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Sample records for chromosome-linked dystrophin abnormalities

  1. Possible influences on the expression of X chromosome-linked dystrophin abnormalities by heterozygosity for autosomal recessive Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, A.H.; Neumann, P.E.; Anderson, M.S.; Kunkel, L.M. ); Arahata, Kiichi; Arikawa, Eri; Nonaka, Ikuya )

    1992-01-15

    Abnormalities of dystrophin, a cytoskeletal protein of muscle and nerve, are generally considered specific for Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy. However, several patients have recently been identified with dystrophin deficiency who, before dystrophin testing, were considered to have Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) on the basis of clinical findings. Epidemiologic data suggest that only 1/3,500 males with autosomal recessive FCMD should have abnormal dystrophin. To explain the observation of 3/23 FCMD males with abnormal dystrophin, the authors propose that dystrophin and the FCMD gene product interact and that the earlier onset and greater severity of these patients' phenotype (relative to Duchenne muscular dystrophy) are due to their being heterozygous for the FCMD mutation in addition to being hemizygous for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a genotype that is predicted to occur in 1/175,000 Japanese males. This model may help explain the genetic basis for some of the clinical and pathological variability seen among patients with FCMD, and it has potential implications for understanding the inheritance of other autosomal recessive disorders in general. For example, sex ratios for rare autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in proteins that interact with X chromosome-linked gene products may display predictable deviation from 1:1.

  2. Abnormalities of dystrophin, the sarcoglycans, and laminin alpha2 in the muscular dystrophies.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, K J; Kim, S S; North, K N

    1998-01-01

    Abnormalities of dystrophin, the sarcoglycans, and laminin alpha2 are responsible for a subset of the muscular dystrophies. In this study we aim to characterise the nature and frequency of abnormalities of these proteins in an Australian population and to formulate an investigative algorithm to aid in approaching the diagnosis of the muscular dystrophies. To reduce ascertainment bias, biopsies with dystrophic (n=131) and non-dystrophic myopathic (n=71) changes were studied with antibodies to dystrophin, alpha, beta, and gamma sarcoglycan, beta dystroglycan, and laminin alpha2, and results were correlated with clinical phenotype. Abnormalities of dystrophin, the sarcoglycans, or laminin alpha2 were present in 61/131 (47%) dystrophic biopsies and in 0/71 myopathic biopsies, suggesting that immunocytochemical study of dystrophin, the sarcoglycans, and laminin alpha2 may, in general, be restricted to patients with dystrophic biopsies. Two patients with mutations identified in gamma sarcoglycan had abnormal dystrophin (by immunocytochemistry and immunoblot), showing that abnormalities of dystrophin may be a secondary phenomenon. Therefore, biopsies should not be excluded from sarcoglycan analysis on the basis of abnormal dystrophin alone. The diagnostic yield was highest in those with severe, rapidly progressive limb-girdle weakness (92%). Laminin alpha2 deficiency was identified in 5/131 (4%) patients; 215 patients presented after infancy, indicating that abnormalities of laminin alpha2 are not limited to the congenital muscular dystrophy phenotype. Overall patterns of immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting provided a guide to mutation analysis and, on the basis of this study, we have formulated a diagnostic algorithm to guide the investigation of patients with muscular dystrophy. Images PMID:9610800

  3. Dystrophin and utrophin "double knockout" dystrophic mice exhibit a spectrum of degenerative musculoskeletal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Christian; Wright, Adam; Usas, Arvydas; Li, Hongshuai; Tang, Ying; Mu, Xiaodong; Greco, Nicholas; Dong, Qing; Vo, Nam; Kang, James; Wang, Bing; Huard, Johnny

    2013-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a degenerative muscle disorder characterized by the lack of dystrophin expression at the sarcolemma of muscle fibers. In addition, DMD patients acquire osteopenia, fragility fractures, and scoliosis indicating that a deficiency in skeletal homeostasis coexists but little is known about the effects of DMD on bone and other connective tissues within the musculoskeletal system. Recent evidence has emerged implicating adult stem cell dysfunction in DMD myopathogenesis. Given the common mesenchymal origin of muscle and bone, we sought to investigate bone and other musculoskeletal tissues in a DMD mouse model. Here, we report that dystrophin-utrophin double knockout (dko) mice exhibit a spectrum of degenerative changes, outside skeletal muscle, in bone, articular cartilage, and intervertebral discs, in addition to reduced lifespan, muscle degeneration, spinal deformity, and cardiomyopathy previously reported. We also report these mice to have a reduced capacity for bone healing and exhibit spontaneous heterotopic ossification in the hind limb muscles. Therefore, we propose the dko mouse as a model for premature musculoskeletal aging and posit that a similar phenomenon may occur in patients with DMD.

  4. Dystrophin quantification

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Karen; Arechavala-Gomeza, Virginia; Taylor, Laura E.; Vulin, Adeline; Kaminoh, Yuuki; Torelli, Silvia; Feng, Lucy; Janghra, Narinder; Bonne, Gisèle; Beuvin, Maud; Barresi, Rita; Henderson, Matt; Laval, Steven; Lourbakos, Afrodite; Campion, Giles; Straub, Volker; Voit, Thomas; Sewry, Caroline A.; Morgan, Jennifer E.; Flanigan, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We formed a multi-institution collaboration in order to compare dystrophin quantification methods, reach a consensus on the most reliable method, and report its biological significance in the context of clinical trials. Methods: Five laboratories with expertise in dystrophin quantification performed a data-driven comparative analysis of a single reference set of normal and dystrophinopathy muscle biopsies using quantitative immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. We developed standardized protocols and assessed inter- and intralaboratory variability over a wide range of dystrophin expression levels. Results: Results from the different laboratories were highly concordant with minimal inter- and intralaboratory variability, particularly with quantitative immunohistochemistry. There was a good level of agreement between data generated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, although immunohistochemistry was more sensitive. Furthermore, mean dystrophin levels determined by alternative quantitative immunohistochemistry methods were highly comparable. Conclusions: Considering the biological function of dystrophin at the sarcolemma, our data indicate that the combined use of quantitative immunohistochemistry and Western blotting are reliable biochemical outcome measures for Duchenne muscular dystrophy clinical trials, and that standardized protocols can be comparable between competent laboratories. The methodology validated in our study will facilitate the development of experimental therapies focused on dystrophin production and their regulatory approval. PMID:25355828

  5. Recovery of induced mutations for X chromosome-linked muscular dystrophy in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, V M; Miller, D R; Armstrong, D; Caskey, C T

    1989-01-01

    We have used elevated levels of plasma creatine phosphokinase activity to identify muscular dystrophy phenotypes in mice and to screen the progeny of chemical mutagen-treated male mice for X chromosome-linked muscular dystrophy mutations. We were not successful in identifying heterozygous carriers of these induced muscular dystrophy mutations in greater than 8000 progeny. However, we were highly successful in identifying three additional alleles of the characterized mdx locus. These alleles of mdx were recovered from various mutagen-treated males and they occur on an X chromosome that carries flanking markers that allow us to follow the mutations in genetic crosses and in the development of corresponding mutant stocks. These alleles have been designated as mdx2Cv, mdx3Cv, and mdx4Cv. Preliminary data show that mice with mdx2Cv and mdx3Cv mutations have muscular dystrophic phenotypes that do not grossly differ from the characterized mdx mutation. These additional mdx mutations expand the value of mouse models of X chromosome-linked muscular dystrophy and potentially define additional sites of mutation that impair dystrophin expression. Images PMID:2919177

  6. Dystrophin and utrophin influence fiber type composition and post-synaptic membrane structure.

    PubMed

    Rafael, J A; Townsend, E R; Squire, S E; Potter, A C; Chamberlain, J S; Davies, K E

    2000-05-22

    The X-linked muscle wasting disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by the lack of dystrophin in muscle. Protein structure predictions, patient mutations, in vitro binding studies and transgenic and knockout mice suggest that dystrophin plays a mechanical role in skeletal muscle, linking the subsarcolemmal cytoskeleton with the extracellular matrix through its direct interaction with the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC). Although a signaling role for dystrophin has been postulated, definitive data have been lacking. To identify potential non-mechanical roles of dystrophin, we tested the ability of various truncated dystrophin transgenes to prevent any of the skeletal muscle abnormalities associated with the double knockout mouse deficient for both dystrophin and the dystrophin-related protein utrophin. We show that restoration of the DAPC with Dp71 does not prevent the structural abnormalities of the post-synaptic membrane or the abnormal oxidative properties of utrophin/dystrophin-deficient muscle. In marked contrast, a dystrophin protein lacking the cysteine-rich domain, which is unable to prevent dystrophy in the mdx mouse, is able to ameliorate these abnormalities in utrophin/dystrophin-deficient mice. These experiments provide the first direct evidence that in addition to a mechanical role and relocalization of the DAPC, dystrophin and utrophin are able to alter both structural and biochemical properties of skeletal muscle. In addition, these mice provide unique insights into skeletal muscle fiber type composition.

  7. Overexpression of dystrophin in transgenic mdx mice eliminates dystrophic symptoms without toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cox, G A; Cole, N M; Matsumura, K; Phelps, S F; Hauschka, S D; Campbell, K P; Faulkner, J A; Chamberlain, J S

    1993-08-19

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD and BMD) are X-linked recessive diseases caused by defective expression of dystrophin. The mdx mouse, an animal model for DMD, has a mutation that eliminates expression of the 427K muscle and brain isoforms of dystrophin. Although these animals do not display overt muscle weakness or impaired movement, the diaphragm muscle of the mdx mouse is severely affected and shows progressive myofibre degeneration and fibrosis which closely resembles the human disease. Here we explore the feasibility of gene therapy for DMD by examining the potential of a full-length dystrophin transgene to correct dystrophic symptoms in mdx mice. We find that expression of dystrophin in muscles of transgenic mdx mice eliminates the morphological and immunohistological symptoms of muscular dystrophy. In addition, overexpression of dystrophin prevents the development of the abnormal mechanical properties associated with dystrophic muscle without causing deleterious side effects. Our results provide functional evidence for the feasibility of gene therapy for DMD.

  8. Colocalization of retinal dystrophin and actin in postsynaptic dendrites of rod and cone photoreceptor synapses.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, F; Holbach, M; Drenckhahn, D

    1993-12-01

    In this paper we demonstrate immunostaining specific for dystrophin in photoreceptor synapses of human, bovine and rat retinas. Cryosections of retinas incubated with dystrophin-specific monoclonal antibodies displayed a punctuate staining pattern in the outer plexiform layer. This pattern resulted from binding of the antibodies to synaptic complexes of both rods and cones, shown by double-labelling with antibodies to either synaptophysin or actin. Confocal laser fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that dystrophin staining colocalized predominantly with actin, which is concentrated in the postsynaptic portions of the synaptic complex. No significant dystrophin immunolabel was seen in the presynaptic terminals labelled with antibodies to synaptophysin, a marker of synaptic vesicles. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the presence of approximately 420 kDa and approximately 360 kDa dystrophin-like polypeptide bands associated with membranes of the bovine retina. We speculate that retinal dystrophin is involved in the linkage of actin filaments to the postsynaptic plasma membrane. Such a linkage may be important for the generation of synaptic microdomains and for certain phenomena of synaptic plasticity. The absence of dystrophin in patients suffering from Duchenne's muscular dystrophy is accompanied by visual problems and abnormalities of the electroretinogram. Therefore it is likely that retinal dystrophin plays a role in certain stages of synaptic transmission between photoreceptors and the postsynaptic dendritic complex formed by horizontal and bipolar cells.

  9. Dystrophin-Deficient Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Forum; Garry, Daniel J

    2016-05-31

    Dystrophinopathies are a group of distinct neuromuscular diseases that result from mutations in the structural cytoskeletal Dystrophin gene. Dystrophinopathies include Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy, as well as DMD and BMD female carriers. The primary presenting symptom in most dystrophinopathies is skeletal muscle weakness. However, cardiac muscle is also a subtype of striated muscle and is similarly affected in many of the muscular dystrophies. Cardiomyopathies associated with dystrophinopathies are an increasingly recognized manifestation of these neuromuscular disorders and contribute significantly to their morbidity and mortality. Recent studies suggest that these patient populations would benefit from cardiovascular therapies, annual cardiovascular imaging studies, and close follow-up with cardiovascular specialists. Moreover, patients with DMD and BMD who develop end-stage heart failure may benefit from the use of advanced therapies. This review focuses on the pathophysiology, cardiac involvement, and treatment of cardiomyopathy in the dystrophic patient. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Monoclonal antibodies against the muscle-specific N-terminus of dystrophin: Characterization of dystrophin in a muscular dystrophy patient with a frameshift deletion of Exons 3-7

    SciTech Connect

    Thanh, L. T.; Man, N. thi; Morris, G.E. ); Love, D.R.; Davies, K.E. ); Helliwell, T.R. )

    1993-07-01

    The first three exons of the human muscle dystrophin gene were expressed as a [beta]-galactosidase fusion protein. 1-his protein was then used to prepare two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) which react with native dystrophin on frozen muscle sections and with denatured dystrophin on western blots but which do not cross-react with the distrophin-related protein, utrophin. Both mAbs recognized dystrophin in muscular dystrophy (MD) patients with deletions of exon 3, and further mapping with 11 overlapping synthetic peptides showed that they both recognize an epitope encoded by the muscle-specific exon 1. Neither mAb recognizes the brain dystrophin isoform, confirming the prediction from mRNA data that this has a different N-terminus. One Becker MD patient with a frameshift deletion of exons 3-7 is shown to produce dystrophin which reacts with the N-terminal mAbs, as well as with mAbs which bind on the C-terminal side of the deletion. The data suggest that transcription begins at the normal muscle dystrophin promoter and that the normal reading frame is restored after the deletion. A number of mechanisms have been proposed for restoration of the reading frame after deletion of exons 3-7, but those which predict dystrophin with an abnormal N-terminus do not appear to be major mechanisms in this patient. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Normal calcium homeostasis in dystrophin-expressing facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy myotubes.

    PubMed

    Vandebrouck, Clarisse; Imbert, Nathalie; Constantin, Bruno; Duport, Gérard; Raymond, Guy; Cognard, Christian

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a set of data on mechanisms involved in the calcium homeostasis of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) co-cultured myotubes. In fact, abnormal regulation of calcium have been shown in deficient dystrophin cells like Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) cells, and it seemed interesting to study the calcium regulation in a pathologic cellular model which express dystrophin. T- and L-type calcium currents and contractile responses induced by membrane depolarisations as well as intracellular calcium transients induced by three kinds of stimulus (superfusions of acetylcholine, high K+ or caffeine containing media) were recorded by means of whole-cell patch-clamp and ratiometric cytofluorimetry in co-cultured FSHD myotubes which presented a sarcolemmal localisation of dystrophin. As judged from calcium currents properties, voltage-dependency of contractile responses or amplitude of evoked calcium transients, no clear difference in the calcium handling or calcium signalling was observed between this type of cell and the control cells, at least with the means and the conditions used in the present study. Since FSHD cells, contrary to DMD (Duchenne muscular dystrophy) cells, seemed to display both dystrophin expression and unaltered calcium regulation, the FSHD co-cultured cells appeared as a useful model of dystrophin-expressing pathological muscle cells to further investigate the link between dystrophin expression and intracellular calcium level regulation.

  12. A model to estimate the expression of the dystrophin gene in muscle from female Becker muscular dystrophy carriers.

    PubMed Central

    Vainzof, M; Passos-Bueno, M R; Pavanello, R C; Schreiber, R; Zatz, M

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the possibility of building a model to estimate, through dystrophin western blotting analysis, the expression of the DMD/BMD gene in muscle from heterozygotes. Dystrophin was analysed by mixing in increasing proportions (from 0% to 100%) aliquots of solubilised muscle from BMD patients with a qualitatively abnormal dystrophin and a normal male control. The intensity of the abnormal bands, which could be detected starting with 20% of muscle from the BMD patient, increased progressively according to the affected muscle concentration. In five obligate BMD carriers, two dystrophin bands were observed (corresponding to the products from the X bearing the normal and the BMD alleles), even among those with normal serum enzyme activities. Surprisingly, in the four obligate BMD carriers related to patients in whom an additional dystrophin fragment of 250 kd was present (two of them with raised serum enzymes), this band could not be seen, suggesting that the stability or the mechanism responsible for the synthesis of abnormal dystrophin products differs in heterozygotes compared to affected patients. Images PMID:1640426

  13. X chromosome-linked Kallmann syndrome: stop mutations validate the candidate gene.

    PubMed Central

    Hardelin, J P; Levilliers, J; del Castillo, I; Cohen-Salmon, M; Legouis, R; Blanchard, S; Compain, S; Bouloux, P; Kirk, J; Moraine, C

    1992-01-01

    Kallmann syndrome represents the association of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with anosmia. This syndrome is from a defect in the embryonic migratory pathway of gonadotropin-releasing hormone synthesizing neurons and olfactory axons. A candidate gene for the X chromosome-linked form of the syndrome was recently isolated by using a positional cloning strategy based on deletion mapping in the Xp22.3 region. With the PCR, two exons of this candidate gene were amplified on the genomic DNAs from 18 unrelated patients affected with the X chromosome-linked Kallmann syndrome. Three different base transitions--all leading to a stop codon--and one single-base deletion responsible for a frameshift were identified. We thus conclude that the candidate gene is the actual KAL gene responsible for the X chromosome-linked Kallmann syndrome. Furthermore, unilateral renal aplasia in two unrelated patients carrying a stop mutation indicates that the KAL gene is itself responsible for this Kallmann syndrome-associated anomaly. The gene is, therefore, also involved in kidney organogenesis. Additional neurologic symptoms in Kallmann patients are also discussed. PMID:1518845

  14. Calcium homeostasis and cell death in Sol8 dystrophin-deficient cell line in culture.

    PubMed

    Marchand, E; Constantin, B; Vandebrouck, C; Raymond, G; Cognard, C

    2001-02-01

    Abnormalities of calcium homeostasis are involved in the process of cell injuries such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy characterized by the absence of the protein dystrophin. But how the absence of dystrophin leads to cytosolic calcium overload is as yet poorly understood. This question has been addressed with skeletal muscle cells from human DMD muscles or mdx mice. Although easier to obtain than human muscles, mdx muscle cells have provided controversial data concerning the resting intracellular calcium level ([Ca2+](i)). This work describes the culture of Sol8 cell line that expresses neither dystrophin nor adhalin, a dystrophin-associated protein. The [Ca2+](i)and intracellular calcium transients induced by different stimuli (acetylcholine, caffeine and high potassium) are normal during the first days of culture. At later stages, calcium homeostasis exhibits drastic alterations with a breaking down of the calcium responses and a large [Ca2+](i)elevation. Concomitantly, Sol8 cells exhibit morphological signs of cell death like cytoplasmic shrinkage and incorporation of propidium iodide. Cell death could be significantly reduced by blocking the activity of calpains, a type of calcium-regulated proteases. These results suggest that Sol8 cell line provides an alternative model of dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle cells for which a clear disturbance of the calcium homeostasis is observed in culture in association with calpain-dependent cell death. It is shown that transfection with a plasmid cDNA permits the forced expression of dystrophin in Sol8 myotubes as well as a correct sorting of the protein. This approach could be used to explore possible interactions between dystrophin deficiency, calcium homeostasis alteration, and dystrophic cell death. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  15. X chromosome-linked Kallmann syndrome: clinical heterogeneity in three siblings carrying an intragenic deletion of the KAL-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Massin, Nathalie; Pêcheux, Christophe; Eloit, Corinne; Bensimon, Jean-Louis; Galey, Julie; Kuttenn, Frédérique; Hardelin, Jean-Pierre; Dodé, Catherine; Touraine, Philippe

    2003-05-01

    Kallmann syndrome (KS) is characterized by the association of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia. The gene underlying the X chromosome-linked form of the disease, KAL-1, consists of 14 coding exons. It encodes a glycoprotein, anosmin-1, which is involved in the embryonic migration of GnRH-synthesizing neurons and the differentiation of the olfactory bulbs. We describe herein the clinical heterogeneity in three affected brothers who carry a large deletion (exons 3-13) in KAL-1. All three had a history of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with delayed puberty. Although brain magnetic resonance imaging showed hypoplastic olfactory bulbs in the three siblings, variable degrees of anosmia/hyposmia were shown by olfactometry. In addition, these brothers had different phenotypic anomalies, i.e. unilateral renal aplasia (siblings B and C), high-arched palate (sibling A), brachymetacarpia (sibling A), mirror movements (siblings A and B), and abnormal eye movements (sibling C). Last but not least, sibling A suffered from a severe congenital hearing impairment, a feature that had been reported in KS but had not yet been ascribed unambiguously to the X-linked form of the disease. The variable phenotype, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in this family further emphasizes the role of putative modifier genes, and/or epigenetic factors, in the expressivity of the X-linked KS.

  16. Decreased inward rectifier potassium current IK1 in dystrophin-deficient ventricular cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rubi, Lena; Koenig, Xaver; Kubista, Helmut; Todt, Hannes; Hilber, Karlheinz

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kir2.x channels in ventricular cardiomyocytes (most prominently Kir2.1) account for the inward rectifier potassium current IK1, which controls the resting membrane potential and the final phase of action potential repolarization. Recently it was hypothesized that the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC) is important in the regulation of Kir2.x channels. To test this hypothesis, we investigated potential IK1 abnormalities in dystrophin-deficient ventricular cardiomyocytes derived from the hearts of Duchenne muscular dystrophy mouse models. We found that IK1 was substantially diminished in dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes when compared to wild type myocytes. This finding represents the first functional evidence for a significant role of the DAPC in the regulation of Kir2.x channels. PMID:27560040

  17. Decreased inward rectifier potassium current IK1 in dystrophin-deficient ventricular cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Rubi, Lena; Koenig, Xaver; Kubista, Helmut; Todt, Hannes; Hilber, Karlheinz

    2017-03-04

    Kir2.x channels in ventricular cardiomyocytes (most prominently Kir2.1) account for the inward rectifier potassium current IK1, which controls the resting membrane potential and the final phase of action potential repolarization. Recently it was hypothesized that the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC) is important in the regulation of Kir2.x channels. To test this hypothesis, we investigated potential IK1 abnormalities in dystrophin-deficient ventricular cardiomyocytes derived from the hearts of Duchenne muscular dystrophy mouse models. We found that IK1 was substantially diminished in dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes when compared to wild type myocytes. This finding represents the first functional evidence for a significant role of the DAPC in the regulation of Kir2.x channels.

  18. Dystrophin expression in muscle stem cells regulates their polarity and asymmetric division.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Nicolas A; Wang, Yu Xin; von Maltzahn, Julia; Pasut, Alessandra; Bentzinger, C Florian; Brun, Caroline E; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Dystrophin is expressed in differentiated myofibers, in which it is required for sarcolemmal integrity, and loss-of-function mutations in the gene that encodes it result in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a disease characterized by progressive and severe skeletal muscle degeneration. Here we found that dystrophin is also highly expressed in activated muscle stem cells (also known as satellite cells), in which it associates with the serine-threonine kinase Mark2 (also known as Par1b), an important regulator of cell polarity. In the absence of dystrophin, expression of Mark2 protein is downregulated, resulting in the inability to localize the cell polarity regulator Pard3 to the opposite side of the cell. Consequently, the number of asymmetric divisions is strikingly reduced in dystrophin-deficient satellite cells, which also display a loss of polarity, abnormal division patterns (including centrosome amplification), impaired mitotic spindle orientation and prolonged cell divisions. Altogether, these intrinsic defects strongly reduce the generation of myogenic progenitors that are needed for proper muscle regeneration. Therefore, we conclude that dystrophin has an essential role in the regulation of satellite cell polarity and asymmetric division. Our findings indicate that muscle wasting in DMD not only is caused by myofiber fragility, but also is exacerbated by impaired regeneration owing to intrinsic satellite cell dysfunction.

  19. Feline Muscular Dystrophy with Dystrophin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, James L.; Hoffman, Eric P.; Romanul, Flaviu C. A.; Kunkel, Louis M.; Rosales, Remedios K.; Ma, Nancy S. F.; Dasbach, James J.; Rae, John F.; Moore, Frances M.; McAfee, Mary B.; Pearce, Laurie K.

    1989-01-01

    This is the first description of a dystrophin-Deficient muscular dystrophy in domestic cats. The disorder appears to be of X-linked inheritance because it affected both males of a litter of four kittens. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescent detection of dystrophin showed dystrophin present in control cat muscle but no detectable dystrophin in either affected cat. The feline muscular dystrophy was progressive and histopathologically resembled human Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy except for the lack of fat infiltration and the presence of prominent hypertrophy of both muscle fibers and muscles groups in the feline disorder. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:2683799

  20. Localization of dystrophin and beta-dystroglycan in bovine retinal photoreceptor processes extending into the postsynaptic dendritic complex.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, F; Drenckhahn, D

    1997-09-01

    Dystrophin is an actin-binding protein of the membrane cytoskeleton that binds to dystroglycan, an integral membrane protein of the plasma membrane that is posttranslationally cleaved into a transmembrane dystrophin-binding beta-moiety and an extracellular laminin- and agrin-binding alpha-moiety. Mutations of dystrophin may not only cause Duchenne muscular dystrophy but may also be associated with abnormal electroretinograms assumed to result from disturbed neurotransmission between retinal photoreceptors and bipolar cells. Here we show by confocal laser microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy that dystrophin and beta-dystroglycan are colocalized in bovine rod photoreceptor synaptic complexes distal from the ribbon-containing active synaptic zones. Both proteins are restricted to a microdomain of the photoreceptor plasma membrane that forms the lateral wall of the synaptic cavity and projects with finger-like extensions into the postsynaptic dendritic complex. Within the cavity these processes eventually come into close contact with bipolar cell dendritic endings. We speculate that the dystrophin-dystroglycan complex of the cavital plasma membrane stabilizes the elaborate synaptic morphology or plays a role in the immobilization of still unknown transporters and receptors involved in certain aspects of neurotransmission to bipolar cells. A further outcome of this study is that dystrophin and dystroglycan are located along the vitread membrane surface of Müller cell endfeet where this protein complex may be important for the attachment of the retina to the basal lamina and the vitreous.

  1. Proteomic Profiling of the Dystrophin-Deficient mdx Phenocopy of Dystrophinopathy-Associated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory complications are frequent symptoms of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a neuromuscular disorder caused by primary abnormalities in the dystrophin gene. Loss of cardiac dystrophin initially leads to changes in dystrophin-associated glycoproteins and subsequently triggers secondarily sarcolemmal disintegration, fibre necrosis, fibrosis, fatty tissue replacement, and interstitial inflammation. This results in progressive cardiac disease, which is the cause of death in a considerable number of patients afflicted with X-linked muscular dystrophy. In order to better define the molecular pathogenesis of this type of cardiomyopathy, several studies have applied mass spectrometry-based proteomics to determine proteome-wide alterations in dystrophinopathy-associated cardiomyopathy. Proteomic studies included both gel-based and label-free mass spectrometric surveys of dystrophin-deficient heart muscle from the established mdx animal model of dystrophinopathy. Comparative cardiac proteomics revealed novel changes in proteins associated with mitochondrial energy metabolism, glycolysis, signaling, iron binding, antibody response, fibre contraction, basal lamina stabilisation, and cytoskeletal organisation. This review summarizes the importance of studying cardiomyopathy within the field of muscular dystrophy research, outlines key features of the mdx heart and its suitability as a model system for studying cardiac pathogenesis, and discusses the impact of recent proteomic findings for exploring molecular and cellular aspects of cardiac abnormalities in inherited muscular dystrophies. PMID:24772416

  2. Detection of new paternal dystrophin gene mutations in isolated cases of dystrophinopathy in females

    SciTech Connect

    Pegoraro, E.; Wessel, H.B.; Schwartz, L.; Hoffman, E.P. ); Schimke, R.N. ); Arahata, Kiichi; Hayashi, Yukiko ); Stern, H. ); Marks, H. ); Glasberg, M.R. )

    1994-06-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is one of the most common lethal monogenic disorders and is caused by dystrophin deficiency. The disease is transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait; however, recent biochemical and clinical studies have shown that many girls and women with a primary myopathy have an underlying dystrophinopathy, despite a negative family history for Duchenne dystrophy. These isolated female dystrophinopathy patients carried ambiguous diagnoses with presumed autosomal recessive inheritance (limb-girdle muscular dystrophy) prior to biochemical detection of dystrophin abnormalities in their muscle biopsy. It has been assumed that these female dystrophinopathy patients are heterozygous carries who show preferential inactivation of the X chromosome harboring the normal dystrophin gene, although this has been shown for only a few X:autosome translocations and for two cases of discordant monozygotic twin female carriers. Here the authors study X-inactivation patterns of 13 female dystrophinopathy patients - 10 isolated cases and 3 cases with a positive family history for Duchenne dystrophy in males. They show that all cases have skewed X-inactivation patterns in peripheral blood DNA. Of the nine isolated cases informative in the assay, eight showed inheritance of the dystrophin gene mutation from the paternal germ line. Only a single case showed maternal inheritance. The 10-fold higher incidence of paternal transmission of dystrophin gene mutations in these cases is at 30-fold variance with Bayesian predictions and gene mutation rates. Thus, the results suggest some mechanistic interaction between new dystrophin gene mutations, paternal inheritance, and skewed X inactivation. The results provide both empirical risk data and a molecular diagnostic test method, which permit genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis of this new category of patients. 58 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Microtubule binding distinguishes dystrophin from utrophin

    PubMed Central

    Belanto, Joseph J.; Mader, Tara L.; Eckhoff, Michael D.; Strandjord, Dana M.; Banks, Glen B.; Gardner, Melissa K.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Ervasti, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Dystrophin and utrophin are highly similar proteins that both link cortical actin filaments with a complex of sarcolemmal glycoproteins, yet localize to different subcellular domains within normal muscle cells. In mdx mice and Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients, dystrophin is lacking and utrophin is consequently up-regulated and redistributed to locations normally occupied by dystrophin. Transgenic overexpression of utrophin has been shown to significantly improve aspects of the disease phenotype in the mdx mouse; therefore, utrophin up-regulation is under intense investigation as a potential therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Here we biochemically compared the previously documented microtubule binding activity of dystrophin with utrophin and analyzed several transgenic mouse models to identify phenotypes of the mdx mouse that remain despite transgenic utrophin overexpression. Our in vitro analyses revealed that dystrophin binds microtubules with high affinity and pauses microtubule polymerization, whereas utrophin has no activity in either assay. We also found that transgenic utrophin overexpression does not correct subsarcolemmal microtubule lattice disorganization, loss of torque production after in vivo eccentric contractions, or physical inactivity after mild exercise. Finally, our data suggest that exercise-induced inactivity correlates with loss of sarcolemmal neuronal NOS localization in mdx muscle, whereas loss of in vivo torque production after eccentric contraction-induced injury is associated with microtubule lattice disorganization. PMID:24706788

  4. Microsatellites within the feline androgen receptor are suitable for X chromosome-linked clonality testing in archival material.

    PubMed

    Farwick, Nadine M; Klopfleisch, Robert; Gruber, Achim D; Weiss, Alexander Th A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives A hallmark of neoplasms is their origin from a single cell; that is, clonality. Many techniques have been developed in human medicine to utilise this feature of tumours for diagnostic purposes. One approach is X chromosome-linked clonality testing using polymorphisms of genes encoded by genes on the X chromosome. The aim of this study was to determine if the feline androgen receptor gene was suitable for X chromosome-linked clonality testing. Methods The feline androgen receptor gene was characterised and used to test clonality of feline lymphomas by PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, using archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material. Results Clonality of the feline lymphomas under study was confirmed and the gene locus was shown to represent a suitable target in clonality testing. Conclusions and relevance Because there are some pitfalls of using X chromosome-linked clonality testing, further studies are necessary to establish this technique in the cat.

  5. Restoration of dystrophin expression in cultured hybrid myotubes.

    PubMed

    Radojevic, V; Oppliger, C; Gaschen, F; Burgunder, J-M

    2002-10-01

    Absence of dystrophin, as found in Duchenne boys, mdx mice and HFMD cats, leads to destabilization of the sarcolemmal-associated protein complex. Gene and cell therapy strategies aim to restore the dystrophin-associated protein complex. In order to better understand the cellular events involved in such therapy in feline and human muscular dystrophy, we asked whether dystrophin-deficient myoblasts would fuse with myoblasts expressing normal dystrophin, and whether the complex would be restored after such a fusion. Cat and human myoblasts were isolated from skeletal muscle of normal subjects and of patients with dystrophin deficiency and proliferated well. After co-culture with normal myoblasts, they fused to form hybrid myotubes. These hybrid myotubes expressed dystrophin, utrophin and dystrophin- associated proteins. Expression of these proteins were restored also in the vicinity of nuclei from dystrophin-deficient donors. These results demonstrate that dystrophin can be expressed and handled normally by hybrid myotubes. They show that myoblasts with a normal dystrophin gene can restore dystrophin expression in dystrophin-deficient myoblasts.

  6. Localization of dystrophin and dystrophin-related protein at the electromotor synapse and neuromuscular junction in Torpedo marmorata.

    PubMed

    Cartaud, A; Ludosky, M A; Tomé, F M; Collin, H; Stetzkowski-Marden, F; Khurana, T S; Kunkel, L M; Fardeau, M; Changeux, J P; Cartaud, J

    1992-06-01

    The immunological identification of dystrophin isoforms at the neuromuscular junction and Torpedo marmorata electromotor synapse was attempted using various antibodies. A polyclonal antibody raised against electrophoretically purified dystrophin from T. marmorata electrocyte has been thoroughly investigated. This antibody recognized dystrophin in the electric tissue as well as sarcolemmal and synaptic neuromuscular junction dystrophin in all studies species (T. marmorata, rat, mice and human) at serum dilutions as high as 1:10,000. At variance, no staining of either the sarcolemma or neuromuscular junction was observed in Duchenne muscular dystrophy or mdx mice skeletal muscles. In these muscles, other members of the dystrophin superfamily, in particular the dystrophin-related protein(s) encoded by autosomal genes are present. These data thus demonstrate the specificity of our antibodies for dystrophin. Anti-dystrophin-related protein antibodies [Khurana et al. (1991) Neuromusc. Disorders 1, 185-194] which gave a strong immunostaining of the neuromuscular junction in various species, including T. marmorata, cross-reacted weakly with the postsynaptic membrane of the electrocyte. Taken together, these observations are in favor of the existence of a protein very homologous to dystrophin at the electromotor synapse in T. marmorata, whereas both dystrophin and dystrophin-related protein co-localize at the neuromuscular junction as in all species studied. The electrocyte thus offers the unique opportunity to study the interaction of dystrophin with components of the postsynaptic membrane.

  7. Disruption of sarcolemmal dystrophin and beta-dystroglycan may be a potential mechanism for myocardial dysfunction in severe sepsis.

    PubMed

    Celes, Mara Rúbia N; Torres-Dueñas, Diego; Malvestio, Lygia M; Blefari, Valdecir; Campos, Erica C; Ramos, Simone G; Prado, Cibele M; Cunha, Fernando Q; Rossi, Marcos A

    2010-04-01

    oxidative damage may mediate the loss of dystrophin and beta-dystroglycan in septic mice. These abnormal parameters emerge as therapeutic targets and their modulation may provide beneficial effects on future cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in sepsis.

  8. Low dystrophin levels increase survival and improve muscle pathology and function in dystrophin/utrophin double-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    van Putten, Maaike; Hulsker, Margriet; Young, Courtney; Nadarajah, Vishna D; Heemskerk, Hans; van der Weerd, Louise; 't Hoen, Peter A C; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke M

    2013-06-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle-wasting disorder caused by the lack of functional dystrophin. There is no cure, but several clinical trials aimed to restore the synthesis of functional dystrophin are underway. The dystrophin levels needed for improvement of muscle pathology, function, and overall vitality are not known. Here, we describe the mdx/utrn(-/-)/Xist(Δhs) mouse model, which expresses a range of low dystrophin levels, depending on the degree of skewing of X inactivation in a utrophin-negative background. Mdx/utrn(-/-) mice develop severe muscle weakness, kyphosis, respiratory and heart failure, and premature death closely resembling DMD pathology. We show that at dystrophin levels < 4%, survival and motor function in these animals are greatly improved. In mice expressing >4% dystrophin, histopathology is ameliorated, as well. These findings suggest that the dystrophin levels needed to benefit vitality and functioning of patients with DMD might be lower than those needed for full protection against muscle damage.

  9. Localizing multiple X chromosome-linked retinitis pigmentosa loci using multilocus homogeneity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, J.; Terwilliger, J.D. ); Bhattacharya, S. ); Chen, J.D.; Denton, J.; Donald, J. ); Dubay, C.; Litt, M.; Weleber, R.G. ); Farrar, G.J.; Humphries, P. ); Fishman, G.A.; Wong, F. ); Frey, D.; Maechler, M. )

    1990-01-01

    Multilocus linkage analysis of 62 family pedigrees with X chromosome-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) was undertaken to determine the presence of possible multiple disease loci and to reliability estimate their map location. Multilocus homogeneity tests furnish convincing evidence for the presence of two XLRP loci, the likelihood ratio being 6.4 {times} 10{sup 9}:1 in a favor of two versus a single XLRP locus and gave accurate estimates for their map location. In 60-75% of the families, location of an XLRP gene was estimated at 1 centimorgan distal to OTC, and in 25-40% of the families, an XLRP locus was located halfway between DXS14 (p58-1) and DXZ1 (Xcen), with an estimated recombination fraction of 25% between the two XLRP loci. There is also good evidence for third XLRP locus, midway between DXS28 (C7) and DXS164 (pERT87), supported by a likelihood ratio of 293:1 for three versus two XLRP loci.

  10. Dystrophin Immunity in Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Mendell, Jerry R.; Campbell, Katherine; Rodino-Klapac, Louise; Sahenk, Zarife; Shilling, Chris; Lewis, Sarah; Bowles, Dawn; Gray, Steven; Li, Chengwen; Galloway, Gloria; Malik, Vinod; Coley, Brian; Clark, K. Reed; Li, Juan; Xiao, Xiao; Samulski, Jade; McPhee, Scott W.; Samulski, R. Jude; Walker, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY We report on delivery of a functional dystrophin transgene to skeletal muscle in six patients with Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy. Dystrophin-specific T cells were detected after treatment, providing evidence of transgene expression even when the functional protein was not visualized in skeletal muscle. Circulating dystrophin-specific T cells were unexpectedly detected in two patients before vector treatment. Revertant dystrophin fibers, which expressed functional, truncated dystrophin from the deleted endogenous gene after spontaneous in-frame splicing, contained epitopes targeted by the autoreactive T cells. The potential for T-cell immunity to self and nonself dystrophin epitopes should be considered in designing and monitoring experimental therapies for this disease. (Funded by the Muscular Dystrophy Association and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00428935.) PMID:20925545

  11. Recurrent X chromosome-linked deletions: discovery of new genetic factors in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Lo Giacco, D; Chianese, C; Ars, E; Ruiz-Castañé, E; Forti, G; Krausz, C

    2014-05-01

    The role of X-linked genes and copy-number variations (CNVs) in male infertility remains poorly explored. Our previous array-CGH analyses showed three recurrent deletions in Xq exclusively (CNV67) and prevalently (CNV64, CNV69) found in patients. Molecular and clinical characterisation of these CNVs was performed in this study. 627 idiopathic infertile patients and 628 controls were tested for each deletion with PCR+/-. We used PCR+/- to map deletion junctions and long-range PCR and direct sequencing to define breakpoints. CNV64 was found in 5.7% of patients and in 3.1% of controls (p=0.013; OR=1.89; 95% CI 1.1 to 3.3) and CNV69 was found in 3.5% of patients and 1.6% of controls (p=0.023; OR=2.204; 95% CI 1.05 to 4.62). For CNV69 we identified two breakpoints, types A and B, with the latter being significantly more frequent in patients than controls (p=0.011; OR=9.19; 95% CI 1.16 to 72.8). CNV67 was detected exclusively in patients (1.1%) and was maternally transmitted. The semen phenotype of one carrier (11-041) versus his normozoospermic non-carrier brother strongly indicates a pathogenic effect of the deletion on spermatogenesis. MAGEA9, an ampliconic gene reported as independently acquired on the human X chromosome with exclusive physiological expression in the testis, is likely to be involved in CNV67. We provide the first evidence for X chromosome-linked recurrent deletions associated with spermatogenic impairment. CNV67, specific to spermatogenic anomaly and with a frequency of 1.1% in oligo/azoospermic men, resembles the AZF regions on the Y chromosome with potential clinical implications.

  12. Exon structure of the human dystrophin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.G.; Coffey, A.J.; Bobrow, M.; Bentley, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    Application of a novel vectorette PCR approach to defining intron-exon boundaries has permitted completion of analysis of the exon structure of the largest and most complex known human gene. The authors present here a summary of the exon structure of the entire human dystrophin gene, together with the sizes of genomic HindIII fragments recognized by each exon, and (where available) GenBank accession numbers for adjacent intron sequences. 20 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Association of dystrophin and an integral membrane glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Campbell, K P; Kahl, S D

    1989-03-16

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by a defective gene found on the X-chromosome. Dystrophin is encoded by the DMD gene and represents about 0.002% of total muscle protein. Immunochemical studies have shown that dystrophin is localized to the sarcolemma in normal muscle but is absent in muscle from DMD patients. Many features of the predicted primary structure of dystrophin are shared with membrane cytoskeletal proteins, but the precise function of dystrophin in muscle is unknown. Here we report the first isolation of dystrophin from digitonin-solubilized skeletal muscle membranes using wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-Sepharose. We find that dystrophin is not a glycoprotein but binds to WGA-Sepharose because of its tight association with a WGA-binding glycoprotein. The association of dystrophin with this glycoprotein is disrupted by agents that dissociate cytoskeletal proteins from membranes. We conclude that dystrophin is linked to an integral membrane glycoprotein in the sarcolemma. Our results indicate that the function of dystrophin could be to link this glycoprotein to the underlying cytoskeleton and thus help either to preserve membrane stability or to keep the glycoprotein non-uniformly distributed in the sarcolemma.

  14. DMD transcript imbalance determines dystrophin levels.

    PubMed

    Spitali, Pietro; van den Bergen, Janneke C; Verhaart, Ingrid E C; Wokke, Beatrijs; Janson, Anneke A M; van den Eijnde, Rani; den Dunnen, Johan T; Laros, Jeroen F J; Verschuuren, Jan J G M; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke

    2013-12-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies are caused by out-of-frame and in-frame mutations, respectively, in the dystrophin encoding DMD gene. Molecular therapies targeting the precursor-mRNA are in clinical trials and show promising results. These approaches will depend on the stability and expression levels of dystrophin mRNA in skeletal muscles and heart. We report that the DMD gene is more highly expressed in heart than in skeletal muscles, in mice and humans. The transcript mutated in the mdx mouse model shows a 5' to 3' imbalance compared with that of its wild-type counterpart and reading frame restoration via antisense-mediated exon skipping does not correct this event. We also report significant transcript instability in 22 patients with Becker dystrophy, clarifying the fact that transcript imbalance is not caused by premature nonsense mutations. Finally, we demonstrate that transcript stability, rather than transcriptional rate, is an important determinant of dystrophin protein levels in patients with Becker dystrophy. We suggest that the availability of the complete transcript is a key factor to determine protein abundance and thus will influence the outcome of mRNA-targeting therapies.

  15. A family with a dystrophin gene mutation specifically affecting dystrophin expression in the heart

    SciTech Connect

    Muntoni, F.; Davies, K.; Dubowitz, V.

    1994-09-01

    We recently described a family with X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy where a large deletion in the muscle promoter region of the dystrophin gene was associated with a severe dilated cardiomyopathy in absence of clinical skeletal muscle involvement. The deletion removed the entire muscle promoter region, the first muscle exon and part of intron 1. The brain and Purkinje cell promoters were not affected by the deletion. Despite the lack of both the muscle promoter and the first muscle exon, dystrophin was detected immunocytochemically in relative high levels in the skeletal muscle of the affected males. We have now found that both the brain and Purkinje cell promoters were transcribed at high levels in the skeletal muscle of these individuals. This phenomenon, that does not occur in normal skeletal muscle, indicates that these two isoforms, physiologically expressed mainly in the central nervous system, can be transcribed and be functionally active in skeletal muscle under specific circumstances. Contrary to what is observed in skeletal muscle, dystrophin was not detected in the heart of one affected male using immunocytochemistry and an entire panel of anti-dystrophin antibodies. This was most likely the cause for the pronounced cardiac fibrosis observed and eventually responsible for the severe cardiac involvement invariably seen in seven affected males. In conclusion, the mutation of the muscle promoter, first muscle exon and part of intron 1 specifically affected expression of dystrophin in the heart. We believe that this deletion removes sequences involved in regulation of dystrophin expression in the heart and are at the moment characterizing other families with X-linked cardiomyopathy secondary to a dystrophinopathy.

  16. Dystrophin contains multiple independent membrane-binding domains.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junling; Kodippili, Kasun; Yue, Yongping; Hakim, Chady H; Wasala, Lakmini; Pan, Xiufang; Zhang, Keqing; Yang, Nora N; Duan, Dongsheng; Lai, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Dystrophin is a large sub-sarcolemmal protein. Its absence leads to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Binding to the sarcolemma is essential for dystrophin to protect muscle from contraction-induced injury. It has long been thought that membrane binding of dystrophin depends on its cysteine-rich (CR) domain. Here, we provide in vivo evidence suggesting that dystrophin contains three additional membrane-binding domains including spectrin-like repeats (R)1-3, R10-12 and C-terminus (CT). To systematically study dystrophin membrane binding, we split full-length dystrophin into ten fragments and examined subcellular localizations of each fragment by adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer. In skeletal muscle, R1-3, CR domain and CT were exclusively localized at the sarcolemma. R10-12 showed both cytosolic and sarcolemmal localization. Importantly, the CR-independent membrane binding was conserved in murine and canine muscles. A critical function of the CR-mediated membrane interaction is the assembly of the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC). While R1-3 and R10-12 did not restore the DGC, surprisingly, CT alone was sufficient to establish the DGC at the sarcolemma. Additional studies suggest that R1-3 and CT also bind to the sarcolemma in the heart, though relatively weak. Taken together, our study provides the first conclusive in vivo evidence that dystrophin contains multiple independent membrane-binding domains. These structurally and functionally distinctive membrane-binding domains provide a molecular framework for dystrophin to function as a shock absorber and signaling hub. Our results not only shed critical light on dystrophin biology and DMD pathogenesis, but also provide a foundation for rationally engineering minimized dystrophins for DMD gene therapy.

  17. Laryngeal Muscles Are Spared in the Dystrophin Deficient "mdx" Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa B.; Joseph, Gayle L.; Adkins, Tracey D.; Andrade, Francisco H.; Stemple, Joseph C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: "Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)" is caused by the loss of the cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. The disease leads to severe and progressive skeletal muscle wasting. Interestingly, the disease spares some muscles. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of dystrophin deficiency on 2 intrinsic laryngeal muscles, the…

  18. Laryngeal Muscles Are Spared in the Dystrophin Deficient "mdx" Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa B.; Joseph, Gayle L.; Adkins, Tracey D.; Andrade, Francisco H.; Stemple, Joseph C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: "Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)" is caused by the loss of the cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. The disease leads to severe and progressive skeletal muscle wasting. Interestingly, the disease spares some muscles. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of dystrophin deficiency on 2 intrinsic laryngeal muscles, the…

  19. Dystrophin insufficiency causes selective muscle histopathology and loss of dystrophin-glycoprotein complex assembly in pig skeletal muscle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by a dystrophin deficiency while Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is caused by a dystrophin insufficiency or expression of a partially functional protein product. Both of these dystrophinopathies are most commonly studied using the mdx mouse and a golden r...

  20. Role of β-Dystrobrevin in Nonmuscle Dystrophin-Associated Protein Complex-Like Complexes in Kidney and Liver

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Nellie Y.; Nebenius-Oosthuizen, Daniela; Blake, Derek J.; Smith, Andrew J. H.; Davies, Kay E.

    2001-01-01

    β-Dystrobrevin is a dystrophin-related and -associated protein that is highly expressed in brain, kidney, and liver. Recent studies with the kidneys of the mdx3Cv mouse, which lacks all dystrophin isoforms, suggest that β-dystrobrevin, and not the dystrophin isoforms, may be the key component in the assembly of complexes similar to the muscle dystrophin-associated protein complexes (DPC) in nonmuscle tissues. To understand the role of β-dystrobrevin in the function of nonmuscle tissues, we generated β-dystrobrevin-deficient (dtnb−/−) mice by gene targeting. dtnb−/− mice are healthy, fertile, and normal in appearance. No β-dystrobrevin was detected in these mice by Western blotting or immunocytochemistry. In addition, the levels of several β-dystrobrevin-interacting proteins, namely Dp71 isoforms and the syntrophins, were greatly reduced from the basal membranes of kidney tubules and liver sinusoids and on Western blots of crude kidney and liver microsomes of β-dystrobrevin-deficient mice. However, no abnormality was detected in the ultrastructure of membranes of kidney and liver cells or in the renal function of these mice. β-Dystrobrevin may therefore be an anchor or scaffold for Dp71 and syntrophin isoforms, as well as other associating proteins at the basal membranes of kidney and liver, but is not necessary for the normal function of these mice. PMID:11585924

  1. Modulation of splicing of the preceding intron by antisense oligonucleotide complementary to intra-exon sequence deleted in dystrophin Kobe

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshima, Y.; Matuso, M.; Sakamoto, H.; Nishio, H.

    1994-09-01

    Molecular analysis of dystrophin Kobe showed that exon 19 of the dystrophin gene bearing a 52 bp deletion was skipped during splicing, although the known consensus sequences at the 5{prime} and 3{prime} splice site of exon 19 were maintained. These data suggest that the deleted sequence of exon 19 may function as a cis-acting factor for exact splicing for the upstream intron. To investigate this potential role, an in vitro splicing system using dystrophin precursors was established. A two-exon precursor containing exon 18, truncated intron 18, and exon 19 was accurately spliced. However, splicing of intron 18 was dramatically inhibited when wild exon 19 was replaced with mutated exon 19. Even though the length of exon 19 was restored to normal by replacing the deleted sequence with other sequence, splicing of intron 18 was not fully reactivated. Characteristically, splicing of intron 18 was inactivated more markedly when the replaced sequence contained less polypurine stretches. These data suggested that modification of the exon sequence would result in a splicing abnormality. Antisense 31 mer 2`-O-methyl ribonucleotide was targeted against 5{prime} end of deleted region of exon 19 to modulate splicing of the mRNA precursor. Splicing of intron 18 was inhibited in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This is the first in vitro evidence to show splicing of dystrophin pre-mRNA can be managed by antisense oligonucleotides. These experiments represent an approach in which antisense oligonucleotides are used to restore the function of a defective dystrophin gene in Duchenne muscular dystrophy by inducing skipping of certain exons during splicing.

  2. Expression of multiple AQP4 pools in the plasma membrane and their association with the dystrophin complex.

    PubMed

    Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Cogotzi, Laura; Rossi, Andrea; Basco, Davide; Brancaccio, Andrea; Svelto, Maria; Frigeri, Antonio

    2008-06-01

    Altered aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expression has been reported in brain edema, tumors, muscular dystrophy, and neuromyelitis optica. However, the plasma membrane organization of AQP4 and its interaction with proteins such as the dystrophin-associated protein complex are not well understood. In this study, we used sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation and 2D blue native/sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and showed the expression of several AQP4 multi-subunit complexes (pools) of different sizes, ranging from > 1 MDa to approximately 500 kDa and containing different ratios of the 30/32 kDa AQP4 isoforms, indicative of orthogonal arrays of particles of various sizes. A high molecular weight pool co-purified with dystrophin and beta-dystroglycan and was drastically reduced in the skeletal muscle of mdx3cv mice, which have no dystrophin. The number and size of the AQP4 pools were the same in the kidney where dystrophin is not expressed, suggesting the presence of dystrophin-like proteins for their expression. We found that AQP2 is expressed only in one major pool of approximately 500 kDa, indicating that the presence of different pools is a peculiarity of AQP4 rather than a widespread feature in the AQP family. Finally, in skeletal muscle caveolin-3 did not co-purify with any AQP4 pool, indicating the absence of interaction of the two proteins and confirming that caveolae and orthogonal arrays of particles are two independent plasma membrane microdomains. These results contribute to a better understanding of AQP4 membrane organization and raise the possibility that abnormal expression of specific AQP4 pools may be found in pathological states.

  3. Microarray-based mutation detection in the dystrophin gene.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Madhuri R; Chin, Ephrem L H; Mulle, Jennifer G; Okou, David T; Warren, Stephen T; Zwick, Michael E

    2008-09-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD and BMD) are X-linked recessive neuromuscular disorders caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene affecting approximately 1 in 3,500 males. The human dystrophin gene spans>2,200 kb, or roughly 0.1% of the genome, and is composed of 79 exons. The mutational spectrum of disease-causing alleles, including exonic copy number variations (CNVs), is complex. Deletions account for approximately 65% of DMD mutations and 85% of BMD mutations. Duplications occur in approximately 6 to 10% of males with either DMD or BMD. The remaining 30 to 35% of mutations consist of small deletions, insertions, point mutations, or splicing mutations, most of which introduce a premature stop codon. Laboratory analysis of dystrophin can be used to confirm a clinical diagnosis of DMD, characterize the type of dystrophin mutation, and perform prenatal testing and carrier testing for females. Current dystrophin diagnostic assays involve a variety of methodologies, including multiplex PCR, Southern blot analysis, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), detection of virtually all mutations-SSCP (DOVAM-S), and single condition amplification/internal primer sequencing (SCAIP); however, these methods are time-consuming, laborious, and do not accurately detect duplication mutations in the dystrophin gene. Furthermore, carrier testing in females is often difficult when a related affected male is unavailable. Here we describe the development, design, validation, and implementation of a high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) microarray-based approach capable of accurately detecting both deletions and duplications in the dystrophin gene. This assay can be readily adopted by clinical molecular testing laboratories and represents a rapid, cost-effective approach for screening a large gene, such as dystrophin.

  4. Microarray-based mutation detection in the dystrophin gene

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Madhuri R.; Chin, Ephrem L.H.; Mulle, Jennifer G.; Okou, David T.; Warren, Stephen T.; Zwick, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD and BMD) are X-linked recessive neuromuscular disorders caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene affecting approximately 1 in 3,500 males. The human dystrophin gene spans > 2,200 kb, or roughly 0.1% of the genome, and is composed of 79 exons. The mutational spectrum of disease-causing alleles, including exonic copy number variations (CNVs), is complex. Deletions account for approximately 65% of DMD mutations and 85% of BMD mutations. Duplications occur in approximately 6–10% of males with either DMD or BMD. The remaining 30–35% of mutations consist of small deletions, insertions, point mutations, or splicing mutations, most of which introduce a premature stop codon. Laboratory analysis of dystrophin can be used to confirm a clinical diagnosis of DMD, characterize the type of dystrophin mutation, and perform prenatal testing and carrier testing for females. Current dystrophin diagnostic assays involve a variety of methodologies, including multiplex PCR, Southern blot analysis, MLPA, DOVAM-S, and SCAIP; however, these methods are time-consuming, laborious, and do not accurately detect duplication mutations in the dystrophin gene. Furthermore, carrier testing in females is often difficult when a related affected male is unavailable. Here we describe the development, design, validation, and implementation of a high-resolution CGH microarray-based approach capable of accurately detecting both deletions and duplications in the dystrophin gene. This assay can be readily adopted by clinical molecular testing laboratories and represents a rapid, cost-effective approach for screening a large gene, such as dystrophin. PMID:18663755

  5. A marginal level of dystrophin partially ameliorates hindlimb muscle passive mechanical properties in dystrophin-null mice.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Chady H; Duan, Dongsheng

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether a minimal level of dystrophin expression improves the passive mechanical properties of skeletal muscle in the murine Duchenne muscular dystrophy model. We compared the elastic and viscous properties of the extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) in mdx3cv and mdx4cv mice at 6, 14, and 20 months of age. Both strains are on the C57Bl/6 background, and both lose the full-length dystrophin protein. Interestingly, mdx3cv mice express a near full-length dystrophin at ≈ 5% of the normal level. We found that the stress-strain profile and the stress relaxation rate of the EDL in mdx3cv mice were partially preserved in all age groups compared with age-matched mdx4cv mice. Our results suggest that a low level of dystrophin expression may treat muscle stiffness in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Dystrophin Threshold Level Necessary for Normalization of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase, Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase, and Ryanodine Receptor-Calcium Release Channel Type 1 Nitrosylation in Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy Dystrophinopathy.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Christel; Le Guiner, Caroline; Falcone, Sestina; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Peccate, Cécile; Lorain, Stéphanie; Benkhelifa-Ziyyat, Sofia; Guigand, Lydie; Montus, Marie; Servais, Laurent; Voit, Thomas; Piétri-Rouxel, France

    2016-09-01

    At present, the clinically most advanced strategy to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the exon-skipping strategy. Whereas antisense oligonucleotide-based clinical trials are underway for DMD, it is essential to determine the dystrophin restoration threshold needed to ensure improvement of muscle physiology at the molecular level. A preclinical trial has been conducted in golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dogs treated in a forelimb by locoregional delivery of rAAV8-U7snRNA to promote exon skipping on the canine dystrophin messenger. Here, we exploited rAAV8-U7snRNA-transduced GRMD muscle samples, well characterized for their percentage of dystrophin-positive fibers, with the aim of defining the threshold of dystrophin rescue necessary for normalization of the status of neuronal nitric oxide synthase mu (nNOSμ), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and ryanodine receptor-calcium release channel type 1 (RyR1), crucial actors for efficient contractile function. Results showed that restoration of dystrophin in 40% of muscle fibers is needed to decrease abnormal cytosolic nNOSμ expression and to reduce overexpression of iNOS, these two parameters leading to a reduction in the NO level in the muscle fibers. Furthermore, the same percentage of dystrophin-positive fibers of 40% was associated with the normalization of RyR1 nitrosylation status and with stabilization of the RyR1-calstabin1 complex that is required to facilitate coupled gating. We concluded that a minimal threshold of 40% of dystrophin-positive fibers is necessary for the reinstatement of central proteins needed for proper muscle contractile function, and thus identified a rate of dystrophin expression significantly improving, at the molecular level, the dystrophic muscle physiology.

  7. AAV micro-dystrophin gene therapy alleviates stress-induced cardiac death but not myocardial fibrosis in >21-m-old mdx mice, an end-stage model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Bostick, Brian; Shin, Jin-Hong; Yue, Yongping; Wasala, Nalinda B; Lai, Yi; Duan, Dongsheng

    2012-08-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal genetic disease caused by the absence of the sarcolemmal protein dystrophin. Dilated cardiomyopathy leading to heart failure is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in DMD. We recently demonstrated amelioration of DMD heart disease in 16 to 20-m-old dystrophin-null mdx mice using adeno-associated virus (AAV) mediated micro-dystrophin gene therapy. DMD patients show severe heart disease near the end of their life expectancy. Similarly, mdx mice exhibit profoundly worsening heart disease when they reach beyond 21 months of age. To more rigorously test micro-dystrophin therapy, we treated mdx mice that were between 21.2 and 22.7-m-old (average, 22.1 ± 0.2 months; N=8). The ∆R4-23/∆C micro-dystrophin gene was packaged in the cardiotropic AAV-9 virus. 5×10(12) viral genome particles/mouse were delivered to mdx mice via the tail vein. AAV transduction, myocardial fibrosis and heart function were examined 1.7 ± 0.2 months after gene therapy. Efficient micro-dystrophin expression was observed in the myocardium of treated mice. Despite the robust dystrophin expression, myocardial fibrosis was not mitigated. Most hemodynamic parameters were not improved either. However, ECG abnormalities were partially corrected. Importantly, treated mice became more resistant to dobutamine-induced cardiac death. In summary, we have revealed for the first time the potential benefits and limitations of AAV micro-dystrophin therapy in end-stage Duchenne dilated cardiomyopathy. Our findings have important implications for the use of AAV gene therapy in dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure.

  8. The role of reactive oxygen species in the hearts of dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Williams, Iwan A; Allen, David G

    2007-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by deficiency of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. Oxidative stress is thought to contribute to the skeletal muscle damage in DMD; however, little is known about the role of oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of the heart failure that occurs in DMD patients. The dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mouse is an animal model of DMD that also lacks dystrophin. The current study investigates the role of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on mdx cardiomyocyte function, Ca(2+) handling, and the cardiac inflammatory response. Treated mice received 1% NAC in their drinking water for 6 wk. NAC had no effect on wild-type (WT) mice. Immunohistochemistry experiments revealed that mdx mice had increased dihydroethidine (DHE) staining, an indicator of superoxide production; NAC-treatment reduced DHE staining in mdx hearts. NAC treatment attenuated abnormalities in mdx cardiomyocyte Ca(2+) handling. Mdx cardiomyocytes had decreased fractional shortening and decreased Ca(2+) sensitivity; NAC treatment returned mdx fractional shortening to WT values but did not affect the Ca(2+) sensitivity. Immunohistochemistry experiments revealed that mdx hearts had increased levels of collagen type III and the macrophage-specific protein, CD68; NAC-treatment returned collagen type III and CD68 expression close to WT values. Finally, mdx hearts had increased NADPH oxidase activity, suggesting it could be a possible source of increased reactive oxygen species in mdx mice. This study is the first to demonstrate that oxidative damage may be involved in the pathogenesis of the heart failure that occurs in mdx mice. Therapies designed to reduce oxidative damage might be beneficial to DMD patients with heart failure.

  9. Dystrophin complex functions as a scaffold for signalling proteins.

    PubMed

    Constantin, Bruno

    2014-02-01

    Dystrophin is a 427kDa sub-membrane cytoskeletal protein, associated with the inner surface membrane and incorporated in a large macromolecular complex of proteins, the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC). In addition to dystrophin the DAPC is composed of dystroglycans, sarcoglycans, sarcospan, dystrobrevins and syntrophin. This complex is thought to play a structural role in ensuring membrane stability and force transduction during muscle contraction. The multiple binding sites and domains present in the DAPC confer the scaffold of various signalling and channel proteins, which may implicate the DAPC in regulation of signalling processes. The DAPC is thought for instance to anchor a variety of signalling molecules near their sites of action. The dystroglycan complex may participate in the transduction of extracellular-mediated signals to the muscle cytoskeleton, and β-dystroglycan was shown to be involved in MAPK and Rac1 small GTPase signalling. More generally, dystroglycan is view as a cell surface receptor for extracellular matrix proteins. The adaptor proteins syntrophin contribute to recruit and regulate various signalling proteins such as ion channels, into a macromolecular complex. Although dystrophin and dystroglycan can be directly involved in signalling pathways, syntrophins play a central role in organizing signalplex anchored to the dystrophin scaffold. The dystrophin associated complex, can bind up to four syntrophin through binding domains of dystrophin and dystrobrevin, allowing the scaffold of multiple signalling proteins in close proximity. Multiple interactions mediated by PH and PDZ domains of syntrophin also contribute to build a complete signalplex which may include ion channels, such as voltage-gated sodium channels or TRPC cation channels, together with, trimeric G protein, G protein-coupled receptor, plasma membrane calcium pump, and NOS, to enable efficient and regulated signal transduction and ion transport. This article is part

  10. A new model for the interaction of dystrophin with F-actin

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The F-actin binding and cross-linking properties of skeletal muscle dystrophin-glycoprotein complex were examined using high and low speed cosedimentation assays, microcapillary falling ball viscometry, and electron microscopy. Dystrophin-glycoprotein complex binding to F-actin saturated near 0.042 +/- 0.005 mol/ mol, which corresponds to one dystrophin per 24 actin monomers. Dystrophin-glycoprotein complex bound to F-actin with an average apparent Kd for dystrophin of 0.5 microM. These results demonstrate that native, full-length dystrophin in the glycoprotein complex binds F-actin with some properties similar to those measured for several members of the actin cross-linking super- family of proteins. However, we failed to observe dystrophin- glycoprotein complex-induced cross-linking of F-actin by three different methods, each positively controlled with alpha-actinin. Furthermore, high speed cosedimentation analysis of dystrophin- glycoprotein complex digested with calpain revealed a novel F-actin binding site located near the middle of the dystrophin rod domain. Recombinant dystrophin fragments corresponding to the novel actin binding site and the first 246 amino acids of dystrophin both bound F- actin but with significantly lower affinity and higher capacity than was observed with purified dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. Finally, dystrophin-glycoprotein complex was observed to significantly slow the depolymerization of F-actin, Suggesting that dystrophin may lie along side an actin filament through interaction with multiple actin monomers. These data suggest that although dystrophin is most closely related to the actin cross-linking superfamily based on sequence homology, dystrophin binds F-actin in a manner more analogous to actin side-binding proteins. PMID:8909541

  11. X chromosome-linked and mitochondrial gene control of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy: evidence from segregation analysis for dependence on X chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed

    Bu, X D; Rotter, J I

    1991-09-15

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) has been shown to involve mutation(s) of mitochondrial DNA, yet there remain several confusing aspects of its inheritance not explained by mitochondrial inheritance alone, including male predominance, reduced penetrance, and a later age of onset in females. By extending segregation analysis methods to disorders that involve both a mitochondrial and a nuclear gene locus, we show that the available pedigree data for LHON are most consistent with a two-locus disorder, with one responsible gene being mitochondrial and the other nuclear and X chromosome-linked. Furthermore, we have been able to extend the two-locus analytic method and demonstrate that a proportion of affected females are likely heterozygous at the X chromosome-linked locus and are affected due to unfortunate X chromosome inactivation, thus providing an explanation for the later age of onset in females. The estimated penetrance for a heterozygous female is 0.11 +/- 0.02. The calculated frequency of the X chromosome-linked gene for LHON is 0.08. Among affected females, 60% are expected to be heterozygous, and the remainder are expected to be homozygous at the responsible X chromosome-linked locus.

  12. X chromosome-linked and mitochondrial gene control of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy: Evidence from segregation analysis for dependence on X chromosome inactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Xiangdong Bu; Rotter, J.I. Univ. of California, Los Angeles )

    1991-09-15

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) has been shown to involve mutation(s) of mitochondrial DNA, yet there remain several confusing aspects of its inheritance not explained by mitochondrial inheritance alone, including male predominance, reduced penetrance, and a later age of onset in females. By extending segregation analysis methods to disorders that involve both a mitochondrial and a nuclear gene locus, the authors show that the available pedigree data for LHON are most consistent with a two-locus disorder, with one responsible gene being mitochondrial and the other nuclear and X chromosome-linked. Furthermore, they have been able to extend the two-locus analytic method and demonstrate that a proportion of affected females are likely heterozygous at the X chromosome-linked locus and are affected due to unfortunate X chromosome inactivation, thus providing an explanation for the later age of onset in females. The estimated penetrance for a heterozygous female is 0.11{plus minus}0.02. The calculated frequency of the X chromosome-linked gene for LHON is 0.l08. Among affected females, 60% are expected to be heterozygous, and the remainder are expected to be homozygous at the responsible X chromosome-linked locus.

  13. Dystrophin insufficiency causes a Becker muscular dystrophy-like phenotype in swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by a dystrophin deficiency while Becker MD is caused by a dystrophin insufficiency or expression of a partially functional dystrophin protein. Deficiencies in existing mouse and dog models necessitate the development of a novel large animal model. Our pu...

  14. Metabolic and Signaling Alterations in Dystrophin-Deficient Hearts Precede Overt Cardiomyopathy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cytoskeletal protein dystrophin has been implicated in hereditary and acquired forms of cardiomyopathy. However, much remains to be learned about the role of dystrophin in the heart. We hypothesized that the dystrophin-deficient heart displays early alterations in energy metabolism that precede ...

  15. Characterization of dystrophin deficient rats: a new model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Larcher, Thibaut; Lafoux, Aude; Tesson, Laurent; Remy, Séverine; Thepenier, Virginie; François, Virginie; Le Guiner, Caroline; Goubin, Helicia; Dutilleul, Maéva; Guigand, Lydie; Toumaniantz, Gilles; De Cian, Anne; Boix, Charlotte; Renaud, Jean-Baptiste; Cherel, Yan; Giovannangeli, Carine; Concordet, Jean-Paul; Anegon, Ignacio; Huchet, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    A few animal models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are available, large ones such as pigs or dogs being expensive and difficult to handle. Mdx (X-linked muscular dystrophy) mice only partially mimic the human disease, with limited chronic muscular lesions and muscle weakness. Their small size also imposes limitations on analyses. A rat model could represent a useful alternative since rats are small animals but 10 times bigger than mice and could better reflect the lesions and functional abnormalities observed in DMD patients. Two lines of Dmd mutated-rats (Dmdmdx) were generated using TALENs targeting exon 23. Muscles of animals of both lines showed undetectable levels of dystrophin by western blot and less than 5% of dystrophin positive fibers by immunohistochemistry. At 3 months, limb and diaphragm muscles from Dmdmdx rats displayed severe necrosis and regeneration. At 7 months, these muscles also showed severe fibrosis and some adipose tissue infiltration. Dmdmdx rats showed significant reduction in muscle strength and a decrease in spontaneous motor activity. Furthermore, heart morphology was indicative of dilated cardiomyopathy associated histologically with necrotic and fibrotic changes. Echocardiography showed significant concentric remodeling and alteration of diastolic function. In conclusion, Dmdmdx rats represent a new faithful small animal model of DMD.

