Erickson, Stephen A
What is Christian about Christian bioethics? And is an authentically Christian bioethics a practical possibility in the world in which we find ourselves? In my essay I argue that personhood and the personal are so fundamental to the Christian understanding of our humanity that body, soul, and spirit are probably best understood as the components of a triune (as opposed to dual) aspect theory of personhood. To confess to a Christian bioethics is to admit that Christians cannot pretend fully to understand either cures or their meaning. However effective and "knowledge-based" contemporary medical interventions are, a Christian must humbly and honestly confess a lack of complete knowledge on both levels. At the same time, a Christian bioethicist must express a total personal commitment to Christian Faith.
Gebauer, Jochen E; Sedikides, Constantine; Schrade, Alexandra
People overestimate themselves in domains that are central to their self-concept. Critically, the psychological status of this "self-centrality principle" remains unclear. One view regards the principle as an inextricable part of human nature and, thus, as universal and resistant to normative pressure. A contrasting view regards the principle as liable to pressure (and subsequent modification) from self-effacement norms, thus questioning its universality. Advocates of the latter view point to Christianity's robust self-effacement norms, which they consider particularly effective in curbing self-enhancement, and ascribe Christianity an ego-quieting function. Three sets of studies examined the self-centrality principle among Christians. Studies 1A and 1B (N = 2,118) operationalized self-enhancement as better-than-average perceptions on the domains of commandments of faith (self-centrality: Christians ≫ nonbelievers) and commandments of communion (self-centrality: Christians > nonbelievers). Studies 2A-2H (N = 1,779) operationalized self-enhancement as knowledge overclaiming on the domains of Christianity (self-centrality: Christians ≫ nonbelievers), communion (self-centrality: Christians > nonbelievers), and agency (self-centrality: Christians ≈ nonbelievers). Studies 3A-3J (N = 1,956) operationalized self-enhancement as grandiose narcissism on the domains of communion (self-centrality: Christians > nonbelievers) and agency (self-centrality: Christians ≈ nonbelievers). The results converged across studies, yielding consistent evidence for Christian self-enhancement. Relative to nonbelievers, Christians self-enhanced strongly in domains central to the Christian self-concept. The results also generalized across countries with differing levels of religiosity. Christianity does not quiet the ego. The self-centrality principle is resistant to normative pressure, universal, and rooted in human nature. (PsycINFO Database Record
Yu, Connie Chuen Ying
Background: Christian leadership is distinctively different from other major leadership conceptions such as instructional, transactional, and transformational leadership conceptions. With few studies found, the author had to consult the Bible and also non-school Christian literature instead, focusing on Hong Kong principal leadership in Protestant…
What is Christian about Christian bioethics? The short answer to this question is that the Incarnation should shape the form and content of Christian bioethics. In explicating this answer it is argued that contemporary medicine is unwittingly embracing and implementing the transhumanist dream of transforming humans into posthumans. Contemporary medicine does not admit that there are any limits in principle to the extent to which it should intervene to improve the quality of human life. This largely inarticulate, yet ambitious, agenda is derived first in late modernity's failed, but nonetheless ongoing, attempt to transform necessity into goodness, and second the loss of any viable concept of eternity, thereby stripping temporal existence of any normative significance. In short, medicine has become the vanguard of a profane attempt to save humankind by extracting data from flesh. In response, it is contended that an alternative Christian bioethics must be shaped by the Incarnation, the Word made flesh. This assertion does not entitle Christians to oppose the posthuman trajectory of contemporary medicine on the basis of any natural or biological essentialism. Rather, it is an evangelical witness to the grace of Christ's redemption instead of the work of self-transformation. It is Christ alone who thereby makes the vulnerability and mortality of finitude a gift and blessing. Specifically, it is maintained that the chasm separating necessity and goodness cannot be filled but only bridged through the suffering entailed in Christ's cross, and through Christ's resurrection eternity becomes the standard against which the temporal lives of human creatures are properly formed and measured. Consequently, Christian bioethics should help us become conformed to Christ rather than enabling self-transformation.
Roughgarden, J. E.
My recent book, Evolution and Christian Faith explores how evolutionary biology can be portrayed from the religious perspective of Christianity. The principal metaphors for evolutionary biology---differential success at breeding and random mutation, probably originate with the dawn of agriculture and clearly occur in the Bible. The central narrative of evolutionary biology can be presented using Biblical passages, providing an account of evolution that is inherently friendly to a Christian perspective. Still, evolutionary biology is far from complete, and problematic areas pertain to species in which the concept of an individual is poorly defined, and to species in which the expression of gender and sexuality depart from Darwin's sexual-selection templates. The present- day controversy in the US about teaching evolution in the schools provides an opportunity to engage the public about science education.
Griniezakis, Makarios; Symeonides, Nathanael
The authors of this essay suggest that the field of bioethics and Christian theology have a great deal to offer each other. The authors first argue that representatives from both fields must first make sure that they fully and correctly represent their respective position. In other words, scientists, ethicists, and theologians alike must make sure that they present their fields and not use their knowledge merely for personal gain at the stake of misguiding people. Once this is established, the authors then proceed to show the intimate relationship between Christianity and medicine that has existed throughout the ages. It is a call for a continuation of such a relationship that the authors suggest between bioethics and theology. Through an integration of bioethics and Christian theology, both scientists/physicians and theologians are able to gain greater insight into the human person--a focus in both fields.
Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.
The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…
Erin Whittle, 14, (seated) and Brianna Johnson, 14, look on as Louis Stork, 13, attempts a simulated landing of a space shuttle at StenniSphere. The young people were part of a group from Mobile Christian School in Mobile, Ala., that visited StenniSphere on April 21.
Edie, Fred P.
This article describes six constitutive "senses" of the "Christian educator's imagination." These dispositions toward knowing, being, and doing characterize competent leadership in educational ministry. They include a sense for vocational empowerment, a sense for teaching and learning, a sense for seeking God's presence; a sense for the contours…
Louis Stork, 13, and Erin Whittle, 14, look on as Brianna Johnson, 14, conducts a 'test' of a space shuttle main engine in the Test Control Center exhibit in StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Miss. The young people were part of a group from Mobile Christian School in Mobile, Ala., that visited StenniSphere on April 21.
The Brothers of the Christian Schools, popularly known in the United States as Christian Brothers, have made numerous significant contributions to the development of Catholic education. Building and staffing schools, colleges, and orphanages, producing textbooks and catechetical materials, advocating for the poor, and creating new models of…
Stephens, W. Richard
Legal challenges faced by Christian liberal arts colleges affiliated with the Christian College Coalition were studied in 1983. Fifty-one of the 70 college presidents that were contacted returned questionnaires. The following areas were assessed: direct legal involvements during the past 5 years, threatened legal involvements, expected types of…
Deckman, Melissa M.
The author of this article recently studied the impact of the Christian Right on school board politics in a Maryland school district. The six-year situation in Garrett County shows that religious conservatives do not necessarily govern by placing their personal religious views above all else. Governing with Christian Right board members might…
Banke, Susan; Maldonado, Nancy; Lacey, Candace H.
This phenomenological study examined the spiritual experiences of Christian school leaders who are the spiritual leaders of their schools. A purposeful, nominated sample of 12 Christian school leaders was selected. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted, audio taped, and then transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was based on Rudestam and…
Scripture is somehow normative for any bioethic that would be Christian. There are problems, however, both with Scripture and with those who read Scripture. Methodological reflection is necessary. Scripture must be read humbly and in Christian community. It must be read not as a timeless code but as the story of God and of our lives. That story moves from creation to a new creation. At the center of the Christian story are the stories of Jesus of Nazareth as healer, preacher of good news to the poor, and sufferer. The story shapes character and conduct and enables communal discernment.
Turner, James S.
Describes the preparation of an edition of the Savery Codex, a fourth century Coptic manuscript which illuminates elements of early Coptic Christianity. Illustrates the value of the text in the study of the Coptic language. (LS)
Northcott, Michael S.
This book is about the extent, origins and causes of the environmental crisis. Dr. Northcott argues that Christianity has lost the biblical awareness of the interconnectedness of all life. He shows how Christian theologians and believers might recover a more ecologically-friendly belief system and life style. The author provides an important corrective to secular approaches to environmental ethics, including utilitarian individualism, animal rights theories and deep ecology.
Spinney, Douglas Harvey
Provides explanation of developmental dynamics in experience of fundamental Christians that provoke reactive depression. Describes depressant retardant defenses against depression that have been observed in Christian fundamental subculture. Suggests four counseling strategies for helping fundamentalists. (Author/ABL)
The paper presents an argument for the incompatibility of classical Christian soteriology (doctrine of salvation) with belief in numerous extraterrestrial intelligent life forms (ETI). Four popular answers to the problem are discussed and rejected: a) unlike humanity, extraterrestrial intelligent species are not in need of salvation; b) Jesus of Nazareth has reconciled the entire cosmos to God; c) God or the second person of the Trinity has incarnated (or will incarnate) himself multiple times; d) alien sinners have been or are going to be saved by means different from a divine incarnation. The final section deals with remaining options for rational Christian believers and speculates briefly about consequences for interstellar space flight.
Davis, Darin H.; Wadell, Paul J.
This article explores how educating lives for Christian wisdom might serve as an antidote to the vice of "acedia," a prominent feature of the culture of contemporary higher education. After suggesting that the capital vice of "acedia" seems to capture well various facets of our present age and how the pursuit of wisdom serves…
Potvin, Bernie; Parsons, Jim
An attempt was made to describe the experience of Christian religious education for its participants. This research is both ethnographic and hermeneutic. Thick descriptions gathered from ethnographic methods like participant observation, in-depth interviews, and journal keeping served as text for analysis. Weekly visits of one to four hours were…
This paper explores the relationship between Christianity, development, and women's liberation. The article examines the opportunities and constraints, which exist for women in the tradition of mainstream Christianity regarding their sexuality and family life. These concepts were investigated within the community level, the church itself, convent life, in the economy, and at wider national and international levels. Subordination of women through religion is the result of imposing social codes regarding women's roles, behavior, and relationships with men. However, equality can be achieved if the forms and substance of religious practice is reexamined and changed with liberation of women in mind. There is also a need to address the cultural and spiritual imperialism brought about by religion.
The jurisdiction of most states presumes that human dignity is unconditional. Yet a last reason for this dignity cannot be furnished by a state jurisdiction. Christian ethics for instance argue on a line beyond strictly rational interpretation: human dignity roots in man's affirmation by God. Beyond a simply negative definition it is essential today to define the conditions of human dignity in a positive way.
Wilkins, Amy C.
This article uses qualitative data (participant-observation and interviews) to examine happiness talk in a university-based evangelical Christian organization (University Unity). Unity Christians claim that they are happier than non-Christians, but rather than viewing their happiness as a mental health outcome of their participation in a religious…
Anderson, Emily Rose
Teachers in a classical Christian environment oftentimes are not taught in the classic manner themselves, requiring different training from that in teacher-education programs. This study compared teacher self-efficacy between traditional Christian-education environments and classical Christian-education environments. The purpose of this…
Canales, Arthur David
This article addresses four models of leadership that Christian communities may want to adopt to help them assess and articulate a more vibrant and dynamic youth ministry. In particular, this article will demonstrate that authentic Christian leadership for youth ministry is much more than teaching young people about pastoral skills, but requires a…
Edwards, Cher N.
In this article, the relationship between Christian religiosity and the principles of social justice is explored, including the sociopolitical aspects of faith and advocacy. A particular emphasis is placed on the historical legacy and theological relationships between Christianity and social justice. The author concludes with a call for…
Malik, Charles Habib
Views on the place and power of the university, the church's role in the university, and the sciences and humanities are presented. The secularization of western universities raises fundamental criticisms from the Christian point of view that the university atmosphere is not congenial to Christian spiritual values, and that higher education…
The vision statement of St. Saviour's Anglican Church in the Parish of Glen Osmon reads, "We aim to be a worshipping, caring, learning and serving Christian Community." These four aspects of Christian Community are essential and inter-related. The intention in the first part of this article is to explore the "learning" aspects…
Price, Elizabeth Box
Christian Religious Education recognizes the crisis in perception caused by eroding cosmologies and engages persons in the reformulating of Christian stories that negate a limiting materialism perpetuating consumerism destructive to life. A course is developed for theological students in which they may become aware of cosmology and its New Story,…
Powell, Elizabeth Sinclair; Tisdale, Theresa; Willingham, Michele; Bustrum, Joy; Allan, Claire
This qualitative study involved conducting semistructured interviews with 12 students attending a Christian liberal arts college. The study sought to identify how students' Christian faith changes over the course of time they are attending college. The factors identified as potentially influencing changes in faith within students attending a…
Mannoia, V. James
In this wide-ranging review essay, the author engages "Christian Higher Education: A Global Reconnaissance," a book edited by J. Carpenter, P. L. Glanzer, and N. S. Lantinga (2014). His remarks focus especially on the five chapters of the book that survey Christian higher education in nations where he has direct experience: Brazil,…
For those in contemporary society who believe in an afterlife, there are a number of views available. The most common may be based on belief in an immortal soul. However, the early Christian account was, instead, bodily resurrection. As Christianity moved throughout the Mediterranean world, apologists and theologians adapted their teaching on human nature and the afterlife to Greek and Roman philosophies. By the time of Augustine (d. 430), the doctrines of body-soul dualism and immortality of the soul were firmly entrenched in Christian teaching. The incorporation of the concept of an immortal soul into Christian accounts of life after death produced a hybrid account. The body dies, the soul (at least of those who were to be saved) travels to heaven. At the end of history, there would be a general resurrection, and the souls would be reunited with their bodies, although the bodies would be in a transformed, indestructible state. This hybrid account of life after death went largely uncontested until the twentieth century. In this essay, I describe this history and argue for a return to the early Christian view of humans as a unity, not a duality, and for belief in resurrection of the body as the appropriate expectation for eternal life. This would not only be truer to Christian sources, but, valuable, I believe, in focusing Christian attention on the need to care for the environment.
Despite the rise of the secular state, religion remains a significant force in society. Within Christianity this encompasses a wide variety of beliefs. These range from simple assertions of theism in a cultural context to complex theologies; from liberal emphases on uncertainty and exploration to dogmatic views of divine revelation. How one 'does' good medical ethics depends on these perspectives. Contingently, the Christian contribution to medical ethics has been huge and constructive. Central to that contribution is a core belief in the intrinsic value of human life, respect for which we are accountable to God. Christianity continues to deserve its place 'in the public square' and, specifically, in medical ethical discourse.
Shermis, Michael, Ed.
This special issue on "Teaching Jewish-Christian Relations in the University Classroom" is meant to be a resource for those involved in Jewish studies and who teach about Jewish-Christian relations. It offers an introduction to the topics of the Jewish-Christian encounter, Israel, anti-Semitism, Christian Scriptures, the works of Elie…
In this paper I have attempted to suggest that the Christian nurse who recognises the importance and significance of their personal characteristics as a woman and as a nurse is able to practice a model of care which enables rather than disables individuals and communities. A disabling model is one where we have a false perception of who we are and what our rights and responsibilities are. This approach perpetuates the passivity of women. Women have a unique view of the world and are able to contribute in a way that men are not able to do. We must not allow ourselves to be defined by men but in understanding ourselves we can fulfil our potential. This is not contrary to Christian teaching but rather corrects a cultural view which has been imposed on us about the nature of women in the profession and in the church. The essence of the Christian faith is that Christ died for all; without this belief there is no Christianity. Christ did not die for men alone who in turn represent women. In Christ there is no male or female Jew nor Greek, In Christianity there can be no sexism and no racism. We have rights as women and as Christians. Let us not neglect to use them.
Christian moral insight into complex medical issues depends mostly on beliefs about what it is to be human, what makes for human well-being, and how social attitudes that reinforce such human values can best be strengthened. Issues concerning sex selection are used to illustrate how such beliefs work in practice. To dismiss therapeutic selection as 'playing God' is not helpful. Human beings are meant to use their creative powers, but there is a line to be drawn between therapy and eugenics. There is a good moral case for trying to eliminate serious sex-linked diseases. Although there may be strong personal reasons for wanting a child of a particular sex, deliberate selection for non-medical reasons, if it became widespread, would subtly change social attitudes, reinforcing consumerist values at one of the most awesome and personally significant moments in anyone's experience. There is a moral distinction between influencing a child's development during its upbringing, and making choices about its genes. Even the most manipulative parents treat their child as a person. To manipulate its genes is to treat it as an object.
Wentz, Joel M.; Wessel, Roger D.
Because some Christian colleges prohibit same-sex sexual behaviors, the development of authentic sexual identities on these campuses may be difficult for gay and lesbian students. This article introduces the idea of an identity conflict that may occur between sexual and spiritual identities for gay and lesbian students at Christian colleges and…
Crouse, Brian H.
Countless authors, theologians, and Christian educators have weighed in regarding the secularization of American higher education. Through nearly 380 years of historical examples, Christian mottos, missions, and reputations were once at the heart of American higher educations. However, over time, those foundations were replaced with other…
Christian Behrends studied biology at the University of Konstanz in Germany, but did his Diploma thesis externally with Michael Ehrmann in the School of Bioscience at Cardiff University, UK. He then pursued his PhD degree in Franz-Ulrich Hartl's group at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry in Martinsried, Germany. For his postdoctoral work Christian received a Feodor Lynen Research Fellowship from the Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung, with which he moved to the US and joined the laboratory of J. Wade Harper at Harvard Medical School. In 2011, he received an Emmy Noether Research Grant from the German Research Foundation (DFG) and started his own independent group at the Medical School of Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main. He is also a recipient of an ERC starting grant. Research in Christian's lab is focused on the basic mechanisms of autophagy, particularly concentrating on the role of ubiquitin signalling in autophagy, and the crosstalk between autophagy and other vesicular trafficking pathways.
This article examines how scripts that circulate among culturally and theologically conservative Christian students, whether they are categorized as "born again," "Religious Right," "Christian Right," "nondenominational," "evangelical," or "fundamental," aim to prime students for the…
Dr. Christian Barnard Tours Marshall Space Flight Center. Shown in Dr. Von Braun's office are (left to right): Dr. Ernst Sthulinger, a representative from General Electric, Dr. Wernher Von Braun, Dr. Christian Barnard, and Dr. Eberhard Rees.
As American culture has become increasingly concerned about fatness, the fat body and weight loss have become salient symbols for other social tensions. This article uses the case of evangelical Christian weight-loss culture to argue that class is one of those tensions. Drawing on ethnographic work in a Christian weight-loss program as well as on recent theories of class, I argue that certain recurring concerns in Christians’ weight-loss discourse, notably concerns about fat Christian leaders and appearing healthy, reflect tensions about class-based aspirations and class-based denigrations evangelicals face in negotiating their position in American society.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Christian Science practitioners. 404.1070 Section 404.1070 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... § 404.1070 Christian Science practitioners. If you are a Christian Science practitioner, the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Christian Science practitioners. 404.1070 Section 404.1070 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... § 404.1070 Christian Science practitioners. If you are a Christian Science practitioner, the...
Schuttloffel, Merylann J.
This article explores Jacques Ellul's challenges to Christian educators in a society permeated with technique or technological thinking. Responses to the three challenges Ellul puts forth to believing Christians, and, specifically, to Catholic Christian school educators, integrate a process of contemplative practice. This process integrates…
Christian nurses are challenged by the process of incorporating faith and Christianity into their career. Nurse educators are particularly challenged to embed Christian principles into the tenure and promotion journey. Developing a God-inspired plan takes time and patience. Prayer, reflective practice, evaluation, decisions, and follow-through are areas that can be incorporated to infuse faith throughout the tenure and promotion process.
How do we Christian educators help children live their lives holistically? The purpose of this study is to address this question and to examine a method for children and Christian families in Korea to form Christian faith through daily rituals at home. Using participant observation and focus group interviews, I examined what the children and…
Hazeltine, Brian C.; Hernandez, David A.
Bullying is a problem that has been studied in schools worldwide, but there is little research on bullying within Christian schools, a dearth which may stem from the assumption that Christian schools teach character traits that are inimical to bullying. Yet understanding the extent and nature of bullying in Christian schools may lead to a better…
This paper aims to offer a "liveable" theology for the Christian teacher; that is, it seeks to articulate a theology of teaching in contemporary contexts which can serve the spiritual and faith development of Christian teachers in their vocation. A first section gives some brief account of "teaching" in the Christian theological tradition,…
Bullying is a problem that has been studied in schools worldwide, but there is little research on bullying within Christian schools, a dearth which may stem from the assumption that Christian schools teach character traits that are inimical to bullying. Yet understanding the extent and nature of bullying in Christian schools may lead to a better…
We are currently experiencing a global revolution in Christian higher education. As chronicled in Carpenter, Glanzer, and Lantinga's 2014 volume titled "Christian Higher Education: A Global Reconnaissance," Christian universities are expanding rapidly around the globe. My institution, Cornerstone University, has been involved in this…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Christian Science practitioners. 404.1070 Section 404.1070 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... § 404.1070 Christian Science practitioners. If you are a Christian Science practitioner, the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Christian Science practitioners. 404.1070 Section 404.1070 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... § 404.1070 Christian Science practitioners. If you are a Christian Science practitioner, the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Christian Science practitioners. 404.1070 Section 404.1070 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... § 404.1070 Christian Science practitioners. If you are a Christian Science practitioner, the...
Spielhagen, Frances R.; Cooper, Bruce S.
The Bruderhof communities in the United States have organized their own private schools with a distinctly Christian philosophy of education, adding to the interesting mix of American private and religious schools. Rooted in early 20th century German pedagogy, romanticism, and shared responsibility, Bruderhof schools represent the essence of a…
Chenoweth, Gregg A.
Few cultural institutions so potently foster free thought and speech, appreciation for others unlike self, and community service as higher education. As such, universities catalyze democracy. One calls them the "Messiah" of that cause. Christian universities in particular, though not designed as political or religiously pluralist entities, assist…
Sink, Christopher A.; Cleveland, Richard; Stern, Julian
This article makes the case that Christian school counselors should be more directly engaged in student spiritual formation. To accomplish this aim, the historical context for the discussion is first explored, followed by a review of contemporary medical and psychological research associating a positive spirituality with healthy functioning across…
Smith, Thomas M.; VanderVeen, Steve
We motivate and develop a theoretical framework for creating a distinctive Christian undergraduate management program that is directed toward providing (a) the necessary intellectual characteristics to do "well" and (b) the necessary emotional characteristics to do "good." This framework consists of seven propositions that connect the learning…
Reviews the Christian fiction series, "Cedar River Daydreams," by Judy Baer and recommended for grades 7-10. The main character is a girl who has moved to a new town, and struggles with socializing in school, peer pressure, popularity, acceptance of her Down's Syndrome afflicted brother, and being herself. Includes an annotated list of…
This article presents the scope and range of Christian involvement in establishing the field of education in England as a distinct area for scholarship between 1930 and 1960. It advocates greater study of the range of various denominational positions held in the period. This paper also illustrates the public debates of the time by focusing on the…
Varghese, Manka M.; Johnston, Bill
Evangelical Christians are an enduring and growing presence in the field of English language teaching worldwide and in the TESOL organization in particular. Yet to date, hardly any empirical research has been done on this population of teachers or on the links between English teaching, religious beliefs, and missionary work. This article reports…
The question of whether athletics, religion, and education are compatible is examined from a liberal arts perspective with Christianity as a reference point. In the recent past an ideal of U.S. college life was that the college seeks wholeness of mind, spirit, and body. In the classroom, knowledge is sought, while on the playing field, health,…
Gliebe, Sudi Kate
This paper explores the importance of emotional intelligence in Christian higher education. Specifically, it addresses possible implications between emotional intelligence skills and success in the areas of learning, mental health, and career preparation. The paper addresses the following questions: Is there a positive relationship between…
Otto, Patrick; Harrington, Michael
The Christian university has a distinct responsibility to provide an environment devoted to the spiritual formation of students. Spiritual formation is not to be viewed as the only important goal of the university, thereby sacrificing intellectual or relational development, but rather spiritual formation is the aggregate "product" of the…
Dos Anjos, Márcio Fabri; Lepargneur, Hubert François
A Christian theology is important to bioethics in Brazil not only because Brazil is a country of strong Christian traditions, but also because of its theological method and because of many practices in their Christian communities. In fact, the interaction within practice and theory is a big point of its methodology. A heritage of a long history of colonialism in South America comes to our times as enormous social inequalities. In such a context, the silent cry of poor people is heard as a question of coherence to the Christian faith and to the neighbor love. Through a constant dialog with human sciences, the method of theology, known as liberation theology, seeks the roots of social inequalities and the alternatives to a movement of spiritual and social liberation. In touch with the modern bioethics, this theology has strongly contributed to understand all the questions of bioethics in the frame of social structures and systems. On the other hand, many actual practices of the Catholic Church in Brazil with popular impact, like its annual Fraternity Campaign, develop social themes and problems that are also big concerns of bioethics. In this article we try to expose some aspects of this dialog, where theology has a well considered contribution to Brazilian bioethics, at the same time his religious discourse is open to interact with a lay discourse.
Shimenkan is a remote and mountainous village in Weining county, Guizhou province, an area traditionally populated by Miao ethnic minority. The arrival of Christian missionaries just over 100 years ago began Shimenkan's transformation from an illiterate school-less place, to a "revered site of Miao education." Today, Shimenkan has…
Schwehn, Mark R.
The author, a dean at Valpariso University in Indiana (affiliated with the Lutheran church), addresses a Catholic conference on higher education. He identifies and discusses basic constitutive beliefs of Catholic and Protestant Christian education, including unity of the cosmos, universality of human nature and divine love, and the integral…
O'Neil, Daniel J.
