Science.gov

Sample records for chromiumv doping agents

  1. Progress in the chemistry of chromium(V) doping agents used in polarized target materials

    SciTech Connect

    Krumpolc, M. ); Hill, D. ); Struhrmann, H.B. , Hamburg . Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor)

    1990-01-01

    We wish to report progress in two areas of the chromium (V)-based doping agents: Two commonly used chromium (V) complexes, I and II, have been synthesized in perdeuterated form (i.e., all hydrogens replaced by deuterium). They are sodium bis(2-ethyl-2-deuteroxy-butyrato)oxochromate(V)monodeuterate, IV, (acronym EDBA-Cr(V)), and sodium bis(2-deuteroxy-2-methylpropionato)oxochromate(V), III, (acronym DMPA-Cr(V)). A synthetic route leading to the preparation of stable, chromium(III)-free solutions of chromium(V) in diols (1,2-ethanediol/ethylene glycol/and 1,2-propanediol/propylene glycol/) has been outlined.

  2. Doping and musculoskeletal system: short-term and long-lasting effects of doping agents.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios D; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Theocharis, Stamatios E

    2011-10-01

    Doping is a problem that has plagued the world of competition and sports for ages. Even before the dawn of Olympic history in ancient Greece, competitors have looked for artificial means to improve athletic performance. Since ancient times, athletes have attempted to gain an unfair competitive advantage through the use of doping substances. A Prohibited List of doping substances and methods banned in sports is published yearly by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Among the substances included are steroidal and peptide hormones and their modulators, stimulants, glucocorticosteroids, β₂-agonists, diuretics and masking agents, narcotics, and cannabinoids. Blood doping, tampering, infusions, and gene doping are examples of prohibited methods indicated on the List. Apart from the unethical aspect of doping, as it abrogates fair-play's principle, it is extremely important to consider the hazards it presents to the health and well-being of athletes. The referred negative effects for the athlete's health have to do, on the one hand, by the high doses of the performance-enhancing agents and on the other hand, by the relentless, superhuman strict training that the elite or amateur athletes put their muscles, bones, and joints. The purpose of this article is to highlight the early and the long-lasting consequences of the doping abuse on bone and muscle metabolism.

  3. Lanthanide-doped hollow nanomaterials as theranostic agents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiaojiao; Li, Chunxia; Cheng, Ziyong; Ma, Ping'an; Hou, Zhiyao; Lin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The field of theranostics has sprung up to achieve personalized medicine. The theranostics fuses diagnostic and therapeutic functions, empowering early diagnosis, targeted drug delivery, and real-time monitoring of treatment effect into one step. One particularly attractive class of nanomaterials for theranostic application is lanthanide-doped hollow nanomaterials (LDHNs). Because of the existence of lanthanide ions, LDHNs show outstanding fluorescent and paramagnetic properties, enabling them to be used as multimodal bioimaging agents. Synchronously, the huge interior cavities of LDHNs are able to be applied as efficacious tools for storage and delivery of therapeutic agents. The LDHNs can be divided into two types based on difference of component: single-phase lanthanide-doped hollow nanomaterials and lanthanide-doped hollow nanocomposites. We describe the synthesis of first kind of nanomaterials by use of hard template, soft template, template-free, and self-sacrificing template method. For lanthanide-doped hollow nanocomposites, we divide the preparation strategies into three kinds (one-step, two-step, and multistep method) according to the synthetic procedures. Furthermore, we also illustrate the potential bioapplications of these LDHNs, including biodetection, imaging (fluorescent imaging and magnetic resonance imaging), drug/gene delivery, and other therapeutic applications.

  4. Analytical strategy for detecting doping agents in hair.

    PubMed

    Thieme, D; Grosse, J; Sachs, H; Mueller, R K

    2000-01-10

    Lists of banned classes of doping agents are released by the International Olympic Committee, adopted by other sports authorities and updated regularly, including the substance classes stimulants, narcotics, diuretics, anabolic agents, peptide hormones, beta-blockers etc. There are different classes of restriction: anabolic and masking agents (anabolic steroids, diuretics etc.) are always banned for athletes regardless of their topical activity (training or competition) several substances are permitted with certain restrictions (caffeine below a cut-off value, or inhalation of some beta 2 agonists) beta-blockers are prohibited in competitions of certain sports disciplines the majority of the substances (stimulants, narcotics etc.) is prohibited during competitions, so that they do not have to be analysed in out-of-competition samples. A differentiation between training and competition period is impossible by means of hair analysis due to the uncertainty of (especially short-term) kinetic considerations related to hair growth. Therefore, the analytical identification of doping relevant substances in hair is not always a sufficient criterion for a doping offence and the identification of stimulants, beta-blockers etc. in hair would be entirely irrelevant. The most interesting target substances are certainly the anabolic agents, because their desired action (enhanced muscle strength) lasts longer than the excretion, leading to sophisticated procedures to circumvent positive analytical results in competition control. Besides the analysis of out-of-competition control samples, the long term detection of steroids in hair could provide complementary information. An analytical approach to the identification of exogenous steroids in hair requires consideration of the presence of many other steroids in the hair matrix interfering the analysis at trace levels, and of a limited chemical stability. The analysis of endogenous steroids in hair appears to be even more complicated

  5. EPR and DFT analysis of biologically relevant chromium(V) complexes with d-glucitol and d-glucose.

    PubMed

    Van Doorslaer, Sabine; Beirinckx, Quinten; Nys, Kevin; Mangiameli, María Florencia; Cuypers, Bert; Callens, Freddy; Vrielinck, Henk; González, Juan Carlos

    2016-09-01

    1,2-diolato ligands, such as carbohydrates and glycoproteins, tend to stabilize chromium(V), thus forming important intermediates that have been implicated in the genotoxicity of Cr(VI). Since many years, room-temperature continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at X-band microwave frequencies has been used as a standard characterization tool to study chromium(V) intermediates formed during the reduction of Cr(VI) in the presence of biomolecules. In this work, the added value is tested of using a combination of pulsed and high-field EPR techniques with density functional theory computations to unravel the nature of Cr(V) complexes with biologically relevant chelators, such as carbohydrates. The study focuses on the oxidochromium(V) complexes formed during reduction of potassium dichromate with glutathione in the presence of the monosaccharide d-glucose or the polyalcohol d-glucitol. It is shown that although the presence of a multitude of Cr(V) intermediates may hamper a complete structural determination, the combined EPR and DFT approach reveals unambiguously the effect of freezing on the location of the counterions, the gradual replacement of water ligands by the diols, and the preference of Cr(V) to bind certain conformers.

  6. Development of Iron Doped Silicon Nanoparticles as Bimodal Imaging Agents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mani P.; Atkins, Tonya M.; Muthuswamy, Elayaraja; Kamali, Saeed; Tu, Chuqiao; Louie, Angelique Y.; Kauzlarich, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the synthesis of water-soluble allylamine terminated Fe doped Si (SixFe) nanoparticles as bimodal agents for optical and magnetic imaging. The preparation involves the synthesis of a single source iron containing precursor, Na4Si4 with x% Fe (x = 1, 5, 10), and its subsequent reaction with NH4Br to produce hydrogen terminated SixFe nanoparticles. The hydrogen-capped nanoparticles are further terminated with allylamine via thermal hydrosilylation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicates that the average particle diameter is ~3.0±1.0 nm. The Si5Fe nanoparticles show strong photoluminescence quantum yield in water (~ 10 %) with significant T2 contrast (r2/r1value of 4.31). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Mössbauer spectroscopies indicate that iron in the nanoparticles is in the +3 oxidation state. Analysis of cytotoxicity using the resazurin assay on HepG2 liver cells indicates that the particles have minimal toxicity. PMID:22616623

  7. Molecular effects of supraphysiological doses of doping agents on health.

    PubMed

    Imperlini, Esther; Mancini, Annamaria; Alfieri, Andreina; Martone, Domenico; Caterino, Marianna; Orrù, Stefania; Buono, Pasqualina

    2015-06-01

    Performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) gained wide popularity not only among sportsmen but also among specific subsets of population, such as adolescents. Apart from their claimed effects on athletic performance, they are very appealing due to the body shaping effect exerted on fat mass and fat-free mass. Besides the "underestimated" massive misuse of PEDs, the short- as well as long-term consequences of such habits remain largely unrecognized. They have been strictly associated with serious adverse effects, but molecular mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Here, we analyze the current understanding of the molecular effects of supraphysiological doses of doping agents in healthy biological systems, at genomic and proteomic levels, in order to define the molecular sensors of organ/tissue impairment, determined by their misuse. The focus is put on the anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs), specifically testosterone (T) and its most potent derivative dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and on the peptide hormones, specifically the growth hormone (GH) and the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). A map of molecular targets is defined and the risk incidence for human health is taken into account.

  8. [Growth hormone and IGF-1 as doping agents in competitive sport].

    PubMed

    Jóźków, Paweł; Medraś, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are often used by athletes as doping agents. It is estimated that up to 25% of sportsmen using anabolic-androgenic steroids also take GH. Available data do not confirm the influence of GH or IGF-1 preparations on physical performance improvement. However, there is some evidences for many adverse effects in athletes using this form of doping. Blood tests to detect growth hormone abuse are available since several years. Surprisingly, no one has been proven to use illegal doping agents influencing GH/IGF-1 axis.

  9. Boron-doped nanodiamonds as possible agents for local hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervald, A. M.; Burikov, S. A.; Vlasov, I. I.; Ekimov, E. A.; Shenderova, O. A.; Dolenko, T. A.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, the effective heating of surrounding water by heavily-boron-doped nanodiamonds (NDs) under laser irradiation of visible wavelength was found. Using Raman scattering spectroscopy of aqueous suspensions of boron-doped NDs, it was found that this abnormally high heating results in the weakening of hydrogen bonds much more so (2–5 times stronger) than for undoped NDs. The property of boron-doped NDs to heat a solvent under the influence of laser radiation (1–5 W cm‑2) opens broad prospects for their use to create nanoagents for medical oncology and local hyperthermia.

  10. Ge4+ doped TiO2 for stoichiometric degradation of warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Stengl, Václav; Grygar, Tomáš Matys; Opluštil, František; Němec, Tomáš

    2012-08-15

    Germanium doped TiO(2) was prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of aqueous solutions of GeCl(4) and TiOSO(4) with urea. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDS analysis, specific surface area (BET) and porosity determination (BJH). Ge(4+) doping increases surface area and content of amorphous phase in prepared samples. These oxides were used in an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with chemical warfare agent, sulphur mustard, soman and agent VX. Ge(4+) doping worsens sulphur mustard degradation and improves soman and agent VX degradation. The best degree of removal (degradation), 100% of soman, 99% of agent VX and 95% of sulphur mustard, is achieved with sample with 2 wt.% of germanium.

  11. Anabolic agents: recent strategies for their detection and protection from inadvertent doping

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-01-01

    According to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List, anabolic agents consist of exogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), endogenous AAS and other anabolic agents such as clenbuterol and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Currently employed strategies for their improved detection include the prolongation of the detection windows for exogenous AAS, non-targeted and indirect analytical approaches for the detection of modified steroids (designer steroids), the athlete’s biological passport and isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the detection of the misuse of endogenous AAS, as well as preventive doping research for the detection of SARMs. The recent use of these strategies led to 4–80-fold increases of adverse analytical findings for exogenous AAS, to the detection of the misuse of new designer steroids, to adverse analytical findings of different endogenous AAS and to the first adverse analytical findings of SARMs. The strategies of the antidoping research are not only focused on the development of methods to catch the cheating athlete but also to protect the clean athlete from inadvertent doping. Within the past few years several sources of inadvertent doping with anabolic agents have been identified. Among these are nutritional supplements adulterated with AAS, meat products contaminated with clenbuterol, mycotoxin (zearalenone) contamination leading to zeranol findings, and natural products containing endogenous AAS. The protection strategy consists of further investigations in case of reasonable suspicion of inadvertent doping, publication of the results, education of athletes and development of methods to differentiate between intentional and unintentional doping. PMID:24632537

  12. Anabolic agents: recent strategies for their detection and protection from inadvertent doping.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-05-01

    According to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List, anabolic agents consist of exogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), endogenous AAS and other anabolic agents such as clenbuterol and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Currently employed strategies for their improved detection include the prolongation of the detection windows for exogenous AAS, non-targeted and indirect analytical approaches for the detection of modified steroids (designer steroids), the athlete's biological passport and isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the detection of the misuse of endogenous AAS, as well as preventive doping research for the detection of SARMs. The recent use of these strategies led to 4-80-fold increases of adverse analytical findings for exogenous AAS, to the detection of the misuse of new designer steroids, to adverse analytical findings of different endogenous AAS and to the first adverse analytical findings of SARMs. The strategies of the antidoping research are not only focused on the development of methods to catch the cheating athlete but also to protect the clean athlete from inadvertent doping. Within the past few years several sources of inadvertent doping with anabolic agents have been identified. Among these are nutritional supplements adulterated with AAS, meat products contaminated with clenbuterol, mycotoxin (zearalenone) contamination leading to zeranol findings, and natural products containing endogenous AAS. The protection strategy consists of further investigations in case of reasonable suspicion of inadvertent doping, publication of the results, education of athletes and development of methods to differentiate between intentional and unintentional doping.

  13. Photoluminescence intensity enhancement in SWNT aqueous suspensions due to reducing agent doping: Influence of adsorbed biopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurnosov, N. V.; Leontiev, V. S.; Linnik, A. S.; Lytvyn, O. S.; Karachevtsev, V. A.

    2014-06-01

    The influence of biopolymer wrapped around nanotube on the enhancement of the semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) photoluminescence (PL) in aqueous suspension which increases due to the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) doping effect was revealed. The greatest enhancement of PL was observed for SWNTs covered with double- or single stranded DNA (above 170%) and DTT weak influence was revealed for SWNTs:polyC suspension (∼45%). The magnitude of the PL enhancement depends also on nanotube chirality and sample aging. The behavior of PL from SWNTs covered with various polymers is explained by the different biopolymers ordering on the nanotube surface. The ordered polymer conformation on the nanotube weakens the reducing agent doping effect. The method of reducing agent doping of nanotube:biopolymer aqueous suspension can serve as a sensitive luminescent probe of the biopolymer ordering on the carbon nanotube and can be used to increase the sensitivity of luminescent biosensors.

  14. Use of doping agents, particularly anabolic steroids, in sports and society.

    PubMed

    Sjöqvist, Folke; Garle, Mats; Rane, Anders

    2008-05-31

    The use of doping agents, particularly anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), has changed from being a problem restricted to sports to one of public-health concern. We review the prevalence of misuse, the evidence that some drugs improve performance in sport, their side-effects, and the long-term consequences of AAS misuse for society at large. There is substantial under-reporting of the side-effects of AAS to health authorities. We describe neuropsychiatric side-effects of AAS and their possible neurobiological correlates, with particular emphasis on violent behaviour. Analytical methods and laboratories accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency can detect the misuse of all doping agents; although the analysis of testosterone requires special techniques, and recently discovered interethnic differences in testosterone excretion should be taken into account. The prevention of misuse of doping agents should include random doping analyses, medical follow-ups, pedagogic interventions, tougher legislation against possession of AAS, and longer disqualifications of athletes who use AAS.

  15. Basic analytical methods for identification of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in doping control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postnikov, P. V.; Krotov, G. I.; Efimova, Yu A.; Rodchenkov, G. M.

    2016-02-01

    The design of new erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for clinical use necessitates constant development of methods for detecting the abuse of these substances, which are prohibited under the World Anti-Doping Code and are included in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prohibited list. This review integrates and describes systematically the published data on the key methods currently used by WADA-accredited anti-doping laboratories around the world to detect the abuse of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, including direct methods (various polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis techniques, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, membrane enzyme immunoassay and mass spectrometry) and indirect methods (athlete biological passport). Particular attention is given to promising approaches and investigations that can be used to control prohibited erythropoietins in the near future. The bibliography includes 122 references.

  16. Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Stengl, Vaclav; Houskova, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Marikova, Monika; Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas

    2010-11-15

    Zirconium doped nano dispersive oxides of Fe, Al and Zn were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of the respective sulfate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized metal oxide hydroxides were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulfur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), soman (GD or (3,3'-Dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX agent (S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl-methylphosphonothionate). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant can increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides, decreases their crystallites' sizes thereby it may contribute in enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface thus it can accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. Addition of Zr{sup 4+} converts the product of the reaction of ferric sulphate with urea from ferrihydrite to goethite. We found out that doped oxo-hydroxides Zr-FeO(OH) - being prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of ferric and zirconium oxo-sulfates mixture in aqueous solutions - exhibit a comparatively higher degradation activity towards chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Degradation of soman or VX agent on Zr-doped FeO(OH) containing ca. 8.3 wt.% of zirconium proceeded to completion within 30 min.

  17. Tin as reducing agent in ? doped alkali-earth fluorophosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafinova, R.; Caralampydu, A.

    1998-07-01

    The blue europium band in alkali-earth fluorophosphates, determining the 0953-8984/10/27/017/img2 allowed electric-dipole transitions in the 0953-8984/10/27/017/img3 ion, is studied. The simultaneous doping with 0953-8984/10/27/017/img4 provides a possibility of the realization of 0953-8984/10/27/017/img5 transitions and of formation of 0953-8984/10/27/017/img3 ions as blue emission centres of high intensity. The 0953-8984/10/27/017/img7 position is assumed for the 0953-8984/10/27/017/img3 ions in the apatite structure of the matrix.

  18. Gd-doped BNNTs as T2-weighted MRI contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciofani, Gianni; Boni, Adriano; Calucci, Lucia; Forte, Claudia; Gozzi, Alessandro; Mazzolai, Barbara; Mattoli, Virgilio

    2013-08-01

    This work describes, for the first time, doping of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) with gadolinium (Gd@BNNTs), a stable functionalization that permits non-invasive BNNT tracking via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We report the structure, Gd loading, and relaxometric properties in water suspension at 7 T of Gd@BNNTs, and show the behaviour of these nanostructures as promising T2-weighted contrast agents. Finally, we demonstrate their complete biocompatibility in vitro on human neuroblastoma cells, together with their ability to effectively label and affect contrast in MRI images at 7 T.

  19. Catechin tuned magnetism of Gd-doped orthovanadate through morphology as T1-T2 MRI contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vairapperumal, Tamilmani; Saraswathy, Ariya; Ramapurath, Jayasree S.; Kalarical Janardhanan, Sreeram; Balachandran Unni, Nair

    2016-10-01

    Tetragonal (t)-LaVO4 has turned out to be a potential host for luminescent materials. Synthesis of t-LaVO4 till date has been based on chelating effect of EDTA making it not ideal for bioimaging applications. An alternative was proposed by us through the use of catechin. In recent times there is interest for new MRI contrast agents that can through appropriate doping function both as MRI contrast and optical/upconversion materials. It is generally believed that under appropriate doping, t-LaVO4 would be a better upconversion material than monoclinic (m)-LaVO4. Based on these postulations, this work explores the use of gadolinium doped t-LaVO4 as an MRI contrast agent. From literature, gadolinium oxide is a good T1 contrast agent. Through this work, using catechin as a template for the synthesis of Gd doped t-LaVO4, we demonstrate the possible use as a T1 contrast agent. Interestingly, as the catechin concentration changes, morphology changes from nanorods to square nanoplates and spheres. In this process, a switch from T1 to T2 contrast agent was also observed. Under optimal concentration of catechin, with a rod shaped Gd doped t-LaVO4 an r2/r1 value of 21.30 was observed. Similarly, with a spherical shape had an r2/r1 value of 1.48 was observed.

  20. Catechin tuned magnetism of Gd-doped orthovanadate through morphology as T1-T2 MRI contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Vairapperumal, Tamilmani; Saraswathy, Ariya; Ramapurath, Jayasree S.; Kalarical Janardhanan, Sreeram; Balachandran Unni, Nair

    2016-01-01

    Tetragonal (t)-LaVO4 has turned out to be a potential host for luminescent materials. Synthesis of t-LaVO4 till date has been based on chelating effect of EDTA making it not ideal for bioimaging applications. An alternative was proposed by us through the use of catechin. In recent times there is interest for new MRI contrast agents that can through appropriate doping function both as MRI contrast and optical/upconversion materials. It is generally believed that under appropriate doping, t-LaVO4 would be a better upconversion material than monoclinic (m)-LaVO4. Based on these postulations, this work explores the use of gadolinium doped t-LaVO4 as an MRI contrast agent. From literature, gadolinium oxide is a good T1 contrast agent. Through this work, using catechin as a template for the synthesis of Gd doped t-LaVO4, we demonstrate the possible use as a T1 contrast agent. Interestingly, as the catechin concentration changes, morphology changes from nanorods to square nanoplates and spheres. In this process, a switch from T1 to T2 contrast agent was also observed. Under optimal concentration of catechin, with a rod shaped Gd doped t-LaVO4 an r2/r1 value of 21.30 was observed. Similarly, with a spherical shape had an r2/r1 value of 1.48 was observed. PMID:27752038

  1. The potential of mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy for the detection of various doping agents used by athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, C.; Bartlome, R.; Sigrist, M. W.

    2006-11-01

    The feasibility of laser-photoacoustic measurements for the detection and the analysis of different isolated doping agents in the vapour phase is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that photoacoustic vapour-phase measurements of doping substances have been presented. Spectra of different doping classes (stimulants, anabolica, diuretica, and beta blockers) are shown and discussed in terms of their detection sensitivity and selectivity. The potential of laser spectroscopy for detecting the intake of prohibited substances by athletes is explored.

  2. Effect of capping agent concentration on thermoluminescence and photoluminescence of copper-doped zinc sulfide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wanjari, Lata; Bisen, D P; Brahme, Namita; Sahu, Ishwar Prasad; Sharma, Ravi

    2015-08-01

    Copper-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Cu) nanoparticles with varying concentrations of capping agent were prepared using a chemical route technique. These particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Optical absorption studies showed that the absorption edge shifted towards the blue region as the concentration of the capping agent increased. Using effective mass approximation, calculation of the nanoparticle size indicated that effective band gap energy increases with decreasing particle size. The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of sodium hexameta phosphate (SHMP)-passivated ZnS:Cu nanoparticles were investigated after UV irradiation at room temperature. The TL glow curve of capped ZnS:Cu showed variations in TL peak position and intensity with the change in capping agent concentration. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnS:Cu nanoparticles excited at 254 nm exhibited a broad green emission band peaking around 510 nm, which confirmed the characteristic feature of Zn(2+) as well as Cu(2+) ions as the luminescent centres in the lattice. The PL spectra of ZnS:Cu nanoparticles with increasing capping agent concentrations revealed that the emission becomes more intense and shifted towards shorter wavelengths as the sizes of the samples were reduced.

  3. The study of N-isopropylacrylamide gel dosimeter doped iodinated contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y. J.; Hsieh, L. L.; Liu, M. H.; Liu, J. S.; Hsieh, B. T.

    2013-06-01

    Low toxicity of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) dosimeter was doped with clinical iodinated contrast medium agents(Iobitridol (Xenetix® 350) and organically bound iodine (Conray® 60) as radiation sensitizers; The suitable gel dosimeter preparation formula in this research was 5 w/w% gelatin, 5 w/w% N-isopropylacrylamide, 3 w/w% N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide, and 5 mM Tetrakis phosphonium chloride. The spiral CT was irradiator, and 120 kVp was the operating tube voltage. The maximum radiation dose was 0.6 Gy, and optical CT was the gel measurement device used. The results showed SERs with the addition of radiosensitizers were 10.70 (Xenetix® 350) and 9.67 (Conray® 60), respectively. Thus, the polymerized gel dosimeter could be used in the efficacy evaluation of low-energy and low-radiation dose.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of Cu 2+ doped ZnS nanoparticles using TOPO and SHMP as capping agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuppayee, M.; Vanathi Nachiyar, G. K.; Ramasamy, V.

    2011-05-01

    Undoped and Cu 2+ doped (0.2-0.8%) ZnS nanoparticles have been synthesized through chemical precipitation method. Tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) were used as capping agents. The synthesized nanoparticles have been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), UV-vis spectrometer, photoluminescence (PL) and thermo gravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DTA) analysis. The size of the particles is found to be 4-6 nm range. Photoluminescence spectra were recorded for ZnS:Cu 2+ under the excitation wavelength of 320 nm. The prepared Cu 2+-doped sample shows efficient PL emission in 470-525 nm region. The capped ZnS:Cu emission intensity is enhanced than the uncapped particles. The doping ions were identified by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer. The phase changes were observed in different temperatures.

  5. Detection of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in human anti-doping control: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Leuenberger, Nicolas; Reichel, Christian; Lasne, Françoise

    2012-07-01

    Stimulation of erythropoiesis is one of the most efficient ways of doping. This type of doping is advantageous for aerobic physical exercise and of particular interest to endurance athletes. Erythropoiesis, which takes place in bone marrow, is under the control of EPO, a hormone secreted primarily by the kidneys when the arterial oxygen tension decreases. In certain pathological disorders, such as chronic renal failure, the production of EPO is insufficient and results in anemia. The pharmaceutical industry has, thus, been very interested in developing drugs that stimulate erythropoiesis. With this aim, various strategies have been, and continue to be, envisaged, giving rise to an expanding range of drugs that are good candidates for doping. Anti-doping control has had to deal with this situation by developing appropriate methods for their detection. This article presents an overview of both the drugs and the corresponding methods of detection, and thus follows a roughly chronological order.

  6. Photoresponsive azo-doped aerosil/7CB nematic nanocomposites: the effect from concentration of the azobenzene photoactive agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjichristov, G. B.; Marinov, Y. G.; Petrov, A. G.; Prasad, S. K.

    2017-01-01

    We studied nanomaterials composed from 3 wt.% aerosil nanospheres and the room-temperature nematic liquid crystal 4-n-heptyl cyanobiphenyl (7CB), as doped with the photoactive liquid crystal 4-(4'-ethoxyphenylazo)phenyl hexanoate (EPH). The molecules of the azobenzene photoactive agent EPH were included at concentration ranging from 1 wt.% to 10 wt.%. The object of our interest is the effect of the EPH amount on the photosensitized electro-optical properties of thin films of aerosil/7CB/EPH nematic nanocomposites.

  7. Pharmacological criteria that can affect the detection of doping agents in hair.

    PubMed

    Kintz, P; Cirimele, V; Ludes, B

    2000-01-10

    When positive drug results are reported, a common interpretive question posed is whether or not it is possible to put a quantitative finding into context. A standard answer to this inquiry is that a positive hair testing result can be interpreted as meaning that the donor has chronically or repetitively used the drug identified in the hair, but that chronic or repetitive are not defined in the same way for all individuals. The Society of Hair Testing published on June 16, 1999, a consensus opinion on the use of hair in doping situations. However, although accepted in most courts of justice, hair analysis is not yet recognised by the International Olympic Committee. To be considered as a valid specimen for doping control, some issues still need to be addressed. The scientific community has demonstrated significant concern over the proper role that hair drug testing should serve in toxicological applications. Among the unanswered questions, five are of critical importance: (1) What is the minimal amount of drug detectable in hair after administration? (2) What is the relationship between the amount of the drug used and the concentration of the drug or its metabolites in hair? (3) What is the influence of hair color? (4) Is there any racial bias in hair testing? (5) What is the influence of cosmetic treatments? The present report documents scientific findings on these questions, with particular attention to the applications of hair in doping control.

  8. Luminescence Enhanced Eu(3+)/Gd(3+) Co-Doped Hydroxyapatite Nanocrystals as Imaging Agents In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yunfei; He, Wangmei; Li, Fang; Perera, Thalagalage Shalika Harshani; Gan, Lin; Han, Yingchao; Wang, Xinyu; Li, Shipu; Dai, Honglian

    2016-04-27

    Biocompatible, biodegradable, and luminescent nano material can be used as an alternative bioimaging agent for early cancer diagnosis, which is crucial to achieve successful treatment. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanocyrstals have good biocompatibility and biodegradability, and can be used as an excellent host for luminescent rare earth elements. In this study, based on the energy transfer from Gd(3+) to Eu(3+), the luminescence enhanced imaging agent of Eu/Gd codoping HAP (HAP:Eu/Gd) nanocrystals are obtained via coprecipitation with plate-like shape and no change in crystal phase composition. The luminescence can be much elevated (up to about 120%) with a nonlinear increase versus Gd doping content, which is due to the energy transfer ((6)PJ of Gd(3+) → (5)HJ of Eu(3+)) under 273 nm and the possible combination effect of the cooperative upconversion and the successive energy transfer under 394 nm, respectively. Results demonstrate that the biocompatible HAP:Eu/Gd nanocrystals can successfully perform cell labeling and in vivo imaging. The intracellular HAP:Eu/Gd nanocrystals display good biodegradability with a cumulative degradation of about 65% after 72 h. This biocompatible, biodegradable, and luminescence enhanced HAP:Eu/Gd nanocrystal has the potential to act as a fluorescent imaging agent in vitro and in vivo.

  9. LED and low level laser therapy association in tooth bleaching using a novel low concentration H2O2/N-doped TiO2 bleaching agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra Dias, Hércules; Teixeira Carrera, Emanuelle; Freitas Bortolatto, Janaína; Ferrarezi de Andrade, Marcelo; Nara de Souza Rastelli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Since low concentration bleaching agents containing N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been introduced as an alternative to conventional agents, it is important to verify their efficacy and the hypersensitivity effect in clinical practice. Six volunteer patients were evaluated for color change and hypersensitivity after bleaching using 35% H2O2 (one session of two 12 min applications) and 6% H2O2/N-doped TiO2 (one session of three 12 min applications) and after low level laser therapy application (LLLT) (780 nm, 40 mW, 10 J.cm-2, 10 s). Based on this case study, the nanobleaching agent provided better or similar aesthetic results than the conventional agent under high concentration, and its association with LLLT satisfactorily decreased the hypersensitivity. The 6% H2O2/N-doped TiO2 agent could be used instead of conventional in-office bleaching agents under high concentrations to fulfill the rising patient demand for aesthetics.

  10. Buffering agents-assisted synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene with oxygen-rich functional groups for enhanced electrochemical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Yan, Qiuyun; Zhang, Shanshan; Lu, Luhua; Xie, Bingqiao; Xie, Ting; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Yucheng; Zhang, Yuxing; Liu, Dong

    2016-11-01

    In this work, designed growth of two type of N-doped graphene nanosheets has been investigated using NH4H2PO4 and (NH4)2HPO4 as buffering agents, respectively, in a mild hydrothermal process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization indicates that the graphene nanosheets grown using NH4H2PO4 (NGC) have lower nitrogen but higher oxygen content than those using (NH4)2HPO4 (NGL). Electrochemical measurements in three-electrode systems show that both type of the graphene products exhibit superior electrochemical performance (383 and 356 F g-1 at 1 A g-1). While the specific capacitance of NGC is steadily higher than that of NGL under all investigated current densities, the capacitance attenuation of NGL is 4.80% from 500 to 10000 cycles showing more durable in cyclicity than that of NGC (8.81%). The two-electrode supercapacitor devices for NGC and NGL exhibit high energy density of 12.21 Wh kg-1 and 9.28 Wh kg-1 at 0.25 A g-1. The difference in electrochemical behaviors between NGC and NGL electrodes can be attributed to the different contribution of nitrogen and oxygenic groups. The buffer agents assisted synthesis procedure coupled with the reasonable capacitance performance suggests an alternative way in the designed functionalization of graphene for developing high performance supercapacitors.

  11. Structural, optical and electronic characteristics of N-doped graphene nanosheets synthesized using urea as reducing agent and nitrogen precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamoli, Pankaj; Das, Malay K.; Kar, Kamal K.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, nitrogen (N)-doped graphene nanosheets (NGns) have been synthesized by solvothermal method using urea both as the green precursor of N and as the reducing agent for graphene oxide (GO). As synthesized NGns have been characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS). The Raman D to G band intensity ratio (I D /I G ), being a measure of defects in the honeycomb lattice, is used as an indicator for the formation of NGns. For GO:urea weight ratio of 1:5, high C to O atomic ratio (C/O) of ~8.75 with an N-content as high as ~8.3 at.% and high I D /I G ratio of 1.55 have been observed, which confirm the removal of oxygen functionalities from GO to form NGns. Further, transparent conducting films (TCFs) of the synthesized NGns have been fabricated by spray coating. Thermal graphitization of the TCFs has been performed to enhance their optical and electrical properties. When annealed at 900 °C for 1 h in vacuum, the film shows a best performance in terms of sheet resistance and transmittance values of ~1.63 kΩ □‑1 and ~68.21%, respectively.

  12. Agents.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2002-01-01

    Although health care is inherently an economic activity, it is inadequately described as a market process. An alternative, grounded in organizational economic theory, is to view professionals and many others as agents, contracted to advance the best interests of their principals (patients). This view untangles some of the ethical conflicts in dentistry. It also helps identify major controllable costs in dentistry and suggests that dentists can act as a group to increase or decrease agency costs, primarily by controlling the bad actors who damage the value of all dentists.

  13. Analysis of sulfate metabolites of the doping agents oxandrolone and danazol using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rzeppa, S; Viet, L

    2016-09-01

    The direct detection of sulfate conjugates of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) can be a powerful tool in doping control analysis. By skipping the solvolysis step analysis time can be reduced, and due to long term sulfate metabolites the detection time can be significantly extended as demonstrated for some AAS. This study presents the successful identification of sulfate metabolites of the doping agents oxandrolone and danazol in excretion urines by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The sulfate conjugate of 17β-hydroxymethyl-17α-methyl-18-nor-2-oxa-5α-androsta-13-en-3-one could be identified as a new metabolite of oxandrolone. Sulfate conjugates of the danazol metabolites ethisterone and 2α-hydroxymethylethisterone were identified in an excretion urine for the first time. In addition, these sulfate conjugates were synthesized successfully. For a confirmation analysis, the number of analytes can be increased by additional sulfate conjugates of danazol metabolites (2-hydroxymethyl-1,2-dehydroethisterone and 6β-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethylethisterone), which were also identified for the first time. The presented validation data underline the suitability of the identified sulfate conjugates for doping analysis with regard to the criteria given by the technical documents of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).

  14. Terbium-doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in liquid for use as a fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging dual-modal contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Chen, Min; Yang, Chuan; Liu, Jun; Luo, Ningqi; Yang, Guowei; Chen, Dihu; Li, Li

    2015-01-14

    Dual-modal lanthanide-doped gadolinium nanoparticles (NPs), which exhibit an excellent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) spatial resolution and high fluorescence imaging (FI) sensitivity, have attracted tremendous attention in biotechnology and nanomedicine applications. In this paper, terbium (Tb) ion doped gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3:Tb) NPs with varied Tb concentrations were synthesized by a laser ablation in liquid (LAL) method. The characterization of the structure, morphology, and composition shows that these NPs are spherical with excellent crystallinity. The effects of Tb ion concentration on the visible green fluorescence and longitudinal relaxivity were investigated, indicating that the fluorescence properties were significantly influenced by the Tb ion concentration, but all samples were still efficient T1-weighted contrast agents. Furthermore, the optimum Tb doping concentration was determined to be 1%. The cell viability, cellular fluorescence imaging and in vivo MRI of this dual-modal nano-probe were studied, with the results revealing that the Gd2O3:Tb NPs did not have a significant cytotoxic effect, making them good candidates for use as a dual-modal contrast agent for MRI and fluorescence imaging.

  15. Synthesis of highly efficient antibacterial agent Ag doped ZnO nanorods: Structural, Raman and optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Jan, Tariq; Iqbal, Javed; Ismail, Muhammad; Mahmood, Arshad

    2014-04-21

    Here, synthesis, structural, morphological, Raman, optical properties and antibacterial activity of undoped and Ag doped ZnO nanorods by chemical co-precipitation technique have been reported. Structural analysis has revealed that Ag doping cannot deteriorate the structure of ZnO and wurtzite phase is maintained. Lattice constants are found to be decreased with the Ag doping. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy also confirm the X-ray diffraction results. Scanning electron microscopy results have demonstrated the formation of ZnO nanorods with average diameter and length of 96 nm and 700 nm, respectively. Raman spectroscopy results suggest that the Ag doping enhances the number of defects in ZnO crystal. It has been found from optical study that Ag doping results in positional shift of band edge absorption peak. This is attributed to the successful incorporation of Ag dopant into ZnO host matrix. The antibacterial activity of prepared nanorods has been determined by two different methods and compared to that of undoped ZnO nanorods. Ag doped ZnO nanorods exhibit excellent antibacterial activity as compared to that of undoped ZnO nanorods. This excellent antibacterial activity may be attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies and Zn{sup 2+} interstitial defects. Our preliminary findings suggest that Ag doped ZnO nanorods can be used externally to control the spreading of infections related with tested bacterial strains.

  16. Synthesis of highly efficient antibacterial agent Ag doped ZnO nanorods: Structural, Raman and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, Tariq; Iqbal, Javed; Ismail, Muhammad; Mahmood, Arshad

    2014-04-01

    Here, synthesis, structural, morphological, Raman, optical properties and antibacterial activity of undoped and Ag doped ZnO nanorods by chemical co-precipitation technique have been reported. Structural analysis has revealed that Ag doping cannot deteriorate the structure of ZnO and wurtzite phase is maintained. Lattice constants are found to be decreased with the Ag doping. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy also confirm the X-ray diffraction results. Scanning electron microscopy results have demonstrated the formation of ZnO nanorods with average diameter and length of 96 nm and 700 nm, respectively. Raman spectroscopy results suggest that the Ag doping enhances the number of defects in ZnO crystal. It has been found from optical study that Ag doping results in positional shift of band edge absorption peak. This is attributed to the successful incorporation of Ag dopant into ZnO host matrix. The antibacterial activity of prepared nanorods has been determined by two different methods and compared to that of undoped ZnO nanorods. Ag doped ZnO nanorods exhibit excellent antibacterial activity as compared to that of undoped ZnO nanorods. This excellent antibacterial activity may be attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies and Zn2+ interstitial defects. Our preliminary findings suggest that Ag doped ZnO nanorods can be used externally to control the spreading of infections related with tested bacterial strains.

  17. High-throughput and sensitive screening by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry of diuretics and other doping agents.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Rosa; Roig, M; Montfort, N; Sáez, P; Bergés, Rosa; Segura, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    The reliability of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC- MS/MS) for high throughput screening in anti-doping control has been tested. A method to screen for the presence of diuretics and other doping agents in urine has been optimised and validated. The extraction procedure consisted of an alkaline extraction (pH 9.5) with ethyl acetate and salting-out effect (sodium chloride). The extracts were analysed by UPLC-MS/MS. Analysis of 34 forbidden drugs and metabolites was achieved in a total run time of 5 min, using a C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm i.d., 1.7 microm particle size) and a mobile phase containing deionised water and acetonitrile with formic acid, with gradient elution at a flow-rate of 0.6 mL min(-1). Identification of the compounds was performed by multiple reaction monitoring, using electrospray ionisation in positive- or negative-ion mode. Precursor and product ions were studied for each compound and cone voltage and collision energy were optimised. Due to the different chemical structure of the compounds under study, extraction recoveries varied from less than 10% to 100% depending on the analyte. The limits of detection ranged from 50 ng mL(-1) to 200 ng mL(-1), and all the compounds comply with the requirements of quality established by the World Anti-doping Agency. Intra-assay precision was evaluated at two concentrations for each compound and, in most cases, a relative standard deviation of the signal ratio lower than 20% was obtained. The method has demonstrated to be reliable when analysing routine samples and the short analysis time resulting from a simple sample preparation and a rapid instrumental analysis allow a fast turn-around time and makes it of great interest for routine anti-doping control purposes.

  18. Simplifying and expanding analytical capabilities for various classes of doping agents by means of direct urine injection high performance liquid chromatography high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Görgens, Christian; Guddat, Sven; Thomas, Andreas; Wachsmuth, Philipp; Orlovius, Anne-Katrin; Sigmund, Gerd; Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2016-11-30

    So far, in sports drug testing compounds of different classes are processed and measured using different screening procedures. The constantly increasing number of samples in doping analysis, as well as the large number of substances with doping related, pharmacological effects require the development of even more powerful assays than those already employed in sports drug testing, indispensably with reduced sample preparation procedures. The analysis of native urine samples after direct injection provides a promising analytical approach, which thereby possesses a broad applicability to many different compounds and their metabolites, without a time-consuming sample preparation. In this study, a novel multi-target approach based on liquid chromatography and high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry is presented to screen for more than 200 analytes of various classes of doping agents far below the required detection limits in sports drug testing. Here, classic groups of drugs as diuretics, stimulants, β2-agonists, narcotics and anabolic androgenic steroids as well as various newer target compounds like hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizers, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), plasma volume expanders and other doping related compounds, listed in the 2016 WADA prohibited list were implemented. As a main achievement, growth hormone releasing peptides could be implemented, which chemically belong to the group of small peptides (<2kDa) and are commonly determined by laborious and time-consuming stand-alone assays. The assay was fully validated for qualitative purposes considering the parameters specificity, robustness (rRT: <2%), intra- (CV: 1.7-18.4 %) and inter-day precision (CV: 2.3-18.3%) at three concentration levels, linearity (R(2)>0.99), limit of detection (0.1-25ng/mL; 3'OH-stanozolol glucuronide: 50pg/mL; dextran/HES: 10μg/mL) and matrix effects.

  19. Fast and sensitive supercritical fluid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry multi-class screening method for the determination of doping agents in urine.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Lucie; Desfontaine, Vincent; Ponzetto, Federico; Nicoli, Raul; Saugy, Martial; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2016-04-07

    This study shows the possibility offered by modern ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry in doping control analysis. A high throughput screening method was developed for 100 substances belonging to the challenging classes of anabolic agents, hormones and metabolic modulators, synthetic cannabinoids and glucocorticoids, which should be detected at low concentrations in urine. To selectively extract these doping agents from urine, a supported liquid extraction procedure was implemented in a 48-well plate format. At the tested concentration levels ranging from 0.5 to 5 ng/mL, the recoveries were better than 70% for 48-68% of the compounds and higher than 50% for 83-87% of the tested substances. Due to the numerous interferences related to isomers of steroids and ions produced by the loss of water in the electrospray source, the choice of SFC separation conditions was very challenging. After careful optimization, a Diol stationary phase was employed. The total analysis time for the screening assay was only 8 min, and interferences as well as susceptibility to matrix effect (ME) were minimized. With the developed method, about 70% of the compounds had relative ME within the range ±20%, at a concentration of 1 and 5 ng/mL. Finally, limits of detection achieved with the above-described strategy including 5-fold preconcentration were below 0.1 ng/mL for the majority of the tested compounds. Therefore, LODs were systematically better than the minimum required performance levels established by the World anti-doping agency, except for very few metabolites.

  20. Determination of designer doping agent--2-ethylamino-1-phenylbutane--in dietary supplements and excretion study following single oral supplement dose.

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, Marzena; Jarek, Anna; Chajewska, Katarzyna; Turek-Lepa, Ewa; Kwiatkowska, Dorota

    2015-11-10

    The quantitative analysis of a new designer doping agent, 2-ethylamino-1-phenylbutane (EAPB) and its metabolite, 2-amino-1-phenylbutane (APB) in urine samples, and the determination of EAPB in dietary supplement samples, have been presented. The main purpose of the present study was to develop simple and reliable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method (GC-MS) for excretion study following a single oral administration of dietary supplements containing EAPB. Three analytical methods for the determination of EAPB in urine and supplement samples, and APB in urine samples using the GC-MS system, have been validated. The method of the determination of EAPB in supplement samples was applied to analyze seventeen dietary supplements, CRAZE and DETONATE. Two other methods were used to determine the urinary excretion profile of EAPB and APB in the case of three healthy volunteers and, on further investigation, it was applied to the anti-doping control in sport. Quantification was obtained on the basis of the ions at m/z 86, 58 and 169, monitored for EAPB, APB and diphenylamine (used as an internal standard), respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were 2.4 and 7.3μg/g for EAPB in the case of supplement analysis, 2.9 and 8.8ng/mL for EAPB in the case of urine analysis, and 3.2 and 9.7ng/mL for APB. The other validation parameters as linearity, precision and trueness have been also investigated with the acceptable results. The extraction yield of all presented methods was above 69%. EAPB was detected in fourteen analyzed supplements (not included EAPB in their labels) and its content varied between 1.8 and 16.1mg/g. Following oral administration of three supplements with EAPB to one male and two female volunteers, the parent compound of EAPB and its metabolite were monitored and the excretion parameters as the maximum concentration of the analyte in urine (2.2-4.2μg/mL for EAPB; 1.1-5.1μg/mL for APB) and the time for the maximum height of the excretion

  1. The abuse of diuretics as performance-enhancing drugs and masking agents in sport doping: pharmacology, toxicology and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cadwallader, Amy B; de la Torre, Xavier; Tieri, Alessandra; Botrè, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Diuretics are drugs that increase the rate of urine flow and sodium excretion to adjust the volume and composition of body fluids. There are several major categories of this drug class and the compounds vary greatly in structure, physicochemical properties, effects on urinary composition and renal haemodynamics, and site and mechanism of action. Diuretics are often abused by athletes to excrete water for rapid weight loss and to mask the presence of other banned substances. Because of their abuse by athletes, diuretics have been included on The World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) list of prohibited substances; the use of diuretics is banned both in competition and out of competition and diuretics are routinely screened for by anti-doping laboratories. This review provides an overview of the pharmacology and toxicology of diuretics and discusses their application in sports. The most common analytical strategies currently followed by the anti-doping laboratories accredited by the WADA are discussed along with the challenges laboratories face for the analysis of this diverse class of drugs. PMID:20718736

  2. The abuse of diuretics as performance-enhancing drugs and masking agents in sport doping: pharmacology, toxicology and analysis.

    PubMed

    Cadwallader, Amy B; de la Torre, Xavier; Tieri, Alessandra; Botrè, Francesco

    2010-09-01

    Diuretics are drugs that increase the rate of urine flow and sodium excretion to adjust the volume and composition of body fluids. There are several major categories of this drug class and the compounds vary greatly in structure, physicochemical properties, effects on urinary composition and renal haemodynamics, and site and mechanism of action. Diuretics are often abused by athletes to excrete water for rapid weight loss and to mask the presence of other banned substances. Because of their abuse by athletes, diuretics have been included on The World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) list of prohibited substances; the use of diuretics is banned both in competition and out of competition and diuretics are routinely screened for by anti-doping laboratories. This review provides an overview of the pharmacology and toxicology of diuretics and discusses their application in sports. The most common analytical strategies currently followed by the anti-doping laboratories accredited by the WADA are discussed along with the challenges laboratories face for the analysis of this diverse class of drugs.

  3. Rare-Earth Doped Particles as Dual-Modality Contrast Agent for Minimally-Invasive Luminescence and Dual-Wavelength Photoacoustic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Yang; Liao, Lun-De; Thakor, Nitish; Tan, Mei Chee

    2014-10-01

    Multi-modal imaging is an emerging area that integrates multiple imaging modalities to simultaneously capture visual information over many spatial scales. Complementary contrast agents need to be co-developed in order to achieve high resolution and contrast. In this work, we demonstrated that rare-earth doped particles (REDPs) can be employed as dual-modal imaging agents for both luminescence and photoacoustic (PA) imaging to achieve intrinsic high contrast, temporal and spatial resolution, reaching deeper depth. REDPs synthesized with different surfactants (citric acid, polyacrylic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and sodium citrate) exhibit tunable emission properties and PA signal amplitudes. Amongst these samples, sodium citrate-modified REDPs showed the strongest PA signals. Furthermore, since REDPs have multiple absorption peaks, they offer a unique opportunity for multi-wavelength PA imaging (e.g. PA signals were measured using 520 and 975 nm excitations). The in vivo PA images around the cortical superior sagittal sinus (SSS) blood vessel captured with enhanced signal arising from REDPs demonstrated that in addition to be excellent luminescent probes, REDPs can also be used as successful PA contrast agents. Anisotropic polyacrylic acid-modified REDPs were found to be the best candidates for dual-modal luminescence and PA imaging due to their strong luminescence and PA signal intensities.

  4. Rare-Earth doped particles as dual-modality contrast agent for minimally-invasive luminescence and dual-wavelength photoacoustic imaging.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yang; Liao, Lun-De; Thakor, Nitish; Tan, Mei Chee

    2014-10-09

    Multi-modal imaging is an emerging area that integrates multiple imaging modalities to simultaneously capture visual information over many spatial scales. Complementary contrast agents need to be co-developed in order to achieve high resolution and contrast. In this work, we demonstrated that rare-earth doped particles (REDPs) can be employed as dual-modal imaging agents for both luminescence and photoacoustic (PA) imaging to achieve intrinsic high contrast, temporal and spatial resolution, reaching deeper depth. REDPs synthesized with different surfactants (citric acid, polyacrylic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and sodium citrate) exhibit tunable emission properties and PA signal amplitudes. Amongst these samples, sodium citrate-modified REDPs showed the strongest PA signals. Furthermore, since REDPs have multiple absorption peaks, they offer a unique opportunity for multi-wavelength PA imaging (e.g. PA signals were measured using 520 and 975 nm excitations). The in vivo PA images around the cortical superior sagittal sinus (SSS) blood vessel captured with enhanced signal arising from REDPs demonstrated that in addition to be excellent luminescent probes, REDPs can also be used as successful PA contrast agents. Anisotropic polyacrylic acid-modified REDPs were found to be the best candidates for dual-modal luminescence and PA imaging due to their strong luminescence and PA signal intensities.

  5. High potential of Mn-doped ZnS nanoparticles with different dopant concentrations as novel MRI contrast agents: synthesis and in vitro relaxivity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanbin, Tania; Gaceur, Meriem; Gros-Dagnac, Hélène; Benderbous, Soraya; Merah, Souad Ammar

    2015-06-01

    Over several decades, metal-doped quantum dots (QDs) with core-shell structure have been studied as dual probes: fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes (Dixit et al., Mater Lett 63(30):2669-2671, 2009). However, metal-doped nanoparticles, in which the majority of metal ions are close to the surface, can affect their efficacy as MRI contrast agents (CAs). In this context, herein the high potential of synthesized Mn-doped ZnS QDs via polyol method as imaging probe is demonstrated. The mean diameters of QDs were measured via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Optical and magnetic properties of MnZnS nanoparticles were characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy and super quanducting interference devices magnetometer and electron paramagnetic resonance system, respectively. T1- and T2-weighted images of nanoparticles in aqueous solution were acquired from spin-echo sequences at 3 T. From TEM images and XRD spectra of the prepared nanoparticles, it is observed that the average diameter of particles does not significantly change with Mn dopant content ( 1.6-1.9 nm). All three samples exhibit broad blue emission under UV light excitation. According to the MRI studies, MnZnS nanoparticles generate strong T1 contrast enhancement (bright T1-weighted images) at the low concentration (<0.1 mM). The MnZnS nanoparticles exhibit the high longitudinal ( r 1) relaxivity that increases from 20.34 to 75.5 mM-1 s-1 with the Mn dopant contents varying between 10 and 30 %. Strong signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high r 1 with {r2 }/{r_{1 }} ≈ 1 can demonstrate the high potential of the synthesized Mn:ZnS nanoparticles, which can serve as an effective T1 CA.

  6. Examples of doping control analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: ephedrines, beta-receptor blocking agents, diuretics, sympathomimetics, and cross-linked hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2005-01-01

    The application of modern and powerful analytical instruments consisting of liquid chromatographs (LCs), sophisticated atmospheric pressure ion sources, and sensitive mass analyzers has improved quality as well as speed of doping control analyses markedly during the last 5 years. Numerous compounds such as beta-receptor blocking agents or diuretics require derivatization prior to gas chromatographic (GC) and mass spectrometric (MS) measurement, which is the reason for extended sample preparation periods. In addition, several substances demonstrate poor GC-MS properties even after chemical modification, and peptide hormones such as cross-linked hemoglobins cannot be analyzed at all by means of GC-MS. With the availability of electrospray ionization and robust tandem MSs (e.g., triple-stage quadrupole or ion trap instruments) many new or complementary screening and confirmation assays have been developed, providing detailed qualitative and quantitative information on prohibited drugs. With selected categories of compounds (ephedrines, beta-blockers, b2-agonists, diuretics, and bovine hemoglobin-based oxygen therapeutics) that are banned according to the rules of the World Anti-Doping Agency and International Olympic Committee, the advantages of LC-MS-MS procedures over conventional GC-MS assays are demonstrated, such as enhanced separation of analytes, shorter sample pretreatment, and identification of substances that are not identified by GC-MS.

  7. Europium-doped gadolinium sulfide nanoparticles as a dual-mode imaging agent for T1-weighted MR and photoluminescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jongjin; Kim, Mi Ae; Cho, Jee-Hyun; Lee, Seung Jae; Yang, Ilseung; Cho, Janggeun; Kim, Seong Keun; Lee, Chulhyun; Park, Joung Kyu

    2012-08-01

    We present a facile synthesis of europium-doped gadolinium sulfide (GdS:Eu(3+)) opto-magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) via sonochemistry. Their photoluminescence and strong paramagnetic properties enable these NPs to be utilized as an in vitro cell imaging and in vivo T(1)-weighted MR imaging probe. The GdS:Eu(3+) NPs have a prominent longitudinal (r(1)) relaxivity value, which is a critical parameter for T(1)-weighted MR imaging. Here, we showed not only their strong positive contrast effect to blood vessels and organs of mice, but also blood half-life and biodistribution including clearance from organs, in order to assess the GdS:Eu(3+) NPs as a competent nanocrystal-based T(1) contrast agent. We further showed confocal images of breast cancer cells containing GdS:Eu(3+) NPs to evaluate as a photoluminescence probe. Dual-mode imaging capability obtained from the GdS:Eu(3+) NPs will allow target-oriented cellular imaging as well as the resulting disease-specific MR imaging.

  8. Decontamination of chemical-warfare agent simulants by polymer surfaces doped with the singlet oxygen generator zinc octaphenoxyphthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Gephart, Raymond T; Coneski, Peter N; Wynne, James H

    2013-10-23

    Using reactive singlet oxygen (1O2), the oxidation of chemical-warfare agent (CWA) simulants has been demonstrated. The zinc octaphenoxyphthalocyanine (ZnOPPc) complex was demonstrated to be an efficient photosensitizer for converting molecular oxygen (O2) to 1O2 using broad-spectrum light (450-800 nm) from a 250 W halogen lamp. This photosensitization produces 1O2 in solution as well as within polymer matrices. The oxidation of 1-naphthol to naphthoquinone was used to monitor the rate of 1O2 generation in the commercially available polymer film Hydrothane that incorporates ZnOPPc. Using electrospinning, nanofibers of ZnOPPc in Hydrothane and polycarbonate were formed and analyzed for their ability to oxidize demeton-S, a CWA simulant, on the surface of the polymers and were found to have similar reactivity as their corresponding films. The Hydrothane films were then used to oxidize CWA simulants malathion, 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide (CEPS), and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). Through this oxidation process, the CWA simulants are converted into less toxic compounds, thus decontaminating the surface using only O2 from the air and light.

