in a murine model of chronic contact dermatitis. To investigate the effects of olopatadine and a steroid on the recovery of skin barrier function after barrier disruption in mice. The skin barrier of the ears of mice was disrupted by tape stripping. The recovery of skin barrier function was monitored by measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) after barrier disruption. Epidermal hyperplasia was induced by repeated tape stripping for 7 days. Olopatadine was administered orally once daily from 3 days before the first barrier disruption. Betamethasone 17-valerate (betamethasone) was applied topically once daily from 3 days before barrier disruption. Tape stripping led to a significant increase in TEWL. TEWL decreased with time after tape stripping and the skin barrier function recovered by over 60% within 9 h after tape stripping. The recovery of skin barrier in olopatadine-treated mice was significantly accelerated, compared with that in vehicle-treated mice. In contrast, the skin barrier recovery in mice treated with topical betamethasone was significantly delayed, compared with that in vehicle-treated mice. Combined treatment with olopatadine and betamethasone ameliorated the delay in barrier recovery induced by topical treatment with betamethasone. In addition, olopatadine significantly prevented the increase in epidermal thickness induced by prolonged barrier disruption. These results suggest that systemic administration of olopatadine accelerates the recovery of skin barrier function and ameliorates the adverse effects of topical steroids on skin barrier

  1. Si-mold fabrication for patterned media using high-resolution chemically amplified resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Masaharu; Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Mikio; Itoh, Kimio; Kurihara, Masaaki; Hoga, Morihisa

    2009-04-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is one promising candidate for fabricating a patterned media to be used in the next generation of hard disk drives. It is expected that the pitch, characterizing the feature size of the media will become as low as 40-50 nm for Discrete-Track Media (DTM) by 2010 and 25 nm for Bit-Patterned Media (BPM) by 2012. Electron beam lithography is usually employed for fabricating the nanoimprint mold used for nanoimprint lithography. ZEP520A, the high-resolution resist that is commonly used for this fabrication has a low throughput; caused by the low sensitivity when used at the high acceleration voltage of 100 kV. To solve this problem, we evaluated a new high-resolution, chemically amplified resist (CAR) developed by TOKYO OHKA KOGYO Co., LTD., that was specifically developed for high resolution, instead of high sensitivity, with over twice the sensitivity of ZEP520A and a resolution of 50 nm pitch or less. A spot-electron beam (EB) writer with an acceleration voltage of 100 kV (100 kV-SB) was employed and the new CAR and ZEP520A were compared for resolution and sensitivity. Results indicated that the new CAR patterns were resolved down to a 48 nm pitch, but were collapsed even at a64 nm pitch. To prevent the collapse, we attempted to optimize the baking conditions and examined the primers as promoters of the adhesion between the resist patterns and the substrate surface. As a result, a resist pattern as low as a 48 nm pitch was obtained. We report on the performance of the new CAR and the fabrication of the Si mold by using the new CAR.

  2. Competition policy in patent cases and antitrust.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The article that follows examines the competition policy reflected in the decisions of the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in its patent cases. The court's views on this subject have been manifested most plainly in decisions that have transformed the law concerning infringement under the doctrine of equivalents and claim construction. In both categories, the court narrowed patent scope by reason of its desire to protect competitors. The article argues that the court's premise in prescribing narrower claim scope reflected an incomplete view of competition policy. The court's analysis overlooked the benefits to competition provided by patents, which stimulate inventions and their development. The article traces the development of antitrust jurisprudence and demonstrates how respect for the contribution of patents to competition and skepticism of free-riding has evolved, particularly beginning in the 1970s. The article draws a parallel between the Court's reasoning about competition policy, on the one hand, and the rejected views of Justices Hugo Black and William O. Douglas and abandoned patent-antitrust jurisprudence, on the other. The Federal Circuit's decision in Festo Corp. v. Shoketsu Kinzoku Kogyo Kabushiki Co., Ltd., 234 F.3d 558 (Fed. Cir. 2000), on the subject of equivalents is considered in the paper. In that decision, the majority adopted a new rule that completely barred infringement under the doctrine of equivalents of any claim limitation where, in prosecution, there had been a narrowing amendment relating to patentability. In the past, prosecution estoppel foreclosing equivalents had been subject to a "flexible bar," which, in some circumstances, allowed for equivalence notwithstanding such an amendment. The article points out that because almost all patents are amended during prosecution, the effect would be to allow widespread copying of patented inventions by trivial modifications of any narrowed claim limitation. The incentive to innovate

  3. Travel distance and transformation of injected emulsified zerovalent iron nanoparticles in the subsurface during two and half years.