Discussing the place of Christian beliefs and values in the political realm, O'Neil examines three future-oriented books which argue that religion has a significant part to play in the public sphere. Analyzes ideas in "The Naked Public Square" by Richard Neuhaus; "Freedom with Justice" by Michael Novak; and "Religion in…
Church documents, theology, leadership theory, and sociology come together in this article to present a pedagogy for Catholic schools that is deeply rooted in a personal faith and a contemporary understanding of the person. In order to construct a conceptual model of a pedagogy grounded in Christian spirituality, the meaning of the term "pedagogy"…
This paper asserts that the religious assumptions of Christian academies need to be fully examined in relation to any analysis of their cultural practices, impact or policy implications. It proposes that Bourdieu's concepts of habitus, cultural capital and symbolic power can be broadened out from their traditional use in accounting for social…
Subhi, Nasrudin; Geelan, David
Reconciling sexual orientation with religious and spiritual beliefs can be challenging for Christian homosexuals, since many Christian churches teach that homosexual behavior is sinful. A qualitative study of 10 male and 10 female Christian homosexuals was conducted via semistructured interviews. This article seeks to explore the potential conflict between Christianity and homosexuality faced by the respondents. Participants' life stories and experiences varied widely. A few respondents were unaffected by the potential conflict between Christianity and homosexuality, however, the majority were affected. Effects included depression, guilt, anxiety, suicidal ideation, and alienation. Implications of the findings for support personnel are included.
Christian bioethics springs from the worship that is the response of the Church to the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Such worship is distinctively political in nature, in that it acknowledges Christ as Lord. Because it is a political worship, it can recognize no other lords and no other prior claims on its allegiance: these include the claims of an allegedly universal ethics and politics determined from outside the Church. However the Church is called not just to be a contrast society, but also to witness to the freeing of the world from salvific pretensions in order that it may embrace its proper temporality. The implications of this for the distinctiveness of Christian bioethics are brought out in three movements: first, the Church's itself learning how it is to conceive bioethics; second, the Church's role in unmasking the idols of secular bioethics; and third, the Church's witnessing to the freeing of medicine from idolatrous aspirations.
Brosge, W.P.; Reiser, H.N.
Most of the Christian quadrangle is in the Porcupine Plateau; the northwestern part is in the southern Brooks Range, and the southern quarter is in the Yukon Flats. Outcrops of bedrock are poor or lacking, except in the Brooks Range. Although large valley glaciers have moved through the Porcupine Plateau, along the East Fork Chandalar and Vanticlese Creek, most of the upland areas in the Porcupine Plateau have not been eroded by ice. Consequently the rocks are deeply weathered and many outcrops in the low hills east of the East Fork are only soil and rubble. The southern quarter of the quadrangle in the Yukon Flats is covered with unconsolidated glacial and alluvial deposits. The Christian quadrangle is at the east end of the southern Brooks Range schist belt. Here three geologic terranes that originate well south of the Brooks Range intersect the subterranes of the southern Brooks Range along northward-directed thrust faults and northeast-striking strike slip faults. The displaced terranes from the south have been mapped by Jones and others (1987), as the schist of the Ruby terrane, the mafic rocks and phyllite of the Tozitna terrane, and the graywacke of the Venetie terrane. The typical rocks of the southern Brooks Range Arctic Alaska terrane at this intersection are the carbonate and clastic rocks of the Hammond subterrane, and the schist of the Coldfoot subterrane. The Coldfoot schist ends at a probable strike-slip fault about 10 miles west of the Christian quadrangle. At that place the mafic rocks and phyllites of the Angayucham terrane that form the south flank of most of the Brooks Range veer sharply northeastward across the Coldfoot subterrane schist and terminate it. A small fragment of the Endicott Mountains subterrane of the Arctic Alaska terrane also lies within the Christian quadrangle, but the main body of this subterrane lies north of the quadrangle.
This article reflects on an effort to incorporate constructivist pedagogies (learner-centered, inquiry-guided, problem-based models of teaching) into an introductory class on Christian Ethics in an M.Div. curriculum. Although some students preferred more traditional pedagogies, the majority found that constructivist pedagogies better accommodated…
LeBlanc, Patty; Slaughter, Patty
This investigation compared the influence of public and Christian high schools on the spiritual formation and academic achievement of college students. Recent high school graduates who attend a private, liberal arts university in the southeastern United States responded to an online survey and interview questions related to the influence of one's…
Binder, Devin K; Clusmann, Hans; Schaller, Carlo
Friedrich-Christian Rosenthal was a prominent German anatomist and surgeon. He was born in Greifswald, Germany on June 3, 1780. In his time, he was best known for his work on the olfactory system and ichthyology. However, his late work also led to his description of the eponymous canal in the cochlea and basal cerebral vein. After an itinerant academic, military, and professional career, he died of tuberculosis in Greifswald on December 5, 1829, working to the end on an unfinished treatise on the anatomy of the brain and cranial nerves.
INTRODUCTION Over 2500 years ago the prophet Isaiah spoke the follow- ing words: And it shall come to pass in the last days, that the mountain of the...against nation, neither shall they learn war any more. ( Isaiah 2:2-4) To the Christian officer, the quote from Isaiah gives hope and encouragement of a day...cluded Soviet violation of the Yalta Agreements leading to domination of Eastern Europe, symbol- ized by the Berlin wall.... It includes the take- •, * ŕ
Cole, Brian E.
This study contributes to the understanding of the structural and cultural influences of Christian college environments on student activism through the framework of symbolic interactionism (Blumer, 1969; Mead, 1934). The goal of this research was to examine how the students at Christian institutions understand and engage in activism within their…
Esqueda, Octavio Javier
The integration of faith and learning is regarded to be a primary distinctive of Christian higher education, yet this terminology conveys a false dichotomy. The frequent call for integration suggests that the Christian faith and learning belong to different areas of knowledge and practice; consequently, there is a need for bringing the two realms…
Welch, Ronald D.; Mellberg, Kimberlee
Spiritual maturation processes of internalization and questing were assessed at a Christian university to determine their relationship to year in school and certain religious behaviors. This was a first step toward the development of a new model of Christian higher education that will intentionally facilitate spiritual maturation. A group of 179…
Maynard, Elizabeth A.; Gorsuch, Richard L.
Research on the attitudes of heterosexual churchgoers is extensive. However, very little empirical information is available about the attitudes held by gay and lesbian Christians. In the current study, it was hypothesized that gay and lesbian Christians, unlike their heterosexual peers, would demonstrate desire for and acceptance of social…
Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.
A sample of 334 undergraduates completed the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity and the Astley-Francis Open Worldview Scale, together with the short form Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. The data provide no support for the view that a positive attitude toward Christianity inhibits openness to other worldviews, although both…
Ng, Peter Tze Ming
The Christian missionary movement is a kind of global movement that aims to evangelize the whole world; hence the concept of globalization can be useful for the study of Christianity as a worldwide movement. However, recent studies have suggested another equally important concept: the process of localization, which runs parallel to the process of…
Lackey, Steven L.
The purpose of this study was to examine the role and relationship of the practice of Christian beliefs and resilience in the context of dementia patient caregivers' lives. The guiding question was "What is the relational nature of the practice of Christian beliefs and resilience in the lived experiences of caregivers of dementia…
Sutherland, Winston Terrance
The study reported in this article focused on the contributions of John Nelson Derby to biblical hermeneutics and contemporary eschatological thought. Darby continues to exert a great influence on Christianity, particularly conservative evangelical Christianity. This research provides a discussion of Darby's contributions to contemporary…
Kirika, John Irungu
The object of this study was to investigate transformational leadership in Christian schools. The study investigated the perception of empowerment of K-12 Christian school teachers and its influence on organizational and professional commitment and job satisfaction. It explored correlations between teacher empowerment and selected demographic…
Williams, Emyr; Francis, Leslie J
A sample of 158 churchgoers attending eight Anglican churches in the United Kingdom completed the abbreviated Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire together with the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity to replicate a 1996 study by Carter, Kay, and Francis. Data confirm that scores on Attitude toward Christianity were significantly negatively related to Psychoticism, but to neither Extraversion nor Neuroticism scores.
Horell, Harold D.
How should Christians address our often ambiguous and increasingly postmodern world? The article explores some of the ways cultural postmodernity is affecting Christian communities. The tendency to trivialize understandings of meaning and value is highlighted as one of the greatest challenges posed by the negative aspects of postmodernity. It is…
Nelson, Jason Eric
This article aims to clarify where and how Christian privilege occurs, what its effects are, and how to overturn it. The study of Christian privilege and how it impacts public education on an institutional and pedagogical level is important work and an essential building block in dismantling religious oppression (both of and by religious groups).…
Hill, Christy E.
This phenomenological study examined biblical concepts utilized by elementary Christian school teachers in classroom management in two Christian schools in Virginia. Items examined included which biblical components were being utilized and how teachers are utilizing them. Determining factors influencing the incorporation of biblical concepts in…
The purpose of Christian education is to incorporate Biblical values in the curriculum, and one essential message in the Bible is to reach out and liberate the poor. Through interviews, writing protocols, a focus group meeting, and document analysis, this narrative study focuses on the question of how do Christian educators create pedagogical…
Bebbington, D. W.
The history of Christian higher education in Europe may be analyzed in terms of seven eras. From their medieval origins in scholasticism and the practical needs of students and rulers, universities passed through Renaissance humanism to a period of decay, yet remained substantially Christian in intent. The Enlightenment exercised a partially…
Protestant Christianity was brought to Japan during the modernization of that country in the middle of the nineteenth century. Before the Second World War, except for a short time, Christianity in Japan as a Western religion had experienced a difficult course of history because of hostility due to nationalism of the populace and the leaders of the…
Lee, Heather A.
If Christian schools desire students to achieve higher-level thinking, then the textbooks that teachers use should reflect such thinking. Using Risner's (1987) methodology, raters classified questions from two Christian publishers' fifth grade reading textbooks based on the revised Bloom's taxonomy (Anderson et al., 2001). The questions in the A…
Humility, the keystone of the virtues in the Christian spiritual tradition, has been dismissed by modern philosophers, critiqued by feminist theologians, and overpowered by our industrial and technological culture. The incorporation of agricultural experience in Christian higher education presents the opportunity to cultivate anew the virtue of…
Banke, Susan; Maldonado, Nancy; Lacey, Candace H.
This phenomenological study examined the spiritual experiences of Christian school leaders who are the spiritual leaders of their schools. A purposeful, nominated sample of 12 Christian school leaders was selected. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted, audio taped, and then transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was based on Rudestam and…
Lai, John C.
In most churches, Bible and other religious instruction is based on an evangelical model structured on a teacher-centered, lecture-oriented approach that involves treating adults as children and that is thus more consistent with unregenerate human nature than with the born-again nature of Christians. An emancipatory model of Christian adult…
Walker, Andrea C.; Gewecke, Rachelle; Cupit, Illene N.; Fox, Jeffrey T.
This phenomenological study, based on ecological systems theory, examined the college student bereavement experience in a Christian university. Undergraduate students (N = 127) from a small Christian university provided answers to open-ended questions about their experiences regarding college following a death loss. Results indicate that students…
Jones, D A
Recent claims that the Christian tradition justifies destructive research on human embryos have drawn upon an article by the late Professor Gordon Dunstan which appeared in this journal in 1984. Despite its undoubted influence, this article was flawed and seriously misrepresented the tradition of Christian reflection on the moral status of the human embryo.
Brandon, Donald W.
The basis of Christian political thought is discussed, why Christian Democratic parties exist in other democratic countries is explained, and how the American political and moral climate may have changed enough to make the formation of such a party feasible in this country is examined. (RM)
Killen, Patricia O'Connell; Duntley, Madeline; Furey, Constance; Gilpin, W. Clark; Six-Means, Horace E.
At the November 2008 meeting of the American Academy of Religion, the History of Christianity section sponsored a panel around the question: "What are the key challenges, opportunities, and goals in the History of Christianity classroom today and how best should teachers respond to them?" Beginning with brief sketches of institutional context and…
This article discusses the relevance of Christian education to nation building with a focus on Nigeria. Books, journal articles, and personal observations combined to serve as the resources for the study. The major questions addressed relate to the importance of Christian education to building the Nigerian nation in order to promote infrastructure…
Fletcher, Wayne L.
This study identified the business strategies and tactics employed by three financially successful Christian institutions of higher education to drive a positive net income. In addition, this study explored the linkages between operational decisions and the institutions' Christian mission. The three institutions in this study declared an…
Maintains that the history of anti-Semitism has historical links to Christian theology. Asserts that Christianity provided ample fuel for the secular anti-Semitism preached by Hitler and the Nazi party. Contends that educators can draw important lessons on the value of education and the pedagogy of teaching history. (CFR)
It is usually assumed that being gay or lesbian and being Christian is contradictory. The eight men who participated in this qualitative inquiry demonstrate otherwise. I investigated the ways in which these men integrated their gay and Christian identities meaningfully into their lives. From the interview data, I discerned and describe in this paper a variety of strategies that these men adopted in order to facilitate identity integration of seemingly mutually exclusive identities. In the bid for social and political equality with heterosexuals, gays and lesbians typically have not received support from Christians, at least not from politically active Christians, many of whom participate in explicitly antigay campaigns. Given such a contentious context, I discuss the personal and political implications of integrating gay and evangelical Christian identities.
Thede, Gaius Wendt
The first practical problem of a Christian educator in reaching inadequately committed adults is motivation. Although educational psychology shows very little that goes beyond self-realization or self-actualization as the basic motive of man, the Christian view of man makes it clear that God's own motivation, agape (self-giving love), is also…
Long, Violet E.
The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to investigate the personal development of spiritual stamina in graduates of Christian high schools who attend secular universities or colleges. Participants are comprised of a theoretical sampling of 16 young adult graduates of one of four Christian schools in Southeastern United States.…
Titarchuk, Victor N.
This is a case study of the historical development of a private Christian faith-based school of higher education in post-Soviet Russia from its conception in 1990 until 2010. This binational school was founded as Russian-American Christian University (RACU) in 1996. In 2003, business and economics as well as social work undergraduate academic…
Bradford, David T
This study is an 11-part investigation of the psychology and neuropsychology of early Christian asceticism as represented by Evagrius Ponticus (AD 345-399), the tradition's first ascetical theologian and possibly its mosfinfluential. Evagrius's biography is reviewed in the first section. The living circuinstaii and perceptual consequences of desert asceticism are considered in the second. Penitence, dispassion, and the mysticism of "pure prayer" are discussed in the third. Austerities are addressed in the fourth section, particularly fasting, prostrations, and prolonged standing. Ascetical perspectives on sleep, dreams, and the hypnogogic state are analyzed in the fifth. The depressive syndrome of acedia is discussed in the sixth. Evagrius's reports of auditory, olfactory, and visual hallucinations are analyzed in the seventh. Multiple complementary interpretations of demonic phenoniena are developed in the eighth section. Evagrius's psychotherapy for anger is reviewed in the ninth. Interpersonal relations among ascetics are considered in the tenth section. The study concludes with a summary.
Tiede, V. R.
The Hiberno-Latin literary metaphor of "Xpistus sol verus" (Christ the True Sun) finds an architectural analogue in the orientation of the single eastern window of Irish monastic stone chapels or oratories. The author's field surveys in Ireland, Hebrides, Orkney and Shetlands revealed that the window of Irish rectangular dry stone oratories framed the rising solar disk on the Feast Days of selected saints of the Celtic Early Christian Church, AD 800-1100. The most frequent target skyline declinations were to sunrise on the Feast Days of St. Patrick (March 17th) and St. Aidan of Lindisfarne (August 31st). During the Early Christian period, St. Patrick's Day coincided with the Vernal Equinox, and heralded the Paschal Full Moon (i.e., Passover crucifixion) and Easter Sunday as proclaimed by Emperor Constantine at the Council of Nicaea (AD 325). St. Aidan of Lindisfarne (d. AD 651) inspired the Irish monks who, at the Synod of Whitby (AD 664), remained loyal to the Jewish 84-year cycle determining Passover and refused to replace it with the new orthodox 19-year computus for Easter adopted by the Roman Catholic Church (AD 527). Hypothetical affiliation between monastic communities whose oratories share common solar orientation, interior length/width ratios (e.g., 4:3 and 3:2) and units of measurement (e.g., Scottish ell, Coptic cubit, or Roman pes) is discussed. Grateful acknowledgement is made to the Michael D. Coe Fund and Augusta Hazard Fund of Yale University for research grant support in 1999.
Jen Der Pan, Peter; Deng, Liang-Yu F.; Tsai, S. L.; Chen, Ho-Yuan J.; Yuan, Sheng-Shiou Jenny
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a Christian-based Grief Recovery Scale (CGRS) which was used to measure Christians recovering from grief after a significant loss. Taiwanese Christian participants were recruited from churches and a comprehensive university in northern Taiwan. They were affected by both the Christian faith and…
Mellinger, Laurie A.
This dissertation explores the recent work on spiritual practices in the academic discipline of Christian spirituality, gathering together the strengths of various conceptions of practice from the literature and developing a rigorous definition of a Christian spiritual practice: Christian spiritual practices are things God enables Christian people…
Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J; Bradford, Amanda
A sample of 16 male and 30 female undergraduates completed the Greer and Francis Scale of Rejection of Christianity. The data support the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the scale for this sample.
Pain and Christianity appear to belong together: Christ's pain stands at the centre of God's healing; his pain leads to the salvation of mankind. We can learn from Jesus' example how to bear suffering and pain. In early Christian times, the belief that Jesus Christ suffered pain on the cross was usually not accepted. In line with the "apathy axiom", freedom from emotion was something to strive for at that time. Only after the acceptance of Christianity as the state religion of the Roman Empire in 380 AD did the pain of Christ again stand in the centre of the Christian doctrine of salvation. The memory of the fact that Jesus himself had to undergo the worst pain can still help people to overcome their pain and comfort them.
A case of acute Weber-Christian disease is reported, in which pancreatitis was accompanied by evidence of dissemination of pancreatic enzymes causing necrosis of fat and vessels. There is clinical and experimental evidence in the literature to suggest that widespread vascular dissemination of lipase occurs in cases of pancreatitis or pancreatic carcinoma. Review of the autopsy literature of cases of Weber-Christian disease shows that a majority had pancreatitis and systemic involvement of fat. A minority showed lesions confined to the panniculus, which tended to ulcerate; these lesions were in other ways not typical of Weber-Christian disease. In this group none had autopsy evidence of pancreatitis. The opinion is expressed that Weber-Christian disease results from disruption of pancreatic tissue and subsequent vascular dissemination of pancreatic enzymes. PMID:20327582
In this paper it will be argued that the basic document of Christianity, the Bible, contains a unique potential for accepting the other and solving conflicts by non-violent means, but that this potential has never been available in pure form. The history of Christianity from the very beginnings in the New Testament period up to the present has been one of great ambiguity, an amalgam of attempts to live out the fundamental values as well as of compromise and open betrayal. This process will be outlined, illustrated and the factors will be pointed at, which in different situations bring to the fore the conflicting elements of Christian tradition. Examples of Christian pacifism, the ethical compromise of the just-war doctrine throughout the centuries will be commented on. The emphasis, however, is on developments in the twentieth century with the great regression of fascism. Finally, the focus is on more recent developments in reflection and action, when Christians begin to transcend the just-war doctrine and struggle to overcome the institution of war responding to the threat posed by weapons of mass destruction. Concrete examples of decisions are discussed and the shadow of a powerful Christian fundamentalism is critically assessed. Nevertheless, it is argued that despite all the failures of historic and contemporary Christianity the basic values of Christian tradition could serve as a motivating force to meet the challenges of a historical situation when violence is dangerously increasing on a global scale. However, these values will only become effective if people relate personally and practically to the ambivalent historical process, critically and responsibly.
Grant Ludwig, L.
In recent decades there has been some tension between earth scientists and evangelical Christians in the U.S., and this tension has spilled over into the political arena and policymaking on important issues such as climate change. From my personal and professional experience engaging with both groups, I find there is much common ground for increasing understanding and communicating the societal relevance of earth science. Fruitful discussions can arise from shared values and principles, and common approaches to understanding the world. For example, scientists and Christians are engaged in the pursuit of truth, and they value moral/ethical decision-making based on established principles. Scientists emphasize the benefits of research "for the common good" while Christians emphasize the value of doing "good works". Both groups maintain a longterm perspective: Christians talk about "the eternal" and geologists discuss "deep time". Both groups understand the importance of placing new observations in context of prior understanding: scientists diligently reference "the literature" while Christians quote "chapter and verse". And members of each group engage with each other in "fellowship" or "meetings" to create a sense of community and reinforce shared values. From my perspective, earth scientists can learn to communicate the importance and relevance of science more effectively by engaging with Christians in areas of common ground, rather than by trying to win arguments or debates.
The behavioral manifestations of psychotic disorders that are attributed to evil spirits in the Judeo-Christian scriptures as demonstrated by Jesus Christ have been narrated. The descriptions of false beliefs and the perceptual experiences that are consistent with the psychiatric terminologies “delusions and hallucinations” are briefly discussed. Attempt has been made to analyze the patterns of suicidal behaviors, guilt feelings, and, expressions of depressive symptoms in the Jewish culture. Of interest is the mass suicide by the Jews in the 1st century AD at the Fort Masada, perhaps the first of its kind recorded in the history. Noteworthy are alcohol and related mental health problems prevalent in the Jewish culture. While highlighting the descriptions of dreams and their revelations recorded in the Bible, it is suggested that such concepts about dreams might have influenced Sigmund Freud's classical works on dreams. The biblical messages and teachings that could be applied for psychotherapy and behavior modification strategies have been outlined. The mental concepts of Jewish culture and their relevance to Indian culture have also been discussed from a cross-cultural perspective. PMID:23858255
The behavioral manifestations of psychotic disorders that are attributed to evil spirits in the Judeo-Christian scriptures as demonstrated by Jesus Christ have been narrated. The descriptions of false beliefs and the perceptual experiences that are consistent with the psychiatric terminologies "delusions and hallucinations" are briefly discussed. Attempt has been made to analyze the patterns of suicidal behaviors, guilt feelings, and, expressions of depressive symptoms in the Jewish culture. Of interest is the mass suicide by the Jews in the 1st century AD at the Fort Masada, perhaps the first of its kind recorded in the history. Noteworthy are alcohol and related mental health problems prevalent in the Jewish culture. While highlighting the descriptions of dreams and their revelations recorded in the Bible, it is suggested that such concepts about dreams might have influenced Sigmund Freud's classical works on dreams. The biblical messages and teachings that could be applied for psychotherapy and behavior modification strategies have been outlined. The mental concepts of Jewish culture and their relevance to Indian culture have also been discussed from a cross-cultural perspective.
Bollinger, Alfred; Partsch, Hugo
Christian Doppler was born 200 years ago in Salzburg, Austria, on November 29, 1803, worked in Prague and Vienna and died 150 years ago in Venice. In an article of eight pages he described the principle, which made him famous. It appeared in 1842 with the exotic title: "On the Coloured Light of the Double Stars and Certain Other Stars of the Heaven". The validity of his principle for velocity measurement was confirmed by trumpet sounds produced on a train moving towards and away from the observer. Around 1960 Japanese scientists suggested that flow velocity in blood vessels could be determined by analysing the difference of frequency between emitted and backscattered ultrasound. Rushmer and coworkers built machines suitable for medicine in Seattle, where Eugene Strandness recognized their potential and applied them in first studies. In 1967 the technique jumped to Europe and started to be used worldwide. Already by using continuous wave ultrasound it was possible to diagnose occlusive disease of neck and limb arteries, venous thrombosis and valvular insufficiency with accuracy. Measurements of postestenotic ankle blood pressure were facilitated by Doppler sensing. Over the years more sophisticated instruments were developed. Pulsed emission of ultrasound waves opened a way to study flow velocity profiles across large vessels. By combining the method with A or B mode ultrasound blood flow could be quantified and finally perfused segments of blood vessels visualized. Duplex scanning in its simple and then in its colour coded version is nowadays the standard non-invasive technique that nobody would like to miss. Vascular territories like intracranial, renal and intestinal arteries can also be explored. For the assessment of microvascular flow in skin and mucosae laser Doppler instruments were introduced.
Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected.
Shyovitz, David I
In the late twelfth century, northern European Jewish mystics engaged in a sustained, unprecedented effort to explore the theological meaning of werewolves. This article seeks to anchor this surprising preoccupation in contemporary European religious culture, arguing that medieval Jews and Christians found werewolves "good to think with" in exploring the spiritual status of the (mutable, unstable) human body. Discourses of monstrosity were used as polemical ammunition in Jewish-Christian debates, but monstrous creatures were simultaneously held to be theologically resonant by both communities-a fact that sheds light upon the broader intellectual and cultural setting in which they were joint participants.
Both geographically and historically, schizophrenia may have emerged from a psychosis that was more florid, affective, labile, shorter lived and with a better prognosis. It is conjectured that this has occurred with a reflexive self-consciousness in Western and globalising societies, a development whose roots lie in Christianity. Every theology also presents a psychology. Six novel aspects of Christianity may be significant for the emergence of schizophrenia—an omniscient deity, a decontexualised self, ambiguous agency, a downplaying of immediate sensory data, and a scrutiny of the self and its reconstitution in conversion. PMID:23749775
Littlewood, Roland; Dein, Simon
Both geographically and historically, schizophrenia may have emerged from a psychosis that was more florid, affective, labile, shorter lived and with a better prognosis. It is conjectured that this has occurred with a reflexive self-consciousness in Western and globalising societies, a development whose roots lie in Christianity. Every theology also presents a psychology. Six novel aspects of Christianity may be significant for the emergence of schizophrenia-an omniscient deity, a decontexualised self, ambiguous agency, a downplaying of immediate sensory data, and a scrutiny of the self and its reconstitution in conversion.
Mackey, David R.
This conceptual study asks how a Christian public elementary school teacher might go about teaching in a classroom in ways that reflect or draw upon said teacher's personal Christian beliefs while also maintaining the secular character required of a public school classroom in a pluralistic democracy. In other words, I ask how a Christian educator…
Maffet, Gregory J.; Dye, Charles M.
