Cameron, J. Elliot
To examine the historical background of educational programs of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, the Church population, and educational opportunities available to Church members, a questionnaire was sent to presidents of Church missions outside the United States. It was found that Church membership has increased rapidly and could…
Strader, Matthew W.
The purpose of this study was to identify the profile of an ideal teacher for the Church Educational System (CES) for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. This study surveyed 159 students, teachers, and administrators in order to find the characteristics perceived to be ideal in a CES teacher. The survey included 16 characteristics of…
Parker, Catherine L.
The Churches of Christ, a body of Christian believers descending from the nineteenth century American Restoration Movement, have a well-documented history of establishing and supporting liberal arts colleges and universities. This study of theatre programs at three of these institutions--Lipscomb University, Pepperdine University, and York…
Stanford, Joseph B; Smith, Ken R
Utah has the highest total fertility of any state in the United States and also the highest proportion of population affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the LDS or Mormon Church). Data were used from the 1996 Utah Health Status Survey to investigate how annual household income, education and affiliation with the LDS Church affect fertility (children ever born) for married women in Utah. Younger age and higher education were negatively correlated with fertility in the sample as a whole and among non-LDS respondents. Income was negatively associated with fertility among non-LDS respondents. However, income was positively correlated with fertility among LDS respondents. This association persisted when instrumental variables were used to address the potential simultaneous equations bias arising from the potential endogeneity of income and fertility. The LDS religion's pronatalist stance probably encourages childbearing among those with higher income.
Using the example of the Catholic Church in Papua New Guinea (PNG), I detail how, through praxis, it has brought to life a living theology of HIV and AIDS. In this way, the Catholic Church in PNG is responding faithfully to the epidemic. As a Christian country with a generalised HIV epidemic, where the body of an individual is reconstituted through the liturgical practices of baptism and Eucharist, theologically, in PNG the body of Christ has AIDS. In order to examine the ways in which the Catholic Church in PNG has responded faithfully to the Christian body with AIDS, I do so in relation to the three theological virtues of faith, hope and love.
North Carolina Office of the State Auditor, Raleigh.
This report of the Office of the State Auditor in North Carolina details audit findings regarding allegations of misuse of Smart Start funds by Save Our Brothers, Inc. and the Liberty Chapel United Church of Christ. Save Our Brothers, Inc., a nonprofit agency, received two contracts totaling $46,327 from the Chatham County Partnership for Children…
de Diego Cordero, Rocío; Badanta Romero, Bárbara
The aim of the study is to discuss the relationship between lifestyle marked by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and health. PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, WOS y Scopus were the databases used for this literature review, with these descriptors: "Mormons", "mormons religion", "health". Inclusion criteria were articles with full text available, published between 2005 and 2016, in English or Spanish language. Results show that following the restrictive Mormon doctrine generates beneficial effects for the health. Habits related to toxics and food, as well as social support, from family and Mormon community are an important basis for good health. On the other hand, not following the prescriptions or leaving the group, opposed sexual identities or not fulfilling the roles associated with women are associated with worse mental and physical health.
Dance has often been a significant part of a cultural heritage. Most of the religious organizations which were formed just after the United States achieved its independence, however, rejected many European religious customs, including dance. Despite this, the Mormon church not only allowed dance, but advocated and sponsored it. Dance was an…
Bradshaw, Kate; Dehlin, John P; Crowell, Katherine A; Galliher, Renee V; Bradshaw, William S
This study reports the results of a comprehensive online survey of 1,612 current or former members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, many of whom engaged in psychotherapy to cope with (i.e., understand, accept, or change) their same-sex attractions. Data obtained from written and quantitative responses showed that therapy was initiated over a very wide age range and continued for many years. However, counseling was largely ineffective; less than 4% reported any modification of core same-sex erotic attraction. Moreover, 42% reported that their change-oriented therapy was not at all effective, and 37% found it to be moderately to severely harmful. In contrast, affirming psychotherapeutic strategies were often found to be beneficial in reducing depression, increasing self-esteem, and improving family and other relationships. Results suggest that the very low likelihood of a modification of sexual orientation and the ambiguous nature of any such change should be important considerations for highly religious sexual minority individuals considering reorientation therapy.
a Geometrical Similarity Pattern as AN Experimental Model for Shapes in Architectural Heritage: a Case Study of the Base of the Pillars in the Cathedral of Seville and the Church of Santiago in Jerez, Spain
Moyano, J. J.; Barrera, J. A.; Nieto, J. E.; Marín, D.; Antón, D.
This paper proposes a procedure for the search of a geometrical similarity pattern in architectural heritage by means of calculating probability indexes to support hypotheses initially endorsed by documentary sources. The buildings analysed are the Cathedral of Seville and the Church of Santiago, in Jerez, Spain. The 3D models of their selected pillars are obtained by means of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), Optical Scanning (OS) and photogrammetry through image-based modelling software (SFM-IBM). To this end, a procedure for the comparison of shapes is established. It is based on similarity statistics, the determination of homologous points and the agreement of characteristic sections. Here, two key aspects are considered: on the one hand, the metric standpoint; on the other hand, historical-graphical features of the 3D models: composition, techniques, styles, and historical-graphical documentary sources. Thus, putting aside the mere dimensional analysis, the sections are compared with graphical patterns and models of which the same authorship - stonemasons working in that age - is accurately known. As a result, the outcomes of this research reveal the geometrical similarity between the elements of the pillars of the Cathedral of Seville and the Church of Santiago.
DISTANT VIEW OF ST. FRANCIS DE SALES CATHEDRAL, LOOKING NORTH ALONG MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. WAY FROM 14TH STREET - St. Francis de Sales Church, 2100 Martin Luther King, Jr. Way, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
Calkins, Robert G.
Characterizes the medieval cathedral as an architectural encyclopedia, expressing the humanistic concerns, beliefs, and aspirations of the period in which it was built. Explains the theological, political, and social significance of the cathedral's architectural characteristics from the floor plan to the spires. Discusses the process and problems…
Parsonage, Robert Rue, Ed.
A two-year study and subsequent conference held in November 1977, sponsored by the National Council of Churches of Christ in the U.S.A., focused on the role of church-related colleges in higher education, and on their distinctive contribution to the churches, higher education, and the quality of life in America. In this report, a number of…
Christian bioethics springs from the worship that is the response of the Church to the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Such worship is distinctively political in nature, in that it acknowledges Christ as Lord. Because it is a political worship, it can recognize no other lords and no other prior claims on its allegiance: these include the claims of an allegedly universal ethics and politics determined from outside the Church. However the Church is called not just to be a contrast society, but also to witness to the freeing of the world from salvific pretensions in order that it may embrace its proper temporality. The implications of this for the distinctiveness of Christian bioethics are brought out in three movements: first, the Church's itself learning how it is to conceive bioethics; second, the Church's role in unmasking the idols of secular bioethics; and third, the Church's witnessing to the freeing of medicine from idolatrous aspirations.
Borst, L B
Woodhenge and the Trinity chapel, Canterbury, are strikingly similar in outline. One is megalithic, the other Norman Christian over Saxon Christian. An analysis of the geometry shows that both are based on Pythagorean triangles: Woodhenge with sides, 6, 17.5, and 18.5, and Canterbury with sides 12, 72, and 73 in megalithic yards. The structurally more recent eastern end of Canterbury Cathedral may have been built over and around an older megalithic site. The longitudinal axes of the composite cathedral differ by 2 degrees , and these, if aligned on Betelgeuse, would indicate buried megalithic structures dating from 2300, 1900, and 1500 B.C.
Artistic presentations of Jesus are as numerous and varied as the artists who created them. Whether on canvas or in music, Jesus has been portrayed as a redeemer, revolutionary, teacher, and clown. While some people are inspired by a particular presentation of Jesus, others are angered and incensed at what they perceive to be blasphemous. An example of the latter is Martin Scorsese's film, "The Last Temptation of Christ." This article examines why people responded so negatively to this and other artistic presentations of Jesus. It suggests they have failed to recognize how the portrayal reflects a personal experience of the artist and is not meant to be a final portrait of Christ. And on a more unconscious level, these works of art evoke feelings within people which they fear to acknowledge and which they escape by condemning the work.
Swanson, Douglas J.
This examination of the social order of the Church of Christ, Scientist, provides a valuable learning opportunity for leaders of any organizational entity--or for any student of organizational communication/behavior. The study addresses labor, trust, power, and legitimization of activity within the church. It raises the issue of whether Christian…
Ricks, Brian W.
The late 1800s have been noted as a major transitional period for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. When the beleaguered pioneers first arrived in Utah they were isolated from the influence and expectations of the United States. During that time, leaders of the Church became influential in every aspect of life in Utah. By the end of…
Appleton, Marianne; Cranney, A. Garr
Data from 149 female members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS) were used to construct a composite of the reading habits and their relation to other characterisitics of this group. The typical respondent was a married woman between 26 and 40 years old who had attended college but remained at home to care for children under…
St Mary's Cathedral is the Archbishop church of the Archdiocese in Perth in Western Australia. The presented sacral building was built in neo-Gothic style during the years 1863-1865. Cathedral was officially dedicated and opened for the service on 29th January, 1865. In 1973 was proclaimed the Marian Sanctuary and now represents one of the largest religious facilities in Perth. In 2005, the city authorities, together with the Archdiocese took a collective decision on the necessity of a comprehensive renovation of this sacred object. The renovation was due to the technical condition and the lack of usability of the object. The author of the paper had the opportunity to experience these problems by visiting this place several times, first time in 1989 and next years. Thus, the renovation of the present Cathedral was in its assumption not only to perform maintenance of the building and its specific architectural elements but also to increase its functional features - usable for the faithful and tourists. Reconstruction of St Mary's Cathedral in Perth can be a good example increasing the wider functionality of such facilities while keeping their antique and historical qualities. In this paper the above-mentioned issues will be more widely developed by the author.
Gardner, Ryan S.
This qualitative study aimed at exploring and explaining the practices and processes of teacher reflection among a group of professional secondary-level religious educators in the Church Educational System of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, as well as seeking to understand the perceived impact of those reflective practices on the…
Cathedral house & crocker fence, Taylor Street east and north elevations, perspective view from the northeast - Grace Cathedral, George William Gibbs Memorial Hall, 1051 Taylor Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA
Kohli, Mary Ann
This study examines the figure of the second American Adam--the cosmic Christ archetype--in terms of a possible shift in the focus of Western consciousness. As science moves closer to religion and as Newtonian dualism gives way to a more holistic theory (in which observer, observed, and process of observation are all intricately interlinked), the cosmic Christ emerges as a symbol in contemporary American fiction of a potentially unified awareness which could reconnect post-Christian man to God, to the world, and to the self. Such a rebirth of unity would be contingent upon the death of a consciousness reliant upon the rational, linear, masculine, left-brained thinking associated with the old Newtonian paradigm. The resurrected consciousness would consolidate Eastern and Western religion by acknowledging the God within man through the Western symbology of the Christ prototype. It would also balance the intuitional with the rational, the cyclical with the linear, the feminine with the masculine, and the right brain with the left. In other words, the repressed elements of the collective Western psyche would be allowed to come to awareness and be integrated into the mind at large. This integrating process is implicit in the cosmic Christ imagery. The novels which are considered are all concerned with the role of consciousness in the postmodern world and the part that science and religion play in determining the nature of that role. In such varied works as Thomas Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow, John Updike's Roger's Version, Saul Bellow's Herzog, Joan Didion's A Book of Common Prayer, and William Vollmann's The Ice-Shirt, a cosmic Christ figure invariably appears. The success of this figure, however, is ambiguous and uncertain. At best, the transition of consciousness that is achieved is individual rather than communal. Nevertheless, as chaos theory has demonstrated, small changes can bring about major effects. Consequently, both the science of today and the rapid growth
Abraham, Terry; And Others
Papers presented at the Institute which were concerned with keeping of church archives are entitled: "St. Mary's Episcopal Church, Eugene, Oregon;""Central Lutheran Church, Eugene, Oregon: A History;""Mormon Church Archives: An Overview;""Sacramental Records of St. Mary's Catholic Church, Eugene,…
Boyle, Gregory J.
Rev. Gregory Boyle, S.J., was ordained a priest in 1984 and shortly afterward became the pastor of Dolores Mission parish, serving from 1986-1992. While at Dolores Mission, he developed numerous programs for at-risk youth in the community. In 2001 his various projects assisting youths in gangs were united under one banner: Homeboy Industries.…
National Forum: Phi Kappa Phi Journal, 1988
Church and state is discussed in four articles: "Recent Threats to Religious Liberty" (Dean M. Kelley, pp.16-22); "Municipal Church-State Litigation and the Issue of Standing" (Kenneth S. Saladin, pp. 23-25); "Prayer in Public Schools: The Court's Decisions" (Leo Pfeffer, pp. 26-29); and "Religion and Public…
From July 1, 1959 to August 15, 1961, Milton Rokeach studied three male patients at Ypsilanti State Hospital who believed that they were Jesus Christ. They met regularly together with Rokeach and his research staff, a procedure designed to challenge their delusional systems. He believed that Leon Gabor, the youngest of the three, would be the most likely to abandon his delusional beliefs. Instead, Leon met the challenges that the procedure posed by creative elaborations of his delusional system, especially through the adoption of a new name that gave the initial appearance of the abandonment of his Christ identity but in fact drew on aspects of the real Jesus Christ's identity that were missing from his earlier self-representation.
Lee, Shu Jin; Tse, Kwong Ming; Lee, Heow Pueh
This study proposes that the bony anatomy of the human nose and masonry structure of the Gothic cathedral are geometrically similar, and have common fracture patterns. We also aim to correlate the fracture patterns observed in patients' midface structures with those seen in the Gothic cathedral using computational approach. CT scans of 33 patients with facial fractures were examined and compared with computer simulations of both the Gothic cathedral and human nose. Three similar patterns were found: (1) Cracks of the nasal arch with crumpling of the vertical buttresses akin to the damage seen during minor earthquakes; (2) lateral deviation of the central nasal arch and collapse of the vertical buttresses akin to those due to lateral forces from wind and in major earthquakes; and (3) Central arch collapse seen as a result of collapse under excessive dead weight. Interestingly, the finding of occult nasal and septal fractures in the mandible fractures with absence of direct nasal trauma highlights the possibility of transmission of forces from the foundation to the arch leading to structural failure. It was also found that the structural buttresses of the Gothic cathedral delineate the vertical buttresses in the human midface structure. These morphologic similarities between the human nose and Gothic cathedral will serve as a basis to study the biomechanics of nasal fractures. Identification of structural buttresses in a skeletal structure has important implications for reconstruction as reestablishment of structural continuity restores normal anatomy and architectural stability of the human midface structure.
Steiger, Johann Anselm
This condition has been stimulated by the latest study written by Fitz Krafft concerning the motif "Jesus Christ as a pharmacist", which was frequently used in Christian art. It is shown that this motif, fully developed in the first third of the 17th century, originated in the theology of Martin Luther.
van der Geest, S
The author reports on two German publications [1,2] about the metaphoric use of medicines in Christian devotional literature and art in German society (16th to 19th century). Christ is depicted as a pharmacist dispensing 'medicines' which contain Christian virtues and symbols.
Part of an international series of amply illustrated, colorful, small size books for children ages 5 to 10, this volume outlines the step-by-step process of building a cathedral in the Middle Ages. Terms are defined and artisan techniques explained for each step on the way to building the edifice. The text also relates the story of how families…
National Forum: Phi Kappa Phi Journal, 1988
Church and state is discussed in four articles: "Religiously Inspired Censorship in Public Schools" (John H. Buchanan, 34-35); "Public Funding of Education in Religious Schools" (Eugene W. Hickok, Jr., 36-38); "Neutrality in Teaching Moral Principles in Public Schools: (Francis William O'Brien, 39-40); and "The Most…
The headquarters building for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS) is a 28-story office building in downtown Salt Lake City, Utah. Completed in 1972, the building is heated and cooled by ground-water heat pumps. The heat-pump system allows considerable flexibility in balancing heating and cooling requirements, and allows for the recovery and use of heat which otherwise would be lost. Although there are a few problems associated with the system, officials in the Operations and Maintenance Division express general satisfaction with it and with the equipment. No firm figures are available on the economics of the heat-pump system, but it appears to be more economic than a comparable conventional system.
Yoshikawa, Shigeru; Narita, Takafumi
The Sagrada Familia Cathedral in Barcelona, Spain was constructed in 1882. According to Antoni Gaudi, who worked over its grand plan, the Cathedral was supposed to be a huge musical instrument as a whole in the event of completion. As as result, the music of bells was expected to echo through the air of Barcelona from the belfries. However, Gaudi's true intention cannot be exactly known because the materials prepared by him were destroyed by war fire. If his idea of the Sagrada Familia as an architechtural music instrument is true, an acoustical balance should be considered between the roles of the Cathedral: bell music from the belfries and quiet service in the chapel. Basic structure of the Sagrada Familia seems to be an ensemble of twin towers. Following such speculation, we made a simplified acrylic 1/25-scale model of the lower structure of a twin tower located at the left side of the Birth Gate. The higher structure of this twin tower corresponds to the pinnacle where the bells should be arranged. The lower structure (about 43 m in actual height) has five passages connecting two towers. One of two towers includes five or six tandem columns whose ends are both squeezed to about 1.5 m in diameter. These columns seem to function as a kind of muffler. The location and shape of the roof over the nave is indefinite and tentatively supposed at the top of the lower structure. Based on our scale model, acoustical characteristics of the lower twin-tower structure as a muffler and acoustical differences between the exterior field and nave field will be reported and discussed.
Calderwood, Barbara J.
Frank Christ is the founder and co-director of the Winter Institutes for Learning Assistance Professionals and has been actively involved with learning assistance and learning centers for the past 40 years. In this interview, Christ talks about how learning centers today differ from those with which he was associated at the beginning of his…
Renahan, Navanith; Raj, Renju; Varma, R Balagopal; Kumar, J Suresh
Ectodermal dysplasia is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders, which exhibit a classic triad of hypohydrosis, hypotrichosis, and hypodontia. Hypohidrotic or anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia or Christ Siemens Touraine syndrome is the most common condition among ectodermal dysplasia patients. This is a case report on two Christ Siemens Touraine syndrome cases and two different approaches to prosthetic management.
Kothiwala, Sunil K; Prajapat, Mahesh; Kuldeep, C M
Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome is a form of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (ED) characterized by triad of hypodontia, hypotrichosis, and hypohidrosis. Palmoplantar keratoderma is a characteristic feature of hidrotic forms of ED. Till date, only two cases have been reported of Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome with palmoplantar keratoderma; here we report a similar case emphasizing this rare association.
Muskett, Judith A.
Loyal supporters of Anglican cathedrals first subscribed to "Friends" associations in the late 1920s. Yet, in 1937, a journalist in "The Times" portrayed cathedrals as a "queer thing to be a friend of." Drawing on theories of friendship from a range of disciplines, and surveys of what has been proclaimed in the public…
Vora, Rita V; Anjaneyan, Gopikrishnan; Chaudhari, Arvind; Pilani, Abhishek P
Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare disorder. Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome (Hypohidrotic Ectodermal dysplasia (HED)) is a diffuse, non-progressive disease present at birth and involves at least two tissues of ectodermal origin. It is caused by mutation in gene ectodysplasin (EDA, EDA1) located at Xq12-13. Main clinical feature of HED is sparse or absent eccrine gland as well as hypotrichosis, nail, and teeth abnormality with characteristic faces. The absence or diminished activity of sweat gland results in patients having more chances of developing hyperthermia and with intolerance to warm environment. Most do well with simple measures such as wet clothes, air conditioning, wet bands etc. We present cases of two brothers, born of non-consanguineous marriage, who presented to us with complaints of heat intolerance and abnormal facial features.
Retnakumari, N; Varghese, Manuja; Kannan, V P
Christ-Siemens-Touraine (CST) is a rare hereditary disorder of X-linked recessive trait, characterized by abnormal development of two or more structures or tissues of ectodermal origin. The common clinical findings include hypodontia, hypohydrosis, hypotrichosis, and onychodysplasia. Although hypodontia is common, anodontia is a rare feature. Most of the patients are suffering from social rejection and consequent psychological trauma because of the facial dysmorphism and absence of multiple teeth. Oral rehabilitation is of prime importance for such patients. This article presents a case in a 5½-year-old boy presenting with altered manifestations affecting almost all the ectodermal structures like skin, hair, nails, teeth, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands, and tear glands. He also had complete anodontia and dry mouth. A multidisciplinary treatment was given to the patient with the collaboration of various health professionals. The child gained confidence and was relieved from the psychological impact following the prosthetic rehabilitation.
Pipino, Marica; Boldrini, Elena; Cristani, Alessandro
The latest AIDS' congress (Barcelona) reminded the world this dramatic situation. The shown data are remarkable: 5 million people of new infected in 2001, 68 million people could die in the next 20 years because of AIDS and the biggest part of them is living in the South of the world. There are two different kind of AIDS: the AIDS of rich people (2% of infected ones), who can reach the modern therapies that changed the course of the disease now curable out of hospital, and the AIDS of poor ones, without therapies and future. The political-economic effort of Western governments, of global fund anti-AIDS and of non governmental organizations now is not able to answer to this emergency in the right way. The lacking sensibility of Western doctors and the inflexible position of Catholic Church about contraception make the situation more complicated. It's hopeful the overcoming of this position using a Catholic Church's precious concept: the distinction between "simpliciter" and "secundum quid" to agree the use of condoms in case of absolute need.
Norton, Maria C; Singh, Archana; Skoog, Ingmar; Corcoran, Christopher; Tschanz, Joann T; Zandi, Peter P; Breitner, John C S; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A; Steffens, David C
We examined the relation between church attendance, membership in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS), and major depressive episode, in a population-based study of aging and dementia in Cache County, Utah. Participants included 2,989 nondemented individuals aged between 65 and 100 years who were interviewed initially in 1995 to 1996 and again in 1998 to 1999. LDS church members reported twice the rate of major depression that non-LDS members did (odds ratio = 2.56, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-6.08). Individuals attending church weekly or more often had a significantly lower risk for major depression. After controlling for demographic and health variables and the strongest predictor of future episodes of depression, a prior depression history, we found that church attendance more often than weekly remained a significant protectant (odds ratio = 0.51, 95% confidence interval = 0.28-0.92). Results suggest that there may be a threshold of church attendance that is necessary for a person to garner long-term protection from depression. We discuss sociological factors relevant to LDS culture.
Norton, Maria C.; Singh, Archana; Skoog, Ingmar; Corcoran, Christopher; Tschanz, JoAnn T.; Zandi, Peter P.; Breitner, John C. S.; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.; Steffens, David C.
We examined the relation between church attendance, membership in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS), and major depressive episode, in a population-based study of aging and dementia in Cache County, Utah. Participants included 2,989 nondemented individuals aged between 65 and 100 years who were interviewed initially in 1995 to 1996 and again in 1998 to 1999. LDS church members reported twice the rate of major depression that non-LDS members did (odds ratio = 2.56, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-6.08). Individuals attending church weekly or more often had a significantly lower risk for major depression. After controlling for demographic and health variables and the strongest predictor of future episodes of depression, a prior depression history, we found that church attendance more often than weekly remained a significant protectant (odds ratio = 0.51, 95% confidence interval = 0.28-0.92). Results suggest that there may be a threshold of church attendance that is necessary for a person to garner long-term protection from depression. We discuss sociological factors relevant to LDS culture. PMID:18559677
Wedekind, Wanja; Protz, Andreas
The damaging alcali-silica reaction leads to crack-formation and structural destruction at noumerous, constructed with cement mortar, buildings worldwide. The ASR-reaction causes the expansion of altered aggregates by the formation of a swelling gel. This gel consists of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) that increases in volume with water, which exerts an expansive pressure inside the material. The cathedral of Schleswig is one of the oldest in northern Germany. The first church was built in 985-965. The Romanesque building part was erected around 1180 and the Gothic nave at the end of the 13th century. The central tower was constructed between 1888 and 1894 with brick and cement mortar. With 112 meters, the tower is the second-largest church spire of the country of Schleswig-Holstein in northern Germany. Due to the formation of cracks and damages from 1953 to 1956 first restoration works took place. Further developments of cracks are making restoration necessary again today. For developing a suitable conservation strategy, different investigations were done. The investigation included the determination of the pore space properties, the hygric and thermal dilatation and mercury porosimetry measurements. Furthermore, the application of cathodoluminescence microscopy may give information about the alteration process and microstructures present and reveal the differences between unaltered and altered mortars. An obvious relation between the porosity and the swelling intensity could be detected. Furthermore it becomes apparent, that a clear zonation of the mortar took place. The mortar near the surface is denser with a lower porosity and has a significantly lower swelling or dilatation.
Capone, M.; Campi, M.; Catuogno, R.
This paper is part of a research about ribbed vaults systems in French Gothic Cathedrals. Our goal is to compare some different gothic cathedrals to understand the complex geometry of the ribbed vaults. The survey isn't the main objective but it is the way to verify the theoretical hypotheses about geometric configuration of the flamboyant churches in Paris. The survey method's choice generally depends on the goal; in this case we had to study many churches in a short time, so we chose 3D reconstruction method based on image dense stereo matching. This method allowed us to obtain the necessary information to our study without bringing special equipment, such as the laser scanner. The goal of this paper is to test image matching 3D reconstruction method in relation to some particular study cases and to show the benefits and the troubles. From a methodological point of view this is our workflow: - theoretical study about geometrical configuration of rib vault systems; - 3D model based on theoretical hypothesis about geometric definition of the vaults' form; - 3D model based on image matching 3D reconstruction methods; - comparison between 3D theoretical model and 3D model based on image matching;
Fundamental links between theology and astronomy are widely reflected in the Judaeo-Christian tradition. From Genesis to Revelation, the great mysteries of the beginning and end of the universe, and the cycles of birth and death of individuals, are explained in terms of cosmological concepts. These are in turn reflected in art and architecture and nowhere more broadly, perhaps, than in Byzantine architecture and decoration. Following the Iconoclast prohibition of images in the Orthodox church (726-843), the mid-Byzantine period (843-1204) witnessed the primacy of the representation of the heavens in art and architecture. Reinforced by such writers as Cosmas Indicopleustes and Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, not only were individual images reflective of the heavens (nativity and rebirth at the winter solstice, and rebirth/resurrection at the spring equinox) but entire cycles of church decoration were devised so as to reflect the ordering of God's universe. The architecture and decoration of the quintessential mid-Byzantine cross-in-square church was symbolic itself of the universe, as at Hosios Loukas and Daphni (eleventh century). From the location of the Pantocrator in the central celestial dome, to the descending zones of squinches and pendentives and the lowest earthly zones, decorative schemes are used to reflect the view of the sky/heavens above earth. Hierarchical systems depicting the life of Christ and ascending/descending ranks of saints and angels were rigorously adhered to, with Mary in the apse as bridge between heaven and earth.
Freeman, Margery, Ed.
This manual provides information for pastors, parents, and church members who are starting a child care program in their church, and for churches that are changing or expanding their child care program. Chapter 1 reports the results of a 1982 survey of child care in local parishes by the National Council of Churches. Chapter 2 explains four steps…
THIS PAPER PRESENTS THE ORGANIZATIONS, OTHER THAN CHURCHES, WHICH SERVE RURAL YOUTH. IT DESCRIBES PROGRAMS OF SUCH ORGANIZATIONS AS--(1) THE 4-H CLUB WHICH IS THE LARGEST IN VOLUME AND SPREAD, THE FUTURE FARMERS AND YOUNG FARMERS OF AMERICA, THE GRANGE, THE AMERICAN FARM BUREAU FEDERATION, THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF COOPERATION, THE FUTURE AND NEW…
Benedetto, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Avlonitou, Pepi; Konstantakis, Yannis; Musiela, Małgorzata; Mitka, Bartosz; Lambot, Sébastien; Żakowska, Lidia
The Wawel ensemble, including the Royal Castle, the Wawel Cathedral and other monuments, is perched on top of the Wawel hill immediately south of the Cracow Old Town, and is by far the most important collection of buildings in Poland. St. Leonard's Crypt is located under the Wawel Cathedral of St Stanislaus BM and St Wenceslaus M. It was built in the years 1090-1117 and was the western crypt of the pre-existing Romanesque Wawel Cathedral, so-called Hermanowska. Pope John Paul II said his first Mass on the altar of St. Leonard's Crypt on November 2, 1946, one day after his priestly ordination. The interior of the crypt is divided by eight columns into three naves with vaulted ceiling and ended with one apse. The tomb of Bishop Maurus, who died in 1118, is in the middle of the crypt under the floor; an inscription "+ MAVRVS EPC MCXVIII +" indicates the burial place and was made in 1938 after the completion of archaeological works which resulted in the discovery of this tomb. Moreover, the crypt hosts the tombs of six Polish kings and heroes: Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki (King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), Jan III Sobieski (King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Commander at the Battle of Vienna), Maria Kazimiera (Queen of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and consort to Jan III Sobieski), Józef Poniatowski (Prince of Poland and Marshal of France), Tadeusz Kościuszko (Polish general, revolutionary and a Brigadier General in the American Revolutionary War) and Władysław Sikorski (Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile and Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed Forces). The adjacent six crypts and corridors host the tombs of the other Polish kings, from Sigismund the Old to Augustus II the Strong, their families and several Polish heroes. In May 2015, the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" organised and offered a Training School (TS) on the
This article approaches the immense popularity of Mel Gibson's 2004 film, "The Passion of the Christ" as a significant artifact in the contemporary public, cultural curriculum, and a unique opportunity for religious educators to build on its notoriety. Five interrelated contexts are identified and explored to assist religious educators more deeply…
Landry, Carey; And Others
Commentary, interpretation, and suggestions for using available resources for consideration and presentation of "Jesus Christ Superstar" to religious education groups are presented. In addition, there are suggestions for integrating the large variety of existing audiovisual material and contemporary music into a religious education program about…
Southern fiction writer Flannery O'Connor once characterized the South as Christ-haunted, and having taught in the South for eight years now, I have come to appreciate O'Connor's evaluation. Most of the students I encounter understand one predominant way to practice Christian faith: assent to propositional theology. Most of them either accept this…
Sadeq, Ala Eddin; Al-Badawi, Mohammed
This paper explores how two short stories from very different backgrounds conclude in a significant epiphany for the characters. Raymond Carver's short story "Cathedral" and Alice Walker's "Everyday Use" are studied to see how the husband in Carver's work is blinder than his visually-impaired overnight guest, and the…
Kröber, Cindy; Münster, Sander
This project seminar aims at creating and evaluating a manual for interdisciplinary projects as part of a learning process. Working together, pedagogies and students from different disciplines assess tools and recommendations for successful collaborations while developing an app for the cathedral in Freiberg. As part of the project the students…
Vera-Cazorla, Maria Jesus
From 1563 until the death of the last teacher in 1851, there was a prebendary in the Cathedral of the Canary Islands in charge of the education of children. In fact, it could be said that this prebendary was the only continuous secondary school teacher there was in the Canary Islands until the beginning of the nineteenth century when the High…
Arneitz, Patrick; Draxler, Andrea; Rauch, Roman; Leonhardt, Roman
In Christian religion the sunrise is of great symbolic importance. Therefore, many churches constructed in the Middle Ages point towards geographic East. Although `easting' of churches actually refers to the alignment towards the azimuth of sunrise on the individual churches' patron's day, deviation of nave alignment from the geographic East direction is often assumed to be caused by the use of magnetic compasses. Therefore, the church alignment could provide information about historical magnetic declination. We investigate 124 churches in Lower Austria and 68 in northern Germany to clarify this question as well as the `easting' hypothesis. Church orientations are determined from georeferenced satellite images. Metadata such as the construction year, possible reconstructions and the church patron are gathered to determine the date when current church direction was appointed, and to perform sunrise calculations. However, due to uncertainties of construction years and the declining importance of orientation tradition after the 15th century several churches are excluded from the study. Thus, 32 churches with reliable metadata remain for evaluation in each region. The analysis reveals a preferred alignment of naves towards geographic East in Lower Austria and northern Germany. The construction and alignment of churches was often affected by the pre-existing buildings and streets or topography and natural surroundings. Therefore, deviations from geographic East are more likely caused by town or landscape. The mean deviations from magnetic East in both regions are large compared to the mean deviations from geographic East and sunrise azimuths. Hence, the use of compasses cannot be confirmed. Despite a few churches indicating orientation according to their patron's day, a general trend cannot be observed in the data reviewed.
National Council of Churches of Christ, New York, NY.
Produced for pastors, parents, and church members who consider service to families with young children a vital part of ministry, this manual presents information to stimulate enthusiasm about child day care as an important part of church mission. Its goal is to describe the church's unique opportunity to care for children and to offer guidance to…
Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Saunders, Ruth P.; Hooker, Steven P.; Hussey, James R.; Blair, Steven N.
Background: Churches are an appealing setting for implementing health-related behavior change programs. Purpose: The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between perceived environmental church support for physical activity (PA) and PA behaviors. Method: Black church members from South Carolina ("n" = 309) wore an…
McEvoy, L; Land, G
Members of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (RLDS) are dissuaded from the use of tobacco, alcohol, and hot drinks. A well-balanced diet is also stressed. This study compares the 1972-78 mortality experience of the Missouri RLDS with three other population groups. The findings show Missouri RLDS experiencing age-adjusted death rates which are 22.6 percent lower than rates for Missouri non-RLDs whites; 19.6 per cent lower than the non-RLDS of Independence, Missouri; and 14.4 per cent lower than Utah residents. The RLDS display lower death rates than the two Missouri comparison groups for each of seven selected causes-particularly lung cancer, pneumonia/influenza, and violent deaths. Comparisons between the Missouri RLDS and Utah residents show an inconsistent pattern, with Utah residents having non-significantly lower death rates for lung cancer and ischemic heart disease, but with the Missouri RLDS having significantly lower rates for pneumonia/influenza and violent deaths. These inconsistencies are of interest because 72 per cent of Utah's population belong to the Mormon Church which advocates life-styles similar to the RLDS. If these disparate mortality patterns persist under a more direct comparison between the Missouri RLDS and Utah Mormons, they could provide the opportunity to assess the impact of similar life-styles in separate settings.
1. VIEW NORTHWEST, EAST (REAR) ELEVATION OF 305 CHURCH STREET WITH 313 and 317 CHURCH STREET IN BACKGROUND - Putnam Manufacturing Company Workers' Houses, 305 Church Street (House), Putnam, Windham County, CT
Ninety-eight pictures painted in the Middle Ages and later entitled "Christ as Pharmacist" are shown in a little German book (W. H. Hein, Christus als Apotheker, Govi-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, 1974). In the three paintings shown here, Christ appears as a pharmacist standing behind a pharmacy table used to compound medicine, and he has a medicinal balance in his left hand. The Christian terms, such as faith, love, and hope, and the drug's name are written on each of the drug vase labels. It seems that the purpose of displaying these paintings in a pharmacy was both to propagate Christianity to the poor who bought medicine at their family pharmacy and to win their respect for the pharmacist.
Graue, B.; Siegesmund, S.; Licha, T.; Simon, K.; Oyhantcabal, P.; Middendorf, B.
Different building stones of the Cologne Cathedral show a large variation of weathering phenomena. The Drachenfels trachyte, which was the construction material for the medieval part of the cathedral, shows significant surface deterioration, back-weathering coexisting with flaking, crumbling or the massive formation of gypsum crusts. Wolff (1992) first mentioned the negative interferences between the Schlaitdorfer sandstone and the Londorfer basalt lava or the Drachenfels trachyte and the Krensheimer muschelkalk. Crust formation on limestone, sandstone, and volcanic rock from the Cologne Cathedral as well as from the Xanten and Altenberg Cathedral are investigated. These three buildings are located in different areas and exposed to varying industrial, urban, and rural environmental situations. The material investigated range from dark grey to black framboidal crusts. This 3 to 10 mm thick cauliflower-like form of gypsum crust incorporates particles from the pollution fluxes. It covers the stone surface and mainly occurs at sites protected from wind and direct rain. Secondly, thin laminar black crusts trace the stone surface and may cover complete sections of the building's structure not necessarily preferring protected sites. This kind of crust seems to have very strong bonds between the thin black crust and the stone surface. Major and trace element distribution show an enrichment of sulfur, indicating the presence of gypsum, lead and other typical pollutants (arsenic, antimony, bismuth, tin etc.), which generally can be linked to traffic and industry. This indicates that even though the SO2 emission has decreased due to i.e. stronger regulations of waste incineration plants and the ban of leaded petrol, the pollutants are still present in the crusts on the building stones. From systematic SEM observations it becomes evident that the total amount of pollution is less pronounced in the Altenberg and Xanten Cathedrals as compared with the Cologne Cathedral. The
church, a, convent of the Sacred Heart , ap2d a parochial residence. His great desire~ from the first had been to evangelize the Indians. He, therefore...placing his services at the disposal of its bishop, Right Rev. John D. Ward. An assignment as pastor of Sacred Heart church in Leavenworth followed
Burton, Larry D.; Paroschi, Eliane E.; Habenicht, Donna J.; Hollingsead, Candice C.