  9. Qualitative detection of diuretics and acidic metabolites of other doping agents in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: comparison between liquid-liquid extraction and direct injection.

    PubMed

    Deventer, K; Pozo, O J; Van Eenoo, P; Delbeke, F T

    2009-07-31

    Direct injection of urine has gained interest in the field of analytical toxicology, including doping control analysis. However, implementation of a direct urinalysis method for the LC-MS/MS detection of 34 diuretics and 9 other doping agents yielded several analytical problems, which were not observed using a traditional liquid-liquid extraction. Therefore a comparative study was made between liquid-liquid extraction and direct injection. Comparison of validation results showed that the liquid-liquid extraction at pH 7 allows to analyze samples without major drawbacks regarding matrix effects. Hence, good sensitivity was observed and detection limits ranged between 1 and 250 ng/mL for all compounds. In the direct injection approach shifted retention times were observed for several acidic and basic compounds due to unwanted matrix effects. This shift was reduced by a 25-fold dilution of the urine samples. Besides the improved retention time stability the diluted samples also exhibited lower ion suppression than the undiluted ones. After 25-fold dilution, detection limits ranged between 10 and 250 ng/mL for all compounds. Since these detection limits are at or below the minimum required performance level, imposed by the World Anti-Doping Agency, the method could be applied to routine anti-doping analysis. Samples, previously declared positive, were reanalysed using both the liquid-liquid extraction and direct injection. With both techniques all 26 samples were found to be positive, showing the applicability of direct injection for the analysis of diuretics.

  10. Influences of glycerol as an efficient doping agent on crystal structure and antibacterial activity of B-TiO2 nano-materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, He; Wang, Yuzheng; Xue, Xiangxin

    2014-10-01

    In this study, highly effective boron acid and glycerol co-doped TiO2 nano-materials were directly synthesized via a sol-gel method. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and X-ray photoelectron (PL) spectroscopy. The results indicate that boron dopant is partially embedded into the interstitial TiO2 structure or incorporated into the TiO2 lattice through occupying the position of the oxygen atom, and others is present in the form of B2O3. Boron acid and glycerol co-doping TiO2 materials show obvious red shift in their absorption edges and efficient electron-hole separation because of the glycerol doping. The study on the antibacterial activities demonstrate that co-doped TiO2 nano-materials could effectively inactivate the bacteria under visible light irradiation. Co-doped TiO2 nano-materials exhibit more excellent antibacterial performance than B-doped TiO2 nano-materials.

  11. Double-doped TiO2 nanoparticles as an efficient visible-light-active photocatalyst and antibacterial agent under solar simulated light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkarran, Ali Akbar; Hamidinezhad, Habib; Haddadi, Hedayat; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2014-05-01

    Silver and nitrogen doped TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via sol-gel method. The physicochemical properties of the achieved NPs were characterized by various methods including X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and ultra violet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis). Both visible-light photocatalytic activity and antimicrobial properties were successfully demonstrated for the degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh. B.), as a model dye, and inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli), as a representative of microorganisms. The concentration of the employed dopant was optimized and the results revealed that the silver and nitrogen doped TiO2 NPs extended the light absorption spectrum toward the visible region and significantly enhanced the photodegradation of model dye and inactivation of bacteria under visible-light irradiation while double-doped TiO2 NPs exhibited highest photocatalytic and antibacterial activity compared with single doping. The significant enhancement in the photocatalytic activity and antibacterial properties of the double doped TiO2 NPs, under visible-light irradiation, can be attributed to the generation of two different electronic states acting as electron traps in TiO2 and responsible for narrowing the band gap of TiO2 and shifting its optical response from UV to the visible-light region.

  12. Detection by LC-MS/MS of HIF stabilizer FG-4592 used as a new doping agent: Investigation on a positive case.

    PubMed

    Buisson, C; Marchand, A; Bailloux, I; Lahaussois, A; Martin, L; Molina, A

    2016-03-20

    Stabilizing the labile factor HIF (hypoxia inducible factor) for therapeutic use has led to the development of various molecules by pharmaceutical companies. These HIF stabilizers show promising erythropoiesis stimulating capacities and are of great interest for patients with chronical kidney disease and anemia. Amongst them FG-4592 from FibroGen is now under phase 3 of clinical studies. While this drug is still under investigation, a parallel market already allows to buy this product, which could be tempting for some athletes willing to increase their performances. To avoid such a use for doping purpose, WADA has listed HIF stabilizers and FG-4592 in particular as prohibited substances since 2011 and some anti-doping laboratories have developed a technique of identification of FG-4592 in urine. Here, we described the first case ever identified by an anti-doping laboratory of an athlete using FG-4592. Detection and confirmation in urinary samples was performed by LC-MS/MS. In addition, potential indirect markers erythropoietin (EPO) and hematological parameters followed in the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) were analyzed during and after the period of use but showed no profound alterations. Only ABPS (abnormal blood profile score) reached (but did not exceed) the upper limit proposed by the ABP adaptive model just after the period of use of FG-4592. Altogether this case sends a warning for anti-doping laboratories which now must strengthen surveillance on HIF stabilizers and develop sensitive methods of detection for this new class of drugs.

  13. [Xenon: From rare gaz to doping product].

    PubMed

    Tassel, Camille; Le Daré, Brendan; Morel, Isabelle; Gicquel, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Doping is defined as the use of processes or substances to artificially increase physical or mental performance. Xenon is a noble gas used as an anesthetic and recently as a doping agent. Xenon is neuroprotective as an antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors. Xenon stimulates the synthesis of erythropoietin (EPO) by increase of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). Xenon would be a new doping product, maintaining doping methods ahead of detection.

  14. [Medication, athletes and doping regulations].

    PubMed

    Hartgens, F

    2008-08-16

    Doping is defined as an offence of the antidopingcode of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). To uphold the code WADA has composed a list of prohibited substances and methods. The composition of the list is based on three mainstays: fair play, health risks and spirit of the sport. Among the prohibited substances are anabolic agents, erythropoietin, beta2-sympathicomimetics, growth hormone and masking agents. For some medications athletes may receive a therapeutic use exemption. Enforcement of the antidoping-code is performed by doping controls. For this purpose, blood and urine samples of athletes are collected and analysed. In 2006 approximately 200,000 samples were analysed worldwide, with 1.96% being tested positive. All physicians should be aware of the possibility that athletes use medication subjected to the doping regulations. There are guidelines for physicians on doping-related issues in medical practice.

  15. N and S co-doped porous carbon spheres prepared using L-cysteine as a dual functional agent for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shuzhang; Lv, Wei; Zhou, Guangmin; He, Yanbing; Li, Baohua; Yang, Quan-Hong; Kang, Feiyu

    2015-12-28

    Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped porous carbon spheres (NS-PCSs) were prepared using L-cysteine to control the structure and functionalization during the hydrothermal reaction of glucose and the subsequent activation process. As the sulfur hosts in Li-S batteries, NS-PCSs combine strong physical confinement and surface chemical interaction to improve the affinity of polysulfides to the carbon matrix.

  16. Trafficking of drug candidates relevant for sports drug testing: detection of non-approved therapeutics categorized as anabolic and gene doping agents in products distributed via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Thomas, Andreas; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2011-05-01

    Identifying the use of non-approved drugs by cheating athletes has been a great challenge for doping control laboratories. This is due to the additional complexities associated with identifying relatively unknown and uncharacterized compounds and their metabolites as opposed to known and well-studied therapeutics. In 2010, the prohibited drug candidates and gene doping substances AICAR and GW1516, together with the selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) MK-2866 were obtained by the Cologne Doping Control Laboratory from Internet suppliers and their structure, quantity, and formulation elucidated. All three compounds proved authentic as determined by liquid chromatography-high resolution/high accuracy (tandem) mass spectrometry and comparison to reference material. While AICAR was provided as a colourless powder in 100 mg aliquots, GW1516 was obtained as an orange/yellow suspension in water/glycerol (150 mg/ml), and MK-2866 (25 mg/ml) was shipped dissolved in polyethylene glycol (PEG) 300. In all cases, the quantified amounts were considerably lower than indicated on the label. The substances were delivered via courier, with packaging identifying them as containing 'amino acids' and 'green tea extract', arguably to circumvent customs control. Although all of the substances were declared 'for research only', their potential misuse in illicit performance-enhancement cannot be excluded; moreover sports drug testing authorities should be aware of the facile availability of black market copies of these drug candidates.

  17. Production of Eu-doped BaAl2O4 at low temperature via an alternative sol-gel method using PVA as complexing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Manassés A.; Andrade, Adriano B.; Rezende, Marcos V. dos S.; Valerio, Mário E. G.

    2017-03-01

    Europium-doped barium aluminate (BaAl2O4:Eu) was successfully produced using an alternative PVA (Polyvinyl Alcohol) assisted sol-gel route at low temperature. To find the best conditions of calcination, DTA/TG (Differential Thermal Analysis/ Thermogravimetric Analysis) techniques were used. X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld refinement were used to identify the crystalline phases, as well as to confirm the BaAl2O4 phase formation at 600 °C, a much lower temperature than previously reported in the literature. The crystallite size was estimated using the Scherrer's formalism showing that the prepared samples are in the nanometric scale. XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) measurements showed that only Eu3+ species are present in the matrix after calcinations. Optical characterization was performed by photoluminescence (PL) and radioluminescence (RL) spectra. PL studies showed exciton emissions and the characteristic Eu3+ spectrum. Samples irradiated by X-ray showed emissions associated to the exciton and Eu3+ and Eu2+ transitions. This study showed that calcination temperature greatly influenced the luminescent properties. The reproducibility of the samples was successfully tested.

  18. Airplane dopes and doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W H

    1919-01-01

    Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate are the important constituents of airplane dopes in use at the present time, but planes were treated with other materials in the experimental stages of flying. The above compounds belong to the class of colloids and are of value because they produce a shrinking action on the fabric when drying out of solution, rendering it drum tight. Other colloids possessing the same property have been proposed and tried. In the first stages of the development of dope, however, shrinkage was not considered. The fabric was treated merely to render it waterproof. The first airplanes constructed were covered with cotton fabric stretched as tightly as possible over the winds, fuselage, etc., and flying was possible only in fine weather. The necessity of an airplane which would fly under all weather conditions at once became apparent. Then followed experiments with rubberized fabrics, fabrics treated with glue rendered insoluble by formaldehyde or bichromate, fabrics treated with drying and nondrying oils, shellac, casein, etc. It was found that fabrics treated as above lost their tension in damp weather, and the oil from the motor penetrated the proofing material and weakened the fabric. For the most part the film of material lacked durability. Cellulose nitrate lacquers, however were found to be more satisfactory under varying weather conditions, added less weight to the planes, and were easily applied. On the other hand, they were highly inflammable, and oil from the motor penetrated the film of cellulose nitrate, causing the tension of the fabric to be relaxed.

  19. Synergism of activated carbon and undoped and nitrogen-doped TiO2 in the photocatalytic degradation of the chemical warfare agents soman, VX, and yperite.

    PubMed

    Cojocaru, Bogdan; Neaţu, Stefan; Pârvulescu, Vasile I; Somoghi, Vasile; Petrea, Nicoleta; Epure, Gabriel; Alvaro, Mercedes; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2009-01-01

    Efficient photocatalytic decomposition of chemical warfare agents is a process that may find application in emergency situations or for the controlled destruction of chemical warfare stockpiles. A series of heterogeneous photocatalysts comprising TiO2-activated carbon or N-TiO2-activated carbon composites exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity to effect the complete decomposition of yperite, soman, and VX in high concentrations. The remarkable photocatalytic activity arises from the synergism between adsorption on active carbon and photoactivity by titania. Nitridation makes the composite also active under visible-light irradiation.

  20. High-throughput screening for various classes of doping agents using a new 'dilute-and-shoot' liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry multi-target approach.

    PubMed

    Guddat, S; Solymos, E; Orlovius, A; Thomas, A; Sigmund, G; Geyer, H; Thevis, M; Schänzer, W

    2011-01-01

    A new multi-target approach based on liquid chromatography--electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-(ESI)-MS/MS) is presented to screen for various classes of prohibited substances using direct injection of urine specimens. With a highly sensitive new generation hybrid mass spectrometer classic groups of drugs--for example, diuretics, beta2-agonists--stimulants and narcotics are detectable at concentration levels far below the required limits. Additionally, more challenging and various new target compounds could be implemented. Model compounds of stimulant conjugates were studied to investigate a possible screening without complex sample preparation. As a main achievement, the integration of the plasma volume expanders dextran and hydroxyethyl starch (HES), commonly analyzed in time-consuming, stand-alone procedures, is accomplished. To screen for relatively new prohibited compounds, a common metabolite of the selective androgen receptor modulator (SARMs) andarine, a metabolite of growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP-2), and 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxyamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) are analyzed. Following a completely new approach, conjugates of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites are monitored to detect abnormally high levels of plasticizers indicating for illicit blood transfusion. The assay was fully validated for qualitative purposes considering the parameters specificity, intra- (3.2-16.6%) and inter-day precision (0.4-19.9%) at low, medium and high concentration, robustness, limit of detection (1-70 ng/ml, dextran: 30 µg/ml, HES: 10 µg/ml) and ion suppression/enhancement effects. The analyses of post-administration and routine doping control samples demonstrates the applicability of the method for sports drug testing. This straightforward and reliable approach accomplishes the combination of different screening procedures resulting in a high-throughput method that increases the efficiency of the labs daily work.

  1. [Doping and urologic tumors].

    PubMed

    Pinto, F; Sacco, E; Volpe, A; Gardi, M; Totaro, A; Calarco, A; Racioppi, M; Gulino, G; D'Addessi, A; Bassi, P F

    2010-01-01

    Several substances such as growth hormone (GH), erythropoietin (Epo), and anabolic steroids (AS) are improperly utilized to increase the performance of athletes. Evaluating the potential cancer risk associated with doping agents is difficult since these drugs are often used at very high doses and in combination with other licit or illicit drugs. The GH, via its mediator, the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), is involved in the development and progression of cancer. Animal studies suggested that high levels of GH/IGF-1 increase progression of androgen-independent prostate cancer. Clinical data regarding prostate cancer are mostly based on epidemiological studies or indirect data such as IGF-1 high levels in patients with prostate cancer. Even if experimental studies showed a correlation between Epo and cancer, no clinical data are currently available on cancer development related to Epo as a doping agent. Androgens are involved in prostate carcinogenesis modulating genes that regulate cell proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. Most information on AS is anecdotal (case reports on prostate, kidney and testicular cancers). Prospective epidemiologic studies failed to support the hypothesis that circulating androgens are positively associated with prostate cancer risk. Currently, clinical and epidemiological studies supporting association between doping and urological neoplasias are not available. Nowadays, exposure to doping agents starts more prematurely with a consequent longer exposition period; drugs are often used at very high doses and in combination with other licit or illicit drugs. Due to all these elements it is impossible to predict all the side effects, including cancer; more detailed studies are therefore necessary.

  2. Doping and thrombosis in sports.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2011-11-01

    Historically, humans have long sought to enhance their "athletic" performance to increase body weight, aggressiveness, mental concentration and physical strength, contextually reducing fatigue, pain, and improving recovery. Although regular training is the mainstay for achieving these targets, the ancillary use of ergogenic aids has become commonplace in all sports. The demarcation between ergogenic aids and doping substances or practices is continuously challenging and mostly based on perceptions regarding the corruption of the fairness of competition and the potential side effects or adverse events arising from the use of otherwise unnecessary ergogenic substances. A kaleidoscope of side effects has been associated with the use of doping agents, including behavioral, skeletal, endocrinologic, metabolic, hemodynamic, and cardiovascular imbalances. Among the various doping substances, the most striking association with thrombotic complications has been reported for androgenic anabolic steroids (i.e., cardiomyopathy, fatal and nonfatal arrhythmias, myocardial infarction [MI], intracardiac thrombosis, stroke, venous thromboembolism [VTE], limb arterial thrombosis, branch retinal vein occlusion, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis) and blood boosting (i.e., VTE and MI, especially for epoetin and analogs). The potential thrombotic complication arising from misuse of other doping agents such as the administration of cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin, cocaine, and platelet-derived preparations is instead speculative or anecdotal at best. The present article provides an overview on the epidemiological association as well as the underlying biochemical and biological mechanisms linking the practice of doping in sports with the development of thrombosis.

  3. [Doping, sport and addiction--any links?].

    PubMed

    Foucart, J; Verbanck, P; Lebrun, P

    2015-01-01

    Sport is widely encouraged as it is beneficial for health. However, high-performance sport is more and more associated to rather suspicious practices; doping is one of the best example. From a physician point of view, the use of doping agents is obviously a major concern because taking such products often induce serious adverse effects on health. The present manuscript aims to inform physicians about the most frequent doping practices. It also points out that intensive sport can generate an "addictive" behavior sharing with "common"addictions a loss of practice control, a lack of interest in other activities and even a sport's practice detrimental to athlete's health. Analysis of the doping issue needs to take this reality into account as some doping products display an established " addictive" effect.

  4. Doping in sport: effects, harm and misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Birzniece, V

    2015-03-01

    Doping in sport is a widespread problem not just among elite athletes, but even more so in recreational sports. In scientific literature, major emphasis is placed on doping detection, whereas detrimental effects of doping agents on athletes' health are seldom discussed. Androgenic anabolic steroids are well known for their positive effects on muscle mass and strength. Human growth hormone also increases muscle mass, although the majority of that is an increase in extracellular fluid and not the functional muscle mass. In recreational athletes, growth hormone does not have major effect on muscle strength, power or aerobic capacity, but stimulates anaerobic exercise capacity. Erythropoietin administration increases oxygen-carrying capacity of blood improving endurance measures, whereas systemic administration of beta-adrenergic agonists may have positive effect on sprint capacity, and beta-adrenergic antagonists reduce muscle tremor. Thus, there are certain drugs that can improve selective aspects of physical performance. However, most of the doping agents exert serious side-effects, especially when used in combination, at high doses and for a long duration. The extent of long-term health consequences is difficult to predict, but likely to be substantial, especially when gene doping is considered. This review summarises the main groups of doping agents used by athletes, with the main focus on their effects on athletic performance and adverse effects.

  5. Highly doped silicon nanowires by monolayer doping.

    PubMed

    Veerbeek, Janneke; Ye, Liang; Vijselaar, Wouter; Kudernac, Tibor; van der Wiel, Wilfred G; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2017-02-23

    Controlling the doping concentration of silicon nanostructures is challenging. Here, we investigated three different monolayer doping techniques to obtain silicon nanowires with a high doping dose. These routes were based on conventional monolayer doping, starting from covalently bound dopant-containing molecules, or on monolayer contact doping, in which a source substrate coated with a monolayer of a carborane silane was the dopant source. As a third route, both techniques were combined to retain the benefits of conformal monolayer formation and the use of an external capping layer. These routes were used for doping fragile porous nanowires fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching. Differences in porosity were used to tune the total doping dose inside the nanowires, as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements. The higher the porosity, the higher was the surface available for dopant-containing molecules, which in turn led to a higher doping dose. Slightly porous nanowires could be doped via all three routes, which resulted in highly doped nanowires with (projected areal) doping doses of 10(14)-10(15) boron atoms per cm(2) compared to 10(12) atoms per cm(2) for a non-porous planar sample. Highly porous nanowires were not compatible with the conventional monolayer doping technique, but monolayer contact doping and the combined route resulted for these highly porous nanowires in tremendously high doping doses up to 10(17) boron atoms per cm(2).

  6. Simultaneous Graphite Exfoliation and N Doping in Supercritical Ammonia.

    PubMed

    Sasikala, Suchithra Padmajan; Huang, Kai; Giroire, Baptiste; Prabhakaran, Prem; Henry, Lucile; Penicaud, Alain; Poulin, Philippe; Aymonier, Cyril

    2016-11-16

    We report the exfoliation of graphite and simultaneous N doping of graphene by two methods: supercritical ammonia treatment and liquid-phase exfoliation with NH4OH. While the supercritical ammonia allowed N doping at a level of 6.4 atom % in 2 h, the liquid-phase exfoliation with NH4OH allowed N doping at a level of 2.7 atom % in 6 h. The N doped graphene obtained via the supercritical ammonia route had few layers (<5) and showed large lateral flake size (∼8 μm) and low defect density (ID/IG < 0.6) in spite of their high level of N doping. This work is the first demonstration of supercritical ammonia as an exfoliation agent and N doping precursor for graphene. Notably, the N doped graphene showed electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction with high durability and good methanol tolerance compared to those of commercial Pt/C catalyst.

  7. Gene doping.

    PubMed

    Azzazy, Hassan M E

    2010-01-01

    Gene doping abuses the legitimate approach of gene therapy. While gene therapy aims to correct genetic disorders by introducing a foreign gene to replace an existing faulty one or by manipulating existing gene(s) to achieve a therapeutic benefit, gene doping employs the same concepts to bestow performance advantages on athletes over their competitors. Recent developments in genetic engineering have contributed significantly to the progress of gene therapy research and currently numerous clinical trials are underway. Some athletes and their staff are probably watching this progress closely. Any gene that plays a role in muscle development, oxygen delivery to tissues, neuromuscular coordination, or even pain control is considered a candidate for gene dopers. Unfortunately, detecting gene doping is technically very difficult because the transgenic proteins expressed by the introduced genes are similar to their endogenous counterparts. Researchers today are racing the clock because assuring the continued integrity of sports competition depends on their ability to develop effective detection strategies in preparation for the 2012 Olympics, which may mark the appearance of genetically modified athletes.

  8. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... Orange Parkinson’s Awareness Month Were you exposed to herbicides during service and have Parkinson’s disease? You may ...

  9. Temperature dependence of nonlinear optical properties in Li doped nano-carbon bowl material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-qi; Zhou, Xin; Chang, Ying; Quan Tian, Wei; Sun, Xiu-Dong

    2013-04-01

    The mechanism for change of nonlinear optical (NLO) properties with temperature is proposed for a nonlinear optical material, Li doped curved nano-carbon bowl. Four stable conformations of Li doped corannulene were located and their electronic properties were investigated in detail. The NLO response of those Li doped conformations varies with relative position of doping agent on the curved carbon surface of corannulene. Conversion among those Li doped conformations, which could be controlled by temperature, changes the NLO response of bulk material. Thus, conformation change of alkali metal doped carbon nano-material with temperature rationalizes the variation of NLO properties of those materials.

  10. Blood doping: risks to athletes' health and strategies for detection.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues de; Bairros, André Valle de; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2014-07-01

    Blood doping has been defined as the misuse of substances or certain techniques to optimize oxygen delivery to muscles with the aim to increase performance in sports activities. It includes blood transfusion, administration of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents or blood substitutes, and gene manipulations. The main reasons for the widespread use of blood doping include: its availability for athletes (erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and blood transfusions), its efficiency in improving performance, and its difficult detection. This article reviews and discusses the blood doping substances and methods used for in sports, the adverse effects related to this practice, and current strategies for its detection.

  11. Alternative medicine and doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Koh, Benjamin; Freeman, Lynne; Zaslawski, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Athletes are high achievers who may seek creative or unconventional methods to improve performance. The literature indicates that athletes are among the heaviest users of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and thus may pioneer population trends in CAM use. Unlike non-athletes, athletes may use CAM not just for prevention, treatment or rehabilitation from illness or injuries, but also for performance enhancement. Assuming that athletes' creative use of anything unconventional is aimed at "legally" improving performance, CAM may be used because it is perceived as more "natural" and erroneously assumed as not potentially doping. This failure to recognise CAMs as pharmacological agents puts athletes at risk of inadvertent doping.The general position of the World Anti-Doping Authority (WADA) is one of strict liability, an application of the legal proposition that ignorance is no excuse and the ultimate responsibility is on the athlete to ensure at all times whatever is swallowed, injected or applied to the athlete is both safe and legal for use. This means that a violation occurs whether or not the athlete intentionally or unintentionally, knowingly or unknowingly, used a prohibited substance/method or was negligent or otherwise at fault. Athletes are therefore expected to understand not only what is prohibited, but also what might potentially cause an inadvertent doping violation. Yet, as will be discussed, athlete knowledge on doping is deficient and WADA itself sometimes changes its position on prohibited methods or substances. The situation is further confounded by the conflicting stance of anti-doping experts in the media. These highly publicised disagreements may further portray inconsistencies in anti-doping guidelines and suggest to athletes that what is considered doping is dependent on the dominant political zeitgeist. Taken together, athletes may believe that unless a specific and explicit ruling is made, guidelines are open to interpretation

  12. Doping in sport and exercise: anabolic, ergogenic, health and clinical issues.

    PubMed

    Bird, Stephen R; Goebel, Catrin; Burke, Louise M; Greaves, Ronda F

    2016-03-01

    The use of doping agents is evident within competitive sport in senior and junior age groups, where they are taken by non-elite as well as elite participants. They are also taken in non-sporting contexts by individuals seeking to 'improve' their physique through an increase in muscle and/or decrease in fat mass. While attaining accurate data on the prevalence of their use has limitations, studies suggest the illicit use of doping agents by athletes and non-athletes may be 1-5% in the population and greater than 50% in some groups; with the prevalence being higher in males. There is conclusive evidence that some doping agents are anabolic and ergogenic. There is also evidence that the use of doping agents such as anabolic androgenic steroids, growth hormone and other anabolic agents, erythropoietin and stimulants conveys considerable health risks that include, but are not limited to: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, mental health issues, virilisation in females and the suppression of naturally produced androgens in males. This review will outline the anabolic, ergogenic and health impacts of selected doping agents and methods that may be used in both the sporting and physique development contexts. It also provides a brief tabulated overview of the history of doping and how doping agents may impact upon the analyses of clinical samples.

  13. Antibiotic Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... producing ). Examples of this type are the alcohols, chlorine, peroxides, and aldehydes. The second group consists mostly ... viruses have some kind of antibacterial agent. Alcohols, chlorine and peroxides have been used for many decades ...

  14. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... eligible Veterans a free Agent Orange Registry health exam for possible long-term health problems related to ...

  15. Epidemiological analysis of doping offences in the professional tennis circuit

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Tennis is a professional sport under a strict anti-doping control. However, since the first violation of the code, the positive cases have not been statistically studied. The objective of this study was to analyze doping offences in the international professional tennis circuit. Methods All offences to the Doping Code committed by tennis players during 2003-2009 were collected from the ITF official webpage, registered and analyzed. Results An average of 1905.7 (±174.5) samples was obtained per year. Fifty-two doping offences were reported and the overall incidence of positive doping samples accounted for 0.38% and 7.4 (±4.1) cases/year. Male players showed higher incidence doping offences than females (p = 0.0004). The incidence in wheelchair players was higher than in non-handicapped subjects (p = 0.0001) Banned substance distribution showed: stimulants 32.69%, cannabis 23.07%; anabolic 11.53%, diuretics and masking agents 11.53, β2-agonists 9.61%; corticosteroids 3.84%, others 3.84%. The overall incidence of 'social drugs' (cocaine, cannabis) was 36.53%. All EPO and blood samples were normal, while the incidence of 'out-of-competition' offences was 0.12%. The lower incidence of doping was found in Grand Slams tournaments. Conclusions The incidence of positive doping samples among professional tennis players is quite low supporting the assumption that there is no evidence of systematic doping in Tennis. "Social drugs" misuse constitutes the main problem of doping in tennis. Male and wheelchair tennis players showed higher risk of infringing the doping code than their females and non-handicapped counterparts. Findings of this study should help to determine the direction of the ongoing strategy in the fight against doping in Tennis. PMID:21159201

  16. Detecting doping use: more than an analytical problem.

    PubMed

    Delanghe, J R; Maenhout, T M; Speeckaert, M M; De Buyzere, M L

    2014-01-01

    The recent Armstrong case, where more than 250 negative doping tests are confronted with the athlete's confession of erythropoietin use, blood doping, steroid, and growth hormone abuse, illustrates the limitations of current laboratory tests in detecting doping in sport. Despite numerous doping controls and simultaneous indications of common doping abuse among professional athletes in the last two decades, the number of positive urine tests for recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) remains remarkably low. Athletes are using various masking strategies, among them protease inhibitors, intravenous injections of rHuEPO and alternative erythropoiesis stimulating agents. As one of the countermeasures, the Athlete's Biological Passport has been introduced. The sensitivity of the Athlete's Biological Passport is limited if the effect of a low-dose doping remains within the intra-individual reference range. A possible solution could be the use of a novel Epo test (MAIIA Diagnostics). Another performance-enhancing strategy is the return to 'old' doping techniques, such as autologous blood transfusions. Several indirect methods to detect autologous blood transfusions have been proposed with the majority relying on changes in erythropoiesis-sensitive blood markers. Currently, an algorithm based on the haemoglobin (Hb) level concentration and the percentage of reticulocytes (OFF-hr model; Hb(g/l)-60·√%ret) is approved by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Genetic factors have been identified which may interfere with test interpretation. A large inter- and intra-ethnic variation in testosterone glucuronidation and excretion has been described. Consideration of genetic variation should improve performance of the testosterone doping test. Taking into account the pre-analytical care and better tailoring of the threshold values could increase test sensitivity. Anti-doping laboratories should routinely adjust for multiple testing as failure of doping control to detect cheaters

  17. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  18. General practitioners and doping in sport: attitudes and experience

    PubMed Central

    Laure, P; Binsinger, C; Lecerf, T; Ayotte, C

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the attitudes to, and knowledge of, doping in sport of French general practitioners (GPs), and their contact with drug taking athletes on an everyday basis. Methods: A total of 402 GPs were randomly selected from all over France and interviewed by telephone, using a prepared script. Results: The response rate was 50.5% (153 men and 49 women; mean (SD) age 45.6 (5.6) years). Of the respondents, 73% confirmed that they had the list of banned products, and only 34.5% stated that they were aware of the latest French law, brought into effect in March 1999, concerning the fight against doping. Some 11% had directly encountered a request for prescription of doping agents over the preceding 12 months (the requested substances were mainly anabolic steroids, stimulants, and corticosteroids), and 10% had been consulted by an athlete who was using doping drugs and was frightened of the health risks (the substances used were mainly anabolic steroids). Over half (52%) of the GPs favoured the prescription of drug substitutions to athletes who used doping agents. According to 87.5% of respondents, doping is a public health problem, and 80% stated that doping is a form of drug addiction. Most (89%) said that a GP has a role to play in doping prevention, but 77% considered themselves poorly prepared to participate in its prevention. Conclusion: The results suggest that (a) GPs have limited knowledge of doping and (b) are confronted with doping in their daily practice, at least occasionally. PMID:12893720

  19. Investigation of electrochemical behavior of lipid lowering agent atorvastatin calcium in aqueous media and its determination from pharmaceutical dosage forms and biological fluids using boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Dogan-Topal, Burcu; Uslu, Bengi; Ozkan, Sibel A

    2007-08-01

    The electrochemical behavior of atorvastatin calcium at glassy carbon and boron-doped diamond electrodes has been studied using voltammetric techniques. The possible mechanism of oxidation was discussed with model compounds. The dependence of the peak current and potentials on pH, concentration, scan rate and nature of the buffer were investigated for both electrodes. The oxidation of atorvastatin was irreversible and exhibited a diffusion-controlled fashion on the diamond electrode. A linear response was obtained within the range of 9.65 x 10(-7) - 3.86 x 10(-5) M in 0.1 M H(2)SO(4) solution for both electrodes. The detection limits of a standard solution are estimated to be 2.11 x 10(-7) M with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and 2.05 x 10(-7)M with square wave voltammetry (SWV) for glassy carbon electrode, and 2.27 x 10(-7) M with DPV and 1.31 x 10(-7)M with SWV for diamond electrodes in 0.1 M H(2)SO(4) solution. The repeatability of the methods was found good for both electrodes. The methods were fully validated and successfully applied to the high-throughput determination of the drug in tablets, human serum and human urine with good recoveries.

  20. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  1. Enhanced dual contrast agent, Co(2+)-doped NaYF4:Yb(3+),Tm(3+) nanorods, for near infrared-to-near infrared upconversion luminescence and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ao; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Jun; Deng, Yunyun; Chen, Qiang; Wu, Shishan; Huang, Xiaohua; Shen, Jian

    2014-11-01

    Dual-modality imaging with magnetic resonance (MR) and upconversion luminescence (UCL) is a promising technique for molecular imaging in biomedical research. Multifunctional lanthanide-based nanoparticles have been widely investigated as agents for contrast enhanced MR and fluorescence imaging. However, the use of rare earth fluoride nanoparticles for dual-modality imaging of T2-weighted MR and UCL is rarely reported. We find that NaYF4:Yb(3+),Tm(3+),Co(2+) (MUC) nanorods can be applied as a high-performance dual contrast agent for both T2-weighted MR and UCL dual-modality imaging. After modification with 6-O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OCC), MUC nanorods can be endocytosed by cells without showing signs of cytotoxicity. High-quality UCL images of living cells incubated with MUC-OCC nanorods were acquired on a near-infrared (NIR) confocal microscopy under the excitation at 980 nm. Moreover, MUC-OCC nanorods display high transverse (r2) relaxivities in vitro. The application of low-dose MUC-OCC nanorods for NIR-to-NIR UCL and MR dual-modality in vivo imaging was also carried out successfully. In addition, the toxicity of MUC-OCC nanorods was evaluated by MTT assay, serological tests and histological analysis of visceral organs.

  2. "Dilute-and-inject" multi-target screening assay for highly polar doping agents using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry for sports drug testing.

    PubMed

    Görgens, Christian; Guddat, Sven; Orlovius, Anne-Katrin; Sigmund, Gerd; Thomas, Andreas; Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2015-07-01

    In the field of LC-MS, reversed phase liquid chromatography is the predominant method of choice for the separation of prohibited substances from various classes in sports drug testing. However, highly polar and charged compounds still represent a challenging task in liquid chromatography due to their difficult chromatographic behavior using reversed phase materials. A very promising approach for the separation of hydrophilic compounds is hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Despite its great potential and versatile advantages for the separation of highly polar compounds, HILIC is up to now not very common in doping analysis, although most manufacturers offer a variety of HILIC columns in their portfolio. In this study, a novel multi-target approach based on HILIC high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry is presented to screen for various polar stimulants, stimulant sulfo-conjugates, glycerol, AICAR, ethyl glucuronide, morphine-3-glucuronide, and myo-inositol trispyrophosphate after direct injection of diluted urine specimens. The usage of an effective online sample cleanup and a zwitterionic HILIC analytical column in combination with a new generation Hybrid Quadrupol-Orbitrap® mass spectrometer enabled the detection of highly polar analytes without any time-consuming hydrolysis or further purification steps, far below the required detection limits. The methodology was fully validated for qualitative and quantitative (AICAR, glycerol) purposes considering the parameters specificity; robustness (rRT < 2.0%); linearity (R > 0.99); intra- and inter-day precision at low, medium, and high concentration levels (CV < 20%); limit of detection (stimulants and stimulant sulfo-conjugates < 10 ng/mL; norfenefrine; octopamine < 30 ng/mL; AICAR < 10 ng/mL; glycerol 100 μg/mL; ETG < 100 ng/mL); accuracy (AICAR 103.8-105.5%, glycerol 85.1-98.3% at three concentration levels) and ion suppression/enhancement effects.

  3. The Anti-Doping Movement.

    PubMed

    Willick, Stuart E; Miller, Geoffrey D; Eichner, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Historical reports of doping in sports date as far back as the ancient Greek Olympic Games. The anti-doping community considers doping in sports to be cheating and a violation of the spirit of sport. During the past century, there has been an increasing awareness of the extent of doping in sports and the health risks of doping. In response, the anti-doping movement has endeavored to educate athletes and others about the health risks of doping and promote a level playing field. Doping control is now undertaken in most countries around the world and at most elite sports competitions. As athletes have found new ways to dope, however, the anti-doping community has endeavored to strengthen its educational and deterrence efforts. It is incumbent upon sports medicine professionals to understand the health risks of doping and all doping control processes.

  4. Self-doped molecular composite battery electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Stewart, Frederick F.

    2003-04-08

    This invention is in solid polymer-based electrolytes for battery applications. It uses molecular composite technology, coupled with unique preparation techniques to render a self-doped, stabilized electrolyte material suitable for inclusion in both primary and secondary batteries. In particular, a salt is incorporated in a nano-composite material formed by the in situ catalyzed condensation of a ceramic precursor in the presence of a solvated polymer material, utilizing a condensation agent comprised of at least one cation amenable to SPE applications. As such, the counterion in the condensation agent used in the formation of the molecular composite is already present as the electrolyte matrix develops. This procedure effectively decouples the cation loading levels required for maximum ionic conductivity from electrolyte physical properties associated with condensation agent loading levels by utilizing the inverse relationship discovered between condensation agent loading and the time domain of the aging step.

  5. Polarization induced doped transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep; Nomoto, Kazuki; Song, Bo; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang

    2016-06-07

    A nitride-based field effect transistor (FET) comprises a compositionally graded and polarization induced doped p-layer underlying at least one gate contact and a compositionally graded and doped n-channel underlying a source contact. The n-channel is converted from the p-layer to the n-channel by ion implantation, a buffer underlies the doped p-layer and the n-channel, and a drain underlies the buffer.

  6. [Cardiovascular alterations associated with doping].

    PubMed

    Thieme, D; Büttner, A

    2015-05-01

    Doping -the abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids in particular- is widespread in amateur and recreational sports and does not solely represent a problem of professional sports. Excessive overdose of anabolic steroids is well documented in bodybuilding or powerlifting leading to significant side effects. Cardiovascular damages are most relevant next to adverse endocrine effects.Clinical cases as well as forensic investigations of fatalities or steroid consumption in connection with trafficking of doping agents provide only anecdotal evidence of correlations between side effects and substance abuse. Analytical verification and self-declarations of steroid users have repeatedly confirmed the presumption of weekly dosages between 300 and 2000 mg, extra to the fact that co-administration of therapeutics to treat side-effects represent a routine procedure. Beside the most frequent use of medications used to treat erectile dysfunction or estrogenic side-effects, a substantial number of antihypertensive drugs of various classes, i.e. beta-blockers, diuretics, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, calcium channel blockers, as well as ACE inhibitors were recently confiscated in relevant doping cases. The presumptive correlation between misuse of anabolic steroids and self-treatment of cardiovascular side effects was explicitly confirmed by detailed user statements.Two representative fatalities of bodybuilders were introduced to outline characteristic, often lethal side effects of excessive steroid abuse. Moreover, illustrative autopsy findings of steroid acne, thrombotic occlusion of Ramus interventricularis anterior and signs of cardiac infarctions are presented.A potential steroid abuse should be carefully considered in cases of medical consultations of patients exhibiting apparent constitutional modifications and corresponding adverse effects. Moreover, common self-medications -as frequently applied by steroid consumers- should be taken into therapeutic considerations.

  7. Aero dopes and varnishes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, H T S

    1927-01-01

    Before proceeding to discuss the preparation of dope solutions, it will be necessary to consider some of the essential properties which should be possessed of a dope film, deposited in and on the surface of an aero fabric. The first is that it should tighten the material and second it should withstand weathering.

  8. KGB agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    A short story is reported in which the activity of Communist Party of the USSR and secret KGB agents, which were payed by the State, in view of controlling of the conscience of population. The story reffers to the Physics Department of the Moscow University, Planing Institute of the Gosplan of Moldavian S.S.R. and Chishinau Technical University (actually: Technical University of Moldova), where the author has worked during Soviet times. Almost every 6-th citizen in the USSR was engaged in this activity, while actually the former communists rule in the Republic of Moldova.

  9. Doped graphene supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok Kumar, Nanjundan; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-12-01

    Heteroatom-doped graphitic frameworks have received great attention in energy research, since doping endows graphitic structures with a wide spectrum of properties, especially critical for electrochemical supercapacitors, which tend to complement or compete with the current lithium-ion battery technology/devices. This article reviews the latest developments in the chemical modification/doping strategies of graphene and highlights the versatility of such heteroatom-doped graphitic structures. Their role as supercapacitor electrodes is discussed in detail. This review is specifically focused on the concept of material synthesis, techniques for electrode fabrication and metrics of performance, predominantly covering the last four years. Challenges and insights into the future research and perspectives on the development of novel electrode architectures for electrochemical supercapacitors based on doped graphene are also discussed.

  10. Detection of EPO doping and blood doping: the haematological module of the Athlete Biological Passport.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Saugy, Martial; Pottgiesser, Torben; Robinson, Neil

    2012-11-01

    The increase of the body's capacity to transport oxygen is a prime target for doping athletes in all endurance sports. For this pupose, blood transfusions or erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA), such as erythropoietin, NESP, and CERA are used. As direct detection of such manipulations is difficult, biomarkers that are connected to the haematopoietic system (haemoglobin concentration, reticulocytes) are monitored over time (Athlete Biological Passport (ABP)) and analyzed using mathematical models to identify patterns suspicious of doping. With this information, athletes can either be sanctioned directly based on their profile or targeted with conventional doping tests. Key issues for the appropriate use of the ABP are correct targeting and use of all available information (e.g. whereabouts, cross sectional population data) in a forensic manner. Future developments of the passport include the correction of all concentration-based variables for shifts in plasma volume, which might considerably increase sensitivity. New passport markers from the genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic level might add further information, but need to be validated before integration into the passport procedure. A first assessment of blood data of federations that have implemented the passport show encouraging signs of a decreased blood-doping prevalence in their athletes, which adds scientific credibility to this innovative concept in the fight against ESA- and blood doping.

  11. Human genetic variation: new challenges and opportunities for doping control.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Angela J; Fedoruk, Matthew N; Rupert, Jim L

    2012-01-01

    Sport celebrates differences in competitors that lead to the often razor-thin margins between victory and defeat. The source of this variation is the interaction between the environment in which the athletes develop and compete and their genetic make-up. However, a darker side of sports may also be genetically influenced: some anti-doping tests are affected by the athlete's genotype. Genetic variation is an issue that anti-doping authorities must address as more is learned about the interaction between genotype and the responses to prohibited practices. To differentiate between naturally occurring deviations in indirect blood and urine markers from those potentially caused by doping, the "biological-passport" program uses intra-individual variability rather than population values to establish an athlete's expected physiological range. The next step in "personalized" doping control may be the inclusion of genetic data, both for the purposes of documenting an athlete's responses to doping agents and doping-control assays as well facilitating athlete and sample identification. Such applications could benefit "clean" athletes but will come at the expense of risks to privacy. This article reviews the instances where genetics has intersected with doping control, and briefly discusses the potential role, and ethical implications, of genotyping in the struggle to eliminate illicit ergogenic practices.

  12. Recent developments in doping testing for erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Christian

    2011-08-01

    The constant development of new erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), since the first introduction of recombinant erythropoietin (rhEpo) for clinical use, has also necessitated constant development of methods for detecting the abuse of these substances. Doping with ESAs is prohibited according to the World Anti-Doping Code and its prohibited list of substances and methods. Since the first publication of a direct and urine-based detection method in 2000, which uses changes in the Epo isoform profile as detected by isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide slab gels (IEF-PAGE), the method has been constantly adapted to the appearance of new ESAs (e.g., Dynepo, Mircera). Blood had to be introduced as an additional matrix, because Mircera (a PEGylated Epo) is best confirmed in serum or plasma after immunoaffinity purification. A Mircera ELISA was developed for fast screening of sera. With the appearance of Dynepo and copy epoetins, the additional application of sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE or equivalent) became necessary. The haematological module of the Athlete Biological Passport is the latest development in multivariable indirect testing for ESA doping. The article summarizes the main strategies currently used in Epo anti-doping testing with special focus on new developments made between 2009 and 2010.

  13. Isoelectronic co-doping

    DOEpatents

    Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2004-11-09

    Isoelectronic co-doping of semiconductor compounds and alloys with deep acceptors and deep donors is used to decrease bandgap, to increase concentration of the dopant constituents in the resulting alloys, and to increase carrier mobilities lifetimes. Group III-V compounds and alloys, such as GaAs and GaP, are isoelectronically co-doped with, for example, N and Bi, to customize solar cells, thermal voltaic cells, light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and lasers on GaP, InP, GaAs, Ge, and Si substrates. Isoelectronically co-doped Group II-VI compounds and alloys are also included.

  14. Health care agents

    MedlinePlus

    Durable power of attorney for health care; Health care proxy; End-of-life - health care agent; Life support treatment - ... Respirator - health care agent; Ventilator - health care agent; Power of attorney - health care agent; POA - health care ...

  15. Detecting agents.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Susan C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as if they have perceptual/attentional abilities, communicative abilities and goal-directed behaviour. They will follow the attentional orientation of an amorphously shaped novel object if it interacts contingently with them or with another person. They also seem to use a novel object's environmentally directed behaviour to determine its perceptual/attentional orientation and object-oriented goals. Results from adults and children with autism are strikingly similar, despite adults' contradictory beliefs about the objects in question and the failure of children with autism to ultimately develop more advanced theory-of-mind reasoning. The implications for a general theory-of-mind development are discussed. PMID:12689380

  16. [Doping: effectiveness, consequences, prevention].

    PubMed

    Guezennec, C Y

    2001-02-01

    The use of doping is linked with the history of sports. Doping abuse escalated until the mid sixties when government and sports authorities responded with antidoping laws and drug testing. Today, the details of substances detected in controls give a good indication on the importance of doping use. Three classes of pharmaceuticals account for most of the positive controls. They are anabolic steroids, stimulants and narcotics. Their use can be related with the goal of the athletes. Anabolic steroids are mainly used in sports such as bodybuilding or weight lifting in order to develop strength. Stimulants are used in sports were speed favors performance. All the products that enhance blood oxygen transportation are used in endurance sports, their efficacy is not scientifically demonstrated, but their use does result in real risks. Several studies have evidenced the medical problems resulting from prolonged doping. Doping control is impaired by the fact that many products now used, e.g. EPO or rhGH, are not detectable. Regular medical examination of athletes could help prevent use of doping.

  17. Delta-doping of Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, E. F.

    2005-08-01

    Part I: 1. Introduction E. F. Schubert; Part II: 2. Electronic structure of delta-doped semiconductors C. R. Proetto; Part III: 3. Recent progress in delta-like confinement of impurities in GaAs K. H. Ploog; 4. Flow-rate modulation epitaxy (FME) of III-V semiconductors T. Makimoto and Y. Horikoshi; 5. Gas source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of delta-doped III-V semiconductors D. Ritter; 6. Solid phase epitaxy for delta-doping in silicon I. Eisele; 7. Low temperature MBE of silicon H.-J. Gossmann; Part IV: 8. Secondary ion mass spectrometry of delta-doped semiconductors H. S. Luftmann; 9. Capacitance-voltage profiling E. F. Schubert; 10. Redistribution of impurities in III-V semiconductors E. F. Schubert; 11. Dopant diffusion and segregation in delta-doped silicon films H.-J. Gossmann; 12. Characterisation of silicon and delta-doped structures in GaAs R. C. Newman; 13. The DX-center in silicon delta-doped GaAs and AlxGa1-xAs P. M. Koenraad; Part V: 14. Luminescence and ellipsometry spectroscopy H. Yao and E. F. Schubert; 15. Photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy of single delta-doped III-V semiconductor heterostructures J. Wagner and D. Richards; 16. Electron transport in delta-doped quantum wells W. T. Masselink; 17. Electron mobility in delta-doped layers P. M. Koenraad; 18. Hot electrons in delta-doped GaAs M. Asche; 19. Ordered delta-doping R. L. Headrick, L. C. Feldman and B. E. Weir; Part IV: 20. Delta-doped channel III-V field effect transistors (FETs) W.-P. Hong; 21. Selectively doped heterostructure devices E. F. Schubert; 22. Silicon atomic layer doping FET K. Nakagawa and K. Yamaguchi; 23. Planar doped barrier devices R. J. Malik; 24. Silicon interband and intersubband photodetectors I. Eisele; 25. Doping superlattice devices E. F. Schubert.

  18. Androgens and doping tests: genetic variation and pit-falls

    PubMed Central

    Rane, Anders; Ekström, Lena

    2012-01-01

    The large variation in disposition known for most drugs is also true for anabolic androgenic steroids. Genetic factors are probably the single most important cause of this variation. Further, there are reasons to believe that there is a corresponding variation in efficacy of doping agents. Doped individuals employ a large variety of doping strategies in respect of choice of substance, dose, dose interval, duration of treatment and use of other drugs for enforcement of effects or correction of side effects. Metabolic steps up-stream and down-stream of testosterone are genetically variable and contribute substantially to the variation in disposition of testosterone, the most common doping agent in sports and in society. Large inter- and intra-ethnic variation in testosterone glucuronidation and excretion is described as well as the pit-falls in evaluation of testosterone doping test results. The hydrolysis and bioactivation of testosterone enanthate is also genetically variable yielding a 2–3 fold variation in excretion rate and serum concentration, thereby implicating a substantial variation in ‘efficacy’ of testosterone. Given this situation it is logical to adopt the new findings in the doping control programme. The population based cut-off level for the testosterone : epitestosterone ratio should be replaced by a Bayesian interpretation of consecutive tests in the same individual. When combined with the above genetic information the sensitivity of the test is considerably improved. The combination of the three approaches should reduce the rate of falsely negative or positive results and the number of expensive follow-up tests, stipulated by the World Anti-Doping Agency. PMID:22506612

  19. Nanocrystal diffusion doping.

    PubMed

    Vlaskin, Vladimir A; Barrows, Charles J; Erickson, Christian S; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2013-09-25

    A diffusion-based synthesis of doped colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals is demonstrated. This approach involves thermodynamically controlled addition of both impurity cations and host anions to preformed seed nanocrystals under equilibrium conditions, rather than kinetically controlled doping during growth. This chemistry allows thermodynamic crystal compositions to be prepared without sacrificing other kinetically trapped properties such as shape, size, or crystallographic phase. This doping chemistry thus shares some similarities with cation-exchange reactions, but proceeds without the loss of host cations and excels at the introduction of relatively unreactive impurity ions that have not been previously accessible using cation exchange. Specifically, we demonstrate the preparation of Cd(1-x)Mn(x)Se (0 ≤ x ≤ ∼0.2) nanocrystals with narrow size distribution, unprecedentedly high Mn(2+) content, and very large magneto-optical effects by diffusion of Mn(2+) into seed CdSe nanocrystals grown by hot injection. Controlling the solution and lattice chemical potentials of Cd(2+) and Mn(2+) allows Mn(2+) diffusion into the internal volumes of the CdSe nanocrystals with negligible Ostwald ripening, while retaining the crystallographic phase (wurtzite or zinc blende), shape anisotropy, and ensemble size uniformity of the seed nanocrystals. Experimental results for diffusion doping of other nanocrystals with other cations are also presented that indicate this method may be generalized, providing access to a variety of new doped semiconductor nanostructures not previously attainable by kinetic routes or cation exchange.

  20. Doping in Zinc Selenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Edward Dean

    An experimental technique ensuring the incorporation of substitutional arsenic and copper doping in ZnSe is presented. Two techniques are investigated. In each, neutron transmutation doping is employed to introduce arsenic and copper dopants in ZnSe. In the first technique, as-grown crystals of ZnSe are exposed to thermal neutrons. The crystals are thermally annealed after irradiation in order to repair the neutron induced lattice damage. The thermal annealing schedules employed in this work, however, do not fully repair the ZnSe lattice. In the second technique, homoepitaxial layers of ZnSe are deposited with irradiated zinc and selenium as source materials. High quality layers of ZnSe, characterized by x-ray diffraction and low temperature photoluminescence, are produced. The long half lives of As^ {75} and Zn^{65} allow the epitaxial layers to be formed prior to nuclear decay. Since the nuclear recoil associated with the decays are not sufficient to displace the dopant nuclei from their substitutional lattice sites, the technique results in isolated As_{Se } or isolated Cu_{Zn } being introduced in layers of ZnSe after crystal growth. Since the dopants are introduced in the bulk crystal after crystal growth, the doping process is decoupled from any interactions present during crystal growth. A technique in which crystal doping is decoupled from crystal growth provides several unique probes for arsenic and copper doping in ZnSe.

  1. Stability studies of selected doping agents in urine: caffeine.

    PubMed

    Ventura, R; Jiménez, C; Closas, N; Segura, J; De la Torre, R

    2003-10-05

    The stability of caffeine in urine samples has been studied. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the quantification of caffeine in urine samples was validated for that purpose. The method consists of a liquid-liquid extraction at alkaline pH with chloroform-2-propanol (9:1, v/v) with a salting out effect. 7-Ethyltheophylline was used as internal standard (ISTD). Analyses were performed with an Ultrasphere ODS C18 column using water/acetonitrile (90:10, v/v) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Ultraviolet absorption at 280 nm was monitored. Extraction recoveries for caffeine and 7-ethyltheophylline were 81.4+/-6.0 and 87.3+/-5.7%, respectively. The calibration curves were demonstrated to be linear in the working range of 6-30 microg/ml (r2>0.990). The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation were estimated as 0.7 and 2.0 microg/ml, respectively. Precisions in the range of 1.5-9.2 and 4.1-5.8% were obtained in intra- and inter-assay studies, respectively, using control samples containing 10, 14 and 26 microg/ml of caffeine. Accuracies ranging from 2.9 to 7.4% for intra-assay experiments, and from 3.9 to 5.4% in inter-assay studies were obtained. Stability of caffeine in urine samples was evaluated after long- and short-term storage at different temperature conditions. The batches of spiked urine were submitted to sterilization by filtration. No adsorption of the analyte on filters was observed. Before starting stability studies, batches of reference materials were tested for homogeneity. For long-term stability testing, caffeine concentration in freeze-dried urine stored at 4 degrees C and in liquid urine samples stored at 4, -20, -40 and -80 degrees C was determined at several time intervals for 18 months. For short-term stability testing, caffeine concentration was evaluated in liquid urine stored at 37 degrees C for 7 days. The effect of repeated freezing (at -20 degrees C) and thawing was also studied for up to three cycles. The stability of caffeine was also evaluated in non-sterile samples stored at -20 degrees C for 18 months. No significant loss of the compound was observed at any of the investigated conditions.

  2. Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, James R.

    Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

  3. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Silver-Doped Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ciobanu, Carmen Steluta; Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Costescu, Adrian; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Predoi, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of nanosized particles of Ag-doped hydroxyapatite with antibacterial properties is of great interest for the development of new biomedical applications. The aim of this study was the evaluation of Ca10−xAgx(PO4)6(OH)2 nanoparticles (Ag:HAp-NPs) for their antibacterial and antifungal activity. Resistance to antimicrobial agents by pathogenic bacteria has emerged in the recent years and became a major health problem. Here, we report a method for synthesizing Ag doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite. A silver-doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite was synthesized at 100°C in deionised water. Also, in this paper Ag:HAp-NPs are evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungal strains. The specific antimicrobial activity revealed by the qualitative assay is demonstrating that our compounds are interacting differently with the microbial targets, probably due to the differences in the microbial wall structures. PMID:23509801

  4. Detection of SARMs in doping control analysis.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2017-01-27

    The class of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) has been the subject of intense and dedicated clinical research over the past two decades. Potential therapeutic applications of SARMs are manifold and focus particularly on the treatment of conditions manifesting in muscle loss such as general sarcopenia, cancer-associated cachexia, muscular dystrophy, etc. Consequently, based on the substantial muscle- and bone-anabolic properties of SARMs, these agents constitute substances with significant potential for misuse in sport and have therefore been added to the Word Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA's) Prohibited List in 2008. Since then, numerous adverse analytical findings have been reported for various different SARMs, which has underlined the importance of proactive and preventive anti-doping measures concerning emerging drugs such as these anabolic agents, which have evidently been misused in sport despite the fact that none of these SARMs has yet received full clinical approval. In this review, analytical data on SARMs generated in the context of research conducted for sports drug testing purposes are summarized and state-of-the-art test methods aiming at intact drugs as well as diagnostic urinary metabolites are discussed. Doping control analytical approaches predominantly rely on chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry, which have allowed for appropriately covering the considerable variety of pharmacophores present in SARMs such as the non-steroidal representatives ACP-105, BMS-564929, GLPG0492 (DT-200), LG-121071, LGD-2226, LGD-4033/VK 5211, ostarine/enobosarm, RAD-140, S-40503, etc. as well as steroidal compounds such as MK-0773 and YK-11.

  5. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  6. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-12-14

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  7. Dope, Fiends, and Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reasons, Charles E.

    Since the social reality of the drug problem has largely emanated from the diffuse conceptions of the drug user, an analysis of the history of the "dope fiend" mythology is presented in this paper in an attempt to assess the manner in which certain publics are informed about the problem. A content analysis of drug-related imagery was made from…

  8. P-type nitrogen-doped ZnO nanostructures with controlled shape and doping level by facile microwave synthesis.

    PubMed

    Herring, Natalie P; Panchakarla, Leela S; El-Shall, M Samy

    2014-03-04

    We report herein the development of a facile microwave irradiation (MWI) method for the synthesis of high-quality N-doped ZnO nanostructures with controlled morphology and doping level. We present two different approaches for the MWI-assisted synthesis of N-doped ZnO nanostructures. In the first approach, N-doping of Zn-poor ZnO prepared using zinc peroxide (ZnO2) as a precursor is carried out under MWI in the presence of urea as a nitrogen source and oleylamine (OAm) as a capping agent for the shape control of the resulting N-doped ZnO nanostructures. Our approach utilizes the MWI process for the decomposition of ZnO2, where the rapid transfer of energy directly to ZnO2 can cause an instantaneous internal temperature rise and, thus, the activation energy for the ZnO2 decomposition is essentially decreased as compared to the decomposition under conductive heating. In the second synthesis method, a one-step synthesis of N-doped ZnO nanostructures is achieved by the rapid decomposition of zinc acetate in a mixture of urea and OAm under MWI. We demonstrate, for the first time, that MWI decomposition of zinc acetate in a mixture of OAm and urea results in the formation of N-doped nanostructures with controlled shape and N-doping level. We report a direct correlation between the intensity of the Raman scattering bands in N-doped ZnO and the concentration of urea used in the synthesis. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate the successful synthesis of stable p-type N-doped ZnO nanostructures using the one-step MWI synthesis and, therefore, allow us to investigate, for the first time, the relationship between the doping level and morphology of the ZnO nanostructures. The results provide strong evidence for the control of the electrical behavior and the nanostructured shapes of ZnO nanoparticles using the facile MWI synthesis method developed in this work.

  9. Doping prevalence among preadolescent athletes: a 4‐year follow‐up

    PubMed Central

    Laure, P; Binsinger, C

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of doping and its progression in a cohort of preadolescent athletes during a 4‐year follow‐up. Design and settings Prospective cohort study. Self‐questionnaire survey. Participants All of the pupils entering the first year of secondary school (sixth grade) in the Vosges Département (east France) and followed for 4 years. Main outcome measurements Drug use (prohibited substances, tobacco, alcohol, cannabis), intention to use, reported health hazards, perceived drug effectiveness, self‐esteem, trait anxiety. Results At the beginning of the study, 1.2% (95% CI 0.8 to 1.6) stated that they had taken doping agents at least once in the preceding 6 months, and this had risen to 3.0% (95% CI 2.3–3.7) 4 years later (p<0.001). Of those who had used doping agents, 4% reported that they had experienced a health problem related to doping, and 44% reported that they had won at least one sports event as a result of using the drug. Use of doping agents is linked to the number of hours of practice per week, intention to use, use of other drugs, self‐esteem and trait anxiety. Conclusions The results show that doping does exist in preadolescent athletes who train every day. This fact should to be taken into account in preventive actions. PMID:17473000

  10. Electric double layer capacitors employing nitrogen and sulfur co-doped, hierarchically porous graphene electrodes with synergistically enhanced performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Aravindaraj G.; Samuthirapandian, Amaresh; Kim, Dong-Won

    2017-01-01

    Hierarchically porous graphene nanosheets co-doped with nitrogen and sulfur are synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method, followed by a pore activation step. Pore architectures are controlled by varying the ratio of chemical activation agents to graphene, and its influence on the capacitive performance is evaluated. The electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) assembled with optimized dual-doped graphene delivers a high specific capacitance of 146.6 F g-1 at a current density of 0.8 A g-1, which is higher than that of cells with un-doped and single-heteroatom doped graphene. The EDLC with dual-doped graphene electrodes exhibits stable cycling performance with a capacitance retention of 94.5% after 25,000 cycles at a current density of 3.2 A g-1. Such a good performance can be attributed to synergistic effects due to co-doping of the graphene nanosheets and the presence of hierarchical porous structures.

  11. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  12. Spacecraft sanitation agent development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

  13. Blood doping: the flip side of transfusion and transfusion alternatives.

    PubMed

    Cacic, Daniel Limi; Hervig, Tor; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2013-08-01

    Blood doping in sports has been a hot topic of present. Longitudinal follow up of hematological parameters in different endurance sports, during the 1990s and early 2000s, has provided considerable suspicions about extensive blood manipulation, with performance enhancing effects. Recent doping revelations in the media also prove that blood doping is not an anticipated myth but it is, in fact, real. Erythropoiesis stimulating agents and autologous blood transfusions are used in synergy with substantial effect on the maximum oxygen uptake and delivery to muscles. Whilst both methods of blood manipulation represent a potential health hazard, in the context of an elevated hematocrit, nevertheless despite a number of suspicious deaths amongst athletes, this has not yet been fully documented. A reliable test for detection of recombinant human erythropoietin was implemented in 2000, but this is probably circumvented by microdose regimens. The Athlete's Biological Passport represents the progeny of the idea of an indirect approach based on long term monitoring of hematological parameters, thus making it possible to detect autologous blood doping and erythropoietin use after the substance is excreted. Nevertheless with advances in anti-doping measures it is possible that the levels of excretion of substances used can be masked. Clearly more sensitive and specific diagnostic tools and research/development in these areas of major concern are warranted, which, combined with changes in the athlete's attitude, will help in reaching the vision of fair play.

  14. Chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.

  15. Interaction between Nitrogen and Sulfur in Co-Doped Graphene and Synergetic Effect in Supercapacitor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Lu-Xiang; Wu, Dong-Ling; Xia, Wei; Jia, Dian-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    The co-doping of graphene with nitrogen and sulfur was investigated aiming at understanding their interactions with the presence of oxygen in graphene. The co-doped graphene (NS-G) was synthesized via a one-pot hydrothermal route using graphene oxide as starting material and L-cysteine, an amino acid containing both N and S, as the doping agent. The obtained NS-G with a three-dimensional hierarchical structure containing both macropores and mesopores exhibited excellent mechanical stabilities under both wet and dry conditions. As compared to N or S singly doped graphene, the co-doped sample contains significantly higher concentrations of N and S species especially pyrollic N groups. The co-doped sample considerably outperformed the singly doped samples when used as free-standing electrode in supercapacitors due to enhanced pseudocapacitance. The simultaneous incorporation of S and N species with the presence of oxygen significantly modified the surface chemistry of carbon leading to considerably higher doping levels, although directly bonding between N and S is neither likely nor detected. Hence, the synergetic effect between N and S occurred through carbon atoms in neighboring hexagonal rings in a graphene sheet. PMID:25880811

  16. Ion track doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, D.; Chadderton, L. T.; Cruz, S. A.; Fahrner, W. R.; Hnatowicz, V.; Te Kaat, E. H.; Melnikov, A. A.; Varichenko, V. S.; Zaitsev, A. M.

    1994-10-01

    Longitudinal dopant distribution along ion tracks in soft (polymers [1?5]) and hard (diamond [6,7]) condensed carbonaceous matter have been studied by neutron depth profiling and cathodoluminesence. Both in-diffusion from the aqueous phase and energetic ion implantation were used in primary track doping. In-situ self-decoration of tracks and post-implantation with a secondary ion species were used in the specific case of ion implantation. Radial dopant distributions were also studied by means of a modified tomographic procedure. Decorative doping of ion bombarded solids is useful in probing track structure, and especially in pointing the way to potential development of nanometric-sized electronic devices.

  17. Erythropoietin and blood doping

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, N; Giraud, S; Saudan, C; Baume, N; Avois, L; Mangin, P; Saugy, M

    2006-01-01

    Objective and method To outline the direct and indirect approaches in the fight against blood doping in sports, the different strategies that have been used and are currently being used to fight efficiently against blood doping are presented and discussed. Results and conclusions The paper outlines the different approaches and diagnostic tools that some federations have to identify and target sportspeople demonstrating abnormal blood profiles. Originally blood tests were introduced for medical reasons and for limiting misuse of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). In this way it became possible to prevent athletes with haematocrit levels well above normal, and potentially dangerous for their health, competing in sport. Today, with nearly a decade of blood testing experience, sports authorities should be familiar with some of the limitations and specially the ability of blood tests performed prior to competitions to fight efficiently against the misuse of rHuEPO, blood transfusion, and artificial haemoglobin. PMID:16799100

  18. Doped colorimetric assay liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides compositions comprising colorimetric assay liposomes. The present invention also provides methods for producing colorimetric liposomes and calorimetric liposome assay systems. In preferred embodiments, these calorimetric liposome systems provide high levels of sensitivity through the use of dopant molecules. As these dopants allow the controlled destabilization of the liposome structure, upon exposure of the doped liposomes to analyte(s) of interest, the indicator color change is facilitated and more easily recognized.

  19. [Doping in sports].

    PubMed

    Seĭfulla, R D; Rozhkova, E A; Rodchenkov, G M; Appolonova, S A; Kulikova, E V

    2006-01-01

    Drugs used by athletes for the improvement of results are described and classified with respect to chemical structure and pharmacological action. The main groups of drugs treated as doping are considered and the WADA requirements to prohibited preparations are formulated. The main effects produced by drugs on the athletes and animals (race horses, fight dogs, etc ) are described and the measures of therapy against side effects are outlined.

  20. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Delta agent (Hepatitis D) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Delta agent is a type of virus called hepatitis ...

  1. Animal Capture Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    agents and delivery systems reviewed . Questionnaires were sent to 137 Air Force bases to obtain information about the chemical agents and delivery systems...used by animal control personnel. A literature review included chemical agents, delivery methods, toxicity information and emergency procedures from...34-like agent. Users should familiarize themselves with catatonia in general and particularly that its successful use as an immobilizer doesn’t necessarily

  2. Hydroxypyridonate chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Scarrow, Robert C.; White, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Chelating agents having 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (HOPO) and related moieties incorporated within their structures, including polydentate HOPO-substituted polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and HOPO-substituted desferrioxamine. The chelating agents are useful in selectively removing certain cations from solution, and are particularly useful as ferric ion and actinide chelators. Novel syntheses of the chelating agents are provided.

  3. Intelligent Agents: A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Edmund; Feldman, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Provides an in-depth introduction to the various technologies that are bringing intelligent agents into the forefront of information technology, explaining how such agents work, the standards involved, and how agent-based applications can be developed. (Author/AEF)

  4. Standard Agent Framework 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4) Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.

  5. Antimony-doped graphene nanoplatelets

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, In-Yup; Choi, Min; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Jung, Sun-Min; Kim, Min-Jung; Seo, Jeong-Min; Bae, Seo-Yoon; Yoo, Seonyoung; Kim, Guntae; Jeong, Hu Young; Park, Noejung; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Heteroatom doping into the graphitic frameworks have been intensively studied for the development of metal-free electrocatalysts. However, the choice of heteroatoms is limited to non-metallic elements and heteroatom-doped graphitic materials do not satisfy commercial demands in terms of cost and stability. Here we realize doping semimetal antimony (Sb) at the edges of graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) via a simple mechanochemical reaction between pristine graphite and solid Sb. The covalent bonding of the metalloid Sb with the graphitic carbon is visualized using atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The Sb-doped GnPs display zero loss of electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction even after 100,000 cycles. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the multiple oxidation states (Sb3+ and Sb5+) of Sb are responsible for the unusual electrochemical stability. Sb-doped GnPs may provide new insights and practical methods for designing stable carbon-based electrocatalysts. PMID:25997811

  6. Antimony-doped graphene nanoplatelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, In-Yup; Choi, Min; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Jung, Sun-Min; Kim, Min-Jung; Seo, Jeong-Min; Bae, Seo-Yoon; Yoo, Seonyoung; Kim, Guntae; Jeong, Hu Young; Park, Noejung; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-05-01

    Heteroatom doping into the graphitic frameworks have been intensively studied for the development of metal-free electrocatalysts. However, the choice of heteroatoms is limited to non-metallic elements and heteroatom-doped graphitic materials do not satisfy commercial demands in terms of cost and stability. Here we realize doping semimetal antimony (Sb) at the edges of graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) via a simple mechanochemical reaction between pristine graphite and solid Sb. The covalent bonding of the metalloid Sb with the graphitic carbon is visualized using atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The Sb-doped GnPs display zero loss of electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction even after 100,000 cycles. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the multiple oxidation states (Sb3+ and Sb5+) of Sb are responsible for the unusual electrochemical stability. Sb-doped GnPs may provide new insights and practical methods for designing stable carbon-based electrocatalysts.

  7. Electron-donor dopant, method of improving conductivity of polymers by doping therewith, and a polymer so treated

    DOEpatents

    Liepins, Raimond; Aldissi, Mahmoud

    1988-01-01

    Polymers with conjugated backbones, both polyacetylene and polyaromatic heterocyclic types, are doped with electron-donor agents to increase their electrical conductivity. The electron-donor agents are either electride dopants made in the presence of lithium or dopants derived from alkalides made in the presence of lithium. The dopants also contain a metal such as cesium and a trapping agent such as a crown ether.

  8. Electron-donor dopant, method of improving conductivity of polymers by doping therewith, and a polymer so treated

    DOEpatents

    Liepins, R.; Aldissi, M.

    1984-07-27

    Polymers with conjugated backbones, both polyacetylene and polyaromatic heterocyclic types, are doped with electron-donor agents to increase their electrical conductivity. The electron-donor agents are either electride dopants made in the presence of lithium or dopants derived from alkalides made in the presence of lithium. The dopants also contain a metal such as cesium and a trapping agent such as a crown ether.

  9. Arsenic doped zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Volbers, N.; Lautenschlaeger, S.; Leichtweiss, T.; Laufer, A.; Graubner, S.; Meyer, B. K.; Potzger, K.; Zhou Shengqiang

    2008-06-15

    As-doping of zinc oxide has been approached by ion implantation and chemical vapor deposition. The effect of thermal annealing on the implanted samples has been investigated by using secondary ion mass spectrometry and Rutherford backscattering/channeling geometry. The crystal damage, the distribution of the arsenic, the diffusion of impurities, and the formation of secondary phases is discussed. For the thin films grown by vapor deposition, the composition has been determined with regard to the growth parameters. The bonding state of arsenic was investigated for both series of samples using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  10. A facile one-step process for 3D N-doped noncovalent functionalization PS/rGO composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Weiqi; Wang, Hua; Su, Zheng; Tian, Konghu; Ye, Xianzhu; Bao, Chao; Guo, Yulan; He, Jing; Tian, Xingyou

    2017-03-01

    This work reports a simple, versatile and facile one-step process to prepare the three-dimensional (3D) N-doped noncovalent functionalization polystyrene/reduced graphene oxide (PS/rGO) composites. In this, N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) acts as the solvent, reducing agent, and more importantly, the N-doping agent. Various measurements have been carried out to characterize the structure and morphology of PS/rGO composites, in particular for the excellent electrical conductivity of PS/rGO composites compared with virgin PS, which was attributed to the 3D pores structure and the N-doping. With regards to the unique properties of graphene, the 3D framework structure and the N-doping, this composite material has great potential properties such as electro-magnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI) to be explored.

  11. Case studies on ESA-doping as revealed by the Biological Passport.

    PubMed

    Zorzoli, Mario; Rossi, Francesca

    2012-11-01

    Blood doping, through the increase of red cells, induces changes of hematological parameters. The aim of the Biological Passport is first to analyse individual longitudinal profiles in order to identify, through variations of the specific parameters, doping manipulations. Additionally, on the basis of abnormal values or profiles, athletes can be targeted for traditional anti-doping tests in order to detect forbidden substances or methods. We report the experience of the International Cycling Union in applying the Biological Passport to target athletes for the presence of erythropoiesis stimulating agents. All positive results which have been reported between 2008 and 2010 concerning athletes enrolled in the Biological Passport program are presented. Four cases are discussed more in details. To conclude, we propose possible ways of using the Biological Passport in order to better understand athletes' doping modalities, so that testing programs efficiency can be improved.

  12. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    PubMed

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  13. Synthesis and spectral characterizations of trivalent ions (Cr3+, Fe3+) doped CdO nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Aswani, T; Babu, B; Manjari, V Pushpa; Stella, R Joyce; Rao, G Thirumala; Krishna, Ch Rama; Ravikumar, R V S S N

    2014-01-01

    Trivalent transition metal ions (Cr(3+), Fe(3+)) doped CdO nanopowders via sonication in the presence of Sodium lauryl sulfate as stabilizing agent were synthesized and characterized. Powder XRD studies indicate that the obtained CdO has a cubic phase and concluded that the trivalent ions doping induced the lattice constants to change some extent. Optical absorption spectra exhibited the characteristic bands of Cr(3+) and Fe(3+) ions in octahedral site symmetry. Crystal field (Dq) and inter-electronic repulsion (B and C) parameters are evaluated for Cr(3+) doped CdO nanopowders as Dq=1540, B=619 and C=3327 cm(-1) and for Fe(3+) doped CdO nanopowders Dq=920, B=690, C=2750 cm(-1). EPR spectra of the Cr(3+) and Fe(3+) doped CdO nanopowders exhibited resonances at g=1.973 and g=2 respectively which indicate distorted octahedral site for both ions with the host. Photoluminescence spectra shows the emission bands in violet and bluish green regions for Cr(3+) doped CdO, ultraviolet and blue emissions for Fe(3+) doped CdO nanopowders. The CIE chromaticity coordinates were also evaluated from the emission spectrum. FT-IR spectra indicate the presence of various functional groups of host lattice.

  14. Rare earth doped upconverting particles for different photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Madhab; Gangadharan, Ajith Kumar; Sardar, Dhiraj Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Trivalent rare earth ions especially erbium (Er3+) and ytterbium (Yb3+) co-doped in various host nanoparticles are known for their extraordinary spectroscopic properties. A thorough optical characterization including the absolute upconversion quantum yield (QY) measurement is of critical importance in evaluating their potential for various photonic applications. In this paper, we will be presenting a measured absolute upconversion QYs for Yb3+ and Er3+ doped in La2O2S under 980 and 1550 nm excitation at various power densities. Comparison of absolute QYs for different concentrations of Yb3+ and Er3+ doped in La2O2S will be made for all the upconversion emissions with respect to reported most efficient upconverting phosphor NaYF4 doped with 20% Yb3+ and 2% Er3+. Furthermore, applications of these phosphors in different areas such as bio-imaging, solar cell, security, etc. will be explored depending on the measured absolute upconversion quantum yields. In addition, preliminary results on in vitro imaging using upconverting nanoparticles as a contrast agent will be reported. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Partnerships for Research and Education in Materials (PREM) Grant No. DMR-0934218.

  15. Structural, optical and photocatalytic activity of cerium doped zinc aluminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumathi, Shanmugam; Kavipriya, A.

    2017-03-01

    Zinc aluminate and cerium-doped zinc aluminate nanoparticles are synthesised by co-precipitation method. Ammonium hydroxide is used as a precipitating agent. The synthesised compounds are characterised by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Ultraviolet diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Surface area measurements. The photocatalytic activity of zinc aluminate and cerium doped zinc aluminate nanoparticles are studied under the UV light and visible light taking methylene blue as a model pollutant. The amount of catalyst, concentration of dye solution and time are optimised under UV-light. Degradation of methylene blue under the UV-light is found to be 99% in 20 min with 10 mg of cerium doped catalyst. Compared to visible light degradation, the degradation of dye under UV-light is higher. Cerium doping in zinc aluminate (ZnAl2O4:Ce3+) increased the photocatalytic activity of zinc aluminate.

  16. Impact of physical activity and doping on epigenetic gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Schwarzenbach, Heidi

    2011-10-01

    To achieve success in sports, many athletes consume doping substances, such as anabolic androgenic steroids and growth hormones, and ignore the negative influence of these drugs on their health. Apart from the unethical aspect of doping in sports, it is essential to consider the tremendous risk it represents to their physical condition. The abuse of pharmaceuticals which improve athletic performance may alter the expression of specific genes involved in muscle and bone metabolism by epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications. Moreover, excessive and relentless training to increase the muscle mass, may also have an influence on the health of the athletes. This stress releases neurotransmitters and growth factors, and may affect the expression of endogenous genes by DNA methylation, too. This paper focuses on the relationship between epigenetic mechanisms and sports, highlights the potential consequences of abuse of doping drugs on gene expression, and describes methods to molecularly detect epigenetic changes of gene markers reflecting the physiological or metabolic effects of doping agents.

  17. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  18. Electron spin resonance study of chromium(V) formation and decomposition by basalt-inhabiting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kalabegishvili, Tamaz L; Tsibakhashvili, Nelly Y; Holman, Hoi-Ying N

    2003-10-15

    Bacterial reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) compounds may produce reactive intermediates Cr(V) and Cr(IV), which can affect the mobility and toxicity of chromium in environments. To address this important subject, we conducted an electron spin resonance (ESR) study to understand the kinetics of the formation and decomposition of Cr(V) during Cr(VI) reduction by different gram-positive Cr(VI)-tolerant bacteria, which were isolated from polluted basalts from the United States of America and the Republic of Georgia. Results from our batch experiments show that during Cr(VI) reduction, the macromolecules at the cell wall of these bacteria could act as an electron donor to Cr(VI) to form a stable square-pyramidal Cr(V) complexes, which were reduced further probably via a one-electron transfer pathway to form Cr(IV) and Cr(III) compounds. The Cr(V) peak at the ESR spectrum possessed superhyperfine splitting characteristic of the Cr(V) complexes with diol-containing molecules. It appears that the kinetics of Cr(V) formation and decomposition depended on the bacterial growth phase and on the species. Both formation and decomposition of Cr(V) occurred more quickly when Cr(VI) was added at the exponential phase. In comparison with other gram-positive bacteria from the republic of Georgia, the formation and decomposition of Cr(V) in Arthrobacter species from the Unites States was significantly slower.

  19. Synthesis of polyaniline-based inks for inkjet printed devices: electrical characterization highlighting the effect of primary and secondary doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiolerio, Alessandro; Bocchini, Sergio; Scaravaggi, Francesco; Porro, Samuele; Perrone, Denis; Beretta, Davide; Caironi, Mario; Fabrizio Pirri, Candido

    2015-10-01

    Engineering applications for printed electronics demand solution processable electrically conductive materials, in the form of inks, to realize interconnections, piezoresistive pressure sensors, thermoresistive temperature sensors, and many other devices. Polyaniline is an intrinsically conductive polymer with modest electrical properties but clear advantages in terms of solubility and stability with temperature and in time. A comprehensive study, starting from its synthesis, primary doping, inkjet printing and secondary doping is presented, with the aim of elucidating the doping agent effects on its morphology, printability and electronic performance.

  20. Nanocrystal doped matrixes

    DOEpatents

    Parce, J. Wallace; Bernatis, Paul; Dubrow, Robert; Freeman, William P.; Gamoras, Joel; Kan, Shihai; Meisel, Andreas; Qian, Baixin; Whiteford, Jeffery A.; Ziebarth, Jonathan

    2010-01-12

    Matrixes doped with semiconductor nanocrystals are provided. In certain embodiments, the semiconductor nanocrystals have a size and composition such that they absorb or emit light at particular wavelengths. The nanocrystals can comprise ligands that allow for mixing with various matrix materials, including polymers, such that a minimal portion of light is scattered by the matrixes. The matrixes of the present invention can also be utilized in refractive index matching applications. In other embodiments, semiconductor nanocrystals are embedded within matrixes to form a nanocrystal density gradient, thereby creating an effective refractive index gradient. The matrixes of the present invention can also be used as filters and antireflective coatings on optical devices and as down-converting layers. Processes for producing matrixes comprising semiconductor nanocrystals are also provided. Nanostructures having high quantum efficiency, small size, and/or a narrow size distribution are also described, as are methods of producing indium phosphide nanostructures and core-shell nanostructures with Group II-VI shells.

  1. Procedures for monitoring recombinant erythropoietin and analogues in doping control.

    PubMed

    Segura, Jordi; Pascual, José A; Gutiérrez-Gallego, Ricardo

    2007-08-01

    The present report summarizes the main analytical strategies developed to identify the presence of recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) administered as a doping agent. Indirect evidence is based on the analysis of blood parameters (haemoglobin, haematocrit, reticulocytes, macrocytes, etc.) and serum markers (concentration of EPO and serum transferrin receptors, etc.). The problem of intertechnique comparison for reliable results evaluation is emphasized, especially for serum markers. Charge differences between isoforms of recombinant EPO and native urinary EPO are the grounds for the isoelectric focusing-double blotting-chemiluminescence detection method presently approved for doping control. Works addressing its advantages and limitations are presented and commented on. The chemical bases of the differential detection are highlighted and some future approaches for detection are also presented. The appearance and detectability of EPO analogues and mimetics susceptible for abuse are also addressed.

  2. Change Agent Survival Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  3. Detecting biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun; Walt, David R

    2005-10-01

    We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses after hybridization and response patterns of the multiplexed array.

  4. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  5. Detecting Biological Warfare Agents

    PubMed Central

    Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun

    2005-01-01

    We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses after hybridization and response patterns of the multiplexed array. PMID:16318712

  6. How do agents represent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Alex

    Representation is inherent to the concept of an agent, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some agent, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the agent with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes agents from non-representational objects: agents are objects capable of representation.

  7. Epitaxial Silicon Doped With Antimony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, James E.; Halleck, Bradley L.

    1996-01-01

    High-purity epitaxial silicon doped with antimony made by chemical vapor deposition, using antimony pentachloride (SbCI5) as source of dopant and SiH4, SiCI2H2, or another conventional source of silicon. High purity achieved in layers of arbitrary thickness. Epitaxial silicon doped with antimony needed to fabricate impurity-band-conduction photodetectors operating at wavelengths from 2.5 to 40 micrometers.

  8. Substitutional doping in nanocrystal superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cargnello, Matteo; Johnston-Peck, Aaron C.; Diroll, Benjamin T.; Wong, Eric; Datta, Bianca; Damodhar, Divij; Doan-Nguyen, Vicky V. T.; Herzing, Andrew A.; Kagan, Cherie R.; Murray, Christopher B.

    2015-08-01

    Doping is a process in which atomic impurities are intentionally added to a host material to modify its properties. It has had a revolutionary impact in altering or introducing electronic, magnetic, luminescent, and catalytic properties for several applications, for example in semiconductors. Here we explore and demonstrate the extension of the concept of substitutional atomic doping to nanometre-scale crystal doping, in which one nanocrystal is used to replace another to form doped self-assembled superlattices. Towards this goal, we show that gold nanocrystals act as substitutional dopants in superlattices of cadmium selenide or lead selenide nanocrystals when the size of the gold nanocrystal is very close to that of the host. The gold nanocrystals occupy random positions in the superlattice and their density is readily and widely controllable, analogous to the case of atomic doping, but here through nanocrystal self-assembly. We also show that the electronic properties of the superlattices are highly tunable and strongly affected by the presence and density of the gold nanocrystal dopants. The conductivity of lead selenide films, for example, can be manipulated over at least six orders of magnitude by the addition of gold nanocrystals and is explained by a percolation model. As this process relies on the self-assembly of uniform nanocrystals, it can be generally applied to assemble a wide variety of nanocrystal-doped structures for electronic, optical, magnetic, and catalytic materials.

  9. Genetic Doping and Health Damages

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, AA; Ravasi, AA; Farhud, DD

    2011-01-01

    Background: Use of genetic doping or gene transfer technology will be the newest and the lethal method of doping in future and have some unpleasant consequences for sports, athletes, and outcomes of competitions. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) defines genetic doping as “the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements, and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance ”. The purpose of this review is to consider genetic doping, health damages and risks of new genes if delivered in athletes. Methods: This review, which is carried out by reviewing relevant publications, is primarily based on the journals available in GOOGLE, ELSEVIER, PUBMED in fields of genetic technology, and health using a combination of keywords (e.g., genetic doping, genes, exercise, performance, athletes) until July 2010. Conclusion: There are several genes related to sport performance and if they are used, they will have health risks and sever damages such as cancer, autoimmunization, and heart attack. PMID:23113049

  10. The photoluminescence, drug delivery and imaging properties of multifunctional Eu3+/Gd3+ dual-doped hydroxyapatite nanorods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Huang, Peng; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Wu, Jin; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Cui, Da-Xiang

    2011-12-01

    The design and synthesis of multifunctional systems with high biocompatibility are very significant for the future of clinical applications. Herein, we report a microwave-assisted rapid synthesis of multifunctional Eu(3+)/Gd(3+) dual-doped hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods, and the photoluminescence (PL), drug delivery and in vivo imaging of as-prepared Eu(3+)/Gd(3+) doped HAp nanorods. The photoluminescent and magnetic multifunctions of HAp nanorods are realized by the dual-doping with Eu(3+) and Gd(3+). The PL intensity of doped HAp nanorods can be adjusted by varying Eu(3+) and Gd(3+) concentrations. The magnetization of doped HAp nanorods increases with the concentration of doped Gd(3+). The as-prepared Eu(3+)/Gd(3+)-doped HAp nanorods exhibit inappreciable toxicity to the cells in vitro. More importantly, the Eu(3+)/Gd(3+)-doped HAp nanorods show a high drug adsorption capacity and sustained drug release using ibuprofen as a model drug, and the drug release is governed by a diffusion process. Furthermore, the noninvasive visualization of nude mice with subcutaneous injection indicates that the Eu(3+)/Gd(3+)-doped HAp nanorods with the photoluminescent function are suitable for in vivo imaging. In vitro and in vivo imaging tests indicate that Eu(3+)/Gd(3+)-doped HAp nanorods have a potential in applications such as a multiple-model imaging agent for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, photoluminescence imaging and computed tomography (CT) imaging. The Eu(3+)/Gd(3+) dual-doped HAp nanorods are promising for applications in the biomedical fields such as multifunctional drug delivery systems with imaging guidance.

  11. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-07-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  12. Development of spacecraft toxic gas removal agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    The development of agents suitable for removal of CO, NH3, NO2 SO2, and other spacecraft contaminants was approached. An extensive technology review was conducted, yielding a large number of potentially useful materials and/or concepts. Because the two toxic gases of greatest interest, CO and NH3, suggested the use of catalysis principles emphasis was placed on the intestigation of transition metals on various supports. Forty-three materials were prepared or obtained and 25 were tested. Gas chromatographic techniques were used to find seven candidates that effectively managed various combinations of the four toxic gases: none managed all. These candidates included six transition metal-containing preparations and a supported LiOH material. Three commercial charcoals showed some efficiency for the toxic gases and may constitute candidates for enhancement by doping with transition metals.

  13. Molecularly doped metals.

    PubMed

    Avnir, David

    2014-02-18

    The many millions of organic, inorganic, and bioorganic molecules represent a very rich library of chemical, biological, and physical properties that do not show up among the approximately 100 metals. The ability to imbue metals with any of these molecular properties would open up tremendous potential for the development of new materials. In addition to their traditional features and their traditional applications, metals would have new traits, which would merge their classical virtues such as conductivity and catalytic activity with the diverse properties of these molecules. In this Account, we describe a new materials methodology, which enables, for the first time, the incorporation and entrapment of small organic molecules, polymers, and biomolecules within metals. These new materials are denoted dopant@metal. The creation of dopant@metal yields new properties that are more than or different from the sum of the individual properties of the two components. So far we have developed methods for the doping of silver, copper, gold, iron, palladium, platinum, and some of their alloys, as well as Hg-Ag amalgams. We have successfully altered classical metal properties (such as conductivity), induced unorthodox properties (such as rendering a metal acidic or basic), used metals as heterogeneous matrices for homogeneous catalysts, and formed new metallic catalysts such as metals doped with organometallic complexes. In addition, we have created materials that straddle the border between polymers and metals, we have entrapped enzymes to form bioactive metals, we have induced chirality within metals, we have made corrosion-resistant iron, we formed efficient biocidal materials, and we demonstrated a new concept for batteries. We have developed a variety of methods for synthesizing dopant@metals including aqueous homogeneous and heterogeneous reductions of the metal cations, reductions in DMF, electrochemical entrapments, thermal decompositions of zerovalent metal carbonyls

  14. Topical hemostatic agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Palm, Melanie D; Altman, Jeffrey S

    2008-04-01

    Topical hemostatic agents play an important role in both common and specialized dermatologic procedures. These agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action and include physical or mechanical agents, caustic agents, biologic physical agents, and physiologic agents. Some agents induce protein coagulation and precipitation resulting in occlusion of small cutaneous vessels, while others take advantage of latter stages in the coagulation cascade, activating biologic responses to bleeding. Traditional and newer topical hemostatic agents are discussed in this review, and the benefits and costs of each agent will be provided.

  15. Influence of different ions doping on the antibacterial properties of MgO nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Wei; Tan, Fatang; Cai, Yuncheng; Lu, Junwen; Qiao, Xueliang

    2013-11-01

    Compared with other inorganic antibacterial agents, magnesium oxide (MgO) nanopowders exhibit a unique antibacterial mechanism and various advantages in applications, having attracted extensive attention. In this study, MgO nanopowders doped with different ions (Li+, Zn2+ and Ti4+) were synthesized by a sol-gel method, respectively. The structures and morphologies of the as-obtained precursors and nanopowders were characterized and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The influence of three metal ions doping on the antibacterial properties of MgO nanopowders was also investigated by their bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli, ATCC 25922) using the broth microdilution method and the agar method. The results show that Li-doped MgO exhibits better antibacterial activity, Zn-doped and Ti-doped MgO display poorer antibacterial activity than pure MgO. It can be concluded that the influence of different ions doping on the antibacterial properties of MgO mainly lies on oxygen vacancies and basicity of nanopowders.

  16. Structural, optical, magnetic and photocatalytic properties of Co doped CuS diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreelekha, N.; Subramanyam, K.; Amaranatha Reddy, D.; Murali, G.; Ramu, S.; Rahul Varma, K.; Vijayalakshmi, R. P.

    2016-08-01

    Pristine and Co doped covellite CuS nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous solution by facile chemical co-precipitation method with Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA) as a stabilizing agent. EDAX measurements confirmed the presence of Co in the CuS host lattice. Hexagonal crystal structure of pure and Co doped CuS nanoparticles were authenticated by XRD patterns. TEM images indicated that sphere-shape of nanoparticles through a size ranging from 5 to 8 nm. The optical absorption edge moved to higher energies with increase in Co concentration as indicated by UV-vis spectroscopy. Magnetic measurements revealed that bare CuS sample show sign of diamagnetic character where as in Co doped nanoparticles augmentation of room temperature ferromagnetism was observed with increasing doping precursor concentrations. Photocatalytic performance of the pure and Co doped CuS nanoparticles were assessed by evaluating the degradation rate of rhodamine B solution under sun light irradiation. The 5% Co doped CuS nanoparticles provide evidence for high-quality photocatalytic activity.

  17. Agent oriented programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoham, Yoav

    1994-01-01

    The goal of our research is a methodology for creating robust software in distributed and dynamic environments. The approach taken is to endow software objects with explicit information about one another, to have them interact through a commitment mechanism, and to equip them with a speech-acty communication language. System-level applications include software interoperation and compositionality. A government application of specific interest is an infrastructure for coordination among multiple planners. Daily activity applications include personal software assistants, such as programmable email, scheduling, and new group agents. Research topics include definition of mental state of agents, design of agent languages as well as interpreters for those languages, and mechanisms for coordination within agent societies such as artificial social laws and conventions.

  18. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, A.; Aihara, M.; Matsuda, M.; Suzuki, A.; Tsuya, A.

    1984-02-07

    A radioactive diagnostic agent for renal cortex, adrenal cortex, myocardium, brain stem, spinal nerve, etc., which comprises as an essential component monoiodoacetic acid wherein the iodine atom is radioactive.

  19. Agility: Agent - Ility Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    Figure 2: Overview of eGents 9 Specific scientific and engineering subgoals were: • develop a lightweight agent system that uses email- based ...applets makes them hard to operate over corporate firewalls. eGents e - mail based ACL bus imposes fewer requirements on agents that use it, and firewalls...do not pose a problem for an e - mail based ACL bus. While applets limit 35 JATLites range of applications, they also make JATlite easy to deploy

  20. Raman studies on Ag-ion doped CdZnS luminescent alloy quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Ruchi; Sharma, Prashant K.; Pandey, A. C.; Kumar, Lokendra

    2010-07-01

    Un-doped and Ag-ion doped CdZnS alloy nanocrystals were synthesized using methaacrylic acid (MAA) as a capping agent. A continuous higher frequency shift in optical phonon modes was observed in the Raman spectra of the samples with increasing Zn composition demonstrating a typical 'one-mode' type behavior of the alloy material. Furthermore, the influence of MAA concentration on the optical and vibrational properties was also investigated. Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of the samples shows that the CdZnS nanocrystals were embedded in the matrix of MAA. In addition, tremendous attention was paid towards the power induced Raman shift in the alloy nanocrystals.

  1. Possibility of analytical finding of glycerol caused by self-catheterization in doping control.

    PubMed

    Okano, Masato; Nishitani, Yasunori; Kageyama, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Glycerol is listed on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prohibited list as a masking agent principally because the administration of glycerol increases plasma volume and decreases the concentration of haemoglobin and the value of haematocrit in blood. Glycerol is a naturally occurring substance; therefore, the threshold is set as 1.0 mg/mL in the WADA technical document (WADA TD2013DL). In a WADA-accredited doping control laboratory, three doping control urine specimens collected from impaired athletes were determined to contain a high concentration of glycerol (>1.0 mg/mL); two of these specimens were considered adverse analytical findings (AAFs). Self-catheterization is necessary for athletes with neurological disorders such as neurogenic bladder dysfunction. We conducted a simple simulation of self-catheterization as an experimental test using urethral catheters with an antiseptic agent containing glycerol to confirm the influence of this antiseptic agent on the quantitative value of glycerol in doping control analysis. Some users employ a catheter with glycerol solution (ca. 1 mL) to avoid pain during use. The urine sample passed through such a catheter exhibited a glycerol concentration (4.94 mg/mL) greater than the threshold level. In September 2014, the threshold for glycerol will change from 1.0 to 4.3 mg/mL (WADA TD2014DL); however, a possibility exists for the quantitative value of glycerol in doping control analysis to exceed the threshold because of the use of an antiseptic agent containing glycerol for self-catheterization. The AAF for glycerol for impaired athletes, particularly those who participate in Paralympic sports, should account for the use of a catheter with glycerol.

  2. The Antibacterial Activity of Ta-doped ZnO Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bing-Lei; Han, Ping; Guo, Li-Chuan; Cao, Yan-Qiang; Li, Ai-Dong; Kong, Ji-Zhou; Zhai, Hai-Fa; Wu, Di

    2015-12-01

    A novel photocatalyst of Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles was prepared by a modified Pechini-type method. The antimicrobial study of Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles on several bacteria of Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) were performed using a standard microbial method. The Ta-doping concentration effect on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of various bacteria under dark ambient has been evaluated. The photocatalytical inactivation of Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles under visible light irradiation was examined. The MIC results indicate that the incorporation of Ta(5+) ions into ZnO significantly improve the bacteriostasis effect of ZnO nanoparticles on E. coli, S. aureus, and B. subtilis in the absence of light. Compared to MIC results without light irradiation, Ta-doped ZnO and pure ZnO nanoparticles show much stronger bactericidal efficacy on P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and S. aureus under visible light illumination. The possible antimicrobial mechanisms in Ta-doped ZnO systems under visible light and dark conditions were also proposed. Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles exhibit more effective bactericidal efficacy than pure ZnO in dark ambient, which can be attributed to the synergistic effect of enhanced surface bioactivity and increased electrostatic force due to the incorporation of Ta(5+) ions into ZnO. Based on the antibacterial tests, 5 % Ta-doped ZnO is a more effective antimicrobial agent than pure ZnO.

  3. The Antibacterial Activity of Ta-doped ZnO Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bing-Lei; Han, Ping; Guo, Li-Chuan; Cao, Yan-Qiang; Li, Ai-Dong; Kong, Ji-Zhou; Zhai, Hai-Fa; Wu, Di

    2015-08-01

    A novel photocatalyst of Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles was prepared by a modified Pechini-type method. The antimicrobial study of Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles on several bacteria of Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis ( B. subtilis) and Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) were performed using a standard microbial method. The Ta-doping concentration effect on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of various bacteria under dark ambient has been evaluated. The photocatalytical inactivation of Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles under visible light irradiation was examined. The MIC results indicate that the incorporation of Ta5+ ions into ZnO significantly improve the bacteriostasis effect of ZnO nanoparticles on E. coli, S. aureus, and B. subtilis in the absence of light. Compared to MIC results without light irradiation, Ta-doped ZnO and pure ZnO nanoparticles show much stronger bactericidal efficacy on P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and S. aureus under visible light illumination. The possible antimicrobial mechanisms in Ta-doped ZnO systems under visible light and dark conditions were also proposed. Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles exhibit more effective bactericidal efficacy than pure ZnO in dark ambient, which can be attributed to the synergistic effect of enhanced surface bioactivity and increased electrostatic force due to the incorporation of Ta5+ ions into ZnO. Based on the antibacterial tests, 5 % Ta-doped ZnO is a more effective antimicrobial agent than pure ZnO.

  4. Developing strategies for detection of gene doping.

    PubMed

    Baoutina, Anna; Alexander, Ian E; Rasko, John E J; Emslie, Kerry R

    2008-01-01

    It is feared that the use of gene transfer technology to enhance athletic performance, the practice that has received the term 'gene doping', may soon become a real threat to the world of sport. As recognised by the anti-doping community, gene doping, like doping in any form, undermines principles of fair play in sport and most importantly, involves major health risks to athletes who partake in gene doping. One attraction of gene doping for such athletes and their entourage lies in the apparent difficulty of detecting its use. Since the realisation of the threat of gene doping to sport in 2001, the anti-doping community and scientists from different disciplines concerned with potential misuse of gene therapy technologies for performance enhancement have focused extensive efforts on developing robust methods for gene doping detection which could be used by the World Anti-Doping Agency to monitor athletes and would meet the requirements of a legally defensible test. Here we review the approaches and technologies which are being evaluated for the detection of gene doping, as well as for monitoring the efficacy of legitimate gene therapy, in relation to the detection target, the type of sample required for analysis and detection methods. We examine the accumulated knowledge on responses of the body, at both cellular and systemic levels, to gene transfer and evaluate strategies for gene doping detection based on current knowledge of gene technology, immunology, transcriptomics, proteomics, biochemistry and physiology.

  5. Incubational domain characterization in lightly doped ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhipeng; Mori, Toshiyuki; John Auchterlonie, Graeme; Zou Jin; Drennan, John

    2012-08-15

    Microstructures of both Gd- and Y-doped ceria with different doping level (i.e., 10 at% and 25 at%) have been comprehensively characterized by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. Coherent nano-sized domains can be widely observed in heavily doped ceria. Nevertheless, it was found that a large amount of dislocations actually exist in lightly doped ceria instead of heavily doped ones. Furthermore, incubational domains can be detected in lightly doped ceria, with dislocations located at the interfaces. The interactions between such linear dislocations and dopant defects have been simulated accordingly. As a consequence, the formation mechanism of incubational domains is rationalized in terms of the interaction between intrinsic dislocations of doped ceria and dopant defects. This study offers the insights into the initial state and related mechanism of the formation of nano-sized domains, which have been widely observed in heavily rare-earth-doped ceria in recent years. - Graphical abstract: Interactions between dislocations and dopants lead to incubational domain formation in lightly doped ceria. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructures were characterized in both heavily and light Gd-/Y-doped ceria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dislocations are existed in lightly doped ceria rather than heavily doped one. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interactions between dislocations and dopant defects were simulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of dislocation associated incubational domain is rationalized.

  6. Boron doping a semiconductor particle

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Gary Don; Reynolds, Jeffrey Scott; Brown, Louanne Kay

    1998-06-09

    A method (10,30) of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried (16), with the boron film then being driven (18) into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out (38) into piles and melted/fused (40) with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements.

  7. Boron doping a semiconductor particle

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.; Brown, L.K.

    1998-06-09

    A method of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried, with the boron film then being driven into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out into piles and melted/fused with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements. 2 figs.

  8. Temperature-dependent structure of Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Katherine P.; Russek, Stephen E. Shaw, Justin M.; Usselman, Robert J.; Evarts, Eric R.; Silva, Thomas J.; Nembach, Hans T.; Geiss, Roy H.; Arenholz, Elke; Idzerda, Yves U.

    2015-02-09

    High quality 5 nm cubic Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by a wet-chemical method to investigate tailoring of magnetic properties for imaging and biomedical applications. We show that the Tb is incorporated into the octahedral 3+ sites. High-angle annular dark-field microscopy shows that the dopant is well-distributed throughout the particle, and x-ray diffraction measurements show a small lattice parameter shift with the inclusion of a rare-earth dopant. Magnetization and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism data indicate that the Tb spins are unpolarized and weakly coupled to the iron spin lattice at room temperature, and begin to polarize and couple to the iron oxide lattice at temperatures below 50 K. Broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements show no increase in magnetic damping at room temperature for Tb-doped nanoparticles relative to undoped nanoparticles, further confirming weak coupling between Fe and Tb spins at room temperature. The Gilbert damping constant, α, is remarkably low for the Tb-doped nanoparticles, with α = 0.024 ± 0.003. These nanoparticles, which have a large fixed moment, a large fluctuating moment and optically active rare-earth elements, are potential high-relaxivity T1 and T2 MRI agents with integrated optical signatures.

  9. Temperature-dependent structure of Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Katherine P.; Russek, Stephen E.; Geiss, Roy H.; Shaw, Justin M.; Usselman, Robert J.; Evarts, Eric R.; Silva, Thomas J.; Nembach, Hans T.; Arenholz, Elke; Idzerda, Yves U.

    2015-02-01

    High quality 5 nm cubic Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by a wet-chemical method to investigate tailoring of magnetic properties for imaging and biomedical applications. We show that the Tb is incorporated into the octahedral 3+ sites. High-angle annular dark-field microscopy shows that the dopant is well-distributed throughout the particle, and x-ray diffraction measurements show a small lattice parameter shift with the inclusion of a rare-earth dopant. Magnetization and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism data indicate that the Tb spins are unpolarized and weakly coupled to the iron spin lattice at room temperature, and begin to polarize and couple to the iron oxide lattice at temperatures below 50 K. Broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements show no increase in magnetic damping at room temperature for Tb-doped nanoparticles relative to undoped nanoparticles, further confirming weak coupling between Fe and Tb spins at room temperature. The Gilbert damping constant, α, is remarkably low for the Tb-doped nanoparticles, with α = 0.024 ± 0.003. These nanoparticles, which have a large fixed moment, a large fluctuating moment and optically active rare-earth elements, are potential high-relaxivity T1 and T2 MRI agents with integrated optical signatures.

  10. Sunscreening agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Latha, M S; Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B R

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents.

  11. Agent independent task planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  12. Properties of doped semiconducting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemskov, V. S.

    The papers contained in this volume focus on the physicochemical principles of the doping of semiconductor materials. Topics discussed include impurity atoms and atomic levels, phase diagrams of the semiconductor-dopant system, distribution coefficients, dopant diffusion, and macro- and microsegregation of doping components. Attention is also given to the interaction between dopant atoms and lattice defects and the structure and decomposition of semiconductor-dopant solid solutions. Experimental data are presented for single crystals and epitaxial films of III-V, IV-VI, and II-VI semiconductors.

  13. Method of doping a semiconductor

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Chiang Y.; Rapp, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    A method for doping semiconductor material. An interface is established between a solid electrolyte and a semiconductor to be doped. The electrolyte is chosen to be an ionic conductor of the selected impurity and the semiconductor material and electrolyte are jointly chosen so that any compound formed from the impurity and the semiconductor will have a free energy no lower than the electrolyte. A potential is then established across the interface so as to allow the impurity ions to diffuse into the semiconductor. In one embodiment the semiconductor and electrolyte may be heated so as to increase the diffusion coefficient.

  14. Sports doping in the adolescent: the Faustian conundrum of Hors de Combat.

    PubMed

    Greydanus, Donald E; Patel, Dilip R

    2010-06-01

    The drive toward success in sports and the need for a cosmetically acceptable appearance have driven many adolescents to take a wide variety of so-called doping substances. The consumption of these chemicals in the hope and hype of improved sports performance, fueled by the easing of government restrictions on their proof of safety and efficacy, has resulted in an explosion of so-called ergogenic products available to our youth. Agents that have been used include anabolic steroids, anabolic-like agents, designer steroids, creatine, protein and amino acid supplements, minerals, antioxidants, stimulants, blood doping, erythropoietin, beta-blockers, and others. The use of these agents has considerable potential to cause physical and psychological damage. Use and misuse of drugs in this sports doping process should be discouraged. This discussion reviews some of the agents that are currently being used. Clinicians providing sports medicine care to youth, whether through anticipatory guidance or direct sports medicine management, should educate their young patients about the hype and hyperbole of these products that may keep them out instead of in the game at considerable financial cost to the unwary consumer.

  15. Room temperature synthesis of Mn{sup 2+} doped ZnS d-dots and observation of tunable dual emission: Effects of doping concentration, temperature, and ultraviolet light illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Kole, A. K.; Kumbhakar, P.; Tiwary, C. S.

    2013-03-21

    Mn{sup 2+} doped (0-50.0 molar %) ZnS d-dots have been synthesized in water medium by using an environment friendly low cost chemical technique. Tunable dual emission in UV and yellow-orange regions is achieved by tailoring the Mn{sup 2+} doping concentration in the host ZnS nanocrystal. The optimum doping concentration for achieving efficient photoluminescence (PL) emission is determined to be {approx}1.10 (at. %) corresponding to 40.0 (molar %) of Mn{sup 2+} doping concentration used during synthesis. The mechanism of charge transfer from the host to the dopant leading to the intensity modulated tunable (594-610 nm) yellow-orange PL emission is straightforwardly understood as no capping agent is used. The temperature dependent PL emission measurements are carried out, viz., in 1.10 at. % Mn{sup 2+} doped sample and the experimental results are explained by using a theoretical PL emission model. It is found that the ratio of non-radiative to radiative recombination rates is temperature dependent and this phenomenon has not been reported, so far, in Mn{sup 2+} doped ZnS system. The colour tuning of the emitted light from the samples are evident from the calculated chromaticity coordinates. UV light irradiation for 150 min in 40.0 (molar %) Mn{sup 2+} doped sample shows an enhancement of 33% in PL emission intensity.

  16. [Preparation of antineoplastic agents].

    PubMed

    Descoutures, J-M

    2006-01-01

    In the last fifteen years, the preparation of antineoplastic agents has tended to be centralized in the hospital pharmacy for two main reasons: to enable better protection for the staff, to enable better safety for the patient. The consequences of this organization have led to standardization of techniques, implementation of a quality system and also a better use of antineoplastic agents. After protocols have been standardized by the physician and validated by the pharmacist, four main steps are necessary: phamaceutical validation of the prescription, preparation of IV admixtures according to a production file, control of the final product, dispatching of the preparation to the patient. Computer-controlled processes guarantee the safety of these different steps. The centralized preparations are made either with a vertical laminar flow hood or with an isolator. With the implementation of the National Cancer Plan, antineoplastic agents for patients on home treatments will also be prepared in centralized hospital pharmacies.

  17. Polyphenols as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Daglia, Maria

    2012-04-01

    Polyphenols are secondary metabolites produced by higher plants, which play multiple essential roles in plant physiology and have potential healthy properties on human organism, mainly as antioxidants, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antihypertensive, and antimicrobial agents. In the present review the antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activities of the most active polyphenol classes are reported, highlighting, where investigated, the mechanisms of action and the structure-activity relationship. Moreover, considering that the microbial resistance has become an increasing global problem, and there is a compulsory need to find out new potent antimicrobial agents as accessories to antibiotic therapy, the synergistic effect of polyphenols in combination with conventional antimicrobial agents against clinical multidrug-resistant microorganisms is discussed.

  18. PULSION® HP: Tunable, High Productivity Plasma Doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felch, S. B.; Torregrosa, F.; Etienne, H.; Spiegel, Y.; Roux, L.; Turnbaugh, D.

