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Sample records for chromium 47

  1. Chromium.

    PubMed

    Barceloux, D G

    1999-01-01

    Chromium occurs primarily in the trivalent state (III), which is the most stable form, or in the hexavalent state (VI), which is a strong oxidizing agent. Elemental chromium (0) does not occur naturally on earth. Trivalent chromium (III) is an essential trace metal necessary for the formation of glucose tolerance factor and for the metabolism of insulin. Commercial applications of chromium compounds include tanning (III), corrosion inhibition, plating, glassware-cleaning solutions, wood preservatives (VI), manufacture of safety matches, metal finishing (VI), and the production of pigments (III, VI). Hexavalent chromium (VI) contaminated local soil when chromium waste slag was part of the fill material present in residential, public, and industrial areas. In some urban areas, about two-thirds of the chromium in air results from the emission of hexavalent chromium from fossil fuel combustion and steel production. The remaining chromium in air is the trivalent form. The residence time of chromium in air is < 10 days, depending on the particle size. Trivalent compounds generally have low toxicity and the gastrointestinal tract poorly absorbs these compounds. Hexavalent chromium is a skin and mucous membrane irritant and some of these hexavalent compounds are strong corrosive agents. Hexavalent chromium compounds also produce an allergic contact dermatitis characterized by eczema. Sensitivity to trivalent compounds is much less frequent, but some workers may react to high concentrations of these compounds. Hexavalent chromium is recognized by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and by the US Toxicology Program as a pulmonary carcinogen. The increased risk of lung cancer occurs primarily in workers exposed to hexavalent chromium dust during the refining of chromite ore and the production of chromate pigments. Although individual studies suggest the possibility of an excess incidence of cancer at sites outside the lung, the results from these studies are

  2. Chromium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of chromium (Cr) on glucose and insulin metabolism are well documented. Normal dietary intake of Cr appears to be suboptimal because several studies have reported beneficial effects of Cr in people with elevated blood glucose or type 2 diabetes eating conventional diets. Stresses that ...

  3. [Biological monitoring in chromium-plating industry].

    PubMed

    Madsen, S W; Krue, S; Bonde, J P

    1992-05-25

    The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the role of biological monitoring as a means of surveillance of exposure in the Danish chromium-plating industry. We collected spot urine samples from 47 employees in five electro-plating plants near Aarhus and compared the results wide 40 non-exposed workers. We found no increase of chromium in urine during a work shift (mean = 0.11 nmol chromium/mmol creatinine, p = .46). The mean urine chromium value among the chromium workers was twice the mean value of the referent population (p = 0.001). There was, however, a considerable overlap between the two populations. All of the urine chromium values were much lower than the proposed American biological exposure indices. The results do not indicate any need for implementation of biological monitoring in the Danish chromium-plating industry, but longitudinal studies concerning possible accumulation of chromium at present occupational exposure levels should be carried out.

  4. Chromium - blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... work in the following industries: Leather tanning Electroplating Steel manufacturing Decreased chromium level only occurs in people who receive all of their nutrition by vein (total parenteral nutrition or TPN) and do not get enough chromium.

  5. Chromium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Chromium deficiency may be seen as impaired glucose tolerance. It occurs in older people with type 2 diabetes and in infants with protein-calorie malnutrition. Taking chromium supplements can help manage these conditions. However, ...

  6. Elemental speciation for chromium in chromium picolinate products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hong; Olson, Lisa K.; Caruso, Joseph A.

    1996-12-01

    Chromium picolinate products have been examined for different forms of chromium, using chromatographic separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection. The brands we evaluated contained no detectable amount of elemental chromium(VI), the toxic form. Since chromium picolinate might have other chromium forms as impurities, different products may contain different forms of chromium species. Compared with ion-exchange, reversed-phase chromatography showed excellent chromium recovery based on the amount stated on the product label.

  7. Chromium adsorption by lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Lalvani, S.B.; Huebner, A.; Wiltowski, T.S.

    2000-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen, and its maximum contamination level in drinking water is determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Chromium in the wastewaters from plating and metal finishing, tanning, and photographic industries poses environmental problems. A commercially available lignin was used for the removal of hexavalent as well as trivalent chromium from aqueous solution. It is known that hexavalent chromium is present as an anionic species in the solution. It was found that lignin can remove up to 63% hexavalent and 100% trivalent chromium from aqueous solutions. The removal of chromium ions was also investigated using a commercially available activated carbon. This absorbent facilitated very little hexavalent and almost complete trivalent chromium removal. Adsorption isotherms and kinetics data on the metal removal by lignin and activated carbon are presented and discussed.

  8. [Chromium and insulin resistance].

    PubMed

    Kleefstra, N; Bilo, H J; Bakker, S J; Houweling, S T

    2004-01-31

    Since as early as the 50s of the last century, it has been known that chromium is essential for normal glucose metabolism. Too little chromium in the diet may lead to insulin resistance. However, there is still no standard against which chromium deficiency can be established. Nevertheless, chromium supplements are becoming increasingly popular. Various systematic reviews have been unable to demonstrate any effects of chromium on glycaemic regulation (possibly due partly to the low dosages used), but there is a slight reduction in body weight averaging 1 kg. In a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial in a Chinese population with type-2 diabetes mellitus, supplementation with 1000 micrograms of chromium led to a fall in the glycosylated haemoglobin level (HbA1c) by 2%. Toxic effects of chromium are seldom seen; recently, however, the safety of one of the dosage forms of chromium, chromium picolinate, has been questioned. One should be aware that individual patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus may have an increased risk of hypoglycaemic episodes when taking chromium supplements as self-medication.

  9. Chromium and Genomic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Sandra S.; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-01-01

    Many metals serve as micronutrients which protect against genomic instability. Chromium is most abundant in its trivalent and hexavalent forms. Trivalent chromium has historically been considered an essential element, though recent data indicate that while it can have pharmacological effects and value, it is not essential. There are no data indicating that trivalent chromium promotes genomic stability and, instead may promote genomic instability. Hexavalent chromium is widely accepted as highly toxic and carcinogenic with no nutritional value. Recent data indicate that it causes genomic instability and also has no role in promoting genomic stability. PMID:22192535

  10. Sodium sulfur container with chromium/chromium oxide coating

    DOEpatents

    Ludwig, Frank A.; Higley, Lin R.

    1981-01-01

    A coating of chromium/chromium oxide is disclosed for coating the surfaces of electrically conducting components of a sodium sulfur battery. This chromium/chromium oxide coating is placed on the surfaces of the electrically conducting components of the battery which are in contact with molten polysulfide and sulfur reactants during battery operation.

  11. Evaluation of Cooking Quality of Chromium Fortified - Parboiled Rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulianto, W. A.; Suryani, C. L.; Ulfah, S.

    2017-04-01

    Parboiled rice was developed to produce rice that has low glycemic index, especially for diabetics. Yet, parboiled rice is not enough because diabetics also lack of chromium. The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the influence of paddy soaking time and chromium fortification on cooking quality of chromium fortified - parboiled rice (Cr -PR). The paddy was soaked for 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 hours with chromium fortification at 0, 1.08, 3.42, 5.40 and 7.47 mg/L. The paddy soaked in different time and chromium fortification level did not affect the alkali spreading value and cooking time of CR-PR. The elongation of Cr-PR was from 1.39 to 1.48. Water uptake ratio increased due to addition of chromium, but the more addition of chromium (> 1.08 mg/L) the less water uptake ratio increase. The rice solid loss declined and it was influenced by the length of soaking time. The longer the soaking time and the higher the chromium addition, the harder the rice texture generated.

  12. The carcinogenicity of chromium

    PubMed Central

    Norseth, Tor

    1981-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of chromium compounds is reviewed with specific attention to the gaps in knowledge for risk estimation and research needs. The most important problems at present are whether trivalent chromium compounds cause cancer, and whether there is a difference in cancer causing effects between the soluble and the slightly soluble hexavalent compounds in the practical exposure situation. Dose estimates for risk estimation based on epidemiological investigations are also lacking. Present evidence indicates that the trivalent chromium compounds do not cause cancer although high concentrations in some in vitro systems have shown genetic toxicity. Hexavalent chromium compounds cause cancer in humans, in experimental animals and exert genetic toxicity in bacteria and in mammalian cells in vitro. Epidemiological evidence and animal experiments indicate that the slightly soluble hexavalent salts are the most potent carcinogens, but proper identification and characterization of exposure patterns in epidemiological work are lacking. Workers also tend to have mixed exposures. Soluble and slightly soluble salts are equally potent genotoxic agents in vitro. Further work for establishing dose estimates for risk evaluation in epidemiological work is important. In vitro systems should be applied for further identification of the mechanism of the carcinogenic effects, and animal experiments are urgent for comparison of the carcinogenic potency of the different hexavalent salts. Hexavalent chromium salts must be regarded as established carcinogens, and proper action should be taken in all industries with regard to such exposure. At present the carcinogenic risk to the general population caused by chromium compounds seems to be negligible, chromium in cigarettes, however, is an uncertainty in this respect. The amount of chromium and the type of chromium compounds inhaled from cigarettes is not known. PMID:7023928

  13. Bioavailability of a potato chromium complex to the laboratory rat

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, H.K.

    1985-01-01

    Research objectives were to study the effect of food source, preparation method and chemical form on bioavailability of chromium. Chromium concentration in potatoes was determined and tubers labeled either intrinsically or extrinsically with radioactive chromate. A labeled chromium complexes was isolated from preparations of raw, baked or fried potatoes and chromatographed on gel permeation media. Availability of the potato chromium complex to the rat was examined in three feeding studies. Animals were dosed with radioactive extrinsically or intrinsically labeled potato extract or with chromate. A labeled chromium complex was isolated from gastrointestinal contents of rats and chromatographed. Potato pulp and peel contained 1.63 and 2.70 ..mu..g Cr/g tissue respectively. True and apparent absorption from extrinsically labeled feedings were 33.4 +/- 4.7 and 29.8 +/- 11.2% respectively, and no differences existed between absorption from raw and cooked potatoes. Absorption from the extrinsic labeled potatoes differed significantly from absorption of inorganic chromatium. Apparent absorption of raw (11.1 +/- 7.9%) and cooked (-0.7 +/- 2.8%) intrinsically labeled feedings differed significantly. Absorption of inorganic chromium was 17.8% (true) and 11.5% (apparent). Examination of the chromium complex isolated from gastrointestinal tract contents showed enlargement of the complex in the stomach after consumption.

  14. Mineral of the month: chromium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papp, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Chromium is one of the most indispensable industrial metals and it plays an essential but hidden role in daily life. Chromium is used in many consumer and building products, and it contributes to a clean, efficient and healthy environment.

  15. Sex hormones and semen quality in welders exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Bonde, J P; Ernst, E

    1992-07-01

    Recent experimental studies in rodents document the spermatotoxic effects of water-soluble hexavalent chromium. Welders comprise, worldwide, a major occupational group with acknowledged exposure to chromium. This study examines the relationship between semen quality and chromium in the urine and blood of a population of 30 tungsten inert gas (TIG) stainless steel welders, 30 mild steel welders and 47 non-welding workers. Each subject provided two to three semen samples. The chromium concentration ranged from 0.17 to 4.74 nmol mmol1 creatinine (median 1.08) in post-shift spot urine and from 6.0 to 46.4 nmol l-1 in blood. None of several semen parameters deteriorated with increasing level of internal exposure to chromium. Low-level exposure to hexavalent chromium associated with TIG stainless steel and mild steel welding do not appear to be a major hazard for human spermatogenesis.

  16. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOEpatents

    Garwin, Edward L.; Nyaiesh, Ali R.

    1988-01-01

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  17. Chromium(VI)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM ( CAS No . 18540 - 29 - 9 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) August 1998 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S . Environme

  18. Chromium and aging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aging is associated with increased blood glucose, insulin, blood lipids, and fat mass, and decreased lean body mass leading to increased incidences of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Improved chromium nutrition is associated with improvements in all of these variables. Insulin sensitivity de...

  19. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOEpatents

    Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

    1986-08-04

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  20. Studies of chromium gettering

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, J.E.; Mioduszewski, P.; Stratton, L.W.

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary results have shown that hydrogen pumping by chromium is a surface effect. Unlike with titanium, the getter material used in many present day tokamaks, there is no significant diffusion into the bulk. Additional experiments have been carried out to measure the basic characteristics of chromium films for gases of interest in tokamak research. These gases include deuterium, oxygen and nitrogen. A vacuum system is described which allowed precise control of the test gas, a constant wall temperature and determination of the projected getter surface area. A quadrupole mass spectrometer, rather than simply a total pressure gauge, was utilized to measure the partial pressure of the test gas as well as the residual gas composition in the system. A quartz crystal monitor was used to measure film thickness. Pumping speeds and sticking coefficients are given as a function of surface coverage for each test gas. A comparison will be made with titanium films deposited in the same vacuum system and under similar conditions.

  1. Studies of chromium gettering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpkins, J. E.; Mioduszewski, P.; Stratton, L. W.

    1982-12-01

    Preliminary results have shown that hydrogen pumping by chromium is a surface effect. Unlike with titanium, the getter material used in many present day tokamaks, there is no significant diffusion into the bulk. This feature, which would minimize the tritium inventory, makes chromium a viable alternate to titanium gettering for future tokamaks. Additional experiments have been carried out to measure the basic characteristics of chromium films for gases of interest in tokamak research. These gases include deuterium, oxygen and nitrogen. A vacuum system is described which allowed precise control of the test gas, a constant wall temperature and determination of the projected getter surface area. A quadrupole mass spectrometer, rather than simply a total pressure gauge, was utilized to measure the partial pressure of the test gas as well as the residual gas composition in the system. A quartz crystal monitor was used to measure film thickness. Pumping speeds and sticking coefficients are given as a function of surface coverage for each test gas. A comparison will be made with titanium films deposited in the same vacuum system and under similar conditions.

  2. Anthropogenic Chromium Emissions in China from 1990 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hongguang; Zhou, Tan; Li, Qian; Lu, Lu; Lin, Chunye

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of chromium emission into the atmosphere and water from anthropogenic activities in China was compiled for 1990 through to 2009. We estimate that the total emission of chromium to the atmosphere is about 1.92×105t. Coal and oil combustion were the two leading sources of chromium emission to the atmosphere in China, while the contribution of them showed opposite annual growth trend. In total, nearly 1.34×104t of chromium was discharged to water, mainly from six industrial categories in 20 years. Among them, the metal fabrication industry and the leather tanning sector were the dominant sources of chromium emissions, accounting for approximately 68.0% and 20.0% of the total emissions and representing increases of15.6% and 10.3% annually, respectively. The spatial trends of Cr emissions show significant variation based on emissions from 2005 to 2009. The emission to the atmosphere was heaviest in Hebei, Shandong, Guangdong, Zhejiang and Shanxi, whose annual emissions reached more than 1000t for the high level of coal and oil consumption. In terms of emission to water, the largest contributors were Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang, where most of the leather production and metal manufacturing occur and these four regions accounted for nearly 47.4% of the total emission to water. PMID:24505309

  3. Anthropogenic chromium emissions in china from 1990 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hongguang; Zhou, Tan; Li, Qian; Lu, Lu; Lin, Chunye

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of chromium emission into the atmosphere and water from anthropogenic activities in China was compiled for 1990 through to 2009. We estimate that the total emission of chromium to the atmosphere is about 1.92×10⁵ t. Coal and oil combustion were the two leading sources of chromium emission to the atmosphere in China, while the contribution of them showed opposite annual growth trend. In total, nearly 1.34×10⁴ t of chromium was discharged to water, mainly from six industrial categories in 20 years. Among them, the metal fabrication industry and the leather tanning sector were the dominant sources of chromium emissions, accounting for approximately 68.0% and 20.0% of the total emissions and representing increases of 15.6% and 10.3% annually, respectively. The spatial trends of Cr emissions show significant variation based on emissions from 2005 to 2009. The emission to the atmosphere was heaviest in Hebei, Shandong, Guangdong, Zhejiang and Shanxi, whose annual emissions reached more than 1000t for the high level of coal and oil consumption. In terms of emission to water, the largest contributors were Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang, where most of the leather production and metal manufacturing occur and these four regions accounted for nearly 47.4% of the total emission to water.

  4. Chromium-induced toxic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Lança, Sara; Alves, Amanda; Vieira, Ana Isabel; Barata, José; de Freitas, João; de Carvalho, Alvaro

    2002-12-01

    A clinical case of acute hepatitis in a patient undergoing an alternative medicine weight-reduction regimen is reported. Chromium polynicotinate had been ingested in combination with vegetable extracts over a 5-month period. Liver biopsy was compatible with toxic hepatitis and greatly elevated hepatic chromium levels were found (>10x normal). The clinical picture regressed following suspension of the medication.

  5. Groundwater contaminant by hexavalent chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, C.

    1995-11-01

    Oxidation of trivalent chromium to hexavalent chromium has been investigated as a function of total manganese in soils as well as various incubation conditions. Chromium and manganese contents were analyzed by atomic absorption (graphite furnace and flame emission respectively) following acid digestion. Total hexavalent chromium generation capacity was determined by addition of 0.001 M CrCL3, incubation, and analysis by s-diphenyl carbazide. Samples were then leached with CaSO{sub 4} and MgSO{sub 4} and incubated in various environments (oven, freeze-drier, field moist, ultrafreeze) to test for geogenic generation of Cr(IV). The degree of geogenic generation of hexavalent chromium was compared with total Mn and Cr content as well as hexavalent generational capacity.

  6. Chromium toxicity in plants.

    PubMed

    Shanker, Arun K; Cervantes, Carlos; Loza-Tavera, Herminia; Avudainayagam, S

    2005-07-01

    Due to its wide industrial use, chromium is considered a serious environmental pollutant. Contamination of soil and water by chromium (Cr) is of recent concern. Toxicity of Cr to plants depends on its valence state: Cr(VI) is highly toxic and mobile whereas Cr(III) is less toxic. Since plants lack a specific transport system for Cr, it is taken up by carriers of essential ions such as sulfate or iron. Toxic effects of Cr on plant growth and development include alterations in the germination process as well as in the growth of roots, stems and leaves, which may affect total dry matter production and yield. Cr also causes deleterious effects on plant physiological processes such as photosynthesis, water relations and mineral nutrition. Metabolic alterations by Cr exposure have also been described in plants either by a direct effect on enzymes or other metabolites or by its ability to generate reactive oxygen species which may cause oxidative stress. The potential of plants with the capacity to accumulate or to stabilize Cr compounds for bioremediation of Cr contamination has gained interest in recent years.

  7. Hexavalent chromium monitor

    DOEpatents

    Tao, Shiquan; Winstead, Christopher B.

    2005-04-12

    A monitor is provided for use in measuring the concentration of hexavalent chromium in a liquid, such as water. The monitor includes a sample cell, a light source, and a photodetector. The sample cell is in the form of a liquid-core waveguide, the sample cell defining an interior core and acting as a receiver for the liquid to be analyzed, the interior surface of the sample cell having a refractive index of less than 1.33. The light source is in communication with a first end of the sample cell for emitting radiation having a wavelength of about and between 350 to 390 nm into the interior core of the waveguide. The photodetector is in communication with a second end of the waveguide for measuring the absorption of the radiation emitted by the light source by the liquid in the sample cell. The monitor may also include a processor electronically coupled to the photodetector for receipt of an absorption signal to determine the concentration of hexavalent chromium in the liquid.

  8. Chromium in metabolic and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hummel, M; Standl, E; Schnell, O

    2007-10-01

    Chromium is an essential mineral that appears to have a beneficial role in the regulation of insulin action, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence that chromium may facilitate insulin signaling and chromium supplementation therefore may improve systemic insulin sensitivity. Tissue chromium levels of subjects with diabetes are lower than those of normal control subjects, and a correlation exists between low circulating levels of chromium and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Controversy still exists as to the need for chromium supplementation. However, supplementation with chromium picolinate, a stable and highly bioavailable form of chromium, has been shown to reduce insulin resistance and to help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Since chromium supplementation is a safe treatment, further research is necessary to resolve the confounding data. The existing data suggest to concentrate future studies on certain forms as chromium picolinate and doses as at least 200 mcg per day.

  9. Chromium isotopes as indicators of hexavalent chromium reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Thomas M.

    2012-03-20

    This is the final report for a university research project which advanced development of a new technology for identifying chemical reduction of hexavalent chromium contamination in groundwater systems. Reduction renders mobile and toxic hexavalent chromium immobile and less toxic. The new method uses stable isotope ratio measurements, which are made using multicollector ICP-mass spectrometry. The main objectives of this project were completed during the project period and two peer-reviewed articles were published to disseminate the information gained.

  10. Is chromium pharmacologically relevant?

    PubMed

    Vincent, John B

    2014-10-01

    Recent research, combined with reanalysis of previous results, has revealed that chromium can no longer be considered an essential trace element. Clinical studies are ambiguous at best as to whether Cr has a pharmacological effect in humans. Observed effects of Cr on rodent models of insulin resistance and diabetes are best interpreted in terms of a pharmacological role for Cr. Studies on the effects of Cr on rat models of diabetes are reviewed herein and suggest Cr increases insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues of the rodent models. The lack of effects in human studies may stem from humans receiving a comparably smaller dose than the rodent models. However, given the different responses to Cr in the rodent models, humans could potentially have different responses to Cr.

  11. Evaluation of aquatic toxicities of chromium and chromium-containing effluents in reference to chromium electroplating industries.

    PubMed

    Baral, A; Engelken, R; Stephens, W; Farris, J; Hannigan, R

    2006-05-01

    This study evaluated aquatic toxicities of chromium and chromium-containing laboratory samples representative of effluents from chromium electroplating industries, and compared the aquatic environmental risks of hexavalent and trivalent chromium electroplating operations. Trivalent chromium electroplating has emerged as an acceptable alternative to hazardous hexavalent chromium electroplating. This process substitution has reduced the human health impact in the workplace and minimized the production of hazardous sludge regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The thrust behind this research was to investigate whether trivalent chromium electroplating operations have lower adverse impacts on standardized toxicity test organisms. Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas were used to investigate toxicities of trivalent chromium (Cr (III)), hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)), and industrial effluents. In agreement with previous studies, Cr (III) was found to be less toxic than Cr (VI). Despite having several organic and inorganic constituents in the effluents obtained from trivalent chromium plating baths, they exhibited less adverse effects to C. dubia than effluents obtained from hexavalent chromium electroplating baths. Thus, transition from hexavalent to trivalent chromium electroplating processes may be justified. However, because of the presence of organic constituents such as formate, oxalate, and triethylene glycol in effluents, trivalent chromium electroplating operations may face additional regulatory requirements for removal of total organic carbon.

  12. Chromium deficiency during total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Freund, H; Atamian, S; Fischer, J E

    1979-02-02

    Chromium is required for maintenance of normal glucose tolerance. After complete bowel resection and five months of total parenteral nutrition, severe glucose intolerance, weight loss, and a metabolic encephalopathy-like confusional state developed in a patient. Serum chromium levels were at the lowest normal level. Supplementation of 150 microgram of chromium per day reversed the glucose intolerance, reduced insulin requirements, and resulted in weight gain and the disappearance of encephalopathy. The low levels of chromium and response to chromium supplementation suggest that chromium deficiency can arise in long-term total parenteral nutrition.

  13. The contemporary anthropogenic chromium cycle.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremiah; Schewel, Laura; Graedel, T E

    2006-11-15

    Chromium is an essential engineering metal used in stainless and alloy steels, chemicals, and refractory products. Using material flow analysis, all major anthropogenic chromium flows are characterized for the year 2000, from mining through discard, on three spatial levels: fifty-four countries, nine world regions, and the planet. Included is the first detailed quantification of chromium in internationally traded finished products and diverse waste streams. Findings include (1) 78% of chromium flow entering final use is added as a net addition to stock on the global level; most countries are close to this figure; (2) the majority of mining occurs in Africa (2400 Gg Cr/yr) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (1090 Gg Cr/yr), while the major end-users are Asia, Europe, and North America at 1150, 1140, and 751 Gg Cr/yr, respectively; (3) waste flows of chromium are the greatest in Europe (420 Gg Cr/yr), Asia (370 Gg Cr/yr), and North America (290 Gg Cr/yr), but the composition of these waste flows varies greatly among the world regions; (4) releases of chromium by the global system, which total 2630 Gg Cr/yr, are nearly evenly divided among tailings, ferrochromium slag, downgraded scrap, and post-consumer losses; (5) many countries have a heavy foreign dependence on chromium in the all forms, as is demonstrated for the United States. The findings relating to in-use stock changes and finished product trade are relevant to industry, allowing for more accurate planning for future scrap availability. The quantification of releases due to discards and dissipation hold environmental and human health relevance, while the full life cycle international trade assessment addresses local scarcity.

  14. Antiferromagnetism in chromium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, Rafael

    I present two experimental studies of the spin density wave antiferromagnetic order in elemental Chromium. The first addresses the response of the magnetic ground state to applied pressure. The spin and charge order parameters are probed at high pressure and low temperature in a diamond anvil cell using monochromatic X-ray diffraction. We find that the magnetism is suppressed exponentially with pressure, providing a canonical example of a weak-coupling, mean-field ground state, before terminating at a quantum phase transition. We confirm the harmonic relationship between the spin and charge degrees of freedom in the low temperature regime, and we identify the microscopic coupling between pressure and magnetism. The discovery of the long-sought-after quantum critical regime sets the stage for a complete study of antiferromagnetic quantum criticality in this clean model system. The second study addresses the thermodynamics and transport properties of antiferromagnetic domain structure. We find a robust thermal hysteresis in the longitudinal and Hall resistivities of sub-mm bulk Cr samples. The temperature limits of the hysteresis are correlated with domain wall fluctuations and freezing. The persistent sign of the hysteresis and the macroscopic return point memory warrant a new understanding of domain wall energetics. By combining electrical transport and X-ray microdiffraction measurements we are able to pinpoint the effects of antiferromagnetic domain walls on electron transport.

  15. Mare Chromium Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This crater, located in Mare Chromium, shows evidence of exterior modification, with little interior modification. While the rim is still visible, the ejecta blanket has been removed or covered. There is some material at the bottom of the crater, but the interior retains the bowl shape from the initial formation of the crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.4, Longitude 174.4 East (185.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. Mare Chromium Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This crater, located in Mare Chromium, shows evidence of exterior modification, with little interior modification. While the rim is still visible, the ejecta blanket has been removed or covered. There is some material at the bottom of the crater, but the interior retains the bowl shape from the initial formation of the crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.4, Longitude 174.4 East (185.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Chromium geochemistry and bioaccumulation in sediments from the lower Hackensack River, New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Martello, L; Fuchsman, P; Sorensen, M; Magar, V; Wenning, R J

    2007-10-01

    Total and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] were measured in sediment and sediment porewater in the lower Hackensack River (NJ) to assess the relationship between sediment geochemistry and chromium speciation, which in turn controls the mobility, bioavailability, and toxicity of chromium. Between 2003 and 2005, >100 surface (0 to 15 cm) sediment samples were tested for total chromium and Cr(VI), acid-volatile sulfides (AVS), ferrous iron (Fe(II)), divalent manganese (Mn(II)), ammonia, and organic carbon. Sediment porewater samples were collected by centrifugation or using in situ samplers colocated with the collection of sediments. In whole sediments, total chromium and Cr(VI) concentrations ranged from 5 to 9190 mg/kg dry weight (dw) and from <0.47 to 31 mg/kg dw, respectively. Sediment porewater concentrations ranged from <10 to 83 microg/l for total chromium; Cr(VI) was not detected in sediment porewater (n = 78). Concentrations of AVS (ranging between <10.6 to 4178 mg/kg) and other geochemistry measurements indicated anoxic, reducing conditions in the majority of sediment samples. In polychaetes (Nereis virens) and clams (Macoma nasuta) exposed in the laboratory for 28 days to sediments contained between 135 and 1780 mg/kg dw total chromium, concentrations in whole tissues after 24-hour depuration ranged between 1.2 and 14.8 mg/kg wet weight (ww; median 1.6 mg/kg ww) total chromium. In whole tissues of indigenous polychaetes collected from the sediment, tissue concentrations of total chromium ranged between 1.0 and 37.5 mg/kg ww (median = 2.1 mg/kg ww). Chromium concentrations in whole tissues of animals exposed in the field or in the laboratory showed no relationship with total chromium or Cr(VI) concentrations in the sediment. There were no statistical differences among animals exposed to sediments from site and reference locations. The results of this study are consistent with sediment studies conducted elsewhere indicating low chromium bioavailability in

  18. Chromium-induced kidney disease

    SciTech Connect

    Wedeen, R.P. ); Qian, Lifen )

    1991-05-01

    Kidney disease is often cited as one of the adverse effects of chromium, yet chronic renal disease due to occupational or environmental exposure to chromium has not been reported. Occasional cases of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) following massive absorption of chromate have been described. Chromate-induced ATN has been extensively studied in experimental animals following parenteral administration of large doses of potassium chromate (hexavalent). The chromate is selectively accumulated in the convoluted proximal tubule where necrosis occurs. An adverse long-term effect of low-dose chromium exposure on the kidneys is suggested by reports of low molecular weight (LMW) proteinuria in chromium workers. Excessive urinary excretion of {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, a specific proximal tubule brush border protein, and retinol-binding protein has been reported among chrome palters and welders. However, LMW proteinuria occurs after a variety of physiologic stresses, is usually reversible, and cannot by itself be considered evidence of chromic renal disease. Chromate-induced ATN and LMW proteinuria in chromium workers, nevertheless, raise the possibility that low-level, long-term exposure may produce persistent renal injury. The absence of evidence of chromate-induced chromic renal disease cannot be interpreted as evidence of the absence of such injury.

  19. Diffusion of Chromium in Alpha Cobalt-Chromium Solid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeton, John W

    1951-01-01

    Diffusion of chromium in cobalt-chromium solid solutions was investigated in the range 0 to 40 atomic percent at temperatures of 1360 degrees, 1300 degrees, 1150 degrees, and 10000 degrees c. The diffusion coefficients were found to be relatively constant within the composition range covered by each specimen. The activation heat of diffusion was determined to be 63,000 calories per mole. This value agrees closely with the value of 63,400 calories per mole calculated by means of the Dushman-Langmuir equation.

  20. Precipitating Chromium Impurities in Silicon Wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    Two new treatments for silicon wafers improve solar-cell conversion efficiency by precipitating electrically-active chromium impurities. One method is simple heat treatment. Other involves laser-induced damage followed by similar heat treatment. Chromium is one impurity of concern in metallurgical-grade silicon for solar cells. In new treatment, chromium active centers are made electrically inactive by precipitating chromium from solid solution, enabling use of lower grade, lower cost silicon in cell manufacture.

  1. Precipitating Chromium Impurities in Silicon Wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    Two new treatments for silicon wafers improve solar-cell conversion efficiency by precipitating electrically-active chromium impurities. One method is simple heat treatment. Other involves laser-induced damage followed by similar heat treatment. Chromium is one impurity of concern in metallurgical-grade silicon for solar cells. In new treatment, chromium active centers are made electrically inactive by precipitating chromium from solid solution, enabling use of lower grade, lower cost silicon in cell manufacture.

  2. Chromium at High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, Rafael

    2012-02-01

    Chromium has long served as the archetype of spin density wave magnetism. Recently, Jaramillo and collaborators have shown that Cr also serves as an archetype of magnetic quantum criticality. Using a combination of x-ray diffraction and electrical transport measurements at high pressures and cryogenic temperatures in a diamond anvil cell, they have demonstrated that the N'eel transition (TN) can be continuously suppressed to zero, with no sign of a concurrent structural transition. The order parameter undergoes a broad regime of exponential suppression, consistent with the weak coupling paradigm, before deviating from a BCS-like ground state within a narrow but accessible quantum critical regime. The quantum criticality is characterized by mean field scaling of TN and non mean field scaling of the transport coefficients, which points to a fluctuation-induced reconstruction of the critical Fermi surface. A comparison between pressure and chemical doping as means to suppress TN sheds light on different routes to the quantum critical point and the relevance of Fermi surface nesting and disorder at this quantum phase transition. The work by Jaramillo et al. is broadly relevant to the study of magnetic quantum criticality in a physically pure and theoretically tractable system that balances elements of weak and strong coupling. [4pt] [1] R. Jaramillo, Y. Feng, J. Wang & T. F. Rosenbaum. Signatures of quantum criticality in pure Cr at high pressure. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 13631 (2010). [0pt] [2] R. Jaramillo, Y. Feng, J. C. Lang, Z. Islam, G. Srajer, P. B. Littlewood, D. B. McWhan & T. F. Rosenbaum. Breakdown of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer ground state at a quantum phase transition. Nature 459, 405 (2009).

  3. Effects of Low Chromium(III) Concentration in Electrodeposition of Low Contraction Chromium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    AD TECHNICAL REPORT ARCCB-TR-90014 EFFECTS OF LOW CHROMIUM(III) CONCENTRA TION IN ELECTRODEPOSITION oo OF LOW CONTRACTION CHROMIUMcv) N M. D. MILLER...TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED EFFECTS OF LOW CHROMIUM(III) CONCENTRATION IN Final ELECTRODEPOSITION OF LOW CONTRACTION CHROMIUM 6. PERFORMING ORG...effects of low chromium (Cr)(IIT) concentrations on the electrodeposition of low contraction (LC) chromium were studied. A systematic experiment was

  4. Environmental biochemistry of chromium.

    PubMed

    Losi, M E; Amrhein, C; Frankenberger, W T

    1994-01-01

    Chromium is a d-block transitional element with many industrial uses. It occurs naturally in various crustal materials and is discharged to the environment as industrial waste. Although it can occur in a number of oxidation states, only 3+ and 6+ are found in environmental systems. The environmental behavior of Cr is largely a function of its oxidation state. Hexavalent Cr compounds (mainly chromates and dichromates) are considered toxic to a variety of terrestrial and aquatic organisms and are mobile in soil/water systems, much more so than trivalent Cr compounds. This is largely because of differing chemical properties: Hexavalent Cr compounds are strong oxidizers and highly soluble, while trivalent Cr compounds tend to form relatively inert precipitates at near-neutral pH. The trivalent state is generally considered to be the stable form in equilibrium with most soil/water systems. A diagram of the Cr cycle in soils and water is given in Fig. 6 (Bartlett 1991). This illustration provides a summary of environmentally relevant reactions. Beginning with hexavalent Cr that is released into the environment as industrial waste, there are a number of possible fates, including pollution of soil and surface water and leaching into groundwater, where it may remain stable and, in turn, can be taken up by plants or animals, and adsorption/precipitation, involving soil colloids and/or organic matter. Herein lies much of the environmental concern associated with the hexavalent form. A portion of the Cr(VI) will be reduced to the trivalent form by inorganic electron donors, such as Fe2+ and S2-, or by bioprocesses involving organic matter. Following this conversion, Cr3+ can be expected to precipitate as oxides and hydroxides or to form complexes with numerous ligands. This fraction includes a vast majority of global Cr reserves. Soluble Cr3+ complexes, such as those formed with citrate, can undergo oxidation when they come in contact with manganese dioxide, thus reforming

  5. Modeling of chromium in ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Huiying; Nikolaidis, N.P.

    1995-12-01

    National Chromium is a metal-plating facility located in Putnam, Connecticut that has been in operation for 55 years. Chromium has dripped onto the wooden floor and leached into the groundwater. The process that affect the fate and transport of chromium in groundwater are aqueous complexation, adsorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, and solute transport. In addition, field data and laboratory studies using soil samples from this site indicate that a predominant retardation process is diffusion into the soil matrix. While aqueous complexation usually takes seconds or less, the time scales of chromium diffusion in soil matrix is years. A three-dimensional multicomponent solute transport model has been developed to study the fate, speciation and transport of chromium. The model has been applied to the National Chromium site in a hind casting to study (1) the interaction among the processes, (2) the implication of chromium diffusion in soil matrix on remediation technologies, and (3) the time scales of remediation.

  6. Chromium in the environment of Finland.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A B

    1998-06-30

    This paper focuses upon the use, import and release of chromium to the environment of Finland. In addition, the behavior of trivalent and hexavalent chromium in soils has been briefly reviewed. In Finland, consumption of chromium compounds occurs in the following pattern: stainless steel > leather tanning > metal plating > chemicals. The emission of chromium has decreased from 114 t in 1979 to 28 t in 1995. The highest release of chromium continues to be from ferrochromium and stainless steel plants. From these facilities, 85% of slag and dusts are used by a secondary facility to recover valuable metal. In the industrial areas, the oxidizing behavior of chromium (III) is still unknown. In this study, the leachability of chromium (VI) to ground water and its effects on terrestrial and aquatic species in Finland are discussed.

  7. [Worldwide cancer mortality among chromium platers].

    PubMed

    Hara, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Ken

    2012-12-01

    The elevated risk of lung cancer among chromate-producing workers has been confirmed by many epidemiological studies. Although chromium has been most used in the chromium plating industry and many platers are employed in small-scale factories, cancer studies have been documented in only a few investigations. We have conducted several prospective cohort studies in Japanese chromium platers and recently extended them through 2003. We additionally surveyed epidemiological studies among chromium platers carried out in other parts of the world. Occupational chromium exposure through chromium plating work may be a risk factor for mortality not only from lung cancer but also malignant lymphoma and brain tumor. The age at first exposure to chromium may be a more important factor than the duration of exposure for an increased risk of lung cancer and malignant lymphoma.

  8. Chromium(III), insoluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF TRIVALENT CHROMIUM ( CAS No . 16065 - 83 - 1 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) August 1998 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S . Environmen

  9. Malleable Chromium and Its Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1952-03-01

    Silicon o.161 Zirconium 0 Tantalum 42 Twenty-gram briquettes , made by mixing chromium powder and finely divided master alloys and pressing in a 3/4-inch...Coupons about 1/4 x I x 1/16 inch were sawed from hot rolled sheet, cleaned with No. I emery paper and degreased, After weighing, the specimens were

  10. Chromium-51 calibrating neutrino source

    SciTech Connect

    Demchenko, N.F.; Karasev, V.I.; Karelin, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    The problem for measurement of the sun neutrino flux is resolved at the specially made Baksansk neutrino telescope and calls for calibration of registration system. For this a man made neutrino source is required with the known yield of particles and intensity comparable with the intensity of the measured subject. The most suitable radionuclide for production of this source is chromium-51 the radionuclide decay of which is accompanied with neutrino radiation. At the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (in Dimitrovgrad) the production technology is developed as well as the closed chromium-51 neutrino source is made of 4 x 10{sup 5} Ci activity. The parts of active source made in the form of core of metallic isotope-enriched chromium were irradiated in the high flux neutron trap of the SM-2 reactor. The sources were subsequently assembled at the shield cells with remote equipment application. The source was certificated as a special form radioactive material. Due to low half-life of chromium-51 (T 1/2 - 27 hours) all the operations on assembly, certification and delivery of source to the Baksansk Laboratory were performed at the earliest possible date (less than 3 days).

  11. The use of trivalent chromium bath to obtain a solar selective black chromium coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Survilienė, S.; Češūnienė, A.; Juškėnas, R.; Selskienė, A.; Bučinskienė, D.; Kalinauskas, P.; Juškevičius, K.; Jurevičiūtė, I.

    2014-06-01

    Black chromium coatings were electrodeposited from a trivalent chromium bath using a ZnO additive as a second main component. Black chromium was electrodeposited on steel and copper plates and substrates plated with bright nickel prior to black chromium electrodeposition. The black chromium coatings were characterized by XRD and SEM. The XRD data suggest that the phase structure of black chromium may be defined as a zinc solid solution in chromium or a chromium solid solution in zinc depending on the chromium/zinc ratio in the deposit. The role of substrate finish was evaluated through the corrosion resistance and reflectance of black chromium. According to corrosion tests the samples plated with bright nickel prior to black chromium deposition have shown the highest corrosion resistance. The electrodeposited black chromium possesses good optical properties for the absorption of solar energy. The absorption coefficient of black chromium was found to be over 0.99 for the samples obtained without the Ni undercoat and below 0.99 for those obtained with the use of Ni undercoat. However, the use of nickel undercoat before black chromium plating is recommended because it remarkably improves the corrosion resistance of samples.

  12. Remediation of soils contaminated with chromium using citric and hydrochloric acids: the role of chromium fractionation in chromium leaching.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shu-Fen; Huang, Chin-Yuan; Tu, Yao-Ting

    2011-01-01

    Acid washing is a common method for soil remediation, but is not always efficient for chromium-contaminated soil. Both soil particle size and the forms of chromium existing in the soil affect the efficiency of soil washing. Laboratory batch and column dissolution experiments were conducted to determine the efficiencies of citric and hydrochloric acids as agents to extract chromium from soils contaminated with chromium. The effects of soil particle size and chromium fractionation on Cr leaching were also investigated. About 90% of chromium in the studied soil existed either in residual form or bound to iron and manganese oxides, and Cr fraction distributions were similar for all soil particle sizes. Almost all exchangeable and carbonate-bound chromium was removed by washing once with 0.5 M HCl, whereas organic chromium was more effectively removed by washing with citric acid rather than with HCl solution of the same concentration. For chromium fractions that were either bound to Fe-Mn oxides or existed as residual forms, the efficiencies of acid washing were usually 20% or less, except for 0.5 M HCl solution, which had much higher efficiencies. Separation of the soil sample by particle size before the separate washing of the soil fractions had little improvement on the chromium removal.

  13. Atmospheric releases of hexavalent chromium from hard chromium plating operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.S.; Dietz, J.D.; Cooper, C.D.; Wayson, R.L.; Bauman, D.

    1992-01-01

    The study represents an assessment of airborne fugitive hexavalent chromium concentrations at these facilities. In an effort to develop a model for stack emissions of Cr(VI), EPA data were reviewed and a correlation for chromium emissions was reported versus ampere-hours and plating bath volume. A modification of a stack sampling train was constructed to accommodate fugitive sampling efforts made at two hard chrome plating facilities. The levels found at both sites, for the most part, were below detection limits of 4 micrograms cu m and 6 micrograms cu m for the 1st and 2nd plant, respectively. The annual emission rates from Plants 1 and 2 are < 0.5 and < 1 lb Cr(VI) per year, respectively.

  14. Electrodeposition of cobalt-chromium alloy from trivalent chromium solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Dasarathy, H.; Riley, C.; Coble, H.D. . Dept. of Chemistry and Materials Science)

    1994-07-01

    Cobalt-chromium alloy was deposited from plating solutions containing cobalt(II) chloride and chromium(III) chloride at 3.5 pH. The deposits were obtained using both single and mixed complex solutions. Deposit morphology showed significant dependence on the complexing agent(s) used. Partitioning of the two components in the deposit as determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy depended on plating parameters such as concentration ratio of the two salts in the solution, complexing agent, type of current (both dc and pulsed current were studied), and current density. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra collected from as-deposited alloy revealed the presence of both oxides and metals. X-ray diffraction spectra for the alloy deposit indicated solid solution formation.

  15. Occurrences, uses, and properties of chromium.

    PubMed

    Barnhart, J

    1997-08-01

    Chromium is the 21st most abundant element in the Earth's crust with a mean concentration in United States soils of about 40 mg/kg. Although it exists in several oxidation states, the zero, trivalent, and hexavalent states are the most important in commercial products and the environment. Nearly all naturally occurring chromium is in the trivalent state, usually in combination with iron or other metal oxides. Although only about 15% of the chromium mined is used in the manufacture of chemicals, most applications of chromium utilize the chemistry of chromium. For instance, the "stainless" nature of stainless steel is due to the chemical properties of the chromium oxides which form on the surface of the alloy. Similarly, the protective properties of chrome plating of metals, chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treatment of wood, and chrome tanning of leather are all dependent on chromium chemistry. The key to these uses is that under typical environmental and biological conditions of pH and oxidation-reduction potential, the most stable form of chromium is the trivalent oxide. This form has very low solubility and low reactivity resulting in low mobility in the environment and low toxicity in living organisms. In this paper the chemical properties of chromium are discussed for the major commercial products in the context of the Eh-pH diagram for chromium.

  16. Quantification of total chromium and hexavalent chromium in UHT milk by ETAAS.

    PubMed

    Lameiras, J; Soares, M E; Bastos, M L; Ferreira, M

    1998-10-01

    Procedures for the quantification of total chromium and hexavalent chromium in UHT milk samples are presented. Total chromium was determined directly in milk with the addition of a surfactant and a mixture of Pd and Mg as a chemical modifier. For the selective separation of hexavalent chromium, the sample pre-treatment consisted in precipitation of proteins and elution of the supernatant through a Chromabond NH2 column. The metal was eluted with nitric acid. Both total chromium and hexavalent chromium were evaluated by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization using the same instrumental conditions. The detection limits were 0.2 and 0.15 microgram l-1 for total chromium and hexavalent chromium, respectively. The linearity ranges under the optimized conditions were 0.2-20 and 0.15-50 micrograms l-1. For total chromium the precision was 4.9 and 5.7% for the analytical and the over-all procedure, respectively, and for hexavalent chromium 4.3 and 4.9%, respectively. The validation of both procedures was performed by the standard additions method and the recoveries were higher than 93% in all cases. For total chromium, a certified reference material was also used to validate the methodology. The methods were applied to the determination of total chromium and hexavalent chromium in 60 UHT milk samples.

  17. Food Chromium Contents, Chromium Dietary Intakes And Related Biological Variables In French Free-Living Elderly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chromium (Cr III), an essential trace element, functions in potentiating insulin sensitivity, regulating glucose homeostasis, improving lipid profile, and maintaining lean body mass. Glucose intolerance and chromium deficiency increase with age, and could be aggravating factors of the metabolic synd...

  18. Sonoassisted microbial reduction of chromium.

    PubMed

    Kathiravan, Mathur Nadarajan; Karthick, Ramalingam; Muthu, Naggapan; Muthukumar, Karuppan; Velan, Manickam

    2010-04-01

    This study presents sonoassisted microbial reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) using Bacillus sp. isolated from tannery effluent contaminated site. The experiments were carried out with free cells in the presence and absence of ultrasound. The optimum pH and temperature for the reduction of Cr(VI) by Bacillus sp. were found to be 7.0 and 37 degrees C, respectively. The Cr(VI) reduction was significantly influenced by the electron donors and among the various electron donors studied, glucose offered maximum reduction. The ultrasound-irradiated reduction of Cr(VI) with Bacillus sp. showed efficient Cr(VI) reduction. The percent reduction was found to increase with an increase in biomass concentration and decrease with an increase in initial concentration. The changes in the functional groups of Bacillus sp., before and after chromium reduction were observed with FTIR spectra. Microbial growth was described with Monod and Andrews model and best fit was observed with Andrews model.