This study investigated the relationship between curriculum design and children's learning in church. Participants in this study included 12 six-year-old children attending two different Sabbath school classes in the same Midwestern Seventh-day Adventist church. A traditional curriculum guided instruction in Class 1. "GraceLink," a new curriculum,…
1. General view of Second Avenue from Church Street looking toward Broadway - Second Avenue North, Commercial District, Second Avenue North between Broadway & Church Streets, Nashville, Davidson County, TN
Howard, David; Welch, Graham
For centuries, boy choristers have been singing the top (treble) line in English cathedrals. Girl choristers were first admitted in 1991, and there is a long-running debate as to whether they can carry out this role appropriately. This paper will detail the results from two listening experiments designed to establish whether or not listeners can tell the difference between girl and boy choristers singing the top line in cathedral music. In the first experiment, 189 listeners took part and on average they were able to tell the difference 60% of the time; this was statistically significant over chance. The results suggested that repertoire played a significant part in this ability, and the second experiment was carried out in which the boys and girls sang the same repertoire. Nearly 170 listeners have completed this experiment and, on average, they are making guesses (correct 52% of the time). The paper will discuss the acoustic differences between the stimuli with respect to the singing of boy and girl choristers, while placing the discussion in the context of the English cathedral tradition.
Giunta, Giuseppe G.; Di Paola, Eleonora; Morlin Visconti Castiglione, Benigno
The restoration and maintenance of architecturally complex monuments need advanced tools for helping the definition of the working plan and for storing analysing and updating all the data produced. In the case of the Gothic Milan Cathedral a three-dimensional metric support has been developed. It comprises several oriented and connected stereoscopic models which makes it possible, through the stereoscopic vision, to navigate through several photograms, to accurately measure the dimension of architectural details, to draw structures with a millimeter precision. In this way a 3D-CAD model of the facade and of the internal walls of the Milan Cathedral have been created. On those vectorial models, it is possible to insert photos, documents, characterisation data and even to draw thematic maps. For instance, the load bearing structures maps have been realised after a GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) structural survey. These maps provide structural information (e.g. fractures, block thickness and status, lessons, etc.) extremely useful for planning the restoration and maintenance work. The photogrammetric survey has been proceeded by a 3D laser scanning survey, necessary for providing a preliminary model for planning the work until the complete elaboration of the stereoscopic model. All the data have been updated in the georeferenced and integrated 3D data base of the Cathedral, which now constitutes the necessary support for defining the specific operations.
Persico, Raffaele; Matera, Loredana; Bianco, Nadia; Masini, Nicola; Leopizzi, Giuseppe
GPR prospecting in areas of cultural interest can reveal interesting secrets of the past history of the probed monument. In particular, tombs and crypts under the floor of the churches can be revealed [1-2], but also tracks of past restorations and architectural changes occurred in the centuries, or features internal to the walls and the columns as cracks, metallic hinges, walled ciboria and hidden gaps [1, 3-5]. In this contribution, the case history of the church of the Humility in Parabita (Lecce, Italy) is proposed. The church of the Humility is a small and indeed not much well preserved church, deconsecrated many years ago and reused in other ways that have changed its original structure. Nowadays, it is undergoing a further transformation. However, before starting the works, a GPR prospecting has been committed to the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage IBAM-CNR. The prospecting has been performed with a pulsed Ris Hi-mode system equipped with a double antenna with central frequencies at 200 and 600 MHz, respectively. A first set of measures has been taken along two sets of B-scan, directed after the axis of the (unique) nave and along the orthogonal direction to this. The distance between the lines has been of the order of 40 cm, but some unmovable obstacles have not allowed a constant transect between any two adjacent lines. A second set of measures has been gathered in the area of the altar (not any longer present), here, due to the shape of the area to be prospected, the data have been gathered along a unique direction, but the interline spacing has been chosen equal to 30 cm. Please note that there is a step between the area of the altar and that of the nave, as usual in ancient churches, and this prevented from executing a unique C-scan including the entire floor of the church. The data have been processed according to a standard procedure based on zero timing, background removal, gain variable vs. the depth, one dimensional filtering
Konzelman, Robert G.
Secular (commercial) films should be used in the service of the church for two major reasons: 1) a responsible church cannot ignore the fact that in our culture films play a determinative role in belief and value formation, and 2) a creative church will not want to ignore their great potential as an educational tool. If the church urges its…
Williams, Terrinieka T.; Dodd, Darcy; Campbell, Bettina; Pichon, Latrice C.; Griffith, Derek M.
This study describes the ways in which two African American churches discuss adolescent sexual health topics. Six focus groups were conducted in two churches in Flint, Michigan that reported no formal sexual health programming for their congregants. Three themes emerged to highlight the different perspectives about the role of churches in adolescent sexual decision-making and sexual health education 1) churches as sources of sexual information; 2) churches as complex communities; and 3) recommendations for sexual education in churches. Participant responses suggest that churches can and should serve a resource for sexual health information. Implications for practice and research are discussed. PMID:22814618
A short description of events, occured in Russia after 1917 with emphasysis on main phyilosophycal curents such as marxism and believing, first of atheistic content and second of christian moralty content is given. It is argued, that bolshevicks contributed to progress of Russia, but this was reached by mean of purges and terror, during which many peoples were killed, especially representatives of the Russian Ortodox church. A list of scientists, which contributed more than other to the bolshevisation of the Russia and Moscow University, particularly, is given. The controverse between Hegel and Einstein from one part and Marx and bolshevicks from other part is examined also. The bolshevicks destroyed the Russian ortodox church, instead of its modernisation, is argued. The Calendar in the Russian Ortodox church is discussed, which is Julian, and it is argued, that a peaceful dialogue between the representatives of the Church and scientists is needed in order to make a transition to the Gregorian one.
Mokhtari, Sepideh; Mokhtari, Saeedeh; Lotfi, Ali
ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA IS A RARE DISORDER WITH DEFECTS IN TWO OR MORE OF THE FOLLOWING STRUCTURES: the teeth and the skin and its appendages including hair, nails, eccrine, and sebaceous glands. Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is the most common type of disease. This rare disorder, also known as Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome, manifests as a triad of hypotrichosis, asteatosis, and anhidrosis. In view of the rarity of this entity, a classical case of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is reported. We have also provided a review of recent investigations in the area of dental abnormalities in this syndrome.
Hilloowala, Rumy; Kanth, Hrishi
This study extrapolates the transmission of masticatory forces to the cranium based on the architectural principles of Gothic cathedrals. The most significant finding of the study, obtained by analysis of coronal CT scans, is the role of the hard palate, and especially the vomer and the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid in masticatory force transmission. The study also confirms, experimentally, the paths of masticatory forces, cited in literature but based purely on morphological observations. Human skulls and Gothic cathedrals have similar morphological and functional characteristics. The load exerted by the roof of the cathedral is transmitted to the ground by piers and buttresses. These structures also resist the shearing forces exerted by high winds. Similarly, the mid-facial bones of the skull transmit the vertical as well as the lateral masticatory forces from the maxillary dentition to the skull base. The nonload bearing walls and stained glass windows of the cathedral correspond to the translucent wall of the maxilla. The passageway between the aisle and the nave of the cathedral is equivalent to the meatal openings in the lateral wall of the nasal cavity.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work for a church or qualified church-controlled organization. 404.1026 Section 404.1026 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and...
Ruffolo, Silvestro A; Comite, Valeria; La Russa, Mauro F; Belfiore, Cristina M; Barca, Donatella; Bonazza, Alessandra; Crisci, Gino M; Pezzino, Antonino; Sabbioni, Cristina
The Cathedral of Seville is one of the most important buildings in the whole of southern Spain. It suffers, like most of the historical buildings located in urban environments, from several degradation phenomena related to the high pollution level. Undoubtedly, the formation of black crusts plays a crucial role in the decay of the stone materials belonging to the church. Their formation occurs mainly on carbonate building materials, whose interaction with a sulfur oxide-enriched atmosphere leads to the transformation of calcium carbonate (calcite) into calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum) which, together with embedded carbonaceous particles, forms the black crusts on the stone surface. To better understand the composition and the formation dynamics of this degradation product and to identify the pollutant sources and evaluate their impact on the stone material, an analytical study was carried out on the black crust samples collected from different areas of the building. For a complete characterization of the black crusts, several techniques were used, including laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, micro infrared spectroscopy, optical and scanning electron microscopy. This battery of tests provided information about the nature and distribution of the mineralogical phases and the elements within the crusts and the crust-substrate interface, contributing to the identification of the major pollution sources responsible for the deterioration of the monument over time. In addition, the results revealed a relation among the height of sampling, the surface exposure and the concentration of heavy metals. Finally, information has been provided about the origin of the concentration gradients of some metals.
Grave, J.; Krage, L.; Lusis, R.; Vitina, I.
The construction of Riga Dome Cathedral and its Capithullum hall were initiated in 1211. Through centuries they were damaged a lot due to migration of soluble salts and moisture. During the last restoration (1888-1891) a lot of mistakes were conceded and subsequently some of probable solutions for restoration were unsuccessful. In 2009 the new restoration stage in Capithullum hall was started. Two types of desalination methods were used in hall - desalination with lime-sand plaster and poultice of lignin. Both quantitative and semiquantitative chemical analyses were performed in order to appreciate the desalination process.
Daurelio, G.; Catalano, I. M.; Bassi, P.
It is the oldest church in the city after the cathedral. It is among the purest examples of Romanesque. It was founded in 1074 and expenses for its construction helped the inhabitants of the agricultural hamlets of the Cirignano, Pacciano and Zappino. The church was dedicated to St. Adoeno Dado, bishop of Rouen, protector of Norman, because , according to tradition, the building also participated Norman soldiers. San Adoeno church has a faÃ§ade at cusp with a truncated tympanum , crowned by an eagle. In the centre of the faÃ§ade there is a rose ornament surrounded by four lions and a statue of St. Adoeno ( Figs. A to I ). On the outside walls of this Abbey many graffiti, produced by different coloured spray paints were found. After the usual photographical tests some Laser Paint Removal trials were executed to verify the damage threshold of the calcareous stony substrate as well as the possibility to ablate these paints by a Nd - YAG laser in Q-Switch mode. Even if all the classical four laser paint ablation techniques were employed some paints showed a great difficulty to be removed from the substrate. For these ones it was necessary to increase at maximum both the energy per pulse and the fluence value for obtaining some acceptable result but the substrate looked turned pale. It was decided to remove a small amount of these paints and subject to chemical analysis for determining whether they were acrylic based. At the same time it was investigated on the type of limestone substrate that appeared more porous and less hard on the surface than the common local limestone marble basin, that is, Trani or Bisceglie. So, on the light of these investigations, the possible solution for this hard laser ablation problem was carried out with an acceptable final result.
Bowen, Deborah C.
This paper reflects on a visit by Christian poet John Terpstra to the final class session (on a Maundy Thursday) of my Literature and Environment course, to read his poetry suite on making a cross for his church out of a fruit-tree in an orchard being ploughed under for construction. Terpstra plays on the Stations of the Cross by interweaving the…
Aita, D.; Barsotti, R.; Bennati, S.; Caroti, G.; Piemonte, A.
This paper aims to illustrate the preliminary results of a research project on the dome of Pisa Cathedral (Italy). The final objective of the present research is to achieve a deep understanding of the structural behaviour of the dome, through a detailed knowledge of its geometry and constituent materials, and by taking into account historical and architectural aspects as well. A reliable survey of the dome is the essential starting point for any further investigation and adequate structural modelling. Examination of the status quo on the surveys of the Cathedral dome shows that a detailed survey suitable for structural analysis is in fact lacking. For this reason, high-density and high-precision surveys have been planned, by considering that a different survey output is needed, according both to the type of structural model chosen and purposes to be achieved. Thus, both range-based (laser scanning) and image-based (3D Photogrammetry) survey methodologies have been used. This contribution introduces the first results concerning the shape of the dome derived from surveys. Furthermore, a comparison is made between such survey outputs and those available in the literature.
Landes, T.; Kuhnle, G.; Bruna, R.
On the occasion of the millennium celebration of Strasbourg Cathedral, a transdisciplinary research group composed of archaeologists, surveyors, architects, art historians and a stonemason revised the 1966-1972 excavations under the St. Lawrence's Chapel of the Cathedral having remains of Roman and medieval masonry. The 3D modeling of the Chapel has been realized based on the combination of conventional surveying techniques for the network creation, laser scanning for the model creation and photogrammetric techniques for the texturing of a few parts. According to the requirements and the end-user of the model, the level of detail and level of accuracy have been adapted and assessed for every floor. The basement has been acquired and modeled with more details and a higher accuracy than the other parts. Thanks to this modeling work, archaeologists can confront their assumptions to those of other disciplines by simulating constructions of other worship edifices on the massive stones composing the basement. The virtual reconstructions provided evidence in support of these assumptions and served for communication via virtual visits.
Dehlin, John P; Galliher, Renee V; Bradshaw, William S; Hyde, Daniel C; Crowell, Katherine A
This study examined sexual orientation change efforts (SOCE) by 1,612 individuals who are current or former members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS). Data were obtained through a comprehensive online survey from both quantitative items and open-ended written responses. A minimum of 73% of men and 43% of women in this sample attempted sexual orientation change, usually through multiple methods and across many years (on average). Developmental factors associated with attempts at sexual orientation change included higher levels of early religious orthodoxy (for all) and less supportive families and communities (for men only). Among women, those who identified as lesbian and who reported higher Kinsey attraction scores were more likely to have sought change. Of the 9 different methods surveyed, private and religious change methods (compared with therapist-led or group-based efforts) were the most common, started earlier, exercised for longer periods, and reported to be the most damaging and least effective. When sexual orientation change was identified as a goal, reported effectiveness was lower for almost all of the methods. While some beneficial SOCE outcomes (such as acceptance of same-sex attractions and reduction in depression and anxiety) were reported, the overall results support the conclusion that sexual orientation is highly resistant to explicit attempts at change and that SOCE are overwhelmingly reported to be either ineffective or damaging by participants.
Ward, Elijah G
Black churches in the USA constitute a significant source of the homophobia that pervades black communities. This theologically-driven homophobia is reinforced by the anti-homosexual rhetoric of black nationalism. Drawing on a variety of sources, this paper discusses the sources of homophobia within black communities, and its impact upon self-esteem, social relationships and physical health. Religion-based homophobia and black nationalism point to wider structures which have influenced their emergence, including racism, patriarchy and capitalism. It is vital for US black churches and communities to understand and transcend their longstanding resistance to openly addressing complex, painful issues of sexuality and embrace healthier definitions of black manhood.
The objective of this case study is to discuss church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe. Due to its geographical situation, this region is a specific part of European cultural space: it is remote from the main cultural centers, it was the last to adopt Christianity, and it experienced intensive interactions with Byzantine culture. Therefore, we can assess church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe as a tradition affected by multicultural interactions and in which there is an interlacement of Catholicism from Western Europe, Byzantinism, local pagan faiths and, in part, the ideas of conception of geographical space of the Jews, Karaites, and Muslims.
Perspective view of the Reformed Episcopal Church of the Rock of Ages, now Emmanuel Christian Community Church, on West Lanvale Street - Lafayette Square, Bounded by West Lafayette, North Arlington, West Lanvale & North Carrollton streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD
1. GENERAL VIEW OF CHURCH LOOKING SOUTH. BUILDING CONSTRUCTED BY EAST EUROPEAN IMMIGRANTS OM 1915-16. - Saints Peter & Paul Orthodox Church, North Jefferson & Sherman Streets, Mount Union, Huntingdon County, PA
1. ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW ACROSS KELLY-INGRAM PARK SHOWING CHURCH (RIGHT BACKGROUND) AND THE CIVIL RIGHTS INSTITUTE (LEFT BACKGROUND), LOOKING WEST - Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, 1530 Sixth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL
1. General view, small house. (The church at left is Mariners's Bethel Church (Baptist), HABS No. PA-1596). Photocopied from December 1957 photograph on file at Philadelphia Historical Commission. - Benjamin Hellings House, 931 South Front Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
This unit focuses on a dramatic moment in the Renaissance from about 1420 when Filippo Brunelleschi single handedly created, defined, and engineered a new architecture by building the great dome of the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence. The dome became the symbol of Florence's grandeur during the Renaissance, and a model for great…
1. GENERAL VIEW OF MAIN (SOUTH) FACADE OF CHURCH, LOOKING NORTH (For a brief history of Boswell and a description of Sts. Peter and Paul Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church see TOWN OF BOSWELL, HAER PA-367) - Saints Peter & Paul Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church, Quemahoning Street, Boswell, Somerset County, PA
Gunton, Lyndelle; Bruce, Christine; Stoodley, Ian
This paper reports an exploration of religious information literacy in terms of how people use information to learn in the context of church communities. The research approach of phenomenography was used to explore Uniting Church in Australia members' experience of using information to learn as participants in their church communities. Five ways…
Bruce, Deborah; Woolever, Cynthia; Wulff, Keith; Smith-Williams, Ida
The 400 fastest-growing churches (based on the percentage change in average worship attendance in the previous five years) in the Presbyterian Church (USA), a mainline Protestant denomination, were invited to take part in the US Congregational Life Survey. Completed surveys were received from 19,033 worshipers in 93 fast-growing churches. These…
Darvish Rohani, S.
Church of Chupan is located in Jolfa cityin north of Iran and is laid at south side of Arax River. Built of the church traced back to 14th to 15th century and the time when Armenians were inhabited in the region. Chupan church had been inscribed at World Heritage List of UNESCO under no 1262 in 2008, as one of the five churches of "Armenian Monasteries of Azerbaijan province of Iran" dossier. As it is located at a religious and tourism road of Darresham and each year most of Armenian from all over the world visited the church as a part of a religious ceremony, also as the same church on opposite side of the Arax in Republic of Nakhchivan is completely destroyed between 1998-2002 and the church is the only existing evidence of these two couple church, the restoration and rehabilitation of chupan church is very important. Because of very bad statues of structure stability and long-term neglect of the conservation and preservation of the building, restoration and rehabilitation of the church in the earliest was necessary. Restoration of this church was my MA degree thesis and now as a Ph.D student in field of urban design and planning student, I am working on the next step which is to revitalization and rehabilitation of the church.
While much research has addressed the preparation of future public school teachers, more information is needed on the necessary skills for church music settings. Because little research has been completed on church music as an educational enterprise, there is a need for an investigation of church music participants' perceptions of instructional…
Benagiano, Giuseppe; Carrara, Sabina; Filippi, Valentina; Brosens, Ivo
For decades, the Roman Catholic Church opposed use of condoms to prevent spread of sexually transmitted infections (STI) because of their contraceptive effect. In 2009, Pope Benedict XVI said that widespread use of condoms could worsen the situation, a position rejected as 'unscientific'. Recently, however the Pontiff stated that because the Church considers acts of prostitution and homosexuality to be gravely immoral and disordered, in such specific cases use of a condom might become an initial step in the direction of a moralization leading to an assumption of responsibility and a new awareness of the meaning of sexuality. In doing so, he reaffirmed his belief that condoms cannot solve the problem of STI spread, stressing the Church's position that modern societies no longer see sexuality as an 'expression of love, but only as a sort of drug that people administer to themselves'. The new Papal position has been widely applauded, but made conservative Catholics unhappy. A dialogue with the Church now seems possible: Does concentrating on condoms hinder the effectiveness of other strategies? What are the respective roles of condoms and other approaches to prevent infection spread? Does a special situation exist in Africa requiring specific and focused interventions?
Abrams, Michael F.
This newsletter focuses on the relationship between the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and religious broadcasters. It traces the history of that relationship and discusses some of the pressures put on both. It includes a discussion of a recent avalanche of mail at the FCC supporting the church on the airways. It also summarizes some of…
Kramer, William A., Comp.
This guide to various types of church-operated preschool programs discusses needs and purposes of congregation, child and community, describes different types of programs, and provides lists of printed resources and organizations which can help congregations establish or improve their early childhood education efforts. Resource suggestions and…
Hoffmann, T. K.
As governments and corporations continue to engage space security, commerce, exploration and colonization, the Christian Church will not be far behind. Historically the Church has always been part of the first waves of explorers and colonizers, with its ideological interests being easily supported by generous resources and strong infrastructures. The exploring Church has not always been a friendly guest, however, and at times has initiated or condoned great harm. This paper offers a beginning framework as one way of insuring an appropriate presence in space for the Church. This framework is built with three common religious planks, namely, theology, ecclesiology and church worker vocation. Each of these is recast in terms of the off-planet scenario. This paper concludes that an appropriate off-planet Church will be founded on an "exomissiological" theology, will embrace an ecclesiology that emphasizes religious health, and will adequately select, train and monitor its off-planet church workers.
Cultural astronomy is an interdisciplinary area of research that studies how perceptions and concepts related to the sky are part of the worldview of a culture. One of its branches, archaeoastronomy, focuses on the material remains of past peoples and tries to investigate their practices and astronomical knowledge. In this context, the orientation of Christian churches is now considered a distinctive feature of their architecture that repeats patterns from early Christian times. There is a general tendency to align their altars in the solar range, with preference for orientations towards the east. Here we present recent data from our measurements of astronomical orientations of old churches located in two --geographically and culturally-- very distant regions, and we discuss the results in the light of the historical and cultural knowledge surrounding these temples.
Rosado, Tânia; Silva, Mara; Galvão, Andreia; Mirão, José; Candeias, António; Caldeira, Ana Teresa
The present study is a multidisciplinary approach applied to architectural stone materials of the Convent of Christ in Tomar (Portugal) in order to understand and mitigate the active decay processes. The structure and appearance of the stonework from the Convent of Christ are strongly affected by stains, biofilms and structural degradation. To investigate these phenomena, a multianalytical approach comprising X-ray microdiffraction, scanning electron microscopy, microRaman and microinfrared spectroscopy was applied to the examination of altered outdoor stone areas being detected calcium oxalates, carotenoids and microbial proliferation. The presence of these alteration products seems to be correlated with the microbial activity of bacteria, microalgae, cyanobacteria and filamentous fungi. This work showed that the application of complementary methodologies is an efficient strategy to characterise the stone decay, and constitute a starting point for successful conservation intervention plans that are urgent to ensure the preservation and safeguard of this emblematic monument.
Hankerson, Sidney H.; Lee, Young A; Brawley, David K.; Braswell, Kenneth; Wickramaratne, Priya J.; Weissman, Myrna M.
Introduction Substantial racial/ethnic disparities exist in the identification and management of major depression.1 Faith-Based Health Promotion interventions reduce disparities in health screenings for numerous medical conditions.2 However, the feasibility of systematically screening for depression in faith-based settings has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a validated instrument to screen for depression in African American churches. Methods Participants were recruited between October and November 2012 at three predominantly African American churches in New York City. A participatory research approach was used to determine screening days. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was administered to 122 participants. Positive depression screen was defined as a PHQ-9 score ≥10. Descriptive statistics were used to report sample characteristics, prevalence of participants who screened positive, and history of help seeking. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association of positive depression screen and sociodemographic characteristics. Initial analyses were conducted in 2013, with additional analyses in 2014. Results The prevalence estimate for positive depression screen was 19.7%. More men (22.5%) screened positive than women (17.7%). Total household income was inversely related to positive depression screen. A similar percentage of respondents had previously sought help from primary care providers as from clergy. Conclusions It was feasible to screen for depression with the PHQ-9 in African American churches. The prevalence of positive depression screen was high, especially among black men. Churches may be an important setting in which to identify depressive symptoms in this underserved population. PMID:26232907
Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara
In this paper, an iterative process is used in order to estimate the values of absorption coefficients of those materials of which little is known in the literature, so that an acoustic simulation can be carried out in Mudejar-Gothic churches. The estimation of the scattering coefficients, which is even less developed, is based on the size of the irregularities. This methodology implemented is applied to six Mudejar-Gothic churches of Seville (southern Spain). The simulated monophonic acoustic parameters, both in the frequency domain and as a function of source-receiver distance (spatial distribution), are analyzed and compared with the in situ measures. Good agreement has been found between these sets of values, whereby each parameter is discussed in terms of the just noticeable difference. This procedure for existing buildings, especially for those which are rich in heritage, enables a reliable evaluation of the effect on the maintenance, restoration, and conditioning for new uses, as well as the recreation of the acoustic environment of ancient times. Along these lines, the acoustic influence of the timber roof and the presence of the public in these churches have also been studied.
Ayton, Darshini; Manderson, Lenore; Smith, Ben J; Carey, Gemma
Church-based health promotion has increasingly gained attention in strategies to address health disparities. In Australia, we have limited understanding of the role of local churches in health promotion and without this, how they might be involved in meaningful partnerships to tackle public health challenges. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore how churches are involved in health promotion in the state of Victoria. The research involved in-depth interviews with ministers from 30 churches in urban and rural Victoria, and case studies with 10 of these churches to enable further exploration. These case studies, conducted in 2010, included interviews with church staff, focus groups with volunteers, participant observation and document analysis. Analysis was iterative, utilising open, axial and thematic coding. Three different expressions of church - traditional, new modern and emerging - were identified and found to differentiate the levels and types of health promotion activity. Case studies illustrate the different expressions of how church mission influences health promotion activity. The traditional churches were involved particularly in disease screening and health education activities with their own, predominantly older congregation members. The new modern churches tended to have the material and human resources to be harnessed in health promotion activities involving congregation members and others. Emerging churches, in contrast, engaged in broad health-promoting activities, including disease prevention, lifestyle activities and socio-ecological approaches at a community level. These research findings highlight the opportunities and challenges of engaging with local churches in health promotion efforts and public health programmes to address health inequities.
342. BAPTIZED PENTECOSTAL CHURCH AT 1606 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, EAST SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY
Daniilia, S.; Andrikopoulos, K. S.; Sotiropoulou, S.; Karapanagiotis, I.
What the discerning gaze of the art historian has deduced from comparisons in style namely, that the unsigned Baptism of Christ (dated 1567) comes from the hand of the master Cretan painter, El Greco is now investigated by the dispassionate eye of technology. The examination by means of analytical methods of diagnosis aimed at making an in-depth investigation into the hitherto unknown personal traits of the artist’s painting technique. By observing the cross-sections under the optical microscope and analyzing the materials through the application of μRaman and μFTIR spectroscopies and of high performance liquid chromatography (HPCL/DAD), it was possible to reveal the “fingerprints” of the artist’s brushwork. In his masterfully executed Baptism, El Greco has succeeded through his perspicacity and ingenuity, to combine traditional techniques of Byzantine icon-painting with the innovative practices of Venetian Renaissance art. The artist’s palette contains mineral, earth and natural organic pigments, as well as some synthetic ones of glass or resin base: lapis lazuli, indigo, lead-tin yellow, orpiment, yellow ochre, cochineal lake, copper resinate, burnt umber, lead white and carbon black. Furthermore, he introduces a layer of white imprimatura containing varied combinations of powdered glass and lead white. The detection of substantial similarities between the glass varieties used in the Baptism and those found in works by Venetian painters contemporary with El Greco (such as Tintoretto) further attests ascription of the Baptism to the period of the artist’s brief sojourn in Venice.
The Cathedral Square solar site is a 10-story multiunit apartment building in Vermont. Its active solar energy system is designed to supply 51% of the hot water load, and consists of 1798 square feet of flat plate collectors, 2699-gallon water tank in an enclosed mechanical room on the roof, and two auxiliary natural gas boilers to supply hot water to immersed heat exchanger in an auxiliary storage tank. The measured solar fraction was only 28%, not 51%, which, it is concluded, is an unreasonable expectation. Other performance data include the solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance. Monthly performance data are given for the solar system overall, and for the collector, storage, and hot water subsystems. Also included are insolation data, typical storage fluid temperatures, domestic hot water consumption, and solar heat exchangers inlet/outlet temperatures, and typical domestic hot water subsystem temperatures. In addition, the system operating sequence and solar energy utilization are given. Appended are a system description, performance evaluation techniques, long-term weather data. (LEW)
Kubičár, Ľudovít; Hudec, Ján; Fidríková, Danica; Štofanik, Vladimír; Dieška, Peter; Vretenár, Viliam
Historic monuments are subject to degradation due to exposition to surrounding meteorological conditions and groundwater. Construction of buildings consists of the plaster and material components that have porous structure. Processes like heat transport, moisture diffusion, moisturizing and drying; freezing and thawing can be found in such structures depending on environmental conditions. Monitoring of the temperature - moisture regime gives a picture on the processes running in the structure. Long term monitoring of the tower of St. Martin Cathedral in Bratislava have been performed under window sill of the belfry in exterior in south orientation. Principle of the hot-ball method is used for monitoring of the temperature and thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of the porous system depends on the pore content. Moisture sensors are constructed from the parent material in a form of cylinder. Sensors are calibrated for dry and water saturated stage prior installation in the walls. Monitoring has been carried out in plaster and in the masonry in a distance about 10 cm from the wall surface, where sensors are installed. Information on temperature, moisture and thermal conductivity can be gained from measured signal. Use of two sensors allows estimation on heat and moisture transport through the wall. Monitoring has been performed in the period from April 2013 up to July 2013. Monitored data are correlated to the meteorological data. Details of various effects will be discussed.
Ruether, R R
This abridged article originally was given as a lecture at Seattle University. The view presented is that women's status within the Catholic Church is subordinate to men's status, and that the Church is misguided in its notion of protection of and support for life. Affirmation of life is not promoted by isolated acts of giving birth, but exists in a social and ecological system in a community over time. The fit between children being born and the network to sustain their lives is misaligned. The minority of the world's population has control over the majority of the world's resources, while the majority live in misery, poverty, and starvation. The affirmation of the value of human life must be both qualitative and quantitative. The woman must be empowered, and not continually defined and controlled by male decision makers. Being prolife means to change the conditions of women and the conditions that deny most humans adequate food, clear air and water, housing, and land to sustain life. The American Catholic Bishops confuse teachings on abortion and teachings on nuclear arms buildup. American Catholic Bishops have had great difficulty formulating a pastoral letter on women, which is unfair to the growing number of women who are alienated by the treatment of the church. The denigration of women is deeply imbedded within Catholicism and Christianity, in general, in spirituality and practice. The issue of abortion has more to do with paternalism and women's sexuality and reproduction than valuing or nonvaluing fetal life. Women are denied leadership within the church because of women's sinful nature and the need for paternalism as a punishment for self-determination. St. Augustine stated that two men were not created in God's image and lack personhood. Thomas Aquinas agreed with Aristotle that women are defective due to a gestational process which deprives women of full mental, moral, or physical humanity. Only a man can fulfill the role of priest. The taboo of woman
Gaines, Robert W., II
As the operational center of the Civil Rights Movement, the Black church fostered community, functioned as an educative space, and promoted collaborative efforts among churches. Similarly, the modern Black church has the opportunity to invest in educating, organizing, and mobilizing people within the church and the local community. By investing in…
Vogt, Patrik; Kasper, Lutz; Burde, Jan-Philipp
In the recently published article "The Sound of Church Bells: Tracking Down the Secret of a Traditional Arts and Crafts Trade," the bell frequencies have been erroneously oversimplified. The problem affects Eqs. (2) and (3), which were derived from the elementary "coffee mug model" and in which we used the speed of sound in air. However, this does not make sense from a physical point of view, since air only acts as a sound carrier, not as a sound source in the case of bells. Due to the excellent fit of the theoretical model with the empirical data, we unfortunately failed to notice this error before publication. However, all other equations, e.g., the introduction of the correction factor in Eq. (4) and the estimation of the mass in Eqs. (5) and (6) are not affected by this error, since they represent empirical models. However, it is unfortunate to introduce the speed of sound in air as a constant in Eqs. (4) and (6). Instead, we suggest the following simple rule of thumb for relating the radius of a church bell R to its humming frequency fhum:
The Catholic Church, with deep roots in the history of Latin America, exercises considerable influence on all levels of society. Especially after the Second Vatican Council and the bishops' conference at Medellin (1968) the Church took up the banner of human rights and the cause of the poor. During the dictatorships and in the midst of the…
Wright, Helen M.
The document examines the rights of women in the church and in society, with emphasis on attitudes of the American Catholic Church. Christian educators should acknowledge the issue as a reality in today's world, and examine it with the following question in mind; "What is God's call for women at this moment in the history of the American…
The purpose of the study was to describe the participation perceptions of church choir musicians. Twenty-two choral musicians in 3 churches were interviewed. The results align with past research on community music ensembles in terms of musical and social perceptions of the participants, including concepts of recruitment, attendance, and diverse…
Dreier, William H.
The paper reviews about 25 major studies printed since 1920, and in turn, these refer to some 75 other studies about rural churches, their location, numbers, ministers, denominational arrangements, and supporting population per church on a county level. On the role of rural social science in Theological education, one study reports that the pastor…
IN A STUDY OF ADULTS IN A LOCAL CHURCH, THE SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL TECHNIQUE WAS USED TO ASSESS ATTITUDES, MOTIVES, AND DEGREES OF BELIEF IN APPLYING THE CONCEPTS "GOD", "CHURCH," AND "MY UNDERSTANDING OF CHRISTIAN FAITH AND BELIEFS." MEANINGS ATTACHED TO THESE CONCEPTS WERE COMPARED IN THREE CATEGORIES OF ADULTS…
Olson, Diane C.
In this article, the author, a Minister of Education and Discipleship at Fridley United Methodist Church in Minnesota, describes a quilt hanging on the wall of her home and draws on it as an analogy to her ministry. Her reflection takes the form of advice for new directors of education in local churches, and she concludes by urging readers to…
Francis, Leslie J.; Craig, Charlotte L.
A sample of 10,153 churchgoing young people between the ages of 8 and 14 years completed the Scale of Attitude toward Church, together with a range of other indices. The data demonstrated that even among churchgoing young people: attitude toward church became less positive between the ages of 8 and 14; girls held a more positive attitude toward…
2. Photocopy of Plate #12, 'St. James Church, Thirty-eighth and Chestnut Sts.', in Architectural Album of Edwin F. Durang and Son, 1200 Chestnut St., Philadelphia (a privately bound volume). Exact date not noted. - St. James Roman Catholic Church, 3728 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
Behnke, Andrew O.; Ames, Natalie; Hancock, Tina U.
Understanding what Latino church leaders believe about domestic violence, and what they do when they confront it, is a key step in developing programs to help them engage in domestic violence prevention and intervention activities in their congregations. This article presents the findings from an exploratory study of 28 Latino church leaders. The…
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Native American Church. 1307.31 Section 1307.31... Persons § 1307.31 Native American Church. The listing of peyote as a controlled substance in Schedule I does not apply to the nondrug use of peyote in bona fide religious ceremonies of the Native...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Native American Church. 1307.31 Section 1307.31... Persons § 1307.31 Native American Church. The listing of peyote as a controlled substance in Schedule I does not apply to the nondrug use of peyote in bona fide religious ceremonies of the Native...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Native American Church. 1307.31 Section 1307.31... Persons § 1307.31 Native American Church. The listing of peyote as a controlled substance in Schedule I does not apply to the nondrug use of peyote in bona fide religious ceremonies of the Native...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Native American Church. 1307.31 Section 1307.31... Persons § 1307.31 Native American Church. The listing of peyote as a controlled substance in Schedule I does not apply to the nondrug use of peyote in bona fide religious ceremonies of the Native...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Native American Church. 1307.31 Section 1307.31... Persons § 1307.31 Native American Church. The listing of peyote as a controlled substance in Schedule I does not apply to the nondrug use of peyote in bona fide religious ceremonies of the Native...
3. Photocopy: CA. 1880 LITHOGRAPH SHOWING INTERIOR OF CHURCH OF ST. VINCENT de PAUL, from the collection of American Catholic Historical Society. Please use the following credit line: American Catholic Historical Society Ryan Memorial Library Historical Collections St. Charles Seminary Overbrook Philadelphia, Pa. 19151 - Church of St. Vincent de Paul (Roman Catholic), 101-107 East Price Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
1. Photocopy: CA. 1880 LITHOGRAPH SHOWING EXTERIOR VIEW OF CHURCH, from the collection of American Catholic Historical Society. Please use the following credit line: American Catholic Historical Society Ryan Memorial Library Historical Collections St. Charles Seminary Overbrook, Philadelphia, Pa. 19151 - Church of the Immaculate Conception, 1020 North Front Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
3. Photocopy: CA. 1880 LITHOGRAPH SHOWING EXTERIOR VIEW OF CHURCH, from the collection of American Catholic Historical Society. Please use the following credit line: American Catholic Historic Society Ryan Memorial Library Historical Collections St. Charles Seminary Overbrook Philadelphia, Pa. 19151 - Church of St. Philip de Neri (Roman Catholic), 220-228 Queen Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
Business intelligence (BI) involves transforming data into actionable information to make better business decisions that may help improve operations. Although businesses have experienced success with BI, how leaders of church organizations might be able to exploit the advantages of BI in church organizations remains largely unexplored. The purpose…
Belenkiy, Ari; Echagüe, Eduardo Vila
It is known that Sir Isaac Newton suggested a date for the Passion of Christ in the posthumously published Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733). [This fact was revived recently in Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 32, Sept 1991]. What was not known is that the first attempts to find that date were made during the early period of his life. The Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem contains two drafts in Latin, grouped as Yahuda MS 24E under the same title, Rules for the Determination of Easter, which cast some light on Newton's life in the late 1660s - early 1670s. The earlier draft contains multiple references to the virtually forgotten De Annis Christi (1649), written by Villem Lange, the 17th century Danish astronomer and theologian, who might have been Newton's first mentor on the Jewish calendar tradition. The second draft shows not only Newton's close acquaintance with Maimonides' theory of lunar visibility, but also his attempts to simplify the latter's criteria by introducing different parameters. These “astronomical exercises”, announced in a 1673 book, were intended to appear as an appendix to Nicholas Mercator's 1676 book. Both of Yahuda 24E's drafts carry an astronomical table with the solar and lunar positions for the years 30-37 AD, which Newton used to decide on the date of the Passion. The Ordinary Least Squares regression method sends a dubious message; applied to the table's lunar data, OLS strongly suggests a pre-Tychonic origin. The table shows little correlation with solar data coming from Ptolemy, al-Battani, Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler, Philip van Lansbergen, Thomas Streete, John Flamsteed, or Newton's own 1702 lunar theory; however, its lunar positions display very high correlations with the Prutenic tables, which were based on Copernicus' De Revolutionibus. Surprisingly, the solar table comes from either 1651 Harmonicon Coeleste or 1669 Astronomia Britannica by
Marty, Martin E.; And Others
The future of church-related colleges and the special role student "relators" can play in defining and representing college's relationship to the church is discussed with regard to Robert Rue Parsonage's book on the subject. Commentaries by Mary C. Kraetzer, Wesley A. Hotchkiss, and Edward B. Lindaman are included. (Author/LBH)
Moore, Erin; Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Bohn, Alexandria; Hawes, Starlyn; Bowe-Thompson, Carole
Parent-child sex communication has been shown to be protective against sexual risk among African American youth. The current study sought to use the theory of planned behavior as a framework for focus group discussions (N = 54 youth participants aged 12-19 years) to explore church youths' (a) sex beliefs and values (attitudes), (b) sources and evaluation of sex communication and education (subjective norms), (c) facilitator/barriers to adolescent sexual risk reduction and communication behaviors (perceived behavioral control), and (d) intentions to engage in these behaviors. Additionally, participants identified strategies for consideration in developing tailored parent-child-church sex communication education programs for use in African American churches. Themes suggested both positive and negative attitudes toward premarital sex and parents and churches as key sources of sex education and communication. Strategies to enhance parent-child-church sex communication are discussed in the context of these findings.