This paper gives an account of the thoughts of Cornelius Van Til on the contemporary Christian school movement. An account of the historical development of Christian compromise is given, followed by a critique of the compromise among contemporary Christian educators. Van Til claims that any educational position which falls short of being founded…
Belaire, Christine; Young, J. Scott; Elder, Anastasia
Although conservative Christians have been shown to have rates of mental health problems comparable with the general population (King, 1978), research has found that conservative Christians hesitate to seek counseling from a counselor who does not label him- or herself a "Christian counselor" and often drop out of counseling early when…
Dolson, Jimmy L.
This research project focused on explaining the decision making process of K12 Christian school superintendents whose schools belong to the Association of Christian Schools International (ACSI) organization. In spite of their similar religious and philosophical beliefs, ACSI K12 Christian school superintendents differed significantly in…
Zandstra, Anne M.
This study compares the mission statements of a small sample of Christian elementary schools in the United States and the Netherlands. In the United States, Christian schools are private schools, while in the Netherlands Christian schools receive state funding, just like public schools. Content analysis of mission statements revealed similarities…
Basham, Katie; Hughes, Megan
How can Christian colleges and universities promote interfaith cooperation on their campuses while remaining true to their particular theological orientations? The authors explore why Christian colleges are uniquely situated to positively engage religious diversity and offer best practices for interfaith work in a Christian college context from…
Lewis, Mark; Hall, M. Elizabeth Lewis
Mission statements of Christian institutions of higher education often include the purpose of forming individuals to live out their Christian commitments in larger society. This article presents the case that including theater in Christian higher education prepares students to further God's kingdom in this world after graduation--whether or not…
Hemmings, Brian; Hill, Doug
In Australia, both Christian and non-Christian higher education institutions (HEIs) have experienced a rapidly changing external environment that is becoming more performance-driven, particularly in relation to faculty research. Academics working in Australian Christian HEIs often feel pressure to keep pace with their counterparts in non-Christian…
Today's Christian college students are more engaged in popular youth culture and less reflective than in the past. St. Augustine's On Christian Doctrine, Book IV, gives advice to preachers, but it can easily be adapted to apply to Christian college composition classrooms. The two main sections of the article cover how to teach and what to teach…
The religious contexts in which early Christian communities grew were important factors in the first-century development of Christianity, affecting what it meant to become a Christian--either as a convert from a background in Judaism or as a convert from a background in Greek, Roman, or Egyptian cults. Surrounding religions and cultural norms…
Jankiewicz, Darius; Jankiewicz, Edyta
Until the 20th century, the spiritual nurture of children was not a high priority for the Christian church. In fact, for most of Christian history, reflection on the nature of children and their faith formation was often considered "beneath" the work of theologians. Two 19th-century American Christian writers, however, stand in sharp…
Christianity as a world religion was propagated from Europe and North America to Africa and Asia. Global Christianity spread to East Asia when Robert Morrison (1782-1843) arrived in Canton, China in 1807, and later in the late 19th-century Protestant missionaries from North America arrived in Japan and Korea. This Christianity experienced a modern…
Maddix, Mark A., Ed.; Estep, James R., Ed.; Lowe, Mary E., Ed.
The book provides best practices from online educators who are engaged in online teaching and program development in Christian higher education. It also explores the distinct aspects of teaching and developing online courses and programs from a Christian perspective and within Christian higher education institutions. As such it is can serve as a…
Dowd, Robert A.
Many theorists have argued that western Christianity and Islam affect political culture in different ways, and that western Christianity is more conducive to the rise of a democratic culture than is Islam. This paper argues that the difference between Christianity and Islam in terms of the type of political culture they encourage, is largely…
Glanzer, Perry L.; Carpenter, Joel A.; Lantinga, Nick
Amid the many recent treatments of the global growth of both Christianity and higher education, little to no attention has been given to distinctly Christian higher education. The survey reported in this essay uses an understanding of Christian education developed from analytical work by Robert Benne to examine the number and nature of colleges…
Grosse, Heinrich W
Xenotransplantation is a question of "ethics between man and animal". Because those affected in different ways by xenotransplantation (patients, relatives, medical doctors, laypeople) have different perceptions, "foreign" perspectives must be consciously considered next to one's own perspective in the ethical judgement. As xenotransplantation is still at the stage of preclinical research, this special opportunity for an early public ethical discussion should be taken. According to biblical teaching, man is responsible for his fellows before God, therefore every decision of a patient (or a doctor) in favour of a xenotransplantation made without consideration of the social environment or the society as a whole cannot be ethically justified. From the Jewish-Christian point of view, the "innate value of man's fellow creatures" should be considered. What happens to the animals used for research into transplantation may not simply "vanish" before the vision of a successful xenotransplantation. What man's responsibility to creatures should prevent commonly happens: animals are exploited as instruments or treated as objects to reach human goals, they are perceived only as their utility value. We humans, with God's biblical mandate for our fellow creatures, must remember that the unavoidable weighing up between the (proposed) welfare of man and the welfare of animals should not be decided to the detriment of the animals too easily. The effects of medical technological possibilities on the conception of man and on our value system show themselves in a special way in xenotransplantation. Are the hopes set in xenotransplantation an expression of a mechanistic understanding of the human body and a conception of man that blends out the mortality and imperfection of human life? Focussing on human-ethical aspects leads to the neglect of the animal-ethical aspects by some Protestant ethicists. However, it is necessary to forego at least extremely severe animal experiments and so
Hull, John E.
This article investigates the long-held assumption that Christian educators need their own curriculum orientation. Seminal documents published by Philip Jackson and Harro Van Brummelen in the nineties are analyzed against the background of a brief history of the field of curriculum theory. The author accepts Jackson's conclusion that curriculum…
Hull, John M.
This paper discusses the problem of the value of the individual child, particularly the handicapped child who will never be able to compensate society for the resources devoted to caring for and teaching him/her. Attention is first given to secular arguments on human value, then to observations drawn from Christianity. (Author/SJL)
Riley, Clarence E., Jr.; Green, Gregory
Every day someone is faced with the news that they are dying or that they have a loved one who is dying. Often times this is very unsettling and fear creeps into their hearts for one reason or another. This paper is an attempt to identify the most common reasons for that fear, and offer suggestions for handling that fear in a Christian manner.
Hines, Linda M.
"The Impact of Alignment Coaching on Christian Teachers' Worthy Performance" uses Human Performance Technology and "teleonomics" (Gilbert 2007) to document several intersecting vantage points as one performance improvement system of alignment coaching (AC). Coaching relationships and accomplishments of consistently (daily) reading the Bible,…
Vercruysse, Raymond J.
In 1802, Edmund Rice directed the laying of the foundation stone for Mount Sion Monastery and School. After several previous attempts of instructing poor boys in Waterford, this was to be the first permanent home for the Congregation of Christian Brothers. Rice's dream of founding a religious community of brothers was becoming a reality with a…
Van Breda, Adrian D
HIV is a health and developmental crisis that has profoundly challenged the Christian church in sub-Saharan Africa. Responding to stigma and prejudice against HIV and people living with HIV and AIDS has been a major concern of theologians and Christian leaders. However, Christians themselves and the church as a community are equally prone to stigma and prejudice. The author contends that this stigma is grounded in the dynamic of 'othering', which, among Christians, takes on religious or theological overtones. Drawing on qualitative data from theology students in South Africa, the paper assembles a model of AIDS stigma as othering. The central story or axis of the model is the dynamic of othering, comprising three themes, viz. lack of empathic contact, disconnection, and distancing. There are three main dynamics that appear to contribute to or feed into othering, viz. emotions related to sexuality and HIV, theology of health and judgement, and contextualised knowledge of HIV. Finally, the model presents two primary results of othering, viz. disengagement from HIV through passivity and hopelessness, and prejudice against those living with HIV. The paper endeavours to reveal the possible biblical roots of AIDS stigma. Through this, the deep violence embedded in such stigma is exposed and contrasted with a theology of inclusiveness and engagement.
Smith, Julien C. H.; Scales, T. Laine
This article explores theological dimensions of the academic vocation, taking its cue from the research undertaken by the Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate, which envisions the scholar as a steward of an academic discipline. We contend, however, that the Christian scholar's sense of stewardship extends beyond one's academic…
Imagined communities are not bound by space or time, they exist in opposition to other communities, and the members perceive themselves as existentially similar. Multiple case studies and interviews revealed that the seven Christian schools in this study functioned as imagined communities, and their literary practices served to establish,…
Buchanan, Michael T.
This study investigated the contributions peer review makes to the formation of preservice teachers of religious education within the context of Christian higher education. The participants were postgraduate students undertaking a preservice teacher training course at Australian Catholic University, Australia (Melbourne campus). Those training to…
Boggs, Carol J.
Explored methods and goals of parenting presented in a selected group of parent advice books written for Evangelical Christian parents. The books focused on middle childhood and dealt primarily with the nuclear family. The Bible was a major authority base, but behavioral science research was also included. (Author/JAC)
Council, Eileen J.; Cooper, Bruce S.
Little is known about classical Christian schools and their leaders in the United States. This study describes the headmasters of such schools and their sense of job satisfaction, job efficacy, and career aspirations. Numerous significant relationships among the variables were found, including between job satisfaction and a headmaster's…
Phillips, Sheri L.
In the Christian college environment, students are encouraged to understand their vocational calling, yet quantitative research on how college students conceptualize calling is sparse. This correlational study extends the research literature significantly by empirically examining variables that affect sense of vocational calling in 270 college…
Eakle, A. Jonathan
The purposes of this investigation were to explore power and literacies in and surrounding local, Christian fundamentalist faith-based education space and to show how empirical data can be used to assemble literacies in a manner that is outside typical research frames and ways to display research. This qualitative space study addresses the…
Hirschy, Mary Jo
This study focused on virtual team leadership in Christian higher education by exploring the viability and acceptability of leadership practices defined by Malhotra, Majchrzak, and Rosen (2007). They identified six leadership practices effective leaders use to overcome the unique challenges associated with virtual teams, including: (a)…
Drawing on interviews with creators of Christian hip hop music in South Africa, this article demonstrates that this genre of popular music and youth culture is utilised as a form of pedagogy to transmit religious beliefs and values to contemporary youth. The pedagogical aspects of hip hop have been recognised in research on the topic, but the…
Witty, Francis J.
Texts are presented which employ the word alphabet" and are earlier than D. Diringer's citation for its first appearance in literature. Terms, not adequately treated in the standard lexica, need thorough examination in individual Christian writers of the early period. (Author/NH)
Carr-Chellman, Davin J.
This is a study of adult ethical development in Christian congregations. Using an empirical hermeneutic phenomenological methodology, this study examined how five pastors understand and encourage ethical development, developing an in-depth analysis and interpretation of their perceptions of the phenomenon of adult ethical development. Two primary…
During the past 10 to 15 years there has been a renewed interest in the place of religion, religious education and religious schools in different parts of the world. This began in the USA and Europe with the development of private Christian schools. It was later followed by the resurgence of religious schools in the former parts of the Soviet…
Dolan, C S
The introduction of export horticulture in Meru District, Kenya, brought about disadvantageous effects on female farmers. Their workload increased while their earnings did not. Women reacted by turning to Christianity for support, and resorted to traditional witchcraft to regain control. In this article, Christianity and witchcraft are presented as ways of expressing discontent with the prevailing social norms, and as means to reclaim autonomy and security within their households. Since Kenyan women are entailed to meet the standards of being a good Christian wife, in which women are submissive to their husbands, the church became a means of escaping the confinements of their marriage. In Meru, Christian conversion offers a means of coping with life and an opportunity to interact with other women who share the same experience. Another strategy adopted by women is witchcraft, a traditional relic wherein women give "potions" to their husbands to induce psychosis and eventually death, which would then leave control of the household to the woman. In conclusion, the case presented here demonstrates how failure to recognize cultural dynamics leads to gender inequity and worsens women's well being, as well as men's security.
In late December, the question, Who took the "Judeo" out of "Judeo-Christian?" hung over Mishkenot Sha'ananim, Jerusalem's distinguished guest house. Inside the complex, more than 130 attendees from nine countries attended the colloquium on "Political Hebraism: Jewish Sources in the History of Political Thought."…
Schutte, Kelli Jo
The research reported in this study focused on women in an institution of Christian higher education. The study utilized in-depth interviews to explore certain work/life influences including cultural demands, organizational demands, and personal influences. The findings stress the importance of an individual worldview in strategy formation for…
Smith, Yolanda Y.
The author believes that a deep sense of spirituality together with effective Christian education can be a powerful resource for equipping individuals and communities to play an active role in transforming their lives as well as oppressive systems that have impacted their communities. In her discussion of spirituality, womanist ethicist Emilie…
Gliebe, Sudi Kate
This article proposes five initiatives to foster emotional intelligence (EI) education throughout institutions of Christian higher education. Goleman (1995) identifies self-awareness, managing emotions, motivation, empathy, and social intelligence as the hallmark skills of emotional intelligence. The importance of mastering these skills and their…
Stitzlein, Sarah M.
This synthetic review aims to unite a seemingly disjoint collection of studies over the past 3 decades around their shared examination of sexism in an often overlooked U.S. population, namely girls attending private Christian schools. This undertaking reveals substantial harms that I categorize as those of immediacy and potentiality, which are…
Welch, Michael R.; Tittle, Charles R.; Grasmick, Harold G.
Survey data from a southwestern metropolitan area are used to analyze whether the ability of personal Christian religiosity to predict social conformity is spuriously due to self-control. Results indicate that both personal religiosity and self-control display statistically significant, independent negative net relationships with many forms of…
Describes activities around which a seventh grade religious studies unit is developed. Describes the building of a timeline, the game "Human Bingo," a hunt for Christian artifacts, creation of biography partners to study Jesus Christ and Mohammed, a jigsaw activity to discover Islamic principles, and a group activity using Jewish and Islamic…
Pirner, Manfred L.
The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities has triggered endeavours in many countries to implement inclusive education at public schools. A Christian interpretation that concentrates on the anthropogical themes of fragmentarity, fragility and complementarity offers valuable impulses to the public discourse on inclusive education,…
... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 5 (Friday, January 8, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 1051] [FR Doc No: 2010-61] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-27-000] Christian County Generation, LLC; Notice of Filing December 30, 2009. Take notice that on December 23,...
Beckman, Jack E.; Drexler, James L.; Eames, Kevin J.
Designed as an exploratory study, this article represents an initial explication of the world of the Christian school head, an underresearched area of school leadership. Primarily drawing upon a small purposive sample of respondents in the field, the researchers used qualitative interviewing to develop a narrative describing the complexities of…
Longman, Karen A.; Anderson, Patricia S.
This article presents a discussion of the gender imbalance in senior-level leadership roles within the U.S. member institutions of the Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU), highlighting data across the last two decades. The underrepresentation of women in this sector is placed within a theological context and is compared with…
Yonker, Julie E.; Wielard, Cassie J.; Vos, Carolyn L.; Tudder, Ashley M.
Four classes of first-grade children at a Christian school took pre- and post-tests measuring humility. Two intervention classes had devotional lessons on humility and two comparison classes did not. For one week, devotional lessons featured humility-related children's literature, cognitively appropriate discussions, writing about humility, and…
Moran, Christy D.
As part of a larger investigation into the experiences of 25 evangelical Christian student leaders at two public universities, students were interviewed to determine how they conceptualized their religious identity as well as how that dimension of their identity impacted their roles and responsibilities as students. Results suggest that the public…
Reports on conflicts between student religious groups and college nondiscrimination policies concerning homosexuality. Incidents involved the student Christian Fellowship chapters at Tufts University (Massachusetts) and Middlebury College (Vermont). Conflict focuses on freedom of religion versus the institution's right to withhold funding from…
This study provides a descriptive snapshot of high school students' home lives from their perspective as first-year college students as they attended a Bible college or Christian liberal arts college. The sample of over 2,300 surveys was collected annually for 14 years through selected freshmen courses, and the data reports on the frequencies of…
Wright, Andrew W.
The doctrine of justification is frequently interpreted in a manner that excludes our active involvement in the drama of salvation. This reading has a detrimental effect on Christian education concerned to enable the learner's attentive, reasonable and responsible understanding of the Gospel. Taking its lead from Kierkegaard's account of…
Phelps, Matthew P.; Waalkes, Scott
In this article we offer a narrative account of three faculty development groups on one campus: an interdisciplinary summer reading group, a writers group, and a spiritual formation group. Grounded in the literature on Christian friendship, the narrative testifies to the development, characteristics, and impact of these groups. We conclude that…
During the past century, Christianity has become widely accepted in tropical Africa because, unlike Islam, it presented a set of beliefs and ideas which (1) embraced traditional spiritual needs and concerns and (2) enabled Africans to comprehend modernizing forces that were altering their environment. (Author/GC)
Todd, Sarah; Coholic, Diana
Christian fundamentalist religious beliefs, expressed by social work students, present a challenge to the social work educator. In this paper we explore the tensions between Fundamentalism, diverse sexual orientation and gender expression and social work pedagogy. Particularly, we focus on how an anti-oppressive pedagogical approach, while…
Babyak, Andrew T.
The current landscape in education is changing rapidly as online learning programs are experiencing great growth. As online learning grows, many professors and students are entering into new learning environments for the first time. While online learning has proven to be successful in many cases, it is not a journey upon which Christian professors…
Edie, Fred P.
As one means to assess their effectiveness in the formation and training of educational leaders for the United Methodist Church, professors of Christian education agreed to share their introductory course syllabi for analysis, interpretation, and public reporting. The analysis reveals points of strong overlap, very real differences, plus some…
As a religion based on the teaching of Jesus Christ, from the outset Christianity has developed a completely different attitude toward health and illness than the Old Testament. Health and illness are now viewed through the eyes of Jesus Christ the redeemer, who accepted each and every man. The history of Christianity has had its episodes of masochistic attitude toward illness, but today it clearly underscores the need to fight it with any means available, but it also teaches to accept what can not be changed. Saints are often patrons against diseases they had to endure. However, this is not their main role. To this day many seem to miss the main point their heritage, but see them as miracle healers. This misperception of miracle needs revising as well as the simplistic interpretation of the healing powers of relics (viewed as a demiurge of sort) and of the private vows and votive offerings.
Langford, Jean M
If much has been written of the forms of bodiliness reinforced by hospitals, less attention has been paid to the medicalization of the soul. The medical management of death institutionalizes divisions between body and soul, and matter and spirit, infusing end-of-life care with latent Christian theological presumptions. The invisibility of these presumptions is partly sustained by projecting religiosity on those who endorse other cosmologies, while retaining for medicine a mask of secular science. Stories of conflict with non-Christian patients force these presumptions into visibility, suggesting alternative ethics of care and mourning rooted in other understandings. In this article, I explore one such story. Considering the story as an allegory for how matter and spirit figure in contemporary postmortem disciplines, I suggest that it exposes both the operation of a taboo against mixing material and spiritual agendas, and an assumption that appropriate mourning is oriented toward symbolic homage, rather than concern for the material welfare of the dead.
Allen, D F; Bachelder, R
This paper provides a discussion of the ethical humanism of the late psychoanalyst Eric Fromm as compared to traditional Judeo-Christian theism. Considering their respective views of human nature and possibility, and of the relationship between truth, reason, and revelation, the authors posit that Fromm and traditional theists take radically different positions, making their religious stances fundamentally incompatible. In conclusion, the authors suggest how these differences could have significant implication for pastoral care.
citizenship to prevent political-cultural vertigo. Many civic - oriented Christians rallied around a decidedly Protestant conception of virtue intended...thesis is not an attempt to resolve to what extent specific doctrines-pre/post millennialism , Calvinism/Arminianism, etc.-consistently apply and/or...issue- oriented causes. This inquiry is limited to an examination of the American Bible Society (ABS). Not only was it one of the earliest, largest and
When a Christian learner gains insight that learning is needed and takes the appropriate action to learn the knowledge and apply it, there will be joy and satisfaction with learning. The premise for this paper is in the Bible verse Ecclesiastes 2:26: (NASB) "For to a person who is good in His sight He has given wisdom and knowledge and joy..."…
Barnes, M. Elizabeth; Truong, Jasmine M.; Brownell, Sara E.
A major research thrust in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education is focused on how to retain students as STEM majors. The accumulation of seemingly insignificant negative experiences in STEM classes can, over time, lead STEM students to have a low sense of belonging in their disciplines, and this can lead to lower retention. In this paper, we explore how Judeo-Christian students in biology have experiences related to their religious identities that could impact their retention in biology. In 28 interviews with Judeo-Christian students taking undergraduate biology classes, students reported a religious identity that can conflict with the secular culture and content of biology. Some students felt that, because they are religious, they fall within a minority in their classes and would not be seen as credible within the biology community. Students reported adverse experiences when instructors had negative dispositions toward religion and when instructors were rigid in their instructional practices when teaching evolution. These data suggest that this may be a population susceptible to experiences of cultural conflict between their religious identities and their STEM identities, which could have implications for retention. We argue that more research should explore how Judeo-Christian students’ experiences in biology classes influence their sense of belonging and retention. PMID:28232586
The question of what, if anything, Christian theology as theology might contribute to ethical debates about appropriate uses of medical genetics has often been ignored. The answer is complex, and the author argues it is best characterized by an explanation of the analogous aspirations of the two: both have as their goal the perfection of the human being, both assert that the present disposition of the human body is on a fundamental level more often than not other than it ought to be, and both aspire to transform the present state of the body toward a future state in which present imperfections no longer exist. Given these analogous concerns, it would seem that one of the primary moral contributions that Christianity can make to debates about medical genetics is to ask whether and to what extent the Christian vision of embodied human perfection is compatible with the vision of perfection offered by the sciences pertaining to medical genetics. The author pursues a discussion of this analogy and its implications in this essay.
Barnes, M Elizabeth; Truong, Jasmine M; Brownell, Sara E
A major research thrust in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education is focused on how to retain students as STEM majors. The accumulation of seemingly insignificant negative experiences in STEM classes can, over time, lead STEM students to have a low sense of belonging in their disciplines, and this can lead to lower retention. In this paper, we explore how Judeo-Christian students in biology have experiences related to their religious identities that could impact their retention in biology. In 28 interviews with Judeo-Christian students taking undergraduate biology classes, students reported a religious identity that can conflict with the secular culture and content of biology. Some students felt that, because they are religious, they fall within a minority in their classes and would not be seen as credible within the biology community. Students reported adverse experiences when instructors had negative dispositions toward religion and when instructors were rigid in their instructional practices when teaching evolution. These data suggest that this may be a population susceptible to experiences of cultural conflict between their religious identities and their STEM identities, which could have implications for retention. We argue that more research should explore how Judeo-Christian students' experiences in biology classes influence their sense of belonging and retention.
Winslow, Mark William
The goal of this study was to explore how Christian biology-related majors at a Christian university perceive the apparent conflicts between their understanding of evolution and their religious beliefs, and how their faith, as a structural-developmental system for ordering and making meaning of the world, plays a role in the mediating process. This naturalistic study utilized a case study design of 15 participants specified as undergraduate biology-related majors or recent biology-related graduates from a midwestern Christian university who had completed an upper-level course on evolution. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews that investigated participants' faith and their views on creationism and evolution. Fowler's theory of faith development and Parks' model of college students' faith was extensively used. Additional data were collected through an Evolution Attitudes Survey and a position paper on evolution as an assignment in the evolution course. Data analysis revealed patterns that were organized into themes and sub-themes that were the major outcomes of the study. Most participants were raised to believe in creationism, but came to accept evolution through an extended process of evaluating the scientific evidence in support of evolution, negotiating the literalness of Genesis, recognizing evolution as a non-salvation issue, and observing professors as role models of Christians who accept evolution. Participants remained committed to their personal religious beliefs despite apprehension that accompanied the reconciliation process in accepting evolution. Most participants operated from the perspective that science and religion are separate and interacting domains. Faith played an important role in how participants reconciled their understanding of evolution and their personal religious beliefs. Participants who operated in conventional faith dismissed contentious issues or collapsed dichotomies in an effort to avoid ambiguity and perceived
Gastmans, Chris; Van Neste, Fernand; Schotsmans, Paul
In this article, the place and the nature of an ethical dialogue that develops within Christian healthcare institutions in Flanders, Belgium is examined. More specifically, the question is asked how Christian healthcare institutions should position themselves ethically in a context of a pluralistic society. The profile developed by Caritas Catholica Flanders must take seriously not only the external pluralistic context of our society and the internal pluralistic worldviews by personnel/employees and patients, but also the inherent inspiration of a Christian healthcare institution. This article concludes with ten general orientations that could shape the ethical dialogue from a Christian inspiration in a pluralistic context.
Ruether, R R
Religion was a problem at the Conference on Population and Development. Many people consider religion to be anti-modern or reactionary. The conference document describes a global population policy that assumes underlying ethical values but does not articulate these values. The document does not recognize conflicts between values. Secular rationality is a culture shared by an elite, not the masses. Yet the document is intended for them. It cannot empower women, especially poor or non-elite women, to regulate their fertility, if it cannot connect with their religious cultures. The cultural conflict is not just between religious discourse and secular discourse but a deep conflict within religion itself. This conflict is seething in Catholicism and other major religions and manifested itself at the conference. The opposition at the conference hid internal schisms. Christianity has a deep conflict between norms sacralizing the dominant patriarchal social order as the will of God and the order of creation and the prophetic faith that protests against oppressive social patterns. Christianity has had continual surges of renewal that rekindle the prophetic protest tradition on behalf of the poor and the marginalized. The world is in the midst of such a wave in the forms of liberation and feminist theologies. Deep symbols of justice and protests against injustice are being applied for the first time to women. To affirm women as images of God, one must image God as woman. Women are called into the community of equals. The rediscovery of the meaning of symbols of redemption and applying them to the poor and women is shaking traditional Christianity to its roots. The Vatican's refusal of the conference document is a refusal to discuss the challenge of renewal within its own community. The conflict with the Vatican should be put in the context of a conflict between patriarchy and prophetic faith (women's liberation). The document will fail if it ignores or neutralizes religion.
Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L
In most marriages, husbands are older than wives at the time of marriage. The extent of this age difference is referred to as age heterogamy. Studies of age heterogamous marriages have found men and women married to younger spouses live longer than those married to spouses that are the same age at time of marriage. In this study we examined the role of a religious affiliation as a factor in this age heterogamy effect, by comparing Jewish and Christian husbands and wives. While we confirmed the age heterogamy effect on longevity, we did not find any evidence that it was affected by religion.
Leasure, June Ruff; Sanchez-Fowler, Laura
The purpose of this particularistic case study (Merriam, 1998) was to enable Christian school educators to examine their enrollment and instructional policies in light of their philosophies. Within the framework of effective schools and scientifically-based interventions, I examined the instructional strategies that two Christian school teachers…
Nussbaum, Kathleen B.; Chang, Heewon
Social justice pertaining to diversity issues in higher education grips the nation, yet Christian higher education (CHE) has moved slowly to address the diversity in our institutions and society. Christian higher education faces the same challenges with growing diversity as secular higher education. Diversity impacts every aspect of institutional…
Vocational training, functioning of an academic teacher in the profession and personal development are the selected areas of the author's scientific research inquiries, based on the Christian concept of Man as the image of God and the perception of the value of a person in being a Human. Christian academic teacher has been defined as an advocate…
The following article lays out the rationale and vision for a new section of "Christian Higher Education" focused on academic faith integration. The section editor provides a brief history of this central aspect of Christian higher education, including some of the opportunities, challenges, and critiques expressed within the scholarly…
This article builds on the foundations and evaluations laid recently by Symes and Gulson in their 2005 article, "Crucifying Education: The rise and rise of new Christian schooling in Australia." It evaluates the warrant of Christian schooling within a liberal democracy and offers a rejoinder for defending the rights of Christian…
Williams, Emyr; Francis, Leslie J; Robbins, Mandy
A small but statistically significant positive correlation (r = .17) was found in a sample of 279 13- to 16-yr.-old students in Wales between scores on the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity and on a new Index of Paranormal Belief. These data suggest that there is little common variance between attitude toward Christianity and belief in the paranormal.
Hospitality is the Christian imperative of welcoming the stranger to our table, which serves as a living metaphor for the salvation God extends to all of us, welcoming us as sinners to his table of abundance. As we transition from the era of missions to the era of world Christianity, a hospitality framework is helpful for the concomitant task of…
Grajales G., Tevni; Leon V., Vicente H.; Elias, Galiya
Diverse perspectives with respect to Christian Education constitute a potential path for misunderstanding and contradictions; this study considers this situation in the context of a Seventh-day Adventist Christian system with students and parents from different religious perspectives in Chile. The parents/sponsors of the eighth graders were…
Geneva College, a Christian institution in Pennsylvania, will be allowed to post job advertisements on a state-sponsored Web site even though the college requires employees to be Christians, according to the terms of a settlement reached in federal court. The college had sued the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry and the U.S.…
Tangunan Camota Contreras, Jennifer
Research Topic: The majority of Christian schools in the United States exclude children who have disabilities from their learning communities. This study examines the practices of 11 Christian schools throughout the United States, through conversations with a top leader in each school, that provide access to and/or inclusion in their schools.…
O'Sullivan, Ralph G.
The purpose of this paper is to link several sets of ideas in personality theory to each other and to Christian theology; link several sets of ideas in personality theory and cultural anthropology to each other and to Christian theology; and demonstrate that various social phenomena are not the domain of any particular social or behavioral science…
Johns, Christopher D.
A collision of concepts often occurs within the science classrooms of Christian schools. Students are faced with the task of accommodating biblical teachings with science theories that are not only incompatible but often directly conflicting. Teachers in the Christian school must choose to what extent and how this conflicting information will be…
Hall, M. Elizabeth Lewis; Anderson, Tamara L.; Willingham, Michele M.
Academic institutions present specific challenges to women attempting to balance work and family responsibilities. This type of involvement within the subculture of evangelical Christianity presents its own variations. Interviews with 30 mothers working in Christian academia were analyzed using a post hoc content analysis informed by principles of…
In July 2007 Ipsos Reid delivered to Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) a report entitled "Christian Post-Secondary Education in Canada, Phase 3: Defining the Market". This article is a selective summary of the full 353-page report. It tabulates and analyzes findings from 1,000 phone interviews and 6,689 online surveys from six…
Lloyd, John B.
Myers-Briggs personality typing is widely used in the Christian church as an aid to individual self-understanding and spiritual formation. However, some Christian leaders have expressed doubt about its validity in understanding human personality and also opposition to its use in nurturing spiritual growth. The aim of the work reported was to…
This article looks at the long-term consequences of a political campaign that was influential in Britain between 1988 and 1992, the Christian Schools Campaign. The campaign was a response to the need for funding of a group of small independent Christian schools. The article brings up to date the direct outcomes of the campaign in two areas. The…
Edgell, Margaret S.
A localized ethnography of African Christian students revealed consistently robust Christian faith across all respondents, the core elements of which were rooted in an explicit Afrocentric worldview. These findings support multicultural critiques of classic student spiritual development theory, and point toward further research from a…
Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem
This study conducted among Christian, Muslim, and nonreligious early adolescents living in the Netherlands used intergroup theory for examining religious group evaluations. There was evidence for a religious group divide with a third of the Christian and nonreligious participants explicitly indicating negative feelings toward Muslims, and Muslim…
Sriram, Rishi; McLevain, Melissa
The future of Christian higher education is not certain, and faith-based institutions will need to continue to convince prospective students that the experiences they offer are worth the investment. What is missing in the discussion of what makes Christian higher education special is the transformational experience provided outside of the…
Joldersma, Clarence W.
The article argues for welcoming LGBT students in Christian schools. The article develops an idea of justice based on Nicholas Wolterstorff's idea of claim-rights of vulnerable groups that have been wronged, and applies this to the security and recognition of LGBT students in Christian schools. The article presents empirical evidence about the…
Dockery, David S.
This article does not attempt to address the many and varied changes currently facing Christian higher education, but seeks to provide a framework for thinking about the future that is grounded in the church's heritage and tradition. Believing that the secular culture is indifferent to the Christian faith and that the Christ world tends to be…
Nwosu, Constance C.
This paper investigates how to train teachers in Christian schools for the integration of faith and learning (IFL) in their classrooms, noting that professional development of teachers in Christian schools can foster IFL in individual classrooms and entire campuses. The paper focuses on Jesus's training methodology, identifying components used in…
Peck, Lee Anne
Clifford Glenn Christians' work in the area of media ethics education from 1976 through 1984 has influenced the way media ethics is taught to many college students today. This time period includes, among his other accomplishments, Christians' work on an extensive survey of how media ethics was taught in the late 1970s, his work on the Hastings…
Hoskins, John Richard
Christian schools ought to revolve around Jesus' teaching, "Whoever would be great among you must be your servant, and whoever would be first among you must be your slave, even as the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many" (Matthew 20:26-28, ESV). However, Christian schools often model…
Francis, Leslie J.; ap Siôn, Tania; Village, Andrew
From the late 1960s independent Christian schools have emerged in England and Wales, initiated either by churches or by parents. Many of these new independent schools are linked through the Christian Schools Trust. The impact that these schools are exerting on their students may be of interest for the churches with which they are associated and of…
This article raises a number of theological reservations about one contemporary Christian approach to teaching and learning. For many years David Smith and Trevor Cooling have played a leading role in demonstrating how Christian beliefs and theological themes might be integrated into classroom practice across the curriculum. But despite the good…
The author's specialization as a Christian theologian is in the combined area of morality and spirituality. The focus of his teaching and research has been in the areas of bioethics; the theology of sexuality, marriage, and the family; and Christian spirituality. In his research he came across several authors who advocated some positions different…
de Kock, A.
This article questions the implications of tribal forms of religious socialization for (religious) schools' and communities' contributions to the religious formation of Christian youth. It clarifies that the religious education of a new generation of young Christians requires authorities and communities to connect in a worldwide pedagogical space…
Despite healthy growth in past decades, in a time of national and global economic instability small, private Christian colleges now find themselves in a precarious position. Leading effectively in such colleges and universities in a time of external and/or internal crisis is a great challenge. This research is about a small, Christian college with…
In my book "For the Beauty of the Earth: A Christian Vision of Creation Care" (2001, rev edn 2010) I develop a set of ecological virtues from a Christian perspective. Although there are now monographs, e.g. "Character and Environment: A Virtue-Oriented Approach to Environmental Ethics" (2007), and anthologies, e.g.…
Wolff, Joshua R.; Himes, Heather L.; Kwon, Ellen Miller; Bollinger, Richard A.
Research demonstrates that Evangelical Christians generally hold more negative attitudes toward gays and lesbians, and are less supportive of gay rights than the general U.S. population. To assess these attitudes, undergraduate students at an Evangelical Christian university in California (N = 319) completed the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay…
Winslow, Mark W.; Staver, John R.; Scharmann, Lawrence C.
The goal of this study was to explore Christian biology-related majors' perceptions of conflicts between evolution and their religious beliefs. This naturalistic study utilized a case study design of 15 undergraduate biology-related majors at or recent biology-related graduates from a mid-western Christian university. The broad sources of data…
Symes, Colin; Gulson, Kalervo N.
Fundamentalist and evangelical Christianity is growing in popularity in Australia, concurrent with the ascendancy of the new Christian school. This article examines the historical and policy landscapes that have given rise to this educational phenomenon and draws some links with other education systems, particularly the United States. It is argued…
Belcher, John R.; Fandetti, Donald; Cole, Danny
This article examines the rise of Christian religious conservatism and explores whether the theological views of the conservative Christian movement are compatible with the liberal social welfare state. The authors conclude that the driving force behind social change should remain with the state, even though faith-based initiatives can provide…
Belcher, John R; Fandetti, Donald; Cole, Danny
This article examines the rise of Christian religious conservatism and explores whether the theological views of the conservative Christian movement are compatible with the liberal social welfare state. The authors conclude that the driving force behind social change should remain with the state, even though faith-based initiatives can provide some basic supports that the social welfare state can use.
Watts, Richard E.; Trusty, Jerry
M.R. Butz's position regarding chaos theory and Christianity is reviewed. The compatibility of biblical theology and the sciences is discussed. Parallels between chaos theory and the philosophical perspective of Soren Kierkegaard are explored. A biblical model is offered for counselors in assisting Christian clients in embracing chaos. (Author/EMK)
A study sought to explore and define the nature of gendered religious socialization in a non-denominational Christian school, using the lens of submission theology. Many Christian schools today are less rigid in their rules and doctrines than formerly and are no longer separate from the world. This study was conducted in one such school, where a…
Francis, Leslie J.; Fawcett, Bruce; Linkletter, Jody; Robbins, Mandy; Stairs, Dale
A recent study of the psychological type profile of Christian youth workers in the UK drew attention to differences between the profiles of youth workers and clergy, and highlighted distinctive strengths and weaknesses that may be experienced by youth workers in Christian ministry. The present study, employing the Francis Psychological Type Scales…
Guttmann, Joseph; Lazar, Amnon; Makhoul, Samar
The present study examines the attitudes towards physical punishment (PP) and its actual use as reported by Christian Arab parents and their children in Israel. Participants were parents and one child (of at least two) in 50 Christian Arab families. Three questionnaires based on semi-structured interviews were developed for the study. Results show…
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA... (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.40 Policy—Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA). Title... by the YMCA on military reservations, of such buildings as their work for the promotion of the...
Nwosu, Constance C.
This article argues that Christian educational institutions in Africa can play a major role in improving economic self-reliance within the continent, if those who establish Christian universities there take time to plan the programs and activities in those institutions. Specifically, it argues that with proper planning of quality education--the…
Pellegrino, Edmund D
A Christian analysis of the moral conflicts that exist among physicians and health care institutions requires a detailed treatment of the ethical issues in managed care. To be viable, managed care, as with any system of health care, must be economically sound and morally defensible. While managed care is per se a morally neutral concept, as it is currently practiced in the United States, it is morally dubious at best, and in many instances is antithetical to a Catholic Christian ethics of health care. The moral status of any system of managed care ought to be judged with respect to its congruence with Gospel teachings about the care of the sick, Papal Encyclicals, and the documents of the Second Vatican Council. In this essay, I look at the important conceptual or definitional issues of managed care, assess these concerns over against the source and content of a Catholic ethic of health care, and outline the necessary moral requirements of any licit system of health care.
Guthrie, Janice Marie
Statistics indicate that students in conservative Christian schools earn higher standardized test scores in mathematics, reading, science, and writing compared to their public school counterparts, while many are criticized for using curricular materials deemed inferior in quality and for employing uncertified and ill-trained teachers. This study investigates the effectiveness of Christian-published science textbooks in preparing students for college-level science courses as measured by the Science Reasoning subtest of the ACT college entrance examination. A questionnaire was sent to conservative Christian high schools in five Midwest states which are affiliated with the American Association of Christian Schools, Association of Christian Schools International, and Oral Roberts University Educational Fellowship. Information gathered on the schools, teachers, facilities, and ACT Science Reasoning scores and the resulting descriptive statistics provide a sketch of the typical Midwest Christian high school. Hypothesis testing resulted in acceptance of the Null Hypothesis: There is no difference between the mean ACT Science Reasoning scores of Midwest Christian high schools using Christian-published science textbooks as compared to those using secular-published science textbooks. Multiple regression analysis on the two publishers represented by the sample statistics, A Beka and Bob Jones University Press, showed no significant difference in the effectiveness of one publisher over the other. Analysis of the one open-ended question asking why each school chooses to use the type of publisher it does led to the issues of worldview instruction and academic rigor as the deciding factors for the selection of one type of publisher over the other.
... Christian Science practitioners; application for exemption from self-employment tax. 1.1402(e)-2A Section 1... and Christian Science practitioners; application for exemption from self-employment tax. (a) In... order) or (ii) a Christian Science practitioner may request an exemption from the tax on...
... Christian Science practitioners; application for exemption from self-employment tax. 1.1402(e)-2A Section 1... religious orders and Christian Science practitioners; application for exemption from self-employment tax. (a... member of such order) or (ii) a Christian Science practitioner may request an exemption from the tax...
For dance educators engaged in teaching choreography in Christian tertiary institutes, encouraging students to develop foundational compositional skills whilst exploring personal expression of the Christian faith is undoubtedly a challenging objective. In 2005, a Christian tertiary education provider in South Australia enrolled six female dance…
This article examines the role of Uganda Christian University (UCU) in devising strategies for the sustenance of Christian faith in one's career for the betterment of the society despite its social ills. The current theme of UCU is "A Complete Education for a Complete Person." As a Christian university, UCU seeks to provide a positive…
What influence has Christianity had on kinesiology and physical education's status in the Academy? Conventional wisdom within kinesiology often seems to argue that the influence has been quite negative. These critics allege that Christianity is a fundamentally dualistic religion. They allege that, at its best, Christianity is suspicious of the…
Wilhelm, Gretchen Marie
This qualitative study provides a phenomenological perspective and comparative analysis of character education within the Christian school and home education milieu. The study is based on semi-structured interviews of fifty-two individuals (N = 52) representative of a sampling of Christian educators from four private, evangelical Christian Schools…
Iselin, Darren; Meteyard, John D.
Although widespread consensus exists that the integration of Christian worldview, faith and learning lies at the heart of effective Christian education, such an aspiration has not always resulted in the embodiment of worldview principles within Christian educational contexts. In response to this dissonance, an alternative approach to integration…
... Christian Science practitioners; application for exemption from self-employment tax. 1.1402(e)-2A Section 1... religious orders and Christian Science practitioners; application for exemption from self-employment tax. (a... member of such order) or (ii) a Christian Science practitioner may request an exemption from the tax...
... Christian Science practitioners; application for exemption from self-employment tax. 1.1402(e)-2A Section 1... religious orders and Christian Science practitioners; application for exemption from self-employment tax. (a... member of such order) or (ii) a Christian Science practitioner may request an exemption from the tax...
Randolph, R. O.
With its focus on the origin, extent, and future of life, Astrobiology raises exciting, multidisciplinary questions for science. At the same time, Astrobiology raises important questions for the humanities. For instance, the prospect of discovering extraterrestrial life - either intelligent or unintelligent - raises questions about humans’ place in the universe and our relationship with nature on planet Earth. Fundamentally, such questions are rooted in our understanding of what it means to be human. From a Christian perspective, the foundational claim about human nature is that all persons bear the "imago dei", the image of God. This concept forms the basis for how humans relate to one another (dignity) and how humans relate to nature (stewardship). For many Christians the "imago dei" also suggests that humans are at the center of the universe. The discovery of extraterrestrial life would be another scientific development - similar to evolution - that essentially de-centers humanity. For some Christian perspectives this de-centering may be problematic, but I will argue that the discovery of extraterrestrial life would actually offer a much needed theological corrective for contemporary Christians’ understanding of the "imago dei". I will make this argument by examining two clusters of ethical issues confronting Astrobiology: 1. What ethical obligations would human explorers owe to extraterrestrial life? Are there ethical obligations to protect extraterrestrial ecosystems from harm or exploitation by human explorers? Do our ethical considerations change, if the extraterrestrial life is a “second genesis;” in other words a form of life completely different and independent from the carbon-based life that we know on Earth? 2. Do we have an ethical obligation to promote life as much as we can? If human explorers discover extraterrestrial life and through examination determine that it is struggling to survive, do we have an ethical obligation to assist that
Newlin Lew, Kelley; Arbuah, Nancy; Banach, Paul; Melkus, Gail
To inform development of a combined diabetes prevention and self-management intervention in partnership with church communities, this study sampled African American church leaders and members (N=44) to qualitatively study religious beliefs and practices, diabetes prevention and self-management behaviors, and related community actions. Prior to commencing the study, internal review board approval was obtained. Although not required, community consent was officially provided by the church pastors. Individual consent was subsequently obtained from eligible community members who expressed an interest in participating in the study. Following a participatory action research approach, the inquiry group method was used. Qualitative data were analyzed with content analysis. Findings revealed Christian worldview, medical mistrust, and self-management as prominent themes. Findings suggest diabetes providers address religious orientation in the provision of care with attention to rebuilding trust with the African American community to improve health outcomes. PMID:25735754
The paper deals with a case of a most probable metastatic carcinoma, found in skeletal remains of a 35-45 year old female who lived in Sayala, Egyptian Nubia, during the Christian Period. The macroscopic and radiographic morphology supported by microscopic investigation by M. Schultz (Göttingen) revealed the predominating osteoclastic process in the lesions, combining with the slightly expressed osteoblastic component. Single lesions located in the skull, spine, sacrum, sternum, ribs, clavicle, scapula, radius, metacarpals and hand phalanges, ossa coxae, femur and tibia were described. Of the various differential diagnostic possibilities, the diagnosis was focused on distinction between myeloma multiplex and lytic metastatic carcinoma. The growing evidence of incidence of metastatic carcinoma, its relative frequency compared with that of myeloma multiplex, and the most probable primary source of metastases of our case--the carcinoma of the breast--were discussed.
Newlin Lew, Kelley; Arbauh, Nancy; Banach, Paul; Melkus, Gail
To inform the development of a combined diabetes prevention and self-management intervention in partnership with church communities, this study sampled African American church leaders and members (N = 44) to qualitatively study religious beliefs and practices, diabetes prevention and self-management behaviors, and related community actions. Prior to commencing the study, internal review board approval was obtained. Although not required, community consent was officially provided by the church pastors. Individual consent was subsequently obtained from eligible community members who expressed an interest in participating in the study. Following a participatory action research approach, the inquiry group method was used. Qualitative data were analyzed with content analysis. Findings revealed Christian worldview, medical distrust and self-management as prominent themes. Findings suggest that diabetes providers address religious orientation in the provision of care with attention to rebuilding trust with the African-American community to improve health outcomes.
In Western society, Christian Churches historically have been, and contemporarily are, involved with people perceived with disability. While they may practise biblical ethical imperatives such as care, compassion, mercy, support, welfare and charity, Churches have, paradoxically, only minimally offered cohesive or explicit moral notions for the 'inclusion' of people with disability in communities. Importantly, Churches have paid little attention to the historical construction of 'exclusion'. This paper proposes that matrices of patriarchal theology and patriarchal ethics continue to sustain structural positions of societal exclusion for people with disability because of implicit assumptions and values in the matrices about difference and different bodies. By examining a conjunction between feminism and disability around the issue of embodiment, the paper contends that 'inclusion' needs to be explored through the formation and embracing of matrices of feminist theology and feminist ethics.
Hans Christian Geelmuyden (1861-1945) was amanuensis (assistant professor) at the Institute of Physiology, University of Oslo from 1889 to 1931. In 1897 he was awarded the degree "Doctor of Medicine" for his thesis "Om aceton som stofvexelprodukt" (On acetone as a metabolic product). The Nobel laureate Feodor Lynen referred to this thesis, which was also published in German, stating that Geelmuyden was the first to establish that ketone bodies are formed from fatty acids. Geelmuyden also established that acetone is metabolized in rabbits and dogs. Geelmuyden was a prolific writer on fat metabolism and diabetes and wrote a series of extensive reviews on these topics in Ergebnisse der Physiologie. Geelmuyden was active in the treatment of diabetic patients.
Wilson, David P
Beliefs regarding the origins of the universe and life differ substantially between groups of people and are often particularly associated with religious worldviews. It is important to understand factors associated with evolution and creationism beliefs and unacceptance of scientific evidence for evolution. An internet-based survey was conducted to elicit information from people who self-identify as Christians, atheists, agnostics and other belief systems, as well as by geographical location and other demographic variables, on acceptance of evolution or creationism, certainty with which each position is believed, and reasons for rejecting the alternative. It was found that almost 60% of Christians believe in creationism and less than 10% believe in natural evolution. Worldwide, these proportions were relatively consistent across all locations except for in Europe. Among European Christians the majority of Christians believe in a form of evolution. It was found that the vast majority (87%) of Christians are 'absolutely certain' about their beliefs, compared with the minority of atheists and agnostics claiming 'absolute certainty'. Generally, reasons Christians did not accept evolution were based not on evidence but on religious doctrine. In contrast, the most common reason for not accepting the existence of a god by atheists who supported evolution was the lack of evidence. Innovative strategies may be required to communicate evolutionary science effectively to non-European Christians.
Over the last century Christian ethics has moved from an attempt to Christianize the social order to a quandary over whether being Christian unduly biases how medical ethics is done. This movement can be viewed as the internal development of protestant liberalism to its logical conclusion, and Paul Ramsey can be taken as one of the last great representatives of that tradition. By reducing the Christian message to the 'ethical upshot' of neighbour love, Ramsey did not have the resources to show how Christian practice might make a difference for understanding or forming the practice of medicine. Instead, medicine became the practice that exemplified the moral commitments of Christian civilization, and the goal of the ethicist was to identify the values that were constitutive of medicine. Ramsey thus prepared the way for the Christian ethicist to become a medical ethicist with a difference, and the difference simply involved vague theological presumptions that do no serious intellectual work other than explaining, perhaps, the motivations of the ethicist.
Freund, Cheryl J.
Eighty years after the Scope's Trial, the debate over evolution in the public school curriculum is alive and well. Historically, Christian fundamentalists, the chief opponents of evolution in the public schools, have used the court system to force policymakers, to adopt their ideology regarding evolution in the science curriculum. However, in recent decades their strategy has shifted from the courts to the local level, where they pressure teachers and school boards to include "alternate theories" and the alleged "flaws" and "inconsistencies" of evolution in the science curriculum. The purpose of this content analysis study was to answer the question: How do Christian fundamentalists employ rhetorical strategies to influence the science curriculum? The rhetorical content of several public legal and media documents resulting from a lawsuit filed against the Athens Public Schools by the American Center of Law and Justice were analyzed for the types of rhetorical strategies employed by the participants engaged in the scientific, legal, and public discourse communities. The study employed an analytical schema based on Ludwig Wittgenstein's theory of language games, Lawrence Prelli's theory of discourse communities, and Michael Apple's notion of constitutive and preference rules. Ultimately, this study revealed that adroit use of the constitutive and preference rules of the legal and public discourse communities allowed the school district to reframe the creation-evolution debate, thereby avoiding a public spectacle and ameliorating the power of creationist language to affect change in the science curriculum. In addition, the study reinforced the assertion that speakers enjoy the most persuasive power when they attend to the preference rules of the public discourse community.
Drawing on fieldwork in independent Samoa, in this article, I analyze the temporal dimensions of evangelical Christian healing of metabolic disorders. I explore how those suffering with metabolic disorders draw from multiple time-based notions of healing, drawing attention to the limits of biomedicine in contrast with the effectiveness of Divine healing. By simultaneously engaging evangelical and biomedical temporalities, I argue that evangelical Christians create wellness despite sickness and, in turn, re-signify chronic suffering as a long-term process of Christian healing. Positioning biomedical temporality and evangelical temporality as parallel yet distinctive ways of practicing healing, therefore, influences health care choices.
Foster, Kirk A; Bowland, Sharon E; Vosler, Anne Nancy
Resilience among lesbian and gay (LG) Christians has received limited attention. We present results from a qualitative study of 27 LG Christians, for whom religion had high salience. The study explored the process of integrating sexual orientation with spirituality. Moving from recognition of incongruence between faith and sexual orientation to integration was found to be a resilience-building process. Through descriptive and process approaches, we identified three primary pathways individuals used to integrate their faith and sexual orientation: transforming theological meaning; finding a safe-enough congregation; and finding an affirming congregation. Some worked for social justice within congregations as part of the resilience-building process. We discuss important decision points for LG Christians that included critical evaluation of extant and potential support systems, redefining scripture and tradition, and transforming communities. A model for LG Christian Spiritual Resilience is presented.
Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J; Williams, Naomi
The Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity was completed by 78 8-yr.-olds (40 boys and 38 girls) whose data support reliability measured as the internal consistency of the scale for this young sample.