  19. Welding of high chromium steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W B

    1928-01-01

    A brief description is given of different groups of high chromium steels (rustless iron and stainless steels) according to their composition and more generally accepted names. The welding procedure for a given group will be much the same regardless of the slight variations in chemical composition which may exist within a certain group. Information is given for the tensile properties (yield point and ultimate strength) of metal sheets and welds before and after annealing on coupons one and one-half inches wide. Since welds in rustless iron containing 16 to 18 percent chromium and 7 to 12 percent nickel show the best combination of strength and ductility in the 'as welded' or annealed condition, it is considered the best alloy to use for welded construction.

  20. Nondestructive evaluation of electrodeposited chromium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todaro, Mark E.

    1992-11-01

    Benet Laboratories is pursuing methods for nondestructively evaluating the quality and adhesion of electrodeposited chromium coatings on the bore of large caliber gun tubes. The Army currently has no suitable means for testing such coatings nondestructively. A poor quality or poorly adherent coating shows up only when several test rounds are fired through the tube, removing portions of the coating and exposing the steel underneath. Recent in-house work has investigated both photothermal and ultrasonic methods. The photothermal method involves briefly heating the surface of the chromium with a laser pulse. After the initial heating, the surface temperature decreases as heat diffuses into the coating and substrate. The characteristics of the coating, interface, and substrate affect the surface temperature profile in distinct ways. The temperature of the surface can be measured by observing the emitted infrared radiation with a focused detector or an infrared scanner. Although no experimental data using the photothermal technique has been obtained yet, a one-dimensional finite difference algorithm was used to model temperature changes on the surface of a chromium coating on steel due to an incident energy pulse. The model verifies that with a suitable choice of laser pulse width, one could measure the thermal characteristics of the coating and detect the presence of a thermal discontinuity at the interface.

  1. Nasal manifestations in chromium industry workers.

    PubMed

    Aiyer, R G; Kumar, Gaurav

    2003-04-01

    People working in mines, plating factories, cement industries are mainly exposed to chrome substances, IIexavalent chromium has been implicated for its toxic effect on the nasal mucosa. Hereby we present a rare study of 28 patients who attended out patient department of Otorhinolaryngology at SSG Hospital, Baroda from a nearby chromium industry. This study aims to present various nasal manifestations of toxic effects of prolonged chromium exposure.

  2. Bendability of aluminiumand steel-clad chromium plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Fusahito; Okada, Tatsuo; Itoh, Misao; Harada, Yasunori; Ohmori, Masanobu

    1998-05-01

    The present paper describes how the cladding of chromium plate with dissimilar metals improves the plastic bendability of the chromium. Three-point bending tests at various temperatures were performed for three types of chromium specimens: a monolithic chromium plate, aluminium- and steel-clad chromium plate. The aluminium-clad chromium plate was bent at 343 K up to a bent angle of 90 degrees without failure, even when the chromium layer was located outside of the plate (tension side), while the monolithic chromium plate could be bent exclusively at temperatures above 403 K. When the chromium layer was located inside of the steel-clad chromium plate (compression side), the plate was successfully bent at 307 K. The FE stress analysis of bending proved that the cladding of chromium plates with proper metals of different kinds is effective to reduce the tensile stress in chromium induced during bending and also the residual stress existing after bending operation.

  3. Removal of hexavalent chromium using distillery sludge.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, K; Manonmani, S; Pattabhi, S

    2003-09-01

    Batch mode experiments were conducted to study the removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous and industrial effluent using distillery sludge. Effects of pH, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption of Cr(VI) were studied. The data obeyed Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The Langmuir adsorption capacity was found to be 5.7 mg/g. Freundlich constants K(f) and n were 2.05 [mg/g(L/mg)(n)] and 3.9, respectively. Desorption studies indicated the removal of 82% of the hexavalent chromium. The efficiency of adsorbent towards the removal of chromium was also tested using chromium-plating wastewater.

  4. Assessing model uncertainty using hexavalent chromium and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Introduction: The National Research Council recommended quantitative evaluation of uncertainty in effect estimates for risk assessment. This analysis considers uncertainty across model forms and model parameterizations with hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and lung cancer mortality as an example. The objective of this analysis is to characterize model uncertainty by evaluating the variance in estimates across several epidemiologic analyses.Methods: This analysis compared 7 publications analyzing two different chromate production sites in Ohio and Maryland. The Ohio cohort consisted of 482 workers employed from 1940-72, while the Maryland site employed 2,357 workers from 1950-74. Cox and Poisson models were the only model forms considered by study authors to assess the effect of Cr(VI) on lung cancer mortality. All models adjusted for smoking and included a 5-year exposure lag, however other latency periods and model covariates such as age and race were considered. Published effect estimates were standardized to the same units and normalized by their variances to produce a standardized metric to compare variability in estimates across and within model forms. A total of 7 similarly parameterized analyses were considered across model forms, and 23 analyses with alternative parameterizations were considered within model form (14 Cox; 9 Poisson). Results: Across Cox and Poisson model forms, adjusted cumulative exposure coefficients for 7 similar analyses ranged from 2.47

  5. [Chromium exposure biological indices and clinical findings in chromium plating industry (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Franchini, I; Cavatorta, A; Mutti, A; Marcato, M; Bottazzi, D; Cigala, F

    1977-09-01

    According to the investigations carried out on workers of two chromium plating plants, the authors believe that chromium urinary excretion allows to determine the degree of its acute absorption. Moreover, the renal clearance of diffusible chromium allows the evaluation of chromium body burden and is related to the duration as well as to the severity of exposure. This interpretation is supported by the relation between the exposure biological indexes and the clinical and instrumental investigations which make possible the evaluation of lesions caused by chromium exposure, mostly concerning the respiratory system.

  6. Chromium in aqueous nitrate plutonium process streams: Corrosion of 316 stainless steel and chromium speciation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H.; Purdy, G.M.

    1995-12-31

    This study was undertaken to determine if chromium(+6) could exist in plutonium process solutions under normal operating conditions. Four individual reactions were studied: the rate of dissolution of stainless steel, which is the principal source of chromium in process solutions; the rate of oxidation of chromium(+3) to chromium(+6) by nitric acid; and the reduction of chromium(+6) back to chromium(+3) by reaction with stainless steel and with oxalic acid. The stainless steel corrosion rate was found to increase with increasing nitric acid concentration, increasing hydrofluoric acid concentration, and increasing temperature. Oxidation of chromium(+3) to chromium(+6) was negligible at room temperature and only became significant in hot concentrated nitric acid. The rate of reduction of chromium(+6) back to chromium(+3) by reaction with stainless steel or oxalic acid was found to be much greater than the rate of the reverse oxidation reaction. Based on these findings and taking into account normal operating conditions, it was determined that although there would be considerable chromium in plutonium process streams it would rarely be found in the (+6) oxidation state and would not exist in the (+6) state in the final process waste solutions.

  7. 29 CFR 1910.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... by employees in the immediate release area, or by maintenance personnel, it is not an emergency. Employee exposure means the exposure to airborne chromium (VI) that would occur if the employee were not... employee exposure to chromium (VI) associated with a particular product or material or a specific process...

  8. 29 CFR 1910.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... days a year; (B) Experiencing signs or symptoms of the adverse health effects associated with chromium... symptoms of the adverse health effects associated with chromium (VI) exposure; (v) Within 30 days after... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  9. Environmental Durability of Electroplated Black Chromium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Report describes tests of durability of electroplated black chromium coatings on solar-collector panels in rural, industrial, and seacoast environments for 60, 36, and 13 months, respectively. Black-chromium coating showed exceptionally-good optical durability in all three environments.

  10. REACTIVE SPUTTER DEPOSITION OF CHROMIUM NITRIDE COATINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of substrate temperature and sputtering gas compositon on the structure and properties of chromium-chromium nitride films deposited on C-1040 steel using r.f. magnetron sputter deposition was investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to determine the structure ...

  11. REACTIVE SPUTTER DEPOSITION OF CHROMIUM NITRIDE COATINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of substrate temperature and sputtering gas compositon on the structure and properties of chromium-chromium nitride films deposited on C-1040 steel using r.f. magnetron sputter deposition was investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to determine the structure ...

  12. Environmental Durability of Electroplated Black Chromium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Report describes tests of durability of electroplated black chromium coatings on solar-collector panels in rural, industrial, and seacoast environments for 60, 36, and 13 months, respectively. Black-chromium coating showed exceptionally-good optical durability in all three environments.

  13. [Bioremediation of chromium (VI) contaminated site by reduction and microbial stabilization of chromium].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia-Chuan; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Liu, Xi-Wen; Xu, Qian; Shi, Wei-Lin

    2014-10-01

    Chromium (VI) contaminated soil samples were collected from a chemical plant in Suzhou. Firstly, the reduced soil was prepared by adding reagent (Stone-sulfure reagent) into polluted soil to transfer most chromium (VI) into chromium (III), then a nutrient solution was introduced into the reduced soil, and the stabilized soil was obtained after 60 days culturing. The chromium (VI) content of the three kinds of soil was analyzed. The results showed that the chromium (VI) content in toxicity characteristic leaching liquid (TCLL) dropped by 96. 8% (from 8.26 mg · L(-1) to 0.26 mg · L(-1)), and the total chromium content dropped by 95.7% (from 14.66 mg · L(-1) to 0.63 mg · L(-1)) after bioremediation in 5% nutrient solution. Additionally, the durability of chromium stabilization was tested by potassium permanganate oxidation and sterilization of microbe-treated soil. After oxidation, the chromium (VI) content in TCLL of the reduced soil was increased from 8.26 mg · L(-1) to 14.68 mg · L(-1). However, the content after bioremediation was decreased to 2.68 mg · L(-1). The results of sterilization demonstrated that the death of microbe had no significant effect on the stabilization of chromium. Consequently, the research in this paper demonstrated the feasibility of bioremediation of chromium (VI) polluted soil through reduction followed by stabilization/soilidification, and provided a technique with low cost but high efficiency.

  14. Low-chromium reduced-activation chromium-tungsten steels

    SciTech Connect

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1996-10-01

    Bainitic microstructures formed during continuous cooling can differ from classical upper and lower bainite formed during isothermal transformation. Two types of non-classical bainite were observed depending on the cooling rate: carbide-free acicular bainite at rapid cooling rates and granular bainite at slower cooling rates. The Charpy impact toughness of the acicular ferrite was found to be considerably better than for the granular bainite. It was postulated that alloying to improve the hardenability of the steel would promote the formation of acicular bainite, just as increasing the cooling rate does. To test this, chromium and tungsten were added to the 2 1/4Cr-2W and 2 1/4Cr-2WV steel compositions to increase their hardenability, and the microstructures and mechanical properties were examined.

  15. Chromium hexacyanoferrate modified biosensor based on PQQ-dependent glucose dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ta-Feng; Yang, Yang-Li; Lou, Shyh-Liang

    2007-01-01

    A Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase based platinum electrode was developed to detect glucose. Chromium hexacyanoferrate was modified onto this electrode to serve as an electron transfer mediator between PQQ and the platinum electrode. This biosensor showed the optimal response of glucose measurements at pH 7 and an operation potential of +0.4 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). More importantly the lifespan of the biosensor has been last for 47 days without significant enzyme activity degradation.

  16. Chromium is not an essential trace element for mammals: effects of a "low-chromium" diet.

    PubMed

    Di Bona, Kristin R; Love, Sharifa; Rhodes, Nicholas R; McAdory, DeAna; Sinha, Sarmistha Halder; Kern, Naomi; Kent, Julia; Strickland, Jessyln; Wilson, Austin; Beaird, Janis; Ramage, James; Rasco, Jane F; Vincent, John B

    2011-03-01

    Chromium was proposed to be an essential trace element over 50 years ago and has been accepted as an essential element for over 30 years. However, the studies on which chromium's status are based are methodologically flawed. Whether chromium is an essential element has been examined for the first time in carefully controlled metal-free conditions using a series of purified diets containing various chromium contents. Male Zucker lean rats were housed in specially designed metal-free cages for 6 months and fed the AIN-93G diet with no added chromium in the mineral mix component of the diet, the standard AIN-93G diet, the standard AIN-93G diet supplemented with 200 μg Cr/kg, or the standard AIN-93G diet supplemented with 1,000 μg Cr/kg. The chromium content of the diet had no effect on body mass or food intake. Similarly, the chromium content of the diet had no effect on glucose levels in glucose tolerance or insulin tolerance tests. However, a distinct trend toward lower insulin levels under the curve after a glucose challenge was observed with increasing chromium content in the diet; rats on the supplemented AIN-93G diets had significantly lower areas (P < 0.05) than rats on the low-chromium diet. The studies reveal that a diet with as little chromium as reasonably possible had no effect on body composition, glucose metabolism, or insulin sensitivity compared with a chromium-"sufficient" diet. Together with the results of other recent studies, these results clearly indicate that chromium can no longer be considered an essential element.

  17. Performance of Moringa oliefera as a biosorbent for chromium removal.

    PubMed

    Ghebremichael, K; Gebremedhin, N; Amy, G

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated adsorption of chromium on to a bio-adsorbent, Moringa oleifera seed. Different by-products of the seed processing were used as adsorbents. These include: the Whole Seed Powder (WSP), the Residue after Coagulant Extraction (RaCE) and an Activated Carbon (AC) prepared from the seed husk. Adsorption studies for the removal of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were carried out in batch experiments and the effects of adsorbent dosage, contact time, pH and initial chromium concentration were analysed. Experimental results showed that maximum removal of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) was observed at pH 7 and pH 2, respectively. The percentage removals of Cr(III) by WSP, RaCE and AC were: 97, 94 and 99.9%, respectively. And the percentage removals of Cr(VI) by RaCE and AC were 47 and 83.2%, respectively. RaCE showed similar adsorption capacity to the WSP, which indicates that it is possible to extract a coagulant and use the waste product for adsorption. By using the RaCE, residual dissolved organic carbon in the treated water was significantly reduced compared to using the WSP. These results indicate that biomaterials can be considered as potential adsorbents for heavy metals removal from water or wastewater systems.

  18. Efficiency of silicon solar cells containing chromium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, A. M. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Efficiency of silicon solar cells containing about one quadrillon atoms cu cm of chromium is improved about 26% by thermal annealing of the silicon wafer at a temperature of 200 C to form chromium precipitates having a diameter of less than 1 Angstrom. Further improvement in efficiency is achieved by scribing laser lines onto the back surface of the wafer at a spacing of at least 0.5 mm and at a depth of less than 13 micrometers to preferentially precipitate chromium near the back surface and away from the junction region of the device. This provides an economical way to improve the deleterious effects of chromium, one of the impurities present in metallurgical grade silicon mateial.

  19. Potentiometry: A Chromium (III) -- EDTA Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, J. I.; Howell, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment that involves the preparation of a chromium (III)-EDTA compound, a study of its infrared spectrum, and the potentiometric determination of two successive acid dissociation constants. (Author/GS)

  20. Efficiency of silicon solar cells containing chromium

    DOEpatents

    Frosch, Robert A. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space; Salama, Amal M.

    1982-01-01

    Efficiency of silicon solar cells containing about 10.sup.15 atoms/cm.sup.3 of chromium is improved about 26% by thermal annealing of the silicon wafer at a temperature of 200.degree. C. to form chromium precipitates having a diameter of less than 1 Angstrom. Further improvement in efficiency is achieved by scribing laser lines onto the back surface of the wafer at a spacing of at least 0.5 mm and at a depth of less than 13 micrometers to preferentially precipitate chromium near the back surface and away from the junction region of the device. This provides an economical way to improve the deleterious effects of chromium, one of the impurities present in metallurgical grade silicon material.

  1. Potentiometry: A Chromium (III) -- EDTA Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, J. I.; Howell, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment that involves the preparation of a chromium (III)-EDTA compound, a study of its infrared spectrum, and the potentiometric determination of two successive acid dissociation constants. (Author/GS)

  2. OPTIMIZATION AND EVALUATION OF CHROMIUM COMPOSITES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    COMPOSITE MATERIALS), (*CHROMIUM ALLOYS , POWDER METALLURGY, REINFORCING MATERIALS, TANTALUM ALLOYS , CARBON ALLOYS , OPTIMIZATION, TENSILE PROPERTIES...FRACTOGRAPHY, RUPTURE, DUCTILITY, CORROSION, EROSION, THERMOCOUPLES, PROTECTIVE COVERINGS, FLUIDICS, JET ENGINES, MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS, OXIDES, VANADIUM ALLOYS , SILICON ALLOYS .

  3. Point Defect Properties in Iron Chromium Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    evolution of macro scale behaviors such as void swelling, hardening, embrittlement , creep, stress corrosion cracking , the first-principles...PROPERTIES IN IRON CHROMIUM ALLOYS by Harun Đogo September 2006 Thesis Advisor: Craig Smith Second Reader: Xavier Maruyama...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Point Defect Properties in Iron Chromium Alloys 6. AUTHOR(S) Harun Đogo 5

  4. Attenuation of chromium toxicity by bioremediation technology.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Monalisa; Patra, Hemanta Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Chromium is an important toxic environmental pollutant. Chromium pollution results largely from industrial activities, but other natural and anthropogenic sources also contribute to the problem. Plants that are exposed to environmental contamination by chromium are affected in diverse ways, including a tendency to suffer metabolic stress. The stress imposed by Cr exposure also extends to oxidative metabolic stress in plants that leads to the generation of active toxic oxygen free radicals. Such active free radicals degrade essential biomolecules and distort plant biological membranes. In this chapter, we describe sources of environmental chromium contamination, and provide information about the toxic impact of chromium on plant growth and metabolism. In addition, we address different phytoremediation processes that are being studied for use worldwide, in contaminated regions, to address and mitigate Cr pollution. There has been a long history of attempts to successfully mitigate the toxic effects of chromium-contaminated soil on plants and other organisms. One common approach, the shifting of polluted soil to landfills, is expensive and imposes environmental risks and health hazards of its own. Therefore, alternative eco-friendly bioremediation approaches are much in demand for cleaning chromium-polluted areas. To achieve its cleaning effects, bioremediation utilizes living organisms (bacteria, algae, fungi, and plants) that are capable of absorbing and processing chromium residues in ways which amend or eliminate it. Phytoremediation (bioremediation with plants) techniques are increasingly being used to reduce heavy metal contamination and to minimize the hazards of heavy metal toxicity. To achieve this, several processes, viz., rhizofiltration, phytoextraction, phytodetoxification, phytostabilization, and phytovolatilization, have been developed and are showing utility in practice, or promise. Sources of new native hyperaccumulator plants for use at contaminated

  5. Trivalent chromium, in atherosclerosis and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mossop, R T

    1991-11-01

    The known effects of trivalent chromium (Cr) in lowering blood levels of low density lipoproteins (LDL), raising high density lipoproteins (HDL) and improving glucose tolerance are summarised. Chromium deficiency cannot easily be established by direct means, but can be inferred by the reversal of symptoms and signs following the administration of trivalent chromium. This evidence can be supported by knowledge or suspicion of a deficiency in the diet, common in those who use highly refined cereal foods. It is considered that the beneficial effects of chromium repletion are now so well established and the trivalent form is so free of toxicity that it should now be used in clinical medicine for the benefit of those with some forms of diabetes and its complications and those suffering from atherosclerosis. Of perhaps more importance is the public health aspect, since most chromium is discarded in the cereal refinement process, we now have added evidence for a return to the diets in which complex carbohydrates predominated. In those who refuse or are unable to do this, possibly the addition of chromium to their drinking water may be of value.

  6. [Is chromium an essential trace element in human nutrition?].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Munehiro

    2012-01-01

    It has been recognized that chromium is an essential trace element associated with carbohydrate metabolism, and chromium deficiency causes an impaired glucose tolerance. Recently, however, Vincent et al. have reported that chromium is not an essential trace element. In the present report, the author evaluated the nutritional essentiality of chromium by reviewing several previous reports. In almost all previous reports, the chromium concentration in the animal feed used was higher than 0.1 μg/g, and it is difficult to consider that the experimental animals were in a low-chromium state. In addition, the amount of chromium administered to the animals for the improvement of glucose tolerance was at a pharmacological level, and corresponded to a level that far exceeded the human daily chromium intake (20 to 80 μg/day). On the other hand, recent research has clearly shown that feeding with a severely low-chromium diet (0.016 μg/g) does not impair glucose tolerance. The amount of chromium absorbed in humans estimated from chromium intake (20 to 80 μg/day), chromium absorption rate (1%), and urinary chromium excretion (<1 μg/day) is less than 1 μg/day, which is much lower than those of other essential trace elements. In addition, because there is an inconsistency between the chromium concentration in food and chromium intake, chromium intake seems to be dependent on chromium contamination during food processing and cooking. It is concluded that there is a high possibility that chromium is not an essential trace element.

  7. Bioremediation of chromium solutions and chromium containing wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Malaviya, Piyush; Singh, Asha

    2016-08-01

    Cr(VI) represents a serious threat to human health, living resources and ecological system as it is persistent, carcinogenic and toxic, whereas, Cr(III), another stable oxidation state of Cr, is less toxic and can be readily precipitated out of solution. The conventional methods of Cr(VI) removal from wastewaters comprise of chemical reduction followed by chemical precipitation. However, these methods utilize large amounts of chemicals and generate toxic sludge. This necessitates the need for devising an eco-technological strategy that would use the untapped potential of the biological world for remediation of Cr(VI) containing wastewaters. Among several viable approaches, biotransformation of Cr(VI) to relatively non-toxic Cr(III) by chromium resistant bacteria offers an economical- and environment-friendly option for its detoxification. Various studies on use of Cr(VI) tolerant viable bacterial isolates for treatment of Cr(VI) containing solutions and wastewater have been reported. Therefore, a detailed account of mechanisms and processes involved in bioreduction of Cr(VI) from solutions and wastewaters by bacterial isolates are the focus of this review article in addition to a discussion on toxicity of Cr(VI) on bacterial strains and various factors affecting Cr(VI) bioreduction.

  8. Cytotoxicity and oxidative mechanisms of different forms of chromium.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Debasis; Stohs, Sidney J; Downs, Bernard W; Bagchi, Manashi; Preuss, Harry G

    2002-10-30

    Chromium exists mostly in two valence states in nature: hexavalent chromium [chromium(VI)] and trivalent chromium [chromium(III)]. Chromium(VI) is commonly used in industrial chrome plating, welding, painting, metal finishes, steel manufacturing, alloy, cast iron and wood treatment, and is a proven toxin, mutagen and carcinogen. The mechanistic cytotoxicity of chromium(VI) is not completely understood, however, a large number of studies demonstrated that chromium(VI) induces oxidative stress, DNA damage, apoptotic cell death and altered gene expression. Conversely, chromium(III) is essential for proper insulin function and is required for normal protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism, and is acknowledged as a dietary supplement. In this paper, comparative concentration- and time-dependent effects of chromium(VI) and chromium(III) were demonstrated on increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation, enhanced excretion of urinary lipid metabolites, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cell death in both in vitro and in vivo models. Chromium(VI) demonstrated significantly higher toxicity as compared with chromium(III). To evaluate the role of p53 gene, the dose-dependent effects of chromium(VI) were assessed in female C57BL/6Ntac and p53-deficient C57BL/6TSG p53 mice on enhanced production of ROS, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation in hepatic and brain tissues. Chromium(VI) induced more pronounced oxidative damage in multiple target organs in p53 deficient mice. Comparative studies of chromium(III) picolinate and niacin-bound chromium(III), two popular dietary supplements, reveal that chromium(III) picolinate produces significantly more oxidative stress and DNA damage. Studies have implicated the toxicity of chromium picolinate in renal impairment, skin blisters and pustules, anemia, hemolysis, tissue edema, liver dysfunction; neuronal cell injury, impaired cognitive, perceptual and motor activity; enhanced production of hydroxyl

  9. Lateral stress evolution in chromium sulfide cermets with varying excess chromium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petel, O. E.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Wood, D. C.; Capozzi, A.; Nabavi, A.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.; Hazell, P. J.

    2016-04-01

    The shock response of chromium sulfide-chromium, a cermet of potential interest as a matrix material for ballistic applications, has been investigated at two molar ratios. Using a combustion synthesis technique allowed for control of the molar ratio of the material, which was investigated under near-stoichiometric (cermet) and excess chromium (interpenetrating composite) conditions, representing chromium:sulfur molar ratios of 1.15:1 and 4:1, respectively. The compacts were investigated via the plate-impact technique, which allowed the material to be loaded under a one-dimensional state of strain. Embedded manganin stress gauges were employed to monitor the temporal evolution of longitudinal and lateral components of stress in both materials. Comparison of these two components has allowed assessment of the variation of material shear strength both with impact pressure/strain-rate and time for the two molar ratio conditions. The two materials exhibited identical material strength despite variations in their excess chromium contents.

  10. Diffusion of chromium in chrysoberyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Yong-Kil; Seo, Jin-Gyo; Park, Jong-Wan

    2009-07-01

    Cr 3+ diffusion in chrysoberyl (BeAl 2O 4) irradiated by H + ions and electrons has been studied and compared with diffusion in non-irradiated samples. Chrysoberyl crystals were irradiated with 6 MeV H + ions to fluencies of 1×10 16 cm -2 for 25 min and with 10 MeV electrons to fluencies of 2×10 17 cm -2 for 1 h. Three different types of samples, which were doped with Cr 3+, were annealed in horizontal alumina tube furnaces by 50 K intervals in the temperature range from 1773 to 1923 K for 200 h. Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX) was used to measure the diffusion. Arrhenius equations for the diffusion coefficient for Cr 3+ in the temperature range 1773-1923 K were developed: Electron beam irradiated chrysoberyls, Dcr=2.1×10 -5×exp (-482.3±18.2 kJ mol -1/ RT)m 2 s -1 Proton beam irradiated chrysoberyls, Dcr=2.3×10 -3×exp (-545.4±25.0 kJ mol -1/ RT)m 2 s -1 Natural non-irradiated chrysoberyls Dcr=2.2×10 -3×exp (-547.9±36.8 kJ mol -1/ RT)m 2 s -1 The results indicate that the chromium diffuses deepest into the electron beam irradiated chrysoberyls.

  11. Oral Chromium Exposure and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong; Brocato, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a known carcinogen when inhaled. However, inhalational exposure to Cr(VI) affects only a small portion of the population, mainly by occupational exposures. In contrast, oral exposure to Cr(VI) is widespread and affects many people throughout the globe. In 2008, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) released a 2-year study demonstrating that ingested Cr(VI) was carcinogenic in rats and mice. The effects of Cr(VI) oral exposure is mitigated by reduction in the gut, however a portion evades the reductive detoxification and reaches target tissues. Once Cr(VI) enters the cell, it ultimately gets reduced to Cr(III), which mediates its toxicity via induction of oxidative stress during the reduction while Cr intermediates react with protein and DNA. Cr(III) can form adducts with DNA that may lead to mutations. This review will discuss the potential adverse effects of oral exposure to Cr(VI) by presenting up-to-date human and animal studies, examining the underlying mechanisms that mediate Cr(VI) toxicity, as well as highlighting opportunities for future research. PMID:26231506

  12. Chromium Recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papp, John F.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to illustrate the extent to which chromium was recycled in the United States in 1998 and to identify chromium-recycling trends. The major use of chromium was in the metallurgical industry to make stainless steel; substantially less chromium was used in the refractory and chemical industries. In this study, the only chromium recycling reported was that which was a part of stainless steel scrap reuse. In 1998, 20 percent of the U.S. apparent consumption of chromium was secondary (from recycling); the remaining 80 percent was based on net chromium commodity imports and stock adjustments. Chromite ore was not mined in the United States in 1998. In 1998, 75,300 metric tons (t) of chromium contained in old scrap was consumed in the United States; it was valued at $66.4 million. Old scrap generated contained 132,000 t of chromium. The old scrap recycling efficiency was 87 percent, and the recycling rate was 20 percent. About 18,000 t of chromium in old scrap was unrecovered. New scrap consumed contained 28,600 t of chromium, which yielded a new-to-old-scrap ratio of 28:72. U.S. chromium-bearing stainless steel scrap net exports were valued at $154 million and were estimated to have contained 41,000 t of chromium.

  13. Oral bioavailability of chromium from a specific site

    SciTech Connect

    Witmer, C.M.; Harris, R. ); Shupack, S.I. )

    1991-05-01

    Analysis of soil from a specific site in New Jersey indicated a low level of sodium and chromium present as a calcium compound. Chromium was then administered orally to young, mature male rats at a level of 240 {mu}g/kg for 14 days as chromium-contaminated soil, as CaCrO{sub 4}, and as an equimolar mixture of the soil and calcium salts for 14 days. The rats were sacrificed 24 hours after the last dosing, and tissues were taken immediately for chromium analysis. Blood, muscle, and liver contained the highest levels of chromium in these animals, although kidney contained the highest concentration per gram of tissue. Total amount of chromium in the tissues was less than 2% of the administered chromium. In a study of the excretion of chromium, the animals were dosed orally for 8 days and the chromium in feces and urine was determined on days 1, 2, 7, and 8. The animals administered the chromium in soil had higher levels of chromium in both urine and feces on all days compared to the group fed the CaCrO{sub 4}. The total recovery of chromium in any of the 2-day periods was less than 50% of the chromium administered during that period.

  14. Production of Chromium Oxide from Turkish Chromite Concentrate Using Ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktas, S.; Eyuboglu, C.; Morcali, M. H.; Özbey, S.; Sucuoglu, Y.

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the possibility of chromium extraction from Turkish chromite concentrate and the production of chromium oxide were investigated. For the conversion of chromium(III) into chromium(VI), NaOH was employed, as well as air with a rate of 20 L/min. The effects of the base amount, fusing temperature, and fusing time on the chromium conversion percentage were investigated in detail. The conversion kinetics of chromium(III) to chromium(VI) was also undertaken. Following the steps of dissolving the sodium chromate in water and filtering, aluminum hydroxide was precipitated by adjusting the pH level of the solution. The chromium(VI) solution was subsequently converted to Cr(III) by the combination of sulfuric acid and ethanol. Interestingly, it was observed that ethanol precipitated chromium as chromium(VI) at mildly acidic pH levels, although this effect is more pronounced for K2Cr2O7 than Na2Cr2O7. On the other hand, in the strongly acidic regime, ethanol acted as a reducing agent role in that chromium(VI) was converted into Cr(III) whereas ethanol itself was oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. Subsequently, chromium hydroxide was obtained by the help of sodium hydroxide and converted to chromium oxide by heating at 800 °C, as indicated in thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA).

  15. Reduction of hexavalent chromium collected on PVC filters.

    PubMed

    Shin, Y C; Paik, N W

    2000-01-01

    Chromium exists at various valences, including elemental, trivalent, and hexavalent chromium, and undergoes reduction-oxidation reactions in the environment. Since hexavalent chromium is known as a human carcinogen, it is most important to evaluate the oxidation-reduction characteristics of the hexavalent chromium species. Although hexavalent chromium can be reduced to trivalent state, the detailed information on this in workplace environments is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate hexavalent chromium reduction in time in various conditions. A pilot chrome plating operation was prepared and operated in a laboratory for this study. There was evidence that the hexavalent chromium was reduced by time after mist generation. The percentage ratio (with 95% confidence intervals in parentheses) of hexavalent chromium to total chromium was almost 100% (99.1 approximately 102.3) immediately after mist generation, and was reduced to 87.4% (84.8 approximately 89.9) at 1 hour and 81.0% (78.3 approximately 83.5) at 2 hours, respectively. Another test indicated that hexavalent chromium collected on PVC filters was also reduced by time after sampling. Hexavalent chromium was reduced to 90.8% (88.2 approximately 93.3) at 2 hours after sampling. It also was found that hexavalent chromium was reduced during storage in air. It is recommended that air samples of hexavalent chromium be protected against reduction during storage.

  16. Chromium-induced skin damage among Taiwanese cement workers.

    PubMed

    Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Wang, Po-Chih; Wu, Jyun-De; Sheu, Shiann-Cherng

    2016-10-01

    Little research has been done on the relationships between chromium exposure, skin barrier function, and other hygienic habits in cement workers. Our purpose was to investigate chromium-induced skin barrier disruption due to cement exposure among cement workers. One hundred and eight cement workers were recruited in this study. Urinary chromium concentration was used to characterize exposure levels. The biological exposure index was used to separate high and low chromium exposure. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was used to assess the skin barrier function. TEWL was significantly increased in workers with high chromium exposure levels than those with low chromium exposure levels (p = 0.048). A positive correlation was also found between urinary chromium concentration and TEWL (R = 0.28, p = 0.004). After adjusting for smoking status and glove use, a significant correlation between urinary chromium concentrations and TEWL remained. Moreover, workers who smoked and had a high chromium exposure had significantly increased TEWL compared to nonsmokers with low chromium exposure (p = 0.01). Skin barrier function of cement workers may have been disrupted by chromium in cement, and smoking might significantly enhance such skin barrier perturbation with chromium exposure. Decreased chromium skin exposure and smoking cessation should be encouraged at work. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. 47 CFR 14.47 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discovery. 14.47 Section 14.47 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Recordkeeping, Consumer Dispute Assistance, and Enforcement § 14.47...

  18. 47 CFR 14.47 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discovery. 14.47 Section 14.47 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Recordkeeping, Consumer Dispute Assistance, and Enforcement § 14.47...

  19. Phytotoxic lesions of chromium in maize.

    PubMed

    Sharma, D C; Sharma, C P; Tripathi, R D

    2003-04-01

    Chromium (Cr) is fairly abundant in the earth's crust and ranks fourth among the 29 elements of biological importance. Besides natural sources, Cr enters biotic components of the ecosystem in various ways. Of other major industrial sources, tanning and chrome-plating industries are prominent sources. Cr(VI) form of chromium is highly reactive and influences both plants and animals. Due to Mn present in soil, Cr(III) is oxidized to Cr(VI) which remains in soil for a long time and can affect plant growth and development. Since maize is an important food and fodder plant for human beings and cattle, a study was conducted to investigate the effects of Cr on some metabolic activities of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Ganga 5). Chromium caused visible lesions of interveinal chlorosis. Young leaves showed vein clearing. Also, a papery appearance was observed in leaves. Margins of leaves were curled and the leaves appeared pale at greater Cr exposure. Concentrations of both chlorophyll a and b were reduced by exposure to Cr, the activities of ribonuclease and phenyl phosphatase were greater while the activity of iron-porphyrin enzyme catalase was less and the activity of amylase was also much less in plants exposed to Cr. Chromium also caused retardation of soluble protein. Accumulation of Cr in roots was much at all the levels of chromium supply. Exposure to Cr resulted in reduction in grain production and quality.

  20. The enriched chromium neutrino source for GALLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, F.X.; Hahn, R.L.

    1991-01-18

    The preparation and study of an intense source of neutrinos in the form of neutron irradiated materials which are enriched in Cr-50 for use in the GALLEX solar neutrino experiment are discussed. Chromyl fluoride gas is enriched in the Cr-50 isotope by gas centrifugation and subsequently converted to a very stable form of chromium oxide. The results of neutron activation analyses of such chromium samples indicate low levels of any long-lived activities, but show that short-lived activities, in particular Na-24, may be of concern. These results show that irradiating chromium oxide enriched in Cr-50 is preferable to irradiating either natural chromium or argon gas as a means of producing a neutrino source to calibrate the GALLEX detector. These results of the impurity level analysis of the enriched chromyl fluoride gas and its conversion to the oxide are also of interest to work in progress by other members of the Collaboration investigating an alternative conversion of the enriched gas to chromium metal. 35 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. [Occupational exposure to chromium(VI) compounds].

    PubMed

    Skowroń, Jolanta; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the effect of chromium(VI) (Cr(VI)) on human health under conditions of acute and chronic exposure in the workplace. Chromium(VI) compounds as carcinogens and/or mutagens pose a direct danger to people exposed to them. If carcinogens cannot be eliminated from the work and living environments, their exposure should be reduced to a minimum. In the European Union the proposed binding occupational exposure limit value (BOELV) for chromium(VI) of 0.025 mg/m³ is still associated with high cancer risk. Based on the Scientific Commitee of Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL) document chromium(VI) concentrations at 0.025 mg/m³ increases the risk of lung cancer in 2-14 cases per 1000 exposed workers. Exposure to chromium(VI) compounds expressed in Cr(VI) of 0.01 mg Cr(VI)/m3; is responsible for the increased number of lung cancer cases in 1-6 per 1000 people employed in this condition for the whole period of professional activity.

  2. Natural Attenuation of Hexavalent Chromium in Groundwater and Soils

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Concerns about the impact of chromium on human health and the environment require an evaluation of the potential risk of chromium entering the groundwater flow system and being transported beyond compliance boundaries.

  3. Efficacy of dietary chromium (III) supplementation on tissue chromium deposition in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min-Qi; Li, Hui; He, Yu-Dan; Wang, Chao; Tao, Wen-Jing; Du, Yong-Jie

    2012-09-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different forms of trivalent chromium (Cr) supplementation on tissue chromium deposition in finishing pigs. A total of 96 pigs with an initial average body mass 65.57±1.05 kg were blocked by body mass and randomly assigned to four treatments with three replicates. Pigs were offered one of four diets including a control diet or the control diet supplemented with 200 μg/kg chromium from either chromium chloride (CrCl(3)), chromium picolinate (CrPic) or chromium nanocomposite (CrNano) for 40 days. During the trial, all pigs were given free access to feed and water. After feeding trial, eight pigs from each treatment were slaughtered for samples collection. The results showed that supplemental CrNano increased Cr content in blood, longissimus muscle, heart, liver, kidney, jejunum, and ileum (P<0.05). Supplemental Cr from three sources increased Cr excretion from all feces (P<0.05). Urinary Cr excretion was increased by CrNano or CrPic supplementation significantly. These results suggested that chromium nanocomposite exhibited more effective on tissue Cr deposition in pigs, which indicated higher absorption compared with CrCl(3) and CrPic.

  4. Unusual reactivity in a commercial chromium supplement compared to baseline DNA cleavage with synthetic chromium complexes.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Shveta; Pinkston, Joel; Rabile, M Mohamed; Van Horn, J David

    2005-03-01

    Commercially available chromium supplements were tested for their DNA cleavage ability compared with synthetic chromium(III) complexes, including chromium(III) tris-picolinate [Cr(pic)3], basic chromium acetate [Cr3O(OAc)6]+, model complexes, and recently patented Cr-complexes for use in supplements or therapy. Four different supplements (P1-P4) were tested for their DNA cleaving activity in the presence and the absence of H2O2, dithiothreitol (DTT) or ascorbate. One supplement, P1, showed nicking of DNA in the absence of oxidant or reductant at 120 microM metal concentration. Different lot numbers of P1 were also tested for DNA cleavage activity with similar results. Commercial supplements containing Cr(pic)3 nicked DNA at 120 microM metal concentrations in the presence of 5 mM ascorbate or with excess hydrogen peroxide, analogous to reactions with synthetic Cr(pic)3 reported elsewhere. Another chromium (non-Cr(pic)3) supplement, P2, behaves in a comparable manner to simple Cr(III) salts in the DNA nicking assay. Chromium(III) malonate [Cr(mal)2] and chromium(III) acetate [Cr(OAc)] can nick DNA in the presence of ascorbate or hydrogen peroxide, respectively, only at higher metal concentrations. The Cr(III) complexes of histidine, succinate or N-acetyl-L-glutamate do not nick DNA to a significant degree.

  5. In vivo effects of chromium.

    PubMed Central

    Witmer, C; Faria, E; Park, H S; Sadrieh, N; Yurkow, E; O'Connell, S; Sirak, A; Schleyer, H

    1994-01-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species on addition of hexavalent chromium (potassium dichromate, K2Cr2O7) to lung cells in culture was studied using flow cytometer analysis. A Coulter Epics Profile II flow cytometer was used to detect the formation of reactive oxygen species after K2Cr2O7 was added to A549 cells grown to confluence. The cells were loaded with the dye, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, after which cellular esterases removed the acetate groups and the dye was trapped intracellularly. Reactive oxygen species oxidized the dye, with resultant fluorescence. Increased doses of Cr(VI) caused increasing fluorescence (10-fold higher than background at 200 microM). Addition of Cr(III) compounds, as the picolinate or chloride, caused no increased fluorescence. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic studies indicated that three (as yet unidentified) spectral "signals" of the free radical type were formed on addition of 20, 50, 100, and 200 microM Cr(VI) to the A549 cells in suspension. Two other EPR "signals" with the characteristics of Cr(V) entities were seen at field values lower than the standard free radical value. Liver microsomes from male Sprague-Dawley rats treated intraperitoneally with K2Cr2O7 (130 mumole/kg every 48 hr for six treatments) had decreased activity of cytochromes P4503A1 and/or 3A2, and 2C11. Hepatic microsomes from treated female Sprague-Dawley rats, in contrast, had increased activities of these isozymes. Lung microsomes from male Sprague-Dawley rats had increased activity of P4502C11. Images Figure 4. Figure 6. PMID:7843092

  6. Phytoremediation of chromium by model constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Mant, Catherine; Costa, Sylvia; Williams, John; Tambourgi, Elias

    2006-10-01

    Chromium is a pollutant present in tannery wastewater, its removal is necessary for protection of the environment. Penisetum purpureum, Brachiaria decumbens and Phragmites australis were grown hydroponically in experimental gravel beds to determine their potential for the phytoremediation of solutions containing 10 and 20 mg Cr dm(-3). These concentrations, similar to tannery wastewater after initial physico-chemical treatment were used with the aim of developing an economic secondary treatment to protect the environment. All the systems achieved removal efficiencies of 97-99.6% within 24 h. P. purpureum and B. decumbens removed 78.1% and 68.5% respectively within the first hour. Both P. purpureum and B. decumbens were tolerant of the concentrations of chromium applied, but P. purpureum showed the greatest potential because its faster growth and larger biomass achieved a much greater chromium removal over the whole length of time of the experiment.

  7. [Occupational asthma caused by chromium and nickel].

    PubMed

    Cruz, María Jesus; Costa, Roser; Marquilles, Eduard; Morell, Ferran; Muñoz, Xavier

    2006-06-01

    We report the case of a 40-year-old woman who developed occupational asthma following exposure to chromium and nickel in the nickel-plating section of a metalworks company. Skin prick tests for specific antibodies proved positive for nickel chloride at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and negative for potassium dichromate. The specific bronchial provocation test confirmed the diagnosis of occupational asthma due to exposure to chromium and nickel. The patient presented a late positive reaction to nickel chloride (0.1 mg/mL) and an immediate positive reaction to a 10 mg/mL solution of potassium dichromate. These results indicate a dual response to nickel and chromium in this patient.

  8. Hexavalent Chromium IV-Free Primer Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alldredge, Michael J.; Buck, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Primer materials provide corrosion protection for metal parts as well as an increased adhesion between metallic substrates and thermal protection systems (TPSs). Current primers for use in cryogenic applications contain hexavalent chromium. This hexavalent chromium provides excellent corrosion protection even in a cryogenic environment, but it is a carcinogen that requires special equipment and waste control procedures to use. The hazardous nature of hexavalent chromium makes it an obsolescence risk in the future. This study included two phases of evaluation. Thirteen primers were initially identified as candidates and twelve of those primers were tested in phase 1. Four of the best performing candidates from phase 1 continued into phase 2 testing. Phase 1 testing consisted mostly of liquid constituent and physical property testing. Cryoflex and salt fog testing were included in phase 1 because of their importance to the overall success of a candidate material. Phase 2 consisted of physical, thermal, and mechanical properties for nominally processed and fabricated specimens.

  9. Chromium picolinate supplementation for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Fox, G N; Sabovic, Z

    1998-01-01

    Chromium picolinate is a widely available nutritional supplement marketed for a plethora of afflictions. There is some evidence, including results from human studies, that it has a role in glucose homeostasis. We report the case of a 28-year-old woman with an 18-year history of type 1 diabetes mellitus whose glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb A1c) declined from 11.3% to 7.9% 3 months after initiation of chromium picolinate, 200 micrograms 3 times daily. Chromium picolinate continues to fall squarely within the scope of "alternative medicine," with both unproven benefits and unknown risks. It deserves closer scrutiny with additional prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials to evaluate its efficacy in improving outcomes in patients with diabetes. A brief review of the literature was done to assist physicians who are being called upon to counsel and treat patients who are engaging in alternative therapies.

  10. 21 CFR 73.2327 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2327 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive chromium oxide greens shall conform in identify and specifications to the requirements of § 73.1327 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive chromium oxide greens...

  11. 21 CFR 73.2327 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2327 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive chromium oxide greens shall conform in identify and specifications to the requirements of § 73.1327 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive chromium oxide greens...

  12. 75 FR 67100 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... COMMISSION Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... chromium from Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted a review pursuant... revocation of the antidumping duty order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan would be likely to lead...

  13. Avoidance behavior of young black ducks treated with chromium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Haseltine, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    Pairs of adult black ducks (Anas rubripes) were fed a diet containing 0, 20, or 200 ppm chromium in the form of chromium potassium sulfate. Ducklings from these pairs were fed the same diets as adults and were tested for their avoidance responses to a fright stimulus. Neither level of chromium had a significant effect on avoidance behavior.

  14. 21 CFR 73.1327 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chromium oxide greens. 73.1327 Section 73.1327... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1327 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium oxide greens is principally chromic sesquioxide (Cr2O3). (2) Color...

  15. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  16. 48 CFR 252.223-7008 - Prohibition of Hexavalent Chromium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Chromium. 252.223-7008 Section 252.223-7008 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7008 Prohibition of Hexavalent Chromium. As prescribed in 223.7306, use the following clause: Prohibition of Hexavalent Chromium (JUN 2013) (a) Definitions. As used...

  17. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  18. Hexavalent and trivalent chromium in leather: What should be done?

    PubMed

    Moretto, Angelo

    2015-11-01

    Trivalent chromium compounds are used for leather tanning, and chromium may be released during use of leather goods. In certain instances, small amounts of hexavalent chromium can be formed and released. Both trivalent and hexavalent chromium can elicit allergic skin reaction in chromium sensitised subjects, the latter being significantly more potent. Induction of sensitisation only occurs after exposure to hexavalent chromium. A minority of subjects are sensitised to chromium, and in a fraction of these subjects allergic skin reaction have been described after wearing leather shoes or, less frequently, other leather goods. The evidence that in all these cases the reaction is related to hexavalent chromium is not always strong. The content of hexavalent chromium in leather is regulated in European Union, but rate of release rather than content is relevant for allergic skin reaction. The role of trivalent chromium appear much less relevant if at all. Modern tanning procedure do not pose significant risk due to either hexavalent or trivalent chromium. Dismissing bad quality and worn-off leather goods is relevant in reducing or eliminating the skin reaction. It should also be pointed out that shoe components or substances other than chromium in leather may cause allergic/irritative skin reactions.

  19. 21 CFR 73.3111 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium oxide greens. 73.3111 Section 73.3111... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3111 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive chromium oxide greens (chromic oxide) (CAS Reg. No....