    2011-01-01

    Plasma doping has been explored for many implant applications for over two decades and is now being used in semiconductor manufacturing for two applications: DRAM polysilicon counter-doping and contact doping. The PULSION HP is a new plasma doping tool developed by Ion Beam Services for high-volume production that enables customer control of the dominant mechanism—deposition, implant, or etch. The key features of this tool are a proprietary, remote RF plasma source that enables a high density plasma with low chamber pressure, resulting in a wide process space, and special chamber and wafer electrode designs that optimize doping uniformity.

  19. Doping effect of Ag+, Mn2+ ions on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankara Reddy, B.; Venkatramana Reddy, S.; Venkateswara Reddy, P.; Koteeswara Reddy, N.; Vijayalakshmi, R. P.

    2015-02-01

    Pure ZnO and co-doped (Mn, Ag) ZnO nanoparticles have been successfully prepared by chemical co-precipitation method without using a capping agent. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirms the presence of wurtzite (hexagonal) crystal structure similar to undoped ZnO, suggesting that doped Mn, Ag ions are substituted to the regular Zn sites. The morphology of the samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chemical composition of pure and co-doped ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis spectroscopy (EDAX). Optical absorption properties were determined by UV-vis Diffuse Reflectance Spectrophotometer. The incorporation of Ag+, Mn2+ in the place of Zn2+ provoked to decrease the size of nanocrystals as compared to pure ZnO. Optical absorption measurements indicates blue shift in the absorption band edge upon Ag, Mn ions doped ZnO nanoparticles.

  20. Anabolic steroid use: patterns of use and detection of doping.

    PubMed

    Graham, Michael R; Davies, Bruce; Grace, Fergal M; Kicman, Andrew; Baker, Julien S

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) were the first identified doping agents that have ergogenic effects and are being used to increase muscle mass and strength in adult males. Consequently, athletes are still using them to increase physical performance and bodybuilders are using them to improve size and cosmetic appearance. The prevalence of AAS use has risen dramatically over the last two decades and filtered into all aspects of society. Support for AAS users has increased, but not by the medical profession, who will not accept that AAS use dependency is a psychiatric condition. The adverse effects and potential dangers of AAS use have been well documented. AAS are used in sport by individuals who have acquired knowledge of the half-lives of specific drugs and the dosages and cycles required to avoid detection. Conversely, they are used by bodybuilders in extreme dosages with the intention of gaining muscle mass and size, with little or no regard for the consequences. Polypharmacy by self-prescription is prevalent in this sector. Most recently, AAS use has filtered through to 'recreational street drug' users and is the largest growth of drugs in this subdivision. They are taken to counteract the anorexic and cachectic effects of the illegal psychotropic street drugs. Screening procedures for AAS in World Anti-Doping Agency accredited laboratories are comprehensive and sensitive and are based mainly on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, although liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry is becoming increasingly more valuable. The use of carbon isotope mass spectrometry is also of increasing importance in the detection of natural androgen administration, particularly to detect testosterone administration. There is a degree of contentiousness in the scenario of AAS drug use, both within and outside sport. AAS and associated doping agents are not illegal per se. Possession is not an offence, despite contravening sporting regulations and moral codes. Until AAS are

  1. Engineering iodine-doped carbon dots as dual-modal probes for fluorescence and X-ray CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miaomiao; Ju, Huixiang; Zhang, Li; Sun, Mingzhong; Zhou, Zhongwei; Dai, Zhenyu; Zhang, Lirong; Gong, Aihua; Wu, Chaoyao; Du, Fengyi

    2015-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is the most commonly used imaging technique for noninvasive diagnosis of disease. In order to improve tissue specificity and prevent adverse effects, we report the design and synthesis of iodine-doped carbon dots (I-doped CDs) as efficient CT contrast agents and fluorescence probe by a facile bottom-up hydrothermal carbonization process. The as-prepared I-doped CDs are monodispersed spherical nanoparticles (a diameter of ~2.7 nm) with favorable dispersibility and colloidal stability in water. The aqueous solution of I-doped CDs showed wavelength-dependent excitation and stable photoluminescence similar to traditional carbon quantum dots. Importantly, I-doped CDs displayed superior X-ray attenuation properties in vitro and excellent biocompatibility. After intravenous injection, I-doped CDs were distributed throughout the body and excreted by renal clearance. These findings validated that I-doped CDs with high X-ray attenuation potency and favorable photoluminescence show great promise for biomedical research and disease diagnosis.

  2. Study of structural and optical properties of Fe doped CuO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Poonam; Gupta, Ankita; Kaur, Sarabjeet; Singh, Vishal; Kumar, Sacheen; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-05-01

    Iron doped Copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method at different concentration (3%, 6%, 9%) at 300-400° C with Copper Acetate and Ferric Chloride as precursors in presence of Polyethylene Glycol and Sodium Hydroxide as stabilizing agent. Effect of doping on the structural and optical properties is studied. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction and UV-Visible Spectroscopy for examining the size and the band gap respectively. The X-Ray Diffraction plots confirmed the monoclinic structure of Copper oxide suggesting the Cu atoms replaced by Fe atoms and no secondary phase was detected. The indirect band gap of Fe doped CuO nanoparticles is 2.4eV and increases to 3.4eV as the concentration of dopant increases. The majority of particle size is in range 8 nm to 35.55 nm investigated by X-ray diffractometer.

  3. Proscribed drugs at the Olympic Games: permitted use and misuse (doping) by athletes.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Ken

    2012-06-01

    Athletes have always sought to outperform their competitors and regrettably some have resorted to misuse of drugs or doping to achieve this. Stimulants were taken by the first Olympic athletes to be disqualified in 1972. Although undetectable until 1975, from the 1950s androgenic anabolic steroids were administered for increased strength and power followed in the 1990s by erythropoietin for enhanced endurance. Both are highly effective doping agents. As analytical science validated improved techniques to identify these drugs, Olympic athletes, including many medallists were caught and disqualified. When the International Olympic Committee (IOC) prohibited beta blockers (beneficial in shooting), diuretics (assist weight classified athletes) and glucocorticosteroids, some athletes with genuine medical conditions were denied legitimate medical therapy. To overcome this, in 1992 the IOC introduced a system known now as Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE). This paper discusses Olympic athletes who have been known to dope at past Games and some medical indications and pitfalls in the TUE process.

  4. Engineering Hydrophobic Organosilica Nanoparticle-Doped Nanofibers for Enhanced and Fouling Resistant Membrane Distillation.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Mohammed Amen; Croissant, Jonas G; Francis, Lijo; Alsaiari, Shahad K; Anjum, Dalaver H; Ghaffour, Noreddine; Khashab, Niveen M

    2017-01-18

    Engineering and scaling-up new materials for better water desalination are imperative to find alternative fresh water sources to meet future demands. Herein, the fabrication of hydrophobic poly(ether imide) composite nanofiber membranes doped with novel ethylene-pentafluorophenylene-based periodic mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles is reported for enhanced and fouling resistant membrane distillation. Novel organosilica nanoparticles were homogeneously incorporated into electrospun nanofiber membranes depicting a proportional increase of hydrophobicity to the particle contents. Direct contact membrane distillation experiments on the organosilica-doped membrane with only 5% doping showed an increase of flux of 140% compared to commercial membranes. The high porosity of organosilica nanoparticles was further utilized to load the eugenol antimicrobial agent which produced a dramatic enhancement of the antibiofouling properties of the membrane of 70% after 24 h.

  5. Oxidative synthesis of highly fluorescent boron/nitrogen co-doped carbon nanodots enabling detection of photosensitizer and carcinogenic dye.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Shanaz; Mansoor, Farrukh; Naz, Shagufta; Lei, Jianping; Kanwal, Shamsa

    2013-11-05

    Current research efforts have demonstrated the facile hydrothermal oxidative synthetic route to develop highly fluorescent boron/nitrogen co-doped carbon nanodots (CNDs). During this process, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)glycine served as a source of N doping and a carbon precursor as well, while boric acid H3BO3 is used as an oxidizing agent in the N2 environment. Surface passivation through ultrasonic treatment of CNDs was performed to induce modifications by using various surface passivating agents. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) remarkably enhanced the fluorescence performance and monodispersity of polymerized carbon nanodots (P-CNDs) in aqueous phase with an enhanced quantum yield of 23.71%, along with an increase in size from ~3 nm to ~200 nm. For characterization of CNDs and P-CNDs, UV, infrared, photoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectra, and atomic force microscopy techniques were utilized. Application potentials of synthesized P-CNDs were developed via introduction of protoporphyrin (PPD, a photosensitizer) which has great doping affinity with polymer PEI to switch-off the fluorescence of P-CNDs, leading to the production of dye-doped nanoprobes. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was also observed during dye-doping, and PPD was detected with a limit of detection (LOD, 3σ) of 15 pM. The fluorescence recovery of this switched-off nanoprobe was made possible by using Sudan red III (carcinogenic dye), which was oxidized by PPD doped in P-CNDs. Sudan red III was detected in the concentration range of 9.9 pM-0.37 nM. Meanwhile, it was also confirmed that the dye-doped nanoprobe is highly selective and exceptionally sensitive to detect this carcinogenic agent in commercial products with a LOD (3σ) of 90 fM.

  6. Agent Persuasion Mechanism of Acquaintance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    Agent persuasion can improve negotiation efficiency in dynamic environment based on its initiative and autonomy, and etc., which is being affected much more by acquaintance. Classification of acquaintance on agent persuasion is illustrated, and the agent persuasion model of acquaintance is also illustrated. Then the concept of agent persuasion degree of acquaintance is given. Finally, relative interactive mechanism is elaborated.

  7. Model Checking Normative Agent Organisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Louise; Tinnemeier, Nick; Meyer, John-Jules

    We present the integration of a normative programming language in the MCAPL framework for model checking multi-agent systems. The result is a framework facilitating the implementation and verification of multi-agent systems coordinated via a normative organisation. The organisation can be programmed in the normative language while the constituent agents may be implemented in a number of (BDI) agent programming languages.

  8. (Magnetic properties of doped semiconductors)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Research continued on the transport behavior of doped semiconductors on both sides of the metal-insulator transition, and the approach to the transition from both the insulating and the metallic side. Work is described on magneto resistance of a series of metallic Si:B samples and CdSe. (CBS)

  9. Metal-doped organic foam

    DOEpatents

    Rinde, James A.

    1982-01-01

    Organic foams having a low density and very small cell size and method for producing same in either a metal-loaded or unloaded (nonmetal loaded) form are described. Metal-doped foams are produced by soaking a polymer gel in an aqueous solution of desired metal salt, soaking the gel successively in a solvent series of decreasing polarity to remove water from the gel and replace it with a solvent of lower polarity with each successive solvent in the series being miscible with the solvents on each side and being saturated with the desired metal salt, and removing the last of the solvents from the gel to produce the desired metal-doped foam having desired density cell size, and metal loading. The unloaded or metal-doped foams can be utilized in a variety of applications requiring low density, small cell size foam. For example, rubidium-doped foam made in accordance with the invention has utility in special applications, such as in x-ray lasers.

  10. Method of doping organic semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Kloc, Christian Leo [Constance, DE; Ramirez, Arthur Penn [Summit, NJ; So, Woo-Young [New Providence, NJ

    2012-02-28

    A method includes the steps of forming a contiguous semiconducting region and heating the region. The semiconducting region includes polyaromatic molecules. The heating raises the semiconducting region to a temperature above room temperature. The heating is performed in the presence of a dopant gas and the absence of light to form a doped organic semiconducting region.

  11. Hormones as doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Duntas, Leonidas H; Popovic, Vera

    2013-04-01

    Though we may still sing today, as did Pindar in his eighth Olympian Victory Ode, "… of no contest greater than Olympia, Mother of Games, gold-wreathed Olympia…", we must sadly admit that today, besides blatant over-commercialization, there is no more ominous threat to the Olympic games than doping. Drug-use methods are steadily becoming more sophisticated and ever harder to detect, increasingly demanding the use of complex analytical procedures of biotechnology and molecular medicine. Special emphasis is thus given to anabolic androgenic steroids, recombinant growth hormone and erythropoietin as well as to gene doping, the newly developed mode of hormones abuse which, for its detection, necessitates high-tech methodology but also multidisciplinary individual measures incorporating educational and psychological methods. In this Olympic year, the present review offers an update on the current technologically advanced endocrine methods of doping while outlining the latest procedures applied-including both the successes and pitfalls of proteomics and metabolomics-to detect doping while contributing to combating this scourge.

  12. Remote Agent Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Remote Agent (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.

  13. Can Subscription Agents Survive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Marcia

    1985-01-01

    With the saturation of traditional markets for their services, subscription agents have evolved from orders and invoices to serving customers by communicating with librarians and publishers and making automated and paper products available. Magazine fulfillment centers, publisher discounts, and electronic publishing will influence the subscription…

  14. E-Learning Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Dawn G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the advantages of using intelligent agents to facilitate the location and customization of appropriate e-learning resources and to foster collaboration in e-learning environments. Design/methodology/approach: This paper proposes an e-learning environment that can be used to provide customized…

  15. Activation of a photosensitive pharmaceutical agent by a triboluminescent material

    SciTech Connect

    Yuen, Stacey; Schreyer, Magdalena; Finlay, W.H.; Loebenberg, R.; Moussa, W.

    2006-03-20

    Given the recent emphasis on applications of triboluminescent materials, we investigate the ability of a triboluminescent material to activate a photosensitive pharmaceutical agent. Using compressed sucrose doped with wintergreen, which luminesces when fractured, we demonstrate the activation of riboflavin (vitamin B2), a photosensitizer. A product of activation is the highly reactive singlet oxygen. We add ascorbic acid (vitamin C), an antioxidant, and measure the amount of ascorbic acid oxidation to correlate with the amount of riboflavin activation. Up to 17% ascorbic acid oxidation is observed, indicating triboluminescence is worth exploring as a mechanism for activation of photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy.

  16. Nitrogen-doped porous carbon derived from biomass waste for high-performance supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guofu; Yang, Qian; Sun, Kanjun; Peng, Hui; Ran, Feitian; Zhao, Xiaolong; Lei, Ziqiang

    2015-12-01

    High capacitance property and low cost are the pivotal requirements for practical application of supercapacitor. In this paper, a low cost and high capacitance property nitrogen-doped porous carbon with high specific capacitance is prepared. The as-prepared nitrogen-doped porous carbon employing potato waste residue (PWR) as the carbon source, zinc chloride (ZnCl2) as the activating agent and melamine as nitrogen doping agent. The morphology and structure of the carbon materials are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2 adsorption/desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra. The surface area of the nitrogen-doped carbon which prepared under 700°C is found to be 1052m(2)/g, and the specific capacitance as high as 255Fg(-1) in 2M KOH electrolyte is obtained utilize the carbon as electrode materials. The electrode materials also show excellent cyclability with 93.7% coulombic efficiency at 5Ag(-1) current density of for 5000cycles.

  17. Preparation of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles immobilized on polyamide fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhu, Hong

    2012-10-01

    A thin layer of nano-scaled Fe-doped TiO2 particles prepared by hydrothermal method is immobilized on the surface of polyamide 6 (PA6) fiber using tetrabutyl titanate as the precursor, ferric trichloride as the doping agent and chitosan as the dispersant agent. The morphology, crystal structure, thermal behavior, composition and chemical structure of PA6 fabric before and after treatments are characterized by means of scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis techniques. The properties of diffuse reflectance spectrum, tensile, air permeability, whiteness, yellowness and photocatalytic activity are also analyzed. It is found that the anatase phase Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with crystal size of 12 nm or so are synthesized, and simultaneously grafted onto the fiber surface during the processing. Compared with the TiO2-coated fabric, the thermal stability of the Fe-doped TiO2-coated fabric changes a little. The absorption ability to ultraviolet (UV) rays and visible light is greatly improved. The breaking force and breaking elongation increase to some extent because of the shrinkage of fabric. The air permeability decreases distinctly. The color of PA6 fabric changes from white to light brownish because of the introduction of ferric trichloride. The photocatalytic activity of methylene blue decolorization is enhanced under sunlight and UV irradiation.

  18. Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticles: Sonochemical synthesis, characterization, and sonocatalytic application.

    PubMed

    Khataee, Alireza; Karimi, Atefeh; Zarei, Mahmoud; Joo, Sang Woo

    2015-03-30

    Undoped and europium (III)-doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a sonochemical method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The crystalline sizes of undoped and 3% Eu-doped ZnO were found to be 16.04 and 8.22nm, respectively. The particle size of Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticles was much smaller than that of pure ZnO. The synthesized nanocatalysts were used for the sonocatalytic degradation of Acid Red 17. Among the Eu-doped ZnO catalysts, 3% Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticles showed the highest sonocatalytic activity. The effects of various parameters such as catalyst loading, initial dye concentration, pH, ultrasonic power, the effect of oxidizing agents, and the presence of anions were investigated. The produced intermediates of the sonocatalytic process were monitored by GC-Mass (GC-MS) spectrometry.

  19. Fe Doped CdTeS Magnetic Quantum Dots for Bioimaging†

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Ajoy K.; Sharma, Parvesh; Sohn, Han-Byul; Ghosh, Siddhartha; Das, Ritesh. K.; Hebard, Arthur F.; Zeng, Huadong; Baligand, Celine; Walter, Glenn A.

    2013-01-01

    A facile synthesis of 3-6 nm, water dispersible, near-infrared (NIR) emitting, quantum dots (QDs) magnetically doped with Fe is presented. Doping of alloyed CdTeS nanocrystals with Fe was achieved in situ using a simple hydrothermal method. The magnetic quantum dots (MQDs) were capped with NAcetyl-Cysteine (NAC) ligands, containing thiol and carboxylic acid functional groups to provide stable aqueous dispersion. The optical and magnetic properties of the Fe doped MQDs were characterized using several techniques. The synthesized MQDs are tuned to emit in the Vis-NIR (530-738 nm) wavelength regime and have high quantum yields (67.5-10%). NIR emitting (738 nm) MQDs having 5.6 atomic% Fe content exhibited saturation magnetization of 85 emu/gm[Fe] at room temperature. Proton transverse relaxivity of the Fe doped MQDs (738 nm) at 4.7 T was determined to be 3.6 mM−1s−1. The functional evaluation of NIR MQDs has been demonstrated using phantom and in vitro studies. These water dispersible, NIR emitting and MR contrast producing Fe doped CdTeS MQDs, in unagglomerated form, have the potential to act as multimodal contrast agents for tracking live cells. PMID:24634776

  20. Magnetic and upconverted luminescent properties of multifunctional lanthanide doped cubic KGdF4nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L. W.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Li, J. J.; Li, Y.; Zhong, J. X.; Chu, Paul K.

    2010-12-01

    Lanthanide (Ln3+) doped KGdF4 (Ln = Yb3+, Er3+, Ho3+, Tm3+) nanocrystals with a mean diameter of approximately 12 nm were synthesized by a hydrothermal method using oleic acid as a stabilizing agent at 180 °C. The nanocrystals crystallize in the cubic phase as α-NaGdF4. When excited by a 980 nm laser, these Ln3+ doped nanocrystals exhibit multicolor up-conversion (UC) emissions in red, yellow, blue and white. The calculated color coordinates demonstrate that white UC emission (CIE-X = 0.352, CIE-Y = 0.347) can be obtained by varying the dopant concentrations in the Yb3+/Ho3+/Tm3+ triply-doped nanocrystals to yield different RGB emission intensities. The measured field dependence of magnetization (M-H curves) of the KGdF4nanocrystals shows their paramagnetic characteristics that can be ascribed to the non-interacting localized nature of the magnetic moment of Gd3+ ions. Moreover, low temperature thermal treatment can enhance UC properties, magnetization and magnetic mass susceptibility of Ln3+ doped KGdF4nanocrystals. The multifunctional Ln3+ doped KGdF4nanocrystals have potential applications in color displays, bioseparation, and optical-magnetic dual modal nanoprobes in biomedical imaging.

  1. Photoluminescence study of Mn doped ZnS nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, M. P.; Patel, Kamakshi; Gujarati, Vivek P.; Chaki, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    ZnS nanoparticles co-doped with different concentration (5,10,15%) of Mn were synthesized using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent under microwave irradiation. We confirmed doping of Mn in the host ZnS by EDAX whereas powder X-ray diffractogram showed the cubic zinc blende structure of all these samples. TEM images did showed agglomeration of particles and SAED pattern obtained indicated polycrystalline nature. From SAED pattern we calculated lattice parameter of the samples which have close resemblance from that obtained from XRD pattern. The band gap values of pure and doped ZnS nanoparticles were calculated from UV-Visible absorption spectra. ZnS itself is a luminescence material but when we dope it with transition metal ion such as Mn, Co, and Cu they exhibits strong and intense luminescence in the particular region. The photoluminescence spectra of pure ZnS nanoparticles showed an emission at 421 and 485nm which is blue emission which was originated from the defect sites of ZnS itself and also sulfur deficiency and when doped with Mn2+ an extra peak with high intensity was observed at 530nm which is nearly yellow-orange emission which isrelated to the presence of Mn in the host lattice.

  2. Charge transfer and electronic doping in nitrogen-doped graphene

    PubMed Central

    Joucken, Frédéric; Tison, Yann; Le Fèvre, Patrick; Tejeda, Antonio; Taleb-Ibrahimi, Amina; Conrad, Edward; Repain, Vincent; Chacon, Cyril; Bellec, Amandine; Girard, Yann; Rousset, Sylvie; Ghijsen, Jacques; Sporken, Robert; Amara, Hakim; Ducastelle, François; Lagoute, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the modification of the graphene’s electronic structure upon doping is crucial for enlarging its potential applications. We present a study of nitrogen-doped graphene samples on SiC(000) combining angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The comparison between tunneling and angle-resolved photoelectron spectra reveals the spatial inhomogeneity of the Dirac energy shift and that a phonon correction has to be applied to the tunneling measurements. XPS data demonstrate the dependence of the N 1s binding energy of graphitic nitrogen on the nitrogen concentration. The measure of the Dirac energy for different nitrogen concentrations reveals that the ratio usually computed between the excess charge brought by the dopants and the dopants’ concentration depends on the latter. This is supported by a tight-binding model considering different values for the potentials on the nitrogen site and on its first neighbors. PMID:26411651

  3. Pharmacology of antiplatelet agents.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Kiran; Franzese, Christopher J; Gesheff, Martin G; Lev, Eli I; Pandya, Shachi; Bliden, Kevin P; Tantry, Udaya S; Gurbel, Paul A

    2013-12-01

    Pharmacotherapies with agents that inhibit platelet function have proven to be effective in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes, and in the prevention of complications during and after percutaneous coronary intervention. Because of multiple synergetic pathways of platelet activation and their close interplay with coagulation, current treatment strategies are based not only on platelet inhibition, but also on the attenuation of procoagulant activity, inhibition of thrombin generation, and enhancement of clot dissolution. Current strategies can be broadly categorized as anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and fibrinolytics. This review focuses on the pharmacology of current antiplatelet therapy primarily targeting the inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase 1, the P2Y12 receptor, the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor, and protease-activated receptor 1.

  4. [The antiretroviral agent Fullevir].

    PubMed

    Nosik, D N; Lialina, I K; Kalnina, L B; Lobach, O A; Chataeva, M S; Rasnetsov, L D

    2009-01-01

    The antiretroviral properties of Fullevir (sodium salt of fullerenepolyhydropolyaminocaproic acid) manufactured by IntelFarm Co.) were studied in the human cell culture infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The agent was ascertained to be able to protect the cell from the cytopathic action of HIV. The 90% effective concentration (EF90) was 5 microg/ml. The 50% average toxic concentration was 400 microg/ml. Testing of different (preventive and therapeutic) Fullevir dosage regimens has shown that the drug is effective when used both an hour before and an hour after infection and when administered simultaneously with cell infection. The longer contact time for the agent with the cells increased the degree of antiviral defense. Co-administration of Fullevir and the HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor Retrovir (azidothymidine) showed a synergistic antiretroviral effect. Thus, Fullevir may be regarded as a new promising antiretroviral drug for the treatment of HIV infection.

  5. Role of capillary electrophoresis in the fight against doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christopher R

    2013-08-06

    At present the role of capillary electrophoresis in the detection of doping agents in athletes is, for the most part, nonexistent. More traditional techniques, namely gas and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, remain the gold standard of antidoping tests. This Feature will investigate the in-roads that capillary electrophoresis has made, the limitations that the technique suffers from, and where the technique may grow into being a key tool for antidoping analysis.

  6. Intelligent Agent Integration Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    and Manipulation Language (KQML) specification under the DARPA-sponsored Knowledge Sharing Initiative and the developing of a scaleable and an... Shared Communication Ontology ’$" 10.3 IMPLEMENTATION 151 10.3.1 Intelligent Resource Agent Architecture ^ 10.3.2 Application to K-12 Education 153...DARPA-sponsored Knowledge Sharing Initiative, the developing a scaleable and an efficient implementation of information system components for

  7. Pathophysiology of Anticholinesterase Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-07

    PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ANTICHOLINESTERASE AGENTS Annual and Final Report DTIC ! ELECTEI aohn E. Rash, Ph. D. ALCTRf Julie K. Elmund, Ph.D. July 7 , 1988...Ph.D. ..-,. July 7 , 1988 Dis t Supported by A __ U. S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21701-5012...samples for electron microscopic analysis from diaphragm, soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles at J hour and 1, 7 , 14, 21, and 56 days

  8. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, M.P.; Mease, R.C.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1998-07-21

    Bicyclo[2.2.2] octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1] heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  9. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, Mark P.; Mease, Ronnie C.; Srivastava, Suresh C.

    1998-07-21

    Bicyclo›2.2.2! octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo›2.2.1! heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  10. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, Mark P.; Mease, Ronnie C.; Srivastava, Suresh C.

    2000-02-08

    Bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  11. Vaporizing Fire Extinguishing Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-08-18

    the pro- ject under contract included: Dr. Earl T. McBee, Head, Chemistry Department; Dr. Zara D. Welch, Researbh Supervisor; and Dr’s T. R. Santelli...Aeronautics Authority kxperimental Station, Indianapolis, Indiana, which has supplied test data for inclusion in this report. The Medical Division of the...Development of sources of supply for agent anAL con- tainers. f. Service testing. This report oovers technical phases a, b, and a to 1 April 1950, and

  12. Agent Based Computing Machine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-09

    coordinates as in cellular automata systems. But using biology as a model suggests that the most general systems must provide for partial, but constrained...17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 118. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRA REPORT THIS PAGE ABSTRACT...system called an "agent based computing" machine (ABC Machine). The ABC Machine is motivated by cellular biochemistry and it is based upon a concept

  13. Surface polymerization agents

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.; Wilkerson, C.

    1996-12-01

    This is the final report of a 1-year, Laboratory-Directed R&D project at LANL. A joint technical demonstration was proposed between US Army Missile Command (Redstone Arsenal) and LANL. Objective was to demonstrate that an unmanned vehicle or missile could be used as a platform to deliver a surface polymerization agent in such a manner as to obstruct the filters of an air-breathing mechanism, resulting in operational failure.

  14. Agents Technology Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    62702F 6. AUTHOR(S) Robert Wright, Jeffrey Hudack, Nathaniel Gemelli, Steven Loscalzo, and Tsu Kong Lue 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 558S 5e. TASK...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Robert Wright a. REPORT U b. ABSTRACT U c. THIS PAGE U 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) N/A...avoided by the other agents removing the incentive to lie or free-load. This phenomenon is termed as the shadow of the future and was shown in Robert

  15. Doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Baron, D A; Foley, T

    2009-10-01

    Regardless of one's stance on the topic, drugs are an important issue in sports. Sports pages in newspapers around the globe routinely report on athletes at every level ofcompetition using performance enhancing substances to gain an unfair advantage over their competitors. The level of sophistication in beating drug testing, and developing "next-generation" agents continues to raise. The relative paucity of well designed research has been an additional factor impeding attempts to adequately address the problem. Very limited funds are currently available to conduct the necessary research. Without credible data, athletes are more vulnerable to the claims made by those benefiting from the sales of these compounds. Many younger fans and those dreaming of a similar future admire highly successful professional athletes. A strong, consistent statement admonishing drug use is needed. Actions speak louder than words. Every time a successful athlete is caught using PE drugs, every effort to diminish drug use is negatively impacted. The "win at all cost" and "second place is the first loser" mentality needs to be continually challenged by words and actions in youth sports at every level of competition. Finally, the war on drugs in sports needs to be a coordinated, well organized international undertaking as sports play an important role in virtually every culture. If we are to maintain the integrity of competition and protect the health of the athletes, we must dramatically increase our efforts to eliminate performance enhancing drugs as an acceptable option for any athlete. Sports science professionals and sports psychiatrists need to work with coaches, trainers, athletes, and national governing bodies to educating athletes on the effects of performance enhancing drug use. To achieve this important goal everyone involved in sports needs to be knowledgeable on the negative impact this has on all aspects of organized sports. It is a difficult challenge, but one that must be

  16. Newer antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Türel, Ozden

    2011-03-01

    The frequency and spectrum of fungal infections have been increasing steadily over the last several decades. The reason for this increase may be explained by the increase in the number of immunocompromised patients due to malignancies, AIDS, invasive surgical procedures and transplantation. In parallel with this increase, several therapeutic options have become available but problems such as intrinsic or acquired antifungal resistance have led researchers to develop new antifungal drugs with expanded effectiveness. Reduced toxicity, enhancement of bioavailability and counteraction of resistance are features desired by clinicians. The aim of this article is to summarize the studies involving isavuconazole, ravuconazole, albaconazole, aminocandin and some other investigational antifungal agents. Most data on the clinical use of ravuconazole, isavuconazole and albaconazole are mainly available as meeting abstracts or limited to animal studies or Phase I/II studies in humans. These new antifungal agents in development offer extended half-lives, possibly reduced drug interaction profiles and good tolerance. In addition to activity against Candida and Aspergillus spp., they have a broad spectrum of activity including activity against resistant and emerging pathogens. The real possibilities of these agents will only be fully understood after adequate randomized clinical trials.

  17. Advanced scale conditioning agents

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jeff; Battaglia, Philip J.

    2004-06-01

    A technical description of Advanced Scale Conditioning Agents (ASCA) technology was published in the May-June 2003 edition of the Nuclear Plant Journal. That article described the development of programs of advanced scale conditioning agents and specific types to maintain the secondary side of steam generators within a pressurized water reactor free of deposited corrosion products and corrosion-inducing contaminants to ensure their long-term operation. This article describes the first two plant applications of advanced scale conditioning agents implemented at Southern Nuclear Operating Company's Vogtle Units 1 and 2 during their 2002 scheduled outages to minimize tube degradation and maintain full power operation using the most effective techniques while minimizing outage costs. The goal was to remove three to four fuel cycles of deposits from each steam generator so that after future chemical cleaning activities, ASCAs could be used to maintain the cleanliness of the steam generators without the need for additional chemical cleaning efforts. The goal was achieved as well as several other benefits that resulted in cost savings to the plant.

  18. Prevalence of legal and illegal stimulating agents in sports.

    PubMed

    Deventer, K; Roels, K; Delbeke, F T; Van Eenoo, P

    2011-08-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of legal and illegal stimulants in relation to doping-control analysis. Stimulants are among the oldest classes of doping agents, having been used since ancient times. Despite the ease with which they can be detected and the availability of sensitive detection methods, stimulants are still popular among athletes. Indeed, they remain one of the top three most popular classes of prohibited substances. Because the list of legal and illegal stimulants is extensive only a selection is discussed in detail. The compounds selected are caffeine, ephedrines, amphetamine and related compounds, methylphenidate, cocaine, strychnine, modafinil, adrafinil, 4-methyl-2-hexaneamine, and sibutramine. These compounds are mainly prevalent in sport or are of therapeutic importance. Because stimulants are the oldest doping class the first detection methods were for this group. Several early detection techniques including GC-NPD, GC-ECD, and TLC are highlighted. The more novel detection techniques GC-MS and LC-MS are also discussed in detail. In particular, the last technique has been shown to enable successful detection of stimulants difficult to detect by GC-MS or for stimulants previously undetectable. Because stimulants are also regularly detected in nutritional (food) supplements a section on this topic is also included.

  19. A brief review of co-doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingzhao; Tse, Kinfai; Wong, Manhoi; Zhang, Yiou; Zhu, Junyi

    2016-12-01

    Dopants and defects are important in semiconductor and magnetic devices. Strategies for controlling doping and defects have been the focus of semiconductor physics research during the past decades and remain critical even today. Co-doping is a promising strategy that can be used for effectively tuning the dopant populations, electronic properties, and magnetic properties. It can enhance the solubility of dopants and improve the stability of desired defects. During the past 20 years, significant experimental and theoretical efforts have been devoted to studying the characteristics of co-doping. In this article, we first review the historical development of co-doping. Then, we review a variety of research performed on co-doping, based on the compensating nature of co-dopants. Finally, we review the effects of contamination and surfactants that can explain the general mechanisms of co-doping.

  20. Biomarker monitoring in sports doping control.

    PubMed

    Pottgiesser, Torben; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf

    2012-06-01

    Biomarker monitoring can be considered a new era in the effort against doping. Opposed to the old concept in doping control of direct detection of a prohibited substance in a biological sample such as urine or blood, the new paradigm allows a personalized longitudinal monitoring of biomarkers that indicate non-physiological responses independently of the used doping technique or substance, and may cause sanctioning of illicit practices. This review presents the development of biomarker monitoring in sports doping control and focuses on the implementation of the Athlete Biological Passport as the current concept of the World Anti Doping Agency for the detection of blood doping (hematological module). The scope of the article extends to the description of novel biomarkers and future concepts of application.

  1. Degenerate doping of metallic anodes

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Cody A; Zeller, Robert A; Johnson, Paul B; Switzer, Elise E

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments of the invention relate to an electrochemical cell comprising: (i) a fuel electrode comprising a metal fuel, (ii) a positive electrode, (iii) an ionically conductive medium, and (iv) a dopant; the electrodes being operable in a discharge mode wherein the metal fuel is oxidized at the fuel electrode and the dopant increases the conductivity of the metal fuel oxidation product. In an embodiment, the oxidation product comprises an oxide of the metal fuel which is doped degenerately. In an embodiment, the positive electrode is an air electrode that absorbs gaseous oxygen, wherein during discharge mode, oxygen is reduced at the air electrode. Embodiments of the invention also relate to methods of producing an electrode comprising a metal and a doped metal oxidation product.

  2. Phosphorous doping a semiconductor particle

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Gary Don; Reynolds, Jeffrey Scott

    1999-07-20

    A method (10) of phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle using ammonium phosphate. A p-doped silicon sphere is mixed with a diluted solution of ammonium phosphate having a predetermined concentration. These spheres are dried (16, 18), with the phosphorus then being diffused (20) into the sphere to create either a shallow or deep p-n junction. A good PSG glass layer is formed on the surface of the sphere during the diffusion process. A subsequent segregation anneal process is utilized to strip metal impurities from near the p-n junction into the glass layer. A subsequent HF strip procedure is then utilized to removed the PSG layer. Ammonium phosphate is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirement.

  3. Phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.

    1999-07-20

    A method of phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle using ammonium phosphate is disclosed. A p-doped silicon sphere is mixed with a diluted solution of ammonium phosphate having a predetermined concentration. These spheres are dried with the phosphorus then being diffused into the sphere to create either a shallow or deep p-n junction. A good PSG glass layer is formed on the surface of the sphere during the diffusion process. A subsequent segregation anneal process is utilized to strip metal impurities from near the p-n junction into the glass layer. A subsequent HF strip procedure is then utilized to removed the PSG layer. Ammonium phosphate is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirement. 1 fig.

  4. Blood doping and its detection.

    PubMed

    Jelkmann, Wolfgang; Lundby, Carsten

    2011-09-01

    Hemoglobin mass is a key factor for maximal exercise capacity. Some athletes apply prohibited techniques and substances with intent to increase hemoglobin mass and physical performance, and this is often difficult to prove directly. Autologous red blood cell transfusion cannot be traced on reinfusion, and also recombinant erythropoietic proteins are detectable only within a certain timeframe. Novel erythropoietic substances, such as mimetics of erythropoietin (Epo) and activators of the Epo gene, may soon enter the sports scene. In addition, Epo gene transfer maneuvers are imaginable. Effective since December 2009, the World Anti-Doping Agency has therefore implemented "Athlete Biologic Passport Operating Guidelines," which are based on the monitoring of several parameters for mature red blood cells and reticulocytes. Blood doping may be assumed, when these parameters change in a nonphysiologic way. Hematologists should be familiar with blood doping practices as they may play an important role in evaluating blood profiles of athletes with respect to manipulations, as contrasted with the established diagnosis of clinical disorders and genetic variations.

  5. Liposome encapsulation of chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Rahman, Yueh Erh

    1976-01-13

    A method for transferring a chelating agent across a cellular membrane by encapsulating the charged chelating agent within liposomes and carrying the liposome-encapsulated chelating agent to the cellular membrane where the liposomes containing the chelating agent will be taken up by the cells, thereby transferring the chelating agent across the cellular membrane. A chelating agent can be introduced into the interior of a cell of a living organism wherein the liposomes will be decomposed, releasing the chelating agent to the interior of the cell. The released chelating agent will complex intracellularly deposited toxic heavy metals, permitting the more soluble metal complex to transfer across the cellular membrane from the cell and subsequently be removed from the living organism.

  6. Chemical approaches for doping nanodevice architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, John; Biswas, Subhajit; Duffy, Ray; Holmes, Justin D.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced doping technologies are key for the continued scaling of semiconductor devices and the maintenance of device performance beyond the 14 nm technology node. Due to limitations of conventional ion-beam implantation with thin body and 3D device geometries, techniques which allow precise control over dopant diffusion and concentration, in addition to excellent conformality on 3D device surfaces, are required. Spin-on doping has shown promise as a conventional technique for doping new materials, particularly through application with other dopant methods, but may not be suitable for conformal doping of nanostructures. Additionally, residues remain after most spin-on-doping processes which are often difficult to remove. In situ doping of nanostructures is especially common for bottom-up grown nanostructures but problems associated with concentration gradients and morphology changes are commonly experienced. Monolayer doping has been shown to satisfy the requirements for extended defect-free, conformal and controllable doping on many materials ranging from traditional silicon and germanium devices to emerging replacement materials such as III-V compounds but challenges still remain, especially with regard to metrology and surface chemistry at such small feature sizes. This article summarises and critically assesses developments over the last number of years regarding the application of gas and solution phase techniques to dope silicon-, germanium- and III-V-based materials and nanostructures to obtain shallow diffusion depths coupled with high carrier concentrations and abrupt junctions.

  7. Synergistic effect on the visible light activity of Ti3+ doped TiO2 nanorods/boron doped graphene composite

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Mingyang; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Jinlong

    2014-01-01

    TiO2/graphene (TiO2-x/GR) composites, which are Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 nanorods decorated on boron doped graphene sheets, were synthesized via a simple one-step hydrothermal method using low-cost NaBH4 as both a reducing agent and a boron dopant on graphene. The resulting TiO2 nanorods were about 200 nm in length with exposed (100) and (010) facets. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Raman, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD results suggest that the prepared samples have an anatase crystalline structure. All of the composites tested exhibited improved photocatalytic activities as measured by the degradation of methylene blue and phenol under visible light irradiation. This improvement was attributed to the synergistic effect of Ti3+ self-doping on TiO2 nanorods and boron doping on graphene. PMID:24974890

  8. Synergistic effect on the visible light activity of Ti3+ doped TiO2 nanorods/boron doped graphene composite.

    PubMed

    Xing, Mingyang; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Jinlong

    2014-06-30

    TiO2/graphene (TiO2-x/GR) composites, which are Ti(3+) self-doped TiO2 nanorods decorated on boron doped graphene sheets, were synthesized via a simple one-step hydrothermal method using low-cost NaBH4 as both a reducing agent and a boron dopant on graphene. The resulting TiO2 nanorods were about 200 nm in length with exposed (100) and (010) facets. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Raman, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD results suggest that the prepared samples have an anatase crystalline structure. All of the composites tested exhibited improved photocatalytic activities as measured by the degradation of methylene blue and phenol under visible light irradiation. This improvement was attributed to the synergistic effect of Ti(3+) self-doping on TiO2 nanorods and boron doping on graphene.

  9. Development of Multifunctional Luminomagnetic Nanoparticles as Bioimaging Contrast Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimun, Lawrence C.; Rightsell, Chris; Kumar, G. A.; Pedraza, Francisco; Montelongo, Sergio A.; Guda, Teja; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Sardar, Dhiraj K.

    2015-03-01

    Trivalent rare earth doped nanocrystalline materials with multiple functionalities have drawn special attention in biomedical industry. Current research is focused on the use of various materials with dual functionality for potential multifunctional applications. In this project, we are developing near infrared(NIR) based nanocrystals (NCs) as contrast agents with multimodal features comprising of strong NIR fluorescence, X-ray fluorescence and magnetic properties by utilizing the superparamagnetic features of Gd3+, the high X-ray excitation cross section of Lu3+, and the NIR fluorescence of Nd3+. Halides, such as MGdLuF4 (M=K,Na), were doped with NIR active rare earth ions, Nd3+, where synthesis conditions have been optimized to obtain the brightest phosphor with a size of sub-50 nm. Characterization of the NCs were performed to explore the excitation and emission properties, crystal structure, morphology, magnetization properties, and X-ray fluorescence properties. The potential use of these NCs can be utilized as contrast agents for medical imaging application such as optical imaging, magnetic resonance (MRI) and X-ray imaging. This research was, in part, funded by NIGMS MBRS-RISE GM060655 and from the National Science Foundation Partnerships for Research and Education in Materials (NSF-PREM) Grant N0-DMR-0934218.

  10. Collaborating with Autonomous Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Cross, Charles D.; Fan, Henry; Hempley, Lucas E.; Motter, Mark A.; Neilan, James H.; Qualls, Garry D.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Tran, Loc D.; Allen, B. Danette

    2015-01-01

    With the anticipated increase of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) entering into the National Airspace System, it is highly likely that vehicle operators will be teaming with fleets of small autonomous vehicles. The small vehicles may consist of sUAS, which are 55 pounds or less that typically will y at altitudes 400 feet and below, and small ground vehicles typically operating in buildings or defined small campuses. Typically, the vehicle operators are not concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead they are concerned with the overall mission. In order for this vision of high-level mission operators working with fleets of vehicles to come to fruition, many human factors related challenges must be investigated and solved. First, the interface between the human operator and the autonomous agent must be at a level that the operator needs and the agents can understand. This paper details the natural language human factors e orts that NASA Langley's Autonomy Incubator is focusing on. In particular these e orts focus on allowing the operator to interact with the system using speech and gestures rather than a mouse and keyboard. With this ability of the system to understand both speech and gestures, operators not familiar with the vehicle dynamics will be able to easily plan, initiate, and change missions using a language familiar to them rather than having to learn and converse in the vehicle's language. This will foster better teaming between the operator and the autonomous agent which will help lower workload, increase situation awareness, and improve performance of the system as a whole.

  11. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for... will appoint or cause to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service... Fiscal Agent to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the...

  12. 13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial... financial markets to determine those factors that will minimize or reduce the cost of funding Debentures...) Agents. SBA may appoint or cause to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market...

  13. 13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial... financial markets to determine those factors that will minimize or reduce the cost of funding Debentures...) Agents. SBA may appoint or cause to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market...

  14. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for... will appoint or cause to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service... Fiscal Agent to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the...

  15. Hydroxypyridonate and hydroxypyrimidinone chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Doble, Daniel M.; Sunderland, Christopher J.; Thompson, Marlon

    2005-01-25

    The present invention provides hydroxypyridinone and hydroxypyrimidone chelating agents. Also provides are Gd(III) complexes of these agents, which are useful as contrast enhancing agents for magnetic resonance imaging. The invention also provides methods of preparing the compounds of the invention, as well as methods of using the compounds in magnetic resonance imaging applications.

  16. Chemical warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  17. Pharmacologic agents targeting autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg, Helin; Xia, Hong-guang; Yuan, Junying

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an important intracellular catabolic mechanism critically involved in regulating tissue homeostasis. The implication of autophagy in human diseases and the need to understand its regulatory mechanisms in mammalian cells have stimulated research efforts that led to the development of high-throughput screening protocols and small-molecule modulators that can activate or inhibit autophagy. Herein we review the current landscape in the development of screening technology as well as the molecules and pharmacologic agents targeting the regulatory mechanisms of autophagy. We also evaluate the potential therapeutic application of these compounds in different human pathologies. PMID:25654545

  18. Rare-earth metal oxide doped transparent mesoporous silica plates under non-aqueous condition as a potential UV sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Joon; Park, Sung Soo; Lee, Sang Hyun; Hong, Sang-Hyun; Ha, Chang-Sik

    2013-11-01

    Transparent mesoporous silica plates doped with rare-earth metal oxide were prepared using solvent-evaporation method based on the self-organization between structure-directing agent and silicate in a non-aqueous solvent. A triblock copolymer, Pluronic (F127 or P123), was used as the structure-directing agent, while tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was used as a silica source. The pore diameter and the surface area of the mesoporous silica plate prepared with the optimized conditions were ca 40 A and 600 m2 g(-1), respectively, for both structure-directing agent. Rare-earth metal oxides (Eu, Tb, Tm oxide) in mesochannel were formed via one-step synthetic route based on the preparation method of a silica plate. Optical properties of rare-earth metal oxide-doped mesoporous silica plates were investigated by UV irradiation and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Under the exitation wavelength of 254 nm, the doped mesoporous silica plates emitted red, green and blue for Eu, Tb and Tm oxides, respectively. Rare-earth metal oxide-doped mesoporous silica plates showed enhanced PL intensity compared to that of the bulk rare-earth metal oxide.

  19. Three dimensional nitrogen-doped graphene aerogels functionalized with melamine for multifunctional applications in supercapacitors and adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Ling-Bao; Hou, Shu-Fen; Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Jing-Li; Si, Weijiang; Dong, Yunhui Zhuo, Shuping

    2015-10-15

    In present work, we demonstrate an efficient and facile strategy to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) nitrogen-doped graphene aerogels (NGAs) based on melamine, which serves as reducing and functionalizing agent of graphene oxide (GO) in an aqueous medium with ammonia. Benefiting from well-defined and cross-linked 3D porous network architectures, the supercapacitor based on the NGAs exhibited a high specific capacitance of 170.5 F g{sup −1} at 0.2 A g{sup −1}, and this capacitance also showed good electrochemical stability and a high degree of reversibility in the repetitive charge/discharge cycling test. More interestingly, the prepared NGAs further exhibited high adsorption capacities and high recycling performance toward several metal ions such as Pb{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+}. Moreover, the hydrophobic carbonized nitrogen-doped graphene aerogels (CNGAs) showed outstanding adsorption and recycling performance for the removal of various oils and organic solvents. - Graphical abstract: Three-dimensional nitrogen-doped graphene aerogels were prepared by using melamine as reducing and functionalizing agent in an aqueous medium with ammonia, which showed multifunctional applications in supercapacitors and adsorption. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional nitrogen-doped graphene aerogels (NGAs) were prepared. • Melamine was used as reducing and functionalizing agent. • NGAs exhibited relatively good electrochemical properties in supercapacitor. • NGAs exhibited high adsorption performance toward several metal ions. • CNGAs showed outstanding adsorption capacities for various oils and solvents.

  20. Facile synthesis of 2-D Cu doped WO3 nanoplates with structural, optical and differential anti cancer characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, Faisal; Iqbal, Javed; Gul, Asma; Ahmed, Waqqar; Ismail, M.

    2017-04-01

    Simple chemical co-precipitation method has been employed to synthesize two dimensional copper (Cu) doped tungsten oxide (WO3) nanoplates. A numbers of characterization techniques have been used to investigate their structural, optical and biocompatible anti cancer properties. The XRD results have confirmed the monoclinic crystal structure of WO3 nanoplates, and also successful doping of Cu ions into the WO3 crystal lattice. The presence of functional groups and chemical bonding have been verified through FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. The SEM images demonstrate that both undoped and Cu doped WO3 samples have squares plate like morphology. The EDX spectra confirm the presence of Cu, W and O ions. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) analysis has revealed a substantial red-shift in the absorption edge and a decrease in the band gap energy of nanoplates with Cu doping. Photoluminescence spectroscopy has been used to study the presence of defects like oxygen vacancies. Furthermore, the differential cytotoxic properties of Cu doped WO3 samples have been evaluated against human breast (MCF-7) and liver (Hep-2) cancer cells with ectocervical epithelial (HECE) healthy cells. The present findings confirm that the Cu doped WO3 nanoplates can be used as an efficient biocompatible anti cancer agent.

  1. Nitrogen-doped and simultaneously reduced graphene oxide with superior dispersion as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Cheol-Ho; Yun, Jin-Mun; Lee, Sungho; Jo, Seong Mu; Yoo, Sung Jong; Cho, Eun Ae; Khil, Myung-Seob; Joh, Han-Ik

    2014-11-15

    Nitrogen doped graphene oxide (Nr-GO) with properties suitable for electrocatalysts is easily synthesized using phenylhydrazine as a reductant at relatively low temperature. The reducing agent removes various oxygen functional groups bonded to graphene oxide and simultaneously dope the nitrogen atoms bonded with phenyl group all over the basal planes and edge sites of the graphene. The Nr-GO exhibits remarkable electrocatalytic activities for oxygen reduction reaction compared to the commercial carbon black and graphene oxide due to the electronic modification of the graphene structure. In addition, Nr-GO shows excellent dispersibility in various solvent due to the dopant molecules.

  2. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  3. [New agents for hypercholesterolemia].

    PubMed

    Pintó, Xavier; García Gómez, María Carmen

    2016-02-19

    An elevated proportion of high cardiovascular risk patients do not achieve the therapeutic c-LDL goals. This owes to physicians' inappropriate or insufficient use of cholesterol lowering medications or to patients' bad tolerance or therapeutic compliance. Another cause is an insufficient efficacy of current cholesterol lowering drugs including statins and ezetimibe. In addition, proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors are a new cholesterol lowering medications showing safety and high efficacy to reduce c-LDL in numerous already performed or underway clinical trials, potentially allowing an optimal control of hypercholesterolemia in most patients. Agents inhibiting apolipoprotein B synthesis and microsomal transfer protein are also providing a new potential to decrease cholesterol in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia and in particular in homozygote familial hypercholesterolemia. Last, cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have shown powerful effects on c-HDL and c-LDL, although their efficacy in cardiovascular prevention and safety has not been demonstrated yet. We provide in this article an overview of the main characteristics of therapeutic agents for hypercholesterolemia, which have been recently approved or in an advanced research stage.

  4. Model Checking Agent Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentahar, J.; Meyer, J.-J. Ch.; Wan, W.

    Model checking is a formal and automatic technique used to verify computational systems (e.g. communication protocols) against given properties. The purpose of this chapter is to describe a model checking algorithm to verify communication protocols used by autonomous agents interacting using dialogue games, which are governed by a set of logical rules. We use a variant of Extended Computation Tree Logic CTL* for specifying these dialogue games and the properties to be checked. This logic, called ACTL*, extends CTL* by allowing formulae to constrain actions as well as states. The verification method uses an on-the-fly efficient algorithm. It is based on translating formulae into a variant of alternating tree automata called Alternating Büchi Tableau Automata (ABTA). We present a tableau-based version of this algorithm and provide the soundness, completeness, termination and complexity results. Two case studies are discussed along with their respective implementations to illustrate the proposed approach. The first one is about an agent-based negotiation protocol and the second one considers a modified version of the NetBill protocol.

  5. Cleaning agents and asthma.

    PubMed

    Quirce, S; Barranco, P

    2010-01-01

    Although cleaners represent a significant part of the working population worldwide, they remain a relatively understudied occupational group. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between cleaning work and asthma, but the risk factors are uncertain. Cleaning workers are exposed to a large variety of cleaning products containing both irritants and sensitizers, as well as to common indoor allergens and pollutants. Thus, the onset or aggravation of asthma in this group could be related to an irritant-induced mechanism or to specific sensitization. The main sensitizers contained in cleaning products are disinfectants, quaternary ammonium compounds (such as benzalkonium chloride), amine compounds, and fragrances.The strongest airway irritants in cleaning products are bleach (sodium hypochlorite), hydrochloric acid, and alkaline agents (ammonia and sodium hydroxide), which are commonly mixed together. Exposure to the ingredients of cleaning products may give rise to both new-onset asthma, with or without a latency period, and work-exacerbated asthma. High-level exposure to irritants may induce reactive airways dysfunction syndrome. Cleaning workers may also have a greater relative risk of developing asthma due to prolonged low-to-moderate exposure to respiratory irritants. In addition, asthma-like symptoms without confirmed asthma are also common after exposure to cleaning agents. In many cleaners, airway symptoms induced by chemicals and odors cannot be explained by allergic or asthmatic reactions. These patients may have increased sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin, which is known to reflect sensory reactivity, and this condition is termed airway sensory hyperreactivity.

  6. [Bacteriophages as antibacterial agents].

    PubMed

    Shasha, Shaul M; Sharon, Nehama; Inbar, Michael

    2004-02-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that only infect bacteria. They have played an important role in the development of molecular biology and have been used as anti-bacterial agents. Since their independent discovery by Twort and d'Herelle, they have been extensively used to prevent and treat bacterial infections, mainly in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. In western countries this method has been sporadically employed on humans and domesticated animals. However, the discovery and widespread use of antibiotics, coupled with doubts about the efficacy of phage therapy, led to an eclipse in the use of phage in medicine. The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, especially strains that are multiply resistant, has resulted in a renewed interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One of the possible replacements for antibiotics is the use of bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents. This brief review aims to describe the history of bacteriophage and early clinical studies on their use in bacterial disease prophylaxis and therapy, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of bacteriophage in this regard.

  7. Ferromagnetism in doped or undoped spintronics nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, You

    2010-10-01

    Much interest has been sparked by the discovery of ferromagnetism in a range of oxide doped and undoped semiconductors. The development of ferromagnetic oxide semiconductor materials with giant magnetoresistance (GMR) offers many advantages in spintronics devices for future miniaturization of computers. Among them, TM-doped ZnO is an extensively studied n-type wide-band-gap (3.36 eV) semiconductor with a tremendous interest as future mini-computer, blue light emitting, and solar cells. In this talk, Co-doped ZnO and Co-doped Cu2O semiconductor nanoclusters are successfully synthesized by a third generation sputtering-gas-aggregation cluster technique. The Co-doped nanoclusters are ferromagnetic with Curie temperature above room temperature. Both of Co-doped nanoclusters show positive magnetoresistance (PMR) at low temperature, but the amplitude of the PMRs shows an anomalous difference. For similar Co doping concentration at 5 K, PMR is greater than 800% for Co-doped ZnO but only 5% for Co-doped Cu2O nanoclusters. Giant PMR in Co-doped ZnO which is attributed to large Zeeman splitting effect has a linear dependence on applied magnetic field with very high sensitivity, which makes it convenient for the future spintronics applications. The small PMR in Co-doped Cu2O is related to its vanishing density of states at Fermi level. Undoped Zn/ZnO core-shell nanoparticle gives high ferromagnetic properties above room temperature due to the defect induced magnetization at the interface.