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of dystrophin RNAi knockdown reveals a central role for dystrophin in muscle differentiation and contractile apparatus organization

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. DMD has a complex and as yet incompletely defined molecular pathophysiology hindering development of effective ameliorative approaches. Transcriptomic studies so far conducted on dystrophic cells and tissues suffer from non-specific changes and background noise due to heterogeneous comparisons and secondary pathologies. A study design in which a perfectly matched control cell population is used as reference for transcriptomic studies will give a much more specific insight into the effects of dystrophin deficiency and DMD pathophysiology. Results Using RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down dystrophin in myotubes from C57BL10 mice, we created a homogenous model to study the transcriptome of dystrophin-deficient myotubes. We noted significant differences in the global gene expression pattern between these myotubes and their matched control cultures. In particular, categorical analyses of the dysregulated genes demonstrated significant enrichment of molecules associated with the components of muscle cell contractile unit, ion channels, metabolic pathways and kinases. Additionally, some of the dysregulated genes could potentially explain conditions and endophenotypes associated with dystrophin deficiency, such as dysregulation of calcium homeostasis (Pvalb and Casq1), or cardiomyopathy (Obscurin, Tcap). In addition to be validated by qPCR, our data gains another level of validity by affirmatively reproducing several independent studies conducted previously at genes and/or protein levels in vivo and in vitro. Conclusion Our results suggest that in striated muscles, dystrophin is involved in orchestrating proper development and organization of myofibers as contractile units, depicting a novel pathophysiology for DMD where the absence of dystrophin results in maldeveloped myofibers prone to physical stress and damage. Therefore, it becomes apparent

  17. How much dystrophin is enough: the physiological consequences of different levels of dystrophin in the mdx mouse

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Caroline; Muses, Sofia; McClorey, Graham; Wells, Kim E.; Coursindel, Thibault; Terry, Rebecca L.; Betts, Corinne; Hammond, Suzan; O'Donovan, Liz; Hildyard, John; El Andaloussi, Samir; Gait, Michael J.; Wood, Matthew J.; Wells, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    Splice modulation therapy has shown great clinical promise in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, resulting in the production of dystrophin protein. Despite this, the relationship between restoring dystrophin to established dystrophic muscle and its ability to induce clinically relevant changes in muscle function is poorly understood. In order to robustly evaluate functional improvement, we used in situ protocols in the mdx mouse to measure muscle strength and resistance to eccentric contraction-induced damage. Here, we modelled the treatment of muscle with pre-existing dystrophic pathology using antisense oligonucleotides conjugated to a cell-penetrating peptide. We reveal that 15% homogeneous dystrophin expression is sufficient to protect against eccentric contraction-induced injury. In addition, we demonstrate a >40% increase in specific isometric force following repeated administrations. Strikingly, we show that changes in muscle strength are proportional to dystrophin expression levels. These data define the dystrophin restoration levels required to slow down or prevent disease progression and improve overall muscle function once a dystrophic environment has been established in the mdx mouse model. PMID:25935000

  18. How much dystrophin is enough: the physiological consequences of different levels of dystrophin in the mdx mouse.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Caroline; Muses, Sofia; McClorey, Graham; Wells, Kim E; Coursindel, Thibault; Terry, Rebecca L; Betts, Corinne; Hammond, Suzan; O'Donovan, Liz; Hildyard, John; El Andaloussi, Samir; Gait, Michael J; Wood, Matthew J; Wells, Dominic J

    2015-08-01

    Splice modulation therapy has shown great clinical promise in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, resulting in the production of dystrophin protein. Despite this, the relationship between restoring dystrophin to established dystrophic muscle and its ability to induce clinically relevant changes in muscle function is poorly understood. In order to robustly evaluate functional improvement, we used in situ protocols in the mdx mouse to measure muscle strength and resistance to eccentric contraction-induced damage. Here, we modelled the treatment of muscle with pre-existing dystrophic pathology using antisense oligonucleotides conjugated to a cell-penetrating peptide. We reveal that 15% homogeneous dystrophin expression is sufficient to protect against eccentric contraction-induced injury. In addition, we demonstrate a >40% increase in specific isometric force following repeated administrations. Strikingly, we show that changes in muscle strength are proportional to dystrophin expression levels. These data define the dystrophin restoration levels required to slow down or prevent disease progression and improve overall muscle function once a dystrophic environment has been established in the mdx mouse model.

  19. Disodium cromoglycate protects dystrophin-deficient muscle fibers from leakiness.

    PubMed

    Marques, Maria Julia; Ventura Machado, Rafael; Minatel, Elaine; Santo Neto, Humberto

    2008-01-01

    In dystrophin-deficient fibers of mdx mice and in Duchenne dystrophy, the lack of dystrophin leads to sarcolemma breakdown and muscle degeneration. We verified that cromolyn, a mast-cell stabilizer agent, stabilized dystrophic muscle fibers using Evans blue dye as a marker of sarcolemma leakiness. Mdx mice (n=8; 14 days of age) received daily intraperitoneal injections of cromolyn (50 mg/kg body weight) for 15 days. Untreated mdx mice (n=8) were injected with saline. Cryostat cross-sections of the sternomastoid, tibialis anterior, and diaphragm muscles were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Cromolyn dramatically reduced Evans blue dye-positive fibers in all muscles (P<0.05; Student's t-test) and led to a significant increase in the percentage of fibers with peripheral nuclei. This study supports the protective effects of cromolyn in dystrophic muscles and further indicates its action against muscle fiber leakiness in muscles that are differently affected by the lack of dystrophin.

  20. Concurrent Label-Free Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Dystrophin Isoform Dp427 and the Myofibrosis Marker Collagen in Crude Extracts from mdx-4cv Skeletal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sandra; Zweyer, Margit; Mundegar, Rustam R.; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Swandulla, Dieter; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2015-01-01

    The full-length dystrophin protein isoform of 427 kDa (Dp427), the absence of which represents the principal abnormality in X-linked muscular dystrophy, is difficult to identify and characterize by routine proteomic screening approaches of crude tissue extracts. This is probably related to its large molecular size, its close association with the sarcolemmal membrane, and its existence within a heterogeneous glycoprotein complex. Here, we used a careful extraction procedure to isolate the total protein repertoire from normal versus dystrophic mdx-4cv skeletal muscles, in conjunction with label-free mass spectrometry, and successfully identified Dp427 by proteomic means. In contrast to a considerable number of previous comparative studies of the total skeletal muscle proteome, using whole tissue proteomics we show here for the first time that the reduced expression of this membrane cytoskeletal protein is the most significant alteration in dystrophinopathy. This agrees with the pathobiochemical concept that the almost complete absence of dystrophin is the main defect in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and that the mdx-4cv mouse model of dystrophinopathy exhibits only very few revertant fibers. Significant increases in collagens and associated fibrotic marker proteins, such as fibronectin, biglycan, asporin, decorin, prolargin, mimecan, and lumican were identified in dystrophin-deficient muscles. The up-regulation of collagen in mdx-4cv muscles was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblotting. Thus, this is the first mass spectrometric study of crude tissue extracts that puts the proteomic identification of dystrophin in its proper pathophysiological context. PMID:28248273

  1. Dystrophin, utrophin and {beta}-dystroglycan expression in skeletal muscle from patients with Becker muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Kawajiri, Masakazu; Mitsui, Takao; Kawai, Hisaomi

    1996-08-01

    The precise localization and semiquantitative correlation of dystrophin, utrophin and {beta}-dystroglycan expression on the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle cells obtained from patients with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) was studied using three types of double immunofluorescence. Staining intensity was measured using a confocal laser microscope. Each of these proteins was identified at the same locus on the sarcolemma. The staining intensities of dystrophin and utrophin were approximately reciprocal at sarcolemmal sites where dystrophin expression was obviously observed. The staining intensity of {beta}-dystroglycan was strong in areas where dystrophin staining was also strong and utrophin expression was weak. Quantitative analysis revealed that the staining intensity of {beta}-dystroglycan minus that of dystrophin approximated the staining intensity of utrophin, indicating that the sum of dystrophin and utrophin expression corresponds to that of {beta}-dystroglycan. These results suggest that utrophin may compensate for dystrophin deficiency found in BMD by binding to {beta}-dystroglycan. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Utilization of an antibody specific for human dystrophin to follow myoblast transplantation in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Huard, J; Tremblay, G; Verreault, S; Labrecque, C; Tremblay, J P

    1993-01-01

    Human myoblasts were transplanted in nude mice. The efficacy of these transplantations was analyzed using a monoclonal antibody (NCLDys3) specific for human dystrophin. This antibody did not reveal any dystrophin in nude mice that did not receive a human myoblast transplantation. However, about 30 days after a human myoblast transplantation, dystrophin-positive muscle fibers were observed. They were not abundant, and were present either in small clusters or isolated. This technique follows the fate of myoblast transplantation in animals that already have dystrophin, and distinguishes between new dystrophin-positive fibers due to the transplantation and the revertant fibers in mdx mice. Moreover, this technique does not require any labelling of the myoblasts before transplantation. It can also be used to detect dystrophin produced following the fusion of myoblasts transfected with the human dystrophin gene.

  3. Revertant fibres and dystrophin traces in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: implication for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Arechavala-Gomeza, Virginia; Kinali, Maria; Feng, Lucy; Guglieri, Michela; Edge, Geraldine; Main, Marion; Hunt, David; Lehovsky, Jan; Straub, Volker; Bushby, Kate; Sewry, Caroline A; Morgan, Jennifer E; Muntoni, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterised by the absence of dystrophin in muscle biopsies, although residual dystrophin can be present, either as dystrophin-positive (revertant) fibres or traces. As restoration of dystrophin expression is the end point of clinical trials, such residual dystrophin is a key factor in recruitment of patients and may also confound the analysis of dystrophin restoration in treated patients, if, as previously observed in the mdx mouse, revertant fibres increase with age. In 62% of the diagnostic biopsies reports of 65 DMD patients studied, traces or revertants were recorded with no correlation between traces or revertants, the patients' performance, or corticosteroids response. In nine of these patients, there was no increase in traces or revertants in biopsies taken a mean of 8.23 years (5.8-10.4 years) after the original diagnostic biopsy. This information should help in the design and execution of clinical trials focused on dystrophin restoration strategies.

  4. A Translational Pathway Toward a Clinical Trial Using the Second-Generation AAV Micro-Dystrophin Vector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    gene therapy. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Duchenne muscular dystrophy, DMD, dystrophin, micro-dystrophin, adeno- associated virus, AAV, muscle, gene therapy...Adeno- associated virus (AAV)-mediated micro-dystrophin gene therapy has resulted in unprecedented success in treating mouse models of DMD by systemic...dystrophin, micro-dystrophin, adeno- associated virus, AAV, muscle, gene therapy, systemic gene delivery, canine model 3. Accomplishments Major goal

  5. X-Chromosome Linked IRAK-1 Polymorphism Is A Strong Predictor Of Multiple Organ Failure And Mortality Post-Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sperry, Jason L.; Zolin, Samuel; Zuckerbraun, Brian S.; Vodovotz, Yoram; Namas, Rami; Neal, Matthew D.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Rosengart, Matthew R.; Peitzman, Andrew B.; Billiar, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE(S) Clinical research characterizing the mechanisms responsible for sex-based outcome differences post-injury remain conflicting. We sought characterize an X-chromosome linked IRAK-1 polymorphism as an alternative mechanism responsible for sex differences post-injury. IRAK-1 is key intermediate in the Toll Like Receptor (TLR) pathway thought to drive inflammation post-injury. METHODS A prospective cohort study was performed over a 24-month period. Blunt injured patients requiring ICU admission were enrolled while patients with isolated brain and spinal cord injuries were excluded. Outcomes of interest included Multiple Organ Failure (MOF, Marshall MODscore > 5) and mortality. Logistic regression was utilized to determine the independent risk of poor outcome associated with the IRAK-1 variant after controlling for important differences. RESULTS In an enrolled cohort of 321 patients, the IRAK-1 variant was common (12.5%). Patients with and without the variant were similar in age, injury severity and 24hr blood transfusion. After controlling for important confounders, the IRAK1 variant was independently associated with over a 8-fold (OR 8.4, p=0.005, 95% CI 1.9–37.1) and 11-fold (OR 11.8, p=0.037, 95% CI 1.1–121) greater risk of MOF and mortality, respectively. These differences were most prominent in males, while females heterozygous for the variant demonstrated worse outcome in a dose-dependent fashion. CONCLUSIONS The IRAK1 polymorphism is a strong independent predictor of MOF and mortality post-injury and represents a common variant with prognostic potential. These data demonstrate the importance of TLR signaling post-injury and supports that a genetic mechanism may drive sex outcome differences post-injury. PMID:25203887

  6. Sexually dimorphic expression of the sex chromosome-linked genes cntfa and pdlim3a in the medaka brain.

    PubMed

    Maehiro, Sayaka; Takeuchi, Akio; Yamashita, Junpei; Hiraki, Towako; Kawabata, Yukika; Nakasone, Kiyoshi; Hosono, Kohei; Usami, Takeshi; Paul-Prasanth, Bindhu; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Oka, Yoshitaka; Okubo, Kataaki

    2014-02-28

    In vertebrates, sex differences in the brain have been attributed to differences in gonadal hormone secretion; however, recent evidence in mammals and birds shows that sex chromosome-linked genes, independent of gonadal hormones, also mediate sex differences in the brain. In this study, we searched for genes that were differentially expressed between the sexes in the brain of a teleost fish, medaka (Oryzias latipes), and identified two sex chromosome genes with male-biased expression, cntfa (encoding ciliary neurotrophic factor a) and pdlim3a (encoding PDZ and LIM domain 3 a). These genes were found to be located 3-4 Mb from and on opposite sides of the Y chromosome-specific region containing the sex-determining gene (the medaka X and Y chromosomes are genetically identical, differing only in this region). The male-biased expression of both genes was evident prior to the onset of sexual maturity. Sex-reversed XY females, as well as wild-type XY males, had more pronounced expression of these genes than XX males and XX females, indicating that the Y allele confers higher expression than the X allele for both genes. In addition, their expression was affected to some extent by sex steroid hormones, thereby possibly serving as focal points of the crosstalk between the genetic and hormonal pathways underlying brain sex differences. Given that sex chromosomes of lower vertebrates, including teleost fish, have evolved independently in different genera or species, sex chromosome genes with sexually dimorphic expression in the brain may contribute to genus- or species-specific sex differences in a variety of traits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nonrandon X chromosome inactivation in B cells from carriers of X chromosome-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, M.E.; Lavoie, A.; Briggs, C.; Brown, P.; Guerra, C.; Puck, J.M.

    1988-05-01

    X chromosome-linked sever combined immunodeficiency (XSCID) is characterized by markedly reduced numbers of T cells, the absence of proliferative responses to mitogens, and hypogammaglobulinemia but normal or elevated number of B cells. To determine if the failure of the B cells to produce immunoglobulin might be due to expression of the XSCID gene defect in B-lineage cells as well as T cells, the authors analyzed patterns of X chromosome inactivation in B cells from nine obligate carriers of this disorder. A series of somatic cell hybrids that selectively retained the active X chromosome was produced from Epstein-Barr virus-stimulated B cells from each woman. To distinguish between the two X chromosome, the hybrids from each woman were analyzed using an X-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism for which the woman in question was heterozygous. In all obligate carriers of XSCID, the B-cell hybrids demonstrated preferential use of a single X chromosome, the nonmutant X, as the active X. To determine if the small number of B-cell hybrids that contained the mutant X were derived from an immature subset of B cells, lymphocytes from three carriers were separated into surface IgM positive and surface IgM negative B cells prior to exposure to Epstein-Barr virus and production of B-cell hybrids. The results demonstrated normal random X chromosome inactivation in B-cell hybrids derived from the less mature surface IgM positive B cells. These results suggest that the XSCID gene product has a direct effect on B cells as well as T cells and is required during B-cell maturation.

  8. Resisting sarcolemmal rupture: dystrophin repeats increase membrane-actin stiffness.

    PubMed

    Sarkis, Joe; Vié, Véronique; Winder, Steve J; Renault, Anne; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Hubert, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Dystrophin is an essential part of a membrane protein complex that provides flexible support to muscle fiber membranes. Loss of dystrophin function leads to membrane fragility and muscle-wasting disease. Given the importance of cytoskeletal interactions in strengthening the sarcolemma, we have focused on actin-binding domain 2 of human dystrophin, constituted by repeats 11 to 15 of the central domain (DYS R11-15). We previously showed that DYS R11-15 also interacts with membrane lipids. We investigated the shear elastic constant (μ) and the surface viscosity (η(s)) of Langmuir phospholipid monolayers mimicking the inner leaflet of the sarcolemma in the presence of DYS R11-15 and actin. The initial interaction of 100 nM DYS R11-15 with the monolayers slightly modifies their rheological properties. Injection of 0.125 μM filamentous actin leads to a strong increase of μ and η(s,) from 0 to 5.5 mN/m and 2.4 × 10(-4) N · s/m, respectively. These effects are specific to DYS R11-15, require filamentous actin, and depend on phospholipid nature and lateral surface pressure. These findings suggest that the central domain of dystrophin contributes significantly to the stiffness and the stability of the sarcolemma through its simultaneous interactions with the cytoskeleton and lipid membrane. This mechanical link is likely to be a major contributing factor to the shock absorber function of dystrophin and muscle sarcolemmal integrity on mechanical stress.

  9. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: an X chromosome-linked dominant inheritance pattern with a vasopressin type 2 receptor gene that is structurally normal.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, E; Bale, A E; Carson, E; Boson, W L; Nordenskjöld, M; Ritzén, M; Ferreira, P C; Jammal, A; De Marco, L

    1994-01-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a rare hereditary disorder, most commonly transmitted in an X chromosome-linked recessive manner and characterized by the lack of renal response to the action of antidiuretic hormone [Arg8]vasopressin. The vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) has been suggested to be the gene that causes the disease, and its role in disease pathogenesis is supported by mutations within this gene in affected individuals. Using the PCR, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and direct DNA sequencing, we examined the V2R gene in four unrelated kindreds. In addition, linkage analysis with chromosome Xq28 markers was done in one large Brazilian kindred with an apparent unusual X chromosome-linked dominant inheritance pattern. In one family, a mutation in codon 280, causing a Tyr-->Cys substitution in the sixth transmembrane domain of the receptor, was found. In the other three additional families with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, the V2R-coding region was normal in sequence. In one large Brazilian kindred displaying an unusual X chromosome-linked dominant mode of inheritance, the disease-related gene was localized to the same region of the X chromosome as the V2R, but no mutations were found, thus raising the possibility that this disease is caused by a gene other than V2R. Images PMID:8078903

  10. Ocular and neurodevelopmental features of Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a signature of dystrophin function in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Ricotti, Valeria; Jägle, Herbert; Theodorou, Maria; Moore, Anthony T; Muntoni, Francesco; Thompson, Dorothy A

    2016-04-01

    Multiple isoforms of dystrophin (Dp427, Dp260, Dp140, Dp71) are expressed differentially in the central nervous system (CNS) including the retinal layers. Disruption of these protein products is responsible for cognitive dysfunction, electroretinogram (ERG) abnormalities and behavioural disorders in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We studied the ocular characteristics and neuropsychiatric profile of 16 DMD boys. The ISCEV standard, full-field flash ERGs were assessed. Intellectual ability and behavioural disturbances were measured. All genotypes were associated with mildly abnormal photopic ERG a:b-wave amplitude ratios. In addition, we identified the following genotype/phenotype correlations: boys with mutations upstream of exon 30 (ie, isolated Dp427 altered expression) showed normal scotopic a:b ratios, abnormal photopic oscillatory potential OP2 and normal scotopic OP2. Conversely, all boys with DMD mutations downstream of exon 30 showed profoundly 'negative' scotopic ERGs (a:b ratios >1). In these patients, the involvement of Dp260 isoform resulted in the absence of slow rod pathway signalling in15 Hz scotopic flicker ERGs. These boys had abnormal scotopic OP2 and normal photopic OP2. Finally, children with mutations also affecting Dp71 were associated with more pronounced electronegative ERGs. When correlating ERGs to neurodevelopmental outcome, we found a positive correlation between negative scotopic ERGs and neurodevelopmental disturbances, and the most severe findings were in boys with Dp71 disruption. These findings suggest a strong association between DMD mutations affecting different DMD isoforms with characteristically abnormal scotopic ERGs and severe neurodevelopmental problems. The role of the ERG as a potential biomarker for dystrophin function in the CNS and response to novel genetic therapies warrants further exploration.

  11. [Genotype-phenotype discordance in a Duchenne muscular dystrophy patient due to a novel mutation: insights into the shock absorber function of dystrophin].

    PubMed

    López-Hernández, Luz B; van Heusden, Dave; Soriano-Ursúa, Marvin A; Figuera-Villanueva, Luis; Vázquez-Cárdenas, Norma A; Canto, Patricia; Gómez-Díaz, Benjamín; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón M

    2011-06-16

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genomic disorder characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness due to the absence or abnormal function of dystrophin; a protein that protects muscle cells from mechanical induced stress during contraction. Mutations in the DMD gene, may lead to different clinical phenotypes, collectively known as dystrophinopathies, of which DMD has the earliest onset and most severe progression. We report a novel deletion of exons 24-41, predicted to maintain the reading frame and expected to result in a mild phenotype. Conversely, the patient has a severe DMD phenotype. Our report supports the hypothesis that disruption of the gamma-actin-binding site located in the central rod domain plays a crucial role in the shock absorber function of dystrophin in muscle cells. Description of pathogenic variants in the DMD gene and the resulting phenotypes has important implications on the designing of molecular therapeutic approaches for DMD.

  12. Exogenous Dp71 is a dominant negative competitor of dystrophin in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Leibovitz, Sigalit; Meshorer, Asher; Fridman, Yosef; Wieneke, Sascha; Jockusch, Harald; Yaffe, David; Nudel, Uri

    2002-11-01

    Dystrophin, the protein which is absent or non-functional in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, consists of four main domains: an N-terminal actin binding domain, a rod shaped domain of spectrin-like repeats, a cysteine-rich domain and a unique C-terminal domain. In muscle, dystrophin forms a linkage between the cytoskeletal actin and a group of membrane proteins (dystrophin associated proteins). The N-terminal domain binds to the cytoskeletal actin and the association with the dystrophin associated proteins is mediated mainly by the cysteine-rich and C-terminal domains of dystrophin. The dystrophin gene also encodes two isoforms of non-muscle dystrophins and a number of smaller products consisting of the two C-terminal domains with different extensions into the spectrin-like repeat domain. Dp71, which consist of the C-terminal and the cysteine-rich domains of dystrophin, is the major product of the gene in all non-muscle tissues tested so far, but it is absent in differentiated skeletal muscle. In an attempt to understand the functions of Dp71, we produced transgenic mice over-expressing this protein in several tissues. The highest levels of exogeneous Dp71 were detected in skeletal muscle, in association with the sarcolemma. This resulted in muscle damage similar to that found in mice which lack dystrophin. The data indicates that Dp71 competes with dystrophin for the binding to the dystrophin associated proteins. Since Dp71 lacks the actin binding domain, it cannot form the essential linkage between the dystrophin associated proteins complex and the cytoskeleton.

  13. Dystrophin Distribution and Expression in Human and Experimental Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, Ruben G. F.; Schipper, Sandra; Hoogland, Govert; Schijns, Olaf E. M. G.; Dings, Jim T. A.; Aalbers, Marlien W.; Vles, Johan S. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Dystrophin is part of a protein complex that connects the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. In addition to its role in muscle tissue, it functions as an anchoring protein within the central nervous system such as in hippocampus and cerebellum. Its presence in the latter regions is illustrated by the cognitive problems seen in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Since epilepsy is also supposed to constitute a comorbidity of DMD, it is hypothesized that dystrophin plays a role in neuronal excitability. Here, we aimed to study brain dystrophin distribution and expression in both, human and experimental temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Method: Regional and cellular dystrophin distribution was evaluated in both human and rat hippocampi and in rat cerebellar tissue by immunofluorescent colocalization with neuronal (NeuN and calbindin) and glial (GFAP) markers. In addition, hippocampal dystrophin levels were estimated by Western blot analysis in biopsies from TLE patients, post-mortem controls, amygdala kindled (AK)-, and control rats. Results: Dystrophin was expressed in all hippocampal pyramidal subfields and in the molecular-, Purkinje-, and granular cell layer of the cerebellum. In these regions it colocalized with GFAP, suggesting expression in astrocytes such as Bergmann glia (BG) and velate protoplasmic astrocytes. In rat hippocampus and cerebellum there were neither differences in dystrophin positive cell types, nor in the regional dystrophin distribution between AK and control animals. Quantitatively, hippocampal full-length dystrophin (Dp427) levels were about 60% higher in human TLE patients than in post-mortem controls (p < 0.05), whereas the level of the shorter Dp71 isoform did not differ. In contrast, AK animals showed similar dystrophin levels as controls. Conclusion: Dystrophin is ubiquitously expressed by astrocytes in the human and rat hippocampus and in the rat cerebellum. Hippocampal full-length dystrophin (Dp427) levels are upregulated

  14. Expression of dystrophin Dp71 during PC12 cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, B; Rendon, A; Genty, V; Aranda, G; Marquez, F; Mornet, D; Montañez, C

    1996-08-02

    The expression of dystrophin-protein 71 (Dp71) was investigated during nerve growth factor (NGF) induced differentiation of PC12 cells. A semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was designed to measure Dp71 mRNA, whereas the Dp71 protein amount was evaluated by immunoblot analysis using an anti-dystrophin monoclonal antibody. Comparison with control cultures showed that Dp71 mRNA and protein levels increased in parallel with NGF treatment peaking with increments of 60% and 1.4 times, respectively. The upregulation of Dp71 expression during PC12 cells differentiation point at PC12 cells as a suitable model for studying the function of Dp71 in neuronal cells.

  15. Detection of an exon 53 polymorphism in the dystrophin gene.

    PubMed

    Prior, T W; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Sedra, M S

    1993-10-01

    We utilized a heteroduplex method to screen for small mutations in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients who did not have deletions or duplications. A dystrophin exon 53 heteroduplex band was identified in 14.4% of the affected patients. Direct sequencing of the amplified product from DNA producing the heteroduplex revealed the presence of a polymorphism in the coding region. The codon for asparagine was converted from AAT to AAC.

  16. Lentiviral vectors can be used for full-length dystrophin gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Counsell, John R; Asgarian, Zeinab; Meng, Jinhong; Ferrer, Veronica; Vink, Conrad A; Howe, Steven J; Waddington, Simon N; Thrasher, Adrian J; Muntoni, Francesco; Morgan, Jennifer E; Danos, Olivier

    2017-12-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is caused by a lack of dystrophin expression in patient muscle fibres. Current DMD gene therapy strategies rely on the expression of internally deleted forms of dystrophin, missing important functional domains. Viral gene transfer of full-length dystrophin could restore wild-type functionality, although this approach is restricted by the limited capacity of recombinant viral vectors. Lentiviral vectors can package larger transgenes than adeno-associated viruses, yet lentiviral vectors remain largely unexplored for full-length dystrophin delivery. In our work, we have demonstrated that lentiviral vectors can package and deliver inserts of a similar size to dystrophin. We report a novel approach for delivering large transgenes in lentiviruses, in which we demonstrate proof-of-concept for a 'template-switching' lentiviral vector that harnesses recombination events during reverse-transcription. During this work, we discovered that a standard, unmodified lentiviral vector was efficient in delivering full-length dystrophin to target cells, within a total genomic load of more than 15,000 base pairs. We have demonstrated gene therapy with this vector by restoring dystrophin expression in DMD myoblasts, where dystrophin was expressed at the sarcolemma of myotubes after myogenic differentiation. Ultimately, our work demonstrates proof-of-concept that lentiviruses can be used for permanent full-length dystrophin gene therapy, which presents a significant advancement in developing an effective treatment for DMD.

  17. Evolutionary study of vertebrate and invertebrate members of the dystrophin and utrophin gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.G.; Nicholson, L.; Bobrow, M.

    1994-09-01

    Vertebrates express two members of the dystrophin gene family. The prototype, dystrophin, is expressed in muscle and neural tissue, and is defective in the human disorders Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD, BMD). The dystrophin homologue utrophin is more generally expressed but has not yet been associated with a genetic disorder. The function of neither protein is clear. A comparison of human utrophin with the known dystrophins (human, mouse, chicken, Torpedo) suggests that dystrophin and utrophin diverged before the vertebrate radiation. We have used reverse-transcript PCR (RT-PCR) directed by degenerate primers to characterize dystrophin and utrophin transcripts from a range of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Our results suggest that the duplication leading to distinct dystrophin and utrophin genes occurred close to the point of divergence of urochordates from the cephalochordate-vertebrate lineage. This divergence may have occurred to fulfill a novel role which arose at this point, or may reflect a need for separate regulation of the neuromuscular and other functions of the ancient dystrophin. Our data include sequences of the first non-human utrophins to be characterized, and show these to be substantially more divergent than their cognate dystrophins. In addition, our results provide a large body of information regarding the tolerance of amino acid positions in the cysteine-rich and C-terminal domains to substitution. This will aid the interpretations of DMD and BMD missense mutations in these regions.

  18. Lentiviral vectors can be used for full-length dystrophin gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Counsell, John R.; Asgarian, Zeinab; Meng, Jinhong; Ferrer, Veronica; Vink, Conrad A.; Howe, Steven J.; Waddington, Simon N.; Thrasher, Adrian J.; Muntoni, Francesco; Morgan, Jennifer E.; Danos, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is caused by a lack of dystrophin expression in patient muscle fibres. Current DMD gene therapy strategies rely on the expression of internally deleted forms of dystrophin, missing important functional domains. Viral gene transfer of full-length dystrophin could restore wild-type functionality, although this approach is restricted by the limited capacity of recombinant viral vectors. Lentiviral vectors can package larger transgenes than adeno-associated viruses, yet lentiviral vectors remain largely unexplored for full-length dystrophin delivery. In our work, we have demonstrated that lentiviral vectors can package and deliver inserts of a similar size to dystrophin. We report a novel approach for delivering large transgenes in lentiviruses, in which we demonstrate proof-of-concept for a ‘template-switching’ lentiviral vector that harnesses recombination events during reverse-transcription. During this work, we discovered that a standard, unmodified lentiviral vector was efficient in delivering full-length dystrophin to target cells, within a total genomic load of more than 15,000 base pairs. We have demonstrated gene therapy with this vector by restoring dystrophin expression in DMD myoblasts, where dystrophin was expressed at the sarcolemma of myotubes after myogenic differentiation. Ultimately, our work demonstrates proof-of-concept that lentiviruses can be used for permanent full-length dystrophin gene therapy, which presents a significant advancement in developing an effective treatment for DMD. PMID:28303972

  19. Dystrophin in frameshift deletion patients with Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Gangopadhyay, S.B.; Ray, P.N.; Worton, R.G.; Sherratt, T.G.; Heckmatt, J.Z.; Dubowitz, V.; Strong, P.N.; Miller, G. ); Shokeir, M. )

    1992-09-01

    In a previous study the authors identified 14 cases with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) or its milder variant, Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), with a deletion of exons 3-7, a deletion that would be expected to shift the translational reading frame of the mRNA and give a severe phenotype. They have examined dystrophin and its mRNA from muscle biopsies of seven cases with either mild or intermediate phenotypes. In all cases they detected slightly lower-molecular-weight dystrophin in 12%-15% abundance relative to the normal. By sequencing amplified mRNA they have found that exon 2 is spliced to exon 8, a splice that produces a frameshifted mRNA, and have found no evidence for alternate splicing that might be involved in restoration of dystrophin mRNA reading frame in the patients with a mild phenotype. Other transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms such as cryptic promoter, ribosomal frameshifting, and reinitiation are suggested that might play some role in restoring the reading frame. 34 refs., 5 figs. 1 tab.

  20. Skipping multiple exons of dystrophin transcripts using cocktail antisense oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Echigoya, Yusuke; Yokota, Toshifumi

    2014-02-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common and lethal genetic disorders, with 20,000 children per year born with DMD globally. DMD is caused by mutations in the dystrophin (DMD) gene. Antisense-mediated exon skipping therapy is a promising therapeutic approach that uses short DNA-like molecules called antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) to skip over/splice out the mutated part of the gene to produce a shortened but functional dystrophin protein. One major challenge has been its limited applicability. Multiple exon skipping has recently emerged as a potential solution. Indeed, many DMD patients need exon skipping of multiple exons in order to restore the reading frame, depending on how many base pairs the mutated exon(s) and adjacent exons have. Theoretically, multiple exon skipping could be used to treat approximately 90%, 80%, and 98% of DMD patients with deletion, duplication, and nonsense mutations, respectively. In addition, multiple exon skipping could be used to select deletions that optimize the functionality of the truncated dystrophin protein. The proof of concept of systemic multiple exon skipping using a cocktail of AOs has been demonstrated in dystrophic dog and mouse models. Remaining challenges include the insufficient efficacy of systemic treatment, especially for therapies that target the heart, and limited long-term safety data. Here we review recent preclinical developments in AO-mediated multiple exon skipping and discuss the remaining challenges.

  1. Spectrum of small mutations in the dystrophin coding region.

    PubMed Central

    Prior, T W; Bartolo, C; Pearl, D K; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Sedra, M S; Burghes, A H; Mendell, J R

    1995-01-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD and BMD) are caused by defects in the dystrophin gene. About two-thirds of the affected patients have large deletions or duplications, which occur in the 5' and central portion of the gene. The nondeletion/duplication cases are most likely the result of smaller mutations that cannot be identified by current diagnostic screening strategies. We screened approximately 80% of the dystrophin coding sequence for small mutations in 158 patients without deletions or duplications and identified 29 mutations. The study indicates that many of the DMD and the majority of the BMD small mutations lie in noncoding regions of the gene. All of the mutations identified were unique to single patients, and most of the mutations resulted in protein truncation. We did not find a clustering of small mutations similar to the deletion distribution but found > 40% of the small mutations 3' of exon 55. The extent of protein truncation caused by the 3' mutations did not determine the phenotype, since even the exon 76 nonsense mutation resulted in the severe DMD phenotype. Our study confirms that the dystrophin gene is subject to a high rate of mutation in CpG sequences. As a consequence of not finding any hotspots or prevalent small mutations, we conclude that it is presently not possible to perform direct carrier and prenatal diagnostics for many families without deletions or duplications. Images Figure 2 PMID:7611292

  2. Spectrum of small mutations in the dystrophin coding region.

    PubMed

    Prior, T W; Bartolo, C; Pearl, D K; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Sedra, M S; Burghes, A H; Mendell, J R

    1995-07-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD and BMD) are caused by defects in the dystrophin gene. About two-thirds of the affected patients have large deletions or duplications, which occur in the 5' and central portion of the gene. The nondeletion/duplication cases are most likely the result of smaller mutations that cannot be identified by current diagnostic screening strategies. We screened approximately 80% of the dystrophin coding sequence for small mutations in 158 patients without deletions or duplications and identified 29 mutations. The study indicates that many of the DMD and the majority of the BMD small mutations lie in noncoding regions of the gene. All of the mutations identified were unique to single patients, and most of the mutations resulted in protein truncation. We did not find a clustering of small mutations similar to the deletion distribution but found > 40% of the small mutations 3' of exon 55. The extent of protein truncation caused by the 3' mutations did not determine the phenotype, since even the exon 76 nonsense mutation resulted in the severe DMD phenotype. Our study confirms that the dystrophin gene is subject to a high rate of mutation in CpG sequences. As a consequence of not finding any hotspots or prevalent small mutations, we conclude that it is presently not possible to perform direct carrier and prenatal diagnostics for many families without deletions or duplications.

  3. Autologous skeletal muscle derived cells expressing a novel functional dystrophin provide a potential therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jinhong; Counsell, John R.; Reza, Mojgan; Laval, Steven H.; Danos, Olivier; Thrasher, Adrian; Lochmüller, Hanns; Muntoni, Francesco; Morgan, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    Autologous stem cells that have been genetically modified to express dystrophin are a possible means of treating Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). To maximize the therapeutic effect, dystrophin construct needs to contain as many functional motifs as possible, within the packaging capacity of the viral vector. Existing dystrophin constructs used for transduction of muscle stem cells do not contain the nNOS binding site, an important functional motif within the dystrophin gene. In this proof-of-concept study, using stem cells derived from skeletal muscle of a DMD patient (mdcs) transplanted into an immunodeficient mouse model of DMD, we report that two novel dystrophin constructs, C1 (ΔR3-R13) and C2 (ΔH2-R23), can be lentivirally transduced into mdcs and produce dystrophin. These dystrophin proteins were functional in vivo, as members of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex were restored in muscle fibres containing donor-derived dystrophin. In muscle fibres derived from cells that had been transduced with construct C1, the largest dystrophin construct packaged into a lentiviral system, nNOS was restored. The combination of autologous stem cells and a lentivirus expressing a novel dystrophin construct which optimally restores proteins of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex may have therapeutic application for all DMD patients, regardless of their dystrophin mutation. PMID:26813695

  4. Autologous skeletal muscle derived cells expressing a novel functional dystrophin provide a potential therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jinhong; Counsell, John R; Reza, Mojgan; Laval, Steven H; Danos, Olivier; Thrasher, Adrian; Lochmüller, Hanns; Muntoni, Francesco; Morgan, Jennifer E

    2016-01-27

    Autologous stem cells that have been genetically modified to express dystrophin are a possible means of treating Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). To maximize the therapeutic effect, dystrophin construct needs to contain as many functional motifs as possible, within the packaging capacity of the viral vector. Existing dystrophin constructs used for transduction of muscle stem cells do not contain the nNOS binding site, an important functional motif within the dystrophin gene. In this proof-of-concept study, using stem cells derived from skeletal muscle of a DMD patient (mdcs) transplanted into an immunodeficient mouse model of DMD, we report that two novel dystrophin constructs, C1 (ΔR3-R13) and C2 (ΔH2-R23), can be lentivirally transduced into mdcs and produce dystrophin. These dystrophin proteins were functional in vivo, as members of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex were restored in muscle fibres containing donor-derived dystrophin. In muscle fibres derived from cells that had been transduced with construct C1, the largest dystrophin construct packaged into a lentiviral system, nNOS was restored. The combination of autologous stem cells and a lentivirus expressing a novel dystrophin construct which optimally restores proteins of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex may have therapeutic application for all DMD patients, regardless of their dystrophin mutation.

  5. Effective restoration of dystrophin-associated proteins in vivo by adenovirus-mediated transfer of truncated dystrophin cDNAs.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, K; Miyagoe, Y; Yamamoto, K; Nabeshima, Y; Dickson, G; Takeda, S

    1998-03-27

    A series of truncated dystrophin cDNAs (3.1-4.2 kbp) containing only three, three, two or one rod repeats with hinge 1 and 4 (named deltaDysAX2, AX11, AH3, M3, respectively) or no rod repeat retaining either hinge 1 or 4 (named deltaDysH1, H4, respectively) were constructed. These cDNAs were introduced into skeletal muscle of adult mdx mice using the adenovirus vector with a strong CAG promoter. deltaDysAX2, AX11, AH3 and deltaDysM3 expressed themselves successfully and recovered dystrophin-associated proteins effectively. Especially 3.7 kbp cDNA for deltaDysM3 offers the possibility of an approach utilizing newly developed virus vectors, such as an adeno-associated virus vector, toward gene therapy of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  6. iNOS expression in dystrophinopathies can be reduced by somatic gene transfer of dystrophin or utrophin.

    PubMed Central

    Louboutin, J. P.; Rouger, K.; Tinsley, J. M.; Halldorson, J.; Wilson, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is an inorganic gas produced by a family of NO synthase (NOS) proteins. The presence and the distribution of inducible-NOS (NOS II or iNOS), and NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d), a marker for NOS catalytic activity, were determined in muscle sections from control, DMD, and BMD patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NADPH-d reactivity, iNOS- and nNOS (NOS I)-immunolocalization were studied in muscles from mdx mice before and after somatic gene transfer of dystrophin or utrophin. RESULTS: In control patients, few fibers (<2%) demonstrated focal accumulation of iNOS in sarcolemma. In DMD patients, a strong iNOS immunoreactivity was observed in some necrotic muscle fibers as well as in some mononuclear cells, and regenerating muscle fibers had diffusely positive iNOS immunoreactivity. In DMD patients, NADPH-d reactivity was increased and mainly localized in regenerating muscle fibers. In mdx mice quadriceps, iNOS expression was mainly observed in regenerating muscle fibers, but not prior to 4 weeks postnatal, and was still present 8 weeks after birth. The expression of dystrophin and the overexpression of utrophin using adenovirus-mediated constructs reduced the number of iNOS-positive fibers in mdx quadriceps muscles. The correction of some pathology in mdx by dystrophin expression or utrophin overexpression was independent of the presence of nNOS. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that iNOS could play a role in the physiopathology of DMD and that the abnormal expression of iNOS could be corrected by gene therapy. PMID:11474581

  7. An X-chromosome linked mouse model (Ndufa1(S55A)) for systemic partial Complex I deficiency for studying predisposition to neurodegeneration and other diseases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul; Potluri, Prasanth; Khalil, Ahmed; Gaut, Daria; McManus, Meagan; Compton, Shannon; Wallace, Douglas C; Yadava, Nagendra

    2017-05-12

    The respiratory chain Complex I deficiencies are the most common cause of mitochondrial diseases. Complex I biogenesis is controlled by 58 genes and at least 47 of these cause mitochondrial disease in humans. Two of these are X-chromosome linked nuclear (nDNA) genes (NDUFA1 and NDUFB11), and 7 are mitochondrial (mtDNA, MT-ND1-6, -4L) genes, which may be responsible for sex-dependent variation in the presentation of mitochondrial diseases. In this study, we describe an X-chromosome linked mouse model (Ndufa1(S55A)) for systemic partial Complex I deficiency. By homologous recombination, a point mutation T > G within 55th codon of the Ndufa1 gene was introduced. The resulting allele Ndufa1(S55A) introduced systemic serine-55-alanine (S55A) mutation within the MWFE protein, which is essential for Complex I assembly and stability. The S55A mutation caused systemic partial Complex I deficiency of ∼50% in both sexes. The mutant males (Ndufa1(S55A/Y)) displayed reduced respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and produced less body heat. They were also hypoactive and ate less. They showed age-dependent Purkinje neurons degeneration. Metabolic profiling of brain, liver and serum from males showed reduced heme levels in mutants, which correlated with altered expressions of Fech and Hmox1 mRNAs in tissues. This is the first genuine X-chromosome linked mouse model for systemic partial Complex I deficiency, which shows age-dependent neurodegeneration. The effect of Complex I deficiency on survival patterns of males vs. females was different. We believe this model will be very useful for studying sex-dependent predisposition to both spontaneous and stress-induced neurodegeneration, cancer, diabetes and other diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Insertion of the IL1RAPL1 gene into the duplication junction of the dystrophin gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhujun; Yagi, Mariko; Okizuka, Yo; Awano, Hiroyuki; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2009-08-01

    Duplications of one or more exons of the dystrophin gene are the second most common mutation in dystrophinopathies. Even though duplications are suggested to occur with greater complexity than thought earlier, they have been considered an intragenic event. Here, we report the insertion of a part of the IL1RAPL1 (interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1) gene into the duplication junction site. When the actual exon junction was examined in 15 duplication mutations in the dystrophin gene by analyzing dystrophin mRNA, one patient was found to have an unknown 621 bp insertion at the junction of duplication of exons from 56 to 62. Unexpectedly, the inserted sequence was found completely identical to sequences of exons 3-5 of the IL1RAPL1 gene that is nearly 100 kb distal from the dystrophin gene. Accordingly, the insertion of IL1RAPL1 exons 3-5 between dystrophin exons 62 and 56 was confirmed at the genomic sequence level. One junction between the IL1RAPL1 intron 5 and dystrophin intron 55 was localized within an Alu sequence. These results showed that a fragment of the IL1RAPL1 gene was inserted into the duplication junction of the dystrophin gene in the same direction as the dystrophin gene. This suggests the novel possibility of co-occurrence of complex genomic rearrangements in dystrophinopathy.

  9. Dystrophin colocalizes with beta-spectrin in distinct subsarcolemmal domains in mammalian skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by the absence or drastic decrease of the structural protein, dystrophin, and is characterized by sarcolemmal lesions in skeletal muscle due to the stress of contraction. Dystrophin has been localized to the sarcolemma, but its organization there is not known. We report immunofluorescence studies which show that dystrophin is concentrated, along with the major muscle isoform of beta-spectrin, in three distinct domains at the sarcolemma: in elements overlying both I bands and M lines, and in occasional strands running along the longitudinal axis of the myofiber. Vinculin, which has previously been found at the sarcolemma overlying the I bands and in longitudinal strands, was present in the same three structures as spectrin and dystrophin. Controls demonstrated that the labeling was intracellular. Comparison to labeling of the lipid bilayer and of the extracellular matrix showed that the labeling for spectrin and dystrophin is associated with the intact sarcolemma and is not a result of processing artifacts. Dystrophin is not required for this lattice- like organization, as similar domains containing spectrin but not dystrophin are present in muscle from the mdx mouse and from humans with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy. We discuss the possibility that dystrophin and spectrin, along with vinculin, may function to link the contractile apparatus to the sarcolemma of normal skeletal muscle. PMID:1577872

  10. In vivo dynamics of skeletal muscle Dystrophin in zebrafish embryos revealed by improved FRAP analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bajanca, Fernanda; Gonzalez-Perez, Vinicio; Gillespie, Sean J; Beley, Cyriaque; Garcia, Luis; Theveneau, Eric; Sear, Richard P; Hughes, Simon M

    2015-01-01

    Dystrophin forms an essential link between sarcolemma and cytoskeleton, perturbation of which causes muscular dystrophy. We analysed Dystrophin binding dynamics in vivo for the first time. Within maturing fibres of host zebrafish embryos, our analysis reveals a pool of diffusible Dystrophin and complexes bound at the fibre membrane. Combining modelling, an improved FRAP methodology and direct semi-quantitative analysis of bleaching suggests the existence of two membrane-bound Dystrophin populations with widely differing bound lifetimes: a stable, tightly bound pool, and a dynamic bound pool with high turnover rate that exchanges with the cytoplasmic pool. The three populations were found consistently in human and zebrafish Dystrophins overexpressed in wild-type or dmdta222a/ta222a zebrafish embryos, which lack Dystrophin, and in Gt(dmd-Citrine)ct90a that express endogenously-driven tagged zebrafish Dystrophin. These results lead to a new model for Dystrophin membrane association in developing muscle, and highlight our methodology as a valuable strategy for in vivo analysis of complex protein dynamics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06541.001 PMID:26459831

  11. 100-fold but not 50-fold dystrophin overexpression aggravates electrocardiographic defects in the mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yongping; Wasala, Nalinda B; Bostick, Brian; Duan, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Dystrophin gene replacement holds the promise of treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Supraphysiological expression is a concern for all gene therapy studies. In the case of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Chamberlain and colleagues found that 50-fold overexpression did not cause deleterious side effect in skeletal muscle. To determine whether excessive dystrophin expression in the heart is safe, we studied two lines of transgenic mdx mice that selectively expressed a therapeutic minidystrophin gene in the heart at 50-fold and 100-fold of the normal levels. In the line with 50-fold overexpression, minidystrophin showed sarcolemmal localization and electrocardiogram abnormalities were corrected. However, in the line with 100-fold overexpression, we not only detected sarcolemmal minidystrophin expression but also observed accumulation of minidystrophin vesicles in the sarcoplasm. Excessive minidystrophin expression did not correct tachycardia, a characteristic feature of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Importantly, several electrocardiogram parameters (QT interval, QRS duration and the cardiomyopathy index) became worse than that of mdx mice. Our data suggests that the mouse heart can tolerate 50-fold minidystrophin overexpression, but 100-fold overexpression leads to cardiac toxicity. PMID:27419194

  12. Novel Nuclear Protein Complexes of Dystrophin 71 Isoforms in Rat Cultured Hippocampal GABAergic and Glutamatergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Alemán, Víctor; Osorio, Beatriz; Chávez-González, Oscar; Rendon, Alvaro; Martínez-Rojas, Dalila; Meraz-Ríos, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The precise functional role of the dystrophin 71 in neurons is still elusive. Previously, we reported that dystrophin 71d and dystrophin 71f are present in nuclei from cultured neurons. In the present work, we performed a detailed analysis of the intranuclear distribution of dystrophin 71 isoforms (Dp71d and Dp71f), during the temporal course of 7-day postnatal rats hippocampal neurons culture for 1h, 2, 4, 10, 15 and 21 days in vitro (DIV). By immunofluorescence assays, we detected the highest level of nuclear expression of both dystrophin Dp71 isoforms at 10 DIV, during the temporal course of primary culture. Dp71d and Dp71f were detected mainly in bipolar GABAergic (≥60%) and multipolar Glutamatergic (≤40%) neurons, respectively. We also characterized the existence of two nuclear dystrophin-associated protein complexes (DAPC): dystrophin 71d or dystrophin 71f bound to β-dystroglycan, α1-, β-, α2-dystrobrevins, α-syntrophin, and syntrophin-associated protein nNOS (Dp71d-DAPC or Dp71f-DAPC, respectively), in the hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, both complexes were localized in interchromatin granule cluster structures (nuclear speckles) of neuronal nucleoskeleton preparations. The present study evinces that each Dp71’s complexes differ slightly in dystrobrevins composition. The results demonstrated that Dp71d-DAPC was mainly localized in bipolar GABAergic and Dp71f-DAPC in multipolar Glutamatergic hippocampal neurons. Taken together, our results show that dystrophin 71d, dystrophin 71f and DAP integrate protein complexes, and both complexes were associated to nuclear speckles structures. PMID:26378780

  13. Novel Nuclear Protein Complexes of Dystrophin 71 Isoforms in Rat Cultured Hippocampal GABAergic and Glutamatergic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rafael; Cárdenas-Aguayo, María Del Carmen; Alemán, Víctor; Osorio, Beatriz; Chávez-González, Oscar; Rendon, Alvaro; Martínez-Rojas, Dalila; Meraz-Ríos, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The precise functional role of the dystrophin 71 in neurons is still elusive. Previously, we reported that dystrophin 71d and dystrophin 71f are present in nuclei from cultured neurons. In the present work, we performed a detailed analysis of the intranuclear distribution of dystrophin 71 isoforms (Dp71d and Dp71f), during the temporal course of 7-day postnatal rats hippocampal neurons culture for 1h, 2, 4, 10, 15 and 21 days in vitro (DIV). By immunofluorescence assays, we detected the highest level of nuclear expression of both dystrophin Dp71 isoforms at 10 DIV, during the temporal course of primary culture. Dp71d and Dp71f were detected mainly in bipolar GABAergic (≥60%) and multipolar Glutamatergic (≤40%) neurons, respectively. We also characterized the existence of two nuclear dystrophin-associated protein complexes (DAPC): dystrophin 71d or dystrophin 71f bound to β-dystroglycan, α1-, β-, α2-dystrobrevins, α-syntrophin, and syntrophin-associated protein nNOS (Dp71d-DAPC or Dp71f-DAPC, respectively), in the hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, both complexes were localized in interchromatin granule cluster structures (nuclear speckles) of neuronal nucleoskeleton preparations. The present study evinces that each Dp71's complexes differ slightly in dystrobrevins composition. The results demonstrated that Dp71d-DAPC was mainly localized in bipolar GABAergic and Dp71f-DAPC in multipolar Glutamatergic hippocampal neurons. Taken together, our results show that dystrophin 71d, dystrophin 71f and DAP integrate protein complexes, and both complexes were associated to nuclear speckles structures.

  14. Dystrophin quantification and clinical correlations in Becker muscular dystrophy: implications for clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Karen; Cirak, Sebahattin; Torelli, Silvia; Tasca, Giorgio; Feng, Lucy; Arechavala-Gomeza, Virginia; Armaroli, Annarita; Guglieri, Michela; Straathof, Chiara S.; Verschuuren, Jan J.; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Helderman-van den Enden, Paula; Bushby, Katherine; Straub, Volker; Sewry, Caroline; Ferlini, Alessandra; Ricci, Enzo; Morgan, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by mutations in the DMD gene that disrupt the open reading frame and prevent the full translation of its protein product, dystrophin. Restoration of the open reading frame and dystrophin production can be achieved by exon skipping using antisense oligonucleotides targeted to splicing elements. This approach aims to transform the Duchenne muscular dystrophy phenotype to that of the milder disorder, Becker muscular dystrophy, typically caused by in-frame dystrophin deletions that allow the production of an internally deleted but partially functional dystrophin. There is ongoing debate regarding the functional properties of the different internally deleted dystrophins produced by exon skipping for different mutations; more insight would be valuable to improve and better predict the outcome of exon skipping clinical trials. To this end, we have characterized the clinical phenotype of 17 patients with Becker muscular dystrophy harbouring in-frame deletions relevant to on-going or planned exon skipping clinical trials for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and correlated it to the levels of dystrophin, and dystrophin-associated protein expression. The cohort of 17 patients, selected exclusively on the basis of their genotype, included 4 asymptomatic, 12 mild and 1 severe patient. All patients had dystrophin levels of >40% of control and significantly higher dystrophin (P = 0.013), β-dystroglycan (P = 0.025) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (P = 0.034) expression was observed in asymptomatic individuals versus symptomatic patients with Becker muscular dystrophy. Furthermore, grouping the patients by deletion, patients with Becker muscular dystrophy with deletions with an end-point of exon 51 (the skipping of which could rescue the largest group of Duchenne muscular dystrophy deletions) showed significantly higher dystrophin levels (P = 0.034) than those with deletions ending with exon 53. This is the first quantitative

  15. Dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy in a Norfolk terrier.

    PubMed

    Beltran, E; Shelton, G D; Guo, L T; Dennis, R; Sanchez-Masian, D; Robinson, D; De Risio, L

    2015-05-01

    A six-month-old male entire Norfolk terrier was presented with a 3-month history of poor development, reluctance to exercise and progressive and diffuse muscle atrophy. Serum creatine kinase concentration was markedly elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging of the epaxial muscles revealed asymmetrical streaky signal changes aligned within the muscle fibres (hyperintense on T2-weighted images and short-tau inversion recovery with moderate contrast enhancement on T1-weighted images). Electromyography revealed pseudomyotonic discharges and fibrillation potentials localised at the level of the supraspinatus, epaxial muscles and tibial cranialis muscles. Muscle biopsy results were consistent with dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy. The dog remained stable 7 months after diagnosis with coenzyme Q10 and l-carnitine; however after that time, there was a marked deterioration and the owners elected euthanasia. This case report describes the clinical presentation, magnetic resonance imaging, electrodiagnostic and histopathological findings with immunohistochemical analysis in a Norfolk terrier with confirmed dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy, which has not been previously described in this breed.

  16. Restoring Dystrophin Expression in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Eric P.; Bronson, Abby; Levin, Arthur A.; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Yokota, Toshifumi; Baudy, Andreas R.; Connor, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene and protein in the late 1980s led to high hopes of rapid translation to molecular therapeutics. These hopes were fueled by early reports of delivering new functional genes to dystrophic muscle in mouse models using gene therapy and stem cell transplantation. However, significant barriers have thwarted translation of these approaches to true therapies, including insufficient therapeutic material (eg, cells and viral vectors), challenges in systemic delivery, and immunological hurdles. An alternative approach is to repair the patient's own gene. Two innovative small-molecule approaches have emerged as front-line molecular therapeutics: exon skipping and stop codon read through. Both approaches are in human clinical trials and aim to coax dystrophin protein production from otherwise inactive mutant genes. In the clinically severe dog model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the exon-skipping approach recently improved multiple functional outcomes. We discuss the status of these two methods aimed at inducing de novo dystrophin production from mutant genes and review implications for other disorders. PMID:21703390

  17. Exon skipping and translation in patients with frameshift deletions in the dystrophin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Sherratt, T.G.; Dubowitz, V.; Sewry, C.A.; Strong, P.N. ); Vulliamy, T. )

    1993-11-01

    Although many Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients have a deletion in the dystrophin gene which disrupts the translational reading frame, they express dystrophin in a small proportion of skeletal muscle fibers ([open quotes]revertant fibers[close quotes]). Antibody studies have shown, indirectly, that dystrophin synthesis in revertant fibers is facilitated by a frame-restoring mechanism; in the present study, the feasibility of mRNA splicing was investigated. Dystrophin transcripts were analyzed in skeletal muscle from individuals possessing revertant fibers and a frameshift deletion in the dystrophin gene. In each case a minor in-frame transcript was detected, in which exons adjacent to those deleted from the genome had been skipped. There appeared to be some correlation between the levels of in-frame transcripts and the predicted translation products. Low levels of alternatively spliced transcripts were also present in normal muscle. The results provide further evidence of exon skipping in the dystrophin gene and indicate that this may be involved in the synthesis of dystrophin by revertant fibers. 44 refs., 12 figs.

  18. Dystrophin-dependent and -independent AQP4 pools are expressed in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Rossi, Andrea; Nudel, Uri; Svelto, Maria; Frigeri, Antonio

    2008-06-01

    In a recent study, we demonstrated that in the plasma membrane AQP4 is organized into several distinct large multisubunit complexes. In this study, we analysed whether these pools are similarly affected in dystrophin-deficient mice and immunolocalized the sites of dystrophin-dependent and -independent AQP4 pools. Western blot performed on two-dimensional Blue Native/SDS-PAGE membranes indicated that, among the AQP4 pools, it was mainly a large multisubunit complex that was specifically affected in dystrophin-deficient mice (DP71 and mdx3cv mice). This dystrophin-dependent AQP4 pool was immunolocalized in perivascular astrocytes, since it was found to be significantly altered in both types of dystrophin-deficient mice. Dystrophin-independent pools were immunolocalized in the granular cell layer of the cerebellum and in the subpial endfoot layer and ependymal cells in the brain. These data provide a better understanding on the association between AQP4 and the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in the central nervous system.

  19. Isolation and characterization of a steroid sulfatase cDNA clone: genomic deletions in patients with X-chromosome-linked ichthyosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ballabio, A.; Parenti, G.; Carrozzo, R.; Sebastio, G.; Andria, G.; Buckle, V.; Fraser, N.; Craig, I.; Rocchi, M.; Romeo, G.; Jobsis, A.C.; Persico, M.G.

    1987-07-01

    The authors have isolated several cDNA clones from a lambdagt11 expression library by screening with antibodies prepared against the microsomal enzyme steroid sulfatase, which is deficient in classical X-chromosome-linked ichthyosis patients. One of these clones (p422) has been assigned by mapping with a somatic cell hybrid panel and by in situ hybridization to Xp22.3. Clone p422 therefore has a coincident localization with the previously identified locus for steroid sulfatase expression in the region of the X chromosome escaping from inactivation. Twelve steroid sulfatase-deficient patients, including eight cases of classical ichthyosis, were found to be deleted for genomic sequences detected by the clone.

  20. A potentially critical Hpa II site of the X chromosome-linked PGK1 gene is unmethylated prior to the onset of meiosis of human oogenic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Singer-Sam, J.; Dai, A.; Riggs, A.D. ); Goldstein, L.; Gartler, S.M. )

    1992-02-15

    Hpa II site H8 is in the CpG-rich 5{prime} untranslated region of the human X chromosome-linked gene for phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1). It is the only Hpa II site in the CpG island' whose methylation pattern is perfectly correlated with transcriptional silence of this gene. The authors measured DNA methylation at site H8 in fetal oogonia and oocytes and found, using a quantitative assay based on the polymerase chain reaction, that purified germ cells isolated by micromanipulation were unmethylated in 47-day to 110-day fetuses, whereas ovaries depleted of germ cells and non-ovary tissues were methylated. They conclude that site H8 is the unmethylated in germ cells prior to the onset of meiosis and reactivation of the X chromosome.

  1. Influence of rat hindlimb suspension on sacrolemmal dystrophin and its sensitivity to mechanical damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasnikova, N. M.; Shenkman, B. S.

    2005-08-01

    In two experiments performed on Wistar rats it was shown that hindlimb suspension leads to degradation of sarcolemmal dystrophin which became deeper during recovery; different parts of dystrophin molecule have the same sensitivity to the damage induced by downhill running in normal conditions and the different sensitivity to the damage induced by unloading, downhill running after hindlimb suspension and reloading; after hindlimb suspension the damage induced by downhill running is the same with the damage induced by reloading; calcium- binding agent EGTA decreases degradation of dystrophin during hindlimb suspension.

  2. Platelet adhesion: structural and functional diversity of short dystrophin and utrophins in the formation of dystrophin-associated-protein complexes related to actin dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Cerecedo, Doris; Martínez-Rojas, Dalila; Chávez, Oscar; Martínez-Pérez, Francisco; García-Sierra, Francisco; Rendon, Alvaro; Mornet, Dominique; Mondragón, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    Summary Platelets are dynamic cell fragments that modify their shape during activation. Utrophin and dystrophins are minor actin-binding proteins present in muscle and non-muscle cytoskeleton. In the present study, we characterised the pattern of Dp71 isoforms and utrophin gene products by immunoblot in human platelets. Two new dystrophin isoforms were found, Dp71f and Dp71d, as well as the Up71 isoform and the dystrophin-associated proteins, α and β-dystrobrevins. Distribution of Dp71d/Dp71Δ110m, Up400/Up71 and dystrophin-associated proteins in relation to the actin cytoskeleton was evaluated by confocal microscopy in both resting and platelets adhered on glass. Formation of two dystrophin-associated protein complexes (Dp71d/Dp71Δ110m~DAPC and Up400/Up71~DAPC) was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation and their distribution in relation to the actin cytoskeleton was characterised during platelet adhesion. The Dp71d/Dp71Δ110m~DAPC is maintained mainly at the granulomere and is associated with dynamic structures during activation by adhesion to thrombin-coated surfaces. Participation of both Dp71d/Dp71Δ110m~DAPC and Up400/Up71~DAPC in the biological roles of the platelets is discussed. PMID:16411395

  3. TNF-α-Induced microRNAs Control Dystrophin Expression in Becker Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Fiorillo, Alyson A; Heier, Christopher R; Novak, James S; Tully, Christopher B; Brown, Kristy J; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Vila, Maria C; Ngheim, Peter P; Bello, Luca; Kornegay, Joe N; Angelini, Corrado; Partridge, Terence A; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Hoffman, Eric P

    2015-09-08

    The amount and distribution of dystrophin protein in myofibers and muscle is highly variable in Becker muscular dystrophy and in exon-skipping trials for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Here, we investigate a molecular basis for this variability. In muscle from Becker patients sharing the same exon 45-47 in-frame deletion, dystrophin levels negatively correlate with microRNAs predicted to target dystrophin. Seven microRNAs inhibit dystrophin expression in vitro, and three are validated in vivo (miR-146b/miR-374a/miR-31). microRNAs are expressed in dystrophic myofibers and increase with age and disease severity. In exon-skipping-treated mdx mice, microRNAs are significantly higher in muscles with low dystrophin rescue. TNF-α increases microRNA levels in vitro whereas NFκB inhibition blocks this in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these data show that microRNAs contribute to variable dystrophin levels in muscular dystrophy. Our findings suggest a model where chronic inflammation in distinct microenvironments induces pathological microRNAs, initiating a self-sustaining feedback loop that exacerbates disease progression.

  4. Muscular dystrophy in a family of Labrador Retrievers with no muscle dystrophin and a mild phenotype.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Natassia M; Guo, Ling T; Estrela, Elicia; Kunkel, Louis M; Zatz, Mayana; Shelton, G Diane

    2015-05-01

    Animal models of dystrophin deficient muscular dystrophy, most notably canine X-linked muscular dystrophy, play an important role in developing new therapies for human Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Although the canine disease is a model of the human disease, the variable severity of clinical presentations in the canine may be problematic for pre-clinical trials, but also informative. Here we describe a family of Labrador Retrievers with three generations of male dogs having markedly increased serum creatine kinase activity, absence of membrane dystrophin, but with undetectable clinical signs of muscle weakness. Clinically normal young male Labrador Retriever puppies were evaluated prior to surgical neuter by screening laboratory blood work, including serum creatine kinase activity. Serum creatine kinase activities were markedly increased in the absence of clinical signs of muscle weakness. Evaluation of muscle biopsies confirmed a dystrophic phenotype with both degeneration and regeneration. Further evaluations by immunofluorescence and western blot analysis confirmed the absence of muscle dystrophin. Although dystrophin was not identified in the muscles, we did not find any detectable deletions or duplications in the dystrophin gene. Sequencing is now ongoing to search for point mutations. Our findings in this family of Labrador Retriever dogs lend support to the hypothesis that, in exceptional situations, muscle with no dystrophin may be functional. Unlocking the secrets that protect these dogs from a severe clinical myopathy is a great challenge which may have important implications for future treatment of human muscular dystrophies.

  5. Micro-dystrophin and follistatin co-delivery restores muscle function in aged DMD model.

    PubMed

    Rodino-Klapac, Louise R; Janssen, Paul M L; Shontz, Kimberly M; Canan, Benjamin; Montgomery, Chrystal L; Griffin, Danielle; Heller, Kristin; Schmelzer, Leah; Handy, Chalonda; Clark, K Reed; Sahenk, Zarife; Mendell, Jerry R; Kaspar, Brian K

    2013-12-15

    Pharmacologic strategies have provided modest improvement in the devastating muscle-wasting disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Pre-clinical gene therapy studies have shown promise in the mdx mouse model; however, studies conducted after disease onset fall short of fully correcting muscle strength or protecting against contraction-induced injury. Here we examine the treatment effect on muscle physiology in aged dystrophic mice with significant disease pathology by combining two promising therapies: micro-dystrophin gene replacement and muscle enhancement with follistatin, a potent myostatin inhibitor. Individual treatments with micro-dystrophin and follistatin demonstrated marked improvement in mdx mice but were insufficient to fully restore muscle strength and response to injury to wild-type levels. Strikingly, when combined, micro-dystrophin/follistatin treatment restored force generation and conferred resistance to contraction-induced injury in aged mdx mice. Pre-clinical studies with miniature dystrophins have failed to demonstrate full correction of the physiological defects seen in mdx mice. Importantly, the addition of a muscle enhancement strategy with delivery of follistatin in combination with micro-dystrophin gene therapy completely restored resistance to eccentric contraction-induced injury and improved force. Eccentric contraction-induced injury is a pre-clinical parameter relevant to the exercise induced injury that occurs in DMD patients, and herein, we demonstrate compelling evidence for the therapeutic potential of micro-dystrophin/follistatin combinatorial therapy.

  6. Nitrosative stress elicited by nNOSµ delocalization inhibits muscle force in dystrophin-null mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Dejia; Yue, Yongping; Lai, Yi; Hakim, Chady H; Duan, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of force reduction is not completely understood in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a dystrophin-deficient lethal disease. Nitric oxide regulates muscle force. Interestingly, neuronal nitric oxide synthase µ (nNOSµ), a major source of muscle nitric oxide, is lost from the sarcolemma in DMD muscle. We hypothesize that nNOSµ delocalization contributes to force reduction in DMD. To test this hypothesis, we generated dystrophin/nNOSµ double knockout mice. Genetic elimination of nNOSµ significantly enhanced force in dystrophin-null mice. Pharmacological inhibition of nNOS yielded similar results. To further test our hypothesis, we studied δ-sarcoglycan-null mice, a model of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. These mice had minimal sarcolemmal nNOSµ delocalization and muscle force was less compromised. Annihilation of nNOSµ did not improve their force either. To determine whether nNOSµ delocalization itself inhibited force, we corrected muscle disease in dystrophin-null mice with micro-dystrophins that either restored or did not restore sarcolemmal nNOSµ. Similar muscle force was obtained irrespective of nNOSµ localization. Additional studies suggest that nNOSµ delocalization selectively inhibits muscle force in dystrophin-null mice via nitrosative stress. In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time that nitrosative stress elicited by nNOSµ delocalization is an important mechanism underlying force loss in DMD.