In this article, I portray how the ethos of Christianity, broadly speaking, and the mores of capitalism intersect in the formation of healthcare leaders and the difficult decisions they make in insuring the viability of healthcare institutions. More particularly, I argue that healthcare leaders in Christian healthcare institutions are largely formed by and dependent on a capitalistic ethos in making decisions and less so by a Christian ethos. There are key differences in these two meaning systems, and these differences, in part, reveal an incompatibility between them. This incompatibility does not imply a rejection of capitalism, if that is even possible, but rather a recognition of its effects and limits vis-à-vis the formation of healthcare leaders and their decision-making process. Finally, I offer an approach that deals with the spirits of capitalism and Christianity in forming healthcare leaders and their decision-making.
Schumm, Walter R
Early Islamic and Christian documents were divided into early and late periods chronologically and then compared to Morgan-Miller's 2002 themes of violence and nonviolence. No significant relationship between chronology and violence themes was found for the Christian documents but for the Islamic documents a significant relationship was detected, with later documents (those revealed at Madinah) reporting a higher percentage of violent and a lower percentage of nonviolent themes than those revealed earlier (at Mecca).
Allen-Mersh, T G
A case is described of Weber-Christian panniculitis accompanied by a gammaglobulin disturbance which preceded by five years the diagnosis of an autoimmune hepatitis and pancytopenia. Also associated was the onset of diabetes mellitus, found at necropsy to be related to pancreatic islet amyloid deposition. This case reinforces the view that Weber-Christian panniculitis may be an adipose response to a variety of immunological stimuli.
Schultz, Donald Glen
Program evaluation is an essential part of the ongoing success of any organization. Program evaluations can be done for entire organizations or for any entity within that organization. Christian university athletic programs need to be evaluated frequently to assess whether the organization is fulfilling its goals and objectives. This study…
DeMarco, Patricia A
This essay examines scenes of violence in the late medieval poem The Siege of Jerusalem in order to reveal the ways in which trauma is used as the grounds upon which Christian/Jewish difference is established. In particular, I argue that this poem serves as an example of a widespread element in Christian chivalric identity, namely the need to manage the repetitive invocation of Christ's crucifixion (ritually repeated through liturgical and poetic invocation) as a means of asserting both the bodily and psychic integrity of the Christian subject in contrast to the violently abjected figure of the Jewish body. The failure of The Siege protagonist, Wespasian, to navigate the cultural trauma of the crucifixion is contrasted to the successful management of trauma by the martial hero, Tancred, in Tasso's epic, Gerusalemme Liberata, illustrating the range of imaginative possibilities for understanding trauma in pre-modern war literature.
Tsai, Jeanne L; Miao, Felicity F; Seppala, Emma
Affect valuation theory (AVT) predicts cultural variation in the affective states that people ideally want to feel (i.e., "ideal affect"). National and ethnic comparisons support this prediction: For instance, European Americans (EA) value high arousal positive (HAP) states (e.g., excitement) more and low arousal positive (LAP) states (e.g., calm) less than Hong Kong Chinese. In this article, the authors examine whether religions differ in the ideal affective states they endorse. The authors predicted that Christianity values HAP more and LAP less than Buddhism. In Study 1, they compared Christian and Buddhist practitioners' ideal affect. In Studies 2 and 3, they compared the endorsement of HAP and LAP in Christian and Buddhist classical texts (e.g., Gospels, Lotus Sutra) and contemporary self-help books (e.g., Your Best Life Now, Art of Happiness). Findings supported predictions, suggesting that AVT applies to religious and to national and ethnic cultures.
Ishak, Mohd Shuhaimi Bin Haji; Haneef, Sayed Sikandar Shah
The birth of people with confused or ambiguous sex makeup as a biological fact since the annals of history has posed the challenge of accommodating them within the binary gender of sociocultural systems. In this process, the role of religion as a defining factor in social engineering has been paramount. Major religions, such as Islam and Christianity, have addressed this issue within the frame of their God-ordained laws by devising a set of moral and legal imperatives specific to the "third gender." Modern developments in medicine and biology, however, have made sex reassignment possible for this category of people, today called transsexuals. The question is: How do Islam and Christianity respond to it. After presenting an analytical view of both Muslim scholars and Christian religious authorities on the legitimacy of sex reassignment for transsexuals, this paper attempts to explore if such a dilemma can be resolved.
The aim of this research was to study the potential influence and significance of Jewish and Christian patients' religion on their coping with cancer. After intensive methodological experimentation, the Interpretive Biography-approach, an inductive unstructured research method was applied to collect and analyse the data. In this way 100 Jewish and Christian patients were interviewed. Document analysis was performed when patients' diaries were available. Comparative analysis of the patients' stories made possible the identification of a number of religious motives from which the patients drew meaning to explain their suffering. The findings show that Jewish and Christian patients utilize the same religious motives. The relevance of this research for nurses lies in the finding that, for many patients, their religiousness has great potential as a resource and it should therefore be supported by nurses.
Ceballos, Guillermo A.; Suescun, Jesus D.; Oviedo, Heidi C.; Herazo, Edwin; Campo-Arias, Adalberto
The Spanish version of the five-item Francis scale of attitude toward Christianity is a refinement of the short version of the Francis scale of attitude toward Christianity. The scale is a good measurement for intrinsic religiosity. It has been applied previously among Colombian adolescent students. The internal consistency and construct and…
Brobst, Sharon Christian
This correlational study examined the relationship between type of high school a senior attends (University-Model SchoolRTM (UMS RTM) or traditional, comprehensive Christian) and academic college readiness, when controlling for prior academic achievement and gender. The study compared archival data from Christian school graduates from six schools…
Integrating prior research focused on gender climate and expectations in Christian higher education, this article describes mentoring models and strategies sensitive to dual family and career goals frequently expressed by female students. Discussion includes a review of literature relevant to women's mentoring on Christian campuses, exploration of…
Bindewald, Benjamin J.
This article provides an overview of the socio-political, cultural, and historical characteristics of the relationship between conservative Christians and the American system of public education; describes the influence of fundamentalist views on contemporary conservative Christians; and recounts the historical relationship between the Religious…
This essay investigates the development of the boys' magazine, "Our Boys," and how this became a powerful auxiliary to the Christian Brothers' work in schools. It championed the values that the Christian Brothers had propagated since their foundation in 1802. Often characterised as Celtic and Romantic, it was neither, but aimed at…
Lumadue, Richard T.
This paper is a belated tribute to George J. Apel, Jr., an innovative and obscure Christian higher educator. Peruse the name and subject indices of any and all books about Christian higher education, and nowhere will there appear even a reference to George J. Apel, Jr. Although Apel never finished high school or college, he was awarded an honorary…
Cole, Brian E.
This study contributes to the description and meaning of student activism within the context of Christian college environments and cultures, and is interpreted through the sociological concept of symbolic interactionism. The purpose of this study is to help fill the void in the literature on student activism at Christian colleges and universities,…
Lindsay, Larry A., II
The ultimate goal of Christian education is spiritual formation, which requires transforming the minds of believers. However, since man's mind is impacted by sin, the work of the Holy Spirit is necessary to transform those minds. Since the Holy Spirit and Christian educators are striving for the same goal, one can state that the Holy Spirit has an…
Johns, Christopher D.
A collision of concepts often occurs within the science classrooms of Christian schools. Students are faced with the task of accommodating biblical teachings with science theories that are not only incompatible but often directly conflicting. Teachers in the Christian school must choose to what extent and how this conflicting information will be addressed. Students must manage the tension caused by this conflict and then determine their own belief systems. High-stakes achievement testing also plays a role in the curriculum and instruction of science in the Christian school as well as public schools. Science literacy, a lifelong pursuit of understanding of the physical world, can be a victim of instructional strategies aimed at promoting student success on a specific test covering a specific set of facts instead of a comprehensive plan developed for individual-specific growth. This study was designed to gain an understanding of science literacy development of the middle school student in the Christian school. This was accomplished by comparing the individual component scores of the science Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress-Plus achievement test for a 3-year period of 5 Christian schools in Indiana to the overall state averages. Armed with this information, the study, in its second phase, included interviews of the 7th-grade science teachers of the included schools. The goal of the interviews was to provide meaning and substance to the score comparisons. The purpose of the study was to understand how the students in Christian schools compared to the overall population of students in areas of science that may conflict with their Biblical beliefs. Additionally, this study was developed to understand how the science teachers in Christian schools managed the conflict that develops between the Bible and theories of science. Findings from this study showed that students in Christian schools continue to score higher than the overall population of students
Christian Science is the largest and most recognized of various spiritual healing groups that encourage members to forgo or overcome the need for medicine. Even so, it appears that some Scientists occasionally use medicine. In this study, I argue that Scientists in one region of Canada respond to influences on their healthcare practices differently and follow a variety of healthcare practices. These practices range from refusing medically necessary treatment (which could potentially harm individuals' health) to making full use of the medical system. I base my findings primarily on interviews with eleven current members and one former Christian Scientist.
Garner, Shelby L; Prater, Llewellyn S; Putturaj, Meena; Raj, Leena
Nurses in India face significant challenges and often migrate to practice nursing abroad. Few studies have focused on the rewards of nursing in India. The aim of this study was to illuminate perceived rewards of nursing among Christian student nurses in Bangalore, India. Photovoice, a participatory action methodology was used, and 14 Christian student nurses participated in the study. Thematic interpretation of photographs, journals, critical group dialog sessions, and observational field notes resulted in the identification of two main themes. These themes included intrinsic rewards and lifelong benefits of nursing in India.
... orders, and Christian Science practitioners for self-employment coverage. 1.1402(e)(1)-1 Section 1.1402(e... religious orders, and Christian Science practitioners for self-employment coverage. (a) In general. Any... order) or (2) a Christian Science practitioner may elect to have the Federal old-age, survivors,...
... orders, and Christian Science practitioners for self-employment coverage. 1.1402(e)(1)-1 Section 1.1402(e..., members of religious orders, and Christian Science practitioners for self-employment coverage. (a) In... member of such order) or (2) a Christian Science practitioner may elect to have the Federal...
This is a study to examine Indonesian Christian Teachers' Perceptions of the effectiveness of professional development programs offered by the Association of Christian Schools International Indonesia (ACSI-I) and by the Indonesian National Department of Education. The study was focused on how Indonesian Christian teachers perceived the…
... orders, and Christian Science practitioners for self-employment coverage. 1.1402(e)(1)-1 Section 1.1402(e..., members of religious orders, and Christian Science practitioners for self-employment coverage. (a) In... member of such order) or (2) a Christian Science practitioner may elect to have the Federal...
... orders, and Christian Science practitioners for self-employment coverage. 1.1402(e)(1)-1 Section 1.1402(e..., members of religious orders, and Christian Science practitioners for self-employment coverage. (a) In... member of such order) or (2) a Christian Science practitioner may elect to have the Federal...
Haynes, Stephen R.
This book presents a theoretical and practical discussion of how teaching the Holocaust in Christian colleges may serve to reunite the truth and values in Christian faith with the liberal arts, thereby advancing the total educational commitments of the Christian college. By developing programs of Holocaust education, the colleges can begin to…
Schaffer, Regan Harwell
The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to develop a working definition of service-learning, identify the best practices of service-learning in the context of Christian colleges and universities and, based upon that information, develop a model for replication. The study undertaken included: (a) examination of the findings of…
Eash, Maurice J.
The results of a comprehensive curriculum evaluation of the Christian Action Ministry (CAM) Academy, which was founded to help black dropouts complete their high school education and secure college placement are reported. The CAM Academy requested the assistance of the University of Illinois in undertaking a comprehensive curriculum evaluation to…
Hall, James Chapman
The purpose of this study was to determine the level of implementing a middle school concept in three private Christian schools using Daniel Stufflebeam's CIPP model of program evaluation. The National Middle School Survey was used to measure faculty and administrative perceptions of both the value and actual implementation of middle school…
Akinwunmi, Kathrin; Höveler, Karina; Schnell, Susanne
Erich Christian Wittmann is one of the primary founders of mathematics education research as an autonomous field of work and research in Germany. The interview presented here reflects on his role in promoting mathematics education as a design science. The interview addresses the following topics: (1) The importance of subject matter in…
Webber, Ruth; Singleton, Andrew; Joyce, Marie R.; Dorissa, Arrigo
Christian-based youth ministry in many Western countries is being conducted in difficult circumstances. How might denominations, parishes, and youth workers best approach youth ministry? Theologian Arthur Canales (2006) proposes eight different models of youth ministry. Drawing on Canales' typology, this article considers youth ministry among the…
American Psychologist, 2009
Christian N. L. Olivers, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for outstanding research on visual attention and working memory. Olivers uses classic experimental designs in an innovative and sophisticated way to determine underlying mechanisms. He has formulated important theoretical…
Chelsen, Paul O.
Internet pornography access among male students at Evangelical Christian colleges presents two dilemmas. First, Internet pornography access is institutionally prohibited based on a Biblical view of sexuality. The second dilemma is that individual students who choose to follow the teaching of Jesus Christ in the context of Evangelical Christian…
Johnson, Jamie R.
This study focused on faculty perceptions of organizational culture and collegiality at denominationally affiliated Christian colleges and universities in the Pacific Northwest. It was found that while faculty members perceive tension around their experience of organizational culture, the extent of their relationships as cultivated through formal…
Daniels, Jessica R.
Numerous studies have identified a positive correlation between employee engagement and overall organizational performance. However, research on employee engagement specifically within higher education is limited, and even less attention has been focused on engagement within the context of Christian higher education. An exploratory comparative…
Hilton, John, III; Wiley, David A.
Open educational resources (OERs) represent a new frontier in education. There are several examples of individuals and institutions providing open educational resources; this openness is also specifically manifest in the field of Christian higher education. Different levels are discussed in which OERs can be "open" and the implications of these…
Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.
This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…
Linton, Dale B.
In this qualitative grounded theory study, 24 participants, referred to as "third culture kids" (or TCKs), ages 18-30 years, who had previously attended international Christian schools were interviewed to determine the dispositions they valued in their teachers. Incorporating principles of grounded theory, a series of rigorous steps were…
Stoppa, Tara M.
This article explores civic development and its roles in the lives of emerging adults, and the ways in which college contexts--particularly Christian colleges and universities--may foster adaptive civic development. First, the article presents an argument for the importance of fostering civic development as rooted in historic truths of the…
For close to 170 years the general consensus from historians has been that Edmund Rice, who founded the Irish Christian Brothers in 1802, was an unenthusiastic applicant to the National Board of Education in Ireland in 1832 and later withdrew his schools because he believed his education was incompatible with the philosophy underpinning the…
Pillay, Gerald J.
The relation between Christian education and the secularized public square, based on how state and church relations are typically portrayed, has been described chiefly in terms of conflict. However, in the case of church-founded schools and universities in Britain, the relationship, in practice, is more ambiguous than polarized. Arguably, there is…
Castleman, Carson D.
The intersection of faith and learning within Christian colleges and universities is critical to the overall mission and ethos of these higher education institutions, as these concepts form their foundation. This study examines student perceptions of faith integration in online classrooms verses onsite classrooms. The students' experiences…
Taylor, Deborah L.
This study explored the perspectives of faculty at six evangelical Christian universities concerning cultural diversity and how theological beliefs might impact faculty members' commitment to a culturally competent pedagogy. A mixed methods design employing both quantitative (survey) and qualitative (interviews) was utilized for data collection.…
de Muynck, Bram; Reijnoudt-Klein, Willemieke; Spruyt-de Kloe, Marike
This article reports the development of a framework that structures differences in Christian educational practices worldwide. One of its purposes is to simplify the complexity of the contexts in which global partners cooperate. The framework also offers the theoretical basis for an instrument that nongovernmental organizations can use to determine…
Harkness, Allan G.
Seventeen academic journals which explore aspects of the interface between the Christian faith and educational concerns, and which are currently available internationally and in English, are listed. Annotations for each journal include publication and editorial details, website access, sponsoring institution, stated focus, educational content…
Thomson, Heather E.
This study--a hybrid project that blends empirical research traditions from the social sciences and composition studies--examines how discourses of Christianity and composition operate in college writing classrooms. Conducted at a large, public, Midwestern university, this qualitative study analyzes surveys and interviews of writing instructors…
Johnson, Jacob J.
This article explores current research, diagnosis, and common problems of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among Christian college and university students. For years, ADHD was believed to dissipate as children mature, but current research contradicts that belief. Proctor (2009) and others detail the continuance of ADHD into…
Hannon, J. Wade; And Others
Explores special considerations for counseling adherents of fundamentalist Christian belief systems. Discusses identification of fundamentalists and assessment of the impact of religiosity on presenting counseling problems. Reviews oppressive effects of fundamentalist patriarchal beliefs and practices on women in counseling, and gives suggestions…
Wineland, Richard K.
As Christian educators we must take seriously the gospel command to "go, and teach them all that I have commanded you." But how are we to proclaim the ancient faith in a relativistic, image-driven, post-modern age that long ago abandoned modernism's holy crusade to either prove or disprove the orthodox faith through reason? Using the example of…
Noting that language and politics both grow out of the underlying processes of social agreement and dispute, this paper analyzes the political language of the New Christian Right (NCR) movement as it is found in the national print media. Various sections of the paper discuss the following: (1) the background of the NCR, the characteristics of the…
Study abroad programs are in vogue today, especially among Christian colleges and universities. It is, therefore, appropriate to ask tough questions of these programs. Do they help our students become more mature followers of Jesus? Are they respectful of people in the target culture? College and university leaders must focus in particular on how…
Moore, Ekaterina Leonidovna
Grounded in discourse analytic and language socialization paradigms, this dissertation examines issues of language and social identity construction in children attending a Russian Heritage Language Orthodox Christian Saturday School in California. By conducting micro-analysis of naturally-occurring talk-in-interaction combined with longitudinal…
Decker, Allyn; Hawkins, Greg
The purpose of this research was to better understand the variety of student and faculty global learning and development programs by member institutions of the Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU), and what motivated the creation of these types of programs. Although various forms of global engagement programming were examined,…
Bish, Gregory T.; Lommel, John
Global engagement programming across higher education continues to expand as institutional leaders and practitioners strive to meet global citizenship and civic engagement outcomes. This article presents case study research on a global service-learning partnership, the "Christian University" (CU) Wheelchair Project, which has involved…
Appleby, Scott R.
Discusses historical aspects of the Christian school movement in the past century as it evolved into one of the fastest-growing branches of private education in America. Compares and contrasts salient themes from Alan Peshkin's profile of a Fundamentalist academy in Illinois and Susan Rose's comparative analysis of a charismatic day school and a…
Rose, Susan D.; Brouwer, Stephen W.
Explores the Accelerated Christian Education Curriculum used in a working class, fundamentalist Baptist school in upstate New York. This school blends behaviorism and Calvinism, using rules to regulate students' behavior and cubicle "offices" to isolate students. Speculates on the congruency of this social reproduction approach with…
Marley, Diann Wylie
A challenge in both Christian and public K-12 education is to create schools where teachers and students are continually learning and improving. In schools that have experienced improved teaching instruction and increased learning, a common organizational structure has been found. One such organizational structure can be defined as professional…
Herr, Meryl A. C.
Institutions of Christian higher education are charged with helping students steward their current callings and prepare for future callings (Plantinga, 2002). Subjective knowledge, or knowledge of self, plays an important role in this sort of vocational discernment. John Dirkx's "soul work" can help educators lead their students to a…
Carpenter, Wade A.
"What indeed has Athens to do with Jerusalem? What concord is there between the Academy and the Church?" According to third-century Christian apologist Tertullian, not much. From precisely the opposite perspective, the twentieth-century "secular humanist" John Dewey would have echoed Tertullian, although he was as greatly indebted to Christian…
This is a study of the contribution of Christian missionaries to kindergarten education in the Empire of Japan. The study concerns an American Missionary woman, Annie L. Howe (1852-1943) and her kindergarten in Kobe, Japan. Annie L. Howe had a great impact on the history of early childhood education and is still remembered as the "Mother of…
Rood, Robert E.
This qualitative study examined the narrated experiences around the college choice and persistence of junior and senior first-generation students attending a private Christian college. Using interviews and focus groups, the author identified three key factors that emerged from the data: faculty, faith, and family. Faculty involvement was critical…
Temperley, Austin J.
This study was designed to understand how ACSI certified Christian School leaders in Arizona lead their schools. There are a variety of leadership models available. Servant leadership, being a fairly recent phenomenon has been studied and implemented by numerous organizations and leaders with great organizational success and buy in. One area of…
Faculty and administrators of a private Christian university responded to measures of overall, intrinsic, and extrinsic job satisfaction as well as organizational and religious commitment. The survey measured responses on a five-point Likert-type scale. Data were statistically analyzed by using descriptive statistics and factor analysis. Results…
Canales, Arthur David
The essay considers the process of cultivating Christian spirituality in Catholic adolescents. It will integrate and document official Catholic Church teachings on the subject and also unofficial scholarly reflections. The expose briefly defines adolescent spirituality and situates the process of cultivating adolescent spirituality in Catholic…
Nieli, Russell K.
In this carefully documented essay, Russell K. Nieli outlines the major transformation in American higher education that began at the end of the nineteenth century. Today's research- and vocation-driven private universities began as Christian institutions founded by zealous evangelizers, while public colleges embraced a watered-down version of the…
Llorent-Bedmar, Vincente; Llorent, Vicente J.
In this paper we highlight the similarities and differences between Christianity and Islam, on the social functions of women based on the sacred texts of both, references to a hidden social curriculum in the history. Faced with the growing religious pluralism in contemporary societies, we believe that the debate on how the two main religions in…
Within the complexities of a multicultural society, it is both important and challenging for Christian institutions of higher education to understand the institutional culture, the impact of that culture on staff, students, and external stakeholders, and the cohesion of programmatic elements within the broader cultural picture. This article…
Matthias, Laurie R.
This article responds to Chris Higgins' (2010) claim that perpetuating the myth of altruism is a factor that leads to teacher burnout, thus making "flourishing teacher" an oxymoron. It does so by exploring various views of the Christian concepts of agape, kenosis, and desire, debunking some persistent definitions that linger in Christian…
Bolen, Rebecca M.; Dessel, Adrienne B.
This article reviews the literature regarding discrimination by social work practitioners and educators against evangelical Christian social workers. We examine the methodology of articles that compare religiosity and political ideology between social workers and the general population and also of articles that address discrimination against…
Hamill, Susan Pace
This article extends the author's previous domestic analysis of tax policy and education finance under the moral principles of Judeo-Christian ethics to the international arena, beginning with an examination of the English-speaking OECD countries, which are the most economically and culturally similar to the United States. Although the tax and…
Barrows, Keith O.
The nature of presidential leadership styles at Christian higher education institutions was examined through the lens of fundraising. There has been a growing understanding that college and university presidents are being called on to play a more significant role in the leadership of their institutions, particularly in light of the fiscal…
Van Meter, Kenneth G.
This micro-ethnographic study is an exploration of the relative degree of importance of the several components of a worldview as articulated by a purposive sample of fourteen upper division students currently enrolled in advance placement classes in ACSI and WASC accredited Christian high schools in Northern California. The research design uses an…
Stapleton, Deborah Leah
My project examined if individuals can grow spiritually when Christian Education is taught through online interactive distance learning. Jesus' comment--in Matthew 8:5-13--regarding the astonishing faith of the centurion who asked Jesus to heal his servant from a distance was used for my Biblical Foundation. The centurion stated that Jesus did not…
Saggio, Joseph J.
The legacy of Christian higher education for Native Americans has been one of misunderstanding and missed opportunities since England's King James I decreed that an institution should be provided to educate the children of the Indians encountered by the Jamestown settlers in the early seventeenth century. This article briefly surveys the history…
Anton Dohrn was introduced to Darwinism by Ernst Haeckel during his student years at Jena, and became an eager disciple of Charles Darwin's work. He founded the Stazione Zoologica in 1872. Darwin became a patron of Dohrn's Stazione, and the two naturalists corresponded regularly. This article discusses their relationship and the contributions of Christiane Groeben to its elucidation.
At the time when the first Young Men's Christian Associations in North America were organized in 1851, at Montreal and Boston, there appears to have been little thought of including a definite educational program in the work of these associations. Such educational work as was done was limited to reading rooms libraries, a few lectures, and, from…
This article reports on the resurgence of classical and Christian education in the United States. This education has been especially popular with evangelical homeschooling mother-teachers. It seeks to cultivate the biblical virtues of truth, goodness, and beauty through contemplating scripture. The curriculum relies on the ancient Trivium tools of…
Slobodchikov, Viktor Ivanovich
This article deals with the place of Christian psychology in the system of psychological knowledge. The author points to the need to distinguish between the two systems of knowledge: the psychology of the mind and the psychology of the person. The psychology of the mind is the science devoted to the process of the formation of a particular mental…
Palmer, Marila Dollahite
This study examined differences in faculty perceptions of organizational leadership at Christian institutions with servant leadership missions. The study evaluated faculty members' perceptions based on the independent variables of employment status (full- or part-time/adjunct), number of years employed at the institution, and attendance at an…
Morrison, Marie; Borgen, William A.
The critical incident technique was used to examine how counselors' religion and spirituality help and hinder counselor empathy toward clients. Twelve counselors holding Christian beliefs identified 242 helping and 25 hindering incidents that formed 14 helping and 3 hindering categories. Categories reflected counselors relying on a natural…
Wei, Meifen; Ku, Tsun-Yao; Chen, Hwei-Jane; Wade, Nathaniel; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Guo, Gwo-Jen
This study examined whether attachment to God moderated the relation between perceived stress and well-being (i.e., life satisfaction and positive affect) among 183 Chinese Christian international students and immigrants. Results showed significant main effects of (a) perceived stress on life satisfaction and (b) secure attachment to God and…
Agang, Sunday Bobai
Education is central to any society's civilization, growth, development, security, stability, and sustainability. That is why all progressive societies give it priority. Christian higher education meets these needs and beyond. It is rooted in God's moral vision and perspective. Its primary aim is to inculcate moral and ethical values and…
Ford, John T.