  20. 21 CFR 73.1327 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chromium oxide greens. 73.1327 Section 73.1327... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1327 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium oxide greens is principally chromic sesquioxide (Cr2O3). (2) Color...

  1. 48 CFR 252.223-7008 - Prohibition of Hexavalent Chromium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Chromium. 252.223-7008 Section 252.223-7008 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7008 Prohibition of Hexavalent Chromium. As prescribed in 223.7306, use the following clause: Prohibition of Hexavalent Chromium (MAY 2011) (a) Definitions. As used...

  2. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  3. 21 CFR 73.1327 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chromium oxide greens. 73.1327 Section 73.1327... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1327 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium oxide greens is principally chromic sesquioxide (Cr2O3). (2) Color...

  4. 48 CFR 252.223-7008 - Prohibition of Hexavalent Chromium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Chromium. 252.223-7008 Section 252.223-7008 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7008 Prohibition of Hexavalent Chromium. As prescribed in 223.7306, use the following clause: Prohibition of Hexavalent Chromium (MAY 2011) (a) Definitions. As used...

  5. 21 CFR 73.3111 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chromium oxide greens. 73.3111 Section 73.3111... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3111 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive chromium oxide greens (chromic oxide) (CAS Reg. No....

  6. 21 CFR 73.3111 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium oxide greens. 73.3111 Section 73.3111... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3111 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive chromium oxide greens (chromic oxide) (CAS Reg. No....

  7. The Neel temperatures of nanocrystalline chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Robinson, R.A.; Eastman, J.A.; Lynn, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    Wide-angle neutron diffraction measurements at temperatures from 6 to 250 K indicate that the major portion of a nanocrystalline chromium sample with a mean grain size of 73 nm becomes antiferromagnetically ordered at 119 {plus_minus} 10 K. The remainder of the sample has a Neel temperature above 250 K, as expected for coarse-grained chromium. No evidence for antiferromagnetic order in a second sample with a mean grain size of 11 nm was observed, even to temperatures as low as 6 K.

  8. Strategies for chromium bioremediation of tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    Garg, Satyendra Kumar; Tripathi, Manikant; Srinath, Thiruneelakantan

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation offers the possibility of using living organisms (bacteria, fungi, algae,or plants), but primarily microorganisms, to degrade or remove environmental contaminants, and transform them into nontoxic or less-toxic forms. The major advantages of bioremediation over conventional physicochemical and biological treatment methods include low cost, good efficiency, minimization of chemicals, reduced quantity of secondary sludge, regeneration of cell biomass, and the possibility of recover-ing pollutant metals. Leather industries, which extensively employ chromium compounds in the tanning process, discharge spent-chromium-laden effluent into nearby water bodies. Worldwide, chromium is known to be one of the most common inorganic contaminants of groundwater at pollutant hazardous sites. Hexavalent chromium poses a health risk to all forms of life. Bioremediation of chromium extant in tannery waste involves different strategies that include biosorption, bioaccumulation,bioreduction, and immobilization of biomaterial(s). Biosorption is a nondirected physiochemical interaction that occurs between metal species and the cellular components of biological species. It is metabolism-dependent when living biomass is employed, and metabolism-independent in dead cell biomass. Dead cell biomass is much more effective than living cell biomass at biosorping heavy metals, including chromium. Bioaccumulation is a metabolically active process in living organisms that works through adsorption, intracellular accumulation, and bioprecipitation mechanisms. In bioreduction processes, microorganisms alter the oxidation/reduction state of toxic metals through direct or indirect biological and chemical process(es).Bioreduction of Cr6+ to Cr3+ not only decreases the chromium toxicity to living organisms, but also helps precipitate chromium at a neutral pH for further physical removal,thus offering promise as a bioremediation strategy. However, biosorption, bioaccumulation, and

  9. Protective claddings for high strength chromium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, J. F.

    1971-01-01

    The application of a Cr-Y-Hf-Th alloy as a protective cladding for a high strength chromium alloy was investigated for its effectiveness in inhibiting nitrogen embrittlement of a core alloy. Cladding was accomplished by a combination of hot gas pressure bonding and roll cladding techniques. Based on bend DBTT, the cladding alloy was effective in inhibiting nitrogen embrittlement of the chromium core alloy for up to 720 ks (200hours) in air at 1422 K (2100 F). A significant increase in the bend DBTT occurred with longer time exposures at 1422 K or short time exposures at 1589 K (2400 F).

  10. Chromium isotopic anomalies in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Abundances of the chromium isotopes in terrestrial and bulk meteorite samples are identical to 0.01 percent. However, Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende meteorite show endemic isotopic anomalies in chromium which require at least three nucleosynthetic components. Large anomalies at Cr-54 in a special class of inclusions are correlated with large anomalies at Ca-48 and Ti-50 and provide strong support for a component reflecting neutron-rich nucleosynthesis at nuclear statistical equilibrium. This correlation suggests that materials from very near the core of an exploding massive star may be injected into the interstellar medium.

  11. Chromium isotopic anomalies in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Abundances of the chromium isotopes in terrestrial and bulk meteorite samples are identical to 0.01 percent. However, Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende meteorite show endemic isotopic anomalies in chromium which require at least three nucleosynthetic components. Large anomalies at Cr-54 in a special class of inclusions are correlated with large anomalies at Ca-48 and Ti-50 and provide strong support for a component reflecting neutron-rich nucleosynthesis at nuclear statistical equilibrium. This correlation suggests that materials from very near the core of an exploding massive star may be injected into the interstellar medium.

  12. Magnetic properties of cobalt and chromium clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Forrest William

    We have used the Stern-Gerlach deflection technique to study magnetism in cobalt clusters of 13-187 atoms and chromium clusters with between 20-133 atoms. These clusters were observed at temperatures ranging from 60K to 250K and at magnetic field gradients up to 360 T/m. Using superparamagnetic theory we have determined the moment per atom for each cluster size and find enhanced magnetism due to reduced dimensionality of the clusters. Remarkably, we find that we are capable of making chromium clusters in two magnetically distinguishable forms for each cluster size with ≥34 atoms. We attribute this observation to the presence of structural isomers.

  13. Chromium levels in spices and aromatic herbs.

    PubMed

    Garcia, E; Cabrera, C; Lorenzo, M L; López, M C

    2000-02-28

    We determined the presence of chromium in a total of 72 samples of 17 different spices and aromatic herbs. Electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETA-AAS) was used to determine Cr content in the samples mineralized with HNO3 and V2O5. The analytical characteristics of the proposed method were tested, and the accuracy and precision was also verified against an NBS-certified reference material. Chromium concentrations ranged from not detectable to 1.42 micrograms/g (dry wt.) and Cr presence was detected in 95% of samples. Spices and aromatic herbs are widely consumed in the Spanish diet and in the Mediterranean diet, in general.

  14. Removal of chromium from wastewater by reverse osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çimen, Aysel

    2015-07-01

    Removal of chromium from wastewaters has been studied and the optimal process conditions were determined. The reverse osmosis (RO) technique, the sea water high rejection (SWHR) and high rejection brackish water (AG, SE, and SG) membranes were used. The chromium rejection depended on membrane type, pH of the feed water and operating pressure. The removal of chromium was most effective when the feed water pH 3. The rejection efficiency of the membranes increased in the order AG > SWHR > SG > SE. RO method can be efficiently used (with >91% rejection) for the removal of chromium from wastewater of chromium coating processes.

  15. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Trivalent and Hexavalent Chromium Based on Ingestion and Inhalation of Soluble Chromium Compounds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    Toxic Hazards Research Unit (THRU), and was coordinated by Allen Vinegar , Ph.D., Manager of the Biological Simulation Program at the THRU. This...chromates and dichromates, chromium trioxide (Cr0 3), and the hydrated Cr(III) nitrate, chloride, acetate , and sulfate salts, are soluble or highly...associated principally with the manufacture of chromates, including chromate pigments; chromium electroplating, which generates aerosols of chromic acid

  16. The Preparation of Chromium by the Thermal Decomposition of Chromium Iodide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-15

    chromium with iodine vapor, the sublimation of the chromium iodide, and its subsequent decomposition on a hot tungsten filament, all in an evacuated...heated with a gas burner while iodine from the bulb was vaporized and passed over it. As the iodine vapor passed over the hot metal, a condensate was v...of iodine was exhausted, the apparatus was broken ~pen and the contents examined. The reaction product was very hygro- scopic, forming a green

  17. Chromium(III) and chromium(VI) surface treated galvanized steel for outdoor constructions: environmental aspects.

    PubMed

    Lindström, David; Hedberg, Yolanda; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2010-06-01

    The long-term degradation of chromium(III) (Zn-Cr(III)) and chromium(VI)-based (Zn-Cr(VI)) surface treatments on galvanized steel and their capacities to hinder the release of zinc induced by atmospheric corrosion at nonsheltered urban and marine exposure conditions for 2 years are investigated. Compared to bare zinc sheet, both surface treatments revealed high corrosion protection abilities and capacities to hinder the release of zinc, still evident after 2 years of exposure. The zinc barrier properties of the thinner Zn-Cr(VI) (10 nm) treatment were during the first 100 days of urban exposure slightly improved compared with Zn-Cr(III) (35 nm). However, their long-term protection capacities were inverse. Released concentrations of total chromium correspond to annual release rates less than 0.000032 (Zn-Cr(III)) and 0.00014 g Cr m(-2) yr(-1) (Zn-Cr(VI)) after 1 year of urban exposure. Aging by indoor storage of the surface treatments prior to outdoor exposure reduced the released Cr concentrations from the surface treatments. No Cr(VI) was released from the aged surfaces but from the freshly exposed Zn-Cr(VI). Marine exposure conditions resulted in a faster reduction of chromate to chromium(III)oxide compared with urban conditions, and a significantly lower amount of both chromium(III) and chromium(VI) released from Zn-Cr(VI) at the marine site compared with the urban site.

  18. Biological groundwater treatment for chromium removal at low hexavalent chromium concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mamais, Daniel; Noutsopoulos, Constantinos; Kavallari, Ioanna; Nyktari, Eleni; Kaldis, Apostolos; Panousi, Eleni; Nikitopoulos, George; Antoniou, Kornilia; Nasioka, Maria

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and evaluate biological groundwater treatment systems that will achieve hexavalent chromium reduction and total chromium removal from groundwater at hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) groundwater concentrations in the 0-200 μg/L range. Three lab-scale units operated, as sequencing batch reactors (SBR) under aerobic, anaerobic and anaerobic-aerobic conditions. All systems received groundwater with a Cr(VI) content of 200 μg/L. In order to support biological growth, groundwater was supplemented with milk, liquid cheese whey or a mixture of sugar and milk to achieve a COD concentration of 200 mg/L. The results demonstrate that a fully anaerobic system or an anaerobic-aerobic system dosed with simple or complex external organic carbon sources can lead to practically complete Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III). The temperature dependency of maximum Cr(VI) removal rates can be described by the Arrhenius relationship. Total chromium removal in the biological treatment systems was not complete because a significant portion of Cr(III) remained in solution. An integrated system comprising of an anaerobic SBR followed by a sand filter achieved more than 95% total chromium removal thus resulting in average effluent total and dissolved chromium concentrations of 7 μg/L and 3 μg/L, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Trivalent Chromium Conversion Coatings for Aluminum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-27

    salts corrosion. This is without any hexavalent chromium in the bath. The absence of Cr+ 6 was determined by analysis of the bath by atomic absorption spectroscopy and...coating was determined by dissolving the films 5 minutes in 25% (vol.) HC1 at 250 C and analyzing for Cr 20 by atomic absorption spectroscopy . The solution

  20. The role of mitochondria in chromium carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, S.C. )

    1987-01-01

    The uptake and reduction of chromium(VI) compounds are crucial to their carcinogenicity. Many cellular systems have been shown to reduce chromium(VI). The ability of mitochondria to reduce chromate in vitro was investigated using rat liver submitochondrial particles (SMPs), which contain the electron transport chain, and isolated rat liver mitochondria. SMPs with NADH as substrate reduced chromate as shown by EPR and UV-VIS spectroscopic studies. Chromate was reduced to a chromium(V) species, which was detectable by EPR. SMPs with succinate as substrate were less effective in reducing chromate relative to NADH-driven chromate-reductase activity. SMPs show a higher rate of oxygen depletion with NADH as substrate as compared to succinate as substrate. In SMPs with NADH as substrate, rotenone, antimycin and cyanide all produced a {approx}40% inhibition of chromate-reductase activity. In SMPs with succinate as substrate, cyanide and antimycin produced {approx}50% inhibition of chromate-reductase activity and rotenone caused no detectable inhibition. In vivo studies of rats injected with sodium dichromate spiked with {sup 51}Cr showed that after 24 hr, chromium was bound preferentially to mitochondrial DNA relative to nuclear DNA by a factor of {approximately}1500.

  1. Chemical behavior of acidified chromium (3) solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Terman, D.K.

    1981-05-01

    A unique energy-storage system has been developed at NASA's Lewis Research Center called REDOX. This NASA-REDOX system is an electrochemical storage device that utilized the oxidation and reduction of two fully soluble redox couples for charging and discharging. The redox couples now being investigated are acidified chloride solutions of chromium (Cr(+2)/Cr(+3)) and iron (Fe(+2)/Fe(+3)).

  2. 29 CFR 1915.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... action level for 30 or more days a year; (B) Experiencing signs or symptoms of the adverse health effects...) Whenever an employee shows signs or symptoms of the adverse health effects associated with chromium (VI... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the adverse health effects associated with chromium (VI) exposure; or (C) Exposed in an emergency... additional examination; (iv) Whenever an employee shows signs or symptoms of the adverse health effects... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or more days a year; (B) Experiencing signs or symptoms of the adverse health effects associated with... symptoms of the adverse health effects associated with chromium (VI) exposure; (v) Within 30 days after... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.1126 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the adverse health effects associated with chromium (VI) exposure; or (C) Exposed in an emergency... additional examination; (iv) Whenever an employee shows signs or symptoms of the adverse health effects... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the adverse health effects associated with chromium (VI) exposure; or (C) Exposed in an emergency... additional examination; (iv) Whenever an employee shows signs or symptoms of the adverse health effects... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  7. 29 CFR 1915.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... action level for 30 or more days a year; (B) Experiencing signs or symptoms of the adverse health effects...) Whenever an employee shows signs or symptoms of the adverse health effects associated with chromium (VI... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  8. 29 CFR 1910.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or more days a year; (B) Experiencing signs or symptoms of the adverse health effects associated with... symptoms of the adverse health effects associated with chromium (VI) exposure; (v) Within 30 days after... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.1126 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the adverse health effects associated with chromium (VI) exposure; or (C) Exposed in an emergency... additional examination; (iv) Whenever an employee shows signs or symptoms of the adverse health effects... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or more days a year; (B) Experiencing signs or symptoms of the adverse health effects associated with... symptoms of the adverse health effects associated with chromium (VI) exposure; (v) Within 30 days after... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.1126 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... action level for 30 or more days a year; (B) Experiencing signs or symptoms of the adverse health effects...) Whenever an employee shows signs or symptoms of the adverse health effects associated with chromium (VI... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1126 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... action level for 30 or more days a year; (B) Experiencing signs or symptoms of the adverse health effects...) Whenever an employee shows signs or symptoms of the adverse health effects associated with chromium (VI... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1126 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the adverse health effects associated with chromium (VI) exposure; or (C) Exposed in an emergency... additional examination; (iv) Whenever an employee shows signs or symptoms of the adverse health effects... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the adverse health effects associated with chromium (VI) exposure; or (C) Exposed in an emergency... additional examination; (iv) Whenever an employee shows signs or symptoms of the adverse health effects... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  15. Effects of chromium on the immune system.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Richa; Upreti, R K; Seth, P K; Chaturvedi, U C

    2002-09-06

    Chromium is a naturally occurring heavy metal found commonly in the environment in trivalent, Cr(III), and hexavalent, Cr(VI), forms. Cr(VI) compounds have been declared as a potent occupational carcinogen among workers in chrome plating, stainless steel, and pigment industries. The reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) results in the formation of reactive intermediates that together with oxidative stress oxidative tissue damage and a cascade of cellular events including modulation of apoptosis regulatory gene p53, contribute to the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of Cr(VI)-containing compounds. On the other hand, chromium is an essential nutrient required to promote the action of insulin in body tissues so that the body can use sugars, proteins and fats. Chromium is of significant importance in altering the immune response by immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive processes as shown by its effects on T and B lymphocytes, macrophages, cytokine production and the immune response that may induce hypersensitivity reactions. This review gives an overview of the effects of chromium on the immune system of the body.

  16. Hygienic behaviour in chromium plating industries.

    PubMed

    Lumens, M E; Ulenbelt, P; Géron, H M; Herber, R F

    1993-01-01

    The impact of hygienic behaviour on the uptake of chromium has been studied in two small chromium plating factories. The correlation between the environmental monitoring measure (Cr-A) and the biological monitoring measure (Cr-U) varied between the two factories. In one factory (I) the correlation between Cr-U and Cr-A was 0.68 (P < 0.001), while in the other factory (II) it was negative (r = -0.64, P = 0.03). However, in both populations a significant impact of hygienic behaviour on the variance in Cr-U levels could be detected. In factory I, explained variance could be enhanced to R2 = 0.94 (P < 0.001) when considering expressions of hygienic behaviour. In factory II, a strong relation proved to exist between Cr-U and dermal uptake. For the various questions referring to skin problems and possible dermal uptake, the correlation with Cr-U is up to 0.70 (P = 0.03). When comparing the results for the two factories, it is shown that in addition to individual differences in hygienic behaviour, general hygienic conditions also have an impact on uptake of chromium. In factory II, where many efforts were made to prevent exposure to chromium, Cr-U was significantly lower than in factory I (P < 0.001).

  17. Dermatitis from a chromium dental plate.

    PubMed

    Hubler, W R; Hubler, W R

    1983-09-01

    Systemic absorption of metal or metallic salts from dental and orthopedic surgical implants can produce a cutaneous allergic dermatitis in susceptible individuals. Mercury, nickel and cobalt are the most common metals to elicit such systemic allergic reactions from chronic internal exposure. A case is presented of a generalized eczematoid dermatitis apparently caused by allergy to chromium liberated from a metal dental plate.

  18. Method for welding chromium molybdenum steels

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K.

    1986-01-01

    Chromium-molybdenum steels exhibit a weakening after welding in an area adjacent to the weld. This invention is an improved method for welding to eliminate the weakness by subjecting normalized steel to a partial temper prior to welding and subsequently fully tempering the welded article for optimum strength and ductility.

  19. Nickel-chromium-silicon brazing filler metal

    DOEpatents

    Martini, Angelo J.; Gourley, Bruce R.

    1976-01-01

    A brazing filler metal containing, by weight percent, 23-35% chromium, 9-12% silicon, a maximum of 0.15% carbon, and the remainder nickel. The maximum amount of elements other than those noted above is 1.00%.

  20. The microstructure of chromium-tungsten steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klueh, R. L.; Maziasz, P. J.

    1989-03-01

    Chromium-tungsten steels are being developed to replace the Cr-Mo steels for fusion-reactor applications. Eight experimental steels were produced and examined by optical and electron microscopy. Chromium concentrations of 2.25, 5, 9 and 12 pct were used. Steels with these chromium compositions and with 2 pct W and 0.25 pct V were produced. To determine the effect of tungsten and vanadium, three other 2.25Cr steels were produced as follows: an alloy with 2 pct W and 0 pct V and alloys with 0 and 1 pct W and 0.25 pct V. A 9Cr steel containing 2 pct W, 0.25 pct V, and 0.07 pct Ta also was studied. For all alloys, carbon was maintained at 0.1 pct. Two pct tungsten was required in the 2.25Cr steels to produce 100 pct bainite (no polygonal ferrite). The 5Cr and 9Cr steels were 100 pct martensite, but the 12Cr steel contained about 25 pct delta-ferrite. Precipitate morphology and precipitate types varied, depending on the chromium content. For the 2.25Cr steels, M3C and M7C3 were the primary precipitates; for the 9Cr and 12Cr steels, M23C6 was the primary precipitate. The 5Cr steel contained M7C3 and M23C6. All of the steels with vanadium also contained MC.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of New Copper-Chromium Layered Double Hydroxides Pillared with Polyoxovanadates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depège, C.; Bigey, L.; Forano, C.; de Roy, A.; Besse, J. P.

    1996-11-01

    In this study, we have focused on the intercalation by ion-exchange of some polyoxovanadate anions from aqueous solution (decavanadate V10O6-28, tetravanadate V4O4-12, and pyrovanadate V2O4-7) into the layers of a copper chromium hydrotalcite-like compound. PXRD, FTIR, TGA, and EXAFS studies have provided information about the specific oxovanadate ions in the interlayers and their orientation. Thermal treatment of these LDHs was also examined. A grafting process of pyrovanadate anions onto the hydroxylated sheets has been demonstrated at room temperature.

  2. Chromium(II) and chromium(II) tri-tert-butoxysiloxy complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, K.W.; Gantzel, P.K.; Tilley, T.D. )

    1993-11-10

    The authors have been exploring the structure, bonding, and chemistry of transition-metal and main-group complexes that possess oxygen-rich alkoxysiloxy ligands such as [minus]OSi(O[sup t]Bu)[sub 3]. A primary focus of these studies is the development of molecular, single-source precursors to homogeneous, ultrapure metal silicates. The authors have found that titanium, zirconium, hafnium, and aluminum derivatives of [minus]OSi(O[sup t]Bu)[sub 3] thermally decompose at low temperatures (100-200[degrees]C) with elimination of isobutylene and water to give metal-containing silicates. Previous observations suggested the possible use of this methodology in new syntheses of supported catalysts, particularly since chemical reactivities and selectivities are known to be very sensitive to the size and shape of the supported metal catalyst particles. Silica- and aluminosilica-supported chromium catalysts are used widely for the catalytic polymerization of ethylene. To examine alkoxysiloxy derivatives of chromium as precursors to chromium-supported catalysts, the authors have begun to explore synthetic routes to Cr-OSi(O[sup t]Bu)[sub 3] complexes. On the basis of previously reported routes to siloxide and alkoxide complexes of chromium, approaches based on either the silanol HOSi(O[sup t]Bu)[sub 3] or alkali metal derivatives MOSi(O[sup t]Bu)[sub 3] (M = Li, Na, K) as starting materials seem possible. The authors report two siloxide complexes which result from the reaction of Cr(NEt[sub 2])[sub 4] with HOSi(O[sup t]Bu)[sub 3]. While this reaction does not provide a high yield of a single product that can be used in a convenient route to chromium silicate materials, it does offer the opportunity to closely compare analogous chromium(II) and chromium(III) siloxide complexes Cr[OSi(O[sup t]Bu)[sub 3

  3. Chromium supplementation improved post-stroke brain infarction and hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ying; Mao, Frank Chiahung; Liu, Chia-Hsin; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang; Lai, Nai-Wei; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2016-04-01

    Hyperglycemia is common after acute stroke and is associated with a worse outcome of stroke. Thus, a better understanding of stress hyperglycemia is helpful to the prevention and therapeutic treatment of stroke. Chromium is an essential nutrient required for optimal insulin activity and normal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Beyond its nutritional effects, dietary supplement of chromium causes beneficial outcomes against several diseases, in particular diabetes-associated complications. In this study, we investigated whether post-stroke hyperglycemia involved chromium dynamic mobilization in a rat model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia and whether dietary supplement of chromium improved post-stroke injury and alterations. Stroke rats developed brain infarction, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Post-stroke hyperglycemia was accompanied by elevated secretion of counter-regulatory hormones including glucagon, corticosterone, and norepinephrine, decreased insulin signaling in skeletal muscles, and increased hepatic gluconeogenesis. Correlation studies revealed that counter-regulatory hormone secretion showed a positive correlation with chromium loss and blood glucose increased together with chromium loss. Daily chromium supplementation increased tissue chromium levels, attenuated brain infarction, improved hyperglycemia, and decreased plasma levels of glucagon and corticosterone in stroke rats. Our findings suggest that stroke rats show disturbance of tissue chromium homeostasis with a net loss through urinary excretion and chromium mobilization and loss might be an alternative mechanism responsible for post-stroke hyperglycemia.

  4. Estimation of Release of Nickel and Chromium by Indian Made Orthodontic Appliance in Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Parashar, Sandeep; Gupta, Ankur; Hegde, Chatura; Anand, Neelima

    2015-01-01

    Introduction With increasing use of Indian made orthodontic materials, need was felt to know nickel and chromium release from these material. Materials and Methods This study was conducted on simulated appliances consisting of brackets (022″Roth, Modern orthodontics, Ludhiana, India), from second premolar to central incisor, buccal tube and 0.019×0.025- inch SS arch wires secured with SS ligatures. Immersion was done in artificial saliva. Samples were analysed to using Atomic Absorption Photospectrometer (GVC ScientificEquipment Pvt. Ltd Australia) at AES Laboratories (P) Ltd., Noida India on 1st, 7th, 14th and 28th day. Results SPSS (ver 17, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used toperform the statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics i.e. median and 25 and75 percentiles were used. Peak nickel release was on 7th day and subsequently declined over 14th and 28th day. The peak level of chromium concentration was on 14th day, which declined thereafter. Conclusion Average daily release of nickel and chromium over a period of one month was 97.368 μg/day and 47.664 μg/day respectively. The estimated release rates were approximately 32% and 16% of the reported average daily dietary. PMID:26501018

  5. Estimation of Release of Nickel and Chromium by Indian Made Orthodontic Appliance in Saliva.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Sandeep; Maurya, Rajkumar; Gupta, Ankur; Hegde, Chatura; Anand, Neelima

    2015-09-01

    With increasing use of Indian made orthodontic materials, need was felt to know nickel and chromium release from these material. This study was conducted on simulated appliances consisting of brackets (022″Roth, Modern orthodontics, Ludhiana, India), from second premolar to central incisor, buccal tube and 0.019×0.025- inch SS arch wires secured with SS ligatures. Immersion was done in artificial saliva. Samples were analysed to using Atomic Absorption Photospectrometer (GVC ScientificEquipment Pvt. Ltd Australia) at AES Laboratories (P) Ltd., Noida India on 1(st), 7(th), 14(th) and 28(th) day. SPSS (ver 17, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used toperform the statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics i.e. median and 25 and75 percentiles were used. Peak nickel release was on 7(th) day and subsequently declined over 14(th) and 28(th) day. The peak level of chromium concentration was on 14(th) day, which declined thereafter. Average daily release of nickel and chromium over a period of one month was 97.368 μg/day and 47.664 μg/day respectively. The estimated release rates were approximately 32% and 16% of the reported average daily dietary.

  6. Hexavalent chromium removal from aqueous solutions by a novel powder prepared from Colocasia esculenta leaves.

    PubMed

    Nakkeeran, E; Saranya, N; Giri Nandagopal, M S; Santhiagu, A; Selvaraju, N

    2016-08-02

    In this study, batch removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by powdered Colocasia esculenta leaves was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of adsorption of Cr(VI) at different pH values, initial concentrations, agitation speeds, temperatures, and contact times. The biosorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer analysis. The biosorptive capacity of the adsorbent was dependent on the pH of the chromium solution in which maximum removal was observed at pH 2. The adsorption equilibrium data were evaluated for various adsorption isotherm models, kinetic models, and thermodynamics. The equilibrium data fitted well with Freundlich and Halsey models. The adsorption capacity calculated was 47.62 mg/g at pH 2. The adsorption kinetic data were best described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thus, Colocasia esculenta leaves can be considered as one of the efficient and cheap biosorbents for hexavalent chromium removal from aqueous solutions.

  7. Production of basic chromium sulfate by using recovered chromium from ashes of thermally treated leather.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Aline; Nunes, Keila Guerra Pacheco; Gutterres, Mariliz; Marcílio, Nilson Romeu

    2010-04-15

    Leather wastes tanned with chromium are generated during the production process of leather, hence the wastes from hand crafted goods and footwear industries are a serious environmental problem. The thermal treatment of leather wastes can be one of the treatment options because the wastes are rich in chromium and can be used as a raw material for sodium chromate production and further to obtain several chromium compounds. The objective of this study was to utilize the chromium from leather wastes via basic chromium sulfate production to be subsequently applied in a hide tanning. The obtained results have shown that this is the first successful attempt to achieve desired base properties of the product. The result was achieved when the following conditions were applied: a molar ratio between sodium sulfite and sodium dichromate equal to 6; reaction time equal to 5 min before addition of sulfuric acid; pH of sodium dichromate solution equal to 2. Summarizing, there is an opportunity to utilize the dangerous wastes and reused them in the production scheme by minimizing or annulling the environmental impact and to attend a sustainable process development concept. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Issues in the risk assessment of chromium.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, R E

    1991-01-01

    Although hexavalent chromium is well established as a human carcinogen by the inhalation route, there are significant uncertainties in the quantitative estimation of cancer risk. One of the important uncertainties is the assumption that the carcinogenic potency, determined under conditions of occupational exposure where most workers were cigarette smokers, applies to the nonsmoking individual in the general population. There is substantial evidence that carcinogenicity is a function of the rate of cell turnover in the target tissue. The chromate worker would be expected to have a relatively high rate of cell proliferation in the bronchial mucosa due to airborne irritants and smoking. The potency of chromium might therefore be relatively high under conditions of occupational exposure. This problem in quantitative risk assessment applies equally well to another important indoor pollutant, radon. PMID:1935856

  9. Interactions of chromium with microorganisms and plants.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, C; Campos-García, J; Devars, S; Gutiérrez-Corona, F; Loza-Tavera, H; Torres-Guzmán, J C; Moreno-Sánchez, R

    2001-05-01

    Chromium is a highly toxic non-essential metal for microorganisms and plants. Due to its widespread industrial use, chromium (Cr) has become a serious pollutant in diverse environmental settings. The hexavalent form of the metal, Cr(VI), is considered a more toxic species than the relatively innocuous and less mobile Cr(III) form. The presence of Cr in the environment has selected microbial and plant variants able to tolerate high levels of Cr compounds. The diverse Cr-resistance mechanisms displayed by microorganisms, and probably by plants, include biosorption, diminished accumulation, precipitation, reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and chromate efflux. Some of these systems have been proposed as potential biotechnological tools for the bioremediation of Cr pollution. In this review we summarize the interactions of bacteria, algae, fungi and plants with Cr and its compounds.

  10. Distribution and significance of chromium in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Olsen, E.

    1975-01-01

    Chromium is present as a minor element in all meteorite types. Depending on the meteorite type it is lithophile (most frequent), chalcophile (less frequent), or siderophile (rare). Chromium is an indicator of physical and chemical conditions of meteorite formation, especially of the state of oxidation. The Cr contents of meteoritic chromites are related to classification and can be used to distinguish among meteorite types that contain this mineral. The distribution of Cr between coexisting pyroxenes may indicate the degree of equilibration of this mineral pair. Siderophile Cr appears to result from primitive condensation processes rather than secondary reduction processes. The lack of much experimental data on Cr in silicate systems limits the interpretation of the occurrences of Cr-silicate phases, ureyite and krinovite, in the meteorite type in which they occur.

  11. Lateral stress evolution in Chromium Sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petel, Oren; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Hameed, Amer; Capozzi, Alexander; Frost, David; Hazell, Paul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the shock response of chromium sulfide, a cermet of potential interest as a matrix material for ballistic applications, has been investigated. Compacts with a Chromium:Sulfur ratio of 1.15:1 were investigated via the plate-impact technique. These experiments allowed the material to be loaded under a one-dimensional state of strain. Embedded manganin stress gauges were employed to monitor the temporal evolution of longitudinal and lateral components of stress. Comparison of these two components has allowed assessment of the variation of material shear strength both with impact pressure/strain-rate and time. Interestingly tentative evidence of what appeared to be an elastic-plastic transition was noted on the lateral traces, despite the absence of a lateral shock.

  12. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; chromium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeYoung, J.H.; Lee, M.P.; Lipin, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    Major world resources of chromium, a strategic mineral commodity, are described in this summary report of information in the International Strategic Minerals Inventory {ISMI}. ISMI is a cooperative data-collection effort of earth-science and mineral-resource agencies in Australia, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of South Africa, and the United States of America. This report, designed to be of benefit to policy analysts, contains two parts. Part I presents an overview of the resources and potential supply of chromium on the basis of inventory information. Part II contains tables of some of the geologic information and mineral-resource and production data that were collected by ISMI participants.

  13. New mixed aluminium–chromium diarsenate

    PubMed Central

    Bouhassine, Mohamad Alem; Boughzala, Habib

    2017-01-01

    Potassium chromium aluminium diarsenate, KCr1/4Al3/4As2O7, was prepared by solid-state reaction. The structure consists of (Cr1/4/Al3/4)O6 octa­hedra and As2O7 diarsenate groups sharing corners to build up a three-dimensional anionic framework. The potassium cations are located in wide channels running along the c-axis direction. The crystal structure is isostructural with the triclinic A I M III X 2O7 (A I = alkali metal; M III = Al, Cr, Fe; X = As, P) compounds. However, the M III octa­hedrally coordinated site is 25% partially occupied by chromium and 75% by aluminium. PMID:28316805

  14. Speciation and recovery of chromium from chromite ore processing residues.

    PubMed

    Sreeram, K J; Ramasami, T

    2001-10-01

    The processing of chromite ore is associated with the generation of large quantities of solid wastes containing chromium, which have been disposed of as landfill for many years. The mobilization and operational speciation of chromium contained in soils contaminated with metal salts are important in terms of the environment. Several methods have been employed for the extraction and recovery of solid wastes. Chromium contained in contaminated soils and solid wastes can be categorized as exchangeable, oxidizable, carbonate-bound, reducible and residual. The results from this study indicate a need for efficient leaching methodologies in chromite ore processing plants to decrease the non-detrital fractions of chromium in the residue. Aggressive methodologies are required to recover chromium from the detrital fractions. The potential benefits of employing sodium peroxide for the complete recovery of chromium from chromite residue have been demonstrated, and the need to ensure the safety of the process has been emphasized.

  15. X-616 Chromium Sludge Lagoons pictorial overview, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant uses large quantities of water for process cooling. The X-616 Liquid Effluent Control Facility was placed in operation in December 1976 to treat recirculation cooling water blowdown from the process cooling system. A chromium-based corrosion inhibitor was used in the cooling water system. A chromium sludge was produced in a clarifier to control chromium levels in the water. Chromium sludge produced by this process was stored in two surface impoundments called the X-616 Chromium Sludge Lagoons. The sludge was toxic due to its chromium concentration and therefore required treatment. The sludge was treated, turning it into a sanitary waste, and buried in an Ohio EPA approved landfill. The plant's process cooling water system has changed to a more environmentally acceptable phosphate-based inhibitor. Closure activities at X-616 began in August 1990, with all construction activities completed in June 1991, at a total cost of $8.0 million.

  16. Chromium Toxicity: Reductive Enzymes in Humans.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    internal organs (e.g. lungs, liver, kidneys) [24,27,64], pulmonary fibrosis and chronic bronchitis [2], skin ulcers and allergic dermatitis [2], and...cross the skin [2] and are readily transported across cell membranes [18] via an anion carrier [6]. Cr compounds are also mutagenic [67], and the bulk of...reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase- dependent chromium(VI) reduction. Analyst 120:935-938. 42. Miura, A

  17. Method for welding chromium molybdenum steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.

    1986-09-16

    A process is described for welding chromium-molybdenum steels which consist of: subjecting the steel to normalization by heating to above the transformation temperature and cooling in air; subjecting the steel to a partial temper by heating to a temperature less than a full temper; welding the steel using an appropriate filler metal; subjecting the steel to a full temper by heating to a temperature sufficient to optimize strength, reduce stress, increase ductility and reduce hardness.

  18. Laser action in chromium-doped forsterite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petricevic, V.; Gayen, S. K.; Alfano, R. R.; Yamagishi, Kiyoshi; Anzai, H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on pulsed laser operation obtained in chromium-activated forsterite Cr(3+):Mg2SiO4 at room temperature. The spectrum of the free-running laser peaks at 1235 nm and a bandwidth of about 22 nm. The spectral range of the laser emission is expected to extend from 850 to 1300, provided the parasitic impurity absorption may be minimized by improved crystal growth techique.

  19. Observational Approach to Chromium Site Remediation - 13266

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Myers, R.

    2013-07-01

    Production reactors at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, required massive quantities of water for reactor cooling and material processing. To reduce corrosion and the build-up of scale in pipelines and cooling systems, sodium dichromate was added to the water feedstock. Spills and other releases at the makeup facilities, as well as leaks from miles of pipelines, have led to numerous areas with chromium-contaminated soil and groundwater, threatening fish populations in the nearby Columbia River. Pump-and-treat systems have been installed to remove chromium from the groundwater, but significant contamination remain in the soil column and poses a continuing threat to groundwater and the Columbia River. Washington Closure Hanford, DOE, and regulators are working on a team approach that implements the observational approach, a strategy for effectively dealing with the uncertainties inherent in subsurface conditions. Remediation of large, complex waste sites at a federal facility is a daunting effort. It is particularly difficult to perform the work in an environment of rapid response to changing field and contamination conditions. The observational approach, developed by geotechnical engineers to accommodate the inherent uncertainties in subsurface conditions, is a powerful and appropriate method for site remediation. It offers a structured means of quickly moving into full remediation and responding to the variations and changing conditions inherent in waste site cleanups. A number of significant factors, however, complicate the application of the observational approach for chromium site remediation. Conceptual models of contamination and site conditions are difficult to establish and get consensus on. Mid-stream revisions to the design of large excavations are time-consuming and costly. And regulatory constraints and contract performance incentives can be impediments to the flexible responses required under the observational

  20. Laser action in chromium-doped forsterite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petricevic, V.; Gayen, S. K.; Alfano, R. R.; Yamagishi, Kiyoshi; Anzai, H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on pulsed laser operation obtained in chromium-activated forsterite Cr(3+):Mg2SiO4 at room temperature. The spectrum of the free-running laser peaks at 1235 nm and a bandwidth of about 22 nm. The spectral range of the laser emission is expected to extend from 850 to 1300, provided the parasitic impurity absorption may be minimized by improved crystal growth techique.

  1. Chromium oxidation state mapping in human cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, R.; Fayard, B.; Salomé, M.; Devès, G.; Susini, J.

    2003-03-01

    The widespread use of chromium in industrial applications such as chemical production of pigments, refractory brick production, tanning, metallurgy, electroplating, and combustion of fuels has lead to human occupational exposure and to its increased introduction into the environment. Hexavalent chromium compounds are established carcinogens but their mechanism of cell transformation is not known. Up to now, no microanalytical technique was sensitive enough to allow the observation of chromium distribution, and oxidation state identification, within isolated cells at carcinogenic concentrations. In this experiment, we used successfully the ID-21 X-ray microscope to map Cr(VI) and total Cr distributions in cells exposed in vitro to soluble, and insoluble, Cr(VI) compounds. Exposure to soluble compounds, weak carcinogens, resulted in a homogeneous intracellular distribution of Cr, confirming by in situ measurement that Cr is present in the cell nucleus. Cr(VI) was never detected in cells which suggests a mechanism of rapid intracellular reducticn. On the other hand, exposure to insoluble compounds, strong carcinogens, also resulted in a homogeneous distribution of reduced forms of Cr in cells, and their nucleus. However, in this case, Cr(VI)-rich structures were observed into the cells suggesting that carcinogenicity is enhanced when oxidation reactions due to Cr(VI) chronic exposure are associated to Cr-DNA alterations.

  2. Comparative kinetics of bacterial reduction of chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Schmieman, E.A.; Yonge, D.R.; Rege, M.A.; Petersen, J.N.; Johnstone, D.L.; Turick, C.E.; Apel, W.A.

    1998-05-01

    Most previous studies of bacterial reduction of chromium have been done with pure cultures that are not likely to be found in ground water, and at hexavalent chromium concentrations much greater than typically present in contaminated ground water. Further, most previous work has been performed with complex laboratory substrates that would not be suitable for in situ application. In this study, mixed cultures were enriched from three diverse soil sources: surface soil, subsurface soil, and river sediment. The enrichment medium contained 10 mg Cr{sup 6+}/L and sucrose as the carbon source. The three mixed cultures obtained from the diverse soil samples were transferred to batch reactors and exhibited similar chromium reduction enzyme kinetics at stationary phase. The maximum specific reduction rates were between 0.98 and 3.3 mg Cr{sup 6+}/(g dry cells {center_dot} h) and the half velocity constants were between 0.39 and 1.48 mg Cr{sup 6+}/L. The relatively narrow range of values for kinetic parameters suggests that a conservative engineering design for in situ remediation could be applied over a wide range of contaminated sites at the Cr(VI) concentrations examined.

  3. Dimensionally Controlled Lithiation of Chromium Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Fister, Tim T.; Hu, Xianyi; Esbenshade, Jennifer; Chen, Xiao; Wu, Jinsong; Dravid, Vinayak; Bedzyk, Michael; Long, Brandon; Gewirth, Andrew A.; Shi, Bing; Schlepütz, Christian M.; Fenter, Paul

    2016-01-12

    Oxide conversion reactions are an alternative approach for high capacity lithium ion batteries but are known to suffer from structural irreversibility associated with the phase separation and reconstitution of reduced metal species and Li2O. In particular, the morphology of the reduced metal species is thought to play a critical role in the electrochemical properties of a conversion material. Here we use a model electrode with alternating layers of chromium and chromium oxide to better understand and control these phase changes in real-time and at molecular length scales. Despite lacking crystallinity at the atomic scale, this superstructure is observed (with X-ray reflectivity, XR) to lithiate and delithiate in a purely one-dimensional manner, preserving the layered structure. The XR data show that the metal layers act as nucleation sites for the reduction of chromium in the conversion reaction. Irreversibility during delithiation is due to the formation of a ternary phase, LiCrO2, which can be further delithiated at higher potentials. The results reveal that the combination of confining lithiation to nanoscale sheets of Li2O and the availability of reaction sites in the metal layers in the layered structure is a strategy for improving the reversibility and mass transport properties that can be used in a wide range of conversion materials.

  4. Magnetism in chromium and terbium clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jun

    We report the results of Stem-Gerlach type molecular beam deflection experiments on the magnetic properties of chromium and terbium clusters. We find that chromium clusters of 13 to 156 atoms exhibit non-zero magnetic moments at temperatures between 63 K and 123 K. The internal magnetic moments of these clusters are very much size-dependent. These clusters are also found to have two or more magnetic isomers with great differences in magnetism. These chromium clusters provide the first observation of strong magnetic responses in clusters composed of a material that is antiferromagnetic in the bulk. We also report magnetic properties of terbium clusters of 2 to 36 atoms. At certain temperature, the clusters are either superparamagnetic or locked-moment, or semilocked- moment. The magnetic responses of clusters depend greatly on the temperature and cluster size. The observation of the reduced magnetic moments compared to the bulk value, along with the increasing magnetic moment with increasing temperature for superparamagnetic clusters indicates that the spin canting diminishes with increasing temperature.

  5. Robust Ferromagnetism of Chromium Nanoparticles Formed in Superfluid Helium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengfu; Feng, Cheng; Spence, Daniel; Al Hindawi, Aula M A A; Latimer, Elspeth; Ellis, Andrew M; Binns, Chris; Peddis, Davide; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S; Zhang, Liying; Zhang, Yafei; Trohidou, Kalliopi N; Vasilakaki, Marianna; Ntallis, Nikolaos; MacLaren, Ian; de Groot, Frank M F

    2017-01-01

    Chromium nanoparticles are formed using superfluid helium droplets as the nanoreactors, which are strongly ferromagnetic. The transition from antiferromagentism to ferromagnetism is attributed to atomic-scale disorder in chromium nanoparticles, leading to abundant unbalanced surface spins. Theoretical modeling confirms a frustrated aggregation process in superfluid helium due to the antiferromagnetic nature of chromium. © 2016 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Chromium coatings to reduce radiation buildup. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Galbraith, G.T.; Asay, R.H.; Asay, D.J.

    1995-12-01

    For the past several years, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been intensively investigating new methods to mitigate radiation buildup on out-of-core surfaces in light water reactors to reduce occupational radiation exposure. As a result of this work, a new surface preconditioning method termed stabilized chromium has been developed for pretreatment of reactor piping and other components. This treatment method has been shown to be highly effective in retarding radiation buildup. Initial coupon tests of stabilized chromium treatment, an EPRI patented process, showed very favorable results. EPRI is now sponsoring additional development and testing of this preconditioning technique. The specific goals of this project were to investigate the effects of various chromium plating bath compositions, define acceptable chromium plating parameters, and demonstrate the benefit of stabilized chromium treatment by preconditioning actual plant components. Presently, two steam generator manway diaphragms installed at Millstone-2 have been treated with stabilized chromium and are being exposed to primary coolant. After exposure for one fuel cycle the stabilized chromium surfaces had approximately ten times less activity buildup than electropolished-only reference surfaces. Two pipes in the residual heat removal system of Diablo Canyon Unit 2 have also been treated with stabilized and non-stabilized chromium. Initial gamma spectroscopy measurements of these pipes showed the pipe treated with stabilized chromium had the lowest activity buildup. Additional tests of stabilized and non-stabilized chromium films applied to coupon specimens were also conducted at the Doel-2 reactor to evaluate the effect of chromium film thickness on activity buildup. These tests showed thin stabilized chromium films (ca. 3,000 {angstrom}) to be highly effective in retarding activity buildup with reduction factors ranging from 100--150 in comparison to electropolished-only coupons.

  7. Contingency plans for chromium utilization. Publication NMAB-335

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The United States depends entirely on foreign sources for the critical material, chromium, making it very vulnerable to supply disruptions. The effectiveness of programs such as stockpiling, conservation, and research and development for substitutes to reduce the impact of disruption of imports of chromite and ferrochromium are discussed. Alternatives for decreasing chromium consumption also are identified for chromium-containing materials in the areas of design, processing, and substitution.

  8. Purification of spent chromium bath by membrane electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Korzenowski, C; Rodrigues, M A S; Bresciani, L; Bernardes, A M; Ferreira, J Z

    2008-04-15

    The present study deals with the purification of spent chromium bath contaminated by trivalent chromium, iron and aluminum. The ionic transfer of Fe(III) depends on the presence of chloride ions on the pH while aluminum transfer is not affected by chromium(III) chloride. Five different commercial cation-exchange membranes were used. Nafion and PC-SK membranes showed the best results for trivalent iron and aluminum transfer.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 266 - Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery Furnaces XII Appendix XII to Part 266... Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery Furnaces A. Exempt Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 266 - Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials... FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. XII Appendix XII to Part 266—Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery Furnaces A. Exempt Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials...

  11. Studies on the essentiality of chromium in ruminants

    SciTech Connect

    Samsell, L.J.; Spears, J.W.