  8. Preparation and application of L-cysteine-doped Keggin polyoxometalate microtubes

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Yan; Peng Jun; Zhang Huanqiu; Meng Cuili; Zhang Fang

    2012-01-15

    L-cysteine-doped tungstosilicate (Lcys-SiW{sub 12}) microtubes are prepared, and the amount of L-cysteine doped in the microtubes can be tuned to some extent. The as-prepared Lcys-SiW{sub 12} microtubes are sensitive to ammonia gas exhibited through the distinct color change of the microtubes from light purple to dark blue after exposing to ammonia gas. A possible mechanism of the coloration is that the adsorbed ammonia molecules increase the basicity of the Lcys-SiW{sub 12} microtubes and promote the redox reaction between L-cysteine and polyoxometalate. This is a pH-dependent solid-solid redox reaction, which is triggered by proton capture agent. The Lcys-SiW{sub 12} microtubes show application in chemical sensors for alkaline gases. - Graphical abstract: The Lcys-SiW{sub 12} microtubes were formed during transformation of the monolacunary Keggin-type [{alpha}-SiW{sub 11}O{sub 39}]{sup 8-} to the saturated Keggin-type [{alpha}-SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 4-}, meanwhile L-cysteine molecules were doped during the growth of the microtubes. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-cysteine-doped polyoxometalate microtubes are prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amount of L-cysteine doped in the microtubes can be tuned to some extent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lcys-SiW{sub 12} microtubes can be applied as a sensor for detecting alkaline gases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is a proton capture agent-triggered solid-solid redox reaction.

  9. Agent-Based Automated Algorithm Generator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-12

    Detection and Isolation Agent (FDIA), Prognostic Agent (PA), Fusion Agent (FA), and Maintenance Mining Agent (MMA). FDI agents perform diagnostics...manner and loosely coupled). The library of D/P algorithms will be hosted in server-side agents, consisting of four types of major agents: Fault

  10. Flexible, secure agent development framework

    DOEpatents

    Goldsmith; Steven Y.

    2009-04-07

    While an agent generator is generating an intelligent agent, it can also evaluate the data processing platform on which it is executing, in order to assess a risk factor associated with operation of the agent generator on the data processing platform. The agent generator can retrieve from a location external to the data processing platform an open site that is configurable by the user, and load the open site into an agent substrate, thereby creating a development agent with code development capabilities. While an intelligent agent is executing a functional program on a data processing platform, it can also evaluate the data processing platform to assess a risk factor associated with performing the data processing function on the data processing platform.

  11. Learning models of intelligent agents

    SciTech Connect

    Carmel, D.; Markovitch, S.

    1996-12-31

    Agents that operate in a multi-agent system need an efficient strategy to handle their encounters with other agents involved. Searching for an optimal interactive strategy is a hard problem because it depends mostly on the behavior of the others. In this work, interaction among agents is represented as a repeated two-player game, where the agents` objective is to look for a strategy that maximizes their expected sum of rewards in the game. We assume that agents` strategies can be modeled as finite automata. A model-based approach is presented as a possible method for learning an effective interactive strategy. First, we describe how an agent should find an optimal strategy against a given model. Second, we present an unsupervised algorithm that infers a model of the opponent`s automaton from its input/output behavior. A set of experiments that show the potential merit of the algorithm is reported as well.

  12. Plasmonic Properties of Silicon Nanocrystals Doped with Boron and Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Nicolaas J; Schramke, Katelyn S; Kortshagen, Uwe R

    2015-08-12

    Degenerately doped silicon nanocrystals are appealing plasmonic materials due to silicon's low cost and low toxicity. While surface plasmonic resonances of boron-doped and phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals were recently observed, there currently is poor understanding of the effect of surface conditions on their plasmonic behavior. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals exhibit a plasmon resonance immediately after their synthesis but may lose their plasmonic response with oxidation. In contrast, boron-doped nanocrystals initially do not exhibit plasmonic response but become plasmonically active through postsynthesis oxidation or annealing. We interpret these results in terms of substitutional doping being the dominant doping mechanism for phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals, with oxidation-induced defects trapping free electrons. The behavior of boron-doped silicon nanocrystals is more consistent with a strong contribution of surface doping. Importantly, boron-doped silicon nanocrystals exhibit air-stable plasmonic behavior over periods of more than a year.

  13. Large-scale synthesis of N-doped carbon quantum dots and their phosphorescence properties in a polyurethane matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jing; Zou, Rui; Zhang, Jie; Li, Wang; Zhang, Liqun; Yue, Dongmei

    2016-02-01

    An easy, large-scale synthesis of N-doped carbon quantum dots (CQDs) was developed by using isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) as a single carbon source under microwave irradiation. The yield of raw N-doped CQDs was about 83%, which is suitable for industrial-scale production. A detailed formation mechanism for N-doped CQDs involving self-polymerization and condensation of IPDI was demonstrated. Moreover, the obtained N-doped CQDs can be homogeneously dispersed in various organic monomers and do not need toxic organic solvents as dispersing agents. This advantage expands the range of applications of CQDs in composites. The N-doped CQDs dispersed in polyurethane (PU) matrixes emit not only fluorescence but also phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence at room temperature upon excitation with ultraviolet (UV) light. Furthermore, the phosphorescence of CQD/PU composites is sensitive to oxygen and therefore, the obtained-CQDs could be exploited in the development of novel oxygen sensors.An easy, large-scale synthesis of N-doped carbon quantum dots (CQDs) was developed by using isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) as a single carbon source under microwave irradiation. The yield of raw N-doped CQDs was about 83%, which is suitable for industrial-scale production. A detailed formation mechanism for N-doped CQDs involving self-polymerization and condensation of IPDI was demonstrated. Moreover, the obtained N-doped CQDs can be homogeneously dispersed in various organic monomers and do not need toxic organic solvents as dispersing agents. This advantage expands the range of applications of CQDs in composites. The N-doped CQDs dispersed in polyurethane (PU) matrixes emit not only fluorescence but also phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence at room temperature upon excitation with ultraviolet (UV) light. Furthermore, the phosphorescence of CQD/PU composites is sensitive to oxygen and therefore, the obtained-CQDs could be exploited in the development of novel oxygen sensors. Electronic

  14. Facile preparation and bifunctional imaging of Eu-doped GdPO4 nanorods with MRI and cellular luminescence.

    PubMed

    Du, Qijun; Huang, Zhongbing; Wu, Zhi; Meng, Xianwei; Yin, Guangfu; Gao, Fabao; Wang, Lei

    2015-03-07

    The biocompatibility of multifunctional nanomaterials is very important for their clinical applications. Herein, the hexagonal crystal Eu-doped GdPO4 nanorods (NRs) in the template of silk fibroin (SF) peptides are successfully synthesized via a mineralization process. The sizes of the Eu-doped GdPO4 NRs with SF peptides (SF-NRs) are ∼150 nm in length and ∼10 nm in diameter. The Eu-doped SF-NRs have strong pink luminescence and a mass magnetic susceptibility value of 1.27 emu g(-1) in 20,000 G of magnetic field due to Eu ion doping. The cell test indicates that the Eu-doped SF-NRs obviously promote the viability of cells at an NR concentration of 25-200 μg mL(-1). A growth mechanism of Eu-doped GdPO4 SF-NRs is proposed to explain their strong cellular luminescence, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and good cyto-compatibility. Compared to NRs without SF, the Eu-doped SF-NRs not only exhibit a higher effective positive signal-enhancement ability (the longitudinal relaxivity r1 value is 1.38 (Gd mM s)(-1)) and in vivo T1 weighted MR imaging enhancement under a 7.0 T MRI system, but also show the better luminescence imaging of living cells under the fluorescence microscope. This indicates that the Eu-doped SF-NRs have potential as T1 MRI contrast agents and optical imaging probes.

  15. Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, J S; Hooper, D C

    1989-01-01

    The fluoroquinolones, a new class of potent orally absorbed antimicrobial agents, are reviewed, considering structure, mechanisms of action and resistance, spectrum, variables affecting activity in vitro, pharmacokinetic properties, clinical efficacy, emergence of resistance, and tolerability. The primary bacterial target is the enzyme deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase. Bacterial resistance occurs by chromosomal mutations altering deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase and decreasing drug permeation. The drugs are bactericidal and potent in vitro against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus spp., and Neisseria spp., have good activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococci, and (with several exceptions) are less potent against streptococci and have fair to poor activity against anaerobic species. Potency in vitro decreases in the presence of low pH, magnesium ions, or urine but is little affected by different media, increased inoculum, or serum. The effects of the drugs in combination with a beta-lactam or aminoglycoside are often additive, occasionally synergistic, and rarely antagonistic. The agents are orally absorbed, require at most twice-daily dosing, and achieve high concentrations in urine, feces, and kidney and good concentrations in lung, bone, prostate, and other tissues. The drugs are efficacious in treatment of a variety of bacterial infections, including uncomplicated and complicated urinary tract infections, bacterial gastroenteritis, and gonorrhea, and show promise for therapy of prostatitis, respiratory tract infections, osteomyelitis, and cutaneous infections, particularly when caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli. Fluoroquinolones have also proved to be efficacious for prophylaxis against travelers' diarrhea and infection with gram-negative bacilli in neutropenic patients. The drugs are effective in eliminating carriage of Neisseria meningitidis. Patient tolerability appears acceptable, with gastrointestinal or central nervous

  16. Structural change from doping the gold cluster.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yiji; Wang, Shu-Guang; Li, Jia

    2011-05-01

    Doping gold clusters with a transition metal (M@Au(n)) causes structural change. To determine the mechanism by which these changes occur, the central gold atom of Au(5) was doped with its same row transition metals Pt, Ir, Os, Re, and W. Based on theoretical calculations, a similar trend was found in other gold clusters.

  17. Cobalt-doped cadmium selenide colloidal nanowires.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Du, Ai Jun; Sun, Qiao; Aljada, Muhsen; Cheng, Li Na; Riley, Mark J; Zhu, Zhong Hua; Cheng, Zhen Xiang; Wang, Xiao Lin; Hall, Jeremy; Krausz, Elmars; Qiao, Shi Zhang; Smith, Sean C; Lu, Gao Qing Max

    2011-11-21

    Co(2+)-doped CdSe colloidal nanowires with tunable size and dopant concentration have been prepared by a solution-liquid-solid (SLS) approach for the first time. These doped nanowires exhibit anomalous photoluminescence temperature dependence in comparison with undoped nanowires.

  18. Doping explosive materials for neutron radiographic enhancement.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golliher, K. G.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of studies relating to the selection of doping materials of high neutron absorption usable for enhancing the neutron radiographic imaging of explosive mixtures, without interfering with the proper chemical reaction of the explosives. The results of the studies show that gadolinium oxide is an excellent material for doping explosive mixtures to enhance the neutron radiographic image.

  19. Ultratough single crystal boron-doped diamond

    DOEpatents

    Hemley, Russell J [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Mao, Ho-Kwang [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Yan, Chih-Shiue [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Liang, Qi [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC

    2015-05-05

    The invention relates to a single crystal boron doped CVD diamond that has a toughness of at least about 22 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a method of manufacturing single crystal boron doped CVD diamond. The growth rate of the diamond can be from about 20-100 .mu.m/h.

  20. Growth hormone doping in sports: a critical review of use and detection strategies.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Gerhard P

    2012-04-01

    GH is believed to be widely employed in sports as a performance-enhancing substance. Its use in athletic competition is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency, and athletes are required to submit to testing for GH exposure. Detection of GH doping is challenging for several reasons including identity/similarity of exogenous to endogenous GH, short half-life, complex and fluctuating secretory dynamics of GH, and a very low urinary excretion rate. The detection test currently in use (GH isoform test) exploits the difference between recombinant GH (pure 22K-GH) and the heterogeneous nature of endogenous GH (several isoforms). Its main limitation is the short window of opportunity for detection (~12-24 h after the last GH dose). A second test to be implemented soon (the biomarker test) is based on stimulation of IGF-I and collagen III synthesis by GH. It has a longer window of opportunity (1-2 wk) but is less specific and presents a variety of technical challenges. GH doping in a larger sense also includes doping with GH secretagogues and IGF-I and its analogs. The scientific evidence for the ergogenicity of GH is weak, a fact that is not widely appreciated in athletic circles or by the general public. Also insufficiently appreciated is the risk of serious health consequences associated with high-dose, prolonged GH use. This review discusses the GH biology relevant to GH doping; the virtues and limitations of detection tests in blood, urine, and saliva; secretagogue efficacy; IGF-I doping; and information about the effectiveness of GH as a performance-enhancing agent.

  1. Peptide Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Håvard; Hamill, Pamela; Hancock, Robert E. W.

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial host defense peptides are produced by all complex organisms as well as some microbes and have diverse and complex antimicrobial activities. Collectively these peptides demonstrate a broad range of antiviral and antibacterial activities and modes of action, and it is important to distinguish between direct microbicidal and indirect activities against such pathogens. The structural requirements of peptides for antiviral and antibacterial activities are evaluated in light of the diverse set of primary and secondary structures described for host defense peptides. Peptides with antifungal and antiparasitic activities are discussed in less detail, although the broad-spectrum activities of such peptides indicate that they are important host defense molecules. Knowledge regarding the relationship between peptide structure and function as well as their mechanism of action is being applied in the design of antimicrobial peptide variants as potential novel therapeutic agents. PMID:16847082

  2. [Chemotherapeutic agents under study].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, S

    1998-12-01

    The development of new drugs with strong antituberculous activity and fewer side effects which are not cross-resistant to conventional antituberculosis drugs is urgently desired now. The chemotherapeutic agents under study which are considered a candidate for a new antituberculosis drug are listed below. 1) Rifamycin derivatives: rifabutin, rifapentin, KRM-1648, FCE-22250, 22807, CGP-7040, 27557, 29035, 29861, P-DEA, SPA-S-565, R-76-1. 2) New quinolones: ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, gatifloxacin, CS-940, Du-6859a. 3) Phenazines: clofazimine, B746, B4101, B4154, B4157. 4) Pyrazinamide derivatives: N-hydroxy pyrazinamide, N-hydroxy pyrazinamide-4-oxide. 5) Nitroimidazole derivatives: metronidazole et al.

  3. Ultrasound contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Ignee, Andre; Atkinson, Nathan S. S.; Schuessler, Gudrun; Dietrich, Christoph F.

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) plays an important role in imaging of the mediastinum and abdominal organs. Since the introduction of US contrast agents (UCA) for transabdominal US, attempts have been made to apply contrast-enhanced US techniques also to EUS. Since 2003, specific contrast-enhanced imaging was possible using EUS. Important studies have been published regarding contrast-enhanced EUS and the characterization of focal pancreatic lesions, lymph nodes, and subepithelial tumors. In this manuscript, we describe the relevant UCA, their application, and specific image acquisition as well as the principles of image tissue characterization using contrast-enhanced EUS. Safety issues, potential future developments, and EUS-specific issues are reviewed. PMID:27824024

  4. Marijuana as doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Campos, Daniel R; Yonamine, Mauricio; de Moraes Moreau, Regina L

    2003-01-01

    A high incidence of positive cases for cannabinoids, in analyses for doping control in sports, has been observed since the International Olympic Committee (IOC) included them in the 1989 list of prohibited drugs under the title of classes of prohibited substances in certain circumstances. Where the rules of sports federations so provide, tests are conducted for marijuana, hashish or any other cannabis product exposure by means of urinalysis of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (carboxy-THC) the main metabolite of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Concentrations >15 ng/mL (cut-off value) in confirmatory analytical procedures are considered doping. Cannabis is an illicit drug in several countries and has received much attention in the media for its potential therapeutic uses and the efforts to legalise its use. Studies have demonstrated that the use of cannabinoids can reduce anxiety, but it does not have ergogenic potential in sports activities. An increase in heart rate and blood pressure, decline of cardiac output and reduced psychomotor activity are some of the pharmacological effects of THC that will determine a decrease in athletic performance. An ergolytic activity of cannabis products has been observed in athletes of several different sport categories. In Brazil, analyses for doping control in sports, performed in our laboratories, have detected positive cases for carboxy-THC in urine samples of soccer, volleyball, cycling and other athletes. It is our intention to discuss in this article some points that may discourage individuals from using cannabis products during sports activities, even in the so-called permitted circumstances defined by the IOC and some sports federations.

  5. Doped liquid nitrobenzene is ferroelectric.

    PubMed

    Shelton, David P; Quine, Zachary

    2007-11-28

    The high resolution hyper-Rayleigh light scattering spectrum for liquid nitrobenzene doped with triflic acid (CF(3)SO(3)H) shows a narrow spike at zero frequency shift which has the polarization signature of a polar longitudinal collective mode. This spectral spike disappears for pure nitrobenzene. The spectral spike is interpreted as due to ferroelectric domains in the liquid. The dopant molecules appear to induce ferroelectric organization of the nitrobenzene molecules which is otherwise absent in the pure liquid. Estimated domain size is 34 nm and relaxation time is 50 ns.

  6. Blood manipulation: current challenges from an anti-doping perspective.

    PubMed

    Mørkeberg, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The delivery of oxygen is the limiting factor during whole-body endurance exercise in well-trained individuals, so manipulating the amount of hemoglobin in the blood results in changes in endurance exercise capacity. Athletes began using novel erythropoiesis-stimulating agents well before they were approved for medical use. Older manipulation practices, such as autologous blood transfusions or the administration of first-generation recombinant human erythropoietins, are still widely abused due to challenges in their detection. More recent performance enhancement maneuvers include efforts to mask doping and to induce increased endogenous erythropoietin expression. Confessions by athletes have revealed an ongoing yet extremely sophisticated modus operandi when manipulating the blood. In this review, weaknesses in detection methods and sample collection procedures are scrutinized and strategies developed to circumvent the test system discussed.

  7. Formulation of radiographically detectable gastrointestinal contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging: effects of a barium sulfate additive on MR contrast agent effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Rubin, D L; Muller, H H; Young, S W

    1992-01-01

    Complete and homogeneous distribution of gastrointestinal (GI) contrast media are important factors for their effective use in computed tomography as well as in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. A radiographic method (using fluoroscopy or spot films) could be effective for monitoring intestinal filling with GI contrast agents for MR imaging (GICMR), but it would require the addition of a radiopaque agent to most GICMR. This study was conducted to determine the minimum amount of barium additive necessary to be radiographically visible and to evaluate whether this additive influences the signal characteristics of the GICMR. A variety of barium sulfate preparations (3-12% wt/vol) were tested in dogs to determine the minimum quantity needed to make the administered agent visible during fluoroscopy and on abdominal radiographs. Solutions of 10 different potential GI contrast agents (Gd-DTPA, ferric ammonium citrate, Mn-DPDP, chromium-EDTA, gadolinium-oxalate, ferrite particles, water, mineral oil, lipid emulsion, and methylcellulose) were prepared without ("nondoped") and with ("doped") the barium sulfate additive. MR images of the solutions in tubes were obtained at 0.38 T using 10 different spin-echo pulse sequences. Region of interest (ROI) measurements of contrast agent signal intensity (SI) were made. In addition, for the paramagnetic contrast media, the longitudinal and transverse relaxivity (R1 and R2) were measured. A 6% wt/vol suspension of barium was the smallest concentration yielding adequate radiopacity in the GI tract. Except for gadolinium-oxalate, there was no statistically significant difference in SI for doped and non-doped solutions with most pulse sequences used. In addition, the doped and nondoped solutions yielded R1 and R2 values which were comparable. We conclude that barium sulfate 6% wt/vol added to MR contrast agents produces a suspension with sufficient radiodensity to be viewed radiographically, and it does not cause significant alteration in

  8. Blue emission of Eu2+-doped translucent alumina

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Yan; Zhang, Lihua; Kisslinger, Kim; ...

    2015-08-21

    Inorganic scintillators are very important in medical and industrial measuring systems in the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation. In addition to Ce3+, a widely used dopant ion in oxide scintillators, divalent Europium (Eu2+) has shown promise as a high-luminescence, fast-response luminescence center useful in the detection of ionizing radiation. In this research, aluminum oxide (Al2O3) was studied as a host material for the divalent europium ion. Polycrystalline samples of Eu2+-doped translucent Al2O3 were fabricated, and room temperature luminescence behavior was observed. Al2O3 ceramics doped with 0.1 at% Eu2+ were fabricated with a relative density of 99.75% theoretical density andmore » in-line transmittance of 22% at a wavelength of 800 nm. The ceramics were processed by a gel-casting method, followed by sintering under high vacuum. The gelling agent, a copolymer of isobutylene and maleic anhydride, is marketed under the commercial name ISOBAM, and has the advantage of simultaneously acting as both a gelling agent and as a dispersant. The microstructure and composition of the vacuum-sintered Eu2+:Al2O3 were characterized by Scanning Electric Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The phase composition was determined by X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD) combined with Rietveld analysis. The photoluminescence behavior of the Eu2+:Al2O3 was characterized using UV light as the excitation source, which emitted blue emission at 440 nm. The radio-luminescence of Eu2+:Al2O3 was investigated by illumination with X-ray radiation, showing three emission bands at 376 nm, 575 nm and 698 nm. Furthermore, multiple level traps at different depths were detected in the Eu2+:Al2O3 by employing thermoluminescence measurements.« less

  9. GaAs MESFET with lateral non-uniform doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y. C.; Bahrami, M.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical model of the GaAs MESFET with arbitrary non-uniform doping is presented. Numerical results for linear lateral doping profile are given as a special case. Theoretical considerations predict that better device linearity and improved F(T) can be obtained by using linear lateral doping when doping density increases from source to drain.

  10. Collaborating Fuzzy Reinforcement Learning Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1997-01-01

    Earlier, we introduced GARIC-Q, a new method for doing incremental Dynamic Programming using a society of intelligent agents which are controlled at the top level by Fuzzy Relearning and at the local level, each agent learns and operates based on ANTARCTIC, a technique for fuzzy reinforcement learning. In this paper, we show that it is possible for these agents to compete in order to affect the selected control policy but at the same time, they can collaborate while investigating the state space. In this model, the evaluator or the critic learns by observing all the agents behaviors but the control policy changes only based on the behavior of the winning agent also known as the super agent.

  11. Agent-based enterprise integration

    SciTech Connect

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  12. Agent-based enterprise integration

    SciTech Connect

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1999-05-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. Their enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; intelligently locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of their effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses their planned future work.

  13. Carbon doping of GaAs NWs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehzadeh Einabad, Omid

    Nanowires (NWs) have been proposed and demonstrated as the building blocks for nanoscale electronic and photonic devices such as NW field effect transistors and NW solar cells which rely on doping and trap-free carrier transport. Controlled doping of NWs and a high degree of structure and morphology control are required for device applications. However, doping of III-V nanowires such as GaAs nanowires has not been reported extensively in the literature. Carbon is a well known p-type dopant in planar GaAs due to its low diffusivity and high solubility in bulk GaAs; however its use as an intentional dopant in NW growth has not yet been investigated. In this work we studied the carbon doping of GaAs nanowires using CBr4 as the dopant source. Gold nanoparticles (NP) at the tip ofthe NWs have been used to drive the NW growth. We show that carbon doping suppresses the migration ofthe gold NPs from the tip of the NWs. In addition, we show that the carbon doping of GaAs NWs is accompanied by an increase of the axial growth rate and decrease of the lateral growth rate ofthe NWs. Carbon-doped GaAs NWs, unlike the undoped ones which are highly tapered, are rod-like. The origin of the observed morphological changes is attributed to the carbon adsorbates on the sidewalls ofthe nanowires which suppress the lateral growth of the nanowires and increase the diffusion length of the gallium adatoms on the sidewalls. Stacking fault formation consisting of alternating regIOns of zincblende and wurtzite structures has been commonly observed in NWs grown along the (111) direction. In this work, based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, we show that carbon doping ofGaAs NWs eliminates the stacking fault formation. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the effects of carbon doping on the vibrational properties of the carbon-doped GaAs nanowires. Carbon doping shows a strong impact on the intrinsic longitudinal and transverse optical (La and TO) modes of the Ga

  14. Does water dope carbon nanotubes?

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Robert A.; Payne, Michael C.; Mostofi, Arash A.

    2014-10-28

    We calculate the long-range perturbation to the electronic charge density of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a result of the physisorption of a water molecule. We find that the dominant effect is a charge redistribution in the CNT due to polarisation caused by the dipole moment of the water molecule. The charge redistribution is found to occur over a length-scale greater than 30 Å, highlighting the need for large-scale simulations. By comparing our fully first-principles calculations to ones in which the perturbation due to a water molecule is treated using a classical electrostatic model, we estimate that the charge transfer between CNT and water is negligible (no more than 10{sup −4} e per water molecule). We therefore conclude that water does not significantly dope CNTs, a conclusion that is consistent with the poor alignment of the relevant energy levels of the water molecule and CNT. Previous calculations that suggest water n-dopes CNTs are likely due to the misinterpretation of Mulliken charge partitioning in small supercells.

  15. Detonation nanodiamonds for doping Kevlar.

    PubMed

    Comet, Marc; Pichot, Vincent; Siegert, Benny; Britz, Fabienne; Spitzer, Denis

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports on the first attempt to enclose diamond nanoparticles--produced by detonation--into a Kevlar matrix. A nanocomposite material (40 wt% diamond) was prepared by precipitation from an acidic solution of Kevlar containing dispersed nanodiamonds. In this material, the diamond nanoparticles (Ø = 4 nm) are entirely wrapped in a Kevlar layer about 1 nm thick. In order to understand the interactions between the nanodiamond surface and the polymer, the oxygenated surface functional groups of nanodiamond were identified and titrated by Boehm's method which revealed the exclusive presence of carboxyl groups (0.85 sites per nm2). The hydrogen interactions between these groups and the amide groups of Kevlar destroy the "rod-like" structure and the classical three-dimensional organization of this polymer. The distortion of Kevlar macromolecules allows the wrapping of nanodiamonds and leads to submicrometric assemblies, giving a cauliflower structure reminding a fractal object. Due to this structure, the macroscopic hardness of Kevlar doped by nanodiamonds (1.03 GPa) is smaller than the one of pure Kevlar (2.31 GPa). To our knowledge, this result is the first illustration of the change of the mechanical properties induced by doping the Kevlar with nanoparticles.

  16. Polymeric gastrointestinal MR contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Tilcock, C; Unger, E C; Ahkong, Q F; Fritz, T; Koenig, S H; Brown, R D

    1991-01-01

    Combining either paramagnetic (gadolinium chelates) or superparamagnetic (ferrite) contrast agents with polymers such as polyethylene glycol or cellulose, or with simple sugars such as dextrose, results in mixtures that exhibit improved T1 and/or T2 relaxivity compared with that of the contrast agent alone. It is suggested that the addition of such inexpensive and nontoxic polymers or saccharides may improve the effectiveness and decrease the cost of enteric contrast agents.

  17. Thin layer of ordered boron-doped TiO2 nanotubes fabricated in a novel type of electrolyte and characterized by remarkably improved photoactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siuzdak, Katarzyna; Szkoda, Mariusz; Lisowska-Oleksiak, Anna; Grochowska, Katarzyna; Karczewski, Jakub; Ryl, Jacek

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports a novel method of boron doped titania nanotube arrays preparation by electrochemical anodization in electrolyte containing boron precursor - boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3 C4H10O), simultaneously acting as an anodizing agent. A pure, ordered TiO2 nanotubes array, as a reference sample, was also prepared in solution containing a standard etching compound: ammonium fluoride. The doped and pure titania were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence emission spectroscopy and by means of electrochemical methods. The B-doping decidedly shifts the absorption edge of TiO2 nanotubes towards the visible light region and significantly inhibits the radiative recombination processes. Despite the fact that the doped sample is characterized by 4.6 lower real surface area when compared to pure titania, it leads to the decomposition of methylene blue in 93%, that is over 2.3 times higher than the degradation efficiency exhibited by the undoped material. The formation rate of hydroxyl radicals (rad OH) upon illumination significantly favours boron doped titania as a photocatalytic material. Moreover, the simple doping of TiO2 nanotubes array results in the enhancement of generated photocurrent from 120 μA/cm2 to 350 μA/cm2 registered for undoped and doped electrode, respectively.

  18. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light over Cr doped strontium titanate (SrTiO3) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Inamur Rahman; Lee, Woo-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Cheol; Hassan, Mallick Shamshi; Yang, O-Bong

    2010-05-01

    Strontium titanate (SrTiO3) and chromium doped SrTiO3 (Cr/SrTiO3) were prepared by modified sol-gel method with the citric acid as a chelating agent in the ethylene glycol solution for the effective photodegradation of methylene blue dye under visible light irradiation. The synthesized doped and un-doped SrTiO3 nanoparticles were structurally characterized and their photoresponse performances for the efficient degradation of methylene blue dye have been demonstrated. After introducing the Cr on SrTiO3, UV-Vis absorption was appeared the red-shift at 566 nm from 392 nm as compare with bare SrTiO3. The photocatalytic degradation activity of Cr/SrTiO3 was significantly improved to 60% degradation of methylene blue in 3 h under visible light, which is approximately 5 times higher than that of the bare SrTiO3.

  19. One - Step synthesis of nitrogen doped reduced graphene oxide with NiCo nanoparticles for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media.

    PubMed

    Kakaei, Karim; Marzang, Kamaran

    2016-01-15

    Development of anode catalysts and catalyst supporting carbonaceous material containing non-precious metal have attracted tremendous attention in the field of direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs). Herein, we report the synthesis and electrochemical properties of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (NRGO) supported Co, Ni and NiCo nanocomposites. The metal NRGO nanocomposites, in which metal nanoparticles are embedded in the highly porous nitrogen-doped graphene matrix, have been synthesized by simply and one-pot method at a mild temperature using GO, urea choline chloride and urea as reducing and doping agent. The fabricated NiCo/NRGO exhibit remarkable electrocatalytic activity (with Tafel slope of 159.1mVdec(-1)) and high stability for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). The superior performance of the alloy based NRGO is attributed to high surface area, well uniform distribution of high-density nitrogen, metal active sites and synergistic effect.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Fe-Doped TiO2 Films Covered on Silicagel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghia, Nguyen Manh; Hue, Nguyen Thi; Thu, Ma Thi Anh; Len, Phung Thi; Thu, Vu Thi; Lam, Tran Dai

    2016-07-01

    This study describes sol-gel preparation of (TiO2:Fe x )/SiO2 ( x = 0-0.8%) on silicagel grains using titanium tetraisopropoxide and iron (III) chloride as titanium precursor and doping agent, respectively. The structural properties, morphology, and chemical composition of the samples were thoroughly studied using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The results demonstrated the formation of highly pure anatase TiO2:Fe x crystals with diameters of several tens of nanometers. With increasing doping level, no significant change in porosity of TiO2 material was observed, whereas the decrease in crystalline size was easily recorded. In addition, the bandgap (observed by UV-Vis) was dramatically shifted from 2.9 eV to 1.7 eV as doping with TiO2 with Fe at doping content as low as 0.8%. The use of silicagel as a solid support to carry photocatalytic crystals enables recycling of the material. These findings represent a simple pathway to design reusable catalyst for highly effective water detoxification under visible illumination.

  1. Effect of Er doping on the structural and magnetic properties of cobalt-ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prathapani, Sateesh; Vinitha, M.; Jayaraman, T. V.; Das, D.

    2014-05-01

    Nanocrystalline particulates of Er doped cobalt-ferrites CoFe(2-x)ErxO4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.04), were synthesized, using sol-gel assisted autocombustion method. Co-, Fe-, and Er- nitrates were the oxidizers, and malic acid served as a fuel and chelating agent. Calcination (400-600 °C for 4 h) of the precursor powders was followed by sintering (1000 °C for 4 h) and structural and magnetic characterization. X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of single phase of spinel for the compositions x = 0, 0.01, and 0.02; and for higher compositions an additional orthoferrite phase formed along with the spinel phase. Lattice parameter of the doped cobalt-ferrites was higher than that of pure cobalt-ferrite. The observed red shift in the doped cobalt-ferrites indicates the presence of induced strain in the cobalt-ferrite matrix due to large size of the Er+3 compared to Fe+3. Greater than two-fold increase in coercivity (˜66 kA/m for x = 0.02) was observed in doped cobalt-ferrites compared to CoFe2O4 (˜29 kA/m).

  2. Bottom-Up Synthesis of Metal-Ion-Doped WS₂ Nanoflakes for Cancer Theranostics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Yuan, Chao; Shen, Sida; Yi, Xuan; Gong, Hua; Yang, Kai; Liu, Zhuang

    2015-11-24

    Recently, two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have received tremendous attention in many fields including biomedicine. Herein, we develop a general method to dope different types of metal ions into WS2 nanoflakes, a typical class of TMDCs, and choose Gd(3+)-doped WS2 (WS2:Gd(3+)) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) modification as a multifunctional agent for imaging-guided combination cancer treatment. While WS2 with strong near-infrared (NIR) absorbance and X-ray attenuation ability enables contrasts in photoacoustic (PA) imaging and computed tomography (CT), Gd(3+) doping offers the nanostructure a paramagnetic property for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. As revealed by trimodal PA/CT/MR imaging, WS2:Gd(3+)-PEG nanoflakes showed efficient tumor homing after intravenous injection. In vivo cancer treatment study further uncovered that WS2:Gd(3+)-PEG could not only convert NIR light into heat for photothermal therapy (PTT) but also enhance the ionizing irradiation-induced tumor damage to boost radiation therapy (RT). Owing to the improved tumor oxygenation after the mild PTT, the combination of PTT and RT induced by WS2:Gd(3+)-PEG resulted in a remarkable synergistic effect to destroy cancer. Our work highlights the promise of utilizing inherent physical properties of TMDC-based nanostructures, whose functions could be further enriched by elementary doping, for applications in multimodal bioimaging and synergistic cancer therapy.

  3. Effect of Er doping on the structural and magnetic properties of cobalt-ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Prathapani, Sateesh; Vinitha, M.; Das, D.; Jayaraman, T. V.

    2014-05-07

    Nanocrystalline particulates of Er doped cobalt-ferrites CoFe{sub (2−x)}Er{sub x}O{sub 4} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.04), were synthesized, using sol-gel assisted autocombustion method. Co-, Fe-, and Er- nitrates were the oxidizers, and malic acid served as a fuel and chelating agent. Calcination (400–600 °C for 4 h) of the precursor powders was followed by sintering (1000 °C for 4 h) and structural and magnetic characterization. X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of single phase of spinel for the compositions x = 0, 0.01, and 0.02; and for higher compositions an additional orthoferrite phase formed along with the spinel phase. Lattice parameter of the doped cobalt-ferrites was higher than that of pure cobalt-ferrite. The observed red shift in the doped cobalt-ferrites indicates the presence of induced strain in the cobalt-ferrite matrix due to large size of the Er{sup +3} compared to Fe{sup +3}. Greater than two-fold increase in coercivity (∼66 kA/m for x = 0.02) was observed in doped cobalt-ferrites compared to CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (∼29 kA/m)

  4. Effects of glycerol and creatine hyperhydration on doping-relevant blood parameters.

    PubMed

    Polyviou, Thelma P; Easton, Chris; Beis, Lukas; Malkova, Dalia; Takas, Pantazis; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John R; Koehler, Karsten; Pitsiladis, Yannis P

    2012-09-01

    Glycerol is prohibited as an ergogenic aid by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) due to the potential for its plasma expansion properties to have masking effects. However, the scientific basis of the inclusion of Gly as a "masking agent" remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a hyperhydrating supplement containing Gly on doping-relevant blood parameters. Nine trained males ingested a hyperhydrating mixture twice per day for 7 days containing 1.0 g·kg(-1) body mass (BM) of Gly, 10.0 g of creatine and 75.0 g of glucose. Blood samples were collected and total hemoglobin (Hb) mass determined using the optimized carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method pre- and post-supplementation. BM and total body water (TBW) increased significantly following supplementation by 1.1 ± 1.2 and 1.0 ± 1.2 L (BM, P < 0.01; TBW, P <0.01), respectively. This hyperhydration did not significantly alter plasma volume or any of the doping-relevant blood parameters (e.g., hematocrit, Hb, reticulocytes and total Hb-mass) even when Gly was clearly detectable in urine samples. In conclusion, this study shows that supplementation with hyperhydrating solution containing Gly for 7 days does not significantly alter doping-relevant blood parameters.

  5. Novel microwave assisted synthesis of highly doped phase pure Nd:YAG nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiranmala, L.; Rekha, M.; Neelam, M.

    2011-09-01

    For the first time, the studies on 2 to 10 at.% neodymium (Nd3+) ion doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) nanopowders obtained by microwave assisted citrate nitrate gel combustion synthesis is described in this work. This paper reports on high doping of Nd3+ ions with retaining the cubic garnet structure of YAG as evidenced from XRD, except the case of 8 at.% doped Nd:YAG. Phase pure YAG formation with 8 at.% Nd3+ doping was explored by using urea and alanine as alternative to citric acid complexing agents. Complete crystallization of YAG as a result of 2 hour thermal treatment at 900 °C under oxygen supply was studied by using Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. With an increase in the dopant concentration a red shift in the FTIR peaks was observed. Using the XRD data, the cell parameter of Nd3+ (2 to 6 and 10 at.%) YAG was found to increase with an increase in the dopant concentration. The average primary particle size calculated using Scherrer's equation was ˜25 nm which was additionally supported by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results yielding particle sizes in the range of ˜25 to 30 nm for all the cases.

  6. Structural and photoluminescence properties of terbium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ningthoujam Surajkumar, Singh; Shougaijam Dorendrajit, Singh; Sanoujam Dhiren, Meetei

    2014-05-01

    We present in this paper a study of the structural and photoluminescence (PL) properties of terbium (Tb) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles synthesized by a simple low temperature chemical precipitation method, using zinc acetate and terbium nitrate in an isopropanol medium with diethanolamine (DEA) as the capping agent at 60 °C. The as-prepared samples were heat treated and the PL of the annealed samples were studied. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD patterns show the pattern of typical ZnO nanoparticles and correspond with the standard XRD pattern given by JCPDS card No. 36-1451, showing the hexagonal phase structure. The PL intensity was enhanced due to Tb3+ doping, and it decreased at higher concentrations of Tb3+ doping after reaching a certain optimum concentration. The PL spectra of Tb3+ doped samples exhibited blue, bluish green, and green emissions at 460 nm (5D3 - 7F3), 484 nm (5D4 - 7F6), and 530 nm (5D4 - 7F5), respectively, which were more intense than the emissions for the undoped ZnO sample. Based on the results, an energy level schematic diagram was proposed to explain the possible electron transition processes.

  7. Antithrombotic agents: implications in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Little, James W; Miller, Craig S; Henry, Robert G; McIntosh, Bruce A

    2002-05-01

    Thrombosis and the complicating emboli that can result are important causes of illness and death. Thrombosis is of greater overall clinical importance in terms of morbidity and mortality than all of the hemorrhagic disorders combined. Agents such as heparin, low-molecular weight heparin, warfarin, aspirin, ticlopidine, clopidogrel, and tirofiban are used to prevent venous or arterial thrombosis. Patients taking these antithrombotic agents may be at risk for excessive bleeding after invasive dental procedures. The current antithrombotic agents used in medicine are reviewed, and the dental management of patients taking these agents is discussed.

  8. Broad-spectrum antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun-Da; Meng, Wen; Wang, Xiao-Jia; Wang, Hwa-Chain R.

    2015-01-01

    Development of highly effective, broad-spectrum antiviral agents is the major objective shared by the fields of virology and pharmaceutics. Antiviral drug development has focused on targeting viral entry and replication, as well as modulating cellular defense system. High throughput screening of molecules, genetic engineering of peptides, and functional screening of agents have identified promising candidates for development of optimal broad-spectrum antiviral agents to intervene in viral infection and control viral epidemics. This review discusses current knowledge, prospective applications, opportunities, and challenges in the development of broad-spectrum antiviral agents. PMID:26052325

  9. A high-throughput test to detect C.E.R.A. doping in blood.

    PubMed

    Lamon, Séverine; Giraud, Sylvain; Egli, Léonie; Smolander, Jessica; Jarsch, Michael; Stubenrauch, Kay-Gunnar; Hellwig, Alice; Saugy, Martial; Robinson, Neil

    2009-12-05

    C.E.R.A., a continuous erythropoietin receptor activator, is a new third-generation erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) that has recently been linked with abuse in endurance sports. In order to combat this new form of doping, we examined an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) designed to detect the presence of C.E.R.A. in serum samples. The performance of the assay was evaluated using a pilot excretion study that involved six subjects receiving C.E.R.A. Validation data demonstrated an excellent reproducibility and ensured the applicability of the assay for anti-doping purposes. To maximize the chances of detecting the drug in serum samples, we propose the use of this specific ELISA test as a high-throughput screening method, combined with a classic isoelectric focusing test as a confirmatory assay. This strategy should make C.E.R.A. abuse relatively easy to detect, thereby preventing the future use of this drug as a doping agent.

  10. A general approach for fabrication of nitrogen-doped graphene sheets and its application in supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dewei; Min, Yonggang; Yu, Youhai; Peng, Bo

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a general and efficient strategy has been developed to produce nitrogen-doped graphene sheets (NGs) based on hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB) theory. Under hydrothermal conditions, any salt with amphiprotic character have a strong tendency to hydrolysis, it is possible to provide reducing agent and nitrogen source simultaneously. It is worth noting that, NGs can be prepared under hydrothermal conditions by using some common ammonium salts with hard acid-soft base pairs as nitrogen-doping agents. The morphology, structure and composition of the as-prepared NGs were studied in detail. The results demonstrated that large amount of nitrogen was incorporated into the nanocarbon frameworks at the same time as the graphene oxide (GO) sheets were reduced. The electrochemical behavior of the synthesized NGs as supercapacitor electrodes was evaluated in a symmetric two-electrode cell configuration with 1M H2SO4 as the electrolytes. It was found that the nitrogen groups making the as-prepared NGs exhibited remarkably enhanced electrochemical performance when used as electrode materials in supercapacitors. The supercapacitor based on the NGs exhibited a high specific capacitance of 242 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1), and remains a relatively high capacitance even at a high current density. This work will put forward to understand and optimize heteroatom-doped graphene in energy storage systems.

  11. The Agent of Change: The Agent of Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, C. R., Jr.

    This speech examines the role of change agents in third world societies and indicates that the change agent must, to some extent, manipulate the social situation, even if his view of society is a more optimistic one than he finds in reality. If he considers strains and stresses to be the lubricants of change, then his focus on conflict as a…

  12. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  13. Contrast agents for MRI.

    PubMed

    Shokrollahi, H

    2013-12-01

    Contrast agents are divided into two categories. The first one is paramagnetic compounds, including lanthanides like gadolinium, which mainly reduce the longitudinal (T1) relaxation property and result in a brighter signal. The second class consists of super-paramagnetic magnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) such as iron oxides, which have a strong effect on the transversal (T2) relaxation properties. SPMNPs have the potential to be utilized as excellent probes for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For instance, clinically benign iron oxide and engineered ferrite nanoparticles provide a good MRI probing capability for clinical applications. Furthermore, the limited magnetic property and inability to escape from the reticuloendothelial system (RES) of the used nanoparticles impede their further advancement. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the engineered magnetic nanoparticle probes for the next-generation molecular MRI. Considering the importance of MRI in diagnosing diseases, this paper presents an overview of recent scientific achievements in the development of new synthetic SPMNP probes whereby the sensitive and target-specific observation of biological events at the molecular and cellular levels is feasible.

  14. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  15. Phytonutrients as therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Charu; Prakash, Dhan

    2014-09-01

    Nutrients present in various foods plays an important role in maintaining the normal functions of the human body. The major nutrients present in foods include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. Besides these, there are some bioactive food components known as "phytonutrients" that play an important role in human health. They have tremendous impact on the health care system and may provide medical health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of disease and various physiological disorders. Phytonutrients play a positive role by maintaining and modulating immune function to prevent specific diseases. Being natural products, they hold a great promise in clinical therapy as they possess no side effects that are usually associated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. They are also comparatively cheap and thus significantly reduce health care cost. Phytonutrients are the plant nutrients with specific biological activities that support human health. Some of the important bioactive phytonutrients include polyphenols, terpenoids, resveratrol, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, carotenoids, limonoids, glucosinolates, phytoestrogens, phytosterols, anthocyanins, ω-3 fatty acids, and probiotics. They play specific pharmacological effects in human health such as anti-microbial, anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anti-spasmodic, anti-cancer, anti-aging, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, neuroprotective, hypotensive, diabetes, osteoporosis, CNS stimulant, analgesic, protection from UVB-induced carcinogenesis, immuno-modulator, and carminative. This mini-review attempts to summarize the major important types of phytonutrients and their role in promoting human health and as therapeutic agents along with the current market trend and commercialization.

  16. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  17. IR-doped ruthenium oxide catalyst for oxygen evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for preparing a metal-doped ruthenium oxide material by heating a mixture of a doping metal and a source of ruthenium under an inert atmosphere. In some embodiments, the doping metal is in the form of iridium black or lead powder, and the source of ruthenium is a powdered ruthenium oxide. An iridium-doped or lead-doped ruthenium oxide material can perform as an oxygen evolution catalyst and can be fabricated into electrodes for electrolysis cells.

  18. FIFA's approach to doping in football

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, J; Graf‐Baumann, T; D'Hooghe, M; Kirkendall, D; Taennler, H; Saugy, M

    2006-01-01

    Background and objectives FIFA's anti‐doping strategy relies on education and prevention. A worldwide network of physicians guarantees doping control procedures that are straightforward and leave no place for cheating. FIFA actively acknowledges its responsibility to protect players from harm and ensure equal chances for all competitors by stringent doping control regulations, data collection of positive samples, support of research, and collaboration with other organisations. This article aims to outline FIFA's approach to doping in football. Method Description of FIFA's doping control regulations and procedures, statistical analysis of FIFA database on doping control, and comparison with data obtained by WADA accredited laboratories as for 2004. Results Data on positive doping samples per substance and confederation/nation documented at the FIFA medical office from 1994 to 2005 are provided. According to the FIFA database, the incidence of positive cases over the past 11 years was 0.12%, with about 0.42% in 2004 (based on the assumption of 20 750 samples per year) and 0.37% in 2005. Especially important in this regard is the extremely low incidence of the true performance enhancing drugs such as anabolic steroids and stimulants. However, there is a need for more consistent data collection and cross checks among international anti‐doping agencies as well as for further studies on specific substances, methods, and procedures. With regard to general health impairments in players, FIFA suggests that principles of occupational medicine should be considered and treatment with banned substances for purely medical reasons should be permitted to enable players to carry out their profession. At the same time, a firm stand has to be taken against suppression of symptoms by medication with the aim of meeting the ever increasing demands on football players. Conclusion Incidence of doping in football seems to be low, but much closer collaboration and further

  19. Ce-doped titania nanoparticles: The effects of doped amount and calcination temperature on photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jianwen; Zou, Yajun; Ma, Dandan

    2017-01-01

    A series of Ce-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with different doped amount and calcination temperature were prepared by sol-gel method. These obtained samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), and their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. Results showed that Ce doping inhibits the growth of crystal size and the phase transformation from anatase to rutile, leads to lattice distortion and expansion of TiO2. Furthermore, Ce doping brings the red-shift of absorption profile and the increase of photons absorption in the range of 400-600 nm. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange shows that Ce doping improves the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. The optimal doped amount is 0.05 mol% and the optimal calcined temperature is 600 °C for the maximum photocatalytic degradation efficiency in our experiment.

  20. Doping monolayer graphene with single atom substitutions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Qingxiao; Cheng, Yingchun; Li, Kun; Yao, Yingbang; Zhang, Qiang; Dong, Cezhou; Wang, Peng; Schwingenschlögl, Udo; Yang, Wei; Zhang, X X

    2012-01-11

    Functionalized graphene has been extensively studied with the aim of tailoring properties for gas sensors, superconductors, supercapacitors, nanoelectronics, and spintronics. A bottleneck is the capability to control the carrier type and density by doping. We demonstrate that a two-step process is an efficient way to dope graphene: create vacancies by high-energy atom/ion bombardment and fill these vacancies with desired dopants. Different elements (Pt, Co, and In) have been successfully doped in the single-atom form. The high binding energy of the metal-vacancy complex ensures its stability and is consistent with in situ observation by an aberration-corrected and monochromated transmission electron microscope.

  1. Transmutation doping of silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, R. F.; Westbrook, R. D.; Young, R. T.; Cleland, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Normal isotopic silicon contains 3.05% of Si-30 which transmutes to P-31 after thermal neutron absorption, with a half-life of 2.6 hours. This reaction is used to introduce extremely uniform concentrations of phosphorus into silicon, thus eliminating the areal and spatial inhomogeneities characteristic of chemical doping. Annealing of the lattice damage in the irradiated silicon does not alter the uniformity of dopant distribution. Transmutation doping also makes it possible to introduce phosphorus into polycrystalline silicon without segregation of the dopant at the grain boundaries. The use of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) silicon in solar cell research and development is discussed.

  2. Oral contraceptive agents.

    PubMed

    Shearman, R P

    1986-02-17

    The history of the development of oral contraceptives (OCs) has been a progressive reduction in dosage to what is now probably the lowest does that is compatible with the desired therapeutic effect -- to inhibit ovluation. Yet, controversy and argument continue. A table lists the OCs that are available in Australia. Many of these preparations, although having different trade names, have an identical composition. Since the withdrawal of sequential OCs from the Australian market, there are only 2 generic types. These are the progestogen only (mini) OCs, which consist of either 30 mcg of levonorgestrel or 350 mcg of norethisterone given at the same time every day; and the combined OCs, which contain an estrogen and a progestogen. In the last 12 months, some of the older high-dose OCs have been withdrawn, and it seems likely that further withdrawals will follow. Only 2 estrogens are used in the formulation of the OC, but there is a greater variety of progestogens. Ethinyl estradiol is used in most preparations. A small minority of OCs contain mestranol, the 3-methyl ether of ethinyl estradiol. Currently, there are only 4 OC agents that are available in Australia that contain mestranol and 2 of these contain the high doses of 100 mcg. Fundamentally, there are 2 types of progestogens -- those that contain, or are metabolized to, norethisterone and those that contain norgestrel or its close relative, desogestrel. With the exception of the norgestrel group and desogestrel, all other progestins, including norethisterone itself, are effective in vivo after they have been metablized to norethisterone. Mestranol is effective in humans after demethylation to ethinyl estradiol. In the norgesterel group, since d-norgestrel is inert endocrinologically, 250 mcg of levonorgestrel and 500 mcg of dl-norgestrel are equivalent. Levonorgestrel and desogestrel are of approximately equal potency. With the combined OC agents, the overwhelming mechanism of action is by the inhibition of the

  3. 7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the financial markets..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs... or cause to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service Debentures...

  4. 7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the financial markets..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs... or cause to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service Debentures...

  5. Gelled Anti-icing Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markles, O. F.; Sperber, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    Pectin added to antifreeze/water mixture. Formulations include water with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as deicer and pectin as gel former. Without gelling agent, deicer runs off vertical surfaces. Without pectin solution will completely evaporate in far less time. Agents developed have wide potential for ice prevention on runways, highways, bridges and sidewalks.

  6. Field Agent Activities: Level 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gussett, James

    One of a series of monographs providing information about the Delaware Model: A Systems Approach to Science Education (Del Mod System), this monograph describes the role of field agents. These agents are responsible for individual teachers who express a desire for involvement in improving teacher effectiveness and to be involved in the teaching of…

  7. Hypersensitivity to antineoplastic agents.

    PubMed

    Castells, M C

    2008-01-01

    The need to offer first line therapy for primary and recurrent cancers has spurred the clinical development of rapid desensitizations for chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies. Rapid desensitizations allow patients to be treated with medications to which they have presented with hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs), including anaphylaxis. Rapid desensitization achieves temporary tolerization to full therapeutic doses by slow administration of incremental doses of the drug inducing the HSR. Protocols are available for most chemotherapy agents, including taxanes, platins, doxorubicin, monoclonal antibodies, and others. Candidate patients include those who present with type I HSRs, mast cell/IgE dependent, including anaphylaxis, and non-IgE mediated HSRs, during the chemotherapy infusion or shortly after. Idiosyncratic reactions, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are not amenable to rapid desensitization. The recommendation for rapid desensitization can only be made by allergy and immunology specialists and can only be performed in settings with one-to-one nurse-patient care and where resuscitation personnel and resources are readily available. Repeated desensitizations can be safely performed in outpatient settings with similar conditions, which allow cancer patients to remain in clinical studies. We have generated a universal 12-step protocol that was applied to 413 cases of intravenous and intraperitoneal rapid desensitizations using taxanes, platins, liposomal doxorubicin, doxorubicin, rituximab, and other chemotherapy drugs. Under this protocol all patients were able to complete their target dose, and 94% of the patients had limited or no reactions. No deaths or codes were reported, indicating that the procedure was safe and effective in delivering first line chemotherapy drugs.

  8. Dialogue Games for Agent Argumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBurney, Peter; Parsons, Simon

    The rise of the Internet and the growth of distributed computing have led to a major paradigm shift in software engineering and computer science. Until recently, the notion of computation has been variously construed as numerical calculation, as information processing, or as intelligent symbol analysis, but increasingly, it is now viewed as distributed cognition and interaction between intelligent entities [60]. This new view has major implications for the conceptualization, design, engineering and control of software systems, most profoundly expressed in the concept of systems of intelligent software agents, or multi-agent systems [99]. Agents are software entities with control over their own execution; the design of such agents, and of multi-agent systems of them, presents major research and software engineering challenges to computer scientists.