Ecumenical Theology involves not only the academic study of church-separating issues, but also the ecclesial commitment of each individual Christian. Accordingly, a course on the "History and Theology of the Ecumenical Movement" should utilize the ecumenical experiences of both instructors and students. A variety of pedagogical means can be used…
Williamson, Robin Marie
This research study analyzed the results of the Jesuit Universities Consortium in comparison with the results of the Catholic Colleges and Universities and the Council for Christian Colleges Consortia as measured by the 2005 National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) in order to determine and identify any statistically significant differences…
Bennett, Gregg; Sagas, Michael; Fleming, David; Von Roenn, Sean
While some research has been conducted on the manner in which Christian athletes utilize their faith to cope with the dominant culture of winning, there appears to be a relative paucity of investigation on the manner in which elite coaches function in this environment. The purpose of this study was to describe an elite intercollegiate coach's…
Schubring, Linda Louise
This study in adaptive leadership reveals what factors contributed to how leaders and teams navigate change within the church planting context of Christian Associates (CA) Europe. In the beginning chapter, I lay the foundation for the study of individuals and teams within CA by describing my research, CA's history, and the significance of the…
Russo, Charles D.; Thro, William E.
In what may come to rank as one of its most significant cases on religious freedom, "Christian Legal Society v. Martinez" (2010), the Supreme Court affirmed an order of the Ninth Circuit upholding a policy at a public law school in California that required recognized student clubs to admit "all comers" even if they disagreed with organizational…
Oliveira, Karla Adriane Corrêa
This mixed methods study explored the implicit leadership theories (ILTs) of children from Christian elementary schools in the Philippines, in response to the lack of importance attached to leadership ideas and leadership developmental experiences that occur in childhood. Jesus was the most frequently cited leader by the children who also showed a…
Dahlvig, Jolyn E.
This article is based on a 3-year narrative study that tells the stories of five women leading within the Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU). Women leaders are under-represented within this sector of higher education compared to other religious and/or private higher education institutions even though women comprise…
This essay compares two curricular treatments of the Holocaust, one that resulted from a full-semester, 10th grade elective course taught at a public high school, the second constructed through a quarter-long, 8th grade unit taught at a charismatic, evangelical, fundamentalist Christian private school. In brief, the study examines the Holocaust's…
Butterworth, Michael L.
Baseball has enjoyed its status as the "national pastime" in part because it has been associated with democracy. To the extent that baseball, as an institution of civil religion, fosters pluralism and inclusion, it can indeed be viewed in democratic terms. In recent years, the advent of conservative Christian events called "Faith Nights" threatens…
Miller, Kelly Burnley
The focus of this research is in the area of student engagement and character at schools affiliated with the Coalition of Christian Colleges and Universities. As the researcher, I specifically used a data set purchased from the National Survey of Student Engagement. Such a study is important in order to test my hypothesis that the more engaged a…
Searcy, Douglas Neil
This qualitative research addressed presidential leadership during the strategic transition of the respective Boards of Trustees at Gardner-Webb and Wingate Universities (private, Christian institutions in North Carolina). In addition to interviewing each institutional President, personal 60-minute interviews were conducted with selected faculty…
Truelove, Heather Barnes; Joireman, Jeff
The present study evaluated the hypothesis that people who strongly adhere to Christian orthodoxy may be less proenvironmental to the extent that they are less aware of the biospheric consequences of environmental problems (biospheric AC) but that they may be more proenvironmental than others to the extent that they are more aware of the egoistic…
Marshall, John D.
This paper provides a broad, sweeping glance at the early policies, attitudes, and activities surrounding the education of Native Americans. The Indian education efforts of the colonists--involving civilization, Christianization, and literacy--did little to alter Indian culture and were in most cases abandoned by the mid-1700's. During the…
The objective of this research was to identify statistically significant warning signs of K12 Christian school distress that can lead to school closure in the areas of leadership, homogeneity of vision and culture, finances, and competition, as described by Fitzpatrick (2002) and Nichols (2006). Twenty-four strong, declining, and closed K-12…
Utilizing a biographical approach and network analysis, this article examines one South Australian woman's life of public and Methodist social welfare service in the post-suffrage era. It is argued that although Kate Cocks (1875-1954) viewed her welfare work as "a God-given mission", as "practical Christian service", personal…
Obenchain, Alice M.; Johnson, William C.; Dion, Paul A.
Relative to the many types of higher education institutions, Christian institutions face extreme operating conditions. Specifically, they are highly tuition dependent, face extreme pressure for funding, and struggle to preserve the history, tradition, and distinctive cultures of their organizations (Dockery and Gushee, 1999). At the same time,…
Macgillivray, Ian K.
The Christian Right opposes the inclusion of sexual orientation in school policies, charging that the schools are legitimating and promoting homosexuality. The arguments have moved past the trite, "God created Adam and Eve, not Adam and Steve," to claims of violations of parental rights and the First Amendment, often positioning…
Agiro, Christa Preston
This article discusses the comparative application of critical discourse analysis to student and teacher editions of the two most widely used high school American literature textbooks by Christian publishers, examining them through the lens of critical theory. The study examined all parts of the student and teacher editions, excepting literary…
Different criminological theories assume that religiosity protects against violent behavior. Up to now, this assumption is tested empirically almost exclusively for the Christian religiosity. The study presented here questions whether such a relationship between religiosity and violent behavior could be found for Muslims, likewise. Using a German-wide representative school survey of 16,545 male students in the ninth grade, who belong either to a Christian or an Islamic denomination, it can be revealed that only for Christians a higher religiosity correlates with a lower rate of violent behavior. This influence of Christian religiosity can be explained by mainly control theory variables. For Muslims, there is no significant correlation between religiosity and violent behavior in a bivariate analysis. A multivariate analysis, however, reveals a suppression effect: Controlling for alcohol consumption, Muslim religiosity increases violent behavior. In addition, high religious Muslims agree more often to norms of masculinity and consume more often media violence, which are risk factors of violent behavior. Accordingly, it can be concluded that religiosity is not a violence-protecting factor in general; instead, a more differentiated view for separate religious groups is necessary.
Lindquist, David H.
Martin Luther remains a complex, contradictory figure whose impact on modern Western history cannot be overstated. Among the most controversial aspects of Luther's work is his ambivalent perspective of the Jews. The early Luther viewed the Jews warmly, depicting them as Christianity's historical and religious ancestors. Later, however, he…
Robinson, David; Jeynes, William H.
In this pair of two articles, the authors summarize the history of the practice of character instruction in Christian higher education. They examine character education beginning with the founding of Harvard in 1636 to contemporary times. They note that virtually every historian, theologian, and social scientist acknowledges that character…
Presents the history of the theory of evolution and states that the creationist world view had been abandoned by even religious scientists before 1859. Argues that the public's perception of evolution could be improved by presenting a more complete picture of the theory's development, emphasizing the contributions of Christian--often…
Huff, Scott C.
"Intended for Pleasure" presents information regarding sex and sexuality oriented towards Christian couples. Written by a medical doctor with his wife, the book is particularly strong in describing common sexual problems with an additional strength of focusing not only sexual intercourse but also on the whole relationship as being important to…
A strong anti-Christian bias exists in the modern American university. It has been documented by George Marsden in his 1994 book, "The Soul of the American University," and by a growing number of other scholars. The modern university response to the history of Bible translation movements provides another example of the anti-Christian…
Satyanarayana, P.; DK Meduri, Emmanuel
Distance Education has been growing fast, in a marvelously diverse fashion. The efficiency, effectiveness, validity and utility of distance teaching-learning are on increase. All communities and religious groups are making use of distance learning methodology to upgrade their knowledge, skills and attitudes. Christian educational institutions in…
In a literary analysis of selected Hans Christian Andersen fairy tales, the characters were divided into three main types: human beings; plants, animals, and inanimate objects; and imaginary creations. A comparison was then made between Andersen's characters and those in traditional fairy tales. The findings revealed that Andersen succeeded in his…
Foote, Laura S.
What happens when students go to college? An important outcome of college attendance is student cognitive development. Part of that developmental process is learning how to address contrasting values, beliefs, knowledge structures, and worldviews critically. This study addressed the relationship between cognitive and Christian-faith development in…
Scott, Robert Ian
States that Christian Morgenstern made a fundamental point of semantics clear by making any absolute faith in words ridiculous. Describes other pieces of Morgenstern's poetry, and examines its implications in semantic terms. Points out that Morgenstern ridiculed the assumption that what is said must be sensible, as if the world must obey human…
This essay explores the purposes of Christian youth work. It responds to Collins-Mayo et al.'s contention that youth work is an ineffective medium for faith transmission and building faith communities and to their affirmation of the church's role in this. The analysis is based on research with young people aged between early teens and early 20s,…
This article attempts to illustrate the significance of the geographical dimension of certain connections between Christianity and education in Europe. It does so by initially introducing the nature of the three components of the triangle with special reference to theory. Taking the fundamental geographical issue of scale, the discussion proceeds…
Jeynes, William H.; Robinson, David
In this set of two articles, the authors summarize the history of the practice of character instruction in Christian higher education. They examine character education beginning with the founding of Harvard in 1636 to contemporary times. They note that virtually every historian, theologian, and social scientist acknowledges that character…
Wells, Cynthia A.
This article argues that a coherent and inspired general education program, infused with a deliberate vision of the liberal arts, is crucial to the flourishing of Christian higher education. This article begins by describing the context and status of general education, emphasizing how this element of the educational program falls short in…
Akaranga, Stephen; Simiyu, Patrick Cheben
In Kenya, Christian Religious Education is taught and examined by the Kenya National Examinations Council in the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education at the end of the four years of Secondary Education cycle. The teaching of this subject in Secondary Schools ensures that learners are offered an opportunity to develop morally and spiritually…
Finn, Donald; Swezey, James; Warren, Debra
To fulfill their religious and educational missions, PS-12 Christian schools should properly equip teachers to design and deliver instruction of the highest quality that incorporates sound pedagogical approaches. Research indicates that a key element for making this happen in classrooms is to offer professional development opportunities that…
Yarhouse, Mark A.; Nowacki-Butzen, Stephanie; Brooks, D. Fredrica
The authors explored the experiences of African American men who identified as Christian and experienced same-sex attraction. Participants completed an online questionnaire addressing experiences of same-sex attraction; meaning attributed to their attractions; the sharing of their experiences with others; and perceptions regarding the intersection…
Simmons, Brian S.
Christian schools, like all private schools, face the challenge of building and maintaining the confidence of parents and other stakeholders. Their public relations efforts should be rooted in institutional mission and core values, factors that influence parents to elect this educational option. Administrators and others often overlook the fact…
Confer, Christopher; Mamiseishvili, Ketevan
The study examined the factors that affected minority students' choice to enroll at private four-year faith-based institutions in the Council of Christian Colleges and Universities (CCCU) in the United States. The study utilized the data from the College Board's Admitted Student Questionnaire PLUS (ASQ PLUS) survey. The final sample included 283…
The 2008 recession underscored public concern that financial illiteracy has costs that are not limited to the individual who makes poor financial decisions. Considering that college students with limited financial experience are making legally binding decisions, this study explored the personal finance literacy and behavior of Christian college…
It is commonly acknowledged by many that Japanese teenagers in general hold very negative views of organized religions. However the researcher, as an educator at a Christian University in California, observed every year a great number of Japanese international students becoming persons who paint positive pictures of religion. A study done on those…
Borgman, Amy L.
A phenomenological method of qualitative inquiry was used to understand the process by which individuals who hold identities of being both a Christian and an ally of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals make meaning of and integrate these 2 identities. Interviews were conducted with 11 doctoral-level psychologists who self-identified as…
Burch, Michael J.; Swails, Patricia; Mills, Randy
The servant leadership model is often touted as the best model for Administrators to use at Christian schools of higher education. Research indicated, however, that a disconnection between how leaders of an organization perceived the strengths and weaknesses of their leadership skills and how followers perceived those skills can be detrimental to…
Jones, Jeffrey A.
This historical narrative analysis traces the emergence of the strengths philosophy and its movement into Christian higher education using data collected between 2009 and 2010. Beginning with a focus on Don Clifton, Lee Noel, and Edward "Chip" Anderson, a theoretical model from social movement literature is used to construct the…
Modern critics do not consider science fiction and mystery novels to be "serious reading", but Dorothy L. Sayers and C. S. Lewis questioned the boundaries between "popular" and "serious" literature. Both Christian writers critically discuss the spiritual crisis of the modern world in each fiction genre. This paper…
Contemporary literature on vocational stewardship offers suggestions for pastors and ministry leaders wanting to engage Christians in vocational discipleship. These suggestions seem to represent current "best practices" in vocational discipleship. Analyzing these "best practices" using Brueggemann's canonical framework for…
This article discusses Christian understandings of life, death and healing in the context of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. The discussion is a response to the reactions of some Botswana Pentecostal and African Independent Churches to the availability of ARV therapy, as reflected in several media reports of churches discouraging church members' use of ARV drugs. The article argues that this negative attitude to ARVs is a result of the Christian churches' understandings of life, death and healing through traditional Bible-based interpretations. Based on this, some churches view the ability of ARVs to prolong life as challenging God who is the source of life and healing. The article argues that this attitude grows from an initial Christian understanding of HIV and AIDS as a form of God's punishment on humanity for its sins. The article thus argues for the development of 'a Christian theology of ARVs' that sees ARVs as a manifestation and not a contradiction of God's healing powers.
Dahl, Angie L; Galliher, Renee V
Religious contexts have traditionally been understood as protective for a variety of psychosocial health outcomes. However, the generalizability of these findings to youth who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or queer (LGBTQ) is questioned due to denominational teachings on same-sex attractions and sexual behavior. Eight adolescents (15-17 years) and 11 young adults (19-24 years) who identify as LGBTQ raised in Christian religious affiliations (16 participants raised in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 2 participants raised Catholic and 1 participant raised Presbyterian) participated in individual in-depth interviews, journal writings, and focus groups to provide greater insight into the lived experiences of LGBTQ individuals raised within a Christian religious environment. Findings suggest the religious context is related to both positive and negative outcomes. Eight themes are explored using participant's own words and experiences. Directions for future research and implications are discussed.
Salamati, Payman; Naji, Zohrehsadat; Koutlaki, Sofia A; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
Baier recently published an interesting original article in the Journal of Interpersonal Violence. He compared violent behavior (VB) between Christians and Muslims and concluded that religiosity was not a protecting factor against violence and that Muslim religiosity associated positively with increased VB. We appreciate the author's enormous efforts on researching such an issue of relevance to today's world. However, in our view, the article has methodological weaknesses in terms of participants, instruments, and statistical analyses, which we examine in detail. Therefore, Baier's results should be interpreted more cautiously. Although interpersonal violence may sometimes be observable among Muslims, we do not attribute these to Islam's teachings. In our opinion, both Islam and Christianity invite to tolerance, peace, and friendship. So, the comparison of such differences and the drawing of conclusions that may reflect negatively on specific religious groups need better defined research, taking into consideration other basic variables in different communities.
van Klinken, Adriaan S; Gunda, Masiiwa Ragies
Against the background of the HIV epidemic and the intense public controversy on homosexuality in African societies, this article investigates the discourses of academic African Christian theologians on homosexuality. Distinguishing some major strands in African theology, that is, inculturation, liberation, women's and reconstruction theology, the article examines how the central concepts of culture, liberation, justice, and human rights function in these discourses. On the basis of a qualitative analysis of a large number of publications, the article shows that stances of African theologians are varying from silence and rejection to acceptance. Although many African theologians have taken up the cudgels against gay rights, some "dissident voices" break the taboo and develop more inclusive concepts of African identity and African Christianity.
Miranda-Bautista, José; Fernández-Simón, Alejandro; Pérez-Sánchez, Isabel; Menchén, Luis
Weber-Christian disease (WCD) is an inflammatory disease whose main histological feature is lobular panniculitis of adipose tissue. The location of panniculitis determines the clinical presentation, being the subcutaneous adipose tissue the most frequent one, followed by liver, spleen, bone marrow and mesenteric adipose tissue. Systemic corticosteroids are first line treatment, but other options should be considered if systemic symptoms are observed or in case of refractory clinical situation. We report herein a case with WCD showing orbital, mesenteric and ileocolonic involvement, which required surgical treatment and also developed postoperative recurrence. Symptoms were resolved by administration of thalidomide and, afterwards, infliximab. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Weber-Christian disease with luminal ileocolonic involvement, treated with infliximab. PMID:25954116
Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Shorkey, Clay
The current study used data from reliability testing of the Christian Inventory of Spirituality (CIS) to (1) assess the utility of CIS in detecting differences in level of spirituality in residents of residential Christian faith-based substance abuse programs (RCFBSAPs); (2) test the hypothesis that residents who have been in the program for longer periods of time will have significantly higher levels of spirituality after controlling for relevant demographic characteristics; and (3) test the hypothesis that residents of programs that only use unlicensed staff and place higher importance on spirituality will have significantly higher levels of spirituality. A purposive sample of the cross-sectional data from the reliability testing of the CIS was used (n = 253). Analysis supported the hypothesis. Demographic characteristics were not associated with level of spirituality. The CIS proved to be useful in discriminating levels of spirituality. Further research is needed to examine spiritual change using randomized pre-post test designs.
In the introduction I will start from a biographical novel on Friedrich Baumann, who was born in 1835 as an illegitimate child and later stood in high respect as building contractor, founder's president of the Swiss master builder's federation and politician, and we will look after his father who emigrated to America. In the following sections I will present the Batschelet family as well as the family of the veterinarian Christian Batschelet and the department for animal pharmaceutics of the academy in Bern. The time of the young veterinarian in Walperswil as well as his emigration and his life in the USA will also be examined and I will also introduce Christian Batschelet's son, Friedrich Baumann and his son, my father Erwin Friedrich Baumann.
Patristic teaching about sin and disease allows supplementing well-acknowledged conditions for a Christian medicine with further personal challenges, widely disregarded in Western Christianities. A proper appreciation of man's vocation toward (not just achieving forgiveness but) deification reveals the need to cooperate with the Holy Spirit's offer of grace toward restoring man's pre-fallen nature. Ascetical exercises designed at re-establishing the spirit's mastery over the soul distance persons from (even supposedly harmless) passion. They thus inspire the struggle towards emulating Christ's (self-crucifying) kenotic love, and to accept even secularly "undeserved" suffering as spiritually deserved in view of his (forever) lacking fervor in that struggle. Only in the spirit of that love can the evil Adam's sin brought into this world work its therapeutic impact, the eschatological purpose of which explains God's lovingly permitting that evil. This therapeutic impact is physically manifested already in this life through the transforming energies granted the saints of the church.
Mendillo, M.; Shapiro, A.
From the times of early Christians up to the Enlightenment, the twelve ancient signs of the zodiac were challenged as highly inappropriate pagan images. The most concerted efforts to replace those signs with names, mottos, and images taken from Holy Scripture occurred in the early decades of the 17th century. We review the background that led to the proposed use of sacred mottos by Jeremias Drexel, and then of the names and images of the Twelve Apostles by Julius Schiller. The reaction of a leading seventeenth-century astronomer is presented to suggest why such changes were never adopted. Finally, we address issues of conflict and motivation that might have led to efforts to Christianize the Heavens.
Ali, Saba Rasheed; Mahmood, Amina; Moel, Joy; Hudson, Carolyn; Leathers, Leslie
This qualitative investigation explored a relatively understudied aspect of cultural diversity: feminism and religion in the lives of religiously diverse women. More specifically, structured interviews were used to investigate views of religion, women's issues, gender roles, culture, and feminism for a small group of Muslim and Christian women living in the United States. The data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research methods (Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997). Findings indicated a complex relationship between feminism, gender roles, culture, and religion for these women with the majority of the Muslim women reporting that their religion supports feminist principles and identifying themselves as feminist. Christian women were less willing to endorse the feminist label. Implications for multicultural feminist practice are discussed.
Robbins, Mandy; Babington, Peter; Francis, Leslie J
Data provided by 150 9- to 11-yr.-old primary school pupils in England showed scores on the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity more highly correlated with (personal) prayer (r = .57) than with (public) church attendance (r = .23), providing support for the view that attitude scales access a deeper level of religiosity less contaminated by those contextual and social factors which may influence public church attendance more than personal prayer.
Ferreira, Ana Veríssimo; Neto, Félix
To facilitate use of the adult form of the Francis Scale of Attitude Towards Christianity in cross-cultural studies, the psychometric characteristics of the translated scale were examined among 323 university students in Portugal (130 men and 193 women). Their ages ranged from 18 to 31 years. Analysis supported the unidimensionality, internal consistency, and construct validity of this scale in this sample of Portuguese university students.
Brun, Rudolf B
Therapeutic cloning is urgent and should be vigorously supported. To successfully argue for this position, the distinction between a human embryo and a human nuclear transplant may be helpful. Even if current technical difficulties should be solved, global legislation should prohibit cloning for the purpose of fabricating babies. This position originates from a view on human nature in general and from a Christian perspective in particular.
Sexual initiation during adolescence has important demographic and health consequences for a population, yet no systematic analysis of changes in the timing of sexual initiation has been conducted in Nigeria. Two rounds of national surveys conducted in 1990 and 2003 were used to examine changes in the timing of sexual initiation among female adolescents in Nigeria. Multivariate survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards models was used to assess changes in the risk of sexual initiation and to identify the correlates of first sex. Contrary to what has been reported in several Nigerian studies, there was no decline in age at first sex among Christian adolescents. Age at first sex did not change significantly for Christian adolescents, although premarital sex appears to have increased-primarily due to an increase in the age at marriage. Age at first sex did increase among Muslim women. Premarital sex remained low among Muslim women. A number of socioeconomic variables were associated with the timing of sexual initiation. Weekly exposure to the mass media was associated with earlier sexual initiation. The degree to which an environment was liberal or restrictive was a key determinant of the timing of sexual initiation in Nigeria. The findings also illustrate the important role of socioeconomic factors in determining the timing of sexual initiation in Nigeria. As secondary education increases in Northern Nigeria, additional increases in the age at sexual debut are likely among Muslim women. The study raises concerns about the influence of the mass media on the timing of first sex in Nigeria. The evidence of an absence of changes in the timing of sexual initiation among Christian women in more than a decade implies that programs which aim to delay the timing of sexual initiation in Southern Nigeria may have limited success. With age at marriage already high among Christian women, programs that focus on abstinence until marriage may also be pursuing an approach with
Golomski, Casey; Nyawo, Sonene
Swaziland faces one of the worst HIV epidemics in the world and is a site for the current global health campaign in sub-Saharan Africa to medically circumcise the majority of the male population. Given that Swaziland is also majority Christian, how does the most popular religion influence acceptance, rejection or understandings of medical male circumcision? This article considers interpretive differences by Christians across the Kingdom's three ecumenical organisations, showing how a diverse group people singly glossed as 'Christian' in most public health acceptability studies critically rejected the procedure in unity, but not uniformly. Participants saw medical male circumcision's promotion and messaging as offensive and circumspect, and medical male circumcision as confounding gendered expectations and sexualised ideas of the body in Swazi Culture. Pentecostal-charismatic churches were seen as more likely to accept medical male circumcision, while traditionalist African Independent Churches rejected the operation. The procedure was widely understood to be a personal choice, in line with New Testament-inspired commitments to metaphorical circumcision as a way of receiving God's grace.
Pereira, Charmaine; Ibrahim, Jibrin
This article explores the common ideological ground between Islam and Christianity in Nigeria, in the ways in which gender and sexuality are configured in relation to women's bodies. The latter constitute key sites for the inscription of social norms and practices inherent in particular interpretations of religion. We proceed by examining the interplay between religion and politics in historical context and in specific concrete instances. While the religious right among Muslims and Christians share the view that women's bodies are sexually corrupting and therefore in need of control, this perspective is also found in secular institutions. At the same time Christians and Muslims are strongly opposed to controls on women's bodies that may lead to either religious group being identified as 'the other'. The linkage made between women's bodies and 'public morality' produces diverse forms of gender inequality. The moralising of political economy that these processes entail complicates the terrain on which challenges to the politicisation of religion and its gender politics need to be sustained.
Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L.
Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed. PMID:23412952
Araki, Kaori; Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L
Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed.
The Bible is full of accounts clearly in violation of our scientific understanding of fluid mechanics. Examples include the floating axe head, Jesus walking on the water and immediately calming a storm. ``Jesus of Nazareth was the most scientific man that ever trod the globe. He plunged beneath the material surface of things, and found the spiritual cause,'' wrote Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910), the founder of a now well-established religion known as Christian Science, in her seminal work Science & Health with Key to the Scriptures. She asserted that Jesus' miracles were in accord with the, ``Science of God's unchangeable law.'' She also proclaimed that matter is a derivative of consciousness. Independently with the discovery of quantum mechanics, physicists such as Max Planck and Sir James Jeans began to make similar statements (``The Mental Universe'', Nature, 2005). More recently, Max Tegmark (MIT) theorized that consciousness is a state of matter (New Scientist, April 2014). Using a paradigm shift from matter to consciousness as the primary substance, one can scientifically explain how a mental activity (i.e. prayer) could influence the physical. Since this conference is next door to the original church of Christian Science (Const. 1894), this talk will discuss various fluid-mechanic miracles in the Bible and provide an explanation based on divine metaphysics while providing an overview of scientific Christianity and its unifying influence to the fields of science, theology and medicine.
Bertka, Constance M.
The question of whether or not extraterrestrial life exists and its potential impact for religions, especially Christianity, is an ancient one addressed in numerous historical publications. The contemporary discussion has been dominated by a few notable scientists from the SETI and astrobiology communities, and by a few Christian theologians active in the science and religion field. This discussion amounts to scientists outside of the faith tradition predicting the demise of Christianity if extraterrestrial intelligent life is discovered and theologians within the tradition predicting the enrichment and reformulation of Christian doctrine. Missing from this discussion is insight drawn more broadly from the science and religion field and from the sociology of religion. A consideration of how possibilities for relating science and religion are reflected in the US public's varied acceptance of the theory of evolution; the growth of Christianity in the Global South; and a revised theory of secularization which inversely correlates religiosity to existential security, gives credence to the proposal that the response from those outside of academia would be much more varied and uncertain.