    1986-03-01

    Although chromium has been established as an essential trace element for certain animal species, no requirement has been shown for ruminants. Sixteen female lambs (35 kg) were used in an attempt to determine if chromium is essential in the ruminant. Animals were individually housed in all plastic pens and fed twice daily either a low chromium (100 ppb) torula yeast based diet or the basal diet supplemented with 10 ppm chromium as CrCl/sub 3/. Blood samples obtained prior to the morning feeding and 2 and 6 hr post-feeding on days 28 and 56 indicated no significant treatment differences in plasma glucose or serum free fatty acids. By day 56, serum cholesterol tended to be lower in chromium supplemented lambs (60.9 vs 71.7 mg/dl). Lambs in the chromium supplemented treatment also tended to gain more efficiently through 56 days (.130 vs .118 gain/fed). On day 84, lambs were bled after a 48 hr fast, refed, then bled again at 2 and 6 hr post-feeding. Plasma glucose and serum free fatty acids were not affected by chromium at the end of the 48 hr fast or when lambs were refed following fasting. At 84 days both total serum cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were lower in lambs receiving supplemental chromium. These results suggest that chromium may have a biological role in the ruminant.

  12. Stabilization and solidification of chromium-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Cherne, C.A.; Thomson, B.M.; Conway, R.

    1997-11-01

    Chromium-contaminated soil is a common environmental problem in the United States as a result of numerous industrial processes involving chromium. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is the species of most concern because of its toxicity and mobility in groundwater. One method of diminishing the environmental impact of chromium is to reduce it to a trivalent oxidation state [Cr(III)], in which it is relatively insoluble and nontoxic. This study investigated a stabilization and solidification process to minimize the chromium concentration in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) extract and to produce a solidified waste form with a compressive strength in the range of 150 to 300 pounds per square inch (psi). To minimize the chromium in the TCLP extract, the chromium had to be reduced to the trivalent oxidation state. The average used in this study was an alluvium contaminated with chromic and sulfuric acid solutions. The chromium concentration in the in the in situ soil was 1212 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) total chromium and 275 mg/kg Cr(VI). The effectiveness of iron, ferrous sulfate to reduce Cr(VI) was tested in batch experiments.

  13. Safety assessment of chromium by exposure from cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Myungsil; Yoon, Eun Kyung; Kim, Ja Young; Son, Bo Kyung; Yang, Seong Jun; Yun, Mi Ok; Choi, Sang Sook; Jang, Dong Deuk; Yoo, Tae Moo

    2009-02-01

    Low level impurities often reside in cosmetic products. The aim of the present study was to estimate the human exposure to chromium from cosmetic products purchased at a local market in South Korea, and to assess the risk on public health. Hexavalent chromium is an impurity substance that contaminates cosmetic products during manufacture. The potential for chromium to induce and elicit allergic contact dermatitis, as well as the degree of chromium exposure from cosmetic products, were assessed. Chromium exposure was estimated using the chromium concentrations found in cosmetic samples taken from the local market along with the expected user pattern data that was taken from the literature. Of the cosmetics we tested and available for purchase on the Korean market, seven had chromium contents above the detection limit of 0.1 ppm (0.1 microg/mL), ranging from 0.2 to 3.15 ppm. In risk assessment, scientifically defensible dose-response relationships must be established for the end points of concern. In the case of chromium contaminated cosmetic products, this includes conducting dose-response assessments for allergic contact dermatitis following dermal exposure. This dose-response information can then be integrated with site-specific exposure assessments to regulate consumer safety by use of these products. We found that dermal exposure to chromium concentrations ranging from 0.0002 to 0.003 microg/cm(2) does not appear to cause concern for eliciting allergic contact dermatitis.

  14. Chromium: is it essential, pharmacologically relevant, or toxic?

    PubMed

    Vincent, John B

    2013-01-01

    Over fifty years ago, the element chromium (as the trivalent ion) was proposed to be an essential element for mammals with a role in maintaining proper carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Evidence for an essential role came from dietary studies with rodents, studies on the effects of chromium on subjects on total parenteral nutrition, and studies of the absorption and transport of chromium. Over the next several decades, chromium-containing nutritional supplements became so popular for weight loss and muscle development that sales were second only to calcium among mineral supplements. However, the failure to identify the responsible biomolecules(s) that bind chromium(III) and their mode of action, particularly a postulated species named glucose tolerance factor or GTF, resulted in the status of chromium being questioned in recent years, such that the question of its being essential needs to be formally readdressed. At the same time as chromium(III)'s popularity as a nutritional supplement was growing, concerns over its safety appeared. While chromium has been conclusively shown not to have beneficial effects on body mass or composition and should be removed from the list of essential trace elements, chromium(III) compounds are generally nontoxic and have beneficial pharmacological effects in rodents models of insulin insensitivity, although human studies have not conclusively shown any beneficial effects. Mechanisms have been proposed for these pharmacological effects, but all suffer from a lack of consistent supporting evidence.

  15. Chromium recycling of tannery waste through microbial fermentation.

    PubMed

    Katsifas, E A; Giannoutsou, E; Lambraki, M; Barla, M; Karagouni, A D

    2004-02-01

    An Aspergillus carbonarius isolate, selected from an established microbial culture collection, was used to study the biodegradation of chromium shavings in solid-state fermentation experiments. Approximately 97% liquefaction of the tannery waste was achieved and the liquid obtained from long-term experiments was used to recover chromium. The resulting alkaline chromium sulfate solution was useful in tanning procedures. A proteinaceous liquid was also obtained which has potential applications as a fertilizer or animal feed additive and has several other industrial uses. The A. carbonarius strain proved to be a very useful tool in tannery waste-treatment processes and chromium recovery in the tanning industries.

  16. Method of trivalent chromium concentration determination by atomic spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Reheulishvili, Aleksandre N.; Tsibakhashvili, Neli Ya.

    2006-12-12

    A method is disclosed for determining the concentration of trivalent chromium Cr(III) in a sample. The addition of perchloric acid has been found to increase the atomic chromium spectrometric signal due to Cr(III), while leaving the signal due to hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) unchanged. This enables determination of the Cr(III) concentration without pre-concentration or pre-separation from chromium of other valences. The Cr(III) concentration may be measured using atomic absorption spectrometry, atomic emission spectrometry or atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

  17. Chromium adsorption and Cr(VI) reduction to trivalent chromium in aqueous solutions by soya cake.

    PubMed

    Daneshvar, N; Salari, D; Aber, S

    2002-09-02

    Chromium as Cr(VI) is a industrially produced pollutant. Hexavalent chromium can be reduced to the trivalent state using various reductive agents or it can be removed from solution by surface-active adsorbents. In this study, both of these methods were evaluated using soya cake. A high efficiency for reduction of Cr(VI) to trivalent chromium was observed at pH < 1. Increasing the temperature, also increased the yield. Experimentally, the optimum time and soya cake mass were 5h and 0.7 g, respectively. In the second treatment method, a high efficiency for adsorption of chromium was also observed at pH < 1. The favorable temperature for adsorption was found to be 20 degrees C. Experimentally, the best time was 1h and with increasing soya cake mass up to 30 g, the adsorption efficiency was increased. Dissolution of LiCl in the experimental solutions, increased the efficiency of adsorption, however, this effect was not observed in the case of KCl. Langmuir isotherm constants, Q and b, for ground soybeans, were found to be 2.8 x 10(-4)mg/mg and 0.623, respectively. Freundlich isotherm constants, K(f) and n, were found to be 1.4 x 10(-4) and 4.99, respectively.

  18. A Laboratory Procedure for the Reduction of Chromium(VI) to Chromium(III).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, George; Sansone, Eric B.

    1989-01-01

    Chromium(VI) compounds are classified as oxidizers and must be specially packaged and transported for disposal while Cr(III) compounds are considered nonoxidizers. A process which reduces Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by adding sodium metabisulfite followed by neutralization with magnesium hydroxide is explored. (MVL)

  19. A Laboratory Procedure for the Reduction of Chromium(VI) to Chromium(III).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, George; Sansone, Eric B.

    1989-01-01

    Chromium(VI) compounds are classified as oxidizers and must be specially packaged and transported for disposal while Cr(III) compounds are considered nonoxidizers. A process which reduces Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by adding sodium metabisulfite followed by neutralization with magnesium hydroxide is explored. (MVL)

  20. COST EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM AIR EMISSIONS FROM FUNCTIONAL CHROMIUM ELECTROPLATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will summrize thie pollution prevention (p2) method to control stack emissions from hard chromium plating operations performed by the USEPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) over the last four years. During literature research and user surveys, it...

  1. COST EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM AIR EMISSIONS FROM FUNCTIONAL CHROMIUM ELECTROPLATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will summrize thie pollution prevention (p2) method to control stack emissions from hard chromium plating operations performed by the USEPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) over the last four years. During literature research and user surveys, it...

  2. Ultra low nanowear in novel chromium/amorphous chromium carbide nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yate, Luis; Martínez-de-Olcoz, Leyre; Esteve, Joan; Lousa, Arturo

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we report the first observation of novel nanocomposite thin films consisting of nanocrystalline chromium embedded in an amorphous chromium carbide matrix (nc-Cr/a-CrC) with relatively high hardness (∼22,3 GPa) and ultra low nanowear. The films were deposited onto silicon substrates using a magnetic filtered cathodic arc deposition system at various negative bias voltages, from 50 to 450 V. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggested the co-existence of chromium and chromium carbide phases, while high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirmed the presence of the nc-Cr/a-CrC structure. The friction coefficient measured with the ball-on disk technique and the nanowear results showed a strong correlation between the macro and nano-tribological properties of the samples. These novel nanocomposite films show promising properties as solid lubricant and wear resistant coatings with relatively high hardness, low friction coefficient and ultra low nanowear.

  3. Electronic and magnetic structure of chromium surfaces and chromium monolayers on iron

    SciTech Connect

    Victora, R.H.; Falicov, L.M.

    1985-05-01

    Chromium surfaces and Cr monolayers atop Fe have greatly enhanced magnetizations relative to bulk. The Cr (100) surface is ferromagnetic with a spin polarization of 3.00; the (110) surface is antiferromagnetic. A Cr monolayer is ferromagnetic atop either the (100) or (110) Fe surfaces; the former has a large polarization of 3.63.

  4. Diffusion of hexavalent chromium in chromium-containing slag as affected by microbial detoxification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunyan; Yang, Zhihui; Chai, Liyuan; Zhao, Kun

    2009-09-30

    An electrochemical method was used to determine the diffusion coefficient of chromium(VI) in chromium-containing slag. A slag plate was prepared from the original slag or the detoxified slag by Achromobacter sp. CH-1. The results revealed that the apparent diffusion coefficient of Cr(VI) was 4.4 x 10(-9)m(2)s(-1) in original slag and 2.62 x 10(-8)m(2)s(-1) in detoxified slag. The results implied that detoxification of chromium-containing slag by Achromobacter sp. CH-1 could enhance Cr(VI) release. Meanwhile, the results of laboratory experiment showed that the residual total Cr(VI) in slag decreased from an initial value of 6.8 mg g(-1) to 0.338 mg g(-1) at the end of the detoxification process. The Cr(VI) released from slag was also reduced by Achromobacter sp. CH-1 strain since water soluble Cr(VI) in the leachate was not detected after 4 days. Therefore, Achromobacter sp. CH-1 has potential application for the bio-detoxification of chromium-containing slag.

  5. Urinary chromium concentrations in humans following ingestion of safe doses of hexavalent and trivalent chromium: Implications for biomonitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, B.L.; Scott, P.K.; Norton, R.L.

    1996-08-09

    This study evaluates the significance of increased urinary chromium concentrations as a marker of chromium exposure and potential health risk. Six human volunteers ingested trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] at doses that are known to be safe but higher than typical levels. The following dosing regimen was used: d 1-7, 200 {mu}g/d chromium picolinate; d 8-10, Cr(VI) ingestion at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference dose (RfD) of 0.005 mg/kg/d; d 11-13, no dose; d 14-16, Cr(III) ingestion at the U.S. EPA RfD of 1.0 mg/kg/d; and 17-18, postdose. Findings are as follows: (1) ingestion of 200 {mu}g/d of chromium picolinate yielded significantly elevated urine concentrations such that each participant routinely exceeded background, (2) ingestion of the Cr(VI) RfD (0.005 mg/kg/d) yielded individual mean urinary chromium levels (1.2-2.3 {mu}g/L) and a pooled mean urinary chromium level (2.4 {mu}g/L) that significantly exceeded background, and (3) ingestion of the Cr(III) RfD yielded no significantly exceeded background, and (3) ingestion of the Cr(III) RfD yielded no significant increase in urinary chromium concentrations, indicating that little, if any, absorption occurred. Our work identified three critical issues that need to be accounted for in any future studies that will use urinary chromium as a marker of exposure. First, a minimum urinary chromium concentration of approximately 2 {mu}g/L should be used as a screening level to critically identify individuals who may have experienced elevated exposures to chromium. Second, if Cr(III) levels in soils are known to be less than 80,000 ppm and the Cr(III) is insoluble, urinary chromium concentrations are not an appropriate marker of exposure. Third, newer forms of chromium supplements that contain organic forms of Cr(III) must be considered potential confounders and their contribution to residential chromium uptake must be carefully evaluated. 19 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. ALUMINUM AND CHROMIUM LEACHING WORKSHOP WHITEPAPER

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, D; Jeff Pike, J; Bill Wilmarth, B

    2007-04-25

    A workshop was held on January 23-24, 2007 to discuss the status of processes to leach constituents from High Level Waste (HLW) sludges at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites. The objective of the workshop was to examine the needs and requirements for the HLW flowsheet for each site, discuss the status of knowledge of the leaching processes, communicate the research plans, and identify opportunities for synergy to address knowledge gaps. The purpose of leaching of non-radioactive constituents from the sludge waste is to reduce the burden of material that must be vitrified in the HLW melter systems, resulting in reduced HLW glass waste volume, reduced disposal costs, shorter process schedules, and higher facility throughput rates. The leaching process is estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of SRS by seven years and decrease the number of HLW canisters to be disposed in the Repository by 1000 [Gillam et al., 2006]. Comparably at Hanford, the aluminum and chromium leaching processes are estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of the Waste Treatment Plant by 20 years and decrease the number of canisters to the Repository by 15,000-30,000 [Gilbert, 2007]. These leaching processes will save the Department of Energy (DOE) billions of dollars in clean up and disposal costs. The primary constituents targeted for removal by leaching are aluminum and chromium. It is desirable to have some aluminum in glass to improve its durability; however, too much aluminum can increase the sludge viscosity, glass viscosity, and reduce overall process throughput. Chromium leaching is necessary to prevent formation of crystalline compounds in the glass, but is only needed at Hanford because of differences in the sludge waste chemistry at the two sites. Improving glass formulations to increase tolerance of aluminum and chromium is another approach to decrease HLW glass volume. It is likely that an optimum condition can be found by both performing leaching and improving

  7. 21 CFR 73.1327 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1327 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium oxide greens is principally chromic sesquioxide (Cr2O3). (2) Color additive... subpart as safe and suitable for use in color additive mixtures for coloring drugs. (b) Specifications...

  8. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... area of the eye. (d) Labeling requirements. The label of the color additive and of any mixtures... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide (Cr2O3·XH2O...

  9. 21 CFR 73.1327 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1327 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium oxide greens is principally chromic sesquioxide (Cr2O3). (2) Color additive... subpart as safe and suitable for use in color additive mixtures for coloring drugs. (b) Specifications...

  10. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to the... in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including those intended for use in the area of the eye, in...

  11. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to the... in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including those intended for use in the area of the eye, in...

  12. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... area of the eye. (d) Labeling requirements. The label of the color additive and of any mixtures... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide (Cr2O3·XH2O...

  13. Hydrogel coated fiber Bragg grating based chromium sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore, P. V. N.; Madhuvarasu, Sai Shankar; Putha, Kishore; Moru, Satyanarayana; Gobi, K. Vengatajalabathy

    2016-04-01

    The present article reports a hydrogel coated Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) based sensor for chromium metal ion detection. The presence of chromium metal ion in environmental water causes many toxic effects both on humans and animals. The inability of sensing traces of chromium ions is still remains a challenging problem for decades, as the Chromium exists in the environment in different oxidation states. This Paper discusses a chemo-mechanical-optical sensing approach for sensing harmful Chromium ions in environmental water. Fiber Bragg Grating is functionalized with a stimulus responsive hydrogel which swells or deswells depending on ambient chromium ion concentrations. This volume change of the hydrogels causes a bragg shift of the FBG peak. Different peak shifting's, corresponding to different concentrations of the Cr ion concentrations, can be considered as a measure for quantifying traces of chromium ions. Hydrogel network cross-linked with (3-Acrylamidopropyl)-trimethylammonium chloride (ATAC) was synthesized and coated on FBG by dip coating method. Chromium ion concentrations up to ppm (parts per million) can be sensed by this technique.

  14. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium (2010 External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

  1. Reaction of chromium(VI) with glutathione or with hydrogen peroxide: Identification of reactive intermediates and their role in chromium(VI)-induced DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Aiyar, J.; Berkovits, H.J.; Wetterhahn, K.E. ); Floyd, R.A. )

    1991-05-01

    The types of reactive intermediates generated upon reduction of chromium (VI) by glutathione or hydrogen peroxide and the resulting DNA damage have been determined. In vitro, reaction of chromium (VI) with glutathione led to formation of two chromium (V) complexes and the glutathione thiyl radical. When chromium (VI) was reacted with DNA in the presence of glutathione, chromium-DNA adducts were obtained, with no DNA strand breakage. The level of chromium-DNA adduct formation correlated with chromium (V) formation. Reaction of chromium (VI) with hydrogen peroxide led to formation of hydroxyl radical. No chromium (V) was detectable at 24 C (297 K); however, low levels of the tetraperoxochromium (V) complex were detected at 77 K. Reaction of chromium (VI) with DNA in the presence of hydrogen peroxide produced significant DNA strand breakage and the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine adduct, whose formation correlated with hydroxyl radical production. No significant chromium-DNA adduct formation was detected. Thus, the nature of chromium (VI)-induced DNA damage appears to be dependent on the reactive intermediates, i.e., chromium (V) or hydroxyl radical, produced during the reduction of chromium (VI).

  2. 40 CFR 503.47 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... retain that information for five years. (b) The concentration of lead, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and..., arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and nickel for each sewage sludge incinerator. (m) The risk specific...

  3. Speciation of chromium in Australian fly ash.

    PubMed

    Narukawa, Tomohiro; Riley, Kenneth W; French, David H; Chiba, Koichi

    2007-08-15

    The concentrations of chromium (III) and (VI) in fly ash from nine Australian coal fired power stations were determined. Cr(VI) was completely leached by extraction with 0.01 M NaOH solution and the concentration was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This was confirmed by determining Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in the extracts of fly ash that had been spiked with chromium salts. These analytical measurements were done using a combination of ion-exchange chromatography and ICP-AES. The elutant was 0.05 M HNO(3) containing 0.5%-CH(3)OH. When the column was operated at a flow rate of 1.2 ml min(-1) and samples were injected by use of a sample loop with a volume of 100 microl, Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in sample solution was exclusively separated within approximately 10 min. The detection limits (3sigma) were 5 ng for Cr(III) (0.050 mg l(-1)) and 9 ng for Cr(VI) (0.090 mg l(-1)), respectively. A relative standard deviation of 1.9% (n=6) was obtained for the determination by IC-ICP-AES of 0.25 mg l(-1) Cr(III) and Cr(VI).

  4. Occupational asthma induced by chromium salts.

    PubMed

    Olaguibel, J M; Basomba, A

    1989-01-01

    Five patients with asthma related to exposure to chromium salts, in their work area, are presented. All of them were non atopics and presented a history of contact dermatitis, with positive patch tests to potassium dichromate, previous to the onset of bronchial asthma. Solutions of K2Cr2O5 were prepared in normal saline at 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/ml for skin prick tests (SPT) and bronchial provocation tests (BPT). Immediate cutaneous reaction by SPT was negative for controls and patients. BPT were performed by the tidal breathing method, with positive results in all subjects. A negative response was recorded in 4 control unexposed asthmatics. An attempt to inhibit BPT with sodium cromoglycate was unsuccessful. The diversity of reactions (immediate, dual and late) registered in BPT, support that bronchial reactivity can be induced specifically by inhalation of chromium salts. The data of follow-up indicates a good prognosis, provided that patients remain out of exposure. The lack of facts suggesting an IgE-mediated reaction puts forward for consideration other pathophysiologic mechanisms.

  5. Toxicity of chromium to activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Vanková, S; Kupec, J; Hoffmann, J

    1999-01-01

    The work deals with the toxicity of hexavalent and trivalent chromium to activated sludge. Cr(VI) was added as K2Cr2O7, and Cr(III) as Cr2(SO4)3. Toxicity is expressed as the inhibition of respiratory activity of microorganisms present in activated sludge. Respiration was measured by two methods, by means of an oximeter with an oxygen electrode and by means of a manometric apparatus permitting continuous observation of biological oxygen demand (BOD). The equation of the normal distribution function was used to construct inhibition curves and to calculate effective concentration (EC50). The influence of exposure time was observed as was the influence of concentration of activated sludge on the value of EC50. The 1-h EC50 for Cr(VI) by the ISO method was determined to be in the range of 40-90 mg/liter. A greater scatter of measured values, 46-201mg/liter, was found for the first hour of exposure by the manometric method. In the case of Cr(III) only combined inhibition by chromium ions and pH was determined. The 0.5-h EC50 was 49 mg/liter. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  6. Chromium(VI) bioremediation by probiotics.

    PubMed

    Younan, Soraia; Sakita, Gabriel Z; Albuquerque, Talita R; Keller, Rogéria; Bremer-Neto, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    Chromium is a common mineral in the earth's crust and can be released into the environment from anthropogenic sources. Intake of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) through drinking water and food causes toxic effects, leading to serious diseases, and is a commonly reported environmental problem. Microorganisms can mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by heavy metals in addition to having effective resistance mechanisms to prevent cell damage and bind to these metals, sequestering them from the cell surface and removing them from the body. Species of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bacillus and Bifidobacterium present in the human mouth and gut and in fermented foods have the ability to bind and detoxify some of these substances. This review address the primary topics related to Cr(VI) poisoning in animals and humans and the use of probiotics as a way to mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by Cr(VI). Further advances in the genetic knowledge of such microorganisms may lead to discoveries which will clarify the most active microorganisms that act as bioprotectants in bodies exposed to Cr(VI) and are an affordable option for people and animals intoxicated by the oral route. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Chromium toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological effects of chromium exposure. Topics include the effects on protein metabolism and kidney and liver functions, chromium antigenicity, and the role of chromium as a carcinogenic agent. Sources of chromium contamination are discussed, including occupational exposure and pollution. Methods of analysis are also described. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. 76 FR 71926 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Applicability of Hexavalent Chromium Policy to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Applicability of Hexavalent Chromium Policy to Commercial Items (DFARS Case... hexavalent chromium. DATES: Comment Date: Comments on the proposed rule should be submitted in writing to the... chromium. Hexavalent chromium is a chemical that has been used in numerous DoD weapons systems...

  9. 75 FR 65067 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Decorative Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing Tanks; Group I Polymers and Resins; Marine Tank...: Hard and Decorative Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing Tanks; Group I Polymers and Resins... Tanks. Group I Polymers and Resins Production.. Scott Throwe, (202) 564-7013, throwe.scott@epa.gov...

  10. Chromium nanoparticle exhibits higher absorption efficiency than chromium picolinate and chromium chloride in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Zha, L-Y; Xu, Z-R; Wang, M-Q; Gu, L-Y

    2008-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether chromium nanoparticle (CrNano) exhibited higher absorption efficiency and possessed unique absorption mechanism in comparison to chromium picolinate (CrPic) and chromium chloride (CrCl(3)), as was postulated by previous reports. Twenty-one-day-old Caco-2 cell monolayers grown on semipermeable membranes in Snapwell tissue culture bichambers were incubated with CrNano, CrPic or CrCl(3) to examine their transport and uptake respectively. In the concentration range of 0.2-20 micromol/l, transport of CrNano, CrPic and CrCl(3) across Caco-2 monolayers both in apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical direction was concentration-, and time-dependent, and temperature independent. The apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) of CrNano was between 5.89 and 7.92 x 10(-6) cm/s and that of CrPic and CrCl(3) was between 3.52 and 5.31 x 10(-6) cm/s and between 0.97 and 1.37 x 10(-6) cm/s respectively. Uptake of CrNano, CrPic and CrCl(3) by both apical and basolateral membranes was concentration- and time-dependent. Uptake of CrNano by apical membrane was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased when the incubation temperature was reduced from 37 degrees C to 4 degrees C. The transport efficiency of CrNano, CrPic and CrCl(3) after incubation for 120 min at 37 degrees C was 15.83% +/- 0.76%, 9.08% +/- 0.25% and 2.11% +/- 0.53% respectively. The uptake efficiency of CrNano, CrPic and CrCl(3) was 10.08% +/- 0.76%, 4.73% +/- 0.60% and 0.88% +/- 0.08% respectively. It was concluded that the epithelial transport of CrNano, CrPic and CrCl(3) across the Caco-2 cell monolayers was mainly via passive transport pathways. In addition, CrNano exhibited considerably higher absorption efficiency than both CrPic and CrCl(3) in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

  11. Workshop on effects of chromium coating on Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor strand: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-12

    This report discusses the following topics: Chromium coating on superconductor strand -- an overview; technology of chromium plating; comparison of wires plated by different platers; search for chromium in copper; strand manufactures` presentations; chromium plating at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; a first look at a chromium plating process development project tailored for T.P.X. and I.T.E.R. strand; and influence of chromium diffusion and related phenomena on the reference ratios of bare and chromium plated Nb{sub 3}Sn strand.

  12. Mode of occurrence of chromium in four US coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Crowley, S.; Palmer, C.A.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    The mode of occurrence of chromium in three US bituminous coals and one US subbituminous has been examined using both X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and a selective leaching protocol supplemented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron microprobe measurements. A synthesis of results from both methods indicates that chromium occurs principally in two forms in the bituminous coals: the major occurrence of chromium is associated with the macerals and is not readily leached by any reagent, whereas a second, lesser occurrence, which is leachable in hydrofluoric acid (HF), is associated with the clay mineral, illite. The former occurrence is believed to be a small particle oxyhydroxide phase (CrO(OH)). One coal also contained a small fraction (<5%) of the chromium in the form of a chromian magnetite, and the leaching protocol indicated the possibility of a similar small fraction of chromium in sulfide form in all three coals. There was little agreement between the two techniques on the mode of occurrence of chromium in the subbituminous coal; however, only a limited number of subbituminous coals have been analyzed by either technique. The chromium in all four coals was trivalent as no evidence was found for the Cr6+ oxidation state in any coal.

  13. Kinetics of chromium(VI) reduction by ferrous iron

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, B.; Schlautman, M.; Hwang, I.; Wang, R.

    1998-09-01

    Chromium is a primary inorganic contaminant of concern at the Pantex Plant. Chromium concentrations have been found to be two orders of magnitude higher than the drinking water standards, particularly in certain wells in the perched aquifer below Zone 12. In situ reduction of a mobile form of chromium, Cr(VI) to an immobile form, Cr(III), was examined as a viable option to active soil restoration. Successfully immobilizing chromium in the vadose zone as Cr(III) will reduce the amount of chromium that reaches the groundwater table. The results from the solution experiments indicated that chromium was rapidly and stoichiometrically reduced by Fe(II) in solution. Also, the slurry experiments showed that the aquifer solids removed Fe(II) from solution, but a portion of the iron removed remained available for reaction with Cr(VI), but at a slower rate. A model to predict different amounts of iron pseudo-components was developed, which allowed prediction of iron amounts required to reduce chromium under in situ conditions.

  14. Lipid peroxidation in workers exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y L; Chen, C Y; Sheu, J Y; Chuang, I C; Pan, J H; Lin, T H

    1999-02-26

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to hexavalent chromium induces lipid peroxidation in human. This study involved 25 chrome-plating factory workers and a reference group of 28 control subjects. The whole-blood and urinary chromium concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Malondialdehyde (MDA), the product of lipid peroxidation, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the activities of protective enzymes were measured by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. In the chrome-plating workers, the mean concentrations of chromium in blood and urine were 5.98 microg/L and 5.25 microg/g creatinine, respectively; the mean concentrations of MDA in blood and urine were 1.7 micromol/L and 2.24 micromol/g creatinine. The concentrations of both chromium and MDA in blood and urine were significantly higher in the chromium-exposed workers. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT) were not markedly different between control and exposed workers. Data suggest that MDA may be used as a biomarker for occupational chromium exposure. Antioxidant enzymic activities are not a suitable marker for chromium exposure.

  15. Removal of chromium from tannery effluents by adsorption.

    PubMed

    Fadali, O A; Magdy, Y H; Daifullah, A A M; Ebrahiem, E E; Nassar, M M

    2004-01-01

    Tannery effluent is characterized not only by heavy loads but also with toxic heavy metals especially chromium ions. Chromium is considered an important source of contamination due to large volume of exhaust liquid discharged and solid sludge produced. Details on adsorption studies were carried out using synthetic chromium salts (chromium chloride) as adsorbate, and cement kiln dust (a waste from white cement industry) as adsorbent. Equilibrium isotherms have been determined for the adsorption of chromium ions on cement kiln dust. Kinetic study provided that the adsorption process is diffusion controlled. The experimental results have been fitted using Freundlich, Langmuir, and Redlich Peterson isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity of cement kiln dust was found to be 33 mg/g. Industrial tannery effluent (22-mg/L chromium and COD 952 mg/L) was also treated by cement dust. The treated effluent (using 20 g cement dust per 1 L) contains only 0.6 mg/L chromium and COD 200 mg/L.

  16. Controlling diabetes by chromium complexes: The role of the ligands.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mei; Yang, Xiaoping

    2015-05-01

    Diabetes, particularly type II diabetes, is a severe disease condition which affects human health worldwide, with a dramatically increasing trend in Asian countries including China. Currently, no efficient drugs other than those with observable side effects are available. Chromium complexes, with the most known representative chromium picolinate, have been listed as one of most attractive health supplements to attenuate this disease condition in western countries. Recent efforts have been made to develop new chromium complexes with novel ligands. Although fair amounts of reviews have been published to emphasize the biological activity, preclinical and clinical information of chromium picolinate, this mini-review is trying to cover the entire picture of updated research efforts on various chromium complexes highlighting the role of ligands. Chromium phenylalanine sensitizes insulin cell signaling pathway via the activation of phosphorylation of Akt (protein kinase B (PKB)) and/or AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). The biological activities, toxicity, pharmacological features and clinical implications, including the effect of anti-oxidative capacities, protective effect on obese-induced heart dysfunction, and efficacy and safety of chromium supplementation in diabetes are discussed as well.

  17. Chromium supplementation for menstrual cycle-related mood symptoms.

    PubMed

    Brownley, Kimberly A; Girdler, Susan S; Stout, Anna L; McLeod, Malcolm N

    2013-12-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) afflicts ~7% of reproductive-age women resulting in impaired relationships, diminished overall quality of life, and disability-adjusted life years lost on par with other major psychiatric disorders. Response to pharmacological treatment is inadequate in ~50% of women with PMDD. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the effects of a novel approach-short-term chromium supplementation-on menstrual cycle-related mood and physical symptoms. Five women were studied under single-blind conditions in a private clinical setting (2 of them were referred specifically for treatment-resistant menstrual-related symptoms); 6 women completed a double-blind crossover study of chromium plus placebo versus chromium plus sertraline in a university clinical research setting. Treatments were administered from mid-cycle to onset of menses in 1-month intervals. Symptom ratings were obtained by self-report, using daily symptom checklists, and by clinical assessment, using the Hamilton Psychiatric Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scale. Overall, chromium treatment was associated with reduced mood symptoms and improved overall health satisfaction in most participants. In some cases, chromium alone was associated with marked clinical improvement; in others, chromium plus an antidepressant resulted in greater improvement than either chromium alone or an antidepressant alone. These preliminary observations suggest that chromium may be a useful monotherapy or adjunctive therapy for women suffering from significant menstrual cycle-related symptoms. Larger, controlled studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of chromium treatment in this patient population.

  18. Chromium absorption in the vascularly perfused rat intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, H.J.; Offenbacher, E.G.; Pi-Sunyer, F.X.

    1986-03-01

    The mechanism of chromium (Cr) absorption by the rat small intestine was investigated using a double perfusion technique wherein the luman of the small intestine and the vasculature supplying it were separately perfused. The intestinal perfusate (IP) was a nutrient-rich tissue culture medium (TCM) with added inorganic Cr and /sup 51/Cr. The vascular perfusate (VP) was a Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution (KRB) containing 4.7% dextran, 0.1% glucose and 5% human serum. Cr absorption was calculated by the amount of /sup 51/Cr detected in the VP. To determine the transport mechanism for Cr, its absorption into the VP was measured at various Cr concentrations of the IP ranging from 10-400 ppb CrCl/sub 3/. The amount of Cr absorbed into the blood rose linearly with the intestinal Cr concentration suggesting a process of simple diffusion. Manipulations of the VP and IP constituents were made to investigate their effects on Cr absorption. When serum was omitted from the VP, Cr adsorption was suppressed, suggesting that serum component(s) are necessary for optimal Cr absorption. When either of 2 plasma transport proteins (apo-transferrin, albumin) were added to the serum-free VP at physiological levels, Cr absorption returned to, but did not exceed, control levels. When the TCM was replaced with a KRB solution; Cr absorption was suppressed indicating that there are nutrient(s) of the TCM which facilitate Cr absorption. Further suppression occurred when a Cr concentration gradient opposing Cr absorption was created (IP at 100 ppb Cr, VP at 400 ppb Cr).

  19. Oral bioaccessibility of trivalent and hexavalent chromium in soil by simulated gastric fluid.

    PubMed

    Skowronski, G A; Seide, M; Abdel-Rahman, M S

    2001-07-06

    Chromium is found in soil from natural sources and anthropogenic activities. The ingestion of soil contaminated with chromium especially by children can have toxic consequences. Therefore, it is important to quantify the oral bioaccessibility of chromium in chromium in contaminated soil. In this study, chromium-51 as chromic (III) chloride and sodium chromate (VI), was mixed with an Atsion sandy soil and a Keyport clay soil and stored for 4 mo at either 21-25 degrees C or 2-4 degrees C. Utilizing simulated gastric conditions, the oral bioaccessibility of chromium in soil was determined. When the effects of soil on the bioaccessibility of chromium were compared, the data revealed the the bioaccessibility of chromium (III) from the clay soil was significantly lower than from the sandy at 21-25 degrees C. However, at 2-4 degrees C, more chromium (III) was extracted by synthetic gastric fluid from the clay soil than from the sandy soil. Temperature was also a factor as evidenced by the higher bioaccessibility of chromium (IV) in the sandy soil at 2-4 degrees C and of both chromium species in the clay soil at the same temperature. Reduction of the soluble chromium (VI) chemical to the nonsoluble chromium (III) compound in the acidic soils by naturally occurring organic matter in soil would explain the lower bioaccessibilty of chromium (VI) at 21-25 degrees C. At 2-4 degrees C, the data indicate that the rate of chromium (VI) reduction to chromium (III) was slowed. Although the results of this study are limited to one low concentration of chromium (III) and chromium (VI) and indicate that the bioaccessibility of chromium in soil can range between 18% and 72%, the data also suggest that there may be a potential health hazard from oral exposure to chromium in heavily contaminated sites. Therefore, more extensive research should be conducted to determine if thes findings can be extended to environmentally relevant concentrations.

  20. Chromium isotopes and the fate of hexavalent chromium in the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Andre S.; Johnson, Thomas M.; Bullen, Thomas D.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of chromium (Cr) stable-isotope fractionation in laboratory experiments and natural waters show that lighter isotopes reacted preferentially during Cr(VI) reduction by magnetite and sediments. The 53Cr/52Cr ratio of the product was 3.4 ± 0.1 per mil less than that of the reactant.53Cr/52Cr shifts in water samples indicate the extent of reduction, a critical process that renders toxic Cr(VI) in the environment immobile and less toxic.

  1. Chromium environmental risk assessment. Interim report, April 1996--October 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Vermulen, E.K.; May, L.M.; Hoffman-Till, T.A.; Prince, J.K.; Lurker, P.A.

    1997-11-01

    A review of chromium environmental criteria, supporting scientific studies and recent research activities was conducted to determine the implications of evolving observations on cancer risk to DoD environmental clean-up programs. Public concern over the occupational cancer risk of hexavalent chromium is influencing a new assessment of the risk data. Toxicology literature on the human health hazards, cancer and non-cancer, was reviewed. On-going epidemiology efforts were unavailable for a thorough assessment. Data gaps in the literature were noted as support for research recommendations. Alternatives to chromium speciation at environmental clean-up sites were recommended as an interim measure. An extensive bibliography is provided.

  2. Cancer hazards caused by nickel and chromium exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Norseth, T.

    1980-09-01

    An increased risk of cancer associated with nickel refining and with chromate production has been known for some decades. The occupational exposure pattern of both nickel and chromium is very complex. Nickel subsulfide may be the most potent carcinogen among the different nickel compounds. A correlation between lung cancer and exposure to chromates has been shown in several studies. Hexavalent chromium has been suggested as the causative carcinogen among platers and ferrochromium workers. There is an urgent need for careful dose registration before a quantitative cancer risk analysis can be performed for the nickel and chromium industry.

  3. [Blood and urine chromium: compared values between chromium exposed workers and common people].

    PubMed

    Provenzani, A; Verso, M G; Picciotto, D

    2008-01-01

    Aim of present study is the valutation and quantification of chromium in blood and urine. We compared 3 groups of persons formed by building workers, in particular masons, because cement contains potassium chromate that is dangerous for health, and by common people: urban population and outside the town population. In fact, exposure to CrVI risk is high for people who live near chromate industries. We maked a medical examination, blood and instrumental tests, chromium measuring in blood (recent exposure indicator) and urine (recent and previous indicator). Then we used statistical methods to estimate obtained values of blood and urine chromium among professional exposed people and common people. At the end we think that preventive measures in working environment reduced exposure to CrVI but environmental exposure (for example road dust from catalytic converter erosion, from brake lining erosion, cement dust and tobacco smoke), in the last years, has increased. So there are no difference between urban population and outside the town population and there are also no difference with professional exposed people for work prevention according to law in force, that let down professional risk using safe limits.

  4. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of chromium (VI) and chromium (III) with keyhole limpet hemocyanin.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yulan; Zeng, Guidi; Liu, Jingyi; Chen, Huifang; Xue, Jun; Wu, Yongquan; Li, Xun

    2017-03-01

    The interactions of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) with chromium nitrate, potassium dichromate, and chromate were investigated using fluorescence, UV-vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy under simulated physiological conditions. The experimental results showed that the different forms of chromium could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of KLH following a static quenching mechanism rather than by dynamic collision, which indicated that a Cr-KLH complex was formed. The Stern-Volmer quenching constants for the interaction indicated that the binding reaction of KLH with Cr(VI) was stronger the binding of KLH with Cr(III). The thermodynamic values for binding of Cr(VI) to KLH are ΔH > 0 and ΔS > 0. By contrast, the values for the interaction of Cr(III) with KLH are ΔH < 0 and ΔS < 0. The results of synchronous fluorescence, UV-vis absorption and CD spectroscopy showed that the α-helical secondary structure and conformation of KLH were altered by different forms of chromium. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Microbial Diversity of Chromium-Contaminated Soils and Characterization of Six Chromium-Removing Bacteria.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiguo; Hu, Yuting; Yin, Zhen; Hu, Yuehua; Zhong, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Three soil samples obtained from different sites adjacent to a chromium slag heap in a steel alloy factory were taken to examine the effect of chromium contamination on soil bacterial diversity as determined by construction of 16S rDNA clone libraries and sequencing of selected clones based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Results revealed that Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Alphaproteobacteria occurred in all three soil samples, although the three samples differed in their total diversity. Sample 1 had the highest microbial diversity covering 12 different classes, while Sample 3 had the lowest microbial diversity. Strains of six different species were successfully isolated, one of which was identified as Zobellella denitrificans. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a strain belonging to the genus Zobellella able to resist and reduce chromium. Among all isolates studied, Bacillus odysseyi YH2 exhibited the highest Cr(VI)-reducing capability, with a total removal of 23.5 % of an initial Cr(VI) concentration of 350 mg L(-1).

  6. Microbial Diversity of Chromium-Contaminated Soils and Characterization of Six Chromium-Removing Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhiguo; Hu, Yuting; Yin, Zhen; Hu, Yuehua; Zhong, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Three soil samples obtained from different sites adjacent to a chromium slag heap in a steel alloy factory were taken to examine the effect of chromium contamination on soil bacterial diversity as determined by construction of 16S rDNA clone libraries and sequencing of selected clones based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Results revealed that Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Alphaproteobacteria occurred in all three soil samples, although the three samples differed in their total diversity. Sample 1 had the highest microbial diversity covering 12 different classes, while Sample 3 had the lowest microbial diversity. Strains of six different species were successfully isolated, one of which was identified as Zobellella denitrificans. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a strain belonging to the genus Zobellella able to resist and reduce chromium. Among all isolates studied, Bacillus odysseyi YH2 exhibited the highest Cr(VI)-reducing capability, with a total removal of 23.5 % of an initial Cr(VI) concentration of 350 mg L-1.

  7. Evaluation of chromium in red blood cells as an indicator of exposure to hexavalent chromium: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Devoy, Jérôme; Géhin, Antoine; Müller, Samuel; Melczer, Mathieu; Remy, Aurélie; Antoine, Guillaume; Sponne, Isabelle

    2016-07-25

    Chromium(VI) compounds are classified as carcinogenic to humans. Whereas chromium measurements in urine and whole blood (i.e., including plasma) are indicative of recent exposure, chromium in red blood cells (RBC) is attributable specifically to Cr(VI) exposure. Before recommending Cr in RBC as a biological indicator of Cr(VI) exposure, in-vitro studies must be undertaken to assess its reliability. The present study examines the relationship between the chromium added to a blood sample and that subsequently found in the RBC. After incubation of total blood with chromium, RBC were isolated, counted and their viability assessed. Direct analysis of chromium in RBC was conducted using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Hexavalent, but not trivalent Cr, was seen to accumulate in the RBC and we found a strong correlation between the Cr(VI) concentration added to a blood sample and the amount of Cr in RBC. This relationship appears to be independent of the chemical properties of the human blood samples (e.g., different blood donors or different reducing capacities). Even though in-vivo studies are still needed to integrate our understanding of Cr(VI) toxicokinetics, our findings reinforce the idea that a single determination of the chromium concentration in RBC would enable biomonitoring of critical cases of Cr(VI) exposure.

  8. Possible adverse effect of chromium in occupational exposure of tannery workers.

    PubMed

    Kornhauser, Carlos; Wróbel, Katarzyna; Wróbel, Kazimierz; Malacara, Juan Manuel; Nava, Laura Eugenia; Gómez, Leobardo; González, Rita

    2002-04-01

    Our aim was to investigate the adverse effects of occupational exposure to trivalent chromium. We measured chromium and iron levels in serum and urine and hemoglobin levels in tannery workers and unexposed persons. We studied three groups of subjects. Group 1 included 15 non-smoking male tannery workers highly exposed to chromium from tanning and retanning departments. Group 2 included 14 non-smoking male tannery workers with moderate chromium exposure from dying, drying and finishing departments. Group 3 included 11 healthy, non-smoking male subjects without direct chromium exposure. Higher serum chromium levels were observed in groups 1 and 2 with respect to group 3 (mean values respectively: 0.43; 0.25 and 0.13 microg x l(-1)). Urine chromium levels in group 1 were higher than those in controls (mean values: 1.78 and 1.35 microg x l(-1)). In group 1 an inverse association was found between serum chromium and urine iron (-0.524), urine chromium and hemoglobin (-0.594) and between the urine chromium to iron ratio and hemoglobin (-0.693, p<0.05). The results suggest a chromium adverse effect on iron metabolism, possibly associated with excessive body chromium accumulation. In conclusion, chromium urine test could be recommended for diagnosis of chromium adverse effect on iron metabolism. Further studies are needed to quantify the relationship between urine chromium and hemoglobin metabolism.

  9. Chromium and nickel in roadside grapes.

    PubMed

    Pertoldi Marletta, G; Gabrielli Favretto, L; Favretto, L

    1989-01-01

    Chromium and nickel concentration in roadside unwashed wine grapes and leaves is considered as a function of the distance from the suspected source, an isolated straight road. The analyses were performed with electrothermal atomization in a graphite furnace. The decrease in the concentration of the element can be described by means of a three-parameter exponential function c = A + (B - A)exp(-Cd), which allows the determination of the asymptotic level far from the emitting source (C infinity) and the pollution level (C0) at the edge of the road (d = 0). Least-squares nonlinear regression gives the estimation of the parameters A, B, and C. The results indicate that an effect is detectable up to a distance of about 50 m.

  10. Chromium detoxification by fixed-film bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chirwa, E.M.N.; Wang, Y.T.

    1996-11-01

    In this study, completely mixed, continuous flow bioreactors were utilized to detoxify chromium. Glass beads were incorporated as a support medium for two strains of bacteria, Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens LB300 (LB300), growing aerobically in two separate reactors. Aerobic conditions were maintained in the reactors by continuously supplying fresh air to the liquid through gas exchange chambers installed on the recycle line of the bioreactors. Results obtained showed that near complete removal of chromate was possible for influent concentrations up to 200 mg/L for Bacillus sp., and up to 100 mg/L for LB300 at 24 hours liquid detention time. Similar results were obtained for corresponding loading rates at 12 hours and 6 hours liquid detention time.

  11. Nitridation of chromium powder in ammonia atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Zhen, Qiang; Li, Rong

    2015-03-01

    CrN powder was synthesized by nitriding Cr metal in ammonia gas flow, and its chemical reaction mechanism and nitridation process were studied. Through thermodynamic calculations, the Cr-N-O predominance diagrams were constructed for different temperatures. Chromium nitride formed at 7002-1200°C under relatively higher nitrogen and lower oxygen partial pressures. Phases in the products were then investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the Cr2N content varied with reaction temperature and holding time. The results indicate that the Cr metal powder nitridation process can be explained by a diffusion model. Further, Cr2N formed as an intermediate product because of an incomplete reaction, which was observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). After nitriding at 1000°C for 20 h, CrN powder with an average grain size of 63 nm was obtained, and the obtained sample was analyzed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  12. Self-Lubricating Composite Containing Chromium Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher (Inventor); Edmonds, Brian J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A self lubricating. friction and wear reducing composite material useful over a wide temperature range of from cryogenic temperature up to about 900 C. contains 60 80 wt. % of particulate Cr2O3, dispersed in a metal binder of a metal alloy containing Cr and at least 50 wt. % of Ni, Cr or a mature of Ni and Cr. It also contains 5-20 wt. % of a fluoride of at least one Group I, Group II or rare earth metal and. optionally, 5-20 wt. % of a low temperature lubricant metal, such as Ag. Au, Pt, Pd, Rh and Cu. This composite exhibits less oxidation instability and less abrasiveness than composites containing chromium carbide, is readily applied using plasma spray and can be ground and polished with a silicon carbide abrasive.