Stork, David G.
Recently it has been theorized that some painters as early as 1420 used concave mirrors (and, later, converging lenses) to project real inverted images onto their supports which they then traced and painted over. We consider a specific painting adduced as evidence for this bold theory, the Lorainnese Baroque master Georges de la Tour"s Christ in the carpenter"s studio (1645). We perform analyses of the reflections and shadows -- "cast" shadows and "form" shadows -- to infer the source(s) of illumination. We find compelling evidence that this source is the candle flame depicted within the painting and held by Christ. We find it implausible that the source is direct solar illumination, which has the intensity demanded by the projection theory, or artificial illumination as hypothesized by theory proponents. Similar analyses of several other paintings by de la Tour uniformly support the conclusion that the illumination is small and artificial within the space of the tableau (i.e., a candle), not extremely powerful illumination from outside the tableau. We created a very simple computer graphics model to test and illustrate part of our conclusions. Our research is the first application of technical shadow analysis to the question whether artists as early as the 15th century used optical projections when painting. Careful reading of the historical record of de la Tour"s working methods supports our technical results and extend the growing image analytic methods and historical sources rebutting the theory.
Danish battlefield surgery in the period between the birth of Christ and the year 500 AD is exemplified by a reinterpretation of artefacts found in the sacrificial bogs at Thorsbjerg, Nydam, Ejsbøl, Illerup Adal, Vimose and Kragehul, reinterpreted in the light of classic European and Egyptian archaeological finds and ethno-archaeological parallels against the background of the author's years of experience as a practicing specialist in gynaecology and obstetrics. No surgical instruments from the Iron Age have previously been construed or identified as such in Denmark or Schleswig-Holstein. The purpose of this paper is to examine the possible finding and identificiation of surgical instruments - or what could be construed as a battlefield surgeons instruments - among artefacts deposited in the above-mentioned sacrificial bogs in the Iron Age. In this paper, the term 'surgical instrument' is defined as an instrument used in teh practice of medicine. Material for the study was collected in a review of illustrations in published works about these bog finds, localising these artefacts and examining them at the museums at which they were located. Also examined was museum storage of artefacts that had been excavated in the above-mentioned bogs. In an effort to reinterpret the function of the artefacts, they were compared with known surgical instruments found in the geographical areas controlled by the Greeks and later the Romans and with pictures of artefacts and a few written sources form the same area. They were also compared with ethnographic parallels. The material upon which the paper is based consists of a total of 67 artefacts, each identified as being from one of the above-mentioned bogs. Of these 67 artefacts, 40 can be indentifed and reinterpreted as being surgical instruments and 27 are toilet sets, i.e. tweezers for personal use or sets consisting of tweezers connected by a metal ring to either an ear pick or a nail cutter. Analysis of the artefacts revealed
Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Coffey, Candice R.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen
Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church. PMID:23718957
Gázquez, Fernando; Rull, Fernando; Medina, Jesús; Sanz-Arranz, Aurelio; Sanz, Carlos
Precipitation of salts-mainly hydrated Mg-Na sulfates-in building materials is rated as one of the most severe threats to the preservation of our architectural and cultural heritage. Nevertheless, the origin of this pathology is still unknown in many cases. Proper identification of the cause of damage is crucial for correct planning of future restoration actions. The goal of this study is to identify the source of the degradation compounds that are affecting the 15th-century limestone sculptures that decorate the retro-choir of Burgos Cathedral (northern Spain). To this end, detailed characterization of minerals by in situ (Raman spectroscopy) and laboratory techniques (XRD, Raman and FTIR) was followed by major elements (ICP and IC) and isotopic analysis (δ(34)S and δ(15)N) of both the mineral phases precipitated on the retro-choir and the dissolved salts in groundwater in the vicinity of the cathedral. The results reveal unequivocal connection between the damage observed and capillary rise of salts-bearing water from the subsoil. The multianalytical methodology used is widely applicable to identify the origin of common affections suffered by historical buildings and masterpieces.
Barone, Germana; Campani, Elisa; Casoli, Antonella; La Russa, Mauro Francesco; Lo Giudice, Antonino; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Pezzino, Antonino
The Cathedral of St. Giorgio in Ragusa Ibla like the majority of historic buildings in the Ragusa area is constructed mainly from locally outcropping calcarenite belonging to the Ragusa Formation. Through the years, the cathedral has undergone diverse restoration procedures using different protective products , the nature of which was determined by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC MS). Regardless of these interventions, the materials used today are still subject to diverse forms of alterations and degradation (alveolitation, differential degradation, decohesions, chromatic alterations and the formation of biological patinas correlated to lichen activity), which cause considerable damage to the façade. In this paper, three protective products were tested on the calcarenite of the Ragusa Formation taken from a quarry: a fluorurated elastomer , a fluorurated anionic polyurethane and linseed oil. The protective efficiency was determined, after undergoing UV radiation aging by means of capillary water absorption, porosimetric and colorimetric procedures. The results highlighted a good and persistent protective capability of both the elastomer and the fluorurated polyurethane, whereas, the linseed oil not only provoked strong chromatic variations but also quickly lost its hydro-repellant capacity with aging.
Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1919
This bulletin discusses educational work of the churches in 1916-1918. Contents include: (1) Education under Religious Auspices (B. Warren Brown); (2) Christian Day Schools of the Lutheran Church (W. C. Kohn); (3) Education in the Methodist Episcopal Church (Henry H. Meyer); (4) Educational Work of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South (W. E.…
74. SACRED HEART CATHOLIC CHURCH, NORTHWEST CORNER OF GREENE AND THIRTEENTH STREETS, SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION ON GREENE STREET 56/61 - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA
110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, WEST SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY
212. MOUNT SINAI CHURCH OF GOD AT 530 SOUTH TWENTIETH STREET, SOUTH SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY
Johnston, Robert L.
Summarizes the findings and recommendations of "Una Vida Dura" ("A Hard Life"), a 1988 study by Charles Kyle and others, that criticizes the services provided to migrant farm workers in Illinois by the Catholic Church. (FMW)
7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA
6. September, 1968 LOOKING WEST ON ORANGE STREET, UNITARIAN CHURCH AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA
Particle concentrations were measured in a Baroque church during five Sunday Masses. The highest particle number and mass concentrations were observed when both candles and the incense were burned. They were respectively 16.8 and 14.3 times higher than outdoors for submicron particles. The exposure to particles experienced by the churchgoers, especially priests and church workers who participated in several Masses on that day, was considerably higher than the exposure experienced at the same time outdoors.
Gardner, J W; Lyon, J L
In light of low cancer rates by the Mormon Church, this study classifies female Mormon cancer patients in Utah according to measures of adherence to Church doctrines. The distribution by Church activity level is compared for each site to a group of other cancer sites felt to represent the overall activity level distribution of Utah Mormon women. Mormon women classified as having the strongest adherence to Church doctrines had lung cancer rates during 1966-1970 much lower than did women with the weakest adherence. The relationship was not as strong, however, as that seen in Mormon men when classified by lay priesthood office. Cancer of the uterine cervix also showed lower rates in the more active groups, but this finding was not statistically significant. Cancers of the breast and ovary did not show consistent associations with Church activity level, nor did most of the gastrointestinal cancers. These data suggest that some of the differences in cancer incidence between Mormons and non-Mormons may not be explained by adherence to specific Church doctrines.
Love, J. J.
This year marks the sesquicentennial anniversary of the end of the American Civil War. In 1865, the same year as the War's end, the great American landscape artist, Frederic Edwin Church, unveiled Aurora Borealis, a painting that depicts a fantastic, far-northern place, an auroral arch stretched across a quiet night-time sky, above dark mountains and a frozen sea. Church was born in Connecticut, lived in New York, and traveled to Labrador; he would have often seen the northern lights. Church might have also been influenced by the spectacular displays of aurora that were caused by some unusually intense magnetic storms in 1859. Aurora Borealis can certainly be interpreted in terms of 19th-century romanticism, scientific philosophy, and Arctic missions of exploration, all subjects of interest to Church. As with so many of his paintings, Church's meticulous attention to detail in Aurora Borealis reveals his deep admiration of nature. But his depiction of auroral light is a curious and possibly intentional departure from natural verisimilitude. Some art historians have suggested that Church painted Aurora Borealis as a subdued tribute to the end of the Civil War, with the drapery of auroral light forming an abstract representation of the American flag. If so, then colors of the flag have been unfurled across a cold and barren landscape, not in extravagant celebration, but in somber recognition of the reality of post-war desolation and an uncertain future.
In the relationship between architecture and the sky, it is possible to identify three different design issues. The first regards the alignment of buildings with visible points on the horizon that coincide with the rising or setting of a celestial body (sun, planets, stars, or moon) on particular dates during the astronomical year (or liturgical year for sacred buildings). The second is the relationship between planimetric design and the design of the elevations. We are all familiar today with several "light effects", which sometimes have almost hierophanic characteristics that, on certain days of the year, were used to engross, captivate, and amaze the spectator. Contrary to the first two issues, the third comes after the design and building stages and concerns the question of decorative elements. It is reasonable to believe that many years after the works were terminated, certain wall finishings were chosen over others, such as painted frescoes or statues. Whoever did this was fully aware, thanks to direct observation, that such decoration would be struck by a single ray of light on a specific day. This chapter examines light-shadow interactions in some Italian medieval churches.
Dimitrijević, M. S.; Theodossiou, E.
At the Orthodox Church Council in 1923 in Constantinople a proposal concerning the reform of the calendar, elaborated by the Serbian astronomer Milutin Milankovic´ together with professor Maksim Trpkovic´, was submitted, providing for a more exact calendar than the Gregorian one. Instead of three days in 4 centuries one should omit 7 days in 9 centuries or 0.0077 days per year. This means that only 2 years out of 9 ending the centuries would be leap years. The rule is that those years whose ordinal number ends with two zeros are leap years only provided that the number of centuries they belong to, divided by 9, yields the remainder 2 or 6. For instance the year 2000, ending the 20th century, is a leap year since 20 divided by 9 equals to 2 plus the remainder 2. Milankovic´'s proposal implies a much smaller difference, with respect to the true tropical year, than the Gregorian calendar. Further improvements concerning the approach to the duration of the tropical year are not necessary since that duration itself undergoes changes over longer periods.
7. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, April 19, 1937 REPRODUCTION OF INTERIOR OF CHRIST CHURCH INTERIOR PRIOR TO STORM OF 1909 - Christ Episcopal Church, Church & Saint Emanuel Streets, Mobile, Mobile County, AL
Gizzi, Fabrizio; Leucci, Giovanni; Masini, Nicola; Persico, Raffaele; Quarta, Giovanni
The paper shows the results of a diagnostics survey, based on the ground penetrating radar (GPR), seismic tomography and microtremor horizontal-to-vertical ratio (HVSR) method, to understand the causes of some static instability problems affecting the Church of San Francesco della Scarpa in Lecce (Apulia region, Southern Italy). The prospecting falls within the more general framework of a diagnostic investigation campaign for the restoration of the monument. This study case points out the great effectiveness of the employed diagnostic methods, when used in an integrated way, for detecting cracks and inhomogeneities in the inner structure of masonry building elements [1-2]. With regard to GPR prospecting, in order to better evidence the micro-fracture, a new algorithm, based on a clutter removal technique, has been used. In particular, it removes various unwanted signals such as cross talk, initial ground reflection and antenna ringing. Moreover, seismic tomographies provided complementary information on the mediocre state of conservation of some load bearing structures of the church. Finally, HVSR method allowed to study the relationship between decay patterns, instability problems and seismic response of the monument. Reference  Leucci G., Masini N., Persico R., Soldovieri F. 2011. GPR and sonic tomography for structural restoration: the case of the cathedral of Tricarico, Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, 8 (3), 76-92, doi:10.1088/1742-2132/8/3/S08.  Calia A., Leucci G., Masini N., Matera L., Persico R., Sileo M., 2012. Integrated prospecting in the Crypt of the Basilica of Saint Nicholas in Bari, Italy. Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, 9(3), 271-281, doi:10.1088/1742-2132/9/3/271.
In early 1991 the abortion debate in Poland entered its new stage. The prolife and prochoice options had already clashed in the early 1930s over a new penal code and backstreet abortions. According to the code of 1932, induced abortion was allowed in cases of rape, incest, or for medical indications. Abortion was legalized in 1956, but subsequently it came under attack from Catholic circles, and by 1989 the Unborn Child Protection Bill was drafted which criminalized abortion. Only 11% of Polish women use modern contraceptives. The less efficient methods are the most prevalent: the natural method (Ogino-Knaus calendar), 35% of couples; coitus interruptus, 34%; condoms, 15%; oral contraceptives 7%; chemical spermicides, 2.5%; and the IUD 2%. According to size of Catholic Church estimate there are 600,000 abortions yearly. In contrast, official statistics indicate that the number of abortions is decreasing: 137,950 in 1980; 105,300 in 1988; 80,100 in 1989; 59,400 in 1990. In January 1991 the Constitutional Tribunal dismissed the motion of the Polish Feminist Association against the restrictive regulations of the Ministry of Health concerning abortion. After a parliamentary stalemate on the Unborn Child Protection Bill a commission consisting of 46 persona (1.2 of them women, 20 persons from the prochoice and 24 from the prolife lobby) continued the debate on the bill. Public opinion polls conducted by independent groups in November 1990 showed that about 60% of citizens were against the Senate's draft. Since then interest in the abortion issue has dwindled, and only 200 women and men took part in a prochoice demonstration in front of the parliament on January 25, 1991. In the spring of 1989 and in September 1990 thousands had participated in similar demonstrations. The prevailing attitude is that if the antiabortion bill is passed nothing can be done.
Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco Javier; Verdú Santano, Daniel; Meroño de Larriva, Jose Emilio; Ortíz Cordero, Rafael; Hidalgo Fernández, Rafael Enrique; García-Ferrer, Alfonso
A number of physical factors can adversely affect cultural heritage. Therefore, monitoring parameters involved in the deterioration process, principally temperature and relative humidity, is useful for preventive conservation. In this study, a total of 15 microclimate stations using open source hardware were developed and stationed at the Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba, which is registered with UNESCO for its outstanding universal value, to assess the behavior of interior temperature and relative humidity in relation to exterior weather conditions, public hours and interior design. Long-term monitoring of these parameters is of interest in terms of preservation and reducing the costs of future conservation strategies. Results from monitoring are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of this system.
Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco Javier; Verdú Santano, Daniel; Meroño de Larriva, Jose Emilio; Ortíz Cordero, Rafael; Hidalgo Fernández, Rafael Enrique; García-Ferrer, Alfonso
A number of physical factors can adversely affect cultural heritage. Therefore, monitoring parameters involved in the deterioration process, principally temperature and relative humidity, is useful for preventive conservation. In this study, a total of 15 microclimate stations using open source hardware were developed and stationed at the Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba, which is registered with UNESCO for its outstanding universal value, to assess the behavior of interior temperature and relative humidity in relation to exterior weather conditions, public hours and interior design. Long-term monitoring of these parameters is of interest in terms of preservation and reducing the costs of future conservation strategies. Results from monitoring are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of this system. PMID:27690056
There were other activities, programs, and changes. Russell debated Methodist E. L. Eaton in 1903 and Disciples of Christ elder L. S . White in 1908. In...only to the Lord and to those who have his Spirit. To what are they to come? As of 1893, we read: The true view, as we conceive it, is as follows: God’s...attention to the Lord’s Supper and to Baptism during this period. The Memorial Supper was an annual event that was to be celebrated on the thirteenth day
Haagensen, Erling; Lind, Niels C
There is a unique cluster of four medieval round churches, linked by a simple geometry, on Bornholm Island in the Baltic Sea. Why so many and why so close together? Immediate simple answers are "Just by chance" and "For no reason." Why are the churches round? "Defense." This essay proposes another hypothesis for this unique situation: the churches are astronomical observatories, meant to solve a scientific problem (Is the Earth really spherical?) and a practical problem (How far is it to sail west to the Orient?). The capacity and desire to find answers, together with other practical needs related to astronomy, can better explain these round churches' special architecture. The geometry that connects them fits the ideal pattern with an angular accuracy of 1 minute of a degree. The round churches may be the earliest astronomical observatories in Christian Europe; other hypotheses have been shown to be untenable. Their location provides for a good method to estimate the Earth's extent in the east-west direction, seemingly the earliest such measurements.
Pichon, Latrice Crystal; Powell, Terrinieka Williams
This paper aims to critically assess the state of HIV testing in African American churches. A comprehensive review of peer-reviewed publications on HIV testing in church-based settings was conducted by two independent coders. Twenty-six papers published between 1991 and 2015, representing 24 unique projects, were identified addressing at least one dimension of HIV testing. Thirteen faith-based projects have implemented HIV testing events or had clergy promote the importance of testing and knowing one’s HIV status, but empirical data and rigorous study designs were limited. Only eight papers reported onsite HIV testing in churches. Less than 5% of the studies reported the percentage of congregants who returned for their test results. Finally, no study has examined at baseline or post-intervention behavioral intentions to be screened for HIV. Future research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of HIV testing in churches and to explore the possibilities of the role of the church and leadership structure in the promotion of HIV treatment and care. PMID:26030470
Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara; Galindo, Miguel
Extensive objective energy-based parameters have been measured in 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the south of Spain. Measurements took place in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. Monoaural objective measures in the 125-4000 Hz frequency range and in their spatial distributions were obtained. Acoustic parameters: clarity C80, definition D50, sound strength G and center time Ts have been deduced using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. These parameters spectrally averaged according to the most extended criteria in auditoria in order to consider acoustic quality were studied as a function of source-receiver distance. The experimental results were compared with predictions given by classical and other existing theoretical models proposed for concert halls and churches. An analytical semi-empirical model based on the measured values of the C80 parameter is proposed in this work for these spaces. The good agreement between predicted values and experimental data for definition, sound strength, and center time in the churches analyzed shows that the model can be used for design predictions and other purposes with reasonable accuracy.
Ali, Jason R.; Cunich, Peter
Edmond Halley's enormous contribution to science has received much attention. New research adds an intriguing chapter to his story and concerns his hitherto unexplored association with the baroque architectural visionary Nicholas Hawksmoor, and some important Temple-inspired churches that were built in London in the early 1700s. We argue that Christchurch Spitalfields and St Anne's Limehouse, which were both started in the summer of 1714, were aligned exactly eastwards using ``corrected'' magnetic-compass bearings and that Halley influenced or aided Hawksmoor. By this time the men had probably known each other for 30 years and had recently worked together on the Clarendon Building in Oxford. Despite there being more than 1500 years of Chinese and about 500 years of Western compass technology at the time, these probably represent the first constructions planned using a modern-day ``scientific'' technique. The research also throws light on Halley's contended religious position.
Krause, Neal; Cairney, John
This study has two principal aims. The first goal is to empirically evaluate new measures of close companion friendships that arise in church. The second goal is to embed these measures in a conceptual model that seeks to assess the relationship between close companion friends at church and health. Based on data from a nationwide sample of older people, the findings reveal that the newly devised measures are psychometrically sound. In addition, the results provide empirical support for the following linkages that are contained in our conceptual model: older people who have a close companion friend at church are more likely to feel they belong in their congregation; old adults who believe they belong in their congregation are more likely to feel grateful to God; and older individuals who feel grateful to God tend to rate their health more favorably. PMID:20563266
In Western society, Christian Churches historically have been, and contemporarily are, involved with people perceived with disability. While they may practise biblical ethical imperatives such as care, compassion, mercy, support, welfare and charity, Churches have, paradoxically, only minimally offered cohesive or explicit moral notions for the 'inclusion' of people with disability in communities. Importantly, Churches have paid little attention to the historical construction of 'exclusion'. This paper proposes that matrices of patriarchal theology and patriarchal ethics continue to sustain structural positions of societal exclusion for people with disability because of implicit assumptions and values in the matrices about difference and different bodies. By examining a conjunction between feminism and disability around the issue of embodiment, the paper contends that 'inclusion' needs to be explored through the formation and embracing of matrices of feminist theology and feminist ethics.
Skene, L; Parker, M
The church and other community organisations have a legitimate role to play in influencing public policy. However, intervention by the church and other religious bodies in recent litigation in Australia and the United Kingdom raises questions about the appropriateness of such bodies being permitted to intervene directly in the court process as amici curiae. We argue that there are dangers in such bodies insinuating their doctrine under the guise of legal argument in civil proceedings, but find it difficult to enunciate a principled distinction between doctrine and legal argument. We advise that judges should exercise caution in dealing with amicus submissions.
Homosexual activist groups have targeted the Catholic Church and the American military as institutions especially in need of transformation. Associations of healthcare professionals are also under assault from homosexual activists. It is, nevertheless, appropriate for the Church and the military to defend themselves against this assault, to affirm that homosexuality is incompatible with Christian ethics and military service, and to help homosexuals free themselves from the vice of homosexuality. Arguments that homosexual reorientation therapy is unethical are unsound. Such therapy is consistent with the Christian virtue of charity.
The Roman Catholic Church in Australia has lobbied politicians to prohibit embryonic stem cell research, on the grounds that such research violates the sanctity and inherent dignity of human life. I suggest, however, that reasoned reflection does not uniquely support such conclusions about the morality of stem cell research. A recent parliamentary standing committee report recommended that embryonic stem cell research be allowed to proceed in certain circumstances, and there appears to be widespread support in the Australian community for this position. I argue that the moral value of democracy requires parliamentarians to acknowledge the informed views of the wider community here, and to resist lobbying by church leaders on this issue.
Cappitelli, Francesca; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Casadevall, Arturo; Toniolo, Lucia; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Florio, Sofia; Principi, Pamela; Borin, Sara; Sorlini, Claudia
Monuments and artistic stone surfaces are often consolidated and protected with synthetic polymers, in particular, acrylics. Although it is generally thought that acrylic polymers are resistant to biodeterioration, we report for the first time the systematic occurrence of dematiaceous meristematic fungi on many marble samples of the cathedral in Milan (Italy) previously treated with this material. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy applied to the Milan cathedral stone samples revealed characteristic features of biodeteriorated synthetic resins that differentiated them from the aged but nonbiodeteriorated samples. Samples showing biological colonization were analyzed for the presence of fungi. Cultivation and morphological characterization and methods independent from cultivation, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis coupled with partial 18S rRNA gene sequencing and immunofluorescence staining with melanin-binding antibodies, showed that melanin-producing species are heavily present on stone surfaces protected with acrylic resins. This observation raises the question of the effectiveness of acrylics in protecting stone artworks. PMID:17071788
Billingsley, Andrew; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard
Examines the interaction of church, school, and family in the African-American community. Using a holistic perspective and data from an ongoing, nationwide, multiyear study of church-sponsored family-oriented community outreach programs, the results indicate that the church is a powerful ally for the Black family. (JB)
Fellows, Timothy Steven
A common plea in missions is the need to train pastors and church leaders for the rapidly multiplying churches in the Majority World, resulting in numerous formal and nonformal theological education training programs. In spite of these efforts, many rural churches remain without pastors. Using appreciative inquiry and participatory…
Noh, Kyeong Cheon
This study has the aim of examining the effects obtained mainly through the leadership development process through small group dynamics for the purpose of making the youth group church, vitalized. The church reached the conclusion that the important problem for continuous church development was how to find a trained leader and to help the…
... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of church or community room. 100.76 Section...) Exceptions to Contributions § 100.76 Use of church or community room. No contribution results where an... political party, obtains the use of a church or community room and provides such room to any candidate...
Ferguson, Barry, Ed.
This book consists of 17 essays concerning the history of the Anglican church and its missions in western Canada. Essays examine the social and political role of the Anglican church, its influence among Native and non-Native populations, its effects on educational development, and the status of women in the church. Chapters 6, 8, 9, and 14 are…
Dale, Kathryn A.; Alpert, Judith L.
The existence of child sexual abuse within the Catholic Church has shocked many. In this article, the authors review the history of child sexual abuse in the church, the recent events that brought this tragedy into societal consciousness, and the efforts by the church to conceal the abuse. Two sources of empirical literature, the general…
Offers an analysis of church and state influences on the development of education in British Honduras (now Belize). Focuses on the British neglect of education in the colony; the emergence of tensions between the church and state, exploring issues related to Roman Catholic and Protestant rivalry; and church-state issues. (CMK)
This paper summarises the key findings of a research project into the identity, position and ethos of jointly sponsored church academies. The research sought to investigate how joint church academies are situated within the field, how they relate to existing academies and the maintained church school sector and how they articulate their vision and…
Craig, Charlotte L.; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy
A sample of 135 female and 164 male church leaders of mixed denominations completed the Francis Psychological Type Scales. The female church leaders demonstrated clear preferences for extraversion over introversion, for sensing over intuition, for feeling over thinking, and for judging over perceiving. The male church leaders demonstrated clear…
Vora, Erika; Vora, Jay A.
Investigated whether a planned engagement of white college students, which had very little contact with African Americans, with members of a black community in a safe, welcoming environment (a black church) would significantly reduce racism. Participant surveys indicated that positive interactions between Blacks and Whites resulted in positive…
Grothe, Rebecca, Ed.
This book contains eight papers about lifelong learning in the Christian church. The preface and foreword are written by Rebecca Groth and H. George Anderson, respectively. (1) "The Gospel Calls Us" (Margaret A. Krych) examines five theological themes of lifelong learning. Adult development and learning styles are considered in (2) "What Teachers…
Kersten, Dorothy B.
This revised guide is intended for use by both beginning and experienced church and synagogue librarians. Based on the latest edition of the Dewey Decimal System, the classification system that is recommended focuses on those subjects which would most likely be found in a congregational library. It is suggested that synagogue librarians may find…
The paper describes the results of research aimed at investigating the preferred subjective listening conditions inside churches. The effect of different musical motifs (spanning Gregorian chants to symphonic music) was investigated and regression analysis was performed in order to point out the relationship between subjective ratings and acoustical parameters. In order to present realistic listening conditions to the subjects a small subset of nine churches was selected among a larger set of acoustic data collected in several Italian churches during a widespread on-site survey. The subset represented different architectural styles and shapes, and was characterized by average listening conditions. For each church a single source-receiver combination with fixed relative positions was chosen. Measured binaural impulse responses were cross-talk cancelled and then convolved with five anechoic motifs. Paired comparisons were finally performed, asking a trained panel of subjects their preference. Factor analysis pointed out a substantially common underlying pattern characterizing subjective responses. The results show that preferred listening conditions vary as a function of the musical motif, depending on early decay time for choral music and on a combination of initial time delay and lateral energy for instrumental music.
Levin, Jeffrey S.
Historically, the black church has been the preserver and the perpetuator of the black ethos, the radix from which its defining values and norms have been generated, and the autonomous social institution that has provided order and meaning to the black experience in the United States. The traditional ethic of community-oriented service in the black ethos is highly compatible with the communitarian ethic of community medicine. Given this congruence and the much-documented fact that black Americans are an at-risk and under-served group regarding health status indicators and the provision of preventive health care, respectively, the black church is an extremely relevant locus for the practice of community medicine. A number of health programs based in or affiliated with the black church have operated throughout the United States, and these programs, along with the corpus of literature comprising conceptual articles favorable toward such a role for the black church, are reviewed within four areas of community medicine: primary care delivery, community mental health, health promotion and disease prevention, and health policy. PMID:6737505
This article provides an information on the role and position of the Roman Catholic Church in the UN. The Roman Catholic Church was elected to participate in the UN as the "Holy See". The "Holy See" is the supreme organ of government of the Catholic Church with the pope designated as its head under the Code of Canon Law, with the Vatican City regarded as its "vassal" territory. Unlike any other modern nation, the Vatican City does not support its citizen; rather it provides a base for the central administration of the Roman Catholic Church. The "Holy See" was regarded as a "nonmember state" in the UN. Pope Paul VI established the first Holy See "permanent observer mission" on March 21, 1964. When the Holy See was admitted as a nonmember state permanent observer, it maintained delegates at specialized agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Council for Cultural Cooperation of the Council of Europe. The status of the Holy See as a state under the International Law was uncertain because it has not satisfied the modern definition of a nation, which has: 1) a permanent population; 2) a defined territory; 3) a government; and 4) the capacity to enter into relations with the other states.
The article provides a comprehensive critical analysis of key issues that are deeply salient to an examination of the relationship of Latinos, education, and the Church. The status of Latinos and their educational participation in the US is systematically presented through a critical theoretical lens that brings questions of historical, political,…
The purpose of the paper is manifold. The first aim is to create a framework for analysis or to map the landscape of the Romanian church-related higher education institutions. The second is to answer the question that the existing educational policies, societal and cultural trends how will determine the identity, mission and functioning of these…
Jungers, Christin M.; Gregoire, Jocelyn
Investigating the influence of the Roman Catholic Church on the racial/ethnic identity development of Mauritian Creole peoples was the broad goal of the present study, which was framed by multidimensional approaches to human development, identity development models, and principles of Catholic Social Teaching (CST). Data were collected from 25…
Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim; Jayakody, Amanda A.
This article reports on a retrospective study of cases of child sexual abuse complaints made against clergy, other employed pastoral staff, and volunteers in the Anglican Church of Australia between 1990 and 2008. There were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 had more than…
Mitchell, Roland W.
This special issue on "The Role of Spirituality, Religion and the African American Church on Educational Outcomes" is extremely timely. Moreover, the fact that this conversation is taking place in "The Journal of Negro Education" ("JNE") demonstrates once again that the "JNE" has its finger firmly on the pulse of significant educational and…
Klein, Joseph P.
The author advocates his belief in the separation of church and state, considers the implications of complete separation, and discusses the "resurgence of religion in our public school system," as well as the "intrusion of religious authority into the privacy of personal bio-ethics issues." (JM)
Davies, Richard Ed
The purpose of this study was to investigate response to the film, "Parable," a 20-minute color film which depicts a clown in a circus setting and which has no dialog but evokes strong emotional/affective reactions. Postviewing reactions to the film by 141 adults from age 20 to 70 of United Methodist churches in southern Indiana were researched.…
McWhirter, Darien A.
This textbook on the separation of church and state continues the "Exploring the Constitution Series," which introduces important areas of constitutional law. Intended to serve either as a reference work, a supplement to a standard textbook, or as the textbook for a course, this volume covers the constitutional issues of prayer in public…
Burt, John Robert
The purpose of the study was to discover and analyze the competencies that senior adult ministers should possess in order to be effective within the church as perceived by senior adult ministry educators and senior adult ministry practitioners. The participants were limited to senior adult ministry educators who were seminary faculty and adult…
View of main entrance of the Church of God. This structure was originally a lodge hall for the Woodmen of the World from the adjacent mill neighborhoods such as Lincoln and Dallas Mill - 601 Humes Avenue (House), 601 Humes Avenue, Huntsville, Madison County, AL
Wright, Richard Louis
This study examines linguistic form and communication style in working-class and middle-class black preachers of two types: those who are not seminary trained, who preach spontaneously, and those who are seminary trained, who read from a prepared text. Ten sermons were tape-recorded in natural settings at two churches in Washington, D.C. Analyses…
Stephens, Darryl W.
This article describes Methodism's efforts to address misconduct within ministerial relationships as an important dimension of sexuality education within a religious context. The United Methodist Church (UMC) makes a concerted effort to promote awareness, justice, and healing in cases of sexual abuse within ministerial relationships. The most…
Nelson, Elena Margaret
The focus of this dissertation is the highly specialized and stylized liturgical language of Russian Church Slavonic (RCS). Historically, RCS has been strictly controlled by authorities and has conformed to established norms, but innovations have nevertheless arisen in response to various conditions. One major wave of innovations was a long,…
Baker, Jeffrey J.
Discusses human difficulty in grasping large numbers and long range truths. Gives history of the Roman Catholic Birth Control Commission and the Pope's issuing of the Humanae Vitae alongside data on population growth and related problems. Contrasts the birth control issue with other conflicts between science and the Catholic Church, pointing out…
While students of Islamic societies and cultures are aware of the influence of dynamics of honour and shame on behaviour, these factors are not always recognized by those who engage with Muslims in the UK. This paper will discuss the impact of concerns related to honour and shame on the behaviour of Muslim pupils in a Church of England primary…
Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara
This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria. .
Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara
This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria.
Minor, Harold D., Ed.
This guide to creative procedures for improving teaching adult church groups deals with the following: (1) steps in planning for instructional and learning experiences in adult groups; (2) techniques for admitting new ideas into a class; (3) using personal creativity through such means as role-playing, real-life experiences, brainstorming,…
3. August, 1970 VIEW FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH OF ORANGE STREET WITH LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE (#14) AT LEFT AND THE BLOCK (#15-23) AT RIGHT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA
4. August, 1970 VIEW FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH OF ORANGE STREET PARTICULARLY NOS. 12, 14 AND 14 1/3, AND THE HARBOR - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA
An examination of the rise of "electronic religion" (religious broadcasting on radio and television) in the United States and the movement's fusing of religious and political issues during the 1980 election year lends credibility to the argument that a clash between church and state is inherent in the political aspects of these…
Barone, Germana; La Russa, Mauro Francesco; Lo Giudice, Antonino; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Pezzino, Antonino
The Cathedral of St. Giorgio in Ragusa Ibla (Sicily) is one of the most important Baroque monuments of eastern Sicily. The restoration of the monument underway has put forward notable questions regarding the stone materials used and their state of degradation. The façade appears to be made mainly of a creamy white calcarenite, and of mortars and plasters. However, detailed analysis has highlighted a more complex use of the raw material. The mortar and plaster have a different composition in regards to their architectural use while the natural stone material is distinguished not only by a creamy-white calcarenite but also by a dark coloured bituminous calcarenite (pitch rock), which now appears whiter because of superficial chromatic alterations. This process was reproduced in the laboratory using an accelerated aging technique on samples of bituminous calcarenite, which allowed the cause of the alternation to be identified as photo-oxidation of the asphaltenes. Following this process of photo-oxidation, other forms of chromatic alterations affected the façade (brown orange-coloured patinas). FTIR, Scanning Electron Microscope and thin section microscopic observation allowed the characterization of also the products of this process to be carried out, highlighting the complex mechanism which the processes underwent.
Fulton, Brad R
The ambivalent response of many black churches to current social issues has caused some scholars to question the centrality of black churches within African-American communities. Using a nationally representative sample of black congregations, this study engages the debate about the institutional centrality of black churches by focusing on their response to HIV/AIDS. Although many congregational studies treat black churches as a monolithic whole, this analysis identifies heterogeneity among black churches that shapes their responsiveness to social issues. Contrary to prior claims, a congregation's liberal-conservative ideological orientation does not significantly affect its likelihood of having an HIV/AIDS program. Beyond assessing churches’ internal characteristics, this study uses institutional theory to analyze churches as open systems that can be influenced by their surrounding environment. It demonstrates that externally engaged congregations are significantly more likely to have a program. These results indicate that black churches maintain institutional centrality by engaging their external environment.
This article employs novel documentation to examine ways in which the Church's moral rules on contraception were (or were not) communicated to parishioners in a predominantly Catholic context in a period of rapid fertility decline: the diocese of Padua, in the northeastern Italian region of Veneto, during the first half of the twentieth century. The account is based on documents that have until now been overlooked: the moral cases discussed during the periodic meetings among Padua priests in the years 1916–58, and the written answers provided by priests in response to a question asked of them concerning their efforts to combat the limiting of births. This documentation reveals the limited effect on the reproductive behavior of the position of the Catholic Church against birth control.
Exercise Plan for CHURCH "STROKE Tw. Cruise 5 (U). Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity , NSTL Station, MS, LRAPP Rep. S77-010, SECRET...distribution unlimited FROM: Distribution: Further dissemination only as directed by Commanding Officer, Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity ...Dissemination Only As Directed by NORDA Code 520 NAVAL OCEAN RESEARCH AND 0EV LOMNT ACTIVITY 43 ~~~NSTL St~ate, Missu=im 2 CLASSIFIED BY OPNAV1NST 5513.5
Popister, I.; Zeman, A.