  9. Transdermal delivery of therapeutic agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwiatkowski, Krzysztof C. (Inventor); Hayes, Ryan T. (Inventor); Magnuson, James W. (Inventor); Giletto, Anthony (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A device for the transdermal delivery of a therapeutic agent to a biological subject that includes a first electrode comprising a first array of electrically conductive microprojections for providing electrical communication through a skin portion of the subject to a second electrode comprising a second array of electrically conductive microprojections. Additionally, a reservoir for holding the therapeutic agent surrounding the first electrode and a pulse generator for providing an exponential decay pulse between the first and second electrodes may be provided. A method includes the steps of piercing a stratum corneum layer of skin with two arrays of conductive microprojections, encapsulating the therapeutic agent into biocompatible charged carriers, surrounding the conductive microprojections with the therapeutic agent, generating an exponential decay pulse between the two arrays of conductive microprojections to create a non-uniform electrical field and electrokinetically driving the therapeutic agent through the stratum corneum layer of skin.

  10. Intelligent Agents in Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Guzmán, D.; Mora, César

    2010-07-01

    Intelligent Agents are being applied in a wide range of processes and everyday applications. Their development is not new, in recent years they have had an increased attention and design; like learning and mentoring tools. In this work we discuss the definition of what an intelligent agent is; how they are applied; how they look like; recent implementations of agents; agents as support in the learning process, more precisely intelligent tutors; their state in Latin-American countries and future developments and trends that will permit a better communication between people and agents. Also we present an Intelligent Tutor applied as a tool for improving high-school students' skills and reasoning for the first five topics of Mechanics curricula.

  11. Markov Tracking for Agent Coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Richard; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) axe an attractive representation for representing agent behavior, since they capture uncertainty in both the agent's state and its actions. However, finding an optimal policy for POMDPs in general is computationally difficult. In this paper we present Markov Tracking, a restricted problem of coordinating actions with an agent or process represented as a POMDP Because the actions coordinate with the agent rather than influence its behavior, the optimal solution to this problem can be computed locally and quickly. We also demonstrate the use of the technique on sequential POMDPs, which can be used to model a behavior that follows a linear, acyclic trajectory through a series of states. By imposing a "windowing" restriction that restricts the number of possible alternatives considered at any moment to a fixed size, a coordinating action can be calculated in constant time, making this amenable to coordination with complex agents.

  12. Chemical agent detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Gift, Alan; Maksymiuk, Paul; Inscore, Frank E.; Smith, Wayne W.; Morrisey, Kevin; Christesen, Steven D.

    2004-03-01

    In the past decade, the Unites States and its allies have been challenged by a different kind of warfare, exemplified by the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Although suicide bombings are the most often used form of terror, military personnel must consider a wide range of attack scenarios. Among these is the intentional poisoning of water supplies to obstruct military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. To counter such attacks, the military is developing portable analyzers that can identify and quantify potential chemical agents in water supplies at microgram per liter concentrations within 10 minutes. To aid this effort we have been investigating the value of a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based portable analyzer. In particular we have been developing silver-doped sol-gels to generate SER spectra of chemical agents and their hydrolysis products. Here we present SER spectra of several chemical agents measured in a generic tap water. Repeat measurements were performed to establish statistical error associated with SERS obtained using the sol-gel coated vials.

  13. Ion Doped Quantum Well Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    5 3 TGA analysis of {N[Si(CH3)312)3Er ................................. 5 4 Spectroscopic analysis of {N[Si(CH3)3]2)3Er...40o 56o 6oo TEMPERATURE (-C) Figure 3 TGA analysis of Er{NISi(CH3)3J]J 3 . CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION As the objective of this work is to dope A1GaAs...laO0 23633 47.870C 99.37% 1,14.84*C s00, • 95.212 173.75C 90.622 EI 800.77C 20- 60- 2o256. tC 0 i9o 360 460 560 600 TEMPERATURE (’C) Figure 3 TGA

  14. Erbium Doped Fiber Optic Gravimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Sánchez, G. G.; Pérez-Torres, J. R.; Flores-Bravo, J. A.; Álvarez-Chávez, J. A.; Martínez-Piñón, F.

    2017-01-01

    Gravimeters are devices that can be used in a wide range of applications, such as mining, seismology, geodesy, archeology, geophysics and many others. These devices have great sensibility, which makes them susceptible to external vibrations like electromagnetic waves. There are several technologies regarding gravimeters that are of use in industrial metrology. Optical fiber is immune to electromagnetic interference, and together with long period gratings can form high sensibility sensors of small size, offering advantages over other systems with different technologies. This paper shows the development of an optical fiber gravimeter doped with Erbium that was characterized optically for loads going from 1 to 10 kg in a bandwidth between 1590nm to 1960nm, displaying a weight linear response against power. Later on this paper, the experimental results show that the previous described behavior can be modeled as characteristic function of the sensor.

  15. Piezoresistive boron doped diamond nanowire

    DOEpatents

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Wang, Xinpeng

    2016-09-13

    A UNCD nanowire comprises a first end electrically coupled to a first contact pad which is disposed on a substrate. A second end is electrically coupled to a second contact pad also disposed on the substrate. The UNCD nanowire is doped with a dopant and disposed over the substrate. The UNCD nanowire is movable between a first configuration in which no force is exerted on the UNCD nanowire and a second configuration in which the UNCD nanowire bends about the first end and the second end in response to a force. The UNCD nanowire has a first resistance in the first configuration and a second resistance in the second configuration which is different from the first resistance. The UNCD nanowire is structured to have a gauge factor of at least about 70, for example, in the range of about 70 to about 1,800.

  16. Recent Advance of Biological Molecular Imaging Based on Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion-Luminescent Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Min, Yuanzeng; Li, Jinming; Liu, Fang; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Yeow, Edwin K. L.; Xing, Bengang

    2014-01-01

    Lanthanide-doped upconversion-luminescent nanoparticles (UCNPs), which can be excited by near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation to emit multiplex light, have been proven to be very useful for in vitro and in vivo molecular imaging studies. In comparison with the conventionally used down-conversion fluorescence imaging strategies, the NIR light excited luminescence of UCNPs displays high photostability, low cytotoxicity, little background auto-fluorescence, which allows for deep tissue penetration, making them attractive as contrast agents for biomedical imaging applications. In this review, we will mainly focus on the latest development of a new type of lanthanide-doped UCNP material and its main applications for in vitro and in vivo molecular imaging and we will also discuss the challenges and future perspectives.

  17. Structural and photoluminescence properties of Ce, Dy, Er-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Jayachandraiah, C.; Kumar, K. Siva; Krishnaiah, G.

    2015-06-24

    Undoped ZnO and rare earth elements (Ce, Dy and Er with 2 at. %) doped nanoparticles were synthesized by wet chemical co-precipitation method at 90°C with Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as capping agent. The structural, morphological, compositional and photoluminescence studies were performed with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), FTIR spectroscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) respectively. XRD results revealed hexagonal wurtzite structure with average particle size around 18 nm - 14 nm and are compatible with TEM results. EDS confirm the incorporation of Ce, Dy and Er elements into the host ZnO matrix and is validated by FTIR analysis. PL studies showed a broad intensive emission peak at 558 nm in all the samples. The intensity for Er- doped ZnO found maximum with additional Er shoulder peaks at 516nm and 538 nm. No Ce, Dy emission centers were found in spectra.

  18. Divalent europium doped CaF2 and BaF2 nanocrystals from ionic liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Anghel, Sergiu; Golbert, Sebastian; Meijerink, Andries; ...

    2016-10-11

    A new, facile and quick synthesis method for Eu2+ doped the alkaline earth fluorides was developed using ionic liquids as solvent, precursor and capping agent. Reductive atmosphere and very high temperatures were avoided, while still attaining the desired structure, small particle sizes and divalent oxidation state of the lanthanide. Here, this opens the door for the development of new Ln2+ doped nanomaterials. The successful Eu2+ incorporation was proven by optical spectroscopic measurements which showed the spin and parity allowed f-d transitions of Eu2+ in CaF2:Eu2+/BaF2:Eu2+. 4f7-4f7 transitions could be observed at low temperatures (7 K).

  19. Screening dynamics in doped titanates

    SciTech Connect

    Rubensson, J.E.; Luening, J.; Eisebitt, S.

    1997-04-01

    The time scale for carrier relaxation in semiconductors is on the same order of magnitude as the life time of shallow core hole states (a few femtoseconds). Resonant Inelastic soft X-ray scattering (RIXS) which involves (virtual) excitations of core levels consequently contains information about the time development of the electronic structure on this time scale. In many cases one can treat the scattering in an absorption (SXA) followed-by-emission (SXE) picture, where simply the rates for various processes can be compared with the intermediate core hole state decay rate as an internal {open_quotes}clock{close_quotes}. By variation of x (0 < x < 1) in La{sub x}Sr{sub 1{minus}x}TiO{sub 3}, the amount of Ti d electrons in the system can be controlled. SrTiO{sub 3} (x=0) is an insulator with an empty Ti d band. With increasing x, electrons are doped into the Ti d-band, and LaTiO{sub 3} (x=1) is a Mott Hubbard insulator with a Ti 3d{sup 1} configuration. In this work the authors demonstrate that the rate for Ti 2p core hole screening in La{sub x}Sr{sub 1{minus}x}TiO{sub 3} is doping dependent. The screening rate increases with the availability of Ti 3d electrons, and they estimate it to be 3.8 x 10{sup 13}/sec in La{sub 0.05}Sr{sub 0.95}TiO{sub 3}.

  20. Photoluminescence on cerium-doped ZnO nanorods produced under sequential atomic layer deposition-hydrothermal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-López, J. L.; Rangel, R.; Espino, J.; Martínez, E.; García-Gutiérrez, R.; Bartolo-Pérez, P.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Contreras, O. E.

    2017-01-01

    Doped and undoped ZnO nanorod arrays were produced combining atomic layer deposition and hydrothermal processes. First, a ZnO layer with preferential orientation normal to the c-axis was grown on the substrate by means of the decomposition of diethylzinc; subsequently, the nanorod arrays were produced through solvothermal process using a solution of Zn(NO3)2 as precursor. Doped ZnO nanorods were produced using Ce(C2H3O2)3·H2O as dopant agent precursor. Undoped and Ce-doped ZnO nanorod arrays showed high-intensity photoluminescence. The doping concentration of x = 0.04 (Zn1- x Ce x O) displayed the highest photoluminescence. Undoped ZnO showed an intense UV peak centered at 382 nm with a narrow full wide half maximum of 33 nm. Ce-doped ZnO PL spectra contain three bands, one signal in the UV region centered at 382 nm, other centered at 467 nm in the near-green region and other one emission centered at 560 nm. The results herein exposed demonstrate the capability to produce high-quality ZnO and Zn1- x Ce x O films.

  1. Flowerlike C-doped BiOCl nanostructures: Facile wet chemical fabrication and enhanced UV photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiahui; Wei, Bo; Zhu, Lin; Gao, Hong; Sun, Wenjun; Xu, Lingling

    2013-11-01

    3D-flowerlike C-doped bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl) hierarchical structures have been synthesized through a facile, low temperature wet-chemical method using polyacrylamide (PAM) as both chelating and doping agents. The flowerlike products are composed of nanosheets, as verified by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystal structure and compositional characteristics were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Photocatalytic activities of C-doped BiOCl samples with different amounts of PAM adding were investigated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye and colorless phonel contaminant under ultra-violet light irradiation. The as-prepared C-doped BiOCl exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than the pure one. Moreover, the best performance of the photo-degradation was observed on the sample synthesized by 0.4 g PAM adding. The results show that C-doped BiOCl can be used as a promising candidate for water-purification.

  2. Knowledge focus via software agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henager, Donald E.

    2001-09-01

    The essence of military Command and Control (C2) is making knowledge intensive decisions in a limited amount of time using uncertain, incorrect, or outdated information. It is essential to provide tools to decision-makers that provide: * Management of friendly forces by treating the "friendly resources as a system". * Rapid assessment of effects of military actions againt the "enemy as a system". * Assessment of how an enemy should, can, and could react to friendly military activities. Software agents in the form of mission agents, target agents, maintenance agents, and logistics agents can meet this information challenge. The role of each agent is to know all the details about its assigned mission, target, maintenance, or logistics entity. The Mission Agent would fight for mission resources based on the mission priority and analyze the effect that a proposed mission's results would have on the enemy. The Target Agent (TA) communicates with other targets to determine its role in the system of targets. A system of TAs would be able to inform a planner or analyst of the status of a system of targets, the effect of that status, adn the effect of attacks on that system. The system of TAs would also be able to analyze possible enemy reactions to attack by determining ways to minimize the effect of attack, such as rerouting traffic or using deception. The Maintenance Agent would scheudle maintenance events and notify the maintenance unit. The Logistics Agent would manage shipment and delivery of supplies to maintain appropriate levels of weapons, fuel and spare parts. The central idea underlying this case of software agents is knowledge focus. Software agents are createad automatically to focus their attention on individual real-world entities (e.g., missions, targets) and view the world from that entities perspective. The agent autonomously monitors the entity, identifies problems/opportunities, formulates solutions, and informs the decision-maker. The agent must be

  3. Microstrutured fibers with germanium doped core components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobelke, J.; Schuster, K.; Schwuchow, A.; Wang, Y.; Brückner, S.; Becker, M.; Rothhardt, M.; Kirchhof, J.; Ecke, W.; Willsch, R.; Bartelt, H.

    2009-05-01

    The paper reports preparation and applicative aspects of two types of index guiding microstructured fibers (MOFs) with germanium doped cores. The first fiber type has a solid core with graded germanium profile. It shows a high photosensitivity compared to pure silica MOFs. We inscribed high-quality Bragg gratings with a reflectivity of 73% without hydrogen loading. The solid core germanium doped MOF was spliced with standard silica fiber. The minimum splice loss was about 1 dB at 1550 μm wavelength. A more complex MOF type was prepared with germanium doped holey core in a silica holey cladding. The germanium doped core area includes seven holes in hexagonal arrangement with equal diameter and pitch sizes. The holey core propagates a large area annulus mode. We show the suitability of this MOF for chemical gas sensing by filling the core cavities with hydrocarbon analytes.

  4. Sprayed lanthanum doped zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouznit, Y.; Beggah, Y.; Ynineb, F.

    2012-01-01

    Lanthanum doped zinc oxide thin films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates using a pneumatic spray pyrolysis technique. The films were prepared using different lanthanum concentrations at optimum deposition parameters. We studied the variations in structural, morphological and optical properties of the samples due to the change of doping concentration in precursor solutions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that pure and La-doped ZnO thin films are highly textured along c-axis perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. Scanning electron micrographs show that surface morphology of ZnO films undergoes a significant change according to lanthanum doping. All films exhibit a transmittance higher than 80% in the visible region.

  5. Erbium-doped aluminophosphosilicate optical fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Zotov, K V; Medvedkov, O I; Lipatov, D S; Yashkov, M V; Gur'yanov, Aleksei N

    2010-09-10

    We have studied the active properties of erbium-doped aluminophosphosilicate (APS) core fibres in wide ranges of erbia, alumina and phosphorus pentoxide concentrations. The absorption and luminescence spectra of the P{sub 2}O{sub 5}- or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-enriched erbium-doped APS fibres are shown to be similar to those of the erbium-doped fibres singly doped with phosphorus pentoxide or alumina, respectively. The formation of AlPO{sub 4} in APS fibres leads not only to a reduction in the refractive index of the glass but also to a marked increase in Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility in silica. (optical fibres)

  6. Doping Profiles for Indium Antimonide Magnetoresistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, D. L.; Heremans, J.; Thrush, C. M.

    1997-03-01

    Indium antimonide is of interest for magnetoresistors in position sensors. These sensors are fabricated as thin film elements in order to increase the device impedance. The InSb is doped n-type to stabilize the electron density against temperature changes. This involves tradeoffs, since ionized donors scatter electrons, reducing their mobility and hence reducing the device sensitivity to a magnetic field. Optimizing the sensitivity involved three steps. The InSb is undoped for the first 10 to 20 percent of the film thickness, forming a buffer from the lattice mismatched substrate. The doping in the middle layer of the film has a doping gradient. Finally, a thin contact layer is more heavily doped to reduce contact resistance.

  7. Doping Scheme of Semiconducting Atomic Chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toshishige, Yamada; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Atomic chains, precise structures of atomic scale created on an atomically regulated substrate surface, are candidates for future electronics. A doping scheme for intrinsic semiconducting Mg chains is considered. In order to suppress the unwanted Anderson localization and minimize the deformation of the original band shape, atomic modulation doping is considered, which is to place dopant atoms beside the chain periodically. Group I atoms are donors, and group VI or VII atoms are acceptors. As long as the lattice constant is long so that the s-p band crossing has not occurred, whether dopant atoms behave as donors or acceptors is closely related to the energy level alignment of isolated atomic levels. Band structures are calculated for Br-doped (p-type) and Cs-doped (n-type) Mg chains using the tight-binding theory with universal parameters, and it is shown that the band deformation is minimized and only the Fermi energy position is modified.

  8. Au/ZnO hybrid nanocatalysts impregnated in N-doped graphene for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, acetaminophen and dopamine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianlan; Zhang, Guowei; Shi, Ling; Pan, Shanqing; Liu, Wei; Pan, Hiabo

    2016-08-01

    The formation of nitrogen-doped (N-doped) graphene uses hydrothermal method with urea as reducing agent and nitrogen source. The surface elemental composition of the catalyst was analyzed through XPS, which showed a high content of a total N species (7.12at.%), indicative of the effective N-doping, present in the form of pyridinic N, pyrrolic N and graphitic N groups. Moreover, Au nanoparticles deposited on ZnO nanocrystals surface, forming Au/ZnO hybrid nanocatalysts, undergo a super-hydrophobic to super-hydrophilic conversion. Herein, we present Au/ZnO hybrid nanocatalysts impregnated in N-doped graphene sheets through sonication technique of the Au/ZnO/N-doped graphene hybrid nanostructures. The as-prepared Au/ZnO/N-doped graphene hybrid nanostructure modified glassy carbon electrode (Au/ZnO/N-doped graphene/GCE) was first employed for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and acetaminophen (AC). The oxidation over-potentials of AA, DA and AC decreased dramatically, and their oxidation peak currents increased significantly at Au/ZnO/N-doped graphene/GCE compared to those obtained at the N-doped graphene/GCE and bare CCE. The peak separations between AA and DA, DA and AC, and AC and AA are large up to 195, 198 and 393mV, respectively. The calibration curves for AA, DA and AC were obtained in the range of 30.00-13.00×10(3), 2.00-0.18×10(3) and 5.00-3.10×10(3)μM, respectively. The detection limits (S/N=3) were 5.00, 0.40 and 0.80μM for AA, DA and AC, respectively.

  9. Direct visualization of gastrointestinal tract with lanthanide-doped BaYbF5 upconversion nanoprobes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Ju, Enguo; Liu, Jianhua; Du, Yingda; Li, Zhengqiang; Yuan, Qinghai; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2013-10-01

    Nanoparticulate contrast agents have attracted a great deal of attention along with the rapid development of modern medicine. Here, a binary contrast agent based on PAA modified BaYbF5:Tm nanoparticles for direct visualization of gastrointestinal (GI) tract has been designed and developed via a one-pot solvothermal route. By taking advantages of excellent colloidal stability, low cytotoxicity, and neglectable hemolysis of these well-designed nanoparticles, their feasibility as a multi-modal contrast agent for GI tract was intensively investigated. Significant enhancement of contrast efficacy relative to clinical barium meal and iodine-based contrast agent was evaluated via X-ray imaging and CT imaging in vivo. By doping Tm(3+) ions into these nanoprobes, in vivo NIR-NIR imaging was then demonstrated. Unlike some invasive imaging modalities, non-invasive imaging strategy including X-ray imaging, CT imaging, and UCL imaging for GI tract could extremely reduce the painlessness to patients, effectively facilitate imaging procedure, as well as rationality economize diagnostic time. Critical to clinical applications, long-term toxicity of our contrast agent was additionally investigated in detail, indicating their overall safety. Based on our results, PAA-BaYbF5:Tm nanoparticles were the excellent multi-modal contrast agent to integrate X-ray imaging, CT imaging, and UCL imaging for direct visualization of GI tract with low systemic toxicity.

  10. Targeting prohibited substances in doping control blood samples by means of chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Thomas, Andreas; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2013-12-01

    Urine samples have been the predominant matrix for doping controls for several decades. However, owing to the complementary information provided by blood (as well as serum or plasma and dried blood spots (DBS)), the benefits of its analysis have resulted in continuously increasing appreciation by anti-doping authorities. On the one hand, blood samples allow for the detection of various different methods of blood doping and the abuse of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) via the Athlete Biological Passport; on the other hand, targeted and non-targeted drug detection by means of chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods represents an important tool to increase doping control frequencies out-of-competition and to determine drug concentrations particularly in in-competition scenarios. Moreover, blood analysis seldom requires in-depth knowledge of drug metabolism, and the intact substance rather than potentially unknown or assumed metabolic products can be targeted. In this review, the recent developments in human sports drug testing concerning mass spectrometry-based techniques for qualitative and quantitative analyses of therapeutics and emerging drug candidates are summarized and reviewed. The analytical methods include both low and high molecular mass compounds (e.g., anabolic agents, stimulants, metabolic modulators, peptide hormones, and small interfering RNA (siRNA)) determined from serum, plasma, and DBS using state-of-the-art instrumentation such as liquid chromatography (LC)-high resolution/high accuracy (tandem) mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), LC-low resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

  11. Charge neutrality in heavily doped emitters

    SciTech Connect

    del Alamo, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    The applicability of the quasineutrality approximation to modern emitters of solar cells is analytically reviewed. It is shown that this approximation is fulfilled in more than 80% of the depth of a typical solar-cell emitter, being particularly excellent in the heavily doped regions beneath the surface where most of the heavy doping effects arise. Our conclusions are in conflict with Redfield's recent affirmations.

  12. Preparation of nitrogen-doped carbon tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hoon Taek; Zelenay, Piotr

    2015-12-22

    A method for synthesizing nitrogen-doped carbon tubes involves preparing a solution of cyanamide and a suitable transition metal-containing salt in a solvent, evaporating the solvent to form a solid, and pyrolyzing the solid under an inert atmosphere under conditions suitable for the production of nitrogen-doped carbon tubes from the solid. Pyrolyzing for a shorter period of time followed by rapid cooling resulted in a tubes with a narrower average diameter.

  13. Graphene doping methods and device applications.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jong Sik; Kim, Kyong Nam; Yeom, Geun Young

    2014-02-01

    Graphene has recently been studied as a promising material to replace and enhance conventional electronic materials in various fields such as electronics, photovoltaics, sensors, etc. However, for the electronic applications of graphene prepared by various techniques such as chemical vapor deposition, chemical exfoliation, mechanical exfoliation, etc., critical limitations are found due to the defects in the graphene in addition to the absence of a semiconducting band gap. For that, many researchers have investigated the doped graphene which is effective to tailor its electronic property and chemical reactivity. This work presents a review of the various graphene doping methods and their device applications. As doping methods, direct synthesis method and post treatment method could be categorized. Because the latter case has been widely investigated and used in various electronic applications, we will focus on the post treatment method. Post treatment method could be further classified into wet and dry doping methods. In the case of wet doping, acid treatment, metal chloride, and organic material coating are the methods used to functionalize graphene by using dip-coating, spin coating, etc. Electron charge transfer achieved from graphene to dopants or from dopants to graphene makes p-type or n-type graphenes, respectively, with sheet resistance reduction effect. In the case of dry doping, it can be further categorized into electrostatic field method, evaporation method, thermal treatment method, plasma treatment method, etc. These doping techniques modify Fermi energy level of graphene and functionalize the property of graphene. Finally, some perspectives and device applications of doped graphene are also briefly discussed.

  14. Epitaxial Deposition Of Germanium Doped With Gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Epitaxial layers of germanium doped with gallium made by chemical vapor deposition. Method involves combination of techniques and materials used in chemical vapor deposition with GeH4 or GeCl4 as source of germanium and GaCl3 as source of gallium. Resulting epitaxial layers of germanium doped with gallium expected to be highly pure, with high crystalline quality. High-quality material useful in infrared sensors.

  15. Novel Fiber Preforms: Rare Earth Doping.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-31

    proposed by the group at Southampton, and future experiments with axial laser heating of terbium metal are planned. As noted, much of the effort during...been doped with terbium , in our learning to control the doping concentration, we have observed bands of undesired microcrystailinity in some terbium ...preforms with terbium (not yet pulled into fibers), and rare earth glasses formed by sol-gel tech- niques. Future efforts will be to prepare fibers

  16. Porous allograft bone scaffolds: doping with strontium.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yantao; Guo, Dagang; Hou, Shuxun; Zhong, Hongbin; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Chunli; Zhou, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Strontium (Sr) can promote the process of bone formation. To improve bioactivity, porous allograft bone scaffolds (ABS) were doped with Sr and the mechanical strength and bioactivity of the scaffolds were evaluated. Sr-doped ABS were prepared using the ion exchange method. The density and distribution of Sr in bone scaffolds were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Controlled release of strontium ions was measured and mechanical strength was evaluated by a compressive strength test. The bioactivity of Sr-doped ABS was investigated by a simulated body fluid (SBF) assay, cytotoxicity testing, and an in vivo implantation experiment. The Sr molar concentration [Sr/(Sr+Ca)] in ABS surpassed 5% and Sr was distributed nearly evenly. XPS analyses suggest that Sr combined with oxygen and carbonate radicals. Released Sr ions were detected in the immersion solution at higher concentration than calcium ions until day 30. The compressive strength of the Sr-doped ABS did not change significantly. The bioactivity of Sr-doped material, as measured by the in vitro SBF immersion method, was superior to that of the Sr-free freeze-dried bone and the Sr-doped material did not show cytotoxicity compared with Sr-free culture medium. The rate of bone mineral deposition for Sr-doped ABS was faster than that of the control at 4 weeks (3.28 ± 0.23 µm/day vs. 2.60 ± 0.20 µm/day; p<0.05). Sr can be evenly doped into porous ABS at relevant concentrations to create highly active bone substitutes.

  17. Contrast agents for cardiac angiography: effects of a nonionic agent vs. a standard ionic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Bettmann, M.A.; Bourdillon, P.D.; Barry, W.H.; Brush, K.A.; Levin, D.C.

    1984-12-01

    The effects on cardiac hemodynamics and of a standard contrast agent, sodium methylglucamine diatrizoate (Renografin 76) were compared with the effects of a new nonionic agent (iohexol) in a double-blind study in 51 patietns undergoing coronary angiography and left ventriculography. No significant alteration in measured blood parameters occurred with either contrast agent. Hemodynamic changes occurred with both, but were significantly greater with the standard renografin than with the low-osmolality, nonionic iohexol. After left ventriculography, heart rate increased and peripheral arterial pressure fell with both agents, but less with iohexol. It is concluded that iohexol causes less alteration in cardiac function than does the agent currently most widely used. Nonionic contrast material is likely to improve the safety of coronary angiography, particularly in those patients at greatest risk.

  18. Agent Communications using Distributed Metaobjects

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Spires, Shannon V.

    1999-06-10

    There are currently two proposed standards for agent communication languages, namely, KQML (Finin, Lobrou, and Mayfield 1994) and the FIPA ACL. Neither standard has yet achieved primacy, and neither has been evaluated extensively in an open environment such as the Internet. It seems prudent therefore to design a general-purpose agent communications facility for new agent architectures that is flexible yet provides an architecture that accepts many different specializations. In this paper we exhibit the salient features of an agent communications architecture based on distributed metaobjects. This architecture captures design commitments at a metaobject level, leaving the base-level design and implementation up to the agent developer. The scope of the metamodel is broad enough to accommodate many different communication protocols, interaction protocols, and knowledge sharing regimes through extensions to the metaobject framework. We conclude that with a powerful distributed object substrate that supports metaobject communications, a general framework can be developed that will effectively enable different approaches to agent communications in the same agent system. We have implemented a KQML-based communications protocol and have several special-purpose interaction protocols under development.

  19. Guanine and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-guanine-specific oxidation in DNA by chromium(V).

    PubMed

    Sugden, Kent D; Martin, Brooke D

    2002-10-01

    The hexavalent oxidation state of chromium [Cr(VI)] is a well-established human carcinogen, although the mechanism of cancer induction is currently unknown. Intracellular reduction of Cr(VI) forms Cr(V), which is thought to play a fundamental role in the mechanism of DNA damage by this carcinogen. Two separate pathways of DNA damage, an oxidative pathway and a metal-binding pathway, have been proposed to account for the lesions observed in cell systems. We have used a model Cr(V) complex, N,N-ethylenebis(salicylidene-animato)oxochromium(V) [Cr(V)-Salen], to investigate the oxidative pathway of DNA damage and to elucidate the lesions generated from this oxidation process. Reaction of Cr(V)-Salen with synthetic oligonucleotides produced guanine-specific lesions that were not 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, based on the inability of iridium(IV) to further oxidize these sites. Oxidation products were identified using a 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-G) containing oligonucleotide to increase the yields of product for identification by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The guanine-based lesions observed by mass spectrometry corresponded to the lesions guanidinohydantoin and spiroiminodihydantoin. The effects of these Cr(V)-Salen-induced lesions on DNA replication fidelity was assayed using a polymerase-based misincorporation assay. These lesions produced G --> T transversion mutations and polymerase stops at levels greater than those observed for 8-oxo-G. These data suggest a model by which chromate can cause DNA damage leading to mutations and cancer.

  20. Spectroscopic characterization of genotoxic chromium(V) peptide complexes: Oxidation of Chromium(III) triglycine, tetraglycine and pentaglycine complexes.

    PubMed

    Headlam, Henrietta A; Lay, Peter A

    2016-09-01

    Evidence is growing that metabolites of Cr(III) dietary supplements are partially oxidized to carcinogenic Cr(VI) and Cr(V) in vivo. Hence, we examined oxidations of Cr(III) peptide (triglycine, tetraglycine and pentaglycine) complexes to Cr(VI) and Cr(V) by PbO2 at 37°C and physiological pH values between 3.85 and 7.4. The products were characterized by EPR and UV/Vis spectroscopies and electrospray mass spectrometry. At pH3.85, the monomeric Cr(V) complexes produced were relatively unstable and degraded over min to hr under the acidic conditions. The triglycine and tetraglycine Cr(V) complexes had five-line (14)N-superhyperfine-coupled EPR signals; giso, (AN) values 1.9824 (2.44×10(-4)cm(-1)) and 1.9825 (2.43×10(-4)cm(-1)), respectively. The pentaglycine Cr(V) complex had a seven-line (14)N-superhyperfine-coupled EPR signal: giso=1.9844; AN=2.27×10(-4)cm(-1). In phosphate buffer (pH7.4 and 5.85), several Cr(V) intermediates were produced, but Cr(VI) was the end product. For the triglycine, tetraglycine and pentaglycine Cr(V) complexes, the giso (AN, 10(-4)cm(-1)) values were 1.9831 (2.17), 1.9843 (2.27) and 1.9844 (2.30), respectively. A second EPR signal with unresolved superhyperfine structure was observed at giso~1.966. At 1min, the tetraglycine and pentaglycine Cr(V) complexes, had another signal at giso~1.978, which decayed relative to the other signals with time. This chemistry has relevance to: (i) certain types of DNA damage produced by Cr carcinogens; (ii) the intracellular oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI); and (iii) redox recycling of Cr(III) metabolites formed from both the intracellular reduction of carcinogenic Cr(VI) and from Cr(III) supplements.

  1. Detection of EPO gene doping in blood.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, Elmo W I; Jurkiewicz, Magdalena; Moser, Dirk A; Simon, Perikles

    2012-11-01

    Gene doping--or the abuse of gene therapy--will continue to threaten the sports world. History has shown that progress in medical research is likely to be abused in order to enhance human performance. In this review, we critically discuss the progress and the risks associated with the field of erythropoietin (EPO) gene therapy and its applicability to EPO gene doping. We present typical vector systems that are employed in ex vivo and in vivo gene therapy trials. Due to associated risks, gene doping is not a feasible alternative to conventional EPO or blood doping at this time. Nevertheless, it is well described that about half of the elite athlete population is in principle willing to risk its health to gain a competitive advantage. This includes the use of technologies that lack safety approval. Sophisticated detection approaches are a prerequisite for prevention of unapproved and uncontrolled use of gene therapy technology. In this review, we present current detection approaches for EPO gene doping, with a focus on blood-based direct and indirect approaches. Gene doping is detectable in principle, and recent DNA-based detection strategies enable long-term detection of transgenic DNA (tDNA) following in vivo gene transfer.

  2. Current strategies of blood doping detection.

    PubMed

    Pottgiesser, Torben; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf

    2013-12-01

    During the last 30 years, the artificial increase of red blood cell volume ("blood doping") has changed the level of performance in all endurance sports. Many doping scandals have shown the extent of the problem. The detection of blood doping relies on two different approaches: the direct detection of exogenous manipulating substances (erythropoietic stimulants) or red cells (homologous transfusion) and the indirect detection, where not the doping substance or technique itself, but its effect on certain biomarkers is measured. Whereas direct detection using standard laboratory procedures such as isoelectric focusing can identify erythropoietic stimulants, homologous blood transfusion is identified through mismatches in minor blood group antigens by flow cytometry. Indirect methods such as the athlete biological passport are the only means to detect autologous transfusion and may also be used for the detection of erythropoietic stimulants or homologous transfusion. New techniques to unmask blood doping include the use of high-throughput 'omics' technologies (proteomics/metabolomics) and the combination of different biomarkers with the help of mathematical approaches. Future strategies should aim at improving the use of the available data and resources by applying pattern recognition algorithms to recognize suspicious athletes and, on the basis of these findings, use the appropriate testing method. Different types of information should be combined in the quest for a forensic approach to anti-doping.

  3. Encapsulated boron as an osteoinductive agent for bone scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe; Tunçay, Ekin Ö; Kaynak, Gökçe; Demirtaş, Tolga T; Aydın, Seda Tığlı; Hakkı, Sema S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop boron (B)-releasing polymeric scaffold to promote regeneration of bone tissue. Boric acid-doped chitosan nanoparticles with a diameter of approx. 175 nm were produced by tripolyphosphate (TPP)-initiated ionic gelation process. The nanoparticles strongly attached via electrostatic interactions into chitosan scaffolds produced by freeze-drying with approx. 100 μm pore diameter. According to the ICP-OES results, following first 5h initial burst release, fast release of B from scaffolds was observed for 24h incubation period in conditioned medium. Then, slow release of B was performed over 120 h. The results of the cell culture studies proved that the encapsulated boron within the scaffolds can be used as an osteoinductive agent by showing its positive effects on the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblastic cells.

  4. Doping with artificial oxygen carriers: an update.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Ashenden, Michael

    2004-01-01

    traumatic blood loss, oxygen therapeutic applications in radiography (oxygenation of tumour cells is beneficial to the effect of certain chemotherapeutic agents), other medical applications such as organ preservation, and finally to meet the requirements of patients who cannot receive donor blood because of religious beliefs. Given the elite athlete's historical propensity to experiment with novel doping strategies, it is likely that the burgeoning field of artificial oxygen carriers has already attracted their attention. Scientific data concerning the performance benefits associated with blood substitutes are virtually nonexistent; however, international sporting federations have been commendably proactive in adding this category to their banned substance lists. The current situation is vulnerable to exploitation by immoral athletes since there is still no accepted methodology to test for the presence of artificial oxygen carriers.

  5. Requirements Modeling with Agent Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Aniruddha; Krishna, Aneesh; Ghose, Aditya K.

    Agent-oriented conceptual modeling notations are highly effective in representing requirements from an intentional stance and answering questions such as what goals exist, how key actors depend on each other, and what alternatives must be considered. In this chapter, we review an approach to executing i* models by translating these into set of interacting agents implemented in the CASO language and suggest how we can perform reasoning with requirements modeled (both functional and non-functional) using i* models. In this chapter we particularly incorporate deliberation into the agent design. This allows us to benefit from the complementary representational capabilities of the two frameworks.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1997-12-30

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Paul H.; Brainard, James R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1997-01-01

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC.sub.16 H.sub.14 N.sub.6. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

  8. Phase transitions and doping in semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Ayaskanta

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals are a promising technological material because their size-dependent optical and electronic properties can be exploited for a diverse range of applications such as light-emitting diodes, bio-labels, transistors, and solar cells. For many of these applications, electrical current needs to be transported through the devices. However, while their solution processability makes these colloidal nanocrystals attractive candidates for device applications, the bulky surfactants that render these nanocrystals dispersible in common solvents block electrical current. Thus, in order to realize the full potential of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals in the next-generation of solid-state devices, methods must be devised to make conductive films from these nanocrystals. One way to achieve this would be to add minute amounts of foreign impurity atoms (dopants) to increase their conductivity. Electronic doping in nanocrystals is still very much in its infancy with limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms that govern the doping process. This thesis introduces an innovative synthesis of doped nanocrystals and aims at expanding the fundamental understanding of charge transport in these doped nanocrystal films. The list of semiconductor nanocrystals that can be doped is large, and if one combines that with available dopants, an even larger set of materials with interesting properties and applications can be generated. In addition to doping, another promising route to increase conductivity in nanocrystal films is to use nanocrystals with high ionic conductivities. This thesis also examines this possibility by studying new phases of mixed ionic and electronic conductors at the nanoscale. Such a versatile approach may open new pathways for interesting fundamental research, and also lay the foundation for the creation of novel materials with important applications. In addition to their size-dependence, the intentional incorporation of

  9. Field Evaporation of Grounded Arsenic Doped Silicon Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zexiang; She, Juncong; Li, Zhibing; Wang, Weiliang; Chen, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    We have investigated the field evaporation of grounded arsenic (As) doped silicon (Si) clusters composed of 52 atoms with density functional theory (DFT) to mimic Si nano structures of hundreds of nanometers long standing on a substrate. Six cluster structures with different As doping concentrations and dopant locations are studied. The critical evaporation electric fields are found to be lower for clusters with higher doping concentrations and doping sites closer to the surface. We attribute the difference to the difference in binding energies corresponding to the different As-doping concentrations and to the doping locations. Our theoretical study could shed light on the stability of nano apexes under high electric field.

  10. Method of making molecularly doped composite polymer material

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D [Tucson, AZ; Martin, Peter M [Kennewick, WA; Graff, Gordon L [West Richland, WA; Burrows, Paul E [Kennewick, WA; Gross, Mark E. , Sapochak, Linda S.

    2005-06-21

    A method of making a composite polymer of a molecularly doped polymer. The method includes mixing a liquid polymer precursor with molecular dopant forming a molecularly doped polymer precursor mixture. The molecularly doped polymer precursor mixture is flash evaporated forming a composite vapor. The composite vapor is cryocondensed on a cool substrate forming a composite molecularly doped polymer precursor layer, and the cryocondensed composite molecularly doped polymer precursor layer is cross linked thereby forming a layer of the composite polymer layer of the molecularly doped polymer.

  11. Reporting doping in sport: national level athletes' perceptions of their role in doping prevention.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, L; Backhouse, S H; Long, J

    2014-12-01

    This paper qualitatively explores national level athletes' willingness to report doping in sport. Following ethical approval, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine national level athletes from rugby league (n = 5) and track and field athletics (n = 4). Thematic analysis established the main themes within the data. Contextual differences existed around the role that athletes perceived they would play if they became aware of doping. Specifically, track and field athletes would adopt the role of a whistle-blower and report individuals who were doping in their sport. In comparison, the rugby league players highlighted a moral dilemma. Despite disagreeing with their teammates' actions, the players would adhere to a code of silence and refrain from reporting doping. Taking these findings into account, prevention programs might focus on changing broader group and community norms around doping. In doing so, community members' receptivity to prevention messages may increase. Moreover, developing skills to intervene (e.g., speaking out against social norms that support doping behavior) or increasing awareness of reporting lines could enhance community responsibility for doping prevention. In sum, the findings highlight the need to consider the context of sport and emphasize that a one-size-fits-all approach to anti-doping is problematic.

  12. Drug-drug interaction and doping, part 1: an in vitro study on the effect of non-prohibited drugs on the phase I metabolic profile of toremifene.

    PubMed

    Mazzarino, Monica; de la Torre, Xavier; Fiacco, Ilaria; Palermo, Amelia; Botrè, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to provide preliminary information on the potential impact of metabolic drug-drug interaction on the effectiveness of doping control strategies currently followed by the anti-doping laboratories to detect the intake of banned agents. In vitro assays based on the use of human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP isoforms were designed and performed to characterize the phase I metabolic profile of the prohibited agent toremifene, selected as a prototype drug of the class of selective oestrogen receptor modulators, both in the absence and in the presence of medicaments (fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, cimetidine, ranitidine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, nefazodone) not included in the World Anti-Doping Agency list of prohibited substances and methods and frequently administered to athletes. The results show that the in vitro model developed in this study was adequate to simulate the in vivo metabolism of toremifene, confirming the results obtained in previous studies. Furthermore, our data also show that ketoconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and nefazodone cause a marked modification in the production of the metabolic products (i.e. hydroxylated and carboxylated metabolites) normally selected by the anti-doping laboratories as target analytes to detect toremifene intake; moderate variations were registered in the presence of fluconazole, paroxetine and fluoxetine; while no significant modifications were measured in the presence of ranitidine and cimetidine. This evidence imposes that the potential effect of drug-drug interactions is duly taken into account in anti-doping analysis, also for a broader significance of the analytical results.

  13. Agent-based forward analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kerekes, Ryan A.; Jiao, Yu; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Potok, Thomas E.; Lusk, Rick M.

    2008-01-01

    We propose software agent-based "forward analysis" for efficient information retrieval in a network of sensing devices. In our approach, processing is pushed to the data at the edge of the network via intelligent software agents rather than pulling data to a central facility for processing. The agents are deployed with a specific query and perform varying levels of analysis of the data, communicating with each other and sending only relevant information back across the network. We demonstrate our concept in the context of face recognition using a wireless test bed comprised of PDA cell phones and laptops. We show that agent-based forward analysis can provide a significant increase in retrieval speed while decreasing bandwidth usage and information overload at the central facility. n

  14. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset ... percent disabling by VA's rating regulations. About peripheral neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy is a condition of the peripheral ...

  15. Diamine curing agents for polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, V. L.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    Three aromatic diamines have properties that make them promising candidates as curing agents for converting isocyanates to polyurethanes with higher adhesive strengths, higher softening temperatures, better toughness, and improved abrasion resistance.

  16. Triggered pore-forming agents

    DOEpatents

    Bayley, Hagan; Walker, Barbara J.; Chang, Chung-yu; Niblack, Brett; Panchal, Rekha

    1998-01-01

    An inactive pore-forming agent which is activated to lytic function by a condition such as pH, light, heat, reducing potential, or metal ion concentration, or substance such as a protease, at the surface of a cell.

  17. Tissue Penetration of Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Felton, Timothy; Troke, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding the tissue penetration of systemically administered antifungal agents is critical for a proper appreciation of their antifungal efficacy in animals and humans. Both the time course of an antifungal drug and its absolute concentrations within tissues may differ significantly from those observed in the bloodstream. In addition, tissue concentrations must also be interpreted within the context of the pathogenesis of the various invasive fungal infections, which differ significantly. There are major technical obstacles to the estimation of concentrations of antifungal agents in various tissue subcompartments, yet these agents, even those within the same class, may exhibit markedly different tissue distributions. This review explores these issues and provides a summary of tissue concentrations of 11 currently licensed systemic antifungal agents. It also explores the therapeutic implications of their distribution at various sites of infection. PMID:24396137

  18. AL Amyloidosis and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... for survivors' benefits . Research on AL amyloidosis and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (formally known as ... to the compounds of interest found in the herbicide Agent Orange and AL amyloidosis." VA made a ...

  19. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... eligible for a free Agent Orange registry health exam . Research on peripheral neuropathy and herbicides The Health ...

  20. AL Amyloidosis and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... eligible for a free Agent Orange registry health exam . Surviving spouses, dependent children and dependent parents of ...

  1. Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met, identifies limit warnings and violations of launch commit criteria, aids Shuttle engineers through troubleshooting procedures, and provides additional insight to verify appropriate troubleshooting of problems by contractors. The agent has successfully detected launch commit criteria warnings and violations on a simulated playback data stream. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation.

  2. Small animal imaging platform for quantitative assessment of short-wave infrared-emitting contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Philip; Mingozzi, Marco; Higgins, Laura M.; Ganapathy, Vidya; Zevon, Margot; Riman, Richard E.; Roth, Charles M.; Moghe, Prabhas V.; Pierce, Mark C.

    2015-03-01

    We report the design, calibration, and testing of a pre-clinical small animal imaging platform for use with short-wave infrared (SWIR) emitting contrast agents. Unlike materials emitting at visible or near-infrared wavelengths, SWIR-emitting agents require detection systems with sensitivity in the 1-2 μm wavelength region, beyond the range of commercially available small animal imagers. We used a collimated 980 nm laser beam to excite rare-earth-doped NaYF4:Er,Yb nanocomposites, as an example of a SWIR emitting material under development for biomedical imaging applications. This beam was raster scanned across the animal, with fluorescence in the 1550 nm wavelength region detected by an InGaAs area camera. Background adjustment and intensity non-uniformity corrections were applied in software. The final SWIR fluorescence image was overlaid onto a standard white-light image for registration of contrast agent uptake with respect to anatomical features.

  3. Transport properties for carbon chain sandwiched between heteroatom-doped carbon nanotubes with different doping sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenjiang; Deng, Xiaoqing; Cai, Shaohong

    2016-07-01

    The First-principles calculation is used to investigate the transport properties of a carbon chain connected with N-and/or B-doped caped carbon nanotube acting as electrodes. The I-V curves of the carbon chain are affected by the N/B doping sites, and rectifying behavior can be obtained distinctly when the carbon chain is just connected onto two doping atom sites (N- chain-B), and a weak rectification occurs when N (B) doping at other sites. Interestingly, the spin-filtering effects exist in the junction when it is doped at other sites, undoped system, or N-terminal carbon chains. However, no this behavior is found in N-chain-B and B-chain-B systems. The analysis on the transmission spectra, PDOS, LDOS, spin density, and the electron transmission pathways give an insight into the observed results for the system.

  4. Doping with growth hormone/IGF-1, anabolic steroids or erythropoietin: is there a cancer risk?

    PubMed

    Tentori, Lucio; Graziani, Grazia

    2007-05-01

    Anabolic steroid and peptide hormones or growth factors are utilized to increase the performance of athletes of professional or amateur sports. Despite their well-documented adverse effects, the use of some of these agents has significantly grown and has been extended also to non-athletes with the aim to improve appearance or to counteract ageing. Pre-clinical studies and epidemiological observations in patients with an excess of hormone production or in patients chronically treated with hormones/growth factors for various pathologies have warned about the potential risk of cancer development and progression which may be also associated to the use of certain doping agents. Anabolic steroids have been described to provoke liver tumours; growth hormone or high levels of its mediator insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have been associated with colon, breast, and prostate cancers. Actually, IGF-1 promotes cell cycle progression and inhibits apoptosis either by triggering other growth factors or by interacting with pathways which have an established role in carcinogenesis and cancer promotion. More recently, the finding that erythropoietin (Epo) may promote angiogenesis and inhibit apoptosis or modulate chemo- or radiosensitivity in cancer cells expressing the Epo receptor, raised the concern that the use of recombinant Epo to increase tissue oxygenation might favour tumour survival and aggressiveness. Cancer risk associated to doping might be higher than that of patients using hormones/growth factors as replacement therapy, since enormous doses are taken by the athletes often for a long period of time. Moreover, these substances are often used in combination with other licit or illicit drugs and this renders almost unpredictable all the possible adverse effects including cancer. Anyway, athletes should be made aware that long-term treatment with doping agents might increase the risk of developing cancer.

  5. What makes virtual agents believable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanovych, Anton; Trescak, Tomas; Simoff, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the concept of believability and make an attempt to isolate individual characteristics (features) that contribute to making virtual characters believable. As the result of this investigation we have produced a formalisation of believability and based on this formalisation built a computational framework focused on simulation of believable virtual agents that possess the identified features. In order to test whether the identified features are, in fact, responsible for agents being perceived as more believable, we have conducted a user study. In this study we tested user reactions towards the virtual characters that were created for a simulation of aboriginal inhabitants of a particular area of Sydney, Australia in 1770 A.D. The participants of our user study were exposed to short simulated scenes, in which virtual agents performed some behaviour in two different ways (while possessing a certain aspect of believability vs. not possessing it). The results of the study indicate that virtual agents that appear resource bounded, are aware of their environment, own interaction capabilities and their state in the world, agents that can adapt to changes in the environment and exist in correct social context are those that are being perceived as more believable. Further in the paper we discuss these and other believability features and provide a quantitative analysis of the level of contribution for each such feature to the overall perceived believability of a virtual agent.

  6. Plant extract-mediated biogenic synthesis of silver, manganese dioxide, silver-doped manganese dioxide nanoparticles and their antibacterial activity against food- and water-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, Chandran; Ji, Byoung-Jun; Harper, Stacey L; Yun, Soon-Il

    2016-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), manganese dioxide nanoparticles (MnO₂NPs) and silver-doped manganese dioxide nanoparticles (Ag-doped MnO₂NPs) were synthesized by simultaneous green chemistry reduction approach. Aqueous extract from the leaves of medicinally important plant Cucurbita pepo was used as reducing and capping agents. Various characterization techniques were carried out to affirm the formation of nanoparticles. HR-TEM analysis confirmed the size of nanoparticles in the range of 15-70 nm and also metal doping was confirmed through XRD and EDS analyses. FT-IR analysis confirmed that the presence of biomolecules in the aqueous leaves extract was responsible for nanoparticles synthesis. Further, the concentration of metals and their doping in the reaction mixture was achieved by ICP-MS. The growth curve and well diffusion study of synthesized nanoparticles were performed against food- and water-borne Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The mode of interaction of nanoparticles on bacterial cells was demonstrated through Bio-TEM analysis. Interestingly, AgNPs and Ag-doped MnO₂NPs showed better antibacterial activity against all the tested bacterial pathogens; however, MnO₂NPs alone did not show any antibacterial properties. Hence, AgNPs and Ag-doped MnO₂NPs synthesized from aqueous plant leaves extract may have important role in controlling various food spoilage caused by bacteria.

  7. Polyaniline/poly(ɛ-caprolactone) composite electrospun nanofiber-based gas sensors: optimization of sensing properties by dopants and doping concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Karen; Chartuprayoon, Nicha; Echeverria, Cristina; Li, Changling; Bosze, Wayne; Myung, Nosang V.; Nam, Jin

    2014-03-01

    Electrospinning was utilized to synthesize a polyaniline (PANI)/poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) composite in the form of nanofibers to examine its gas sensing performance. Electrical conductivity of the composite nanofibers was tailored by secondary doping with protonic acids including hydrochloride (HCl) or camphorsulfonic acid (HCSA). FT-IR and diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy were utilized to examine doping-dependent changes in the chemical structure and the protonation state of the nanofibers, respectively. The oxidation and protonation state of the composite nanofibers were shown to strongly depend on the doping agent and duration, demonstrating a simple way of controlling the electrical conductivity of the composite. PANI/PCL electrospun nanofibers having various electrical conductivities via varying dopants and doping concentrations, were configured to chemiresistors for sensing various analytes, including water vapor, NH3, and NO2. Secondary doping with Cl- and CSA differentially affected sensing behaviors by having distinctive optimal sensitivities. Biphasic sensitivity with respect to electrical conductivity was observed, demonstrating a facile method to enhance gas sensitivity by optimizing secondary doping. A balance between Debye length of the nanofibers and overall charge conduction may play an important role for modulating such an optimal sensitivity.

  8. Nanofabrication of Doped, Complex Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, A.; Waller, G.H.; Abiade, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    Complex oxides have many promising attributes, including wide band gaps for high temperature semiconductors, ion conducting electrolytes in fuel cells, ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism. Bulk and thin film oxides can be readily manufactured and tested however these physically hard and chemically inert materials cannot be nanofabricated by direct application of conventional methods. In order to study these materials at the nanoscale there must first be a simple and effective means to achieve the desired structures. Here we discuss the use of pulsed laser deposition at room temperature onto electron beam lithography defined templates of poly methyl methacrylate photoresist. Following a resist liftoff in organic solvents, a heat treatment was used to crystallize the nanostructures. The morphology of these structures was studied using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Crystallinity and composition as determined by x ray diffraction and photo-electron spectroscopy respectively is reported for thin film analogues of the nanostructured oxide. The oxide studied in this report is Nb doped SrTiO{sub 3}, which has been investigated for use as a high temperature thermoelectric material; however the approach used is not materials-dependent.

  9. Doping of Semiconducting Atomic Chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toshishige, Yamada; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Due to the rapid progress in atom manipulation technology, atomic chain electronics would not be a dream, where foreign atoms are placed on a substrate to form a chain, and its electronic properties are designed by controlling the lattice constant d. It has been shown theoretically that a Si atomic chain is metallic regardless of d and that a Mg atomic chain is semiconducting or insulating with a band gap modified with d. For electronic applications, it is essential to establish a method to dope a semiconducting chain, which is to control the Fermi energy position without altering the original band structure. If we replace some of the chain atoms with dopant atoms randomly, the electrons will see random potential along the chain and will be localized strongly in space (Anderson localization). However, if we replace periodically, although the electrons can spread over the chain, there will generally appear new bands and band gaps reflecting the new periodicity of dopant atoms. This will change the original band structure significantly. In order to overcome this dilemma, we may place a dopant atom beside the chain at every N lattice periods (N > 1). Because of the periodic arrangement of dopant atoms, we can avoid the unwanted Anderson localization. Moreover, since the dopant atoms do not constitute the chain, the overlap interaction between them is minimized, and the band structure modification can be made smallest. Some tight-binding results will be discussed to demonstrate the present idea.

  10. Learning in multi-agent systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, C.V.

    1996-12-31

    Learning agents acting in a multi agent environment can improve their performance. These agents might decide upon their course of action by learning about other agents with whom they interact. The learning agents can learn about the others information and rules of behavior. The agents will not need to plan their actions beforehand, each time they are asked to solve the same problem they have already solved or when dealing with similar problems.

  11. Optimized dispersion of conductive agents for enhanced Li-storage performance of TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Moyan; Chen, Ge

    2016-12-01

    Novel TiO2/carbon (TiO2/C) composites have been synthesized by a layer-by-layer deposition method, with electrostatic interaction. The addition of carbon conductive agents enhances the electrochemical performance of TiO2. Carbon for these has been sourced 0D nitrogen-doped carbon, 1D carbon nanotubes and 2D graphene. The as-obtained TiO2/C composites show carbon nanotubes and titanium dioxide coaxial nanocables anchored on the graphene. The nitrogen-doped carbon is uniformly dispersed on the nanocables. As anode materials for Li-ion batteries, the TiO2/C composites exhibit excellent rate capability and cycling stability. A capacity of 150 mAh/g is retained at a current density of 4 A/g. The enhanced electrochemical performance may be attributed to the well-dispersed carbon conductive framework, which facilitates charge transfer during the lithium insertion/extraction process.