  13. TiC reinforced cast chromium steels

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Omer N.; Rawers, James C.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Schrems, Karol K.

    2003-11-01

    A series of new titanium carbide reinforced cast chromium steels were developed for wear applications. Objective of the program was to enhance wear resistant alloys and, if possible, improve mechanical properties. The new steels which were melted in a vacuum induction furnace contained 12 Cr, 3-5 Ti, 1-2 C in weight percent. Alloying with Ti changed the precipitate microstructure from Cr carbide to TiC dispersed in a martensitic matrix. Yield strength and impact resistance improved with Ti alloying. Wear rates of the cast Cr/TiC steels, (determined from high- and low-stress abrasion tests, erosion test, and scratch tests) were generally lower than both the as-cast and heat-treated AISI type 440°C steel and were often further reduced by increasing the Ti alloy concentration. The exceptions were the erosion test for which all materials had similar wear rate.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 266 - Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Generated by Manufacturers or Users of Nickel, Chromium, or Iron Baghouse bags Raney nickel catalyst Floor... Nickel, chromium, and iron catalysts Nickel-cadmium and nickel-iron batteries Filter cake from...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 266 - Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Generated by Manufacturers or Users of Nickel, Chromium, or Iron Baghouse bags Raney nickel catalyst Floor... Nickel, chromium, and iron catalysts Nickel-cadmium and nickel-iron batteries Filter cake from...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 266 - Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Generated by Manufacturers or Users of Nickel, Chromium, or Iron Baghouse bags Raney nickel catalyst Floor... Nickel, chromium, and iron catalysts Nickel-cadmium and nickel-iron batteries Filter cake from...

  17. Chromium concentrations in ruminant feed ingredients.

    PubMed

    Spears, J W; Lloyd, K E; Krafka, K

    2017-02-22

    Chromium (Cr), in the form of Cr propionate, has been permitted for supplementation to cattle diets in the United States at levels up to 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM since 2009. Little is known regarding Cr concentrations naturally present in practical feed ingredients. The present study was conducted to determine Cr concentrations in feed ingredients commonly fed to ruminants. Feed ingredients were collected from dairy farms, feed mills, grain bins, and university research farms. Mean Cr concentrations in whole cereal grains ranged from 0.025 mg/kg of DM for oats to 0.041 mg/kg of DM for wheat. Grinding whole samples of corn, soybeans, and wheat through a stainless steel Wiley mill screen greatly increased analyzed Cr concentrations. Harvested forages had greater Cr concentrations than concentrates, and alfalfa hay or haylage had greater Cr concentrations than grass hay or corn silage. Chromium in alfalfa hay or haylage (n = 13) averaged 0.522 mg/kg of DM, with a range of 0.199 to 0.889 mg/kg of DM. Corn silage (n = 21) averaged 0.220 mg of Cr/kg of DM with a range of 0.105 to 0.441 mg of Cr/kg of DM. By-product feeds ranged from 0.040 mg of Cr/kg of DM for cottonseed hulls to 1.222 mg of Cr/kg of DM for beet pulp. Of the feed ingredients analyzed, feed grade phosphate sources had the greatest Cr concentration (135.0 mg/kg). Most ruminant feedstuffs and feed ingredients had less than 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM. Much of the analyzed total Cr in feed ingredients appears to be due to Cr contamination from soil or metal contact during harvesting, processing, or both.

  18. Effects of Chromium(VI) and Chromium(III) on Desulfovibrio vulgaris Cells

    SciTech Connect

    M.E. Clark; A. Klonowska; S.B. Thieman; B. Giles; J.D. Wall; and M.W. Fields

    2007-04-19

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris ATCC 29579 is a well studied sulfate reducer that has known capabilities of reducing heavy metals and radionuclides, like chromium and uranium. Cultures grown in a defined medium (i.e. LS4D) had a lag period of approximately 40 h when exposed to 50 μMof Cr(VI). Substrate analysis revealed that although chromium is reduced within the first 5 h, growth does not resume for another 35 h. During this time, small amounts of lactate are still utilized but the reduction of sulfate does not occur. Sulfate reduction occurs concurrently with the accumulation of acetate approximately 40 h after inoculation, when growth resumes. Similar amounts of hydrogen are produced during this time compared to hydrogen production by cells not exposed to Cr(VI); therefore an accumulation of hydrogen cannot account for the utilization of lactate. There is a significant decrease in the carbohydrate to protein ratio at approximately 25 h, and this result indicated that lactate is not converted to glycogen. Most probable number analysis indicated that cell viability decreased steadily after inoculation and reached approximately 6 x 104 cells/ml 20 h post-chromium exposure. Regeneration of reducing conditions during chromium exposure does not induce growth and in fact may make the growth conditions even more unfavorable. This result suggested that an increase in Eh was not solely responsible for the decline in viability. Cell pellets collected 10 h after chromium-exposure were unable to resume growth when suspended into fresh medium. Supernatants from these pellets were able to support cell growth upon re- inoculation. D. vulgaris cells treated with a non-dose dependent addition of ascorbate at the same time of Cr(VI) addition did not enter a lag period. Ascorbate added 3 h post-Cr(VI) exposure did not prevent the growth lag. These results indicated that Desulfovibrio utilized lactate to reduce Cr(VI) without the reduction of sulfate, that the decline in cell viability and

  19. Deposition of nanocrystalline nonstoichiometric chromium oxide coatings on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes by chromium acetylacetonate vapor pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremlev, K. V.; Ob'edkov, A. M.; Ketkov, S. Yu.; Kaverin, B. S.; Semenov, N. M.; Gusev, S. A.; Andreev, P. V.

    2017-04-01

    Nanocrystalline coatings of nonstoichiometric chromium oxide have been obtained for the first time on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by the method of metalorganic chemical-vapor deposition using chromium acetylacetonate as a precursor. The new hybrid nanomaterial (Cr2O2.4/MWCNT) has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. It is established that oxidation of the hybrid nanomaterial in air under soft conditions (at 380°C) leads to the formation of nanocrystalline chromium oxide (Cr2O3) on the surface of MWCNTs.

  20. Pyrolysis of chromium rich tanning industrial wastes and utilization of carbonized wastes in metallurgical process.

    PubMed

    Tôrres Filho, Artur; Lange, Liséte Celina; de Melo, Gilberto Caldeira Bandeira; Praes, Gustavo Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of organic material in oxygen-free or very lean oxygen atmosphere. This study evaluates the use of pyrolysis for conversion of leather wastes from chromium tanning processes into Carbonized Leather Residues (CLR), and the utilization of CLR in metallurgical processes through the production of iron ore pellets. CLR was used to replace mineral coal in proportions of 10% and 25% on fixed carbon basis content in the mixtures for pellets preparation. Experimental conversions were performed on a pilot scale pyrolysis plant and a pelletizing reactor of the "pot grate" type. The results demonstrated the technical feasibility of using the charcoal product from animal origin as an energy source, with recovery of up to 76.47% of chromium contained in CLR in the final produced of iron ore pellets. Pellets with 25% replacement of fixed carbon in the coal showed an enhanced compressive strength, with an average value of 344kgfpellet(-1), compared to 300kgfpellet(-1) for standard produced pellets.

  1. Metabolic reduction of chromium by alveolar macrophages and its relationships to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Petrilli, F L; Rossi, G A; Camoirano, A; Romano, M; Serra, D; Bennicelli, C; De Flora, A; De Flora, S

    1986-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM), obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage from 47 individuals, reduced hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and decreased its mutagenicity. Their specific activity--mostly mediated by cytosolic, enzyme-catalyzed mechanisms--was significantly higher than in corresponding preparations of mixed-cell populations from human peripheral lung parenchyma or bronchial tree, or from rat lung or liver. At equivalent number of PAM, Cr(VI) reduction, total protein, and some oxidoreductase activities were significantly increased in smokers. No appreciable variation could be detected between lung cancer and noncancer patients. In rats, the Cr(VI)-reducing activity of PAM preparations was induced by Aroclor 1254. Thus, alveolar macrophages provide crucial defense mechanisms not only by phagocytizing metals, but also by metabolically reducing Cr(VI). The epithelial-lining fluid (ELF) also displayed some Cr(VI) reduction. Together with already investigated metabolic processes occurring inside lung cells, these mechanisms are expected to determine thresholds in the pulmonary carcinogenicity of chromium. PMID:2423559

  2. Increased chromium and nickel content in lung tissue and bronchial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kollmeier, H.; Seemann, J.W.; Mueller, K.M.R.; Rothe, G.; Wittig, P.; Schejbal, V.B.

    1987-01-01

    In 25 random autopsies, chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) in lung tissue and regional lymph nodes were analysed by means of flameless atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The subjects originate from Bochum in the Ruhr District, which is defined as a particular pollution area with locally high Cr and Ni emissions. The subjects examined from Bochum (BO) and vicinity have Cr and Ni concentrations about 5 and 6 times higher than those in a previous series form Muenster (MS) and vicinity (outside the particular pollution area), which is used for comparison purposes. BO and MS data showed an age-dependent increase of chromium and nickel in the lung, and in both data sets as well as in the combined, the Cr and Ni values showed extremely high correlations. The Cr and Ni concentrations (BO) in lung (3.47 +/- 2.53 micrograms Cr/g, 1.09 +/- 1.43 micrograms Ni/g dry weight) and lymph node tissue (6.30 +/- 3.72 micrograms Cr/g, 1.00 +/- 0.58 micrograms Ni/g dry weight) do not show any correlation. The BO data contained four cases of bronchial carcinoma (all male), three of which showed pulmonary Cr and Ni concentrations that lie clearly above the predicted level. One case of bronchial carcinoma had extremely high Cr and Ni values; an occupational exposure as dental laboratory technician is taken into consideration.

  3. Application of biomarkers in Epaulet grouper (Epinephelus stoliczkae) to assess chromium pollution in the Chabahar Bay and Gulf of Oman.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Parvin; Kazerouni, Faranak; Savari, Ahmad; Movahedinia, Abdolali; Safahieh, Alireza; Ajdari, Daniel

    2015-06-15

    In the present study plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO) hormone and kidney histological changes were assessed as biomarkers to evaluate the chromium pollution in Epaulet grouper (Epinephelus stoliczkae) obtained from different areas in Chabahar Bay and Gulf of Oman. Chemical analyses included the evaluation of chromium in the fish kidney tissue and sediment. The highest and lowest concentrations of chromium were measured in the kidney of fish and sediment collected from Konarak (47.53±1.23 and 110±1.4 μg g(-1)) and the mouth of Chabahar Bay (3.43±1.31 and 13.5±3.23 μg g(-1)), respectively. There was significant difference (P<0.05) of EPO plasma levels between Konarak, Beris and Ramin stations with the mouth of Chabahar Bay as the cleanest station. Reduction of Bowman's space, occlusion of the tubule lumen, leukocytes infiltration, melanomacrophage centers aggregation, nuclear vacuolation, nuclei hypertrophy of tubule cells, necrosis of the tubules, lifting of the tubular basement membrane and dilatation of glomerular capillaries were the most alterations observed in the kidney. The HAI values of Epaulet grouper from Konarak, Beris and Ramin stations were significantly higher than other stations (P<0.05). It was concluded that selected biomarkers as a first investigation could be useful tools to environmental biomonitoring programs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. 21 CFR 73.1015 - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the solution obtained by boiling 10 grams of the chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide for 15 minutes in 50..., and set by annealing. (2) The quantity of the color additive does not exceed 2 percent by weight of...

  5. 21 CFR 73.1015 - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the solution obtained by boiling 10 grams of the chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide for 15 minutes in 50..., and set by annealing. (2) The quantity of the color additive does not exceed 2 percent by weight of...

  6. 21 CFR 73.1015 - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the solution obtained by boiling 10 grams of the chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide for 15 minutes in 50..., and set by annealing. (2) The quantity of the color additive does not exceed 2 percent by weight of...

  7. 21 CFR 73.1015 - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the solution obtained by boiling 10 grams of the chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide for 15 minutes in 50..., and set by annealing. (2) The quantity of the color additive does not exceed 2 percent by weight of...

  8. 21 CFR 73.1015 - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the solution obtained by boiling 10 grams of the chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide for 15 minutes in 50..., and set by annealing. (2) The quantity of the color additive does not exceed 2 percent by weight of...

  9. Structure and magnetic properties of chromium doped cobalt molybdenum nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guskos, Niko; Żołnierkiewicz, Grzegorz; Typek, Janusz; Guskos, Aleksander; Adamski, Paweł; Moszyński, Dariusz

    2016-09-01

    Four nanocomposites containing mixed phases of Co3Mo3N and Co2Mo3N doped with chromium have been prepared. A linear fit is found for relation between Co2Mo3N and chromium concentrations. The magnetization in ZFC and FC modes at different temperatures (2-300 K) and in applied magnetic fields (up to 70 kOe) have been investigated. It has been detected that many magnetic characteristics of the studied four nanocomposites correlate not with the chromium concentration but with nanocrystallite sizes. The obtained results were interpreted in terms of magnetic core-shell model of a nanoparticle involving paramagnetic core with two magnetic sublattices and a ferromagnetic shell related to chromium doping.

  10. The effect of chromium oxyhydroxide on solid oxide fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Krumpelt, M.; Cruse, T. A.; Ingram, B. J.; Routbort, J. L.; Wang, S.; Salvador, P. A.; Chen, G.; Carnegie Mellon Univ.; NETL; Ohio Univ.

    2010-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium species like the oxyhydroxide, CrO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}, or hexoxide, CrO{sub 3}, are electrochemically reduced to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} in solid oxide fuel cells and adversely affect the cell operating potentials. Using a narrowly focused beam from the Advanced Photon Source, such chromium oxide deposits were unequivocally identified in the active region of the cathode by X-ray diffraction, suggesting that the triple phase boundaries were partially blocked. Under fuel cell operating conditions, the reaction has an equilibrium potential of about 0.9 V and the rate of chromium oxide deposition is therefore dependent on the operating potential of the cell. It becomes diffusion limited after several hours of steady operation. At low operating potentials, lanthanum manganite cathodes begin to be reduced to MnO, which reacts with the chromium oxide to form the MnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel.

  11. [Occupational diseases caused by chromium and its compounds].

    PubMed

    Hassmanová, V; Vanĕcková, J; Bousová, K

    2000-01-01

    The present paper demonstrates by documentary evidence occupational diseases caused by chromium and its compounds. Perforations of the nasal septum were diagnosed in 20 males and 9 females, the last one in 1980. Most of them worked in chromium-plating shops. Other diseases, including bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, and contact allergic eczemas, were examined in 1985-1999. Bronchial asthma was reported in a textile dyer who was in contact with chromium dyes for 32 years and two allergic rhinitides (a welder and an electroplater) were reported in 1987 as "other damage to health resulting from work." Out of 103 contact allergic eczemas, only 24 diseases, i.e. less than one quarter, were healed in 1999. Improvements were observed in 59 of them and 20 diseases persist. There was an exceptional finding of a chromium ulcer (pigeonneaux) on the lower extremity of a builder.

  12. Chromium plating pollution source reduction by plasma source ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, A.; Sridharan, K.; Dodd, R.A.; Conrad, J.R.; Qiu, X.; Hamdi, A.H.; Elmoursi, A.A.; Malaczynski, G.W.; Horne, W.G.

    1995-12-31

    There is growing concern over the environmental toxicity and workers` health issues due to the chemical baths and rinse water used in the hard chromium plating process. In this regard the significant hardening response of chromium to nitrogen ion implantation can be environmentally beneficial from the standpoint of decreasing the thickness and the frequency of application of chromium plating. In this paper the results of a study of nitrogen ion implantation of chrome plated test flats using the non-line-of-sight Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) process, are discussed. Surface characterization was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), and Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA). The surface properties were evaluated using a microhardness tester, a pin-on-disk wear tester, and a corrosion measurement system. Industrial field testing of nitrogen PSII treated chromium plated parts showed an improvement by a factor of two compared to the unimplanted case.

  13. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium (Peer Review Plan)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of hexavalent chromium that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  14. Chromium and Polyphenols from Cinnamon and Insulin Sensitivity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Factors that improve insulin sensitivity usually lead to improvements in risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Naturally occurring bioactive compounds that have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity include chromium and polyphenols found in ...

  15. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and... in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including those intended for use in the area of the eye,...

  16. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and... in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including those intended for use in the area of the eye,...

  17. 21 CFR 73.2327 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2327 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity and... may be safely used in externally applied cosmetics, including cosmetics intended for use in the...

  18. 21 CFR 73.2327 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2327 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity and... may be safely used in externally applied cosmetics, including cosmetics intended for use in the...

  19. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and... in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including those intended for use in the area of the eye,...

  20. 21 CFR 73.2327 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2327 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity and... may be safely used in externally applied cosmetics, including cosmetics intended for use in the...

  1. Molecular Mechanisms of Chromium in Alleviating Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yinan; Clark, Suzanne; Ren, Jun; Sreejayan, Nair

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is often associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular anomalies and is a major health problem approaching global epidemic proportions. Insulin resistance, a prediabetic condition, precedes the onset of frank type 2 diabetes and offers potential avenues for early intervention to treat the disease. Although lifestyle modifications and exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, compliance has proved to be difficult, warranting pharmacological interventions. However, most of the currently available drugs that improve insulin sensitivity have adverse effects. Therefore, attractive strategies to alleviate insulin resistance include dietary supplements. One such supplement is chromium, which has been shown reduce insulin resistance in some, but not all, studies. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of chromium in alleviating insulin resistance remain elusive. This review examines emerging reports on the effect of chromium, as well as molecular and cellular mechanisms by which chromium may provide beneficial effects in alleviating insulin resistance. PMID:22423897

  2. Extended followup of a cohort of chromium production workers.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Herman Jones; Lees, Peter St John; Wang, Jing; Grace O'Leary, Keri

    2015-08-01

    The current study evaluates the mortality of 2,354 workers first employed at a Baltimore chromate production plant between 1950 and 1974. The National Death Index (NDI Plus) was used to determine vital status and cause of death. Cumulative chromium (VI) exposure and nasal and skin irritation were evaluated as risk factors for lung cancer mortality. There are 91,186 person-years of observation and 217 lung cancer deaths. Cumulative chromium (VI) exposure, nasal irritation, nasal perforation, nasal ulceration, and other forms of irritation (e.g., skin irritation) were associated with lung cancer mortality. Cumulative chromium (VI) exposure was a risk factor for lung cancer death. Cancer deaths, other than lung cancer, were not significantly elevated. Irritation may be a possible mechanism for chromium (VI)-induced lung cancer. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium (Peer Review Plan)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of hexavalent chromium that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  4. USE OF FUME SUPPRESSANTS IN HARD CHROMIUM BATHS - QUALITY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Common Sense Initiative (CSI) is a cooperative effort of government, industry, environmental and other stakeholder groups to find "cleaner, cheaper, smarter" approaches to environmental management in industrial sectors. The purpose of the project is to help hard chromium ...

  5. USE OF FUME SUPPRESSANTS IN HARD CHROMIUM BATHS - QUALITY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Common Sense Initiative (CSI) is a cooperative effort of government, industry, environmental and other stakeholder groups to find "cleaner, cheaper, smarter" approaches to environmental management in industrial sectors. The purpose of the project is to help hard chromium ...

  6. Chromium (V) compounds as cathode material in electrochemical power sources

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, F.M.; Guidotti, R.A.; McCarthy, D.K.

    A cathode for use in a thermal battery, comprising a chromium (V) compound. The preferred materials for this use are Ca/sub 5/(CrO/sub 4/)/sub 3/Cl, Ca/sub 5/(CrO/sub 4/)OH, and Cr/sub 2/O/sub 5/. The chromium (V) compound can be employed as a cathode material in ambient temperature batteries when blended with a suitably conductive filler, preferably carbon black.

  7. Lessons Learned in Implementing Hexavalent Chromium and other Material Restrictions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Lead and Lead Compounds – Mercury – Methylene Chloride – Methyl Ethyl Ketone – Nickel and Nickel Compounds – Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs...targeted materials across DoD programs for new programs – Asbestos, Cadmium, Hexavalent Chromium, Mercury , + ?? • Consider life cycle risk based analysis...Use existing framework when possible – Is RoHs compliant good enough in specific cases? [RoHS; .1 % lead, .1% mercury , .1% hexavalent chromium, .1

  8. Sludge Generation from Ferrous/Sulfide Chromium Treatment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    sodium bisulfite , sulfur dioxide, and sodium sulfide. While all these chemicals produce a satisfactory effluent, the quantity of sludge produced by the...34Treatment of Toxic Metal Wastewaters by Alkaline Ferrous Sulfate and Sodium Sulfied for Chromium Reduction, Precipitation and Coagulation," Pro... sodium sulfide and ferrous chloride (9:1 ratio) at pH 8.0 rapidly reduced hexavalent chromium and produced approximately one-fourth the sludge (on a

  9. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITIES FOR CHROMIUM IN THE 100 AREAS

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN SW

    2009-07-02

    {sm_bullet} Primary Objective: Protect the Columbia River - Focus is control and treatment of contamination at or near the shoreline, which is influenced by bank storage {sm_bullet} Secondary Objective: Reduce hexavalent chromium to <48 parts per billion (ppb) in aquifer (drinking water standard) - Large plumes with isolated areas of high chromium concentrations (> 40,000 ppb), - Unknown source location(s); probably originating in reactor operation areas

  10. Electrodeposition of amorphous ternary nickel-chromium-phosphorus alloy

    DOEpatents

    Guilinger, Terry R.

    1990-01-01

    Amorphous ternary nickel-chromium-phosphorus alloys are electrodeposited from a bath comprising a nickel salt, a chromium salt, a phosphorus source such as sodium hypophosphite, a complexing agent for the nickel ions, supporting salts to increase conductivity, and a buffering agent. The process is carried out at about room temperature and requires a current density between about 20 to 40 A/dm.sup.2.

  11. Chromium (V) compounds as cathode material in electrochemical power sources

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, Frank M.; Guidotti, Ronald A.; McCarthy, David K.

    1985-01-01

    A cathode for use in a thermal battery, comprising a chromium (V) compound. The preferred materials for this use are Ca.sub.5 (CrO.sub.4).sub.3 Cl, Ca.sub.5 (CrO.sub.4).sub.3 OH, and Cr.sub.2 O.sub.5. The chromium (V) compound can be employed as a cathode material in ambient temperature batteries when blended with a suitably conductive filler, preferably carbon black.

  12. Chromium Ions Improve Moisure Resistance of Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, A. K.; St. Clair, T. L.; Stoakley, D. M.; Singh, J. J.; Sprinkle, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    Broad spectrum of thermosetting epoxy resins used on commercial and military aircraft, primarily as composite matrices and adhesives. In new technique, chromium-ion containing epoxy with improved resistance to moisture produced where chromium ions believed to prevent absorption of water molecules by coordinating themselves to hydroxyl groups on epoxy chain. Anticipated that improved epoxy formulation useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft. Improvement made without sacrifice in mechanical properties of polymer.

  13. Chromium Ions Improve Moisure Resistance of Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, A. K.; St. Clair, T. L.; Stoakley, D. M.; Singh, J. J.; Sprinkle, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    Broad spectrum of thermosetting epoxy resins used on commercial and military aircraft, primarily as composite matrices and adhesives. In new technique, chromium-ion containing epoxy with improved resistance to moisture produced where chromium ions believed to prevent absorption of water molecules by coordinating themselves to hydroxyl groups on epoxy chain. Anticipated that improved epoxy formulation useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft. Improvement made without sacrifice in mechanical properties of polymer.

  14. Chromium contamination in Army face masks. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology's Subcommittee on Chromium Contamination in Army Face Masks reviewed the possible health risks to soldiers associated with exposure to U.S. Army gas-mask canisters containing activated charcoal impregnated with hexavalent chromium, a carcinogen. The canisters are attached to masks used to detoxify toxic gases, such as hydrogen chloride and cyanogen chloride. In 1982, reports surfaced of dark smudges on the faces of mask users; the smudges were traced to leaking of activated charcoal fines from canisters. The carbon smudging was also associated with some exposure to hexavalent chromium. The subcommittee's review of data provided by the Army on the amounts of chromium released during tests of gas-mask canisters indicated that the amounts of insoluble hexavalent chromium--chromium (VI)--found in the C2 canister (developed by the Canadian Army) and in the field-fixed and redesigned M10Al canisters are well within the limits implied by standards set by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health under worst-case mask use conditions.

  15. Environmental monitoring of chromium in air, soil, and water.

    PubMed

    Vitale, R J; Mussoline, G R; Rinehimer, K A

    1997-08-01

    Historical uses of chromium have resulted in its widespread release into the environment. In recent years, a significant amount of research has evaluated the impact of chromium on human health and the environment. Additionally, numerous analytical methods have been developed to identify and quantitate chromium in environmental media in response to various state and federal mandates such as CERCLA, RCRA, CWA, CAA, and SWDA. Due to the significant toxicity differences between trivalent [Cr(III)] and hexavalent [Cr(VI)] chromium, it is essential that chromium be quantified in these two distinct valence states to assess the potential risks to exposure to each in environmental media. Speciation is equally important because of their marked differences in environmental behavior. As the knowledge of risks associated with each valence state has grown and regulatory requirements have evolved, methods to accurately quantitate these species at ever-decreasing concentrations within environmental media have also evolved. This paper addresses the challenges of chromium species quantitation and some of the most relevant current methods used for environmental monitoring, including ASTM Method D5281 for air, SW-846 Methods 3060A, 7196A and 7199 for soils, sediments, and waste, and U.S. EPA Method 218.6 for water.

  16. Lime enhanced chromium removal in advanced integrated wastewater pond system.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, I; Isoaho, S A; Green, F B; Puhakka, J A

    2006-03-01

    The removal of trivalent chromium from a combined tannery effluent in horizontal settling tanks and subsequent Advanced Integrated Wastewater Pond System (AIWPS) reactors was investigated. The raw combined effluent from Modjo tannery had pH in the range of 11.2-12. At this pH, a trivalent chromium removal of 46-72% was obtained in the horizontal settling tanks after a one-day detention time. Trivalent chromium precipitated as chromium hydroxide, Cr(OH)3. 58-95% Cr(III) was removed in the advanced facultative pond (AFP) where the water column pH of 7.2-8.4 was close to pH 8, which is the optimum precipitation pH for trivalent chromium. Chromium removals in the secondary facultative pond (SFP) and maturation pond (MP) were 30-50% and 6-16%, respectively. With Cr(III) concentration of 0.2-0.8 mg/l in the final treated effluent, the AIWPS preceded by horizontal settling tanks produced effluent that could easily meet most of the current Cr(III) discharge limits to receive water bodies.

  17. Carcinogenicity of chromium and chemoprevention: a brief update

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yuanliang; Song, Xin; Zhao, Jinshun

    2017-01-01

    Chromium has two main valence states: hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) and trivalent chromium (Cr[III]). Cr(VI), a well-established human carcinogen, can enter cells by way of a sulfate/phosphate anion-transport system, and then be reduced to lower-valence intermediates consisting of pentavalent chromium (Cr[V]), tetravalent chromium (Cr[IV]) or Cr(III) via cellular reductants. These intermediates may directly or indirectly result in DNA damage or DNA–protein cross-links. Although Cr(III) complexes cannot pass easily through cell membranes, they have the ability to accumulate around cells to induce cell-surface morphological alteration and result in cell-membrane lipid injuries via disruption of cellular functions and integrity, and finally to cause DNA damage. In recent years, more research, including in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies, has been conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity/carcinogenicity induced by Cr(VI) and/or Cr(III) compounds. At the same time, various therapeutic agents, especially antioxidants, have been explored through in vitro and in vivo studies for preventing chromium-induced genotoxicity/carcinogenesis. This review aims to provide a brief update on the carcinogenicity of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) and chemoprevention with different antioxidants. PMID:28860815

  18. Method for fabricating cermets of alumina-chromium systems

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Chester S.

    1983-01-01

    Cermet insulators resistant to thermal and mechanical shock are prepared from alumina-chromium systems by providing an Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 material of about 0.5 to 7.0 micron size with a solid-hydrocarbon overcoating by slurring an effective amount of said solid hydrocarbon in a solvent mixture containing said Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and thereafter evaporating said solvent, contacting said coated Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 with a solution of chromium precursor compound, heating the resulting mixture in a reducing environment to a temperature above the decomposition temperature of said chromium precursor compound but less than the melting temperature of the Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 or chromium for sufficient duration to yield a particulate compound having chromium essentially dispersed throughout the Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, and then densifying said particulate to provide said cermet characterized by a theoretical density in excess of 96% and having 0.1 to 10.0 vol.% elemental chromium metal present therein as a dispersed phase at the boundaries of the Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 material. Cermet components prepared thereby are useful in high temperature equipment, advanced heat engines, and nuclear-related equipment applications where electrical or thermal insulators are required.

  19. Evaluating trivalent chromium toxicity on wild terrestrial and wetland plants.

    PubMed

    Lukina, A O; Boutin, C; Rowland, O; Carpenter, D J

    2016-11-01

    Elevated chromium levels in soil from mining can impact the environment, including plants. Mining of chromium is concentrated in South Africa, several Asian countries, and potentially in Northern Ontario, Canada, raising concerns since chromium toxicity to wild plants is poorly understood. In the first experiment, concentration-response tests were conducted to evaluate effects of chromium on terrestrial and wetland plants. Following established guidelines using artificial soil, seeds of 32 species were exposed to chromium (Cr(3+)) at concentrations simulating contamination (0-1000 mg kg(-1)). This study found that low levels of chromium (250 mg kg(-1)) adversely affected the germination of 22% of species (33% of all families), while higher levels (500 and 1000 mg kg(-1)) affected 69% and 94% of species, respectively, from 89% of the families. Secondly, effects on seedbanks were studied using soil collected in Northern Ontario and exposed to Cr(3+) at equivalent concentrations (0-1000 mg kg(-1)). Effects were less severe in the seedbank study with significant differences only observed at 1000 mg kg(-1). Seeds exposed to Cr(3+) during stratification were greatly affected. Seed size was a contributing factor as was possibly the seed coat barrier. This study represents an initial step in understanding Cr(3+) toxicity on wild plants and could form the basis for future risk assessments.

  20. The chemistry of chromium and some resulting analytical problems.

    PubMed Central

    Shupack, S I

    1991-01-01

    Chromium, named for its many-colored compounds, exists in the oxidation states of -2 to +6 inclusively. The compounds exhibit a wide range of geometries including square planar, tetrahedral, octahedral, and various distorted geometries. Chromium is found in nature principally as the chromite ore FeCr2O4 in which chromium is in the +3 state. The existence of a particular oxidation state is dependent on many factors including pH, redox potentials, and kinetics. Thermodynamically, +3 and +2 are the most stable states, while the +3 and +6 oxidation states are the most common ones found in aqueous solution. Kinetically, chromium +3 is substitutionally inert: for water exchange k(sec-1) = 2.5 x 10(-6), due to the presence of the half-filled d(t2g)3.4A2g state. On the other hand, protonation/deprotonation is quite rapid. Polymerization is very slow but is promoted at higher pHs; acid cleavage of the protonated oligomers is also quite slow. Chromium +6 as the chromate ion is strongly oxidizing at low pHs and less so in basic solution. The chromate ion does form some polyacids and polyanions. These factors must be considered in analyzing samples for total chromium and for the amounts of each oxidation state. Images FIGURE 1. PMID:1935853

  1. Removal of chromium from industrial waste by using eucalyptus bark.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Vikrant; Pant, K K

    2006-01-01

    Several low cost biomaterials such as baggase, charred rice husk, activated charcoal and eucalyptus bark (EB) were tested for removal of chromium. All the experiments were carried out in batch process with laboratory prepared samples and wastewater obtained from metal finishing section of auto ancillary unit. The adsorbent, which had highest chromium(VI) removal was EB. Influences of chromium concentration, pH, contact time on removal of chromium from effluent was investigated. The adsorption data were fitted well by Freundlich isotherm. The kinetic data were analyzed by using a first order Lagergren kinetic. The Gibbs free energy was obtained for each system and was found to be -1.879 kJ mol(-1) for Cr(VI) and -3.885 kJ mol(-1) for Cr(III) for removal from industrial effluent. The negative value of deltaG0 indicates the feasibility and spontaneous nature of adsorption. The maximum removal of Cr(VI) was observed at pH 2. Adsorption capacity was found to be 45 mg/g of adsorbent, at Cr(VI) concentration in the effluent being 250 mg/l. A waste water sample containing Cr(VI), Cr(III), Mg, and Ca obtained from industrial unit showed satisfactory removal of chromium. The results indicate that eucalyptus bark can be used for the removal of chromium.

  2. Cytokine detection for the diagnosis of chromium allergy*

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Luis Eduardo Agner Machado; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patch testing remains the gold standard method for the identification of the etiologic agent of allergic contact dermatitis. However, it is a subjective, time-consuming exam whose technique demands special care and which presents some contraindications, which hamper its use. In a recent study, we showed that the proliferation assay can suitably replace patch testing for the diagnosis of chromium allergy, which had been previously demonstrated only for nickel allergy. In this study, we try to refine the method by reducing the incubation period of cultures for lymphocyte proliferation assays in response to chromium. OBJECTIVE Develop an alternative or complementary diagnostic test for chromium allergic contact dermatitis. METHODS We compared the production of 9 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17 and RANTES) between 18 chromium-allergic patients and 19 controls. RESULTS Chromium increased the production of IFN-y, IL-5, IL-2 and IL-13 in allergic patients, but only IL-2 and especially IL-13 helped discriminate allergic patients from controls. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy found with IL-13 were about 80%. CONCLUSIONS IL-13 and IL-2 detection may be used to diagnose chromium allergy in 2-day cultures. However, in general, the 6-day cultures seem to be superior for this purpose. PMID:24173176

  3. Stabilization of carbon dioxide and chromium slag via carbonation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xingxing; Yu, Binbin; Xu, Wei; Fan, Zheng; Wu, Zucheng; Zhang, Huimin

    2017-08-01

    As the main greenhouse gas, CO2 is considered as a threat in the context of global warming. Many available technologies to reduce CO2 emission was about CO2 separation from coal combustion and geological sequestration. However, how to deal with the cost-effective storage of CO2 has become a new challenge. Moreover, chromium pollution, the treatment of which requires huge energy consumption, has attracted people's widespread attention. This study is aimed to develop the sequestration of CO2 via chromium slag. A dynamic leaching experiment of chromium slag was designed to testify the ability of CO2 adsorption onto chromium slag and to release Cr(VI) for stabilization. The results showed that the accumulative amounts of Cr(VI) were ca. 2.6 mg/g released from the chromium slag after 24 h of leaching. In addition, ca. 89 mg/g CO2 was adsorbed by using pure CO2 in the experiment at 12 h. Calcite is the only carbonate species in the post-carbonated slag analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. The approach provides the feasibility of the utilization of chromium slag and sequestration of the carbon dioxide at the same time at ordinary temperatures and pressures.

  4. Chromium Exposure and Hygienic Behaviors in Printing Workers in Southern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Decharat, Somsiri

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The main objective of this study was to assess the chromium exposure levels in printing workers. The study evaluated the airborne, serum, and urinary chromium levels and determines any correlation between level of chromium in specimen and airborne chromium levels. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 75 exposed and 75 matched nonexposed subjects. Air breathing zone was measured by furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum and urine samples were collected to determine chromium levels by graphite furnaces atomic absorption spectrometer chromium analyzer. Results and Discussion. The printing workers' urinary chromium levels (6.86 ± 1.93 μg/g creatinine) and serum chromium levels (1.24 ± 1.13 μg/L) were significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). Work position, duration of work, personal protective equipment (PPE), and personal hygiene were significantly associated with urinary chromium level and serum chromium levels (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). This study found a correlation between airborne chromium levels and urinary chromium levels (r = 0.247, p = 0.032). A multiple regression model was constructed. Significant predictors of urinary and serum chromium levels were shown in this study. Conclusion. Improvements in working conditions, occupational health training, and PPE use are recommended to reduce chromium exposure. PMID:26448746

  5. Establishment of a reference value for chromium in the blood for biological monitoring among occupational chromium workers.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Li, Yang; Zhang, Ji; Yu, Shan-Fa; Wang, Zhi-Liang; Jia, Guang

    2016-10-01

    The concentration of chromium in the blood (CrB) has been confirmed as a biomarker for occupational chromium exposure, but its biological exposure indices (BEIs) are still unclear, so we collected data from the years 2006 and 2008 (Shandong Province, China) to analyze the relationship between the concentration of chromium in the air (CrA) of the workplaces and CrB to establish a reference value of CrB for biological monitoring of occupational workers. The levels of the indicators for nasal injury, kidney (β2 microglobulin (β2-MG)), and genetic damages (8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and micronucleus (MN)) were measured in all subjects of the year 2011 (Henan Province, China) to verify the protective effect in this reference value of CrB. Compared with the control groups, the concentrations of CrA and CrB in chromium exposed groups were significantly higher (P < 0.05). Positive correlations were found between CrA and CrB in chromium exposed groups (r 2006 = 0.60, r 2008 = 0.35) in the years 2006 and 2008. According to the occupational exposure limitation of CrA (50 μg/m(3), China), the reference value of CrB was recommended to 20 μg/L. The levels of nasal injury, β2-MG, 8-OhdG, and MN were not significantly different between the low chromium exposed group (CrB ≤ 20 μg/L) and the control group, while the levels of β2-MG, 8-OHdG, and MN were statistically different in the high chromium exposed group than that in the control group. This research proved that only in occupational workers, CrB could be used as a biomarker to show chromium exposure in the environment. The recommended reference value of CrB was 20 μg/L. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Chromium released from leather - I: exposure conditions that govern the release of chromium(III) and chromium(VI).

    PubMed

    Hedberg, Yolanda S; Lidén, Carola; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 1-3% of the adult population in Europe is allergic to chromium (Cr). A new restriction in REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) based on the ISO 17075 standard has recently been adopted in the EU to limit Cr(VI) in consumer and occupational leather products. The aim of this study was to critically assess key experimental parameters in this standard on the release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) and their relevance for skin exposure. Four differently tanned, unfinished, leather samples were systematically investigated for their release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in relation to surface area, key exposure parameters, temperature, ultraviolet irradiation, and time. Although the total release of Cr was largely unaffected by all investigated parameters, except exposure duration and temperature, the Cr oxidation state was highly dynamic, with reduced amounts of released Cr(VI) with time, owing to the simultaneous release of reducing agents from the leather. Significantly more Cr(III) than Cr(VI) was released from the Cr-tanned leather for all conditions tested, and it continued to be released in artificial sweat up to at least 1 week of exposure. Several parameters were identified that influenced the outcome of the ISO 17075 test. © 2015 The Authors. Contact Dermatitis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Chromium released from leather – I: exposure conditions that govern the release of chromium(III) and chromium(VI)

    PubMed Central

    Hedberg, Yolanda S; Lidén, Carola; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 1–3% of the adult population in Europe is allergic to chromium (Cr). A new restriction in REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) based on the ISO 17075 standard has recently been adopted in the EU to limit Cr(VI) in consumer and occupational leather products. Objectives The aim of this study was to critically assess key experimental parameters in this standard on the release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) and their relevance for skin exposure. Material and methods Four differently tanned, unfinished, leather samples were systematically investigated for their release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in relation to surface area, key exposure parameters, temperature, ultraviolet irradiation, and time. Results Although the total release of Cr was largely unaffected by all investigated parameters, except exposure duration and temperature, the Cr oxidation state was highly dynamic, with reduced amounts of released Cr(VI) with time, owing to the simultaneous release of reducing agents from the leather. Significantly more Cr(III) than Cr(VI) was released from the Cr-tanned leather for all conditions tested, and it continued to be released in artificial sweat up to at least 1 week of exposure. Conclusions Several parameters were identified that influenced the outcome of the ISO 17075 test. PMID:25653094

  8. Simultaneous Electrodialytic Preconcentration and Speciation of Chromium(III) and Chromium(VI).

    PubMed

    Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Nakamura, Koretaka; Shelor, C Phillip; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Toda, Kei

    2015-11-17

    Large amounts of chromium (Cr) compounds are used for manufacturing of various products and various chemical processes. Some inevitably find their way into the environment. Environmental Cr is dominantly inorganic and is either in the cationic +3 oxidation state or in the anionic oxochromium +6 oxidation state. The two differ dramatically in their implications; Cr(III) is essential to human nutrition and even sold as a supplement, while Cr(VI) is a potent carcinogen. Drinking water standards for chromium may be based on total Cr or Cr(VI) only. Thus, Cr speciation analysis is very important. Despite their high sensitivity, atomic spectrometric techniques or induction coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) cannot directly differentiate the oxidation states. We present here a new electrodialytic separation concept. Sample analyte ions are quantitatively transferred via appropriately ionically functionalized dialysis membranes into individual receptors that are introduced into the ICP-MS. There was no significant conversion of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) or vice versa during the very short (6 s) separation process. Effects of salinity (up to ∼20 mM NaCl) can be eliminated with proper membrane functionalization and receptor optimization. With the ICP-MS detector we used, the limits of detection for either form of Cr was 0.1 μg/L without preconcentration. Up to 10-fold preconcentration was readily possible by increasing the donor solution flow rate relative to the acceptor solution flow rates. The proposed approach permits simultaneous matrix isolation, preconcentration, and chromium speciation.

  9. Chromium stable isotope fractionation during adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, A.; Johnson, T.; Bullen, T.

    2003-04-01

    Chromium is a common anthropogenic contaminant in ground water. It is redox-active; the two common valences in natural waters are Cr(VI), which is highly soluble and toxic, and Cr(III), which is relatively insoluble. Redox reactions control Cr mobility in aqueous solutions with Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) controlling the attenuation of Cr in groundwater. Our previous study demonstrated that abiotic Cr(VI) reduction causes an isotope fractionation of -3.5 permil (53Cr/52Cr) and isotopes can therefore be used to calculate the extent of reduction. In the present study, experiments were conducted to measure Cr isotope fractionation during Cr(VI) sorption on Al203. Sorption of Cr(VI) could be important as a small isotope fractionation may get amplified along the edges of a Cr(VI) contaminated plume. A previous study demonstrated a similar process with Fe isotopes on anion exchange resin. Initial solutions of 200 mg/l Cr(VI) (as K2Cr2O7) and 0.1 mM KCl were made up. Sufficient solid Al203 was added to achieve 50% sorption. After equilibration, the solution was extracted by centrifuging and filtering with a 0.2 micron filter. Al203 was then added again to result in a further 50% sorption of the remaining Cr(VI). This process was repeated 10 times to amplify any isotopic fractionation between dissolved and adsorbed Cr(VI). The instantaneous stable isotope fractionation was calculated based on the δ 53Cr values of the initial and final Cr(VI) solutions. The results show that the stable isotope values measured in the solutions after the ten steps were within the uncertainty of the isotope value of the initial solution. Therefore, no significant stable isotope fractionation occurred. We are presently conducting experiments with goethite and expect similar results. Therefore, any fractionation of chromium stable isotopes observed in contaminant plumes are a result of processes other than adsorption (i.e., reduction).

  10. Chromium picolinate does not produce chromosome damage.

    PubMed

    Komorowski, James R; Greenberg, Danielle; Juturu, Vijaya

    2008-04-01

    Chromium picolinate (CrPic) is used as a dietary supplement and has beneficial effects in reducing diabetes risk factors. The present study evaluated the cytogenetic effects of CrPic in bone marrow cells of Sprague-Dawley rats (5 animals/sex/group). Test animals were dosed orally with 33, 250 or 2000 mg/kg of CrPic, which corresponded to doses of 4.1, 30.8 and 246 mg/kg of chromium. The lowest dose of CrPic, 33 mg/kg is estimated to be the human equivalent for a 50 kg person (200 mcg Cr). The animals were dosed once, and sacrificed either 18 or 42 hours (h) later. The mitotic index was determined for each rat. Metaphase cells (50 or 100/rats) were examined for interstitial deletions, chromatid and chromosome gap, breaks or other anomalies. The average percentage of damaged cells at 18 h in vehicle treated males and females were 1.2% and 0.6%, respectively. The mean values at 18 h for doses of 33, 250 and 2000 mg/kg, were 0.4%, 0.8%, 0.4% for males and 0.6%, 0.2% and 0.6% for females, respectively. At 42 h, the mean values for vehicle treated males and females were 0.4% and 0.2%, respectively. For doses of 33, 250 and 2000 mg/kg at 42 h the average percent damage was 14%, 0.8% and 0.4% for males and 0.2%, 0.2% and 0.0% for females, respectively. None of these values were statistically increased compared to the vehicle controls. The positive control Cyclophosphamide (CPM) induced a significant increase in chromosomal damage at 18 h averaging 30% in males and 37% in females, respectively (p<0.001). In the current study CrPic did not induce chromosomal damage in bone marrow cells at single doses of 33, 250 and 2000 mg/kg of body weight and thus there was no indication of any toxicity of CrPic.

  11. Enhancement of oxidative vaporization of chromium (III) oxide and chromium by oxygen atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryburg, G. C.; Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    Rates of oxidative vaporization of Cr2O3 were found to be markedly enhanced in the presence of O atoms. Investigations were conducted over the temperature range 470 to 1520 K. For Cr2O3 the enhancement was about 10 to the 9th power at 820 K in oxygen containing 2.5 percent atoms. Rapid oxidative vaporization of bare chromium was observed below 1070 K, the rate being about one-half that of Cr2O3. Results are interpreted in terms of thermochemical analysis.

  12. The removal of hexavalent chromium from water by ferrous sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.J.J.; Vesilind, P.A.

    1995-12-31

    The redox reaction of hexavalent chromium and ferrous sulfate is investigated in his study. Hexavalent chromium, a highly toxic and mobile anion, could exist in raw water used as a public water supply due to the industrial chromium contamination of natural water or due to natural oxidation of trivalent chromium. Ferrous sulfate is one of the widely used coagulants in water treatment plants and has good reducing ability. Because of its reducing capacity, ferrous sulfate can be applied to remove hexavalent chromium from water. The required contact time to reach equilibrium, the effectiveness of Cr(VI) reduction at different initial pH, and the required ferrous sulfate dosage for complete reduction are investigated. The redox reaction can be completed within 10 minutes, allowing 30 mg/L of hexavalent chromium to react with stoichiometric dosage of ferrous sulfate in deionized water, regardless of the initial pH. The pH of the solution is depressed during the progress of the reaction due to the hydrolysis of the produced Fe(III) and Cr(III) ions from the reaction. Dissolved oxygen in water is found to interfere with the redox reaction by consuming ferrous ions when the initial pH of solutions is high. In deionized water, complete Cr(VI) reduction can be achieved by applying excess ferrous sulfate under the condition of this study. It is also achievable when the raw water from Durham Water Treatment Plant is used as the reaction medium, without additional dosage of ferrous sulfate. Based on the results, simultaneous removal of hexavalent chromium in water treatment by applying ferrous sulfate as the coagulant is theoretically feasible.