The goal of the present study is to characterize the black crust on the main stone used at Saint Michael's Church in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The gases in the atmosphere, along with natural and artificial pollutants can cause damage the integrity of the stone when it comes in contact with the stone's chemistry. In order to explain the mechanism of stone decay due to black crust it is necessary to know what "weathering" means, so it must be seen as a complex process that consists of: type of material, the environment in which the material is located, and the amount of time required for the process to take place. Each material has particular properties, due to its composition and genesis. When it comes in contact with the acidity of the "acid rain" (caused by sulphur, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide), the rain penetrates into the pore structure, corroding it and "allowing" the atmospheric particles to penetrate the stone. St. Michael's Church is one of the oldest Gothic architectural monuments in Cluj, Romania, being built predominantly from Cenozoic (Upper Eocene) limestone, locally known as the Cluj Limestone. The main quarry was in Baciu, near Cluj. The samples that were collected from the Saint Michael's Church were characterized by means of: optical microscope, Scattering Electronic Microscope, thin sections, EDS The samples that were collected from the Saint Michael's Church went through a series of tests: optical microscope, Scattering Electronic Microscope, thin sections, EDX, and cross-section. The optical microscope analysis of the thin sections revealed that the black crust layer is approximately 0.01mm, and in the sample there are perfectly shaped ooides, which is characteristic to this type of limestone. The SEM analysis shows a resedimentation layer on the surface of the black crust, which occurred probably due to the effect of acid rain. Further information regarding the results of the test will be presented on the poster.
Kubicar, L.; Fidríková, D.; Štofanik, V.; Vretenár, V.
Historic monuments are subject to degradation due to exposition to surrounding meteorological conditions and groundwater. Degradation is most often manifested by deterioration of plaster, walls structure and building elements like stones. A significant attention measures are undertaken to prevent degradation of the cultural heritage throughout the world. Our contribution is to monitor the objects for recognition of the critical state when it is necessary to make adjustments to avoid destruction. Buildings consisting from the listed elements belong to porous materials. Moisture diffusion, condensation, etc. attack structure stability of the buildings. Then the moisture diffusion and effects like drying, freezing / thawing belong to the control mechanisms of the degradation. In addition to laboratory experiments concerning the mentioned effects, we simultaneously studied processes by monitoring of the cultural monuments. During monitoring we have identified diffusion of moisture associated with cycle day / night and cycle moisture /drying caused by meteorological precipitation. Long term monitoring is performed in the tower of St. Martin Cathedral in Bratislava under the window sill of the belfry in exterior at three orientations, the north, south and the west. Monitoring is carried out in plaster and in masonry about 10 cm from the wall surface. The thermal conductivity sensors are used for monitoring that operate on the principle of the hot ball method. Then thermal conductivity of porous material is a function of pore content. The sensor has shape of a ball in diameter up to 2 mm in which a heat source as well as a thermometer is integrated into one component. A small heat output is delivered into the surrounding material. The temperature response of the sensor gives information on the thermal conductivity. For use in the preservation of cultural heritage a number of measuring devices have been developed for automatic registration of temperature and moisture in
15. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: FRONT FOYER, STAIRWAY TO BALCONY, Date unknown. from FOURTH CHURCH OF CHRIST SCIENTIST ARCHIVE (used with permission). Photographer not known. - Fourth Church of Christ, Scientist, 1330 Lakeshore Avenue, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
The earliest church murals of the first stone churches in Finland were painted at the time when Christianity had only just become the official faith in the region and the old ethnic religion was still widely practiced. The 'pagan' motifs of these Early Medieval Finnish church murals reflect the complexity of the religious beliefs in this transition phase. The church actively transformed the festivals of the vernacular religion by giving Christian meanings to the symbols and rituals, as well as by replacing the ethnic deities with Christian figures. The solar symbolism and the calendrical motifs of the church murals are interpreted as imagery largely based on the Christianized remnants of the pre-Christian annual festivals. The earliest church murals thus provide important insight into the pre-Christian religious beliefs of late Iron Age Finland. Many of the motifs and symbols represented in the murals are related to the annual fertility cult and the solar goddess as one of its central figures.
Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Condrasky, Margaret D
A unique strength of the African-American community is the importance of church and faith. Interventions promoting health might want to build on these strengths by developing faith-based interventions that encourage churches to create an environment that supports behavior change. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between perceived environmental church support for healthy eating and intake of fruit and vegetables and fat- and fiber-related behaviors, and to examine whether these relationships differ by sex. The design was a cross-sectional study in which participants completed self-report dietary and perceived church support measures before initiation of an intervention. Relationships between fruit and vegetable consumption, fat- and fiber-related behaviors, and perceived church support (eg, total, written informational, spoken informational, instrumental [fruit and vegetable consumption only]), along with Support×Sex interactions were examined. Participants were 1,136 African-American church members from four geographically defined districts in South Carolina. Statistical analyses included regression models controlling for sex, age, years of education, health rating, and body mass index using SAS PROC MIXED. A separate model was conducted for each measure of perceived church support and each type of healthy eating index. Perceived total church support and perceived written and spoken informational church support were associated with considerably higher fruit and vegetable intake and more favorable fiber-related behaviors, whereas only perceived total and perceived written informational support were associated with more low-fat dietary behaviors. Perceived instrumental church support was not associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. No sex differences were found. The social and physical church environment can be an important factor influencing the dietary habits of its members. Future faith-based interventions should further explore
Carter-Edwards, Lori; Hooten, Elizabeth Gerken; Bruce, Marino A; Toms, Forrest; Lloyd, Cheryl Lemay; Ellison, Calvin
Churches serve vital roles in African American communities, where disease burden is disproportionately greater and healthcare access is more limited. Although church leadership often must approve programs and activities conducted within churches, little is known about their perception of churches as health promotion organizations, or the impact of church-based health promotion on their own health. This exploratory study assessed perceptions of church capacity to promote health among 27 rural, African American clergy leaders and report the relationship between their own health and that of their congregation. Results indicate a perceived need to increase the capacity of their churches to promote health. Most common were conducting health programs, displaying health information, kitchen committee working with the health ministry, partnerships outside of the church, and funding. Findings lay the foundation for the development of future studies of key factors associated with organizational change and health promotion in these rural church settings.
Draxler, Andrea; Rauch, Roman; Gruber, Karin; Leohardt, Roman
It is widely known that the main structure of many churches was planned and built in an east-ward direction. This procedure, called "easting", was used for centuries especially in catholic structures. "Easting" usually refers to the direction of sunrise at the church patron's day. Assuming however that this direction is estimated by compasses there could be a significant correlation between the geographic orientation of the churches and the value of magnetic declination at the date of building. In Europe compasses are known since the 11th century. For this study altogether 124 churches located in lower Austria and built between 1100 to 1900 were analysed. Of primary interest is the geographic orientation of the churches, which was extracted out of georeferenced satellite images in Google Earth and the NO Atlas. The measured orientation of the church's nave is then compared to the geographic east direction as well as to the magnetic east direction, according to the magnetic field in the church's construction year which is determined by published geomagnetic field models. The resulting deviations for the geographic east direction split our data into two groups: churches that were built before 1500 and churches that were constructed after 1500. The boundary between these two data sets is marked by the Ottoman wars in the 16th century, where a lot of churches were destroyed. After 1500 the differences between the church's orientation and the geographic east direction are significantly bigger than before the Ottoman wars, so we shifted our focus for the following calculations on the time span from 1100 to 1500, where we found quite small deviations for both the geographic and the magnetic east direction. The principle idea of church orientation, usually referred to as "Easting" is to direct the church to the point of sunrise on the patron saint's day. Therefore we also calculated the solar azimuth on the patron saint's day and compared it to the orientation of the
Obesity; Diet, Food, and Nutrition; Church; Healthcare Disparities; Minority Health; Mobile Health; Telehealth; Community-based Participatory Research; Primary Health Care; Weight Loss Programs; Health Behavior
4. Historic American Buildings Survey R. Merritt Lacey, Photographer April 1, 1936 INTERIOR - CHANCEL END OF CHURCH - Christ Episcopal Church, Broad Street & Sycamore Avenue, Shrewsbury, Monmouth County, NJ
Aldred, D; Aldred, L
This article presents an explanation of Church teaching to college students on the meaning of marriage, the religious tenets of natural family planning, sexual abstinence, and human rights within population policies. It is argued that the use of natural family planning and abstinence within marriage involves a change in attitude toward sexuality. Fertility is a gift to be used and enjoyed as part of sexuality. Sex becomes a sign of renewal of the covenant of marriage that strengthens and is being strengthened by a growing love for one another. The Catholic Church teaches that birth regulation is necessary for planning families. Natural family planning is the best way to build relationships and to grow in love. Contraceptive sex is a rejection of the patterns of fertility that are the basis of womanhood. Love within marriage is more than an emotional attachment. It is a commitment to each other that takes love out of peaceful feelings and into the realm of decisions. The covenant of love is complete acceptance of each other that hides nothing. Anything that limits the self-gift to each other is a limit to marriage. Natural family planning takes into account a knowledge and appreciation of fertility in contrast to modern contraception that associates fertility control with a problem to be avoided or destroyed. Abstinence during the most fertile period can be a way of loving in itself, by respecting and valuing this time period in order to focus on growing together in love. The fertility cycle becomes a cycle of love that passes through the stages of courtship and honeymoon. Modern contraception has contributed to the breaking of the link between marriage and the procreative meaning of life. The eugenics movement in the early years of birth control proposed that only the best should be allowed to breed. The randomness of love is a barrier to policies of selective human breeding. The Church reinforces the view that every new life is a gift and parenting is a privilege.
Girón, S.; Galindo, M.; Zamarreño, T.
In this work, the physical measures of spatial impression are considered in 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. This study describes the spatial distribution of the early and late lateral acoustic energy, through monaural parameters derived from impulse response analysis using a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. In the first time analysis, the two early lateral energy measures, early lateral fraction (LF) and early lateral fraction cosine (LFC) are taken in order to assess apparent source width (ASW), and the late lateral level (GLL) in the second to assess listener envelopment (LEV) are conducted. Parameters have been studied spectrally in each temple and were averaged at low- and mid-frequency values in their different naves in order to study how these two attributes of sound perception vary with source-receiver distance. Experimental results have been compared with the theoretical early lateral energy fractions and late lateral level, both of which are derived by assuming that reflected energy in these places of worship is solely dependent on source-receiver distance. This comparison is carried out in accordance with the μ-model proposed by the authors in an earlier paper in order to describe the dependence of acoustic monaural omnidirectional energy parameters on source-receiver distance. Thus, it is supposed that the directional distribution of reflections is similar to a diffuse distribution. To conclude, these spatially averaged monoaural parameters have been correlated with geometric variables by using linear regression and only weak correlations with the mean width of the churches and with the height/width ratio have been found.
Skrobonja, Ante; Culina, Tatjana
The introductory segment of this paper briefly describes George Matthew the Dalmatian, the architect who, between 1441 and 1473, oversaw the construction of the Cathedral of St. James in Sibenik, a city on the Croatian side of the Adriatic coast. Of the most impressive details included in this monumental construction and sculptural flamboyant gothic production infused with distinctive Dalmatian spirit is a frieze of 71 stone and three lion portraits encircling the outer apse wall. From the intriguing amalgamation of portraits of anonymous people this master came across in his surrounding, the fiftieth head in the row has been selected for this occasion. On the face of a younger man the authors have recognized and described pathognomonic right-sided facial nerve paresis. The question posed here is whether this is coincidental or it represents the master's courage, given that instead of famous people in the cathedral he situated not only ordinary people but also those "labelled" and traditionally marginalized, thus, in the most beautiful manner, foreshadowing the forthcoming spirit of Humanism and Renaissance in Croatian and European art.
11. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: AUDITORIUM LOOKING EAST TOWARD ROSTRUM, 14 Sept. 1944 from FOURTH CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST ARCHIVE (used with permission) Gabriel Moulin, Photographer, 181 Second St., San Francisco, Ca. FOURTH CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST HABS No. CA-2272 Index to Photographs (page 2) - Fourth Church of Christ, Scientist, 1330 Lakeshore Avenue, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
Şahiner, Eren; Meriç, Niyazi; Uygun, Selda
Luminescence dating is a chronological method that has been used extensively in terrestrial materials. In this study, we present Infrared Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL) dating results obtained for sediment and pottery samples taken from Yeni Rabat Church, Ardanuç, Artvin, Turkey. For this purpose, equivalent dose (ED) and annual dose rate (AD) of samples were measured. For annual dose rate, concentrations of radioactive isotopes (U, Th, K) were determined by using a high-purity germanium detector. For the equivalent dose, polymineral fine grain SAR (Single Aliquot Regenerative Dose) and MAAD (Multiple Aliquot Additive Dose) procedures were used. The optimal preheat temperature was determined for sediment and pottery samples. Ages were calculated by Aitken's luminescence age calculation method, which found 710±190 years for the pottery sample and 1450±370 years, 1390±420 years, 1430±310 years, 2210±520 years and 1640±390 years for different sediment samples, respectively. These estimated age ranges support the theory that Yeni Rabat Church could have been constructed in medieval times.
Iannaccone, Laurence R.; Miles, Carrie A.
After two decades of resistance, the Mormon church has begun accommodating change in women's roles. Accommodation increases participation among younger and less experienced members but decreases participation among older and more experienced members, suggesting that successful churches must balance accommodation and resistance to social change.…
Martin, Nadia J.
This guide is written for staff in church and synagogue libraries which traditionally have small collections, limited funding, and volunteer staff. The information in this guide provides the tools needed to create a customized disaster response plan for church or synagogue libraries. Part 1: The Disaster Response Plan, covers the process of…
Hach, Alexa; Roberts-Dobie, Susan
A small sample of faith leaders from the USA's three largest Mainline Protestant denominations (American Baptist, Evangelical Lutheran Church of America and Methodist) were interviewed as part of a case study regarding sexuality education in their churches. The interview schedule, based on a previous Alan Guttmacher Institute designed…
Rockrohr, Deborah L.
This study examined current practice in the area of theological preparation for Lutheran elementary teachers of the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod (LCMS). As a church body with a well-defined doctrine, the LCMS requires a particular preparation for all ordained and commissioned workers placed on its official roster. A historical review of archival…
Jordan, Diedria H.; Wilson, Camille M.
This article describes how African American students' success can be improved via the increased support of Black churches and their partnerships with public schools. Findings and implications from a comparative case study of two North Carolina churches that strive to educationally assist African American public school students are detailed. Both…
The Catholic charismatic movement (renewal) may not have fulfilled all the hopes of its adherents, but it has had more impact on the Catholic Church than many realise. The signs are that this influence will increase as the effects sink deeper into church life. (Contains 33 notes.)
Faith-based organizations, particularly churches, have embraced education. Historically, churches, synagogues, and temples have been the sites for educational programming. Yet, a great concern among religious institutions is participation in educational activities. Many studies have identified barriers to participation in adult education among…
Sterland, Sam; Bellamy, John; Escott, Phillip; Castle, Keith
This article highlights the importance of considering the flow of newcomers into church life and the inadequacy of relying solely upon changes in numbers of attenders in assessing the effectiveness of churches. Drawing upon data collected in four countries, Australia, England, New Zealand and the United States of America, this article looks at the…
Williams, Katy; Strong, Robert; Lockett, Landry
The study reported here provided a descriptive report on cowboy churches, while identifying the potential for Extension-cowboy church collaborations and examining the direct implications to Extension. The diffusion of innovations conceptualized the qualitative study. Semi-structured, face-to-face and phone interviews were conducted with 10 adults…
Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, Orner Building, First U.M. Church Rectory, & First U.M. Church-context - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA
Wenski, Thomas G.
The arrival of immigrants presents challenges and tensions for the Catholic Church in America in areas of intercultural interactions. The pastoral structure of the national parish from the post-WWII immigrant church needs to be modified to accommodate the language, cultural, and social class differences of the new immigrant. This is successfully…
Stewart, Jennifer M.
Objective To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Design Mixed methods cross-sectional design. Setting African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. Participants 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Methods Mixed methods convergent parallel design. Results The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Conclusion Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. PMID:25139612
Melville, Annabelle M.
Comparison of Catholic biography in the 1950s and 1980s highlights prominent titles and publishers. Biographies as a segment of history of the Church in the United States, the author's writing of the biography of DuBourg, and the history of DuBourg's three decades in the American Catholic Church are noted. (EJS)
Green-Powell, Patricia A.; Hilton, Adriel A.; Joseph, Crystal L.
Since their founding, the Black churches have strived to implement and fulfill their missions. These institutions acknowledge the importance to become actively involved in the community as well as engaged in the lives of young people. Black churches are faced with unique challenges every day, however, they provide significant number of resources…
Stuckey, Jon C.
This study examined the role of the church in providing elderly women with a structure within which to maintain social contact and spiritual support into old age. Twenty-one middle-class, older white women, all of whom lived in the same small Ohio town, attended the same Methodist church, and belonged to the same Sunday school class, were…
Sullivan, Patricia A.
The discord between the Catholic Church and its followers in the United States crystallized with the candidacy of Geraldine Ferraro for vice president in 1984, when she became the target of attacks by members of the church hierarchy. Ferraro questioned why she was singled out on the abortion issue, and indeed, at times she seemed to be running…
Lin, Yu-Fen; Li, Chi-Sing; Irby, Beverly J.; Brown, Genevieve
Women in many Christian cultures are told that men are strong and should lead the church. Consequently, some women rationalize that they should not assume top leadership roles in the church. When they do assume such roles, many female pastors experience challenges. The purpose of our qualitative case study was to give voice to Asian female…
Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Bowe-Thompson, Carole; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Hawes, Starlyn; Moore, Erin; Williams, Eric; Martinez, David; Goggin, Kathy
Utilizing a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach is a potentially effective strategy for exploring the development, implementation, and evaluation of HIV interventions in African American churches. This CBPR-guided study describes a church-based HIV awareness and screening intervention (Taking It to the Pews [TIPS]) that fully involved African American church leaders in all phases of the research project. Findings from the implementation and evaluation phases indicated that church leaders delivered TIPS Tool Kit activities on an ongoing basis (about twice a month) over a 9-month period. TIPS church members were highly exposed to TIPS activities (e.g., 91% reported receiving HIV educational brochures, 84% heard a sermon about HIV). Most (87%) believed that the church should talk about HIV, and 77% believed that the church should offer HIV screening. These findings suggest that implementing an HIV intervention in Black church settings is achievable, particularly when a CBPR approach is used.
Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Bowe-Thompson, Carole; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Hawes, Starlyn; Moore, Erin; Williams, Eric; Martinez, David; Goggin, Kathy
Utilizing a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach is a potentially effective strategy for exploring the development, implementation, and evaluation of HIV interventions in African American churches. This CBPR-guided study describes a church-based HIV awareness and screening intervention (Taking It to the Pews [TIPS]) that fully involved African American church leaders in all phases of the research project. Findings from the implementation and evaluation phases indicated that church leaders delivered TIPS Tool Kit activities on an ongoing basis (about twice a month) over a 9-month period. TIPS church members were highly exposed to TIPS activities (e.g., 91% reported receiving HIV educational brochures, 84% heard a sermon about HIV). Most (87%) believed that the church should talk about HIV, and 77% believed that the church should offer HIV screening. These findings suggest that implementing an HIV intervention in Black church settings is achievable, particularly when a CBPR approach is used. PMID:20528130
Barnes, Sandra L
When the subject of the Black Church and homosexuality is broached, research often focuses on homophobia and correlates with HIV/AIDS. Fewer studies examine other problematic issues germane to gay and lesbian involvement in Black congregations. In this analysis, Black clergy dialogue during focus groups about inclusivity and church leadership by gays and lesbians. Informed by Cultural Theory, of equal interest is whether discourses are influenced by Black Church cultural tools, as well as cultural dynamics, from the broader Black community. As anticipated, findings suggest the tendency for clergy to promote welcoming church spaces, but to be reticent about affirming homosexuality as an acceptable lifestyle. Furthermore, although clergy are generally supportive of involvement by closeted gays and lesbians as lay leaders, most do not support their involvement in the clergy, particularly as pastors. However, views vary based on denomination and gender, and are informed by Black Church cultural components such as scripture and the call-and-response tradition.
Wilson, D. B.
Galileo's conflict with the Catholic Church is well recognized as a key episode in the history of physics and in the history of science and religion. This paper applies a new, historiographical approach to that specific episode. It advocates eliminating the science and religion. The Church concluded that the plainest facts of human experience agreed perfectly with an omniscient God's revealed word to proclaim the earth at rest. Supported by the Bible, Galileo, God-like, linked the elegance of mathematics to truths about nature. The Church, in effect, resisted Galileo's claim to be able to think like God, instead listening to God himself - and paying close attention to what man himself observed. We can thus see that the phrase ``Galileo's religion versus the Church's science'' is as meaningful (or meaningless) as the usual designation ``Galileo's science versus the Church's religion.''
Baig, Arshiya A; Locklin, Cara A; Wilkes, Abigail E; Oborski, Donna Dempsey; Acevedo, John C; Gorawara-Bhat, Rita; Quinn, Michael T; Burnet, Deborah L; Chin, Marshall H
Churches provide an innovative and underutilized setting for diabetes self-management programs for Latinos. This study sought to formulate a conceptual framework for designing church-based programs that are tailored to the needs of the Latino community and that utilize church strengths and resources. To inform this model, we conducted six focus groups with mostly Mexican-American Catholic adults with diabetes and their family members (N = 37) and found that participants were interested in church-based diabetes programs that emphasized information sharing, skills building, and social networking. Our model demonstrates that many of these requested components can be integrated into the current structure and function of the church. However, additional mechanisms to facilitate access to medical care may be necessary to support community members' diabetes care.
The purpose of this study is to see whether emotional support from fellow church members is associated with self-forgiveness in late life. The data come from a longitudinal nationwide survey of older adults. An effort is made to contribute to the literature by comparing and contrasting the effects of two church-based support measures: the amount of emotional support that is provided by fellow church members and satisfaction with emotional support from co-religionists. The findings suggest that older study participants who are more satisfied with the emotional support they have received from the members of their church are more likely to forgive themselves than older people who are not satisfied with the emotional support they have received in church. In contrast, significant effects failed to emerge with the measure of the amount of received emotional support.
Ayton, Darshini; Carey, Gemma; Keleher, Helen; Smith, Ben
Health promotion practice requires partnerships with different sectors of society and at all levels of government to achieve health equity as the prerequisites for health include domains that exist outside of the health sphere. Therefore existing partnerships for health need to be strengthened and the potential for new partnerships must be considered in order to address health holistically. The literature base exploring the church as a partner and setting for health promotion is predominantly from the US and therefore there is a need for research exploring the opportunities and challenges of partnering with churches in the Australian context. This paper presents an historical overview of the involvement of churches and church affiliated organisations in health and welfare in Australia recognising that while some of the values, practices and beliefs of churches may have considerable synergies with health promotion, others may be sources of contention or difference.
Roman Isler, Malika; Eng, Eugenia; Maman, Susanne; Adimora, Adaora; Weiner, Bryan
The black church is influential in shaping health behaviors within African-American communities, yet few use evidence-based strategies for HIV prevention (abstinence, monogamy, condoms, voluntary counseling and testing, and prevention with positives). Using principles of grounded theory and interpretive description, we explored the social construction of HIV prevention within black Baptist churches in North Carolina. Data collection included interviews with church leaders (n = 12) and focus groups with congregants (n = 7; 36 participants). Analytic tools included open coding and case-level comparisons. Social constructions of HIV/AIDS prevention were influenced by two worldviews: public health and church-based. Areas of compatibility and incompatibility exist between the two worldviews that inform acceptability and adaptability of current evidence-based strategies. These findings offer insight into ways to increase the compatibility of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies within the black Baptist church context. PMID:24643141
St. Mary's parish church in Chojna was erected at the turn of XIV and XVc. in a shape of three aisles, hall church without transept, completed from the west with a single tower and from the east with polygonal presbytery with an ambulatory attached. The convergence of characteristic structural and decorative features with employed ones in medieval churches being attributed to Hinrich Brunsberg's fabric resulted in such a way, that also authorship of St. Mary in Chojna was assigned to this legendary architect and master builder of late Middle Ages period. The church was destroyed by fire during WWII in February 1945 and since then had remained as an open ruin. In 1997 reconstruction procedure of the church was begun under the leadership of the author and it still continues. This text consists of the sum of experiences connected with confronting design ideas and solutions with their executions on the site during construction works.
This study had two goals. The first goal was to see if church-based social relationships are associated with change in self-esteem. Emotional support from fellow church members and having a close personal relationship with God served as measures of church-based social ties. The second goal was to see whether emotional support from fellow church members is more strongly associated with self-esteem than emotional support from secular social network members. The data came from an ongoing nationwide survey of older adults. The findings revealed that having a close personal relationship with God is associated with a stronger sense of self-esteem at the baseline and follow-up interviews. In contrast, emotional support from fellow church members was not associated with self-esteem at either point in time. However, emotional support from secular social network members was related to self-esteem at the baseline but not the follow-up interview. PMID:20300481
Hinton, Mary D.
The article suggests that Religious Education, in practice and as a field, will benefit by exploring the history and practice of Religious Education in the Black church. Using examples from the history, curriculum, and process of Religious Education in the historic Black church, the article argues that the Black church offers a dynamic educational…
Van Wagoner, Nicholas; Mugavero, Michael; Westfall, Andrew; Hollimon, John; Slater, Larry Z; Burkholder, Greer; Raper, James L; Hook, Edward W
We demonstrate an interdependent relationship between sexual behavior and church attendance on timing of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis and presentation for care. Men who have sex with men (MSM) and who attend church are more likely to present with lower CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts than MSM who do not attend church.
Individuals and societies have traditionally sought answers to important questions in life through religion. In the 21st century, physical churches with clergy are no longer the sole source of spiritual answers or knowledge. Since the late 1960s, church attendance has been declining. Church leaders have begun to implement new methods such as using…
WHITMAN, LAURIS B.; AND OTHERS
THE DEPARTMENT OF RESEARCH OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CHURCHES CONDUCTED A SURVEY FOR THE UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF ITS MEMBERSHIP AND RELIGIOUS BELIEFS. THE AIM WAS TO COMPARE VARIOUS POPULATIONS (CLERGY, COMMUNICANTS, CHURCH SCHOOL TEACHERS, AND YOUTH), CONCERNING THE EXTENT OF THEIR ORTHODOXY. VOLUMES IIA AND IIB OF THE REPORT RELATE TO THE…
Eng, E; Hatch, J; Callan, A
The positive influence of social support on such health related outcomes as patient adherence to medical regimens and stress reduction at the worksite has captured the attention of public health researchers and practitioners alike. Yet, the broader social outcome of building community competency to undertake and sustain health related solutions without constant intervention from professionals still remains elusive. The difficulty may lie with the need to uncover on each occasion the various roles and functions of social support structures that may or may not exist in a given community. The intent would then be to graft an intervention onto these existing roles and functions in order to mirror the naturally occurring social support structures. A conceptual framework that has been used to institutionalize health related activities through the role and function of the black Church, as a social unit of identity and solution for rural black communities in North Carolina, is put forth for consideration.
Conflicts over religious symbols in the public sphere, gay marriage, abortion or gender equality have shown their disruptive potential across many societies in the world. They have also become the subject of political and legal debates in international institutions. These conflicts emerge out of different worldviews and normative conceptions of the good, and they are frequently framed in terms of competing interpretations of human rights. One newcomer voice in conflicts over rights and values in the international sphere is the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC), which in recent years has become an active promoter of 'traditional values' both inside Russia and internationally. This article studies the ideational prerequisites and dynamics of Russian Orthodox 'norm protagonism' in the international arena.
ABSTRACT Conflicts over religious symbols in the public sphere, gay marriage, abortion or gender equality have shown their disruptive potential across many societies in the world. They have also become the subject of political and legal debates in international institutions. These conflicts emerge out of different worldviews and normative conceptions of the good, and they are frequently framed in terms of competing interpretations of human rights. One newcomer voice in conflicts over rights and values in the international sphere is the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC), which in recent years has become an active promoter of ‘traditional values’ both inside Russia and internationally. This article studies the ideational prerequisites and dynamics of Russian Orthodox ‘norm protagonism’ in the international arena. PMID:27660397
Carpenter, M.R.; Easterbrook, D.J. . Dept. of Geology)
Detailed investigation of an ancient sturzstrom or mega-landslide near Glacier, Washington has revealed it areal extent, approximate volume, age, geomorphology, source area, and possible causes. Stratigraphic and lithologic investigations indicate Church Mountain as the source area; therefore, this mega-landslide has been named the Church Mountain Sturzstrom (CMS). The CMS deposit is approximately 9 km in length, averages about 1 km in width, and has an estimated volume of 3 [times] 10[sup 8] m[sup 3]. Characteristics of the morphology and stratigraphy of the CMS deposit are suggestive of a sturzstrom origin, and may be indicative of sturzstrom elsewhere in the world. The overall stratigraphy of the deposit mimics the stratigraphy of the source area. The deposit is very compact, poorly sorted, matrix supported, and composed of highly angular clasts. Over steepening of the mountain due to glacial erosion may have contributed to the cause of failure, although the age of the CMS is at least 7,000 years younger than deglaciation. Four trees were C[sup 14] dated, yielding ages of about 2,700 B.P. for the CMS. Several other mega-landslides have been identified within 5--30 km of the CMS. The close proximity of these mega-landslides to the CMS suggests the possibility that they may have been triggered by an earthquake, although the ages of the other slides are currently unknown. The age of the CMS correlates approximately with age ranges of co-seismic events occurring along the west coast of Washington, further suggesting the possibility of an earthquake triggering mechanism.
Cardinale, Tiziana; Rospi, Gianluca; Cardinale, Nicola; Paterino, Lucia; Persia, Ivan
The Matera Cathedral was built in Apulian-Romanesque style in the thirteenth century on the highest spur of the "Civita" that divides "Sassi" district in two parts. The constructive material is the calcareous stone of the Vaglia, extracted from quarries in the area of Matera. The interior is Baroque and presents several artworks, including: mortars covered with a golden patina, a wooden ceiling, painted canvas and painting frescoes, three minor altars and a major altar of precious white marble, a nativity scene made of local painted limestone. The research had to evaluate the indoor microclimate during and after the restoration works, that also concern the installation of floor heating system to heat the indoor environments. Specifically, we have analyzed the thermal comfort and the effect that the artwork and construction materials inside the Cathedral of Matera have undergone. This evaluation was carried out in two different phases: in the first one we have investigated the state of the art (history of the site, constructive typology and artworks); in the second one we have done a systematic diagnosis and an instrumental one. The analysis were carried out in a qualitative and quantitative way and have allowed us to test indoor microclimatic parameters (air temperature, relative humidity and indoor air velocity), surface temperatures of the envelope and also Fanger's comfort indices (PMV and PPD) according to the UNI EN ISO 7730. The thermal mapping of the wall surface and of the artworks, carried out through thermal imaging camera, and the instrumental measurement campaigns were made both before restoration and after installation of the heating system; in addition measurements were taken with system on and off. The analysis thus made possible to verify that the thermo-hygrometric parameters found, as a result of the recovery operations, meet the limits indicated by the regulations and international studies. In this way, we can affirm that the indoor environment
Stewart, Jennifer M; Thompson, Keitra; Rogers, Christopher
The US National HIV AIDS strategy promotes the use of faith communities to lessen the burden of HIV in African American communities. One specific strategy presented is the use of these non-traditional venues for HIV testing and co-location of services. African American churches can be at the forefront of this endeavour through the provision of HIV testing and linkage to care. However, there are few interventions to promote the churches' involvement in both HIV testing and linkage to care. We conducted 4 focus groups (n = 39 participants), 4 interviews and 116 surveys in a mixed-methods study to examine the feasibility of a church-based HIV testing and linkage to care intervention in Philadelphia, PA, USA. Our objectives were to examine: (1) available assets, (2) challenges and barriers and (3) needs associated with church-based HIV testing and linkage to care. Analyses revealed several factors of importance, including the role of the church as an access point for testing in low-income neighbourhoods, challenges in openly discussing the relationship between sexuality and HIV, and buy-in among church leadership. These findings can support intervention development and necessitate situating African American church-based HIV testing and linkage to care interventions within a multi-level framework.
Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Thompson, Carole Bowe; Moore, Erin; Hawes, Starlyn; Simon, Stephen; Goggin, Kathy; Martinez, David; Berman, Marcie; Booker, Alexandria
Background African Americans are disproportionately burdened by HIV. The African American church is an influential institution with potential to increase reach of HIV prevention interventions in Black communities. Purpose This study examined HIV testing rates in African American churches in the Taking It to the Pews pilot project. Using a community-engaged approach, church leaders delivered religiously-tailored HIV education and testing materials/activities (e.g., sermons, brochures/bulletins, testimonials) to church and community members. Methods Four African American churches (N=543 participants) located in the Kansas City metropolitan area were randomized to intervention and comparison groups. Receipt of an HIV test was assessed at baseline and 6 months. Results Findings indicated intervention participants were 2.2 times more likely to receive an HIV test than comparisons at 6 months. Church leaders delivered about 2 tools per month. Conclusions Church-based HIV testing interventions are feasible and have potential to increase HIV testing rates in African American communities. PMID:26821712
Krause, Neal; Hayward, R. David
The purpose of this study is to see if measures of church-based and secular social support offset the effects of functional disability on change in feelings of personal control over time. Survey data were obtained from Wave 2 and Wave 3 of a nationwide sample of older adults (N = 583). The findings suggest that spiritual support from fellow church members offsets the effects of functional disability on change in feelings of personal control over time. In contrast, neither emotional support from fellow church members nor emotional support from secular social network members exerted a similar effect. PMID:23553003
Panjikaran, S.; Vedamuthu, R.
The churches of Kerala of the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries exhibits an architectural character which is different from that of the indigenous Church Architecture of Kerala. Preliminary studies show that the spatial organization of these churches also varied from that of the indigenous churches of Kerala. Did these variations in spatial organization arise of any change in functional requirements of churches? How did the indigenous Architectural character adapt to these changes or did it give way to a new style? The objective of this study is to understand the spatial organization of the indigenous Church Architecture of Kerala and to evaluate the changes in spatial organization during the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries. This study is primarily based on field survey and documentation, evaluation is done by relying on the Rapoport's theory. It is concluded that the church architecture of this period is a fusion of the Western and Eastern ecclesiastical traditions in terms of spatial organization and planning.
... ministers and lay workers) of any affiliated church entity that has more than 10 employees. The other plan... provides health coverage to any employee (including ministers and lay workers) of any affiliated...
Dale, Kathryn A; Alpert, Judith L
The existence of child sexual abuse within the Catholic Church has shocked many. In this article, the authors review the history of child sexual abuse in the church, the recent events that brought this tragedy into societal consciousness, and the efforts by the church to conceal the abuse. Two sources of empirical literature, the general psychological writing on priest sex abuse and the psychoanalytic literature, on child sexual abuse are compared. Both sources of literature seek explanation for priests' child sexual abuse within the structure and culture of the church rather than viewing the priest as a "typical" sex predator. The authors argue that, in fact, the guilty priests are child predators who differ little from other child predators.
Grubiak, Margaret M
More than a university, Oral Roberts University in Tulsa, Oklahoma, was also the headquarters for evangelist Oral Roberts's electronic church. The electronic church in America, dominated by Christian evangelicals, used technology to spread the Gospel over radio airways and television signals to a dispersed audience. Yet evangelicals like Roberts also constructed ambitious campuses in real space and time. The architecture of Oral Roberts University visualized a modern and "populuxe" image for the electronic church in the 1960s and 1970s. The university's Prayer Tower purposely alluded to the Seattle Space Needle, aligning religion and the Space Age, and the campus's white, gold, and black color palette on late modern buildings created an image of aspirational luxury, conveying Roberts's health and wealth gospel. Oral Roberts University served as a sound stage for Roberts's radio and television shows, a pilgrimage point for his audience, and a university dedicated to training evangelicals in the electronic church.
Stewart, Jennifer M.; Dancy, Barbara L.
Having an HIV ministry within a church depends on the religious culture of that church. However, little is known about how a church’s religious culture influences an HIV ministry. This study’s purpose was to examine how an African American church’s religious culture supported the development, implementation, and maintenance of an HIV ministry within the church. An ethnographic case study research design was used. Data were collected through interviews, non-participant and participant observations, review of pertinent documents, and survey of congregants. Results revealed the following as important for an HIV ministry: (a) a belief in helping others and treating everyone with respect and dignity, (b) feelings of compassion toward individuals infected with HIV, and (c) HIV education. This information can assist in developing interventions to enhance the African American church movement toward HIV ministries. PMID:22212914
Mpofu, Elias; Dune, Tinashe Moira; Hallfors, Denise Dion; Mapfumo, John; Mutepfa, Magen Mhaka; January, James
Objective The study explored contexts for health and wellbeing for women and children influenced by the structural behavior of an Apostolic faith church organization in Zimbabwe. Methods Twenty-three purposively selected members of an African indigenous Apostolic church (males =12; females =11; age range 22 to 95 years) were informants to a focus group discussion session. They provided data on the institutional behaviors that were culturally-historically embedded in the organization’s activities. Data were analyzed thematically and using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) to foreground essential themes. Results The church organization provided social capital to support health and wellbeing in members. However, the culturally embedded practices to minimize decision making by women and child members potentially compromised their health and wellbeing. Conclusion The findings suggest that the structural activities of the church for health and wellbeing could also have the paradoxical effect of exposing women and children to health risks from obligatory roles. PMID:21671203
Kertzer, David I.
Following eleven years’ work, in 1998 a high-level Vatican commission instituted by Pope John Paul II offered what has become the official position of the Roman Catholic Church denying any responsibility for fomenting the kind of demonization of the Jews that made the Holocaust possible. In a 2001 book, The popes against the Jews, I demonstrated that in fact the church played a major role in leading Catholics throughout Europe to view Jews as an existential threat. Yet defenders of the church position continue to deny the historical evidence and to launch ferocious ad hominem attacks against scholars who have researched the subject. The anti-Semitism promulgated by the church can be seen as part of the long battle it waged against modernity, with which the Jews were identified. PMID:27011787
Robbins, Mandy; Babington, Peter; Francis, Leslie J
Data provided by 150 9- to 11-yr.-old primary school pupils in England showed scores on the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity more highly correlated with (personal) prayer (r = .57) than with (public) church attendance (r = .23), providing support for the view that attitude scales access a deeper level of religiosity less contaminated by those contextual and social factors which may influence public church attendance more than personal prayer.