  7. The ZZ Domain of Dystrophin in DMD: Making Sense of Missense Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Vulin, Adeline; Wein, Nicolas; Strandjord, Dana M.; Johnson, Eric K.; Findlay, Andrew R.; Maiti, Baijayanta; Howard, Michael T.; Kaminoh, Yuuki J.; Taylor, Laura E.; Simmons, Tabatha R.; Ray, Will C.; Montanaro, Federica; Ervasti, Jim M.; Flanigan, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is associated with the loss of dystrophin, which plays an important role in myofiber integrity via interactions with β-dystroglycan and other members of the transmembrane dystrophin-associated protein complex. The ZZ domain, a cysteine-rich zinc-finger domain near the dystrophin C-terminus, is implicated in forming a stable interaction between dystrophin and β-dystroglycan, but the mechanism of pathogenesis of ZZ missense mutations has remained unclear because not all such mutations have been shown to alter β-dystroglycan binding in previous experimental systems. We engineered three ZZ mutations (p.Cys3313Phe, p.Asp3335His, and p.Cys3340Tyr) into a short construct similar to the Dp71 dystrophin isoform for in vitro and in vivo studies and delineated their effect on protein expression, folding properties, and binding partners. Our results demonstrate two distinct pathogenic mechanisms for ZZ missense mutations. The cysteine mutations result in diminished or absent subsarcolemmal expression because of protein instability, likely due to misfolding. In contrast, the aspartic acid mutation disrupts binding with β-dystroglycan despite an almost normal expression at the membrane, confirming a role for the ZZ domain in β-dystroglycan binding but surprisingly demonstrating that such binding is not required for subsarcolemmal localization of dystrophin, even in the absence of actin binding domains. PMID:24302611

  8. Increased constitutive nitric oxide production by whole body periodic acceleration ameliorates alterations in cardiomyocytes associated with utrophin/dystrophin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Jose R; Kolster, Juan; Zhang, Rui; Adams, Jose

    2017-07-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) cardiomyopathy is a progressive lethal disease caused by the lack of the dystrophin protein in the heart. The most widely used animal model of DMD is the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse; however, these mice exhibit a mild dystrophic phenotype with heart failure only late in life. In contrast, mice deficient for both dystrophin and utrophin (mdx/utrn(-/-), or dKO) can be used to model severe DMD cardiomyopathy where pathophysiological indicators of heart failure are detectable by 8-10weeks of age. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule involved in vital functions of regulating rhythm, contractility, and microcirculation of the heart, and constitutive NO production affects the function of proteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling. In this study, we explored the efficacy of enhancing NO production as a therapeutic strategy for treating DMD cardiomyopathy using the dKO mouse model of DMD. Specifically, NO production was induced via whole body periodic acceleration (pGz), a novel non-pharmacologic intervention which enhances NO synthase (NOS) activity through sinusoidal motion of the body in a headward-footward direction, introducing pulsatile shear stress to the vascular endothelium and cardiomyocyte plasma membrane. Male dKO mice were randomized at 8weeks of age to receive daily pGz (480cpm, Gz±3.0m/s(2), 1h/d) for 4weeks or no treatment, and a separate age-matched group of WT animals (pGz-treated and untreated) served as non-diseased controls. At the conclusion of the protocol, cardiomyocytes from untreated dKO animals had, respectively, 4.3-fold and 3.5-fold higher diastolic resting concentration of Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]d) and Na(+) ([Na(+)]d) compared to WT, while pGz treatment significantly reduced these levels. For dKO cardiomyocytes, pGz treatment also improved the depressed contractile function, decreased oxidative stress, blunted the elevation in calpain activity, and mitigated the abnormal increase in [Ca

  9. Localisation and characterisation of dystrophin in the central nervous system of controls and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Uchino, M; Teramoto, H; Naoe, H; Yoshioka, K; Miike, T; Ando, M

    1994-01-01

    The aim was to localise and characterise dystrophin in various human tissues, especially in the CNS. Immunoblotting and immunostaining studies were carried out with eight region-specific dystrophin antibodies. In necropsy tissue from controls, dystrophin was noted as a doublet in immunoblots of striated muscle, and as a single band in those of smooth muscle and the CNS. With immunostaining, punctate immunoreactivity was seen on the cell bodies and dendrites of the cerebral cortical neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells. By contrast, dystrophin was not detected in any tissues, including the cerebrum and cerebellum, of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who had an intellectual disturbance. Images PMID:8163990

  10. [X-chromosome-linked ichthyosis associated to epilepsy, hyperactivity, autism and mental retardation, due to the Xp22.31 microdeletion].

    PubMed

    Carrascosa-Romero, M Carmen; Suela, Javier; Alfaro-Ponce, Blanca; Cepillo-Boluda, Antonio J

    2012-02-16

    X-chromosome-linked ichthyosis is caused by mutation or deletion of the STS gene associated with a deficiency of the enzyme steroid sulphatase, located in the distal part of the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp22.3-pter), close to the pseudo-autosomal region. Depending on its size, it can present as an isolated entity or combined with a syndrome caused by neighbouring genes, thus associating itself with other monogenic diseases as well as other mental disorders. The most relevant findings from the literature review are the importance of the Xp22.3-pter region and the higher incidence of neurological disorders among males (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism and X-linked mental retardation). The role and implication of these genes in the disease are discussed and the authors suggest a possible contribution of the gene PNPLA4, which was originally described as GS2 and codes for calcium-independent phospholipase A2 beta, involved in lipoprotein metabolism, as one of the causes of autism. Improvements have been observed following treatment with citicoline, thanks to the role this nootropic plays in the biosynthesis of structural phospholipids involved in the formation and repair of the neuronal membrane.

  11. Defective expression of the CD40 ligand in X chromosome-linked immunoglobulin deficiency with normal or elevated IgM.

    PubMed Central

    Fuleihan, R; Ramesh, N; Loh, R; Jabara, H; Rosen, R S; Chatila, T; Fu, S M; Stamenkovic, I; Geha, R S

    1993-01-01

    B lymphocytes from patients with X chromosome-linked immunoglobulin deficiency with normal or elevated serum IgM are unable to switch from the synthesis of IgM/IgD to that of other immunoglobulin isotypes. Isotype switch recombination was evaluated in three affected males by examining interleukin 4-driven IgE synthesis. T-cell-dependent IgE synthesis was completely absent in the B lymphocytes of the patients. In contrast, CD40 mAb plus interleukin 4 induced the patients' B cells to synthesize IgE and to undergo deletional switch recombination. Because interaction between CD40 and its ligand on activated T cells is critical for T-cell-driven isotype switching, we examined CD40 ligand expression. In contrast to normal T cells, lymphocytes from the patients expressed no detectable CD40 ligand on their surface after stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin, although the mRNA of the ligand was expressed normally. These results suggest that defective expression of the CD40 ligand underlies the failure of isotype switching in this disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7681587

  12. Organization of the human CD40L gene: Implications for molecular defects in X chromosome-linked hyper-IgM syndrome and prenatal diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, A.; Macchi, P.P.; Strina, D.; Frattini, A.; Lucchini, F.; Patrosso, C.M.; Vezzoni, P.; Notarangelo, L.D.; Giliani, S.; Mantuano, E.

    1994-03-15

    Recently, CD40L has been identified as the gene responsible for X chromosome-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM1). CD40L on activated T cells from HIGM1 patients fails to bind B-cell CD40 molecules, and subsequent analysis of CD40L transcripts by reverse transcription PCR demonstrated coding region mutations in these patients. This approach, however, is of limited use for prenatal diagnosis of HIGM1 in the early-gestation fetus. In this report, the authors have defined the genomic structure of the CD40L gene, which is composed of five exons and four intervening introns. With this information, the authors have defined at the genomic level the CD40L coding region. These different deletions arose from three distinct mechanisms, including (i) a splice donor mutation with exon skipping, (ii) a splice acceptor mutation with utilization of a cryptic splice site, and (iii) a deletion/insertion event with the creation of a new splice acceptor site. In addition, they have performed prenatal evaluation of an 11-week-old fetus at risk for HIGM1. CD40L genomic clones provide a starting point for further studies of the genetic elements that control CD40L expression. Knowledge of the CD40L gene structure will prove useful for the identification of additional mutations in HIGM1 and for performing genetic counseling about this disease. 54 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Computational study of the human dystrophin repeats: interaction properties and molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Baptiste; Giudice, Emmanuel; Nicolas, Aurélie; Delalande, Olivier; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Dystrophin is a large protein involved in the rare genetic disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). It functions as a mechanical linker between the cytoskeleton and the sarcolemma, and is able to resist shear stresses during muscle activity. In all, 75% of the dystrophin molecule consists of a large central rod domain made up of 24 repeat units that share high structural homology with spectrin-like repeats. However, in the absence of any high-resolution structure of these repeats, the molecular basis of dystrophin central domain's functions has not yet been deciphered. In this context, we have performed a computational study of the whole dystrophin central rod domain based on the rational homology modeling of successive and overlapping tandem repeats and the analysis of their surface properties. Each tandem repeat has very specific surface properties that make it unique. However, the repeats share enough electrostatic-surface similarities to be grouped into four separate clusters. Molecular dynamics simulations of four representative tandem repeats reveal specific flexibility or bending properties depending on the repeat sequence. We thus suggest that the dystrophin central rod domain is constituted of seven biologically relevant sub-domains. Our results provide evidence for the role of the dystrophin central rod domain as a scaffold platform with a wide range of surface features and biophysical properties allowing it to interact with its various known partners such as proteins and membrane lipids. This new integrative view is strongly supported by the previous experimental works that investigated the isolated domains and the observed heterogeneity of the severity of dystrophin related pathologies, especially Becker muscular dystrophy.

  14. Loss of dystrophin is associated with increased myocardial stiffness in a model of left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Donato, Martín; Buchholz, Bruno; Morales, Celina; Valdez, Laura; Zaobornyj, Tamara; Baratta, Sergio; Paez, Diamela T; Matoso, Mirian; Vaccarino, Guillermo; Chejtman, Demian; Agüero, Oscar; Telayna, Juan; Navia, José; Hita, Alejandro; Boveris, Alberto; Gelpi, Ricardo J

    2017-03-18

    Transition from compensated to decompensated left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is accompanied by functional and structural changes. Here, the aim was to evaluate dystrophin expression in murine models and human subjects with LVH by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and aortic stenosis (AS), respectively. We determined whether doxycycline (Doxy) prevented dystrophin expression and myocardial stiffness in mice. Additionally, ventricular function recovery was evaluated in patients 1 year after surgery. Mice were subjected to TAC and monitored for 3 weeks. A second group received Doxy treatment after TAC. Patients with AS were stratified by normal left ventricular end-diastolic wall stress (LVEDWS) and high LVEDWS, and groups were compared. In mice, LVH decreased inotropism and increased myocardial stiffness associated with a dystrophin breakdown and a decreased mitochondrial O2 uptake (MitoMVO2). These alterations were attenuated by Doxy. Patients with high LVEDWS showed similar results to those observed in mice. A correlation between dystrophin and myocardial stiffness was observed in both mice and humans. Systolic function at 1 year post-surgery was only recovered in the normal-LVEDWS group. In summary, mice and humans present diastolic dysfunction associated with dystrophin degradation. The recovery of ventricular function was observed only in patients with normal LVEDWS and without dystrophin degradation. In mice, Doxy improved MitoMVO2. Based on our results it is concluded that the LVH with high LVEDWS is associated to a degradation of dystrophin and increase of myocardial stiffness. At least in a murine model these alterations were attenuated after the administration of a matrix metalloprotease inhibitor.

  15. Ex vivo gene editing of the dystrophin gene in muscle stem cells mediated by peptide nucleic acid single stranded oligodeoxynucleotides induces stable expression of dystrophin in a mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Nik-Ahd, Farnoosh; Bertoni, Carmen

    2014-07-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which result in the complete absence of dystrophin protein throughout the body. Gene correction strategies hold promise to treating DMD. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated the ability of peptide nucleic acid single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (PNA-ssODNs) to permanently correct single-point mutations at the genomic level. In this study, we show that PNA-ssODNs can target and correct muscle satellite cells (SCs), a population of stem cells capable of self-renewing and differentiating into muscle fibers. When transplanted into skeletal muscles, SCs transfected with correcting PNA-ssODNs were able to engraft and to restore dystrophin expression. The number of dystrophin-positive fibers was shown to significantly increase over time. Expression was confirmed to be the result of the activation of a subpopulation of SCs that had undergone repair as demonstrated by immunofluorescence analyses of engrafted muscles using antibodies specific to full-length dystrophin transcripts and by genomic DNA analysis of dystrophin-positive fibers. Furthermore, the increase in dystrophin expression detected over time resulted in a significant improvement in muscle morphology. The ability of transplanted cells to return into quiescence and to activate upon demand was confirmed in all engrafted muscles following injury. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using gene editing strategies to target and correct SCs and further establish the therapeutic potential of this approach to permanently restore dystrophin expression into muscle of DMD patients.

  16. Functional correction of dystrophin actin binding domain mutations by genome editing.

    PubMed

    Kyrychenko, Viktoriia; Kyrychenko, Sergii; Tiburcy, Malte; Shelton, John M; Long, Chengzu; Schneider, Jay W; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

    2017-09-21

    Dystrophin maintains the integrity of striated muscles by linking the actin cytoskeleton with the cell membrane. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene (DMD) that result in progressive, debilitating muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, and a shortened lifespan. Mutations of dystrophin that disrupt the amino-terminal actin-binding domain 1 (ABD-1), encoded by exons 2-8, represent the second-most common cause of DMD. In the present study, we compared three different strategies for CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to correct mutations in the ABD-1 region of the DMD gene by deleting exons 3-9, 6-9, or 7-11 in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and by assessing the function of iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. All three exon deletion strategies enabled the expression of truncated dystrophin protein and restoration of cardiomyocyte contractility and calcium transients to varying degrees. We show that deletion of exons 3-9 by genomic editing provides an especially effective means of correcting disease-causing ABD-1 mutations. These findings represent an important step toward eventual correction of common DMD mutations and provide a means of rapidly assessing the expression and function of internally truncated forms of dystrophin-lacking portions of ABD-1.

  17. Targeted skipping of human dystrophin exons in transgenic mouse model systemically for antisense drug development.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bo; Benrashid, Ehsan; Lu, Peijuan; Cloer, Caryn; Zillmer, Allen; Shaban, Mona; Lu, Qi Long

    2011-01-01

    Antisense therapy has recently been demonstrated with great potential for targeted exon skipping and restoration of dystrophin production in cultured muscle cells and in muscles of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) patients. Therapeutic values of exon skipping critically depend on efficacy of the drugs, antisense oligomers (AOs). However, no animal model has been established to test AO targeting human dystrophin exon in vivo systemically. In this study, we applied Vivo-Morpholino to the hDMD mouse, a transgenic model carrying the full-length human dystrophin gene, and achieved for the first time more than 70% efficiency of targeted human dystrophin exon skipping in vivo systemically. We also established a GFP-reporter myoblast culture to screen AOs targeting human dystrophin exon 50. Antisense efficiency for most AOs is consistent between the reporter cells, human myoblasts and in the hDMD mice in vivo. However, variation in efficiency was also clearly observed. A combination of in vitro cell culture and a Vivo-Morpholino based evaluation in vivo systemically in the hDMD mice therefore may represent a prudent approach for selecting AO drug and to meet the regulatory requirement.

  18. Functional rescue of dystrophin-deficient mdx mice by a chimeric peptide-PMO.

    PubMed

    Yin, Haifang; Moulton, Hong M; Betts, Corinne; Merritt, Thomas; Seow, Yiqi; Ashraf, Shirin; Wang, Qingsong; Boutilier, Jordan; Wood, Matthew Ja

    2010-10-01

    Splice modulation using antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) has been shown to yield targeted exon exclusion to restore the open reading frame and generate truncated but partially functional dystrophin protein. This has been successfully demonstrated in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice and in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients. However, DMD is a systemic disease; successful therapeutic exploitation of this approach will therefore depend on effective systemic delivery of AOs to all affected tissues. We have previously shown the potential of a muscle-specific/arginine-rich chimeric peptide-phosphorodiamidate morpholino (PMO) conjugate, but its long-term activity, optimized dosing regimen, capacity for functional correction and safety profile remain to be established. Here, we report the results of this chimeric peptide-PMO conjugate in the mdx mouse using low doses (3 and 6 mg/kg) administered via a 6 biweekly systemic intravenous injection protocol. We show 100% dystrophin-positive fibers and near complete correction of the dystrophin transcript defect in all peripheral muscle groups, with restoration of 50% dystrophin protein over 12 weeks, leading to correction of the DMD pathological phenotype and restoration of muscle function in the absence of detectable toxicity or immune response. Chimeric muscle-specific/cell-penetrating peptides therefore represent highly promising agents for systemic delivery of splice-correcting PMO oligomers for DMD therapy.

  19. Functional Rescue of Dystrophin-deficient mdx Mice by a Chimeric Peptide-PMO

    PubMed Central

    Yin, HaiFang; Moulton, Hong M; Betts, Corinne; Merritt, Thomas; Seow, Yiqi; Ashraf, Shirin; Wang, QingSong; Boutilier, Jordan; Wood, Matthew JA

    2010-01-01

    Splice modulation using antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) has been shown to yield targeted exon exclusion to restore the open reading frame and generate truncated but partially functional dystrophin protein. This has been successfully demonstrated in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice and in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients. However, DMD is a systemic disease; successful therapeutic exploitation of this approach will therefore depend on effective systemic delivery of AOs to all affected tissues. We have previously shown the potential of a muscle-specific/arginine-rich chimeric peptide-phosphorodiamidate morpholino (PMO) conjugate, but its long-term activity, optimized dosing regimen, capacity for functional correction and safety profile remain to be established. Here, we report the results of this chimeric peptide-PMO conjugate in the mdx mouse using low doses (3 and 6 mg/kg) administered via a 6 biweekly systemic intravenous injection protocol. We show 100% dystrophin-positive fibers and near complete correction of the dystrophin transcript defect in all peripheral muscle groups, with restoration of 50% dystrophin protein over 12 weeks, leading to correction of the DMD pathological phenotype and restoration of muscle function in the absence of detectable toxicity or immune response. Chimeric muscle-specific/cell-penetrating peptides therefore represent highly promising agents for systemic delivery of splice-correcting PMO oligomers for DMD therapy. PMID:20700113

  20. Evaluation of exon-skipping strategies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy utilizing dystrophin-deficient zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Joachim; Berger, Silke; Jacoby, Arie S; Wilton, Steve D; Currie, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Duchenne muscular dystophy (DMD) is a severe muscle wasting disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. By utilizing antisense oligonucleotides, splicing of the dystrophin transcript can be altered so that exons harbouring a mutation are excluded from the mature mRNA. Although this approach has been shown to be effective to restore partially functional dystrophin protein, the level of dystrophin protein that is necessary to rescue a severe muscle pathology has not been addressed. As zebrafish dystrophin mutants (dmd) resemble the severe muscle pathology of human patients, we have utilized this model to evaluate exon skipping. Novel dmd mutations were identified to enable the design of phenotype rescue studies via morpholino administration. Correlation of induced exon-skipping efficiency and the level of phenotype rescue suggest that relatively robust levels of exon skipping are required to achieve significant therapeutic ameliorations and that pre-screening analysis of exon-skipping drugs in zebrafish may help to more accurately predict clinical trials for therapies of DMD. PMID:21251213

  1. Characterization and localization of a 77 kDa protein related to the dystrophin gene family.

    PubMed

    Fabbrizio, E; Nudel, U; Hugon, G; Robert, A; Pons, F; Mornet, D

    1994-04-15

    The Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene gives rise to transcripts of several lengths. These mRNAs differ in their coding content and tissue distribution. The 14 kb mRNA encodes dystrophin, a 427 kDa protein found in muscle and brain, and the short transcripts described encode DP71, a 77 kDa protein found in various organs. These short transcripts have many features common to the deduced primary structure of dystrophin, especially in the cysteine-rich specific C-terminal domains. The dystrophin C-terminal domain could be involved in membrane anchorage via the glycoprotein complex, but such a functional role for these short transcript products has yet to be demonstrated. Here we report the first isolation of a short transcript product from saponin-solubilized cardiac muscle membranes using alkaline buffer and affinity chromatography procedures. This molecule was found to be glycosylated and could be easily dissociated from cardiac muscle and other non-muscle tissues such as brain and liver. DP71-specific monoclonal antibody helped to identify this molecule as being related to the dystrophin gene family. Immunofluorescence analysis of bovine or chicken cardiac muscle showed a periodic distribution of DP71 in transverse T tubules and this protein was co-localized with the dystrophin glycoprotein complex in the Z-disk area.

  2. Targeted Skipping of Human Dystrophin Exons in Transgenic Mouse Model Systemically for Antisense Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Peijuan; Cloer, Caryn; Zillmer, Allen; Shaban, Mona; Lu, Qi Long

    2011-01-01

    Antisense therapy has recently been demonstrated with great potential for targeted exon skipping and restoration of dystrophin production in cultured muscle cells and in muscles of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) patients. Therapeutic values of exon skipping critically depend on efficacy of the drugs, antisense oligomers (AOs). However, no animal model has been established to test AO targeting human dystrophin exon in vivo systemically. In this study, we applied Vivo-Morpholino to the hDMD/mdx mouse, a transgenic model carrying the full-length human dystrophin gene with mdx background, and achieved for the first time more than 70% efficiency of targeted human dystrophin exon skipping in vivo systemically. We also established a GFP-reporter myoblast culture to screen AOs targeting human dystrophin exon 50. Antisense efficiency for most AOs is consistent between the reporter cells, human myoblasts and in the hDMD/mdx mice in vivo. However, variation in efficiency was also clearly observed. A combination of in vitro cell culture and a Vivo-Morpholino based evaluation in vivo systemically in the hDMD/mdx mice therefore may represent a prudent approach for selecting AO drug and to meet the regulatory requirement. PMID:21611204

  3. Antisense suppression of donor splice site mutations in the dystrophin gene transcript

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Sue; Meloni, Penny L; Johnsen, Russell D; Wong, Brenda L; Muntoni, Francesco; Wilton, Stephen D

    2013-01-01

    We describe two donor splice site mutations, affecting dystrophin exons 16 and 45 that led to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), through catastrophic inactivation of the mRNA. These gene lesions unexpectedly resulted in the retention of the downstream introns, thereby increasing the length of the dystrophin mRNA by 20.2 and 36 kb, respectively. Splice-switching antisense oligomers targeted to exon 16 excised this in-frame exon and the following intron from the patient dystrophin transcript very efficiently in vitro, thereby restoring the reading frame and allowing synthesis of near-normal levels of a putatively functional dystrophin isoform. In contrast, targeting splice-switching oligomers to exon 45 in patient cells promoted only modest levels of an out-of-frame dystrophin transcript after transfection at high oligomer concentrations, whereas dual targeting of exons 44 and 45 or 45 and 46 resulted in more efficient exon skipping, with concomitant removal of intron 45. The splice site mutations reported here appear highly amenable to antisense oligomer intervention. We suggest that other splice site mutations may need to be evaluated for oligomer interventions on a case-by-case basis. PMID:24498612

  4. The subcellular distribution of chromosome 6-encoded dystrophin-related protein in the brain

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Chromosome 6-encoded dystrophin-related-protein (DRP) shows significant structural similarities to dystrophin at the carboxyl terminus, though the two proteins are encoded on different chromosomes. Both DRP and dystrophin are expressed in muscle and brain and show some similarity in their subcellular localization. For example, in skeletal muscle both are expressed at neuromuscular and myotendinous junctions. However, while dystrophin is absent or severely reduced in Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy, DRP continues to be expressed. Within the brain, dystrophin is enriched at the postsynaptic regions of specific subsets of neurons, while the distribution of DRP is yet to be described. In this study we demonstrate a distinct though highly specific pattern of distribution of DRP in the brain. DRP is enriched in the choroid plexus, pia mater, intracerebral vasculature, and ependymal lining. Within the parenchyma proper, DRP is located at the inner plasma face of astrocytic foot processes at the abluminal aspect of the blood-brain barrier. The distribution of DRP is conserved across a large evolutionary distance, from mammals to elasmobranchs, suggesting that DRP may play a role in the maintenance of regional specializations in the brain. PMID:1400579

  5. Parental source effect of inherited mutations in the dystrophin gene of mice and men

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, W.; Grimm, T.; Mueller, C.R.; Bittner, R.

    1994-09-01

    Skewed X-inactivation has been suspected the genetic cause for some manifesting female carriers of BMD and DMD. To test whether a parental source effect on the protein expression of the dystrophin gene exists, we have set up backcrosses of mdx mice to wild type strains, enabling us to study the effect of the well-defined origin of the mutation on the dystrophin expression. In skeletal muscle sections the immunohistological staining patterns of dystrophin antibodies were showing a significant difference in the proportion of dystrophin positive versus negative fibers, suggesting a lower expression of paternally inherited mdx mutations. These data are in concordance with the pyruvate kinase (PK) levels in the serum: PK levels were much higher when the mutation was of maternal origin as compared to PK levels in paternally derived mutations. In order to test this {open_quotes}paternal source effect{close_quotes} in humans, we checked obligatory carriers of Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) for the origin of their mutations. Creatin kinase (CK) levels in 21 carriers with maternally derived mutations were compared to CK values from 8 heterozygotes with mutations of paternal origin: CK (mat) = 140.3 IU/1 versus CK (pat) = 48.6 IU/I. The difference is statistically significant at the 5% level. These observations suggest either a differential X-inactivation or an imprinting of the dystrophin gene in mice and men.

  6. Our trails and trials in the subsarcolemmal cytoskeleton network and muscular dystrophy researches in the dystrophin era.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Eijiro

    2010-01-01

    In 1987, about 150 years after the discovery of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), its responsible gene, the dystrophin gene, was cloned by Kunkel. This was a new substance. During these 20 odd years after the cloning, our understanding on dystrophin as a component of the subsarcolemmal cytoskeleton networks and on the pathomechanisms of and experimental therapeutics for DMD has been greatly enhanced. During this paradigm change, I was fortunately able to work as an active researcher on its frontiers for 12 years. After we discovered that dystrophin is located on the cell membrane in 1988, we studied the architecture of dystrophin and dystrophin-associated proteins (DAPs) complex in order to investigate the function of dystrophin and pathomechanism of DMD. During the conduct of these studies, we came to consider that the dystrophin-DAP complex serves to transmembranously connect the subsarcolemmal cytoskeleton networks and basal lamina to protect the lipid bilayer. It then became our working hypothesis that injury of the lipid bilayer upon muscle contraction is the cause of DMD. During this process, we predicted that subunits of the sarcoglycan (SG) complex are responsible for respective types of DMD-like muscular dystrophy with autosomal recessive inheritance. Our prediction was confirmed to be true by many researchers including ourselves. In this review, I will try to explain what we observed and how we considered concerning the architecture and function of the dystrophin-DAP complex, and the pathomechanisms of DMD and related muscular dystrophies.

  7. Genomic integration of the full-length dystrophin coding sequence in Duchenne muscular dystrophy induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Farruggio, Alfonso P; Bhakta, Mital S; du Bois, Haley; Ma, Julia; P Calos, Michele

    2017-04-01

    The plasmid vectors that express the full-length human dystrophin coding sequence in human cells was developed. Dystrophin, the protein mutated in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, is extraordinarily large, providing challenges for cloning and plasmid production in Escherichia coli. The authors expressed dystrophin from the strong, widely expressed CAG promoter, along with co-transcribed luciferase and mCherry marker genes useful for tracking plasmid expression. Introns were added at the 3' and 5' ends of the dystrophin sequence to prevent translation in E. coli, resulting in improved plasmid yield. Stability and yield were further improved by employing a lower-copy number plasmid origin of replication. The dystrophin plasmids also carried an attB site recognized by phage phiC31 integrase, enabling the plasmids to be integrated into the human genome at preferred locations by phiC31 integrase. The authors demonstrated single-copy integration of plasmid DNA into the genome and production of human dystrophin in the human 293 cell line, as well as in induced pluripotent stem cells derived from a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Plasmid-mediated dystrophin expression was also demonstrated in mouse muscle. The dystrophin expression plasmids described here will be useful in cell and gene therapy studies aimed at ameliorating Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  8. Physiological Characterization of Muscle Strength With Variable Levels of Dystrophin Restoration in mdx Mice Following Local Antisense Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Paul S; Bye-a-Jee, Hema; Wells, Dominic J

    2011-01-01

    Antisense-induced exon skipping can restore the open reading frame, and thus correct the dystrophin deficiency that causes Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a lethal muscle wasting condition. Successful proof-of-principle in preclinical models has led to human clinical trials. However, it is still not known what percentage of dystrophin-positive fibers and what level of expression is necessary for functional improvement. This study directly address these key questions in the mdx mouse model of DMD. To achieve a significant variation in dystrophin expression, we locally administered into tibialis anterior muscles various doses of a phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO) designed to skip the mutated exon 23 from the mRNA of murine dystrophin. We found a highly significant correlation between the number of dystrophin-positive fibers and resistance to contraction-induced injury, with a minimum of 20% of dystrophin-positive fibers required for meaningful improvement. Furthermore, our results also indicate that a relatively low level of dystrophin expression in muscle fibers may have significant clinical benefits. In contrast, improvements in muscle force were not correlated with either the number of positive fibers or total dystrophin levels, which highlight the need to conduct appropriate functional assessments in preclinical testing using the mdx mouse. PMID:20924363

  9. Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) Mediated Dystrophin Gene Transfer Studies and Exon Skipping Strategies for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD).

    PubMed

    Kawecka, Klaudia; Theodoulides, Michael; Hasoglu, Yalin; Jarmin, Susan; Kymalainen, Hanna; Le-Heron, Anita; Popplewell, Linda; Malerba, Alberto; Dickson, George; Athanasopoulos, Takis

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an X-linked inherited musclewasting disease primarily affecting young boys with prevalence of between1:3,500- 1:5,000, is a rare genetic disease caused by defects in the gene for dystrophin. Dystrophin protein is critical to the stability of myofibers in skeletal and cardiac muscle. There is currently no cure available to ameliorate DMD and/or its patho-physiology. A number of therapeutic strategies including molecular-based therapeutics that replace or correct the missing or nonfunctional dystrophin protein have been devised to correct the patho-physiological consequences induced by dystrophin absence. We will review the current in vivo experimentation status (including preclinical models and clinical trials) for two of these approaches, namely: 1) Adeno-associated virus (AAV) mediated (micro) dystrophin gene augmentation/ supplementation and 2) Antisense oligonucleotide (AON)-mediated exon skipping strategies.

  10. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Heteroduplex analysis of the dystrophin gene: Application to point mutation and carrier detection

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, T.W.; Papp, A.C.; Snyder, P.J.; Sedra, M.S.; Western, L.M.; Bartolo, C.; Mendell, J.R.; Moxley, R.T.

    1994-03-01

    Approximately one-third of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients have undefined mutations in the dystrophin gene. For carrier and prenatal studies in families without detectable mutations, the indirect restriction fragment length polymorphism linkage approach is used. Using a multiplex amplification and heteroduplex analysis of dystrophin exons, the authors identified nonsense mutations in two DMD patients. Although the nonsense mutations are predicted to severely truncate the dystrophin protein, both patients presented with mild clinical courses of the disease. As a result of identifying the mutation in the affected boys, direct carrier studies by heteroduplex analysis were extended to other relatives. The authors conclude that the technique is not only ideal for mutation detection but is also useful for diagnostic testing. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Personalized exon skipping strategies to address clustered non-deletion dystrophin mutations.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Sarah; Meloni, Penny L; Muntoni, Francesco; Kim, Jihee; Fletcher, Sue; Wilton, Steve D

    2010-12-01

    Antisense oligomer induced exon skipping is showing promise as a therapy to reduce the severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. To date, the focus has been on excluding single exons flanking frame-shifting deletions in the dystrophin gene. However, a third of all Duchenne muscular dystrophy causing mutations are more subtle DNA changes. Thirty nine dystrophin exons are potentially frame-shifting and mutations in these will require the targeted removal of exon blocks to generate in-frame transcripts. We report that clustered non-deletion mutations in the dystrophin gene respond differently to different antisense oligomer preparations targeting the same dual exon block, the removal of which bypasses the mutation and restores the open reading-frame. The personalized nature of the responses to antisense oligomer application presents additional challenges to the induction of multi-exon skipping with a single oligomer preparation.

  13. Heteroduplex analysis of the dystrophin gene: application to point mutation and carrier detection.

    PubMed

    Prior, T W; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Sedra, M S; Western, L M; Bartolo, C; Moxley, R T; Mendell, J R

    1994-03-01

    Approximately one-third of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients have undefined mutations in the dystrophin gene. For carrier and prenatal studies in families without detectable mutations, the indirect restriction fragment length polymorphism linkage approach is used. Using a multiplex amplification and heteroduplex analysis of dystrophin exons, we identified nonsense mutations in two DMD patients. Although the nonsense mutations are predicted to severely truncate the dystrophin protein, both patients presented with mild clinical courses of the disease. As a result of identifying the mutation in the affected boys, direct carrier studies by heteroduplex analysis were extended to other relatives. We conclude that the technique is not only ideal for mutation detection but is also useful for diagnostic testing.

  14. Dystrophin expression in a Duchenne muscular dystrophy patient with a frame shift deletion.

    PubMed

    Prior, T W; Bartolo, C; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Sedra, M S; Burghes, A H; Kissel, J T; Luquette, M H; Tsao, C Y; Mendell, J R

    1997-02-01

    The exon 45 deletion is a common dystrophin gene deletion. Although this is an out-of-frame deletion, which should not allow for protein synthesis, it has been observed in mildly affected patients. We describe a patient with an exon 45 deletion who produced protein, but still had a severe Duchenne muscular dystrophy phenotype. RT-PCR analysis and cDNA sequencing from the muscle biopsy sample revealed that the exon 45 deletion induced exon skipping of exon 44, which resulted in an in-frame deletion and the production of dystrophin. A conformational change in dystrophin induced by the deletion is proposed as being responsible for the severe phenotype in the patient. We feel that the variable clinical phenotype observed in patients with the exon 45 deletion is not due to exon splicing but may be the result of other environmental or genetic factors, or both.

  15. The sarcoglycan-sarcospan complex localization in mouse retina is independent from dystrophins

    PubMed Central

    Fort, Patrice; Estrada, Francisco-Javier; Bordais, Agnès; Mornet, Dominique; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge; Vargas, Haydeé Rosas; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón M.; Rendon, Alvaro

    2005-01-01

    The sarcoglycan–sarcospan (SG–SSPN) complex is part of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex that has been extensively characterized in muscle. To establish the framework for functional studies of sarcoglycans in retina here, we quantified sarcoglycans mRNA levels with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and performed immunohistochemistry to determine their cellular and subcellular distribution. We showed that the β-, δ-, γ-, ε-sarcoglycans and sarcospan are expressed in mouse retina. They are localized predominantly in the outer and the inner limiting membranes, probably in the Müller cells and also in the ganglion cells axons where the expression of dystrophins have never been reported. We also investigated the status of the sarcoglycans in the retina of mdx3cv mutant mice for all Duchene Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) gene products. The absence of dystrophin did not produce any change in the sarcoglycan–sarcospan components expression and distribution. PMID:15993965

  16. Use of epitope libraries to identify exon-specific monoclonal antibodies for characterization of altered dystrophins in muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen thi Man; Morris, G.E. )

    1993-06-01

    The majority of mutations in Xp21-linked muscular dystrophy (MD) can be identified by PCR or Southern blotting, as deletions or duplications of groups of exons in the dystrophin gene, but it is not always possible to predict how much altered dystrophin, if any, will be produced. Use of exon-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) on muscle biopsies from MD patients can, in principle, provide information on both the amount of altered dystrophin produced and, when dystrophin is present, the nature of the genetic deletion or point mutation. For this purpose, mAbs which recognize regions of dystrophin encoded by known exons and whose binding is unaffected by the absence of adjacent exons are required. To map mAbs to specific exons, random [open quotes]libraries[close quotes] of expressed dystrophin fragments were created by cloning DNAseI digestion fragments of a 4.3-kb dystrophin cDNA into a pTEX expression vector. The libraries were then used to locate the epitopes recognized by 48 mAbs to fragments of 25--60 amino acids within the 1,434-amino-acid dystrophin fragment used to produce the antibodies. This is sufficiently detailed to allow further refinement by using synthetic peptides and, in many cases, to identify the exon in the DMD (Duchenne MD) gene which encodes the epitope. To illustrate their use in dystrophin analysis, a Duchenne patient with a frameshift deletion of exons 42 and 43 makes a truncated dystrophin encoded by exons 1--41, and the authors now show that this can be detected in the sarcolemma by mAbs up to and including those specific for exon 41 epitopes but not by mAbs specific for exon 43 or later epitopes. 38 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Exon Exchange Approach to Repair Duchenne Dystrophin Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Lorain, Stéphanie; Peccate, Cécile; Le Hir, Maëva; Garcia, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Background Trans-splicing strategies for mRNA repair involve engineered transcripts designed to anneal target mRNAs in order to interfere with their natural splicing, giving rise to mRNA chimeras where endogenous mutated exons have been replaced by exogenous replacement sequences. A number of trans-splicing molecules have already been proposed for replacing either the 5′ or the 3′ part of transcripts to be repaired. Here, we show the feasibility of RNA surgery by using a double trans-splicing approach allowing the specific substitution of a given mutated exon. Methodology/Principal Findings As a target we used a minigene encoding a fragment of the mdx dystrophin gene enclosing the mutated exon (exon 23). This minigene was cotransfected with a variety of exon exchange constructions, differing in their annealing domains. We obtained accurate and efficient replacement of exon 23 in the mRNA target. Adding up a downstream intronic splice enhancer DISE in the exon exchange molecule enhanced drastically its efficiency up to 25–45% of repair depending on the construction in use. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate the possibility to fix up mutated exons, refurbish deleted exons and introduce protein motifs, while keeping natural untranslated sequences, which are essential for mRNA stability and translation regulation. Conversely to the well-known exon skipping, exon exchange has the advantage to be compatible with almost any type of mutations and more generally to a wide range of genetic conditions. In particular, it allows addressing disorders caused by dominant mutations. PMID:20531943

  18. Regional genomic instability predisposes to complex dystrophin gene rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Junko; Magner, Daniel B; Lee, Jennifer A; Breman, Amy M; Schmitt, Eric S; White, Lisa D; Crowe, Carol A; Merrill, Michelle; Jayakar, Parul; Rajadhyaksha, Aparna; Eng, Christine M; del Gaudio, Daniela

    2009-09-01

    Mutations in the dystrophin gene (DMD) cause Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies and the majority of cases are due to DMD gene rearrangements. Despite the high incidence of these aberrations, little is known about their causative molecular mechanism(s). We examined 792 DMD/BMD clinical samples by oligonucleotide array-CGH and report on the junction sequence analysis of 15 unique deletion cases and three complex intragenic rearrangements to elucidate potential underlying mechanism(s). Furthermore, we present three cases with intergenic rearrangements involving DMD and neighboring loci. The cases with intragenic rearrangements include an inversion with flanking deleted sequences; a duplicated segment inserted in direct orientation into a deleted region; and a splicing mutation adjacent to a deletion. Bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that 7 of 12 breakpoints combined among 3 complex cases aligned with repetitive sequences, as compared to 4 of 30 breakpoints for the 15 deletion cases. Moreover, the inversion/deletion case may involve a stem-loop structure that has contributed to the initiation of this rearrangement. For the duplication/deletion and splicing mutation/deletion cases, the presence of the first mutation, either a duplication or point mutation, may have elicited the deletion events in an attempt to correct preexisting mutations. While NHEJ is one potential mechanism for these complex rearrangements, the highly complex junction sequence of the inversion/deletion case suggests the involvement of a replication-based mechanism. Our results support the notion that regional genomic instability, aided by the presence of repetitive elements, a stem-loop structure, and possibly preexisting mutations, may elicit complex rearrangements of the DMD gene.

  19. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... while you are pregnant. Combination of Genetic and Environmental Problems Some congenital abnormalities may occur if there is a genetic tendency for the condition combined with exposure to certain environmental influences within the womb during critical stages of ...

  20. 2'-O-Methyl RNA/Ethylene-Bridged Nucleic Acid Chimera Antisense Oligonucleotides to Induce Dystrophin Exon 45 Skipping.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tomoko; Awano, Hiroyuki; Yagi, Mariko; Matsumoto, Masaaki; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Goda, Ryoya; Koizumi, Makoto; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2017-02-10

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle-wasting disease characterized by dystrophin deficiency from mutations in the dystrophin gene. Antisense oligonucleotide (AO)-mediated exon skipping targets restoration of the dystrophin reading frame to allow production of an internally deleted dystrophin protein with functional benefit for DMD patients who have out-of-frame deletions. After accelerated US approval of eteplirsen (Exondys 51), which targets dystrophin exon 51 for skipping, efforts are now focused on targeting other exons. For improved clinical benefits, this strategy requires more studies of the delivery method and modification of nucleic acids. We studied a nucleotide with a 2'-O,4'-C-ethylene-bridged nucleic acid (ENA), which shows high nuclease resistance and high affinity for complementary RNA strands. Here, we describe the process of developing a 2'-O-methyl RNA(2'-OMeRNA)/ENA chimera AO to induce dystrophin exon 45 skipping. One 18-mer 2'-OMeRNA/ENA chimera (AO85) had the most potent activity for inducing exon 45 skipping in cultured myotubes. AO85 was administered to mdx mice without significant side effects. AO85 transfection into cultured myotubes from 13 DMD patients induced exon 45 skipping in all samples at different levels and dystrophin expression in 11 patients. These results suggest the possible efficacy of AO-mediated exon skipping changes in individual patients and highlight the 2'-OMeRNA/ENA chimera AO as a potential fundamental treatment for DMD.

  1. 2′-O-Methyl RNA/Ethylene-Bridged Nucleic Acid Chimera Antisense Oligonucleotides to Induce Dystrophin Exon 45 Skipping

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tomoko; Awano, Hiroyuki; Yagi, Mariko; Matsumoto, Masaaki; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Goda, Ryoya; Koizumi, Makoto; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle-wasting disease characterized by dystrophin deficiency from mutations in the dystrophin gene. Antisense oligonucleotide (AO)-mediated exon skipping targets restoration of the dystrophin reading frame to allow production of an internally deleted dystrophin protein with functional benefit for DMD patients who have out-of-frame deletions. After accelerated US approval of eteplirsen (Exondys 51), which targets dystrophin exon 51 for skipping, efforts are now focused on targeting other exons. For improved clinical benefits, this strategy requires more studies of the delivery method and modification of nucleic acids. We studied a nucleotide with a 2′-O,4′-C-ethylene-bridged nucleic acid (ENA), which shows high nuclease resistance and high affinity for complementary RNA strands. Here, we describe the process of developing a 2′-O-methyl RNA(2′-OMeRNA)/ENA chimera AO to induce dystrophin exon 45 skipping. One 18-mer 2′-OMeRNA/ENA chimera (AO85) had the most potent activity for inducing exon 45 skipping in cultured myotubes. AO85 was administered to mdx mice without significant side effects. AO85 transfection into cultured myotubes from 13 DMD patients induced exon 45 skipping in all samples at different levels and dystrophin expression in 11 patients. These results suggest the possible efficacy of AO-mediated exon skipping changes in individual patients and highlight the 2′-OMeRNA/ENA chimera AO as a potential fundamental treatment for DMD. PMID:28208626

  2. The Polyproline Site in Hinge 2 Influences the Functional Capacity of Truncated Dystrophins

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Glen B.; Judge, Luke M.; Allen, James M.; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in dystrophin can lead to Duchenne muscular dystrophy or the more mild form of the disease, Becker muscular dystrophy. The hinge 3 region in the rod domain of dystrophin is particularly prone to deletion mutations. In-frame deletions of hinge 3 are predicted to lead to BMD, however the severity of disease can vary considerably. Here we performed extensive structure-function analyses of truncated dystrophins with modified hinges and spectrin-like repeats in mdx mice. We found that the polyproline site in hinge 2 profoundly influences the functional capacity of a microdystrophinΔR4-R23/ΔCT with a large deletion in the hinge 3 region. Inclusion of polyproline in microdystrophinΔR4-R23/ΔCT led to small myofibers (12% smaller than wild-type), Achilles myotendinous disruption, ringed fibers, and aberrant neuromuscular junctions in the mdx gastrocnemius muscles. Replacing hinge 2 of microdystrophinΔR4-R23/ΔCT with hinge 3 significantly improved the functional capacity to prevent muscle degeneration, increase muscle fiber area, and maintain the junctions. We conclude that the rigid α-helical structure of the polyproline site significantly impairs the functional capacity of truncated dystrophins to maintain appropriate connections between the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix. PMID:20502633

  3. Studying the role of dystrophin-associated proteins in influencing Becker muscular dystrophy disease severity.

    PubMed

    van den Bergen, J C; Wokke, B H A; Hulsker, M A; Verschuuren, J J G M; Aartsma-Rus, A M

    2015-03-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy is characterized by a variable disease course. Many factors have been implicated to contribute to this diversity, among which the expression of several components of the dystrophin associated glycoprotein complex. Together with dystrophin, most of these proteins anchor the muscle fiber cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix, thus protecting the muscle from contraction induced injury, while nNOS is primarily involved in inducing vasodilation during muscle contraction, enabling adequate muscle oxygenation. In the current study, we investigated the role of three components of the dystrophin associated glycoprotein complex (beta-dystroglycan, gamma-sarcoglycan and nNOS) and the dystrophin homologue utrophin on disease severity in Becker patients. Strength measurements, data about disease course and fresh muscle biopsies of the anterior tibial muscle were obtained from 24 Becker patients aged 19 to 66. The designation of Becker muscular dystrophy in this study was based on the mutation and not on the clinical severity. Contrary to previous studies, we were unable to find a relationship between expression of nNOS, beta-dystroglycan and gamma-sarcoglycan at the sarcolemma and disease severity, as measured by muscle strength in five muscle groups and age at reaching several disease milestones. Unexpectedly, we found an inverse correlation between utrophin expression at the sarcolemma and age at reaching disease milestones.

  4. Antisense-induced exon skipping restores dystrophin expression in DMD patient derived muscle cells.

    PubMed

    van Deutekom, J C; Bremmer-Bout, M; Janson, A A; Ginjaar, I B; Baas, F; den Dunnen, J T; van Ommen, G J

    2001-07-15

    Due to frame-shifting mutations in the DMD gene that cause dystrophin deficiency, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients suffer from lethal muscle degeneration. In contrast, mutations in the allelic Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) do not disrupt the translational reading frame, resulting in a less severe phenotype. In this study, we explored a genetic therapy aimed at restoring the reading frame in muscle cells from DMD patients through targeted modulation of dystrophin pre-mRNA splicing. Considering that exon 45 is the single most frequently deleted exon in DMD, whereas exon (45+46) deletions cause only a mild form of BMD, we set up an antisense-based system to induce exon 46 skipping from the transcript in cultured myotubes of both mouse and human origin. In myotube cultures from two unrelated DMD patients carrying an exon 45 deletion, the induced skipping of exon 46 in only approximately 15% of the mRNA led to normal amounts of properly localized dystrophin in at least 75% of myotubes. Our results provide first evidence of highly effective restoration of dystrophin expression from the endogenous gene in DMD patient-derived muscle cells. This strategy may be applicable to not only >65% of DMD mutations, but also many other genetic diseases.

  5. Dystrophin and dysferlin double mutant mice: a novel model for rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Hosur, Vishnu; Kavirayani, Anoop; Riefler, Jennifer; Carney, Lisa M B; Lyons, Bonnie; Gott, Bruce; Cox, Gregory A; Shultz, Leonard D

    2012-05-01

    Although researchers have yet to establish a link between muscular dystrophy (MD) and sarcomas in human patients, literature suggests that the MD genes dystrophin and dysferlin act as tumor suppressor genes in mouse models of MD. For instance, dystrophin-deficient mdx and dysferlin-deficient A/J mice, models of human Duchenne MD and limb-girdle MD type 2B, respectively, develop mixed sarcomas with variable penetrance and latency. To further establish the correlation between MD and sarcoma development, and to test whether a combined deletion of dystrophin and dysferlin exacerbates MD and augments the incidence of sarcomas, we generated dystrophin and dysferlin double mutant mice (STOCK-Dysf(prmd)Dmd(mdx-5Cv)). Not surprisingly, the double mutant mice develop severe MD symptoms and, moreover, develop rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) at an average age of 12 months, with an incidence of >90%. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses, using a panel of antibodies against skeletal muscle cell proteins, electron microscopy, cytogenetics, and molecular analysis reveal that the double mutant mice develop RMS. The present finding bolsters the correlation between MD and sarcomas, and provides a model not only to examine the cellular origins but also to identify mechanisms and signal transduction pathways triggering development of RMS.

  6. Exon deletion patterns of the dystrophin gene in 82 Vietnamese Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy patients.

    PubMed

    Tran, Van Khanh; Ta, Van Thanh; Vu, Dung Chi; Nguyen, Suong Thi-Bang; Do, Hai Ngoc; Ta, Minh Hieu; Tran, Thinh Huy; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2013-12-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD/BMD) are the most common inherited muscle diseases caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. The reading frame rule explains the genotype-phenotype relationship in DMD/BMD. In Vietnam, extensive mutation analysis has never been conducted in DMD/BMD. Here, 152 Vietnamese muscular dystrophy patients were examined for dystrophin exon deletion by amplifying 19 deletion-prone exons and deletion ends were confirmed by dystrophin cDNA analysis if necessary. The result was that 82 (54%) patients were found to have exon deletions, thus confirming exact deletion ends. A further result was that 37 patterns of deletion were classified. Deletions of exons 45-50 and 49-52 were the most common patterns identified, numbering six cases each (7.3%). The reading frame rule explained the genotype-phenotype relationship, but not five (6.1%) DMD cases. Each of five patients had deletions of exons 11-27 in common. The applicability of the therapy producing semifunctional in frame mRNA in DMD by inducing skipping of a single exon was examined. Induction of exon 51 skipping was ranked at top priority, since 16 (27%) patients were predicted to have semifunctional mRNA skipping. Exons 45 and 53 were the next ranked, with 12 (20%) and 11 (18%) patients, respectively. The largest deletion database of the dystrophin gene, established in Vietnamese DMD/BMD patients, disclosed a strong indication for exon-skipping therapy.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Vertebrate Dystrophin Loci Indicate Intron Gigantism as a Common Feature

    PubMed Central

    Pozzoli, Uberto; Elgar, Greg; Cagliani, Rachele; Riva, Laura; Comi, Giacomo P.; Bresolin, Nereo; Bardoni, Alessandra; Sironi, Manuela

    2003-01-01

    The human DMD gene is the largest known to date, spanning > 2000 kb on the X chromosome. The gene size is mainly accounted for by huge intronic regions. We sequenced 190 kb of Fugu rubripes (pufferfish) genomic DNA corresponding to the complete dystrophin gene (FrDMD) and provide the first report of gene structure and sequence comparison among dystrophin genomic sequences from different vertebrate organisms. Almost all intron positions and phases are conserved between FrDMD and its mammalian counterparts, and the predicted protein product of the Fugu gene displays 55% identity and 71% similarity to human dystrophin. In analogy to the human gene, FrDMD presents several-fold longer than average intronic regions. Analysis of intron sequences of the human and murine genes revealed that they are extremely conserved in size and that a similar fraction of total intron length is represented by repetitive elements; moreover, our data indicate that intron expansion through repeat accumulation in the two orthologs is the result of independent insertional events. The hypothesis that intron length might be functionally relevant to the DMD gene regulation is proposed and substantiated by the finding that dystrophin intron gigantism is common to the three vertebrate genes. [Supplemental material is available online at www.genome.org.] PMID:12727896

  8. Absence of Dystrophin Related Protein-2 disrupts Cajal bands in a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Kathryn M.; Bai, Yunhong; Pisciotta, Chiara; Wang, Suola; Feely, Shawna M.E.; Hoegger, Mark; Gutmann, Laurie; Moore, Steven A.; Gonzalez, Michael; Sherman, Diane L.; Brophy, Peter J.; Züchner, Stephan; Shy, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Using exome sequencing in an individual with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) we have identified a mutation in the X-linked dystrophin-related protein 2 (DRP2) gene. A 60-year-old gentleman presented to our clinic and underwent clinical, electrophysiological and skin biopsy studies. The patient had clinical features of a length dependent sensorimotor neuropathy with an age of onset of 50 years. Neurophysiology revealed prolonged latencies with intermediate conduction velocities but no conduction block or temporal dispersion. A panel of 23 disease causing genes was sequenced and ultimately was uninformative. Whole exome sequencing revealed a stop mutation in DRP2, c.805C>T (Q269*). DRP2 interacts with periaxin and dystroglycan to form the periaxin-DRP2-dystroglycan complex which plays a role in the maintenance of the well-characterized Cajal bands of myelinating Schwann cells. Skin biopsies from our patient revealed a lack of DRP2 in myelinated dermal nerves by immunofluorescence. Furthermore electron microscopy failed to identify Cajal bands in the patient's dermal myelinated axons in keeping with ultrastructural pathology seen in the Drp2 knockout mouse. Both the electrophysiologic and dermal nerve twig pathology support the interpretation that this patient's DRP2 mutation causes characteristic morphological abnormalities recapitulating the Drp2 knockout model and potentially represents a novel genetic cause of CMT. PMID:26227883

  9. Absence of Dystrophin Related Protein-2 disrupts Cajal bands in a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Kathryn M; Bai, Yunhong; Pisciotta, Chiara; Wang, Suola; Feely, Shawna M E; Hoegger, Mark; Gutmann, Laurie; Moore, Steven A; Gonzalez, Michael; Sherman, Diane L; Brophy, Peter J; Züchner, Stephan; Shy, Michael E

    2015-10-01

    Using exome sequencing in an individual with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) we have identified a mutation in the X-linked dystrophin-related protein 2 (DRP2) gene. A 60-year-old gentleman presented to our clinic and underwent clinical, electrophysiological and skin biopsy studies. The patient had clinical features of a length dependent sensorimotor neuropathy with an age of onset of 50 years. Neurophysiology revealed prolonged latencies with intermediate conduction velocities but no conduction block or temporal dispersion. A panel of 23 disease causing genes was sequenced and ultimately was uninformative. Whole exome sequencing revealed a stop mutation in DRP2, c.805C>T (Q269*). DRP2 interacts with periaxin and dystroglycan to form the periaxin-DRP2-dystroglycan complex which plays a role in the maintenance of the well-characterized Cajal bands of myelinating Schwann cells. Skin biopsies from our patient revealed a lack of DRP2 in myelinated dermal nerves by immunofluorescence. Furthermore electron microscopy failed to identify Cajal bands in the patient's dermal myelinated axons in keeping with ultrastructural pathology seen in the Drp2 knockout mouse. Both the electrophysiologic and dermal nerve twig pathology support the interpretation that this patient's DRP2 mutation causes characteristic morphological abnormalities recapitulating the Drp2 knockout model and potentially represents a novel genetic cause of CMT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study about locomotory ability of dystrophin-defected C.elegans after spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ying; Sun, Yeqing; Lei, Huang; Xu, Dan

    2012-07-01

    Space microgravity could induce a variety of biological changes such as muscular atrophy. Recent studies show that gravisensing is a key point in muscular atrophy process, but the molecular mechanism is still unknown. Dystrophin, a muscle-related protein, plays an important role in muscle development. It is reported that mutation of human dystrophin gene could cause muscular atrophy. In this study, we focus on whether dystrophin gene acts as a gravisensing factor and observe locomotory ability of dystrophin-defected Caenorhabditis elegans (C.elegans) after spaceflight. We used wild-type (WT) and dystrophin-defected (dys-1) mutant of C.elegans, which were cultured to dauer stage and sent to space by Shenzhou 8 spacecraft (from Nov 1st to 17th, 2011). These worms were divided into three groups: space group (space radiation and microgravity conditions), space control group (space radiation and chmetcnvTCSC0NumberType1NegativeFalseHasSpaceFalseSourceValue1UnitNameg1g centrifuge force conditions) and ground control group.We already observed the progeny (generation F1 and F2) of worms which were sent to space, the movement of C. elegans is restricted to a two-dimensional sinusoidal pattern, and evaluated locomotory ability by the ratio (length/width) in crawl trace wave of C. elegans. The increased value of ratio indicates the decrease in locomotory ability of C. elegans. Our results from generation F1 showed that WT worms in space group(7.7±1.8) demonstrated the significant decrease in locomotory ability about 15%, compared with those in space control group(6.7±1.2). This finding indicates that locomotory ability of C. elegans progeny could be affected by microgravity in space environment. In comparison to the obvious difference in ratio between space group and space control group for WT worms, there is no significant difference between two space groups of generation F2 .For dys-1 mutant of C.elegans (generation F1 and F2), the results show that dystrophin deficiency

  11. Skeletal Muscle Differentiation on a Chip Shows Human Donor Mesoangioblasts' Efficiency in Restoring Dystrophin in a Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Model.

    PubMed

    Serena, Elena; Zatti, Susi; Zoso, Alice; Lo Verso, Francesca; Tedesco, F Saverio; Cossu, Giulio; Elvassore, Nicola

    2016-12-01

    : Restoration of the protein dystrophin on muscle membrane is the goal of many research lines aimed at curing Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Results of ongoing preclinical and clinical trials suggest that partial restoration of dystrophin might be sufficient to significantly reduce muscle damage. Different myogenic progenitors are candidates for cell therapy of muscular dystrophies, but only satellite cells and pericytes have already entered clinical experimentation. This study aimed to provide in vitro quantitative evidence of the ability of mesoangioblasts to restore dystrophin, in terms of protein accumulation and distribution, within myotubes derived from DMD patients, using a microengineered model. We designed an ad hoc experimental strategy to miniaturize on a chip the standard process of muscle regeneration independent of variables such as inflammation and fibrosis. It is based on the coculture, at different ratios, of human dystrophin-positive myogenic progenitors and dystrophin-negative myoblasts in a substrate with muscle-like physiological stiffness and cell micropatterns. Results showed that both healthy myoblasts and mesoangioblasts restored dystrophin expression in DMD myotubes. However, mesoangioblasts showed unexpected efficiency with respect to myoblasts in dystrophin production in terms of the amount of protein produced (40% vs. 15%) and length of the dystrophin membrane domain (210-240 µm vs. 40-70 µm). These results show that our microscaled in vitro model of human DMD skeletal muscle validated previous in vivo preclinical work and may be used to predict efficacy of new methods aimed at enhancing dystrophin accumulation and distribution before they are tested in vivo, reducing time, costs, and variability of clinical experimentation. This study aimed to provide in vitro quantitative evidence of the ability of human mesoangioblasts to restore dystrophin, in terms of protein accumulation and distribution, within myotubes derived from

  12. Spectrin-like Repeats 11–15 of Human Dystrophin Show Adaptations to a Lipidic Environment*

    PubMed Central

    Sarkis, Joe; Hubert, Jean-François; Legrand, Baptiste; Robert, Estelle; Chéron, Angélique; Jardin, Julien; Hitti, Eric; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Vié, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Dystrophin is essential to skeletal muscle function and confers resistance to the sarcolemma by interacting with cytoskeleton and membrane. In the present work, we characterized the behavior of dystrophin 11–15 (DYS R11–15), five spectrin-like repeats from the central domain of human dystrophin, with lipids. DYS R11–15 displays an amphiphilic character at the liquid/air interface while maintaining its secondary α-helical structure. The interaction of DYS R11–15 with small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) depends on the lipid nature, which is not the case with large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs). In addition, switching from anionic SUVs to anionic LUVs suggests the lipid packing as a crucial factor for the interaction of protein and lipid. The monolayer model and the modulation of surface pressure aim to mimic the muscle at work (i.e. dynamic changes of muscle membrane during contraction and relaxation) (high and low surface pressure). Strikingly, the lateral pressure modifies the protein organization. Increasing the lateral pressure leads the proteins to be organized in a regular network. Nevertheless, a different protein conformation after its binding to monolayer is revealed by trypsin proteolysis. Label-free quantification by nano-LC/MS/MS allowed identification of the helices in repeats 12 and 13 involved in the interaction with anionic SUVs. These results, combined with our previous studies, indicate that DYS R11–15 constitutes the only part of dystrophin that interacts with anionic as well as zwitterionic lipids and adapts its interaction and organization depending on lipid packing and lipid nature. We provide strong experimental evidence for a physiological role of the central domain of dystrophin in sarcolemma scaffolding through modulation of lipid-protein interactions. PMID:21712383

  13. Leukocyte abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G

    1980-07-01

    Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.

  14. A Translational Pathway Toward a Clinical Trial Using the Second-Generation AAV Micro-Dystrophin Vector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    achieve systemic AAV-8 mediated expression of a low immunogenic human micro-dystrophin gene to young adult affected dogs . In this funding period...we demonstrated that we can achieve efficient whole body skeletal muscle and heart gene transfer in neonatal dogs with AAV-8 by a single intravenous...injection. We also showed that systemic delivery of a canine micro-dystrophin AAV vector is safe in young adult affected dogs . These results

  15. Frameshift deletions of exons 3-7 and revertant fibers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: mechanisms of dystrophin production.

    PubMed Central

    Winnard, A V; Mendell, J R; Prior, T W; Florence, J; Burghes, A H

    1995-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients with mutations that disrupt the translational reading frame produce little or no dystrophin. Two exceptions are the deletion of exons 3-7 and the occurrence of rare dystrophin-positive fibers (revertant fibers) in muscle of DMD patients. Antibodies directed against the amino-terminus and the 5' end of exon 8 did not detect dystrophin in muscle from patients who have a deletion of exons 3-7. However, in all cases, dystrophin was detected with an antibody directed against the 3' end of exon 8. The most likely method of dystrophin production in these cases is initiation at a new start codon in exon 8. We also studied two patients who have revertant fibers: one had an inherited duplication of exons 5-7, which, on immunostaining, showed two types of revertant fibers; and the second patient had a 2-bp nonsense mutation in exon 51, which creates a cryptic splice site. An in-frame mRNA that uses this splice site in exon 51 was detected. Immunostaining demonstrated the presence of the 3' end of exon 51, which is in agreement with the use of this mRNA in revertant fibers. The most likely method of dystrophin production in these fibers is a second mutation that restores the reading frame. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7825572

  16. Our trails and trials in the subsarcolemmal cytoskeleton network and muscular dystrophy researches in the dystrophin era

    PubMed Central

    OZAWA, Eijiro

    2010-01-01

    In 1987, about 150 years after the discovery of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), its responsible gene, the dystrophin gene, was cloned by Kunkel. This was a new substance. During these 20 odd years after the cloning, our understanding on dystrophin as a component of the subsarcolemmal cytoskeleton networks and on the pathomechanisms of and experimental therapeutics for DMD has been greatly enhanced. During this paradigm change, I was fortunately able to work as an active researcher on its frontiers for 12 years. After we discovered that dystrophin is located on the cell membrane in 1988, we studied the architecture of dystrophin and dystrophin-associated proteins (DAPs) complex in order to investigate the function of dystrophin and pathomechanism of DMD. During the conduct of these studies, we came to consider that the dystrophin–DAP complex serves to transmembranously connect the subsarcolemmal cytoskeleton networks and basal lamina to protect the lipid bilayer. It then became our working hypothesis that injury of the lipid bilayer upon muscle contraction is the cause of DMD. During this process, we predicted that subunits of the sarcoglycan (SG) complex are responsible for respective types of DMD-like muscular dystrophy with autosomal recessive inheritance. Our prediction was confirmed to be true by many researchers including ourselves. In this review, I will try to explain what we observed and how we considered concerning the architecture and function of the dystrophin–DAP complex, and the pathomechanisms of DMD and related muscular dystrophies. PMID:20948175

  17. Role of Mental Retardation-Associated Dystrophin-Gene Product Dp71 in Excitatory Synapse Organization, Synaptic Plasticity and Behavioral Functions

    PubMed Central

    Daoud, Fatma; Candelario-Martínez, Aurora; Billard, Jean-Marie; Avital, Avi; Khelfaoui, Malik; Rozenvald, Yael; Guegan, Maryvonne; Mornet, Dominique; Jaillard, Danielle; Nudel, Uri; Chelly, Jamel; Martínez-Rojas, Dalila; Laroche, Serge; Yaffe, David; Vaillend, Cyrille

    2009-01-01

    Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by deficient expression of the cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. One third of DMD patients also have mental retardation (MR), likely due to mutations preventing expression of dystrophin and other brain products of the DMD gene expressed from distinct internal promoters. Loss of Dp71, the major DMD-gene product in brain, is thought to contribute to the severity of MR; however, the specific function of Dp71 is poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Complementary approaches were used to explore the role of Dp71 in neuronal function and identify mechanisms by which Dp71 loss may impair neuronal and cognitive functions. Besides the normal expression of Dp71 in a subpopulation of astrocytes, we found that a pool of Dp71 colocalizes with synaptic proteins in cultured neurons and is expressed in synaptic subcellular fractions in adult brains. We report that Dp71-associated protein complexes interact with specialized modular scaffolds of proteins that cluster glutamate receptors and organize signaling in postsynaptic densities. We then undertook the first functional examination of the brain and cognitive alterations in the Dp71-null mice. We found that these mice display abnormal synapse organization and maturation in vitro, altered synapse density in the adult brain, enhanced glutamatergic transmission and reduced synaptic plasticity in CA1 hippocampus. Dp71-null mice show selective behavioral disturbances characterized by reduced exploratory and novelty-seeking behavior, mild retention deficits in inhibitory avoidance, and impairments in spatial learning and memory. Conclusions/Significance Results suggest that Dp71 expression in neurons play a regulatory role in glutamatergic synapse organization and function, which provides a new mechanism by which inactivation of Dp71 in association with that of other DMD-gene products may lead to increased severity of MR. PMID:19649270

  18. Relatively low proportion of dystrophin gene deletions in Israeili Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients

    SciTech Connect

    Shomrat, R.; Gluck, E.; Legum, C.; Shiloh, Y.

    1994-02-15

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) are allelic disorders caused by mutations in the X-linked dystrophin gene. The most common mutations in western populations are deletions that are spread non-randomly throughout the gene. Molecular analysis of the dystrophin gene structure by hybridization of the full length cDNA to Southern blots and by PCR in 62 unrelated Israeli male DMD/BMD patients showed deletions in 23 (37%). This proportion is significantly lower than that found in European and North American populations (55-65%). Seventy-eight percent of the deletions were confined to exons 44-52, half of these exons 44-45, and the remaining 22% to exons 1 and 19. There was no correlation between the size of the deletion and the severity of the disease. All the deletions causing frameshift resulted in the DMD phenotypes. 43 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Restoration of half the normal dystrophin sequence in a double-deletion Duchenne muscular dystrophy family

    SciTech Connect

    Hoop, R.C.; Schwartz, L.S.; Hoffman, E.P.; Russo, L.S.; Riconda, D.L.

    1994-02-01

    Two male cousins with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were found to have different maternal dystrophin gene haplotypes and different deletion mutations. One propositus showed two noncontiguous deletions-one in the 5{prime}, proximal deletional hotspot region, and the other in the 3{prime}, more distal deletional hotspot region. The second propositus showed only the 5{prime} deletion. Using multiple fluorescent exon dosage and fluorescent multiplex CA repeat linkage analyses, the authors show that the mother of each propositus carries both deletions on the same grandmaternal X chromosome. This paradox is explained by a single recombinational event between the 2 deleted regions of one of the carrier`s dystrophin genes, giving rise to a son with a partially {open_quotes}repaired{close_quotes} gene retaining only the 5{prime} deletion. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Dystrophin Gene Replacement and Gene Repair Therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy in 2016: An Interview

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    After years of relentless efforts, gene therapy has now begun to deliver its therapeutic promise in several diseases. A number of gene therapy products have received regulatory approval in Europe and Asia. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked inherited lethal muscle disease. It is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Replacing and/or repairing the mutated dystrophin gene holds great promises to treated DMD at the genetic level. Last several years have evidenced significant developments in preclinical experimentations in murine and canine models of DMD. There has been a strong interest in moving these promising findings to clinical trials. In light of rapid progress in this field, the Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy (PPMD) recently interviewed me on the current status of DMD gene therapy and readiness for clinical trials. Here I summarized the interview with PPMD. PMID:27003751

  1. Stability of the dystrophin rod domain fold: evidence for nested repeating units.

    PubMed Central

    Calvert, R; Kahana, E; Gratzer, W B

    1996-01-01

    An examination of fragments of the human dystrophin rod domain, corresponding to a single structural repeating unit, showed that a critical chain length, defined with a precision of one residue at the C-terminal end, is required for formation of the native tertiary fold. We report here that extending the chain by six residues beyond this minimum results in a large increase in conformational stability. This is not related to a change in association state of the polypeptide. The results support the conjecture that successive repeating units in the rod domain of the spectrinlike proteins form a nested structure, in which the N-terminal part of the three-helix bundle of one repeat packs into the overlapping structure of the preceding repeat. This would be expected to affect functional characteristics related to flexibility of the dystrophin rod domain. PMID:8874034

  2. Inefficient dystrophin expression after cord blood transplantation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Peter B; Lidov, Hart G W; White, Alexander J; Mitchell, Matthew; Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Estrella, Elicia; Bennett, Richard R; Darras, Basil T; Shapiro, Frederic D; Bambach, Barbara J; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Gussoni, Emanuela; Kunkel, Louis M

    2010-06-01

    We report a boy who received two allogeneic stem cell transplantations from umbilical cord donors to treat chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). The CGD was cured after the second transplantation, but 2.5 years later he was diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Examinations of his DNA, muscle tissue, and myoblast cultures derived from muscle tissue were performed to determine whether any donor dystrophin was being expressed. The boy was found to have a large-scale deletion on the X chromosome that spanned the loci for CYBB and DMD. The absence of dystrophin led to muscle histology characteristic of DMD. Analysis of myofibers demonstrated no definite donor cell engraftment. This case suggests that umbilical cord-derived hematopoietic stem cell transplantation will not be efficacious in the therapy of DMD without additional interventions that induce engraftment of donor cells in skeletal muscle.