    PubMed

    Su, Chunming; Puls, Robert W; Krug, Thomas A; Watling, Mark T; O'Hara, Suzanne K; Quinn, Jacqueline W; Ruiz, Nancy E

    2013-08-01

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) such as Toda Kogyo RNIP-10DS has been used for site remediation, yet information is lacking regarding how far injected NZVI can travel, how long it lasts, and how it transforms to other minerals in a groundwater system. Previously we reported effective mass destruction of chlorinated ethenes dominated by tetrachloroethene (PCE) using emulsified zerovalent iron (EZVI) nanoparticles of RNIP-10DS in a shallow aquifer (1-6 m below ground surface, BGS) at Site 45, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina, USA. Here we report test results on transport and transformation of injected EZVI in the subsurface. We employed two EZVI delivery methods: pneumatic injection and direct injection. Effective delivery of EZVI to the targeted zone was achieved with pneumatic injection showing a travel distance from injection points of up to 2.1 m and direct injection showing a travel distance up to 0.89 m. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies on particles harvested from well purge waters indicated that injected black colored NZVI (α-Fe(0)) was transformed largely to black colored cube-like and plate-like magnetites (Fe3O4, 0.1-1 μm, 0-9 months), then to orange colored irregularly shaped lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH, 0.1-1 μm, 9 months to 2.5 years), then to yellowish lath-like goethite (α-FeOOH, 2-5 μm, 2.5 years) and ferrihydrite-like spherical particles (0.05-0.1 μm) in the top portion of the aquifer (1-2 m BGS). No α-Fe(0) was found in most monitoring wells three months after injection. The formed iron oxides appeared to have a wider range of particle size (submicron to 5 μm) than the pristine NZVI (35-140 nm). Injected NZVI was largely transformed to magnetite (0.1-1 μm) during two and half years in the lower portion of the aquifer (3-6 m).

  4. Beneficial Role of Copper in the Enhancement of Durability of Ordered Intermetallic PtFeCu Catalyst for Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Balamurugan; Tamaki, Takanori; Yamaguchi, Takeo

    2015-08-05

    Design of Pt alloy catalysts with enhanced activity and durability is a key challenge for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. In the present work, we compare the durability of the ordered intermetallic face-centered tetragonal (fct) PtFeCu catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) relative to its counterpart bimetallic catalysts, i.e., the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFe catalyst and the commercial catalyst from Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo, TKK-PtC. Although both fct catalysts initially exhibited an ordered structure and mass activity approximately 2.5 times higher than that of TKK-Pt/C, the presence of Cu at the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFeCu catalyst led to a significant enhancement in durability compared to that of the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFe catalyst. The ordered intermetallic fct-PtFeCu catalyst retained more than 70% of its mass activity and electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) over 10 000 durability cycles carried out at 60 °C. In contrast, the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFe catalyst maintained only about 40% of its activity. The temperature of the durability experiment is also shown to be important: the catalyst was more severely degraded at 60 °C than at room temperature. To obtain insight into the observed enhancement in durability of fct-PtFeCu catalyst, a postmortem analysis of the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFeCu catalyst was carried out using scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDX) line scan. The STEM-EDX line scans of the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFeCu catalyst over 10 000 durability cycles showed a smaller degree of Fe and Cu dissolution from the catalyst. Conversely, large dissolution of Fe was identified in the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFe catalyst, indicating a lesser retention of Fe that causes the destruction of ordered structure and gives rise to poor durability. The enhancement in the durability of the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFeCu catalyst is ascribed to

  5. 7-N-(mercaptoalkyl)mitomycins: implications of cyclization for drug function.