Chizhova, M.; Brunn, A.; Stilla, U.
The cultural human heritage is important for the identity of following generations and has to be preserved in a suitable manner. In the course of time a lot of information about former cultural constructions has been lost because some objects were strongly damaged by natural erosion or on account of human work or were even destroyed. It is important to capture still available building parts of former buildings, mostly ruins. This data could be the basis for a virtual reconstruction. Laserscanning offers in principle the possibility to take up extensively surfaces of buildings in its actual status. In this paper we assume a priori given 3d-laserscanner data, 3d point cloud for the partly destroyed church. There are many well known algorithms, that describe different methods of extraction and detection of geometric primitives, which are recognized separately in 3d points clouds. In our work we put them in a common probabilistic framework, which guides the complete reconstruction process of complex buildings, in our case russian-orthodox churches. Churches are modeled with their functional volumetric components, enriched with a priori known probabilities, which are deduced from a database of russian-orthodox churches. Each set of components represents a complete church. The power of the new method is shown for a simulated dataset of 100 russian-orthodox churches.
Some religious believers may see synthetic biology as usurping God's creative role. The Catholic Church has yet to issue a formal teaching on the field (though it has issued some informal statements in response to Craig Venter's development of a 'synthetic' cell). In this paper I examine the likely reaction of the Catholic Magisterium to synthetic biology in its entirety. I begin by examining the Church's teaching role, from its own viewpoint, to set the necessary backround and context for the discussion that follows. I then describe the Church's attitude to science, and particularly to biotechnology. From this I derive a likely Catholic theology of synthetic biology. The Church's teachings on scientific and biotech research show that it is likely to have a generally positive disposition to synbio, if it and its products can be acceptably safe. Proper evaluation of, and protection against, risk will be a significant factor in determining the morality of the research. If the risks can be minimized through regulation or other means, then the Church is likely to be supportive. The Church will also critique the social and legal environment in which the research is done, evaluating issues such as the patenting of scientific discoveries and of life.
Aten, Jamie D; Gonzalez, Rose A; Boan, David M; Topping, Sharon; Livingston, William V; Hosey, John M
After a disaster, survivors find themselves seeking many types of help from others in their communities. The purpose of this exploratory study was to assist in mental health service planning by determining the type and priority of support services sought by church attendees after Hurricane Katrina. Surveys were given to church attendees from two Mississippi coast and four New Orleans area churches that were directly affected by Hurricane Katrina participants were asked to review a list of 12 potential sources of help and were asked to rank the items chronologically from whom they had sought help first after Hurricane Katrina. Overall, participants sought out assistance from informal social networks such as family and friends first, followed by governmental and clergy support. This study also showed there may be differences in help-seeking behaviors between church attendees in more urban areas versus church attendees in more rural areas. Moreover, findings highlighted that very few church attendees seek out mental health services during the initial impact phase of a disaster. Since timely engagement with mental health services is important for resolving trauma, strategies that link professional mental health services with clergy and government resources following a disaster could improve the engagement with mental health professionals and improve mental health outcomes. Disaster mental health clinical implications and recommendations are offered for psychologists based on these findings.
Nguyen, Ann W.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.
An emerging body of research notes the importance of church-based social support networks in the daily lives of Americans. However, few studies examine church-based support, and especially among ethnic subgroups within the U.S. Black population, such as Caribbean Blacks. This study uses data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) to examine demographic and religious participation (e.g., attendance, interaction) correlates of church-based social support (e.g., receipt of emotional support, receipt of general support, provision of support to others, and negative interaction) among Caribbean Blacks residing in the U.S. Multiple regression analyses indicated that religious participation was associated with all four dependent variables. Church attendance was positively associated with receiving emotional support, general social support, and providing support to others, but was not associated with negative interaction. Frequency of interaction with fellow congregants was positively associated with receiving emotional support, receiving general support, providing support to others and negative interaction. Demographic findings indicated that women provided more support to church members and experienced more negative interactions with members than did men. Education was positively associated with frequency of support; household income was negatively associated with receiving emotional support and providing social support to others. Findings are discussed in relation to the role of church-based support networks in the lives of Caribbean Black immigrants and communities. PMID:27942078
Davis-Smith, Y. Monique; Davis-Smith, Monique; Boltri, John Mark; Seale, J. Paul; Shellenberger, Sylvia; Blalock, Travis; Tobin, Brian
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of implementing a diabetes prevention program (DPP) in a rural African-American church. METHODS: A six-session DPP, modeled after the successful National Institutes of Health (NIH) DPP, was implemented in a rural African-American church. Adult members of the church identified as high risk for diabetes, based on results of a risk questionnaire, were screened with a fasting glucose. Persons with prediabetes, a fasting glucose of 100-125 mg/dL, participated in the six-session, Lifestyle Balance Church DPP. The primary outcomes were attendance rates and changes in fasting glucose, weight and body mass index measured at baseline, six- and 12-month follow-up. RESULTS: Ninety-nine adult church members were screened for diabetes risk. Eleven had impaired fasting glucose. Ten of 11 participated in the six-session intervention, for an attendance rate of 78%. After the intervention and 12-month follow-up, there was a mean weight loss of 7.9 lbs and 10.6 lbs, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot project suggests that a modified six-session DPP can be translated to a group format and successfully implemented in a church setting. Further randomized studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of such an intervention. PMID:17444435
Nguyen, Ann W; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M
An emerging body of research notes the importance of church-based social support networks in the daily lives of Americans. However, few studies examine church-based support, and especially among ethnic subgroups within the U.S. Black population, such as Caribbean Blacks. This study uses data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) to examine demographic and religious participation (e.g., attendance, interaction) correlates of church-based social support (e.g., receipt of emotional support, receipt of general support, provision of support to others, and negative interaction) among Caribbean Blacks residing in the U.S. Multiple regression analyses indicated that religious participation was associated with all four dependent variables. Church attendance was positively associated with receiving emotional support, general social support, and providing support to others, but was not associated with negative interaction. Frequency of interaction with fellow congregants was positively associated with receiving emotional support, receiving general support, providing support to others and negative interaction. Demographic findings indicated that women provided more support to church members and experienced more negative interactions with members than did men. Education was positively associated with frequency of support; household income was negatively associated with receiving emotional support and providing social support to others. Findings are discussed in relation to the role of church-based support networks in the lives of Caribbean Black immigrants and communities.
Hoare, Peter G.; Ketel, Hans
A church that is shown to be aligned with sunrise or sunset on the feast day of the saint to whom the building was dedicated is said to display 'festival orientation'. The earliest work to touch upon this practice in English dates from c. 1678. William Wordsworth gave impetus to the subject in two poems published in 1827; he also played a part in the design of St Mary's chapel (1823-4), Rydal, Cumbria in the English Lake District. The 14th-century St Catherine's chapel at Houghton St Giles, Norfolk, was constructed for the use of pilgrims on their way to nearby Walsingham. Careful measurement of the orientation and eastern horizon of these two buildings has shown that St Mary's is aligned with sunrise on the Marian festival of The Visitation (2 July), and St Catherine's is directed towards the rising Sun on the feast of St Catherine of Alexandria (25 November). It is only by taking into account the character of the horizon that meaningful tests for festival orientation may be carried out.
Benagiano, Giuseppe; Carrara, Sabina; Filippi, Valentina
The Roman Catholic Church reacted negatively to the announcement that the Nobel Prize for Medicine had been awarded to Robert G Edwards. Thirty-three years ago, Cardinal Albino Luciani, on the eve of his election to become Pope, stated that, whereas progress is certainly a beautiful thing, mankind has not always benefited from progress. Catholic criticism has raised seven points: (i) God wants human life to begin through the 'conjugal act' and not artificially; (ii) artificial interventions at the beginning of human life are dangerous and ethically unacceptable; (iii) limits can be imposed even upon an individual's freedom to achieve a legitimate goal, such as having a child within marriage; (iv) the massive loss of preimplantation embryos characterizing IVF must be considered as a tragic loss of 'nascent' human persons; (v) Edwards bears a moral responsibility for all subsequent developments in assisted reproduction technology and for all 'abuses' made possible by IVF; (vi) there can be deleterious consequences for offspring of assisted reproduction technology; and (vii) Edwards' discovery did not eliminate the causes of infertility. This article elaborates from the Roman Catholic perspective on each of these points, some of which are found to be more substantial than others.
Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Kelly, Jeffrey A
In the USA, the Black Church is among the most important institutions in the Black community, offering numerous spiritual, social and health benefits. Yet, the presence of homonegativity in many Black Churches may mitigate those effects for gay Black youth. This research examines the role of the Church in the lives of gay and bisexual Black youth to understand how they reconcile any tension between their religious and sexual identities. Through interviews with pastors of Black churches (n = 21) and young Black men who have sex with men (n = 30), we explored homonegativity and young men's experiences within the Black Church. Findings reveal that despite the prevalence of homonegativity within Black churches, religious involvement remains important for young men and many remain involved in non-affirming churches. The importance of the Church for young men stems from their significant involvement as youth and the integration of religion, family and community. Young men may not be able to leave their religious homes as readily as other gay youth given the cultural relevance of the Church. As a result, young men made attempts to conceal their sexuality in church to avoid shame and gossip and find opportunities to balance their sexuality and religiosity.
Stork, David G.; Furuichi, Yasuo
Computer graphics models of tableaus in paintings provide a principled and controlled method for exploring alternate explanations of artists' praxis. We illustrate the power of computer graphics by testing the recent claim that Georges de la Tour secretly built an optical projector to execute Christ in the carpenter's studio, specifically that he traced projected images in two "exposures," with the illuminant in a different position in each. The theory's originator adduces as evidence his informal impressions that the shadows and highlights in the depicted image imply that the illuminant is in positions other than that of the depicted candle. We tested this projection claim by creating a computer graphics model of the tableau and adjusting the location of the model's illuminants so as to reproduce as closely as possible the pattern of shadows and highlights in the depicted scene. We found that for one "exposure" the model illuminant was quite close to the depicted candle, rather than in the position demanded by the projection theory. We found that for the other "exposure" no single illuminant location explained all highlights perfectly but the evidence was most consistent with the illuminant being in the location of the candle. Our simulation evidence therefore argues against the projection theory for this painting, a conclusion that comports with those from earlier studies of this and other paintings by de la Tour. We conclude with general lessons and suggestions on the use of computer graphics in the study of two-dimensional visual art.
Rassenhofer, Miriam; Zimmer, Andreas; Spröber, Nina; Fegert, Jörg M
At around the same time in 2010, the German government and the Roman Catholic Church in Germany each set up a critical incident reporting system (CIRS) to gather information on child sexual abuse that had taken place within the Church. The objective in both cases was to solicit stories from victims and former victims and allow them to have input into a review process. The existence of these two similar systems, one initiated by the institution involved in the abuse and the other by an independent entity, provided an opportunity to compare the background and motivation of victims who chose to communicate through one channel or the other. Data were obtained on a total of 927 individuals, 571 through the church CIRS and 356 through the government CIRS, who had reported that they had experienced childhood sexual abuse within the Roman Catholic Church. Some differences were found between the two groups in terms of gender, the reported frequency of abuse, and the desire for compensation. These differences highlight the need for an effective complaint management system to offer not just one but complementary channels of communication. In addition, the findings confirm the feasibility and value of a CIRS approach and the use of so-called 'citizen science' in politically driven review processes.
Fontana, Bernard L.
The Tohono O'odham built Mission San Xavier del Bac for Franciscan missionaries in the late 1700s and have protected and cared for it through changing circumstances ever since. As part of a massive restoration project, outstanding experts have been restoring the church's painted and sculpted interior and training local Tohono O'odham to be…
Pérez Ramos, A.; Robleda Prieto, G.
Virtualization using low cost photogrammetric techniques, is often replaced by Terrestial Laser Scanning inside churches. Especially in the case of Gothic churches where light penetrates the interior of the building difficulting shooting in proper condition to perform their restitution. The need to use Terrestial Laser Scaning for indoor virtualization is a significant increase in the final surveying cost. In these cases, the Terrestial Laser Scanning is used to generate dense point clouds that can produce high resolution models. However, many Terrestial Laser Scanners are not able to provide color images or can not reach the quality of images which can be obtained through a semiprofessional camera. So, digital photogrammetry is often used to make these models high resolution textures that Terrestial Laser Scanner based methodology is not capable of providing. This article aims to solved the problem posed by virtualizating Gothic churches indoors. Making that task more affordable exclusively by low cost photogrammetric techniques. The proposed methodology allows obtaining photographs in such a good conditions for virtualizing the target by point cloud. In order to verify the usefulness of the method, It has been decided to apply it to Gothic apse of the church of San Francisco in Betanzos (La Coruña). The equipment used is inexpensive and easy to carry: DSLR camera with 18-135 mm lens, tripod, lights and total station.
Azevedo Rodrigues, Luis
Urban environments were and are tremendous consumers of geologic resources, offering excellent places for Geosciences outreach activities. Since 2011, three distinct science outreach activities were planned, produced and performed in three Algarve cities - Faro (GeoStories of Faro's Downtown), Lagos (Geology at the Corner) and Tavira (From the Museum to the Convent). Urban structures - churches, monuments, buildings and urban equipments were the starting point of the geological and paleontological stories that constitute the core of these informal education visits which also combine Art History and Heritage aspects. The urban buildings were the narrative tool to these Geosciences stories being the characters the rocks and/or the fossils as well as the city itself. Beyond the natural science element, the analyzed objects have relevant esthetical, historical or symbolic dimensions, conferring this way two levels of interpretation to the stories: the geosciences level; the other, the Historical and Architectural Heritage. The nineteen visits had 350 participants - Tavira (6; 100), Faro (4; 70) e Lagos (9; 180). Promoting and contribute to the Geosciences (Geology and Paleontology) outreach was the main objective of these walks, as well as: - modify the way that the general population looks at urban buildings; - contribute to the informal education of a general public especially among the public which is interested in Architecture, History and Heritage; - integrate different areas of human knowledge - Geosciences and Architecture, History and Heritage. The visits were tested and implemented and presently constitute one of the science outreach activities of the Ciência Viva Centers in the Algarve. As a result of these visits three bilingual books (Portuguese and English) of the Geosciences walks were edited. The guides, with 120 pages each, focus on the geological and paleontological characteristics of the visited places as well as the art history framework of the
Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.; Borden, Shanice L.; Alexander, Dayna S.; Kennedy, Betty M.; Goldmon, Moses V.
Physical activity among African Americans (AA) is low; effective intervention strategies are needed. Community-based settings are useful for delivering health-related interventions in racial/ethnic minority communities. This article describes strategies used to recruit churches for participation in a 22-month intervention designed to increase physical activity levels in AA women. Initial recruitment efforts, led by AA study staff, included direct mailers, phone calls, and in-person meetings with church representatives. After 10 months, only five churches were enrolled. Seven community members with existing partnerships/contacts in the faith community were subsequently hired and an additional 26 churches were enrolled within 6 months. Overall response rate was 45%, and churches required 3.5 ± 3.0 months of multiple contacts prior to enrollment. The main primary contacts within churches were individuals with personal interest in the program and pastors. Prior relationship between the research team and churches did not appear to influence church enrollment as much as community member recruiters. The current study identifies several potential strategies that may be useful for increasing success in efforts to recruit AA churches into studies. Additional research is warranted that tests and compares a variety of recruitment strategies to determine the most successful strategies for recruitment in different populations. PMID:26724311
Prikryl, Richard; Prikrylova, Jirina; Racek, Martin; Kreislova, Kateřina; Weishauptova, Zuzana
Opuka stone (extremely fine-grained clayey-calcareous silicite) used for a carved stone altar located in the interior of the St. Vitus Cathedral (Prague, Czech Republic) was affected by decay phenomena (formation of the case-hardened surface, its later blistering, flaking and/or powdering of stone substrate) which are similar to those observed in outdoor environments. Through the detailed analytical study (optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry and x-ray elemental mapping of cross-sections of surface layers, x-ray diffraction of surface layers, ion-exchange chromatography for water-soluble salts, mercury porosimetry) and analysis of long-term indoor environmental monitoring (temperature, relative humidity, sulphur and nitrogen oxides deposition), it has been found that observed decay phenomena, which are manifested on microscale by brittle damage and formation of mode I (tensile) cracks along the exposed surface of the stone, can be interpreted as a result from thermohygric stress occurring on the interface between case hardened surface layer and stone substrate.
Zarzo, Manuel; Fernández-Navajas, Angel; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan
We describe the performance of a microclimate monitoring system that was implemented for the preventive conservation of the Renaissance frescoes in the apse vault of the Cathedral of Valencia, that were restored in 2006. This system comprises 29 relative humidity (RH) and temperature sensors: 10 of them inserted into the plaster layer supporting the fresco paintings, 10 sensors in the walls close to the frescoes and nine sensors measuring the indoor microclimate at different points of the vault. Principal component analysis was applied to RH data recorded in 2007. The analysis was repeated with data collected in 2008 and 2010. The resulting loading plots revealed that the similarities and dissimilarities among sensors were approximately maintained along the three years. A physical interpretation was provided for the first and second principal components. Interestingly, sensors recording the highest RH values correspond to zones where humidity problems are causing formation of efflorescence. Recorded data of RH and temperature are discussed according to Italian Standard UNI 10829 (1999).
Zarzo, Manuel; Fernández-Navajas, Angel; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan
We describe the performance of a microclimate monitoring system that was implemented for the preventive conservation of the Renaissance frescoes in the apse vault of the Cathedral of Valencia, that were restored in 2006. This system comprises 29 relative humidity (RH) and temperature sensors: 10 of them inserted into the plaster layer supporting the fresco paintings, 10 sensors in the walls close to the frescoes and nine sensors measuring the indoor microclimate at different points of the vault. Principal component analysis was applied to RH data recorded in 2007. The analysis was repeated with data collected in 2008 and 2010. The resulting loading plots revealed that the similarities and dissimilarities among sensors were approximately maintained along the three years. A physical interpretation was provided for the first and second principal components. Interestingly, sensors recording the highest RH values correspond to zones where humidity problems are causing formation of efflorescence. Recorded data of RH and temperature are discussed according to Italian Standard UNI 10829 (1999). PMID:22164100
Carvalho, Antonio Pedro Oliveira De.
This work reports on acoustical field measurements made in a major survey of 41 Catholic churches in Portugal that were built in the last 14 centuries. A series of monaural and binaural acoustical measurements was taken at multiple source/receiver positions in each church using the impulse response with noise burst method. The acoustical measures were Reverberation Time (RT), Early Decay Time (EDT), Clarity (C80), Definition (D), Center Time (TS), Loudness (L), Bass Ratios based on the Reverberation Time and Loudness rm (BR_-RT and rm BR_-L), Rapid Speech Transmission Index (RASTI), and the binaural Coherence (COH). The scope of this research is to investigate how the acoustical performance of Catholic churches relates to their architectural features and to determine simple formulas to predict acoustical measures by the use of elementary architectural parameters. Prediction equations were defined among the acoustical measures to estimate values at individual locations within each room as well as the mean values in each church. Best fits with rm R^2~0.9 were not uncommon among many of the measures. Within and interchurch differences in the data for the acoustical measures were also analyzed. The variations of RT and EDT were identified as much smaller than the variations of the other measures. The churches tested were grouped in eight architectural styles, and the effect of their evolution through time on these acoustical measures was investigated. Statistically significant differences were found regarding some architectural styles that can be traced to historical changes in Church history, especially to the Reformation period. Prediction equations were defined to estimate mean acoustical measures by the use of fifteen simple architectural parameters. The use of the Sabine and Eyring reverberation time equations was tested. The effect of coupled spaces was analyzed, and a new algorithm for the application of the Sabine equation was developed, achieving an average of
Baciu, Annamaria; MǎruÅ£oiu, Constantin; Bibire, Cristina; Vornicu, Nicoleta; Dreve, Simina
Evangelical Church in the village Bunesti, Brasov county, is part of the fortified churches built since the XIV century at the south-eastern territory of Transylvania. Developed by addition in several stages during centuries, the church begun as Catholic chapel, then that was amplified in the sixteenth century, when Reform was adopted by the Saxon communities. In that period the building was extended in length and height and the catholic specific iconographic decorations were cancelled by covering with different layers of plaster and paint. The campaign of introducing in touristic circuit of old Saxon fortified churches generated, in terms of maintenance and renovations undertaken, the discovery of significant wall paintings, as treasures to be rescued and put into value. Our present efforts are focused on scientific evaluation of mural paintings found in Evangelical Church from Bunesti, by XRF and specific analysis performed on 10 different samples of mural paintings, completing visual and artistic analysis in order to establish the strategies for their recovering and preservation.
Moore, DaKysha; Onsomu, Elijah O; Timmons, Shirley M; Abuya, Benta A; Moore, Christina
This study explores HIV/AIDS communication strategies among church leaders at predominately African American churches in a metropolitan city and surrounding areas in North Carolina. The church leaders contacted for the study are members of an interfaith-based HIV/AIDS program. The researchers used semi-standardized interviews to explore how church leaders address HIV/AIDS in the church. The findings indicate that the seven church leaders who participated in the study use a variety of communication channels to disseminate HIV/AIDS information for congregants and their surrounding communities, which include both interpersonal and mass media.
The purpose of this study is to see if older Protestants and older Catholics differ in the amount of social support they receive from fellow church members and members of the clergy when stressful life events arise. The data come from a nationwide longitudinal survey of older adults. The findings reveal that at relatively low levels of exposure to stress, older Catholics are less likely than older Protestants to get emotional support from either rank-and-file church members or members of the clergy. However, as the level of exposure to stress increases, this difference disappears, and older Catholics appear to be just as likely as older Protestants to receive emotional support from fellow church members and members of the clergy. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.
Hamilton, Scott; Martin, Magy; Martin, Don
The purpose of this study was to examine if parishioners' relational attachment style influences their satisfaction with evangelical church membership. A sample of parishioners aged 18 and over completed the Relationship Questionnaire and the Congregation Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ), along with an accompanying demographic profile. The research design employed a one-way analysis of variance to determine if securely attached persons reported greater satisfaction with their evangelical church participation than those who reported preoccupied, dismissing, or fearful attachment. This study furthered existing research, suggesting that attachment style influences how people measure congregational satisfaction. In this study, securely attached individuals reported greater satisfaction, as measured by the CSQ, with their evangelical church membership than those who were not securely attached.
Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Moore, Erin W.; Hawes, Starlyn M.; Thompson, Carole Bowe; Bohn, Alexandria
HIV continues to disproportionately impact communities of color, and more calls are being extended to African American churches to assist in HIV education and screening efforts. However, no studies have reported on the HIV testing practices of African American church-affiliated persons. This study examines demographic, social, and behavioral factors associated with ever receiving an HIV test and last 12-month HIV testing. Findings indicated not having insurance and condom use were predictors of ever receiving an HIV test. Predictors of HIV testing in the last 12 months included marital status (i.e., single, divorced, separated, or widowed) and intentions to get tested for HIV in the near future. These predictors should be considered when designing HIV education and screening interventions for African American church settings. PMID:22468975
Jarocka-Mikrut, Aleksandra; Gleń, Piotr
There are many Eastern Orthodox church buildings throughout the Lublin Province. Over the years, these architectural objects have undergone multiple transformations, both in terms of changing religious denominations and rituals and also adaptation to new functions, such as warehousing. This article classifies and presents the transformations carried out in selected Eastern Orthodox churches in the Lublin province. By using comparative analysis of the buildings' primary condition and their current state, it was possible to identify the risks and opportunities arising from the process of adapting these buildings and their rich historical background. Additionally, the article includes a subjective assessment of the adaptation works and their influence on the physical form of the Eastern Orthodox churches examined. To present the adaptation methods currently applied to religious buildings located in Poland, this article focuses on examples of already-transformed properties that used to have a religious function in the past, but that have now been turned into commercial properties.
The purpose of this study is to see if older Protestants and older Catholics differ in the amount of social support they receive from fellow church members and members of the clergy when stressful life events arise. The data come from a nationwide longitudinal survey of older adults. The findings reveal that at relatively low levels of exposure to stress, older Catholics are less likely than older Protestants to get emotional support from either rank-and-file church members or members of the clergy. However, as the level of exposure to stress increases, this difference disappears, and older Catholics appear to be just as likely as older Protestants to receive emotional support from fellow church members and members of the clergy. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21572579
Aerts, Raf; Van Overtveld, Koen; November, Eva; Wassie, Alemayehu; Abiyu, Abrham; Demissew, Sebsebe; Daye, Desalegn D; Giday, Kidane; Haile, Mitiku; TewoldeBerhan, Sarah; Teketay, Demel; Teklehaimanot, Zewge; Binggeli, Pierre; Deckers, Jozef; Friis, Ib; Gratzer, Georg; Hermy, Martin; Heyn, Moïra; Honnay, Olivier; Paris, Maxim; Sterck, Frank J; Muys, Bart; Bongers, Frans; Healey, John R
In the central and northern highlands of Ethiopia, native forest and forest biodiversity is almost confined to sacred groves associated with churches. Local communities rely on these 'church forests' for essential ecosystem services including shade and fresh water but little is known about their region-wide distribution and conservation value. We (1) performed the first large-scale spatially-explicit assessment of church forests, combining remote-sensing and field data, to assess the number of forests, their size, shape, isolation and woody plant species composition, (2) determined their plant communities and related these to environmental variables and potential natural vegetation, (3) identified the main challenges to biodiversity conservation in view of plant population dynamics and anthropogenic disturbances, and (4) present guidelines for management and policy. The 394 forests identified in satellite images were on average ~2ha in size and generally separated by ~2km from the nearest neighboring forest. Shape complexity, not size, decreased from the northern to the central highlands. Overall, 148 indigenous tree, shrub and liana species were recorded across the 78 surveyed forests. Patch α-diversity increased with mean annual precipitation, but typically only 25 woody species occurred per patch. The combined results showed that >50% of tree species present in tropical northeast Africa were still present in the 78 studied church forests, even though individual forests were small and relatively species-poor. Tree species composition of church forests varied with elevation and precipitation, and resembled the potential natural vegetation. With a wide distribution over the landscape, these church forests have high conservation value. However, long-term conservation of biodiversity of individual patches and evolutionary potential of species may be threatened by isolation, small sizes of tree species populations and disturbance, especially when considering climate
Protestantism is not a centralized religion. It is composed by many independent Churches having different moral and ethical standards. This review concentrates on the ethical principles prevalent in most modern European Reformed Churches. It does not intend to discuss the ethical principles of many other Protestant Churches present mainly in the USA. The common foundations of Protestant theology are the "five sola ("Sola scriptura", Sola fide", "Sola gratia", Solus Christus or Solo Christo", "Soli deo gloria"). In opposition to the Catholic Church, no intermediary is needed between the Bible and the believer. As a consequence, Protestant Churches have no Magisterium, such as the Catholic Church. Therefore Protestant Churches cannot declare a certain position to be the "official position". Each Christian is personally responsible for all his acts, including his ethical behaviour. There is no complete unanimity among all Protestants on ethics or on any other issue. Human dignity, personal rights and self-determination have to be respected in each ethical consideration. The supersession of the Old Mosaic Covenant (including traditional Jewish law or Halakhah, maintained in Catholicism) by the New Covenant and by Christian Theology has an important impact on Protestant ethics in reproductive medicine. In the New Covenant, the Protestants Churches did not maintain the mandatory obligation from the old Mosaic Covenant to be fruitful and to multiply: there is no divine obligation by God to procreate. As a consequence, contraception is not a sin and not unethical. The status of the embryo is the key for the ethical consideration of all methods used in reproductive medicine. Most representatives of modern Protestant theology and bioethics defend the opinion that the embryo is not an independent human being as is the newborn child. For most Protestant bio-ethicists, as long as an embryo has no nervous system, no organs and no pain receptors, it cannot be seen as a human
Lazoritz, Stephen; McDermott, Robert T
In recent years it has been increasingly recognized that physicians must be sensitive to the cultural beliefs of their patients. This is especially important for physicians who deal with sexuality, especially when dealing with adolescents. Despite this, many mainstream text-books and journal articles ignore the teachings of the largest single religious denomination in the United States, the Roman Catholic Church. The Church has clear teachings regarding sex education, masturbation, contraception and abortion. Physicians should be aware of these teachings and be sensitive to the needs of Catholic adolescents when dealing with these issues.
The paper 'Robert G. Edwards and the Roman Catholic Church' by Benagiano and colleagues in this issue of Reproductive BioMedicine Online is a very important and timely article published by well-informed authors on the occasion of the long-awaited award of the Nobel Prize to a well-deserved scientist, Bob Edwards. I found it very interesting and challenging that the authors went through all the arguments and criticism made by the Catholic and Orthodox Churches and other agents against the newly developed techniques of assisted reproductive technology.
Downey, W. S.; Liritzis, I.
Archaeointensity results were obtained from ceramic sherds incorporated in the 'mortar' of two Rhodian Byzantine churches. Samples were analysed using a modified Thellier method with samples orientated so that the Natural Remanent Magnetization is at right angles to the applied laboratory field. Only a few samples showed high magnetic stability and an archaeointensity result was obtained from ceramic sherds (tilebrick) from the lower interior walls of the church (Afandou Katholiki). Comparison with the Geomagnetic Field Variation plot indicated the probability density of possible dates between ~1000 to ~1500 AD. a date, broadly consistent with historical records.
Hawes, Starlyn M.; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y.
African Americans are disproportionately burdened by STDs and HIV in the US. This study examined the relationships between demographics, religiosity, and sexual risk behaviors among 255 adult African American church-based participants. Although participants were highly religious, they reported an average of seven lifetime sex partners and most inconsistently used condoms. Several demographic variables and religiosity significantly predicted lifetime HIV-related risk factors. Taken together, findings indicated that this population is at risk for HIV. Future research should continue to identify correlates of risky sexual behavior among African American parishioners to facilitate the development of HIV risk reduction interventions in their church settings. PMID:23054481
Purdy, Noel; Meneely, Heather
This critical reflection addresses the role of the Christian Church in tackling educational underachievement and poverty in the inner city. The Church has traditionally expressed a commitment to meeting the needs of the poor, and has exerted a significant influence on education over many years. However, there is a notable lack of guidance and…
Geier, Brett A.
A small community in southwest Michigan has been witness to a significant cultural divide within its school system. An influential church has permeated school leadership and in many cases has overstepped the proverbial "wall separating church and state." A fairly high-profile case saw the Sixth Circuit Court enjoin the district to remove…
Weeks, Fiona H.; Powell, Terrinieka W.; Illangasekare, Samantha; Rice, Eric; Wilson, James; Hickman, Debra; Blum, Robert W.
Previous studies have documented Black churches' receptivity to implementing adolescent sexual health programs within their congregations. Some authors have argued for new sexual health programs to be designed specifically for churches, similar to the development of school- and community-based interventions. However, strategies and curricula used…
Skovdal, M.; Gibbs, A.
An expanding body of literature explores the role of African church groups in facilitating or hindering the support of people living with AIDS and challenging or contributing to HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Treating church groups as social spaces in which HIV/AIDS-related stigma may potentially be challenged, we systematically review this literature, identifying five themes that highlight the complex and contradictory role of the church as a potential agent of health-enhancing social change. In many ways the church perpetuates HIV/AIDS-related stigma through (i) moralistic attitudes and (ii) its reinforcement of conservative gender ideologies. However some churches have managed move towards action that makes a more positive contribution to HIV/AIDS management through (iii) promoting various forms of social control for HIV prevention, (iv) contributing to the care and support of the AIDS-affected and (v) providing social spaces for challenging stigmatising ideas and practices. We conclude that church groups, including church leadership, can play a key role in facilitating or hindering the creation of supportive social spaces to challenge stigma. Much work remains to be done in developing deeper understandings of the multi-layered factors that enable some churches, but not others, to respond effectively to HIV/AIDS. PMID:20668927
Aja, Godwin N.; Modeste, Naomi N.; Montgomery, Susanne B.
Assets church members believed they needed to engage in effective HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities. We used the three-step forum focus group discussion (FFGD) methodology to elicit responses from 32 church leaders and lay members, representing five denominations in Aba, Nigeria. Concrete resources, health expertise, finances,…
Virts, Paul H.
The majority of critics of religious broadcasting, the so-called "electronic church," are members of the "liberal" or ecumenical Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish groups. In a historical context, however, these critics, along with the major radio and television networks, are as responsible for the electronic church as are the…
Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Bowe-Thompson, Carole; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Hawes, Starlyn; Moore, Erin; Williams, Eric; Martinez, David; Goggin, Kathy
Utilizing a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach is a potentially effective strategy for exploring the development, implementation, and evaluation of HIV interventions in African American churches. This CBPR-guided study describes a church-based HIV awareness and screening intervention (Taking It to the Pews [TIPS]) that fully…
Gillis, Leslie Myers
The widespread popular music-based modern worship movement begun in the 1960's brought the styles and sounds of popular music into worship as churches sought to increase cultural connection in their worship. The worship transformation brought significant challenges. Church musicians trained in traditional skills had to adapt and incorporate skills…
This article discusses Christian understandings of life, death and healing in the context of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. The discussion is a response to the reactions of some Botswana Pentecostal and African Independent Churches to the availability of ARV therapy, as reflected in several media reports of churches discouraging church members' use of ARV drugs. The article argues that this negative attitude to ARVs is a result of the Christian churches' understandings of life, death and healing through traditional Bible-based interpretations. Based on this, some churches view the ability of ARVs to prolong life as challenging God who is the source of life and healing. The article argues that this attitude grows from an initial Christian understanding of HIV and AIDS as a form of God's punishment on humanity for its sins. The article thus argues for the development of 'a Christian theology of ARVs' that sees ARVs as a manifestation and not a contradiction of God's healing powers.
Stewart, Jennifer M.
The African American church has promoted the health of African Americans through supporting interventions that target a wide variety of diseases, and it is a crucial community partner in the development of HIV prevention interventions. Although research has described the development of church-based HIV interventions, there is a significant lack of frameworks and approaches available to guide the implementation and maintenance of HIV interventions within church-based settings. A developing framework of a comprehensive church-based intervention, derived from an ethnographic study about the development, implementation, and maintenance of an HIV/AIDS Ministry within an African American church is presented. This approach can provide guidance to support the development, implementation, and maintenance of HIV interventions in faith settings. PMID:25702738
Zeale, Matt R K; Bennitt, Emily; Newson, Stuart E; Packman, Charlotte; Browne, William J; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth; Stone, Emma
Bats frequently roost in historic churches, and these colonies are of considerable conservation value. Inside churches, bat droppings and urine can cause damage to the historic fabric of the building and to items of cultural significance. In extreme cases, large quantities of droppings can restrict the use of a church for worship and/or other community functions. In the United Kingdom, bats and their roosts are protected by law, and striking a balance between conserving the natural and cultural heritage can be a significant challenge. We investigated mitigation strategies that could be employed in churches and other historic buildings to alleviate problems caused by bats without adversely affecting their welfare or conservation status. We used a combination of artificial roost provision and deterrence at churches in Norfolk, England, where significant maternity colonies of Natterer's bats Myotis nattereri damage church features. Radio-tracking data and population modelling showed that excluding M. nattereri from churches is likely to have a negative impact on their welfare and conservation status, but that judicious use of deterrents, especially high intensity ultrasound, can mitigate problems caused by bats. We show that deterrence can be used to move bats humanely from specific roosting sites within a church and limit the spread of droppings and urine so that problems to congregations and damage to cultural heritage can be much reduced. In addition, construction of bespoke roost spaces within churches can allow bats to continue to roost within the fabric of the building without flying in the church interior. We highlight that deterrence has the potential to cause serious harm to M. nattereri populations if not used judiciously, and so the effects of deterrents will need careful monitoring, and their use needs strict regulation.
Park, SinWoong Simon
This study focused on a unique culturally shaped church formation, a Korean house church in the U.S., and how the members of the Korean house church learn and develop their spirituality in their communal relations and activities. (Abstract shortened by UMI.) [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest…
Leone, Lucia A.; Allicock, Marlyn; Pignone, Michael P.; Walsh, Joan F.; Johnson, La-Shell; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Carr, Carol C.; Langford, Aisha; Ni, Andy; Resnicow, Ken; Campbell, Marci K.
Action Through Churches in Time to Save Lives (ACTS) of Wellness was a cluster randomized controlled trial developed to promote colorectal cancer screening and physical activity (PA) within urban African American churches. Churches were recruited from North Carolina (n = 12) and Michigan (n = 7) and were randomized to intervention (n = 10) or…
This article ethnographically analyzes the practices of deaf young adults in Bangalore, India. As sign language is not used by families, schools, or other institutions, the church is a crucial educational space. Churchgoing provides deaf young adults with opportunities to orient themselves toward other deaf young adults, to develop new ideas of…
Hawkins, Donnetta Faye
This study explored the attitudes of college faculty toward students with disabilities at a church-affiliated institution. "The Multidimensional Attitude Scale Towards Persons with Disabilities" ("MAS") was utilized to ascertain quantitative measures; while face-to-face interviews were used to collect qualitative data.…
... religious orders. 404.1023 Section 404.1023 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1023 Ministers of churches and members of...
Campbell, Marci Kramish; Resnicow, Ken; Carr, Carol; Wang, Terry; Williams, Alexis
Body & Soul has demonstrated effectiveness as a dietary intervention among African American church members. The process evaluation assessed relationships between program exposure and implementation factors and study outcomes and characterized factors important for adoption, implementation, and maintenance. Data sources included participant surveys…
Dagley, Duane H., Ed.