  3. A missense mutation in the dystrophin gene in a Duchenne muscular dystrophy patient.

    PubMed

    Prior, T W; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Burghes, A H; Bartolo, C; Sedra, M S; Western, L M; Mendell, J R

    1993-08-01

    About two thirds of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients have either gene deletions or duplications. The other DMD cases are most likely the result of point mutations that cannot be easily identified by current strategies. Utilizing a heteroduplex technique and direct sequencing of amplified products, we screened our nondeletion/duplication DMD population for point mutations. We now describe what we believe to be the first dystrophin missense mutation in a DMD patient. The mutation results in the substitution of an evolutionarily conserved leucine to arginine in the actin-binding domain. The patient makes a dystrophin protein which is properly localized and is present at a higher level than is observed in DMD patients. This suggests that an intact actin-binding domain is necessary for protein stability and essential for function.

  4. Dystrophin gene replacement and gene repair therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy in 2016.

    PubMed

    Duan, Dongsheng

    2016-03-04

    After years of relentless efforts, gene therapy has now begun to deliver its therapeutic promise in several diseases. A number of gene therapy products have received regulatory approval in Europe and Asia. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked inherited lethal muscle disease. It is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Replacing and/or repair the mutated dystrophin gene holds great promises to treated DMD at the genetic level. Last several years have evidenced significant developments in preclinical experimentations in murine and canine models of DMD. There has been a strong interest in moving these promising findings to clinical trials. In light of rapid progress in this field, the Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy (PPMD) recently interviewed me on the current status of DMD gene therapy. Here I summarized the interview with PPMD.

  5. Dystrophin Gene Replacement and Gene Repair Therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy in 2016: An Interview.

    PubMed

    Duan, Dongsheng

    2016-03-01

    After years of relentless efforts, gene therapy has now begun to deliver its therapeutic promise in several diseases. A number of gene therapy products have received regulatory approval in Europe and Asia. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked inherited lethal muscle disease. It is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Replacing and/or repairing the mutated dystrophin gene holds great promises to treated DMD at the genetic level. Last several years have evidenced significant developments in preclinical experimentations in murine and canine models of DMD. There has been a strong interest in moving these promising findings to clinical trials. In light of rapid progress in this field, the Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy (PPMD) recently interviewed me on the current status of DMD gene therapy and readiness for clinical trials. Here I summarized the interview with PPMD.

  6. Becker muscular dystrophy severity is linked to the structure of dystrophin.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Aurélie; Raguénès-Nicol, Céline; Ben Yaou, Rabah; Ameziane-Le Hir, Sarah; Chéron, Angélique; Vié, Véronique; Claustres, Mireille; Leturcq, France; Delalande, Olivier; Hubert, Jean-François; Tuffery-Giraud, Sylvie; Giudice, Emmanuel; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth

    2015-03-01

    In-frame exon deletions of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene produce internally truncated proteins that typically lead to Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), a milder allelic disorder of DMD. We hypothesized that differences in the structure of mutant dystrophin may be responsible for the clinical heterogeneity observed in Becker patients and we studied four prevalent in-frame exon deletions, i.e. Δ45-47, Δ45-48, Δ45-49 and Δ45-51. Molecular homology modelling revealed that the proteins corresponding to deletions Δ45-48 and Δ45-51 displayed a similar structure (hybrid repeat) than the wild-type dystrophin, whereas deletions Δ45-47 and Δ45-49 lead to proteins with an unrelated structure (fractional repeat). All four proteins in vitro expressed in a fragment encoding repeats 16-21 were folded in α-helices and remained highly stable. Refolding dynamics were slowed and molecular surface hydrophobicity were higher in fractional repeat containing Δ45-47 and Δ45-49 deletions compared with hybrid repeat containing Δ45-48 and Δ45-51 deletions. By retrospectively collecting data for a series of French BMD patients, we showed that the age of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) onset was delayed by 11 and 14 years in Δ45-48 and Δ45-49 compared with Δ45-47 patients, respectively. A clear trend toward earlier wheelchair dependency (minimum of 11 years) was also observed in Δ45-47 and Δ45-49 patients compared with Δ45-48 patients. Muscle dystrophin levels were moderately reduced in most patients without clear correlation with the deletion type. Disease progression in BMD patients appears to be dependent on the deletion itself and associated with a specific structure of dystrophin at the deletion site.

  7. Identification of disease specific pathways using in vivo SILAC proteomics in dystrophin deficient mdx mouse.

    PubMed

    Rayavarapu, Sree; Coley, William; Cakir, Erdinc; Jahnke, Vanessa; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Aoki, Yoshitsugu; Grodish-Dressman, Heather; Jaiswal, Jyoti K; Hoffman, Eric P; Brown, Kristy J; Hathout, Yetrib; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2013-05-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked neuromuscular disorder caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. DMD is characterized by progressive weakness of skeletal, cardiac, and respiratory muscles. The molecular mechanisms underlying dystrophy-associated muscle weakness and damage are not well understood. Quantitative proteomics techniques could help to identify disease-specific pathways. Recent advances in the in vivo labeling strategies such as stable isotope labeling in mouse (SILAC mouse) with (13)C6-lysine or stable isotope labeling in mammals (SILAM) with (15)N have enabled accurate quantitative analysis of the proteomes of whole organs and tissues as a function of disease. Here we describe the use of the SILAC mouse strategy to define the underlying pathological mechanisms in dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle. Differential SILAC proteome profiling was performed on the gastrocnemius muscles of 3-week-old (early stage) dystrophin-deficient mdx mice and wild-type (normal) mice. The generated data were further confirmed in an independent set of mdx and normal mice using a SILAC spike-in strategy. A total of 789 proteins were quantified; of these, 73 were found to be significantly altered between mdx and normal mice (p < 0.05). Bioinformatics analyses using Ingenuity Pathway software established that the integrin-linked kinase pathway, actin cytoskeleton signaling, mitochondrial energy metabolism, and calcium homeostasis are the pathways initially affected in dystrophin-deficient muscle at early stages of pathogenesis. The key proteins involved in these pathways were validated by means of immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry in independent sets of mdx mice and in human DMD muscle biopsies. The specific involvement of these molecular networks early in dystrophic pathology makes them potential therapeutic targets. In sum, our findings indicate that SILAC mouse strategy has uncovered previously unidentified pathological pathways in mouse models of

  8. Ex vivo stretch reveals altered mechanical properties of isolated dystrophin-deficient hearts.

    PubMed

    Barnabei, Matthew S; Metzger, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive and fatal disease of muscle wasting caused by loss of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. In the heart, DMD results in progressive cardiomyopathy and dilation of the left ventricle through mechanisms that are not fully understood. Previous reports have shown that loss of dystrophin causes sarcolemmal instability and reduced mechanical compliance of isolated cardiac myocytes. To expand upon these findings, here we have subjected the left ventricles of dystrophin-deficient mdx hearts to mechanical stretch. Unexpectedly, isolated mdx hearts showed increased left ventricular (LV) compliance compared to controls during stretch as LV volume was increased above normal end diastolic volume. During LV chamber distention, sarcomere lengths increased similarly in mdx and WT hearts despite greater excursions in volume of mdx hearts. This suggests that the mechanical properties of the intact heart cannot be modeled as a simple extrapolation of findings in single cardiac myocytes. To explain these findings, a model is proposed in which disruption of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex perturbs cell-extracellular matrix contacts and promotes the apparent slippage of myocytes past each other during LV distension. In comparison, similar increases in LV compliance were obtained in isolated hearts from β-sarcoglycan-null and laminin-α(2) mutant mice, but not in dysferlin-null mice, suggesting that increased whole-organ compliance in mdx mice is a specific effect of disrupted cell-extracellular matrix contacts and not a general consequence of cardiomyopathy via membrane defect processes. Collectively, these findings suggest a novel and cell-death independent mechanism for the progressive pathological LV dilation that occurs in DMD.

  9. Intellectual Ability in the Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Dystrophin Gene Mutation Location

    PubMed Central

    Milic Rasic, V; Vojinovic, D; Pesovic, J; Mijalkovic, G; Lukic, V; Mladenovic, J; Kosac, A; Novakovic, I; Maksimovic, N; Romac, S; Todorovic, S; Savic Pavicevic, D

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy during childhood. Mutations in dystrophin (DMD) gene are also recognized as a cause of cognitive impairment. We aimed to determine the association between intelligence level and mutation location in DMD genes in Serbian patients with DMD. Forty-one male patients with DMD, aged 3 to 16 years, were recruited at the Clinic for Neurology and Psychiatry for Children and Youth in Belgrade, Serbia. All patients had defined DMD gene deletions or duplications [multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR)] and cognitive status assessment (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Brunet-Lezine scale, Vineland-Doll scale). In 37 patients with an estimated full scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), six (16.22%) had borderline intelligence (70dystrophin isoforms and when mutations in the 5′-untranslated region (5′UTR) of Dp140 (exons 45–50) were assigned to affect only Dp427 and Dp260. Mutations affecting Dp140 and Dp71/Dp40 have been associated with more frequent and more severe cognitive impairment. Finally, the same classification of mutations explained the greater proportion of FSIQ variability associated with cumulative loss of dystrophin isoforms. In conclusion, cumulative loss of dystrophin isoforms increases the risk of intellectual impairment in DMD and characterizing the genotype can define necessity of early cognitive interventions in DMD patients. PMID:25937795

  10. Correction of dystrophin expression in cells from Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients through genomic excision of exon 51 by zinc finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Ousterout, David G; Kabadi, Ami M; Thakore, Pratiksha I; Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Brown, Matthew T; Majoros, William H; Reddy, Timothy E; Gersbach, Charles A

    2015-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by genetic mutations that result in the absence of dystrophin protein expression. Oligonucleotide-induced exon skipping can restore the dystrophin reading frame and protein production. However, this requires continuous drug administration and may not generate complete skipping of the targeted exon. In this study, we apply genome editing with zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) to permanently remove essential splicing sequences in exon 51 of the dystrophin gene and thereby exclude exon 51 from the resulting dystrophin transcript. This approach can restore the dystrophin reading frame in ~13% of DMD patient mutations. Transfection of two ZFNs targeted to sites flanking the exon 51 splice acceptor into DMD patient myoblasts led to deletion of this genomic sequence. A clonal population was isolated with this deletion and following differentiation we confirmed loss of exon 51 from the dystrophin mRNA transcript and restoration of dystrophin protein expression. Furthermore, transplantation of corrected cells into immunodeficient mice resulted in human dystrophin expression localized to the sarcolemmal membrane. Finally, we quantified ZFN toxicity in human cells and mutagenesis at predicted off-target sites. This study demonstrates a powerful method to restore the dystrophin reading frame and protein expression by permanently deleting exons.

  11. Correction of Dystrophin Expression in Cells From Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patients Through Genomic Excision of Exon 51 by Zinc Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Ousterout, David G; Kabadi, Ami M; Thakore, Pratiksha I; Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Brown, Matthew T; Majoros, William H; Reddy, Timothy E; Gersbach, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by genetic mutations that result in the absence of dystrophin protein expression. Oligonucleotide-induced exon skipping can restore the dystrophin reading frame and protein production. However, this requires continuous drug administration and may not generate complete skipping of the targeted exon. In this study, we apply genome editing with zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) to permanently remove essential splicing sequences in exon 51 of the dystrophin gene and thereby exclude exon 51 from the resulting dystrophin transcript. This approach can restore the dystrophin reading frame in ~13% of DMD patient mutations. Transfection of two ZFNs targeted to sites flanking the exon 51 splice acceptor into DMD patient myoblasts led to deletion of this genomic sequence. A clonal population was isolated with this deletion and following differentiation we confirmed loss of exon 51 from the dystrophin mRNA transcript and restoration of dystrophin protein expression. Furthermore, transplantation of corrected cells into immunodeficient mice resulted in human dystrophin expression localized to the sarcolemmal membrane. Finally, we quantified ZFN toxicity in human cells and mutagenesis at predicted off-target sites. This study demonstrates a powerful method to restore the dystrophin reading frame and protein expression by permanently deleting exons. PMID:25492562

  12. Absence of Glial α-Dystrobrevin Causes Abnormalities of the Blood-Brain Barrier and Progressive Brain Edema*

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Chun Fu; Mohanta, Sarajo Kumar; Frontczak-Baniewicz, Malgorzata; Swinny, Jerome D.; Zablocka, Barbara; Górecki, Dariusz C.

    2012-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a key role in maintaining brain functionality. Although mammalian BBB is formed by endothelial cells, its function requires interactions between endotheliocytes and glia. To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in these interactions is currently a major challenge. We show here that α-dystrobrevin (α-DB), a protein contributing to dystrophin-associated protein scaffolds in astrocytic endfeet, is essential for the formation and functioning of BBB. The absence of α-DB in null brains resulted in abnormal brain capillary permeability, progressively escalating brain edema, and damage of the neurovascular unit. Analyses in situ and in two-dimensional and three-dimensional in vitro models of BBB containing α-DB-null astrocytes demonstrated these abnormalities to be associated with loss of aquaporin-4 water and Kir4.1 potassium channels from glial endfeet, formation of intracellular vacuoles in α-DB-null astrocytes, and defects of the astrocyte-endothelial interactions. These caused deregulation of tight junction proteins in the endothelia. Importantly, α-DB but not dystrophins showed continuous expression throughout development in BBB models. Thus, α-DB emerges as a central organizer of dystrophin-associated protein in glial endfeet and a rare example of a glial protein with a role in maintaining BBB function. Its abnormalities might therefore lead to BBB dysfunction. PMID:23043099

  13. In silico analyses of dystrophin Dp40 cellular distribution, nuclear export signals and structure modeling

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Herrera, Alejandro; Aragón, Jorge; Bermúdez-Cruz, Rosa Ma.; Bazán, Ma. Luisa; Soid-Raggi, Gabriela; Ceja, Víctor; Santos Coy-Arechavaleta, Andrea; Alemán, Víctor; Depardón, Francisco; Montañez, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Dystrophin Dp40 is the shortest protein encoded by the DMD (Duchenne muscular dystrophy) gene. This protein is unique since it lacks the C-terminal end of dystrophins. In this data article, we describe the subcellular localization, nuclear export signals and the three-dimensional structure modeling of putative Dp40 proteins using bioinformatics tools. The Dp40 wild type protein was predicted as a cytoplasmic protein while the Dp40n4 was predicted to be nuclear. Changes L93P and L170P are involved in the nuclear localization of Dp40n4 protein. A close analysis of Dp40 protein scored that amino acids 93LEQEHNNLV101 and 168LLLHDSIQI176 could function as NES sequences and the scores are lost in Dp40n4. In addition, the changes L93/170P modify the tertiary structure of putative Dp40 mutants. The analysis showed that changes of residues 93 and 170 from leucine to proline allow the nuclear localization of Dp40 proteins. The data described here are related to the research article entitled “EF-hand domains are involved in the differential cellular distribution of dystrophin Dp40” (J. Aragón et al. Neurosci. Lett. 600 (2015) 115–120) [1]. PMID:26217814

  14. Functional disruption of the dystrophin gene in rhesus monkey using CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongchang; Zheng, Yinghui; Kang, Yu; Yang, Weili; Niu, Yuyu; Guo, Xiangyu; Tu, Zhuchi; Si, Chenyang; Wang, Hong; Xing, Ruxiao; Pu, Xiuqiong; Yang, Shang-Hsun; Li, Shihua; Ji, Weizhi; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-07-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 has been used to genetically modify genomes in a variety of species, including non-human primates. Unfortunately, this new technology does cause mosaic mutations, and we do not yet know whether such mutations can functionally disrupt the targeted gene or cause the pathology seen in human disease. Addressing these issues is necessary if we are to generate large animal models of human diseases using CRISPR/Cas9. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 to target the monkey dystrophin gene to create mutations that lead to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a recessive X-linked form of muscular dystrophy. Examination of the relative targeting rate revealed that Crispr/Cas9 targeting could lead to mosaic mutations in up to 87% of the dystrophin alleles in monkey muscle. Moreover, CRISPR/Cas9 induced mutations in both male and female monkeys, with the markedly depleted dystrophin and muscle degeneration seen in early DMD. Our findings indicate that CRISPR/Cas9 can efficiently generate monkey models of human diseases, regardless of inheritance patterns. The presence of degenerated muscle cells in newborn Cas9-targeted monkeys suggests that therapeutic interventions at the early disease stage may be effective at alleviating the myopathy.

  15. CRISPR-mediated Genome Editing Restores Dystrophin Expression and Function in mdx Mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Park, Ki Ho; Zhao, Lixia; Xu, Jing; El Refaey, Mona; Gao, Yandi; Zhu, Hua; Ma, Jianjie; Han, Renzhi

    2016-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a degenerative muscle disease caused by genetic mutations that lead to the disruption of dystrophin in muscle fibers. There is no curative treatment for this devastating disease. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) has emerged as a powerful tool for genetic manipulation and potential therapy. Here we demonstrate that CRIPSR-mediated genome editing efficiently excised a 23-kb genomic region on the X-chromosome covering the mutant exon 23 in a mouse model of DMD, and restored dystrophin expression and the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex at the sarcolemma of skeletal muscles in live mdx mice. Electroporation-mediated transfection of the Cas9/gRNA constructs in the skeletal muscles of mdx mice normalized the calcium sparks in response to osmotic shock. Adenovirus-mediated transduction of Cas9/gRNA greatly reduced the Evans blue dye uptake of skeletal muscles at rest and after downhill treadmill running. This study provides proof evidence for permanent gene correction in DMD.

  16. Obscurin is required for ankyrinB-dependent dystrophin localization and sarcolemma integrity

    PubMed Central

    Randazzo, Davide; Giacomello, Emiliana; Lorenzini, Stefania; Rossi, Daniela; Pierantozzi, Enrico; Blaauw, Bert; Reggiani, Carlo; Lange, Stephan; Peter, Angela K.; Chen, Ju

    2013-01-01

    Obscurin is a large myofibrillar protein that contains several interacting modules, one of which mediates binding to muscle-specific ankyrins. Interaction between obscurin and the muscle-specific ankyrin sAnk1.5 regulates the organization of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in striated muscles. Additional muscle-specific ankyrin isoforms, ankB and ankG, are localized at the subsarcolemma level, at which they contribute to the organization of dystrophin and β-dystroglycan at costameres. In this paper, we report that in mice deficient for obscurin, ankB was displaced from its localization at the M band, whereas localization of ankG at the Z disk was not affected. In obscurin KO mice, localization at costameres of dystrophin, but not of β-dystroglycan, was altered, and the subsarcolemma microtubule cytoskeleton was disrupted. In addition, these mutant mice displayed marked sarcolemmal fragility and reduced muscle exercise tolerance. Altogether, the results support a model in which obscurin, by targeting ankB at the M band, contributes to the organization of subsarcolemma microtubules, localization of dystrophin at costameres, and maintenance of sarcolemmal integrity. PMID:23420875

  17. Tissue- and case-specific retention of intron 40 in mature dystrophin mRNA.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Atsushi; Minegishi, Maki; Takeuchi, Atsuko; Niba, Emma Tabe Eko; Awano, Hiroyuki; Lee, Tomoko; Iijima, Kazumoto; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2015-06-01

    The dystrophin gene, which is mutated in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), comprises 79 exons that show multiple alternative splicing events. Intron retention, a type of alternative splicing, may control gene expression. We examined intron retention in dystrophin introns by reverse-transcription PCR from skeletal muscle, focusing on the nine shortest (all <1000 bp), because these are more likely to be retained. Only one, intron 40, was retained in mRNA; sequencing revealed insertion of a complete intron 40 (851 nt) between exons 40 and 41. The intron 40 retention product accounted for 1.2% of the total product but had a premature stop codon at the fifth intronic codon. Intron 40 retention was most strongly observed in the kidney (36.6%) and was not obtained from the fetal liver, lung, spleen or placenta. This indicated that intron retention is a tissue-specific event whose level varies among tissues. In two DMD patients, intron 40 retention was observed in one patient but not in the other. Examination of splicing regulatory factors revealed that intron 40 had the highest guanine-cytosine content of all examined introns in a 30-nt segment at its 3' end. Further studies are needed to clarify the biological role of intron 40-retained dystrophin mRNA.

  18. Truncated dystrophins reduce muscle stiffness in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of mdx mice

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Chady H.

    2013-01-01

    Muscle stiffness is a major clinical feature in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). DMD is the most common lethal inherited muscle-wasting disease in boys, and it is caused by the lack of the dystrophin protein. We recently showed that the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of mdx mice (a DMD mouse model) exhibits disease-associated muscle stiffness. Truncated micro- and mini-dystrophins are the leading candidates for DMD gene therapy. Unfortunately, it has never been clear whether these truncated genes can mitigate muscle stiffness. To address this question, we examined the passive properties of the EDL muscle in transgenic mdx mice that expressed a representative mini- or micro-gene (ΔH2-R15, ΔR2-15/ΔR18-23/ΔC, or ΔR4-23/ΔC). The passive properties were measured at the ages of 6 and 20 mo and compared with those of age-matched wild-type and mdx mice. Despite significant truncation of the gene, surprisingly, the elastic and viscous properties were completely restored to the wild-type level in every transgenic strain we examined. Our results demonstrated for the first time that truncated dystrophin genes may effectively treat muscle stiffness in DMD. PMID:23221959

  19. Becker muscular dystrophy due to an intronic splicing mutation inducing a dual dystrophin transcript.

    PubMed

    Todeschini, Alice; Gualandi, Francesca; Trabanelli, Cecilia; Armaroli, Annarita; Ravani, Anna; Fanin, Marina; Rota, Silvia; Bello, Luca; Ferlini, Alessandra; Pegoraro, Elena; Padovani, Alessandro; Filosto, Massimiliano

    2016-10-01

    We describe a 29-year-old patient who complained of left thigh muscle weakness since he was 23 and of moderate proximal weakness of both lower limbs with difficulty in climbing stairs and running since he was 27. Mild weakness of iliopsoas and quadriceps muscles and muscle atrophy of both the distal forearm and thigh were observed upon clinical examination. He harboured a novel c.1150-3C>G substitution in the DMD gene, affecting the intron 10 acceptor splice site and causing exon 11 skipping and an out-of-frame transcript. However, protein of normal molecular weight but in reduced amounts was observed on Western Blot analysis. Reverse transcription analysis on muscle RNA showed production, via alternative splicing, of a transcript missing exon 11 as well as a low abundant full-length transcript which is enough to avoid the severe Duchenne phenotype. Our study showed that a reduced amount of full length dystrophin leads to a mild form of Becker muscular dystrophy. These results confirm earlier findings that low amounts of dystrophin can be associated with a milder phenotype, which is promising for therapies aiming at dystrophin restoration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. CRISPR-mediated Genome Editing Restores Dystrophin Expression and Function in mdx Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Park, Ki Ho; Zhao, Lixia; Xu, Jing; El Refaey, Mona; Gao, Yandi; Zhu, Hua; Ma, Jianjie; Han, Renzhi

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a degenerative muscle disease caused by genetic mutations that lead to the disruption of dystrophin in muscle fibers. There is no curative treatment for this devastating disease. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) has emerged as a powerful tool for genetic manipulation and potential therapy. Here we demonstrate that CRIPSR-mediated genome editing efficiently excised a 23-kb genomic region on the X-chromosome covering the mutant exon 23 in a mouse model of DMD, and restored dystrophin expression and the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex at the sarcolemma of skeletal muscles in live mdx mice. Electroporation-mediated transfection of the Cas9/gRNA constructs in the skeletal muscles of mdx mice normalized the calcium sparks in response to osmotic shock. Adenovirus-mediated transduction of Cas9/gRNA greatly reduced the Evans blue dye uptake of skeletal muscles at rest and after downhill treadmill running. This study provides proof evidence for permanent gene correction in DMD. PMID:26449883

  1. Loss of dystrophin staining in cardiomyocytes: a novel method for detection early myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Satwat; Al-Salam, Suhail

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is the most frequent diagnosis made in majority of sudden death cases subjected to clinical and medicolegal autopsies. When sudden death occurs at a very early stage of MI, traditional macroscopic examination, or histological stains cannot easily detect the myocardial changes. For this reason we propose a new method for detecting MI at an early stage. Murine model of MI was used to induce MI through permanent ligation of left anterior descending branch of left coronary artery. Five groups of C57B6/J mice were used for inducing MI, which includes 20 minutes, 30 minutes, one hour, four hours and 24 hours post MI groups. One naïve group and sham-operated groups were used as controls. There is loss of dystrophin membranous staining in cardiac myocytes occurs as early as 20 minutes post myocardial infarction. This can be used as a novel method to diagnose early myocardial infarction in post mortem cases where diagnosis is unclear. In conclusion, evaluation of immunohistochemical expression of dystrophin represents a highly sensitive method for detecting early myocardial infarction due to the loss of staining in the infarcted areas. Dystrophin immunostaining can also be used to assess myocardial architecture. PMID:23330010

  2. Postnatal genome editing partially restores dystrophin expression in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Long, Chengzu; Amoasii, Leonela; Mireault, Alex A; McAnally, John R; Li, Hui; Sanchez-Ortiz, Efrain; Bhattacharyya, Samadrita; Shelton, John M; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

    2016-01-22

    CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing holds clinical potential for treating genetic diseases, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. To correct DMD by skipping mutant dystrophin exons in postnatal muscle tissue in vivo, we used adeno-associated virus-9 (AAV9) to deliver gene-editing components to postnatal mdx mice, a model of DMD. Different modes of AAV9 delivery were systematically tested, including intraperitoneal at postnatal day 1 (P1), intramuscular at P12, and retro-orbital at P18. Each of these methods restored dystrophin protein expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle to varying degrees, and expression increased from 3 to 12 weeks after injection. Postnatal gene editing also enhanced skeletal muscle function, as measured by grip strength tests 4 weeks after injection. This method provides a potential means of correcting mutations responsible for DMD and other monogenic disorders after birth. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Functional disruption of the dystrophin gene in rhesus monkey using CRISPR/Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongchang; Zheng, Yinghui; Kang, Yu; Yang, Weili; Niu, Yuyu; Guo, Xiangyu; Tu, Zhuchi; Si, Chenyang; Wang, Hong; Xing, Ruxiao; Pu, Xiuqiong; Yang, Shang-Hsun; Li, Shihua; Ji, Weizhi; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 has been used to genetically modify genomes in a variety of species, including non-human primates. Unfortunately, this new technology does cause mosaic mutations, and we do not yet know whether such mutations can functionally disrupt the targeted gene or cause the pathology seen in human disease. Addressing these issues is necessary if we are to generate large animal models of human diseases using CRISPR/Cas9. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 to target the monkey dystrophin gene to create mutations that lead to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a recessive X-linked form of muscular dystrophy. Examination of the relative targeting rate revealed that Crispr/Cas9 targeting could lead to mosaic mutations in up to 87% of the dystrophin alleles in monkey muscle. Moreover, CRISPR/Cas9 induced mutations in both male and female monkeys, with the markedly depleted dystrophin and muscle degeneration seen in early DMD. Our findings indicate that CRISPR/Cas9 can efficiently generate monkey models of human diseases, regardless of inheritance patterns. The presence of degenerated muscle cells in newborn Cas9-targeted monkeys suggests that therapeutic interventions at the early disease stage may be effective at alleviating the myopathy. PMID:25859012

  4. Gene therapies that restore dystrophin expression for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Robinson-Hamm, Jacqueline N; Gersbach, Charles A

    2016-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is one of the most common inherited genetic diseases and is caused by mutations to the DMD gene that encodes the dystrophin protein. Recent advances in genome editing and gene therapy offer hope for the development of potential therapeutics. Truncated versions of the DMD gene can be delivered to the affected tissues with viral vectors and show promising results in a variety of animal models. Genome editing with the CRISPR/Cas9 system has recently been used to restore dystrophin expression by deleting one or more exons of the DMD gene in patient cells and in a mouse model that led to functional improvement of muscle strength. Exon skipping with oligonucleotides has been successful in several animal models and evaluated in multiple clinical trials. Next-generation oligonucleotide formulations offer significant promise to build on these results. All these approaches to restoring dystrophin expression are encouraging, but many hurdles remain. This review summarizes the current state of these technologies and summarizes considerations for their future development.

  5. Innovative interactive flexible docking method for multi-scale reconstruction elucidates dystrophin molecular assembly.

    PubMed

    Molza, A-E; Férey, N; Czjzek, M; Le Rumeur, E; Hubert, J-F; Tek, A; Laurent, B; Baaden, M; Delalande, O

    2014-01-01

    At present, our molecular knowledge of dystrophin, the protein encoded by the DMD gene and mutated in myopathy patients, remains limited. To get around the absence of its atomic structure, we have developed an innovative interactive docking method based on the BioSpring software in combination with Small-angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) data. BioSpring allows interactive handling of biological macromolecules thanks to an augmented Elastic Network Model (aENM) that combines the spring network with non-bonded terms between atoms or pseudo-atoms. This approach can be used for building molecular assemblies even on a desktop or a laptop computer thanks to code optimizations including parallel computing and GPU programming. By combining atomistic and coarse-grained models, the approach significantly simplifies the set-up of multi-scale scenarios. BioSpring is remarkably efficient for the preparation of numeric simulations or for the design of biomolecular models integrating qualitative experimental data restraints. The combination of this program and SAXS allowed us to propose the first high-resolution models of the filamentous central domain of dystrophin, covering repeats 11 to 17. Low-resolution interactive docking experiments driven by a potential grid enabled us to propose how dystrophin may associate with F-actin and nNOS. This information provides an insight into medically relevant discoveries to come.

  6. Immobilization and therapeutic passive stretching generate thickening and increase the expression of laminin and dystrophin in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cação-Benedini, L.O.; Ribeiro, P.G.; Prado, C.M.; Chesca, D.L.; Mattiello-Sverzut, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix and costamere proteins transmit the concentric, isometric, and eccentric forces produced by active muscle contraction. The expression of these proteins after application of passive tension stimuli to muscle remains unknown. This study investigated the expression of laminin and dystrophin in the soleus muscle of rats immobilized with the right ankle in plantar flexion for 10 days and subsequent remobilization, either by isolated free movement in a cage or associated with passive stretching for up to 10 days. The intensity of the macrophage response was also evaluated. One hundred and twenty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups: free for 10 days; immobilized for 10 days; immobilized/free for 1, 3, or 10 days; or immobilized/stretched/free for 1, 3, or 10 days. After the experimental procedures, muscle tissue was processed for immunofluorescence (dystrophin/laminin/CD68) and Western blot analysis (dystrophin/laminin). Immobilization increased the expression of dystrophin and laminin but did not alter the number of macrophages in the muscle. In the stretched muscle groups, there was an increase in dystrophin and the number of macrophages after 3 days compared with the other groups; dystrophin showed a discontinuous labeling pattern, and laminin was found in the intracellular space. The amount of laminin was increased in the muscles treated by immobilization followed by free movement for 10 days. In the initial stages of postimmobilization (1 and 3 days), an exacerbated macrophage response and an increase of dystrophin suggested that the therapeutic stretching technique induced additional stress in the muscle fibers and costameres. PMID:24820070

  7. Immobilization and therapeutic passive stretching generate thickening and increase the expression of laminin and dystrophin in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Cação-Benedini, L O; Ribeiro, P G; Prado, C M; Chesca, D L; Mattiello-Sverzut, A C

    2014-06-01

    Extracellular matrix and costamere proteins transmit the concentric, isometric, and eccentric forces produced by active muscle contraction. The expression of these proteins after application of passive tension stimuli to muscle remains unknown. This study investigated the expression of laminin and dystrophin in the soleus muscle of rats immobilized with the right ankle in plantar flexion for 10 days and subsequent remobilization, either by isolated free movement in a cage or associated with passive stretching for up to 10 days. The intensity of the macrophage response was also evaluated. One hundred and twenty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups: free for 10 days; immobilized for 10 days; immobilized/free for 1, 3, or 10 days; or immobilized/stretched/free for 1, 3, or 10 days. After the experimental procedures, muscle tissue was processed for immunofluorescence (dystrophin/laminin/CD68) and Western blot analysis (dystrophin/laminin). Immobilization increased the expression of dystrophin and laminin but did not alter the number of macrophages in the muscle. In the stretched muscle groups, there was an increase in dystrophin and the number of macrophages after 3 days compared with the other groups; dystrophin showed a discontinuous labeling pattern, and laminin was found in the intracellular space. The amount of laminin was increased in the muscles treated by immobilization followed by free movement for 10 days. In the initial stages of postimmobilization (1 and 3 days), an exacerbated macrophage response and an increase of dystrophin suggested that the therapeutic stretching technique induced additional stress in the muscle fibers and costameres.

  8. Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) caused by duplication of exons 3-6 of the dystrophin gene presenting as dilated cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, A.C.; Allingham-Hawkins, D.J.; Becker, L.

    1994-09-01

    X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy (XLCM) is a progressive myocardial disease presenting with congestive heart failure in teenage males without clinical signs of skeletal myopathy. Tight linkage of XLCM to the DMD locus has been demonstrated; it has been suggested that, at least in some families, XLCM is a {open_quotes}dystrophinopathy.{close_quotes} We report a 14-year-old boy who presented with acute heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy. He had no history of muscle weakness, but physical examination revealed pseudohypertrophy of the calf muscles. He subsequently received a heart transplantation. Family history was negative. Serum CK level at the time of diagnosis was 10,416. Myocardial biopsy showed no evidence of carditis. Dystrophin staining of cardiac and skeletal muscle with anti-sera to COOH and NH{sub 2}termini showed a patchy distribution of positivity suggestive of Becker muscular dystrophy. Analysis of 18 of the 79 dystrophin exons detected a duplication that included exons 3-6. The proband`s mother has an elevated serum CK and was confirmed to be a carrier of the same duplication. A mutation in the muscle promotor region of the dystrophin gene has been implicated in the etiology of SLCM. However, Towbin et al. (1991) argued that other 5{prime} mutations in the dystrophin gene could cause selective cardiomyopathy. The findings in our patient support the latter hypothesis. This suggests that there are multiple regions in the dystrophin gene which, when disrupted, can cause isolated dilated cardiomyopathy.

  9. Characterization of genetic deletions in Becker muscular dystrophy using monoclonal antibodies against a deletion-prone region of dystrophin

    SciTech Connect

    Thanh, L.T.; Man, Nguyen Thi; Morris, G.E.

    1995-08-28

    We have produced a new panel of 20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against a region of the dystrophin protein corresponding to a deletion-prone region of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene (exons 45-50). We show that immunohistochemistry or Western blotting with these {open_quotes}exon-specific{close_quotes} mAbs can provide a valuable addition to Southern blotting or PCR methods for the accurate identification of genetic deletions in Becker muscular dystrophy patients. The antibodies were mapped to the following exons: exon 45 (2 mAbs), exon 46 (6), exon 47 (1), exons 47/48 (4), exons 48-50 (6), and exon 50 (1). PCR amplification of single exons or groups of exons was used both to produce specific dystrophin immunogens and to map the mAbs obtained. PCR-mediated mutagenesis was also used to identify regions of dystrophin important for mAb binding. Because the mAbs can be used to characterize the dystrophin produced by individual muscle fibres, they will also be useful for studying {open_quotes}revertant{close_quotes} fibres in Duchenne muscle and for monitoring the results of myoblast therapy trials in MD patients with deletions in this region of the dystrophin gene. 27 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Cognitive dysfunction in the dystrophin-deficient mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy: A reappraisal from sensory to executive processes.

    PubMed

    Chaussenot, Rémi; Edeline, Jean-Marc; Le Bec, Benoit; El Massioui, Nicole; Laroche, Serge; Vaillend, Cyrille

    2015-10-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is associated with language disabilities and deficits in learning and memory, leading to intellectual disability in a patient subpopulation. Recent studies suggest the presence of broader deficits affecting information processing, short-term memory and executive functions. While the absence of the full-length dystrophin (Dp427) is a common feature in all patients, variable mutation profiles may additionally alter distinct dystrophin-gene products encoded by separate promoters. However, the nature of the cognitive dysfunctions specifically associated with the loss of distinct brain dystrophins is unclear. Here we show that the loss of the full-length brain dystrophin in mdx mice does not modify the perception and sensorimotor gating of auditory inputs, as assessed using auditory brainstem recordings and prepulse inhibition of startle reflex. In contrast, both acquisition and long-term retention of cued and trace fear memories were impaired in mdx mice, suggesting alteration in a functional circuit including the amygdala. Spatial learning in the water maze revealed reduced path efficiency, suggesting qualitative alteration in mdx mice learning strategy. However, spatial working memory performance and cognitive flexibility challenged in various behavioral paradigms in water and radial-arm mazes were unimpaired. The full-length brain dystrophin therefore appears to play a role during acquisition of associative learning as well as in general processes involved in memory consolidation, but no overt involvement in working memory and/or executive functions could be demonstrated in spatial learning tasks.

  11. Mechanism of Deletion Removing All Dystrophin Exons in a Canine Model for DMD Implicates Concerted Evolution of X Chromosome Pseudogenes.

    PubMed

    VanBelzen, D Jake; Malik, Alock S; Henthorn, Paula S; Kornegay, Joe N; Stedman, Hansell H

    2017-03-17

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal, X-linked, muscle-wasting disorder caused by mutations in the large, 2.4-Mb dystrophin gene. The majority of DMD-causing mutations are sporadic, multi-exon, frameshifting deletions, with the potential for variable immunological tolerance to the dystrophin protein from patient to patient. While systemic gene therapy holds promise in the treatment of DMD, immune responses to vectors and transgenes must first be rigorously evaluated in informative preclinical models to ensure patient safety. A widely used canine model for DMD, golden retriever muscular dystrophy, expresses detectable amounts of near full-length dystrophin due to alternative splicing around an intronic point mutation, thereby confounding the interpretation of immune responses to dystrophin-derived gene therapies. Here we characterize a naturally occurring deletion in a dystrophin-null canine, the German shorthaired pointer. The deletion spans 5.6 Mb of the X chromosome and encompasses all coding exons of the DMD and TMEM47 genes. The sequences surrounding the deletion breakpoints are virtually identical, suggesting that the deletion occurred through a homologous recombination event. Interestingly, the deletion breakpoints are within loci that are syntenically conserved among mammals, yet the high homology among this subset of ferritin-like loci is unique to the canine genome, suggesting lineage-specific concerted evolution of these atypical sequence elements.

  12. In-frame dystrophin following exon 51-skipping improves muscle pathology and function in the exon 52-deficient mdx mouse.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yoshitsugu; Nakamura, Akinori; Yokota, Toshifumi; Saito, Takashi; Okazawa, Hitoshi; Nagata, Tetsuya; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2010-11-01

    A promising therapeutic approach for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is exon skipping using antisense oligonucleotides (AOs). In-frame deletions of the hinge 3 region of the dystrophin protein, which is encoded by exons 50 and 51, are predicted to cause a variety of phenotypes. Here, we performed functional analyses of muscle in the exon 52-deleted mdx (mdx52) mouse, to predict the function of in-frame dystrophin following exon 51-skipping, which leads to a protein lacking most of hinge 3. A series of AOs based on phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers was screened by intramuscular injection into mdx52 mice. The highest splicing efficiency was generated by a two-oligonucleotide cocktail targeting both the 5' and 3' splice sites of exon 51. After a dose-escalation study, we systemically delivered this cocktail into mdx52 mice seven times at weekly intervals. This induced 20-30% of wild-type (WT) dystrophin expression levels in all muscles, and was accompanied by amelioration of the dystrophic pathology and improvement of skeletal muscle function. Because the structure of the restored in-frame dystrophin resembles human dystrophin following exon 51-skipping, our results are encouraging for the ongoing clinical trials for DMD. Moreover, the therapeutic dose required can provide a suggestion of the theoretical equivalent dose for humans.

  13. Dystrophin/α1-syntrophin scaffold regulated PLC/PKC-dependent store-operated calcium entry in myotubes.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, Jessica; Harisseh, Rania; Harnois, Thomas; Magaud, Christophe; Bourmeyster, Nicolas; Déliot, Nadine; Constantin, Bruno

    2012-12-01

    In skeletal muscles from patient suffering of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and from mdx mice, the absence of the cytoskeleton protein dystrophin has been shown to be essential for maintaining a normal calcium influx. We showed that a TRPC store-dependent cation influx is increased by loss of dystrophin or a scaffolding protein α1-syntrophin, however the mechanisms of this calcium mishandling are incompletely understood. First of all, we confirmed that TRPC1 but also STIM1 and Orai1 are supporting the store-operated cation entry which is enhanced in dystrophin-deficient myotubes. Next, we demonstrated that inhibition of PLC or PKC in dystrophin-deficient myotubes restores elevated cation entry to normal levels similarly to enforced minidystrophin expression. In addition, silencing α1-syntrophin also increased cation influx in a PLC/PKC dependent pathway. We also showed that α1-syntrophin and PLCβ are part of a same protein complex reinforcing the idea of their inter-relation in calcium influx regulation. This elevated cation entry was decreased to normal levels by chelating intracellular free calcium with BAPTA-AM. Double treatments with BAPTA-AM and PLC or PKC inhibitors suggested that the elevation of cation influx by PLC/PKC pathway is dependent on cytosolic calcium. All these results demonstrate an involvement in dystrophin-deficient myotubes of a specific calcium/PKC/PLC pathway in elevation of store-operated cation influx supported by the STIM1/Orai1/TRPC1 proteins, which is normally regulated by the α1-syntrophin/dystrophin scaffold.

  14. Deletion of Dystrophin In-Frame Exon 5 Leads to a Severe Phenotype: Guidance for Exon Skipping Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Zhi Yon Charles; Thandar Aung-Htut, May; Pinniger, Gavin; Adams, Abbie M.; Krishnaswarmy, Sudarsan; Wong, Brenda L.; Fletcher, Sue; Wilton, Steve D.

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy severity depends upon the nature and location of the DMD gene lesion and generally correlates with the dystrophin open reading frame. However, there are striking exceptions where an in-frame genomic deletion leads to severe pathology or protein-truncating mutations (nonsense or frame-shifting indels) manifest as mild disease. Exceptions to the dystrophin reading frame rule are usually resolved after molecular diagnosis on muscle RNA. We report a moderate/severe Becker muscular dystrophy patient with an in-frame genomic deletion of DMD exon 5. This mutation has been reported by others as resulting in Duchenne or Intermediate muscular dystrophy, and the loss of this in-frame exon in one patient led to multiple splicing events, including omission of exon 6, that disrupts the open reading frame and is consistent with a severe phenotype. The patient described has a deletion of dystrophin exon 5 that does not compromise recognition of exon 6, and although the deletion does not disrupt the reading frame, his clinical presentation is more severe than would be expected for classical Becker muscular dystrophy. We suggest that the dystrophin isoform lacking the actin-binding sequence encoded by exon 5 is compromised, reflected by the phenotype resulting from induction of this dystrophin isoform in mouse muscle in vivo. Hence, exon skipping to address DMD-causing mutations within DMD exon 5 may not yield an isoform that confers marked clinical benefit. Additional studies will be required to determine whether multi-exon skipping strategies could yield more functional dystrophin isoforms, since some BMD patients with larger in-frame deletions in this region have been reported with mild phenotypes. PMID:26745801

  15. Screening of point mutations by multiple SSCP analysis in the dystrophin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Lasa, A.; Baiget, M.; Gallano, P.

    1994-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal, X-linked neuromuscular disorder. The population frequency of DMD is one in approximately 3500 boys, of which one third is thought to be a new mutant. The DMD gene is the largest known to date, spanning over 2,3 Mb in band Xp21.2; 79 exons are transcribed into a 14 Kb mRNA coding for a protein of 427 kD which has been named dystrophin. It has been shown that about 65% of affected boys have a gene deletion with a wide variation in localization and size. The remaining affected individuals who have no detectable deletions or duplications would probably carry more subtle mutations that are difficult to detect. These mutations occur in several different exons and seem to be unique to single patients. Their identification represents a formidable goal because of the large size and complexity of the dystrophin gene. SSCP is a very efficient method for the detection of point mutations if the parameters that affect the separation of the strands are optimized for a particular DNA fragment. The multiple SSCP allows the simultaneous study of several exons, and implies the use of different conditions because no single set of conditions will be optimal for all fragments. Seventy-eight DMD patients with no deletion or duplication in the dystrophin gene were selected for the multiple SSCP analysis. Genomic DNA from these patients was amplified using the primers described for the diagnosis procedure (muscle promoter and exons 3, 8, 12, 16, 17, 19, 32, 45, 48 and 51). We have observed different mobility shifts in bands corresponding to exons 8, 12, 43 and 51. In exons 17 and 45, altered electrophoretic patterns were found in different samples identifying polymorphisms already described.

  16. Relationships linking emotional, motor, cognitive and GABAergic dysfunctions in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Vaillend, Cyrille; Chaussenot, Rémi

    2017-03-15

    Alterations in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene have been associated with enhanced stress reactivity in vertebrate species, suggesting a role for brain dystrophin in fear-related behavioral and cognitive processes. Because the loss of dystrophin (Dp427) reduces clustering of central γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors, it is suspected that local inhibitory tuning and modulation of neuronal excitability are perturbed in a distributed brain circuit that normally controls such critical behavioral functions. In this study, we undertook a large-scale behavioral study to evaluate fear-related behavioral disturbances in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. We first characterized the behavioral determinants of the enhanced fearfulness displayed by mdx mice following mild acute stress and its association with increased anxiety and altered fear memories. We further demonstrated that this enhanced fearfulness induces long-lasting motor inhibition, suggesting that neurobehavioral dysfunctions significantly influence motor outcome measures in this model. We also found that mdx mice are more sensitive to the sedative and hypnotic effects of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol hydrochlorid (THIP), a selective pharmacological activator of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors involved in central tonic inhibition. Our results highlight that information on the emotional aspects of mdx mice are important to better understand the bases of intellectual and neuropsychiatric defects in DMD and to better define valuable functional readouts for preclinical studies. Our data also support the hypothesis that altered spatial localization of GABAA receptors due to Dp427 loss is a pathological mechanism associated with brain dysfunction in DMD, suggesting that extrasynaptic GABAA receptors might be candidate targets for future therapeutic developments. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Nanopolymers improve delivery of exon skipping oligonucleotides and concomitant dystrophin expression in skeletal muscle of mdx mice

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jason H; Schray, Rebecca C; Sirsi, Shashank R; Lutz, Gordon J

    2008-01-01

    Background Exon skipping oligonucleotides (ESOs) of 2'O-Methyl (2'OMe) and morpholino chemistry have been shown to restore dystrophin expression in muscle fibers from the mdx mouse, and are currently being tested in phase I clinical trials for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). However, ESOs remain limited in their effectiveness because of an inadequate delivery profile. Synthetic cationic copolymers of poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) are regarded as effective agents for enhanced delivery of nucleic acids in various applications. Results We examined whether PEG-PEI copolymers can facilitate ESO-mediated dystrophin expression after intramuscular injections into tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of mdx mice. We utilized a set of PEG-PEI copolymers containing 2 kDa PEI and either 550 Da or 5 kDa PEG, both of which bind 2'OMe ESOs with high affinity and form stable nanoparticulates with a relatively low surface charge. Three weekly intramuscular injections of 5 μg of ESO complexed with PEI2K-PEG550 copolymers resulted in about 500 dystrophin-positive fibers and about 12% of normal levels of dystrophin expression at 3 weeks after the initial injection, which is significantly greater than for injections of ESO alone, which are known to be almost completely ineffective. In an effort to enhance biocompatibility and cellular uptake, the PEI2K-PEG550 and PEI2K-PEG5K copolymers were functionalized by covalent conjugation with nanogold (NG) or adsorbtion of colloidal gold (CG), respectively. Surprisingly, using the same injection and dosing regimen, we found no significant difference in dystrophin expression by Western blot between the NG-PEI2K-PEG550, CG-PEI2K-PEG5K, and non-functionalized PEI2K-PEG550 copolymers. Dose-response experiments using the CG-PEI2K-PEG5K copolymer with total ESO ranging from 3–60 μg yielded a maximum of about 15% dystrophin expression. Further improvements in dystrophin expression up to 20% of normal levels were found at

  18. Fiber type composition of the sternomastoid and diaphragm muscles of dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Guido, Anderson Neri; Campos, Gerson Eduardo Rocha; Neto, Humberto Santo; Marques, Maria Julia; Minatel, Elaine

    2010-10-01

    The muscle fiber phenotype is mainly determined by motoneuron innervation and changes in neuromuscular interaction alter the muscle fiber type. In dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, changes in the molecular assembly of the neuromuscular junction and in nerve terminal sprouting occur in the sternomastoid (STN) muscle during early stages of the disease. In this study, we were interested to see whether early changes in neuromuscular assembly are correlated with alterations in fiber type in dystrophic STN at 2 months of age. A predominance of hybrid fast myofibers (about 52% type IIDB) was observed in control (C57Bl/10) STN. In mdx muscle, the lack of dystrophin did not change this profile (about 54% hybrid type IIDB). Pure fast type IID fibers predominated in normal and dystrophic diaphragm (DIA; about 39% in control and 30% in mdx muscle) and a population of slow Type I fibers was also present (about 10% in control and 13% in mdx muscle). In conclusion, early changes in neuromuscular assembly do not affect the fiber type composition of dystrophic STN. In contrast to the pure fast fibers of the more affected DIA, the hybrid phenotype of the STN may permit dynamic adaptations during progression of the disease.

  19. Fetal Skeletal Muscle Progenitors Have Regenerative Capacity after Intramuscular Engraftment in Dystrophin Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Hiroshi; Sato, Takahiko; Sakurai, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Takuya; Hanaoka, Kazunori; Montarras, Didier; Sehara-Fujisawa, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    Muscle satellite cells (SCs) are stem cells that reside in skeletal muscles and contribute to regeneration upon muscle injury. SCs arise from skeletal muscle progenitors expressing transcription factors Pax3 and/or Pax7 during embryogenesis in mice. However, it is unclear whether these fetal progenitors possess regenerative ability when transplanted in adult muscle. Here we address this question by investigating whether fetal skeletal muscle progenitors (FMPs) isolated from Pax3GFP/+ embryos have the capacity to regenerate muscle after engraftment into Dystrophin-deficient mice, a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The capacity of FMPs to engraft and enter the myogenic program in regenerating muscle was compared with that of SCs derived from adult Pax3GFP/+ mice. Transplanted FMPs contributed to the reconstitution of damaged myofibers in Dystrophin-deficient mice. However, despite FMPs and SCs having similar myogenic ability in culture, the regenerative ability of FMPs was less than that of SCs in vivo. FMPs that had activated MyoD engrafted more efficiently to regenerate myofibers than MyoD-negative FMPs. Transcriptome and surface marker analyses of these cells suggest the importance of myogenic priming for the efficient myogenic engraftment. Our findings suggest the regenerative capability of FMPs in the context of muscle repair and cell therapy for degenerative muscle disease. PMID:23671652

  20. Nonmechanical Roles of Dystrophin and Associated Proteins in Exercise, Neuromuscular Junctions, and Brains

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Bailey; Takeda, Shin’ichi; Yokota, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) is an important structural unit in skeletal muscle that connects the cytoskeleton (f-actin) of a muscle fiber to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Several muscular dystrophies, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Becker muscular dystrophy, congenital muscular dystrophies (dystroglycanopathies), and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (sarcoglycanopathies), are caused by mutations in the different DGC components. Although many early studies indicated DGC plays a crucial mechanical role in maintaining the structural integrity of skeletal muscle, recent studies identified novel roles of DGC. Beyond a mechanical role, these DGC members play important signaling roles and act as a scaffold for various signaling pathways. For example, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), which is localized at the muscle membrane by DGC members (dystrophin and syntrophins), plays an important role in the regulation of the blood flow during exercise. DGC also plays important roles at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and in the brain. In this review, we will focus on recently identified roles of DGC particularly in exercise and the brain. PMID:26230713

  1. Akt activation prevents the force drop induced by eccentric contractions in dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Blaauw, Bert; Mammucari, Cristina; Toniolo, Luana; Agatea, Lisa; Abraham, Reimar; Sandri, Marco; Reggiani, Carlo; Schiaffino, Stefano

    2008-12-01

    Skeletal muscles of the mdx mouse, a model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, show an excessive reduction in the maximal tetanic force following eccentric contractions. This specific sign of the susceptibility of dystrophin-deficient muscles to mechanical stress can be used as a quantitative test to measure the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Using inducible transgenesis in mice, we show that when Akt activity is increased the force drop induced by eccentric contractions in mdx mice becomes similar to that of wild-type mice. This effect is not correlated with muscle hypertrophy and is not blocked by rapamycin treatment. The force drop induced by eccentric contractions is similar in skinned muscle fibers from mdx and Akt-mdx mice when stretch is applied directly to skinned fibers. However, skinned fibers isolated from mdx muscles exposed to eccentric contractions in vivo develop less isometric force than wild-type fibers and this force depression is completely prevented by Akt activation. These experiments indicate that the myofibrillar-cytoskeletal system of dystrophin-deficient muscle is highly susceptible to a damage caused by eccentric contraction when elongation is applied in vivo, and this damage can be prevented by Akt activation. Microarray and PCR analyses indicate that Akt activation induces up-regulation of genes coding for proteins associated with Z-disks and costameres, and for proteins with anti-oxidant or chaperone function. The protein levels of utrophin and dysferlin are also increased by Akt activation.

  2. piggyBac transposons expressing full-length human dystrophin enable genetic correction of dystrophic mesoangioblasts

    PubMed Central

    Loperfido, Mariana; Jarmin, Susan; Dastidar, Sumitava; Di Matteo, Mario; Perini, Ilaria; Moore, Marc; Nair, Nisha; Samara-Kuko, Ermira; Athanasopoulos, Takis; Tedesco, Francesco Saverio; Dickson, George; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; VandenDriessche, Thierry; Chuah, Marinee K.

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic neuromuscular disorder caused by the absence of dystrophin. We developed a novel gene therapy approach based on the use of the piggyBac (PB) transposon system to deliver the coding DNA sequence (CDS) of either full-length human dystrophin (DYS: 11.1 kb) or truncated microdystrophins (MD1: 3.6 kb; MD2: 4 kb). PB transposons encoding microdystrophins were transfected in C2C12 myoblasts, yielding 65±2% MD1 and 66±2% MD2 expression in differentiated multinucleated myotubes. A hyperactive PB (hyPB) transposase was then deployed to enable transposition of the large-size PB transposon (17 kb) encoding the full-length DYS and green fluorescence protein (GFP). Stable GFP expression attaining 78±3% could be achieved in the C2C12 myoblasts that had undergone transposition. Western blot analysis demonstrated expression of the full-length human DYS protein in myotubes. Subsequently, dystrophic mesoangioblasts from a Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy dog were transfected with the large-size PB transposon resulting in 50±5% GFP-expressing cells after stable transposition. This was consistent with correction of the differentiated dystrophic mesoangioblasts following expression of full-length human DYS. These results pave the way toward a novel non-viral gene therapy approach for DMD using PB transposons underscoring their potential to deliver large therapeutic genes. PMID:26682797

  3. Dystrophin-deficient large animal models: translational research and exon skipping

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xinran; Bao, Bo; Echigoya, Yusuke; Yokota, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive genetic disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Affecting approximately 1 in 3,600-9337 boys, DMD patients exhibit progressive muscle degeneration leading to fatality as a result of heart or respiratory failure. Despite the severity and prevalence of the disease, there is no cure available. While murine models have been successfully used in illustrating the mechanisms of DMD, their utility in DMD research is limited due to their mild disease phenotypes such as lack of severe skeletal muscle and cardiac symptoms. To address the discrepancy between the severity of disease displayed by murine models and human DMD patients, dystrophin-deficient dog models with a splice site mutation in intron 6 were established. Examples of these are Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy and beagle-based Canine X-linked muscular dystrophy. These large animal models are widely employed in therapeutic DMD research due to their close resemblance to the severity of human patient symptoms. Recently, genetically tailored porcine models of DMD with deleted exon 52 were developed by our group and others, and can potentially act as a new large animal model. While therapeutic outcomes derived from these large animal models can be more reliably extrapolated to DMD patients, a comprehensive understanding of these models is still needed. This paper will discuss recent progress and future directions of DMD studies with large animal models such as canine and porcine models. PMID:26396664

  4. Microdystrophin delivery in dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mice by genetically-corrected syngeneic MSCs transplantation.

    PubMed

    Xiong, F; Xu, Y; Zheng, H; Lu, X; Feng, S; Shang, Y; Li, Y; Zhang, Y; Jin, S; Zhang, C

    2010-09-01

    Cell transplantation and gene therapy are two promising therapeutical approaches for the treatment on Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). However, both strategies have met many hurdles, mainly because of the absence of an efficient systemic delivery system on gene therapy and immune reactionns on cell transplantation. In this project, we investigated the strategy based on combination of these two basic ones, ie, transplantation of transgene-corrected mdx mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into mdx mice to cure DMD. The MSCs isolated from male mdx mice were transduced with recombinant adenovirus including human microdystrophin gene and labeled with BrdU were transplanted into female mdx mice, the Chimerism with the sex-determinant Y chromosome and human microdystrophin expression were detected. Simultaneously, the plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity, the improvement with the muscles' pathology and contractile propertie were evaluated. The results clearly demonstrated that some human dystrophin and BrdU expression collectively were detected in some muscles of transplanted mdx mice. Moreover, the CK activity and percentage of centrally nucleated fiber (CNF) decreased slightly after transplanation. Regrettably, the protective effect on contraction-induced injury in TA and diaphragm muscles wasn't significantly improvement after transplantation. Our results suggested, if enhancement on the efficiency with cell transplantation, that the transplantation of autologous MSCs corrected by dystrophin may be a form to treat DMD patients in future.

  5. Characterization of 65 epitope-specific dystrophin monoclonal antibodies in canine and murine models of duchenne muscular dystrophy by immunostaining and western blot.

    PubMed

    Kodippili, Kasun; Vince, Lauren; Shin, Jin-Hong; Yue, Yongping; Morris, Glenn E; McIntosh, Mark A; Duan, Dongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Epitope-specific monoclonal antibodies can provide unique insights for studying cellular proteins. Dystrophin is one of the largest cytoskeleton proteins encoded by 79 exons. The absence of dystrophin results in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Over the last two decades, dozens of exon-specific human dystrophin monoclonal antibodies have been developed and successfully used for DMD diagnosis. Unfortunately, the majority of these antibodies have not been thoroughly characterized in dystrophin-deficient dogs, an outstanding large animal model for translational research. To fill the gap, we performed a comprehensive study on 65 dystrophin monoclonal antibodies in normal and dystrophic dogs (heart and skeletal muscle) by immunofluorescence staining and western blot. For comparison, we also included striated muscles from normal BL10 and dystrophin-null mdx mice. Our analysis revealed distinctive species, tissue and assay-dependent recognition patterns of different antibodies. Importantly, we identified 15 antibodies that can consistently detect full-length canine dystrophin in both immunostaining and western blot. Our results will serve as an important reference for studying DMD in the canine model.

  6. Adhalin, the 50 kD dystrophin associated protein, is not the locus for severe childhood autosomal recessive dystrophy (SCARMD)

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, E.M.; Selig, S.; Kunkel, L.M.

    1994-09-01

    Mutations in the carboxyl-terminus in dystrophin are normally sufficient to produce severely dystrophic muscle. This portion of dystrophin binds a complex of dystrophin-associated glycoproteins (DAGs). The genes encoding these DAGs are candidate genes for causing neuromuscular disease. Immunoreactivity for adhalin, the 50 kD DAG, is absent in muscle biopsies from patients with SCARMD, a form of dystrophy clinically similar Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Prior linkage analysis in SCARMD families revealed that the disease gene segregates with markers on chromosome 13. To determine the molecular role that adhalin may play in SCARMD, human cDNA and genomic sequences were isolated. Primers were designed based on predicted areas of conservation in rabbit adhalin and used in RT-PCR with human skeletal and cardiac muscle. RT-PCR products were confirmed by sequence as human adhalin and then used as probes for screening human cDNA and genomic libraries. Human and rabbit adhalin are 90% identical, and among the cDNAs, a novel splice form of adhalin was seen which may encode part of the 35 kD component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. To our surprise, only human/rodent hybrids containing human chromosome 17 amplified adhalin sequences in a PCR analysis. FISH analysis with three overlapping genomic sequences confirmed the chromosome 17 location and further delineated the map position to 17q21. Therefore, adhalin is excluded as the gene causing SCARMD.

  7. Impaired regenerative capacity and lower revertant fibre expansion in dystrophin-deficient mdx muscles on DBA/2 background

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Merryl; Echigoya, Yusuke; Maruyama, Rika; Lim, Kenji Rowel Q.; Fukada, So-ichiro; Yokota, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy, one of the most common lethal genetic disorders, is caused by mutations in the DMD gene and a lack of dystrophin protein. In most DMD patients and animal models, sporadic dystrophin-positive muscle fibres, called revertant fibres (RFs), are observed in otherwise dystrophin-negative backgrounds. RFs are thought to arise from skeletal muscle precursor cells and clonally expand with age due to the frequent regeneration of necrotic fibres. Here we examined the effects of genetic background on muscle regeneration and RF expansion by comparing dystrophin-deficient mdx mice on the C57BL/6 background (mdx-B6) with those on the DBA/2 background (mdx-DBA), which have a more severe phenotype. Interestingly, mdx-DBA muscles had significantly lower RF expansion than mdx-B6 in all age groups, including 2, 6, 12, and 18 months. The percentage of centrally nucleated fibres was also significantly lower in mdx-DBA mice compared to mdx-B6, indicating that less muscle regeneration occurs in mdx-DBA. Our study aligns with the model that RF expansion reflects the activity of precursor cells in skeletal muscles, and it serves as an index of muscle regeneration capacity. PMID:27924830

  8. Dystrophin rescue by trans-splicing: a strategy for DMD genotypes not eligible for exon skipping approaches.

    PubMed

    Lorain, Stéphanie; Peccate, Cécile; Le Hir, Maëva; Griffith, Graziella; Philippi, Susanne; Précigout, Guillaume; Mamchaoui, Kamel; Jollet, Arnaud; Voit, Thomas; Garcia, Luis

    2013-09-01

    RNA-based therapeutic approaches using splice-switching oligonucleotides have been successfully applied to rescue dystrophin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) preclinical models and are currently being evaluated in DMD patients. Although the modular structure of dystrophin protein tolerates internal deletions, many mutations that affect nondispensable domains of the protein require further strategies. Among these, trans-splicing technology is particularly attractive, as it allows the replacement of any mutated exon by its normal version as well as introducing missing exons or correcting duplication mutations. We have applied such a strategy in vitro by using cotransfection of pre-trans-splicing molecule (PTM) constructs along with a reporter minigene containing part of the dystrophin gene harboring the stop-codon mutation found in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Optimization of the different functional domains of the PTMs allowed achieving accurate and efficient trans-splicing of up to 30% of the transcript encoded by the cotransfected minigene. Optimized parameters included mRNA stabilization, choice of splice site sequence, inclusion of exon splice enhancers and artificial intronic sequence. Intramuscular delivery of adeno-associated virus vectors expressing PTMs allowed detectable levels of dystrophin in mdx and mdx4Cv, illustrating that a given PTM can be suitable for a variety of mutations.

  9. Combination Antisense Treatment for Destructive Exon Skipping of Myostatin and Open Reading Frame Rescue of Dystrophin in Neonatal mdx Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu-Nguyen, Ngoc B; Jarmin, Susan A; Saleh, Amer F; Popplewell, Linda; Gait, Michael J; Dickson, George

    2015-01-01

    The fatal X-linked Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), characterized by progressive muscle wasting and muscle weakness, is caused by mutations within the DMD gene. The use of antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) modulating pre-mRNA splicing to restore the disrupted dystrophin reading frame, subsequently generating a shortened but functional protein has emerged as a potential strategy in DMD treatment. AO therapy has recently been applied to induce out-of-frame exon skipping of myostatin pre-mRNA, knocking-down expression of myostatin protein, and such an approach is suggested to enhance muscle hypertrophy/hyperplasia and to reduce muscle necrosis. Within this study, we investigated dual exon skipping of dystrophin and myostatin pre-mRNAs using phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers conjugated with an arginine-rich peptide (B-PMOs). Intraperitoneal administration of B-PMOs was performed in neonatal mdx males on the day of birth, and at weeks 3 and 6. At week 9, we observed in treated mice (as compared to age-matched, saline-injected controls) normalization of muscle mass, a recovery in dystrophin expression, and a decrease in muscle necrosis, particularly in the diaphragm. Our data provide a proof of concept for antisense therapy combining dystrophin restoration and myostatin inhibition for the treatment of DMD. PMID:25959011

  10. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 ablation in dystrophin-deficient mdx muscles reduces angiogenesis resulting in impaired growth of regenerated muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Daigo; Nakamura, Akinori; Fukushima, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Kunihiro; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2011-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a family of endopeptidases classified into subgroups based on substrate preference in normal physiological processes such as embryonic development and tissue remodeling, as well as in various disease processes via degradation of extracellular matrix components. Among the MMPs, MMP-9 and MMP-2 have been reported to be up-regulated in skeletal muscles in the lethal X-linked muscle disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which is caused by loss of dystrophin. A recent study showed that deletion of the MMP9 gene in mdx, a mouse model for DMD, improved skeletal muscle pathology and function; however, the role of MMP-2 in the dystrophin-deficient muscle is not well known. In this study, we aimed at verifying the role of MMP-2 in the dystrophin-deficient muscle by using mdx mice with genetic ablation of MMP-2 (mdx/MMP-2(-/-)). We found impairment of regenerated muscle fiber growth with reduction of angiogenesis in mdx/MMP-2(-/-) mice at 3 months of age. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), an important angiogenesis-related factor, decreased in mdx/MMP-2(-/-) mice at 3 months of age. MMP-2 had not a critical role in the degradation of dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) components such as β-dystroglycan and β-sarcoglycan in the regeneration process of the dystrophic muscle. Accordingly, MMP-2 may be essential for growth of regenerated muscle fibers through VEGF-associated angiogenesis in the dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle.

  11. Dystrophin- and MLP-deficient mouse hearts: marked differences in morphology and function, but similar accumulation of cytoskeletal proteins.

    PubMed

    Wilding, James R; Schneider, Jürgen E; Sang, A Elizabeth; Davies, Kay E; Neubauer, Stefan; Clarke, Kieran

    2005-01-01

    In humans, cytoskeletal dystrophin and muscle LIM protein (MLP) gene mutations can cause dilated cardiomyopathy, yet these mutations may have different effects in mice, owing to increased accumulation of other, compensatory cytoskeletal proteins. Consequently, we characterized left-ventricular (LV) morphology and function in vivo using high-resolution cine-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 2- to 3-month old dystrophin-deficient (mdx) and MLP-null mice, and their respective controls. LV passive stiffness was assessed in isolated, perfused hearts, and cytoskeletal protein levels were determined using Western blot analyses. In mdx mouse hearts, LV-to-body weight ratio, cavity volume, ejection fraction, stroke volume, and cardiac output were normal. However, MLP-null mouse hearts had 1.2-fold higher LV-to-body weight ratios (P<0.01), 1.5-fold higher end-diastolic volumes (P<0.01), and decreased ejection fraction compared with controls (25% vs. 66%, respectively, P<0.01), indicating dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure. In both models, isolated, perfused heart end-diastolic pressure-volume relationships and passive left-ventricular stiffness were normal. Hearts from both models accumulated desmin and beta-tubulin, mdx mouse hearts accumulated utrophin and MLP, and MLP-null mouse hearts accumulated dystrophin and syncoilin. Although the increase in MLP and utrophin in the mdx mouse heart was able to compensate for the loss of dystrophin, accumulation of desmin, syncoilin and dystrophin were unable to compensate for the loss of MLP, resulting in heart failure.