Charlier, Philippe; Joly, Alain; Champagnat, Julie; Brun, Luc; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin; Hervé, Christian
Facing modern developments of medicine and biomedical researches, religious communities are a strong source of ethics principles and orientations. Human dignity does not disappear after life, in a context of biomedical research on cadavers. Moral, political, social and scientific aspects of research on human cadavers (mainly autopsies) have been widely discussed in biomedical publications, whereas the religious ones (which could be predominant for some) have rarely been analyzed and presented. This article will present the results of a survey carried out a French Benedictine Abbey (relative to death, cadaver's status and biomedical research) and subsequent Christian background according to canonic texts and practical cases from anthropological, historical, archeological and biomedical origin.
Miranda-Tapia, Giskar Alonso; Cogollo, Zuleima; Herazo, Edwin; Campo-Arias, Adalberto
The aim of this study was to establish test-retest reliability of a Spanish version of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity (Campo-Arias, Oviedo, & Cogollo, 2009) among adolescent students in Cartagena, Colombia. A group of ninth grade students from two public schools in Colombia (N = 157) completed the five-item scale. Cronbach's alphas were .74 and .76 in the first and second administrations, respectively. Both Pearson's rho and intra-class correlation coefficient were .69. A Spanish translation of the 5-item scale had consistent stability over four weeks.
The main goal of the Roman calendar of Julius Caesar was to fix the dates of the seasons by introducing leap years. Christians adopted this calendar, but associated to it the Judaic cycle of the week for reference to some events of Christ's life. This paper defines some problems which arose from the empiric association of the two chronological scales. Solutions to these problems can be obtained by exhaustive computer generated enumeration. Here we will solve these problems by matrix analysis which displays all arithmetical operations involved thereby making the solutions verifiable.
Although distinctions between therapy and enhancement are difficult to draw with precision, especially in marginal cases, recent Christian discussions of enhancement technologies accept the general plausibility of distinctions drawn between therapeutic interventions and enhancement technologies by appealing to general understandings of nature and human nature. However, such appeals continue to be plagued by conceptual imprecision on several matters, including the status of nature as a source of moral insight, the scope of human responsibility in light of God’s purposes, and the effects of sin and finitude on human freedom. PMID:19170082
Rodriguez, Eric M
While the psychological research literature on gay and lesbian Christians is rich and continually expanding, it is also quite fragmented-consisting mainly of studies with small sample sizes that focus narrowly on specific subgroups within the phenomena. Furthermore, the recent research and theories assessing and underlying the integration of these two identities have never been presented in one cohesive review. Therefore, working within a new theoretical paradigm that views gays and lesbians as spiritual and religious beings in and of themselves, the purpose of this article is threefold: 1) to integrate a fractured body of literature on gay and lesbian Christians; 2) to review and critique relevant psychological theories currently in use in this area; and 3) to introduce to the field the relevant theoretical concepts of integration as process and empowerment to better outline comprehensive pathways for future research on not just the lives of gay and lesbian Christians, but of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender people of faith.
Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Oviedo, Heidi Celina; Cogollo, Zuleima
The short form of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity (L. J. Francis, 1992) is a 7-item Likert-type scale that shows high homogeneity among adolescents. The psychometric performance of a shorter version of this scale has not been explored. The authors aimed to determine the internal consistency of a 5-item form of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity among 405 students from a school in Cartagena, Colombia. The authors computed the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the 5 items with a greater corrected item-total punctuation correlation. The version without Items 2 and 7 showed internal consistency of .87. The 5-item version of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity exhibited higher internal consistency than did the 7-item version. Future researchers should corroborate this finding.
Johnson, Alycia; Butcher, Melissa; Thomas, Kate H.; Jemsek, Jacqueline; Shields, Margaret M.
Purpose: Prevention advocates work hard to create and deliver sexual assault awareness programs on college campuses, including Christian universities. To do so requires savvy planning and a high degree of cultural competence, as a review of the literature indicates that some Christian campuses shy away from the topic and refuse to allow needed…
Lee, Michael G.
This article sets Dorothy Bass' Christian practices movement in critical dialogue with U.S. Latina/o popular religion in order to explore ways that these distinctive sets of practices could enrich one another. Then, it focuses on "shaping communities" as a Christian practice and correlates it with the U.S. Latina/o popular religious…
Bailey, Bonita Wingfield
This study was conducted to advance knowledge by examining the reasons that motivate teachers to participate in professional development and the relationship to teacher job satisfaction and retention in Christian-based K-12 Association of Christian Schools International (ACSI) member schools. The study contributes to the literature in the field…
Zimmerman, Christina Joyce
The purpose of this study was to analyze a possible relationship between two catalysts: the amount of time and the number of Bible study resources teachers use in preparation to teach Sunday school with Christian education curriculum resources. The precedent literature of this study validates that the goal of Christian education is spiritual…
Lewis, Christopher Alan; Cruise, Sharon Mary; McGuckin, Conor
This study evaluated the test-retest reliability of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity short-form. 39 Northern Irish undergraduate students completed the measure on two occasions separated by one week. Stability across the two administrations was high, r = .92, and there was no significant change between Time 1(M = 25.2, SD = 5.4) and Time 2 (M = 25.7, SD = 6.2). These data support the short-term test-retest reliability of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity short-form.
The expansion of employment-centered family policies of the Grand Coalition in Germany came with some surprise, as Christian Democrats have traditionally been strongly committed to the male breadwinner model and corresponding family policies. This article investigates why Christian Democrats (though with some inconsistencies) promoted “social-democratic” family policies guided by the adult worker rather than by the male breadwinner model. Illuminating the politics of recent family policy reforms, the electoral rationale for this modernization of family policy, the role of political entrepreneurship, and intraparty political conflicts over the new policy paradigm are discussed.
Musa, Ahmad S; Pevalin, David J; Shahin, Francis I
The purpose of this study was to explore associations of spiritual well-being, spiritual perspective, and religiosity with self-rated health in a convenience sample of 340 adult Jordanian Arab Christians. Data were collected through church and community groups. Results indicated that spiritual well-being and religiosity were positively associated with self-rated health, but in the final regression model only spiritual well-being retained a significant association after controlling for the other spiritual and religious measures. In conclusion, spirituality and religiosity are important to Jordanian Arab Christians' health and well-being, and the implications for nursing practice are explored.
Leichtman, Mara A.
This article examines the changing relationship between religion, secularism, national politics, and identity formation among Lebanese Christians in Senegal. Notre Dame du Liban, the first Lebanese religious institution in West Africa, draws on its Lebanese “national” character to accommodate Lebanese Maronite Catholic and Greek Orthodox Christians in Dakar, remaining an icon of “Lebanese” religion, yet departing from religious sectarianism in Lebanon. As such, transnational religion can vary from national religion, gaining new resonances and reinforcing a wider “secular” ethno-national identity. PMID:24077518
McAdamis, J. D. Eric
The modern era has witnessed many progressive religious traditions liberally accommodating scientific explanations and incorporating them into their interpretation of religious texts. For most religions, and their adherents, a similar acceptance of astrobiology and the search for life elsewhere in the universe can be expected. Not all faith traditions are likely to be so accepting however, and Christian fundamentalism in the United States, animated by biblical literalism, promises to be one particularly potent exception. The outspoken and politically powerful opposition Christian fundamentalists have mounted against some of the cornerstones of modern science, including evolution and the age of the Earth, ominously project another information battleground looming in the future of astrosociology. Specifically, any evidence of a "second genesis" could be seen as threatening to the belief that humans are the center of God's attention and as a validation of the theory of evolution. Consequently, the "alternative science apparatus" of the fundamentalist movement could be expected to argue in favor of one-way panspermia, originating from Earth, whenever and wherever evidence of life beyond Earth is found. To prevent astrobiology from becoming the next hotly contested information battleground between science and religion, more attention should be paid to the particular segments of the faithful in society that are likely to react negatively to any new evidence that astrobiology may produce.
Todd, Nathan R; Rufa, Anne K
This investigation examines how self-identified Christians in the Midwest U.S. understand and work for social justice, with a focus on their process of social justice development and the role of religious congregations in promoting social justice. Using a grounded theory analysis of 15 in-depth interviews, results indicated multiple understandings of social justice such as meeting basic needs, fixing social structures and systems to create equal distributions of resources, promoting human rights and dignity, and as a religious responsibility. Participants also described a process of social justice development facilitated by exposure to injustice, mentors, educating others, and the importance of finding a social justice community. Distinct personal barriers to social justice engagement were identified such as resources and negative emotions, whereas congregational leadership was important for congregational involvement. General frustration with congregations was expressed regarding low social justice engagement; however, participants balanced this frustration with hope for the positive potential of congregations to promote social justice. Together these findings show multifaceted understandings of social justice and a dynamic process of social justice development for these self-identified Christians. Implications for future research and partnership with religious individuals and congregations also are discussed.
The aim in the article is to demonstrate how insights from Christian ethics and Buddhist philosophy can make contributions to the management of compassion fatigue. There are already helpful resources available that provide principles, tips, and practical guidelines for self-care. The approach here is centered on attitudinal, ethical, and philosophical issues. From the Christian tradition, the ethical principle of "equal regard" is employed. Equal regard is the notion that agape (disinterested, universal love) requires of a people that they love others neither more nor less than they love themselves. When the ethical principle that a nurse operates out of in her everyday life is self-sacrifice, self-care is much less likely to be set as a personal priority. From the Buddhist tradition, the principle of compassion with equanimity is engaged. The Buddhist ideal is opening oneself to the pain of the other while maintaining calmness or stillness of mind. It is contended that inculcation of this skill means that a nurse can be exposed to suffering without running down their store of compassion.
Nearly four in ten American use complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) each year. Even with a large number of patients, CAM practitioners face scrutiny from physicians and biomedical researchers who, in an era of evidence-based medicine, argue there is little evidence to support CAM treatments. Examining how CAM has or has not been integrated into American health care is crucial in understanding the contemporary boundaries of healthcare systems. An analytical tool from science and technology studies, boundary objects, can help scholars of medicine understand which practices become integrated into these systems. Using a comparative analysis based on archival and interview data, this paper examines the use of boundary objects in two alternative medical practices - acupuncture and Christian Science. While boundary objects alone cannot explain what health practices succeed or fail, juxtaposing the use of boundary objects by different CAM groups identifies the work boundary objects do to facilitate integration and the conditions under which they "work." I find that acupuncturists' use of sterile needles as a boundary objects assists in their effective integration into U.S. healthcare because needles are both a symbol of biomedical prowess and a potentially unsafe device requiring regulation. Christian Scientists' use of the placebo effect as a boundary object has not succeeded because they fail to acknowledge the different contextual definitions of the placebo effect in biomedical communities. This comparative analysis highlights how context affects which boundary objects "work" for CAM practices and theorizes why alternative health practices succeed or fail to become integrated into healthcare systems.
Wilkerson, J. Michael; Smolenski, Derek J.; Brady, Sonya S.; Rosser, B.R. Simon
When exposed to their congregations’ negative views of homosexuality, Christian men who have sex with men frequently struggle to reconcile their religious and sexual identities, possibly contributing to negative emotional states and behaviors associated with HIV/STI infection. To examine the influence of religiousity on internalized homonegativity and outness among Christian men who have sex with men, we used survey data from 1,165 men who answered questions about their religious beliefs and sexual behavior. We stratified participants based on religious affiliation groupings: Catholic, Mainline Protestant, and Evangelical Protestant. After using confirmatory factor analysis to verify that the selected measures of religiosity were equivalent between groups, we used structural equation modeling to examine the relationship between religiosity, internalized homonegativity, and outness. Among Catholics and Mainline Protestants, religiosity was not associated with internalized homonegativy or outness. However, among Evangelical Protestants—a group more likely to ascribe to religious fundamentalism—increased religiosity was associated with increased internalized homonegativity, which contributed to decreased outness. Our findings suggest that mental health providers and sexuality educators should be more concerned about the influence of religiosity on internalized homonegativity and outness when clients have a history of affiliation with Evangelical Protestant faiths more so than Catholic or Mainline Protestant faiths. PMID:23226970
Maksimovic, Jovan; Maksimovic, Marko
For centuries, theologists, historians, archaeologists, petrologists, and others had been interested in a story about Christian martyrs known as Passio Sanctorum Quattuor Coronatorum. It is a hagiographic manuscript from the 4th century which describes the martyrdom and death of two separate groups of Christians who suffered Diocletian's persecution. One group lived in Pannonia and the other in Rome. They refused to offer sacrifice to the ancient god of medicine Asclepius Roman Aesculapius. In the 6th century, their relics were kept in a basilica on the Coelian Hill in Rome, named after four saint martyrs Ss. Quattuor Coronatorum. In the Middle Ages, these saints enjoyed great glory, and many churches and chapels were dedicated to them in Italy, France, England, and Belgium. Guilds of stone workers and stone cutters took them for patrons. There are many copies of the Passio, which are kept in Vatican, Paris, Milan, Verona, Bern, and Munich. Beside the martyrdom story, these copies speak about inconsistencies related to the saints' names and place and time of the events described in the story. Our study brings together the most important findings made so far about this hagiographic mystery. Certain events described in the Passio are interpreted from the medico-historical aspect, which is a new approach to the subject.
Barlev, Michael; Mermelstein, Spencer; German, Tamsin C
This study tested the hypothesis that in the minds of adult religious adherents, acquired beliefs about the extraordinary characteristics of God coexist with, rather than replace, an initial representation of God formed by co-option of the evolved person concept. In three experiments, Christian religious adherents were asked to evaluate a series of statements for which core intuitions about persons and acquired Christian beliefs about God were consistent (i.e., true according to both [e.g., "God has beliefs that are true"] or false according to both [e.g., "All beliefs God has are false"]) or inconsistent (i.e., true on intuition but false theologically [e.g., "God has beliefs that are false"] or false on intuition but true theologically [e.g., "All beliefs God has are true"]). Participants were less accurate and slower to respond to inconsistent versus consistent statements, suggesting that the core intuitions both coexisted alongside and interfered with the acquired beliefs (Experiments 1 and 2). In Experiment 2 when responding under time pressure participants were disproportionately more likely to make errors on inconsistent versus consistent statements than when responding with no time pressure, suggesting that the resolution of interference requires cognitive resources the functioning of which decreases under cognitive load. In Experiment 3 a plausible alternative interpretation of these findings was ruled out by demonstrating that the response accuracy and time differences on consistent versus inconsistent statements occur for God-a supernatural religious entity-but not for a natural religious entity (a priest).
Timmons, Shirley M
This article reports the development of a substantive theory to explain an evangelical Christian-based process of recovery from addiction. Faith-based, 12-step, mutual aid programs can improve drug abstinence by offering: (a) an intervention option alone and/or in conjunction with secular programs and (b) an opportunity for religious involvement. Although literature on religion, spirituality, and addiction is voluminous, traditional 12-step programs fail to explain the mechanism that underpins the process of Christian-based recovery (CR). This pilot study used grounded theory to explore and describe the essence of recovery of 10 former crack cocaine-addicted persons voluntarily enrolled in a CR program. Data were collected from in-depth interviews during 4 months of 2008. Audiotapes were transcribed verbatim, and the constant comparative method was used to analyze data resulting in the basic social process theory, understanding God as sponsor. The theory was determined through writing theoretical memos that generated key elements that allow persons to recover: acknowledging God-centered crises, communicating with God, and planning for the future. Findings from this preliminary study identifies important factors that can help persons in recovery to sustain sobriety and program administrators to benefit from theory that guides the development of evidence-based addiction interventions.
Theodossiou, E. Th.
How many different chronologies have been proposed for the beginning of the Creation? It is, of course, well known that the Jewish chronology starts from 7 October (1 Tishri) 3761 BC; however, this starting point apparently did not satisfy various scholars nor Christian savants and astronomers. As a result, from time to time miscellaneous dates were being proposed, from the Jewish historian Josephus (first Century AD) up to the French humanist Joseph Scaliger (1484-1558) and the famous Polish astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87). Not only the scholars of these eras but also the Christian Churches defined through Ecumenical Council decisions the beginning of the Creation. In this study we present the proposed dates, while we note that especially the date proposed by James Ussher (1581-1656), Archbishop of Armagh (Northern Ireland), that is the year 4004 BC and not the centurial year 4000 BC, is due to the historians' belief that Herod died in 4 BC. Thus, Ussher added these 4 years to the year 4000 BC in order to have a more accurate chronology in respect to the birth of Christ, a birth placed by him, as well as by many chronicle writers of the era, in 4 BC.
Christian VII of Denmark (1749-1808) was insane throughout his long reign. The royal physician, Johann Friedrich Struensée (1737-72), usurped his power. In 1771 the King appointed him Privy Cabinet Minister. Struensée revolutionized the whole administration of the Danish-Norwegian kingdom and had an adulterous relationship with the Queen, Caroline Mathilda, George III's sister. In January 1772 he was arrested, sentenced to death for lese-majesty and executed. During his confinement, he wrote a memoir on the King's condition, which he considered to be caused by, or the effect of, masturbation. In 1906 Christiansen interpreted it as a case of dementia praecox, i.e. schizophrenia. It is now suggested that Christian's insanity, like that of George III (his cousin), might have been due to porphyria - the 'royal malady', possibly inherited through his mother, Princess Louise of England or his father, King Frederik V, who died from an illness which retrospectively resembles a case of porphyria.
Ash, Allison N.; Schreiner, Laurie A.
This study explored the predictors of success among 1,536 students of color from 12 Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU) member institutions. Student success was measured by examining students' intent to graduate along with the degree to which they were thriving intellectually, socially, and psychologically. The study utilized…
Francis, Leslie J.; Burton, Linda
Advocates of the secularization thesis describe radical decline in the significance of the Christian tradition among young people in England. In this context, a sample of 5,808 pupils age 11 to 15 years provided data about their religious identity and practice and completed the short-form Revised Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (as a…
Bachand, Sarah Caffrey
This article responds to sociologist Christian Smith's claim that many teenagers today have lost traditional religious faith and instead espouse a new and erroneous faith in God the "Cosmic Therapist." The author challenges this claim by comparing two of Smith's chief complaints vis-a-vis teen faith to established portraits of adolescent faith.…
Vestøl, Jon Magne
Drawing on perspectives from sociocultural theory, this article investigates how Christian denominations are represented in Norwegian textbooks of religious education and by young believers. The main finding is that textbooks and young adherents present religion in substantially different ways. While textbooks relate religion to global and…
Michael, Kurt Y.; Alsup, Philip R.
Research focusing on science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education among conservative Protestant Christian school students is scarce. Crenshaw's intersectionality theory is examined as it pertains to religion as a group identifier. The STEM Semantic Survey was completed by 157 middle school students attending six different private…
Francis, Leslie J.; Penny, Gemma
Drawing on data from the 2011 Australian National Church Life Survey, this study was designed to assess the connection between religious affect (as a measure of Christian commitment) and global happiness (as a measure of personal well being) among a sample of 6,194 young churchgoers in Australia between the ages of 8 and 14 years, attending a…
Sholes, James R., II.
This quantitative study used the Defining Issues Test-2 (DIT-2) and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) to evaluate the relationship between transactional/transformational leadership qualities and moral development within a population of higher education students at a Protestant, Christian, liberal arts college. This study considered…
The effectiveness of the seven Christian Brothers' college art departments in the United States was studied. Attention was directed to: programs being offered in the arts, the effectiveness of these programs, approaches to upgrade weak programs, trends in the number of art majors during 1978-1983, and trends in the number of students registered in…
This research discusses correlation between knowledge, experience and common sense with critical thinking of Medical Faculty's Student. As to the objective of this research is to find the correlation between knowledge, experience and common sense with critical thinking of Medical Faculty's Students at Christian University of Indonesia. It is…
Wong, Mary Shepard
This article presents the findings of a historically-informed comparative study that juxtaposes the lives of three missionary educators in China in the early 20th century with three Christian educators in China today. Data sources included hundreds of letters from the women written in China to their families and friends over several decades and…
This dissertation analyzed and described transitions from a theological or Bible college to a Christian liberal arts college or university in East African context. The research was specially driven by the desire to find out the reasons for such transitions, the challenges of the transition process and how such transitions affect the mission of the…
Thomason, Robert Riner, Jr.
This qualitative study, utilizing a grounded theory methodological approach, focused on how former Christian college and university presidents maintain their integrity over the course of their lives and their time in office. Eight participants from a variety of theological backgrounds were identified by using purposeful sampling methods; the…
Bartruff, Elizabeth Ann
Using the Community of Inquiry (COI) model as a framework, this case study analyzed the interactions of teacher and students in an online graduate level education course at a small Christian college in the Pacific Northwest. Using transcript content analysis, communication between participants was coded as either contributing to the social,…
Rugano, Emilio Kariuki
This descriptive and causal comparative study sought to identify motivations for alumni donor acquisition and retention in Christian institutions of higher learning. To meet this objective, motivations for alumni donors, lapsed donors, and non-donors were analyzed and compared. Data was collected through an electronic survey of a stratified sample…
Wright, William S.
The achievement gap between private and public school college-bound students has continued to widen each year since 1972. The researcher studied the relationship of Christian school college-bound students' religiosity/spirituality using a validated survey instrument and their achievement as measured on the Scholastic Aptitude Test. The literature…
Corry, Lisa M.
The question explored in this research from the literature is: Regarding college student identity development, what is known about personal integrative spirituality and relational Christian spirituality, with a particular focus on gender differences? Spirituality is included as an aspect of identity development by theorists Erikson, Marcia,…
Cole, Richard Glenn
In the eighteenth century there were enough printed sources and archival materials to challenge or even overwhelm historians of that day. Two productive editors of lexicons and information management were Christian Gottlieb Jocher, who taught history at the University of Leipzig and became the chief librarian at his university, and Johann Heinrich…
Nelsen, Luke L.
This article presents a historical defense of liberal arts education--a philosophy that is commonly claimed among Christian colleges and universities--in order to provide an understanding of liberal education to skeptics and subscribers alike. A subsequent discussion of the role of mathematics in the liberal arts tradition contends that…
The Christian Literacy Series includes a prereading program and four books of lessons with teachers' manuals. Despite the size of the text and the need for special tutor training, the series has a unique approach that includes Biblical narrative and scriptural content in lessons and is appropriate for adults, children, or family literacy. (SK)
This paper examines the way students reflect upon discipline in a City Technology College which has a Bible-based Christian ethos. This ethos is formally operationalised within college pastoral care and academic structures through a set of seven Core Values. Using ethnographic data and theoretical perspectives derived from Bourdieu this paper…
Glanzer, Perry L.
Discussion about the integration of faith and learning has become a common theme among Christian colleges and universities. Although it has fostered a robust academic dialogue, I contend the language of "integration of faith and learning" needs to be discarded. My conclusion, however, stems not from recent critiques of the integration model.…
Shillington, V. George
Etched on a stone from a monastery from the Middle Ages at a small village in County Roscommon in Ireland is a combination of Jewish and Christian symbols. The Menorah sits atop a cross. At the base of the cross and at both ends of the crossbar are three small extensions. The image is one of religious integration. Augustine, whose argument for the…
This performance guide is designed for teachers to use with students before and after a performance of "The Snow Queen," adapted from the story by Hans Christian Andersen by Sandra Deer. The guide, called a "Cuesheet," contains seven sheets for use in class, addressing: (1) What Happens in "The Snow Queen?" (offering…
Brow, Mark V.
This study investigated the perceptions of intellectual diversity at elite U.S. universities through the lens of the socially conservative Christian senior. Closely aligned with the principle of academic freedom, intellectual diversity is a foundational value putatively espoused by most if not all colleges and universities in the US. Although…
This article, the second in a two-part series, provides an overview of the literature regarding first-generation college students (FGCS), which has been largely based on studies of students in public universities. The author shares outcomes from structured dialogues with FGCS attending Christian universities. The students described how their…
Munayer, Salim J; Horenczyk, Gabriel
Grounded in a contextual approach to acculturation of minorities, this study examines changes in acculturation orientations among Palestinian Christian Arab adolescents in Israel following the "lost decade of Arab-Jewish coexistence." Multi-group acculturation orientations among 237 respondents were assessed vis-à-vis two majorities--Muslim Arabs and Israeli Jews--and compared to 1998 data. Separation was the strongest endorsed orientation towards both majority groups. Comparisons with the 1998 data also show a weakening of the Integration attitude towards Israeli Jews, and also distancing from Muslim Arabs. For the examination of the "Westernisation" hypothesis, multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analyses of perceptions of Self and group values clearly showed that, after 10 years, Palestinian Christian Arabs perceive Israeli Jewish culture as less close to Western culture, and that Self and the Christian Arab group have become much closer, suggesting an increasing identification of Palestinian Christian Arab adolescents with their ethnoreligious culture. We discuss the value of a multi-group, multi-method, and multi-wave approach to the examination of the role of the political context in acculturation processes.
Reynolds, John; Wallace, Jon
The focus of this article centers on three specific themes of disruption that are likely to affect the future of Christian higher education. The first theme examines the juxtaposition of faith-based institutional identity and its influence on a post-modern society. The second theme explores the disaggregation of traditional faculty functions and…
Dent, Lauren; Maloney, Patricia
While an overwhelming majority of people in the USA support some form of school-based sexual education, the specific content and context for that instruction varies widely, making it difficult to assess support for particular types of programmes. This is particularly the case for evangelical Christians, about whom there is a lack of scholarly…
Elliott, Dave; Hoyle, Kathryn
This study examined barriers to Physical Education (PE) in a sample of Christian and Muslim schoolgirls attending UK comprehensive secondary schools. Also assessed was whether religion and school year (age) had any impact upon barrier strength and if school year × religion interactions existed. A questionnaire was developed and exploratory factor…
Leaders in Christian higher education are often unaware of how adult degree completion programs (ADCPs) impact a school's organizational behavior, and no research has examined employees' perceptions of its impact. This nonexperimental, descriptive study examined differences in employees' perceptions of the impact on organizational climate of the…
Porterfield, Deana Lynn
Purpose: Little is known about the trajectory experiences of the female presidents within U.S. member institutions of the Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU). The purpose of this study was to gain understanding of how female presidents understand and describe their successful attainment of presidencies within CCCU…
Loomis, Michael J.