The following essays on presidential leadership by 12 presidents and former presidents of church-related colleges are presented in five sections: Section 1, The President and Institutional Challenge, contains "A Call for the President as Spiritual Director" (Duane H. Bagley); Section 2, Articulating the Mission, contains "The President and the…
Leak, Halima N.; Reid, Chera D.
Examining Black church support of higher education in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, this article highlights the longstanding project of African-American self-determination. Motivated donors, many of who would not in their lifetime see the fruits of their gifts, made faithful investments in the project of racial uplift.…
Rossetti, Stephen J.
This study explored effects of child sexual abuse by priests and other perpetrators on victims' trust in the Catholic Church, priesthood, and their relationship with God. Subjects were adult Catholics who had been sexually abused but not by a priest (n=307) or sexually abused by a priest (n=40) and 1,376 nonabused controls. Results highlight the…
Kaopua, Lana Sue
This article presents findings from research to develop the promotional component of a breast cancer screening program for Native Hawaiian women associated with historically Hawaiian churches in medically underserved communities. The literature on adherence to health recommendations and health promotions marketing guided inquiry on screening…
... regarding, among other things, withholding responsibilities for income tax or FICA (social security) tax... the church; (2) compliance with income tax or FICA (social security) tax withholding responsibilities... exemption or for unrelated business income (for instance, assessments of social security or other...
... regarding, among other things, withholding responsibilities for income tax or FICA (social security) tax... the church; (2) compliance with income tax or FICA (social security) tax withholding responsibilities... exemption or for unrelated business income (for instance, assessments of social security or other...
... regarding, among other things, withholding responsibilities for income tax or FICA (social security) tax... the church; (2) compliance with income tax or FICA (social security) tax withholding responsibilities... exemption or for unrelated business income (for instance, assessments of social security or other...
O'Donoghue, Tom; Harford, Judith
This essay argues for the development of a research agenda on the comparative history of Catholic education internationally from the nineteenth century to the present. This requires, in the first instance, the production of a series of individual-country case studies, concentrating on relations between the Catholic Church and the particular state…
This paper presents a theoretical rationale for a teacher-led approach to school improvement and explores the initial collaboration between the author and a headteacher of a Catholic Church school. It presents the main findings of a strategic analysis undertaken to understand the current situations facing the school. This case study helps to…
Eterovic, Igor; Doricic, Robert
For some reason, the sacral heritage of Lovran and its surroundings has escaped the eye of medical historians, until now. seeing that the Parish Church of st George in Lovran holds a central position in this heritage, the authors provide an analysis of medical elements in the church. The analysis has focused on three aspects. The first aspect are medical elements, especially the anthropological features of characters depicted on the frescoes, which belong to the earliest and most representative of the whole region. The second are Glagolithic inscriptions relevant for the history of medicine and health culture. The third is the iconography of patron saints against a variety of diseases (featured on paintings, altars or sculptures), paying particular attention to relevant medical imagery of st George as the church's patron saint. relying on a well developed method for analysing medical elements in the sacral heritage of Croatia and abroad, the authors seek to fill the gaps in this medical historical mosaic by investigating the parish church of Lovran.
Grace, Andre P.; Wells, Kristopher
In 2002, Marc Hall's principal denied him permission to take his boyfriend to his Catholic high-school prom. In examining the politicization of the ensuing prom predicament, we critique Catholicized education and what we perceive to be the Catholic Church's efforts to privatize queerness as it segregates being religious from being sexual. We…
Chao, Xia; Mantero, Miguel
This multi-sited ethnographic study examines the ways in which Latino and Asian immigrant parents' English learning through two church-based ESL programs in a Southeastern U.S. city affects their family literacy and home language practices. It demonstrates that the parents' participation in the programs is an empowering experience promoting ESL…
Daughety, R. Morgan
This study explores the relationship between theological discussion and organizational change within a church-related institution. The qualitative case study examines the dialogue on a campus that received a Lilly Endowment grant through their Program for the Theological Exploration of Vocation to engage its campus community in the theological…
The purpose of this study was to explore and examine factors leading to fundraising success in church-related colleges and universities that have not secularized their Christian mission, governance, and denominational relationships. This study posed research questions concerning both the specific strategies and leadership behaviors used by…
... minister, is engaged by N University to teach history and mathematics. M does no other work for N although..., and teaching a class in religion. M is working in the exercise of the ministry. (iv) If a minister is... history of M's church denomination. Y is neither a religious organization nor operated as an...
Jang, Joo Dong
Problem: The problem of this study was to determine the differences in achievement and attitudes toward learning among adult Sunday School classes in selected Korean churches taught with a traditional lecture method (LT), with the 4MAT instructional method (4M), and with an interactive engagement method (IE). Procedures: In this study, 109 adult…
Rose, Hyacinth P.
This article reports a descriptive case study portraying a teaching-practice program designed to highlight the preparation of student-teachers for teaching practice, using the Joint Board of Teacher Education (JBTE) benchmarks, in a teachers' college in Jamaica. At Church Teachers' College (CTC) 22 informants of mixed gender were selected for the…
Tse, Thomas Kwan Choi
The Catholic Church, the largest school-sponsoring body in Hong Kong, is a major provider of religious schools and educational programmes. In 2006, the Catholic Diocese released its first centralised and comprehensive curricular document concerning religious and moral education (RME) in Catholic schools. Taking this programme as a reflection of…
In Timor-Leste, high fertility, high maternal mortality and low levels of contraceptive prevalence demonstrate the importance of exploring perceptions, policies and practices around reproductive health and rights. This paper explores the influence of the Catholic Church on reproductive decision-making at different levels of policy and practice. Utilising a feminist qualitative research methodology, in-depth interviews were conducted with a range of participants including nuns and priests, Timorese women and men of different ages and backgrounds and local and national stakeholders working in reproductive health and women's rights. Findings reveal that the Church is reported to play a significant role in reproductive health and rights decision-making at all levels of society, from policy-making to the reproductive decisions made by individual Timorese women and men. Nevertheless, the translation of Church teachings into practice, particularly by nuns, priests and Timorese men and women, reveal a range of attitudes and opinions; some that support and others that contest official Catholic doctrine. In light of the significant influence of the Timorese Catholic Church on policy and practice at many levels of society, there is a need to prioritise the development of rights-based strategies to improve reproductive health services in Timor-Leste.
Miller, Robert L., Jr.
This qualitative study explores the religious development and spiritual formation of African American gay men living with AIDS. In response to an in-depth interviewing approach, 10 men described their experiences of church participation. The participants' data reveal their religious initiation and participation as well as their need to extinguish…
Dickie, John; McDonald, Geraldine
Samoan school children living in New Zealand were given disposable cameras and asked to photograph examples of the uses of reading and writing outside the school. Interviewed later, they explained their photographs including information about literacy in church and family. Rote learning and oral presentation of biblical texts that were read and…
The ABCs of financing church and synagogue libraries are presented in this guide as Acquiring Funds, Budgeting, and Cash Accounting. Acquiring funds and the basic means needed to start a library are described, including resources such as books, shelves, office supplies, and financial resources; ideas and methods are presented for soliciting both…
Zimbabwean economic migrants and political refugees have been given refuge and provided with shelter at the Central Methodist Church (CMC) Refugee House, in central Johannesburg. The refugees have successfully initiated learning and training programmes which resulted in the establishment of a combined school, namely "St. Albert Street Refugee…
Drawing from a larger ethnography of skilled Chinese immigrants' language learning during settlement in Toronto, this article explores the role of informal interactions in facilitating immigrants learning English as a second language and settlement. Examining various activities and networks available at an English-medium multicultural church, this…
Dresser, Gary J.
This qualitative case study examined administrators' and teachers' perceptions of personal and student emotional literacy in one Lutheran Church Missouri Synod (LCMS) school. Students attending LCMS schools were struggling with social and emotional issues prompting behavioral difficulties, while teachers were unprepared for the magnitude of…
Tunheim, Katherine A.; McLean, Gary N.
This phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of ten Lutheran (ELCA) college presidents who had transitioned from the presidency. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the experiences of former college presidents who were associated with Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) colleges. The results…
Kirk, Kristi K.
This study provides a history and case study of Concordia University Texas (CTX). There has been a gap in the scholarly research literature regarding how and to what extent Concordia Texas mirrors the path of other denominational colleges and universities in terms of relationship to their founding church bodies. Therefore, the purpose of this…
Fioke, Clarence J.; King, Richard A.
Factors related to shifts in governance patterns of church-related private colleges were investigated through historical document analysis, interviews with 34 presidents and board members, and 59 questionnaires returned by current and past board members of 2 New Mexico institutions. Document analysis focused upon mission statements, annual…
Goto, Courtney T.
With high rates of out-marriage and dwindling need for bilingual worship, Japanese-American churches face a critical question: "Why retain the Japanese part of our identity?" This article explores how one layperson (Naomi Takahashi Goto) draws from her experience as an artist, teacher, and mother to help her congregation answer this question.…
This essay is an attempt to come to terms with the Young Lords' popular liberation rhetoric in the church offensive. Building from Michael Calvin McGee's observation that ""the people" are more process than phenomenon," I explore the ways in which the Young Lords' craft "the people's repertory of convictions" from…
Roman Isler, Malika; Eng, Eugenia; Maman, Susanne; Adimora, Adaora; Weiner, Bryan
The black church is influential in shaping health behaviors within African-American communities, yet few use evidence-based strategies for HIV prevention (abstinence, monogamy, condoms, voluntary counseling and testing, and prevention with positives). Using principles of grounded theory and interpretive description, we explored the social…
Allen, Jennifer Dacey; Peterson, Karen; Stoddard, Anne M.; Colditz, Graham; Sorensen, Gloria
Describes the development and testing of Reach Out For Health, a peer-led, church-based breast cancer education program for African American and Hispanic communities. Pretest-posttest evaluation of screening practices and attitudes among women over age 40 indicated that the intervention was associated with improved attitudes toward mammography,…
Harmon, Brook E.; Blake, Christine E.; Thrasher, James F.; Hébert, James R.
The use of faith-based organizations as sites to deliver diet and physical activity interventions is increasing. Methods to assess the messaging environment within churches are limited. Our research aimed to develop and test an objective assessment methodology to characterize health messages, particularly those related to diet and physical…
Rolph, Jenny; Francis, Leslie J.; Charlton, Rodger; Robbins, Mandy; Rolph, Paul
This study draws on qualitative questionnaire data provided by 22 women ministers of word and sacrament serving within the United Reformed Church in England to provide a health check across the four conceptually distinct areas of physical health, psychological health, religious health, and spiritual health. Here spiritual health is defined in…
Summers, Amber; Confair, Amy R.; Flamm, Laura; Goheer, Attia; Graham, Karlene; Muindi, Mwende; Gittelsohn, Joel
Background: The Healthy Bodies, Healthy Souls (HBHS) program aims to reduce diabetes risk among urban African Americans by creating healthy food and physical activity environments within churches. Participant engagement supports the development of applicable intervention strategies by identifying priority concerns, resources, and opportunities.…
Jacknik, Michele; And Others
Describes OCTOPUS (Open Communication Regarding Teenagers or Parents Understanding of Sexuality), which was established as a forum for family discussion within a church setting. The program was designed to enhance communication skills, convey information, and help teenagers acquire appropriate morals and values. Feedback from four churches…
Lundberg, Ingvar; Nilson, Lars-Goran
Church records of adult reading abilities as evaluated yearly by Swedish priests were examined from the eighteenth century in families characterized by poor reading and good reading ability. Although descendents of poor readers tended to demonstrate lower reading scores, transmission patterns did not indicate a simple genetic mechanism. (Author/DB)
Cimino, Carol, Ed.; Haney, Regina M., Ed.; O'Keefe, Joseph M., Ed.
This collection of essays deals with the integration of the social teaching of the Catholic Church into Catholic schools. The collection contains the following chapters: (1) "Focus of SPICE 2000: How To Integrate Jubilee Justice into Schools throughout the Millennium" (Carol Cimino; Regina Haney; Joseph O'Keefe); (2) "Model…
This essay explores the purposes of Christian youth work. It responds to Collins-Mayo et al.'s contention that youth work is an ineffective medium for faith transmission and building faith communities and to their affirmation of the church's role in this. The analysis is based on research with young people aged between early teens and early 20s,…
Newman, Barbara J.
CLC Network is an organization that partners with churches, schools, and families to help promote and build inclusive and interdependent communities for those with disabilities. This article describes CLC Network's most recent tool--a book entitled the G.L.U.E. Training Manual. G.L.U.E. is an adhesive process to allow each individual to be firmly…
Ortiz, Rodrigo; Párraga, Mario; Navarrete, José; Carrasco, Ivo; de la Vega, Eduardo; Ortiz, Manuel; Herrera, Paula; Jurgens, Joel A; Held, Benjamin W; Blanchette, Robert A
The use of wood in construction has had a long history and Chile has a rich cultural heritage of using native woods for building churches and other important structures. In 2000, UNESCO designated a number of the historic churches of Chiloé, built entirely of native woods, as World Heritage Sites. These unique churches were built in the late 1700 s and throughout the 1800 s, and because of their age and exposure to the environment, they have been found to have serious deterioration problems. Efforts are underway to better understand these decay processes and to carryout conservation efforts for the long-term preservation of these important structures. This study characterized the types of degradation taking place and identified the wood decay fungi obtained from eight historic churches in Chiloé, seven of them designated as UNESCO World Heritage sites. Micromorphological observations identified white, brown and soft rot in the structural woods and isolations provided pure cultures of fungi that were identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed region of rDNA. Twenty-nine Basidiomycota and 18 Ascomycota were found. These diverse groups of fungi represent several genera and species not previously reported from Chile and demonstrates a varied microflora is causing decay in these historic buildings.
... self-employed individuals. (i) A plan contains the provisions described in this paragraph (b)(2) if it... churches is treated as the employer); and (B) Any self-employed individual. (ii) A plan does not contain... self-employed individual, but not of any employee of an employer with 10 or fewer employees, does...
... self-employed individuals. (i) A plan contains the provisions described in this paragraph (b)(2) if it... churches is treated as the employer); and (B) Any self-employed individual. (ii) A plan does not contain... self-employed individual, but not of any employee of an employer with 10 or fewer employees, does...
... self-employed individuals. (i) A plan contains the provisions described in this paragraph (b)(2) if it... churches is treated as the employer); and (B) Any self-employed individual. (ii) A plan does not contain... self-employed individual, but not of any employee of an employer with 10 or fewer employees, does...
Duan, Naihua; Fox, Sarah; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Carson, Sally; Stockdale, Susan
There is great potential in public health and faith communities partnering to promote health education and research. This article describes lessons learned from the design and implementation of such a partnership, the Los Angeles Mammography Promotion in Churches Program (LAMP). It is feasible, although challenging, to enumerate and survey…
Davis, D T; Bustamante, A; Brown, C P; Wolde-Tsadik, G; Savage, E W; Cheng, X; Howland, L
A study was conducted to examine the efficacy of a church-based model of social influence in improving access to and participation of underserved minority women in a cervical cancer control program. The model expanded on strategies used in previous hypertension control and health promotion research. A total of 24 churches, stratified by faith tradition, were randomly selected to participate in the cancer control program from a pool of 63 churches in a defined geographic area of Los Angeles County, CA. Female parishioners ages 21 years and older were eligible to participate in cervical cancer education sessions, and screening was offered to adult women who had not had Papanicolaou tests within the last 2 years. Church participation rate was 96 percent. Thirty lay health leaders were selected by the clergy to serve as messengers, recruiters, and organizers for their respective congregations. Ninety-seven percent of these lay health leaders participated in two training sessions designed to prepare them for their leadership role. Social support structures such as child care, meals, or transportation for targeted women were organized by lay health leaders in 78 percent of the churches. A total of 1,012 women between the ages of 21 and 89 years attended educational sessions. Forty-four percent of the eligible women were targeted for screening because they had not had a Papanicolaou test within the last 2 years or had never been screened. Black women were 6.6 times more likely than Hispanics to have been screened in the past 2 years.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8041849
Gau, Li-Shiue; Woodside, Arch G; Martin, Drew
The purposes of the current study are threefold: Provide evidence that an extreme paradoxical group exists-people frequently attending church and exhibiting road rage, profile this group, and frame possible explanations for the seemingly paradoxical behaviors. This study employs data from a national (USA) lifestyle survey conducted by Market Facts with 3,350 American respondents. The major questions asked about church participation and road-rage behavior ("giving a finger" and "flashing headlights"). Nomologically, relevant activities include 3 items for church goers and 3 items for road-rage givers. Additionally, 14 items profiled the lifestyles of the unique paradoxical behavior segment. Utilizing cross-tabulation tables, property space analyses identify the double extreme (XX) group (18 people) and other 6 groups with a significant chi-square test, confirming the extreme group exists. Analyses of variance test results show that comparing nomologically relevant activities among the seven groups is all statistically significant, indicating the nomological validity is met. Overall, the XX group tends to have more males, be younger, and have a higher proportion of people working in sales. The profile of lifestyle analyses shows the XX group members have both high ambitions and expectations, might be very frustrated individuals, and equip with the adventurous and masculine traits related to aggression. The XX behavior group's demographic and psychographic characteristics portray similar lifestyles that differ from other groups. Case-based analyses provide further contextual information of nuances to XX segment individuals. The limited energy theory, the Eagleman's theory of unconscious mind, and justification theory help to explain why people conjointly go to church and commit road rage. Addressing chronic paradoxical behaviors provides implications for social de-marketing to reduce aggressive anti-social behavior such as road rage. Frequent church attendance may
... Outpatient Center (CBOC), 1201 Eagle Street, Joliet, Illinois; St. Luke Church of God in Christ, 914 North Orleans Street, Chicago, IL; 6:30 to 8:30 p.m., St. Luke Church of God in Christ, 914 North Orleans Street..., the Committee will hold a Veterans Town Hall meeting at the St. Luke Church of God in...
Joshua, Stephen Muoki
The South African HIV and AIDS experience is unique in many ways considering the country's delayed and robust epidemic, the apartheid context, and successive HIV-denialist government regimes. While the struggle for democracy may have overshadowed the enormity of the unfolding HIV epidemic, there was also a delay in constructive religious responses to it early on. In 1990, HIV/AIDS was declared a Catholic institutional focus, and by 2000 the Church had established the largest system of care and treatment in the country besides that of the government. However, the Catholic Church suffered severe criticism on account of its anti-condom policy to HIV prevention. As a result, the institutional Church underwent both organisational and ideological changes in an attempt to adapt to the contextual challenges brought about by HIV and AIDS. Informed by archival collections and oral sources, this article endeavours to critically analyse the HIV/AIDS-related care and treatment activities of the Catholic Church in South Africa between 2000 and 2005. It argues that the complex interplay between HIV and AIDS, the controversy about condom use, and the availability of antiretroviral therapy, accompanied by church activists' multiple engagements with these issues, changed the Church's institutional HIV/AIDS response at that time, in effect transforming the Catholic Church in South Africa into a substantial health asset and agent. However, its stance against the use of condoms for HIV prevention, informed by a larger religious tradition on sexuality, proved to be a health liability.
Liou, Chih-Ling; Shenk, Dena
The number of older Chinese immigrants living in the United States is increasing steadily. They are faced with challenges to meet their needs for social support and are unlikely to turn to formal services. This case study utilizes an ecological framework to analyze social support among Chinese immigrants age 65 year and older within a Christian Chinese church community, and to explore the ways in which a Chinese church functions as the source of social support for older Chinese immigrants. Seven months of participant observation and ten face-to-face, in-depth interviews were conducted with 65+ Chinese adults who attended one Chinese church in the Southern United State and included questions concerning patterns of support and personal relationships within the church. Findings revealed that gender, living arrangements, working experiences, ability to drive, and English language skills were related to support the older Chinese immigrants sought, received, and provided. Although the Chinese church can be a viable source of supplementary support, some participants in this study felt the support they received from the church was insufficient, particularly in terms of emotional support. Therefore, suggestions are outlined that may assist Chinese churches to be more proactive in better understanding and providing services that meet the different needs and desires of older Chinese immigrants.
Schwarz, Ernst R; Rosanio, Salvatore
Heart transplantation is performed on approximately 4,000 patients per year worldwide and is considered the last resort for treatment of end-stage heart diseases. Due to persistent organ shortage, resources are limited, waiting periods are extensive, and patients still die while being on a waiting list for transplantation. The role of all churches and the support of the representatives of the churches are critical for the spiritual wellbeing of patients awaiting heart transplantation as well as for prospective individual organ donors and their families. The supportive role of the Roman Catholic Church and the recent statement of Pope Benedict XVI on organ donation are discussed.
McDonnell, Orla; Allison, Jill
This paper examines the emerging bioethical debate on assisted reproductive technology (ART) in Ireland, which is shaped by the long-standing contentious issue of abortion and the constitutional protection afforded to the 'unborn'. The focus of the paper is on the way in which the terms of this debate are shaped and constrained by the historical relations of power between church, state and medicine. Since the representation of Ireland as a post-Catholic, plural republic is becoming increasingly mainstream to cultural and political discourse, we pay particular attention to how the Catholic Church embraces bioethics as a meta frame or code for refocusing questions of values, beliefs and meanings to sustain the ideal of Ireland as a 'pro-life' and essentially Catholic nation. The Catholic Church is not simply asserting its voice of dissent in the context of public debate as one voice amongst a plurality of other voices, but to shape the emerging debate as a powerful, institutional actor. The opportunity to do so is afforded by the lack of public debate on bioethical issues and the exceedingly slow pace at which bioethics is moving towards an institutionalised framework in Ireland. These events can be explained by the legacy of the social power of the Catholic Church in Ireland and the direct and indirect influence it has long exercised over public policy vis-à-vis the state and its institutions, including medicine. There are two interconnected threads to the contextual analysis presented in our case study: first, the legacy of the social power wielded by the Catholic Church, and its slow and incremental demise reflected in the pace of secularisation in Ireland and the privatisation of morality; second, the emergence of a bioethical regulatory debate on ART, which is mired in the abortion controversy. Our analysis focuses on a number of key contradictions and tensions in the way in which the key institutions of church, state and medicine navigate their own positions
Sakellariou, E.; Zorba, T.; Pavlidou, E.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.; Angelova, S.
The 'St. 40 Martyrs' church is the most famous medieval building in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria. It is located in Assenova mahala, just next to Tsarevets. It was built and its walls were painted during the reign of Bulgarian king Ivan Assen II after the victory against Epyrus despot Theodoros Comninos (1230 AD). It consists of two buildings - a six-column basilica and another, smaller building on its western wall, which was built later. During the presence of the Ottoman Turks, maybe until the first half of the 18th century, the church remained christian. When it was converted to a mosque, all the christian symbols in it were destroyed. The archeological researches on site were initiated in 1969. As it is clear, the 40 Martyrs church is a historical monument of culture with great significance. The church had murals, from the earlier period, but in the following years and especially during the Ottoman period, the church has suffered many and different destructions. Nevertheless, the very few pieces of murals that are rescued till nowadays provide important information for the technique and the pigments that were used on its wall paintings. In the present work, twelve series of samples from the wall paintings were studied in order to characterize the materials and the technique used for church iconography. The study was based on the micro-analytical techniques of the Fourier Transform Infrared micro-spectroscopy (mus-FTIR), the Optical Microscopy and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled to an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS). In the FTIR spectra of all pigments the characteristic peaks of calcite were detected, confirming the use of fresco technique for the creation of murals. The combination of FTIR spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis, reveal the existence of lapis-lazuli for the blue color, green earth for the green color, cinnabar for the red color, calcite for the white color and carbon black for the black color. Moreover, in other chromatic layers
Sakellariou, E.; Zorba, T.; Pavlidou, E.; Angelova, S.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.
The "St. 40 Martyrs" church is the most famous medieval building in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria. It is located in Assenova mahala, just next to Tsarevets. It was built and its walls were painted during the reign of Bulgarian king Ivan Assen II after the victory against Epyrus despot Theodoros Comninos (1230 AD). It consists of two buildings - a six-column basilica and another, smaller building on its western wall, which was built later. During the presence of the Ottoman Turks, maybe until the first half of the 18th century, the church remained christian. When it was converted to a mosque, all the christian symbols in it were destroyed. The archeological researches on site were initiated in 1969. As it is clear, the 40 Martyrs church is a historical monument of culture with great significance. The church had murals, from the earlier period, but in the following years and especially during the Ottoman period, the church has suffered many and different destructions. Nevertheless, the very few pieces of murals that are rescued till nowadays provide important information for the technique and the pigments that were used on its wall paintings. In the present work, twelve series of samples from the wall paintings were studied in order to characterize the materials and the technique used for church iconography. The study was based on the micro-analytical techniques of the Fourier Transform Infrared micro-spectroscopy (μs-FTIR), the Optical Microscopy and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled to an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS). In the FTIR spectra of all pigments the characteristic peaks of calcite were detected, confirming the use of fresco technique for the creation of murals. The combination of FTIR spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis, reveal the existence of lapis-lazuli for the blue color, green earth for the green color, cinnabar for the red color, calcite for the white color and carbon black for the black color. Moreover, in other chromatic layers
The 1998 Lambeth Conference of the Anglican Communion brought into striking relief the two major issues dividing this particular global church: homosexuality and the ordination of women. Debates over these questions tend to split the church into its "conservative" southern dioceses and more "liberal" northern dioceses. With bishops from Africa and Southeast Asia now outnumbering their British and American counterparts, however, this rift had a surprising consequence at "Lambeth '98": church leaders of the northern hemisphere found themselves having to accept the postcolonial South's interpretation of the very Scripture, ecclesiastical traditions, and sexual norms the North had imposed on the South in the first place. This article explores the Anglican Church's internal struggle over women's ordination and homosexuality as a site of internalized and redeployed colonial tactics-as a complex of racial, economic, and historical forces that far exceeds the logic of "reverse colonialism."
Krause, Neal; Bastida, Elena
The purpose of this study is to see if there are differences in the social relationships that older African Americans, older whites, and older Mexican Americans form with the people where they worship. Data from two nationwide surveys are pooled to see if race differences emerge in eleven different measures of church-based social relationships. These measures assess social relationships with rank-and-file church members as well as social relationships with members of the clergy. The findings reveal that older African Americans tend to have more well-developed social relationships in the church than either older whites or older Mexican Americans. This is true with respect to relationships with fellow church members as well as relationships with the clergy. In contrast, relatively few differences emerged between older Americans of European descent and older Mexican Americans. However, when differences emerged in the data, older whites tend to score higher on the support measures than older Mexican Americans. PMID:21998489
Lupan, Iulia; Ianc, M B; Kelemen, B S; Carpa, R; Rosca-Casian, O; Chiriac, M T; Popescu, O
The North of Romania is known for its wooden churches dating from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Their deterioration constitutes a major problem due to their value for the cultural heritage. The microbial community from a seventeenth-century wooden church (Nicula, Romania) was investigated by characterization of uncultivated and cultivated bacteria using 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The study revealed not only the prevalence of the Bacillus thuringiensis strain IAM 12077 but also the presence of new microbial communities of Planomicrobium and Variovorax that were not previously reported in paintings or on wood. The identification of fungi showed the presence of seven common genera found on the walls and icon surfaces. Common bacteria from the human oral microbiota were not identified in the bacterial community.
Alfano, Davide; Scarabino, Carla; Inverso, Donato; Proto, Antonio
The discovery of a Byzantine church under the floor of one of the oldest churches of Salerno (Italy) has given us the opportunity to investigate the fine composition of the plaster through chemical and spectroscopic methods. In particular, considering that plasters are generally formed by a carbonate phase (carbonates) and an inert phase (silicates), the characterization, performed on the carbonate phase by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), has revealed the presence of dolomite minerals. This information indicates that, during the building process, some accessory minerals of marble were added in the mortar to be used like fillers. The carbonate phase makes too difficult the spectroscopic characterization of the inert phase. Only by acid attack of the plaster the inert phase has been isolated and its characterization, by XRD and optical microscopy, has indicated the presence of olivine minerals and other typical silicates of river sands.
Zingone, Gaetano; Calogero, Cucchiara; Licata, Vincenzo
The present work fits into the interesting theme of seismic prevention for protection of the monumental patrimony made up of churches with drum domes. Specifically, with respect to a church in the historic area of Catania, chosen as a monument exemplifying the typology examined, the seismic behavior is analyzed in the linear field using modern dynamic identification techniques. The dynamically identified computational model arrived at made it possible to identify the macro-element most at risk, the dome-drum system. With respect to this system the behavior in the nonlinear field is analyzed through dynamic tests on large-scale models in the presence of various types of improving reinforcement. The results are used to appraise the ameliorative contribution afforded by each of them and to choose the most suitable type of reinforcement, optimizing the stiffness/ductility ratio of the system.
Griffith, E E; Young, J L; Smith, D L
Twenty members of an independent urban black church who frequently attended a midweek service were interviewed to determine the nature of their experiences during the service and to assess its psychological impact. The majority were relatively young, married, and from a Northern urban or Southern rural background. Their responses differed for each of four selected aspects of the service. Testimony was an ineffable and explicitly religious experience. Holy Ghost possession provided an emotionally ecstatic feeling that also produced a sense of relief. Dancing and speaking in tongues were intense individualistic experiences; speaking in tongues was a more explicitly religious phenomenon. The service as a whole imparted feelings of group closeness and strength. The authors note that participants' responses correspond to several curative factors associated with group psychotherapy and suggest that the black church service is a functional community mental health resource for its participants.
Lusey, Hendrew; San Sebastian, Miguel; Christianson, Monica; Dahlgren, Lars; Edin, Kerstin E
Masculinity studies are fairly new and young churchgoers are an under-researched group in the current Congolese church context. In response to this knowledge gap, this paper attempts to explore discourses of young churchgoers from deprived areas of Kinshasa regarding masculinity and sexuality in the era of HIV. A series of 16 semi-structured interviews were conducted with unmarried young churchgoers from the Salvation Army, Protestant and Revival churches. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using discourse analysis. Five main discourses emerged: 'we are aware of the church message on sex', 'young men need sex', 'young women need money', 'to use or not to use condoms' and 'we trust in the church message'. Although all informants knew and heard church messages against premarital sex, many of them were sexually active. The perception was that young men were engaged in sexual activities with multiple partners as a result of sexual motivations surrounding masculinity and sexual potency, while young women sought multiple partners through transactional and intergenerational sex for economic reasons. These sexual practices of young people conflicted with church messages on sexual abstinence and faithfulness. However, a small number of participants challenged current gender norms and suggested alternative ways of being a man or a woman. To elucidate these alternatives, we suggest that church youths and church leaders might take concrete actions to deconstruct misconceptions about being men. In this way, they can possibly enhance a frank and fruitful dialogue on sex, sexuality and gender to promote positive masculinities and constructive partnerships to prevent HIV.
Lusey, Hendrew; San Sebastian, Miguel; Christianson, Monica; Dahlgren, Lars; Edin, Kerstin E.
Abstract Masculinity studies are fairly new and young churchgoers are an under-researched group in the current Congolese church context. In response to this knowledge gap, this paper attempts to explore discourses of young churchgoers from deprived areas of Kinshasa regarding masculinity and sexuality in the era of HIV. A series of 16 semi-structured interviews were conducted with unmarried young churchgoers from the Salvation Army, Protestant and Revival churches. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using discourse analysis. Five main discourses emerged: ‘we are aware of the church message on sex’, ‘young men need sex’, ‘young women need money’, ‘to use or not to use condoms’ and ‘we trust in the church message’. Although all informants knew and heard church messages against premarital sex, many of them were sexually active. The perception was that young men were engaged in sexual activities with multiple partners as a result of sexual motivations surrounding masculinity and sexual potency, while young women sought multiple partners through transactional and intergenerational sex for economic reasons. These sexual practices of young people conflicted with church messages on sexual abstinence and faithfulness. However, a small number of participants challenged current gender norms and suggested alternative ways of being a man or a woman. To elucidate these alternatives, we suggest that church youths and church leaders might take concrete actions to deconstruct misconceptions about being men. In this way, they can possibly enhance a frank and fruitful dialogue on sex, sexuality and gender to promote positive masculinities and constructive partnerships to prevent HIV. PMID:25000272
while the more volatile tend to stay away. Skydivers who avoid thinking about their fear of jumping are, especially among Protestants, more frequent...church attenders than those skydivers who express their fear. Catholics who express the feeling of free fall in sensory and esthetic terms are more...sensory experience. Protestants who felt that harm befalling a skydiver was due to fate--that is, predestined or determined, rather than a result of the
FIRST AMMENDMENT : A HISTORICAL JOURNEY By Peter N. Fischer, Chaplain, Major, USAF A Research Report Submitted to the Faculty In...SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE AND THE FIRST AMMENDMENT : A HISTORICAL JOURNEY By Chaplain, Major Peter N. Fischer Congress shall...make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof…. —Religious Clause of the First Amendment, U.S
Edwards, Karethy; Edwards, Boyze; Jones, Gail; Ham, Sharon
Excellence in reading and math enable children entry to all of the professions. This is especially true for the nursing profession. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide background information on the national crisis in reading and math achievement among school children, present the methodology of the Saturday School church-based approach to enhance reading and math skills, and the seven year outcomes.
Private Letter Ruling 8515003 does not exempt crude oil produced by an agency of a convention of churches from the windfall profits tax. The Internal Revenue Service concluded that not all of the proceeds were dedicated for the benefit of a qualifying charitable organization since some went to build a home for the elderly, although some went to fund educational scholarships. The Code does not allow partial tax exemptions.
3. Historic American Buildings Survey R. Merritt Lacey, Photographer April 1, 1936 EXTERIOR - SOUTH ELEVATION SHOWING FRONT - Christ Episcopal Church, Broad Street & Sycamore Avenue, Shrewsbury, Monmouth County, NJ
5. Historic American Buildings Survey R. Merritt Lacey, Photographer April 1, 1936 INTERIOR - PEWS AND SIDE WALL - Christ Episcopal Church, Broad Street & Sycamore Avenue, Shrewsbury, Monmouth County, NJ
Ruiz Austria, Carolina S
After almost 500 years of Spanish colonial rule, Canon law and laws of Spanish origin continue to dominate Philippine family, civil and penal law. Most if not all of these laws place serious limitations on the realisation of women's sexual and reproductive rights. Since 2002, the current president, Gloria Mocapagal Arroyo, has increasingly substituted church dogma for state policy, i.e. revoking the reproductive health and family planning policies of her predecessor, rejecting all modern contraceptive methods as forms of abortion, limiting government support for family planning to providing natural methods to married couples, and restricting access to emergency contraception. This article reflects on which advocacy methods will best serve the goals of sexual and reproductive rights when conservative church interests dominate state policy, as is currently the case in the Philippines. Religious fundamentalists, at one and the some time, argue for religious accommodation of their views by the state on the grounds of religious freedom but refuse to entertain, let alone accommodate, a plurality of views on women's sexuality. Thus, it is not enough to base a case in support of sexual and reproductive rights on the separation of church and state since, even though the State claims it is secular, it still manages to impose restrictions and control over women's bodies.
In many parts of the world, Pentecostalism is becoming the fastest growing religious movement. As a result of migration, people from Asia, Africa and Latin America carry religious ideas and practices across borders, in other cases, migrants establish religious networks in the diaspora. However, while embracing newcomers from various backgrounds, Pentecostal believers constantly cross cultural boundaries by incorporating people from different ethnic, national and language backgrounds. While Pentecostal charismatic practitioners blurr boundaries in many situations, simultaneously, they create 'bright boundaries' by rejecting 'traditional' religious practices, imagined as the Other of Pentecostalism and thus to be eliminated. By referring to the concept of boundaries (Barth 1969; Alba (Ethnic and Racial Studies 1:20-69, 2005)) this article argues that charismatic Pentecostal Christianity, alongside its embracing practices with regard to social, ethnic and political boundaries, generates religious boundaries: First, church members reject "traditional" religious practices such as ancestor veneration and spirit possession, practices migrants carry across borders. Second, Pentecostal believers create boundaries towards those who split from the church. By exploring the ambiguities of migrant converts, I will investigate, how some of them subvert and reject control and authority exerted by religious leaders. Therefore, this article, based on ethnographic fieldwork among Vietnamese Pentecostalists, contributes to widely underresearched practices of boundary making and church splitting in the diaspora.
Vogt, Patrik; Kasper, Lutz; Burde, Jan-Philipp
The sound of church bells is part of most people's everyday life and can easily be examined with smartphones. Similar to other experiments of this column, we use a suitable iOS app. The underlying physical theory of church bells proves to be difficult. A reliable prediction of their natural frequencies based on their exact dimensions is only possible using the finite element method. If you ask bell founders how they calculate the rib of a bell (half longitudinal section of a bell, which completely determines the acoustic properties, Fig. 1) in order to get a church bell with the desired frequency spectrum, you will certainly not get an answer: the art of bell casting is based on centuries of experience and knowledge of the rib structure is only shared with direct descendants. We want to have a closer look at these well-guarded secrets, knowing full well that we cannot fully unravel them. This article presents simple mathematical models and a comparison with a data set of almost 700 bells.