  12. Modeling the Cell Muscle Membrane from Normal and Desmin- or Dystrophin-null Mice as an Elastic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pelagio, Karla P.; Santamaría-Holek, Ivan; Bloch, Robert J.; Ortega, Alicia; González-Serratos, Hugo

    2010-12-01

    Two of the most important proteins linking the contractile apparatus and costameres at the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle fibers are dystrophin and desmin. We have developed an elastic model of the proteins that link the sarcolemma to the myofibrils. This is a distributed model, with an elastic constant, k, that includes the main protein components of the costameres. The distributed spring model is composed of parallel units attached in series. To test the model, we performed experiments in which we applied negative pressure, generated by an elastimeter, to a small area of the sarcolemma from single myofiber. The negative pressure formed a bleb of variable height, dependent on the pressure applied. We normalized our measurements of k in dystrophin-null (mdx) and desmin-null (des-/-) mice to the value we obtained for wild type (WT) mice, which was set at 1.0. The relative experimental value for the stiffness of myofibers from mice lacking dystrophin or desmin was 0.5 and 0.7, respectively. The theoretical k values of the individual elements were obtained using neural networks (NN), in which the input was the k value for each parallel spring component and the output was the solution of each resulting parallel system. We compare the experimental values of k in control and mutant muscles to the theoretical values obtained by NN for each protein. Computed theoretical values were 0.4 and 0.8 for dystrophin- and desmin-null muscles, respectively, and 0.9 for WT, in reasonable agreement with our experimental results. This suggests that, although it is a simplified spring model solved by NN, it provides a good approximation of the distribution of spring elements and the elastic constants of the proteins that form the costameres. Our results show that dystrophin is the protein that contributes more than any other to the strength of the connections between the sarcolemma and the contractile apparatus, the costameres.

  13. Hexose enhances oligonucleotide delivery and exon skipping in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Gang; Gu, Ben; Cao, Limin; Gao, Xianjun; Wang, Qingsong; Seow, Yiqi; Zhang, Ning; Wood, Matthew J. A.; Yin, HaiFang

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate-based infusion solutions are widely used in the clinic. Here we show that co-administration of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) with glucose enhances exon-skipping activity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) mdx mice. We identify a glucose–fructose (GF) formulation that potentiates PMO activity, completely corrects aberrant Dmd transcripts, restores dystrophin levels in skeletal muscles and achieves functional rescue without detectable toxicity. This activity is attributed to enhancement of GF-mediated PMO uptake in the muscle. We demonstrate that PMO cellular uptake is energy dependent, and that ATP from GF metabolism contributes to enhanced cellular uptake of PMO in the muscle. Collectively, we show that GF potentiates PMO activity by replenishing cellular energy stores under energy-deficient conditions in mdx mice. Our findings provide mechanistic insight into hexose-mediated oligonucleotide delivery and have important implications for the development of DMD exon-skipping therapy. PMID:26964641

  14. Neuronal differentiation modulates the dystrophin Dp71d binding to the nuclear matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Munoz, Rafael; Villarreal-Silva, Marcela; Gonzalez-Ramirez, Ricardo; Garcia-Sierra, Francisco; Mondragon, Monica; Mondragon, Ricardo; Cerna, Joel; Cisneros, Bulmaro

    2008-10-24

    The function of dystrophin Dp71 in neuronal cells remains unknown. To approach this issue, we have selected the PC12 neuronal cell line. These cells express both a Dp71f cytoplasmic variant and a Dp71d nuclear isoform. In this study, we demonstrated by electron and confocal microscopy analyses of in situ nuclear matrices and Western blotting evaluation of cell extracts that Dp71d associates with the nuclear matrix. Interestingly, this binding is modulated during NGF-induced neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells with a twofold increment in the differentiated cells, compared to control cells. Also, distribution of Dp71d along the periphery of the nuclear matrix observed in the undifferentiated cells is replaced by intense fluorescent foci localized in Center of the nucleoskeletal structure. In summary, we revealed that Dp71d is a dynamic component of nuclear matrix that might participate in the nuclear modeling occurring during neuronal differentiation.

  15. Restriction Factors Against Recombinant Adeno-associated Virus Vectormediated Gene Transfer in Dystrophin-deficient Muscles.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    Despite the unprecedented beneficial effects of rAAV gene therapy in animal models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the need to inject large amounts of vector in vivo to improve phenotype raises obvious biosafety concerns. While rAAV vectors generally exhibit a good safety profile, specific pathological phenotypes such as those observed in dystrophin-deficient muscles may promote immunotoxic/genotoxic effects. Increasing the therapeutic index of rAAV in DMD muscles by reducing the effective dose could be a pivotal means of ensuring efficient clinical translation. This requires a comprehensive understanding of the rAAV transduction process, which is almost always studied in non-pathological tissues or in vitro. In this review, we focus on the molecular fate of rAAV after injection, and how the individual stages of transduction could be affected in the context of DMD.

  16. Proteasome inhibitor (MG132) rescues Nav1.5 protein content and the cardiac sodium current in dystrophin-deficient mdx (5cv) mice.

    PubMed

    Rougier, Jean-Sébastien; Gavillet, Bruno; Abriel, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    The cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel, Nav1.5, plays a central role in cardiac excitability and impulse propagation and associates with the dystrophin multiprotein complex at the lateral membrane of cardiomyocytes. It was previously shown that Nav1.5 protein content and the sodium current (l Na) were both decreased in cardiomyocytes of dystrophin-deficient mdx (5cv) mice. In this study, wild-type and mdx (5cv) mice were treated for 7 days with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 (10 μg/Kg/24 h) using implanted osmotic mini pumps. MG132 rescued both the total amount of Nav1.5 protein and l Na but, unlike in previous studies, de novo expression of dystrophin was not observed in skeletal or cardiac muscle. This study suggests that the reduced expression of Nav1.5 in dystrophin-deficient cells is dependent on proteasomal degradation.

  17. piggyBac transposons expressing full-length human dystrophin enable genetic correction of dystrophic mesoangioblasts.

    PubMed

    Loperfido, Mariana; Jarmin, Susan; Dastidar, Sumitava; Di Matteo, Mario; Perini, Ilaria; Moore, Marc; Nair, Nisha; Samara-Kuko, Ermira; Athanasopoulos, Takis; Tedesco, Francesco Saverio; Dickson, George; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; VandenDriessche, Thierry; Chuah, Marinee K

    2016-01-29

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic neuromuscular disorder caused by the absence of dystrophin. We developed a novel gene therapy approach based on the use of the piggyBac (PB) transposon system to deliver the coding DNA sequence (CDS) of either full-length human dystrophin (DYS: 11.1 kb) or truncated microdystrophins (MD1: 3.6 kb; MD2: 4 kb). PB transposons encoding microdystrophins were transfected in C2C12 myoblasts, yielding 65±2% MD1 and 66±2% MD2 expression in differentiated multinucleated myotubes. A hyperactive PB (hyPB) transposase was then deployed to enable transposition of the large-size PB transposon (17 kb) encoding the full-length DYS and green fluorescence protein (GFP). Stable GFP expression attaining 78±3% could be achieved in the C2C12 myoblasts that had undergone transposition. Western blot analysis demonstrated expression of the full-length human DYS protein in myotubes. Subsequently, dystrophic mesoangioblasts from a Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy dog were transfected with the large-size PB transposon resulting in 50±5% GFP-expressing cells after stable transposition. This was consistent with correction of the differentiated dystrophic mesoangioblasts following expression of full-length human DYS. These results pave the way toward a novel non-viral gene therapy approach for DMD using PB transposons underscoring their potential to deliver large therapeutic genes. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Somatodendritic and excitatory postsynaptic distribution of neuron-type dystrophin isoform, Dp40, in hippocampal neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Takahiro; Itoh, Kyoko Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji

    2014-09-12

    Highlights: • Identification of dystrophin (Dp) shortest isoform, Dp40, is a neuron-type Dp. • Dp40 expression is temporally and differentially regulated in comparison to Dp71. • Somatodendritic and nuclear localization of Dp40. • Dp40 is localized to excitatory postsynapses. • Dp40 might play roles in dendritic and synaptic functions. - Abstract: The Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene produces multiple dystrophin (Dp) products due to the presence of several promoters. We previously reported the existence of a novel short isoform of Dp, Dp40, in adult mouse brain. However, the exact biochemical expression profile and cytological distribution of the Dp40 protein remain unknown. In this study, we generated a polyclonal antibody against the NH{sub 2}-terminal region of the Dp40 and identified the expression profile of Dp40 in the mouse brain. Through an analysis using embryonic and postnatal mouse cerebrums, we found that Dp40 emerged from the early neonatal stages until adulthood, whereas Dp71, an another Dp short isoform, was highly detected in both prenatal and postnatal cerebrums. Intriguingly, relative expressions of Dp40 and Dp71 were prominent in cultured dissociated neurons and non-neuronal cells derived from mouse hippocampus, respectively. Furthermore, the immunocytological distribution of Dp40 was analyzed in dissociated cultured neurons, revealing that Dp40 is detected in the soma and its dendrites, but not in the axon. It is worthy to note that Dp40 is localized along the subplasmalemmal region of the dendritic shafts, as well as at excitatory postsynaptic sites. Thus, Dp40 was identified as a neuron-type Dp possibly involving dendritic and synaptic functions.

  19. Context Dependent Effects of Chimeric Peptide Morpholino Conjugates Contribute to Dystrophin Exon-skipping Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yin, HaiFang; Boisguerin, Prisca; Moulton, Hong M; Betts, Corinne; Seow, Yiqi; Boutilier, Jordan; Wang, Qingsong; Walsh, Anthony; Lebleu, Bernard; Wood, Matthew JA

    2013-01-01

    We have recently reported that cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and novel chimeric peptides containing CPP (referred as B peptide) and muscle-targeting peptide (referred as MSP) motifs significantly improve the systemic exon-skipping activity of morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligomers (PMOs) in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. In the present study, the general mechanistic significance of the chimeric peptide configuration on the activity and tissue uptake of peptide conjugated PMOs in vivo was investigated. Four additional chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates including newly identified peptide 9 (B-9-PMO and 9-B-PMO) and control peptide 3 (B-3-PMO and 3-B-PMO) were tested in mdx mice. Immunohistochemical staining, RT-PCR and western blot results indicated that B-9-PMO induced significantly higher level of exon skipping and dystrophin restoration than its counterpart (9-B-PMO), further corroborating the notion that the activity of chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates is dependent on relative position of the tissue-targeting peptide motif within the chimeric peptide with respect to PMOs. Subsequent mechanistic studies showed that enhanced cellular uptake of B-MSP-PMO into muscle cells leads to increased exon-skipping activity in comparison with MSP-B-PMO. Surprisingly, further evidence showed that the uptake of chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates of both orientations (B-MSP-PMO and MSP-B-PMO) was ATP- and temperature-dependent and also partially mediated by heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), indicating that endocytosis is likely the main uptake pathway for both chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates. Collectively, our data demonstrate that peptide orientation in chimeric peptides is an important parameter that determines cellular uptake and activity when conjugated directly to oligonucleotides. These observations provide insight into the design of improved cell targeting compounds for future therapeutics studies. PMID:24064708

  20. Context Dependent Effects of Chimeric Peptide Morpholino Conjugates Contribute to Dystrophin Exon-skipping Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Yin, Haifang; Boisguerin, Prisca; Moulton, Hong M; Betts, Corinne; Seow, Yiqi; Boutilier, Jordan; Wang, Qingsong; Walsh, Anthony; Lebleu, Bernard; Wood, Matthew Ja

    2013-09-24

    We have recently reported that cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and novel chimeric peptides containing CPP (referred as B peptide) and muscle-targeting peptide (referred as MSP) motifs significantly improve the systemic exon-skipping activity of morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligomers (PMOs) in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. In the present study, the general mechanistic significance of the chimeric peptide configuration on the activity and tissue uptake of peptide conjugated PMOs in vivo was investigated. Four additional chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates including newly identified peptide 9 (B-9-PMO and 9-B-PMO) and control peptide 3 (B-3-PMO and 3-B-PMO) were tested in mdx mice. Immunohistochemical staining, RT-PCR and western blot results indicated that B-9-PMO induced significantly higher level of exon skipping and dystrophin restoration than its counterpart (9-B-PMO), further corroborating the notion that the activity of chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates is dependent on relative position of the tissue-targeting peptide motif within the chimeric peptide with respect to PMOs. Subsequent mechanistic studies showed that enhanced cellular uptake of B-MSP-PMO into muscle cells leads to increased exon-skipping activity in comparison with MSP-B-PMO. Surprisingly, further evidence showed that the uptake of chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates of both orientations (B-MSP-PMO and MSP-B-PMO) was ATP- and temperature-dependent and also partially mediated by heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), indicating that endocytosis is likely the main uptake pathway for both chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates. Collectively, our data demonstrate that peptide orientation in chimeric peptides is an important parameter that determines cellular uptake and activity when conjugated directly to oligonucleotides. These observations provide insight into the design of improved cell targeting compounds for future therapeutics studies.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e124; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013

  1. Membrane Sealant Poloxamer P188 Protects Against Isoproterenol Induced Cardiomyopathy in Dystrophin Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiomyopathy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an increasing cause of death in patients. The absence of dystrophin leads to loss of membrane integrity, cell death and fibrosis in cardiac muscle. Treatment of cardiomyocyte membrane instability could help prevent cardiomyopathy. Methods Three month old female mdx mice were exposed to the β1 receptor agonist isoproterenol subcutaneously and treated with the non-ionic tri-block copolymer Poloxamer P188 (P188) (460 mg/kg/dose i.p. daily). Cardiac function was assessed using high frequency echocardiography. Tissue was evaluated with Evans Blue Dye (EBD) and picrosirius red staining. Results BL10 control mice tolerated 30 mg/kg/day of isoproterenol for 4 weeks while death occurred in mdx mice at 30, 15, 10, 5 and 1 mg/kg/day within 24 hours. Mdx mice tolerated a low dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day. Isoproterenol exposed mdx mice showed significantly increased heart rates (p < 0.02) and cardiac fibrosis (p < 0.01) over 4 weeks compared to unexposed controls. P188 treatment of mdx mice significantly increased heart rate (median 593 vs. 667 bpm; p < 0.001) after 2 weeks and prevented a decrease in cardiac function in isoproterenol exposed mice (Shortening Fraction = 46 ± 6% vs. 35 ± 6%; p = 0.007) after 4 weeks. P188 treated mdx mice did not show significant differences in cardiac fibrosis, but demonstrated significantly increased EBD positive fibers. Conclusions This model suggests that chronic intermittent intraperitoneal P188 treatment can prevent isoproterenol induced cardiomyopathy in dystrophin deficient mdx mice. PMID:21575230

  2. The Proton Pump Inhibitor Lansoprazole Improves the Skeletal Phenotype in Dystrophin Deficient mdx Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sali, Arpana; Many, Gina M.; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; van der Meulen, Jack H.; Phadke, Aditi; Spurney, Christopher F.; Cnaan, Avital; Hoffman, Eric P.; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2013-01-01

    Background In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), loss of the membrane stabilizing protein dystrophin results in myofiber damage. Microinjury to dystrophic myofibers also causes secondary imbalances in sarcolemmic ion permeability and resting membrane potential, which modifies excitation-contraction coupling and increases proinflammatory/apoptotic signaling cascades. Although glucocorticoids remain the standard of care for the treatment of DMD, there is a need to investigate the efficacy of other pharmacological agents targeting the involvement of imbalances in ion flux on dystrophic pathology. Methodology/Principal Findings We designed a preclinical trial to investigate the effects of lansoprazole (LANZO) administration, a proton pump inhibitor, on the dystrophic muscle phenotype in dystrophin deficient (mdx) mice. Eight to ten week-old female mice were assigned to one of four treatment groups (n = 12 per group): (1) vehicle control; (2) 5 mg/kg/day LANZO; (3) 5 mg/kg/day prednisolone; and (4) combined treatment of 5 mg/kg/day prednisolone (PRED) and 5 mg/kg/day LANZO. Treatment was administered orally 5 d/wk for 3 months. At the end of the study, behavioral (Digiscan) and functional outcomes (grip strength and Rotarod) were assessed prior to sacrifice. After sacrifice, body, tissue and organ masses, muscle histology, in vitro muscle force, and creatine kinase levels were measured. Mice in the combined treatment groups displayed significant reductions in the number of degenerating muscle fibers and number of inflammatory foci per muscle field relative to vehicle control. Additionally, mice in the combined treatment group displayed less of a decline in normalized forelimb and hindlimb grip strength and declines in in vitro EDL force after repeated eccentric contractions. Conclusions/Significance Together our findings suggest that combined treatment of LANZO and prednisolone attenuates some components of dystrophic pathology in mdx mice. Our findings warrant

  3. Talin, vinculin and nestin expression in orofacial muscles of dystrophin deficient mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Spassov, Alexander; Gredes, Tomasz; Pavlovic, Dragan; Gedrange, Tomasz; Lehmann, Christian; Lucke, Silke; Kunert-Keil, Christiane

    2012-04-01

    The activity of cytoskeletal proteins like talin, vinculin and nestin increases in muscle that regenerates. Little is known about their role or at least their expression in the process of regeneration in masticatory muscles of mdx mice, a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. To determine a potential role of cytoskeletal proteins in the regeneration process of mdx masticatory muscles, we examined the expression of talin 1, talin 2, vinculin and nestin in 100-day-old control and mdx mice using quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot analyses and histochemistry. The protein expression of talin 1, talin 2, nestin and vinculin in mdx muscles remained unchanged as compared with normal mice. However, in mdx masseter it was found a relative increase of nestin compared to controls. The protein expression of talin 1 and vinculin tended to be increased in mdx tongue and talin 2 to diminish in mdx masseter and temporal muscle. In mdx mice, we found significantly lower percentage of transcripts coding for nestin, talin 1, talin 2 and vinculin in masseter (p < 0.05) and temporal muscle (p < 0.001). In contrast, the mRNA expression of nestin was found to be increased in mdx tongue. Activated satellite cells, myoblasts and immature regenerated muscle fibres in mdx masseter and temporal revealed positive staining for nestin. The findings of the presented work suggest dystrophin-lack-associated changes in the expression of cytoskeletal proteins in mdx masticatory muscles could be compensatory for dystrophin absence. The expression of nestin may serve as an indicator for the regeneration in the orofacial muscles.

  4. Abnormal splicing switch of DMD's penultimate exon compromises muscle fibre maintenance in myotonic dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Frédérique; Lainé, Jeanne; Ramanoudjame, Laetitita; Ferry, Arnaud; Arandel, Ludovic; Delalande, Olivier; Jollet, Arnaud; Dingli, Florent; Lee, Kuang-Yung; Peccate, Cécile; Lorain, Stéphanie; Kabashi, Edor; Athanasopoulos, Takis; Koo, Taeyoung; Loew, Damarys; Swanson, Maurice S.; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Dickson, George; Allamand, Valérie; Marie, Joëlle; Furling, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a dominant neuromuscular disease caused by nuclear-retained RNAs containing expanded CUG repeats. These toxic RNAs alter the activities of RNA splicing factors resulting in alternative splicing misregulation and muscular dysfunction. Here we show that the abnormal splicing of DMD exon 78 found in dystrophic muscles of DM1 patients is due to the functional loss of MBNL1 and leads to the re-expression of an embryonic dystrophin in place of the adult isoform. Forced expression of embryonic dystrophin in zebrafish using an exon-skipping approach severely impairs the mobility and muscle architecture. Moreover, reproducing Dmd exon 78 missplicing switch in mice induces muscle fibre remodelling and ultrastructural abnormalities including ringed fibres, sarcoplasmic masses or Z-band disorganization, which are characteristic features of dystrophic DM1 skeletal muscles. Thus, we propose that splicing misregulation of DMD exon 78 compromises muscle fibre maintenance and contributes to the progressive dystrophic process in DM1. PMID:26018658

  5. [X-chromosome-linked hereditary dermatoses].

    PubMed

    Happle, R

    1982-02-01

    In X-linked inheritance, the difference between the terms dominant and recessive is blurred by the Lyon effect. In some X-linked recessive genodermatoses, the Lyon effect makes the detection of heterozygote females possible, either by clinical cromanifestations or by enzymatic demonstration of two functionally different populations of cells. The gene locus of X-linked recessive ichthyosis, however, escapes X-inactivation, but heterozygotes can be detected by enzyme analysis in this condition, too. X-linked dominant gene defects with manifestation in both sexes include keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans, and probably also the Bazex syndrome. The group of X-linked dominant gene defects with lethality in the male comprises incontinentia pigmenti, focal dermal hypoplasia, the oral-facial-digital syndrome and the CHILD syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis of severe X-linked conditions can be performed when the underlying defect of cell function is known (Fabry disease, Menkes syndrome). In other severe X-linked disorders, the possibility of prenatal determination of the sex may be considered (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata, oral-facial-digital syndrome).

  6. Chimeric snRNA molecules carrying antisense sequences against the splice junctions of exon 51 of the dystrophin pre-mRNA induce exon skipping and restoration of a dystrophin synthesis in Δ48-50 DMD cells

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Fernanda Gabriella; Sthandier, Olga; Berarducci, Barbara; Toso, Silvia; Galluzzi, Giuliana; Ricci, Enzo; Cossu, Giulio; Bozzoni, Irene

    2002-01-01

    Deletions and point mutations in the dystrophin gene cause either the severe progressive myopathy Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) or the milder Becker muscular dystrophy, depending on whether the translational reading frame is lost or maintained. Because internal in-frame deletions in the protein produce only mild myopathic symptoms, it should be possible, by preventing the inclusion of specific mutated exon(s) in the mature dystrophin mRNA, to restore a partially corrected phenotype. Such control has been previously accomplished by the use of synthetic oligonucleotides; nevertheless, a significant drawback to this approach is caused by the fact that oligonucleotides would require periodic administrations. To circumvent this problem, we have produced several constructs able to express in vivo, in a stable fashion, large amounts of chimeric RNAs containing antisense sequences. In this paper we show that antisense molecules against exon 51 splice junctions are able to direct skipping of this exon in the human DMD deletion 48–50 and to rescue dystrophin synthesis. We also show that the highest skipping activity was found when antisense constructs against the 5′ and 3′ splice sites are coexpressed in the same cell. PMID:12077324

  7. Tissue distribution of the dystrophin-related gene product and expression in the mdx and dy mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Love, D.R.; Marsden, R.F.; Bloomfield, J.F.; Davies, K.E. ); Morris, G.E.; Ellis, J.M. ); Fairbrother, U.; Edwards, Y.H. ); Slater, C.P. ); Parry, D.J. )

    1991-04-15

    The authors have previously reported a dystrophin-related locus (DMDL for Duchenne muscular dystrophy-like) on human chromosome 6 that maps close to the dy mutation on mouse chromosome 10. Here they show that this gene is expressed in a wide range of tissues at varying levels. The transcript is particularly abundant in several human fetal tissues, including heart, placenta, and intestine. Studies with antisera raised against a DMDL fusion protein identify a 400,000 M{sub r} protein in all mouse tissues tested, including those of mdx and dy mice. Unlike the dystrophin gene, the DMDL gene transcript is not differentially spliced at the 3{prime} end in either fetal muscle or brain.

  8. Identification of two point mutations and a one base deletion in exon 19 of the dystrophin gene by heteroduplex formation.

    PubMed

    Prior, T W; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Burghes, A H; Sedra, M S; Western, L M; Bartello, C; Mendell, J R

    1993-03-01

    Two thirds of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy population have either gene deletions or duplications. The nondeletion/duplication cases are most likely the result of point mutations or small deletions and duplications that cannot be easily identified by current strategies. The major obstacle in identifying small mutations is due to the large size of the dystrophin gene. We selectively screened 5 DMD exons containing CpG dinucleotides in 110 DMD patients without detectable deletions or duplications. Nonsenses mutations are frequently due to a C- to -T transition within a CG dinucleotide pair. To screen for the nonsense mutations, we used the heteroduplex method. Utilizing this approach, we identified 2 different nonsense mutations and a single base deletion all occurring in exon 19. This is the first report of a clustering of small mutations in the dystrophin gene.

  9. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ocular cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal ... cause permanent tightening of neck muscles that can lead to chronic neck ache or headache. An abnormal ...

  10. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003170.htm Skeletal limb abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Skeletal limb abnormalities refers to a variety of bone structure problems ...

  11. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  12. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  13. Optimization of peptide nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotides for local and systemic dystrophin splice correction in the mdx mouse.

    PubMed

    Yin, HaiFang; Betts, Corinne; Saleh, Amer F; Ivanova, Gabriela D; Lee, Hyunil; Seow, Yiqi; Kim, Dalsoo; Gait, Michael J; Wood, Matthew J A

    2010-04-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) have the capacity to alter the processing of pre-mRNA transcripts in order to correct the function of aberrant disease-related genes. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal X-linked muscle degenerative disease that arises from mutations in the DMD gene leading to an absence of dystrophin protein. AOs have been shown to restore the expression of functional dystrophin via splice correction by intramuscular and systemic delivery in animal models of DMD and in DMD patients via intramuscular administration. Major challenges in developing this splice correction therapy are to optimize AO chemistry and to develop more effective systemic AO delivery. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) AOs are an alternative AO chemistry with favorable in vivo biochemical properties and splice correcting abilities. Here, we show long-term splice correction of the DMD gene in mdx mice following intramuscular PNA delivery and effective splice correction in aged mdx mice. Further, we report detailed optimization of systemic PNA delivery dose regimens and PNA AO lengths to yield splice correction, with 25-mer PNA AOs providing the greatest splice correcting efficacy, restoring dystrophin protein in multiple peripheral muscle groups. PNA AOs therefore provide an attractive candidate AO chemistry for DMD exon skipping therapy.

  14. Exon Skipping and Gene Transfer Restore Dystrophin Expression in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells-Cardiomyocytes Harboring DMD Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Emily; Kalra, Spandan; Anderson, David; George, Vinoj; Ritso, Morten; Laval, Steven H.; Barresi, Rita; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2013-01-01

    With an incidence of ∼1:3,500 to 5,000 in male children, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked disorder in which progressive muscle degeneration occurs and affected boys usually die in their twenties or thirties. Cardiac involvement occurs in 90% of patients and heart failure accounts for up to 40% of deaths. To enable new therapeutics such as gene therapy and exon skipping to be tested in human cardiomyocytes, we produced human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) from seven patients harboring mutations across the DMD gene. Mutations were retained during differentiation and analysis indicated the cardiomyocytes showed a dystrophic gene expression profile. Antisense oligonucleotide-mediated skipping of exon 51 restored dystrophin expression to ∼30% of normal levels in hiPSC-cardiomyocytes carrying exon 47–50 or 48–50 deletions. Alternatively, delivery of a dystrophin minigene to cardiomyocytes with a deletion in exon 35 or a point mutation in exon 70 allowed expression levels similar to those seen in healthy cells. This demonstrates that DMD hiPSC-cardiomyocytes provide a novel tool to evaluate whether new therapeutics can restore dystrophin expression in the heart. PMID:23829870

  15. Localization and quantitation of the chromosome 6-encoded dystrophin-related protein in normal and pathological human muscle.

    PubMed

    Karpati, G; Carpenter, S; Morris, G E; Davies, K E; Guerin, C; Holland, P

    1993-03-01

    A dystrophin-related protein (DRP) encoded by a gene on chromosome 6 was studied in 14 normal and 79 pathological human skeletal muscle biopsies, as well as in cultured myotubes by light microscopic immunocytochemistry and quantitative immunoblots. In normal muscle immunoreactive DRP was present at the postjunctional surface membrane, at the surface of satellite cells, in the walls of blood vessels, in Schwann cells and in perineurium of intramuscular nerves. All of this produced a weak signal on immunoblots. In Duchenne/Becker dystrophy (DMD/BMD) and in polymyositis (PM) or dermatomyositis (DM) DRP was present throughout the extrajunctional surface membrane of extra- and intrafusal muscle fibers, particularly regenerating ones. This produced a 15-17-fold increase of DRP over normal in DMD/BMD and 4-10-fold increase over normal in PM and DM on immunoblots. In other pathological muscles, DRP localization pattern and quantity was about the same as in normals. Dystrophin-related protein was present in about the same amounts and distribution in normal and DMD cultured myoblasts and myotubes. The molecular stimulus for the marked upregulation of DRP in DMD/BMD and in the inflammatory myopathies is not known. In DMD/BMD the diffuse sarcolemmal DRP may partially compensate for dystrophin deficiency.

  16. Muscle-specific CRISPR/Cas9 dystrophin gene editing ameliorates pathophysiology in a mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Niclas E; Hall, John K; Odom, Guy L; Phelps, Michael P; Andrus, Colin R; Hawkins, R David; Hauschka, Stephen D; Chamberlain, Joel R; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S

    2017-02-14

    Gene replacement therapies utilizing adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors hold great promise for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). A related approach uses AAV vectors to edit specific regions of the DMD gene using CRISPR/Cas9. Here we develop multiple approaches for editing the mutation in dystrophic mdx(4cv) mice using single and dual AAV vector delivery of a muscle-specific Cas9 cassette together with single-guide RNA cassettes and, in one approach, a dystrophin homology region to fully correct the mutation. Muscle-restricted Cas9 expression enables direct editing of the mutation, multi-exon deletion or complete gene correction via homologous recombination in myogenic cells. Treated muscles express dystrophin in up to 70% of the myogenic area and increased force generation following intramuscular delivery. Furthermore, systemic administration of the vectors results in widespread expression of dystrophin in both skeletal and cardiac muscles. Our results demonstrate that AAV-mediated muscle-specific gene editing has significant potential for therapy of neuromuscular disorders.

  17. Muscle-specific CRISPR/Cas9 dystrophin gene editing ameliorates pathophysiology in a mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, Niclas E.; Hall, John K.; Odom, Guy L.; Phelps, Michael P.; Andrus, Colin R.; Hawkins, R. David; Hauschka, Stephen D.; Chamberlain, Joel R.; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2017-01-01

    Gene replacement therapies utilizing adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors hold great promise for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). A related approach uses AAV vectors to edit specific regions of the DMD gene using CRISPR/Cas9. Here we develop multiple approaches for editing the mutation in dystrophic mdx4cv mice using single and dual AAV vector delivery of a muscle-specific Cas9 cassette together with single-guide RNA cassettes and, in one approach, a dystrophin homology region to fully correct the mutation. Muscle-restricted Cas9 expression enables direct editing of the mutation, multi-exon deletion or complete gene correction via homologous recombination in myogenic cells. Treated muscles express dystrophin in up to 70% of the myogenic area and increased force generation following intramuscular delivery. Furthermore, systemic administration of the vectors results in widespread expression of dystrophin in both skeletal and cardiac muscles. Our results demonstrate that AAV-mediated muscle-specific gene editing has significant potential for therapy of neuromuscular disorders. PMID:28195574

  18. Exon skipping and gene transfer restore dystrophin expression in human induced pluripotent stem cells-cardiomyocytes harboring DMD mutations.

    PubMed

    Dick, Emily; Kalra, Spandan; Anderson, David; George, Vinoj; Ritso, Morten; Laval, Steven H; Barresi, Rita; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Lochmüller, Hanns; Denning, Chris

    2013-10-15

    With an incidence of ∼1:3,500 to 5,000 in male children, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked disorder in which progressive muscle degeneration occurs and affected boys usually die in their twenties or thirties. Cardiac involvement occurs in 90% of patients and heart failure accounts for up to 40% of deaths. To enable new therapeutics such as gene therapy and exon skipping to be tested in human cardiomyocytes, we produced human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) from seven patients harboring mutations across the DMD gene. Mutations were retained during differentiation and analysis indicated the cardiomyocytes showed a dystrophic gene expression profile. Antisense oligonucleotide-mediated skipping of exon 51 restored dystrophin expression to ∼30% of normal levels in hiPSC-cardiomyocytes carrying exon 47-50 or 48-50 deletions. Alternatively, delivery of a dystrophin minigene to cardiomyocytes with a deletion in exon 35 or a point mutation in exon 70 allowed expression levels similar to those seen in healthy cells. This demonstrates that DMD hiPSC-cardiomyocytes provide a novel tool to evaluate whether new therapeutics can restore dystrophin expression in the heart.

  19. Dystrophin Is Required for Proper Functioning of Luminance and Red-Green Cone Opponent Mechanisms in the Human Retina.

    PubMed

    Barboni, Mirella Telles Salgueiro; Martins, Cristiane Maria Gomes; Nagy, Balázs Vince; Tsai, Tina; Damico, Francisco Max; da Costa, Marcelo Fernandes; de Cassia, Rita; Pavanello, M; Lourenço, Naila Cristina Vilaça; de Cerqueira, Antonia Maria Pereira; Zatz, Mayana; Kremers, Jan; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2016-07-01

    Visual information is processed in parallel pathways in the visual system. Parallel processing begins at the synapse between the photoreceptors and their postreceptoral neurons in the human retina. The integrity of this first neural connection is vital for normal visual processing downstream. Of the numerous elements necessary for proper functioning of this synaptic contact, dystrophin proteins in the eye play an important role. Deficiency of muscle dystrophin causes Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an X-linked disease that affects muscle function and leads to decreased life expectancy. In DMD patients, postreceptoral retinal mechanisms underlying scotopic and photopic vision and ON- and OFF-pathway responses are also altered. In this study, we recorded the electroretinogram (ERG) while preferentially activating the (red-green) opponent or the luminance pathway, and compared data from healthy participants (n = 16) with those of DMD patients (n = 10). The stimuli were heterochromatic sinusoidal modulations at a mean luminance of 200 cd/m2. The recordings allowed us also to analyze ON and OFF cone-driven retinal responses. We found significant differences in 12-Hz response amplitudes and phases between controls and DMD patients, with conditions with large luminance content resulting in larger response amplitudes in DMD patients compared to controls, whereas responses of DMD patients were smaller when pure chromatic modulation was given. The results suggest that dystrophin is required for the proper function of luminance and red-green cone opponent mechanisms in the human retina.

  20. Combination of Myostatin Pathway Interference and Dystrophin Rescue Enhances Tetanic and Specific Force in Dystrophic mdx Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dumonceaux, Julie; Marie, Solenne; Beley, Cyriaque; Trollet, Capucine; Vignaud, Alban; Ferry, Arnaud; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Garcia, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is characterized by muscular atrophy, fibrosis, and fat accumulation. Several groups have demonstrated that in the mdx mouse, the exon-skipping strategy can restore a quasi-dystrophin in almost 100% of the muscle fibers. On the other hand, inhibition of the myostatin pathway in adult mice has been described to enhance muscle growth and improve muscle force. Our aim was to combine these two strategies to evaluate a possible additive effect. We have chosen to inhibit the myostatin pathway using the technique of RNA interference directed against the myostatin receptor AcvRIIb mRNA (sh-AcvRIIb). The restoration of a quasi-dystrophin was mediated by the vectorized U7 exon-skipping technique (U7-DYS). Adeno-associated vectors carrying either the sh-AcvrIIb construct alone, the U7-DYS construct alone, or a combination of both constructs were injected in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of dystrophic mdx mice. We show that even if each separate approach has some effects on muscle physiology, the combination of the dystrophin rescue and the downregulation of the myostatin receptor is required to massively improve both the tetanic force and the specific force. This study provides a novel pharmacogenetic strategy for treatment of certain neuromuscular diseases associated with muscle wasting. PMID:20104211

  1. Dystrophin Deficiency Compromises Force Production of the Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Muscle in the Canine Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Chady H.; Pan, Xiufang; Terjung, Ronald L.; Duan, Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Loss of muscle force is a salient feature of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a fatal disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. Assessment of force production from a single intact muscle has been considered as the gold standard for studying physiological consequences in murine models of DMD. Unfortunately, equivalent assays have not been established in dystrophic dogs. To fill the gap, we developed a novel in situ protocol to measure force generated by the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) muscle of a dog. We also determined the muscle length to fiber length ratio and the pennation angle of the ECU muscle. Muscle pathology and contractility were compared between normal and affected dogs. Absence of dystrophin resulted in marked histological damage in the ECU muscle of affected dogs. Central nucleation was significantly increased and myofiber size distribution was altered in the dystrophic ECU muscle. Muscle weight and physiological cross sectional area (PCSA) showed a trend of reduction in affected dogs although the difference did not reach statistical significance. Force measurement revealed a significant decrease of absolute force, and the PCSA or muscle weight normalized specific forces. To further characterize the physiological defect in affected dog muscle, we conducted eccentric contraction. Dystrophin-null dogs showed a significantly greater force loss following eccentric contraction damage. To our knowledge, this is the first convincing demonstration of force deficit in a single intact muscle in the canine DMD model. The method described here will be of great value to study physiological outcomes following innovative gene and/or cell therapies. PMID:22973449

  2. Dystrophin Delivery to Muscles of mdx Mice Using Lentiviral Vectors Leads to Myogenic Progenitor Targeting and Stable Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, En; Li, Sheng; Gregorevic, Paul; Fall, Brent M; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S

    2009-01-01

    To explore whether stable transduction of myogenic stem cells using lentiviral vectors could be of benefit for treating dystrophic muscles, we generated vectors expressing a functional microdystrophin/enhanced green fluorescence protein fusion (µDys/eGFP) gene. Lentiviral vector injection into neonatal mdx4cv muscles resulted in widespread and stable expression of dystrophin for at least 2 years. This expression resulted in a significant amelioration of muscle pathophysiology as assessed by a variety of histological and functional assays. To assess whether this long-term expression was accompanied by stable transduction of satellite cells, we harvested muscle mononuclear cells 1 year after vector injection. Up to 20% of the cultured myoblast colonies expressed the µDys/eGFP transgene following myotube formation. Furthermore, transplantation of the muscle mononuclear cells into secondary mdx4cv recipients showed their ability to regenerate dystrophin-expressing myofibers in vivo. The ability to isolate myogenic cells able to form dystrophin-positive myotubes or myofibers in vitro and in vivo >1 year postinjection indicates that the vectors stably transduced muscle satellite cells, or a progenitor of such cells, in neonatal mdx4cv muscles. These studies suggest that integrating lentiviral vectors have potential utility for gene therapy of muscular dystrophy. PMID:19888194

  3. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... PROBLEMS Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... treat abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  4. Impaired isotonic contractility and structural abnormalities in the diaphragm of congestive heart failure rats.

    PubMed

    van Hees, Hieronymus W H; van der Heijden, Henricus F M; Hafmans, Theo; Ennen, Leo; Heunks, Leo M A; Verheugt, Freek W A; Dekhuijzen, P N Richard

    2008-08-29

    Metabolic alterations and decreased isometric force generation have been demonstrated in different animal models for congestive heart failure (CHF). However, as few morphological examinations have been performed on the CHF diaphragm, it is unknown if structural abnormalities comprise a substrate for diaphragm dysfunction in CHF. Therefore, we investigated CHF diaphragm isometric and isotonic contractility together with the presence of structural abnormalities. Isometric twitch (P(t)) and maximal (P(o)) force, shortening velocity and power generation were determined in diaphragm bundles from rats with CHF, induced by myocardial infarction, and sham-operated rats. Immunofluorescence staining of myosin and sarcolemmal components fibronectin, laminin and dystrophin was performed on diaphragm cryosections. Electron microscopy was used to study the ultrastructure of diaphragm fibres. P(t) and P(o) were respectively approximately 30% and approximately 20% lower in CHF diaphragm bundles than sham. Maximal shortening velocity was reduced by approximately 20% and maximal power generation by approximately 35%. Structural abnormalities were frequently observed in CHF diaphragm fibres and were mainly marked by focal degradation of sarcomeric constituents and expansion of intermyofibrillar spaces with swollen and degenerated mitochondria. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed reduced staining intensities of myosin in CHF diaphragm fibres compared to sham. No differences were found regarding the distribution of fibronectin, laminin and dystrophin, indicating an intact sarcolemma in both groups. This study demonstrates impaired isometric and isotonic contractility together with structural abnormalities in the CHF diaphragm. The sarcolemma of CHF diaphragm fibres appeared to be intact, excluding a role for sarcolemmal injuries in the development of CHF diaphragm dysfunction.

  5. Aberrant Location of Inhibitory Synaptic Marker Proteins in the Hippocampus of Dystrophin-Deficient Mice: Implications for Cognitive Impairment in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Krasowska, Elżbieta; Zabłocki, Krzysztof; Górecki, Dariusz C.; Swinny, Jerome D.

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a neuromuscular disease that arises from mutations in the dystrophin-encoding gene. Apart from muscle pathology, cognitive impairment, primarily of developmental origin, is also a significant component of the disorder. Convergent lines of evidence point to an important role for dystrophin in regulating the molecular machinery of central synapses. The clustering of neurotransmitter receptors at inhibitory synapses, thus impacting on synaptic transmission, is of particular significance. However, less is known about the role of dystrophin in influencing the precise expression patterns of proteins located within the pre- and postsynaptic elements of inhibitory synapses. To this end, we exploited molecular markers of inhibitory synapses, interneurons and dystrophin-deficient mouse models to explore the role of dystrophin in determining the stereotypical patterning of inhibitory connectivity within the cellular networks of the hippocampus CA1 region. In tissue from wild-type (WT) mice, immunoreactivity of neuroligin2 (NL2), an adhesion molecule expressed exclusively in postsynaptic elements of inhibitory synapses, and the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT), a marker of GABAergic presynaptic elements, were predictably enriched in strata pyramidale and lacunosum moleculare. In acute contrast, NL2 and VGAT immunoreactivity was relatively evenly distributed across all CA1 layers in dystrophin-deficient mice. Similar changes were evident with the cannabinoid receptor 1, vesicular glutamate transporter 3, parvalbumin, somatostatin and the GABAA receptor alpha1 subunit. The data show that in the absence of dystrophin, there is a rearrangement of the molecular machinery, which underlies the precise spatio-temporal pattern of GABAergic synaptic transmission within the CA1 sub-field of the hippocampus. PMID:25260053

  6. Dystrophin-deficient dogs with reduced myostatin have unequal muscle growth and greater joint contractures.

    PubMed

    Kornegay, Joe N; Bogan, Daniel J; Bogan, Janet R; Dow, Jennifer L; Wang, Jiahui; Fan, Zheng; Liu, Naili; Warsing, Leigh C; Grange, Robert W; Ahn, Mihye; Balog-Alvarez, Cynthia J; Cotten, Steven W; Willis, Monte S; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice; Zhu, Hongtu; Palandra, Joe; Morris, Carl A; Styner, Martin A; Wagner, Kathryn R

    2016-01-01

    Myostatin (Mstn) is a negative regulator of muscle growth whose inhibition promotes muscle growth and regeneration. Dystrophin-deficient mdx mice in which myostatin is knocked out or inhibited postnatally have a less severe phenotype with greater total mass and strength and less fibrosis and fatty replacement of muscles than mdx mice with wild-type myostatin expression. Dogs with golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) have previously been noted to have increased muscle mass and reduced fibrosis after systemic postnatal myostatin inhibition. Based partly on these results, myostatin inhibitors are in development for use in human muscular dystrophies. However, persisting concerns regarding the effects of long-term and profound myostatin inhibition will not be easily or imminently answered in clinical trials. To address these concerns, we developed a canine (GRippet) model by crossbreeding dystrophin-deficient GRMD dogs with Mstn-heterozygous (Mstn (+/-)) whippets. A total of four GRippets (dystrophic and Mstn (+/-)), three GRMD (dystrophic and Mstn wild-type) dogs, and three non-dystrophic controls from two litters were evaluated. Myostatin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein levels were downregulated in both GRMD and GRippet dogs. GRippets had more severe postural changes and larger (more restricted) maximal joint flexion angles, apparently due to further exaggeration of disproportionate effects on muscle size. Flexors such as the cranial sartorius were more hypertrophied on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the GRippets, while extensors, including the quadriceps femoris, underwent greater atrophy. Myostatin protein levels negatively correlated with relative cranial sartorius muscle cross-sectional area on MRI, supporting a role in disproportionate muscle size. Activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) expression was higher in dystrophic versus control dogs, consistent with physiologic feedback between myostatin and ActRIIB. However, there was no

  7. RT-PCR analysis of dystrophin mRNA in DND/BMD patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ciafaloni, E.; Silva, H.A.R. de; Roses, A.D.

    1994-09-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD, BMD) are X-linked recessive disorders caused by mutations in the dystrophin (dys) gene. The majority of these mutations are intragenic deletions of duplications routinely detected by Southern biots and multiplex PCR. The remainder are very likely, smaller mutations, mostly point-mutations. Detection of these mutations is very difficult due to the size and complexity of the dys gene. We applied RT-PCR to analyse the entire dys mRNA of three DMD patients with no detectable genomic defect. In two unrelated patients, a duplication of the 62 bp exon 2 was identified. This causes a frameshift sufficient to explain the DMD phenotype. In the third patient, who had congenital DMD and severe mental retardation, a complex pattern of aberrant splicing at the 3-prime exons 67-79 was observed. Sural nerve biopsy in this patient showed the complete absence of Dp116. PCR-SSCP studies are presently in progress to identify the mutations responsible for the aberrant splicing patterns.

  8. Sequence characterisation of deletion breakpoints in the dystrophin gene by PCR

    SciTech Connect

    Abbs, S.; Sandhu, S.; Bobrow, M.

    1994-09-01

    Partial deletions of the dystrophin gene account for 65% of cases of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A high proportion of these structural changes are generated by new mutational events, and lie predominantly within two `hotspot` regions, yet the underlying reasons for this are not known. We are characterizing and sequencing the regions surrounding deletion breakpoints in order to: (i) investigate the mechanisms of deletion mutation, and (ii) enable the design of PCR assays to specifically amplify mutant and normal sequences, allowing us to search for the presence of somatic mosaicism in appropriate family members. Using this approach we have been able to demonstrate the presence of somatic mosaicism in a maternal grandfather of a DMD-affected male, deleted for exons 49-50. Three deletions, namely of exons 48-49, 49-50, and 50, have been characterized using a PCR approach that avoids any cloning procedures. Breakpoints were initially localized to within regions of a few kilobases using Southern blot restriction analyses with exon-specific probes and PCR amplification of exonic and intronic loci. Sequencing was performed directly on PCR products: (i) mutant sequences were obtained from long-range or inverse-PCR across the deletion junction fragments, and (ii) normal sequences were obtained from the products of standard PCR, vectorette PCR, or inverse-PCR performed on YACs. Further characterization of intronic sequences will allow us to amplify and sequence across other deletion breakpoints and increase our knowledge of the mechanisms of mutation in the dystophin gene.

  9. Genetic Modifier Screens Reveal New Components that Interact with the Drosophila Dystroglycan-Dystrophin Complex

    PubMed Central

    Yatsenko, Andriy S.; Shcherbata, Halyna R.; Fischer, Karin A.; Maksymiv, Dariya V.; Chernyk, Yaroslava I.; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele

    2008-01-01

    The Dystroglycan-Dystrophin (Dg-Dys) complex has a capacity to transmit information from the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton inside the cell. It is proposed that this interaction is under tight regulation; however the signaling/regulatory components of Dg-Dys complex remain elusive. Understanding the regulation of the complex is critical since defects in this complex cause muscular dystrophy in humans. To reveal new regulators of the Dg-Dys complex, we used a model organism Drosophila melanogaster and performed genetic interaction screens to identify modifiers of Dg and Dys mutants in Drosophila wing veins. These mutant screens revealed that the Dg-Dys complex interacts with genes involved in muscle function and components of Notch, TGF-β and EGFR signaling pathways. In addition, components of pathways that are required for cellular and/or axonal migration through cytoskeletal regulation, such as Semaphorin-Plexin, Frazzled-Netrin and Slit-Robo pathways show interactions with Dys and/or Dg. These data suggest that the Dg-Dys complex and the other pathways regulating extracellular information transfer to the cytoskeletal dynamics are more intercalated than previously thought. PMID:18545683

  10. Somatodendritic and excitatory postsynaptic distribution of neuron-type dystrophin isoform, Dp40, in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Takahiro; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji

    2014-09-12

    The Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene produces multiple dystrophin (Dp) products due to the presence of several promoters. We previously reported the existence of a novel short isoform of Dp, Dp40, in adult mouse brain. However, the exact biochemical expression profile and cytological distribution of the Dp40 protein remain unknown. In this study, we generated a polyclonal antibody against the NH2-terminal region of the Dp40 and identified the expression profile of Dp40 in the mouse brain. Through an analysis using embryonic and postnatal mouse cerebrums, we found that Dp40 emerged from the early neonatal stages until adulthood, whereas Dp71, an another Dp short isoform, was highly detected in both prenatal and postnatal cerebrums. Intriguingly, relative expressions of Dp40 and Dp71 were prominent in cultured dissociated neurons and non-neuronal cells derived from mouse hippocampus, respectively. Furthermore, the immunocytological distribution of Dp40 was analyzed in dissociated cultured neurons, revealing that Dp40 is detected in the soma and its dendrites, but not in the axon. It is worthy to note that Dp40 is localized along the subplasmalemmal region of the dendritic shafts, as well as at excitatory postsynaptic sites. Thus, Dp40 was identified as a neuron-type Dp possibly involving dendritic and synaptic functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Slight alteration of the electroretinogram in mice lacking dystrophin dp71.

    PubMed

    Cia, David; Simonutti, Manuel; Fort, Patrice E; Doly, Michel; Rendon, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Most Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and the mdx(Cv3) mouse strain, lacking expression of both dystrophins Dp260 and Dp71, show a high attenuation of the dark-adapted electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave amplitude, whereas mice lacking the expression of Dp260 show normal b-wave amplitude. Here, we completed our assessment of whether the sole absence of Dp71 affects the ERG. Ganzfeld ERGs were performed on dark-adapted Dp71-null mice and littermates. Scotopic flash ERGs were recorded at light intensities from 3.10-(5) to 1 cd.s/m(2). Oscillatory potentials (OPs) were extracted at 1 cd.s/m(2). Photopic flash ERGs were recorded at 10 cd.s/m(2) after light adaptation. Dp71-null mice showed a slight but significant reduction in b-wave amplitudes, normal a-wave amplitudes and nonaffected implicit times of the scotopic ERGs. No changes were observed in the amplitudes and implicit times of the OPs and the photopic ERGs. Our results demonstrate that together both Dp71 and Dp260 are required for the generation of the ERG b-wave in mice. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Multi-level omics analysis in a murine model of dystrophin loss and therapeutic restoration

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Thomas C.; Johansson, Henrik J.; McClorey, Graham; Godfrey, Caroline; Blomberg, K. Emelie M.; Coursindel, Thibault; Gait, Michael J.; Smith, C.I. Edvard; Lehtiö, Janne; EL Andaloussi, Samir; Wood, Matthew J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a classical monogenic disorder, a model disease for genomic studies and a priority candidate for regenerative medicine and gene therapy. Although the genetic cause of DMD is well known, the molecular pathogenesis of disease and the response to therapy are incompletely understood. Here, we describe analyses of protein, mRNA and microRNA expression in the tibialis anterior of the mdx mouse model of DMD. Notably, 3272 proteins were quantifiable and 525 identified as differentially expressed in mdx muscle (P < 0.01). Therapeutic restoration of dystrophin by exon skipping induced widespread shifts in protein and mRNA expression towards wild-type expression levels, whereas the miRNome was largely unaffected. Comparison analyses between datasets showed that protein and mRNA ratios were only weakly correlated (r = 0.405), and identified a multitude of differentially affected cellular pathways, upstream regulators and predicted miRNA–target interactions. This study provides fundamental new insights into gene expression and regulation in dystrophic muscle. PMID:26385637

  13. Metabolic remodeling agents show beneficial effects in the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetic disease involving a severe muscle wasting that is characterized by cycles of muscle degeneration/regeneration and culminates in early death in affected boys. Mitochondria are presumed to be involved in the regulation of myoblast proliferation/differentiation; enhancing mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics (AMPK and PPAR-delta agonists) increases muscle function and inhibits muscle wasting in healthy mice. We therefore asked whether metabolic remodeling agents that increase mitochondrial activity would improve muscle function in mdx mice. Methods Twelve-week-old mdx mice were treated with two different metabolic remodeling agents (GW501516 and AICAR), separately or in combination, for 4 weeks. Extensive systematic behavioral, functional, histological, biochemical, and molecular tests were conducted to assess the drug(s)' effects. Results We found a gain in body and muscle weight in all treated mice. Histologic examination showed a decrease in muscle inflammation and in the number of fibers with central nuclei and an increase in fibers with peripheral nuclei, with significantly fewer activated satellite cells and regenerating fibers. Together with an inhibition of FoXO1 signaling, these results indicated that the treatments reduced ongoing muscle damage. Conclusions The three treatments produced significant improvements in disease phenotype, including an increase in overall behavioral activity and significant gains in forelimb and hind limb strength. Our findings suggest that triggering mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics improves muscle function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. PMID:22908954

  14. Read-through compound 13 restores dystrophin expression and improves muscle function in the mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kayali, Refik; Ku, Jin-Mo; Khitrov, Gregory; Jung, Michael E.; Prikhodko, Olga; Bertoni, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Molecules that induce ribosomal read-through of nonsense mutations in mRNA and allow production of a full-length functional protein hold great therapeutic potential for the treatment of many genetic disorders. Two such read-through compounds, RTC13 and RTC14, were recently identified by a luciferase-independent high-throughput screening assay and were shown to have potential therapeutic functions in the treatment of nonsense mutations in the ATM and the dystrophin genes. We have now tested the ability of RTC13 and RTC14 to restore dystrophin expression into skeletal muscles of the mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Direct intramuscular injection of compound RTC14 did not result in significant read-through activity in vivo and demonstrated the levels of dystrophin protein similar to those detected using gentamicin. In contrast, significant higher amounts of dystrophin were detected after intramuscular injection of RTC13. When administered systemically, RTC13 was shown to partially restore dystrophin protein in different muscle groups, including diaphragm and heart, and improved muscle function. An increase in muscle strength was detected in all treated animals and was accompanied by a significant decrease in creatine kinase levels. These studies establish the therapeutic potential of RTC13 in vivo and advance this newly identified compound into preclinical application for DMD. PMID:22692682

  15. Simultaneous Pathoproteomic Evaluation of the Dystrophin-Glycoprotein Complex and Secondary Changes in the mdx-4cv Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sandra; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Zweyer, Margit; Mundegar, Rustam R.; Swandulla, Dieter; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2015-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex forms a membrane-associated assembly of relatively low abundance, making its detailed proteomic characterization in normal versus dystrophic tissues technically challenging. To overcome this analytical problem, we have enriched the muscle membrane fraction by a minimal differential centrifugation step followed by the comprehensive label-free mass spectrometric analysis of microsomal membrane preparations. This organelle proteomic approach successfully identified dystrophin and its binding partners in normal versus dystrophic hind limb muscles. The introduction of a simple pre-fractionation step enabled the simultaneous proteomic comparison of the reduction in the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex and secondary changes in the mdx-4cv mouse model of dystrophinopathy in a single analytical run. The proteomic screening of the microsomal fraction from dystrophic hind limb muscle identified the full-length dystrophin isoform Dp427 as the most drastically reduced protein in dystrophinopathy, demonstrating the remarkable analytical power of comparative muscle proteomics. Secondary pathoproteomic expression patterns were established for 281 proteins, including dystrophin-associated proteins and components involved in metabolism, signalling, contraction, ion-regulation, protein folding, the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. Key findings were verified by immunoblotting. Increased levels of the sarcolemmal Na+/K+-ATPase in dystrophic leg muscles were also confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Thus, the reduction of sample complexity in organelle-focused proteomics can be advantageous for the profiling of supramolecular protein complexes in highly intricate systems, such as skeletal muscle tissue. PMID:26067837

  16. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  18. A Two-amino Acid Mutation Encountered in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Decreases Stability of the Rod Domain 23 (R23) Spectrin-like Repeat of Dystrophin.

    PubMed

    Legardinier, Sébastien; Legrand, Baptiste; Raguénès-Nicol, Céline; Bondon, Arnaud; Hardy, Serge; Tascon, Christophe; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Hubert, Jean-François

    2009-03-27

    Lack of functional dystrophin causes severe Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The subsarcolemmal location of dystrophin, as well as its association with both cytoskeleton and membrane, suggests a role in the mechanical regulation of muscular membrane stress. In particular, phenotype rescue in a Duchenne muscular dystrophy mice model has shown that some parts of the central rod domain of dystrophin, constituted by 24 spectrin-like repeats, are essential. In this study, we made use of rare missense pathogenic mutations in the dystrophin gene and analyzed the biochemical properties of the isolated repeat 23 bearing single or double mutations E2910V and N2912D found in muscle dystrophy with severity grading. No dramatic effect on secondary and tertiary structure of the repeat was found in mutants compared with wild type as revealed by circular dichroism and NMR. Thermal and chemical unfolding data from circular dichroism and tryptophan fluorescence show significant decrease of stability for the mutants, and stopped-flow spectroscopy shows decreased refolding rates. The most deleterious single mutation is the N2912D replacement, although we observe additive effects of the two mutations on repeat stability. Based on three-dimensional structures built by homology molecular modeling, we discuss the modifications of the mutation-induced repeat stability. We conclude that the main forces involved in repeat stability are electrostatic inter-helix interactions that are disrupted following mutations. This study represents the first analysis at the protein level of the consequences of missense mutations in the human dystrophin rod domain. Our results suggest that it may participate in mechanical weakening of dystrophin-deficient muscle.

  19. Categorization of 77 dystrophin exons into 5 groups by a decision tree using indexes of splicing regulatory factors as decision markers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a fatal muscle-wasting disease, is characterized by dystrophin deficiency caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Skipping of a target dystrophin exon during splicing with antisense oligonucleotides is attracting much attention as the most plausible way to express dystrophin in DMD. Antisense oligonucleotides have been designed against splicing regulatory sequences such as splicing enhancer sequences of target exons. Recently, we reported that a chemical kinase inhibitor specifically enhances the skipping of mutated dystrophin exon 31, indicating the existence of exon-specific splicing regulatory systems. However, the basis for such individual regulatory systems is largely unknown. Here, we categorized the dystrophin exons in terms of their splicing regulatory factors. Results Using a computer-based machine learning system, we first constructed a decision tree separating 77 authentic from 14 known cryptic exons using 25 indexes of splicing regulatory factors as decision markers. We evaluated the classification accuracy of a novel cryptic exon (exon 11a) identified in this study. However, the tree mislabeled exon 11a as a true exon. Therefore, we re-constructed the decision tree to separate all 15 cryptic exons. The revised decision tree categorized the 77 authentic exons into five groups. Furthermore, all nine disease-associated novel exons were successfully categorized as exons, validating the decision tree. One group, consisting of 30 exons, was characterized by a high density of exonic splicing enhancer sequences. This suggests that AOs targeting splicing enhancer sequences would efficiently induce skipping of exons belonging to this group. Conclusions The decision tree categorized the 77 authentic exons into five groups. Our classification may help to establish the strategy for exon skipping therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:22462762

  20. Extraocular muscle satellite cells are high performance myo-engines retaining efficient regenerative capacity in dystrophin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Stuelsatz, Pascal; Shearer, Andrew; Li, Yunfei; Muir, Lindsey A; Ieronimakis, Nicholas; Shen, Qingwu W; Kirillova, Irina; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

    2015-01-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOMs) are highly specialized skeletal muscles that originate from the head mesoderm and control eye movements. EOMs are uniquely spared in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and animal models of dystrophin deficiency. Specific traits of myogenic progenitors may be determinants of this preferential sparing, but very little is known about the myogenic cells in this muscle group. While satellite cells (SCs) have long been recognized as the main source of myogenic cells in adult muscle, most of the knowledge about these cells comes from the prototypic limb muscles. In this study, we show that EOMs, regardless of their distinctive Pax3-negative lineage origin, harbor SCs that share a common signature (Pax7(+), Ki67(-), Nestin-GFP(+), Myf5(nLacZ+), MyoD-positive lineage origin) with their limb and diaphragm somite-derived counterparts, but are remarkably endowed with a high proliferative potential as revealed in cell culture assays. Specifically, we demonstrate that in adult as well as in aging mice, EOM SCs possess a superior expansion capacity, contributing significantly more proliferating, differentiating and renewal progeny than their limb and diaphragm counterparts. These robust growth and renewal properties are maintained by EOM SCs isolated from dystrophin-null (mdx) mice, while SCs from muscles affected by dystrophin deficiency (i.e., limb and diaphragm) expand poorly in vitro. EOM SCs also retain higher performance in cell transplantation assays in which donor cells were engrafted into host mdx limb muscle. Collectively, our study provides a comprehensive picture of EOM myogenic progenitors, showing that while these cells share common hallmarks with the prototypic SCs in somite-derived muscles, they distinctively feature robust growth and renewal capacities that warrant the title of high performance myo-engines and promote consideration of their properties for developing new approaches in cell-based therapy to combat skeletal muscle wasting.

  1. Abnormal rubbing and keratectasia.

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles W

    2007-11-01

    Hypotheses for the varied pathogenesis of the different forms of keratoconus have been outlined. Against this background, the possibility that abnormal rubbing causes or contributes to the development or progression of some forms of keratoconus has been examined. Circumstantial evidence that shows an association between abnormal rubbing and keratoconus is reviewed, and a wide range of different forms of abnormal rubbing is described. Also examined is evidence of several processes whereby the cornea appears to be, or could be, adversely affected by mechanical trauma caused by rubbing. Conditions that may increase susceptibility to mechanical rubbing trauma have been discussed. Evidence of a role for inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of keratoconus appears to void the description of keratoconus as a noninflammatory condition. When vigorous knuckle-rubbing forces are located on the normal peripheral cornea, the thinner or weakened cone apex may be exposed to high intraocular pressure distending forces that may tend to promote ectasia. It appears reasonable to conclude that abnormal rubbing is a cause of some types of keratoconus, not because all abnormal rubbing, or only abnormal rubbing, leads to the development of some types of keratoconus, but because abnormal rubbing may increase the likelihood of the development of some forms of keratoconus. Abnormal rubbing habits may commence or continue after routine contact lens wear is established. Any associated rubbing or contact lens trauma may contribute to the progression of keratoconus. The abnormal rubbing-ectasia association in keratoconus may extend to other forms of keratectasia, including that seen after laser in situ keratomileusis, for which a contributory abnormal rubbing hypothesis may be appropriate.

  2. Disruption of action potential and calcium signaling properties in malformed myofibers from dystrophin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ochoa, Erick O; Pratt, Stephen J P; Garcia-Pelagio, Karla P; Schneider, Martin F; Lovering, Richard M

    2015-04-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most common and severe muscular dystrophy, is caused by the absence of dystrophin. Muscle weakness and fragility (i.e., increased susceptibility to damage) are presumably due to structural instability of the myofiber cytoskeleton, but recent studies suggest that the increased presence of malformed/branched myofibers in dystrophic muscle may also play a role. We have previously studied myofiber morphology in healthy wild-type (WT) and dystrophic (MDX) skeletal muscle. Here, we examined myofiber excitability using high-speed confocal microscopy and the voltage-sensitive indicator di-8-butyl-amino-naphthyl-ethylene-pyridinium-propyl-sulfonate (di-8-ANEPPS) to assess the action potential (AP) properties. We also examined AP-induced Ca(2+) transients using high-speed confocal microscopy with rhod-2, and assessed sarcolemma fragility using elastimetry. AP recordings showed an increased width and time to peak in malformed MDX myofibers compared to normal myofibers from both WT and MDX, but no significant change in AP amplitude. Malformed MDX myofibers also exhibited reduced AP-induced Ca(2+) transients, with a further Ca(2+) transient reduction in the branches of malformed MDX myofibers. Mechanical studies indicated an increased sarcolemma deformability and instability in malformed MDX myofibers. The data suggest that malformed myofibers are functionally different from myofibers with normal morphology. The differences seen in AP properties and Ca(2+) signals suggest changes in excitability and remodeling of the global Ca(2+) signal, both of which could underlie reported weakness in dystrophic muscle. The biomechanical changes in the sarcolemma support the notion that malformed myofibers are more susceptible to damage. The high prevalence of malformed myofibers in dystrophic muscle may contribute to the progressive strength loss and fragility seen in dystrophic muscles. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley

  3. Disruption of action potential and calcium signaling properties in malformed myofibers from dystrophin-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ochoa, Erick O; Pratt, Stephen J P; Garcia-Pelagio, Karla P; Schneider, Martin F; Lovering, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most common and severe muscular dystrophy, is caused by the absence of dystrophin. Muscle weakness and fragility (i.e., increased susceptibility to damage) are presumably due to structural instability of the myofiber cytoskeleton, but recent studies suggest that the increased presence of malformed/branched myofibers in dystrophic muscle may also play a role. We have previously studied myofiber morphology in healthy wild-type (WT) and dystrophic (MDX) skeletal muscle. Here, we examined myofiber excitability using high-speed confocal microscopy and the voltage-sensitive indicator di-8-butyl-amino-naphthyl-ethylene-pyridinium-propyl-sulfonate (di-8-ANEPPS) to assess the action potential (AP) properties. We also examined AP-induced Ca2+ transients using high-speed confocal microscopy with rhod-2, and assessed sarcolemma fragility using elastimetry. AP recordings showed an increased width and time to peak in malformed MDX myofibers compared to normal myofibers from both WT and MDX, but no significant change in AP amplitude. Malformed MDX myofibers also exhibited reduced AP-induced Ca2+ transients, with a further Ca2+ transient reduction in the branches of malformed MDX myofibers. Mechanical studies indicated an increased sarcolemma deformability and instability in malformed MDX myofibers. The data suggest that malformed myofibers are functionally different from myofibers with normal morphology. The differences seen in AP properties and Ca2+ signals suggest changes in excitability and remodeling of the global Ca2+ signal, both of which could underlie reported weakness in dystrophic muscle. The biomechanical changes in the sarcolemma support the notion that malformed myofibers are more susceptible to damage. The high prevalence of malformed myofibers in dystrophic muscle may contribute to the progressive strength loss and fragility seen in dystrophic muscles. PMID:25907787

  4. Altered astrocyte morphology and vascular development in dystrophin-Dp71-null mice.

    PubMed

    Giocanti-Auregan, Audrey; Vacca, Ophélie; Bénard, Romain; Cao, Sijia; Siqueiros, Lourdes; Montañez, Cecilia; Paques, Michel; Sahel, José-Alain; Sennlaub, Florian; Guillonneau, Xavier; Rendon, Alvaro; Tadayoni, Ramin

    2016-05-01

    Understanding retinal vascular development is crucial because many retinal vascular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy (in adults) or retinopathy of prematurity (in children) are among the leading causes of blindness. Given the localization of the protein Dp71 around the retinal vessels in adult mice and its role in maintaining retinal homeostasis, the aim of this study was to determine if Dp71 was involved in astrocyte and vascular development regulation. An experimental study in mouse retinas was conducted. Using a dual immunolabeling with antibodies to Dp71 and anti-GFAP for astrocytes on retinal sections and isolated astrocytes, it was found that Dp71 was expressed in wild-type (WT) mouse astrocytes from early developmental stages to adult stage. In Dp71-null mice, a reduction in GFAP-immunopositive astrocytes was observed as early as postnatal day 6 (P6) compared with WT mice. Using real-time PCR, it was showed that Dp71 mRNA was stable between P1 and P6, in parallel with post-natal vascular development. Regarding morphology in Dp71-null and WT mice, a significant decrease in overall astrocyte process number in Dp71-null retinas at P6 to adult age was found. Using fluorescence-conjugated isolectin Griffonia simplicifolia on whole mount retinas, subsequent delay of developing vascular network at the same age in Dp71-null mice was found. An evidence that the Dystrophin Dp71, a membrane-associated cytoskeletal protein and one of the smaller Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene products, regulates astrocyte morphology and density and is associated with subsequent normal blood vessel development was provided.

  5. Differential expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms in the masticatory muscles of dystrophin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Spassov, Alexander; Gredes, Tomasz; Gedrange, Tomasz; Lucke, Silke; Morgenstern, Sven; Pavlovic, Dragan; Kunert-Keil, Christiane

    2011-12-01

    The dystrophin-deficient mouse (mdx) is a homologue animal model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and is characterized by slowly progressive muscle weakness accompanied by changes in myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition. It is likely that the masticatory muscles undergo similar changes. The aim of this study was to examine the masticatory muscles (masseter, temporal, tongue, and soleus) of 100-day-old mdx and control mice (n = 8-10), and the fibre type distribution (by immunohistochemistry) as well as the expression of the corresponding MyHC messenger RNA (mRNA) (protein and mRNA expression, using Western blot or quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)). Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis revealed that the masticatory muscles in the control and mdx mice consisted mainly of type 2 fibres, whereas soleus muscle consisted of both type 1 and 2 fibres. In the masseter muscle, the mRNA in mdx mice was not different from that found in the controls. However, the mRNA content of the MyHC-2b isoform in mdx mice was lower in comparison with the controls in the temporal muscle [11.9 versus 36.9 per cent; P < 0.01; mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM), Student's unpaired t-test], as well as in the tongue muscle (65.7 versus 73.8 per cent; P < 0.05). Similarly, the content of MyHC-2x isoforms in mdx tongue muscle was lower than in the controls (25.9 versus 30.8 per cent; P < 0.05). The observed down-regulation of the MyHC-2x and MyHC-2b mRNA in the masticatory muscles of mdx mice may lead to changed fibre type composition. The different MyHC gene expression in mdx mice masticatory muscles may be seen as an adaptive mechanism to muscular dystrophy.