    PubMed

    Na, Younghwa; Wang, Shuang; Kohn, Harold

    2002-05-01

    The Kyowa Hakko Kogyo and Bristol-Myers Squibb companies reported that select mitomycin C(7) aminoethylene disulfides displayed improved pharmacological profiles compared with mitomycin C (1). Mechanisms have been advanced for these mitomycins that differ from 1. Central to many of these hypotheses is the intermediate generation of 7-N-(2-mercaptoethyl)mitomycin C (5). Thiol 5 has been neither isolated nor characterized. Two efficient methods were developed for mitomycin (porfiromycin) C(7)-substituted thiols. In the first method, the thiol was produced by a thiol-mediated disulfide exchange process using an activated mixed mitomycin disulfide. In the second route, the thiol was generated by base-mediated cleavage of a porfiromycin C(7)-substituted thiol ester. We selected four thiols, 7-N-(2-mercaptoethyl)mitomycin C (5), 7-N-(2-mercaptoethyl)porfiromycin (12), 7-N-(2-mercapto-2-methylpropyl)mitomycin C (13), and 7-N-(3-mercaptopropyl)porfiromycin (14), for study. Thiols 5 and 12-14 differed in the composition of the alkyl linker that bridged the thiol with the mitomycin (porfiromycin) C(7) amino substituent. Thiol generation was documented by HPLC and spectroscopic studies and by thiol-trapping experiments. The linker affected the structure of the thiol species and the stability of the thiol. We observed that thiols 5 and 12 existed largely as their cyclic isomers. Evidence is presented that cyclization predominantly occurred at the mitomycin C(7) position. Correspondingly, alkyl linker substitution (13) or extension of the linker to three carbons (14) led to enhanced thiol stability and the predominant formation of the free thiol species. The dominant reaction of thiols 5 and 12-14 or their isomers was dimerization, and we found no evidence that thiol formation led to mitosene production and aziridine ring-opening. These findings indicated that thiol generation was not sufficient for mitomycin ring activation. The potential pharmacological advantages of

  6. Active Fault Topography and Fault Outcrops in the Central Part of the Nukumi fault, the 1891 Nobi Earthquake Fault System, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, T.; Ueta, K.; Inoue, D.; Aoyagi, Y.; Yanagida, M.; Ichikawa, K.; Goto, N.

    2010-12-01

    It is important to evaluate the magnitude of earthquake caused by multiple active faults, taking into account the simultaneous effects. The simultaneity of adjacent active faults are often decided on the basis of geometric distances except for known these paleoseismic records. We have been studied the step area between the Nukumi fault and the Neodani fault, which appeared as consecutive ruptures in the 1891 Nobi earthquake, since 2009. The purpose of this study is to establish innovation in valuation technique of the simultaneity of adjacent active faults in addition to the paleoseismic record and the geometric distance. Geomorphological, geological and reconnaissance microearthquake surveys are concluded. The present work is intended to clarify the distribution of tectonic geomorphology along the Nukumi fault and the Neodani fault by high-resolution interpretations of airborne LiDAR DEM and aerial photograph, and the field survey of outcrops and location survey. The study area of this work is the southeastern Nukumi fault and the northwestern Neodani fault. We interpret DEM using shaded relief map and stereoscopic bird's-eye view made from 2m mesh DEM data which is obtained by airborne laser scanner of Kokusai Kogyo Co., Ltd. Aerial photographic survey is for confirmation of DEM interpretation using 1/16,000 scale photo. As a result of topographic survey, we found consecutive tectonic topography which is left lateral displacement of ridge and valley lines and reverse scarplets along the Nukumi fault and the Neodani fault . From Ogotani 2km southeastern of Nukumi pass which is located at the southeastern end of surface rupture along the Nukumi fault by previous study to Neooppa 9km southeastern of Nukumi pass, we can interpret left lateral topographies and small uphill-facing fault scarps on the terrace surface by detail DEM investigation. These topographies are unrecognized by aerial photographic survey because of heavy vegetation. We have found several new