Heinen, Jacqueline; Portet, Stéphane
The historical prestige of the Polish Catholic Church is the result of its presence as a national symbol of resistance, both under foreign occupation and during the communist regime. In the post-communist era the power of the Church within the political arena has significantly increased, through the Concordat that was signed with the state as well as through formal and informal ties with political parties. Catholicism is the de facto religion of the state, even if Poland remains a nominally secular country. This was illustrated by the adoption, in 1993, of a total abortion ban. Although the relation of Poles to the Catholic dogma on sexuality and reproductive rights tends to be weak, fearing criticism from Church authorities, most politicians avoid controversial topics and express their commitment to Catholic dogma. Thus women's groups have encountered serious difficulties in their efforts to defend women's rights to sexual and reproductive autonomy. Although accession to the European Union has put Poland in an awkward position with respect to equality of rights between women and men, it has not fundamentally altered the real situation with respect to the controversial topic of abortion.
Mpofu, Elias; Mutepfa, Magen Mhaka; Hallfors, Denise Dion
The authors used state-of-the-art concept mapping approaches to examine structural institutional effects of church and secular high schools on the types of sexual and HIV-prevention education messages transmitted to learners in Zimbabwe. Participants were school teachers (n = 26), school counselors (n = 28), and pastors involved in student pastoral care (n = 14; males = 27, females = 41). They reported on messages perceived to influence sexual decisions of learners in their school setting. The self-report data were clustered into message types using concept mapping and contrasted for consistency of content and structure both between and within type of school. The authors also engaged in curriculum document study with member checks in the participant schools to determine convergence of the evidence on school-type effects of the messages transmitted to students. Church schools prioritized faith-informed sexual and HIV-prevention messages, whereas both types of schools prioritized Life skills education and a future focus. Secular schools prioritized sex and HIV messages in the context of community norms. Facts about HIV and AIDS were relatively underemphasized by church schools. The implicit knowledge values that differentiate types of schools influence learner access to information important for their sexual decisions.
Ridderstad, M. P.
The orientations and placement of 52 Neolithic stone enclosures in Finland known as 'Giants' Churches' were analysed. In addition, other characteristic features, such as cairns and standing stones in or near the Giants' Churches, were investigated. The axis and gate orientations of the structures were measured using both on-site and airborne laser scanning (lidar) observations. The results showed lidar observations to be useful in archaeoastronomical analysis as a complementary tool to be used with on-site measurements and observations. The Giants' Churches were found to be orientations towards certain solar and lunar events that could have acted as 'seasonal pointers'. The orientations of the gates of the GCs were found to replicate the axis orientations to a large degree. The majority (over 90%) of the GCs were positioned on the eastern or southeastern side of the ridge they were built on, indicating the interest of the builders in the eastern horizon and possibly the rising of celestial bodies. The orientations of large (>35-m long) Giants' Churches and small (≤35-m long) ones were compared. The observed differences in the orientations of these two groups suggested that the structures traditionally known as Giants' Churches may be a heterogeneous group consisting of at least two types of structures represented in this study by the two selected size groups. Many large GCs were found to have been oriented towards the solstices, while the smaller ones did not show this feature. It is possible that the smaller Giants' Churches were oriented towards the Moon, while the larger ones were associated to solar events. The smaller Giants' Churches could be the remains of large houses or otherwise belong to a different tradition of construction.
Background: To test if social support and ethnicity mediate/moderate the association between religion involvement and subjective health in the United States. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of National Survey of American Life, 2003. Hierarchical regression was fit to a national household probability sample of adult African Americans (n = 3570), Caribbean Blacks (n = 1621), and Whites (n = 891). Frequency of church attendance, positive/negative church-based social support, ethnicity, and subjective health (overall life satisfaction and self-rated mental health) were considered as predictor, mediator, moderator and outcome, respectively. Results: Frequency of church attendance had a significant and positive association with mental health and life satisfaction among all ethnic groups. Frequency of church attendance was also correlated with positive and negative social support among all ethnic groups. Church-based social support fully mediated the association between frequency of church attendance and overall life satisfaction among African Americans but not among Caribbean Blacks, or Whites. Church-based social support, however, partially mediated the association between frequency of church attendance and overall mental health among African Americans but not among Caribbean Blacks or Whites. Conclusion: Ethnicity shapes how church-based social support mediates the association between religious involvement and subjective health. Our results showed a moderating mediation effect of ethnicity and social support on the religious involvement-subjective health linkage, in a way that it is only among African Americans that social support is a pathway for the beneficial health effect of religious involvement. PMID:23543791
Graham, Jessica R; Roemer, Lizabeth
The current study explores the potential buffering effect of church-based social support on the effect of racism on anxiety symptomology in a Black sample. Fifty participants completed a questionnaire packet containing measures of anxious arousal and stress (general anxiety) symptoms, church-based social support, and experience of racist events. Results indicated that church-based social support moderated the relationship between racist experiences and general anxiety symptoms such that at low levels of church-based social support the experiences of racism and stress (general anxiety) symptoms were significantly positively associated. The clinical implications of these findings and future research directions are discussed.
A resolution recognizing the 75th Anniversary of the Welfare Program of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and the significant impact of the Welfare Program in the United States and throughout the world in helping people in need.
Sen. Hatch, Orrin G. [R-UT
11/15/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S7584-7585; text as passed Senate: CR S7584-7585; text of measure as introduced: CR S7454-7455) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
5. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer From photograph furnished by Miss Edith D. Johnston, Savannah, Ga. Sept. 5, 1936 RED BRICK CHURCH (FORMER BUILDING 1811- 1837) - Christ Church (Episcopal), 28 Bull Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA
1. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, June 12, 1936 EAST ELEVATION, FRONT, (GENERAL VIEW) (Reproduction) - Christ Episcopal Church, Church & Saint Emanuel Streets, Mobile, Mobile County, AL
Hankerson, Sidney H.; Weissman, Myrna M.
Objective African Americans, compared to White Americans, underutilize traditional mental health services. A systematic review is presented of studies involving church-based health promotion programs (CBHPP) for mental disorders among African Americans to assess the feasibility of utilizing such programs to address racial disparities in mental health care. Methods A literature review of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and ATLA Religion databases was conducted to identify articles published between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 2009. Inclusion criteria included the following: studies were conducted in a church; primary objective(s) involved assessment, perceptions/attitudes, education, prevention, group support, or treatment for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV mental disorders or their correlates; number of participants was reported; qualitative and/or quantitative data were reported; and African Americans were the target population. Results Of 1,451 studies identified, 191 studies were eligible for formal review. Only eight studies met inclusion criteria for this review. The majority of studies focused on substance related disorders (n=5), were designed to assess the effects of a specific intervention (n=6), and targeted adults (n=6). One study focused on depression and was limited by a small sample size of seven participants. Conclusion Although CBHPP have been successful in addressing racial disparities for several chronic medical conditions, the published literature on CBHPP for mental disorders is extremely limited. More intensive research is needed to establish the feasibility and acceptability of utilizing church-based health programs as a possible resource for screening and treatment to improve disparities in mental health care for African Americans. PMID:22388529
Murray, Laura R; Garcia, Jonathan; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Parker, Richard G
The HIV epidemic has raised important tensions in the relationship between Church and State in many parts of Latin America where government policies frequently negotiate secularity with religious belief and doctrine. Brazil represents a unique country in the region due to the presence of a national religious response to HIV/AIDS articulated through the formal structures of the Catholic Church. As part of an institutional ethnography on religion and HIV/AIDS in Brazil, we conducted an extended, multi-site ethnography from October 2005 through March of 2009 to explore the relationship between the Catholic Church and the Brazilian National AIDS Program. This case study links a national, macro-level response of governmental and religious institutions with the enactment of these politics and dogmas on a local level. Shared values in solidarity and citizenship, similar organizational structures, and complex interests in forming mutually beneficial alliances were the factors that emerged as the bases for the strong partnership between the two institutions. Dichotomies of Church and State and micro and macro forces were often blurred as social actors responded to the epidemic while also upholding the ideologies of the institutions they represented. We argue that the relationship between the Catholic Church and the National AIDS Program was formalized in networks mediated through personal relationships and political opportunity structures that provided incentives for both institutions to collaborate.
Murray, Laura R.; Garcia, Jonathan; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Parker, Richard G.
The HIV epidemic has raised important tensions in the relationship between Church and State in many parts of Latin America where government policies frequently negotiate secularity with religious belief and doctrine. Brazil represents a unique country in the region due to the presence of a national religious response to HIV/AIDS articulated through the formal structures of the Catholic Church. As part of an institutional ethnography on religion and HIV/AIDS in Brazil, we conducted an extended, multi-site ethnography from October 2005 through March of 2009 to explore the relationship between the Catholic Church and the Brazilian National AIDS Program. This case study links a national, macro-level response of governmental and religious institutions with the enactment of these politics and dogmas on a local level. Shared values in solidarity and citizenship, similar organizational structures, and complex interests in forming mutually beneficial alliances were the factors that emerged as the bases for the strong partnership between the two institutions. Dichotomies of Church and State and micro and macro forces were often blurred as social actors responded to the epidemic while also upholding the ideologies of the institutions they represented. We argue that the relationship between the Catholic Church and the National AIDS Program was formalized in networks mediated through personal relationships and political opportunity structures that provided incentives for both institutions to collaborate. PMID:21324573
The church of San Miniato al Monte is examined in the context of interest in astrology and astronomy in early Renaissance Florence. Vitruvius emphasised the need for architects to "be acquainted with astronomy and the theory of the heavens" in his famous Ten Books of Architecture and, at San Miniato, astronomical and astrological features are combined in order to link humanity with the celestial or spiritual realm. The particular significance of Pisces and Taurus is explored in relation to Christian symbolism, raising questions about the role of astronomy and astrology in art and architecture.
It is well documented that racism in the US healthcare system, including the objectification and disparagement of women of color, contributes to disparities in health status. However, it is a mistaken notion to characterize women of color as unknowing victims. In this study, black feminist standpoint epistemology is used in methodological approach and analysis to understand how a small group of African American church-going women use religious beliefs to help them cope with and resist the racism and discriminatory objectification they encounter in healthcare encounters.
Enzler, Andrew W.; Hoffman, Megan C.; Call, Kathleen Thiede; Amos, Sylvia; Babington-Johnson, Alfred; Okuyemi, Kolawole Stephen
Background African Americans have high disease and death rates due to cancer and cardiovascular disease. Health promotion efforts to improve diet have the potential to reduce these rates. Community Context Given their importance in the community and the extent of their reach, churches are effective avenues for health promotion efforts targeting African Americans. The objectives of this project were to promote healthy eating among African American church members, engage African American churches in the implementation of Body and Soul (an evidenced-based program that encourages healthy eating), and implement the program in the community with minimal resources. Methods From 2011 through 2014 we conducted a community engagement project to implement the 12-week Body and Soul program, which includes demonstrations of healthy recipes and peer counseling, in 20 churches. Participants (n = 310) completed baseline and follow-up surveys on their eating habits and experience with peer counseling. Church coordinators (n = 11) completed a survey evaluating the program. Outcome Participants’ weekly servings of fruit (baseline, 4.3; follow-up, 5.4; P < .001) and vegetables (baseline, 4.5; follow-up, 5.3; P < .001) increased. Church coordinators reported enthusiasm about Body and Soul at their church, and 10 of 11 church coordinators indicated that their pastor encouraged members to attend Body and Soul events. Program success was promoted by engaging the pastor in program activities and by scheduling events soon after church services. Implementation challenges were variation in peer counseling among churches and low turnout at follow-up events. Interpretation The project was successfully implemented in the 20 churches, and increases in healthy eating were observed. This project demonstrated that Body and Soul can be implemented in communities with little funds or other resources. PMID:28333599
Maione, Michela; Mangani, Filippo; Amadori, Maria Letizia; Campagna, Michele
The church of San Pietro in Valle in Fano is with good reason considered one of the outstanding examples of baroque art in Central Italy. Currently the church is in a serious degradation status. For this reason, and in order to devise a correct conservative restoration project, a scientific study has been carried out, aimed at characterizing mortars used for the application of marble decorations and the different degradation products occurring in the church (i.e. pulverizations, encrustations, salt efflorescences, and condensation water). In the following, results obtained analyzing the different sample typologies by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron scanning microscopy with energy-dispersion micro-analytical system, ion chromatography, and head-space solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry will be reported.
Gensheimer, Kathleen F; Rea, Vicki; Mills, Dora Anne; Montagna, Christopher P; Simone, Karen
An outbreak of apparent food-borne illness following a church gathering was promptly reported to the Maine Bureau of Health. Gastrointestinal symptoms among church attendees were initially attributed to consumption of leftover sandwiches that had been served the previous day. However, a rapid epidemiological and laboratory assessment revealed the etiology of illness, including the death of an elderly gentleman, was not food-borne in origin. A criminal investigation determined that deliberate arsenic contamination of the brewed coffee by one of the church members was the source of the outbreak. Public health officials and criminal investigators must be aware that intentional biologic aggression can initially present as typical unintentional disease outbreaks. Practitioners must also consider the need to properly maintain and preserve potential forensic evidence. This case demonstrates the key role public health practitioners may play in criminal investigations.
Böhm, Bettina; Zollner, Hans; Fegert, Jörg M; Liebhardt, Hubert
Child sexual abuse in the Catholic Church has been increasingly recognized as a problem not limited to individual institutions. Recent inquiry commission reports provide substantial information on offense dynamics, but their conclusions have not been synthesized with empirical research to date. The aim of this systematic literature review was to bring together key findings and identify gaps in the evidence base. The three main focus points were (a) types of publications and methodology used, (b) frequency information on child sexual abuse in the Catholic Church, (c) individual factors in offending, and (d) institutional factors in offending. It was found that reports, legal assessments, and research on child sexual abuse within the Catholic Church provide extensive descriptive and qualitative information for five different countries. This includes individual psychological factors (static risk predictors, multiple trajectories) and institutional factors (opportunity, social dynamics) as well as prevalence rates illustrating a high "dark figure" of child sexual abuse.
Hatch, J.R.; Morey, G.B.
In the type section (Lonsdale 65-1 core, Rice County, Minnesota) the Solor Church Formation (Middle Proterozoic, Keweenawan Supergroup) consists primarily of reddish-brown mudstone and siltstone and pale reddish-brown sandstone. The sandstone and siltstone are texturally and mineralogically immature. Hydrocarbon source-rock evaluation of bluish-gray, greenish-gray and medium-dark-gray to grayish-black beds, which primarily occur in the lower 104 m (340 ft) of this core, shows: (1) the rocks have low organic carbon contents (<0.5 percent for 22 of 25 samples); (2) the organic matter is thermally very mature (Tmax = 494°C, sample 19) and is probably near the transition between the wet gas phase of catagenesis and metagenesis (dry gas zone); and (3) the rocks have minimal potential for producing additional hydrocarbons (genetic potential <0.30 mgHC/gm rock). Although no direct evidence exists from which to determine maximum depths of burial, the observed thermal maturity of the organic matter requires significantly greater depths of burial and(or) higher geothermal gradients. It is likely, at least on the St. Croix horst, that thermal alteration of the organic matter in the Solor Church took place relatively early, and that any hydrocarbons generated during this early thermal alteration were probably lost prior to deposition of the overlying Fond du Lac Formation (Middle Proterozoic, Keweenawan Supergroup).
Testing hypotheses derived from church-sect theory and contemporary research about changes in evangelical Protestants' social status, I use repeated cross-sectional survey data spanning almost four decades to examine changes in the social-class hierarchy of American religious traditions. While there is little change in the social-class position of white evangelical Protestants from the early 1970s to 2010, there is considerable change across birth cohorts. Results from hierarchical age-period-cohort models show: (1) robust, across-cohort declines in social-class differences between white evangelical Protestants and liberal Protestants, affiliates of "other" religions, and the unaffiliated, (2) stability in social-class differences between white evangelical Protestants and moderate, Pentecostal, and nondenominational Protestants, (3) moderate across-cohort growth in social-class differences between white evangelical Protestants and Catholics, and (4) these patterns vary across indicators of social class. The findings in this article provide partial support for church-sect theory as well as other theories of social change that emphasize the pivotal role of generations.
Agostino Gemelli, a Catholic priest, psychiatrist, administrator, and educator, was an important figure in the early history of psychoanalysis in Italy. He was one of the few establishment figures to grapple with Freud's ideas in Italy during the first half of the twentieth century, a period during which Italy, compared to the rest of Europe and to the United States, was relatively impermeable to psychoanalysis. One of the factors that contributed to this was the opposition of the powerful Catholic Church, which identified in psychoanalysis a challenge to its authority. The author argues that Father Gemelli's shifting positions about psychoanalysis between 1925 and 1953 reflected the exigencies of his historical circumstances. Gemelli was able to identify in psychoanalysis an integrated view of the human condition in stark opposition to the brutal reductionism of psychiatry in Italy at that time, but also encountered in it elements intolerable to the Church. Examining specifically what it is that Gemelli could accept of psychoanalysis, and what needed to be rejected, between 1925 and 1953, illustrates the particular challenge posed by psychoanalysis to Catholicism in Italy.
Objectives. To track the course of age-related changes in emotional and tangible support given and received by older adults in the context of their religious congregations. Method. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to data from a national sample of 1,192 White and African American older adults who attended church regularly, and they were interviewed up to four times over a period of seven years. Results. Changes were found in six measures of support. Participants increased in terms of the amount of emotional support that they both gave and received, whereas decreased in the amount of tangible support they gave and received. Satisfaction increased with age for both emotional and tangible support. There were large race-related differences, with African Americans being more engaged in support relationships of all types. Religious factors, including frequency of attendance, commitment, and the congregational cohesiveness were strong predictors of between-person differences. Discussion. This study is the first to demonstrate within-person change in church-based support relationships during the course of older adulthood. Patterns of increasing quantity and quality of emotional ties, but decreasing tangible support, partially contrast with previous findings regarding secular support networks but are consistent with the socioemotional selectivity perspective. PMID:23149429
Michaelson, Valerie; Pickett, William; Robinson, Peter; Cameron, Linda
As part of a mixed-methods study, this qualitative inquiry determined how adolescent participation in church or religious groups related to their health. We used grounded theory with a phenomenological approach to inquiry. Consistent with the quantitative findings, children (n = 12) involved in religious groups reported lower participation in risk behaviors, higher pro-social behaviors, but poorer levels of emotional well-being and physical health. Findings raise theological and practical questions about the practices and teaching of the church with respect to children's ministry. They suggest an emphasis on teaching about behaviors and morality rather than a more integrative message involving the whole of life.
Stewart, Jennifer M; Sommers, Marilyn S; Brawner, Bridgette M
There is a growing body of literature that documents the unique impact of black churches on social and health-related changes in the black community. Sexual health and sexuality, however, have long been sources of contention within the institution. The purpose of this article was to refine existing theoretical models that undergird sexual health research in faith-based organizations. The proposed conceptual model explores social-level factors (racism, homophobia, and heterosexism) and church organizational-level factors (beliefs, social trust, norms, and social support/influence). We make an argument in favor of illuminating the negative social-level barriers and affirming the internal cultural supports.
After an overview of the British context in 2005 and its ambivalent attitude to Church schools, this article explores the issues of potential religious abuse, alongside a preferred holistic Christian discipleship. The final section explains how Church schools can operate in a way that encourages Christian nurture and prevent religious abuse. The…
Kinchen, John Dawson, III
As a result of a perceived need to improve the music theory curricula for the preparation of church music leaders, this study compared two diverse approaches to the teaching of music theory for church music university students on achievement, attitudes, and self-preparedness. This current study was a quantitative, quasi-experimental research…
Thurmond, Gloria J.
The Church's interpretation of the current ecological crisis as a moral crisis is the catalyst for this essay, which proposes a newly constructed faith-based model for ecological dialogue and education. The exploration and reinterpretation of the traditional Church doctrine of the Virgin Mary as the new Eve provides a theme from which an…
Coll, Roisin; Davis, Robert A.
Public policy questions such as public funding for Catholic schools, the extent of government involvement in private education, and church-state relations in general are not unique to the United States. This article discusses Catholic education in Scotland, with a view to explaining the ongoing need for cooperation and goodwill in church-state…
Rodgers, Frederick A.; Innes, Elizabeth A.
The African American church has a long history of service to its community. The church in African American life has always served as a source of support, learning, information, and improvement for its members and the community it serves. This project directed its resources and energies toward developing meaningful and effective strategies for…
Powell, Terrinieka W.; Herbert, Ann; Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Latkin, Carl A.
The goal of this study was to identify strategies that could yield more inclusive church-based HIV prevention efforts. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) living in Baltimore, Maryland. The sample had an equal number of regular and infrequent church attendees. Nearly one-fourth of the sample was HIV-positive. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively using a qualitative content analytic approach. Two main recommendations emerged for churches to offer more inclusive HIV prevention efforts: (1) reduce homosexuality stigma by increasing interpersonal and institutional acceptance, and (2) address the sexual health needs of all congregants by offering universal and targeted sexual health promotion. Thus, results support a tiered approached to providing more inclusive church-based HIV prevention efforts. We conclude that Black churches can be a critical access point for HIV prevention among YBMSM and represent an important setting to intervene. PMID:27244189
Zeale, Matt R. K.; Bennitt, Emily; Newson, Stuart E.; Packman, Charlotte; Browne, William J.; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth; Stone, Emma
Bats frequently roost in historic churches, and these colonies are of considerable conservation value. Inside churches, bat droppings and urine can cause damage to the historic fabric of the building and to items of cultural significance. In extreme cases, large quantities of droppings can restrict the use of a church for worship and/or other community functions. In the United Kingdom, bats and their roosts are protected by law, and striking a balance between conserving the natural and cultural heritage can be a significant challenge. We investigated mitigation strategies that could be employed in churches and other historic buildings to alleviate problems caused by bats without adversely affecting their welfare or conservation status. We used a combination of artificial roost provision and deterrence at churches in Norfolk, England, where significant maternity colonies of Natterer’s bats Myotis nattereri damage church features. Radio-tracking data and population modelling showed that excluding M. nattereri from churches is likely to have a negative impact on their welfare and conservation status, but that judicious use of deterrents, especially high intensity ultrasound, can mitigate problems caused by bats. We show that deterrence can be used to move bats humanely from specific roosting sites within a church and limit the spread of droppings and urine so that problems to congregations and damage to cultural heritage can be much reduced. In addition, construction of bespoke roost spaces within churches can allow bats to continue to roost within the fabric of the building without flying in the church interior. We highlight that deterrence has the potential to cause serious harm to M. nattereri populations if not used judiciously, and so the effects of deterrents will need careful monitoring, and their use needs strict regulation. PMID:26771548
10. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: WEST FRONT AT NIGHT, Date unknown. from FOURTH CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST ARCHIVE (used with permission) E. S. Cheney and R. B. Bird, Photographers Cheney Photo Adv. Co., Oakland, California - Fourth Church of Christ, Scientist, 1330 Lakeshore Avenue, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
12. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: AUDITORIUM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST TOWARD ROSTRUM WITH BALCONY PARTLY VISIBLE, 27 December, 1944 from FOURTH CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST ARCHIVE (used with permission) Gabriel Moulin, Photographer, 181 Second St., San Francisco, Ca. - Fourth Church of Christ, Scientist, 1330 Lakeshore Avenue, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
14. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: DOMED CEILING OF AUDITORIUM, Date unknown. from FOURTH CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST ARCHIVE (used with permission) E. S. Cheney and R. B. Bird, Photographers, Cheney Photo Adv. Co., Oakland, California. - Fourth Church of Christ, Scientist, 1330 Lakeshore Avenue, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
8. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: WEST FRONT VIEWED FROM NORTHWEST, 19 Sept. 1944 from FOURTH CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST ARCHIVE (used with permission) Gabriel Moulin, Photographer, 181 Second St., San Francisco, Ca. - Fourth Church of Christ, Scientist, 1330 Lakeshore Avenue, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
9. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: WEST FRONT AS SEEN FROM SOUTHWEST, Date unknown. from FOURTH CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST ARCHIVE (used with permission) Photographic Firm: Seminary Kodak Shop and Circulating Library, Oakland California. - Fourth Church of Christ, Scientist, 1330 Lakeshore Avenue, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
13. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: AUDITORIUM, LOOKING WEST TOWARD BALCONY AND FOYER, Date unknown. from FOURTH CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST ARCHIVE (used with permission) E. S. Cheney and R. B. Bird, Photographers, Cheney Photo Adv. Co., Oakland, California - Fourth Church of Christ, Scientist, 1330 Lakeshore Avenue, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
4. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Sept. 5, 1936 Photograph from photograph furnished by Miss Edith D. Johnston, Savannah, GA. VIEW OF CHANCEL IN CHRIST CHURCH BEFORE DEMOLITION photo ABOUT 1870 - Christ Church (Episcopal), 28 Bull Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA
Catholic groups and individuals united in a public rally in Manila's Rizal Park to decry a "cultural dictatorship," which promotes abortion, homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual perversion, condoms, and artificial contraception. Government spokesmen responded that condoms and contraception were part of government policy to spread family planning knowledge and informed choices among the population. Cardinal Jaime Sin and former president Corazon Aquino joined forces to lead the movement against the national family planning program in the largest demonstration since the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Also criticized was the 85-page draft action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) scheduled for September 1994. Cardinal Sin accused President Clinton of using the action plan to promote worldwide abortion. Under the administration of President Fidel Ramos, family planning funding has quintupled and the number of family planning workers has increased from 200 to 8000. President Ramos has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion, although years ago Fidel Ramos and Cardinal Sin were allies in the effort to push out Ferdinand Marcos. The population of the Philippines is 85% Catholic, and laws reflect the Church's doctrine against divorce and abortion. The current growth rate is 2.3%, and the goal is to reduce growth to 2.0% by 1998, the end of Ramos's term in office. The population target is in accord with demographic goals proposed in the UN draft action plan. The Vatican has opposed the language in the plan and may have encouraged other religious leaders to join those opposed to the "war against our babies and children." Sin said that contraceptive distribution was "intrinsically evil" and should be stopped now. Ramos's administration stated that their policies and programs are not "in the hands of the devil" and there is support for the Church on family values and
Bertolini, Luca Carsana, Maddalena Gastaldi, Matteo Lollini, Federica Redaelli, Elena
The paper describes a study on the mortars of the basilica of San Lorenzo in Milan, which was carried out to support an archaeological study aimed at dating and documenting the construction techniques used throughout the centuries. The church, which was founded between the 4th and 5th century, at the end of the period when Milan was the capital of the Roman Empire, was subjected in time to extensions, collapses and reconstructions that lasted until the Renaissance period and even later on. Thanks to the good state of conservation, San Lorenzo church is a collection of materials and construction techniques throughout a period of more than a millennium. Mortars were investigated in order to compare the binders used for structural elements built in different historical ages. From an archaeological study, samples of mortars attributed to the late Roman period, the Middle Ages and the Renaissance were available. The binder of each sample was separated by the aggregates and it was characterised on the basis of X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Constituents of the binder were identified and their origin is discussed in order to investigate if they could be attributed to the original composition of the binder or to possible alteration in time due to atmospheric pollution. Results show that, even though the binder is mainly based on magnesian lime, there are significant differences in the microstructure of the binding matrix used in mortars ascribed to the different historical periods. In the Roman period, in correspondence of the structural elements that required higher strength, also hydraulic cocciopesto mortars were detected. Gypsum was found in most samples, which was maybe added intentionally. - Highlights: • Binders of mortars of San Lorenzo church in Milan were investigated. • Roman, Middle Ages and Renaissance samples were studied by XRD, TG and SEM. • Magnesian-lime binders containing silico
Shirer, David H.
This study addressed the comparison of classroom education with online education in helping adult ministerial students reach the specific levels of competencies in the fields of theology and pastoral care in the Church of the Nazarene. As the Director of the Alabama Nazarene School of Ministry and a member of the Master's Teacher Program of…
Francis, Leslie J.; Whinney, Michael; Robbins, Mandy
A sample of 168 bishops, serving or retired, in the Church of England completed the Francis Psychological Type Scales. The psychological type profile of these bishops was compared with that of 626 Anglican clergymen. The bishops differed significantly from the clergymen on three of the four aspects of psychological type. The bishops were more…
Choi, Seong Ji
Problem: The problem of this study was to determine the relationship between parenting stress and six specified predictor variables of spirituality among mothers of elementary children attending selected Korean Baptist churches located in the Dallas/Ft. Worth area. The specified predictor variables of spirituality were awareness, instability,…
Suite, Derek H.; Rollin, Stephen A.; Bowman, J. C.; la Bril, Robert D.
Post-9/11, many faith-based responders expressed the opinion that they were neither prepared nor trained to recognize the mental health needs of long-term trauma survivors. With funding through the Red Cross, an interdisciplinary trauma training program was developed to increase the capacity of the New York Southern Baptist Church groups to…
On June 18, 2010, Hamilton County Public Health (HCPH), a local health department in Ohio, began receiving reports of gastrointestinal illness from persons who attended a church festival held during June 11-13 in a suburban community of Hamilton County. HCPH investigated and confirmed the existence of a foodborne outbreak associated with consumption of pulled pork prepared in a private home and sold at the church festival. Sixty-four attendees with gastroenteritis were identified. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) was found in stool specimens from three patients; no other pathogen was found. Because the outbreak was identified after the church festival had concluded, the environmental investigation was limited to interviews of food handlers. The primary public health interventions consisted of 1) active surveillance for additional cases of salmonellosis associated with the festival, 2) consultation with the festival organizers and food vendors to ensure the pork product was not resold or consumed elsewhere, 3) education of the festival organizers and food vendors about relevant public health regulations and food safety practices, 4) traceback of the implicated product to the retailer in Indiana, and 5) notification of the Indiana State Department of Health. The results of the investigation call attention to the public health implications of unregulated food service at events such as church festivals, which generally are exempt from public health inspection and licensure in Ohio. Food sold in such environments might place populations at risk for foodborne illness.
Odom, Jerry David
Problem: The problem of this study was to determine the differences between two groups of learners across four specified learner variables. The two groups were students using mobile phones and students without the use of mobile phones in youth Bible studies in selected Southern Baptist churches. The four learner variables were cognitive test…
End-of-life care cyclically occupies the headlines of the mass media. The disposition of the Catholic church, this matter, although unknown to many, has been the subject of discussion and controversy. In this article we analysed various documents of that religious institution, as well as the opinion of some well known personalities who studied this theme from a Catholic perspective.
This paper discusses the manner in which the Roman Catholic Church in Ireland attempted to impose denominational control on the system of vocational education introduced by the state in 1930. Considerable research on education has been conducted within the period in question; however, the area addressed in this paper has been largely neglected by…
The author's examination of Indigenous Theology and the indigenous pastoral is based on several periods of research over the past ten years in both rural and urban areas of Oaxaca state in Mexico, including participant-observation in several different kinds of church-directed settings and activities, and extensive interviews with clergy and…
Francis, Leslie J.; Village, Andrew
The Young People's Attitudes to Religious Diversity Project was established to compare the attitudes of students (13-to 15-years of age) educated within the state-maintained sector in church schools (Catholic, Anglican, joint Anglican and Catholic) and in schools without a religious foundation. Data provided by 5,402 students recruited from…
In Europe, the nineteenth and twentieth centuries are characterised not only by processes of secularisation, but also by religious reactions to the perceived secularisation of society. In the Catholic Church, the rise of active congregations constitutes a prominent part of this reaction. With their work "in the world", the members of the…
Agadjanian, Victor; Menjívar, Cecilia
Religious organisations (ROs) are often said to play an important role in mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS. Yet, limitations of that role have also been acknowledged. While most of the literature has focused on ideological and individual-level implications of religion for HIV/AIDS, in this study, we shift the focus to the organisational factors that shape and constrain ROs' involvement in both HIV prevention and HIV/AIDS care and support. Using primarily qualitative data collected in a predominantly Christian area in southern Mozambique, we show that the organisational vitality of a RO as determined by its membership size and its relationships with other churches and with governmental and non-governmental agencies is a pervasive priority of RO leaders. Therefore, all church activities, including those related to HIV/AIDS, are instrumentalised by the religious leadership to achieve the church's organisational aims—maintaining and growing its membership, safeguarding the often precarious coexistence with other churches, and enhancing its standing vis-à-vis the government and powerful non-governmental organisations. As a result, the effectiveness of ROs' involvement in HIV/AIDS prevention and assistance is often compromised. PMID:21787253
To assess the feasibility of implementing a six-month, church-based, dietary, pilot intervention, called Delta Body and Soul (DBS), for African American (AA) adults in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of Mississippi. Effectiveness of the intervention to improve diet quality [measured using t...
Ferguson, Albert S.
Experiences with various modern management techniques and practices in selected small, private church-related colleges were studied. For comparative purposes, practices in public colleges and universities were also assessed. Management techniques used in small companies were identified through review of the literature and the management seminars…
Butler-Mokoro, Shannon A.
The African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) Church, like many historically black denomination over the years, has been actively involved in social change and racial uplift. The concepts of racial uplift and self-determination dominated black social, political, and economic thought throughout the late-eighteenth into the nineteenth century. Having…
Wang, H. Echo; Lee, Matthew; Hart, Adante; Summers, Amber C.; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Gittelsohn, Joel
Soaring obesity rates in the United States demand comprehensive health intervention strategies that simultaneously address dietary patterns, physical activity, psychosocial factors and the food environment. Healthy Bodies, Healthy Souls (HBHS) is a church-based, community-participatory, cluster-randomized health intervention trial conducted in…
Allen, Jennifer D.; Pérez, John E.; Tom, Laura; Leyva, Bryan; Diaz, Daisy; Torres, Maria Idali
We assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and initial impact of a church-based educational program to promote breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening among Latinas ages 18 and over. We used a one-group pre/post evaluation within a low-income, Latino Baptist church in Boston, MA. Participants completed interviewer-administered assessments at baseline and at the end of the six-month intervention. Under the guidance of a patient navigator (PN), women from the church (peer health advisors, or PHAs) were trained to deliver evidence-based screening interventions, including one-to-one outreach, small group education, client reminders, and reduction of structural barriers to screening. The PN and PHAs also implemented a health fair and the pastor integrated health information into regular sermons. At pre-intervention, nearly half of the sample did not meet screening guidelines. The majority (97%, n = 35) of those who completed the post-intervention assessment participated in intervention activities. Two-thirds (67%) reported talking with the PN or PHAs about health issues. Participation in small group education sessions was highest (72%), with health fairs (61%), and goal setting (50%) also being popular activities. Fourteen percent also reported receiving help from the PN to access screening tests. This study supports the feasibility and acceptability of churches as a setting to promote cancer screening among Latinas. PMID:24132541
Paha, Lois Jean
Following the pastoral moto proprio "Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem," June 18, 1967, Pope Paul VI implemented paragraph twenty-nine of the "Constitution on the Church" ("Lumen Gentium") to restore the permanent diaconate and to allow married men over the age of thirty-five to become permanent deacons for service to the…
This paper examines how early church doctrine influenced the construction of and response to intellectual disability. Though the main focus of the paper is on intellectual disability, much of the discussion is more broadly relevant to other types of impairments and human differences. The vehicle for this examination is the work of the key figure…
... flow model for the UNC Church Rock Mill site and adjacent downgradient areas . In a letter dated November 16, 2012, UNC requested that the NRC consider the merits of this groundwater flow model in support... of the groundwater flow model will be narrowly focused on supplemental information pertinent to...
Peele-Eady, Tryphenia B.
In this article, the author explores how African American children in a Black church Sunday school community in northern California developed positive membership identity. Focal participants were Sunday school children ages 9 to 12 and their Sunday school teachers. Drawn from a two-year ethnographic study, data showed that adults prepared children…
Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Park, Soon H.; Ward, Margaret E.; Braun, Kathryn L.
The authors report on the feasibility of delivering a church-based breast cancer screening intervention tailored on the cultural strengths of rural-dwelling Hawaiians. Native Hawaiian women are burdened by disproportionately high mortality from breast cancer, which is attributed to low participation in routine mammography. Mammography is proven to…
African Pentecostal churches are becoming increasingly important in Britain where they are growing at a time when mainstream Christianity is in decline. Originally functioning as social and religious support networks for African migrants, their growth has been stimulated by a conscious missionary agenda. Recently, there has been a shift towards a…
Kay, William K.
This article considers the growth of Pentecostal-style churches in Southeast Asia, and specifically in Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. It outlines four reasons for the growth that occurred and then, using qualitative and quantitative data in a mixed mode, seeks to test the hypotheses it derives. It concludes that each of the hypotheses…
Ka'opua, Lana Sue
This article presents findings from research to develop the promotional component of a breast cancer screening program for Native Hawaiian women associated with historically Hawaiian churches in medically underserved communities.The literature on adherence to health recommendations and health promotions marketing guided inquiry on screening influences. Focus groups and individual interviews patterned on the culturally familiar practice of talk story were conducted with 60 Hawaiian women recruited through religious and social organizations.Text data were analyzed with an incremental process involving content analysis and Airhihenbuwa's PEN-3 model. Key informants and senior colleagues reviewed preliminary findings to ensure accuracy of interpretation. Findings reflect collectivist values at the intersection of indigenous Hawaiian culture and religiosity. Inclusion of messages that encourage holistic health across the intergenerational continuum of extended family and fictive kin, reinforcement from spiritual leaders, and testimonials of cancer survivors and family members may facilitate Hawaiian women's screening intent.
Many arguments for and against functionalism have revolved around logical and methodological issues, discouraging attempts to develop testable functionalist theories. This paper takes a different approach, arguing that the problem with sociological functionalism is not its logic of explanation but the absence of appropriate techniques for formalizing functionalist theories. The solution presented --agent-based simulation --is illustrated by a case study: a functionalist account of church survival. The case study suggests that there is nothing wrong with the logic of functionalism properly formalized, illustrates how simulation can enable testing of functionalist explanations and suggests why existing sociological methods have not proved fruitful for this task. In the light of new techniques like simulation, the current neglect of functionalism may no longer be justified.