  6. Screening the dystrophin gene suggests a high rate of polymorphism in general but no exonic deletions in schizophrenics

    SciTech Connect

    Lindor, N.M.; Sobell, J.L.; Thibodeau, S.N.

    1994-03-15

    The dystrophin gene, located at chromosome Xp21, was evaluated as a candidate gene in chronic schizophrenia in response to the report of a large family in which schizophrenia cosegregated with Becker muscular dystrophy. Genomic DNA from 94 men with chronic schizophrenia was evaluated by Southern blot analysis using cDNA probes that span exons 1-59. No exonic deletions were identified. An unexpectedly high rate of polymorphism was calculated in this study and two novel polymorphisms were found, demonstrating the usefulness of the candidate gene approach even when results of the original study are negative. 41 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  7. Abnormal menstrual periods (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... have a variety of causes, such as endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial polyps, uterine fibroids, and abnormal thyroid or ... endometrium becomes unusually thick it is called endometrial hyperplasia. Hyperplasia may cause profuse or extended menstrual bleeding.

  8. Abnormal haemoglobins: detection & characterization

    PubMed Central

    Wajcman, Henri; Moradkhani, Kamran

    2011-01-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) abnormalities though quite frequent, are generally detected in populations during surveys and programmes run for prevention of Hb disorders. Several methods are now available for detection of Hb abnormalities. In this review, the following are discussed: (i) the methods used for characterization of haemoglobin disorders; (ii) the problems linked to diagnosis of thalassaemic trait; (iii) the strategy for detection of common Hb variants; and (iv) the difficulties in identification of rare variants. The differences between developing and industrialized countries for the strategies employed in the diagnosis of abnormal haemoglobins are considered. We mention the limits and pitfalls for each approach and the necessity to characterize the abnormalities using at least two different methods. The recommended strategy is to use a combination of cation-exchange high performance chromatography (CE-HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and when possible isoelectric focusing (IEF). Difficult cases may demand further investigations requiring specialized protein and/or molecular biology techniques. PMID:22089618

  9. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  10. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  11. Muscle tone abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Habel, M

    1997-01-01

    Rehabilitation nurses frequently encounter clients with neurological disorders that adversely affect muscle tone. By understanding the physiological etiology of abnormal muscle tone, individual practitioners can design nursing interventions for various care settings that appropriately protect clients from injury and that can help clients and caregivers learn effective techniques for managing muscle tone problems. This article explains muscle tone abnormalities in detail and offers insight into how rehabilitation nurses can play a key role in managing clients' alterations in muscle tone.

  12. Myogenic Akt signaling attenuates muscular degeneration, promotes myofiber regeneration and improves muscle function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Michelle H.; Kay, Danielle I.; Rudra, Renuka T.; Chen, Bo Ming; Hsu, Nigel; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Martinez, Leonel; Spencer, Melissa J.; Walsh, Kenneth; Grinnell, Alan D.; Crosbie, Rachelle H.

    2011-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the most common form of childhood muscular dystrophy, is caused by X-linked inherited mutations in the dystrophin gene. Dystrophin deficiencies result in the loss of the dystrophin–glycoprotein complex at the plasma membrane, which leads to structural instability and muscle degeneration. Previously, we induced muscle-specific overexpression of Akt, a regulator of cellular metabolism and survival, in mdx mice at pre-necrotic (<3.5 weeks) ages and demonstrated upregulation of the utrophin–glycoprotein complex and protection against contractile-induced stress. Here, we found that delaying exogenous Akt treatment of mdx mice after the onset of peak pathology (>6 weeks) similarly increased the abundance of compensatory adhesion complexes at the extrasynaptic sarcolemma. Akt introduction after onset of pathology reverses the mdx histopathological measures, including decreases in blood serum albumin infiltration. Akt also improves muscle function in mdx mice as demonstrated through in vivo grip strength tests and in vitro contraction measurements of the extensor digitorum longus muscle. To further explore the significance of Akt in myofiber regeneration, we injured wild-type muscle with cardiotoxin and found that Akt induced a faster regenerative response relative to controls at equivalent time points. We demonstrate that Akt signaling pathways counteract mdx pathogenesis by enhancing endogenous compensatory mechanisms. These findings provide a rationale for investigating the therapeutic activation of the Akt pathway to counteract muscle wasting. PMID:21245083

  13. Sparing of the Dystrophin-Deficient Cranial Sartorius Muscle Is Associated with Classical and Novel Hypertrophy Pathways in GRMD Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Nghiem, Peter P.; Hoffman, Eric P.; Mittal, Priya; Brown, Kristy J.; Schatzberg, Scott J.; Ghimbovschi, Svetlana; Wang, Zuyi; Kornegay, Joe N.

    2014-01-01

    Both Duchenne and golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) are caused by dystrophin deficiency. The Duchenne muscular dystrophy sartorius muscle and orthologous GRMD cranial sartorius (CS) are relatively spared/hypertrophied. We completed hierarchical clustering studies to define molecular mechanisms contributing to this differential involvement and their role in the GRMD phenotype. GRMD dogs with larger CS muscles had more severe deficits, suggesting that selective hypertrophy could be detrimental. Serial biopsies from the hypertrophied CS and other atrophied muscles were studied in a subset of these dogs. Myostatin showed an age-dependent decrease and an inverse correlation with the degree of GRMD CS hypertrophy. Regulators of myostatin at the protein (AKT1) and miRNA (miR-539 and miR-208b targeting myostatin mRNA) levels were altered in GRMD CS, consistent with down-regulation of myostatin signaling, CS hypertrophy, and functional rescue of this muscle. mRNA and proteomic profiling was used to identify additional candidate genes associated with CS hypertrophy. The top-ranked network included α-dystroglycan and like-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. Proteomics demonstrated increases in myotrophin and spectrin that could promote hypertrophy and cytoskeletal stability, respectively. Our results suggest that multiple pathways, including decreased myostatin and up-regulated miRNAs, α-dystroglycan/like-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, spectrin, and myotrophin, contribute to hypertrophy and functional sparing of the CS. These data also underscore the muscle-specific responses to dystrophin deficiency and the potential deleterious effects of differential muscle involvement. PMID:24160322

  14. Three-Dimensional Regulation of Radial Glial Functions by Lis1-Nde1 and Dystrophin Glycoprotein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Pawlisz, Ashley S.; Feng, Yuanyi

    2011-01-01

    Radial glial cells (RGCs) are distinctive neural stem cells with an extraordinary slender bipolar morphology and dual functions as precursors and migration scaffolds for cortical neurons. Here we show a novel mechanism by which the Lis1-Nde1 complex maintains RGC functions through stabilizing the dystrophin/dystroglycan glycoprotein complex (DGC). A direct interaction between Nde1 and utrophin/dystrophin allows for the assembly of a multi-protein complex that links the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix of RGCs to stabilize their lateral membrane, cell-cell adhesion, and radial morphology. Lis1-Nde1 mutations destabilized the DGC and resulted in deformed, disjointed RGCs and disrupted basal lamina. Besides impaired RGC self-renewal and neuronal migration arrests, Lis1-Nde1 deficiencies also led to neuronal over-migration. Additional to phenotypic resemblances of Lis1-Nde1 with DGC, strong synergistic interactions were found between Nde1 and dystroglycan in RGCs. As functional insufficiencies of LIS1, NDE1, and dystroglycan all cause lissencephaly syndromes, our data demonstrated that a three-dimensional regulation of RGC's cytoarchitecture by the Lis1-Nde1-DGC complex determines the number and spatial organization of cortical neurons as well as the size and shape of the cerebral cortex. PMID:22028625

  15. Eosinophilia of dystrophin-deficient muscle is promoted by perforin-mediated cytotoxicity by T cell effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, B.; Spencer, M. J.; Nakamura, G.; Tseng-Ong, L.; Tidball, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) contribute to muscle pathology in the dystrophin-null mutant mouse (mdx) model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy through perforin-dependent and perforin-independent mechanisms. We have assessed whether the CTL-mediated pathology includes the promotion of eosinophilia in dystrophic muscle, and thereby provides a secondary mechanism through which CTLs contribute to muscular dystrophy. Quantitative immunohistochemistry confirmed that eosinophilia is a component of the mdx dystrophy. In addition, electron microscopic observations show that eosinophils traverse the basement membrane of mdx muscle fibers and display sites of close apposition of eosinophil and muscle membranes. The close membrane apposition is characterized by impingement of eosinophilic rods of major basic protein into the muscle cell membrane. Transfer of mdx splenocytes and mdx muscle extracts to irradiated C57 mice by intraperitoneal injection resulted in muscle eosinophilia in the recipient mice. Double-mutant mice lacking dystrophin and perforin showed less eosinophilia than was displayed by mdx mice that expressed perforin. Finally, administration of prednisolone, which has been shown previously to reduce the concentration of CTLs in dystrophic muscle, produced a significant reduction in eosinophilia. These findings indicate that eosinophilia is a component of the mdx pathology that is promoted by perforin-dependent cytotoxicity of effector T cells. However, some eosinophilia of mdx muscle is independent of perforin-mediated processes.

  16. In vivo single-molecule imaging identifies altered dynamics of calcium channels in dystrophin-mutant C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Hong; Stanciauskas, Ramunas; Stigloher, Christian; Dizon, Kevin K.; Jospin, Maelle; Bessereau, Jean-Louis; Pinaud, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Single-molecule (SM) fluorescence microscopy allows the imaging of biomolecules in cultured cells with a precision of a few nanometres but has yet to be implemented in living adult animals. Here we used split-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusions and complementation-activated light microscopy (CALM) for subresolution imaging of individual membrane proteins in live Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). In vivo tissue-specific SM tracking of transmembrane CD4 and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCC) was achieved with a precision of 30 nm within neuromuscular synapses and at the surface of muscle cells in normal and dystrophin-mutant worms. Through diffusion analyses, we reveal that dystrophin is involved in modulating the confinement of VDCC within sarcolemmal membrane nanodomains in response to varying tonus of C. elegans body-wall muscles. CALM expands the applications of SM imaging techniques beyond the petri dish and opens the possibility to explore the molecular basis of homeostatic and pathological cellular processes with subresolution precision, directly in live animals. PMID:25232639

  17. Exonization of an Intronic LINE-1 Element Causing Becker Muscular Dystrophy as a Novel Mutational Mechanism in Dystrophin Gene.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Ana; Oliveira, Jorge; Coelho, Teresa; Taipa, Ricardo; Melo-Pires, Manuel; Sousa, Mário; Santos, Rosário

    2017-10-03

    A broad mutational spectrum in the dystrophin (DMD) gene, from large deletions/duplications to point mutations, causes Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (D/BMD). Comprehensive genotyping is particularly relevant considering the mutation-centered therapies for dystrophinopathies. We report the genetic characterization of a patient with disease onset at age 13 years, elevated creatine kinase levels and reduced dystrophin labeling, where multiplex-ligation probe amplification (MLPA) and genomic sequencing failed to detect pathogenic variants. Bioinformatic, transcriptomic (real time PCR, RT-PCR), and genomic approaches (Southern blot, long-range PCR, and single molecule real-time sequencing) were used to characterize the mutation. An aberrant transcript was identified, containing a 103-nucleotide insertion between exons 51 and 52, with no similarity with the DMD gene. This corresponded to the partial exonization of a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE-1), disrupting the open reading frame. Further characterization identified a complete LINE-1 (~6 kb with typical hallmarks) deeply inserted in intron 51. Haplotyping and segregation analysis demonstrated that the mutation had a de novo origin. Besides underscoring the importance of mRNA studies in genetically unsolved cases, this is the first report of a disease-causing fully intronic LINE-1 element in DMD, adding to the diversity of mutational events that give rise to D/BMD.

  18. Immobilization of Dystrophin and Laminin α2-Chain Deficient Zebrafish Larvae In Vivo Prevents the Development of Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei; Arner, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies are often caused by genetic alterations in the dystrophin-dystroglycan complex or its extracellular ligands. These structures are associated with the cell membrane and provide mechanical links between the cytoskeleton and the matrix. Mechanical stress is considered a pathological mechanism and muscle immobilization has been shown to be beneficial in some mouse models of muscular dystrophy. The zebrafish enables novel and less complex models to examine the effects of extended immobilization or muscle relaxation in vivo in different dystrophy models. We have examined effects of immobilization in larvae from two zebrafish strains with muscular dystrophy, the Sapje dystrophin-deficient and the Candyfloss laminin α2-chain-deficient strains. Larvae (4 days post fertilization, dpf) of both mutants have significantly lower active force in vitro, alterations in the muscle structure with gaps between muscle fibers and altered birefringence patterns compared to their normal siblings. Complete immobilization (18 hrs to 4 dpf) was achieved using a small molecular inhibitor of actin-myosin interaction (BTS, 50 μM). This treatment resulted in a significantly weaker active contraction at 4 dpf in both mutated larvae and normal siblings, most likely reflecting a general effect of immobilization on myofibrillogenesis. The immobilization also significantly reduced the structural damage in the mutated strains, showing that muscle activity is an important pathological mechanism. Following one-day washout of BTS, muscle tension partly recovered in the Candyfloss siblings and caused structural damage in these mutants, indicating activity-induced muscle recovery and damage, respectively.

  19. Adenoviral vectors encoding CRISPR/Cas9 multiplexes rescue dystrophin synthesis in unselected populations of DMD muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, Ignazio; Liu, Jin; Janssen, Josephine M.; Chen, Xiaoyu; Gonçalves, Manuel A. F. V.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations disrupting the reading frame of the ~2.4 Mb dystrophin-encoding DMD gene cause a fatal X-linked muscle-wasting disorder called Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Genome editing based on paired RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs) from CRISPR/Cas9 systems has been proposed for permanently repairing faulty DMD loci. However, such multiplexing strategies require the development and testing of delivery systems capable of introducing the various gene editing tools into target cells. Here, we investigated the suitability of adenoviral vectors (AdVs) for multiplexed DMD editing by packaging in single vector particles expression units encoding the Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 nuclease and sequence-specific gRNA pairs. These RGN components were customized to trigger short- and long-range intragenic DMD excisions encompassing reading frame-disrupting exons in patient-derived muscle progenitor cells. By allowing synchronous and stoichiometric expression of the various RGN components, we demonstrate that dual RGN-encoding AdVs can correct over 10% of target DMD alleles, readily leading to the detection of Becker-like dystrophin proteins in unselected muscle cell populations. Moreover, we report that AdV-based gene editing can be tailored for removing mutations located within the over 500-kb major DMD mutational hotspot. Hence, this single DMD editing strategy can in principle tackle a broad spectrum of mutations present in more than 60% of patients with DMD. PMID:27845387

  20. Nanopatterned muscle cell patches for enhanced myogenesis and dystrophin expression in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hee Seok; Ieronimakis, Nicholas; Tsui, Jonathan H; Kim, Hong Nam; Suh, Kahp-Yang; Reyes, Morayma; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2014-02-01

    Skeletal muscle is a highly organized tissue in which the extracellular matrix (ECM) is composed of highly-aligned cables of collagen with nanoscale feature sizes, and provides structural and functional support to muscle fibers. As such, the transplantation of disorganized tissues or the direct injection of cells into muscles for regenerative therapy often results in suboptimal functional improvement due to a failure to integrate with native tissue properly. Here, we present a simple method in which biodegradable, biomimetic substrates with precisely controlled nanotopography were fabricated using solvent-assisted capillary force lithography (CFL) and were able to induce the proper development and differentiation of primary mononucleated cells to form mature muscle patches. Cells cultured on these nanopatterned substrates were highly-aligned and elongated, and formed more mature myotubes as evidenced by up-regulated expression of the myogenic regulatory factors Myf5, MyoD and myogenin (MyoG). When transplanted into mdx mice models for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the proposed muscle patches led to the formation of a significantly greater number of dystrophin-positive muscle fibers, indicating that dystrophin replacement and myogenesis is achievable in vivo with this approach. These results demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing biomimetic substrates not only as platforms for studying the influences of the ECM on skeletal muscle function and maturation, but also to create transplantable muscle cell patches for the treatment of chronic and acute muscle diseases or injuries.

  1. Translation from a DMD exon 5 IRES results in a functional dystrophin isoform that attenuates dystrophinopathy in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Wein, Nicolas; Vulin, Adeline; Falzarano, Maria S; Szigyarto, Christina Al-Khalili; Maiti, Baijayanta; Findlay, Andrew; Heller, Kristin N; Uhlén, Mathias; Bakthavachalu, Baskar; Messina, Sonia; Vita, Giuseppe; Passarelli, Chiara; Brioschi, Simona; Bovolenta, Matteo; Neri, Marcella; Gualandi, Francesca; Wilton, Steve D; Rodino-Klapac, Louise R; Yang, Lin; Dunn, Diane M; Schoenberg, Daniel R; Weiss, Robert B; Howard, Michael T; Ferlini, Alessandra; Flanigan, Kevin M

    2014-09-01

    Most mutations that truncate the reading frame of the DMD gene cause loss of dystrophin expression and lead to Duchenne muscular dystrophy. However, amelioration of disease severity has been shown to result from alternative translation initiation beginning in DMD exon 6 that leads to expression of a highly functional N-truncated dystrophin. Here we demonstrate that this isoform results from usage of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) within exon 5 that is glucocorticoid inducible. We confirmed IRES activity by both peptide sequencing and ribosome profiling in muscle from individuals with minimal symptoms despite the presence of truncating mutations. We generated a truncated reading frame upstream of the IRES by exon skipping, which led to synthesis of a functional N-truncated isoform in both human subject-derived cell lines and in a new DMD mouse model, where expression of the truncated isoform protected muscle from contraction-induced injury and corrected muscle force to the same level as that observed in control mice. These results support a potential therapeutic approach for patients with mutations within the 5' exons of DMD.

  2. Mitochondrial expression of a short dystrophin-like product with molecular weight of 71 kDa.

    PubMed

    Chávez, O; Harricane, M C; Alemán, V; Dorbani, L; Larroque, C; Mornet, D; Rendon, A; Martínez-Rojas, D

    2000-08-02

    In the brain, Dp71 is the most abundant protein product of the DMD gene and by alternative splicing of exon 78 two isoforms can be expressed, Dp71d and Dp71f. To explore the subcellular distribution of these Dp71 isoforms, specific monoclonal antibodies were used. Dp71d (with exon 78) was found in microsomes, while Dp71f (without exon 78) was detected in mitochondria. To determine the alterations which the absence of dystrophin proteins induces, we compared the expression of Dp71d in microsomes and Dp71f in mitochondria from mdx and mdx(3CV) mice. Dp71d in microsomes of mdx was similar to that of wild-type mice and, as expected, in mdx(3CV) this protein was undetectable. However, in mitochondria from mdx(3CV), Dp71f was overexpressed in comparison to mitochondria from mdx mice. Because in mdx(3CV) mice all the dystrophin proteins are mutated or diminished, we concluded that the protein detected in mitochondria is not a Dp71f but a novel product named Dp71f-like protein.

  3. Eosinophilia of dystrophin-deficient muscle is promoted by perforin-mediated cytotoxicity by T cell effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, B.; Spencer, M. J.; Nakamura, G.; Tseng-Ong, L.; Tidball, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) contribute to muscle pathology in the dystrophin-null mutant mouse (mdx) model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy through perforin-dependent and perforin-independent mechanisms. We have assessed whether the CTL-mediated pathology includes the promotion of eosinophilia in dystrophic muscle, and thereby provides a secondary mechanism through which CTLs contribute to muscular dystrophy. Quantitative immunohistochemistry confirmed that eosinophilia is a component of the mdx dystrophy. In addition, electron microscopic observations show that eosinophils traverse the basement membrane of mdx muscle fibers and display sites of close apposition of eosinophil and muscle membranes. The close membrane apposition is characterized by impingement of eosinophilic rods of major basic protein into the muscle cell membrane. Transfer of mdx splenocytes and mdx muscle extracts to irradiated C57 mice by intraperitoneal injection resulted in muscle eosinophilia in the recipient mice. Double-mutant mice lacking dystrophin and perforin showed less eosinophilia than was displayed by mdx mice that expressed perforin. Finally, administration of prednisolone, which has been shown previously to reduce the concentration of CTLs in dystrophic muscle, produced a significant reduction in eosinophilia. These findings indicate that eosinophilia is a component of the mdx pathology that is promoted by perforin-dependent cytotoxicity of effector T cells. However, some eosinophilia of mdx muscle is independent of perforin-mediated processes.

  4. Efficient Restoration of the Dystrophin Gene Reading Frame and Protein Structure in DMD Myoblasts Using the CinDel Method

    PubMed Central

    Iyombe-Engembe, Jean-Paul; Ouellet, Dominique L; Barbeau, Xavier; Rousseau, Joël; Chapdelaine, Pierre; Lagüe, Patrick; Tremblay, Jacques P

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a great revolution in biology. This technology allows the modification of genes in vitro and in vivo in a wide variety of living organisms. In most Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, expression of dystrophin (DYS) protein is disrupted because exon deletions result in a frame shift. We present here the CRISPR-induced deletion (CinDel), a new promising genome-editing technology to correct the DMD gene. This strategy is based on the use of two gRNAs targeting specifically exons that precede and follow the patient deletion in the DMD gene. This pair of gRNAs induced a precise large additional deletion leading to fusion of the targeted exons. Using an adequate pair of gRNAs, the deletion of parts of these exons and the intron separating them restored the DMD reading frame in 62% of the hybrid exons in vitro in DMD myoblasts and in vivo in electroporated hDMD/mdx mice. Moreover, adequate pairs of gRNAs also restored the normal spectrin-like repeat of the dystrophin rod domain; such restoration is not obtained by exon skipping or deletion of complete exons. The expression of an internally deleted DYS protein was detected following the formation of myotubes by the unselected, treated DMD myoblasts. Given that CinDel induces permanent reparation of the DMD gene, this treatment would not have to be repeated as it is the case for exon skipping induced by oligonucleotides. PMID:26812655

  5. Cholesterol favors the anchorage of human dystrophin repeats 16 to 21 in membrane at physiological surface pressure.

    PubMed

    Ameziane-Le Hir, Sarah; Raguénès-Nicol, Céline; Paboeuf, Gilles; Nicolas, Aurélie; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Vié, Véronique

    2014-05-01

    Dystrophin (DYS) is a filamentous protein that connects the cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix via the sarcolemma, conferring resistance to muscular cells. In this study, interactions between the DYS R16-21 fragment and lipids were examined using Langmuir films made of anionic and zwitterionic lipids. The film fluidity was modified by the addition of 15% cholesterol. Whatever the lipid mixture examined, at low surface pressure (20 mN/m) few differences appeared on the protein insertion and the presence of cholesterol did not affect the protein/lipid interactions. At high surface pressure (30 mN/m), the protein insertion was very low and occurred only in zwitterionic films in the liquid-expanded phase. In anionic films, electrostatic interactions prevented the protein insertion outright, and caused accumulation of the protein on the hydrophilic part of the monolayer. Addition of cholesterol to both lipid mixtures drastically modified the protein-lipid interactions: the DYS R16-21 insertion increased and its organization in the monolayer appeared to be more homogeneous. The presence of accessible cholesterol recognition amino-acid consensus sequences in this fragment may enhance the protein/membrane binding at physiological lateral pressure. These results suggest that the anchorage of dystrophin to the membrane in vivo may be stabilized by cholesterol-rich nano-domains in the inner leaflet of sarcolemma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Restoring dystrophin expression in duchenne muscular dystrophy muscle progress in exon skipping and stop codon read through.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Eric P; Bronson, Abby; Levin, Arthur A; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Yokota, Toshifumi; Baudy, Andreas R; Connor, Edward M

    2011-07-01

    The identification of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene and protein in the late 1980s led to high hopes of rapid translation to molecular therapeutics. These hopes were fueled by early reports of delivering new functional genes to dystrophic muscle in mouse models using gene therapy and stem cell transplantation. However, significant barriers have thwarted translation of these approaches to true therapies, including insufficient therapeutic material (eg, cells and viral vectors), challenges in systemic delivery, and immunological hurdles. An alternative approach is to repair the patient's own gene. Two innovative small-molecule approaches have emerged as front-line molecular therapeutics: exon skipping and stop codon read through. Both approaches are in human clinical trials and aim to coax dystrophin protein production from otherwise inactive mutant genes. In the clinically severe dog model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the exon-skipping approach recently improved multiple functional outcomes. We discuss the status of these two methods aimed at inducing de novo dystrophin production from mutant genes and review implications for other disorders.

  7. Biomechanics of the sarcolemma and costameres in single skeletal muscle fibers from normal and dystrophin-null mice

    PubMed Central

    García-Pelagio, K. P.; Bloch, R. J.; Ortega, A.; González-Serratos, H.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the biomechanical properties of the sarcolemma and its links through costameres to the contractile apparatus in single mammalian myofibers of Extensor digitorum longus muscles isolated from wild (WT) and dystrophin-null (mdx) mice. Suction pressures (P) applied through a pipette to the sarcolemma generated a bleb, the height of which increased with increasing P. Larger increases in P broke the connections between the sarcolemma and myofibrils and eventually caused the sarcolemma to burst. We used the values of P at which these changes occurred to estimate the tensions and stiffness of the system and its individual elements. Tensions of the whole system and the sarcolemma, as well as the maximal tension sustained by the costameres, were all significantly lower (1.8–3.3 fold) in muscles of mdx mice compared to WT. Values of P at which separation and bursting occurred, as well as the stiffness of the whole system and of the isolated sarcolemma, were ~2-fold lower in mdx than in WT. Our results indicate that the absence of dystrophin reduces muscle stiffness, increases sarcolemmal deformability, and compromises the mechanical stability of costameres and their connections to nearby myofibrils. PMID:21312057

  8. Molecular cloning of macrophin, a human homologue of Drosophila kakapo with a close structural similarity to plectin and dystrophin.

    PubMed

    Okuda, T; Matsuda, S; Nakatsugawa, S; Ichigotani, Y; Iwahashi, N; Takahashi, M; Ishigaki, T; Hamaguchi, M

    1999-10-22

    We have determined the complete cDNA coding sequence of a novel cytoskeletal protein by the degenerative primer-mediated PCR strategy. This novel gene, named as macrophin (microfilament and actin filament cross-linker protein related to plectin and dystrophin, Accession No. AB029290), appears to be a human homologue of a Drosophila gene, kakapo, and shows close similarity to plectin and dystrophin on the search of BLAST homology-computed database. Comparison of the deduced protein sequences for macrophin and kakapo revealed that they were 66% similar, and both of them have an NH2-terminal actin-binding domain, a central rod region composed of spectrin-like repeats, and COOH-terminal Gas2-related region. The predicted sequences for macrophin are 5430 amino acids in length with a calculated molecular mass of 620 kDa, which is one of the largest size idenfied in human cytoskeletal proteins. High expression of macrophin was observed in brain, heart, lung, placenta, liver, kidney, and pancreas. In pancreas, we found that macrophin was specifically expressed in acinar cells than islet cells by in situ hybridization. By using radiation hybrid panel, we have mapped the macrophin gene to the chromosome 1p31-32. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  9. More deletions in the 5{prime} region than in the central region of the dystrophin gene were identified among Filipino Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-06

    This report describes mutations in the dystrophin gene and the frequency of these mutations in Filipino pedigrees with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD). The findings suggest the presence of genetic variability among DMD/BMD patients in different populations. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Absence of Dystrophin Disrupts Skeletal Muscle Signaling: Roles of Ca2+, Reactive Oxygen Species, and Nitric Oxide in the Development of Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Allen, David G; Whitehead, Nicholas P; Froehner, Stanley C

    2016-01-01

    Dystrophin is a long rod-shaped protein that connects the subsarcolemmal cytoskeleton to a complex of proteins in the surface membrane (dystrophin protein complex, DPC), with further connections via laminin to other extracellular matrix proteins. Initially considered a structural complex that protected the sarcolemma from mechanical damage, the DPC is now known to serve as a scaffold for numerous signaling proteins. Absence or reduced expression of dystrophin or many of the DPC components cause the muscular dystrophies, a group of inherited diseases in which repeated bouts of muscle damage lead to atrophy and fibrosis, and eventually muscle degeneration. The normal function of dystrophin is poorly defined. In its absence a complex series of changes occur with multiple muscle proteins showing reduced or increased expression or being modified in various ways. In this review, we will consider the various proteins whose expression and function is changed in muscular dystrophies, focusing on Ca(2+)-permeable channels, nitric oxide synthase, NADPH oxidase, and caveolins. Excessive Ca(2+) entry, increased membrane permeability, disordered caveolar function, and increased levels of reactive oxygen species are early changes in the disease, and the hypotheses for these phenomena will be critically considered. The aim of the review is to define the early damage pathways in muscular dystrophy which might be appropriate targets for therapy designed to minimize the muscle degeneration and slow the progression of the disease. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Pip5 Transduction Peptides Direct High Efficiency Oligonucleotide-mediated Dystrophin Exon Skipping in Heart and Phenotypic Correction in mdx Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yin, HaiFang; Saleh, Amer F; Betts, Corinne; Camelliti, Patrizia; Seow, Yiqi; Ashraf, Shirin; Arzumanov, Andrey; Hammond, Suzan; Merritt, Thomas; Gait, Michael J; Wood, Matthew JA

    2011-01-01

    Induced splice modulation of pre-mRNAs shows promise to correct aberrant disease transcripts and restore functional protein and thus has therapeutic potential. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) results from mutations that disrupt the DMD gene open reading frame causing an absence of dystrophin protein. Antisense oligonucleotide (AO)-mediated exon skipping has been shown to restore functional dystrophin in mdx mice and DMD patients treated intramuscularly in two recent phase 1 clinical trials. Critical to the therapeutic success of AO-based treatment will be the ability to deliver AOs systemically to all affected tissues including the heart. Here, we report identification of a series of transduction peptides (Pip5) as AO conjugates for enhanced systemic and particularly cardiac delivery. One of the lead peptide-AO conjugates, Pip5e-AO, showed highly efficient exon skipping and dystrophin production in mdx mice with complete correction of the aberrant DMD transcript in heart, leading to >50% of the normal level of dystrophin in heart. Mechanistic studies indicated that the enhanced activity of Pip5e-phosphorodiamidate morpholino (PMO) is partly explained by more efficient nuclear delivery. Pip5 series derivatives therefore have significant potential for advancing the development of exon skipping therapies for DMD and may have application for enhanced cardiac delivery of other biotherapeutics. PMID:21505427

  12. Fetal microchimeric cells in a fetus-treats-its-mother paradigm do not contribute to dystrophin production in serially parous mdx females.

    PubMed

    Seppanen, Elke Jane; Hodgson, Samantha Susan; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash; Bou-Gharios, George; Fisk, Nicholas M

    2012-10-10

    Throughout every pregnancy, genetically distinct fetal microchimeric stem/progenitor cells (FMCs) engraft in the mother, persist long after delivery, and may home to damaged maternal tissues. Phenotypically normal fetal lymphoid progenitors have been described to develop in immunodeficient mothers in a fetus-treats-its-mother paradigm. Since stem cells contribute to muscle repair, we assessed this paradigm in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. mdx females were bred serially to either ROSAeGFP males or mdx males to obtain postpartum microchimeras that received either wild-type FMCs or dystrophin-deficient FMCs through serial gestations. To enhance regeneration, notexin was injected into the tibialis anterior of postpartum mice. FMCs were detected by qPCR at a higher frequency in injected compared to noninjected side muscle (P=0.02). However, the number of dystrophin-positive fibers was similar in mothers delivering wild-type compared to mdx pups. In addition, there was no correlation between FMC detection and percentage dystrophin, and no GFP+ve FMCs were identified that expressed dystrophin. In 10/11 animals, GFP+ve FMCs were detected by immunohistochemistry, of which 60% expressed CD45 with 96% outside the basal lamina defining myofiber contours. Finally we confirmed lack of FMC contribution to statellite cells in postpartum mdx females mated with Myf5-LacZ males. We conclude that the FMC contribution to regenerating muscles is insufficient to have a functional impact.

  13. Exon-skipped dystrophins for treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy: mass spectrometry mapping of most exons and cooperative domain designs based on single molecule mechanics.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Christine Carag; Bhasin, Nishant; Tewari, Manorama; Brown, Andre E X; Safer, Daniel; Sweeney, H Lee; Discher, Dennis E

    2010-12-01

    Force-bearing linkages between the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix are clearly important to normal cell viability-as is evident in a disease such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) which arises in the absence of the linkage protein dystrophin. Therapeutic approaches to DMD include antisense-mediated skipping of exons to delete nonsense mutations while maintaining reading frame, but the structure and stability of the resulting proteins are generally unclear. Here we use mass spectrometry to detect most dystrophin exons, and we express and physically characterize dystrophin "nano"-constructs based on multiexon deletions that might find use in a large percentage of DMD patients. The primary structure challenge is addressed first with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) which can detect tryptic peptides from 53 of dystrophin's 79 exons; equivalent information from immunodetection would require 53 different high-specificity antibodies. Folding predictions for the nano-constructs reveal novel helical bundle domains that arise out of exon-deleted "linkers," while secondary structure studies confirm high helicity and also melting temperatures well above physiological. Extensional forces with an atomic force microscope nonetheless unfold the constructs, and the ensemble of unfolding trajectories reveal the number of folded domains, proving consistent with structure predictions. A mechanical cooperativity parameter for unfolding of tandem domains is also introduced as the best predictor of a multiexon deletion that is asymptomatic in humans. The results thereby provide insight and confidence in exon-skipped designs.

  14. Absence of Dystrophin Disrupts Skeletal Muscle Signaling: Roles of Ca2+, Reactive Oxygen Species, and Nitric Oxide in the Development of Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Allen, David G.; Whitehead, Nicholas P.; Froehner, Stanley C.

    2015-01-01

    Dystrophin is a long rod-shaped protein that connects the subsarcolemmal cytoskeleton to a complex of proteins in the surface membrane (dystrophin protein complex, DPC), with further connections via laminin to other extracellular matrix proteins. Initially considered a structural complex that protected the sarcolemma from mechanical damage, the DPC is now known to serve as a scaffold for numerous signaling proteins. Absence or reduced expression of dystrophin or many of the DPC components cause the muscular dystrophies, a group of inherited diseases in which repeated bouts of muscle damage lead to atrophy and fibrosis, and eventually muscle degeneration. The normal function of dystrophin is poorly defined. In its absence a complex series of changes occur with multiple muscle proteins showing reduced or increased expression or being modified in various ways. In this review, we will consider the various proteins whose expression and function is changed in muscular dystrophies, focusing on Ca2+-permeable channels, nitric oxide synthase, NADPH oxidase, and caveolins. Excessive Ca2+ entry, increased membrane permeability, disordered caveolar function, and increased levels of reactive oxygen species are early changes in the disease, and the hypotheses for these phenomena will be critically considered. The aim of the review is to define the early damage pathways in muscular dystrophy which might be appropriate targets for therapy designed to minimize the muscle degeneration and slow the progression of the disease. PMID:26676145

  15. Gentamicin treatment in exercised mdx mice: Identification of dystrophin-sensitive pathways and evaluation of efficacy in work-loaded dystrophic muscle.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Annamaria; Nico, Beatrice; Rolland, Jean-François; Cozzoli, Anna; Burdi, Rosa; Mangieri, Domenica; Giannuzzi, Viviana; Liantonio, Antonella; Cippone, Valentina; De Bellis, Michela; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Camerino, Giulia Maria; Frigeri, Antonio; Svelto, Maria; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2008-11-01

    Aminoglycosides force read through of premature stop codon mutations and introduce new mutation-specific gene-corrective strategies in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A chronic treatment with gentamicin (32 mg/kg/daily i.p., 8-12 weeks) was performed in exercised mdx mice with the dual aim to clarify the dependence on dystrophin of the functional, biochemical and histological alterations present in dystrophic muscle and to verify the long term efficiency of small molecule gene-corrective strategies in work-loaded dystrophic muscle. The treatment counteracted the exercise-induced impairment of in vivo forelimb strength after 6-8 weeks. We observed an increase in dystrophin expression level in all the fibers, although lower than that observed in normal fibers, and found a concomitant recovery of aquaporin-4 at sarcolemma. A significant reduction in centronucleated fibers, in the area of necrosis and in the percentage of nuclear factor-kB-positive nuclei was observed in gastrocnemious muscle of treated animals. Plasma creatine kinase was reduced by 70%. Ex vivo, gentamicin restored membrane ionic conductance in mdx diaphragm and limb muscle fibers. No effects were observed on the altered calcium homeostasis and sarcolemmal calcium permeability, detected by electrophysiological and microspectrofluorimetric approaches. Thus, the maintenance of a partial level of dystrophin is sufficient to reinforce sarcolemmal stability, reducing leakiness, inflammation and fiber damage, while correction of altered calcium homeostasis needs greater expression of dystrophin or direct interventions on the channels involved.

  16. Identification of a novel first exon in the human dystrophin gene and of a new promoter located more than 500 kb upstream of the nearest known promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagawa, H.; Nishio, H.; Takeshima, Y.

    1994-09-01

    The dystrophin gene, which is muted in patients with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies, is the largest known human gene. Five alternative promoters have been characterized until now. Here we show that a novel dystrophin isoform with a different first exon can be produced through transcription initiation at a previously-unidentified alternative promoter. The case study presented is that of patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who had a deletion extending from 5{prime} end of the dystrophin gene to exon 2, including all promoters previously mapped in the 5{prime} part of the gene. Transcripts from lymphoblastoid cells were found to contain sequences corresponding to exon 3, indicating the presence of new promoter upstream of this exon. The nucleotide sequence of amplified cDNA corresponding to the 5{prime} end of the new transcript indicated that the 5{prime} end of exon 3 was extended by 9 codons, only the last (most 3{prime}) of which codes for methionine. The genomic nucleotide sequence upstream from the new exon, as determined using inverse polymerase chain reaction, revealed the presence of sequences similar to a TATA box, an octamer motif and an MEF-2 element. The identified promoter/exon did not map to intron 2, as might have been expected, but to a position more than 500 kb upstream of the most 5{prime} of the previously-identified promoters, thereby adding 500 kb to the dystrophin gene. The sequence of part of the new promoter region is very similar to that of certain medium reiteration frequency repetitive sequences. These findings may help us understand the molecular evolution of the dystrophin gene.

  17. The N- and C-Terminal Domains Differentially Contribute to the Structure and Function of Dystrophin and Utrophin Tandem Calponin-Homology Domains.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surinder M; Bandi, Swati; Mallela, Krishna M G

    2015-11-24

    Dystrophin and utrophin are two muscle proteins involved in Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy. Both proteins use tandem calponin-homology (CH) domains to bind to F-actin. We probed the role of N-terminal CH1 and C-terminal CH2 domains in the structure and function of dystrophin tandem CH domain and compared with our earlier results on utrophin to understand the unifying principles of how tandem CH domains work. Actin cosedimentation assays indicate that the isolated CH2 domain of dystrophin weakly binds to F-actin compared to the full-length tandem CH domain. In contrast, the isolated CH1 domain binds to F-actin with an affinity similar to that of the full-length tandem CH domain. Thus, the obvious question is why the dystrophin tandem CH domain requires CH2, when its actin binding is determined primarily by CH1. To answer, we probed the structural stabilities of CH domains. The isolated CH1 domain is very unstable and is prone to serious aggregation. The isolated CH2 domain is very stable, similar to the full-length tandem CH domain. These results indicate that the main role of CH2 is to stabilize the tandem CH domain structure. These conclusions from dystrophin agree with our earlier results on utrophin, indicating that this phenomenon of differential contribution of CH domains to the structure and function of tandem CH domains may be quite general. The N-terminal CH1 domains primarily determine the actin binding function whereas the C-terminal CH2 domains primarily determine the structural stability of tandem CH domains, and the extent of stabilization depends on the strength of inter-CH domain interactions.

  18. Distribution of components of basal lamina and dystrophin-dystroglycan complex in the rat pineal gland: differences from the brain tissue and between the subdivisions of the gland.

    PubMed

    Bagyura, Zsolt; Pócsai, Károly; Kálmán, Mihály

    2010-01-01

    The pineal gland is an evagination of the brain tissue, a circumventricular neuroendocrine organ. Our immunohistochemical study investigates basal lamina components (laminin, agrin, perlecan, fibronectin), their receptor, the dystrophin-dystroglycan complex (beta-dystroglycan, dystrophin utrophin), aquaporins (-4,-9) and cellular markers (S100, neurofilament, GFAP, glutamine synthetase) in the adult rat corpus pineale. The aim was to compare the immunohistochemical features of the cerebral and pineal vessels and their environment, and to compare their features in the distal and proximal subdivisions of the so-called 'superficial pineal gland'. In contrast to the cerebral vessels, pineal vessels proved to be immunonegative to alpha1-dystrobrevin, but immunoreactive to laminin. An inner, dense, and an outer, loose layer of laminin as two basal laminae were present. The gap between them contained agrin and perlecan. Basal lamina components enmeshed the pinealocytes, too. Components of dystrophin-dystroglycan complex were also distributed along the vessels. Dystrophin, utrophin and agrin gave a 'patchy' distribution rather than a continuous one. The vessels were interconnected by wing-like structures, composed of basal lamina-components: a delicate network forming nests for cells. Cells immunostained with glutamine synthetase, S100-protein or neurofilament protein contacted the vessels, as well as GFAP- or aquaporin-immunostained astrocytes. Within the body a smaller, proximal, GFAP-and aquaporin-containing subdivision, and a larger, distal, GFAP-and aquaporin-free subdivision could be distinguished. The vascular localization of agrin and utrophin, as well as dystrophin, delineated vessels unequally, preferring the proximal or distal end of the body, respectively.

  19. Triple trans-splicing adeno-associated virus vectors capable of transferring the coding sequence for full-length dystrophin protein into dystrophic mice.

    PubMed

    Koo, Taeyoung; Popplewell, Linda; Athanasopoulos, Takis; Dickson, George

    2014-02-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors have been shown to permit very efficient widespread transgene expression in skeletal muscle after systemic delivery, making these increasingly attractive as vectors for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene therapy. DMD is a severe muscle-wasting disorder caused by DMD gene mutations leading to complete loss of dystrophin protein. One of the major issues associated with delivery of the DMD gene, as a therapeutic approach for DMD, is its large open reading frame (ORF; 11.1 kb). A series of truncated microdystrophin cDNAs (delivered via a single AAV) and minidystrophin cDNAs (delivered via dual-AAV trans-spliced/overlapping reconstitution) have thus been extensively tested in DMD animal models. However, critical rod and hinge domains of dystrophin required for interaction with components of the dystrophin-associated protein complex, such as neuronal nitric oxide synthase, syntrophin, and dystrobrevin, are missing; these dystrophin domains may still need to be incorporated to increase dystrophin functionality and stabilize membrane rigidity. Full-length DMD gene delivery using AAV vectors remains elusive because of the limited single-AAV packaging capacity (4.7 kb). Here we developed a novel method for the delivery of the full-length DMD coding sequence to skeletal muscles in dystrophic mdx mice using a triple-AAV trans-splicing vector system. We report for the first time that three independent AAV vectors carrying "in tandem" sequential exonic parts of the human DMD coding sequence enable the expression of the full-length protein as a result of trans-splicing events cojoining three vectors via their inverted terminal repeat sequences. This method of triple-AAV-mediated trans-splicing could be applicable to the delivery of any large therapeutic gene (≥11 kb ORF) into postmitotic tissues (muscles or neurons) for the treatment of various inherited metabolic and genetic diseases.

  20. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Berkovitz, G D; Seeherunvong, T

    1998-04-01

    Gonadal differentiation involves a complex interplay of developmental pathways. The sex determining region Y (SRY) gene plays a key role in testis determination, but its interaction with other genes is less well understood. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation result in a range of clinical problems. 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is defined by an absence of testis determination. Subjects have female external genitalia and come to clinical attention because of delayed puberty. Individuals with 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis usually present in the newborn period for the valuation of ambiguous genitalia. Gonadal histology always shows an abnormality of seminiferous tubule formation. A diagnosis of 46,XY true hermaphroditism is made if the gonads contain well-formed testicular and ovarian elements. Despite the pivotal role of the SRY gene in testis development, mutations of SRY are unusual in subjects with a 46,XY karyotype and abnormal gonadal development. 46,XX maleness is defined by testis determination in an individual with a 46,XX karyotype. Most affected individuals have a phenotype similar to that of Klinefelter syndrome. In contrast, subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism usually present with ambiguous genitalia. The majority of subjects with 46,XX maleness have Y sequences including SRY in genomic DNA. However, only rare subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism have translocated sequences encoding SRY. Mosaicism and chimaerism involving the Y chromosome can also be associated with abnormal gonadal development. However, the vast majority of subjects with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism have normal testes and normal male external genitalia.

  1. [The relativity of abnormity].

    PubMed

    Nilson, Annika

    2006-01-01

    In the late 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th century, mental diseases and abnormal behavior was considered to be a great danger to culture and society. "Degeneration" was the buzzword of the time, used and misused by artists and scientists alike. At the same time, some scientists saw abnormity as the key to unlock the mysteries of the ordinary mind. Naturalistic curiosity left Pandoras box open when religion declined in Darwins wake. Two swedish scientists, the physician Bror Gadelius (1862-1938) and his friend the philosopher Axel Herrlin (1870-1937), inspired by the French psychologist Theodule Ribots (1839-1916) "psychology without a soul", denied all fixed demarcation lines between abnormity and normality. All humans are natures creatures ruled by physiological laws, not ruled by God or convention. Even ordinary morality was considered to be an utterly backward explanation and guideline for complex human behavior. Different forms of therapy, not various kinds of penalties for wicked and disturbing behavior, are the now the solution for lots of people, "normal" as well as "abnormal". Psychiatry is expanding.

  2. Sparing of the dystrophin-deficient cranial sartorius muscle is associated with classical and novel hypertrophy pathways in GRMD dogs.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Peter P; Hoffman, Eric P; Mittal, Priya; Brown, Kristy J; Schatzberg, Scott J; Ghimbovschi, Svetlana; Wang, Zuyi; Kornegay, Joe N

    2013-11-01

    Both Duchenne and golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) are caused by dystrophin deficiency. The Duchenne muscular dystrophy sartorius muscle and orthologous GRMD cranial sartorius (CS) are relatively spared/hypertrophied. We completed hierarchical clustering studies to define molecular mechanisms contributing to this differential involvement and their role in the GRMD phenotype. GRMD dogs with larger CS muscles had more severe deficits, suggesting that selective hypertrophy could be detrimental. Serial biopsies from the hypertrophied CS and other atrophied muscles were studied in a subset of these dogs. Myostatin showed an age-dependent decrease and an inverse correlation with the degree of GRMD CS hypertrophy. Regulators of myostatin at the protein (AKT1) and miRNA (miR-539 and miR-208b targeting myostatin mRNA) levels were altered in GRMD CS, consistent with down-regulation of myostatin signaling, CS hypertrophy, and functional rescue of this muscle. mRNA and proteomic profiling was used to identify additional candidate genes associated with CS hypertrophy. The top-ranked network included α-dystroglycan and like-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. Proteomics demonstrated increases in myotrophin and spectrin that could promote hypertrophy and cytoskeletal stability, respectively. Our results suggest that multiple pathways, including decreased myostatin and up-regulated miRNAs, α-dystroglycan/like-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, spectrin, and myotrophin, contribute to hypertrophy and functional sparing of the CS. These data also underscore the muscle-specific responses to dystrophin deficiency and the potential deleterious effects of differential muscle involvement. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Motor Physical Therapy Affects Muscle Collagen Type I and Decreases Gait Speed in Dystrophin-Deficient Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Gaiad, Thaís P.; Araujo, Karla P. C.; Serrão, Júlio C.; Miglino, Maria A.; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) is a dystrophin-deficient canine model genetically homologous to Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) in humans. Muscular fibrosis secondary to cycles of degeneration/regeneration of dystrophic muscle tissue and muscular weakness leads to biomechanical adaptation that impairs the quality of gait. Physical therapy (PT) is one of the supportive therapies available for DMD, however, motor PT approaches have controversial recommendations and there is no consensus regarding the type and intensity of physical therapy. In this study we investigated the effect of physical therapy on gait biomechanics and muscular collagen deposition types I and III in dystrophin-deficient dogs. Two dystrophic dogs (treated dogs-TD) underwent a PT protocol of active walking exercise, 3×/week, 40 minutes/day, 12 weeks. Two dystrophic control dogs (CD) maintained their routine of activities of daily living. At t0 (pre) and t1 (post-physical therapy), collagen type I and III were assessed by immunohistochemistry and gait biomechanics were analyzed. Angular displacement of shoulder, elbow, carpal, hip, stifle and tarsal joint and vertical (Fy), mediolateral (Fz) and craniocaudal (Fx) ground reaction forces (GRF) were assessed. Wilcoxon test was used to verify the difference of biomechanical variables between t0 and t1, considering p<.05. Type I collagen of endomysium suffered the influence of PT, as well as gait speed that had decreased from t0 to t1 (p<.000). The PT protocol employed accelerates morphological alterations on dystrophic muscle and promotes a slower velocity of gait. Control dogs which maintained their routine of activities of daily living seem to have found a better balance between movement and preservation of motor function. PMID:24713872

  4. Evaluation of Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Function after Chronic Administration of Thymosin β-4 in the Dystrophin Deficient Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Spurney, Christopher F.; Cha, Hee-Jae; Sali, Arpana; Pandey, Gouri S.; Pistilli, Emidio; Guerron, Alfredo D.; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Hoffman, Eric P.; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2010-01-01

    Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is a ubiquitous protein with many properties relating to cell proliferation and differentiation that promotes wound healing and modulates inflammatory mediators. We studied the effects of chronic administration of Tβ4 on the skeletal and cardiac muscle of dystrophin deficient mdx mice, the mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Female wild type (C57BL10/ScSnJ) and mdx mice, 8–10 weeks old, were treated with 150 µg of Tβ4 twice a week for 6 months. To promote muscle pathology, mice were exercised for 30 minutes twice a week. Skeletal and cardiac muscle function were assessed via grip strength and high frequency echocardiography. Localization of Tβ4 and amount of fibrosis were quantified using immunohistochemistry and Gomori's tri-chrome staining, respectively. Mdx mice treated with Tβ4 showed a significant increase in skeletal muscle regenerating fibers compared to untreated mdx mice. Tβ4 stained exclusively in the regenerating fibers of mdx mice. Although untreated mdx mice had significantly decreased skeletal muscle strength compared to untreated wild type, there were no significant improvements in mdx mice after treatment. Systolic cardiac function, measured as percent shortening fraction, was decreased in untreated mdx mice compared to untreated wild type and there was no significant difference after treatment in mdx mice. Skeletal and cardiac muscle fibrosis were also significantly increased in untreated mdx mice compared to wild type, but there was no significant improvement in treated mdx mice. In exercised dystrophin deficient mice, chronic administration of Tβ4 increased the number of regenerating fibers in skeletal muscle and could have a potential role in treatment of skeletal muscle disease in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:20126456

  5. Gene Therapy of mdx Mice With Large Truncated Dystrophins Generated by Recombination Using rAAV6

    PubMed Central

    Odom, Guy L; Gregorevic, Paul; Allen, James M; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S

    2011-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector-mediated gene transfer represents a promising approach for many diseases. However, the applicability of rAAV vectors has long been hindered by the small (~4.8 kb) DNA packaging capacity. This limitation can hamper the packaging and delivery of critical regulatory elements and/or larger coding sequences, such as the ~14-kb dystrophin complementary DNA (cDNA) that is of interest for gene therapy of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here, we have demonstrated reconstitution of an expression cassette (7.3 kb) encoding a highly functional “minidystrophin” protein (ΔH2–R19, 222 kd) in vivo following intravascular co-delivery of two independent rAAV6 vectors sharing a central homologous recombinogenic region of 372 nucleotides. Similar to previously reported trans-splicing approaches, one rAAV vector provides the promoter with the ~1/2 initial portion of minidystrophin, while the second vector provides the remaining minidystrophin cDNA followed by the polyadenylation signal. Significantly, administering a modest dose [2 × 1012 vector genomes (vg)] of the two minidystrophin-encoding rAAV vectors to dystrophic mice elicited an improvement of physiological performance indicative of prevention or amelioration of the disease state. These studies provide evidence that functional dystrophin transgenes larger than that typically carried by a single rAAV genome can be reconstituted in vivo by homologous recombination (HR) following intravascular co-delivery with rAAV6. PMID:20859263

  6. Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James

    2013-08-01

    Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication.

  7. Heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, B K; Kaiser, L; Maxwell, H S

    2008-08-01

    The etiologies for congenital bovine fetal anomalies can be divided into heritable, toxic, nutritional, and infectious categories. Although uncommon in most herds, inherited congenital anomalies are probably present in all breeds of cattle and propagated as a result of specific trait selection that inadvertently results in propagation of the defect. In some herds, the occurrence of inherited anomalies has become frequent, and economically important. Anomalous traits can affect animals in a range of ways, some being lethal or requiring euthanasia on humane grounds, others altering structure, function, or performance of affected animals. Veterinary practitioners should be aware of the potential for inherited defects, and be prepared to investigate and report animals exhibiting abnormal characteristics. This review will discuss the morphologic characteristics, mode of inheritance, breeding lines affected, and the availability of genetic testing for selected heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

  8. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  9. Abnormality, rationality, and sanity.

    PubMed

    Hertwig, Ralph; Volz, Kirsten G

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of studies suggests that neurological and mental abnormalities foster conformity to norms of rationality that are widely endorsed in economics and psychology, whereas normality stands in the way of rationality thus defined. Here, we outline the main findings of these studies, discuss their implications for experimental design, and consider how 'sane' some benchmarks of rationality really are. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anatomical Abnormalities in Autism?

    PubMed

    Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

    2016-04-01

    Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (∼1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old.

  11. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  12. [Molecular abnormalities in lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Delsol, G

    2010-11-01

    Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities

  13. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  14. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  15. Distal mdx muscle groups exhibiting up-regulation of utrophin and rescue of dystrophin-associated glycoproteins exemplify a protected phenotype in muscular dystrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Paul; Culligan, Kevin; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2002-02-01

    Unique unaffected skeletal muscle fibres, unlike necrotic torso and limb muscles, may pave the way for a more detailed understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of inherited neuromuscular disorders and help to develop new treatment strategies for muscular dystrophies. The sparing of extraocular muscle in Duchenne muscular dystrophy is mostly attributed to the special protective properties of extremely fast-twitching small-diameter fibres, but here we show that distal muscles also represent a particular phenotype that is more resistant to necrosis. Immunoblot analysis of membranes isolated from the well established dystrophic animal model mdx shows that, in contrast to dystrophic limb muscles, the toe musculature exhibits an up-regulation of the autosomal dystrophin homologue utrophin and a concomitant rescue of dystrophin-associated glycoproteins. Thus distal mdx muscle groups provide a cellular system that naturally avoids myofibre degeneration which might be useful in the search for naturally occurring compensatory mechanisms in inherited skeletal muscle diseases.

  16. A novel DMD IRES results in a functional N-truncated dystrophin, providing a potential route to therapy for patients with 5’ mutations

    PubMed Central

    Wein, Nicolas; Vulin, Adeline; Sofia Falzarano, Maria; Al-Khalili Szigyarto, Christina; Maiti, Baijayanta; Findlay, Andrew; Heller, Kristin N; Uhlén, Mathias; Bakthavachalu, Baskar; Messina, Sonia; Vita, Giuseppe; Passarelli, Chiara; Gualandi, Francesca; Wilton, Steve D; Rodino-Klapac, Louise; Yang, Lin; Dunn, Diane M.; Schoenberg, Daniel; Weiss, Robert B.; Howard, Michael T.; Ferlini, Alessandra; Flanigan, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Most mutations that truncate the reading frame of the DMD gene cause loss of dystrophin expression and lead to Duchenne muscular dystrophy. However, amelioration of disease severity can result from alternate translation initiation beginning in DMD exon 6 that leads to expression of a highly functional N-truncated dystrophin. This novel isoform results from usage of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) within exon 5 that is glucocorticoid-inducible. IRES activity is confirmed in patient muscle by both peptide sequencing and ribosome profiling. Generation of a truncated reading frame upstream of the IRES by exon skipping leads to synthesis of a functional N-truncated isoform in both patient-derived cell lines and in a new DMD mouse model, where expression protects muscle from contraction-induced injury and corrects muscle force to the same level as control mice. These results support a novel therapeutic approach for patients with mutations within the 5’ exons of DMD. PMID:25108525

  17. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  19. Correlation of Utrophin Levels with the Dystrophin Protein Complex and Muscle Fibre Regeneration in Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy Muscle Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Janghra, Narinder; Morgan, Jennifer E; Sewry, Caroline A; Wilson, Francis X; Davies, Kay E; Muntoni, Francesco; Tinsley, Jonathon

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a severe and currently incurable progressive neuromuscular condition, caused by mutations in the DMD gene that result in the inability to produce dystrophin. Lack of dystrophin leads to loss of muscle fibres and a reduction in muscle mass and function. There is evidence from dystrophin-deficient mouse models that increasing levels of utrophin at the muscle fibre sarcolemma by genetic or pharmacological means significantly reduces the muscular dystrophy pathology. In order to determine the efficacy of utrophin modulators in clinical trials, it is necessary to accurately measure utrophin levels and other biomarkers on a fibre by fibre basis within a biopsy section. Our aim was to develop robust and reproducible staining and imaging protocols to quantify sarcolemmal utrophin levels, sarcolemmal dystrophin complex members and numbers of regenerating fibres within a biopsy section. We quantified sarcolemmal utrophin in mature and regenerating fibres and the percentage of regenerating muscle fibres, in muscle biopsies from Duchenne, the milder Becker muscular dystrophy and controls. Fluorescent immunostaining followed by image analysis was performed to quantify utrophin intensity and β-dystrogylcan and ɣ -sarcoglycan intensity at the sarcolemma. Antibodies to fetal and developmental myosins were used to identify regenerating muscle fibres allowing the accurate calculation of percentage regeneration fibres in the biopsy. Our results indicate that muscle biopsies from Becker muscular dystrophy patients have fewer numbers of regenerating fibres and reduced utrophin intensity compared to muscle biopsies from Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. Of particular interest, we show for the first time that the percentage of regenerating muscle fibres within the muscle biopsy correlate with the clinical severity of Becker and Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients from whom the biopsy was taken. The ongoing development of these tools to quantify

  20. Age-related changes in dystrophin-glycoprotein complex and in utrophin are not correlated with intrinsic laryngeal muscles protection in mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Renato; Pertille, Adriana; Santo Neto, Humberto; Marques, Maria Julia

    2011-12-01

    In this study we investigate whether dystrophic intrinsic laryngeal muscles (ILM) from aged mdx mice show alterations in dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) components.Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analyses of beta-sarcoglycan, beta-dystroglycan, and utrophin showed that aged ILM had a similar pattern of changes in aged affected muscles (diaphragm and limb), suggesting that aging leads to changes in utrophin and DGC proteins in dystrophic ILM that cannot be correlated with their protection from dystrophic change.

  1. Correlation of Utrophin Levels with the Dystrophin Protein Complex and Muscle Fibre Regeneration in Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy Muscle Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Janghra, Narinder; Morgan, Jennifer E.; Sewry, Caroline A.; Wilson, Francis X.; Davies, Kay E.; Muntoni, Francesco; Tinsley, Jonathon

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a severe and currently incurable progressive neuromuscular condition, caused by mutations in the DMD gene that result in the inability to produce dystrophin. Lack of dystrophin leads to loss of muscle fibres and a reduction in muscle mass and function. There is evidence from dystrophin-deficient mouse models that increasing levels of utrophin at the muscle fibre sarcolemma by genetic or pharmacological means significantly reduces the muscular dystrophy pathology. In order to determine the efficacy of utrophin modulators in clinical trials, it is necessary to accurately measure utrophin levels and other biomarkers on a fibre by fibre basis within a biopsy section. Our aim was to develop robust and reproducible staining and imaging protocols to quantify sarcolemmal utrophin levels, sarcolemmal dystrophin complex members and numbers of regenerating fibres within a biopsy section. We quantified sarcolemmal utrophin in mature and regenerating fibres and the percentage of regenerating muscle fibres, in muscle biopsies from Duchenne, the milder Becker muscular dystrophy and controls. Fluorescent immunostaining followed by image analysis was performed to quantify utrophin intensity and β-dystrogylcan and ɣ –sarcoglycan intensity at the sarcolemma. Antibodies to fetal and developmental myosins were used to identify regenerating muscle fibres allowing the accurate calculation of percentage regeneration fibres in the biopsy. Our results indicate that muscle biopsies from Becker muscular dystrophy patients have fewer numbers of regenerating fibres and reduced utrophin intensity compared to muscle biopsies from Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. Of particular interest, we show for the first time that the percentage of regenerating muscle fibres within the muscle biopsy correlate with the clinical severity of Becker and Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients from whom the biopsy was taken. The ongoing development of these tools to quantify

  2. Effective myotube formation in human adipose tissue-derived stem cells expressing dystrophin and myosin heavy chain by cellular fusion with mouse C2C12 myoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Eom, Young Woo; Lee, Jong Eun; Yang, Mal Sook; Jang, In Keun; Kim, Hyo Eun; Lee, Doo Hoon; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Won Jin; Kong, Jee Hyun; Shim, Kwang Yong; Lee, Jong In; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} hASCs were differentiated into skeletal muscle cells by treatment with 5-azacytidine, FGF-2, and the supernatant of cultured hASCs. {yields} Dystrophin and MyHC were expressed in late differentiation step by treatment with the supernatant of cultured hASCs. {yields} hASCs expressing dystrophin and MyHC contributed to myotube formation during co-culture with mouse myoblast C2C12 cells. -- Abstract: Stem cell therapy for muscular dystrophies requires stem cells that are able to participate in the formation of new muscle fibers. However, the differentiation steps that are the most critical for this process are not clear. We investigated the myogenic phases of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) step by step and the capability of myotube formation according to the differentiation phase by cellular fusion with mouse myoblast C2C12 cells. In hASCs treated with 5-azacytidine and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) for 1 day, the early differentiation step to express MyoD and myogenin was induced by FGF-2 treatment for 6 days. Dystrophin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression was induced by hASC conditioned medium in the late differentiation step. Myotubes were observed only in hASCs undergoing the late differentiation step by cellular fusion with C2C12 cells. In contrast, hASCs that were normal or in the early stage were not involved in myotube formation. Our results indicate that stem cells expressing dystrophin and MyHC are more suitable for myotube formation by co-culture with myoblasts than normal or early differentiated stem cells expressing MyoD and myogenin.

  3. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá; Yela, Daniela Angerame; Soares Júnior, José Maria

    2017-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a frequent condition in Gynecology. It may impact physical, emotional sexual and professional aspects of the lives of women, impairing their quality of life. In cases of acute and severe bleeding, women may need urgent treatment with volumetric replacement and prescription of hemostatic substances. In some specific cases with more intense and prolonged bleeding, surgical treatment may be necessary. The objective of this chapter is to describe the main evidence on the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, both acute and chronic. Didactically, the treatment options were based on the current International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification system (PALM-COEIN). The etiologies of PALM-COEIN are: uterine Polyp (P), Adenomyosis (A), Leiomyoma (L), precursor and Malignant lesions of the uterine body (M), Coagulopathies (C), Ovulatory dysfunction (O), Endometrial dysfunction (E), Iatrogenic (I), and Not yet classified (N). The articles were selected according to the recommendation grades of the PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases, and those in which the main objective was the reduction of uterine menstrual bleeding were included. Only studies written in English were included. All editorial or complete papers that were not consistent with abnormal uterine bleeding, or studies in animal models, were excluded. The main objective of the treatment is the reduction of menstrual flow and morbidity and the improvement of quality of life. It is important to emphasize that the treatment in the acute phase aims to hemodynamically stabilize the patient and stop excessive bleeding, while the treatment in the chronic phase is based on correcting menstrual dysfunction according to its etiology and clinical manifestations. The treatment may be surgical or pharmacological, and the latter is based mainly on hormonal therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs and antifibrinolytics. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro

  4. Human α7 Integrin Gene (ITGA7) Delivered by Adeno-Associated Virus Extends Survival of Severely Affected Dystrophin/Utrophin-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Heller, Kristin N; Montgomery, Chrystal L; Shontz, Kimberly M; Clark, K Reed; Mendell, Jerry R; Rodino-Klapac, Louise R

    2015-10-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in the DMD gene. It is the most common, severe childhood form of muscular dystrophy. We investigated an alternative to dystrophin replacement by overexpressing ITGA7 using adeno-associated virus (AAV) delivery. ITGA7 is a laminin receptor in skeletal muscle that, like the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, links the extracellular matrix to the internal actin cytoskeleton. ITGA7 is expressed in DMD patients and overexpression does not elicit an immune response to the transgene. We delivered rAAVrh.74.MCK.ITGA7 systemically at 5-7 days of age to the mdx/utrn(-/-) mouse deficient for dystrophin and utrophin, a severe mouse model of DMD. At 8 weeks postinjection, widespread expression of ITGA7 was observed at the sarcolemma of multiple muscle groups following gene transfer. The increased expression of ITGA7 significantly extended longevity and reduced common features of the mdx/utrn(-/-) mouse, including kyphosis. Overexpression of α7 expression protected against loss of force following contraction-induced damage and increased specific force in the diaphragm and EDL muscles 8 weeks after gene transfer. Taken together, these results further support the use of α7 integrin as a potential therapy for DMD.

  5. Up-regulation of miR-31 in human atrial fibrillation begets the arrhythmia by depleting dystrophin and neuronal nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Carnicer, Ricardo; Recalde, Alice; Muszkiewicz, Anna; Jayaram, Raja; Carena, Maria Cristina; Wijesurendra, Rohan; Stefanini, Matilde; Surdo, Nicoletta C.; Lomas, Oliver; Ratnatunga, Chandana; Sayeed, Rana; Krasopoulos, George; Rajakumar, Timothy; Bueno-Orovio, Alfonso; Verheule, Sander; Fulga, Tudor A.; Rodriguez, Blanca; Schotten, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a growing public health burden, and its treatment remains a challenge. AF leads to electrical remodeling of the atria, which in turn promotes AF maintenance and resistance to treatment. Although remodeling has long been a therapeutic target in AF, its causes remain poorly understood. We show that atrial-specific up-regulation of microRNA-31 (miR-31) in goat and human AF depletes neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) by accelerating mRNA decay and alters nNOS subcellular localization by repressing dystrophin translation. By shortening action potential duration and abolishing rate-dependent adaptation of the action potential duration, miR-31 overexpression and/or disruption of nNOS signaling recapitulates features of AF-induced remodeling and significantly increases AF inducibility in mice in vivo. By contrast, silencing miR-31 in atrial myocytes from patients with AF restores dystrophin and nNOS and normalizes action potential duration and its rate dependency. These findings identify atrial-specific up-regulation of miR-31 in human AF as a key mechanism causing atrial dystrophin and nNOS depletion, which in turn contributes to the atrial phenotype begetting this arrhythmia. miR-31 may therefore represent a potential therapeutic target in AF. PMID:27225184

  6. Biodistribution and molecular studies on orally administered nanoparticle-AON complexes encapsulated with alginate aiming at inducing dystrophin rescue in mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Falzarano, Maria Sofia; Passarelli, Chiara; Bassi, Elena; Fabris, Marina; Perrone, Daniela; Sabatelli, Patrizia; Maraldi, Nadir M; Donà, Silvia; Selvatici, Rita; Bonaldo, Paolo; Sparnacci, Katia; Laus, Michele; Braghetta, Paola; Rimessi, Paola; Ferlini, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that intraperitoneal injections of 2'-O-methyl-phosphorothioate (2'OMePS) antisense oligoribonucleotides adsorbed onto a cationic core-shell nanoparticles (NPs), termed ZM2, provoke dystrophin restoration in the muscles of mdx mice. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the oral route as an alternative way of administration for ZM2-antisense oligoribonucleotides complexes. The biodistribution and elimination of nanoparticles were evaluated after single and multiple oral doses of IR-dye conjugated nanoparticles. Labeled nanoparticles were tracked in vivo as well as in tissue cryosections, urines and feces by Odyssey infrared imaging system, and revealed a permanence in the intestine and abdominal lymph nodes for 72 hours to 7 days before being eliminated. We subsequently tested alginate-free and alginate-encapsulated ZM2-antisense oligoribonucleotides (AON) complexes orally administered 2 and 3 times per week, respectively, in mdx mice for a total of 12 weeks. Treatment with alginate ZM2-AON induced a slight dystrophin rescue in diaphragm and intestine smooth muscles, while no dystrophin was detected in alginate-free ZM2-AON treated mice. These data encourage further experiments on oral administration testing of NP and AON complexes, possibly translatable in oligoribonucleotides-mediated molecular therapies.