  12. Ga@C-dots as an antibacterial agent for the eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay Bhooshan; Natan, Michal; Jacobi, Gila; Porat, Ze'ev; Banin, Ehud; Gedanken, Aharon

    2017-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes infections that are difficult to treat by antibiotic therapy. This research article reports on the synthesis of gallium (Ga) doped in carbon (C)-dots (Ga@C-dots) and their antimicrobial activity against free-living P. aeruginosa bacteria. The synthesis of Ga@C-dots was carried out by sonicating molten Ga (for 2.5 h) in polyethylene glycol-400, which acts as both a medium and carbon source. The resultant Ga@C-dots, having an average diameter of 9±2 nm, showed remarkably enhanced antibacterial activity compared with undoped C-dots. This was reflected by the much lower concentration of Ga doped within Ga@C-dots which was required for full inhibition of the bacterial growth. These results highlight the possibility of using Ga@C-dots as potential antimicrobial agents.

  13. Ga@C-dots as an antibacterial agent for the eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay Bhooshan; Natan, Michal; Jacobi, Gila; Porat, Ze’ev; Banin, Ehud; Gedanken, Aharon

    2017-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes infections that are difficult to treat by antibiotic therapy. This research article reports on the synthesis of gallium (Ga) doped in carbon (C)-dots (Ga@C-dots) and their antimicrobial activity against free-living P. aeruginosa bacteria. The synthesis of Ga@C-dots was carried out by sonicating molten Ga (for 2.5 h) in polyethylene glycol-400, which acts as both a medium and carbon source. The resultant Ga@C-dots, having an average diameter of 9±2 nm, showed remarkably enhanced antibacterial activity compared with undoped C-dots. This was reflected by the much lower concentration of Ga doped within Ga@C-dots which was required for full inhibition of the bacterial growth. These results highlight the possibility of using Ga@C-dots as potential antimicrobial agents. PMID:28176980

  14. Electrospark doping of steel with tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Denisova, Yulia Shugurov, Vladimir; Seksenalina, Malika; Ivanova, Olga Ikonnikova, Irina; Kunitsyna, Tatyana Vlasov, Victor; Klopotov, Anatoliy; Ivanov, Yuriy

    2016-01-15

    The paper is devoted to the numerical modeling of thermal processes and the analysis of the structure and properties of the surface layer of carbon steel subjected to electrospark doping with tungsten. The problem of finding the temperature field in the system film (tungsten) / substrate (iron) is reduced to the solution of the heat conductivity equation. A one-dimensional case of heating and cooling of a plate with the thickness d has been considered. Calculations of temperature fields formed in the system film / substrate synthesized using methods of electrospark doping have been carried out as a part of one-dimensional approximation. Calculations have been performed to select the mode of the subsequent treatment of the system film / substrate with a high-intensity pulsed electron beam. Authors revealed the conditions of irradiation allowing implementing processes of steel doping with tungsten. A thermodynamic analysis of phase transformations taking place during doping of iron with tungsten in equilibrium conditions has been performed. The studies have been carried out on the surface layer of the substrate modified using the method of electrospark doping. The results showed the formation in the surface layer of a structure with a highly developed relief and increased strength properties.

  15. Doping and Performance Enhancing Drug Use in Athletes Living in Sivas, Mid-Anatolia: A Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Levent; Nur, Naim; Bagcivan, Ihsan; Bulut, Okay; Sümer, Haldun; Tezeren, Gündüz

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of doping and performance enhancing drug use in athletes in Sivas, Turkey, and to analyze the main reasons for the use. This was a cross-sectional study based on a self-report questionnaire. The subjects filled the questionnaires under the supervision of the investigators during interviews. This questionnaire included 24 items describing the population in terms of demographics, sport practice, doping in sport and substance use. Moreover, we assessed the frequency of doping drug use. The number of respondents was 883, of which 433 athletes and 450 healthy non-athletes (control group). The mean age of the total volunteers was 21.8 ± 3.7 yrs. The male and female ratios were 78.2% and 21.8% respectively. Doping and performance enhancing drug usage rate was 8.0% (71cases in 883 subjects). Doping drug use among the athletes was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (14.5%) compared with the non-athletes (1.8%). The agents used were anabolic steroids in 60.5%, l-carnitene in 12.7%, erythropoietin in 5.4%, Na-bicarbonate in 11.3% and creatinine in 14.1% of 71 cases. The reasons for doping use were to have a better body condition in 34 cases (47.9%) and to solve weight (gaining or loosing) problems in 8 (11.3%) cases. Since the potential side effects of doping drugs are not satisfactorily familiar to the most users, the education of athletes on the matter must be a top priority. Key Points Doping and performance enhancing drug use was 71 (8.0%) in 883 subjects, and it was significantly higher (14.5%) in the athletes compared with the non-athletes (1.8%) in Sivas, Turkey. The rate of athletes who experienced such drugs at least once in their life was 29.0%. The 52.4% of doping and performance enhancing drug users accepted that they were unaware of the drugs full and/or potential side effects. PMID:24453528

  16. Metal-doped organic gels and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Baumann, Theodore F.

    2003-09-02

    Disclosed herein is a sol-gel polymerization process for synthesizing metal-doped organic gels. The process polymerizes metal salts of hydroxylated benzenes or hydroxylated benzene derivatives with alkyl or aryl aldehydes to form metal-doped, wet, organic gels. The gels can then be dried by supercritical solvent extraction to form metal-doped aerogels or by evaporation to form metal-doped xerogels. The aerogels and xerogels can then be pyrolyzed.

  17. Metal-doped organic gels and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Baumann, Theodore F.

    2007-10-23

    Disclosed herein is a sol-gel polymerization process for synthesizing metal-doped organic gels. The process polymerizes metal salts of hydroxylated benzenes or hydroxylated benzene derivatives with alkyl or aryl aldehydes to form metal-doped, wet, organic gels. The gels can then be dried by supercritical solvent extraction to form metal-doped aerogels or by evaporation to form metal-doped xerogels. The aerogels and xerogels can then be pyrolyzed.

  18. Doping To Reduce Base Resistances Of Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, True-Lon

    1991-01-01

    Modified doping profile proposed to reduce base resistance of bipolar transistors. A p/p+ base-doping profile reduces base resistance without reducing current gain. Proposed low/high base-doping profile realized by such low-temperature deposition techniques as molecular-beam epitaxy, ultra-high-vacuum chemical-vapor deposition, and limited-reaction epitaxy. Produces desired doping profiles without excessive diffusion of dopant.

  19. Momentum and Doping Dependence of Spin Excitations in Electron-Doped Cuprate Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Pengfei; Zhao, Huaisong; Kuang, Lülin; Lan, Yu; Feng, Shiping

    2017-01-01

    Superconductivity in copper oxides emerges on doping holes or electrons into their Mott-insulating parent compounds. The spin excitations are thought to be the mediating glue for the pairing in superconductivity. Here the momentum and doping dependence of the dynamical spin response in the electron-doped cuprate superconductors is studied based on the kinetic-energy-driven superconducting mechanism. It is shown that the dispersion of the low-energy spin excitations changes strongly upon electron doping; however, the hour-glass-shaped dispersion of the low-energy spin excitations appeared in the hole-doped case is absent on the electron-doped side due to the electron-hole asymmetry. In particular, the commensurate resonance appears in the superconducting state with the resonance energy that correlates with the dome-shaped doping dependence of the superconducting gap. Moreover, the spectral weight and dispersion of the high-energy spin excitations in the superconducting state are comparable with those in the corresponding normal state, indicating that the high-energy spin excitations do not play an important part in the pair formation.

  20. Doping dependent properties of Cr-doped ZnO nanostructures prepared by microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Faheem; Arshi, Nishat; Anwar, M S; Koo, Bon Heun

    2014-11-01

    In this work, undoped and Cr-doped single-crystalline ZnO nanorods were prepared by a facile microwave assisted solution method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed that Cr-doped ZnO was comprised of single phase nature with hexagonal wurtzite structure up to 5% Cr doping, however, secondary phase ZnCr2O4 appeared upon further increasing the Cr dopant concentration. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and TEM micrographs suggested that the undoped nanorods with an average length of -~2 μm and a diameter in the range of 150-200 nm, respectively were observed. Interestingly, the size of nanorods decreased with the increase of Cr concentration in ZnO. Optical studies depicted that the energy bandgap was decreased with the increase of Cr concentration. Raman scattering spectra of Cr-doped ZnO revealed the lower frequency shift of E2(high) phonon mode with the increase in concentration of Cr dopant, suggested the successful doping of Cr into Zn site in ZnO. Magnetic studies showed that Cr-doped ZnO exhibited room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) and the value of magnetization was continuously decreased with the increase in Cr doping.

  1. Collective behavior of predictive agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kephart, Jeffrey O.; Hogg, Tad; Huberman, Bernardo A.

    1990-06-01

    We investigate the effect of predictions upon a model of coevolutionary systems which was originally inspired by computational ecosystems. The model incorporates many of the features of distributed resource allocation in systems comprised of many individual agents, including asynchrony, resource contention, and decision-making based upon incomplete knowledge and delayed information. Previous analyses of a similar model of non-predictive agents have demonstrated that periodic or chaotic oscillations in resource allocation can occur under certain conditions, and that these oscillations can affect the performance of the system adversely. In this work, we show that the system performance can be improved if the agents do an adequate job of predicting the current state of the system. We explore two plausible methods for prediction - technical analysis and system analysis. Technical analysts are responsive to the behavior of the system, but suffer from an inability to take their own behavior into account. System analysts perform extremely well when they have very accurate information about the other agents in the system, but can perform very poorly when their information is even slightly inaccurate. By combining the strengths of both methods, we obtain a successful hybrid of the two prediction methods which adapts its model of other agents in response to the observed behavior of the system.

  2. Investigational Antimicrobial Agents of 2013

    PubMed Central

    Pucci, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY New antimicrobial agents are always needed to counteract the resistant pathogens that continue to be selected by current therapeutic regimens. This review provides a survey of known antimicrobial agents that were currently in clinical development in the fall of 2012 and spring of 2013. Data were collected from published literature primarily from 2010 to 2012, meeting abstracts (2011 to 2012), government websites, and company websites when appropriate. Compared to what was reported in previous surveys, a surprising number of new agents are currently in company pipelines, particularly in phase 3 clinical development. Familiar antibacterial classes of the quinolones, tetracyclines, oxazolidinones, glycopeptides, and cephalosporins are represented by entities with enhanced antimicrobial or pharmacological properties. More importantly, compounds of novel chemical structures targeting bacterial pathways not previously exploited are under development. Some of the most promising compounds include novel β-lactamase inhibitor combinations that target many multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, a critical medical need. Although new antimicrobial agents will continue to be needed to address increasing antibiotic resistance, there are novel agents in development to tackle at least some of the more worrisome pathogens in the current nosocomial setting. PMID:24092856

  3. Next Generation Remote Agent Planner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Ari K.; Muscettola, Nicola; Morris, Paul H.; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    In May 1999, as part of a unique technology validation experiment onboard the Deep Space One spacecraft, the Remote Agent became the first complete autonomous spacecraft control architecture to run as flight software onboard an active spacecraft. As one of the three components of the architecture, the Remote Agent Planner had the task of laying out the course of action to be taken, which included activities such as turning, thrusting, data gathering, and communicating. Building on the successful approach developed for the Remote Agent Planner, the Next Generation Remote Agent Planner is a completely redesigned and reimplemented version of the planner. The new system provides all the key capabilities of the original planner, while adding functionality, improving performance and providing a modular and extendible implementation. The goal of this ongoing project is to develop a system that provides both a basis for future applications and a framework for further research in the area of autonomous planning for spacecraft. In this article, we present an introductory overview of the Next Generation Remote Agent Planner. We present a new and simplified definition of the planning problem, describe the basics of the planning process, lay out the new system design and examine the functionality of the core reasoning module.

  4. Photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes by Er3+: YAlO3/Co- and Fe-doped ZnO coated composites under solar irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Lu, Chunxiao; Tang, Liang; Song, Yahui; Wei, Shengnan; Rong, Yang; Zhang, Zhaohong; Wang, Jun

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the Er3+: YAlO3/Co- and Fe-doped ZnO coated composites were prepared by the sol-gel method. Then, they were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Photo-degradation of azo fuchsine (AF) as a model dye under solar light irradiation was studied to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of the Er3+: YAlO3/Co- and Fe-doped ZnO coated composites. It was found that the photocatalytic activity of Co- and Fe-doped ZnO composites can be obviously enhanced by upconversion luminescence agent (Er3+: YAlO3). Besides, the photocatalytic activity of Er3+: YAlO3/Fe-doped ZnO is better than that of Er3+: YAlO3/Co-doped ZnO. The influence of experiment conditions, such as the concentration of Er3+: YAlO3, heat-treatment temperature and time on the photocatalytic activity of the Er3+: YAlO3/Co- and Fe-doped ZnO coated composites was studied. In addition, the effects of solar light irradiation time, dye initial concentration, Er3+: YAlO3/Co- and Fe-doped ZnO amount on the photocatalytic degradation of azo fuchsine in aqueous solution were investigated in detail. Simultaneously, some other organic dyes, such as Methyl Orange (MO), Rhodamine B (RM-B), Acid Red B (AR-B), Congo Red (CR), and Methyl Blue (MB) were also studied. The possible excitation principle of Er3+: YAlO3/Co- and Fe-doped ZnO coated composites under solar light irradiation and the photocatalytic degradation mechanism of organic dyes were discussed.

  5. Doping against the native propensity of MoS₂: Degenerate hole doping by cation substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Joonki; Park, Tae-Eon; Lin, Der-Yuh; Fu, Deyi; Park, Joonsuk; Jung, Hee Joon; Chen, Yabin; Ko, Changhyun; Jang, Chaun; Sun, Yinghui; Sinclair, Robert; Chang, Joonyeon; Tongay, Sefaattin; Wu, Junqiao

    2014-12-10

    Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) draw much attention as the key semiconducting material for two-dimensional electrical, optoelectronic, and spintronic devices. For most of these applications, both n- and p-type materials are needed to form junctions and support bipolar carrier conduction. However, typically only one type of doping is stable for a particular TMD. For example, molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) is natively an n-type presumably due to omnipresent electron-donating sulfur vacancies, and stable/controllable p-type doping has not been achieved. The lack of p-type doping hampers the development of charge-splitting p–n junctions of MoS₂, as well as limits carrier conduction to spin-degenerate conduction bands instead of the more interesting, spin-polarized valence bands. Traditionally, extrinsic p-type doping in TMDs has been approached with surface adsorption or intercalation of electron-accepting molecules. However, practically stable doping requires substitution of host atoms with dopants where the doping is secured by covalent bonding. In this work, we demonstrate stable p-type conduction in MoS₂ by substitutional niobium (Nb) doping, leading to a degenerate hole density of ~3 × 10¹⁹ cm⁻³. Structural and X-ray techniques reveal that the Nb atoms are indeed substitutionally incorporated into MoS₂ by replacing the Mo cations in the host lattice. van der Waals p–n homojunctions based on vertically stacked MoS₂ layers are fabricated, which enable gate-tunable current rectification. A wide range of microelectronic, optoelectronic, and spintronic devices can be envisioned from the demonstrated substitutional bipolar doping of MoS₂. From the miscibility of dopants with the host, it is also expected that the synthesis technique demonstrated here can be generally extended to other TMDs for doping against their native unipolar propensity.

  6. 40 CFR 721.10230 - Rutile, tin zinc, calcium doped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rutile, tin zinc, calcium doped. 721... Substances § 721.10230 Rutile, tin zinc, calcium doped. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as rutile, tin zinc, calcium-doped (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10230 - Rutile, tin zinc, calcium doped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rutile, tin zinc, calcium doped. 721... Substances § 721.10230 Rutile, tin zinc, calcium doped. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as rutile, tin zinc, calcium-doped (PMN...

  8. Unraveling the mechanism of molecular doping in organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Mityashin, Alexander; Olivier, Yoann; Van Regemorter, Tanguy; Rolin, Cedric; Verlaak, Stijn; Martinelli, Nicolas G; Beljonne, David; Cornil, Jérôme; Genoe, Jan; Heremans, Paul

    2012-03-22

    The mechanism by which molecular dopants donate free charge carriers to the host organic semiconductor is investigated and is found to be quite different from the one in inorganic semiconductors. In organics, a strong correlation between the doping concentration and its charge donation efficiency is demonstrated. Moreover, there is a threshold doping level below which doping simply has no electrical effect.

  9. Doped luminescent materials and particle discrimination using same

    DOEpatents

    Doty, F. Patrick; Allendorf, Mark D; Feng, Patrick L

    2014-10-07

    Doped luminescent materials are provided for converting excited triplet states to radiative hybrid states. The doped materials may be used to conduct pulse shape discrimination (PSD) using luminescence generated by harvested excited triplet states. The doped materials may also be used to detect particles using spectral shape discrimination (SSD).

  10. Doping Attitudes and Covariates of Potential Doping Behaviour in High-Level Team-Sport Athletes; Gender Specific Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sekulic, Damir; Tahiraj, Enver; Zvan, Milan; Zenic, Natasa; Uljevic, Ognjen; Lesnik, Blaz

    2016-01-01

    Team sports are rarely studied with regard to doping behaviour and doping-related factors regardless of their global popularity. This study aimed to investigate doping factors and covariates of potential doping behaviour in high-level team-sport athletes. The subjects were 457 high-performing, national- and international-level athletes (21.9 ± 3.4 years of age; 179 females) involved in volleyball (n = 77), soccer (n = 163), basketball (n = 114) and handball (n = 103). Previously validated self-administered questionnaires aimed at evidencing sport factors, doping-related factors, knowledge on sport nutrition and doping, and attitudes to performance enhancement were used. The results indicated a higher doping likelihood in male athletes, with a significant gender difference for basketball and handball. In males, a higher doping likelihood is found for athletes who had achieved better results at junior-age level, those who regularly consume dietary supplements, and who perceive their sport as being contaminated by doping. A higher sport achievement at senior-age level is protective against potential doping behaviour in males. In females, a higher likelihood of doping is evidenced in those athletes involved in binge drinking, while a lower tendency for doping is evidenced in female athletes who possess better knowledge on sport nutrition. Knowledge about doping is very low and thus education about doping is urgently needed. An improvement of knowledge on sport nutrition might be a potentially effective method for reducing the tendency for doping in females. Future studies should consider other approaches and theories, such as theory of planned behaviour and/or social-cognitive theory, in studying the problem of doping behaviour in team-sports. Key points The doping knowledge among Kosovar team-sport athletes is very low and systematic anti-doping education is urgently needed. The highest risk of doping behaviour in males is found for those athletes who had been

  11. [Doping-related problems in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Villiger, B; Monnat, A

    2001-04-01

    The complexity of the new antidoping regulations of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), the International Federations (IF) and the National Olympic Committees (NOC) rises a lot of problems in handling the prescriptions of medication in athletes in the daily practice. In addition, several countries have passed antidoping laws which makes the prescription and the delivery of doping agens illegal. This may have severe consequences for the prescribing doctors. It is therefore the goal of the article to inform the practitioning doctors about the new antidoping regulations and their impact on prescribing or delivering potential doping agens to athletes. It will focus on the new dopinglists, the different doping control systems, the problems with the pharmacological treatment of certain diseases as asthma and the necessary reports which have to be sent to the NOC's or the IF's after prescribing certain medications or methods.

  12. Iron (III) chloride doping of CVD graphene.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Fang, Wenjing; Hsu, Allen L; Kong, Jing

    2014-10-03

    Chemical doping has been shown as an effective method of reducing the sheet resistance of graphene. We present the results of our investigations into doping large area chemical vapor deposition graphene using Iron (III) Chloride (FeCl(3)). It is shown that evaporating FeCl(3) can increase the carrier concentration of monolayer graphene to greater than 10(14) cm(-2) and achieve resistances as low as 72 Ω sq(-1). We also evaluate other important properties of the doped graphene such as surface cleanliness, air stability, and solvent stability. Furthermore, we compare FeCl(3) to three other common dopants: Gold (III) Chloride (AuCl(3)), Nitric Acid (HNO(3)), and TFSA ((CF(3)SO(2))(2)NH). We show that compared to these dopants, FeCl(3) can not only achieve better sheet resistance but also has other key advantages including better solvent stability.

  13. Catalyst and doping methods for arc graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyunjin; Oh, InSeoup; Kang, JungHo; Park, Sungchan; Ku, Boncheol; Park, Min; Kwak, Soonjong; Khanra, Partha; Lee, Joong Hee; Jong Kim, Myung

    2014-11-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene synthesis with ˜g scale has been accomplished using the arc discharge method. The defects formed in the synthesis process were reduced by adding various metal catalysts, among which Bi2O3 was found to be the most effective. Adding dopants to the starting materials increased the electrical conductivity of the graphene product, and the doping concentration in graphene was tuned by adjusting the amount of nitrogen dopants. A step-wise technique to fabricate graphene thin films was developed, including dispersion, separation, and filtering processes. The arc graphene can also find its potential application in supercapacitors, taking advantage of its large surface area and improved conductivity by doping.

  14. Nitrogen doping study in ingot niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter; Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Makita, Junki

    2015-09-01

    Thermal diffusion of nitrogen in niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities at temperature ~800 °C has resulted in the increase in quality factor with a low-field Q-rise extending to Bp > 90 mT. However, the maximum accelerating gradient of these doped cavities often deteriorates below the values achieved by standard treatments prior to doping. Here, we present the results of the measurements on ingot niobium cavities doped with nitrogen at 800 °C. The rf measurements were carried out after the successive electropolishing to remove small amount of material from the inner surface layer. The result showed higher breakdown field with lower quality factor as material removal increases.

  15. [The fight against doping: today and tomorrow].

    PubMed

    Rieu, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Since Antiquity, sport persons have used doping methods to improve their performance. The methods used today are increasingly specific and professional As a corrolary, doping is becoming extremely difficult to detect: because many prohibited drugs are rapidly metabolized (short half life); it is often impossible to distinguish between the natural and recombinant hormone products; several prohibited substances are not screened for; therapeutic use authorization (TUA)--a recent recommendation from the World antidoping agency (WADA)--and advances in gene therapy are giving cheaters new possibilities. It is necessary to promote a new approach to doping detection by determining potential specific links between changes in human biological profiles (proteom, transcriptom, metabonom), and the use of a given drug. Developments in nanotechnology, and notably" labs on a chip" should prove useful in this respect.

  16. Spectroscopic investigation of nitrogen doped graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Podila, R.; Spear, J. T.; Chacon-Torres, J.; Pichler, T.; Ayala, P.; Rao, A. M.

    2012-09-17

    Current research efforts are aimed at controlling the electronic properties via doping graphene. Previously, dopant-induced changes in the Fermi velocity were observed to result in an effectively downshifted Raman peak below the G Prime -band for n-doped carbon nanotubes. However, in the case of N-doped graphene, we find that several Raman features vary depending upon both dopant concentration and its bonding environment. For instance, only pyridinic/pyrrolic dopants were observed to result in intense D/D Prime -bands with a concomitant downshift in the G Prime -band. Here, we correlate x-ray photoelectron measurements with Raman spectra to elucidate effects of dopant bonding configuration on vibrational properties of graphene.

  17. The Development of Doped Radiosensitive Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D. A.; Okoya, O. O.; Hugtenburg, R. P.; Hashim, Suhairul; Ramli, A. T.; Wagiran, H.; Yusoff, A. L.; Hassan, A. Aziz Mat

    2007-05-09

    For a range of industrial and medical situations there exists need for sensitive, robust high spatial resolution systems for radiation measurements. Our overall focus is on the development of doped silica-glass thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) with a view towards improving upon the thermoluminescence (TL) yield of commercially produced optical fibers. In baseline studies of the latter, as detailed herein, measurements have been conducted using Ge-doped communication fibers, employing sources of irradiation including bremsstrahlung x-rays (produced by a nominal accelerating potential of 50 kVp), alpha particles from an 241Am source (predominant emission 5.486 MeV) and protons of energy 2.5 MeV provided by an ion beam source. Present studies, also including elemental analysis via the PIXE and RBS techniques, permit comparison with higher TL yield doped glasses previously made by this group via the sol-gel technique and characterized in part using a range of synchrotron techniques.

  18. Heteroatom doped graphene in photocatalysis: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Lutfi Kurnianditia; Ong, Wee-Jun; Chang, Wei Sea; Chai, Siang-Piao

    2015-12-01

    Photocatalysis has been a focus of great attention due to its useful environmental applications such as eliminating hazardous pollutants and generating sustainable energy. Coincidentally, graphene, a 2D allotrope of carbon, has also infiltrated many research fields due to its outstanding properties - photocatalysis being no exception. As of recent, there has been growing research focus on heteroatom (O, N, B, P and S) doping of graphene and its emergent application opportunities. In this study, rather than the familiar graphene as the electron transfer medium that is normally integrated in a photocatalyst system, we contrarily explore the implication of heteroatom doped graphene and the underlying mechanism behind their advantageous uses in photocatalysis. This review surveys the literature and highlights recent progress and challenges in the development of chemically doped graphene in the photocatalysis scene. It is desired that this review will promote awareness and encourage further investigations for the development in this budding research area.

  19. Gene doping: gene delivery for olympic victory.

    PubMed

    Gould, David

    2013-08-01

    With one recently recommended gene therapy in Europe and a number of other gene therapy treatments now proving effective in clinical trials it is feasible that the same technologies will soon be adopted in the world of sport by unscrupulous athletes and their trainers in so called 'gene doping'. In this article an overview of the successful gene therapy clinical trials is provided and the potential targets for gene doping are highlighted. Depending on whether a doping gene product is secreted from the engineered cells or is retained locally to, or inside engineered cells will, to some extent, determine the likelihood of detection. It is clear that effective gene delivery technologies now exist and it is important that detection and prevention plans are in place.

  20. Dual Rationality and Deliberative Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles

    Human agents deliberate using models based on reason for only a minute proportion of the decisions that they make. In stark contrast, the deliberation of artificial agents is heavily dominated by formal models based on reason such as game theory, decision theory and logic—despite that fact that formal reasoning will not necessarily lead to superior real-world decisions. Further the Nobel Laureate Friedrich Hayek warns us of the ‘fatal conceit’ in controlling deliberative systems using models based on reason as the particular model chosen will then shape the system’s future and either impede, or eventually destroy, the subtle evolutionary processes that are an integral part of human systems and institutions, and are crucial to their evolution and long-term survival. We describe an architecture for artificial agents that is founded on Hayek’s two rationalities and supports the two forms of deliberation used by mankind.

  1. [Anti-influenza virus agent].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shigeki; Kohno, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    The necessity of newly anti-influenza agents is increasing rapidly after the prevalence of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009. In addition to the existing anti-influenza drugs, novel neuraminidase inhibitors such as peramivir (a first intravenous anti-influenza agent) and laninamivir (long acting inhaled anti-influenza agent) can be available. Moreover favipiravir, which shows a novel anti-influenza mechanism acting as RNA polymerase inhibitor, has been developing. These drugs are expected to improve the prognosis of severe cases caused by not only seasonal influenza but pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus and H5N1 avian influenza, and also treat oseltamivir-resistant influenza effectively.

  2. Agent review phase one report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zubelewicz, Alex Tadeusz; Davis, Christopher Edward; Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings for phase one of the agent review and discusses the review methods and results. The phase one review identified a short list of agent systems that would prove most useful in the service architecture of an information management, analysis, and retrieval system. Reviewers evaluated open-source and commercial multi-agent systems and scored them based upon viability, uniqueness, ease of development, ease of deployment, and ease of integration with other products. Based on these criteria, reviewers identified the ten most appropriate systems. The report also mentions several systems that reviewers deemed noteworthy for the ideas they implement, even if those systems are not the best choices for information management purposes.

  3. Learning Agents in Automated Negotiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrashekhar, Hemalatha; Bhasker, Bharat

    In bilateral multi-issue negotiations involving two-sided information uncertainty, selfish agents participating in a distributed search of the solution space need to learn the opponent’s preferences from the on-going negotiation interactions and utilize such knowledge to construct future proposals in order to hope to arrive at efficient outcomes. Besides, negotiation support systems that inhibit strategic misrepresentation of information need to be in place in order to assist the protagonists to obtain truly efficient solutions. To this end, this work suggests an automated negotiation procedure that while protecting the information privacy of the participating agents encourages truthful revelation of information through successive proposals. Further we present an algorithm for proposal construction in the case of two continuous issues. When both the negotiating agents implement the algorithm the negotiation trace shall be confined to the Pareto frontier. The Pareto-optimal deal close to the Nash solution shall be located whenever such a deal exists.

  4. Doping Attitudes and Covariates of Potential Doping Behaviour in High-Level Team-Sport Athletes; Gender Specific Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Damir; Tahiraj, Enver; Zvan, Milan; Zenic, Natasa; Uljevic, Ognjen; Lesnik, Blaz

    2016-12-01

    Team sports are rarely studied with regard to doping behaviour and doping-related factors regardless of their global popularity. This study aimed to investigate doping factors and covariates of potential doping behaviour in high-level team-sport athletes. The subjects were 457 high-performing, national- and international-level athletes (21.9 ± 3.4 years of age; 179 females) involved in volleyball (n = 77), soccer (n = 163), basketball (n = 114) and handball (n = 103). Previously validated self-administered questionnaires aimed at evidencing sport factors, doping-related factors, knowledge on sport nutrition and doping, and attitudes to performance enhancement were used. The results indicated a higher doping likelihood in male athletes, with a significant gender difference for basketball and handball. In males, a higher doping likelihood is found for athletes who had achieved better results at junior-age level, those who regularly consume dietary supplements, and who perceive their sport as being contaminated by doping. A higher sport achievement at senior-age level is protective against potential doping behaviour in males. In females, a higher likelihood of doping is evidenced in those athletes involved in binge drinking, while a lower tendency for doping is evidenced in female athletes who possess better knowledge on sport nutrition. Knowledge about doping is very low and thus education about doping is urgently needed. An improvement of knowledge on sport nutrition might be a potentially effective method for reducing the tendency for doping in females. Future studies should consider other approaches and theories, such as theory of planned behaviour and/or social-cognitive theory, in studying the problem of doping behaviour in team-sports.

  5. Clean Photothermal Heating and Controlled Release from Near-Infrared Dye Doped Nanoparticles without Oxygen Photosensitization.

    PubMed

    Guha, Samit; Shaw, Scott K; Spence, Graeme T; Roland, Felicia M; Smith, Bradley D

    2015-07-21

    The photothermal heating and release properties of biocompatible organic nanoparticles, doped with a near-infrared croconaine (Croc) dye, were compared with analogous nanoparticles doped with the common near-infrared dyes ICG and IR780. Separate formulations of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles and liposomes, each containing Croc dye, absorbed strongly at 808 nm and generated clean laser-induced heating (no production of (1)O2 and no photobleaching of the dye). In contrast, laser-induced heating of nanoparticles containing ICG or IR780 produced reactive (1)O2, leading to bleaching of the dye and also decomposition of coencapsulated payload such as the drug doxorubicin. Croc dye was especially useful as a photothermal agent for laser-controlled release of chemically sensitive payload from nanoparticles. Solution state experiments demonstrated repetitive fractional release of water-soluble fluorescent dye from the interior of thermosensitive liposomes. Additional experiments used a focused laser beam to control leakage from immobilized liposomes with very high spatial and temporal precision. The results indicate that fractional photothermal leakage from nanoparticles doped with Croc dye is a promising method for a range of controlled release applications.

  6. Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mingying; Zollfrank, Cordt; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2009-07-15

    Bi-doped glasses with broadband photoluminescence in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral range are presently receiving significant consideration for potential applications in telecommunications, widely tunable fiber lasers and spectral converters. However, the origin of NIR emission remains disputed. Here, we report on NIR absorption and emission properties of bismuthate glass and their dependence on the melting temperature. Results clarify that NIR emission occurs from the same centers as it does in Bi-doped glasses. The dependence of absorption and NIR emission of bismuthate glasses on the melting temperature is interpreted as thermal dissociation of Bi(2)O(3) into elementary Bi. Darkening of bismuthate glass melted at 1300 °C is due to the agglomeration of Bi atoms. The presence of Bi nanoparticles is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and element distribution mapping. By adding antimony oxide as an oxidation agent to the glass, NIR emission centers can be eliminated and Bi(3+) is formed. By comparing with atomic spectral data, absorption bands at ∼320 , ∼500 , 700 , 800 and 1000 nm observed in Bi-doped glasses are assigned to Bi(0) transitions [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively, and broadband NIR emission is assigned to the transition [Formula: see text].

  7. Influence of Lanthanum Doping on the Structural and Optical Properties of Hematite Nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justus, J. Sharmila; Dharma Roy, S. Dawn; Raj, A. Moses Ezhil

    2016-10-01

    Rare-earth elements are an attractive class of dopant elements, as they give easily trivalent cations that possibly altering the structure and other properties of the parent nanoparticles and creating multifunctional materials because of their f-electronic configurations. Herein, experimental evidence has been given for a better understanding of the factors that dictate the interactions of La doping on the structure and optical properties of iron oxide nanoparticles. For that, lanthanum doped hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were prepared by a facile solution method using iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) as starting precursor and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as reducing agent without templates at low temperature. As-prepared powders were subsequently calcined in air for 3 hr at 800 °C. Xray diffraction (XRD) technique was used to study the nanocrystal formation of α-Fe2O3 and Fourier Transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectral information identified the chemical bond structure of the nanoparticles. Morphology study of the nanoparticles was identified using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the incorporated La content was recognized from the Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The optical absorption spectrum was recorded in the wavelength range of 200-2000 nm and the optical parameters such as absorption coefficient and optical band gap energy of pure and doped Fe2O3 nanoparticles were determined. Obtained results are interpreted by considering the impregnation of trivalent La cations that replaced Fe cations of the host structure.

  8. Multifunctional particles: Magnetic nanocrystals and gold nanorods coated with fluorescent dye-doped silica shells

    SciTech Connect

    Heitsch, Andrew T.; Smith, Danielle K.; Patel, Reken N.; Ress, David; Korgel, Brian A.

    2008-07-15

    Multifunctional colloidal core-shell nanoparticles of magnetic nanocrystals (of iron oxide or FePt) or gold nanorods encapsulated in silica shells doped with the fluorescent dye, Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate (Rubpy) were synthesized. The as-prepared magnetic nanocrystals are initially hydrophobic and were coated with silica using a microemulsion approach, while the as-prepared gold nanorods are hydrophilic and were coated with silica using a Stoeber type of process. Each approach yielded monodisperse nanoparticles with uniform fluorescent dye-doped silica shells. These colloidal heterostructures have the potential to be used as dual-purpose tags-exhibiting a fluorescent signal that could be combined with either dark-field optical contrast (in the case of the gold nanorods), or enhanced contrast in magnetic resonance images (in the case of magnetic nanocrystal cores). The optical and magnetic properties of the fluorescent silica-coated gold nanorods and magnetic nanocrystals are reported. - Graphical abstract: Colloidal gold nanorods and iron platinum and iron oxide nanocrystals were encapsulated with fluorescent dye-doped silica shells using a generic coating strategy. These heterostructures are promising contrast agents for dual-mode medical imaging. Their optical and magnetic properties were studied and are reported here.

  9. Fluorescence-enhanced gadolinium-doped zinc oxide quantum dots for magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanlan; Ai, Kelong; Yuan, Qinghai; Lu, Lehui

    2011-02-01

    We report here the development of Gd-doped ZnO quantum dots (QDs) as dual modal fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging nanoprobes. They are fabricated in a simple, versatile and environmentally friendly method, not only decreasing the difficulty and complexity, but also avoiding the increase of particle's size brought about by silica coating procedure in the synthesis of nanoprobes reported previously. These nanoprobes, with exceptionally small size and enhanced fluorescence resulting from the Gd doping, can label successfully the HeLa cells in short time and present no evidence of toxicity or adverse affect on cell growth even at the concentration up to 1 mm. These results show that such nanoprobes have low toxicity, especially in comparison with the traditional PEGylated CdSe/ZnS or CdSe/CdS QDs. In MRI studies, they exert strong positive contrast effect with a large longitudinal relaxivity (r(1)) of water proton of 16 mm(-1) s(-1). Their capability of imaging HeLa cells with MRI implies that they have great potential as MRI contrast agents. Combining the high sensitivity of fluorescence imaging with high spatial resolution of MRI, We expect that the as-prepared Gd-doped Zno QDs can provide a better reliability of the collected data and find promising applications in biological, medical and other fields.

  10. How to confirm C.E.R.A. doping in athletes' blood?

    PubMed

    Leuenberger, Nicolas; Lamon, Séverine; Robinson, Neil; Giraud, Sylvain; Saugy, Martial

    2011-12-10

    C.E.R.A. (Continuous Erythropoietin Receptor Activator) is a new third-generation erythropoiesis-stimulating agent that has recently been linked with abuse in endurance sports. The anti-doping community rapidly reacted by releasing a high-throughput screening ELISA allowing the detection of C.E.R.A. doping in athletes' blood. In order to return adverse analytical findings, anti-doping laboratories, however, need, as far as possible, to confirm the presence of the drug in athletes' samples through orthogonal methods. This article focuses on the comparison of 2 proposed confirmation assays based on gel electrophoresis that were coupled with a new sample immunopurification method. IEF, the classical method used to target erythropoietin (EPO) and its recombinant analogues in athletes' samples, and SARKOSYL-PAGE were applied to the plasma samples of subjects having received a single injection of C.E.R.A. It was demonstrated that SARKOSYL-PAGE was at least 6 times more sensitive than IEF, with comparable specificity. A longer detection window coupled with easier interpretation criteria led us to recommend the use of SARKOSYL-PAGE to confirm C.E.R.A. presence in athletes' blood.

  11. Recovering hidden quanta of Cu2+-doped ZnS quantum dots in reductive environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, Raihana; Sahoo, Amaresh Kumar; Ghosh, Siddhartha Sankar; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2013-12-01

    We report that photoluminescence of doped quantum dots (Qdots)--which was otherwise lost in the oxidized form of the dopant--could be recovered in chemical or cellular reducing environment. For example, as-synthesized Cu2+-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS) Qdots in water medium showed weak emission with a peak at 420 nm, following excitation with UV light (320 nm). However, addition of reducing agent led to the appearance of green emission with a peak at 540 nm and with quantum yield as high as 10%, in addition to the weak peak now appearing as a shoulder. The emission disappeared in the presence of an oxidizing agent or with time under ambient conditions. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements suggested the presence of Cu2+ in the as-synthesized Qdots, while formation of its reduced form was indicated (by ESR results) following treatment with a reducing agent. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirmed the formation of ZnS nanocrystals, the size and shape of which did not undergo any change in the presence of a reducing or oxidizing agent. Nanoparticulate forms of the Qdots and chitosan (a biopolymer) composite exhibited similar emission characteristics. Interestingly, when mammalian cancer cells or non-cancerous cells were treated with the composite nanoparticles (NPs), characteristic green fluorescence was observed. Further, the intensity of the fluorescence diminished when the cells were treated later with pyrogallol--a known reactive oxygen species generator. Overall, the results indicated a new way of probing the reducing nature of mammalian cells using the emission properties of the Qdot based on the redox state of its dopant.We report that photoluminescence of doped quantum dots (Qdots)--which was otherwise lost in the oxidized form of the dopant--could be recovered in chemical or cellular reducing environment. For example, as-synthesized Cu2+-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS) Qdots in

  12. Landslides as agents of diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geertsema, Marten

    2016-04-01

    Landslides, often destructive and damaging, are also agents of change that introduce diversity to landscapes. I discuss landslide diversity at three levels: site diversity, soil diversity, and habitat diversity. There are many landslide types involving different materials and rates and styles of movement. Landscape diversity varies with different types of landslides. Landslides, at the same time depositional and erosional agents, influence sites by redistributing materials and changing microtopography. Eroded portions of landslides, with exposed parent material, revert to the initial stages of soil development and ecological succession. Landslides can also alter soil properties including, surface texture, chemistry and porosity. Landslides influence habitat diversity by creating ecosystem mosaics.

  13. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  14. High resolution three-dimensional doping profiler

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    A semiconductor doping profiler provides a Schottky contact at one surface and an ohmic contact at the other. While the two contacts are coupled to a power source, thereby establishing an electrical bias in the semiconductor, a localized light source illuminates the semiconductor to induce a photocurrent. The photocurrent changes in accordance with the doping characteristics of the semiconductor in the illuminated region. By changing the voltage of the power source the depth of the depletion layer can be varied to provide a three dimensional view of the local properties of the semiconductor.

  15. Doped semiconductor nanocrystal based fluorescent cellular imaging probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Amit Ranjan; Palmal, Sharbari; Basiruddin, Sk; Karan, Niladri Sekhar; Sarkar, Suresh; Pradhan, Narayan; Jana, Nikhil R.

    2013-05-01

    Doped semiconductor nanocrystals such as Mn doped ZnS, Mn doped ZnSe and Cu doped InZnS, are considered as new classes of fluorescent biological probes with low toxicity. Although the synthesis in high quality of such nanomaterials is now well established, transforming them into functional fluorescent probes remains a challenge. Here we report a fluorescent cellular imaging probe made of high quality doped semiconductor nanocrystals. We have identified two different coating approaches suitable for transforming the as synthesized hydrophobic doped semiconductor nanocrystals into water-soluble functional nanoparticles. Following these approaches we have synthesized TAT-peptide- and folate-functionalized nanoparticles of 10-80 nm hydrodynamic diameter and used them as a fluorescent cell label. The results shows that doped semiconductor nanocrystals can be an attractive alternative for conventional cadmium based quantum dots with low toxicity.Doped semiconductor nanocrystals such as Mn doped ZnS, Mn doped ZnSe and Cu doped InZnS, are considered as new classes of fluorescent biological probes with low toxicity. Although the synthesis in high quality of such nanomaterials is now well established, transforming them into functional fluorescent probes remains a challenge. Here we report a fluorescent cellular imaging probe made of high quality doped semiconductor nanocrystals. We have identified two different coating approaches suitable for transforming the as synthesized hydrophobic doped semiconductor nanocrystals into water-soluble functional nanoparticles. Following these approaches we have synthesized TAT-peptide- and folate-functionalized nanoparticles of 10-80 nm hydrodynamic diameter and used them as a fluorescent cell label. The results shows that doped semiconductor nanocrystals can be an attractive alternative for conventional cadmium based quantum dots with low toxicity. Electronic supplementary information available: Characterization details of coating and

  16. Recovering hidden quanta of Cu(2+)-doped ZnS quantum dots in reductive environment.

    PubMed

    Begum, Raihana; Sahoo, Amaresh Kumar; Ghosh, Siddhartha Sankar; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2014-01-21

    We report that photoluminescence of doped quantum dots (Qdots)-which was otherwise lost in the oxidized form of the dopant-could be recovered in chemical or cellular reducing environment. For example, as-synthesized Cu(2+)-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS) Qdots in water medium showed weak emission with a peak at 420 nm, following excitation with UV light (320 nm). However, addition of reducing agent led to the appearance of green emission with a peak at 540 nm and with quantum yield as high as 10%, in addition to the weak peak now appearing as a shoulder. The emission disappeared in the presence of an oxidizing agent or with time under ambient conditions. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements suggested the presence of Cu(2+) in the as-synthesized Qdots, while formation of its reduced form was indicated (by ESR results) following treatment with a reducing agent. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirmed the formation of ZnS nanocrystals, the size and shape of which did not undergo any change in the presence of a reducing or oxidizing agent. Nanoparticulate forms of the Qdots and chitosan (a biopolymer) composite exhibited similar emission characteristics. Interestingly, when mammalian cancer cells or non-cancerous cells were treated with the composite nanoparticles (NPs), characteristic green fluorescence was observed. Further, the intensity of the fluorescence diminished when the cells were treated later with pyrogallol-a known reactive oxygen species generator. Overall, the results indicated a new way of probing the reducing nature of mammalian cells using the emission properties of the Qdot based on the redox state of its dopant.

  17. Topical hemostatic agents for dermatologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Larson, P O

    1988-06-01

    Topical hemostatic agents are very helpful in attaining capillary and small vessel hemostasis in dermatologic surgery. The commonly used topical hemostatic agents, including oxidized cellulose, absorbable gelatin, and thrombin are reviewed, along with newer agents such as microfibrillar collagen, fibrin sealants, and acrylates. Agents best suited for certain situations are recommended.

  18. 13 CFR 120.952 - Fiscal agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal agent. 120.952 Section 120... Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.952 Fiscal agent. SBA shall appoint a Fiscal Agent to assess the financial markets, minimize the cost of sales, arrange for the production...

  19. Asymmetrically doped stacked channel strained SOI FinFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Shashank; Kondekar, Pravin N.

    2017-02-01

    Strained SOI (SSOI) n-channel trigate FinFET is designed with asymmetrically doped stacked channels along the fin height. The OFF current is reduced with respect to lightly doped uniform SSOI FinFET because of band gap modification, originated between highly doped uniaxial strained and lightly doped Si fin. Through TCAD simulation it is observed that for the stacked devices the OFF current is reduced by more than 47%. The performances are also compared with highly doped uniform SSOI FinFETs and the results indicated that these devices have lesser random dopant variation at a moderate cost of ON and OFF current.

  20. Piezoresistance and hole transport in beryllium-doped silicon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littlejohn, M. A.; Robertson, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    The resistivity and piezoresistance of p-type silicon doped with beryllium have been studied as a function of temperature, crystal orientation, and beryllium doping concentration. It is shown that the temperature coefficient of resistance can be varied and reduced to zero near room temperature by varying the beryllium doping level. Similarly, the magnitude of the piezoresistance gauge factor for beryllium-doped silicon is slightly larger than for silicon doped with a shallow acceptor impurity such as boron, while the temperature coefficient of piezoresistance is about the same for material containing these two dopants. These results are discussed in terms of a model for the piezoresistance of compensated p-type silicon.

  1. Strong adsorption of Al-doped carbon nanotubes toward cisplatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Li, Guo-Qing; Lu, Xiao-Min; Ma, Juan-Juan; Zeng, Peng-Yu; He, Qin-Yu; Wang, Yin-Zhen

    2016-08-01

    The adsorption of cisplatin molecule on Al-doped CNTs is investigated using density functional theory. The obtained results indicate that Al-doped carbon nanotubes can strongly absorb cisplatin. After absorbing cisplatin, the symmetry of CNTs has some changes. We innovatively defined a parameter of symmetry variation which relates to the adsorption. By analyzing the electronic structure, it can be concluded that under the circumstance that cisplatin was absorbed by Al-doped CNTs through aluminum atom of Al-doped CNTs. In conclusion, Al-doped CNTs is a kind of potential delivery carrier with high quality for anticancer drug cisplatin.

  2. Current anti-doping policy: a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Bengt; Mauron, Alexandre; Miah, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Background Current anti-doping in competitive sports is advocated for reasons of fair-play and concern for the athlete's health. With the inception of the World Anti Doping Agency (WADA), anti-doping effort has been considerably intensified. Resources invested in anti-doping are rising steeply and increasingly involve public funding. Most of the effort concerns elite athletes with much less impact on amateur sports and the general public. Discussion We review this recent development of increasingly severe anti-doping control measures and find them based on questionable ethical grounds. The ethical foundation of the war on doping consists of largely unsubstantiated assumptions about fairness in sports and the concept of a "level playing field". Moreover, it relies on dubious claims about the protection of an athlete's health and the value of the essentialist view that sports achievements reflect natural capacities. In addition, costly antidoping efforts in elite competitive sports concern only a small fraction of the population. From a public health perspective this is problematic since the high prevalence of uncontrolled, medically unsupervised doping practiced in amateur sports and doping-like behaviour in the general population (substance use for performance enhancement outside sport) exposes greater numbers of people to potential harm. In addition, anti-doping has pushed doping and doping-like behaviour underground, thus fostering dangerous practices such as sharing needles for injection. Finally, we argue that the involvement of the medical profession in doping and anti-doping challenges the principles of non-maleficience and of privacy protection. As such, current anti-doping measures potentially introduce problems of greater impact than are solved, and place physicians working with athletes or in anti-doping settings in an ethically difficult position. In response, we argue on behalf of enhancement practices in sports within a framework of medical supervision

  3. PULSION registered HP: Tunable, High Productivity Plasma Doping

    SciTech Connect

    Felch, S. B.; Torregrosa, F.; Etienne, H.; Spiegel, Y.; Roux, L.; Turnbaugh, D.

    2011-01-07

    Plasma doping has been explored for many implant applications for over two decades and is now being used in semiconductor manufacturing for two applications: DRAM polysilicon counter-doping and contact doping. The PULSION HP is a new plasma doping tool developed by Ion Beam Services for high-volume production that enables customer control of the dominant mechanism--deposition, implant, or etch. The key features of this tool are a proprietary, remote RF plasma source that enables a high density plasma with low chamber pressure, resulting in a wide process space, and special chamber and wafer electrode designs that optimize doping uniformity.

  4. Topical hemostatic agents in otolaryngologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Acar, Baran; Babademez, Mehmet Ali; Karabulut, Hayriye

    2010-01-01

    Topical hemostatic agents are largely used to reduce blood loss during otolaryngologic surgery. These agents play an important role in both keeping the patient's hemodynamic equilibrium and allowing for a better view of the surgical field. These agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, and include physical or mechanical agents. Most complications of topical hemostatic agents are sustained because of the antigenic reaction of those products. This paper reviews traditional and newer topical hemostatic agents with regard to their chemical properties, their mechanisms of action, and the benefits and complications of topical agents.

  5. An afterword. HUMANING … (Anti-)DOPING; looking at "doping" sideways.

    PubMed

    Einstein, Stan

    2014-07-01

    This trek and quest explores a range of man-made anomalies and challenges which are rarely considered by their stakeholders in the complex, dynamic, nonlinear, multi-dimensionalities of both "doping" and antidoping, closure-driven certitudes.

  6. Germanium-doped crystalline silicon: Effects of germanium doping on boron-related defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Yu, Xuegong; Yang, Deren

    2014-09-01

    Recently it has been recognized that germanium (Ge) doping can be used for microelectronics and photovoltaic devices. This article reviews the recent results about the effects of Ge doping on boron-related defects in crystalline silicon. Behavior of Ge interacting with the acceptor dopants is also discussed therein. In addition, the article provides a comprehensive review on the effect of Ge doping to the formation of iron-boron pairs and boron-oxygen defects that is responsible for the light induced degradation (LID) of the carrier lifetime. The improvement silicon-based solar cells application from Ge doping is discussed as well, including the increment of cell efficiency and the power output of corresponding modules under sunlight illumination.

  7. Other Viruses and Viruslike Agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diseases reported under 'Virus and Virus-like Agents' in the first volume of this compendium, with the exception of Cherry rasp leaf virus and Rubus chinese seed-borne virus, should be considered oddities since there are no known type isolates available for these reported viruses. Without a po...

  8. Activity Recognition for Agent Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    correspond to a real team, but is rather a visual illusion caused by a coincidental configuration of agents. 50 CHAPTER 4. STABR The behavior...each frame-pair were only classified with 76% accuracy, such a method would hallucinate false action transitions at unacceptable rates). Fortunately

  9. Nucleotide cleaving agents and method

    DOEpatents

    Que, Jr., Lawrence; Hanson, Richard S.; Schnaith, Leah M. T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a unique series of nucleotide cleaving agents and a method for cleaving a nucleotide sequence, whether single-stranded or double-stranded DNA or RNA, using and a cationic metal complex having at least one polydentate ligand to cleave the nucleotide sequence phosphate backbone to yield a hydroxyl end and a phosphate end.

  10. Foodborne illness and microbial agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illnesses result from the consumption of food containing microbial agents such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or food contaminated by poisonous chemicals or bio-toxins. Pathogen proliferation is due to nutrient composition of foods, which are capable of supporting the growth of microorgan...

  11. An Introduction to Software Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    applicable to modelling red force entities for VMSA. This paper provides an overview of software agents and represents the first step in the...ordinateur, et que la simulation en cours modélise leurs capteurs , leurs armes et leurs caractéristiques matérielles. vi DRDC Atlantic TM...34 9 Sample Applications

  12. 7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 4290.1620 Functions of agents... to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the financial...

  13. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba-Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 107.1620... Fiscal Agent to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the...

  14. 7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 4290.1620 Functions of agents... to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the financial...

  15. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba-Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 107.1620... Fiscal Agent to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the...

  16. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba-Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 107.1620... Fiscal Agent to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the...

  17. 7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 4290.1620 Functions of agents... to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the financial...

  18. SEM: A Cultural Change Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bradley; Bourke, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The authors advance the concept that institutional culture is a purposeful framework by which to view SEM's utility, particularly as a cultural change agent. Through the connection of seemingly independent functions of performance and behavior, implications emerge that deepen the understanding of the influence of culture on performance outcomes…

  19. Triggered pore-forming agents

    DOEpatents

    Bayley, H.; Walker, B.J.; Chang, C.Y.; Niblack, B.; Panchal, R.

    1998-07-07

    An inactive pore-forming agent is revealed which is activated to lytic function by a condition such as pH, light, heat, reducing potential, or metal ion concentration, or substance such as a protease, at the surface of a cell. 30 figs.

  20. Voter models with contrarian agents.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Naoki

    2013-11-01

    In the voter and many other opinion formation models, agents are assumed to behave as congregators (also called the conformists); they are attracted to the opinions of others. In this study I investigate linear extensions of the voter model with contrarian agents. An agent is either congregator or contrarian and assumes a binary opinion. I investigate three models that differ in the behavior of the contrarian toward other agents. In model 1, contrarians mimic the opinions of other contrarians and oppose (i.e., try to select the opinion opposite to) those of congregators. In model 2, contrarians mimic the opinions of congregators and oppose those of other contrarians. In model 3, contrarians oppose anybody. In all models, congregators are assumed to like anybody. I show that even a small number of contrarians prohibits the consensus in the entire population to be reached in all three models. I also obtain the equilibrium distributions using the van Kampen small-fluctuation approximation and the Fokker-Planck equation for the case of many contrarians and a single contrarian, respectively. I show that the fluctuation around the symmetric coexistence equilibrium is much larger in model 2 than in models 1 and 3 when contrarians are rare.