Miracles which can be observed in different religions are often closely connected to medicine. These miraculous cures, considered to be inexplicable by medical science, have been documented in Christian religion and in occidental culture for more than 2000 years. These miraculous healings are also reported in the field of dermatology. The miraculous bulletins documented by the Catholic Church take their beginning in the Old Testament and extend to the miraculous cures of Lourdes in present time. We provide an overview of miraculous healings of skin diseases, whereby accounts documented in the Bible, reports during the Middle Ages, and cases documented throughout the last century are discussed. In view of modern medicine, most of the miraculous healings do not meet modern demands of science, but remain important as milestones in medical and religious history.
Kucharska, Ewa; Necek, Robert
Health has an important value for every man and at the same time is a potential driving force of the development of societies. For almost all of the last centuries the main feature of the development of health protection systems has been the gradual acceptance of responsibility for the systematic development of health protection and medical care. It concerned both the preventive and therapeutic care and also aimed at maintaining health safety for all citizens. For centuries there have been various legal regulations concerning the functioning of the health system. The spirit of the times has created new solutions and new concepts in the functioning of this sector. The Social Teaching of the Church considers it indispensable to voice the opinion in order to confront modern solutions for the system of health protection with dignity and respect for any human being.
Head, Ivan Francis
In this issue of Reproductive BioMedicine Online, Benagiano, Carrara and Filippi have produced a clearly written and comprehensive account of why the Roman Catholic Church has not welcomed the award of the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine to Dr Robert G Edwards for the development of human IVF. I commend the article for its clarity and lucidity but attempt to point out some areas where disagreement even with its nuanced opposition to IVF may be legitimate. I try to make some simple comments that explain why this is so and I suggest some areas to which contemporary theology and philosophy can commit itself. But it is good to see even a nuanced response to the work of Robert G Edwards rather than a blanket condemnation.
Northmore-Ball, Ksenia; Evans, Geoffrey
Despite continuing for over two decades, the debate about the nature of the trends in religiosity in post-Communist Eastern Europe remains unresolved: some arguing that these countries are undergoing the same process of secularization as the West, while others insist that the entire region is experiencing a religious revival. Using national sample surveys from the early 1990s to 2007 to examine the change in demographic predictors of religiosity, we show that Catholic and Orthodox countries are experiencing different trends, the first group displaying evidence of secularization and the second of revival, and that these two different trends are likely to derive from the legacies of state repression and the differing abilities of the churches to resist such repression. We argue that the current literature has thus taken a mistakenly general approach, and that the post-Communist region consists of at least two distinct groups of societies with different trends in religiosity.
McCarty, Carolyn L; Angelo, Kristina; Beer, Karlyn D; Cibulskas-White, Katie; Quinn, Kim; de Fijter, Sietske; Bokanyi, Rick; St Germain, Eric; Baransi, Karen; Barlow, Kevin; Shafer, Gwen; Hanna, Larry; Spindler, Kelly; Walz, Elizabeth; DiOrio, Mary; Jackson, Brendan R; Luquez, Carolina; Mahon, Barbara E; Basler, Colin; Curran, Kathryn; Matanock, Almea; Walsh, Kelly; Slifka, Kara Jacobs; Rao, Agam K
On April 21, 2015, the Fairfield Medical Center (FMC) and Fairfield Department of Health contacted the Ohio Department of Health (ODH) about a patient suspected of having botulism in Fairfield County, Ohio. Botulism is a severe, potentially fatal neuroparalytic illness.* A single case is a public health emergency, because it can signal an outbreak. Within 2 hours of health department notification, four more patients with similar clinical features arrived at FMC's emergency department. Later that afternoon, one patient died of respiratory failure shortly after arriving at the emergency department. All affected persons had eaten at the same widely attended church potluck meal on April 19. CDC's Strategic National Stockpile sent 50 doses of botulinum antitoxin to Ohio. FMC, the Fairfield Department of Health, ODH, and CDC rapidly responded to confirm the diagnosis, identify and treat additional patients, and determine the source.
The Center for Reproductive Law and Policy reports on the recent amendment of the Constitution to recognize life from the moment of conception. Researcher Soledad Varela discovered that the Catholic Church in El Salvador had been actively engaged in manipulative tactics to sway an already conservative legislature into passing the extreme laws. Although some legislators were in favor of this amendment, some believe that the reform was wrong and that therapeutic abortions and terminations of pregnancies resulting from rape should not be penalized. Restrictive abortion laws did not stop abortions from occurring; in fact, the UN estimated that 35% of all pregnancies in Chile end in illegal abortions. With the new restrictions, mothers are abandoning unwanted newborns. Illegal practitioners have become harder to trace. Nevertheless, others seem to be successful at evading the law. The wealthy have the right to choose and still avail themselves of legal, more liberal abortion laws from other countries.
Chizhova, M.; Korovin, D.; Gurianov, A.; Brodovskii, M.; Brunn, A.; Stilla, U.; Luhmann, T.
The point cloud interpretation and reconstruction of 3d-buildings from point clouds has already been treated for a few decades. There are many articles which consider the different methods and workows of the automatic detection and reconstruction of geometrical objects from point clouds. Each method is suitable for the special geometry type of object or sensor. General approaches are rare. In our work we present an algorithm which develops the optimal process sequence of the automatic search, detection and reconstruction of buildings and building components from a point cloud. It can be used for the detection of the set of geometric objects to be reconstructed, independent of its destruction. In a simulated example we reconstruct a complete Russian-orthodox church starting from the set of detected structural components and reconstruct missing components with high probability.
Allton, J. H.
Should religious institutions get interested in lunar settlement? Would their participation make positive contributions or would it discourage creative diversity and interfere with science and good technical judgement? Among the spacefaring nations of today, religion is distinctly separated from the governments that plan and pay for space exploration. However, as we move off the Earth, our art and philosophy will follow our science and technology. Spiritual thinking will follow as part of our culture. It is time to consider in what ways this can occur constructively. Transport of religious values to a lunar base may have positive effects in two ways. First, the social structure of a 'community church' as found in today's United States, supports its members psychologically. Mutual psychological and social support will be needed in a lunar community. Second, our space pioneers will experience a unique view of the universe which may, in their philosophical discussions, forge new ideas in the spiritual realm.
Wilson, Patrick A.; Wittlin, Natalie M.; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Parker, Richard G.
Black men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by the HIV and AIDS in New York City (NYC). Black churches in NYC have a history of engaging in community mobilisation; however, research suggests that churches play a role in promoting stigma against Black MSM, which impedes prevention efforts. The goal of this study was to explore church ideologies surrounding sexuality and health, and the relationship of these ideologies to church mobilisation in response to HIV/AIDS among Black MSM. We conducted interviews and focus groups with pastors and parishioners at Black churches in NYC. Three prominent themes were identified: (1) `Love the sinner, hate the sin' – distinguishing behaviour and identity; (2) `Don't ask, don't tell' – keeping same-sex behaviour private; and (3) `Your body is a temple' – connecting physical and spiritual health. We discuss the implications of these ideologies for church mobilisation and HIV prevention efforts. In doing so, we pay close attention to how ideologies may both impede and facilitate church dialogue around sexuality and heightened responses to the HIV crisis affecting Black MSM. PMID:21892894
Rodriguez Manzo, Fausto; Kotasek Gonzalez, Eduardo
This paper deals with the problem of old churches in Mexico with historic and artistic value. Some churches in the baroque period in Mexico are examples of a kind of building used as concert and conference halls. However there is a lack of acoustic knowledge of these kinds of architectural spaces in Mexico. This knowledge will also augment that of the historic, artistic and architectural point of view, and be a foundation for high-quality renovation and preservation projects for this type of building. The particular characteristics of some of the most significant churches of this period are presented as well as a first architectural acoustics review of them.
Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Coffey, Candice R; Daley, Christine M; Greiner, K Allen
Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church.
Suer, Pascal; Bergman, Ramona; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
The Swedish Geotechnical Institute is currently engaged in evaluating the consequences of landslides in the Göta älv river valley. The overall risk assessment method is to multiply landslide probability with consequence, expressed in monetary terms. Landslide damage may either be direct on the landslide area itself, or indirect through water pollution and shock waves. The intention is a holistic view of the entire consequences. These include road and rail transport systems, agriculture and forestry, life and inhabitants, buildings, contaminated sites and hazardous industries, … , and the special subject of this presentation: values of the natural and cultural environment. Biodiversity, landscape, recreation and fishing were the four functions that had caused designation of areas as of special interest from a nature perspective. The inventory comprised all areas designated as of national interest, all Natura 2000 areas, and a sample of the nature reserves in the area. Biodiversity may be either decreased or increased by landslides. The damageable part consists for example of old deciduous forests, fish spawning sites, or marsh areas with high biological diversity. Trees are disturbed by landslides; marsh areas may slide into the river or dry out. At the same time, landslides and mass movements contribute to biodiversity because they enable pioneer vegetation and natural succession of vegetation, cause dead trees and create a landscape with many micro-habitats. The landscape function includes a geodiversity value, biophysical diversity, an opportunity to study natural processes, and an educational possibility. These gain rather than lose by each landslide. Recreation and fishing are ecosystem services that may be hindered by landslides. Designated cultural values of national interest were primarily architectonic: City blocks from the 17th century or the 1920s own-home movement, a village structure from prior to the major land consolidation, a church village etc
Pérez, A.; Cachero, R.; Navarro, S.; Jordá, F.; López, D.; Lerma, J. L.; Martos, A.
This paper describes the surveying process performed on the Church of San Ildefonso in Zamora (Spain) using Orthoware©, an innovative photogrammetric software tool specially designed for the digital reconstruction of cultural heritage. This software is the result of intense R&D at Metria Digital after several years producing heritage true orthoimages, plans and full color 3D models in a commercial environment. Orthoware allows true measurements and produces high quality true orthoimages and full color 3D models starting out from conventional digital photographs. This is a progressive tool designed for non-specialist users, providing intuitive and quick methods to visually diagnose the quality of the results. The Church of San Ildefonso in Zamora was built over a previously existing temple whose Romanesque construction dates back to the 11th century, although it is nowadays hidden among extensions and remodelings carried out up until 18th century. With a length of more than 30 meters, the original floor plan of the Church consists on three naves and three apses, although only one nave is visible now, covered by groin vault, and one semicircular apse partially hidden by the current building. The south front maintains the greater part of its Romanesque origins, in spite of being hidden and higher than the present ground level. At the feet of the temple a tower rises, whose first stage is Romanesque but which has been altered by numerous Baroque elements. The objective of the photogrammetric reconstruction was the integral survey of the monument, including its four façades, interior faces and roofs for the production of some true-orthoimages, cross-sections, longitudinal-sections and ground plans at scale 1/50 with an accuracy of 10 mm for the drawings and a pixel size below 10 mm for the synthetic imagery. The usual photogrammetric workflow for producing true-orthoimages and digital 3D models in cultural heritage depends to a great extent on finding and matching
Kertzer, David I
Following eleven years' work, in 1998 a high-level Vatican commission instituted by Pope John Paul II offered what has become the official position of the Roman Catholic Church denying any responsibility for fomenting the kind of demonization of the Jews that made the Holocaust possible. In a 2001 book, The popes against the Jews, I demonstrated that in fact the church played a major role in leading Catholics throughout Europe to view Jews as an existential threat. Yet defenders of the church position continue to deny the historical evidence and to launch ferocious ad hominem attacks against scholars who have researched the subject. The anti-Semitism promulgated by the church can be seen as part of the long battle it waged against modernity, with which the Jews were identified.
This secondary analysis evaluated the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting health outcome changes in a 6-month, church-based, controlled, lifestyle intervention previously proven effective for improving diet quality, physical activity, and blood lipids. Descriptive ind...
Analyzes the principal phases in the historical process of the occidental world that resulted in the transfer of educational control from the church to the state, demonstrating some of the consequences of this historic turn. (BT)
... connection with the publication of a book dealing with the history of M's church denomination. Y is neither a..., is engaged by N University to teach history and mathematics. He performs no other service for...
... connection with the publication of a book dealing with the history of M's church denomination. Y is neither a..., is engaged by N University to teach history and mathematics. He performs no other service for...
... connection with the publication of a book dealing with the history of M's church denomination. Y is neither a..., is engaged by N University to teach history and mathematics. He performs no other service for...
... his church, to perform advisory service to Y Company in connection with the publication of a book... minister, is engaged by N University to teach history and mathematics. He performs no other service for...
... his church, to perform advisory service to Y Company in connection with the publication of a book... minister, is engaged by N University to teach history and mathematics. He performs no other service for...
Ludwig, M.; Herbst, G.; Rieke-Zapp, D.; Rosenbauer, R.; Rutishauser, S.; Zellweger, A.
Consecrated in 1297 as the monastery church of the four years earlier founded St. Catherine's monastery, the Gothic Church of St. Catherine was largely destroyed in a devastating bombing raid on January 2nd 1945. To counteract the process of disintegration, the departments of geo-information and lower monument protection authority of the City of Nuremburg decided to getting done a three dimensional building model of the Church of St. Catherine's. A heterogeneous set of data was used for preparation of a parametric architectural model. In effect the modeling of historic buildings can profit from the so called BIM method (Building Information Modeling), as the necessary structuring of the basic data renders it into very sustainable information. The resulting model is perfectly suited to deliver a vivid impression of the interior and exterior of this former mendicant orders' church to present observers.
Măruţoiu, C.; Bratu, I.; Troşan, L.; Neamtu, C.; Măruţoiu, V. C.; Pop, D.; Tănăselia, C.; Garabagiu, S.
Cultural heritage objects have a major contribution to the historical patrimony of every country. In Romania, wooden churches are famous, they are mostly dated in between the XVth and XXth century, but unfortunately many of them have been destroyed, by natural or anthropic means. Therefore, the necessity of conservation and restoration has appeared, to the ones that still exist, as legacy for the future generations. In the present article, an Imperial Gate from a wooden church in Cluj County, Romania, has been investigated, using scientific techniques (FTIR and XRF). A 3D reconstruction has been performed, using similar colors with the original artwork, as resulted from the scientific investigation of the painting materials. A limited number of constituent materials have been used for this artwork, and the wood species used was lime, due to the ease of carving.
Hatch, J.R.; Morey, G.B.
Hydrocarbon source rock evaluation of the Middle Proterozoic Solor Church Formation (Keweenawan Supergroup) as sampled in the Lonsdale 65-1 well, Rice County, shows that: the rocks are organic matter lean; the organic matter is thermally post-mature, probably near the transition between the wet gas phase of catagenesis and metagenesis; and the rocks have minimal potential for producing additional hydrocarbons. The observed thermal maturity of the organic matter requires significantly greater burial depths, a higher geothermal gradient, or both. It is likely, that thermal maturation of the organic matter in the Solor Church took place relatively early, and that any hydrocarbons generated during this early phase were probably lost prior to deposition of the overlying formation.
Themistocleous, K.; Agapiou, A.; Hadjimitsis, D.
The documentation of architectural cultural heritage sites has traditionally been expensive and labor-intensive. New innovative technologies, such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), provide an affordable, reliable and straightforward method of capturing cultural heritage sites, thereby providing a more efficient and sustainable approach to documentation of cultural heritage structures. In this study, hundreds of images of the Panagia Chryseleousa church in Foinikaria, Cyprus were taken using a UAV with an attached high resolution camera. The images were processed to generate an accurate digital 3D model by using Structure in Motion techniques. Building Information Model (BIM) was then used to generate drawings of the church. The methodology described in the paper provides an accurate, simple and cost-effective method of documenting cultural heritage sites and generating digital 3D models using novel techniques and innovative methods.
Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Thomson, Jessica L; Onufrak, Stephen J
We piloted a 6-month, church-based, behavioral intervention, Delta Body and Soul (DBS), for African American (AA) adults in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD). DBS was designed to improve overall dietary quality in LMD AA adults. The intervention included six once monthly group-based educational sessions implemented by trained church members. Program implementation, session attendance, congregational feedback, and baseline and post-intervention, demographic, health, behavioral, and clinical parameters were assessed. Participants were predominately AA, female, and overweight or obese. Retention rate was 79 %. High adherence, defined as attendance at four or more educational sessions, was associated with dietary quality improvement and reduced blood glucose. Implementation of the DBS pilot intervention was feasible and may result in dietary quality and clinical improvements.
Taylor, Jerome; Belay, Brook; Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Dietz, William
Objective This study examines the relationships between participation in the African American church and overweight/obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2). Design: This cross-sectional analysis was based on the National Survey of American Life 2001–2003 and included 2,689 African American Protestant (AAP) adults. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overweight/obesity. Two practices were examined – frequency of participation in church activities (excluding services) and frequency of church service attendance. Each practice was analyzed in separate models. Each model included the following covariates: age, marital status, education, poverty, smoking, and region of country. We also adjusted models for sex. Results After adjustment, African American Protestant men (AAPM) who participated in church activities at least weekly were more likely to be overweight/obese (aOR=2.17; 95% CI=1.25, 3.77) compared to AAPM who did not participate in church activities. There was no statistically significant association between overweight/obesity and participation in church activities for AAPW. There was no association between overweight/obesity and attendance of church services for AAP men and women combined. Conclusions For AAPM, participation in church activities was significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Further studies are required to determine why this association occurs in AAPM but not AAPW. Studies looking at the wider application of the several successful health initiatives targeting the AAP community should also be considered. PMID:23914418
Sfarra, Stefano; Cheilakou, Eleni; Theodorakeas, Panagiotis; Paoletti, Domenica; Koui, Maria
The present research work explores the potential of an integrated inspection methodology, combining Non-destructive testing and micro-destructive analytical techniques, for both the structural assessment of the S.S. Annunziata Church located in Roio Colle (L'Aquila, Italy) and the characterization of its wall paintings' pigments. The study started by applying passive thermal imaging for the structural monitoring of the church before and after the application of a consolidation treatment, while active thermal imaging was further used for assessing this consolidation procedure. After the earthquake of 2009, which seriously damaged the city of L'Aquila and its surroundings, part of the internal plaster fell off revealing the presence of an ancient mural painting that was subsequently investigated by means of a combined analytical approach involving portable VIS-NIR fiber optics diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) and laboratory methods, such as environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The results obtained from the thermographic analysis provided information concerning the two different constrictive phases of the Church, enabled the assessment of the consolidation treatment, and contributed to the detection of localized problems mainly related to the rising damp phenomenon and to biological attack. In addition, the results obtained from the combined analytical approach allowed the identification of the wall painting pigments (red and yellow ochre, green earth, and smalt) and provided information on the binding media and the painting technique possibly applied by the artist. From the results of the present study, it is possible to conclude that the joint use of the above stated methods into an integrated methodology can produce the complete set of useful information required for the planning of the Church's restoration
Mulder, Mark T
Present patterns of residential segregation have been proven to have antecedents in the so-called white flight of the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Close scrutiny of this social phenomenon has yielded results that indicate complicated impetuses and call into question sweeping assumptions about white flight. A case study of seven congregations from a denomination called the Christian Reformed Church in North America (CRC) who left the Englewood and Roseland neighborhoods of Chicago during the juncture in question further reveals the dubious role of religious practices and arrangements in the out-migration of white evangelical Christians. By utilizing church histories, council minutes, and field interviews, it became readily apparent that the departure of the members of these congregations found sanction within the hierarchical apparatus (or lack thereof) of the church. The response of these CRC congregations exemplified how the political structures (congregational polity) and social networks of a particular denomination could allow for an almost seamless process of white flight.
Ackerman, Alissa R; Khan, Bilal
Prior to 2002, little was known about sexual abuse within the Catholic Church. After the Boston Globe broke the story about John Geoghan - a priest in the Boston Archdiocese who was accused of abusing numerous children, convicted of one count of indecent assault, and eventually murdered in prison - the Church had many questions to answer. To this end, the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) commissioned John Jay College of Criminal Justice to research the nature and scope, as well as the causes and context of child sexual abuse within the Catholic Church. This research analyzes the data from the John Jay studies using a new quantitative technique, capable of adjusting for distortions introduced by delays in abuse reporting. By isolating discontinuities in model parameter timeseries, we determine changes in reporting patterns occurred during the period 1982-1988. A posteriori to the analysis, we provide some possible explanations for the changes in abuse reporting associated with the change-point. While the scope of this paper is limited to presenting a new methodological approach within the frame of a particular case study, the techniques are more broadly applicable in settings where reporting lag is manifested.
The purpose of this study is to see if the social environment of the church influences the use of religious coping responses over time. The following theoretical relationships were embedded in the conceptual model that was developed to evaluate this issue: (1) people who go to church more often are more likely to feel their congregation is highly cohesive (e.g., share the same values and beliefs); (2) individuals who worship in highly cohesive congregations are more likely to receive spiritual support (i.e., encouragement to adopt religious teachings and principles) from their fellow church members; (3) people who receive more spiritual support will be more likely to adopt religious coping responses. In the process of evaluating this model, tests were performed to examine the influence of racial culture. Data from a nationwide longitudinal survey of older adults provide support for each link in the conceptual model. Pervasive racial cultural differences were also found: Older blacks were more likely to be deeply involved in each facet of religion than older whites.
Milani, Gabriele; Shehu, Rafael; Valente, Marco
The paper presents some preliminary results of advanced Finite Element (FE) analyses on the upgrading of old masonry constructions by means of Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRPs). The case study is a masonry Romanesque church, located in Ferrara, Emilia Romagna (Italy). The church exhibits widespread damage caused by the recent earthquake sequence occurred in 2012 about 60 km far from Ferrara with two major seismic events of magnitude 5.8 and 5.9. The main damage involved mainly the columns of the central nave and the apse. A partial detachment of the façade was observed too. First, gravity load analyses and non-linear static and dynamic analyses are performed on the church in the unretrofitted configuration. Numerical results put in evidence the insufficient strength of the apse and the columns of the naves, and the detachment of the façade. A strengthening intervention conducted by means of FRP strips is numerically analysed, assuming the behavior of the strips, especially for what concerns delamination, in agreement with Italian Guidelines. Numerical results show a quite reasonable strength improvement of the weak structural elements due to FRP application, with levels of strength higher than the minimum ones required by Italian Code.
Abstract Clergy and lay leaders have a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of HIV Ministries within the African American church. However, little is known about the actual roles these men and women have, the barriers they face and the supports they have found in the development and maintenance of an HIV Ministry. The purpose of this study is to examine the role, barriers and supports clergy and lay leaders experienced in the development of a long-standing HIV ministry in an African American church. These data were gathered from a larger ethnographic study, which examined the role of religious culture in the development, implementation and maintenance of an HIV ministry. Data for this study were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. Results revealed that the primary role of clergy and lay leaders involved dispelling myths surrounding HIV and ensuring congregational support. The primary barrier to the development and maintenance was views regarding sexuality. The primary support was their relationships with congregants that lived with HIV and AIDS. This information can assist in developing interventions to enhance the African American church movement toward HIV ministries. PMID:22870846
Gaylarde, Christine; Baptista-Neto, Jose Antônio; Ogawa, Akiko; Kowalski, Matthew; Celikkol-Aydin, Sukriye; Beech, Iwona
Weathering of two church facades in Rio de Janeiro was caused substantially by salts, mainly halite and gypsum, detected by SEM and chemical analyses, which cause physical stresses by deposition within the rock. Biofilm populations, determined by SEM and as operational taxonomic units (OTUs), degraded stone by penetration, solubilization and redeposition of minerals on their surfaces. Endolithic cyanobacteria were associated with gypsum deposits. Microbiomes were typical for high-stress environments, high salt, intense insolation, low water and low nutrients (eg halophilic Rubrobacter, Salinicola, Sterigmatomyces). The main colonizers on the church most affected by traffic (Nossa Senhora da Candelária - CA) were Actinobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria (chiefly Pseudomonas) were predominant on the site situated in a leafy square (São Francisco de Paula - SF). Major Gammaproteobacteria on CA were halophilic Halomonas and Rhodobacteriaceae. Fungal OTUs on both churches were principally dimorphic, yeast-like basidiomycetes. Many OTUs of thermophilic microorganisms (eg the Thermomicrobia class, Chloroflexi) were present. This is the first use of next generation sequencing (NGS) to study microbial biofilm interactions with metamorphic and granite buildings in an intensely urban, sub-tropical climate.
Gleń, Piotr; Jarocka-Mikrut, Aleksandra
Small towns in the Lublin Province are abundant with buildings possessed of outstanding historical and architectural values, representing the culture of past generations. Piaski, about 30 km east of Lublin, also boasts some of the remarkable characteristic of small towns. Not only does it feature post-Jewish tenements, but also a palace and complexes of religious buildings situated on its outskirts. This article focuses on the Kościelec - an unused, dilapidated former Protestant church. Now, works are being carried out that have inspired the Piaski town authorities to try to find a best-use scenario for the former church, in order to preserve its architectural values for future generations. The authors of this article aim to prove the necessity of research and analysis in finding the best new functions for properties whose function has already been imposed. The example of successfully completed revitalisation works at the palace and park complex in Gardzienice, located not far from the baroque Protestant church in Piaski, illustrates the advantages of some of the adaptation processes that can be employed in such buildings.
Spirakis, C.S.; Pierson, C.T.; Santos, E.S.; Fishman, N.S.
Statistical treatment of analytical data from 106 samples of uranium-mineralized and unmineralized or weakly mineralized rocks of the Morrison Formation from the northeastern part of the Church Rock area of the Grants uranium region indicates that along with uranium, the deposits in the northeast Church Rock area are enriched in barium, sulfur, sodium, vanadium and equivalent uranium. Selenium and molybdenum are sporadically enriched in the deposits and calcium, manganese, strontium, and yttrium are depleted. Unlike the primary deposits of the San Juan Basin, the deposits in the northeast part of the Church Rock area contain little organic carbon and several elements that are characteristically enriched in the primary deposits are not enriched or are enriched to a much lesser degree in the Church Rock deposits. The suite of elements associated with the deposits in the northeast part of the Church Rock area is also different from the suite of elements associated with the redistributed deposits in the Ambrosia Lake district. This suggests that the genesis of the Church Rock deposits is different, at least in part, from the genesis of the primary deposits of the San Juan Basin or the redistributed deposits at Ambrosia Lake.
Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Bogart, Laura M; Kanouse, David E; Felton, Alexandria; Collins, Deborah Owens; Mata, Michael A; Oden, Clyde W; Domínguez, Blanca X; Flórez, Karen R; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Williams, Malcolm V
HIV-related stigma negatively affects prevention and care, and community-based interventions are needed. Here we describe the development of a multi-ethnic, faith-based intervention to reduce HIV stigma that included: educational workshops on HIV, testing, and stigma; peer leader workshops using role plays and drawing on principles of motivational interviewing; a pastor-delivered sermon on HIV that incorporated theological reflection and an imagined contact scenario; and congregation-based HIV testing events. Lessons learned include: partnership development is essential and requires substantial investment; tailoring intervention components to single race-ethnic groups may not be preferable in diverse community settings; and adapting testing processes to be able to serve larger numbers of people in shorter time frames is needed for congregational settings. This development process successfully combined the rigorous application of social science theory and community engagement to yield a multifaceted HIV stigma reduction intervention appropriate for Protestant and Catholic churches in African American and Latino communities.
Does the position of the Roman Catholic Church on contraception also imply that the usage of condoms by HIV-discordant couples is illicit? A standard argument is to appeal to the doctrine of double effect to condone such usage, but this meets with the objection that there exists an alternative action that brings about the good effect-namely, abstinence. I argue against this objection, because an HIV-discordant couple does not bring about any bad outcome through condom usage-there is no disrespect displayed for the generative function of sex. One might retort that the badness of condom usage consists in thwarting the unitive function of sex. I argue that also this objection cannot be upheld. In conclusion, if there are no in-principle objections against condom usage for HIV-discordant couples, then policies that deny access to condoms to such couples are indefensible. HIV-discordant couples have a right to continue consummating their marriage in a manner that is minimally risky and this right cannot be trumped by utilitarian concerns that the distribution of condoms might increase promiscuity and along with it the HIV infection rate.
The commercial provision of putative stem cell-based medical interventions in the absence of conclusive evidence of safety and efficacy has formed the basis of an unregulated industry for more than a decade. Many clinics offering such supposed stem cell treatments include statements about the 'ethical' nature of somatic (often colloquially referred to as 'adult' stem cells) stem cells, in specific contrast to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), which have been the subject of intensive political, legal, and religious controversy since their first derivation in 1998. Christian groups-both Roman Catholic and evangelical Protestant-in many countries have explicitly promoted the medical potential and current-day successes in the clinical application of somatic stem cells, lending indirect support to the activities of businesses marketing stem cells ahead of evidence. In this article, I make a preliminary examination of how the structures and belief systems of certain churches in South Korea and the United States, both of which are home to significant stem cell marketing industries, has complemented other factors, including national biomedical funding initiatives, international economic rivalries, permissive legal structures, which have lent impetus to a problematic and often exploitative sector of biomedical commerce.
March, Raymond E; Papanastasiou, Malvina; McMahon, Adam W; Allen, Norman S
The pigment in brown paint samples taken from a church in the Drôme region of France has been shown to be almost pure 6-bromoindigo and 6,6'-dibromoindigo. The composition of the pigment was established by comparison with 6-bromoindigo and 6,6'-dibromoindigo standards using atmospheric pressure photoionization combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The brown paint samples were taken from a frieze of ca 20 brown images having symmetric tree-like forms composed of five overlapping filled circles representing foliage. The tree-like images, simple rather than artistic, had a metallic luster. The molar ratio of 6-bromoindigo and 6,6'-dibromoindigo in the brown paint pigment (98:2) is remarkably similar to that of shellfish purple from the Mediterranean Murex brandaris (96.5:3.5) thus, it is possible that the origin of the indigoid compounds in the brown paint pigment is the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. As the production of Tyrian purple ended with the fall of Byzantium in 1453, purple pigment had to have been produced prior to this time. We have conjectured about the circumstances that may account for the use of 'purple' in this manner in the Drôme region and how the pigment was transported there from the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea during the time of the Crusades.
Rogers, L.A.; Boardman, C.R.
The available well logs, production records and geological structure maps were analyzed for the Hollywood, Duson, and Church Point, Louisiana oil and gas field to determine the areal extent of the sealed geopressured blocks and to identify which aquifer sands within the blocks are connected to commercial production of hydrocarbons. The analysis showed that over the depth intervals of the geopressured zones shown on the logs essentially all of the sands of any substantial thickness had gas production from them somewhere or other in the fault block. It is therefore expected that the sands which are fully brine saturated in many of the wells are the water drive portion of the producing gas/oil somewhere else within the fault block. In this study only one deep sand was identified, in the Hollywood field, which was not connected to a producing horizon somewhere else in the field. Estimates of the reservoir parameters were made and a hypothetical production calculation showed the probable production to be less than 10,000 b/d. The required gas price to profitably produce this gas is well above the current market price.
Braverman, Mark; Schneider, Jonathan; Rojas, Cristóbal
We report a new limitation on the ability of physical systems to perform computation-one that is based on generalizing the notion of memory, or storage space, available to the system to perform the computation. Roughly, we define memory as the maximal amount of information that the evolving system can carry from one instant to the next. We show that memory is a limiting factor in computation even in lieu of any time limitations on the evolving system-such as when considering its equilibrium regime. We call this limitation the space-bounded Church-Turing thesis (SBCT). The SBCT is supported by a simulation assertion (SA), which states that predicting the long-term behavior of bounded-memory systems is computationally tractable. In particular, one corollary of SA is an explicit bound on the computational hardness of the long-term behavior of a discrete-time finite-dimensional dynamical system that is affected by noise. We prove such a bound explicitly.
Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Bogart, Laura M.; Kanouse, David E.; Felton, Alexandria; Collins, Deborah Owens; Mata, Michael A.; Oden, Clyde W.; Domínguez, Blanca X.; Flórez, Karen R.; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Williams, Malcolm V.
HIV-related stigma negatively affects prevention and care, and community-based interventions are needed. Here we describe the development of a multi-ethnic, faith-based intervention to reduce HIV stigma that included: educational workshops on HIV, testing, and stigma; peer leader workshops using role plays and drawing on principles of motivational interviewing; a pastor-delivered sermon on HIV that incorporated theological reflection and an imagined contact scenario; and congregation-based HIV testing events. Lessons learned include: partnership development is essential and requires substantial investment; tailoring intervention components to single race-ethnic groups may not be preferable in diverse community settings; and adapting testing processes to be able to serve larger numbers of people in shorter time frames is needed for congregational settings. This development process successfully combined the rigorous application of social science theory and community engagement to yield a multifaceted HIV stigma reduction intervention appropriate for Protestant and Catholic churches in African American and Latino communities. PMID:24450276
Calkins, Cynthia; Fargo, Jamison; Jeglic, Elizabeth; Terry, Karen
Individuals working in churches and other youth-serving institutions have a unique level of access to children, yet the problem of sexual abuse in institutional settings has received scant research attention. To address this gap, we analyzed data from a large sample of clergy (N = 1,121) and applied a social-ecological model of offending to identify risk factors for sexual abuse perpetration. Using a case-control study design that compared clergy sexual abusers with three control groups of clergy, this study focuses specifically on individual-, relationship-, and community-level factors associated with a higher risk of abuse in professional populations. Findings revealed that clergy sexual abusers tended to have more truncated pre-seminary dating histories, and that their dating and sexual partners were more likely to have been male than female. Self-reported sexual abuse history was associated with a greater likelihood of sexual abuse perpetration among clergy. Clergy abusers tended to be more involved with youth and adolescents in their ministries; however, they were observed to relate less well to youth and adolescents than their clergy counterparts. Given widespread changes in our cultural understanding of abuse as well as more specific changes in the organizational approach to seminary education, these differences underscore the role that youth-serving institutions and society can have in the primary prevention of child sexual abuse.
Edwards, W D; Gabel, W J; Hosmer, F E
Jesus of Nazareth underwent Jewish and Roman trials, was flogged, and was sentenced to death by crucifixion. The scourging produced deep stripelike lacerations and appreciable blood loss, and it probably set the stage for hypovolemic shock, as evidenced by the fact that Jesus was too weakened to carry the crossbar (patibulum) to Golgotha. At the site of crucifixion, his wrists were nailed to the patibulum and, after the patibulum was lifted onto the upright post (stipes), his feet were nailed to the stipes. The major pathophysiologic effect of crucifixion was an interference with normal respirations. Accordingly, death resulted primarily from hypovolemic shock and exhaustion asphyxia. Jesus' death was ensured by the thrust of a soldier's spear into his side. Modern medical interpretation of the historical evidence indicates that Jesus was dead when taken down from the cross.
Morris, G Scott
The Church Health Center (CHC) in Memphis was founded in 1987 to provide quality, affordable health care for working, uninsured people and their families. With numerous, dedicated financial supporters and health care volunteers, CHC has become the largest faith-based health care organization of its type nationally, serving >61,000 patients. CHC embraces a holistic approach to health by promoting wellness in every dimension of life. It offers on-site services including medical care, dentistry, optometry, counseling, social work, and nutrition and fitness education, to promote wellness in every dimension of life. A 2012 economic analysis estimated that a $1 contribution to the CHC provided roughly $8 in health services. The CHC has trained >1200 Congregational Health Promoters to be health leaders and is conducting research on the effectiveness of faith community nurses partnering with congregations to assist in home care for patients recently discharged from Memphis hospitals. The MEMPHIS Plan, CHC's employer-sponsored health care plan for small business and the self-employed, offers uninsured people in lower-wage jobs access to quality, affordable health care. The CHC also conducts replications workshops several times a year to share their model with leaders in other communities. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) recently completed a case study that concluded: "The CHC is one of a very few organizations successfully embodying all three components of the IHI Triple Aim by improving population health outcomes, enhancing the individual's health care experience, and controlling costs. All three have been part of the Center's DNA since its inception, and as a transforming force in the community, the model is well worth national attention."
Brunner, S L
In many communities across the United States today, churches and hospitals are forming alliances to better serve the needs of the elderly. Bon Secours Hospital-Villa Maria Nursing Center in North Miami, FL, sponsors programs that deter institutionalization. Villa Maria took these efforts one step further in September 1990 with the development of Project Good Help, a church-based outreach program that provides support services to help the poor, frail elderly continue independent living in the community. Villa Maria has coordinated the project with churches because they share a sense of mission. Only churches in areas where many needy elderly persons live are selected to participate in Project Good Help. Areas that lack services are given priority. Project Good Help often coordinates with other professional social service agencies to provide assistance. Catholic Community Services, for example, focuses on nutrition, and Project Good Help focuses on assessing unmet social service needs. The two community groups refer clients to one another. Project Good Help demonstrates that the healthcare and church communities can work together in innovative ways to provide cost-effective community service when they share a mission of caring for the poor and the elderly and are mutually supportive.
Landrieu, J.; Père, C.; Rollier, J.; Castandet, S.; Schotte, G.
Our multidisciplinary team has virtually reconstructed the greatest church of the Romanesque period in Europe. The third church of the Abbey of Cluny (12th c.) has been destroyed after the French Revolution, leaving only 8% of the building standing. Many documents have been studied, to include the latest archaeological knowledge in the virtual model. Most remains have been scanned for CAD restitution. The mock-up of the church needed 1600 different numerical files, including the scanned pieces and the anastylosis of a Romanesque portal, a Gothic façade and a mosaic pavement. We faced various difficulties to assemble the different elements of the huge building, and to include the digitized parts. Our workflow consisted in generating geometrical shapes of the church, enriched with metadata such as texture, material... The whole mock up was finally exported to dedicated software to run the rendering step. Our work consisted in creating a whole database of 3D models as well as 2D sources (plans, engravings, pictures...) accessible by the scientific community. The scientific perspectives focus on a representation in virtual immersion of the grand church at scale 1 and an access to the digital mock-up through Augmented Reality.