  13. Effects of vitamins on chromium(VI)-induced damage

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Masayasu )

    1991-05-01

    The effects of vitamin E and vitamin B{sub 2} on DNA damage and cellular reduction of chromium (VI) were investigated using Chinese hamster V-79 cells. pretreatment with {alpha}-tocopherol succinate (vitamin E) resulted in a decrease of DNA single-strand breaks produced by Na{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}, while similar treatment with riboflavin (vitamin B{sub 2}) enhanced levels of DNA breaks. Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies showed that incubation of cells with Na{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} resulted in the formation of both chromium (V) and chromium (III) complexes, and cellular pretreatment with vitamin E reduced the level of the chromium (V) complex, whereas pretreatment with vitamin B{sub 2} enhanced the level of this intermediate. ESR studies demonstrated that a chromium (V) species was formed by the reaction of Na{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} with vitamin B{sub 2} and that vitamin B{sub 2} enhanced the formation of hydroxyl radicals during the reaction of Na{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} and hydrogen peroxide. These results indicate that vitamin E and vitamin B{sub 2} are capable of altering the biological effects of carcinogenic chromium (VI) compounds, possibly through their abilities to modify levels of chromium (V) in cells. The results also suggest that chromate-induced cytotoxicity may not be directly correlated with the genotoxic effects of this metal. The importance of the role of vitamins in chromate-induced toxicity is discussed.

  14. Uptake, Distribution and Speciation of Chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Bluskov,S.; Arocena, J.; Omotoso, O.; Young, J.

    2005-01-01

    Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) has been widely used in phytoremediation because of its capacity to accumulate high levels of chromium (Cr) and other metals. The present study was conducted to investigate mechanism(s) involved in Cr binding and sequestration by B. juncea. The plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in field-moist or air-dried soils, amended with 100 mg kg -1 of Cr (III or VI). The plant concentrated Cr mainly in the roots. B. juncea removed an average of 48 and 58 {mu}g Cr per plant from Cr (III) and Cr (VI)-treated soils, respectively. The uptake of Cr was not affected by the moisture status of the soils. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy measurements showed only Cr (III) bound predominantly to formate and acetate ligands, in the bulk and rhizosphere soils, respectively. In the plant tissues, Cr (III) was detected, primarily as acetate in the roots and oxalate in the leaves. X-ray microprobe showed the sites of Cr localization, and probably sequestration, in epidermal and cortical cells in the roots and epidermal and spongy mesophyll cells in the leaves. These findings demonstrate the ability of B. juncea to detoxify more toxic Cr (VI), thereby making this plant a potential candidate for phytostabilization.

  15. A Rare Terminal Dinitrogen Complex of Chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, Michael T.; Chen, Shentan; Rousseau, Roger J.; O'Hagan, Molly J.; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2011-10-12

    The reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia from N2 and H2 is currently carried out by the Haber-Bosch process, an energy intensive process that requires high pressures and high temperatures and accounts for the production of millions of tons of ammonia per year. The development of a catalytic, energy-efficient process for N2 reduction is of great interest and remains a formidable challenge. In this communication, we are reporting the preparation, characterization and computational electronic structure analysis of a rare 'Chatt-type' ((P-P)2M(N2)2, P-P = diphosphine ligand) complex of chromium, cis-[Cr(N2)2(PPh2NBn2)2] and its reactivity with CO. This complex is supported by the diphosphine ligand PPh2NBn2, containing non-coordinating pendant amine bases, to serve as proton relays. Future studies for this complex are aimed at answering fundamental questions regarding the role of proton relays in the second coordination sphere in their ability to facilitate proton movement from an external acid to metal-bound dinitrogen ligands in the challenging multi-proton/electron reduction of N2 to ammonia.

  16. Increase of chromium yield by slag reduction during production of chromium steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bažan, J.; Socha, L.; Kurka, V.; Jonšta, P.; Sušovský, M.

    2017-02-01

    The paper is focused on the evaluation of the course of Cr2O3 reduction from slag to alloyed steel under laboratory conditions. The experiments were aimed at the evaluation of increase in the chromium content in the melt together with the studying the behaviour of Cr2O3 and the mechanism of reduction by means of three reducing agents. Anthracite, ferrosilicon and mixtures of anthracite and ferrosilicon belong among the selected reducing agents. The experimental melts were focused on the proposal of a theoretical calculation of the consumption of selected reducing agents, study of reduction under laboratory conditions at application of alloyed steel with content of chromium of 12.16 wt. %, temperatures of 1600 °C and 1650 °C, together with the change of amount of reducing agents and reduction time. The results indicated in the paper constitute basic information on the possibilities of Cr2O3 reduction from slag; they will be used for verification of results in the pilot plant and operation experiments which will simulate operating conditions in the electric arc furnace.

  17. Effect of Particle Morphology on Cold Spray Deposition of Chromium Carbide-Nickel Chromium Cermet Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Ruben; Jodoin, Bertrand

    2017-08-01

    Nickel chromium-chromium carbide coatings provide good corrosion and wear resistance at high temperatures, making them ideal for applications where a harsh environment and high temperatures are expected. Thermal spray processes are preferred as deposition technique of cermets, but the high process temperatures can lead to decarburization and reduction of the coatings properties. Cold spray uses lower temperatures preventing decarburization. Since the metallic phase remains solid, the feedstock powder morphology becomes crucial on the deposition behavior. Six commercially available powders were studied, varying in morphology and metal/ceramic ratios. The powders were categorized into 4 groups depending on their morphology. Spherical powders lead to substrate erosion due to their limited overall ductility. Porous agglomerated and sintered powders lead to severely cracked coatings. For dense agglomerated and sintered powders, the outcome depended on the initial metal/ceramic ratio: powders with 25 wt.% NiCr led to substrate erosion while 35 wt.% NiCr powders led to dense coatings. Finally, blended ceramic-metal mixtures also lead to dense coatings. All coatings obtained had lower ceramic content than the initial feedstock powders. Interrupted spray tests, combined with FEA, helped drawing conclusions on the deposition behavior to explain the obtained results.

  18. Tissue accumulation and urinary excretion of chromium in rats fed diets containing graded levels of chromium chloride or chromium picolinate.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Munehiro; Hatakeyama, Erika; Hosomi, Ryota; Kanda, Seiji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2010-08-01

    To attempt a risk assessment of the excess intake of trivalent chromium (Cr), tissue Cr accumulation and urinary Cr excretion were examined in weanling rats fed experimental diets containing graded levels of Cr chloride (CrCl3) or Cr picolinate (CrPic). Thirty-six male weanling 4-weeks-old Wistar rats were divided into six groups and fed a casein-based semi-purified diet (Cr content: <0.02 microg/g) supplemented with 1, 10, or 100 microg Cr/g as CrCl3 or CrPic for 28 days. Among the experimental groups, no significant difference was observed in body weight; however, supplementation of 100 microg Cr/g to the diets caused a significant low liver weight irrespective of the chemical species of Cr. Activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were significantly elevated in rats given CrPic at 100 microg Cr/g. In the liver, kidney and femur, Cr accumulation increased with elevation of the dietary Cr level. No influence of the difference in the chemical species of supplemented Cr was observed in the liver and kidney, but CrCl3 caused significantly higher Cr accumulation than CrPic in the femur of rats given 100 microg Cr/g. Daily urinary Cr excretion elevated with the increase of the dietary Cr level. Rats given CrPic showed significantly higher daily urinary Cr excretion than those given CrCl3, particularly at a dietary Cr level of 100 microg/g. The rate of urinary Cr excretion in rats given CrPic was constant, irrespective of the dietary Cr level, but that of rats given CrCl3 fell with the increase of the dietary Cr level. These results indicate that the lowest adverse effect level of dietary Cr is less than 100 microg/g, irrespective of the chemical species of Cr.

  19. Co-removal of hexavalent chromium during copper precipitation.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Huang, J C

    2002-01-01

    In our recent study using the nucleated precipitation technology to treat plating wastewater, it was found that about one half of hexavalent chromium was co-removed with copper, nickel and zinc. Since hexavalent chromium could not react with either hydroxide or carbonate to from precipitates, this study was undertaken to evaluate the mechanism(s) involved in the chromium co-removal. Batch tests were conducted with synthetic solutions containing either only copper or both copper and hexavalent chromium. Metal precipitation was induced by adding Na2CO3 to different pH, and the quantitative removal of copper and chromium was determined. Besides, the [Cr]/[Cu] molar ratio of produced precipitates were also assessed in conjunction with the EDAX analysis to determine their compositions. Experimental results indicate that for pure copper solution, precipitation begins at pH 6.0, and completes at pH 7.0. The chemical forms of the precipitates are copper carbonates [CuCO3 x Cu(OH)2 and CuCO3 x 2Cu(OH)2]. On the other hand, in a bi-metal solution of copper plus chromium, precipitation of copper begins at about pH 5.0, and copper precipitation is always accompanied by some chromium removal. From the removal stoichiometry of the two metals, it is found that at low pH, the co-removal is a result of "co-precipitation" which results in the formation of CuCrO4 crystallites. Once such crystallites are formed, they provide a heterogeneous environment which enhances an early formation of copper carbonate at a lower pH (below 5.5). It is further found that once copper carbonate precipitates are produced, the remaining soluble will precipitate in such form, and at this stage further removal of copper is no longer accompanied by additional chromium removal. The test data also reflect that the produced copper carbonates are positively charged, as verified by zeta potential measurement, at pH below 7.5. Thus they are able to adsorb some anionic chromium (existing as chromate) through

  20. Spectroscopic study for a chromium-adsorbed montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurtay, Maidina ·; Tuersun, Maierdan ·; Cai, Yuanfeng; Açıkgöz, Muhammed; Wang, Hongtao; Pan, Yuguan; Zhang, Xiaoke; Ma, Xiaomei

    2017-02-01

    Samples of purified montmorillonite with trace amounts of quartz were subjected to different concentrations of chromium sulphate solutions for one week to allow cation exchange. The chromium-bearing montmorillonites were verified and tested using powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry and Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to explore the occupation sites of the chromium. The ESR spectra recorded before and after the chromium exchange show clear differences: a strong and broad resonance with two shoulders at the lower magnetic field side was present to start, and its intensity as well as that of the ferric iron resonance, increased with the concentration of added chromium. The signals introduced by the chromium, for example at g = 1.975 and 2.510 etc., suggested that the chromium had several occupational sites. The ESR peak with g = 2.510 in the second derivative spectrum suggested that Cr3+ was weakly bounded to TOT with the form of [Cr(H2O)3]3+ in hexagonal cavities. This was verified by comparing the FTIR spectra of the pure and modified montmorillonite. The main resonance centred at g = 1.975 indicated that the majority of Cr3+ occupied the interlayer region as [Cr(H2O)6]3+. The substitution of Ca2 + by Cr3+ also greatly affected the vibration of the hydrogens associate to water, ranged from 3500 to 2600 cm-1 in FTIR. Furthermore, the presence of two diffraction lines in the XRD results (specifically those with d-values of 1.5171 and 1.2673 nm) and the calculations of the size of the interlayer space suggested the presence of two types of montmorillonite with different hydration cations in the sample exposed to 0.2 M chromium sulphate. The two diffraction lines were assigned to [Cr(H2O)6]3+ and [Cr(H2O)3O3]3+, respectively. This also suggested that the species of hydration cation was constrained by the concentration of the chromium solution.

  1. Hexavalent chromium-resistant bacteria isolated from river sediments.

    PubMed Central

    Luli, G W; Talnagi, J W; Strohl, W R; Pfister, R M

    1983-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a known carcinogen and mutagen; however, the actual mechanisms of Cr toxicity are unknown. Two approaches were used to isolate Cr(VI)-resistant bacteria from metal-contaminated river sediments. Diluted sediments were plated directly onto a peptone-yeast extract (PYE) medium containing 0 to 100 micrograms of Cr(VI) ml-1. Approximately 8.4 x 10(5) CFU g-1 were recovered on 0 microgram of Cr(VI) ml-1, whereas 4.0 x 10(2) CFU g-1 were recovered on PYE plus 100 micrograms of Cr(VI) ml-1. Alternatively, continuous culture enrichment techniques were employed using PYE and 100 micrograms Cr(VI) ml-1 input at dilution rates of 0.02 and 0.10 h-1. After six residence periods, 10(9) CFU were recovered on PYE agar containing 0 microgram of Cr(VI) ml-1 and 10(7) CFU on PYE agar plus 100 micrograms of Cr(VI) ml-1. Of 89 isolates obtained by direct plating onto PYE, 47% were resistant to 100 micrograms of Cr(VI) ml-1, and 29% were resistant to 250 micrograms of Cr(VI) ml-1. When the same isolates were plated onto PYE containing Cr(III), 88% were resistant to 100 micrograms ml-1 but only 2% were resistant to 250 micrograms ml-1. Cr, Co, Sb, and Zn were found in significantly higher concentrations at an industry-related contaminated site than at a site 11 km downstream. Total Cr in the sediments at the contaminated site averaged 586 micrograms (dry weight) g-1, and the downstream site averaged 71 micrograms (dry weight) g-1. The Cr recovered from acid-digested Ottawa River sediment samples was predominantly hexavalent. Five acid digestion procedures followed by atomic absorption spectroscopy were compared and found to be 30 to 70% efficient for recovery of Cr relative to neutron activation analysis. A population of aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria was recovered from sediments containing elevated levels of Cr.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6639032

  2. Thermodynamics of chromium in UO2 fuel: A solubility model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riglet-Martial, Ch.; Martin, Ph.; Testemale, D.; Sabathier-Devals, C.; Carlot, G.; Matheron, P.; Iltis, X.; Pasquet, U.; Valot, C.; Delafoy, C.; Largenton, R.

    2014-04-01

    The solubility and speciation of chromium in doped uranium oxide are measured in carefully controlled temperature and oxygen potential conditions using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM). The examination of the samples by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) provides evidence that (i) chromium is soluble in the UO2 matrix under the +3 oxidation state only regardless of the sintering conditions which is in accordance with a soluble species of type CrO3/2 and (ii) soluble chromium exhibits octahedral symmetry with 6 atoms of oxygen forming CrO6 patterns in the UO2 structure. In consistency with all available experimental information including previously published data, the solubility of chromium in UO2 corresponding to each two-phase field with either Cr, CrO and Cr2O3 may be described in the ranges 1500 °C < T < 2000 °C and -460 < μO2 < -360 kJ/mol using the standard thermodynamic equations governing solubility equilibria. The characteristic parameters of the solubility laws in UO2 for the three chromium phases are derived.

  3. Enhancement of chromium uptake in tanning using oxazolidine.

    PubMed

    Sundarapandiyan, S; Brutto, Patrick E; Siddhartha, G; Ramesh, R; Ramanaiah, B; Saravanan, P; Mandal, A B

    2011-06-15

    Monocyclic and bicyclic oxazolidines were offered at three different junctures of chrome tanning process viz. prior to BCS offer, along with BCS and after basification. It was found that oxazolidine when offered after basification brought about better chromium uptake and reduction of chromium load in the wastewater. Offer of oxazolidine was also varied. Increase in offer of oxazolidine from 0.25% to 1% was found to enhance the chromium uptake and decrease the chromium load in wastewater. But the increase in uptake was not proportionate to the increase in oxazolidine offer more than 0.75%. Offer of 1% Zoldine ZA 78 (monocyclic oxazolidine) and Zoldine ZE (bicyclic oxazolidine) after basification brought about 63.4% and 73.1% enhancement in chrome content in leather compared to control where oxazolidine was not offered. The tone of the wetblue was found to be altered moderately. However this did not call for any process adjustments in wet-finishing. The oxazolidine treated leathers were found to be immensely fuller and tighter. It was found experimentally that offer of 1% of oxazolidine facilitated reduction in the offer of syntans administered for filling and grain tightening by around 46%. Oxazolidine could bring about significant reduction in cost of chemicals apart from resulting environmental benefits due to enhancement of chromium uptake during tanning.

  4. Impact of pyrolysis process on the chromium behavior of COPR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dalei; He, Shengbing; Dai, Luwei; Xie, Yaning; Wu, Deyi; Bu, Guanhua; Peng, Kangjin; Kong, Hainan

    2009-12-30

    The effect of pyrolysis process with sewage sludge on the chromium behavior of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) was examined in this study. The behavior of chromium was characterized in term of chromium oxidation test, pH-static leaching tests, column leaching test and sequential extraction test. As a sequence of pyrolysis process, the Cr(VI) in COPR was effectively reduced from 5057 mg kg(-1) for untreated COPR to 8.6 mg kg(-1) for treated COPR at temperature over 600 degrees C, which is far below the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection regulatory limit of 240 mg kg(-1). As a result, the amount of exchangeable and carbonate-bound Cr fractions, the most mobile for the environment, were largely reduced. At the same time, the amount of the other three Cr fractions which are much less mobile become augmented. pH static test showed that the chromium in the treated COPR at pyrolysis temperature above 400 degrees C was quite stable at pH>7. Column study also indicated that only negligible amount of chromium of the treated COPR at above 600 degrees C can be released by the acid rain.

  5. Structure and magnetic properties of chromium doped cobalt molybdenum nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Guskos, Niko; Żołnierkiewicz, Grzegorz; Typek, Janusz; Guskos, Aleksander; Adamski, Paweł; Moszyński, Dariusz

    2016-09-15

    Four nanocomposites containing mixed phases of Co{sub 3}Mo{sub 3}N and Co{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}N doped with chromium have been prepared. A linear fit is found for relation between Co{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}N and chromium concentrations. The magnetization in ZFC and FC modes at different temperatures (2–300 K) and in applied magnetic fields (up to 70 kOe) have been investigated. It has been detected that many magnetic characteristics of the studied four nanocomposites correlate not with the chromium concentration but with nanocrystallite sizes. The obtained results were interpreted in terms of magnetic core-shell model of a nanoparticle involving paramagnetic core with two magnetic sublattices and a ferromagnetic shell related to chromium doping. - Highlights: • A new chromium doped mixed Co-Mn-N nanocomposites were synthesized. • Surface ferromagnetism was detected in a wide temperature range. • Core-shell model was applied to explain nanocomposites magnetism.

  6. [Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium during aircraft painting].

    PubMed

    Gherardi, M; Gatto, M P; Gordiani, A; Paci, E; Proietto, A

    2007-01-01

    Hygienists are interested in hexavalent chromium due to its genotoxic and carcinogenic effect on humans. The use of products containing hexavalent chromium is decreasing in many industrial fields because of the substitution with less-toxic compounds. In the aeronautical industry, however, the chromate are added to primer paint as a corrosion inhibitor of aircrafts surfaces: so hexavalent chromium compounds are available in many primers with a composition ranging from 10% to 13%. The application of these primers by using electrostatic guns potentially exposes painting and coating workers at high concentrations of aerosols containing Cr(VI). The aim of the present study is the evaluation of professional exposure to hexavalent chromium during aircraft painting, by adopting both environmental personal sampling and biological monitoring. To valuate workers exposure levels the personal measurements results have been compared with the exposure limit values (TLV-TWA) and the urinary chromium contents with the biological exposure indices (IBE). Moreover the strategy of coupling environmental sampling with biological monitoring seems to be a useful instrument to measure the validity of the individual protection devices.

  7. Low-chromium reduced-activation ferritic steels for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J.; Kenik, E.A.

    1996-04-01

    Development of reduced-activation ferritic steels has concentrated on high-chromium (8-10 wt% Cr) steels. However, there are advantages for a low-chromium steel, and initial ORNL studies on reduced-activation steels were on compositions with 2.25 to 12% Cr. Those studies showed an Fe-2.25Cr-2W-0.25V-0.1C (2 1/4Cr-2WV) steel to have the highest strenglth of the steels studied. Although this steel had the best strength, Charpy impact properties were inferior to those of an Fe-9Cr-2W-0.25V-0.07Ta-0.1C (9Cr-2WVTa) and an Fe-2.25Cr-2W-0.1C (2 1/4Cr-2W) steel. Therefore, further development of the low-chromium Cr-W steels was required. These results indicate that it is possible to develop low-chromium reduced-activation ferritic steels that have tensile and impact properties as good or better than those of high-chromium (7-9% Cr) steels. Further improvement of properties should be possible by optimizing the composition.

  8. Chromium recovery from tannery sludge with saponin and oxidative remediation.

    PubMed

    Kiliç, Eylem; Font, Joaquim; Puig, Rita; Colak, Selime; Celik, Deniz

    2011-01-15

    Two new methods for treatment of tannery sludge were studied to achieve cost-effective and environmentally acceptable remediation solutions for high chromium containing tannery sludge. Quillaja bark saponin, a plant derived biosurfactant, was applied to dewatered tannery sludge for chromium recovery and a comparative assessment with H(2)O(2) oxidative treatment method is presented. Tannery sludge samples were treated on a laboratory scale with saponin in the pH range 2-3. The effects of various factors like time, concentration of saponin, pH, and temperature on the extraction of chromium were studied. The treatment with saponin extracted 24% of Cr from tannery sludge at a pH around2, performing multiple wash of 6h, at 33 °C. On the other hand, the H(2)O(2) treatment, which include Cr(III) oxidation to Cr(VI) and extraction with sulfuric acid solution at pH 2, enabled to extract 70% of chromium within less than 4h at room temperature (21 °C). The results indicate that the extraction efficiency of saponin was strongly dependent on the organic matter content of the sample, which affects chromium mobility by its high adsorption capacity. On the other hand hydrogen peroxide treatment is effective and the duration of the process is short and requires cheap chemicals and moderate conditions.

  9. Chromium accumulation in three species of central Florida centrarchids

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.R. |

    1995-02-01

    Stormwater ponds are required in Central Florida when land is developed to treat the resulting stormwater. The St. Johns River Water Management District, the agency that regulates stormwater discharges in Central Florida, frequently approves plans that create habitat for fish and wildlife by planting desirable wetland and aquatic vegetation in the littoral zones of stormwater ponds to compensate for the loss of wetlands. The various species of fish that inhabit stormwater ponds serve as a food source to wildlife, especially wading birds. The objective of this study was to determine if fish that live in stormwater treatment ponds in Orlando, Florida contained significant concentrations of chromium. In order to determine if there were differences in chromium concentrations in fish with different foraging strategies, three species of sunfish (Centrarchidae) with substantially different foraging strategies were selected for this study: largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), a predator; redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus), a bottom feeder; and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), an omnivore. Many researchers have shown that large quantities of chromium are found in urban runoff. Chromium sources are largely associates with the operation of motor vehicles. Several investigators have determined that chromium from urban runoff concentrates in the sediment of stormwater ponds. Sediments represent the most concentrated physical pool of metals in aquatic environments, and they are ingested by many types of aquatic organisms. Most fish are capable of accumulating heavy metals from their diet and from water through their gills. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. A possible role for chromium(III) in genotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, E.T. )

    1991-05-01

    Chromium is found in the environment in two major forms: reduced Cr{sup III} and Cr{sup VI}, or chromate. Chromate, the most biologically active species, is readily taken up by living cells and reduced intracellularly, via reactive intermediates, to stable Cr{sup III} species. Cr{sup III}, the most abundant form of chromium in the environment, does not readily cross cell membranes and is relatively inactive in vivo. However, intracellular Cr{sup III} can react slowly with both nucleic acids and proteins and can be genotoxic. The authors have investigated the genotoxicity of Cr{sup III} in vitro using a DNA replication assay and in vivo by CaCl{sub 2}-mediated transfection of chromium-treated DNA into Escherichia coli. These results suggest that Cr{sup III} alters the interaction between the DNA template and the polymerase such that the binding strength of the DNA polymerase is increased and the fidelity of DNA replication is decreased. These interactions may contribute to the mutagenicity of chromium ions in vivo and suggest that Cr{sup III} can contribute to chromium-mediated carcinogenesis.

  11. Microbial exudate promoted dissolution and transformation of chromium containing minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, E. M.; Sun, J.; Tang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Because of its utility in many industrial processes, chromium has become the second most common metal contaminant in the United States. The two most common oxidation states of chromium in nature are Cr(III), which is highly immobile, and Cr(VI), which is highly mobile and toxic. In both natural and engineered environments, the most common remediation of Cr(VI) is through reduction, which results in chromium sequestration in the low solubility mixed Cr(III)-Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxide phases. Consequently, the stability of these minerals must be examined to assess the fate of chromium in the subsurface. We examined the dissolution of mixed Cr(III)-Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides in the presence of common microbial exudates, including the siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFOB; a common organic ligand secreted by most microbes with high affinity for ferric iron and other trivalent metal ions) and oxalate (a common organic acid produced by microbes). The solids exhibited incongruent dissolution with preferential leaching of Fe from the solid phase. Over time, this leads to a more Cr rich mineral, which is known to be more soluble than the corresponding mixed mineral phase. We are currently investigating the structure of the reacted mineral phases and soluble Cr(III) species, as well as the potential oxidation and remobilization of the soluble Cr species. Results from this study will provide insights regarding the long term transport and fate of chromium in the natural environment in the presence of microbial activities.

  12. FORMATION AND DESTRUCTION OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN A LABORATORY SWIRL FLAME INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The partitioning of chromium (Cr) in combustion systems was investigated theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical predictions were based on chemical equilibrium and suggested that hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] was favored by the presence of chlorine (Cl) and diminished by the...

  13. Chromium-nanodiamond coatings obtained by magnetron sputtering and their tribological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atamanov, M. V.; Khrushchov, M. M.; Marchenko, E. A.; Shevchenko, N. V.; Levin, I. S.; Petrzhik, M. I.; Miroshnichenko, V. I.; Relianu, M. D.

    2017-07-01

    Peculiarities of structure, chemical and phase composition, micromechanical and tribological properties of chromium-based coatings obtained by magnetron-sputtering of composite and/or compacted chromium-nanodiamond targets have been investigated.

  14. 75 FR 18041 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Minimizing Use of Hexavalent Chromium (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... requirements for minimizing the use of hexavalent chromium in defense weapon systems, subsystems, components... INFORMATION: A. Background Hexavalent chromium is a significant chemical in numerous DoD weapon systems...

  15. CHROMIUM ELECTROANALYSIS AT SCREEN PRINTED ELECTRODE MODIFIED BY THIN FILMS OF NICKEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid and potentially cost-effective electrochemical method is reported for analysis of chromium (VI) and Chromium(III) using a nickel modified screen printed carbon ink electrode. Electrochemical characteristics of nickel modified electrode as well voltammetric behavior f...

  16. Effective bioleaching of chromium in tannery sludge with an enriched sulfur-oxidizing bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jing; Gou, Min; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Guo-Ying; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Kida, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a sulfur-oxidizing community was enriched from activated sludge generated in tannery wastewater treatment plants. Bioleaching of tannery sludge containing 0.9-1.2% chromium was investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of the enriched community, the effect of chromium binding forms on bioleaching efficiency, and the dominant microbes contributing to chromium bioleaching. Sludge samples inoculated with the enriched community presented 79.9-96.8% of chromium leaching efficiencies, much higher than those without the enriched community. High bioleaching efficiencies of over 95% were achieved for chromium in reducible fraction, while 60.9-97.9% were observed for chromium in oxidizable and residual fractions. Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, the predominant bacteria in the enriched community, played an important role in bioleaching, whereas some indigenous heterotrophic species in sludge might have had a supporting role. The results indicated that A. thiooxidans-dominant enriched microbial community had high chromium bioleaching efficiency, and chromium binding forms affected the bioleaching performance.

  17. Process for improving moisture resistance of epoxy resins by addition of chromium ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; Stoakley, D. M.; St.clair, T. L.; Singh, J. J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A process for improving the moisture resistance properties of epoxidized TGMDA and DGEBA resin system by chemically incorporating chromium ions is described. The addition of chromium ions is believed to prevent the absorption of water molecules.

  18. Thiocyanato Chromium (III) Complexes: Separation by Paper Electrophoresis and Estimate of Stability Constants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Erik; Eriksen, J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment wherein the student can demonstrate the existence of all the thiocyanato chromium complexes, estimate the stepwise formation constants, demonstrate the robustness of chromium III complexes, and show the principles of paper electrophoresis. (GS)

  19. Thiocyanato Chromium (III) Complexes: Separation by Paper Electrophoresis and Estimate of Stability Constants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Erik; Eriksen, J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment wherein the student can demonstrate the existence of all the thiocyanato chromium complexes, estimate the stepwise formation constants, demonstrate the robustness of chromium III complexes, and show the principles of paper electrophoresis. (GS)

  20. FORMATION AND DESTRUCTION OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN A LABORATORY SWIRL FLAME INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The partitioning of chromium (Cr) in combustion systems was investigated theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical predictions were based on chemical equilibrium and suggested that hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] was favored by the presence of chlorine (Cl) and diminished by the...

  1. CHROMIUM ELECTROANALYSIS AT SCREEN PRINTED ELECTRODE MODIFIED BY THIN FILMS OF NICKEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid and potentially cost-effective electrochemical method is reported for analysis of chromium (VI) and Chromium(III) using a nickel modified screen printed carbon ink electrode. Electrochemical characteristics of nickel modified electrode as well voltammetric behavior f...

  2. Blood chromium and nickel in relation to respiratory symptoms among industrial workers

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, A.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Mathur, N.; Rastogi, S.K.; Garg, N.; Chandra, S.V. )

    1992-06-01

    Seventy-eight workers exposed to fumes and dust of nickel and chromium in their occupation in the glass industry were studied for respiratory symptoms in relation to nickel and chromium concentrations in their blood. A significant (p less than 0.01) association was observed between respiratory symptoms and elevated blood nickel and chromium. An interaction between nickel and chromium was found in relation to the prevalence of respiratory symptoms.

  3. Chromium enhances insulin responsiveness via AMPK.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Nolan J; Penque, Brent A; Habegger, Kirk M; Sealls, Whitney; Tackett, Lixuan; Elmendorf, Jeffrey S

    2014-05-01

    Trivalent chromium (Cr(3+)) is known to improve glucose homeostasis. Cr(3+) has been shown to improve plasma membrane-based aspects of glucose transporter GLUT4 regulation and increase activity of the cellular energy sensor 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, the mechanism(s) by which Cr(3+) improves insulin responsiveness and whether AMPK mediates this action is not known. In this study we tested if Cr(3+) protected against physiological hyperinsulinemia-induced plasma membrane cholesterol accumulation, cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) loss and insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle myotubes. In addition, we performed mechanistic studies to test our hypothesis that AMPK mediates the effects of Cr(3+) on GLUT4 and glucose transport regulation. Hyperinsulinemia-induced insulin-resistant L6 myotubes displayed excess membrane cholesterol and diminished cortical F-actin essential for effective glucose transport regulation. These membrane and cytoskeletal abnormalities were associated with defects in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport. Supplementing the culture medium with pharmacologically relevant doses of Cr(3+) in the picolinate form (CrPic) protected against membrane cholesterol accumulation, F-actin loss, GLUT4 dysregulation and glucose transport dysfunction. Insulin signaling was neither impaired by hyperinsulinemic conditions nor enhanced by CrPic, whereas CrPic increased AMPK signaling. Mechanistically, siRNA-mediated depletion of AMPK abolished the protective effects of CrPic against GLUT4 and glucose transport dysregulation. Together these findings suggest that the micronutrient Cr(3+), via increasing AMPK activity, positively impacts skeletal muscle cell insulin sensitivity and glucose transport regulation.

  4. Blood protein interactions with chromium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wälivaara, B; Askendal, A; Krozer, A; Lundström, I; Tengvall, P

    1996-01-01

    Protein adsorption, contact activation, and complement activation were studied on thin evaporated films of chromium (Cr) in vitro. The surfaces were, prior to the experiments, cleaned in either ethanol and water, or in a basic peroxide solution (RCA standard clean 1, SC-1). Surface spectroscopic studies of the outermost oxides showed a significant reduction of carbon contaminants after washing in SC-1 but also suggested an increase in the oxidation state as compared with the ethanol-washed surfaces. In situ ellipsometry combined with antibody techniques was used to determine protein deposition and antibody binding onto surfaces after incubations in heparin plasma or in normal serum. Incubation times from 1 to 10 min in serum showed increased depositions of serum and antibodies to complement factor 3c (C3c) and was larger on ethanol-washed surfaces than on surfaces washed in SC-1. ELISA methods indicated increased amounts of iC3b in serum for both surfaces, but no presence of C3 convertases (C4d or Bb fractions). A low or transient complement activation via the classical pathway was indicated on ethanol washed Cr, since deposition of secondary antibodies to complement factor Iq (CIq) was observed only after short incubation times in serum. No procoagulant activity of Cr was indicated, since only low amounts of antibodies to factor XII (F XII), prekallikrein (PKK), and high molecular weight kiniogen (HMWK) bound to the surfaces after incubations in heparin plasma. These results were confirmed using a colorimetric assay where the relative amounts of free plasma kallikrein was assessed using a chromogenic substrate, H-D-Pro-Phe-Arg-pNA (S-2302).

  5. Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2006-02-28

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is amending the existing standard which limits occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). OSHA has determined based upon the best evidence currently available that at the current permissible exposure limit (PEL) for Cr(VI), workers face a significant risk to material impairment of their health. The evidence in the record for this rulemaking indicates that workers exposed to Cr(VI) are at an increased risk of developing lung cancer. The record also indicates that occupational exposure to Cr(VI) may result in asthma, and damage to the nasal epithelia and skin. The final rule establishes an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposure limit of 5 micrograms of Cr(VI) per cubic meter of air (5 [mu]g/cu m). This is a considerable reduction from the previous PEL of 1 milligram per 10 cubic meters of air (1 mg/10 cu m, or 100 [mu]g/cu m) reported as CrO3, which is equivalent to a limit of 52 [mu]g/cu m as Cr(VI). The final rule also contains ancillary provisions for worker protection such as requirements for exposure determination, preferred exposure control methods, including a compliance alternative for a small sector for which the new PEL is infeasible, respiratory protection, protective clothing and equipment, hygiene areas and practices, medical surveillance, recordkeeping, and start-up dates that include four years for the implementation of engineering controls to meet the PEL. The final standard separately regulates general industry, construction, and shipyards in order to tailor requirements to the unique circumstances found in each of these sectors. The PEL established by this rule reduces the significant risk posed to workers by occupational exposure to Cr(VI) to the maximum extent that is technologically and economically feasible.

  6. Chromium Enhances Insulin Responsiveness via AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Nolan J.; Penque, Brent A.; Habegger, Kirk M.; Sealls, Whitney; Tackett, Lixuan; Elmendorf, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Trivalent chromium (Cr3+) is known to improve glucose homeostasis. Cr3+ has been shown to improve plasma membrane-based aspects of glucose transporter GLUT4 regulation and increase activity of the cellular energy sensor 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, the mechanism(s) by which Cr3+ improves insulin responsiveness and whether AMPK mediates this action is not known. In this study we tested if Cr3+ protected against physiological hyperinsulinemia-induced plasma membrane cholesterol accumulation, cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) loss and insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle myotubes. In addition, we performed mechanistic studies to test our hypothesis that AMPK mediates the effects of Cr3+ on GLUT4 and glucose transport regulation. Hyperinsulinemia-induced insulin-resistant L6 myotubes displayed excess membrane cholesterol and diminished cortical F-actin essential for effective glucose transport regulation. These membrane and cytoskeletal abnormalities were associated with defects in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport. Supplementing the culture medium with pharmacologically relevant doses of Cr3+ in the picolinate form (CrPic) protected against membrane cholesterol accumulation, F-actin loss, GLUT4 dysregulation and glucose transport dysfunction. Insulin signaling was neither impaired by hyperinsulinemic conditions nor enhanced by CrPic, whereas CrPic increased AMPK signaling. Mechanistically, siRNA-mediated depletion of AMPK abolished the protective effects of CrPic against GLUT4 and glucose transport dysregulation. Together these findings suggest that the micronutrient Cr3+, via increasing AMPK activity, positively impacts skeletal muscle cell insulin sensitivity and glucose transport regulation. PMID:24725432

  7. Immobilization of chromium in cement matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Kindness, A.; Macias, A.; Glasser, F.P. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1994-01-01

    Portland cement and blended cements containing blast furnace slag afford both physical and chemical immobilization of chromium. To separate physical and chemical effects, the pore fluid contained in set, hydrated cements has been expressed and analyzed. In Portland cement spiked with 5,000 ppm Cr(III), pore fluid levels are 0.1--1 ppm, whereas in well-cured slag blends, they decrease to <0.01 ppm. Both cement types give chemical immobilization, but slag cements give the better performance. Slag-containing cements are the most effective at removing Cr(VI) from the pore fluid, probably by reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis shows that Cr(III) can be substituted for Al in most of the calcium aluminated hydrate phases. In synthetic preparations, substitution is complete resulting in Ca-Cr phases that are isostructural to calcium aluminate phases. Three Cr analogues of calcium aluminates were synthesized: Ca[sub 2]Cr(OH)[sub 7] [center dot] 3H[sub 2]O, Ca[sub 2]Cr[sub 2]O[sub 5] [center dot] 6H[sub 2]O and Ca[sub 2]Cr[sub 2]O[sub 5] [center dot] 8H[sub 2]O, as well as solid solutions, e.g., Cr substituted hydrogarnet 3CaO [center dot] (Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]/Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3]) [center dot] 6H[sub 2]O. There is no real evidence that Cr is taken up by C-S-H gel.

  8. Clinical and biochemical aspects of chromium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Wallach, S

    1985-01-01

    The essentiality of chromium (Cr) in animal and human nutrition is now well accepted. In animals, Cr deficiency can cause a diabetic-like state, impaired growth, elevated blood lipids, increased aortic plaque formation, and decreased fertility and longevity. The ability of Cr to potentiate insulin sensitivity has considerable experimental support. In the human, Cr deficiency has been demonstrated unequivocally in only one clinical situation, patients on total parenteral nutrition without added Cr. In such patients, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperglycemia, relative insulin resistance, peripheral neuropathy, and a metabolic encephalopathy have been noted with reversal of the clinical phenomena by Cr repletion. Many studies have been performed to determine whether Cr deficiency may be important in other clinical conditions, namely, diabetes mellitus, pregnant and parous women, and the aged population. Available data indicate that Cr supplementation can improve glucose metabolism in glucose intolerant individuals and decrease the total/HDL cholesterol ratio regardless of the status of glucose tolerance. However, whether Cr supplementation has long-term health benefits is unknown. Further, despite many tantalizing observations, it is still unclear whether Cr deficiency, latent or overt, is common in any human situation other than generalized malnutrition and total parenteral nutrition without added Cr. Technical uncertainties in the analysis of Cr, Cr contamination of food by the use of stainless steel processing equipment and eating utensils, and the lack of a clinically feasible test for Cr deficiency continue to impede progress in Cr research. Nevertheless, there is considerably more clarity as to plasma and urine Cr levels, food and tissue Cr content, and metabolic pathways of Cr metabolism than existed a decade ago. It is expected that progress will accelerate, since critical questions can now be addressed regarding the role of Cr in human nutrition.

  9. Effects of chromium propionate on egg production, egg quality, plasma biochemical parameters, and egg chromium deposition in late-phase laying hens.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenqiang; Gu, Ying; Lu, Jingyu; Yuan, Lvfeng; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of chromium propionate on egg production, egg quality, plasma biochemical parameters and egg chromium deposition in late-phase laying hens. Four hundred thirty-two 60-weeks old laying hens were divided into four groups of 108 birds per group according to egg production. The dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet adding with 0, 200, 400, and 600 μg/kg chromium as chromium propionate. All laying hens were given feed and water ad libitum for 8 weeks. The addition of 400 μg/kg Cr as chromium propionate increased egg production (P < 0.01) during the later 4 weeks, but decreased albumen height, yolk color score, and Haugh unit of eggs. Six hundred micrograms per kilogram Cr as chromium propionate supplementation improved shell thickness (P < 0.05). 200 μg/kg Cr as chromium propionate supplementation decreased the uric acid concentration by 31 % (P < 0.05). However, supplemental Cr did not affect the egg chromium deposition of hens (P > 0.05). These data indicated that feeding of late-phase laying hens with chromium propionate could improve egg production, increase eggshell thickness, but do not result in abnormal levels of chromium deposition in eggs.

  10. Effects of chromium-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on growth, blood metabolites, immune traits and tissue chromium in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min-Qi; Wang, Chao; Li, Hui; Du, Yong-Jie; Tao, Wen-Jing; Ye, Shan-Shan; He, Yu-Dan

    2012-11-01

    Effects of chromium-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (Cr-CNP) on growth performance, blood metabolites, immune traits, and tissue chromium in finishing pigs were investigated. A total of 160 crossbred barrows (66.06 ± 1.01 kg initial weight) were randomly divided into four groups, each group with four pens, ten pigs per pen. Pigs were fed on the same basal diet supplemented with 0 (the control), 100, 200, and 400 μg/kg Cr from Cr-CNP. All pigs were given free access to feed and water. Eight pigs from each treatment were selected to collect blood and tissue samples after 35 days on trial for analysis of blood metabolites and immune traits and tissue chromium. The results of feeding trial showed that there were no significant difference in growth performance between control and Cr-CNP-treated groups. The supplementation of Cr-CNP decreased serum glucose (P < 0.001) in a linear and quadratic manner. Serum immunoglobulins A and M were linearly increased in Cr-CNP-treated groups (P < 0.001), and serum complement 4 in Cr-CNP-treated groups was also linearly increased (P < 0.05). Cr-CNP supplementation linearly increased the chromium content in the blood, longissimus muscle, heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas (P < 0.001). These results suggested that dietary supplementation of Cr as Cr-CNP affects serum glucose, influences immune status, and increases the tissue chromium content of blood, muscle, and selected organs in finishing pigs.

  11. Electron magnetic resonance investigation of chromium diffusion in yttria powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Biasi, R. S.; Grillo, M. L. N.

    2010-03-01

    The electron magnetic resonance (EMR) technique was used to investigate the diffusion of chromium in yttria (Y 2O 3) powders. The EMR absorption intensity was measured for several annealing times and three different temperatures of isothermal annealing: 1273, 1323 and 1373 K. The activation temperature for diffusion, calculated from the experimental data using a theoretical model based on the Fick equation, was found to be E A=342±5 kJ mol -1. This value is larger than the activation energy for the diffusion of chromium in rutile (TiO 2), periclase (MgO) and cobalt monoxide (CoO) and smaller than the activation energy for the diffusion of chromium in chrysoberyl (BeAl 2O 4).

  12. Factors affecting the adsorption of chromium (VI) on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Yavuz, R.; Orbak, I.; Karatepe, N.

    2006-09-15

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the adsorption behavior of chromium (VI) on two different activated carbon samples produced from Tuncbilek lignite. The effects of the initial chromium (VI) concentration (250-1000 mg/L), temperature (297-323 K) and pH (2.0-9.5) on adsorption were investigated systematically. The effectiveness of the parameters on chromium adsorption was found to be in the order of pH, the initial Cr(VI) concentration and the temperature. Increasing the pH from 2.0 to 9.5 caused a decrease in adsorption. However, the adsorption was increased by increasing the initial Cr(VI) concentration and temperature. The multilinear mathematical model was also developed to predict the Cr(VI) adsorption on activated carbon samples within the experimental conditions.

  13. The nature of temper brittleness of high-chromium ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrak, V.I.; Suvorova, S.O.; Golovin, I.S.; Mishin, V.M.; Kislyuk, I.V.

    1995-03-01

    The reasons for development of {open_quotes}475{degrees}C brittleness{close_quotes} of high-chromium ferritic steels are considered from the standpoint of fracture mechanics. It is shown that the general rise in the curve of temperature-dependent local flow stress has the decisive influence on the position of the ductile-to-brittle transformation temperature and the increase in it as the result of a hold at temperatures of development of brittleness. The established effect is related to the change in the parameters determining dislocation mobility, that is, the activation energy of dislocation movement in high-chromium ferrite and the resistance to microplastic deformation, both caused by processes of separation into layers of high-chromium ferrite and decomposition of the interstitial solid solution.

  14. Spectroscopic characteristics of chromium-doped mullite glass-ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtowicz, A.J.; Meng, W.; Lempicki, A.; Beall, G.H.; Hall, D.W.

    1988-06-01

    The chromium (3+) ion has been widely used as an optical activator in solid-state, tunable laser materials. High octahedral field-stabilization energy and resistance against both oxidation and reduction minimize the dependence of chromium (3+) on the solid-state host matrix. However, the high sensitivity of electronic structure on crystal field strength makes the appropriate choice of host the condition for success. Characteristics of chromium-doped mullite ceramics are discussed with reference to possible laser applications. Dominant features are attributed to large and inherent spectroscopic inhomogeneity of mullite. The spectroscopic data are analyzed using a generalized McCumber theory. The peak-stimulated emission cross section is 0.54 x 10 to the -20 sq cm. This together with preliminary single-pass measurements, indicate that gain for mullite is about 2.6 times smaller than gain for alexandrite.

  15. Extraction of Chromium from Carbon Ferrochromium Residual Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarevskiy, P. P.; Gizatulin, R. A.; Romanenko, Yu E.; Valuev, D. V.; Valueva, A. V.; Serikbol, A.

    2015-09-01

    This work reports the problem of processing residual wastes after producing carbon ferrochrome by recycling dust using a hydrometallurgical method with the purpose of extracting the basic component - chromium, The X-ray diffraction analysis results, chemical and granulometric compositions of dust from the carbon ferrochrome production are given, The method for the production of chemical-enrichment concentrate (CEC) by processing ferrous dust is described, with obtaining a middling product - sodium mono-chromate with its further reduction to chromium hydroxide, followed by autoclave leaching, and resulting in the production of chemically enriched chrome concentrate, The plant used for autoclave leaching and filtering is schematically depicted, The smelting process of metallic chromium using the ladle aluminothermic method is described,

  16. Bioabsorption of chromium from retan chrome liquor by cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Pandi, M; Shashirekha, V; Swamy, Mahadeswara

    2009-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of chromium from retan chrome liquor by Spirulina fusiformis was investigated under laboratory as well as field conditions. At the optimal conditions, metal ion uptake increased with initial metal ion concentration up to 300mg/l. The effect on various physico-chemical parameters like total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), chlorides, sulphates, phenols, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical studies related to biomass, chlorophyll-a and protein were also carried out. The present study indicates that S. fusiformis is very effective in removal of chromium (93-99%) besides removing other toxicants from retan chrome liquor. The sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and FTIR studies indicate the interaction/complexation between Cr and alga. The mechanism involved in bioaccumulation of chromium is also discussed. The process when upgraded can be applied for detoxification of tannery effluents.