  7. Precise correction of the dystrophin gene in duchenne muscular dystrophy patient induced pluripotent stem cells by TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongmei Lisa; Fujimoto, Naoko; Sasakawa, Noriko; Shirai, Saya; Ohkame, Tokiko; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Tanaka, Michihiro; Amano, Naoki; Watanabe, Akira; Sakurai, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yamanaka, Shinya; Hotta, Akitsu

    2015-01-13

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle-degenerative disease caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. Genetic correction of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by TALENs or CRISPR-Cas9 holds promise for DMD gene therapy; however, the safety of such nuclease treatment must be determined. Using a unique k-mer database, we systematically identified a unique target region that reduces off-target sites. To restore the dystrophin protein, we performed three correction methods (exon skipping, frameshifting, and exon knockin) in DMD-patient-derived iPSCs, and found that exon knockin was the most effective approach. We further investigated the genomic integrity by karyotyping, copy number variation array, and exome sequencing to identify clones with a minimal mutation load. Finally, we differentiated the corrected iPSCs toward skeletal muscle cells and successfully detected the expression of full-length dystrophin protein. These results provide an important framework for developing iPSC-based gene therapy for genetic disorders using programmable nucleases.

  8. Up-regulation of miR-31 in human atrial fibrillation begets the arrhythmia by depleting dystrophin and neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Svetlana N; Liu, Xing; Carnicer, Ricardo; Recalde, Alice; Muszkiewicz, Anna; Jayaram, Raja; Carena, Maria Cristina; Wijesurendra, Rohan; Stefanini, Matilde; Surdo, Nicoletta C; Lomas, Oliver; Ratnatunga, Chandana; Sayeed, Rana; Krasopoulos, George; Rajakumar, Timothy; Bueno-Orovio, Alfonso; Verheule, Sander; Fulga, Tudor A; Rodriguez, Blanca; Schotten, Ulrich; Casadei, Barbara

    2016-05-25

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a growing public health burden, and its treatment remains a challenge. AF leads to electrical remodeling of the atria, which in turn promotes AF maintenance and resistance to treatment. Although remodeling has long been a therapeutic target in AF, its causes remain poorly understood. We show that atrial-specific up-regulation of microRNA-31 (miR-31) in goat and human AF depletes neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) by accelerating mRNA decay and alters nNOS subcellular localization by repressing dystrophin translation. By shortening action potential duration and abolishing rate-dependent adaptation of the action potential duration, miR-31 overexpression and/or disruption of nNOS signaling recapitulates features of AF-induced remodeling and significantly increases AF inducibility in mice in vivo. By contrast, silencing miR-31 in atrial myocytes from patients with AF restores dystrophin and nNOS and normalizes action potential duration and its rate dependency. These findings identify atrial-specific up-regulation of miR-31 in human AF as a key mechanism causing atrial dystrophin and nNOS depletion, which in turn contributes to the atrial phenotype begetting this arrhythmia. miR-31 may therefore represent a potential therapeutic target in AF.

  9. Dystrophin restoration therapy improves both the reduced excitability and the force drop induced by lengthening contractions in dystrophic mdx skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Roy, Pauline; Rau, Fredérique; Ochala, Julien; Messéant, Julien; Fraysse, Bodvael; Lainé, Jeanne; Agbulut, Onnik; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Furling, Denis; Ferry, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    The greater susceptibility to contraction-induced skeletal muscle injury (fragility) is an important dystrophic feature and tool for testing preclinic dystrophin-based therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. However, how these therapies reduce the muscle fragility is not clear. To address this question, we first determined the event(s) of the excitation-contraction cycle which is/are altered following lengthening (eccentric) contractions in the mdx muscle. We found that the immediate force drop following lengthening contractions, a widely used measure of muscle fragility, was associated with reduced muscle excitability. Moreover, the force drop can be mimicked by an experimental reduction in muscle excitation of uninjured muscle. Furthermore, the force drop was not related to major neuromuscular transmission failure, excitation-contraction uncoupling, and myofibrillar impairment. Secondly, and importantly, the re-expression of functional truncated dystrophin in the muscle of mdx mice using an exon skipping strategy partially prevented the reductions in both force drop and muscle excitability following lengthening contractions. We demonstrated for the first time that (i) the increased susceptibility to contraction-induced muscle injury in mdx mice is mainly attributable to reduced muscle excitability; (ii) dystrophin-based therapy improves fragility of the dystrophic skeletal muscle by preventing reduction in muscle excitability.

  10. kakapo, a gene required for adhesion between and within cell layers in Drosophila, encodes a large cytoskeletal linker protein related to plectin and dystrophin.

    PubMed

    Gregory, S L; Brown, N H

    1998-11-30

    Mutations in kakapo were recovered in genetic screens designed to isolate genes required for integrin-mediated adhesion in Drosophila. We cloned the gene and found that it encodes a large protein (>5,000 amino acids) that is highly similar to plectin and BPAG1 over the first 1,000-amino acid region, and contains within this region an alpha-actinin type actin-binding domain. A central region containing dystrophin-like repeats is followed by a carboxy domain that is distinct from plectin and dystrophin, having neither the intermediate filament-binding domain of plectin nor the dystroglycan/syntrophin-binding domain of dystrophin. Instead, Kakapo has a carboxy terminus similar to the growth arrest-specific protein Gas2. Kakapo is strongly expressed late during embryogenesis at the most prominent site of position-specific integrin adhesion, the muscle attachment sites. It is concentrated at apical and basal surfaces of epidermal muscle attachment cells, at the termini of the prominent microtubule bundles, and is required in these cells for strong attachment to muscles. Kakapo is also expressed more widely at a lower level where it is essential for epidermal cell layer stability. These results suggest that the Kakapo protein forms essential links among integrins, actin, and microtubules.

  11. kakapo, a Gene Required for Adhesion Between and Within Cell Layers in Drosophila, Encodes a Large Cytoskeletal Linker Protein Related to Plectin and Dystrophin

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Stephen L.; Brown, Nicholas H.

    1998-01-01

    Mutations in kakapo were recovered in genetic screens designed to isolate genes required for integrin-mediated adhesion in Drosophila. We cloned the gene and found that it encodes a large protein (>5,000 amino acids) that is highly similar to plectin and BPAG1 over the first 1,000–amino acid region, and contains within this region an α-actinin type actin-binding domain. A central region containing dystrophin-like repeats is followed by a carboxy domain that is distinct from plectin and dystrophin, having neither the intermediate filament-binding domain of plectin nor the dystroglycan/syntrophin-binding domain of dystrophin. Instead, Kakapo has a carboxy terminus similar to the growth arrest–specific protein Gas2. Kakapo is strongly expressed late during embryogenesis at the most prominent site of position-specific integrin adhesion, the muscle attachment sites. It is concentrated at apical and basal surfaces of epidermal muscle attachment cells, at the termini of the prominent microtubule bundles, and is required in these cells for strong attachment to muscles. Kakapo is also expressed more widely at a lower level where it is essential for epidermal cell layer stability. These results suggest that the Kakapo protein forms essential links among integrins, actin, and microtubules. PMID:9832555

  12. [Penile congenital abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Boillot, B; Teklali, Y; Moog, R; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the penis are usually diagnosed at birth and pose aesthetic and functional problems sometimes requiring surgical management. A literature review was conducted on Medline considering the articles listed until January 2012. Hypospadias is the most common malformation (1 in 250 boys. Familial forms: 7%). The causes remain hypothetical but the doubling of the incidence in 30 years could be linked to fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors "estrogen-like" used in the food industry in particular. Surgical treatment is usually intended to improve the aesthetic appearance but sometimes, in case of significant curvature or posterior meatus, necessary for normal sexual life and fertility. Other malformations (epispades, buried penis, transpositions, twists and preputial abnormalities) as well as management for functional or aesthetic consequences of these malformations in adulthood require complex surgical care in a specialized environment. The improvement of surgical techniques and pediatric anesthesia allows an early and effective specialized surgical approach of penile malformations. Management of sequelae in adulthood must be discussed and requires experience of surgical techniques on pediatric and adult penis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:20438626

  14. Activation of non-myogenic mesenchymal stem cells during the disease progression in dystrophic dystrophin/utrophin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jihee; Lu, Aiping; Tang, Ying; Wang, Bing; Huard, Johnny

    2015-07-01

    Ectopic calcification as well as fatty and fibrotic tissue accumulation occurs in skeletal muscle during the disease progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a degenerative muscle disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. The cellular origin and the environmental cues responsible for this ectopic calcification, fatty and fibrotic infiltration during the disease progression, however, remain unknown. Based on a previously published preplate technique, we isolated two distinct populations of muscle-derived cells from skeletal muscle: (i) a rapidly adhering cell population, which is non-myogenic, Pax7(-) and express the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) marker platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha; hence, we termed this population of cells non-myogenic MSCs (nmMSCs); and (ii) a slowly adhering cell population which is Pax7(+) and highly myogenic, termed muscle progenitor cells (MPCs). Previously, we demonstrated that the rapid progression of skeletal muscle histopathologies in dystrophin/utrophin knockout (dys(-/-) utro(-/-) dKO) mice is closely associated with a rapid depletion of the MPC population pool. In the current study, we showed that in contrast to the MPCs, the nmMSCs become activated during the disease progression in dKO mice, displaying increased proliferation and differentiation potentials (adipogenesis, osteogenesis and fibrogenesis). We also found that after co-culturing the dKO-nmMSCs with dKO-MPCs, the myogenic differentiation potential of the dKO-MPCs was reduced. This effect was found to be potentially mediated by the secretion of secreted frizzled-related protein 1 by the dKO-nmMSCs. We therefore posit that the rapid occurrence of fibrosis, ectopic calcification and fat accumulation, in dKO mice, is not only attributable to the rapid depletion of the MPC pool, but is also the consequence of nmMSC activation. Results from this study suggest that approaches to alleviate muscle weakness and wasting in DMD patients should not only

  15. Regeneration and myogenic cell proliferation correlate with taurine levels in dystrophin- and MyoD-deficient muscles.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, L M; Garrett, K L; Megeney, L; Rudnicki, M A; Anderson, J E

    1998-10-01

    This study coupled proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR) and in situ hybridization plus autoradiography in a novel examination of different phenotypes of adult myogenesis that arise from genetic disruptions in mice. Study of muscle extracts from normal and dystrophin-deficient mdx limb and diaphragm muscles confirmed our previous findings linking taurine and muscle regeneration at the peak of damage and repair. 1H-NMR distinguished biochemical differences in regenerating muscles that were consistent with the extent of repair in three strains: mdx dystrophic mice; MyoD(-/-) mice that lack expression of the early myogenic regulatory gene MyoD; and a double-mutant mdx:MyoD(-/-) strain lacking expression of both MyoD and dystrophin. We tested the hypothesis that differences in spectra according to genotype and the regeneration phenotype are related specifically to proliferation by committed myogenic precursor cells. 1H-NMR distinguished the three mutant strains: Taurine was highest in mdx muscles, with the phenotype of most effective regeneration; lowest in MyoD(-/-) muscles, with the least effective formation of new muscle in repair, as reported previously; and intermediate in double-mutant muscles, now reported to show an intermediate repair phenotype. The early and late muscle precursors (mpcs) expressing myf5 and myogenin were examined for proliferation. Eighteen percent of mdx myf5-positive mpcs were proliferative, whereas myf5-positive mpcs did not proliferate in regenerating muscles that lacked MyoD expression. By contrast, whereas 30% of myogenin-positive mpcs were proliferative in mdx muscles, almost none were proliferative in MyoD(-/-) muscles, and 12% were proliferative in double-mutant muscles. Therefore, the extent of accumulated structural regeneration, taurine levels, and proliferation of late mpc (expressing myogenin) were congruent across genotypes. Proliferation by early mpc (expressing myf5) was inhibited by the lack of MyoD expression

  16. The scurfy mouse mutant has previously unrecognized hematological abnormalities and resembles Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, M F; Peters, J; Glenister, P H; Ball, S; Wright, E

    1990-01-01

    The X chromosome-linked scurfy (sf) mutant of the mouse is recognized by the scaliness of the skin from which the name is derived and results in death of affected males at about 3-4 weeks of age. Consideration of known man-mouse homologies of the X chromosome prompted hematological studies, which have shown that the blood is highly abnormal. The platelet and erythrocyte counts are both reduced and become progressively lower relative to normal as the disease progresses. There is gastrointestinal bleeding, and most animals appear to die of severe anemia. By contrast, the leukocyte count is consistently raised. Some animals showed signs of infection but it is not yet clear whether there is immunodeficiency. Other features include the scaly skin and apparently reduced lateral growth of the skin, conjunctivitis, and diarrhea in some animals. The mutant resembles Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome in man, which is characterized by thrombocytopenia, eczema, diarrhea, and immunodeficiency. The loci of the human and mouse genes lie in homologous segments of the X chromosome, although apparently in somewhat different positions relative to other gene loci. Scurfy differs from Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome in that scurfy males are consistently hypogonadal. Images PMID:2320565

  17. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem.

  18. Skeletal abnormalities in homocystinuria.

    PubMed Central

    Brenton, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The skeletal changes of thirty-four patients with the biochemical and clinical features of cystathionine synthase deficiency are described. It is emphasized that there is clinical evidence of excessive bone growth and the formation for bone which is structurally weaker than normal. The similarities and differences between this condition and Marfan's syndrome are stressed and the possible nature of the connective tissue defect leading to the skeletal changes discussed. The most characteristic skeletal changes in homocystinuria are the skeletal disproportion (pubis-heel length greater than crown-pubis length), the abnormal vertebrae, sternal deformities, genu valgum and large metaphyses and epiphyses. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:917963

  19. The Role of Nanobiotechnology in the Study of Dystrophin and B-Dystroglycan in Membrane Stability of Aging Skeletal Muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaseashta, Ashok

    2005-03-01

    Duchene muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of nine types of muscular dystrophy, a group of genetic degenerative diseases, primarily affecting voluntary muscles, caused by absence of dystrophin. New experiments on mice with DMD has shown that gene therapy can reverse some symptoms of the disease. The ultimate goal of gene therapy for muscle diseases is improvement of strength and function, which will require treatment in multiple muscles simultaneously. A major limitation to gene therapy until now has been that no one had found a method by which a new gene could be delivered to all the muscles of an adult animal. Recent utilization of nanotechnology to life sciences has shown exciting promises in a wide range of disciplines, showing advances in the ability to manipulate, fabricate and alter tiny subjects at the nanometer scale. In the present investigation, we have employed such techniques to study single motors such as myosin and kinesin, as well elastic proteins viz. titin and nebulin, muscle filaments, cytoskeletal filaments, and receptors in cellular membranes and cellular organelles viz. myofibril, ribosome, and chromatin. Application of AFM to images and measures the elastic properties of single monomeric and oligomeric protein, genetically engineered titin, and nebulin molecules will be presented.

  20. Metabolic dysfunction and altered mitochondrial dynamics in the utrophin-dystrophin deficient mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Pant, Meghna; Sopariwala, Danesh H; Bal, Naresh C; Lowe, Jeovanna; Delfín, Dawn A; Rafael-Fortney, Jill; Periasamy, Muthu

    2015-01-01

    The utrophin-dystrophin deficient (DKO) mouse model has been widely used to understand the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). However, it is unclear as to what extent muscle pathology affects metabolism. Therefore, the present study was focused on understanding energy expenditure in the whole animal and in isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle and to determine changes in metabolic enzymes. Our results show that the 8 week-old DKO mice consume higher oxygen relative to activity levels. Interestingly the EDL muscle from DKO mouse consumes higher oxygen per unit integral force, generates less force and performs better in the presence of pyruvate thus mimicking a slow twitch muscle. We also found that the expression of hexokinase 1 and pyruvate kinase M2 was upregulated several fold suggesting increased glycolytic flux. Additionally, there is a dramatic increase in dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp 1) and mitofusin 2 protein levels suggesting increased mitochondrial fission and fusion, a feature associated with increased energy demand and altered mitochondrial dynamics. Collectively our studies point out that the dystrophic disease has caused significant changes in muscle metabolism. To meet the increased energetic demand, upregulation of metabolic enzymes and regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission is observed in the dystrophic muscle. A better understanding of the metabolic demands and the accompanied alterations in the dystrophic muscle can help us design improved intervention therapies along with existing drug treatments for the DMD patients.

  1. Resveratrol Improves Cardiomyopathy in Dystrophin-deficient Mice through SIRT1 Protein-mediated Modulation of p300 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Kuno, Atsushi; Hori, Yusuke S.; Hosoda, Ryusuke; Tanno, Masaya; Miura, Tetsuji; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Horio, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is the main cause of death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Here, we show that oral administration of resveratrol, which leads to activation of an NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase SIRT1, suppresses cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis and restores cardiac diastolic function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. The pro-hypertrophic co-activator p300 protein but not p300 mRNA was up-regulated in the mdx heart, and resveratrol administration down-regulated the p300 protein level. In cultured cardiomyocytes, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by the α1-agonist phenylephrine was inhibited by the overexpression of SIRT1 as well as resveratrol, both of which down-regulated p300 protein levels but not p300 mRNA levels. In addition, activation of atrial natriuretic peptide promoter by p300 was inhibited by SIRT1. We found that SIRT1 induced p300 down-regulation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway by deacetylation of lysine residues for ubiquitination. These findings indicate the pathological significance of p300 up-regulation in the dystrophic heart and indicate that SIRT1 activation has therapeutic potential for dystrophic cardiomyopathy. PMID:23297412

  2. A Simplified Immune Suppression Scheme Leads to Persistent Micro-dystrophin Expression in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jin-Hong; Yue, Yongping; Srivastava, Arun; Smith, Bruce; Lai, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Highly abbreviated micro-dystrophin genes have been intensively studied for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene therapy. Following adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene transfer, robust microgene expression is achieved in murine DMD models in the absence of immune suppression. Interestingly, a recent study suggests that AAV gene transfer in dystrophic dogs may require up to 18 weeks' immune suppression using a combination of three different immune-suppressive drugs (cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and anti-dog thymocyte globulin). Continued immune suppression is not only costly but also may cause untoward reactions. Further, some of the drugs (such as anti-dog thymocyte globulin) are not readily available. To overcome these limitations, we developed a novel 5-week immune suppression scheme using only cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. AAV vectors (either AV.RSV.AP that expresses the heat-resistant human alkaline phosphatase gene, or AV.CMV.μDys that expresses the canine R16-17/H3/ΔC microgene) at 2.85×1012 vg particles were injected into adult dystrophic dog limb muscles under the new immune suppression protocol. Sustained transduction was observed for nearly half year (the end of the study). The simplified immune suppression strategy described here may facilitate preclinical studies in the dog model. PMID:21967249

  3. The evolution of an intron: Analysis of a long, deletion-prone intron in the human dystrophin gene

    SciTech Connect

    McNaughton, J.C.; Hughes, G.; Jones, W.A.

    1997-03-01

    The sequence of a 112-kb region of the human dystrophin (DMD/BMD) gene encompassing the deletion prone intron 7 (110 kb) and the much shorter intron 8 (1.1 kb) has been determined. Recognizable insertion sequences account for approximately 40% of intron 7. LINE-1 and THE-1/LTR sequences occur in intron 7 with significantly higher frequency than would be expected statistically while Alu sequences are underrepresented. Intron 7 also contains numerous mammalian-wide interspersed repeats, a diverse range of medium reiteration repeats of unknown origin, and a sequence derived from a mariner transposon. By contrast, the shorter intron 8 contains no detectable insertion sequences. Dating of the L1 and Alu sequences suggests that intron 7 has approximately doubled in size within the past 130 million years, and comparison with the corresponding intron from the pufferfish (Fugu rubripes) suggests that the intron has expanded some 44-fold over a period of 400 million years. The possible contribution of the insertion elements to the instability of intron 7 is discussed. 66 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Cardiomyopathy in the dystrophin/utrophin-deficient mouse model of severe muscular dystrophy is characterized by dysregulation of matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Delfín, Dawn A; Zang, Kara E; Schill, Kevin E; Patel, Nikita T; Janssen, Paul M L; Raman, Subha V; Rafael-Fortney, Jill A

    2012-11-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a significant component in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Although mdx mice are deficient in dystrophin, they only develop mild indicators of cardiomyopathy before 1year-of-age, making therapeutic investigations using this model lengthy. In contrast, mdx mice also lacking utrophin (utrn(-/-);mdx) show severely reduced cardiac contractile function and histological indicators of cardiomyopathy by 8-10weeks-of-age. Here we demonstrate that utrn(-/-);mdx mice show a similar pattern of cardiac damage to that in dystrophic patients. Matrix metalloproteinases required for ventricular remodeling during the evolution of heart failure are upregulated in utrn(-/-);mdx mice concurrent with the onset of cardiac pathology by 10weeks-of-age. Matrix metalloproteinase activity is further dysregulated due to reduced levels of endogenous tissue inhibitors and co-localizes with fibroblasts and collagen I-containing scars. utrn(-/-);mdx mice are therefore a very useful model for investigating potential cardiac therapies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A simplified immune suppression scheme leads to persistent micro-dystrophin expression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy dogs.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin-Hong; Yue, Yongping; Srivastava, Arun; Smith, Bruce; Lai, Yi; Duan, Dongsheng

    2012-02-01

    Highly abbreviated micro-dystrophin genes have been intensively studied for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene therapy. Following adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene transfer, robust microgene expression is achieved in murine DMD models in the absence of immune suppression. Interestingly, a recent study suggests that AAV gene transfer in dystrophic dogs may require up to 18 weeks' immune suppression using a combination of three different immune-suppressive drugs (cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and anti-dog thymocyte globulin). Continued immune suppression is not only costly but also may cause untoward reactions. Further, some of the drugs (such as anti-dog thymocyte globulin) are not readily available. To overcome these limitations, we developed a novel 5-week immune suppression scheme using only cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. AAV vectors (either AV.RSV.AP that expresses the heat-resistant human alkaline phosphatase gene, or AV.CMV.μDys that expresses the canine R16-17/H3/ΔC microgene) at 2.85×10(12) vg particles were injected into adult dystrophic dog limb muscles under the new immune suppression protocol. Sustained transduction was observed for nearly half year (the end of the study). The simplified immune suppression strategy described here may facilitate preclinical studies in the dog model.

  6. Effects of omega-3 on matrix metalloproteinase-9, myoblast transplantation and satellite cell activation in dystrophin-deficient muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Samara Camaçari; Hindi, Sajedah M; Kumar, Ashok; Marques, Maria Julia

    2017-06-17

    In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), lack of dystrophin leads to progressive muscle degeneration, with DMD patients suffering from cardiorespiratory failure. Cell therapy is an alternative to life-long corticoid therapy. Satellite cells, the stem cells of skeletal muscles, do not completely compensate for the muscle damage in dystrophic muscles. Elevated levels of proinflammatory and profibrotic factors, such as metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), impair muscle regeneration, leading to extensive fibrosis and poor results with myoblast transplantation therapies. Omega-3 is an anti-inflammatory drug that protects against muscle degeneration in the mdx mouse model of DMD. In the present study, we test our hypothesis that omega-3 affects MMP-9 and thereby benefits muscle regeneration and myoblast transplantation in the mdx mouse. We observe that omega-3 reduces MMP-9 gene expression and improves myoblast engraftment, satellite cell activation, and muscle regeneration by mechanisms involving, at least in part, the regulation of macrophages, as shown here with the fluorescence-activated cell sorting technique. The present study demonstrates the benefits of omega-3 on satellite cell survival and muscle regeneration, further supporting its use in clinical trials and cell therapies in DMD.

  7. A novel point mutation (G[sup [minus]1] to T) in a 5[prime] splice donor site of intron 13 of the dystrophin gene results in exon skipping and is responsible for Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Hagiwara, Yoko; Nishio, Hisahide; Kitoh, Yoshihiko; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Narita, Naoko; Wada, Hiroko; Yokoyama, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Hajime; Matsuo, Masafumi )

    1994-01-01

    The mutations in one-third of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients remain unknown, as they do not involve gross rearrangements of the dystrophin gene. The authors now report a defect in the splicing of precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA), resulting from a maternally inherited mutation of the dystrophin gene in a patient with Becker muscular dystrophy. This defect results from a G-to-T transversion at the terminal nucleotide of exon 13, within the 5[prime] splice site of intron 13, and causes complete skipping of exon 13 during processing of dystrophin pre-mRNA. The predicted polypeptide encoded by the aberrant mRNA is a truncated dystrophin lacking 40 amino acids from the amino-proximal end of the rod domain. This is the first report of an intraexon point mutation that completely inactivates a 5[prime] splice donor site in dystrophin pre-mRNA. Analysis of the genomic context of the G[sup [minus]1]-to-T mutation at the 5[prime] splice site supports the exon-definition model of pre-mRNA splicing and contributes to the understanding of splice-site selection. 48 refs., 5 figs.

  8. A novel point mutation (G-1 to T) in a 5' splice donor site of intron 13 of the dystrophin gene results in exon skipping and is responsible for Becker muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Y.; Nishio, H.; Kitoh, Y.; Takeshima, Y.; Narita, N.; Wada, H.; Yokoyama, M.; Nakamura, H.; Matsuo, M.

    1994-01-01

    The mutations in one-third of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients remain unknown, as they do not involve gross rearrangements of the dystrophin gene. We now report a defect in the splicing of precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA), resulting from a maternally inherited mutation of the dystrophin gene in a patient with Becker muscular dystrophy. This defect results from a G-to-T transversion at the terminal nucleotide of exon 13, within the 5' splice site of intron 13, and causes complete skipping of exon 13 during processing of dystrophin pre-mRNA. The predicted polypeptide encoded by the aberrant mRNA is a truncated dystrophin lacking 40 amino acids from the amino-proximal end of the rod domain. This is the first report of an intraexon point mutation that completely inactivates a 5' splice donor site in dystrophin pre-mRNA. Analysis of the genomic context of the G-1-to-T mutation at the 5' splice site supports the exon-definition model of pre-mRNA splicing and contributes to the understanding of splice-site selection. Images Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:8279470

  9. Autoshaping of abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Deckner, C W; Wilcox, L M; Maisto, S A; Blanton, R L

    1980-09-01

    Three experimentally naive abnormal children were exposed to a terminal operant contingency, i.e., reinforcement was delivered only if the children pressed a panel during intervals when it was lighted. Despite the absence of both successive approximation and manual shaping, it was found that each child began to respond discriminatively within a small number of trials. These data replicated previous animal studies concerned with the phenomena of autoshaping and signal-controlled responding. It was also found, however, that one type of autoshaping, the classical conditioning procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on the discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted of intrasubject reversal an multiple baseline designs established the internal validity of the findings. The finding of rapid acquisition of signal-controlled responding obtained with the initial procedure is suggessted to have practical significance. The disruptive effects of the classical form of autoshaping are discussed in terms of negative behavioral contrast.

  10. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  11. [Abnormality of thyroid function].

    PubMed

    Masamune, Taishi; Matsukawa, Takashi

    2010-07-01

    The thyroid hormones are synthesized by iodine. Thyroid dysfunction can develop in patients who have received treatment with iodine-containing contrast media or treatment with amiodarone. Thyrotoxicosis is a symptom due to high levels of thyroid hormone. The entity most threatened is the cardiovascular system. beta-adrenergic receptor blockade can control the heart rate. And a decreasing heart rate may improve heart-pumping function. We should aim to avoid surgery on any patients whose thyroid function is abnormal. The avoidance of a thyroid storm is the goal in managing hyperthyroid patients. Suppression of the sympathetic tone and maintenance of a deep level of surgical anesthesia are prudent. Thyroid storm is rare nowadays but still carries a high mortality. Precipitating factors include infection, surgery, childbirth or trauma, et al. Hypothyroid patients are sensitive to the effects of anesthetic agents and many drugs, including opioids. Mild hypothyroidism may have little perioperative significance. However, overt hypothyroidism can develop in a high percentage of patients with history of subclinical hypothyroidism. An untreated patient with hypothyroidism may present as an emergency with myxedema coma. Myxedema coma is rare but carries a high mortality. Precipitating factors include hypothermia, surgery, trauma, sedative drugs, et al.

  12. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  13. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  14. Dystrophin Dp71f associates with the beta1-integrin adhesion complex to modulate PC12 cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Cerna, Joel; Cerecedo, Doris; Ortega, Arturo; García-Sierra, Francisco; Centeno, Federico; Garrido, Efrain; Mornet, Dominique; Cisneros, Bulmaro

    2006-01-01

    Dystrophin Dp71 is the main product of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene in the brain; however, its function is unknown. To study the role of Dp71 in neuronal cells, we previously generated by antisense treatment PC12 neuronal cell clones with decreased Dp71 expression (antisense-Dp71 cells). PC12 cells express two different splicing isoforms of Dp71, a cytoplasmic variant called Dp71f and a nuclear isoform called Dp71d. We previously reported that antisense-Dp71 cells display deficient adhesion to substrate and reduced immunostaining of β1-integrin in the cell area contacting the substrate. In this study, we isolated additional antisenseDp71 clones to analyze in detail the potential involvement of Dp71f isoform with the β1-integrin adhesion system of PC12 cells. Immunofluorescence analyses as well as immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that the PC12 cell β1-integrin adhesion complex is composed of β1-integrin, talin, paxillin, α-actinin, FAK and actin. In addition, our results showed that Dp71f associates with most of the β1-integrin complex components (β1-integrin, FAK, α-actinin, talin and actin). In the antisense-Dp71 cells, the deficiency of Dp71 provokes a significant reduction of the β1-integrin adhesion complex and, consequently, the deficient adhesion of these cells to laminin. In vitro binding experiments confirmed the interaction of Dp71f with FAK and β1-integrin. Our data indicate that Dp71f is a structural component of the β1-integrin adhesion complex of PC12 cells that modulates PC12 cell adhesion by conferring proper complex assembly and/or maintenance. PMID:16935300

  15. ZYX-1, the unique zyxin protein of Caenorhabditis elegans, is involved in dystrophin-dependent muscle degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lecroisey, Claire; Brouilly, Nicolas; Qadota, Hiroshi; Mariol, Marie-Christine; Rochette, Nicolas C.; Martin, Edwige; Benian, Guy M.; Ségalat, Laurent; Mounier, Nicole; Gieseler, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    In vertebrates, zyxin is a LIM-domain protein belonging to a family composed of seven members. We show that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has a unique zyxin-like protein, ZYX-1, which is the orthologue of the vertebrate zyxin subfamily composed of zyxin, migfilin, TRIP6, and LPP. The ZYX-1 protein is expressed in the striated body-wall muscles and localizes at dense bodies/Z-discs and M-lines, as well as in the nucleus. In yeast two-hybrid assays ZYX-1 interacts with several known dense body and M-line proteins, including DEB-1 (vinculin) and ATN-1 (α-actinin). ZYX-1 is mainly localized in the middle region of the dense body/Z-disk, overlapping the apical and basal regions containing, respectively, ATN-1 and DEB-1. The localization and dynamics of ZYX-1 at dense bodies depend on the presence of ATN-1. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments revealed a high mobility of the ZYX-1 protein within muscle cells, in particular at dense bodies and M-lines, indicating a peripheral and dynamic association of ZYX-1 at these muscle adhesion structures. A portion of the ZYX-1 protein shuttles from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, suggesting a role for ZYX-1 in signal transduction. We provide evidence that the zyx-1 gene encodes two different isoforms, ZYX-1a and ZYX-1b, which exhibit different roles in dystrophin-dependent muscle degeneration occurring in a C. elegans model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:23427270

  16. Excitation-contraction coupling alterations in mdx and utrophin/dystrophin double knockout mice: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Capote, Joana; DiFranco, Marino; Vergara, Julio L

    2010-05-01

    The double knockout mouse for utrophin and dystrophin (utr(-/-)/mdx) has been proposed to be a better model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) than the mdx mouse because the former displays more similar muscle pathology to that of the DMD patients. In this paper the properties of action potentials (APs) and Ca(2+) transients elicited by single and repetitive stimulation were studied to understand the excitation-contraction (EC) coupling alterations observed in muscle fibers from mdx and utr(-/-)/mdx mice. Based on the comparison of the AP durations with those of fibers from wild-type (WT) mice, fibers from both mdx and utr(-/-)/mdx mice could be divided in two groups: fibers with WT-like APs (group 1) and fibers with significantly longer APs (group 2). Although the proportion of fibers in group 2 was larger in utr(-/-)/mdx (36%) than in mdx mice (27%), the Ca(2+) release elicited by single stimulation was found to be similarly depressed (32-38%) in utr(-/-)/mdx and mdx fibers compared with WT counterparts regardless of the fiber's group. Stimulation at 100 Hz revealed that, with the exception of those from utr(-/-)/mdx mice, group 1 fibers were able to sustain Ca(2+) release for longer than group 2 fibers, which displayed an abrupt limitation even at the onset of the train. The differences in behavior between fibers in groups 1 and 2 became almost unnoticeable at 50 Hz stimulation. In general, fibers from utr(-/-)/mdx mice seem to display more persistent alterations in the EC coupling than those observed in the mdx model.

  17. Excitation-contraction coupling alterations in mdx and utrophin/dystrophin double knockout mice: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Capote, Joana; DiFranco, Marino

    2010-01-01

    The double knockout mouse for utrophin and dystrophin (utr−/−/mdx) has been proposed to be a better model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) than the mdx mouse because the former displays more similar muscle pathology to that of the DMD patients. In this paper the properties of action potentials (APs) and Ca2+ transients elicited by single and repetitive stimulation were studied to understand the excitation-contraction (EC) coupling alterations observed in muscle fibers from mdx and utr−/−/mdx mice. Based on the comparison of the AP durations with those of fibers from wild-type (WT) mice, fibers from both mdx and utr−/−/mdx mice could be divided in two groups: fibers with WT-like APs (group 1) and fibers with significantly longer APs (group 2). Although the proportion of fibers in group 2 was larger in utr−/−/mdx (36%) than in mdx mice (27%), the Ca2+ release elicited by single stimulation was found to be similarly depressed (32–38%) in utr−/−/mdx and mdx fibers compared with WT counterparts regardless of the fiber's group. Stimulation at 100 Hz revealed that, with the exception of those from utr−/−/mdx mice, group 1 fibers were able to sustain Ca2+ release for longer than group 2 fibers, which displayed an abrupt limitation even at the onset of the train. The differences in behavior between fibers in groups 1 and 2 became almost unnoticeable at 50 Hz stimulation. In general, fibers from utr−/−/mdx mice seem to display more persistent alterations in the EC coupling than those observed in the mdx model. PMID:20130206

  18. Co-occurrence of mutations in both dystrophin- and androgen-receptor genes is a novel cause of female Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Yoshinori; Tran, Van Khanh; Hoan, Nguyen Thi; Zhang, Zhujun; Goji, Katsumi; Yagi, Mariko; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Saiki, Kayoko; Nhan, Nguyen Thu; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2006-06-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder. Here, we report a novel mechanism for the occurrence of DMD in females. In a Vietnamese DMD girl, conventional PCR amplification analysis disclosed a deletion of exons 12-19 of the dystrophin gene on Xp21.2, with a karyotype of 46, XY. Furthermore, a novel mutation in the androgen-receptor gene on Xq11.2-q12 was identified in this girl, which led to male pseudohermaphroditism. Co-occurrence of mutations of these two genes constitutes a novel mechanism underlying female DMD.

  19. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  20. Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, D J; Blackwood, D H R; Porteous, D J; Pickard, B S; Muir, W J

    2003-03-01

    Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness are reviewed along with supporting evidence that this may amount to an association. Chromosomal abnormalities are considered to be of possible significance if (a) the abnormality is rare and there are independent reports of its coexistence with psychiatric illness, or (b) there is colocalisation of the abnormality with a region of suggestive linkage findings, or (c) there is an apparent cosegregation of the abnormality with psychiatric illness within the individual's family. Breakpoints have been described within many of the loci suggested by linkage studies and these findings support the hypothesis that shared susceptibility factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may exist. If these abnormalities directly disrupt coding regions, then combining molecular genetic breakpoint cloning with bioinformatic sequence analysis may be a method of rapidly identifying candidate genes. Full karyotyping of individuals with psychotic illness especially where this coexists with mild learning disability, dysmorphism or a strong family history of mental disorder is encouraged.

  1. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  2. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as 'definite', 'probable' or 'possible' according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. A total of 46 patients ('definite' = 5; 'probable' = 9; 'possible' = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. MID should be considered if a patient's abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem.

  3. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/003242.htm Skin - abnormally dark or light To use the sharing features on this page, ... the hands. The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the ...

  4. Congenital abnormalities and selective abortion.

    PubMed

    Seller, M J

    1976-09-01

    The technique of amniocentesis, by which an abnormal fetus can be detected in utero, has brought a technological advance in medical science but attendant medical and moral problems. Dr Seller describes those congenital disabilities which can be detected in the fetus before birth, for which the "remedy" is selective abortion. She then discusses the arguments for and against selective abortion, for the issue is not simple, even in the strictly genetic sense of attempting to ensure a population free of congenital abnormality.

  5. Deletion of Galgt2 (B4Galnt2) Reduces Muscle Growth in Response to Acute Injury and Increases Muscle Inflammation and Pathology in Dystrophin-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rui; Singhal, Neha; Serinagaoglu, Yelda; Chandrasekharan, Kumaran; Joshi, Mandar; Bauer, John A.; Janssen, Paulus M.L.; Martin, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic overexpression of Galgt2 (official name B4Galnt2) in skeletal muscle stimulates the glycosylation of α dystroglycan (αDG) and the up-regulation of laminin α2 and dystrophin surrogates known to inhibit muscle pathology in mouse models of congenital muscular dystrophy 1A and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Skeletal muscle Galgt2 gene expression is also normally increased in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy compared with the wild-type mice. To assess whether this increased endogenous Galgt2 expression could affect disease, we quantified muscular dystrophy measures in mdx mice deleted for Galgt2 (Galgt2−/−mdx). Galgt2−/− mdx mice had increased heart and skeletal muscle pathology and inflammation, and also worsened cardiac function, relative to age-matched mdx mice. Deletion of Galgt2 in wild-type mice also slowed skeletal muscle growth in response to acute muscle injury. In each instance where Galgt2 expression was elevated (developing muscle, regenerating muscle, and dystrophic muscle), Galgt2-dependent glycosylation of αDG was also increased. Overexpression of Galgt2 failed to inhibit skeletal muscle pathology in dystroglycan-deficient muscles, in contrast to previous studies in dystrophin-deficient mdx muscles. This study demonstrates that Galgt2 gene expression and glycosylation of αDG are dynamically regulated in muscle and that endogenous Galgt2 gene expression can ameliorate the extent of muscle pathology, inflammation, and dysfunction in mdx mice. PMID:26435413

  6. Dystrophin and utrophin expression require sarcospan: loss of α7 integrin exacerbates a newly discovered muscle phenotype in sarcospan-null mice.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Jamie L; Chou, Eric; Oh, Jennifer; Kwok, Allan; Burkin, Dean J; Crosbie-Watson, Rachelle H

    2012-10-15

    Sarcospan (SSPN) is a core component of the major adhesion complexes in skeletal muscle, the dystrophin- and utrophin (Utr)-glycoprotein complexes (DGC and UGC). We performed a rigorous analysis of SSPN-null mice and discovered that loss of SSPN decreased DGC and UGC abundance, leading to impaired laminin-binding activity and susceptibility to eccentric contraction-induced injury in skeletal muscle. We show that loss of SSPN increased levels of α7β1 integrin. To genetically test whether integrin compensates for the loss of DGC and UGC function in SSPN-nulls, we generated mice lacking both SSPN and α7 integrin (DKO, double knockout). Muscle regeneration, sarcolemma integrity and fibrosis were exacerbated in DKO mice and were remarkably similar to muscle from Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, suggesting that secondary loss of integrin contributes significantly to pathogenesis. Expression of the DGC and UGC, laminin binding and Akt signaling were negatively impacted in DKO muscle, resulting in severely diminished specific force properties. We demonstrate that SSPN is a necessary component of dystrophin and Utr function and that SSPN modulation of integrin signaling is required for extracellular matrix attachment and muscle force development.

  7. Local injections of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells modulate inflammation and increase angiogenesis ameliorating the dystrophic phenotype in dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Carlos Hermano da Justa; de Queiroz, Jean César Farias; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Vitzel, Kaio Fernando; Nachbar, Renato Tadeu; de Sousa, Luís Gustavo Oliveira; de Souza-Jr, Alcione Lescano; Nunes, Maria Tereza; Curi, Rui

    2012-06-01

    The effects of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSC) transplantation on degeneration, regeneration and skeletal muscle function were investigated in dystrophin-deficient mice (24-week-old). ADMSC transplantation improved muscle strength and, resistance to fatigue. An increase in fiber cross-sectional area and in the number of fibers with centralized nuclei and augment of myogenin content were observed. In ADMSC-treated muscles a decrease in muscle content of TNF-α, IL-6 and oxidative stress measured by Amplex(®) reagent were observed. The level of TGF-β1 was lowered whereas that of VEGF, IL-10 and IL-4 were increased by ADMSC treatment. An increase in markers of macrophage M1 (CD11 and F4-80) and a decrease in T lymphocyte marker (CD3) and arginase-1 were also observed in ADMSCs-treated dystrophic muscle. No change was observed in iNOS expression. Increased phosphorylation of Akt, p70S6k and 4E-BP1 was found in dystrophic muscles treated with ADMSC. These results suggest that ADMSC transplantation modulates inflammation and improves muscle tissue regeneration, ameliorating the dystrophic phenotype in dystrophin-deficient mice.

  8. Selection-free gene repair after adenoviral vector transduction of designer nucleases: rescue of dystrophin synthesis in DMD muscle cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, Ignazio; Stefanucci, Luca; Janssen, Josephine M.; Liu, Jin; Chen, Xiaoyu; Mouly, Vincent; Gonçalves, Manuel A.F.V.

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal X-linked muscle-wasting disorder caused by mutations in the 2.4 Mb dystrophin-encoding DMD gene. The integration of gene delivery and gene editing technologies based on viral vectors and sequence-specific designer nucleases, respectively, constitutes a potential therapeutic modality for permanently repairing defective DMD alleles in patient-derived myogenic cells. Therefore, we sought to investigate the feasibility of combining adenoviral vectors (AdVs) with CRISPR/Cas9 RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs) alone or together with transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), for endogenous DMD repair through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). The strategies tested involved; incorporating small insertions or deletions at out-of-frame sequences for reading frame resetting, splice acceptor knockout for DNA-level exon skipping, and RGN-RGN or RGN-TALEN multiplexing for targeted exon(s) removal. We demonstrate that genome editing based on the activation and recruitment of the NHEJ DNA repair pathway after AdV delivery of designer nuclease genes, is a versatile and robust approach for repairing DMD mutations in bulk populations of patient-derived muscle progenitor cells (up to 37% of corrected DMD templates). These results open up a DNA-level genetic medicine strategy in which viral vector-mediated transient designer nuclease expression leads to permanent and regulated dystrophin synthesis from corrected native DMD alleles. PMID:26762977

  9. The shortest isoform of dystrophin (Dp40) interacts with a group of presynaptic proteins to form a presumptive novel complex in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Tozawa, Takenori; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Tando, So; Umekage, Masafumi; Dai, Hongmei; Hosoi, Hajime; Fushiki, Shinji

    2012-04-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) causes cognitive impairment in one third of the patients, although the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Recent studies showed that mutations in the distal part of the dystrophin gene correlate well with the cognitive impairment in DMD patients, which is attributed to Dp71. The study on the expression of the shortest isoform, Dp40, has not been possible due to the lack of an isoform specific antibody. Dp40 has the same promoter as that found in Dp71 and lacks the normal C-terminal end of Dp427. In the present study, we have raised polyclonal antibody against the N-terminal sequence common to short isoforms of dystrophin, including Dp40, and investigated the expression pattern of Dp40 in the mouse brain. Affinity chromatography with this antibody and the consecutive LC-MS/MS analysis on the interacting proteins revealed that Dp40 was abundantly expressed in synaptic vesicles and interacted with a group of presynaptic proteins, including syntaxin1A and SNAP25, which are involved in exocytosis of synaptic vesicles in neurons. We thus suggest that Dp40 may form a novel protein complex and play a crucial role in presynaptic function. Further studies on these aspects of Dp40 function might provide more insight into the molecular mechanisms of cognitive impairment found in patients with DMD.

  10. A G-to-T transversion at the splice acceptor site of dystrophin exon 14 shows multiple splicing outcomes that are not exemplified by transition mutations.

    PubMed

    Ota, Mitsunori; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Nishida, Atsushi; Awano, Hiroyuki; Lee, Tomoko; Yagi, Mariko; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2012-01-01

    Mutations at splicing consensus sequences have been shown to induce splicing errors such as exon skipping or cryptic splice site activation. Here, we identified eight splicing products caused by a G-to-T transversion mutation at the splice acceptor site of exon 14 of the dystrophin gene (c.1603-1G>T). Unexpectedly, the most abundant product showed skipping of the two consecutive exons 14 and 15, and exon 14 skipping was observed as the second most abundant product. To examine the cause of this splicing multiplicity, minigenes containing dystrophin exons 14 and 15 with their flanking introns were constructed and subjected to in vitro splicing. Minigenes with the wild-type sequence or a G>A transition at position c.1603-1 produced only the mature mRNA. On the other hand, the minigenes with a G>T or G>C transversion mutation produced multiple splicing products. A time-course analysis of the in vitro splicing revealed that splicing of the middle intron, intron 14, was the first step in transcript maturation for all four minigene constructs. The identity of the mutant nucleotide, but not its position, is a factor leading to multiple splicing outcomes. Our results suggest that exon skipping therapy for Duchenne's muscular dystrophy should be carefully monitored for their splicing outcomes.

  11. Dual Myostatin and Dystrophin Exon Skipping by Morpholino Nucleic Acid Oligomers Conjugated to a Cell-penetrating Peptide Is a Promising Therapeutic Strategy for the Treatment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Malerba, Alberto; Kang, Jagjeet K; McClorey, Graham; Saleh, Amer F; Popplewell, Linda; Gait, Michael J; Wood, Matthew JA; Dickson, George

    2012-01-01

    The knockdown of myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass may have important implications in disease conditions accompanied by muscle mass loss like cancer, HIV/AIDS, sarcopenia, muscle atrophy, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). In DMD patients, where major muscle loss has occurred due to a lack of dystrophin, the therapeutic restoration of dystrophin expression alone in older patients may not be sufficient to restore the functionality of the muscles. We recently demonstrated that phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) can be used to re-direct myostatin splicing and promote the expression of an out-of-frame transcript so reducing the amount of the synthesized myostatin protein. Furthermore, the systemic administration of the same PMO conjugated to an octaguanidine moiety (Vivo-PMO) led to a significant increase in the mass of soleus muscle of treated mice. Here, we have further optimized the use of Vivo-PMO in normal mice and also tested the efficacy of the same PMO conjugated to an arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptide (B-PMO). Similar experiments conducted in mdx dystrophic mice showed that B-PMO targeting myostatin is able to significantly increase the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle weight and when coadministered with a B-PMO targeting the dystrophin exon 23, it does not have a detrimental interaction. This study confirms that myostatin knockdown by exon skipping is a potential therapeutic strategy to counteract muscle wasting conditions and dual myostatin and dystrophin skipping has potential as a therapy for DMD. PMID:23250360

  12. Delivery of AAV2/9-Microdystrophin Genes Incorporating Helix 1 of the Coiled-Coil Motif in the C-Terminal Domain of Dystrophin Improves Muscle Pathology and Restores the Level of α1-Syntrophin and α-Dystrobrevin in Skeletal Muscles of mdx Mice

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Taeyoung; Malerba, Alberto; Athanasopoulos, Takis; Trollet, Capucine; Boldrin, Luisa; Ferry, Arnaud; Popplewell, Linda; Foster, Helen; Foster, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a severe X-linked inherited muscle wasting disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been extensively used to deliver genes efficiently for dystrophin expression in skeletal muscles. To overcome limited packaging capacity of AAV vectors (<5 kb), truncated recombinant microdystrophin genes with deletions of most of rod and carboxyl-terminal (CT) domains of dystrophin have been developed. We have previously shown the efficiency of mRNA sequence–optimized microdystrophin (ΔR4-23/ΔCT, called MD1) with deletion of spectrin-like repeat domain 4 to 23 and CT domain in ameliorating the pathology of dystrophic mdx mice. However, the CT domain of dystrophin is thought to recruit part of the dystrophin-associated protein complex, which acts as a mediator of signaling between extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton in muscle fibers. In this study, we extended the ΔR4-23/ΔCT microdystrophin by incorporating helix 1 of the coiled-coil motif in the CT domain of dystrophin (MD2), which contains the α1-syntrophin and α-dystrobrevin binding sites. Intramuscular injection of AAV2/9 expressing CT domain–extended microdystrophin showed efficient dystrophin expression in tibialis anterior muscles of mdx mice. The presence of the CT domain of dystrophin in MD2 increased the recruitment of α1-syntrophin and α-dystrobrevin at the sarcolemma and significantly improved the muscle resistance to lengthening contraction–induced muscle damage in the mdx mice compared with MD1. These results suggest that the incorporation of helix 1 of the coiled-coil motif in the CT domain of dystrophin to the microdystrophins will substantially improve their efficiency in restoring muscle function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:21453126

  13. [Diagnosticum of abnormalities of plant meiotic division].

    PubMed

    Shamina, N V

    2006-01-01

    Abnormalities of plant meiotic division leading to abnormal meiotic products are summarized schematically in the paper. Causes of formation of monads, abnormal diads, triads, pentads, polyads, etc. have been observed in meiosis with both successive and simultaneous cytokinesis.

  14. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  15. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  16. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-09-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical ``heartprints'' which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing ~105 heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  17. Abnormal insulin levels and vertigo.

    PubMed

    Proctor, C A

    1981-10-01

    Fifty patients with unexplained vertigo (36) or lightheadedness (14) are evaluated, all of whom had abnormal ENGs and normal audiograms. Five hour insulin glucose tolerance tests were performance on all patients, with insulin levels being obtained fasting and at one-half, one, two, and three hours. The results of this investigation were remarkable. Borderline or abnormal insulin levels were discovered in 82% of patients; 90% were found to have either an abnormal glucose tolerance test or at least borderline insulin levels. The response to treatment in these dizzy patients was also startling, with appropriate low carbohydrate diets improving the patient's symptoms in 90% of cases. It is, therefore, apparent that the earliest identification of carbohydrate imbalance with an insulin glucose tolerance test is extremely important in the work-up of the dizzy patients.

  18. Ectodermal dysplasia and abnormal thumbs.

    PubMed

    Lucky, A W; Esterly, N B; Tunnessen, W W

    1980-05-01

    Two unrelated children, a girl and a boy, with alopecia, anomalous cutaneous pigmentation, abnormal thumbs, and endocrine disorders, including short stature and delayed bone age in one patient and juvenile onset diabetes mellitus in the other, are described. In one instance, the mother and the maternal grandmother had similar abnormalities, although of a less severe nature. Both children had normal nails and no unusual susceptibility to infections. We believe these two patients represent a previously undescribed syndrome of ectodermal dysplasia that may be inherited as an autosomal-dominant trait.

  19. Vestibular abnormalities in congenital disorders.

    PubMed

    Sando, I; Orita, Y; Miura, M; Balaban, C D

    2001-10-01

    This paper reviews the histopathologic features of vestibular abnormalities in congenital disorders affecting the inner ear, based upon a comprehensive literature survey and a review of cases in our temporal bone collection. The review proceeds in three systematic steps. First, we surveyed associated diseases with the major phenotypic features of congenital abnormalities of the inner ear (including the internal auditory canal and otic capsule). Second, the vestibular anomalies are examined specifically. Finally, the anomalies are discussed from a developmental perspective. Among vestibular anomalies, a hypoplastic endolymphatic duct and sac are observed most frequently. Anomalies of the semicircular canals are also often observed. From embryological and clinical viewpoints, many of these resemble the structural features from fetal stages and appear to be associated with vestibular dysfunction. It is expected that progress in genetic analysis and accumulation of temporal bone specimens with vestibular abnormalities in congenital diseases will provide crucial information not only for pathology of those diseases, but also for genetic factors that are responsible for the specific vestibular abnormalities.

  20. Nested introns in an intron: evidence of multi-step splicing in a large intron of the human dystrophin pre-mRNA.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; Kameyama, Toshiki; Ohe, Kenji; Tsukahara, Toshifumi; Mayeda, Akila

    2013-03-18

    The mechanisms by which huge human introns are spliced out precisely are poorly understood. We analyzed large intron 7 (110199 nucleotides) generated from the human dystrophin (DMD) pre-mRNA by RT-PCR. We identified branching between the authentic 5' splice site and the branch point; however, the sequences far from the branch site were not detectable. This RT-PCR product was resistant to exoribonuclease (RNase R) digestion, suggesting that the detected lariat intron has a closed loop structure but contains gaps in its sequence. Transient and concomitant generation of at least two branched fragments from nested introns within large intron 7 suggests internal nested splicing events before the ultimate splicing at the authentic 5' and 3' splice sites. Nested splicing events, which bring the authentic 5' and 3' splice sites into close proximity, could be one of the splicing mechanisms for the extremely large introns.

  1. Lack of dystrophin leads to the selective loss of superior cervical ganglion neurons projecting to muscular targets in genetically dystrophic mdx mice.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, M Egle; Leone, Lucia; Lombardi, Loredana; Paggi, Paola

    2005-12-01

    Autonomic imbalance is a pathological aspect of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Here, we show that the sympathetic superior cervical ganglion (SCG) of mdx mice, which lack dystrophin (Dp427), has 36% fewer neurons than that of wild-type animals. Cell loss occurs around P10 and affects those neurons innervating muscular targets (heart and iris), which, differently from the submandibular gland (non-muscular target), are precociously damaged by the lack of Dp427. In addition, although we reveal altered axonal defasciculation in the submandibular gland and reduced terminal sprouting in all SCG target organs, poor adrenergic innervation is observed only in the heart and iris. These alterations, detected as early as P5, when neuronal loss has not yet occurred, suggest that in mdx mice the absence of Dp427 directly impairs the axonal growth and terminal sprouting of sympathetic neurons. However, when these intrinsic alterations combine with structural and/or functional damages of muscular targets, neuronal death occurs.

  2. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase-rescue of dystrophin/utrophin double knockout mice does not require nNOS localization to the cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Wehling-Henricks, Michelle; Tidball, James G

    2011-01-01

    Survival of dystrophin/utrophin double-knockout (dko) mice was increased by muscle-specific expression of a neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) transgene. Dko mice expressing the transgene (nNOS TG+/dko) experienced delayed onset of mortality and increased life-span. The nNOS TG+/dko mice demonstrated a significant decrease in the concentration of CD163+, M2c macrophages that can express arginase and promote fibrosis. The decrease in M2c macrophages was associated with a significant reduction in fibrosis of heart, diaphragm and hindlimb muscles of nNOS TG+/dko mice. The nNOS transgene had no effect on the concentration of cytolytic, CD68+, M1 macrophages. Accordingly, we did not observe any change in the extent of muscle fiber lysis in the nNOS TG+/dko mice. These findings show that nNOS/NO (nitric oxide)-mediated decreases in M2c macrophages lead to a reduction in the muscle fibrosis that is associated with increased mortality in mice lacking dystrophin and utrophin. Interestingly, the dramatic and beneficial effects of the nNOS transgene were not attributable to localization of nNOS protein at the cell membrane. We did not detect any nNOS protein at the sarcolemma in nNOS TG+/dko muscles. This important observation shows that sarcolemmal localization is not necessary for nNOS to have beneficial effects in dystrophic tissue and the presence of nNOS in the cytosol of dystrophic muscle fibers can ameliorate the pathology and most importantly, significantly increase life-span.

  3. Endocrine abnormalities in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Elizabeth A; Klibanski, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disease associated with notable medical complications and increased mortality. Endocrine abnormalities, including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypercortisolemia, growth hormone resistance and sick euthyroid syndrome, mediate the clinical manifestations of this disease. Alterations in anorexigenic and orexigenic appetite-regulating pathways have also been described. Decreases in fat mass result in adipokine abnormalities. Although most of the endocrine changes that occur in AN represent physiologic adaptation to starvation, some persist after recovery and might contribute to susceptibility to AN recurrence. In this Review, we summarize key endocrine alterations in AN, with a particular focus on the profound bone loss that can occur in this disease. Although AN is increasingly prevalent among boys and men, the disorder predominantly affects girls and women who are, therefore, the focus of this Review.

  4. [Chromosome abnormalities in human cancer].

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Gómez, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent investigation on the presence of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasias has allowed outstanding advances in the knowledge of malignant transformation mechanisms and important applications in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of leukaemias, lymphomas and solid tumors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most relevant cytogenetic aberrations, some of them described at the Unidad de Investigación Médica en Genética Humana, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and to correlate these abnormalities with recent achievements in the knowledge of oncogenes, suppressor genes or antioncogenes, their chromosome localization, and their mutations in human neoplasia; as well as their perspectives in prevention and treatment of cancer that such findings permit to anticipate.

  5. Eye abnormalities in Fryns syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Diane M; Taboada, Eugenio; Butler, Merlin G

    2004-03-15

    Fryns syndrome is a rare, generally lethal, autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly (MCA) syndrome first described in 1979. Patients with the syndrome present with the classical findings of cloudy cornea, brain malformations, diaphragmatic defects, and distal limb deformities. Over 70 patients have been reported revealing a wide variety of phenotypic features. Although initially considered a major feature of Fryns syndrome, cloudy cornea has been relegated as a minor diagnostic sign and not commonly reported in patients since the original description. However, eye findings per se are not uncommon. Abnormal eye findings occasionally reported in Fryns syndrome potentially result in amblyopia and blindness, profoundly affecting neurologic outcome of those who survive the neonatal period. We reviewed 77 reported patients with Fryns syndrome and summarized the abnormal eye findings identified in 12 of the reported cases. In addition, we contribute three new patients with Fryns syndrome, one of which demonstrated unilateral microphthalmia and cloudy cornea.

  6. Neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    De Pablo-Fernández, Eduardo; Breen, David P; Bouloux, Pierre M; Barker, Roger A; Foltynie, Thomas; Warner, Thomas T

    2017-02-01

    Neuroendocrine abnormalities are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and include disruption of melatonin secretion, disturbances of glucose, insulin resistance and bone metabolism, and body weight changes. They have been associated with multiple non-motor symptoms in PD and have important clinical consequences, including therapeutics. Some of the underlying mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD and represent promising targets for the development of disease biomarkers and neuroprotective therapies. In this systems-based review, we describe clinically relevant neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson's disease to highlight their role in overall phenotype. We discuss pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical implications, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions based on the current evidence. We also review recent advances in the field, focusing on the potential targets for development of neuroprotective drugs in Parkinson's disease and suggest future areas for research.

  7. Chromosome abnormalities in neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Vassilopoulos, D

    1976-01-01

    The current status of research into chromosomal abnormalities in neurological diseases is reviewed. The only possible association between chromosome aberration and neurological disorder is found in ataxia telangiectasia and in tumours of the nervous system. In the remaining diseases reviewed, no specific association was confirmed. This was expected to some extent, since the majority of these diseases (spinal muscular atrophies, muscular dystrophies, etc.) are due to single gene defects.

  8. [Normal and abnormal skin color].

    PubMed

    Ortonne, J-P

    2012-11-01

    The varieties of normal skin color in humans range from people of "no color" (pale white) to "people of color" (light brown, dark brown, and black). Skin color is a blend resulting from the skin chromophores red (oxyhaemoglobin), blue (deoxygenated haemoglobin), yellow-orange (carotene, an exogenous pigment), and brown (melanin). Melanin, however, is the major component of skin color ; it is the presence or absence of melanin in the melanosomes in melanocytes and melanin in keratinocytes that is responsible for epidermal pigmentation, and the presence of melanin in macrophages or melanocytes in the dermis that is responsible for dermal pigmentation. Two groups of pigmentary disorders are commonly distinguished: the disorders of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of normal pigment and the abnormal presence of exogenous or endogenous pigments in the skin. The first group includes hyperpigmentations, which clinically manifest by darkening of the skin color, and leukodermia, which is characterized by lightening of the skin. Hypermelanosis corresponds to an overload of melanin or an abnormal distribution of melanin in the skin. Depending on the color, melanodermia (brown/black) and ceruloderma (blue/grey) are distinguished. Melanodermia correspond to epidermal hypermelanocytosis (an increased number of melanocytes) or epidermal hypermelanosis (an increase in the quantity of melanin in the epidermis with no modification of the number of melanocytes). Ceruloderma correspond to dermal hypermelanocytosis (abnormal presence in the dermis of cells synthesizing melanins) ; leakage in the dermis of epidermal melanin also exists, a form of dermal hypermelanosis called pigmentary incontinence. Finally, dyschromia can be related to the abnormal presence in the skin of a pigment of exogenous or endogenous origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, S R; Lumsden, M A

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Once a proper diagnosis has been established, appropriate therapy may be embarked upon. Fortunately, only a minority of such patients will have premalignant or malignant disease. When bleeding is sufficient to cause severe anemia or even hypovolemia, prompt intervention is called for. In most of the cases, however, the abnormal uterine bleeding will be disquieting to the patient and significantly affect her 'quality of life'. Sometimes, reassurance and expectant management will be sufficient in such patients. Overall, however, in cases of benign disease, some intervention will be required. The use of oral contraceptive pills especially those with a short hormone-free interval, the insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, the incorporation of newer medical therapies including antifibrinolytic drugs and selective progesterone receptor modulators and minimally invasive treatments have made outpatient therapy increasingly effective. For others, operative hysteroscopy and endometrial ablation are proven therapeutic tools to provide both long- and short-term relief of abnormal uterine bleeding, thus avoiding, or deferring, hysterectomy.

  10. Meiotic abnormalities in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Egozcue, J; Sarrate, Z; Codina-Pascual, M; Egozcue, S; Oliver-Bonet, M; Blanco, J; Navarro, J; Benet, J; Vidal, F

    2005-01-01

    Meiotic anomalies, as reviewed here, are synaptic chromosome abnormalities, limited to germ cells that cannot be detected through the study of the karyotype. Although the importance of synaptic errors has been underestimated for many years, their presence is related to many cases of human male infertility. Synaptic anomalies can be studied by immunostaining of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), but in this case their frequency is probably underestimated due to the phenomenon of synaptic adjustment. They can also be studied in classic meiotic preparations, which, from a clinical point of view, is still the best approach, especially if multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization is at hand to solve difficult cases. Sperm chromosome FISH studies also provide indirect evidence of their presence. Synaptic anomalies can affect the rate of recombination of all bivalents, produce achiasmate small univalents, partially achiasmate medium-sized or large bivalents, or affect all bivalents in the cell. The frequency is variable, interindividually and intraindividually. The baseline incidence of synaptic anomalies is 6-8%, which may be increased to 17.6% in males with a severe oligozoospermia, and to 27% in normozoospermic males with one or more previous IVF failures. The clinical consequences are the production of abnormal spermatozoa that will produce a higher number of chromosomally abnormal embryos. The indications for a meiotic study in testicular biopsy are provided.

  11. Abnormal sexual behavior during sleep.

    PubMed

    Della Marca, Giacomo; Dittoni, Serena; Frusciante, Roberto; Colicchio, Salvatore; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Buccarella, Cristina; Modoni, Anna; Mazza, Salvatore; Mennuni, Gioacchino Francesco; Mariotti, Paolo; Vollono, Catello

    2009-12-01

    Automatic, uncontrolled, and unaware sexual behaviors during sleep have occasionally been described. The clinical and polysomnographic features of nocturnal sexual behavior allow it to be considered a distinct parasomnia named "sexsomnia". Recently, abnormal sexual behaviors during sleep have been evaluated in the forensic medical context because violent behaviors can be associated with this parasomnia. To describe the clinical and polysomnographic findings in three patients who referred to our sleep laboratory for sleep disorders and who reported episodes of sleep-related sexual activation. We analyzed video-polysomnographic recordings, sleep structure, sleep microstructure, and sleep-related respiratory events. The patients were three males aged 42, 32, and 46 years. All had unremarkable medical, neurological, and psychiatric histories. All underwent full-night polysomnography. Each patient presented a distinct sleep disorder: one had severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), one presented clinical and polysomnographic features of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnia (somnambulism), and the third presented clinical and polysomnographic features of rapid eye movement behavior disorder. In our patients, the clinical and polysomnographic findings suggest that abnormal nocturnal sexual behavior can occur in association with distinct sleep disorders, characterized by different pathophysiologic mechanisms and distinctive treatments. Abnormal sexual behaviors during sleep should be investigated with polysomnography in order to define their pathophysiology and to establish appropriate treatments.

  12. Congenital abnormalities of the goat.

    PubMed

    Basrur, P K

    1993-03-01

    Congenital abnormalities of genetic and environmental causes constitute a striking proportion of the afflictions seen in goats. These include a variety of malformations and metabolic diseases that could occur in all breeds but tend to exhibit predisposition in some breeds of goats. Genetic abnormalities for which the carrier state is detectable with the aid of enzymes and surface protein markers can be eliminated from goat populations, whereas common polygenic disorders including udder problems in does and gynecomastia in bucks are more difficult to eradicate because the mutant genes responsible for these traits generally do not declare themselves until inbreeding brings together a critical concentration of liability genes to create a crisis. A substantial reduction of common abnormalities in this species, such as intersexuality in dairy breeds, abortion in Angora breed, and arthritis in the Pygmy breed, will require a change in breeders' preference and selection practice. In making these changes, however, the beneficial traits will have to be balanced against the undesirable effects of the selected mutant genes (pleiotropy), which hold the key to success or failure of a breed under domestication.

  13. Visual pathway abnormalities in tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Sharma, Lalit; Kulshreshtha, Dinkar; Thacker, Anup Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Ophthalmological complications are common and disabling in patients with tuberculous meningitis. We aimed to study the visual pathway abnormalities in patients with tuberculous meningitis. Forty-three patients with tuberculous meningitis were subjected to visual evoked responses (VER) and neuroophthalmologic assessment. Neuroophthalmologic assessment revealed abnormalities in 22 (51.3%) patients. VER were found to be abnormal in 27 (62.8%) patients. The VER abnormalities included prolonged P100 latencies with relatively normal amplitude and significant interocular latency differences. Visual pathways abnormalities are common in patients with tuberculous meningitis and are often subclinical. Pathophysiologic explanations for electrophysiological abnormalities on VER in these patients are incompletely understood and needs further exploration.

  14. Protective effects of Ca2+ handling drugs against abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis and cell damage in myopathic skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Yuko; Katanosaka, Yuki; Shijun, Zhu; Kobayashi, Yuko; Hanada, Hironori; Shigekawa, Munekazu; Wakabayashi, Shigeo

    2005-09-01

    Deficiency of delta-sarcoglycan (delta-SG), a component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC), causes skeletal muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy in BIO14.6 hamsters. Here, we studied the involvement of abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis in muscle degeneration and the protective effect of drugs against Ca2+ handling proteins in vivo as well as in vitro. First, we characterized the properties of cultured myotubes from muscles of normal and BIO14.6 hamsters (30-60 days old). While there were no apparent differences in the levels of expression of various Ca2+ handling proteins (L-type Ca2+ channel, ryanodine receptor, SR-Ca2+ ATPase, and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger), muscle-specific proteins (contractile actin and acetylcholine receptor), or DGC member proteins except SGs, BIO14.6 myotubes showed a high degree of susceptibility to mechanical stressors, such as cyclic stretching and hypo-osmotic stress as compared to normal myotubes, as evidenced by marked increases in creatine phosphokinase (CK) release and bleb formation. BIO14.6 myotubes showed abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis characterized by elevated cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, frequent Ca2+ oscillation, and increased 45Ca2+ uptake. These abnormal Ca2+ events and CK release were significantly prevented by Ca2+ handling drugs, tranilast, diltiazem, and FK506. The calpain inhibitor E64 prevented CK release, but not 45Ca2+ uptake. Some of these drugs (tranilast, diltiazem, and FK506) also exerted a significant protective effect for muscle degeneration in BIO14.6 hamsters and mdx mice in vivo. These observations suggest that elevated Ca2+ entry through sarcolemmal Ca2+ channels predominantly contributes to muscle degeneration and that the drugs tested here may have novel therapeutic potential against muscular dystrophy.