This research uses the Defining Issues Test-2 (DIT-2) to investigate the cognitive moral development of college seniors in adult degree completion (ADC) programs and traditional undergraduate (TU) programs at three Council of Christian College and University institutions. Overall, TU students had significantly higher scores on the DIT-2, TU…
Dahlvig, Jolyn; Longman, Karen A.
A theory of women's leadership development within the context of Christian higher education is proposed, based on qualitative research involving 16 participants. Motivators to advance into leadership roles were: (a) a sense of relational responsibility; (b) awareness of calling and giftedness for leadership, and (c) a mentoring relationship…
Helping students learn specific knowledge content is an important element involved in education. However, Christian universities are called not merely to fill their students' minds with facts, but to promote life transformation to better reflect the mind and character of Christ. The concern is that research on transformative learning in the…
Waggoner, Michael D.; Russo, Charles J.
The supreme court's ruling in "Christian Legal Society v. Martinez", its most important case to date on student associational activities, upheld a policy at a public law school in California that required recognized student organizations (or clubs) to admit "all-comers" even if they disagreed with organizational goals and…
Crane, Lauren Shapiro; Burns, Emily M.; Johnson, Hannah E.; Brown, Betsy R.; Ufholz, Kelsey E.; Riehle, Jennifer L.
This study investigated the possibility that a link exists between an individual's concept of Divinity and concept of self. Participants were 12 Christians (6 Catholic, 6 Methodist) and 8 Buddhists. They answered open-ended questions about sacredness, after-death experience, and humanity's relation to the natural world. Content analyses focused on…
Amene, Chiazo; Cosetti, Maura; Ambekar, Sudheer; Guthikonda, Bharat; Nanda, Anil
Introduction The fossa of Rosenmüller, also known as the lateral pharyngeal recess, is a well-established site of origin of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. It is located in the lateral pharyngeal wall behind the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube, the torus tubarius, and is named after Johann Christian Rosenmüller (JCR). Objective We present a history on the life and extensive works of Johann Christian Rosenmüller, a German physician and anatomist. Results Johann Christian Rosenmüller was a dedicated anatomist. In addition to identifying the fossa of Rosenmüller, his influence extends to various other anatomic subjects, including the Rosenmüller gland, the palpebral portion of the lacrimal gland, and the organ of Rosenmüller (i.e., the caudal remnant of the mesonephric duct). He was also an avid speleologist, studying the composition of caves and their life forms. For his contributions to this field, he had a cave in Germany and an extinct species named after him—Rosenmüllerhöhle and Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller, respectively. Conclusion The fossa of Rosenmüller plays an important role in the growth and surgical treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We present a brief glimpse into the life of Johann Christian Rosenmüller, for whom it was named. PMID:24436911
Wade, James S.
This paper details the importance of a successful implementation of technology into the business school curriculum and the Christian Brothers University's (CBU) (Tennessee) approach to such integration. The technology awareness of students and technology planning with regard to facilities, and curriculum are outlined. An overview of the following…
The year 2010 is the centennial of the publication of the "Seven Little Devils" in the predecessor of "Acta Physiologica". In these seven papers, August and Marie Krogh sought to refute Christian Bohr's theory that oxygen diffusion from the lungs to the circulation is not entirely passive but rather facilitated by a specific cellular activity…
Jeynes, William H.
This study assessed the relationship between Bible literacy among secondary school students and their academic achievement and school behavior. A total of 160 students who attended either Christian or public schools in the 7th to 12th grade were randomly selected for the study sample. Three measures of Bible knowledge were combined to obtain an…
Jeynes, William H.
The author examines the national growth of Bible literacy courses in America's public schools and examines what steps Christian universities and colleges can take to help meet the demand for teachers for these courses. The author asserts that several sources of training are currently available, but declares that they will be unable to train a…
Craft, Christy Moran; Rockenbach, Alyssa Bryant
As part of a larger investigation into the spiritual climate at one Lutheran college, we interviewed Protestant Christian students in order to compare their conceptualizations of spirituality, religion, and faith with biblical notions of those concepts. We found that the students' understandings of those concepts only loosely reflected general…
Israel is a multicultural state where ultra-Orthodox groups run their own separate schools. The present phenomenological study examined and compared the management patterns and educational emphases of three women principals of religious schools (Muslim, Christian [Franciscan], and ultra-Orthodox Jewish). The findings show that the ultra-Orthodox…
African Pentecostal churches are becoming increasingly important in Britain where they are growing at a time when mainstream Christianity is in decline. Originally functioning as social and religious support networks for African migrants, their growth has been stimulated by a conscious missionary agenda. Recently, there has been a shift towards a…
Roedding, Amy L.
In an effort to understand Christian college professors' levels of awareness to the needs of English Language Learners (ELLs) in content-based classrooms and to identify effective practices for language learning that are being implemented, a quantitative study using descriptive research was carried out. A survey was used to collect data to…
Kang, S. Steve
This article proposes a new framework for theory and practice of Christian education for second-generation Korean American young adults using the literature of sociocultural constructionism and the multivoiced self. This framework can provide holistic nurture and future trajectories in which to encourage a reflexive, praxis-generating faith. The…
This exploratory study investigated the impact of learning experiences on the intellectual, spiritual and community lives of Kenyan alumni who have graduated from master's programs in Christian and public universities in Kenya between June 2006 and 2010. A purposive sample of twenty-three graduates from four universities was used to collect data…
Pankow, Jennifer; Simpson, D. Dwayne; Joe, George W.; Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Knight, Kevin; Meason, Paul
Treatment providers need tools that are designed to identify risk, treatment needs, and monitor client engagement. These are essential components in substance abuse treatment for offender populations. In this study, the authors evaluated a flexible set of one-page modular assessments known as the Texas Christian University (TCU) Short Forms and…
Njoku, N. C.; Njoku, D. I.
The study is designed to investigate challenges to effective implementation of Christian Religious Studies among secondary school pupils in Ebonyi state. Two research questions were raised to guide the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Ebonyi state is the area of study and the population comprised all the 232 CRS teachers in…
Francis, Leslie J.; Brockett, Adrian; Village, Andrew
Alongside a family of instruments designed to measure the attitudinal dimension of religion within specific faith contexts (Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism), the Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Theistic Faith was designed to assess the attitudinal dimension of religion within a multifaith context. Drawing on a sample of 4338…
Quantitative research examining linkages between family relationships and religious experience has increased substantially in recent years. However, related qualitative research, including research that examines the processes and meanings behind recurring religion-family correlations, remains scant. To address this paucity, a racially diverse sample (N = 24) of married, highly religious Christian, Jewish, Mormon, and Muslim parents of school-aged children were interviewed regarding the importance of religious family interactions, rituals, and practices in their families. Mothers and fathers discussed several religious practices that were meaningful to them and explained why these practices were meaningful. Parents also identified costs and challenges associated with these practices. Interview data are presented in connection with three themes: (1) "practicing [and parenting] what you preach," (2) religious practices, family connection, and family communion, and (3) costs of family religious practices. The importance of family clinicians and researchers attending to the influence of religious practice in the lives of highly religious individuals and families is discussed.
The radical psychiatrist R.D. Laing's first book, "The Divided Self" (1960), is informed by the work of Christian thinkers on scriptural interpretation -- an intellectual genealogy apparent in Laing's comparison of Karl Jaspers's symptomatology with the theological tradition of "form criticism." Rudolf Bultmann's theology, which was being enthusiastically promoted in 1950s Scotland, is particularly influential upon Laing. It furnishes him with the notion that schizophrenic speech expresses existential truths as if they were statements about the physical and organic world. It also provides him with a model of the schizoid position as a form of modern-day Stoicism. Such theological recontextualization of "The Divided Self" illuminates continuities in Laing's own work, and also indicates his relationship to a wider British context, such as the work of the "clinical theologian" Frank Lake.
Takano, Yohtaro; Ito, Gen
Volpi (2004) pointed out that Alessandro Valignano, a 16th century Christian missionary, had considered the Japanese extreme collectivists. According to Volpi, his remark was based on Valignano's reports (1583, 1592) edited by Alvares-Taladriz (1954). However, it is highly questionable whether Volpi examined these texts directly because the information about them provided by Volpi involved many serious errors. A thorough inspection of Valignano's translated reports found no mention of Japanese collectivism. On the contrary, he had actually reported exceedingly individualistic behaviors of Japanese warriors. Such behaviors are consistent with what is widely known about the 16th century Civil Wars in Japan. It has thus turned out that no reliable evidence is present for the alleged observation by Valignano.
Katsi, V; Felekos, I; Kallikazaros, I
Christian Andreas Doppler is renowned primarily for his revolutionary theory of the Doppler effect, which has deeply influenced many areas of modern science and technology, including medicine. His work has laid the foundations for modern ultrasonography and his ideas are still inspiring discoveries more than a hundred years after his death. Doppler may well earn the title of Homo Universalis for his broad knowledge of physics, mathematics and astronomy and most of all for his indefatigable investigations for new ideas and his ingenious mind. According to Bolzano: "It is hard to believe how fruitful a genius Austria has in this man". His legacy of scientific achievement have seen Doppler honoured in the later years on coinage and money, names of streets, educational institutions, rock groups, even of a lunar crater; while the ultimate tribute to his work is the countless references to the homonymous medical eponym.
Tucker, A Roger; van Tonder, Gerrit
The fracking debate is a product of the tension between the environmental degradation it may cause, on the one hand, and on the other the greater energy demands of a rapidly increasing South African population with expectations of an ever-increasing standard of living. Shale gas fracking in the Karoo of South Africa promises to make vast reserves of oil and gas available to help meet a significant percentage of the country's energy needs for many years to come. This will aid development and contribute to raising the standard of living of many. This article seeks to apprise the South African faith communities of the technology and risks involved. Christian theological guidelines are presented by which its benefits and dangers may be interrogated so that the community may be able come to an informed decision as to whether or not to support fracking.
Laperuta, Paolo; Napolitano, Filomena; Di Crescenzo, Rosa Maria; Zeppa, Pio; Galderisi, Antonio; Selleri, Carmine; Vatrella, Alessandro; Capunzo, Mario
Abstract A 82-year-old patient with dyspnea and a recurrent history of pleural effusion was admitted into our unit. He performed a Chest computed tomography showing right pleural effusion. Video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS) exploratory showed parietal pleural thickening of adipose tissue. The surgical procedure consisted, therefore, in the execution of multiple biopsies of the parietal pleura which appeared covered, on the whole surface, by islands of adipose tissue, without macroscopic pathological aspects. After the procedure was performed pleurodesis with talc. The definitive histological examination consisted of normal mesothelial cells surrounded by fatty tissue infiltrated by small lymphocytes in a patient without skin lesions or visceral or systemic signs of inflammatory involvement of the adipose tissue. We reported a rare case of idiopathic pleural panniculitis with recurrent pleural effusion not associated with Weber-Christian disease.
Merakou, Kyriakoula; Taki, Stavroula; Barbouni, Anastasia; Antoniadou, Eleni; Theodoridis, Dimitrios; Karageorgos, Georgios; Kourea-Kremastinou, Jeny
This paper aims to investigate the stress management skills of Christian Orthodox monks and nuns, as measured by Antonovsky's scale sense of coherence (SOC). A case-control study was designed to test the hypotheses whether monks and nuns have higher SOC than secular people. The study population consisted of 193 individuals, 96 monks and nuns (study group) and 97 secular men and women (control group). SOC score was higher in monks and nuns as compared to the secular population (p = 0.002), men as compared to women (p = 0.012) and persons of older age (p = 0.004) as compared to younger individuals.
Vail, Kenneth E; Arndt, Jamie; Abdollahi, Abdolhossein
Building on research suggesting one primary function of religion is the management of death awareness, the present research explored how supernatural beliefs are influenced by the awareness of death, for whom, and how individuals' extant beliefs determine which god(s), if any, are eligible to fulfill that function. In Study 1, death reminders had no effect among Atheists, but enhanced Christians' religiosity, belief in a higher power, and belief in God/Jesus and enhanced denial of Allah and Buddha. Similarly, death reminders increased Muslims' religiosity and belief in a higher power, and led to greater belief in Allah and denial of God/Jesus and Buddha (Study 2). Finally, in Study 3, death reminders motivated Agnostics to increase their religiosity, belief in a higher power, and their faith in God/Jesus, Buddha, and Allah. The studies tested three potential theoretical explanations and were consistent with terror management theory's worldview defense hypothesis. Theoretical implications are discussed.
Elhayboubi, Samira Nawal
We examine how teachers approach stem cell research (SCR) as a controversial religio-scientific issue, and how theologians derive rulings in SCR. We also examine the contradictions teachers have regarding religio-scientific aspect of SCR. Two observations were the igniters of this study, increasing public involvement in political decision-making and changing demographics among voters. Two samples were gathered, a teachers' group and a theologians' group. The teachers' group consisted of 43 graduate-level Science education teachers and teachers-in-training from the University of Texas at Dallas and Stanford University. The theologian's group consisted of theologians from 3 denominations, Buddhism, Christianity and Islam. Data was obtained using Likert-surveys, open-ended questions and interviews. Results show that majority of the teachers' group are open to discussing SCR but fear retaliation.
The synthesis of phosphors, or light-bearing matter, figured largely among the activities of early scientific societies and within the first scientific journals. They were prestige objects during the formative institutionalisation of experimental natural philosophy. Nevertheless, early phosphors have often appeared within the historiography of chemistry as a throwback to an earlier era. They have been represented as a fundamental epistemic and theoretical divide between a mystical alchemy (exemplified by Christian Adolph Balduin) and modern chemistry (prefigured by progressives such as Robert Boyle). The parallel phosphoric researches of Boyle and Balduin belie this divide. Recovering the theoretical context of Balduin's phosphor can both resituate it in relation to phosphoric research of the 1670s and 1680s, as well as further illuminate the intellectual sources and development of chymical atomism.
The beginning of the Christian era (A. D.; common era; our era; new era) is connected with Christ's birth. It is the usual practice that Dionysius Exiguus made a miscount by determining the years of Jesus' birth and Crucifix. In the present work we make an attempt to determine this miscount through astronomical computations of the newmoons (The Crucifix is on Friday, the day before the Jewish Passover i.e. on the 14-th day of the Moon). It was found that the miscount of Dionysius is 9 years regarding Christmas and 11 years regarding the Resurrection (the first Easter). The obtained results are in accordance with St. John's Gospel and with the information of competent ancient annalists as Eusebius of Caesarea.
Liebman, Amy K; Mainster, Barbara; Lee, Barbara C
Agricultural employers and work supervisors strive to keep children out of worksites, but oftentimes migrating farm worker parents lack accessible or affordable options for childcare in a trusted environment. Thus, children may not have a safe, appropriate place to be while their parents are conducting agricultural work. Redlands Christian Migrant Association (RCMA) of Florida is a community development organization that creates and fosters opportunities for the children of migrant and other low-income rural families. To better understand the RCMA system, an in-depth assessment of its program was undertaken to identify both its standard and unique features. Results revealed many attributes contributing to RCMA's success. Based upon RCMA's 48-year track record, employers, agribusinesses, and communities are encouraged to adopt strategies to meet local and regional childcare needs where parents are working in agriculture.
Katsi, V; Felekos, I; Kallikazaros, I
Christian Andreas Doppler is renowned primarily for his revolutionary theory of the Doppler effect, which has deeply influenced many areas of modern science and technology, including medicine. His work has laid the foundations for modern ultrasonography and his ideas are still inspiring discoveries more than a hundred years after his death. Doppler may well earn the title of Homo Universalis for his broad knowledge of physics, mathematics and astronomy and most of all for his indefatigable investigations for new ideas and his ingenious mind. According to Bolzano: “It is hard to believe how fruitful a genius Austria has in this man”. His legacy of scientific achievement have seen Doppler honoured in the later years on coinage and money, names of streets, educational institutions, rock groups, even of a lunar crater; while the ultimate tribute to his work is the countless references to the homonymous medical eponym. PMID:24376313
Christian Ehrenfried Eschenbach (1712-1788) belongs to the forerunners of the embossed natural science scholars of legal medicine in Germany. As a principal re-elected 11 times and dean of the medical faculty at Rostock University he defended academic positions in difficult times. His bibliography comprises numerous text books, e.g. on surgery, anatomy, pathology and obstetrics as well as various fields of mathematics. His Medicina legalis (1746 and 1775) belongs to the first systematic editions of forensic medicine in the German-speaking community. Thanks to his extensive practical experience as a physician and public health officer he took a very progressive position on questions of forensic medicine, issues of professional ethics in medicine and the assessment of injuries. He has wrongly been forgotten.
Grosse, Heinrich W
The Jewish-Christian convictions that man was created as the image of God founded the "ethics of unavailability" which contrast with the utilitarian "ethics of interests." As man s nature is imperfect according to biblical understanding, those responsible in the field of experimental medicine should counteract all tendencies in society which promote an utopian definition of health and an eugenic mentality (idea of the "perfection of mankind"). Consequently, scientists must reflect their own image of man and the effects of their actions on this image. The goals of experimental medicine must also be examined under the aspect of fairness: do they only benefit a minority in the rich industrial nations? As in research on humans, the ethical evaluation of animal experiments must consider the question of the underlying image of humanity and the responsibility of mankind connected to it. Because of changes in society's values, the validity of traditional anthropocentrism is increasingly questioned. However, this does not affect the view of the special position of man as the bearer of responsibility. Even though there are different biblical statements on the relationship between man and animal, the Christian maxim to minimise violence towards animals can be derived from them. In the case of animal experiments this means: experiments which cause the animals severe suffering must be avoided by waiving the potential gain of knowledge from them. In general: in an ethical discussion on medical experiments using humans or animals, the public must be informed completely and involved effectively. A moratorium must be possible before plans become facts. Thinking about ethical problems in the area of experimental medicine should not be separated from the far-reaching questions about changes in our lifestyle and consumer behaviour.
Neto, Leon; Meyer, David
Contemporary commercial music (CCM) is a term that encompasses many styles of music. A growing subset of CCM is contemporary Christian music, a genre that has outpaced other popular styles such as Latin, jazz, and classical music. Contemporary Christian singers (CCSs) and worship leaders (WLs) are a subset of CCM musicians that face unique vocal demands and risks. They typically lack professional training and often perform in acoustically disadvantageous venues with substandard sound reinforcement systems. The vocal needs and risks of these singers are not well understood, and because of this, their training and care may be suboptimal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the vocal health of this growing population and their awareness of standard vocal hygiene principles. An online questionnaire was designed and administered to participants in the Americas, Europe, Australia, and Asia. A total of 614 participants responded to the questionnaire, which is made available in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. Many participants reported vocal symptoms such as vocal fatigue (n = 213; 34.7%), tickling or choking sensation (n = 149; 24.3%), loss of upper range (n = 172; 28%), and complete loss of voice (n = 25; 4.1%). One third of the participants (n = 210; 34%) indicated that they do not warm up their voices before performances and over half of the participants (n = 319; 52%) have no formal vocal training. Results suggest that this population demonstrates low awareness of vocal hygiene principles, frequently experience difficulty with their voices, and may face elevated risk of vocal pathology. Future studies of this population may confirm the vocal risks that our preliminary findings suggest.
Vogt, Christopher P
Four centuries ago, Christian moral theologians addressed the issue of dying by turning to scripture and the virtues. This work revives that tradition by showing that careful theological reflection upon the nature of Christian patience, compassion, and hope illuminates the shape of the Good Death. The author draws upon Luke's passion narrative to develop a better understanding of these virtues. He also takes up the question of whether Jesus' death can be a model of dying well for contemporary Christians. Christians are often advised to look to Jesus in his dying as a model for themselves, but this recommendation typically leaves unanswered what exactly it is about Jesus' dying that is to be imitated. The understanding of patience, compassion, and hope developed here provides a means of sorting through this issue.
Mohamed, K.; Rey, D.; Méndez, G.; Evans, M. E.
Archaeomagnetic studies are usually based on measurements made on pottery or buildings that have achieved high temperatures because the results obtained are com- monly of better quality. In this study three burnt grain silos from the recently disap- peared Castro de As Laias located in Ourense (NW Spain) have provided a successful date of a pre-Christian fire. AF and thermal demagnetization were carried out to iso- late the characteristic component of magnetization. Hysteresis and IRM acquisition experiments were carried out to characterise the magnetic minerals responsible of the remanence Additionally, XRD analyses and observations under the SEM were also performed to support the magnetic data. The characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) has shown that two of the three studied silos burnt at the same time. Radio- carbon dating on charcoal gives an age of 181+/-61. These results also contribute to a better definition of a Secular Variation Curve (SVC) for the early Christian Age in Iberia.
Kang Sim, D Eastern; Hofstetter, C Richard; Irvin, Veronica L; Ayers, John W; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming; Hovell, Melbourne F
Although Korean American women show high levels of involvement in religious practices and high prevalence of alcohol consumption, no studies have assessed the association between religious denomination and alcohol intake among this group of women. This cross-sectional study examined the associations of religious denomination and religious commitment to alcohol consumption among Korean American women in California. Polychotomous regression models were used to provide estimates of the associations between religious denomination and religious commitment to alcohol consumption. Catholic Korean American women (OR 5.61 P < 0.01) and Independent Christian women (OR 4.87 P < 0.01) showed stronger associations to heavy alcohol consumption when compared to Conservative Christian Korean American women. Path analysis suggested that specific denominations had both direct and indirect effects on the outcome of interest, and that religious commitment and drinking models served as moderators for this phenomenon.
Nam, Sung Hyun
This study aims to examine the beginning and the development of Christian Charities during the 4(th)-6(th) centuries which would eventually result in the birth of the hospital in modern sense in the first half of the 7(th) century. For this purpose, I looked carefully into various primary sources concerning the early Christian institutions for the poor and the sick. Above all, it's proper to note that the first xenodocheion where hospitality was combined with a systematic caring, is concerned with the Trinitarian debate of the 4(th) century. In 356, Eustathios, one of the leaders of homoiousios group, established xenodocheion to care for the sick and the lepers in Sebaste of Armenia, whereas his opponent Aetios, doctor and leader of the heteroousios party, was reckoned to have combined the medical treatment with his clerical activities. Then, Basil of Caesarea, disciple of Eustathios of Sebaste, also founded in 372 a magnificent benevolent complex named 'Basileias' after its founder. I scrupulously analysed several contemporary materials mentioning the charitable institution of Caesarea which was called alternatively katagogia, ptochotropheion, xenodocheion. John Chrysostome also founded several nosokomeia in Constantinople at the end of the 4(th) century and the beginning of the 5(th) century. Apparently, the contemporary sources mention that doctors existed for these Charities, but there is no sufficient proof that these 'Christian Hospitals,' Basileias or nosokomeia of Constantinople were hospitals in modern sense. Imperial constitutions began to mention ptochotropheion, xenodocheion and orphanotropheion since the second half of the 5(th) century and then some Justinian laws evoked nosokomium, brephotrophia, gerontocomia. These laws reveal that 'Christian Hospitals' were well clarified and deeply rooted in Byzantine society already in these periods. And then, new benevolent institutions emerged in the 6(th) century: nosokomeia for a specific class and
Al-Mujtaba, Maryam; Cornelius, Llewellyn J.; Galadanci, Hadiza; Erekaha, Salome; Okundaye, Joshua N.; Adeyemi, Olusegun A.; Sam-Agudu, Nadia A.
Introduction. Uptake of antenatal services is low in Nigeria; however, indicators in the Christian-dominated South have been better than in the Muslim-dominated North. This study evaluated religious influences on utilization of general and HIV-related maternal health services among women in rural and periurban North-Central Nigeria. Materials and Methods. Targeted participants were HIV-positive, pregnant, or of reproductive age in the Federal Capital Territory and Nasarawa. Themes explored were utilization of facility-based services, provider gender preferences, and Mentor Mother acceptability. Thematic and content approaches were applied to manual data analysis. Results. Sixty-eight (68) women were recruited, 72% Christian and 28% Muslim. There were no significant religious influences identified among barriers to maternal service uptake. All participants stated preference for facility-based services. Uptake limitations were mainly distance from clinic and socioeconomic dependence on male partners rather than religious restrictions. Neither Muslim nor Christian women had provider gender preferences; competence and positive attitude were more important. All women found Mentor Mothers highly acceptable. Conclusion. Barriers to uptake of maternal health services appear to be minimally influenced by religion. ANC/PMTCT uptake interventions should target male partner buy-in and support, healthcare provider training to improve attitudes, and Mentor Mother program strengthening and impact assessment. PMID:27006944
Moog, Ferdinand Peter
The study of health and healing gods may offer significant examples of how certain ideas survive, with hardly any substantial loss, across periods of great change. It is no surprise that, following centuries of struggle by early Christians against the worship of pagan gods, some originally heathen ideas and elements of thinking should have been in due course, if with prudence, adapted to Christian needs and sensibilities. A most remarkable instance of such practice is to be found, somewhat surprisingly, in the life of the bishop St. Cyril of Alexandria. He opposed rigorously the cult of Isis, above all in Egypt, but nevertheless adapted features of Isis to his conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary as 'Theotokos'. In this manner Isis, the goddess-mother, with her child Horus became--in a certain measure--a type of the Blessed Virgin Mother of God, accompanied by the Infant Jesus. The legendary arson perpetrated at the start of the 6th century A.D. against a temple in Cologne wherein a healing deity was worshipped should, it is argued here for the first time, be understood in the context of conflict between early Christianity and the cult of Isis. There is good reason to believe that the aforementioned temple set on fire by Gallus, later Bishop of Clermont, was in fact the shrine of Isis in Cologne.