  1. PET and NIR optical imaging using self-illuminating (64)Cu-doped chelator-free gold nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hao; Huang, Peng; Weiss, Orit Jacobson; Yan, Xuefeng; Yue, Xuyi; Zhang, Molly Gu; Tang, Yuxia; Nie, Liming; Ma, Ying; Niu, Gang; Wu, Kaichun; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-12-01

    Self-illuminating fluorescence imaging without autofluorescence background interference has recently aroused more research interests in molecular imaging. Currently, only a few self-illuminating probes were developed, based mainly on toxic quantum dots such as CdSe, CdTe. Herein, we report a novel design of nontoxic self-illuminating gold nanocluster ((64)Cu-doped AuNCs) for dual-modality positron emission tomography (PET) and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging based on Cerenkov resonance energy transfer (CRET). PET radionuclide (64)Cu was introduced by a chelator-free doping method, which played dual roles as the energy donor and the PET imaging source. Meanwhile, AuNCs acted as the energy acceptor for NIR fluorescence imaging. (64)Cu-doped AuNCs exhibited efficient CRET-NIR and PET imaging both in vitro and in vivo. In a U87MG glioblastoma xenograft model, (64)Cu-doped AuNCs showed high tumor uptake (14.9 %ID/g at 18 h) and produced satisfactory tumor self-illuminating NIR images in the absence of external excitation. This self-illuminating nanocluster with non-toxicity and good biocompatibility can be employed as a novel imaging contrast agent for biomedical applications, especially for molecular imaging.

  2. Optical properties of undoped and Mg doped CuCrO{sub 2} powders synthesized by sol-gel route

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Bolloju, Satish

    2014-01-28

    In this work, CuCrO{sub 2} was synthesized by sol-gel method using citric acid as a gelling agent. The different parameters like ratio of citric acid to metal ions, calcination temperature, and duration were studied. A green colored powder with particle size around 300 nm was formed at the calcination temperature of 800 °C for four hours duration. The increase in temperature has a profound impact on crystallite size and in turn effected the optical properties. Band gap of the obtained CuCrO{sub 2} has varied from 2.3 to 1.7 eV by increasing the temperature from 800 °C to 900 °C. Doping studies were performed by introducing Mg{sup 2+} ion to substitute Cr{sup 3+} in CuCrO{sub 2}. X-ray powder diffraction and SEM studies on 2% Mg doped samples indicated a clear formation of side phases. According to the X-ray powder patterns, the reflections from side phases were increasing with the increase in doping concentrations of Mg from 2 to 5%. The side phases were found to be MgCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel and CuO. The band gap has decreased for doped samples in comparison to undoped one. In this paper, sol-gel synthesis and characterization by Xray powder diffraction, SEM studies and UV-Vis-Diffuse Reflectance spectra are presented.

  3. Superconductivity, structure visualization, mechanical strength promotion and Raman spectra of hafnium-doped-123-YBCO synthesized via urea precursor route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsabawy, Khaled M.

    2011-08-01

    The pure YBCO (YBa2Cu3O7) and its variant hafnium containing superconductors with general formula: Y1-xHfxBa2Cu3Oz, where x = 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mole, respectively, were synthesized by solution route using urea as precursor forming agent. X-ray measurements indicated that Hf4+ ions have a negligible effect on the main crystalline structure and substitute Y-sites successfully in lattice structure of 123-YBCO at low levels of hafnium doping (x = 0.1 → 0.2 mole). From SE-microscopy mapping and EDX elemental analysis Hf4+ was detected qualitatively with good approximation to the actual molar ratio but not observed at 123-YBCO grain boundaries which confirm that hafnium (IV) has diffused regularly into material bulk of superconducting 123-YBCO-phase at low levels of concentrations. Structure visualization of Hf-doped-123-YBCO was made to confirm success of hafnium substitutions inside crystal lattice on Y-sites of 123-YBCO superconductors. Hafnium dopings affected sharply on the main vibrating modes of YBCO regime particularly on the apical oxygen (O4) vibrational mode A1g. Magnetic susceptibility measurements proved that hafnium dopings have strong effect on the transport properties of YBCO-composites regime. Hafnium promotes mechanical tensile coefficient recording maxima 35.7 MPa for x = 0.4 mole.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of samarium-doped ZnS nanoparticles: A novel visible light responsive photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Hanifehpour, Younes; Soltani, Behzad; Amani-Ghadim, Ali Reza; Hedayati, Behnam; Khomami, Bamin; Joo, Sang Woo

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Sm-doped ZnS Nanomaterials were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • The as-prepared compounds were characterized by XRD, TEM, XPS, SEM and UV techniques. • The photocatalytic effect of compounds was determined by Reactive Red 43 degradation. • The degradation of RRed 43 followed the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetic model. - Abstract: We prepared pure and samarium-doped ZnS (Sm{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}S{sub 1+0.5x}) nanoparticles via hydrothermal process at 160 °C for 24 h. XRD analysis shows that the particles were well crystallized and corresponds to a cubic sphalerite phase. SEM and TEM images indicate that the sizes of the particles were in the range of 20–60 nm. The photocatalytic activity of Sm-doped ZnS nanoparticles was evaluated by monitoring the decolorization of Reactive Red 43 in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The color removal efficiency of Sm{sub 0.04}Zn{sub 0.96}S and pure ZnS was 95.1% and 28.7% after 120 min of treatment, respectively. Among the different amounts of dopant agent used, 4% Sm-doped ZnS nanoparticles indicated the highest decolorization. We found that the presence of inorganic ions such as Cl{sup −}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and other radical scavengers such as buthanol and isopropyl alcohol reduced the decolorization efficiency.

  5. PET and NIR Optical Imaging Using Self-Illuminating 64Cu-Doped Chelator-Free Gold Nanoclusters

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hao; Huang, Peng; Weiss, Orit Jacobson; Yan, Xuefeng; Yue, Xuyi; Zhang, Molly Gu; Tang, Yuxia; Nie, Liming; Ma, Ying; Niu, Gang; Wu, Kaichun; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-01-01

    Self-illuminating fluorescence imaging without autofluorescence background interference has recently aroused more research interests in molecular imaging. Currently, only a few self-illuminating probes were developed, based mainly on toxic quantum dots such as CdSe, CdTe. Herein, we report a novel design of nontoxic self-illuminating gold nanocluster (64Cu-doped AuNCs) for dual-modality positron emission tomography (PET) and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging based on Cerenkov resonance energy transfer (CRET). PET radionuclide 64Cu was introduced by a chelator-free doping method, which played dual roles as the energy donor and the PET imaging source. Meanwhile, AuNCs acted as the energy acceptor for NIR fluorescence imaging. 64Cu-doped AuNCs exhibited efficient CRET-NIR and PET imaging both in vitro and in vivo. In a U87MG glioblastoma xenograft model, 64Cu-doped AuNCs showed high tumor uptake (14.9%ID/g at 18 h) and produced satisfactory tumor self-illuminating NIR images in the absence of external excitation. This self-illuminating nanocluster with non-toxicity and good biocompatibility can be employed as a novel imaging contrast agent for biomedical applications, especially for molecular imaging. PMID:25224367

  6. Using the prototype willingness model to predict doping in sport.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, L; Long, J; Petróczi, A; Backhouse, S H

    2014-10-01

    To enable preventive measures to be designed, it is important to identify modifiable distal and proximal factors underlying doping behavior. This study investigated aspects of the prototype willingness model in relation to doping. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 729 competitive athletes. Following ethical approval, athletes (mean age = 28.8 ± 10.1 years; 63% male) completed an online questionnaire, which assessed doping-related attitudes, norms, prototype perceptions, outcome expectancies, and behavioral willingness. Using hierarchical multiple regression analysis, 54.4% of the total variance in willingness to dope was explained. Specifically, past doping, attitudes, and favorability of performance enhancing substance user prototypes were the strongest unique predictors of willingness to dope. Athletes appeared most willing to dope if they were to suffer an injury, a dip in performance, or think others are doping and getting away with it. National-level athletes displayed significantly greater willingness to dope (Kruskal-Wallis γ2 = 35.9, P < 0.001) and perceived themselves as significantly more similar to a doper (Kruskal-Wallis γ2 = 13.4, P = 0.004) than athletes competing at any other level. The findings highlight the importance of extending anti-doping provision beyond elite-level sport and the need to target athletes' doping-related perceptions.

  7. Integration of metal oxide nanobelts with microsystems for nerve agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Choongho; Hao, Qing; Saha, Sanjoy; Shi, Li; Kong, Xiangyang; Wang, Z. L.

    2005-02-01

    We have assembled tin dioxide nanobelts with low-power microheaters for detecting dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a nerve agent simulant. The electrical conductance of a heated nanobelt increased for 5% upon exposure to 78 parts per billion DMMP in air. The nanobelt conductance recovered fully quickly after the DMMP was shut off, suggesting that the single-crystal nanobelt was not subject to poisoning often observed in polycrystalline metal oxide sensors. While the sensitivity can be improved via doping nanobelts with catalytic additives, directed assembly or growth of nanobelts on microsystems will potentially allow for the large-scale fabrication of nanosensor arrays.

  8. [Synthesis of a novel rare earth light conversion agent and study on its compatibility in plastics].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zun-Hong; Tan, Song-Ting; Wang, Xia-Yu; Zou, Ying-Ping

    2005-01-01

    2-octyl-1, 3-diphenol-1, 3-propdione was synthesized by phase transfer catalysis and its Sm complexes were prepared. These compounds were characterized by IR, EA, UV and 1H NMR; Sm complex and its mixture doped with PE and PVC show photoluminescence at 650 nm. There is excellent compatibility between Sm complex and plastics by the addition of long carbon chain. Therefore, Sm complex with long carbon chain is a superior light conversion agent with good compatibility in resins with emission wavelength suitable to the 643 and 660 nm for plants' photosynthesis.

  9. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, G.W.; Carter, R.D.; Hand, T.E.; Powers, M.T.

    1996-05-07

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene or terpineol cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  10. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, G.W.; Carter, R.D.; Hand, T.E.; Powers, M.T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  11. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfurly alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  12. Halide test agent replacement study

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J.

    1995-02-01

    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  13. Lithium adsorption on heteroatom mono and dual doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, Pablo A.

    2017-03-01

    Herein, we studied the interaction of lithium with monodoped (X) and dual-doped graphene (XY), X = Al, Si, P and S and Y = B, N and O. Dual-doping is the best choice to modulate the interaction of lithium with graphene. The strongest interaction with lithium was observed for SN-dual-doped graphene, while S-doped and N-doped graphene displayed the weakest interactions. With regards to the electronic properties, for some systems Li adsorption opened a band-gap, while for others restored the Dirac cones and the semimetallic character at the K-point. Therefore, Li-doping is a useful tool to fine-tune the band gap in mono and dual-doped graphene.

  14. Multiple doping of silicon-germanium alloys for thermoelectric applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Vining, Cronin B.; Borshchevsky, Alex

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that heavy doping of n-type Si/Ge alloys with phosphorus and arsenic (V-V doping interaction) by diffusion leads to a significant enhancement of their carrier concentration and possible improvement of the thermoelectric figure of merit. High carrier concentrations were achieved by arsenic doping alone, but for a same doping level higher carrier mobilities and lower resistivities are obtained through phosphorus doping. By combining the two dopants with the proper diffusion treatments, it was possible to optimize the different properties, obtaining high carrier concentration, good carrier mobility and low electrical resistivity. Similar experiments, using the III-V doping interaction, were conducted on boron-doped p-type samples and showed the possibility of overcompensating the samples by diffusing arsenic, in order to get n-type behavior.

  15. Doped semiconductor nanocrystal based fluorescent cellular imaging probes.

    PubMed

    Maity, Amit Ranjan; Palmal, Sharbari; Basiruddin, S K; Karan, Niladri Sekhar; Sarkar, Suresh; Pradhan, Narayan; Jana, Nikhil R

    2013-06-21

    Doped semiconductor nanocrystals such as Mn doped ZnS, Mn doped ZnSe and Cu doped InZnS, are considered as new classes of fluorescent biological probes with low toxicity. Although the synthesis in high quality of such nanomaterials is now well established, transforming them into functional fluorescent probes remains a challenge. Here we report a fluorescent cellular imaging probe made of high quality doped semiconductor nanocrystals. We have identified two different coating approaches suitable for transforming the as synthesized hydrophobic doped semiconductor nanocrystals into water-soluble functional nanoparticles. Following these approaches we have synthesized TAT-peptide- and folate-functionalized nanoparticles of 10-80 nm hydrodynamic diameter and used them as a fluorescent cell label. The results shows that doped semiconductor nanocrystals can be an attractive alternative for conventional cadmium based quantum dots with low toxicity.

  16. Inefficiency of the anti-doping system: cost reduction proposals.

    PubMed

    Maennig, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    The anti-doping system, under the guidance of WADA, costs at least $228 million per year, mostly to cover the cost of performing about 270,000 doping tests. However, "testing has not proven to be particularly effective in detecting dopers/cheats" (WADA). It is suggested, competitions of doping-endangered disciplines be redesigned. Sports with numerous doping cases should be temporarily excluded from the Olympic program and not be televised. Pecuniary fines should be higher and collection guaranteed by a deferred compensation model. Sports with multiple doping offenses should bear most of the anti-doping costs. Finally, appropriate tenders should guarantee fees of anti-doping laboratories develop more competitively.

  17. Doping control analysis of trimetazidine and characterization of major metabolites using mass spectrometric approaches.

    PubMed

    Sigmund, Gerd; Koch, Anja; Orlovius, Anne-Katrin; Guddat, Sven; Thomas, Andreas; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Since January 2014, the anti-anginal drug trimetazidine [1-(2,3,4-trimethoxybenzyl)-piperazine] has been classified as prohibited substance by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), necessitating specific and robust detection methods in sports drug testing laboratories. In the present study, the implementation of the intact therapeutic agent into two different initial testing procedures based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is reported, along with the characterization of urinary metabolites by electrospray ionization-high resolution/high accuracy (tandem) mass spectrometry. For GC-MS analyses, urine samples were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction sample preparation, while LC-MS/MS analyses were conducted by established 'dilute-and-inject' approaches. Both screening methods were validated for trimetazidine concerning specificity, limits of detection (0.5-50 ng/mL), intra-day and inter-day imprecision (<20%), and recovery (41%) in case of the GC-MS-based method. In addition, major metabolites such as the desmethylated trimetazidine and the corresponding sulfoconjugate, oxo-trimetazidine, and trimetazidine-N-oxide as identified in doping control samples were used to complement the LC-MS/MS-based assay, although intact trimetazidine was found at highest abundance of the relevant trimetazidine-related analytes in all tested sports drug testing samples. Retrospective data mining regarding doping control analyses conducted between 1999 and 2013 at the Cologne Doping Control Laboratory concerning trimetazidine revealed a considerable prevalence of the drug particularly in endurance and strength sports accounting for up to 39 findings per year.

  18. Influence Al doped ZnO nanostructure on structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramelan, Ari Handono; Wahyuningsih, Sayekti; Chasanah, Uswatul; Munawaroh, Hanik

    2016-04-01

    The preparation of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films prepared by the spin-coating method was reported. Preparation of AZO was conducted by annealing treatment at a temperature of 700°C. While the spin-coating process of AZO thin films were done at 2000 and 3000 rpm respectively. The structural properties of ZnO were determined by X- ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. ZnOnanostructure was formed after annealed at atemperature of 400°C.The morphology of ZnO was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed the irregular morphology about 30-50µm in size. Al doped on ZnO influenced the optical properties of those material. Increasing Al contain on ZnO cause of shifting to the lower wavelength. The optical properties of the ZnO as well as AZO films showed that higher reflectance on the ultraviolet region so those materials were used as anti-reflecting agent.Al addition significantly enhance the optical transparency and induce the blue-shift in optical bandgap of ZnO films.

  19. SDS-PAGE of recombinant and endogenous erythropoietins: benefits and limitations of the method for application in doping control.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Christian; Kulovics, Ronald; Jordan, Veronika; Watzinger, Martina; Geisendorfer, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Doping of athletes with recombinant and genetically modified erythropoietins (EPO) is currently detected by isoelectric focusing (IEF). The application of these drugs leads to a significant change in the isoform profile of endogenous urinary erythropoietin (uhEPO). Dynepo, MIRCERA, biosimilars with variable IEF-profiles as well as active urines and effort urines have made additional testing strategies necessary. The new generation of small molecule EPO-receptor stimulating agents like Hematide will also challenge the analytical concept of detecting the abuse of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA). By determining their apparent molecular masses with SDS-PAGE a clear differentiation between endogenous and exogenous substances also concerning new EPO modifications is possible. Due to the orthogonal character of IEF- and SDS-PAGE both methods complement each other. The additional benefits of SDS-PAGE especially in relation to active and effort urines as well as the detection of Dynepo were investigated. Due to significant differences between the apparent molecular masses of uhEPO/serum EPO (shEPO) and recombinant, genetically or chemically modified erythropoietins the presence of active or effort urines was easily revealed. The characteristic band shape and apparent molecular mass of Dynepo on SDS-PAGE additionally evidenced the presence of this substance in urine. A protocol for the detection of EPO-doping in serum and plasma by SDS-PAGE was developed. Blood appears to be the ideal matrix for detecting all forms ESA-doping in the future.

  20. Charge partitioning and anomalous hole doping in Rh-doped Sr2IrO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikara, S.; Fabbris, G.; Terzic, J.; Cao, G.; Khomskii, D.; Haskel, D.

    2017-02-01

    The simultaneous presence of sizable spin-orbit interactions and electron correlations in iridium oxides has led to predictions of novel ground states including Dirac semimetals, Kitaev spin liquids, and superconductivity. Electron and hole doping studies of spin-orbit assisted Mott insulator Sr2Ir O4 are being intensively pursued due to extensive parallels with the La2CuO4 parent compound of cuprate superconductors. In particular, the mechanism of charge doping associated with replacement of Ir with Rh ions remains controversial with profound consequences for the interpretation of electronic structure and transport data. Using x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements at the Rh L, K, and Ir L edges we observe anomalous evolution of charge partitioning between Rh and Ir with Rh doping. The partitioning of charge between Rh and Ir sites progresses in a way that holes are initially doped into the Jeff=1 /2 band at low x only to be removed from it at higher x values. This anomalous hole doping naturally explains the reentrant insulating phase in the phase diagram of Sr2Ir1 -xRhxO4 and ought to be considered when searching for superconductivity and other emergent phenomena in iridates doped with 4 d elements.

  1. Morphology and Doping Engineering of Sn-Doped Hematite Nanowire Photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingyang; Yang, Yi; Ling, Yichuan; Qiu, Weitao; Wang, Fuxin; Liu, Tianyu; Song, Yu; Liu, Xiaoxia; Fang, Pingping; Tong, Yexiang; Li, Yat

    2017-04-12

    High-temperature activation has been commonly used to boost the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of hematite nanowires for water oxidation, by inducing Sn diffusion from fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate into hematite. Yet, hematite nanowires thermally annealed at high temperature suffer from two major drawbacks that negatively affect their performance. First, the structural deformation reduces light absorption capability of nanowire. Second, this "passive" doping method leads to nonuniform distribution of Sn dopant in nanowire and limits the Sn doping concentration. Both factors impair the electrochemical properties of hematite nanowire. Here we demonstrate a silica encapsulation method that is able to simultaneously retain the hematite nanowire morphology even after high-temperature calcination at 800 °C and improve the concentration and uniformity of dopant distribution along the nanowire growth axis. The capability of retaining nanowire morphology allows tuning the nanowire length for optimal light absorption. Uniform distribution of Sn doping enhances the donor density and charge transport of hematite nanowire. The morphology and doping engineered hematite nanowire photoanode decorated with a cobalt oxide-based oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalyst achieves an outstanding photocurrent density of 2.2 mA cm(-2) at 0.23 V vs Ag/AgCl. This work provides important insights on how the morphology and doping uniformity of hematite photoanodes affect their PEC performance.

  2. Importance of doping and frustration in itinerant Fe-doped Cr2Al

    DOE PAGES

    Susner, M. A.; Parker, D. S.; Sefat, A. S.

    2015-05-12

    We performed an experimental and theoretical study comparing the effects of Fe-doping of Cr2Al, an antiferromagnet with a N el temperature of 670 K, with known results on Fe-doping of antiferromagnetic bcc Cr. (Cr1-xFex)2Al materials are found to exhibit a rapid suppression of antiferromagnetic order with the presence of Fe, decreasing TN to 170 K for x=0.10. Antiferromagnetic behavior disappears entirely at x≈0.125 after which point increasing paramagnetic behavior is exhibited. Moreover, this is unlike the effects of Fe doping of bcc antiferromagnetic Cr, in which TN gradually decreases followed by the appearance of a ferromagnetic state. Theoretical calculations explainmore » that the Cr2Al-Fe suppression of magnetic order originates from two effects: the first is band narrowing caused by doping of additional electrons from Fe substitution that weakens itinerant magnetism; the second is magnetic frustration of the Cr itinerant moments in Fe-substituted Cr2Al. In pure-phase Cr2Al, the Cr moments have an antiparallel alignment; however, these are destroyed through Fe substitution and the preference of Fe for parallel alignment with Cr. This is unlike bulk Fe-doped Cr alloys in which the Fe anti-aligns with the Cr atoms, and speaks to the importance of the Al atoms in the magnetic structure of Cr2Al and Fe-doped Cr2Al.« less

  3. Charge partitioning and anomalous hole doping in Rh-doped Sr2IrO4

    DOE PAGES

    Chikara, S.; Fabbris, G.; Terzic, J.; ...

    2017-02-15

    The simultaneous presence of sizable spin-orbit interactions and electron correlations in iridium oxides has led to predictions of novel ground states including Dirac semimetals, Kitaev spin liquids, and superconductivity. Electron and hole doping studies of spin-orbit assisted Mott insulator Sr2IrO4 are being intensively pursued due to extensive parallels with the La2CuO4 parent compound of cuprate superconductors. In particular, the mechanism of charge doping associated with replacement of Ir with Rh ions remains controversial with profound consequences for the interpretation of electronic structure and transport data. Using x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements at the Rh L, K, and Ir Lmore » edges we observe anomalous evolution of charge partitioning between Rh and Ir with Rh doping. The partitioning of charge between Rh and Ir sites progresses in a way that holes are initially doped into the Jeff = 1/2 band at low x only to be removed from it at higher x values. Furthermore, this anomalous hole doping naturally explains the reentrant insulating phase in the phase diagram of Sr2Ir1–xRhxO4 and ought to be considered when searching for superconductivity and other emergent phenomena in iridates doped with 4d elements.« less

  4. Multifunctional electroactive heteroatom-doped carbon aerogels.

    PubMed

    You, Bo; Yin, Peiqun; An, Linna

    2014-11-12

    The design and synthesis of highly active, durable, and cheap nanomaterials for various renewable energy storage and conversion applications is extremely desirable but remains challenging. Here, a green and efficient strategy to produce CoOx nanoparticles and surface N-co-doped carbon aerogels (Co-N-CAs) is reported by multicomponent surface self-assembly of commercially melamine sponge (CMS). In the methodology, the CMS simultaneously function as green N precursor for surface N doping and 3D support. The resulting Co-N-CAs exhibit 3D hierarchical, interconnected macro- and bimodal meso-porosity (6.3 nm and <4 nm), high surface area (1383 m(2) g(-1)), and highly dispersed, semi-exposured CoOx nanoparticles (diameter of 12.5 nm). The surface doping of N, semi-exposured configuration of CoOx nanoparticles and the penetrated complementary pores (<4 nm) in the carbon walls provide highly accessibility between electroactive components and electrolytes to improve reactivity. With their tailored architecture, the Co-N-CAs show superior electrocatalytic oxygen reduction (ORR) activities comparable to the commercially Pt/C catalysts, high specific capacitance (433 F g(-1)), excellent lithium storage (938 mAh g(-1)), and outstanding durability, making them very promising for advanced energy conversion and storage. In addition, the presented strategy can be extended to fabricate other metal oxide- and N-co-doped carbon aerogels for diverse energy-related applications.

  5. Structure and functionality of bromine doped graphite.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Rashid; Kemper, A F; Cao, Chao; Cheng, H P

    2013-04-28

    First-principles calculations are used to study the enhanced in-plane conductivity observed experimentally in Br-doped graphite, and to study the effect of external stress on the structure and functionality of such systems. The model used in the numerical calculations is that of stage two doped graphite. The band structure near the Fermi surface of the doped systems with different bromine concentrations is compared to that of pure graphite, and the charge transfer between carbon and bromine atoms is analyzed to understand the conductivity change along different high symmetry directions. Our calculations show that, for large interlayer separation between doped graphite layers, bromine is stable in the molecular form (Br2). However, with increased compression (decreased layer-layer separation) Br2 molecules tend to dissociate. While in both forms, bromine is an electron acceptor. The charge exchange between the graphite layers and Br atoms is higher than that with Br2 molecules. Electron transfer to the Br atoms increases the number of hole carriers in the graphite sheets, resulting in an increase of conductivity.

  6. Structure and functionality of bromine doped graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdan, Rashid; Kemper, A. F.; Cao Chao; Cheng, H. P.

    2013-04-28

    First-principles calculations are used to study the enhanced in-plane conductivity observed experimentally in Br-doped graphite, and to study the effect of external stress on the structure and functionality of such systems. The model used in the numerical calculations is that of stage two doped graphite. The band structure near the Fermi surface of the doped systems with different bromine concentrations is compared to that of pure graphite, and the charge transfer between carbon and bromine atoms is analyzed to understand the conductivity change along different high symmetry directions. Our calculations show that, for large interlayer separation between doped graphite layers, bromine is stable in the molecular form (Br{sub 2}). However, with increased compression (decreased layer-layer separation) Br{sub 2} molecules tend to dissociate. While in both forms, bromine is an electron acceptor. The charge exchange between the graphite layers and Br atoms is higher than that with Br{sub 2} molecules. Electron transfer to the Br atoms increases the number of hole carriers in the graphite sheets, resulting in an increase of conductivity.

  7. Self-activating and doped tantalate phosphors.

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, May Devan; Rohwer, Lauren Elizabeth Shea

    2011-01-01

    An ideal red phosphor for blue LEDs is one of the biggest challenges for the solid-state lighting industry. The appropriate phosphor material should have good adsorption and emission properties, good thermal and chemical stability, minimal thermal quenching, high quantum yield, and is preferably inexpensive and easy to fabricate. Tantalates possess many of these criteria, and lithium lanthanum tantalate materials warrant thorough investigation. In this study, we investigated red luminescence of two lithium lanthanum tantalates via three mechanisms: (1) Eu-doping, (2) Mn-doping and (3) self-activation of the tantalum polyhedra. Of these three mechanisms, Mn-doping proved to be the most promising. These materials exhibit two very broad adsorption peaks; one in the UV and one in the blue region of the spectrum; both can be exploited in LED applications. Furthermore, Mn-doping can be accomplished in two ways; ion-exchange and direct solid-state synthesis. One of the two lithium lanthanum tantalate phases investigated proved to be a superior host for Mn-luminescence, suggesting the crystal chemistry of the host lattice is important.

  8. Detection methods for autologous blood doping.

    PubMed

    Segura, J; Monfort, N; Ventura, R

    2012-11-01

    The use of blood doping is forbidden by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Several practices, such as blood transfusions are used to increase oxygen delivery to muscles and all of them are highly pursued. In this regard, the development of accurate methodologies for detecting these prohibited practices is one of the current aims of the anti-doping control laboratories. Flow cytometry methods are able to detect allogeneic blood transfusions but there is no official methodology available to detect autologous blood transfusions. This paper reviews protocols, including the Athlete Biological Passport, that use indirect markers to detect misuse of blood transfusions, especially autologous blood transfusions. The methods of total haemoglobin mass measurements and the detection of metabolites of blood bags plasticizers in urine are reviewed. The latter seems to be an important step forward because it is a fast screening method and it is based on urine, a fluid widely available for doping control. Other innovative approaches to blood transfusion detection are also mentioned. A combination of the reported methodologies and the implementation of the Athlete Biological Passport is becoming a promising approach.

  9. Couple Conflict and Rope-a-Dope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Jerry; Harrison, Tom

    1993-01-01

    Draws analogy between Muhammad Ali's boxing technique of "rope-a-dope" and behavioral patterns frequently occurring in couple conflicts. Presents basics of Ali's technique as similar to fighting patterns of many couples. Suggests that this behavior may lead to physical violence. Describes use of analogy in working with couples. Presents strategies…

  10. Electron Doping a Kagome Spin Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Z. A.; Gallagher, M. J.; McQueen, T. M.

    2016-10-01

    Herbertsmithite, ZnCu3 (OH )6Cl2 , is a two-dimensional kagome lattice realization of a spin liquid, with evidence for fractionalized excitations and a gapped ground state. Such a quantum spin liquid has been proposed to underlie high-temperature superconductivity and is predicted to produce a wealth of new states, including a Dirac metal at 1 /3 electron doping. Here, we report the topochemical synthesis of electron-doped ZnLix Cu3 (OH )6Cl2 from x =0 to x =1.8 (3 /5 per Cu2 + ). Contrary to expectations, no metallicity or superconductivity is induced. Instead, we find a systematic suppression of magnetic behavior across the phase diagram. Our results demonstrate that significant theoretical work is needed to understand and predict the role of doping in magnetically frustrated narrow band insulators, particularly the interplay between local structural disorder and tendency toward electron localization, and pave the way for future studies of doped spin liquids.

  11. Atomically precise nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinitskii, Alexander

    There is a considerable interest in graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), few-nm-wide strips of graphene with high aspect ratios, because of their intriguing physical properties. For example, GNRs with zigzag edges are predicted to exhibit low-dimensional magnetism, while GNRs with armchair edges can possess large energy band gaps, making them promising materials for future electronics and photovoltaics. The ability to control structural parameters of GNRs, such as their width, edge structure and termination, with atomic precision is the key for practical realization of these intriguing nanoscale properties. Physical properties of GNRs can also be modified by their doping with heteroatoms, such nitrogen, resulting in nitrogen-doped GNRs or N-GNRs. In this talk I will discuss several types of N-GNRs with different doping levels that have been synthesized and systematically studied by spectroscopic, microscopic and transport methods. Incorporation of nitrogen atoms in graphene lattice is shown to be an effective route to affect GNRs' band gap, doping level as well as aggregation behavior. The support from NSF CHE-1455330 is gratefully acknowledged.

  12. Silver doped metal layers for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocourek, T.; Jelínek, M.; Mikšovský, J.; Jurek, K.; Weiserová, M.

    2014-04-01

    Biological, physical and mechanical properties of silver-doped layers of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and 316L steel prepared by pulsed laser deposition were studied. Metallic silver-doped coatings could be a new route for antibacterial protection in medicine. Thin films of silver and silver-doped materials were synthesized using KrF excimer laser deposition. The materials were ablated from two targets, which were composed either from titanium alloy with silver segments or from steel with silver segments. The concentration of silver ranged from 1.54 at% to 4.32 at% for steel and from 3.04 at% to 13.05 at% for titanium alloy. The layer properties such as silver content, structure, adhesion, surface wettability, and antibacterial efficacy (evaluated by Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis bacteria) were measured. Film adhesion was studied using scratch test. The antibacterial efficacy changed with silver doping up to 99.9 %. Our investigation was focused on minimum Ag concentration needed to reach high antibacterial efficiency, high film adhesion, and hardness.

  13. Confidentiality, disclosure and doping in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    McNamee, M; Phillips, N

    2011-03-01

    The manner in which healthcare and medical professionals serve their athlete patients is governed by a variety of relevant codes of conduct. A range of codified rules is presented that refer both the welfare of the patient and the maintaining of confidentiality, which is at the heart of trustworthy relations. The 2009 version of the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC), however, appears to oblige all healthcare professionals not to assist athletes if they are known to be engaged in doping behaviours under fear of removal from working with athletes from the respective sports. In contrast, serving the best interests of their athlete patients may oblige healthcare professionals to give advice and guidance, not least in terms of harm minimisation. In so far as the professional conduct of a healthcare professional is guided both by professional code and World Anti-Doping Code, they are obliged to fall foul of one or the other. We call for urgent and pressing inter-professional dialogue with the World Anti-Doping Agency to clarify this situation.

  14. Silicon solar cells improved by lithium doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, P. A.

    1970-01-01

    Results of conference on characteristics of lithium-doped silicon solar cells and techniques required for fabrication indicate that output of cells has been improved to point where cells exhibit radiation resistance superior to those currently in use, and greater control and reproducibility of cell processing have been achieved.

  15. Aluminum doping improves silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Aluminum doped silicon solar cells with resistivities in the 10- to 20-ohm centimeter range have broad spectral response, high efficiency and long lifetimes in nuclear radiation environments. Production advantages include low material rejection and increased production yields, and close tolerance control.

  16. Laser interrogation of surface agents (LISA) for chemical agent reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higdon, N. S.; Chyba, Thomas H.; Richter, Dale A.; Ponsardin, Patrick L.; Armstrong, Wayne T.; Lobb, C. T.; Kelly, Brian T.; Babnick, Robert D.; Sedlacek, Arthur J., III

    2002-06-01

    Laser Interrogation of Surface Agents (LISA) is a new technique which exploits Raman scattering to provide standoff detection and identification of surface-deposited chemical agents. ITT Industries, Advanced Engineering and Sciences Division is developing the LISA technology under a cost-sharing arrangement with the US Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command for incorporation on the Army's future reconnaissance vehicles. A field-engineered prototype LISA-Recon system is being designed to demonstrate on-the- move measurements of chemical contaminants. In this article, we will describe the LISA technique, data form proof-of- concept measurements, the LISA-Recon design, and some of the future realizations envisioned for military sensing applications.

  17. Onto-Agents-Enabling Intelligent Agents on the Web

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    concept of the semantic web, but also time- consuming . There has been much research here, but I have not yet seen any public 10 business ...OntoAgents project. 1. Prof. Gio Wiederhold, PhD, Principal Investigator * (Retired) Recalled for active duty to teach the Freshman course: Business on the...Manual annotation is tedious, and often done poorly. Even within the funded DAML project fewer pages were annotated than was hoped. In eCommerce , there

  18. Electroless Functionalization of Silver Films by Its Molecular Doping.

    PubMed

    Naor, Hadas; Avnir, David

    2015-12-09

    We present a methodology which by far extends the potential applications of thin conductive silver films achieved by an electroless molecular doping process of the metal with any of the endless functional molecules that the large library of organic molecules offer. The resulting metallic films within which the molecule is entrapped--molecule@Ag--carry both the classical chemical and physical properties of silver films, as well as the function of the entrapped molecule. Raman measurements of the organic molecules from within the silver films provide the first spectroscopic observations from within silver, and clearly show that entrapment, a three-dimensional process, and adsorption, a two-dimensional process, on silver films are distinctly different processes. Three organic molecules, the cationic Neutral red, the anionic Congo red, and the antibacterial agent chlorhexidine digluconate (CH), were used to demonstrate the generality of this method for various types of molecules. We studied the sensitivity of the film conductivity to the type of the molecule entrapped within the film, to its concentration, and to temperature. Dual functionality was demonstrated with CH@Ag films, which are both conductive and have prolonged and high antibacterial activity, a combination of properties that has been unknown so far.

  19. The New Agent: A Qualitative Study to Strategically Adapt New Agent Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lauri M.; Hadley, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative study reported here assessed the needs of agents related to new agent professional development to improve the current model. Agents who participated in new agent professional development within the last 5 years were selected to participate in focus groups to determine concerns and continued needs. Agents enjoyed networking and…

  20. Does an Agent Matter? The Effects of Animated Pedagogical Agents on Multimedia Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Scotty D.; Gholson, Barry

    Data are presented on the effects of Animated Agents on multimedia learning environments with specific concerns of split attention and modality effects. The study was a 3 (agent properties: agent only, agent with gestures, no agent) x 3 (picture features: static picture, sudden onset, animation) factorial design with outcome measures of mental…

  1. Harmonization of anti-doping rules in a global context (World Anti-Doping Agency-laboratory accreditation perspective).

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Victoria; Miller, John H M; Rabin, Olivier; Squirrell, Alan; Westwood, Steven

    2012-07-01

    This article provides a review of the leading role of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in the context of the global fight against doping in sport and the harmonization of anti-doping rules worldwide through the implementation of the World Anti-Doping Program. Particular emphasis is given to the WADA-laboratory accreditation program, which is coordinated by the Science Department of WADA in conjunction with the Laboratory Expert Group, and the cooperation with the international accreditation community through International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation and other organizations, all of which contribute to constant improvement of laboratory performance in the global fight against doping in sport. A perspective is provided of the means to refine the existing anti-doping rules and programs to ensure continuous improvement in order to face growing sophisticated challenges. A viewpoint on WADA's desire to embrace cooperation with other international organizations whose knowledge can contribute to the fight against doping in sport is acknowledged.

  2. Innovative agents in cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Manson, Margaret M; Farmer, Peter B; Gescher, Andreas; Steward, William P

    2005-01-01

    There are many facets to cancer prevention: a good diet, weight control and physical activity, a healthy environment, avoidance of carcinogens such as those in tobacco smoke, and screening of populations at risk to allow early detection. But there is also the possibility of using drugs or naturally occurring compounds to prevent initiation of, or to suppress, tumour growth. Only a few such agents have been used to date in the clinic with any success, and these include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for colon, finasteride for prostate and tamoxifen or raloxifene for breast tumours. An ideal chemopreventive agent would restore normal growth control to a preneoplastic or cancerous cell population by modifying aberrant signalling pathways or inducing apoptosis (or both) in cells beyond repair. Characteristics for such an agent include selectivity for damaged or transformed cells, good bioavailability and more than one mechanism of action to foil redundancy or crosstalk in signalling pathways. As more research effort is being targeted towards this area, the distinction between chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agents is blurring. Chemotherapeutic drugs are now being designed to target over- or under-active signalling molecules within cancer cells, a philosophy which is just as relevant in chemoprevention. Development of dietary agents is particularly attractive because of our long-standing exposure to them, their relative lack of toxicity, and encouraging indications from epidemiology. The carcinogenic process relies on the cell's ability to proliferate abnormally, evade apoptosis, induce angiogenesis and metastasise to distant sites. In vitro studies with a number of different diet-derived compounds suggest that there are molecules capable of modulating each of these aspects of tumour growth. However, on the negative side many of them have rather poor bioavailability. The challenge is to uncover their multiple mechanisms of action in order to predict their

  3. Neuroprotective "agents" in surgery. Secret "agent" man, or common "agent" machine?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    The search for clinically-effective neuroprotective agents has received enormous support in recent years--an estimated $200 million by pharmaceutical companies on clinical trials for traumatic brain injury alone. At the same time, the pathophysiology of brain injury has proved increasingly complex, rendering the likelihood of a single agent "magic bullet" even more remote. On the other hand, great progress continues with technology that makes surgery less invasive and less risky. One example is the application of endovascular techniques to treat coronary artery stenosis, where both the invasiveness of sternotomy and the significant neurological complication rate (due to microemboli showering the cerebral vasculature) can be eliminated. In this paper we review aspects of intraoperative neuroprotection both present and future. Explanations for the slow progress on pharmacologic neuroprotection during surgery are presented. Examples of technical advances that have had great impact on neuroprotection during surgery are given both from coronary artery stenosis surgery and from surgery for Parkinson's disease. To date, the progress in neuroprotection resulting from such technical advances is an order of magnitude greater than that resulting from pharmacologic agents used during surgery. The progress over the last 20 years in guidance during surgery (CT and MRI image-guidance) and in surgical access (endoscopic and endovascular techniques) will soon be complemented by advances in our ability to evaluate biological tissue intraoperatively in real-time. As an example of such technology, the NASA Smart Probe project is considered. In the long run (i.e., in 10 years or more), pharmacologic "agents" aimed at the complex pathophysiology of nervous system injury in man will be the key to true intraoperative neuroprotection. In the near term, however, it is more likely that mundane "agents" based on computers, microsensors, and microeffectors will be the major impetus to improved

  4. Needs, Pains, and Motivations in Autonomous Agents.

    PubMed

    Starzyk, Janusz A; Graham, James; Puzio, Leszek

    2016-08-17

    This paper presents the development of a motivated learning (ML) agent with symbolic I/O. Our earlier work on the ML agent was enhanced, giving it autonomy for interaction with other agents. Specifically, we equipped the agent with drives and pains that establish its motivations to learn how to respond to desired and undesired events and create related abstract goals. The purpose of this paper is to explore the autonomous development of motivations and memory in agents within a simulated environment. The ML agent has been implemented in a virtual environment created within the NeoAxis game engine. Additionally, to illustrate the benefits of an ML-based agent, we compared the performance of our algorithm against various reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms in a dynamic test scenario, and demonstrated that our ML agent learns better than any of the tested RL agents.

  5. CATS-based Agents That Err

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes preliminary research on intelligent agents that make errors. Such agents are crucial to the development of novel agent-based techniques for assessing system safety. The agents extend an agent architecture derived from the Crew Activity Tracking System that has been used as the basis for air traffic controller agents. The report first reviews several error taxonomies. Next, it presents an overview of the air traffic controller agents, then details several mechanisms for causing the agents to err in realistic ways. The report presents a performance assessment of the error-generating agents, and identifies directions for further research. The research was supported by the System-Wide Accident Prevention element of the FAA/NASA Aviation Safety Program.

  6. Evaluation of different nonspecific binding blocking agents deposited inside poly(methyl methacrylate) microfluidic flow-cells.

    PubMed

    Le, Nam Cao Hoai; Gubala, Vladimir; Gandhiraman, Ram P; Daniels, Stephen; Williams, David E

    2011-07-19

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) flow-cells containing microwells were deposited with different nonspecific binding blocking agents, namely, bovine serum albumin (BSA), cationic lipid (DOTAP:DOPE) and diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DEGDME). Water contact angle (WCA) and atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements were carried out to confirm the successful depositions of BSA, DOTAP, and DEGDME onto the PMMA surfaces. Fluorescent intensity measurements were performed to evaluate the degree of nonspecific adsorption of Cy5-labeled anti-IgG proteins onto plain and oxygen plasma-treated (PT) PMMA flow-cells as well as PMMA flow-cells deposited with different above-mentioned blocking agents. We then employed a label-free detection method called total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE) to evaluate the stability of the deposited blocking agents inside the PMMA flow-cells. It was found that, while DOTAP:DOPE was the best agent for blocking the nonspecific adsorption, it could be removed from the PMMA surfaces of the flow-cells upon rinsing with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and later deposited back onto the Au-coated glass sensing substrate of the TIRE. The removal of the blocking agents from PMMA surfaces and their deposition onto the sensing substrate were further manifested by measuring the kinetics and the amount of adsorbed anti-α-hCG proteins. Overall, the dry DEGDME coating by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) showed very good blocking and excellent stability for subsequent assay inside the microwells. Our results could be useful when one considers what blocking agents should be used for PMMA-based microfluidic immunosensor or biosensor devices by looking at both the blocking efficiency and the stability of the blocking agent.

  7. Chaotic neurodynamics for autonomous agents.

    PubMed

    Harter, Derek; Kozma, Robert

    2005-05-01

    Mesoscopic level neurodynamics study the collective dynamical behavior of neural populations. Such models are becoming increasingly important in understanding large-scale brain processes. Brains exhibit aperiodic oscillations with a much more rich dynamical behavior than fixed-point and limit-cycle approximation allow. Here we present a discretized model inspired by Freeman's K-set mesoscopic level population model. We show that this version is capable of replicating the important principles of aperiodic/chaotic neurodynamics while being fast enough for use in real-time autonomous agent applications. This simplification of the K model provides many advantages not only in terms of efficiency but in simplicity and its ability to be analyzed in terms of its dynamical properties. We study the discrete version using a multilayer, highly recurrent model of the neural architecture of perceptual brain areas. We use this architecture to develop example action selection mechanisms in an autonomous agent.

  8. Bacteriocins as Potential Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sumanpreet; Kaur, Sukhraj

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have non-specific toxicity toward normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeutic potential of bacteriocins against various types of cancer cell lines. Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized cationic peptides secreted by almost all groups of bacteria. Some bacteriocins have shown selective cytotoxicity toward cancer cells as compared to normal cells. This makes them promising candidates for further investigation and clinical trials. In this review article, we present the overview of the various cancer cell-specific cytotoxic bacteriocins, their mode of action and efficacies. PMID:26617524

  9. Mechanisms of contrast agent destruction.

    PubMed

    Chomas, J E; Dayton, P; Allen, J; Morgan, K; Ferrara, K W

    2001-01-01

    Various applications of contrast-assisted ultrasound, including blood vessel detection, perfusion estimation, and drug delivery, require controlled destruction of contrast agent microbubbles. The lifetime of a bubble depends on properties of the bubble shell, the gas core, and the acoustic waveform impinging on the bubble. Three mechanisms of microbubble destruction are considered: fragmentation, acoustically driven diffusion, and static diffusion. Fragmentation is responsible for rapid destruction of contrast agents on a time scale of microseconds. The primary characteristics of fragmentation are a very large expansion and subsequent contraction, resulting in instability of the bubble. Optical studies using a novel pulsed-laser optical system show the expansion and contraction of ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles with the ratio of maximum diameter to minimum diameter greater than 10. Fragmentation is dependent on the transmission pressure, occurring in over 55% of bubbles insonified with a peak negative transmission pressure of 2.4 MPa and in less than 10% of bubbles insonified with a peak negative transmission pressure of 0.8 MPa. The echo received from a bubble decorrelates significantly within two pulses when the bubble is fragmented, creating an opportunity for rapid detection of bubbles via a decorrelation-based analysis. Preliminary findings with a mouse tumor model verify the occurrence of fragmentation in vivo. A much slower mechanism of bubble destruction is diffusion, which is driven by both a concentration gradient between the concentration of gas in the bubble compared with the concentration of gas in the liquid, as well as convective effects of motion of the gas-liquid interface. The rate of diffusion increases during insonation, because of acoustically driven diffusion, producing changes in diameter on the time scale of the acoustic pulse length, thus, on the order of microseconds. Gas bubbles diffuse while they are not being insonified, termed

  10. Safety Pharmacology of Anticancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Martin, Pauline L

    2015-01-01

    The safety pharmacology testing for anticancer agents has historically differed for small molecule pharmaceutical drugs versus large-molecule biopharmaceuticals. For pharmaceutical drugs, dedicated safety pharmacology studies have been conducted according to the ICH M3 (R2), ICH 7A, and ICH S7B guidance documents. For biopharmaceuticals, safety pharmacology endpoints have been incorporated into the repeated-dose toxicology studies according to ICHS6 (R1). However, the introduction of the ICH S9 guidance document for the nonclinical evaluation for anticancer pharmaceuticals has allowed for a streamlined approach for both types of molecules to facilitate access of new potential therapeutics to cancer patients and to reduce the number of animal studies. Examples of the testing strategies that have previously been employed for some representative anticancer agents are provided, and their predictivity to adverse events noted in the clinic is discussed.

  11. Arthropods: Vectors of Disease Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    andersoni 0-fever Coxiella burnetti Dermacentor andersoni, Rhipicephalus san guineus Rocky Mountain spotted fever Rickettsia rickettsii Dermacentor...andersoni, D variabilis Rickettsial pox (mite-borne) Rickettsia akari Liponyssoides san guineus Relapsing fever Borre/ja turicatae 8 hermsi4 B parkeri...typhus Rickettsia typhi Xenopsylla cheopis, others ELB agent R 4/phi-like Ctenocephalides fe/is Louse-borne Epidemic typhus Rickettsia prowazekii

  12. Antisense Treatments for Biothreat Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    oligomers (ASOs) represent a promising technology to treat viral and bacterial infections, and have already been shown to be successful against a...viral and bacterial agents have a history of state- sponsored ’weaponization’, including Marburg, Ebola, Junin, Machupo, yellow fever viruses and...14. ABSTRACT Antisense oligomers (ASOs) represent a promising technology to treat viral and bacterial infections, and have already been shown to be

  13. Multi-agent autonomous system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

  14. New agents in HSC mobilization.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Mélanie J; Nilsson, Susan K; Cao, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Mobilized peripheral blood (PB) is the most common source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) for autologous transplantation. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is the most commonly used mobilization agent, yet despite its widespread use, a considerable number of patients still fail to mobilize. Recently, a greater understanding of the interactions that regulate HSC homeostasis in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment has enabled the development of new molecules that mobilize HSC through specific inhibition, modulation or perturbation of these interactions. AMD3100 (plerixafor), a small molecule that selectively inhibits the chemokine receptor CXCR4 is approved for mobilization in combination with G-CSF in patients with Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Nevertheless, identifying mobilization strategies that not only enhance HSC number, but are rapid and generate an optimal "mobilized product" for improved transplant outcomes remains an area of clinical importance. In recent times, new agents based on recombinant proteins, peptides and small molecules have been identified as potential candidates for therapeutic HSC mobilization. In this review, we describe the most recent developments in HSC mobilization agents and their potential impact in HSC transplantation.

  15. Divalent europium doped CaF2 and BaF2 nanocrystals from ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Anghel, Sergiu; Golbert, Sebastian; Meijerink, Andries; Mudring, Anja -Verena

    2016-10-11

    A new, facile and quick synthesis method for Eu2+ doped the alkaline earth fluorides was developed using ionic liquids as solvent, precursor and capping agent. Reductive atmosphere and very high temperatures were avoided, while still attaining the desired structure, small particle sizes and divalent oxidation state of the lanthanide. Here, this opens the door for the development of new Ln2+ doped nanomaterials. The successful Eu2+ incorporation was proven by optical spectroscopic measurements which showed the spin and parity allowed f-d transitions of Eu2+ in CaF2:Eu2+/BaF2:Eu2+. 4f7-4f7 transitions could be observed at low temperatures (7 K).

  16. Multifunctional lanthanide and silver ion co-doped nano-chlorapatites with combined spectroscopic and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Wiglusz, R J; Drulis-Kawa, Z; Pazik, R; Zawisza, K; Dorotkiewicz-Jach, A; Roszkowiak, J; Nedelec, J M

    2015-04-21

    Nanocrystalline chlorapatites (Ca10(PO4)6Cl2) doped with lanthanide ions (Eu(3+), Er(3+) and Yb(3+)) and co-doped with silver ions (Ag(+)) were synthesized by a hydrothermal synthesis route. XRD, TEM, and SAED measurements indicated that the powders are single phased and crystallize with a hexagonal structure with good dispersion. The results showed well crystallized chlorapatite grains with a diameter of about 45 nm. The antimicrobial activity of the nanoparticles against Escherichia coli ATCC 11229 and ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and ATCC 27853 was studied. The best activity was observed for the Eu(3+),Ag(+):Ca10(PO4)6Cl2 and Eu(3+),Ag(+),Yb(3+):Ca10(PO4)6Cl2 compositions. These multifunctional nanocrystalline powders could be used as a promising antimicrobial agent and material for bio-detection.

  17. Dynamics enhanced by HCl doping triggers full Pauling entropy release at the ice XII-XIV transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, K. W.; Fuentes-Landete, V.; Raidt, A.; Seidl, M.; Gainaru, C.; Loerting, T.; Böhmer, R.

    2015-06-01

    The pressure-temperature phase diagram of ice displays a perplexing variety of structurally distinct phases. In the century-long history of scientific research on ice, the proton-ordered ice phases numbered XIII through XV were discovered only recently. Despite considerable effort, none of the transitions leading from the low-temperature ordered ices VIII, IX, XI, XIII, XIV and XV to their high-temperature disordered counterparts were experimentally found to display the full Pauling entropy. Here we report calorimetric measurements on suitably high-pressure-treated, hydrogen chloride-doped ice XIV that demonstrate just this at the transition to ice XII. Dielectric spectroscopy on undoped and on variously doped ice XII crystals reveals that addition of hydrogen chloride, the agent triggering complete proton order in ice XIV, enhances the precursor dynamics strongest. These discoveries provide new insights into the puzzling observation that different dopants trigger the formation of different proton-ordered ice phases.

  18. Dynamics enhanced by HCl doping triggers full Pauling entropy release at the ice XII-XIV transition.

    PubMed

    Köster, K W; Fuentes-Landete, V; Raidt, A; Seidl, M; Gainaru, C; Loerting, T; Böhmer, R

    2015-06-16

    The pressure-temperature phase diagram of ice displays a perplexing variety of structurally distinct phases. In the century-long history of scientific research on ice, the proton-ordered ice phases numbered XIII through XV were discovered only recently. Despite considerable effort, none of the transitions leading from the low-temperature ordered ices VIII, IX, XI, XIII, XIV and XV to their high-temperature disordered counterparts were experimentally found to display the full Pauling entropy. Here we report calorimetric measurements on suitably high-pressure-treated, hydrogen chloride-doped ice XIV that demonstrate just this at the transition to ice XII. Dielectric spectroscopy on undoped and on variously doped ice XII crystals reveals that addition of hydrogen chloride, the agent triggering complete proton order in ice XIV, enhances the precursor dynamics strongest. These discoveries provide new insights into the puzzling observation that different dopants trigger the formation of different proton-ordered ice phases.

  19. Dynamics enhanced by HCl doping triggers full Pauling entropy release at the ice XII–XIV transition

    PubMed Central

    Köster, K. W.; Fuentes-Landete, V.; Raidt, A.; Seidl, M.; Gainaru, C.; Loerting, T.; Böhmer, R.

    2015-01-01

    The pressure–temperature phase diagram of ice displays a perplexing variety of structurally distinct phases. In the century-long history of scientific research on ice, the proton-ordered ice phases numbered XIII through XV were discovered only recently. Despite considerable effort, none of the transitions leading from the low-temperature ordered ices VIII, IX, XI, XIII, XIV and XV to their high-temperature disordered counterparts were experimentally found to display the full Pauling entropy. Here we report calorimetric measurements on suitably high-pressure-treated, hydrogen chloride-doped ice XIV that demonstrate just this at the transition to ice XII. Dielectric spectroscopy on undoped and on variously doped ice XII crystals reveals that addition of hydrogen chloride, the agent triggering complete proton order in ice XIV, enhances the precursor dynamics strongest. These discoveries provide new insights into the puzzling observation that different dopants trigger the formation of different proton-ordered ice phases. PMID:26076946

  20. Expressing Quality of Service in Agent Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    many criteria within a multi - agent system . It can be used to express timing capabilties of an agent, or the accuracy of a response that an agent can...upon a model of a real-time multi - agent system (RTMAS) that we have developed [3]. The model is based on the assumption that agents may be able to...Providence, RI, July 1997. [3] L.C. DiPippo, V. F.-Wolfe, L. Nair, E. Hodys and O. Uvarov. A Real-Time Multi - Agent System Architecture for E- Commerce