  17. Cancer mortality in relation to environmental chromium exposure.

    PubMed

    Fryzek, J P; Mumma, M T; McLaughlin, J K; Henderson, B E; Blot, W J

    2001-07-01

    From the 1950s to the 1980s, hexavalent chromium compounds were used as additives at certain water-cooling towers at three southern California gas compressor facilities. Claims of potential residential chromium exposure prompted the examination of age-adjusted mortality rates during 1989 to 1998 for lung cancer, all cancer, and all deaths for neighborhoods near versus distant from the plants. Differences in the rates between areas tended to be small and not statistically significant. The only significant difference was a lower, rather than higher, rate of total cancer among women in the potentially exposed areas. Study limitations preclude a definitive assessment of risk, but similar to previous investigations of cancer in relation to environmental chromium exposure in other locations, this study found no evidence of a cancer hazard among residents living near these California gas compressor facilities.

  18. 21 CFR 73.3110a - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.3110a Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3110a Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide (Pigment Blue 36) (CAS Reg. No...

  19. 21 CFR 73.3110a - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.3110a Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3110a Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide (Pigment Blue 36) (CAS Reg. No...

  20. 21 CFR 73.3110a - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.3110a Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3110a Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide (Pigment Blue 36) (CAS Reg. No...

  1. 21 CFR 73.3110a - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.3110a Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3110a Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide (Pigment Blue 36) (CAS Reg. No...

  2. 21 CFR 73.3110a - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.3110a Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3110a Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide (Pigment Blue 36) (CAS Reg. No...

  3. The Effect of Manganese Additions on the Reactive Evaporation of Chromium in Ni-Cr Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Alman, David E.

    2004-10-20

    Chromium is used as an alloy addition in stainless steels and nickel-chromium alloys to form protective chromium oxide scales. Chromium oxide undergoes reactive evaporation in high temperature exposures in the presence of oxygen and/or water vapor. The deposition of gaseous chromium species onto solid oxide fuel cell electrodes can reduce the efficiency of the fuel cell. Manganese additions to the alloy can reduce the activity of chromium in the oxide, either from solid solution replacement of chromium with manganese (at low levels of manganese) or from the formation of manganese-chromium spinels (at high levels of manganese). This reduction in chromium activity leads to a predicted reduction in chromium evaporation by as much as a factor of 35 at 800 C and 55 at 700 C. The results of evaporation loss measurements on nickel-chromium-manganese alloys are compared with the predicted reduction. Quantifying the effects of manganese additions on chromium evaporation should aid alloy development of metallic interconnects and balance-of-plant alloys.

  4. In situ treatment of chromium VI with an iron reduction process

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.A.; Crosbie, J.; O`Neil, S.

    1994-12-31

    Chromium VI is a fairly soluble compound and a known human carcinogen. Consequently, groundwater contamination with Chromium VI often represents a sensitive environmental issue. Removal of Chromium VI from groundwater has most often required long term and expensive pump and treat systems. Chromium III, on the other hand, is an essential nutrient and is, in most forms, highly insoluble. The conversion of Chromium VI, the soluble carcinogenic form, to the non-hazardous, insoluble Chromium III is the basis of many of the commercial water treatment processes such as the Andco{trademark} process or the Unocal, Unipure{trademark} process. Both processes are based on the reaction of Chromium VI with ferrous iron (Fe{sup +2}) to give Chromium III and Iron III, both of which are highly insoluble. This same technology -- iron reduction and precipitation of Chromium VI -- was successfully applied in situ to treat a perched aquifer contaminated with Chromium VI at a former industrial facility. The site was located on the Delaware River in an ecologically sensitive area. Groundwater concentrations of {approximately}85 ppm Chromium VI were successfully reduced to below 50 ppb across most of the site and discharge of Chromium VI into the Delaware River was stopped by the injection of a ferrous sulfate solution. This paper will discuss the selection, laboratory testing, regulatory approval, design and implementation of this in situ iron reduction process. The alternative to this in situ approach is a multi-year pump and treat operation involving high capital expenditure.

  5. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  6. Chromium supplementation alters the glucose and lipid metabolism of feedlot cattle during the receiving period

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crossbreed steers (n = 20; 235 ± 4 kg) were fed 53 d during a receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brand Chromium Propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would alter the glucose or lipid metabolism of newly received cattle. Chromium premixes were supplemented to add 0 (C...

  7. 40 CFR 424.70 - Applicability; description of the electrolytic chromium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... electrolytic chromium subcategory. 424.70 Section 424.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Electrolytic Chromium Subcategory § 424.70 Applicability; description of the electrolytic chromium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2097 - Azo chromium complex dyestuff preparation (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Azo chromium complex dyestuff... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2097 Azo chromium complex dyestuff preparation... substance identified generically as an azo chromium complex dyestuff preparation (PMN P-95-240) is...

  9. 48 CFR 252.223-7008 - Prohibition of Hexava-lent Chromium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Chromium. 252.223-7008 Section 252.223-7008 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7008 Prohibition of Hexava-lent Chromium. As prescribed in 223.7306, use the following clause: Prohibition of Hexavalent Chromium (JUN 2013) (a) Definitions. As used...

  10. 40 CFR 424.70 - Applicability; description of the electrolytic chromium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... electrolytic chromium subcategory. 424.70 Section 424.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Electrolytic Chromium Subcategory § 424.70 Applicability; description of the electrolytic chromium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2097 - Azo chromium complex dyestuff preparation (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Azo chromium complex dyestuff... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2097 Azo chromium complex dyestuff preparation... substance identified generically as an azo chromium complex dyestuff preparation (PMN P-95-240) is...

  12. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  15. Enhancement of the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in steers supplemented with chromium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The study examined the effect of chromium supplementation on the response of steers to an LPS challenge. Twenty steers received a premix that added 0 (control) or 0.2 mg/kg of chromium (KemTRACE®brandChromiumProprionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) to the total diet on a dry matter basis for 55 d. Steer...

  16. Chromium supplementation alters both glucose and lipid metabolism in feedlot cattle during the receiving period

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crossbred steers (n = 20; 235 +/- 4 kg) were fed 53 days during a receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brandChromium Propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would alter the glucose or lipid metabolism of newly received cattle. Chromium premixes were supplemented to add 0...

  17. 40 CFR 424.70 - Applicability; description of the electrolytic chromium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... electrolytic chromium subcategory. 424.70 Section 424.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Electrolytic Chromium Subcategory § 424.70 Applicability; description of the electrolytic chromium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2097 - Azo chromium complex dyestuff preparation (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Azo chromium complex dyestuff... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2097 Azo chromium complex dyestuff preparation... substance identified generically as an azo chromium complex dyestuff preparation (PMN P-95-240) is...

  19. 40 CFR 424.70 - Applicability; description of the electrolytic chromium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... electrolytic chromium subcategory. 424.70 Section 424.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Electrolytic Chromium Subcategory § 424.70 Applicability; description of the electrolytic chromium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of...

  20. 77 FR 61431 - Hexavalent Chromium Standards; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Hexavalent Chromium Standards; Extension of the Office of...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Hexavalent Chromium Standards for... requirements specified in the Hexavalent Chromium (Cr(VI)) Standards for General Industry (29 CFR...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2097 - Azo chromium complex dyestuff preparation (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Azo chromium complex dyestuff... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2097 Azo chromium complex dyestuff preparation... substance identified generically as an azo chromium complex dyestuff preparation (PMN P-95-240) is...

  2. 40 CFR 424.70 - Applicability; description of the electrolytic chromium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... electrolytic chromium subcategory. 424.70 Section 424.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Electrolytic Chromium Subcategory § 424.70 Applicability; description of the electrolytic chromium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2097 - Azo chromium complex dyestuff preparation (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Azo chromium complex dyestuff... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2097 Azo chromium complex dyestuff preparation... substance identified generically as an azo chromium complex dyestuff preparation (PMN P-95-240) is...

  4. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  5. Ferrate treatment for removing chromium from high-level radioactive tank waste.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, P; Rutherford, L A; Gonzalez-Martin, A; Kim, J; Rapko, B M; Lumetta, G J

    2001-01-01

    A method has been developed for removing chromium from alkaline high-level radioactive tank waste. Removing chromium from these wastes is critical in reducing the volume of waste requiring expensive immobilization and deep geologic disposition. The method developed is based on the oxidation of insoluble chromium(III) compounds to soluble chromate using ferrate. This method could be generally applicable to removing chromium from chromium-contaminated solids, when coupled with a subsequent reduction of the separated chromate back to chromium(III). The tests conducted with a simulated Hanford tank sludge indicate that the chromium removal with ferrate is more efficient at 5 M NaOH than at 3 M NaOH. Chromium removal increases with increasing Fe(VI)/Cr(II) molar ratio, but the chromium removal tends to level out for Fe(VI)/ Cr(III) greaterthan 10. Increasingtemperature leadsto better chromium removal, but higher temperatures also led to more rapid ferrate decomposition. Tests with radioactive Hanford tank waste generally confirmed the simulant results. In all cases examined, ferrate enhanced the chromium removal, with a typical removal of around 60-70% of the total chromium present in the washed sludge solids. The ferrate leachate solutions did not contain significant concentrations of transuranic elements, so these solutions could be disposed as low-activity waste.

  6. Chromium does not belong in the diabetes treatment arsenal: Current evidence and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Landman, Gijs Wd; Bilo, Henk Jg; Houweling, Sebastiaan T; Kleefstra, Nanne

    2014-04-15

    Chromium is considered to have positive effects on insulin sensitivity and is marketed as an adjunctive therapy for inducing glucose tolerance in cases of insulin resistance ("the glucose tolerance factor"). Case reports on patients who received prolonged parenteral nutrition indeed showed that the absence of trivalent chromium caused insulin resistance and diabetes. However, whether patients with type 2 diabetes can develop a clinically relevant chromium deficiency is unclear. This review summarizes the available evidence regarding the potential effectiveness of chromium supplementation on glycemic control (Hemoglobin A1c levels) in patients with type 2 diabetes. No studies investigating the long-term safety of chromium in humans were found. All clinical trials that have been performed had a relative short follow-up period. None of the trials investigated whether the patients had risk factors for chromium deficiency. The evidence from randomized trials in patients with type 2 diabetes demonstrated that chromium supplementation does not effectively improve glycemic control. The meta-analyses showed that chromium supplementation did not improve fasting plasma glucose levels. Moreover, there were no clinically relevant chromium effects on body weight in individuals with or without diabetes. Future studies should focus on reliable methods to estimate chromium status to identify patients at risk for pathological alterations in their metabolism associated with chromium deficiency. Given the present data, there is no evidence that supports advising patients with type 2 diabetes to take chromium supplements.

  7. [Metallurgical differentiation of cobalt-chromium alloys for implants].

    PubMed

    Holzwarth, U; Thomas, P; Kachler, W; Göske, J; Schuh, A

    2005-10-01

    Cobalt Chromium alloys are used in cemented total hip or knee arthroplasty as well as in metal-on-metal bearings in total hip arthroplasty. An increasing number of publications report about (allergic) reactions to wear particles of Cobalt Chromium alloys. Reactions to nickel are more frequent in comparison to Cobalt or Chromium particles. It is well known that different kinds of Cobalt Chromium alloys contain different amounts of alloying elements; nevertheless. The aim of the current work was to compare the different Cobalt Chromium alloys according to ASTM F or ISO standards in respect to the different alloying elements. Co28Cr6Mo casting alloys according to ASTM F 75 or ISO 5832-4 as well as forging alloy types according to ASTM F 799 and ISO 5832 such as Co20Cr15W10Ni, Co35Ni20Cr, Fe40Co20Cr10Ni, Co20Cr20Ni, and Co28Cr6Mo were analyzed in respect to their element content of Co, Cr, Ni, Mo, Fe, W, and Mn. In 1935 the Cobalt based alloy "Vitallium" Co30Cr5Mo basically used in the aircraft industry was introduced into medicine. The chemical composition of this alloy based on Cobalt showed 30 wt.% Chromium and 5 wt.% Molybdenum. The differentiation using alloy names showed no Nickel information in single alloy names. The information given about different alloys can lead to an unprecise evaluation of histopathological findings in respect to alloys or alloying constituents. Therefore, implant manufacturers should give the exact information about the alloys used and adhere to European law, Euronorm 93/42/EWG.

  8. The enzymatic hydrolysis of leather waste with chromium recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M.S.; Clesceri, L.S.

    1996-11-01

    The work of Taylor et al. (1990) has shown the potential for alkaline hydrolase enzymes for the solubilization of waste from the tanning industry. The authors have carried this work further to examine the mechanism whereby enzymes release chromium from leather waste. An alkaline digest of waste leather was used in this work. Treatment with strong alkali produced a thick slurry that contained 7,000 ppm chromium. The objective of this work is to optimize a closed cycle system for the recycling of chromium salts for tanning as well as a chrome-free product for use as a fertilizer. The authors are able to track the progress of the leather protein hydrolysis with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). By means of PAGE, it is possible to determine the relationship between chromium release and the extent of protein hydrolysis. Rate constant for hydrolysis and chromium release have been developed for various hydrolysis conditions. Chemical precipitation of chromium from the hydrolysate results in a purified product for reuse in tanning. The chrome-free hydrolysate can be applied as a fertilizer either directly or as a dried product. There are more than 56,000 metric tons of tannery waste produced annually in the US. The majority of the organic solids can be converted into high quality fertilizers. Since the nitrogen is organic rather than inorganic, release is at a controlled rate since the microbody in the soil must make the nitrogen available for plant growth. Leather manufacturing is a world-wide industry. Conversion of leather waste to fertilizers can improve global productivity as well as solve a waste problem.

  9. Toxic effects of chromium on tannery workers at Sialkot (Pakistan).

    PubMed

    Khan, Dilshad Ahmed; Mushtaq, Shahida; Khan, Farooq Ahmad; Khan, Muhammad Qaiser Alam

    2013-03-01

    Chromium is widely used in the leather industry, and tannery workers are under constant threat of adverse health effects due to its excessive exposure. Our objective was to find out the toxic effects of chromium on tannery workers at Sialkot, Pakistan. A total of 240 males consisting of 120 workers from tanneries at Sialkot and equal number of controls were included. Blood complete counts, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, malondialdehyde and routine biochemical tests were carried out by routine procedures. Chromium levels in blood (BCr) and urine were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer Perkin Elmer analyst-200. Results revealed that all the workers were male with average age of 33 years and 15 (13%) had skin rashes, 14 (12%) had chronic bronchitis, 10 (8%) had gastritis and 4 (3%) conjunctivitis. The tannery workers had significantly raised median (interquartile range) of BCr 569 (377-726) nmol/L as compared to 318 (245-397) nmol/L in the control (p < 0.001). Sixty-five (54%) workers had BCr levels above the upper limit set by Agency for Toxic Substance and Drug Registry. The urinary chromium excretion was significantly high in workers 131 (46-312) nmol/L as compared to 13 (3-26) nmol/L in controls (p < 0.01). The workers had hematological, hepatic and renal function impairment because of oxidative stress on body systems. It is concluded that about half of the workers had excessive exposure to chromium in the tanneries at Sialkot. They had significantly raised chromium levels in their biological fluids and adverse health effects due to enhanced oxidative stress and inflammatory changes.

  10. Bioconcentration and phytotoxicity of chromium in Eichhornia crassipes.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Kumkum; Gupta, Kiran; Rai, Upendra Nath

    2009-07-01

    Physico-chemical parameter and metal concentration in effluents of two industries i.e. Tannery industry, Jajmau, Kanpur and Electroplating industry, Scooter India Limited (SIL), Lucknow were determined to assess the toxicity of chromium. Metal accumulation in Eichhomia crassipes growing in these contaminated sites were also determined. For laboratory toxicity testing the plants were exposed to nutrient solution containing Cr concentration ranging from 0.01-10 microg ml(-1) for 24-96 hr. Accumulation of chromium was observed to be dependent on its concentration and time of exposure and was greater in roots (789.3 mg g(-1) d.wt.) than in leaves (335.6 mg g(-1) d.wt.) after 96 hrat 10 microg ml(-1) concentration. Under field conditions the accumulation of Cr was 1258 and 733.3 in roots and 94 and 53 microg g(-1) d.wt. in leaves of E. crassipes growing in Jajmau, Kanpur tanning industry and SIL effluents, respectively. It was found that lower doses (0.01-0.1 microg ml(-1)) of chromium had stimulatory effect on various metabolic activities in plants including chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll, protein, nitrate reductase and mitotic index. Whereas higher doses of chromium had inhibitory effect. The carotenoid content and number of micronuclei was found directly proportional to the concentration of chromium and increased with increase in concentration of chromium to which plants were exposed. It may be concluded from the present study that E. crassipes is tolerant to the elevated Cr concentration as there is no inhibition of chlorophyll and carotenoid up to 0.1 microg ml(-1) at 24 and 48 hr exhibiting phytotoxicity at higher concentration. Therefore, E. crassipes may be used as bioassay for biomonitoring and control of Cr pollution in the environment.

  11. Chromium boron surfaced nickel-iron base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashid, James M. (Inventor); Friedrich, Leonard A. (Inventor); Freling, Melvin (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Chromium boron diffusion coatings on nickel iron alloys uniquely provide them with improvement in high cycle fatigue strength (up to 30%) and erosion resistance (up to 15 times), compared to uncoated alloy. The diffused chromium layer extends in two essential concentration zones to a total depth of about 40.times.10.sup.-6 m, while the succeeding boron layer is limited to 50-90% of the depth of the richest Cr layer nearest the surface. Both coatings are applied using conventional pack diffusion processes.

  12. Hydrolytic polymerization of chromium (III). 2. A trimeric species

    SciTech Connect

    Finholt, J.E.; Thompson, M.E.; Connick, R.E.

    1981-12-01

    With use of an ion-exchange displacement elution, a green species was separated from mixtures of Cr(III) polymers and its absorption spectrum determined. The hydroxides per chromium atom were found to be 4/3, and the charge per chromium atom was shown to be consistent with this value. The degree of polymerization of freezing point depression was close to 3. Measurements are reported for the equilibrium quotient for the formation of the trimer from the monomer. The ESR spectrum and magnetic susceptibility were determined, and the results are discussed in terms of possible structures.

  13. Use of chitosan for chromium removal from exhausted tanning baths.

    PubMed

    Cesaro, Raffaele; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Lanzetta, Rosa; Mancino, Anna; Naviglio, Biagio; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Sartorio, Roberto; Tomaselli, Michele; Tortora, Gelsomina

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach, based on chitosan heavy-metal sequestrating ability, is proposed for chromium(III) removal from spent tanning liquor. Experimental results, obtained at lab-scale using real wastewater, are presented and discussed. Resulting efficiencies are extremely high, and strongly dependent on chitosan dose and pH value. Comparative analyses with other polysaccharides is also carried out showing that amine groups are more efficient than carboxyl and sulphate ones. Chromium recovery from sorption complexes and chitosan regeneration is finally proposed to optimize the whole process.

  14. Hot corrosion resistance of nickel-chromium-aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.; Barrett, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    The hot corrosion resistance of nickel-chromium-aluminum alloy was examined by cyclically oxidizing sodium sulfate coated specimens in still air at 900, 1000 and 1100 C. The compositions tested were within the ternary region: Ni; Ni-50 at.% Cr; and Ni-50 at.% Al. At each temperature the corrosion data were statistically fitted to a third order regression equation as a function of chromium and aluminum contents. Corrosion isopleths were prepared from these equations. Compositional regions with the best hot corrosion resistance were identified.

  15. Electrodeposited tungsten-nickel-boron: A replacement for hexavalent chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

    1995-04-01

    Chromium, deposited from acidic solutions of its hexavalent ion, has been the rule for wear resistant, corrosion resistant coatings for many years. Although chromium coatings are durable, the plating process generates air emissions, effluent rinse waters, and process solutions that are toxic, suspected carcinogens, and a risk to human health and the environment. Tungsten-nickel-boron (W-Ni-B) alloy deposition is a potential substitute for hexavalent chrome. It has excellent wear, corrosion, and mechanical properties and also may be less of an environmental risk. This study examines the electroplating process and deposit properties of W-Ni-B and compares them with those of hexavalent chrome.

  16. A review of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klopp, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanical properties of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten alloys are reviewed with particular emphasis on high-temperature strength and low-temperature ductility. Precipitate strengthening is highly effective at 0.4 to 0.8 times the melting temperature in these metals, with HfC being most effective in tungsten and molybdenum, and Ta(B,C) most effective in chromium. Low-temperature ductility can be improved by alloying to promote rhenium ductilizing or solution softening. The low-temperature mechanical properties of these alloys appear related to electronic interactions rather than to the usual metallurgical considerations.

  17. Effective gain measurements in chromium-doped forsterite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petricevic, V.; Seas, A.; Alfano, R. R.

    1991-01-01

    Effective gain cross section in tetravalent chromium-doped forsterite laser crystal was measured over the 1180-1330 nm spectral range. The experiment was performed using two collinear laser beams in a pump-and-probe arrangement. The peak-gain cross section from this measurement is estimated to be 1.9 x 10 to the -19th sq cm at 1215 nm, which is comparable to the value of about 2 x 10 to the -19th sq cm predicted by fluorescence linewidth and lifetime measurements. These results indicate that excited-state absorption is not a major loss mechanism in tetravalent chromium-doped forsterite.

  18. Nickel and chromium cycles: Stocks and flows project part IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reck, Barbara K.; Gordon, Robert B.

    2008-07-01

    Nickel and chromium are essential ingredients in alloys increasingly important for energy-efficient, environmentally friendly modern technology. Quantitative assessment of the flows of these metals through the world economy from resource extraction to final disposal informs resource policy, energy planning, environmental science, and waste management. This article summarizes the worldwide technological cycles of nickel and chromium in 2000. Stainless steel is the major use of these metals, but they serve numerous other special needs, as in superalloys for high-temperature service, as plating materials, and in coinage. Because they are used primarily in alloys, novel recycling issues arise as their use becomes more widespread.

  19. Hot corrosion resistance of nickel-chromium-aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.; Barret, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    The hot corrosion resistance of nickel-chromium-aluminum alloys was examined by cyclically oxidizing sodium sulfate-coated specimens in still air at 900, 1000, and 1100 C. The compositions tested were within the ternary region: Ni, Ni-50 at.% Cr, and Ni-50 at.% Al. At each temperature the corrosion data were statistically fitted to a third order regression equation as a function of chromium and aluminum contents. From these equations corrosion isopleths were prepared. Compositional regions with the best hot corrosion resistance were identified.

  20. Effective gain measurements in chromium-doped forsterite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petricevic, V.; Seas, A.; Alfano, R. R.

    1991-01-01

    Effective gain cross section in tetravalent chromium-doped forsterite laser crystal was measured over the 1180-1330 nm spectral range. The experiment was performed using two collinear laser beams in a pump-and-probe arrangement. The peak-gain cross section from this measurement is estimated to be 1.9 x 10 to the -19th sq cm at 1215 nm, which is comparable to the value of about 2 x 10 to the -19th sq cm predicted by fluorescence linewidth and lifetime measurements. These results indicate that excited-state absorption is not a major loss mechanism in tetravalent chromium-doped forsterite.

  1. Chromium: celebrating 50 years as an essential element?

    PubMed

    Vincent, John B

    2010-04-28

    Fifty years ago the element chromium was proposed to be an essential element for mammals with a role in maintaining proper carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Over the next several decades, chromium nutritional supplements became so popular for weight loss and muscle development that sales were second only to calcium among mineral supplements. However, the failure to identify the responsible biomolecules that bind Cr and their mode of action has resulted in the status of Cr being readdressed in recent years. This review considers research on the biochemistry of Cr(III) over the last two decades and how the results have affected the current status of Cr as an essential element.

  2. A review of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klopp, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanical properties of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten alloys are reviewed with particular emphasis on high-temperature strength and low-temperature ductility. Precipitate strengthening is highly effective at 0.4 to 0.8 times the melting temperature in these metals, with HfC being most effective in tungsten and molybdenum, and Ta(B,C) most effective in chromium. Low-temperature ductility can be improved by alloying to promote rhenium ductilizing or solution softening. The low-temperature mechanical properties of these alloys appear related to electronic interactions rather than to the usual metallurgical considerations.

  3. Dielectric properties of polyamide 12-chromium(III) oxide nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, Vjacheslav V.; Shapoval, Ekaterina S.; Sakhatskii, Aleksandr S.

    2016-08-01

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy was employed to study polymer nanocomposites based on PA12 filled with of nanosized chromium(III) oxide. The experimental dielectric data were analyzed within the formalisms of complex permittivity and electric modulus. Three relaxation processes and Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars (MWS) interfacial polarizations were observed. It was found that presence of nanosized amphoteric chromium(III) oxide leads to softening of polyamide matrix that manifested in decrease of the activation energy of the α- and β-relaxation processes and glass transition temperatures. The softening of polymer matrix is the reason of the decrease of mechanical strength of polymer nanocomposites as compared with neat PA12.

  4. Reaction diffusion in the nickel-chromium-aluminum and cobalt-chromium-aluminum systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of MCrAl coating-substrate interdiffusion on oxidation life and the general mutliphase, multicomponent diffusion problem were examined. Semi-infinite diffusion couples that had sources representing coatings and sinks representing gas turbine alloys were annealed at 1,000, 1,095, 1,150, or 1,205 C for as long as 500 hours. The source and sink aluminum and chromium contents and the base metal (cobalt or nickel) determined the parabolic diffusion rate constants of the couples and predicted finite coating lives. The beta source strength concept provided a method (1) for correlating beta recession rate constants with composition; (2) for determining reliable average total, diffusion, and constitutional activation energies; and (3) for calculating interdiffusion coefficients.

  5. Fertilizers and Mixed Crop Cultivation of Chromium Tolerant and Sensitive Plants under Chromium Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Dheeba, B.; Sampathkumar, P.; Kannan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Zea mays (maize) and Vigna radiata (green gram) are found to be the chromium (Cr) tolerant and sensitive plants, respectively. In the present paper, we investigate the reduction of the toxicity of Cr in the sensitive plants by the mixed crop cultivation in the field using various amendments. Further, the potassium dichromate was used as the source of hexavalent Cr. The results indicated that Cr adversely affects both the growth and yield of plants. The soil properties vary with Cr and different fertilizer amendments and the yield of both plants were affected by Cr. We conclude that metal accumulation of seeds of green gram was higher than corn and the application of single fertilizer either farm yard manure (FYM) or nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium (NPK) enhances the growth and yield of both the tolerant and sensitive plants in the mixed crop cultivations. PMID:25709647

  6. Increasing total and biologically active chromium in wheat grain and spinach by spraying with chromium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Vicini, F.A.; Ellis, B.G.

    1981-06-01

    Recently, chromium has been shown to be necessary for glucose metabolism in man. But most plant species greatly restrict the uptake of Cr. This study was conducted to determine if both total and biologically active Cr could be increased in wheat grain or spinach by spraying the plants with either Cr/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ or Cr-EDTA. Concentrations of Cr in wheat grain were about doubled in a greenhouse experiment by spraying with either Cr source. Biologically active Cr (estimated by extraction with ethanol or NH/sub 4/OH) was increased from about 40 to greater than 50% of total Cr when wheat was sprayed with Cr salts. Total Cr in spinach leaves was increased by as much as 10-fold by spraying, with the sulfate source being more effective than the EDTA.

  7. Reducing chromium losses from a chromium plating bath. 1987 summer intern report. Project conducted at New Dimension Plating, Hutchinson, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Achman, D.

    1987-12-31

    The company employs about forty people and operates for one or two eight hour shifts with an average of 315 racks of chrome plating per eight hour day. They plate a variety of metals including copper, nickel, gold, brass and chromium. Chromium is the major metal plated and is usually the last step in plating cycle. Most parts are copper plated and then nickel plated in preparation for chrome plating. The main difference between New Dimension Plating and other plating shops is the variety of parts plated. As New Dimension Plating is a job shop, a wide range of parts such as motorcycle accessories, stove parts, and custom items are metal finished. The plating lines are manual, meaning employees dip the racks into the tanks by hand. This fact along with the fact that parts vary greatly in size and shape accounts for the significant drag-out on the chromium plating line.

  8. Interferences in the spectrophotometric S-diphenylcarbazide determination of environmental hexavalent chromium in a chromium and zinc plating plant.

    PubMed

    Carelli, G; La Bua, R; Rimatori, V; Porcelli, D; Iannaccone, A

    1981-03-01

    A study on the determination of environmental hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] was carried out in a chromium and zinc plating plant. The atmospheric particulate was collected both on glass wool filters and with an electrostatic sampler; Cr(VI) was determined by the S-diphenylcarbazide method. The filtered and electrostatically collected Cr(VI) was extracted with both 1.4% sulfuric acid and 7% sodium carbonate. Strong interference was observed when extraction was carried out with the acid medium. Alkaline extraction permits 95 +/- 6 (+/- SD)% recovery of the total chromium and has been shown to be suitable in releasing Cr(VI). The analyses of the alkaline samples were carried out with the standard addition method to compensate for a depressive interference of 26 +/- 8 (+/- SD)%. The absorbance decrease of the Cr-S-diphenylcarbazide complex is a time function, and it should be measured within a few minutes of the reagent addition.

  9. STS-47 Crew Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The crew of STS-47, Commander Robert L. Gibson, Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Payload Commander Mark C. Lee, Mission Specialists N. Jan Davis, Jay Apt, and Mae C. Jemison, and Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri answer questions from the press about the upcoming Endeavour mission and the crew's personal views of the mission.

  10. Reactor target from metal chromium for "pure" high-intensive artificial neutrino source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrin, V. N.; Kozlova, Yu. P.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Logachev, A. V.; Logacheva, A. I.; Lednev, I. S.; Okunkova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the first results of development of manufacturing technology of metallic chromium targets from highly enriched isotope 50Cr for irradiation in a high flux nuclear reactor to obtain a compact high intensity neutrino source with low content of radionuclide impurities and minimum losses of enriched isotope. The main technological stages are the hydrolysis of chromyl fluoride, the electrochemical reduction of metallic chromium, the hot isostatic pressing of chromium powder and the electrical discharge machining of chromium bars. The technological stages of hot isostatic pressing of chromium powder and of electrical discharge machining of Cr rods have been tested.

  11. The bond strength of porcelain to Ni-Cr alloy--the influence of tin or chromium plating.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Murakami, T; Terada, Y

    1992-01-01

    Nickel-chromium alloys were plated with tin and chromium to evaluate the effect on porcelain shear bond strength. Six plating methods were used. Additionally, the microstructure of the bond between the plated alloy and porcelain were studied using SEM and EPMA. Tin plating increased the bond strength of porcelain to a nickel-chromium alloy while chromium plating did not.

  12. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium... by weight of the chromium (Cr III) complex of heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonic acid may be...

  13. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium... by weight of the chromium (Cr III) complex of heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonic acid may be...

  14. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium... by weight of the chromium (Cr III) complex of heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonic acid may be...

  15. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium... by weight of the chromium (Cr III) complex of heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonic acid may be...

  16. Oral chromium picolinate and control of glycemia in insulin-treated diabetic dogs.

    PubMed

    Schachter, S; Nelson, R W; Kirk, C A

    2001-01-01

    Chromium is an essential dietary trace mineral involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Chromium is required for cellular uptake of glucose, and chromium deficiency causes insulin resistance. Chromium supplementation may improve insulin sensitivity and has been used as adjunct treatment of diabetes mellitus in humans. In this study, 13 dogs with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus were treated with insulin for 3 months, then with insulin and chromium picolinate for 3 months. Dogs weighing <15 kg (33 lb: n = 9) were administered 200 microg of chromium picolinate PO once daily for I month, then 200 microg of chromium picolinate twice daily for 2 months. Dogs weighing >15 kg (n = 4) received 200 microg of chromium picolinate once daily for 2 weeks, then 200 microg twice daily for 2 weeks, then 400 microg twice daily for 2 months. Type of insulin, frequency of insulin administration, and diet were kept constant, and insulin dosage was adjusted, as needed, to maintain optimal control of glycemia. Mean body weight, daily insulin dosage, daily caloric intake, 10-hour mean blood glucose concentration, blood glycated hemoglobin concentration, and serum fructosamine concentration were not markedly different when dogs were treated with insulin and chromium picolinate, compared with insulin alone. Adverse effects were not identified with chromium picolinate administration. Results of this study suggest that, at a dosage range of 20-60 microg/kg/d, chromium picolinate caused no beneficial or harmful effects in insulin-treated diabetic dogs.

  17. The effect of chromium picolinate on serum cholesterol and apolipoprotein fractions in human subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Press, R. I.; Geller, J.; Evans, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    Chromium has been implicated as a cofactor in the maintenance of normal lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. A deficiency of chromium results from diets low in biologically available chromium. Picolinic acid, a metabolite of tryptophan, forms stable complexes with transitional metal ions, which results in an improved bioavailability of the metal ion chromium. To determine whether or not chromium picolinate is effective in humans, 28 volunteer subjects were given either chromium tripicolinate (3.8 micromol [200 micrograms] chromium) or a placebo daily for 42 days in a double-blind crossover study. A 14-day period off capsules was used between treatments. Levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B, the principal protein of the LDL fraction, decreased significantly while the subjects were ingesting chromium picolinate. The concentration of apolipoprotein A-I, the principal protein of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction, increased substantially during treatment with chromium picolinate. The HDL-cholesterol level was elevated slightly but not significantly during ingestion of chromium picolinate. Only apolipoprotein B, of the variables measured, was altered significantly during supplementation with the placebo. These observations show that chromium picolinate is efficacious in lowering blood lipids in humans. PMID:2408233

  18. Chromium(VI) transport and fate in unsaturated zone and aquifer: 3D Sandbox results.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xingmin; Sobecky, Patricia A; Zhao, Lanpo; Crawford, Patrice; Li, Mingtang

    2016-04-05

    The simulation of Cr(VI) behavior in an unsaturated zone and aquifer, using a 3D experimental set-up were performed to illustrate the distribution, transport and transformation of Cr(VI), and further to reveal the potential harm of Cr(VI) after entering the groundwater. The result indicated that chromium(VI) was transported in the vertical direction, meanwhile, was transported in the horizontal direction under the influence of groundwater flow. The direction and distance away from the pollution source zone had great effect on the chromium(VI) concentration. At the sampling sites near the pollution source zone, there was a sudden increase of chromium(VI) concentration. The concentration of chromium(III) concentration in some random effluent samples was not detected. Chromium had not only transported but also had fraction and specie transformation in the unsaturated zone and aquifer. The relative concentration of residue fraction chromium was decreased with time. The content of Fe-Mn oxide fraction chromium was increased with time. The relative content of exchangeable and carbonate-bound fraction chromium was lower and the content variations were not obvious. Chromium(VI) (91-98%) was first reduced to chromium(III) rapidly. The oxidation reaction occurred later and the relative content of chromium(VI) was increased again. The presence of manganese oxides under favorable soil conditions can promote the reoxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI).

  19. The chromium accumulation and its physiological effects in juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii, exposed to different levels of dietary chromium (Cr(6+)) concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile rockfish (mean length 13.7±1.7 cm, and mean weight 55.6±4.8 g) were exposed for 4 weeks with the different levels of dietary chromium (Cr(6+)) at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg. The profile of chromium in the tissues of rockfish is dependent on the exposure periods and chromium concentration. After 4 weeks, the order of chromium accumulation in tissues was liver>kidney>spleen>intestine>gill>muscle. The dietary chromium exposure decreased the growth rate and hepatosomatic index of rockfish. The major hematological findings were significant decrease in the red blood cell (RBC) count, hematocrit (Ht) value, and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration exposed to ≥120 mg/kg chromium concentrations. The dietary chromium exposure (≥120 mg/kg) led to notable increase in glucose, cholesterol, glutamic oxalate transaminase (GOT), and glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT) in plasma, whereas there was no considerable change in calcium, magnesium, total protein, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The results indicated that the dietary chromium exposure to rockfish can induce significant chromium accumulation in the specific tissues, inhibition of growth, and hematological alterations.

  20. Magnetic Exchange Interactions in the Linear Chain Chromium (III) Compounds Catena-Fluorophthalocyaninato chromium (III) and Catena-Cyanophthalocyaninato chromium (III).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    to JAF which are the predominant exchange interactions in fluoro-bridged [CrPcF]n. Exchange in (CrPcCN]n. The electronic configuration of the cyanide ...The coordination of cyanide to metal ions is stabilized by dative X bonding. In this particular case, there is the possibility for dative X bonding...between chromiu~m(III) and * cyanide which involves the KX y orbitals of cyanide and xz, yz orbitals of chromium. This bonding interaction is much greater

  1. Controlling chromium slag pollution utilising scavengers: a case of Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changhao; Côté, Raymond P

    2015-04-01

    The problem of chromium slag pollution is a great challenge for China. It is now an urgent task for China to take effective measures to eliminate chromium slag pollution. This article examines the case of the treatment of chromium slag in Shandong Province and explores how chromium slag pollution can be eliminated in Shandong Province. It shows that the chromium slag stockpiled by the chemical plants was successfully utilised by local steel companies, who act as 'scavenger companies'. The driving mechanism, seeking a potential 'scavenger company' within the local region and the role of the local government on the case of Shandong Province are discussed. This article concludes that local steel companies can be utilised to effectively and efficiently treat the chromium slag while benefiting the steel companies. The local governments need to play multiple roles in solving the problem of chromium slag pollution. Seeking and identifying 'scavenger companies' within a region could be an important approach to reducing pollution within the region.

  2. Electrochemical removal of chromium from waste water. Rept. for 20 Jul 91-19 May 92

    SciTech Connect

    Prentice, G.; Wilson, T.; Walker, C.

    1992-07-15

    The authors carried out a study to determine the feasibility of electrochemically removing chromium from plating wastewater. Hexavalent chromium is a carcinogen and its discharge is required to be near 1 ppm. In this work they determined the effects of key variables including temperature, electrolyte flow rate, pH, and electrode composition. At the low chromium concentrations found in plating wastewater, they determined that the rate of chromium ion removal was mass transfer limited. Of the four electrode types tested, only gold gave significantly enhanced performance; however, graphite would probably be the most cost-effective for large-scale application. Chromium reduction rate was significantly increased at reduced pH. Because chromium ion solubility increases at lower pH, the higher removal rate would need to to be balanced against higher chromium redissolution rate in a practical system. A preliminary analysis based on the laboratory data indicates that a practical system based on electrochemical technology is feasible.

  3. Ailanthus Altissima and Phragmites Australis for chromium removal from a contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Ranieri, Ezio; Fratino, Umberto; Petrella, Andrea; Torretta, Vincenzo; Rada, Elena Cristina

    2016-08-01

    The comparative effectiveness for hexavalent chromium removal from irrigation water, using two selected plant species (Phragmites australis and Ailanthus altissima) planted in soil contaminated with hexavalent chromium, has been studied in the present work. Total chromium removal from water was ranging from 55 % (Phragmites) to 61 % (Ailanthus). After 360 days, the contaminated soil dropped from 70 (initial) to 36 and 41 mg Cr/kg (dry soil), for Phragmites and Ailanthus, respectively. Phragmites accumulated the highest amount of chromium in the roots (1910 mg Cr/kg(dry tissue)), compared with 358 mg Cr/kg(dry tissue) for Ailanthus roots. Most of chromium was found in trivalent form in all plant tissues. Ailanthus had the lowest affinity for Cr(VI) reduction in the root tissues. Phragmites indicated the highest chromium translocation potential, from roots to stems. Both plant species showed good potentialities to be used in phytoremediation installations for chromium removal.

  4. Moss biomonitoring of air pollution with chromium in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vučković, Ivana; Spirić, Zdravko; Stafilov, Trajče; Kušan, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the atmospheric deposition of chromium in Croatia by using moss biomonitoring technique and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Moss samples (Hylocomium splendens, Hypnum cupressiforme, Brachythecium rutabulum and Homalothecium Sericeum) were collected from 121 sampling sites evenly distributed over the country, during the summer and autumn of 2010. Collected samples were air dried, then cleaned and digested by using microwave digestion system. The median value obtained in this study (1.94 mg kg⁻¹) compared with the median value of previous investigation performed in 2006 (2.75 mg kg⁻¹) shows that the content of chromium decreased. Higher contents of chromium were found in moss samples collected in the regions of Central Croatia, in/near the cities of Zagreb, Sisak and Kutina, which, in the most of the cases, are result of anthropogenic activities. In Costal Croatia, higher values have a natural origin due to the significantly higher content of Cr in soil from this region. The results were compared with those from similar studies in neighboring and other Balkan countries. It was established that the content of chromium in Croatia is lower than in the most of these countries.

  5. Intestinal absorption of chromium as affected by wheat bran

    SciTech Connect

    Keim, K.S.; Holloway, C.L.; Hegsted, M.

    1986-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the influence of dietary fiber, as found in wheat bran, on the absorption of chromium. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups of 10. The control was fed a semi-purified diet containing casein, methionine, cornstarch, sucrose, corn oil, mineral and vitamin mix, and choline bitartrate. The experimental group was fed the same diet but with soft red winter wheat bran added to a level of 35% of the diet at the expense of sucrose. To determine chromium absorption and uptake by selected tissues, rats were fasted for 24 hr, fed 5 g of the respective diet, 2 hr later intubated with 100..mu..Ci of Cr-51of sacrificed 24 hr later. The rats wee housed in metabolic cages after the Cr-51 intubation. The addition of wheat brand to the diet did not significantly affect chromium absorption as measured by percent dose of Cr-51 in the 24 hr urine. The percent dose in the control group was 0.68 +/- 0.20% (mean +/- SEM) and in the experimental group 0.63 +/- 0.24% (mean +/-SEM) (N.S.). The cr-51 uptake of liver, spleen, jejunum, and blood was not statistically different between groups. These results indicate that dietary fiber as found in wheat bran does not impair intestinal absorption of chromium.

  6. Chromium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Dearomatization Addition Reactions of Halomethyl Heteroarenes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qingshan; Bai, Jing; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Guozhu

    2016-04-15

    The first asymmetric dearomatization addition reaction of halomethyl arenes including benzofuran and benzothiophene was enabled by chromium catalysis. A variety of aldehydes served as suitable electrophiles under mild reaction conditions. Molecular complexities are quickly increased in a highly diastereo- and enantioselective manner.

  7. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM (INTERAGENCY SCIENCE CONSULTATION DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On Septemeber 30, 2010, the draft Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agenc...

  8. Chemical properties and biotoxicity of several chromium picolinate derivatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Yanfei; Chai, Jie; Hu, Xiangquan; Wu, Duoming; Yang, Binsheng

    2016-11-01

    As a man-made additive, chromium picolinate Cr(pic)3 has become a popular dietary supplement worldwide. In this paper Cr(pic)3 and its new derivatives Cr(6-CH3-pic)3 (1), [Cr(6-NH2-pic)2(H2O)2]NO3 (2) and Cr(3-NH2-pic)3 (3) were synthesized, and complexes 1 and 2 were characterized by X-ray crystal structure (where pic=2-carboxypyridine). The relationship between the chemical properties and biotoxicity of these complexes was fully discussed: (1) The dynamics stability of chromium picolinate complexes mainly depends on the CrN bonds length. (2) There is a positive correlation between the dynamics stability, electrochemical potentials and generation of reactive oxygen species through Fenton-like reaction. (3) However, no biological toxicity was observed through MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and sub-chronic oral toxicity study for these chromium picolinate compounds. Together, our findings establish a framework for understanding the structure-property-toxicity relationships of the chromium picolinate complexes.

  9. 76 FR 8773 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. On December 22, 2010...

  10. Extended followup of a cohort of chromium production workers

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Peter St. John; Wang, Jing; Grace O'Leary, Keri

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study evaluates the mortality of 2,354 workers first employed at a Baltimore chromate production plant between 1950 and 1974. Methods The National Death Index (NDI Plus) was used to determine vital status and cause of death. Cumulative chromium (VI) exposure and nasal and skin irritation were evaluated as risk factors for lung cancer mortality. Results There are 91,186 person‐years of observation and 217 lung cancer deaths. Cumulative chromium (VI) exposure, nasal irritation, nasal perforation, nasal ulceration, and other forms of irritation (e.g., skin irritation) were associated with lung cancer mortality. Conclusion Cumulative chromium (VI) exposure was a risk factor for lung cancer death. Cancer deaths, other than lung cancer, were not significantly elevated. Irritation may be a possible mechanism for chromium (VI)‐induced lung cancer. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:905–913, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26041683

  11. Chromium toxicity to nitrifying bacteria: implications to wastewater treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromium, a heavy metal that enters wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through industrial discharges, can be toxic to microorganisms carrying out important processes within biological wastewater treatment systems. The effect of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) on ammonia dependent specific ox...

  12. Zinc-65 and chromium-51 in foods and people.

    PubMed

    PERKINS, R W; NIELSEN, J M; ROESCH, W C; McCALL, R C

    1960-12-23

    Some radioisotopes introduced into the Columbia River via effluent water from reactors at Hanford, Wash., are found in crops irrigated with this water and in sea food harvested near the mouth of the river. Measurements of zinc-65 and chromium-Si in foods and in individuals consuming these foods are reported and are compared with zinc-65 concentrations resulting from fallout.

  13. Chromium ion plating studies for enhancement of bearing lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    Six 440-C hardened stainless steel roller bearing test rods were ion plated with various chromium films of thicknesses from .2 microns to 7 microns. The thinner (approximately .2 microns) coating sample had 3 times the fatigue life of the unplated (standard) specimens. Contrastingly, the samples having thicker coatings (several microns) had short fatigue lives (about 3% of the unplated standard).

  14. Chromium toxicity to nitrifying bacteria: implications to wastewater treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromium, a heavy metal that enters wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through industrial discharges, can be toxic to microorganisms carrying out important processes within biological wastewater treatment systems. The effect of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) on ammonia dependent specific ox...

  15. Preparation of Alumina Nanorods from Chromium-Containing Alumina Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuan; Deng, Bin; Sun, Tong; Li, Wei; Duan, Chang-ping

    2017-06-01

    Alumina nanorods were prepared from chromium-containing alumina sludge, and the effects of doping elements, such as Cr, Fe, and Mg, were researched. The results show that the crystal transformation of alumina is restricted by the doped Cr and facilitated by the doped Fe and Mg, which is transformed from θ-Al2O3 to α-Al2O3 in the calcination process. Meanwhile, the crystal transformation of alumina is strongly restrained by co-doped elements from the chromium-containing alumina sludge. The doped elements change the course of phase structure transformation and slightly transform the chemical bond of the alumina nanorods. The impure elements are doped in the alumina crystal and restrain the crystalline growth of alumina nanorods according to the rules. In the sample prepared from chromium-containing alumina sludge, more Cr and Mg but fewer Fe are doped, and most Cr are existed as Cr(III). It is possible that the Fe-doping is confined by the competition of Cr and Mg. Moreover, the lattice imperfection of alumina is caused by doped ions, such as Cr, Fe, and Mg, and the chemical state of O and Al are affected. The findings by these experiments provide essential information for eliminating pollution and promoting comprehensive utilization of the chromium-containing alumina sludge.

  16. 21 CFR 73.3111 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chromium oxide greens. 73.3111 Section 73.3111 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... required to accomplish the intended coloring effect. (2) Authorization and compliance with this use...

  17. 21 CFR 73.3111 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chromium oxide greens. 73.3111 Section 73.3111 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... required to accomplish the intended coloring effect. (2) Authorization and compliance with this use...

  18. Environmental exposure to arsenic and chromium in an industrial area.

    PubMed

    Vimercati, Luigi; Gatti, Maria F; Gagliardi, Tommaso; Cuccaro, Francesco; De Maria, Luigi; Caputi, Antonio; Quarato, Marco; Baldassarre, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic and chromium are widespread environmental contaminants that affect global health due to their toxicity and carcinogenicity. To date, few studies have investigated exposure to arsenic and chromium in a population residing in a high-risk environmental area. The aim of this study is to evaluate the exposure to arsenic and chromium in the general population with no occupational exposure to these metals, resident in the industrial area of Taranto, Southern Italy, through biological monitoring techniques. We measured the levels of chromium, inorganic arsenic, and methylated metabolites, in the urine samples of 279 subjects residing in Taranto and neighboring areas. Qualified health staff administered a standardized structured questionnaire investigating lifestyle habits and controlling for confounding factors. The biological monitoring data showed high urinary concentrations of both the heavy metals investigated, particularly Cr. On this basis, it will be necessary to carry out an organized environmental monitoring program, taking into consideration all exposure routes so as to correlate the environmental concentrations of these metals with the biomonitoring results.

  19. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM (INTERAGENCY SCIENCE CONSULTATION DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On Septemeber 30, 2010, the draft Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agenc...

  20. New alloys to conserve critical elements. [replacing chromium in steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Previous studies and surveys on availability of domestic reserves have shown that chromium is a most critical element within the U.S. metal industry. More precisely, the bulk of chromium is consumed in the production of stainless steels, specifically Type 304 stainless steel (304SS) which contains 18% Cr. The present paper deals with means of reducing chromium in commercial stainless steels by substituting more abundant or less expensive elements with the intent of maintaining the properties of 304SS. The discussion focuses on some of the oxidation and corrosion properties of new substitute stainless steels with only 12% Cr, which represents a potential saving of 33% of the chromium consumed in the production of 304SS. The alloying elements substituted for Cr in 304SS are selected according to their potential for protective oxide formation during high-temperature oxidation; these are Al, Si, Ti, Y, and misch metal which is 99.7% rare-earth metals containing 50 to 55% cerium. Other alloying elements to impart corrosion resistance are Mn, Mo, and V.

  1. New alloys to conserve critical elements. [replacing chromium in steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Previous studies and surveys on availability of domestic reserves have shown that chromium is a most critical element within the U.S. metal industry. More precisely, the bulk of chromium is consumed in the production of stainless steels, specifically Type 304 stainless steel (304SS) which contains 18% Cr. The present paper deals with means of reducing chromium in commercial stainless steels by substituting more abundant or less expensive elements with the intent of maintaining the properties of 304SS. The discussion focuses on some of the oxidation and corrosion properties of new substitute stainless steels with only 12% Cr, which represents a potential saving of 33% of the chromium consumed in the production of 304SS. The alloying elements substituted for Cr in 304SS are selected according to their potential for protective oxide formation during high-temperature oxidation; these are Al, Si, Ti, Y, and misch metal which is 99.7% rare-earth metals containing 50 to 55% cerium. Other alloying elements to impart corrosion resistance are Mn, Mo, and V.

  2. Self reported health of people in an area contaminated by chromium waste: interview study.

    PubMed

    McCarron, P; Harvey, I; Brogan, R; Peters, T J

    2000-01-01

    To compare the self reported health of a group of individuals living in an area contaminated by chromium (chromium group) with a group living in an uncontaminated area (control group), and to assess the effects of perception of risk from exposure to chromium on health. Cross sectional study using the SF-36 validated quality of life questionnaire. Further questions were added to examine the relations between perceptions about living on or near land contaminated with chromium and the effects on self reported health. An area contaminated with chromium (Cambuslang, Carmyle, and Rutherglen) and a control area (Barrmulloch and Pollok). Residents of an area containing chromium landfill and residents of an uncontaminated control area. Scores on SF-36. Little difference was found in health scores between the two groups, and only for general health was there a significantly higher score in the chromium group. Health scores for the chromium group were significantly worse across all dimensions for those who believed that chromium adversely affected health. Most of the chromium group (68%) would prefer money to be spent on improving amenities rather than on chromium remediation. Similar self reported health among residents of the chromium and control groups indicates that there is no evidence of harm to health from exposure to chromium in this setting. Noticeably lower scores in participants who believed chromium to be harmful to health point to the potential importance of perception and possible anxiety. Given the overall greater desire for better amenities rather than remedial action, policy makers and planners should discuss with residents how best to spend resources before instigating expensive cleaning up programmes.

  3. Arsenic and chromium topsoil levels and cancer mortality in Spain.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Olivier; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Martín-Méndez, Iván; Bel-Lan, Alejandro; Locutura, Juan F; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2016-09-01

    Spatio-temporal cancer mortality studies in Spain have revealed patterns for some tumours which display a distribution that is similar across the sexes and persists over time. Such characteristics would be common to tumours that shared risk factors, including the chemical soil composition. The objective of the present study is to assess the association between levels of chromium and arsenic in soil and the cancer mortality. This is an ecological cancer mortality study at municipal level, covering 861,440 cancer deaths in 7917 Spanish mainland towns from 1999 to 2008. Chromium and arsenic topsoil levels (partial extraction) were determined by ICP-MS at 13,317 sampling points. To estimate the effect of these concentrations on mortality, we fitted Besag, York and Mollié models, which included, as explanatory variables, each town's chromium and arsenic soil levels, estimated by kriging. In addition, we also fitted geostatistical-spatial models including sample locations and town centroids (non-aligned data), using the integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) and stochastic partial differential equations (SPDE). All results were adjusted for socio-demographic variables and proximity to industrial emissions. The results showed a statistical association in men and women alike, between arsenic soil levels and mortality due to cancers of the stomach, pancreas, lung and brain and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL). Among men, an association was observed with cancers of the prostate, buccal cavity and pharynx, oesophagus, colorectal and kidney. Chromium topsoil levels were associated with mortality among women alone, in cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, breast and NHL. Our results suggest that chronic exposure arising from low levels of arsenic and chromium in topsoil could be a potential risk factor for developing cancer.

  4. Development of ductile high-strength chromium alloys, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filippi, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Strength and ductility were evaluated for chromium alloys dispersion hardened with the putative TaC, TaB, CbC, and CbB compounds. TaC and TaB proved to be the most potent strengtheners, but when combined, their effect far outweighed that produced individually. Tests at 1422 K (2100 F) on an alloy containing these two compounds at the combined level of 0.5 m/o revealed a 495 MN/sq m (70 ksi) tensile strength for wrought material, and a 100 hour rupture strength of 208 MN/sq m (30 ksi) when solution annealed and aged to maximize creep resistance. These levels of high temperature strength greatly exceed that reported for any other chromium-base alloy. The ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of the two phase strengthened alloy occurred at approximately 588 K (600 F) when heat treated to optimize creep strength and was not improved by fabrication to produce a wrought and recovered microstructure. The lowest DBTT measured on any of the alloys investigated was 422 K (300 F). Strengthening phases actually formed in Cr-Ta-B and Cr-Cb-B compositions are probable M2CrB2 (M=Ta or Cb) compounds of tetragonal crystal structure. The likely habit relationship between these compounds and chromium is postulated. Cube habit coherency was identified for TaC precipitation in chromium by electron microscopy. In another study, the maximum solubility of carbon in chromium was indicated to lie between 3/4 and 1 a/o and that of boron to be 1/2 a/o.

  5. The high temperature impact response of tungsten and chromium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaretsky, E. B.; Kanel, G. I.

    2017-09-01

    The evolution of elastic-plastic shock waves has been studied in pure polycrystalline tungsten and chromium at room and elevated temperatures over propagation distances ranging from 0.05 to 3 mm (tungsten) and from 0.1 to 2 mm (chromium). The use of fused silica windows in all but one experiment with chromium and in several high temperature experiments with tungsten led to the need for performing shock and optic characterization of these windows over the 300-1200 K temperature interval. Experiments with tungsten and chromium samples showed that annealing of the metals transforms the initial ramping elastic wave into a jump-like wave, substantially increasing the Hugoniot elastic limits of the metals. With increased annealing time, the spall strength of the two metals slightly increases. Both at room and at high temperatures, the elastic precursor in the two metals decays in two distinct regimes. At propagation distances smaller than ˜1 mm (tungsten) or ˜0.5 mm (chromium), decay is fast, with the dislocation motion and multiplication being controlled by phonon viscous drag. At greater distances, the rate of decay becomes much lower, with control of the plastic deformation being passed to the thermally activated generation and motion of dislocation double-kinks. The stress at which this transition takes place virtually coincides with the Peierls stress τP of the active glide system. Analysis of the annealing effects in both presently and previously studied BCC metals (i.e., Ta, V, Nb, Mo, W, and Cr) and of the dependencies of their normalized Peierls stresses τP(θ) /τP(0 ) on the normalized temperature θ=T /Tm allows one to conclude that the non-planar, split into several glide planes, structure of the dislocation core in these metals is mainly responsible for their plastic deformation features.

  6. Chromium, chromium isotopes and selected trace elements, western Mojave Desert, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, J.A.; Ball, J.W.; Bullen, T.D.; Sutley, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Chromium(VI) concentrations in excess of the California Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 50 ??g/L occur naturally in alkaline, oxic ground-water in alluvial aquifers in the western Mojave Desert, southern California. The highest concentrations were measured in aquifers eroded from mafic rock, but Cr(VI) as high as 27 ??g/L was measured in aquifers eroded from granitic rock. Chromium(VI) concentrations did not exceed 5 ??g/L at pH < 7.5 regardless of geology. ??53Cr values in native ground-water ranged from 0.7 to 5.1??? and values were fractionated relative to the average ??53Cr composition of 0??? in the earth's crust. Positive ??53Cr values of 1.2 and 2.3??? were measured in ground-water recharge areas having low Cr concentrations, consistent with the addition of Cr(VI) that was fractionated on mineral surfaces prior to entering solution. ??53Cr values, although variable, did not consistently increase or decrease with increasing Cr concentrations as ground-water flowed down gradient through more oxic portions of the aquifer. However, increasing ??53Cr values were observed as dissolved O2 concentrations decreased, and Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III), and subsequently removed from solution. As a result, the highest ??53Cr values were measured in water from deep wells, and wells in discharge areas near dry lakes at the downgradient end of long flow paths through alluvial aquifers. ??53Cr values at an industrial site overlying mafic alluvium having high natural background Cr(VI) concentrations ranged from -0.1 to 3.2???. Near zero ??53Cr values at the site were the result of anthropogenic Cr. However, mixing with native ground-water and fractionation of Cr within the plume increased ??53Cr values at the site. Although ??53Cr was not necessarily diagnostic of anthropogenic Cr, it was possible to identify the extent of anthropogenic Cr at the site on the basis of the ??53Cr values in conjunction with major-ion data, and the ??18O and ??D composition of water from wells.

  7. Bioadsorption and bioaccumulation of chromium trivalent in Cr(III)-tolerant microalgae: a mechanisms for chromium resistance.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M; Bartolomé, M C; Sánchez-Fortún, S

    2013-10-01

    Anthropogenic activity constantly releases heavy metals into the environment. The heavy metal chromium has a wide industrial use and exists in two stable oxidation states: trivalent and hexavalent. While hexavalent chromium uptake in plant cells has been reported that an active process by carrying essential anions, the cation Cr(III) appears to be taken up inactively. Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides (Dc1M), an unicellular green alga is a well-studied cell biological model organism. The present study was carried out to investigate the toxic effect of chromium exposures on wild-type Cr(III)-sensitive (Dc1M(wt)) and Cr(III)-tolerant (Dc1M(Cr(III)R30)) strains of these green algae, and to determine the potential mechanism of chromium resistance. Using cell growth as endpoint to determine Cr(III)-sensitivity, the IC₅₀(₇₂) values obtained show significant differences of sensitivity between wild type and Cr(III)-tolerant cells. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed significant morphological differences between both strains, such as decrease in cell size or reducing the coefficient of form; and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed ultrastructural changes such as increased vacuolization and cell wall thickening in the Cr(III)-tolerant strain with respect to the wild-type strain. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/XEDS) revealed that Cr(III)-tolerant D. chlorelloides cells are able to accumulate considerable amounts of chromium distributed in cell wall (bioadsorption) as well as in cytoplasm, vacuoles, and chloroplast (bio-accumulation). Morphological changes of Cr(III)-tolerant D. chlorelloides cells and the presence of these electron-dense bodies in their cell structures can be understood as a Cr(III) detoxification mechanism.

  8. Republic P-47C Thunderbolt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1943-01-01

    Republic P-47C Thunderbolt: Republic's P-47 was one example of a perfect marriage of airframe and power plant. The engine of this P-47C was still under study, as can ascertained by the survey rake for measuring propeller thrust. This rake protrudes from the fuselage just behind the cowling ahead and in front of the wing.

  9. Republic P-47C Thunderbolt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1943-01-01

    Republic P-47C Thunderbolt: Republic's P-47 was one example of a perfect marriage of airframe and power plant. The engine of this P-47C was still under study, as can be ascertained by the survey rake for measuring propeller thrust. This rake protrudes from the fuselage just behind the cowling ahead and in front of the wing.

  10. Republic P-47B Thunderbolt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1942-01-01

    Republic P-47B Thunderbolt: The Republic P-47B Thunderbolt was one of the great fighters used by the U. S. Army Air Force in World War II, and crews praised its ability to absorb punishment. This P-47B was used by NACA engineers to study the horizontal tail loads experienced by a fighter during abrupt maneuvers.

  11. Trace Element Status (Iron, Zinc, Copper, Chromium, Cobalt, and Nickel) in Iron-Deficiency Anaemia of Children under 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Angelova, Maria Georgieva; Petkova-Marinova, Tsvetelina Valentinova; Pogorielov, Maksym Vladimirovich; Loboda, Andrii Nikolaevich; Nedkova-Kolarova, Vania Nedkova; Bozhinova, Atanaska Naumova

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To determine trace element status and aetiologic factors for development of trace elements deficiencies in children with iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) aged 0 to 3 years. Contingent and Methods. 30 patients of the University Hospital, Pleven, Bulgaria—I group; 48 patients of the Sumy Regional Child's Clinical Hospital, Sumy, Ukraine—II group; 25 healthy controls were investigated. Serum concentrations of iron, zinc, copper, chromium, cobalt, and nickel were determined spectrophotometrically and by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results. Because the obtained serum levels of zinc, copper, and chromium were near the lower reference limits, I group was divided into IA and IB. In IA group, serum concentrations were lower than the reference values for 47%, 57%, and 73% of patients, respectively. In IB group, these were within the reference values. In II group, results for zinc, cobalt, and nickel were significantly lower (P < 0.05), and results for copper were significantly higher in comparison to controls. Conclusion. Low serum concentrations of zinc, copper, cobalt, and nickel were mainly due to inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, and micronutrient interactions in both studied groups. Increased serum copper in II group was probably due to metabolic changes resulting from adaptations in IDA. Data can be used for developing a diagnostic algorithm for IDA. PMID:24839556

  12. Chromium in biological samples from low-level exposed stainless steel and mild steel welders

    SciTech Connect

    Bonde, J.P.; Christensen, J.M. )

    1991-07-01

    Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium is of concern because of the carcinogenic action of this metal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate internal exposure to chromium in welders who were exposed to low levels of chromium. Chromium in urine, blood, and seminal fluid was determined among 60 welders and 45 referents. The concentration of chromium in urine and blood did not change across a workshift or across a 3-wk break in exposure. However, stainless-steel and mild-steel welders who were exposed to low levels of chromium and steel welders who were mildly exposed had significantly increased levels of chromium in post-shift urine (mean 2.1 nmol/mmol creatinine (standard deviation (SD) = 1.0) and 1.3 nmol/mmol creatinine (SD = 0.5), respectively) compared with referents (mean 0.7 nmol/mmol creatinine (SD = 0.3)). Pre-shift blood chromium concentrations showed a similar variation between exposed workers and referents. Subgroups of stainless-steel welders had very high levels of chromium in seminal fluid. This finding may, however, be explained by nonoccupational factors and, therefore, warrants further study. Attention should focus on the potential risk of delayed health effects among stainless-steel and mild-steel welders who heretofore were not thought to be at risk from chromium exposure.

  13. Evaluation of the comprehensiveness and reliability of the chromium composition of foods in the literature ☆

    PubMed Central

    Thor, Mayly Y.; Harnack, Lisa; King, Denise; Jasthi, Bhaskarani; Pettit, Janet

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1960s, trivalent chromium Cr3+ became recognized as an essential trace element due to its potential metabolic and cardiovascular benefits. No comprehensive chromium database currently exists; thus a thorough review of the literature was conducted to examine the availability and reliability of chromium data for foods. A number of key issues were identified that challenge the feasibility of adding chromium to a food and nutrient database. Foremost, dietary chromium data reported in the literature prior to 1980 cannot be relied on because of problematic analytical issues before that time. Next, paucity of data emerged as an issue that could impede database completeness. Finally, large variation in reported chromium content of foods may render disputable representative chromium values. This variation has been speculated to originate from differences in growing and particularly processing foods. Furthermore, contamination of chromium from laboratory equipment and/or materials is possible and also believed to contribute to the variation observed in reported values. As a result, database developers must carefully consider the availability and reliability of information on the chromium composition of foods when deciding whether to incorporate chromium into or exclude it from a nutrient database. PMID:23066174

  14. Effect of Chromium on Microstructure and Properties of High Boron White Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongli; Chen, Xiang; Li, Yanxiang; Hu, Kaihua

    2008-03-01

    In this article, the effect of chromium on microstructure and properties of high boron white cast iron was studied. The results indicate that the microstructure of high boron white cast iron with different chromium content comprises a dendritic matrix and interdendritic eutectics, and the eutectic compound has a M2B-type chemical formula that does not change with the difference of chromium content. The increase of chromium not only increases the microhardness of boride, but also improves the morphology of boride, which is changed from continuous network to less continuous distribution. Moreover, with the chromium increase, martensite appears in the matrix under the as-cast condition, the appearance of which depends on the increase of chromium in the matrix and the uneven distribution of carbon in the matrix caused by chromium addition. After quenching in air, the matrixes of alloys all change to martensite. However, some secondary particles are found in the central area of the dendrite grains of alloys with higher chromium, and their existence is due to the difference of boron solubility in the matrix with different chromium content. In addition, the hardenability, hardness, and impact toughness are all improved with the increase in chromium.

  15. Maximum availability and mineralogical control of chromium released from AOD slag.

    PubMed

    Li, Junguo; Liu, Bao; Zeng, Yanan; Wang, Ziming; Gao, Zhiyuan

    2017-03-01

    AOD (argon oxygen decarburization) slag is the by-product in the stainless steel refining process. Chromium existing in AOD slag can leach out and probably poses a serious threat to the environment. To assess the leaching toxicity of chromium released from AOD slag, the temperature-dependent maximum availability leaching test was performed. To determine the controlling mineralogical phases of chromium released from AOD slag, a Visual MINTEQ simulation was established based on Vminteq30 and the FactSage 7.0 database. The leaching tests indicated that the leaching availability of chromium was slight and mainly consisted of trivalent chromium. Aging of AOD slag under the atmosphere can oxidize trivalent chromium to hexavalent chromium, which could be leached out by rainwater. According to the simulation, the chromium concentration in leachates was controlled by the freely soluble pseudo-binary phases in the pH = 7.0 leaching process and controlled by the Cr2O3 phase in the pH = 4.0 leaching process. Chromium concentrations were underestimated when the controlling phases were determined to be FeCr2O4 and MgCr2O4. Facilitating the generation of the insoluble spinel-like phases during the cooling and disposal process of the molten slag could be an effective approach to decreasing the leaching concentration of chromium and its environmental risk.

  16. Experimental skin deposition of chromium on the hands following handling of samples of leather and metal.

    PubMed

    Bregnbak, David; Thyssen, Jacob P; Jellesen, Morten S; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2016-08-01

    Chromium is an important skin sensitizer. Exposure to it has been regulated in cement, and recently in leather. Studies on the deposition of chromium ions on the skin as a result of handling different chromium-containing materials are sparse, but could improve the risk assessment of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis caused by chromium. To determine whether the handling of chromium-containing samples of leather and metal results in the deposition of chromium onto the skin. Five healthy volunteers participated. For 30 min, they handled samples of leather and metal known to contain and release chromium. Skin deposition of chromium was assessed with the acid wipe sampling technique. Acid wipe sampling of the participants' fingers showed chromium deposition on the skin in all participants who had been exposed to leather (range 0.01-0.20 µg/cm(2) ) and in 3 of 5 participants after they had manually handled metal discs (range 0.02-0.04 µg/cm(2) ). We found that samples of leather and metal had the ability to deposit chromium on the skin at significant levels, in spite of a short duration of exposure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Immune response and disease resistance of calves fed chromium nicotinic acid complex or chromium chloride.

    PubMed

    Kegley, E B; Spears, J W; Brown, T T

    1996-07-01

    Twenty-one Holstein bull calves (< 7 d of age at the initiation of the experiment) fed a milk replacer diet were used to assess the effects of supplemental Cr on immune response. Treatments consisted of milk replacer without supplemental Cr (control) or milk replacer with 0.4 ppm of supplemental Cr from CrCl3 or a Cr-nicotinic acid complex. On d 64, increases in skinfold thickness after an intradermal injection of phytohemagglutinin were measured to evaluate cell-mediated immune response. Calves supplemented with Cr-nicotinic acid complex had a greater response than did controls at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after injection. Calves supplemented with CrCl3 had a greater response than did controls at 24 and 48 h after injection. In vitro blastogenic responses of lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin or pokeweed mitogen and antibody response to porcine red blood cells were not affected by treatment. Following a disease challenge with an intranasal dose of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis on d 75, body temperature tended to be lower for calves supplemented with Cr-nicotinic acid complex than for control calves. Calves supplemented with either Cr source had lower serum cortisol concentrations at 5 d after challenge. Chromium supplementation enhanced cell-mediated immune function.

  18. Urinary levels of nickel and chromium associated with dental restoration by nickel-chromium based alloys.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Xia, Gang; Cao, Xin-Ming; Wang, Jue; Xu, Bi-Yao; Huang, Pu; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2013-03-01

    This paper aims to investigate if the dental restoration of nickel-chromium based alloy (Ni-Cr) leads to the enhanced excretions of Ni and Cr in urine. Seven hundred and ninety-five patients in a dental hospital had single or multiple Ni-Cr alloy restoration recently and 198 controls were recruited to collect information on dental restoration by questionnaire and clinical examination. Urinary concentrations of Ni and Cr from each subject were measure by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Compared to the control group, the urinary level of Ni was significantly higher in the patient group of <1 month of the restoration duration, among which higher Ni excretions were found in those with either a higher number of teeth replaced by dental alloys or a higher index of metal crown not covered with the porcelain. Urinary levels of Cr were significantly higher in the three patient groups of <1, 1 to <3 and 3 to <6 months, especially in those with a higher metal crown exposure index. Linear curve estimations showed better relationships between urinary Ni and Cr in patients within 6-month groups. Our data suggested significant increased excretions of urinary Ni and Cr after dental restoration. Potential short- and long-term effects of Ni-Cr alloy restoration need to be investigated.

  19. Biotransformation of hexavalent chromium into extracellular chromium(III) oxide nanoparticles using Schwanniomyces occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Mohite, Pallavi T; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita S

    2016-03-01

    To demonstrate biotransformation of toxic Cr(VI) ions into Cr2O3 nanoparticles by the yeast Schwanniomyces occidentalis. Reaction mixtures containing S. occidentalis NCIM 3459 and Cr(VI) ions that were initially yellow turned green after 48 h incubation. The coloration was due to the synthesis of chromium (III) oxide nanoparticles (Cr2O3NPs). UV-Visible spectra of the reaction mixtures showed peaks at 445 and 600 nm indicating (4)A2g → (4)T1g and (4)A2g → (4)T2g transitions in Cr2O3, respectively. FTIR profiles suggested the involvement of carboxyl and amide groups in nanoparticle synthesis and stabilization. The Cr2O3NPs ranged between 10 and 60 nm. Their crystalline nature was evident from the selective area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction patterns. Energy dispersive spectra confirmed the chemical composition of the nanoparticles. These biogenic nanoparticles could find applications in different fields. S. occidentalis mediated biotransformation of toxic Cr(VI) ions into crystalline extracellular Cr2O3NPs under benign conditions.

  20. Electrothermal Vaporization-QQQ-ICP-MS for Determination of Chromium in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Particulate.

    PubMed

    Fresquez, Mark R; Gonzalez-Jimenez, Nathalie; Gray, Naudia; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Watson, Clifford H; Pappas, R Steven

    2017-05-01

    Chromium is transported in mainstream tobacco smoke at very low concentrations. However, when chromium is deposited too deeply in the lungs for mucociliary clearance, or is in a particle that is too large to pass directly through tissues, it bioaccumulates in the lungs of smokers. It is important to determine the concentrations of chromium that are transported in mainstream smoke. Several reliable studies have resulted in reports of chromium concentrations in smoke particulate that were below limits of detection (LODs) for the instruments and methods employed. In this study, electrothermal vaporization-triple quad-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ETV-QQQ-ICP-MS) was chosen for determination of chromium concentrations in mainstream smoke because of the high sensitivity of ETV combined with QQQ-ICP-MS. The smoke from five reference, quality control, and commercial cigarettes was analyzed using ETV-QQQ-ICP-MS with isotope dilution for quantitative determination of chromium. The method LOD was sufficiently low that chromium concentrations in mainstream smoke could indeed be determined. The chromium concentrations in the smoke particulate were between 0.60 and 1.03 ng/cigarette. The range of chromium concentrations was at or below previously reported LODs. Determination of the oxidation state of the chromium transported in mainstream smoke would also be important, in consideration of the fact that both chromium(III) and chromium(VI) oxidation states cause inhalation toxicity, but chromium(VI) is also a carcinogen. It was possible to separate the oxidation states using ETV-QQQ-ICP-MS. However, determination of individual species at the levels found in mainstream smoke particulate matter was not possible with the present method. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Determination of chromium(III) and total chromium in seawater by on-line column preconcentration inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Shizuko; Honda, Kazuto; Shikino, Osamu; Maekawa, Norihiro; Aihara, Masato

    2000-07-01

    An automated low-pressure flow injection method with on-line column preconcentration using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is described for the determination of chromium(III) and total chromium in seawater. A home-made column of commercially available iminodiacetate resin, Muromac A-1, was used to concentrate chromium(III) in seawater at a pH of 3.0. Following washing of the column with water, the chromium(III) was eluted and transferred to the plasma with 0.70 M nitric acid. Total chromium was determined after the reduction of chromium(VI) to chromium(III) with a 2-mM hydroxylamine solution at pH 1.8. Detection limit (three times the relative standard deviation of the background) of chromium(III) in the artificial seawater based on eight replicate measurements was 0.020 ng ml -1 with a sample loading time of 120 s. The precision was ±1.9%. One sample can be processed in 5 min. Calibration was accomplished by means of artificial seawater. The proposed method was verified by the analysis of two Reference Standard Materials of seawater NASS-4 and CASS-3.

  2. Mutagenicity of chromium picolinate and its components in Salmonella typhimurium and L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Paul; San, Richard H C; Clarke, Jane J; Seifried, Harold E; Dunkel, Virginia C

    2005-11-01

    Chromium picolinate is one of the most commonly used chromium dietary supplements available in the United States, and it has been marketed to consumers for use in weight loss, increasing muscle mass, and lowering serum cholesterol. Chromium picolinate is a synthetic compound that provides a bioavailable form of Cr(III) that is absorbed better than dietary chromium. However, there are several reports that it can have adverse effects. In order to study the mechanism of observed cellular toxicity and mutagenicity, chromium picolinate and its component compounds, chromium (III) chloride and picolinic acid, were evaluated in Salmonella typhimurium and L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Neither chromium picolinate nor chromium chloride induced a mutagenic response in S. typhimurium. However, in the L5178Y mouse lymphoma mutation assay, chromium picolinate induced mutagenic responses without and with the addition of S9.

  3. Acute toxicity by water containing hexavalent or trivalent chromium in native Brazilian fish, Piaractus mesopotamicus: anatomopathological alterations and mortality.

    PubMed

    Castro, Marcello Pardi; de Moraes, Flávio Ruas; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Yudi; da Cruz, Claudinei; Belo, Marco Antonio de Andrade; de Moraes, Julieta Rodini Engrácia

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of hexavalent and trivalent compounds of chromium to the pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, in acute exposures of 96 h through mortality and histopathological responses. Hexavalent potassium dichromate was more toxic than trivalent compounds of chromium chloride, chromium oxide and chromium carbochelate. Sufficient mortalities occurred only with potassium dichromate to yield an LC50 value at 124.2 mg L(-1). Hexavalent chromium caused reversible and irreversible lesions, which may affect organ functionality. Histopathological evaluation showed that trivalent chromium caused lesions of lower severity. Pacu subjected to different concentrations of chromium carbochelate showed no histopathological changes in the kidneys, liver, skin and gills, being similar to those of the control fish. Among the three sources of Cr(3+), only chromium chloride at 200 mg L(-1) resulted in mortality, which reached 100 % within the first 18 h. These findings confirm that trivalent chromium, when administered within recommended levels, may be used safely in aquaculture.

  4. [Contribution of the incidence of urban sewage spreading to dietary chromium].

    PubMed

    Adrian, J

    1991-01-01

    The sewage sludges contain fertilizing matters that justify their use in agriculture. Simultaneously, they hold minerals that are directly proportional to the nature and intensity of industrial activity. The more abundant are chromium, lead, zinc; cadmium and mercury are also found. The concentration in chromium varies from 0.2 to 20.0 g/kg of dry matter. Its assimilation by the rootlet and, later, its intestinal absorption, are essentially dependent on its chemical state; the hexavalent forms have a high biodisponibility and are more toxic than the trivalent compounds. In vegetals, the assimilated chromium is stopped in the root, associated to iron hydrates; a small fraction reaches the leaves and a weaker part comes up to the grain. (Table I). If the concentration of chromium--mainly hexavalent salts--is very important in soil, the mechanism of regulation in the rootlet becomes inefficacious and chromium diffuses in the whole plant (Table II). The development of spraying of sludges and composts will increase the quantity and efficiency of chromium in vegetals, because of various factors: the wastes of many industries: chromium plating plants, tanneries, painting and dyeing industries throw out hexavalent chromium; if the sewage sludges are purified by an irradiation treatment, it will tend to oxidize the whole chromium in hexavalent forms; at last, the presence of sewage sludges in the arable soil favours the assimilation of chromium by inhibiting that of iron (Figure 1). Then, in absence of iron hydrates that regularize the diffusion of chromium in the plant, this latter tends to overrun more easily the aerial tissues and organs of vegetals. On the whole, the spraying of sewage sludges supplies the soil with chromium that will easily be assimilated by the plant, considering that it will be mainly at an hexavalent state. Compared with other trace elements held in the sludges, chromium is assimilated by the plant in a clearly more important proportion (Table III

  5. Study of the Thermodynamics of Chromium(III) and Chromium(VI) Binding to Fe3O4 and MnFe2O4 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Luther, Steven; Brogfeld, Nathan; Kim, Jisoo; Parsons, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Removal of chromium(III) or (VI) from aqueous solution was achieved using Fe3O4, and MnFe2O4 nanomaterials. The nanomaterials were synthesized using a precipitation method and characterized using XRD. The size of the nanomaterials was determined to be 22.4 ± 0.9 nm (Fe3O4) and 15.5 ± 0.5 nm (MnFe2O4). The optimal binding pH for chromium(III) and chromium(VI) were pH 6 and pH 3. Isotherm studies were performed, under light and dark conditions, to determine the capacity of the nanomaterials. The capacities for the light studies with MnFe2O4 and Fe3O4 were determined to be 7.189 and 10.63 mg/g, respectively, for chromium(III). The capacities for the light studies with MnFe2O4 and Fe3O4 were 3.21 and 3.46 mg/g, respectively, for chromium(VI). Under dark reaction conditions the binding of chromium(III) to the MnFe2O4 and Fe3O4 nanomaterials were 5.74 and 15.9 mg/g, respectively. The binding capacity for the binding of chromium(VI) to MnFe2O4 and Fe3O4 under dark reaction conditions were 3.87 and 8.54 mg/g, respectively. The thermodynamics for the reactions showed negative ΔG values, and positive ΔH values. The ΔS values were positive for the binding of chromium(III) and for chromium(VI) binding under dark reaction conditions. The ΔS values for chromium(VI) binding under the light reaction conditions were determined to be negative. PMID:23558081

  6. Ageing of chromium(III)-bearing slag and its relation to the atmospheric oxidation of solid chromium(III)-oxide in the presence of calcium oxide.

    PubMed

    Pillay, K; von Blottnitz, H; Petersen, J

    2003-09-01

    Slag arising in ferrochromium and stainless steel production is known to contain residual levels of trivalent chromium. As the chromium is normally bound in the slag matrix in various silicate or spinel phases, and hence not easily mobilised, utilisation or controlled disposal of such slag is generally considered unproblematic. Experimental test work with a number of slag materials indicates, however, that very gradual oxidation of trivalent to hexavalent chromium does occur when the slag is exposed to atmospheric oxygen, rendering a quantifiable but small portion of chromium in this much more mobile and toxic form. Mechanisms and rates of the oxidation reaction were investigated in a number of long-term studies using both original slag materials and artificial mixes of chromium and calcium oxides. Powders of these materials, some of them rolled into balls, were left to age under different conditions for periods of up to 12 months. In the slag samples, which contained between 1 and 3 wt.% chromium, 1000-10000 microg Cr(VI) were found per gram of chromium within 6-9 months of exposure to an ambient atmosphere. The rate of the oxidation reaction decreased exponentially, and the reaction could generally be said to have ceased within 12 months. In mixtures of calcium and chromium oxides the oxidation reaction is presumed to occur at the boundaries between chromium oxide and calcium oxide phases through diffusion of oxygen along the grain boundaries and of Cr(3+) across the boundaries, resulting in the formation of calcium chromate. In the slags, where calcium and chromium oxide can form a solid solution, the oxidation is likely to occur at the exposed surface of grains containing this solution.

  7. Biosorption of Chromium (VI) from Aqueous Solutions onto Fungal Biomass

    PubMed Central

    R., Ismael Acosta; Rodríguez, Xöchitl; Gutiérrez, Conrado; Moctezuma, Ma. de Guadalupe

    2004-01-01

    The biosorption of chromium (VI) on eighteen different natural biosorbents: Natural sediment, chitosan, chitin, Aspergillus flavus I-V, Aspergillus fumigatus I-ll, Helmintosporium sp, Cladosporium sp, Mucor rouxii mutant, M. rouxii IM-80, Mucor sp-I and 2, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans was studied in this work. It was found that the biomass of C. neoformans, natural sediment, Helmintosporium sp and chitosan was more efficient to remove chromium (VI) (determined spectrophotometrically at 540 nm using diphenylcarbazide as the complexing agent) achieving the. following percentage of removals: 98%, 98% and 63%, respectively. The highest adsorption was obtained with C. neoformans and Helmintosporium sp at pH 2.0 and 4.0 + 0.2, respectively, at 28∘C after 24 hours of incubation, with 0.2 mg/L of cellular biomass. PMID:18365065

  8. Evaluation of the Chromium Resonance Parameters Including Resonance Parameter Covariance

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, Luiz C; Derrien, Herve; Guber, Klaus H; Arbanas, Goran; Wiarda, Dorothea

    2011-01-01

    The intent of this work is to report the results and describe the procedures utilized to evaluate the chromium isotopes' cross sections, i.e., (50)Cr, (52)Cr, (53)Cr, and (54)Cr, for criticality safety applications. The evaluations were done in the resolved resonance region using the reduced Reich-Moore R-matrix formalism. The novel aspect of this evaluation is the inclusion of new transmission and capture cross-section measurements performed at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) for energies below 100 keV and the extension of the (53)Cr energy region. The resonance analysis was performed with the multilevel R-matrix code, SAMMY, which utilizes the generalized least-squares technique based on the Bayes' theory. Complete sets of resonance parameters and resonance parameter covariance matrices (RPCMs) were obtained for each of the chromium isotopes from the SAMMY analysis of the experimental database.

  9. Method for heat treating iron-nickel-chromium alloy

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-04-03

    A method is described for heat treating an age-hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy to obtain a morphology of the gamma-double prime phase enveloping the gamma-prime, the alloy consisting essentially of about 25 to 45% nickel, 10 to 16% chromium, 1.5 to 3% of an element selected from the group consisting of molybdenum and niobium, about 2% titanium, about 3% aluminum, and the remainder substantially all iron. To obtain optimum results, the alloy is heated to a temperature of 1025 to 1075/sup 0/C for 2 to 5 minutes, cold-worked about 20 to 60%, aged at a temperature of about 775/sup 0/C for 8 hours followed by an air-cool, and then heated to a temperature in the range of 650 to 700/sup 0/C for 2 hours followed by an air-cool.

  10. A mathematical model for the iron/chromium redox battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedkiw, P. S.; Watts, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to describe the isothermal operation of a single anode-separator-cathode unit cell in a redox-flow battery and has been applied to the NASA iron/chromium system. The model, based on porous electrode theory, incorporates redox kinetics, mass transfer, and ohmic effects as well as the parasitic hydrogen reaction which occurs in the chromium electrode. A numerical parameter study was carried out to predict cell performance to aid in the rational design, scale-up, and operation of the flow battery. The calculations demonstrate: (1) an optimum electrode thickness and electrolyte flow rate exist; (2) the amount of hydrogen evolved and, hence, cycle faradaic efficiency, can be affected by cell geometry, flow rate, and charging procedure; (3) countercurrent flow results in enhanced cell performance over cocurrent flow; and (4) elevated temperature operation enhances cell performance.

  11. Method for heat treating iron-nickel-chromium alloy

    DOEpatents

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1980-01-01

    A method for heat treating an age-hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy to obtain a morphology of the gamma-double prime phase enveloping the gamma-prime phase, the alloy consisting essentially of about 40 to 50% nickel, 7.5 to 14% chromium, 1.5 to 4% niobium, 0.3 to 0.75% silicon, 1 to 3% titanium, 0.1 to 0.5% aluminum, 0.02 to 1% carbon, 0.002 to 0.0015% boron and the remain substantially all iron. To obtain optimal results, the alloy is cold-worked 20 to 60% followed by heating at 1050.degree. C. for 1/2 hour with an air-cool plus heating at 800.degree. C. for 2 hours with a furnace cool to 625.degree. C. The alloy is then held at 625.degree. C. for 12 hours, followed by an air-cool.

  12. Method for heat treating iron-nickel-chromium alloy

    DOEpatents

    Merrick, Howard F.; Korenko, Michael K.

    1982-01-01

    A method for heat treating an age-hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy to obtain a bimodal distribution of gamma prime phase within a network of dislocations, the alloy consisting essentially of about 25% to 45% nickel, 10% to 16% chromium, 1.5% to 3% of an element selected from the group consisting of molybdenum and niobium, about 2% titanium, about 3% aluminum, and the remainder substantially all iron. To obtain optimum results, the alloy is heated to a temperature of 1025.degree. C. to 1075.degree. C. for 2-5 minutes, cold-worked about 20% to 60%, aged at a temperature of about 775.degree. C. for 8 hours followed by an air-cool, and then heated to a temperature in the range of 650.degree. C. to 700.degree. C. for 2 hours followed by an air-cool.

  13. Adsorption of chromium onto activated alumina: kinetics and thermodynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Ikhlass; Dammak, Lassaad; Hamrouni, Béchir

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the removal of chromium (VI) by adsorption on activated alumina was investigated and the results were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Redushkevich, and Temkin adsorption models at various temperatures. The constants of each model were evaluated depending on temperature. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption system were determined at 10, 25 and 40 degrees C. (deltaH degrees = -21.18 kJ x mol(-1); deltaG degrees = -8.75 to -7.43 kJ x mol(-1) and deltaS degrees = -0.043 kJ x K(-1) x mol(-1)). The obtained values showed that chromium (VI) adsorption is a spontaneous and exothermic process. The kinetic process was evaluated by first-order, second-order and Elovich kinetic models.

  14. Chromium-based catalyst for HFC-125 synthesis: promoters effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnikov, S. I.; Simonova, L. G.; Zirka, A. A.; Petrov, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variation of promoters, including rare-earth elements, allows to control of the specific surface and, perhaps, oxidation state of chromium and, consequently, catalyst activity and selectivity of chromium-based catalyst for HFC-125. To improve the catalytic properties of the 15% Cr2O3 γ - 85% -Al2O3 oxide system were added promoters (Ni or Cu or Co) in an amount of 5 wt% in terms of oxides. It was found that additional promotion Cr-Al samples by nickel and copper allow to increase the specific surface area of about 25-40% and the activity increased about 2 times. Modification of cobalt resulted in a decrease of the surface by 20% and the activity decreased by about 2 times.

  15. A mathematical model for the iron/chromium redox battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedkiw, P. S.; Watts, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to describe the isothermal operation of a single anode-separator-cathode unit cell in a redox-flow battery and has been applied to the NASA iron/chromium system. The model, based on porous electrode theory, incorporates redox kinetics, mass transfer, and ohmic effects as well as the parasitic hydrogen reaction which occurs in the chromium electrode. A numerical parameter study was carried out to predict cell performance to aid in the rational design, scale-up, and operation of the flow battery. The calculations demonstrate: (1) an optimum electrode thickness and electrolyte flow rate exist; (2) the amount of hydrogen evolved and, hence, cycle faradaic efficiency, can be affected by cell geometry, flow rate, and charging procedure; (3) countercurrent flow results in enhanced cell performance over cocurrent flow; and (4) elevated temperature operation enhances cell performance.

  16. [Poisoning by chromium and its long lasting detoxication].

    PubMed

    Ryselis, Stanislovas; Abdrachmanovas, Olegas; Vitkuviene, Birute; Naginiene, Rima

    2002-01-01

    Long lasting influence of cumulated Cr provide irreversible damages of vascular walls, organs and their systems. During long lasting treatment most of Cr is removed during the first 20 days through bileric tract and at the same time through the renal tract the Cr amounts decreases because chromium-d-penicilamin complex in hepatocytes induces synthesis of specific chromium-d-penicilamin binding labile protein and they are removed with bile. The levels of essential microelements (Cu and Zn) are maintained at the level of the physiological tolerance during treatment. Cr removes very slowly (about a year) from human body, and after treatment patients health do not improve because Cr-inducted damages of vascullars, organs and their systems are not recovered. The treatment must be evaluated continuously by controlling concentrations' of Cr, Cu, Zn and other microelements in the blood, plasma and urine by electrothermal atomic absorbtion spectrophotometry methods.

  17. Hexavalent chromium effects on carbon assimilation in Selenastrum capricornutum

    SciTech Connect

    Pillard, D.A.; Rocchio, P.M.; Cassidy, K.M.; Stewart, S.M.; Vance, B.D.

    1987-04-01

    One of the difficulties in assessing toxic substances such as metals and complex organic compounds is the duration of the necessary tests. It would be beneficial to have available standardized tests of short duration that would allow a reduction in necessary manpower and overall cost as well as provide a method to evaluate chemicals that are readily degraded (i.e., within a few hours). One method available is the short-term photosynthesis response of algae to a given toxicant. Photosynthesis is not only a critical physiological response but is also one for which standard, accurate methods are available. The /sup 14/C method has been used to study the effects of chromium on algae. More recently, it was proposed that the /sup 14/C method be used to measure short-term photosynthetic response as a standard algal bioassay. The present study was designed to further evaluate, via photosynthetic response, the potential effects of hexavalent chromium on Selenastrum capricornutum.

  18. Biological chromium(VI) reduction using a trickling filter.

    PubMed

    Dermou, E; Velissariou, A; Xenos, D; Vayenas, D V

    2005-11-11

    A pilot-scale trickling filter was constructed and tested for biological chromium(VI) removal from industrial wastewater. Indigenous bacteria from industrial sludge were enriched and used as inoculum for the filter. Sodium acetate was used as carbon source and it was found to inhibit chromate reduction at high concentrations. Three different operating modes were used to investigate the optimal performance and efficiency of the filter, i.e. batch, continuous and SBR with recirculation. The latter one was found to achieve removal rates up to 530 g Cr(VI)/m2 d, while aeration was taking place naturally without the use of any external mechanical means. The low operating cost combined with the high hexavalent chromium reduction rates indicates that this technology may offer a feasible solution to a very serious environmental problem.

  19. Chromium (VI) purification using pine sawdust in batch systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Politi, Dorothea; Sidiras, Dimitris

    2012-12-01

    Pine sawdust, a waste generated in furniture industry, has been used as low-cost potential adsorbent. This low-cost adsorbent was used for the removal of chromium (VI) from an aqueous solution. The kinetics of adsorption and extent of adsorption at equilibrium are dependent on the physical and chemical characteristics of the adsorbent and adsorbate. The effect of hydrogen ion concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial concentration of adsorbate on the uptake of chromium were studied in batch experiments. The adsorption data has been correlated with Lagergren - Eldridge pseudofirst order kinetic model. The efficiency of adsorbent material for the removal of Cr(VI) was found to be between 13.1 and 95.6%, respectively. These results depend on the conditions of pH, contact time, sawdust dose and Cr(VI) concentration.

  20. Adsorption of hexavalent chromium onto sisal pulp/polypyrrole composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y. Y.; Wei, C.; Gong, Y. Y.; Du, L. L.

    2017-02-01

    Sisal pulp/polypyrrole composites(SP/PPy) utilized for the removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from wastewater, were prepared via in-situ chemical oxidation polymerization approach. The structure and morphology of the SP/PPy were analyzed by polarizing optical microscopy (POM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM)), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the results indicated SP could be efficient dispersion of PPy. The hexavalent chromium adsorption results indicate adsorption capacity of the SP/PPy were dependent on the initial pH, with an optimum pH of 2.0. The sorption kinetic data fitted well to the pseudo-second order model and isotherm data fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity determined from the Langmuir isotherm is 336.70 mg/g at 25° C.