  15. Dual Myostatin and Dystrophin Exon Skipping by Morpholino Nucleic Acid Oligomers Conjugated to a Cell-penetrating Peptide Is a Promising Therapeutic Strategy for the Treatment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Malerba, Alberto; Kang, Jagjeet K; McClorey, Graham; Saleh, Amer F; Popplewell, Linda; Gait, Michael J; Wood, Matthew Ja; Dickson, George

    2012-12-18

    The knockdown of myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass may have important implications in disease conditions accompanied by muscle mass loss like cancer, HIV/AIDS, sarcopenia, muscle atrophy, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). In DMD patients, where major muscle loss has occurred due to a lack of dystrophin, the therapeutic restoration of dystrophin expression alone in older patients may not be sufficient to restore the functionality of the muscles. We recently demonstrated that phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) can be used to re-direct myostatin splicing and promote the expression of an out-of-frame transcript so reducing the amount of the synthesized myostatin protein. Furthermore, the systemic administration of the same PMO conjugated to an octaguanidine moiety (Vivo-PMO) led to a significant increase in the mass of soleus muscle of treated mice. Here, we have further optimized the use of Vivo-PMO in normal mice and also tested the efficacy of the same PMO conjugated to an arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptide (B-PMO). Similar experiments conducted in mdx dystrophic mice showed that B-PMO targeting myostatin is able to significantly increase the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle weight and when coadministered with a B-PMO targeting the dystrophin exon 23, it does not have a detrimental interaction. This study confirms that myostatin knockdown by exon skipping is a potential therapeutic strategy to counteract muscle wasting conditions and dual myostatin and dystrophin skipping has potential as a therapy for DMD.Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids (2012) 1, e62; doi:10.1038/mtna.2012.54; published online 18 December 2012.

  16. [Endocrine abnormalities in anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Lanfranco, F; Gianotti, L; Destefanis, S; Arvat, E; Ghigo, E; Camanni, F

    2003-06-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a syndrome with multifactorial etiology in which several genetic, biologic, psychological and social factors are involved. Patients affected by anorexia nervosa (AN) may develop multiple endocrine abnormalities, e.g. amenorrhea, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity, low T3 syndrome and peculiar changes of somatotroph axis function. These endocrine abnormalities are also found after prolonged starvation and may represent an adaptive response developed in order to save energy and proteins. It is still a matter of debate whether these endocrine changes are etiologic or secondary. In fact, several evidences suggest the existence in AN of hypothalamus functional alterations, which may be involved in the development and maintenance of the food intake disorder; on the other hand, the increased CRH secretion seems to be secondary to malnutrition as well as GH hypersecretion coupled to low IGF-I levels; the latter is a common finding in AN, as well as in other undernutrition and malabsorption conditions, type 1 diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis and catabolic states. Hypothalamic amenorrhea, which is one of the diagnostic criteria for AN, is not linked only to the reduction of body weight but reflects also deep alterations of gonadotropin secretory pattern. Low T3 syndrome is frequently found in AN; on the other hand, an iodide-induced hypothyroidism is quite uncommon. T3 reduction in AN seems to be an adaptive response to prolonged starvation; however the presence of a simultaneous central dysregulation cannot be excluded. Finally, AN patients frequently show defects in urinary concentration or dilution with inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, which may be due to intrinsic defects in the neurohypophysis or to abnormalities of its regulatory afferent neurons.

  17. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  18. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy.

  19. Characterization of a novel Dp71 dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC) present in the nucleus of HeLa cells: Members of the nuclear DAPC associate with the nuclear matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Fuentes-Mera, Lizeth; Rodriguez-Munoz, Rafael; Gonzalez-Ramirez, Ricardo; Garcia-Sierra, Francisco; Gonzalez, Everardo; Mornet, Dominique; Cisneros, Bulmaro . E-mail: bcisnero@cinvestav.mx

    2006-10-01

    Dystrophin is an essential component in the assembly and maintenance of the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC), which includes members of the dystroglycan, syntrophin, sarcoglycan and dystrobrevin protein families. Distinctive complexes have been described in the cell membrane of different tissues and cultured cells. In this work, we report the identification and characterization of a novel DAPC present in the nuclei of HeLa cells, which contains dystrophin Dp71 as a key component. Using confocal microscopy and cell fractionation analyses, we found the presence of Dp71, {beta}-sarcoglycan, {beta}-dystroglycan, {alpha}- and {beta}-syntrophin, {alpha}1- and {beta}-dystrobrevin and nNOS in the nuclei of HeLa cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation experiments that most of these proteins form a complex in the nuclear compartment. Next, we analyze the possible association of the nuclear DAPC with the nuclear matrix. We found the presence of Dp71, {beta}-dystroglycan, nNOS, {beta}-sarcoglycan, {alpha}/{beta} syntrophin, {alpha}1-dystrobrevin and {beta}-dystrobrevin in the nuclear matrix protein fractions and in situ nuclear matrix preparations from HeLa cells. Moreover, we found that Dp71, {beta}-dystroglycan and {beta}-dystrobrevin co-immunoprecipitated with the nuclear matrix proteins lamin B1 and actin. The association of members of the nuclear DAPC with the nuclear matrix indicates that they may work as scaffolding proteins involved in nuclear architecture.

  20. Biochemical Abnormalities in Psychiatric Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Lipman, Daniel G.; Collins, James L.; Mathura, Clyde B.; Elder, Zelda B.

    1984-01-01

    This research project was an outgrowth of the observations of the senior author over a period exceeding four decades of practice, teaching, and research as internist and psychiatrist, with primary emphasis on relationships between psyche and soma. Patients at the Outpatient Psychiatric Clinic of the Howard University Hospital, Washington, DC, were given thorough annual physical examinations and laboratory evaluations of blood and urine. The authors found a significantly high incidence of medical illnesses and abnormal laboratory findings not previously suspected. There was a significant and direct correlation between psychopathology as projected in the Lipman Personality Image Projection (LPIP) test and abnormal laboratory and physical findings. The results in this study concur with previous reports that so-called purely psychogenic stress symptoms may be related to unrecognized medical illnesses. These somatic illnesses may remain unrecognized for indefinite periods of time in the traditional psychiatric outpatient setting from which patients are often referred elsewhere for treatment of nonpsychiatric illness. Initial and periodic physical and laboratory examinations should be performed by psychiatrists trained to recognize nonpsychiatric diseases that often present with psychiatric symptoms. A thorough knowledge of the mind-body relationship is essential to the practice of modern psychiatry. PMID:6716498

  1. Lower extremity abnormalities in children.

    PubMed

    Sass, Pamela; Hassan, Ghinwa

    2003-08-01

    Rotational and angular problems are two types of lower extremity abnormalities common in children. Rotational problems include intoeing and out-toeing. Intoeing is caused by one of three types of deformity: metatarsus adductus, internal tibial torsion, and increased femoral anteversion. Out-toeing is less common than intoeing, and its causes are similar but opposite to those of intoeing. These include femoral retroversion and external tibial torsion. Angular problems include bowlegs and knock-knees. An accurate diagnosis can be made with careful history and physical examination, which includes torsional profile (a four-component composite of measurements of the lower extremities). Charts of normal values and values with two standard deviations for each component of the torsional profile are available. In most cases, the abnormality improves with time. A careful physical examination, explanation of the natural history, and serial measurements are usually reassuring to the parents. Treatment is usually conservative. Special shoes, cast, or braces are rarely beneficial and have no proven efficacy. Surgery is reserved for older children with deformity from three to four standard deviations from the normal.

  2. Normal and abnormal lid function.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Janet C

    2011-01-01

    This chapter on lid function is comprised of two primary sections, the first on normal eyelid anatomy, neurological innervation, and physiology, and the second on abnormal eyelid function in disease states. The eyelids serve several important ocular functions, the primary objectives of which are protection of the anterior globe from injury and maintenance of the ocular tear film. Typical eyelid behaviors to perform these functions include blinking (voluntary, spontaneous, or reflexive), voluntary eye closure (gentle or forced), partial lid lowering during squinting, normal lid retraction during emotional states such as surprise or fear (startle reflex), and coordination of lid movements with vertical eye movements for maximal eye protection. Detailed description of the neurological innervation patterns and neurophysiology of each of these lid behaviors is provided. Abnormal lid function is divided by conditions resulting in excessive lid closure (cerebral ptosis, apraxia of lid opening, blepharospasm, oculomotor palsy, Horner's syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and mechanical) and those resulting in excessive lid opening (midbrain lid retraction, facial nerve palsy, and lid retraction due to orbital disease).

  3. Black bear parathyroid hormone has greater anabolic effects on trabecular bone in dystrophin-deficient mice than in wild type mice.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah K; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Sanders, Jennifer L; Condon, Keith W; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Donahue, Seth W

    2012-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked neuromuscular disease that has deleterious consequences in muscle and bone, leading to decreased mobility, progressive osteoporosis, and premature death. Patients with DMD experience a higher-than-average fracture rate, particularly in the proximal and distal femur and proximal tibia. The dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse is a model of DMD that demonstrates muscle degeneration and fibrosis and osteoporosis. Parathyroid hormone, an effective anabolic agent for post-menopausal and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, has not been explored for DMD. Black bear parathyroid hormone (bbPTH) has been implicated in the maintenance of bone properties during extended periods of disuse (hibernation). We cloned bbPTH and found 9 amino acid residue differences from human PTH. Apoptosis was mitigated and cAMP was activated by bbPTH in osteoblast cultures. We administered 28nmol/kg of bbPTH 1-84 to 4-week old male mdx and wild type mice via daily (5×/week) subcutaneous injection for 6 weeks. Vehicle-treated mdx mice had 44% lower trabecular bone volume fraction than wild type mice. No changes were found in femoral cortical bone geometry or mechanical properties with bbPTH treatment in wild type mice, and only medio-lateral moment of inertia changed with bbPTH treatment in mdx femurs. However, μCT analyses of the trabecular regions of the distal femur and proximal tibia showed marked increases in bone volume fraction with bbPTH treatment, with a greater anabolic response (7-fold increase) in mdx mice than wild type mice (2-fold increase). Trabecular number increased in mdx long bone, but not wild type bone. Additionally, greater osteoblast area and decreased osteoclast area were observed with bbPTH treatment in mdx mice. The heightened response to PTH in mdx bone compared to wild type suggests a link between dystrophin deficiency, altered calcium signaling, and bone. These findings support further investigation of PTH as an anabolic

  4. Specific anchoring modes of two distinct dystrophin rod sub-domains interacting in phospholipid Langmuir films studied by atomic force microscopy and PM-IRRAS.

    PubMed

    Vié, V; Legardinier, S; Chieze, L; Le Bihan, O; Qin, Y; Sarkis, J; Hubert, J-F; Renault, A; Desbat, B; Le Rumeur, E

    2010-08-01

    Dystrophin rod repeats 1-3 sub-domain binds to acidic phosphatidylserine in a small vesicle binding assay, while the repeats 20-24 sub-domain does not. In the present work, we studied the adsorption behaviour of both sub-domains at the air/liquid interface and at the air/lipid interface in a Langmuir trough in order to highlight differences in interfacial properties. The adsorption behaviour of the two proteins at the air/liquid interface shows that they display surface activity while maintaining their alpha-helical secondary structure as shown by PM-IRRAS. Strikingly, R20-24 needs to be highly hydrated even at the interface, while this is not the case for R1-3, indicating that the surface activity is dramatically higher for R1-3 than R20-24. Surface-pressure measurements, atomic force microscopy and PM-IRRAS are used in a Langmuir experiment with DOPC-DOPS monolayers at two different surface pressures, 20 mN/m and 30 mN/m. At the lower surface pressure, the proteins are adsorbed at the lipid film interface while maintaining its alpha-helical structure. After an increase of the surface pressure, R1-3 subsequently produces a stable film, while R20-24 induces a reorganization of the lipid film with a subsequent decrease of the surface pressure close to the initial value. AFM and PM-IRRAS show that R1-3 is present in high amounts at the interface, being arranged in clusters representing 3.3% of the surface at low pressure. By contrast, R20-24 is present at the interface in small amounts bound only by a few electrostatic residues to the lipid film while the major part of the molecule remains floating in the sub-phase. Then for R1-3, the electrostatic interaction between the proteins and the film is enhanced by hydrophobic interactions. At higher surface pressure, the number of protein clusters increases and becomes closer in both cases implying the electrostatic character of the binding. These results indicate that even if the repeats exhibit large structural

  5. Congenital abnormalities and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ramagopalan, Sreeram V; Guimond, Colleen; Criscuoli, Maria; Dyment, David A; Orton, Sarah-Michelle; Yee, Irene M; Ebers, George C; Sadovnick, Dessa

    2010-11-16

    There is a strong maternal parent-of-origin effect in determining susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS). One hypothesis is that an abnormal intrauterine milieu leading to impaired fetal development could plausibly also result in increased susceptibility to MS. A possible marker for this intrauterine insult is the presence of a non-fatal congenital anomaly. We investigated whether or not congenital anomalies are associated with MS in a population-based cohort. We identified 7063 MS index cases and 2655 spousal controls with congenital anomaly information from the Canadian Collaborative Project on Genetic Susceptibility to MS (CCPGSMS). The frequency of congenital anomalies were compared between index cases and controls. No significant differences were found. Congenital anomalies thus do not appear to be associated with MS. However, we did not have complete data on types and severity of congenital anomalies or on maternal birth history and thus this study should be regarded as preliminary.

  6. Breathing abnormalities in sleep in achondroplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, K A; Everett, F; Sillence, D; Fagan, E; Sullivan, C E

    1993-01-01

    Overnight sleep studies were performed in 20 subjects with achondroplasia to document further the respiratory abnormalities present in this group. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded in 19 of the subjects to screen for the presence of brainstem abnormalities, which are one of the potential aetiological mechanisms. Fifteen children aged 1 to 14 years, and five young adults, aged 20 to 31 years were included. All had upper airway obstruction and 15 (75%) had a pathological apnoea index (greater than five per hour). Other sleep associated respiratory abnormalities, including partial obstruction, central apnoea, and abnormal electromyographic activity of accessory muscles of respiration, also showed a high prevalence. SEPs were abnormal in eight (42%), but there was no correlation between abnormal SEPs and apnoea during sleep, either qualitatively or quantitatively. A high prevalence of both sleep related respiratory abnormalities and abnormal SEPs in young subjects with achondroplasia was demonstrated. However, the sleep related respiratory abnormalities do not always result in significant blood gas disturbances or correlate with abnormal SEPs in this group. PMID:8215519

  7. Screening Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients for deletions in 30 exons of the dystrophin gene by three-multiplex PCR

    SciTech Connect

    Risch, N. )

    1992-09-01

    Deletion mutations of the dystrophin gene may cause either the severe Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) or the milder, allelic Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) and are clustered in two high-frequency-deletion regions (HFDRs) located, respectively, 500 kb and 1,200 kb downstream from the 5[prime] end of the gene. Three PCR reactions described allowed the analysis of a total of 30 exons and led, to the identification of three additional deletions involving the following exons: (a) 42 only, (b) 28-42, and (c) 16 only, none of which were detected with the two original multiplex reactions. Therefore, the three modified multiplexes detected 95 of the 96 deletions identified among the 152 patients studied so far by using Southern analysis and cDNA probes. The only deletion that remained undetected with this system involves exons 22-25 and generates the junction fragment described elsewhere. The percentage of deletion mutations among DMS/BMD patients amounts to 63%, which is in agreement with similar estimates from other laboratories. When field-inversion gel electrophoresis is coupled to Southern analysis, the detection rate of deletion and duplication mutations reaches 65%.

  8. Pregnancy after preimplantation diagnosis for a deletion in the dystrophin gene by polymerase chain reaction in embryos obtained after intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    SciTech Connect

    Lissens, W.; Liu, J.; Van Broeckhoven, C.

    1994-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common X-linked recessive diseases. In order to be able to perform a DMD-specific preimplantation diagnosis (PID) in a female carrier of a deletion of exons 3 to 18 in the dystrophin gene, we have developed a PCR assay to detect the deletion based on sequences of exon 17. The efficiency of this PCR was evaluated on 50 single blastomeres from 12 normal control embryos and on 41 blastomeres for 9 male and 3 female embryos from the female DMD carrier, obtained after a first preimplantation diagnosis by sexing. The exon 17 region was amplified with 100% efficiency, except in all 21 blastomeres from 6 male embryos from the carrier where no PCR signals were observed. The negative results in these blastomeres were interpreted as being found only in male embryos carrying the deletion. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection was carried out on the carrier`s metaphase II oocytes retrieved after ovarian stimulation. Embryos were analyzed for the presence of exon 17 and 2 male embryos were found to be deleted, while 4 embryos showed normal amplification signals. Three of the latter embryos were replaced, resulting in a singleton pregnancy. Amniotic cell analysis showed a normal female karyotype and DNA analysis indicated a non-carrier.

  9. Analyses of the presence of mutations in Dystrophin protein to predict their relative influences in the onset of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Simanti; Das, Amit; Dasgupta, Rakhi; Bagchi, Angshuman

    2014-12-01

    Muscle plays a vital role in the life of vertebrates like humans. Muscle contraction is the only criterion required for locomotion. Muscle fibers also play a vital role as the provider of mechanical strength and act as a large repository of building blocks for protein synthesis in living beings. Muscles function as per the messages received from the extra-cellular signals. One of the central players responsible for capturing and transmission of extra-cellular signals to maintain the integrity of muscle function is the protein called Dystrophin (Dp). However, the wild type Dp protein accumulates some mutations which lead to a severe disease called Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). The disease is so frequent that it is known to affect 1 in 3500 newborns per year. There are a number of reports that identify the mutations leading to DMD. Interestingly, it is also observed that the type of mutations affects the severity of the disease. But the biochemical mechanism of the DMD onset is still obscure. In the present scenario, an attempt has been made to analyze the mutations in the development of the disease. We analyzed the changes in secondary structure, solvent accessibility and stability of the Dp protein associated with the mutations. We tried to correlate the type of mutations with the severity of the disease. So far this is the first report that deals with the analyses of the mutations leading to DMD. This study would therefore be essential to come up with a plausible mechanism of DMD disease onset.

  10. One Hundred Twenty-One Dystrophin Point Mutations Detected from Stored DNA Samples by Combinatorial Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Torella, Annalaura; Trimarco, Amelia; Del Vecchio Blanco, Francesca; Cuomo, Anna; Aurino, Stefania; Piluso, Giulio; Minetti, Carlo; Politano, Luisa; Nigro, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies are caused by a large number of different mutations in the dystrophin gene. Outside of the deletion/duplication “hot spots,” small mutations occur at unpredictable positions. These account for about 15 to 20% of cases, with the major group being premature stop codons. When the affected male is deceased, carrier testing for family members and prenatal diagnosis become difficult and expensive. We tailored a cost-effective and reliable strategy to discover point mutations from stored DNA samples in the absence of a muscle biopsy. Samples were amplified in combinatorial pools and tested by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. An anomalous elution profile belonging to two different pools univocally addressed the allelic variation to an unambiguous sample. Mutations were then detected by sequencing. We identified 121 mutations of 99 different types. Fifty-six patients show stop codons that represent the 46.3% of all cases. Three non-obvious single amino acid mutations were considered as causative. Our data support combinatorial denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis as a clear-cut strategy for time and cost-effective identification of small mutations when only DNA is available. PMID:19959795

  11. Screening of deletions in the dystrophin gene with the cDNA probes Cf23a, Cf56a, and Cf115.

    PubMed Central

    Passos-Bueno, M R; Rapaport, D; Love, D; Flint, T; Bortolini, E R; Zatz, M; Davies, K E

    1990-01-01

    We have analysed 38 DMD patients from 34 families and 30 BMD patients from 12 families using the cDNA probes Cf23a and Cf56a, which map near the centre of the dystrophin gene, and Cf115, which is close to the 3' end of this gene. Together, probes Cf23a and Cf56a detected deletions in 50% of the DMD families and 33% of the BMD families. Probe Cf115 detected a deletion in only one DMD patient, which has not been reported before in severe X linked myopathy. Most of the DMD deletions could be detected with Cf56a while all four BMD deletions were detected with Cf23a. The pattern of deletions could not be used to predict the precise clinical course of the disease and no correlation was found between the severity of the disease and the extent of the gene deletion. A higher frequency of deletions was observed in sporadic (73%) compared with familial DMD (28%) and BMD cases (33%). This result, if confirmed in a larger sample, would have important implications for genetic counselling. Images PMID:2182872

  12. Early Progressive Dilated Cardiomyopathy in a Family with Becker Muscular Dystrophy Related to a Novel Frameshift Mutation in the Dystrophin Gene Exon 27

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Takeshi; Fitzgerald, Kristi; Scavena, Mena; Gidding, Samuel; Cox, Mary O.; Marks, Harold; Flanigan, Kevin M.; Moore, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    We report a family in which two male siblings with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) developed severe dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and progressive heart failure (HF) at age 11; one died at age 14 years while awaiting heart transplant and the other underwent left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation at the same age. Genetic analysis of one sibling showed a novel frameshift mutation in exon 27 of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene (c.3779_3785delCTTTGGAins GG), in which 7 base pairs are deleted and two are inserted. While this predicts an amino acid substitution and premature termination (p.Thr1260Argfs*8), muscle biopsy dystrophin immunostaining instead indicates that the mutation is more likely to alter splicing. Despite relatively preserved skeletal muscular performance, both siblings developed progressive heart failure secondary to early onset DCM. In addition, their 7 year old nephew with delayed gross motor development, mild proximal muscle weakness, and markedly elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) level (> 13,000 IU/L) at 16 months was recently demonstrated to have the familial DMD mutation. Here we report a novel genotype of BMD with early onset DCM and progressive lethal heart failure during early adolescence. PMID:25537791

  13. AAV-mediated gene therapy in Dystrophin-Dp71 deficient mouse leads to blood-retinal barrier restoration and oedema reabsorption.

    PubMed

    Vacca, Ophélie; Charles-Messance, Hugo; El Mathari, Brahim; Sene, Abdoulaye; Barbe, Peggy; Fouquet, Stéphane; Aragón, Jorge; Darche, Marie; Giocanti-Aurégan, Audrey; Paques, Michel; Sahel, José-Alain; Tadayoni, Ramin; Montañez, Cecilia; Dalkara, Deniz; Rendon, Alvaro

    2016-07-15

    Dystrophin-Dp71 being a key membrane cytoskeletal protein, expressed mainly in Müller cells that provide a mechanical link at the Müller cell membrane by direct binding to actin and a transmembrane protein complex. Its absence has been related to blood-retinal barrier (BRB) permeability through delocalization and down-regulation of the AQP4 and Kir4.1 channels (1). We have previously shown that the adeno-associated virus (AAV) variant, ShH10, transduces Müller cells in the Dp71-null mouse retina efficiently and specifically (2,3). Here, we use ShH10 to restore Dp71 expression in Müller cells of Dp71 deficient mouse to study molecular and functional effects of this restoration in an adult mouse displaying retinal permeability. We show that strong and specific expression of exogenous Dp71 in Müller cells leads to correct localization of Dp71 protein restoring all protein interactions in order to re-establish a proper functional BRB and retina homeostasis thus preventing retina from oedema. This study is the basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies in dealing with diseases with BRB breakdown and macular oedema such as diabetic retinopathy (DR). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Quantification of the mechanical behavior of carotid arteries from wild-type, dystrophin-deficient, and sarcoglycan-δ knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Rudolph L.; Dye, Wendy W.; Wilson, Emily; Humphrey, Jay D.

    2008-01-01

    As patients with muscular dystrophy live longer because of improved clinical care, they will become increasingly susceptible to many of the cardiovascular diseases that affect the general population. There is, therefore, a pressing need to better understand both the biology and the mechanics of the arterial wall in these patients. In this paper, we use nonlinear constitutive relations to model, for the first time, the biaxial mechanical behavior of carotid arteries from two common mouse models of muscular dystrophy (dystrophin deficient and sarcoglycan-delta null) and wild-type controls. It is shown that a structurally motivated four-fiber family stress-strain relation describes the passive behavior of all three genotypes better than does a commonly used phenomenological exponential model, and that a Rachev-Hayashi model describes the mechanical contribution of smooth muscle contraction under basal tone. Because structurally motivated constitutive relations can be extended easily to model adaptations to altered hemodynamics, results from this study represent an important step toward the ultimate goal of understanding better the mechanobiology and pathophysiology of arteries in muscular dystrophy. PMID:18842267

  15. Early-progressive dilated cardiomyopathy in a family with Becker muscular dystrophy related to a novel frameshift mutation in the dystrophin gene exon 27.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Takeshi; Fitzgerald, Kristi; Scavena, Mena; Gidding, Samuel; Cox, Mary O; Marks, Harold; Flanigan, Kevin M; Moore, Steven A

    2015-03-01

    We report a family in which two male siblings with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) developed severe dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and progressive heart failure (HF) at age 11 years; one died at age 14 years while awaiting heart transplant and the other underwent left ventricular assist device implantation at the same age. Genetic analysis of one sibling showed a novel frameshift mutation in exon 27 of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene (c.3779_3785delCTTTGGAinsGG), in which seven base pairs are deleted and two are inserted. Although this predicts an amino-acid substitution and premature termination (p.Thr1260Argfs*8), muscle biopsy dystrophin immunostaining instead indicates that the mutation is more likely to alter splicing. Despite relatively preserved skeletal muscular performance, both the siblings developed progressive HF secondary to early-onset DCM. In addition, their 7-year-old nephew with delayed gross motor development, mild proximal muscle weakness and markedly elevated serum creatine kinase level (>13 000 IU l(-1)) at 16 months was recently demonstrated to have the familial DMD mutation. Here, we report a novel genotype of BMD with early-onset DCM and progressive lethal HF during early adolescence.

  16. Activation of Both the Calpain and Ubiquitin-Proteasome Systems Contributes to Septic Cardiomyopathy through Dystrophin Loss/Disruption and mTOR Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Ana Caroline Silva; Figueiredo, Maria Jose; Campos, Erica Carolina; Soave, Danilo Figueiredo; Ramos, Simone Gusmao; Tanowitz, Herbert B.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac dysfunction caused by the impairment of myocardial contractility has been recognized as an important factor contributing to the high mortality in sepsis. Calpain activation in the heart takes place in response to increased intracellular calcium influx resulting in proteolysis of structural and contractile proteins with subsequent myocardial dysfunction. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that increased levels of calpain in the septic heart leads to disruption of structural and contractile proteins and that administration of calpain inhibitor-1 (N-acetyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-norleucinal (ALLN)) after sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture prevents cardiac protein degradation. We also tested the hypothesis that calpain plays a role in the modulation of protein synthesis/degradation through the activation of proteasome-dependent proteolysis and inhibition of the mTOR pathway. Severe sepsis significantly increased heart calpain-1 levels and promoted ubiquitin and Pa28β over-expression with a reduction in the mTOR levels. In addition, sepsis reduced the expression of structural proteins dystrophin and β-dystroglycan as well as the contractile proteins actin and myosin. ALLN administration prevented sepsis-induced increases in calpain and ubiquitin levels in the heart, which resulted in decreased of structural and contractile proteins degradation and basal mTOR expression levels were re-established. Our results support the concept that increased calpain concentrations may be part of an important mechanism of sepsis-induced cardiac muscle proteolysis. PMID:27880847

  17. One hundred twenty-one dystrophin point mutations detected from stored DNA samples by combinatorial denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Torella, Annalaura; Trimarco, Amelia; Blanco, Francesca Del Vecchio; Cuomo, Anna; Aurino, Stefania; Piluso, Giulio; Minetti, Carlo; Politano, Luisa; Nigro, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies are caused by a large number of different mutations in the dystrophin gene. Outside of the deletion/duplication "hot spots," small mutations occur at unpredictable positions. These account for about 15 to 20% of cases, with the major group being premature stop codons. When the affected male is deceased, carrier testing for family members and prenatal diagnosis become difficult and expensive. We tailored a cost-effective and reliable strategy to discover point mutations from stored DNA samples in the absence of a muscle biopsy. Samples were amplified in combinatorial pools and tested by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. An anomalous elution profile belonging to two different pools univocally addressed the allelic variation to an unambiguous sample. Mutations were then detected by sequencing. We identified 121 mutations of 99 different types. Fifty-six patients show stop codons that represent the 46.3% of all cases. Three non-obvious single amino acid mutations were considered as causative. Our data support combinatorial denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis as a clear-cut strategy for time and cost-effective identification of small mutations when only DNA is available.

  18. Direct deletion analysis in two Duchenne muscular dystrophy symptomatic females using polymorphic dinucleotide (CA)n loci within the dystrophin gene.

    PubMed

    Giliberto, Florencia; Ferreiro, Verónica; Dalamón, Viviana; Surace, Ezequiel; Cotignola, Javier; Esperante, Sebastián; Borelina, Daniel; Baranzini, Sergio; Szijan, Irene

    2003-03-31

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common hereditary neuromuscular disease. It is inherited as an X-linked recessive trait in which males show clinical manifestations. In some rare cases, the disease can also be manifested in females. The aim of the present study was to determine the molecular alteration in two cases of nonrelated DMD symptomatic carriers with no previous history of DMD. Multiplex PCR is commonly used to search for deletion in the DMD gene of affected males. This method could not be used in females because the normal X chromosome masks the deletion of the mutated one. Therefore, we used a set of seven highly polymorphic dinucleotide (CA)(n) repeat markers that lie within the human dystrophin gene. The deletions were evidenced by hemizygosity of the loci under study. We localized a deletion in the locus 7A (intron 7) on the maternal X chromosome in one case, and a deletion in the region of introns 49 and 50 on the paternal X chromosome in the other. The use of microsatellite genotyping within the DMD gene enables the detection of the mutant allele in female carriers. It is also a useful method to provide DMD families with more accurate genetic counseling.

  19. Abnormal Skeletal Muscle Regeneration plus Mild Alterations in Mature Fiber Type Specification in Fktn-Deficient Dystroglycanopathy Muscular Dystrophy Mice

    PubMed Central

    Foltz, Steven J.; Modi, Jill N.; Melick, Garrett A.; Abousaud, Marin I.; Luan, Junna; Fortunato, Marisa J.; Beedle, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylated α-dystroglycan provides an essential link between extracellular matrix proteins, like laminin, and the cellular cytoskeleton via the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. In secondary dystroglycanopathy muscular dystrophy, glycosylation abnormalities disrupt a complex O-mannose glycan necessary for muscle structural integrity and signaling. Fktn-deficient dystroglycanopathy mice develop moderate to severe muscular dystrophy with skeletal muscle developmental and/or regeneration defects. To gain insight into the role of glycosylated α-dystroglycan in these processes, we performed muscle fiber typing in young (2, 4 and 8 week old) and regenerated muscle. In mice with Fktn disruption during skeletal muscle specification (Myf5/Fktn KO), newly regenerated fibers (embryonic myosin heavy chain positive) peaked at 4 weeks old, while total regenerated fibers (centrally nucleated) were highest at 8 weeks old in tibialis anterior (TA) and iliopsoas, indicating peak degeneration/regeneration activity around 4 weeks of age. In contrast, mature fiber type specification at 2, 4 and 8 weeks old was relatively unchanged. Fourteen days after necrotic toxin-induced injury, there was a divergence in muscle fiber types between Myf5/Fktn KO (skeletal-muscle specific) and whole animal knockout induced with tamoxifen post-development (Tam/Fktn KO) despite equivalent time after gene deletion. Notably, Tam/Fktn KO retained higher levels of embryonic myosin heavy chain expression after injury, suggesting a delay or abnormality in differentiation programs. In mature fiber type specification post-injury, there were significant interactions between genotype and toxin parameters for type 1, 2a, and 2x fibers, and a difference between Myf5/Fktn and Tam/Fktn study groups in type 2b fibers. These data suggest that functionally glycosylated α-dystroglycan has a unique role in muscle regeneration and may influence fiber type specification post-injury. PMID:26751696

  20. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with Lassa fever.

    PubMed

    Cummins, D; Bennett, D; Fisher-Hoch, S P; Farrar, B; McCormick, J B

    1989-10-01

    Electrocardiograms from 32 patients with acute Lassa fever were abnormal in over 70% of cases. The changes noted included non-specific ST-segment and T-wave abnormalities, ST-segment elevation, generalized low-voltage complexes, and changes reflecting electrolyte disturbance. None of the abnormalities correlated with clinical severity of infection, serum transaminase levels, or eventual outcome. ECG changes are common in Lassa fever, but usually unassociated with clinical manifestations of myocarditis.

  1. [Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use].

    PubMed

    Solowij, Nadia; Pesa, Nicole

    2010-05-01

    Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

  2. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease.

  3. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders.

  4. Abnormal band of lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Brian; Goldblatt, John

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a case of an "abnormal band" of the lateral meniscus, extending from the posterior horn of the true lateral meniscus to its antero-mid portion, observed during arthroscopy in a 45-year-old white man of Bosnian descent. The periphery of the aberrant lateral meniscus was freely mobile, and not connected to the underlying true lateral meniscus. Preoperative physical examination findings were consistent with medial-sided meniscal pathology only; however, evidence of an anomalous lateral meniscus was seen with magnetic resonance imaging. This anatomical pattern is rare and has been reported in the literature only once, in a report of 2 Asian patients. This article illustrates an anatomical variant of the lateral meniscus in a non-Asian patient with a clinical presentation that has not been previously described. In addition to the case report, the article presents a comprehensive review of the existing body of literature on anomalous lateral meniscus patterns. We believe that the definitions of the types of aberrant meniscus can be clarified to establish improved accuracy in reporting.

  5. [Relationship between abnormal swallowing and mouth breathing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng-wu; Li, Hong-fa; Wang, Qiu-rui; Xu, Hao; He, Jing-nan

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between abnormal swallowing and mouth breathing. Thirty-eight patients with abnormal swallowing and 38 patients with normal swallowing were selected. All patients presented with no airway constriction. The age range of the patients was 11-14 years old. The number of patients with mouth breathing was calculated. Statistical analysis (χ(2) test) was performed. The number of patients with mouth breathing in the abnormal swallowing group (17, 45%) was significantly higher than that in the normal swallowing group (5, 13%) (χ(2) = 9.212, P = 0.002). Abnormal swallowing was related to mouth breathing.

  6. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, E.B.; Wagner, M.L.; Dutton, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities.

  7. Altered fetal growth, placental abnormalities, and stillbirth.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Radek; Hansen, Nellie I; Pinar, Halit; Willinger, Marian; Reddy, Uma M; Parker, Corette B; Silver, Robert M; Dudley, Donald J; Stoll, Barbara J; Saade, George R; Koch, Matthew A; Hogue, Carol; Varner, Michael W; Conway, Deborah L; Coustan, Donald; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, stillbirth is one of the leading causes of death. Altered fetal growth and placental abnormalities are the strongest and most prevalent known risk factors for stillbirth. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of association between placental abnormalities, fetal growth, and stillbirth. Population-based case-control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in 5 geographic areas in the U.S. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small (<10th percentile) and large (>90th percentile) for gestational age at death (stillbirth) or delivery (live birth) using a published algorithm. Placental examination by perinatal pathologists was performed using a standardized protocol. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design. Among 319 singleton stillbirths and 1119 singleton live births at ≥24 weeks at death or delivery respectively, 25 placental findings were investigated. Fifteen findings were significantly associated with stillbirth. Ten of the 15 were also associated with fetal growth abnormalities (single umbilical artery; velamentous insertion; terminal villous immaturity; retroplacental hematoma; parenchymal infarction; intraparenchymal thrombus; avascular villi; placental edema; placental weight; ratio birth weight/placental weight) while 5 of the 15 associated with stillbirth were not associated with fetal growth abnormalities (acute chorioamnionitis of placental membranes; acute chorioamionitis of chorionic plate; chorionic plate vascular degenerative changes; perivillous, intervillous fibrin, fibrinoid deposition; fetal vascular thrombi in the chorionic plate). Five patterns were observed: placental findings associated with (1) stillbirth but not fetal growth abnormalities; (2) fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths only; (3) fetal growth abnormalities in live births only; (4) fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths and live births in a similar manner; (5) a different pattern of

  8. [CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH INFERTILITY].

    PubMed

    Pylyp, L Y; Spinenko, L O; Verhoglyad, N V; Kashevarova, O O; Zukin, V D

    2015-01-01

    To assess the frequency and structure of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with infertility, a retrospective analysis of cytogenetic studies of 3414 patients (1741 females and 1673 males), referred to the Clinic of reproductive medicine "Nadiya" from 2007 to 2012, was performed. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 2.37% patients: 2.79% in males and 1.95% in females. Balanced structural chromosomal abnormalities prevailed over numerical abnormalities and corresponded to 80.2% of all chromosomal abnormalities detected in the studied group. Sex chromosome abnormalities made up 23.5% of chromosomal pathology (19/81) and included gonosomal aneuploidies in 84% of cases (16/19) and structural abnormalities of chromosome Y in 16% of cases (3/19). The low level sex chromosome mosaicism was detected with the frequency of 0.55%. Our results highlight the importance of cytogenetic studies in patients seeking infertility treatment by assisted reproductive technologies, since an abnormal finding not only provide a firm diagnosis to couples with infertility, but also influences significantly the approach to infertility treatment in such patients.

  9. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  10. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  11. Prenatal Diagnosis and Evaluation of Abnormal Placentation.

    PubMed

    Fox, Karin A; Lee, Wesley

    2017-09-01

    Abnormalities in placental location or adherence can have important consequences on pregnancy outcome for both mother and fetus. Accurate antenatal detection is crucial for delivery timing and planning to help reduce perinatal risks for adverse events. We review the relevant literature and present a practical approach for the prenatal detection of abnormal placentation.

  12. Screening Sexually Active Teenagers for Cervical Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Erdstein, Julius; Pavilanis, Alan V.

    1991-01-01

    Sexually active teenagers are at increased risk of developing cervical abnormalities. It is therefore important to screen them with an annual Pap smear. The techniques of this test are reviewed, as are the importance of sexually transmitted diseases in the development of cytologic abnormalities, the pathophysiology of virus-induced changes, and the terminology of reporting. PMID:21229023

  13. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study.

  14. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  15. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  16. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  17. Can transcutaneous recordings detect gastric electrical abnormalities?

    PubMed Central

    Familoni, B O; Bowes, K L; Kingma, Y J; Cote, K R

    1991-01-01

    The ability of transcutaneous recordings of gastric electrical activity to detect gastric electrical abnormalities was determined by simultaneous measurements of gastric electrical activity with surgically implanted serosal electrodes and cutaneous electrodes in six patients undergoing abdominal operations. Transient abnormalities in gastric electrical activity were seen in five of the six patients during the postoperative period. Recognition of normal gastric electrical activity by visual analysis was possible 67% of the time and with computer analysis 95% of the time. Ninety four per cent of abnormalities in frequency were detected by visual analysis and 93.7% by computer analysis. Abnormalities involving a loss of coupling, however, were not recognised by transcutaneous recordings. Transcutaneous recordings of gastric electrical activity assessed by computer analysis can usually recognise normal gastric electrical activity and tachygastria. Current techniques, however, are unable to detect abnormalities in electrical coupling. PMID:1864531

  18. A Comparative Study of N-glycolylneuraminic Acid (Neu5Gc) and Cytotoxic T Cell (CT) Carbohydrate Expression in Normal and Dystrophin-Deficient Dog and Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Paul T.; Golden, Bethannie; Okerblom, Jonathan; Camboni, Marybeth; Chandrasekharan, Kumaran; Xu, Rui; Varki, Ajit; Flanigan, Kevin M.; Kornegay, Joe N.

    2014-01-01

    The expression of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and the cytotoxic T cell (CT) carbohydrate can impact the severity of muscular dystrophy arising from the loss of dystrophin in mdx mice. Here, we describe the expression of these two glycans in skeletal muscles of dogs and humans with or without dystrophin-deficiency. Neu5Gc expression was highly reduced (>95%) in muscle from normal golden retriever crosses (GR, n = 3) and from golden retriever with muscular dystrophy (GRMD, n = 5) dogs at multiple ages (3, 6 and 13 months) when compared to mouse muscle, however, overall sialic acid expression in GR and GRMD muscles remained high at all ages. Neu5Gc was expressed on only a minority of GRMD satellite cells, CD8+ T lymphocytes and macrophages. Human muscle from normal (no evident disease, n = 3), Becker (BMD, n = 3) and Duchenne (DMD, n = 3) muscular dystrophy individuals had absent to very low Neu5Gc staining, but some punctate intracellular muscle staining was present in BMD and DMD muscles. The CT carbohydrate was localized to the neuromuscular junction in GR muscle, while GRMD muscles had increased expression on a subset of myofibers and macrophages. In humans, the CT carbohydrate was ectopically expressed on the sarcolemmal membrane of some BMD muscles, but not normal human or DMD muscles. These data are consistent with the notion that altered Neu5Gc and CT carbohydrate expression may modify disease severity resulting from dystrophin deficiency in dogs and humans. PMID:24505439

  19. Liver abnormalities and endocrine diseases.

    PubMed

    Burra, Patrizia

    2013-08-01

    The liver and its pleotropic functions play a fundamental role in regulating metabolism, and is also an inevitable target of multiple metabolic disorders. The numerous and constant relationships and feedback mechanisms between the liver and all endocrine organs is reflected by the fact that an alteration of one oftentimes results in the malfunction of the other. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism are frequently associated with hepatic alterations, and thyroid diseases must be excluded in transaminase elevation of unknown cause. Drugs such as propylthiouracil, used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, may induce liver damage, and other drugs such as amiodarone, carbamazepine, and several chemotherapeutic agents can lead to both thyroid and liver abnormalities. Liver diseases such as hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and cirrhosis may cause altered levels of thyroid hormones, and alcoholic liver disease, both due to the noxious substance ethanol as well as to the hepatic damage it causes, may be responsible for altered thyroid function. Both excess and insufficiency of adrenal function may result in altered liver function, and adrenocortical dysfunction may be present in patients with cirrhosis, especially during episodes of decompensation. Again an important player which affects both the endocrine system and the liver, alcohol may be associated with pseudo-Cushing syndrome. Sex hormones, both intrinsic as well as extrinsically administered, have an important impact on liver function. While oestrogens are related to cholestatic liver damage, androgens are the culprit of adenomas and hepatocellular carcinoma, among others. Chronic liver disease, on the other hand, has profound repercussions on sex hormone metabolism, inducing feminization in men and infertility and amenorrhoea in women. Lastly, metabolic syndrome, the pandemia of the present and future centuries, links the spectrum of liver damage ranging from steatosis to cirrhosis, to the array of endocrine alterations

  20. FDG-PET evaluation of pleural abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, V.J.; Patz, E.; Harris, P.L.

    1994-05-01

    Pleural abnormalities identified on anatomical studies are often nonspecific and may represent benign or malignant disease. We prospectively evaluated the ability of FDG-PET to identify malignancy in patients with pleural abnormalities detected on chest radiographs or chest CT. Thirty-two patients with pleural abnormalities (pleural masses, thickening or effusions) found on chest radiographs or CT were evaluated by FDG-PET. Regions of interest (ROI) were identified on the PET images correlating to anatomic abnormalities and standard uptake ratios (SUR`s) of these ROI`s were calculated. A SUR value of 2.5 or greater was considered positive for malignancy. Physicians blinded to biopsy results graded their confidence of malignancy (1-5 scale) and graded lesion FDG uptake with respect to mediastinal radioactivity. Twenty-three of the patients had definitive diagnoses by tissue biopsy. Seventeen of these patients had malignant (SUR=7.9{plus_minus}3.8) and 6 had benign (SUR=2.8{plus_minus}2.4) causes of their pleural abnormalities (p=0.001). All but two malignant cases had SURs higher than 2.5 and one of these two was correctly interpreted by the observers. SURs lower than 2.5 were seen in four of the six (67%) benign pleural abnormalities. Using a combination of both visual and semiquantitative analysis, the sensitivity of FDG-PET for detecting malignant pleural abnormalities was 94%. Active infections in the pleural space had increased FDG uptake on PET studies while other benign pleural abnormalities did not. FDG-PET has very high sensitivity for detecting malignant pleural abnormalities and can differentiate benign from malignant pleural abnormalities.

  1. Dystrophin Dp71 Isoforms Are Differentially Expressed in the Mouse Brain and Retina: Report of New Alternative Splicing and a Novel Nomenclature for Dp71 Isoforms.

    PubMed

    Aragón, Jorge; González-Reyes, Mayram; Romo-Yáñez, José; Vacca, Ophélie; Aguilar-González, Guadalupe; Rendón, Alvaro; Vaillend, Cyrille; Montañez, Cecilia

    2017-01-27

    Multiple dystrophin Dp71 isoforms have been identified in rats, mice, and humans and in several cell line models. These Dp71 isoforms are produced by the alternative splicing of exons 71 to 74 and 78 and intron 77. Three main groups of Dp71 proteins are defined based on their C-terminal specificities: Dp71d, Dp71f, and Dp71e. Dp71 is highly expressed in the brain and retina; however, the specific isoforms present in these tissues have not been determined to date. In this work, we explored the expression of Dp71 isoforms in the mouse brain and retina using RT-PCR assays followed by the cloning of PCR products into the pGEM-T Easy vector, which was used to transform DH5α cells. Dp71-positive colonies were later analyzed by PCR multiplex and DNA sequencing to determine the alternative splicing. We thus demonstrated the expression of Dp71 transcripts corresponding to Dp71, Dp71a, Dp71c, Dp71b, Dp71ab, Dp71 Δ110, and novel Dp71 isoforms spliced in exon 74; 71 and 74; 71, 73 and 74; and 74 and 78, which we named Dp71d Δ74 , Dp71d Δ71,74 , Dp71d Δ71,73-74 , and Dp71f Δ74 , respectively. Additionally, we demonstrated that the Dp71d group of isoforms is highly expressed in the brain, while the Dp71f group predominates in the retina, at both the cDNA and protein levels. These findings suggest that distinct Dp71 isoforms may play different roles in the brain and retina.

  2. Dystrophin Glycoprotein Complex-associated Gβγ Subunits Activate Phosphatidyl Inositol-3-Kinase/Akt signaling in Skeletal Muscle in a Laminin-dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yongmin; Zhou, Yanwen; Jarrett, Harry W.

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we showed that laminin-binding to the dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) of skeletal muscle causes a heterotrimeric G-protein, (Gαβγ) to bind, changing the activation state of the Gsα subunit. Others have shown that laminin-binding to the DGC also leads to Akt activation. Gβγ, released when Gsα is activated, is known to bind phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), which activates Akt in other cells. Here, we investigate whether muscle Akt activation results from Gβγ, using immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting, and purified Gβγ. In the presence of laminin, PI3K-binding to the DGC increases and Akt becomes phosphorylated and activated (pAkt), and glycogen synthase kinase is phosphorylated. Antibodies, which specifically block laminin-binding to α-dystroglycan, prevent PI3K-binding to the DGC. Purified bovine brain Gβγ also caused PI3K and Akt activation. These results show that DGC-Gβγ is binding PI3K and activating pAkt in a laminin-dependent manner. Mdx mice, which have greatly diminished amounts of DGC proteins, display elevated pAkt signaling and increased expression of integrin β1 compared to normal muscle. This integrin binds laminin, Gβγ, and PI3K. Collectively, these suggest that PI3K is an important target for the Gβγ, which normally binds to DGC syntrophin, and activates PI3K/Akt signaling. Disruption of the DGC in mdx mouse is causing dis-regulation of the laminin-DGC-Gβγ-PI3K-Akt signaling and is likely to be important to the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy. Up-regulating integrin β1 expression and activating the PI3K/Akt pathway in muscular dystrophy may partially compensate for the loss of the DGC. The results suggest new therapeutic approaches to muscle disease. PMID:19117013

  3. microRNA-340-5p Functions Downstream of Cardiotrophin-1 to Regulate Cardiac Eccentric Hypertrophy and Heart Failure via Target Gene Dystrophin.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoya; Liu, Yan; Gu, Song; Zhang, Xitao; An, Xiangguang; Yan, Jun; Xin, Yue; Su, Pixiong

    2015-01-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy inevitably leads to the unfavorable outcomes of heart failure (HF) or even sudden death. microRNAs are key regulation factors participating in many pathophysiological processes. Recently, we observed upregulation of microRNA-340-5p (miR-340) in failing human hearts because of dilated cardiomyopathy, but the functional consequence of miR-340 remains to be clarified.We transfected neonatal cardiomyocytes with miR-340 and found fetal gene expression including Nppa, Nppb and Myh7. We also observed eccentric hypertrophy development upon treatment which was analogous to the phenotype after cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) stimulation. As a potent inducer of cardiac eccentric hypertrophy, treatment by IL-6 family members CT-1 and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) led to the elevation of miR-340. Knockdown of miR-340 using antagomir attenuated fetal gene expression and hypertrophy formation, which means miR-340 could convey the hypertrophic signal of CT-1. To demonstrate the initial factor of miR-340 activation, we constructed a volume overloaded abdominal aorta-inferior vena cava fistula rat HF model. miR-340 and CT-1 were found to be up-regulated in the left ventricle. Dystrophin (DMD), a putative target gene of miR-340 which is eccentric hypertrophy-susceptible, was decreased in this HF model upon Western blotting and immunohistochemistry tests. Luciferase assay constructed in two seed sequence of DMD gene 3'UTR showed decreased luciferase activities, and miR-340 transfected cells resulted in the degradation of DMD.miR-340 is a pro-eccentric hypertrophy miRNA, and its expression is dependent on volume overload and cytokine CT-1 activation. Cardiomyocyte structure protein DMD is a target of miR-340.

  4. Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) in Dystrophin-Deficient Muscle Cells: Effects on Regeneration Capacity, Inflammation Response and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Aline Barbosa; Moraes, Luis Henrique Rapucci; Mizobuti, Daniela Sayuri; Fogaça, Aline Reis; Moraes, Fernanda Dos Santos Rapucci; Hermes, Tulio de Almeida; Pertille, Adriana; Minatel, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated low-level laser therapy (LLLT) effects on some physiological pathways that may lead to muscle damage or regeneration capacity in dystrophin-deficient muscle cells of mdx mice, the experimental model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Primary cultures of mdx skeletal muscle cells were irradiated only one time with laser and analyzed after 24 and 48 hours. The LLLT parameter used was 830 nm wavelengths at 5 J/cm² fluence. The following groups were set up: Ctrl (untreated C57BL/10 primary muscle cells), mdx (untreated mdx primary muscle cells), mdx LA 24 (mdx primary muscle cells - LLLT irradiated and analyzed after 24 h), and mdx LA 48 (mdx primary muscle cells - LLLT irradiated and analyzed after 48 h). The mdx LA 24 and mdx LA 48 groups showed significant increase in cell proliferation, higher diameter in muscle cells and decreased MyoD levels compared to the mdx group. The mdx LA 48 group showed significant increase in Myosin Heavy Chain levels compared to the untreated mdx and mdx LA 24 groups. The mdx LA 24 and mdx LA 48 groups showed significant increase in [Ca2+]i. The mdx group showed significant increase in H2O2 production and 4-HNE levels compared to the Ctrl group and LLLT treatment reduced this increase. GSH levels and GPx, GR and SOD activities increased in the mdx group. Laser treatment reduced the GSH levels and GR and SOD activities in dystrophic muscle cells. The mdx group showed significant increase in the TNF-α and NF-κB levels, which in turn was reduced by the LLLT treatment. Together, these results suggest that the laser treatment improved regenerative capacity and decreased inflammatory response and oxidative stress in dystrophic muscle cells, indicating that LLLT could be a helpful alternative therapy to be associated with other treatment for dystrophinopathies.

  5. Dystrophin glycoprotein complex-associated Gbetagamma subunits activate phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt signaling in skeletal muscle in a laminin-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yongmin; Zhou, Yanwen; Jarrett, Harry W

    2009-05-01

    Previously, we showed that laminin-binding to the dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) of skeletal muscle causes a heterotrimeric G-protein (Galphabetagamma) to bind, changing the activation state of the Gsalpha subunit. Others have shown that laminin-binding to the DGC also leads to Akt activation. Gbetagamma, released when Gsalpha is activated, is known to bind phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), which activates Akt in other cells. Here, we investigate whether muscle Akt activation results from Gbetagamma, using immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting, and purified Gbetagamma. In the presence of laminin, PI3K-binding to the DGC increases and Akt becomes phosphorylated and activated (pAkt), and glycogen synthase kinase is phosphorylated. Antibodies, which specifically block laminin-binding to alpha-dystroglycan, prevent PI3K-binding to the DGC. Purified bovine brain Gbetagamma also caused PI3K and Akt activation. These results show that DGC-Gbetagamma is binding PI3K and activating pAkt in a laminin-dependent manner. Mdx mice, which have greatly diminished amounts of DGC proteins, display elevated pAkt signaling and increased expression of integrin beta1 compared to normal muscle. This integrin binds laminin, Gbetagamma, and PI3K. Collectively, these suggest that PI3K is an important target for the Gbetagamma, which normally binds to DGC syntrophin, and activates PI3K/Akt signaling. Disruption of the DGC in mdx mouse is causing dis-regulation of the laminin-DGC-Gbetagamma-PI3K-Akt signaling and is likely to be important to the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy. Upregulating integrin beta1 expression and activating the PI3K/Akt pathway in muscular dystrophy may partially compensate for the loss of the DGC. The results suggest new therapeutic approaches to muscle disease.

  6. Knockdown of Dystrophin Dp71 Impairs PC12 Cells Cycle: Localization in the Spindle and Cytokinesis Structures Implies a Role for Dp71 in Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Silva, Marcela; Centeno-Cruz, Federico; Suárez-Sánchez, Rocío; Garrido, Efraín; Cisneros, Bulmaro

    2011-01-01

    The function of dystrophin Dp71 in neuronal cells remains to be established. Previously, we revealed the involvement of this protein in both nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neuronal differentiation and cell adhesion by isolation and characterization of PC12 neuronal cells with depleted levels of Dp71. In this work, a novel phenotype of Dp71-knockdown cells was characterized, which is their delayed growth rate. Cell cycle analyses revealed an altered behavior of Dp71-depleted cells, which consists of a delay in G0/G1 transition and an increase in apoptosis during nocodazole-induced mitotic arrest. Dp71 associates with lamin B1 and β-dystroglycan, proteins involved in aspects of the cell division cycle; therefore, we compared the distribution of Dp71 with that of lamin B1 and β-dystroglycan in PC12 cells at mitosis and cytokinesis by means of immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy analysis. All of these three proteins exhibited a similar immunostaining pattern, localized at mitotic spindle, cleavage furrow, and midbody. It is noteworthy that a drastic decreased staining in mitotic spindle, cleavage furrow, and midbody was observed for both lamin B1 and β-dystroglycan in Dp71-depleted cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated the interaction of Dp71 with lamin B1 in PC12 cells by immunoprecipitation and pull-down assays, and importantly, we revealed that knockdown of Dp71 expression caused a marked reduction in lamin B1 levels and altered localization of the nuclear envelope protein emerin. Our data indicate that Dp71 is a component of the mitotic spindle and cytokinesis multi-protein apparatuses that might modulate the cell division cycle by affecting lamin B1 and β-dystroglycan levels. PMID:21886794

  7. Microtubule actin cross-linking factor (MACF): a hybrid of dystonin and dystrophin that can interact with the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons.

    PubMed

    Leung, C L; Sun, D; Zheng, M; Knowles, D R; Liem, R K

    1999-12-13

    We cloned and characterized a full-length cDNA of mouse actin cross-linking family 7 (mACF7) by sequential rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR. The completed mACF7 cDNA is 17 kb and codes for a 608-kD protein. The closest relative of mACF7 is the Drosophila protein Kakapo, which shares similar architecture with mACF7. mACF7 contains a putative actin-binding domain and a plakin-like domain that are highly homologous to dystonin (BPAG1-n) at its NH(2) terminus. However, unlike dystonin, mACF7 does not contain a coiled-coil rod domain; instead, the rod domain of mACF7 is made up of 23 dystrophin-like spectrin repeats. At its COOH terminus, mACF7 contains two putative EF-hand calcium-binding motifs and a segment homologous to the growth arrest-specific protein, Gas2. In this paper, we demonstrate that the NH(2)-terminal actin-binding domain of mACF7 is functional both in vivo and in vitro. More importantly, we found that the COOH-terminal domain of mACF7 interacts with and stabilizes microtubules. In transfected cells full-length mACF7 can associate not only with actin but also with microtubules. Hence, we suggest a modified name: MACF (microtubule actin cross-linking factor). The properties of MACF are consistent with the observation that mutations in kakapo cause disorganization of microtubules in epidermal muscle attachment cells and some sensory neurons.

  8. Rare Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Bacher, Ulrike; Schanz, Julie; Braulke, Friederike; Haase, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    The karyotype represents one of the main cornerstones for the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised IPSS-R (IPSS-R) that are most widely used for prognostication in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS, i.e. del(5q), -7/del(7q), +8, complex karyotypes, or −Y have been extensively explored for their prognostic impact. The IPSS-R also considers some less frequent abnormalities such as del(11q), isochromosome 17, +19, or 3q abnormalities. However, more than 600 different cytogenetic categories had been identified in a previous MDS study. This review aims to focus interest on selected rare cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with MDS. Examples are numerical gains of the chromosomes 11 (indicating rapid progression), of chromosome 14 or 14q (prognostically intermediate to favorable), -X (in females, with an intermediate prognosis), or numerical abnormalities of chromosome 21. Structural abnormalities are also considered, e.g. del(13q) that is associated with bone marrow failure syndromes and favorable response to immunosuppressive therapy. These and other rare cytogenetic abnormalities should be integrated into existing prognostication systems such as the IPSS-R. However, due to the very low number of cases, this is clearly dependent on international collaboration. Hopefully, this article will help to inaugurate this process. PMID:25960862

  9. [Fetal abnormalities and prognosis associated with increased nuchal translucency and abnormal karyotype].

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Fátima Aparecida Targino; Brizot, Maria de Lourdes; Lopes, Lilian M; Liao, Adolfo Wenjaw; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in fetuses with increased nuchal translucency (NT) measurement. Incidence of structural abnormalities and pregnancy outcome was also described in fetuses with increased NT and abnormal karyotype. This was a retrospective study involving 246 fetuses with increased NT and known karyotype followed at the Fetal Medicine Unit, Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University Medical School. Fetal karyotype was abnormal in 14.2% of the cases. Ultrasound anomaly scan and specialized echocardiographic studies in these cases showed fetal structural abnormalities in 80.8% and cardiac defects were found in 61.5% of the fetuses. Pregnancy outcome was abnormal in 76.5% of these women. Increased NT measurement at 11 to 13 weeks and 6 days is an important marker for fetal chromosomal and structural abnormalities, mainly fetal cardiac defects. This finding also indicates increased risk of spontaneous fetal and neonatal death.

  10. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Sex chromosome abnormalities and psychiatric diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinzhu; Yang, Jian; Li, Yuhong; Ma, Xin; Li, Rena

    2017-01-01

    Excesses of sex chromosome abnormalities in patients with psychiatric diseases have recently been observed. It remains unclear whether sex chromosome abnormalities are related to sex differences in some psychiatric diseases. While studies showed evidence of susceptibility loci over many sex chromosomal regions related to various mental diseases, others demonstrated that the sex chromosome aneuploidies may be the key to exploring the pathogenesis of psychiatric disease. In this review, we will outline the current evidence on the interaction of sex chromosome abnormalities with schizophrenia, autism, ADHD and mood disorders. PMID:27992373

  12. [Radionuclide studies of congenital kidney abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Vlakhov, N

    1984-06-01

    Using the potentialities of isotope nephrograms as a screening test a total of 4746 patients suspected of renal abnormalities were examined. The author established pathological deviations in 561 cases (11.8%). During further verification using scintigraphy unsuspected congenital renal abnormalities (aplasia, hypoplasia, dystopia, double kidney, horseshoe kidney, solitary cyst and polycystic renal disease) were found in 46 patients (8.2%). The diagnosis was confirmed at subsequent venous x-ray urography. A conclusion has been made as to the role of comprehensive nephrographic-scintigraphic examination in the diagnosis of congenital renal abnormalities.

  13. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  14. Congenital abnormalities of the ovine paramesonephric ducts.

    PubMed

    Smith, K C; Long, S E; Parkinson, T J

    1995-01-01

    A 15 month survey of ovine reproductive tracts was undertaken in slaughterhouses in southwest England. A total of 33506 tracts were examined; 23536 from lambs and 9970 from adults. In total, 3.4% of tracts were pregnant and 3.3% exhibited abnormalities. Twenty cases of uterus unicornis, six of uterus didelphys and 11 of segmental aplasia were encountered, such that partial aplasia of the paramesonephric ducts accounted for 3.3% of all abnormalities. Although developmental abnormalities of the ovine female genital system are relatively uncommon, a substantial proportion of these can be accounted for by development defects of the paramesonephric ducts.

  15. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identified an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from October 1 through December 31, 1990. The report discusses five abnormal occurrences, none of which involved a nuclear power plant. Two involved significant overexposures to the hands of two radiographers, two involved medical therapy misadministrations, and one involved a medical diagnostic misadministration. No abnormal occurrences were reported by the Agreement States. The report also contains information that updates a previously reported abnormal occurrence. 8 refs.

  16. MRI Helps Assess Fetal Brain Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decisions about their pregnancy," said lead author Paul Griffiths. He's a professor of radiology at the University ... the fetus may have a suspected brain abnormality," Griffiths said in a journal news release. In this ...

  17. Uncommon Benign Breast Abnormalities in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rebekkah; Degnim, Amy C.

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss benign breast abnormalities in the adolescent breast other than fibroadenoma. Although fibroadenoma is the most common benign abnormality in the adolescent breast, other diagnoses are possible. The majority of adolescents who present with a palpable concern or lump have no discrete abnormality on ultrasound and are diagnosed with clinical fibrocystic change and followed up to ensure clinical stability. Intraductal papilloma and duct ectasia are two benign abnormalities associated with bloody nipple discharge, occurring more rarely in adolescents compared with adult women. Breast infections can occur in adolescents, including both mastitis and/or abscess, and are treated similarly to adults, with drainage and antibiotic coverage for Staphylococcus. When infections are due to nipple piercing, other organisms should be suspected. All surgical procedures in the developing breast should be performed cautiously, as trauma to the undeveloped breast can result in failure of breast development or asymmetry, and surgical disruption of subareolar ducts can impair or preclude future lactation. PMID:24872736

  18. Abnormalities of lung function in hay fever.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, E J; Hall, D R

    1976-01-01

    Twenty subjects with symptoms of hay fever were studied to see whether abnormalities could be detected in the function of small airways. The investigations included dynamic compliance at varying respiratory frequencies, closing capacity, residual volume, transfer factor, and maximal expiratory flow-volume curves. The tests were repeated in the winter when symptoms had resolved. Frequency dependence of compliance was found in eight subjects with symptoms (40%), closing capacities being abnormal in only two instances. Conventional pulmonary function tests, including expiratory flow rates at mid vital capacity, were within the predicted range of all subjects. When tests were repeated in the winter, frequency dependence of compliance was no longer present in subjects whose symptoms had resolved. The study suggests that reversible small airway abnormalities are present in a significant proportion of subjects with symptoms of hay fever and that such abnormalities are best detected by the measurement of dynamic compliance at varying respiratory frequencies. PMID:769243

  19. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... The outer ear or "pinna" forms when the baby is growing in the mother's womb. The growth of this ear part ...

  20. Altered fetal growth, placental abnormalities, and stillbirth

    PubMed Central

    Bukowski, Radek; Hansen, Nellie I.; Pinar, Halit; Willinger, Marian; Reddy, Uma M.; Parker, Corette B.; Silver, Robert M.; Dudley, Donald J.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Saade, George R.; Koch, Matthew A.; Hogue, Carol; Varner, Michael W.; Conway, Deborah L.; Coustan, Donald; Goldenberg, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Worldwide, stillbirth is one of the leading causes of death. Altered fetal growth and placental abnormalities are the strongest and most prevalent known risk factors for stillbirth. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of association between placental abnormalities, fetal growth, and stillbirth. Methods and findings Population-based case-control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in 5 geographic areas in the U.S. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small (<10th percentile) and large (>90th percentile) for gestational age at death (stillbirth) or delivery (live birth) using a published algorithm. Placental examination by perinatal pathologists was performed using a standardized protocol. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design. Among 319 singleton stillbirths and 1119 singleton live births at ≥24 weeks at death or delivery respectively, 25 placental findings were investigated. Fifteen findings were significantly associated with stillbirth. Ten of the 15 were also associated with fetal growth abnormalities (single umbilical artery; velamentous insertion; terminal villous immaturity; retroplacental hematoma; parenchymal infarction; intraparenchymal thrombus; avascular villi; placental edema; placental weight; ratio birth weight/placental weight) while 5 of the 15 associated with stillbirth were not associated with fetal growth abnormalities (acute chorioamnionitis of placental membranes; acute chorioamionitis of chorionic plate; chorionic plate vascular degenerative changes; perivillous, intervillous fibrin, fibrinoid deposition; fetal vascular thrombi in the chorionic plate). Five patterns were observed: placental findings associated with (1) stillbirth but not fetal growth abnormalities; (2) fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths only; (3) fetal growth abnormalities in live births only; (4) fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths and live births in a similar manner

  1. Medial medullary infarction: abnormal ocular motor findings.

    PubMed

    Kim, J Soo; Choi, K-D; Oh, S-Y; Park, S-H; Han, M-K; Yoon, B-W; Roh, J-K

    2005-10-25

    In 20 consecutive patients with isolated medial medullary infarction, abnormal ocular motor findings included nystagmus (n = 8), ocular contrapulsion (n = 5), and contralesional ocular tilt reaction (n = 2). The nystagmus was ipsilesional (n = 4), gaze-evoked (n = 5), upbeating (n = 4), and hemiseesaw (n = 1). The ocular motor abnormalities may be explained by involvements of the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, medial longitudinal fasciculus or efferent fibers from the vestibular nuclei, climbing fibers, and cells of the paramedian tracts.

  2. Abnormal findings in peers during skills learning.

    PubMed

    Wearn, Andy; Nakatsuji, Miriam; Bhoopatkar, Harsh

    2017-02-01

    Peer physical examination (PPE), where students examine each other, is common in contemporary clinical skills learning. A range of benefits and risks have been explored in the literature. One persistent concern has been the identification and management of abnormal physical findings. Two previous studies have attempted to quantify the risk, one through the discussion of two exemplar cases and the other with a retrospective student survey. Here, we report the first prospective study of the number and type of abnormalities encountered as part of early clinical skills learning in a medical programme. We have a formal written consent process for PPE, which includes the management of abnormal findings through the completion of an event form. Our data come from cohorts undertaking years 2 and 3 of the programme between 2003 and 2014. One persistent concern (of PPE) has been the identification and management of abnormal physical findings RESULTS: Nineteen event forms were completed over this period. The incidence rates per year ranged from 0.23 to 1.05 per cent. Abnormal findings included raised blood pressure, heart murmur, abnormal bedside test values, and eye and skin conditions. The low event rate, along with a feasible process for dealing with this issue, goes some way to reassuring those with concerns. We acknowledge that some abnormalities may have been missed, and that some data may have been lost as a result of incorrect process; however, even the highest annual rate is low in absolute terms. We recommend a formal process for managing abnormalities. Ideally this would be part of an overall PPE written policy, communicated to students, enacted by tutors and approved by the local ethics committee. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Congenital abnormalities associated with extrahepatic portal hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Odièvre, M; Pigé, G; Alagille, D

    1977-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities were present in 12 out of 30 (40%) children with extrahepatic portal hypertension of unknown cause, but in only 2 out of 17 (12%) children with extnahepatic portal hypertension secondary to umbilical vein catheterization or omphalitis. The most frequent abnormalities in this series and in published reports were atrial septal defect, malformation of the biliary tract, and anomalous inferior vena cava. These findings are consistent with the view that some cases with extrahepatic portal hypertension are congenital in origin. PMID:869567

  4. Congenital abnormalities associated with extrahepatic portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Odièvre, M; Pigé, G; Alagille, D

    1977-05-01

    Congenital abnormalities were present in 12 out of 30 (40%) children with extrahepatic portal hypertension of unknown cause, but in only 2 out of 17 (12%) children with extnahepatic portal hypertension secondary to umbilical vein catheterization or omphalitis. The most frequent abnormalities in this series and in published reports were atrial septal defect, malformation of the biliary tract, and anomalous inferior vena cava. These findings are consistent with the view that some cases with extrahepatic portal hypertension are congenital in origin.

  5. Basilar artery migraine and reversible imaging abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Maytal, J; Libman, R B; Lustrin, E S

    1998-01-01

    We report a case of a basilar artery migraine in a 17-year-old boy with transient CT and MR abnormalities after each of two migraine episodes. A repeat MR study 6 months after the last event showed complete resolution of the lesion. Transient abnormalities on brain images similar to those shown in our case have been reported in patients with migraine and other neurologic conditions and are most likely related to cerebral vasogenic edema.

  6. Vascular Delivery of rAAVrh74.MCK.GALGT2 to the Gastrocnemius Muscle of the Rhesus Macaque Stimulates the Expression of Dystrophin and Laminin α2 Surrogates

    PubMed Central

    Chicoine, Louis G.; Rodino-Klapac, Louise R.; Shao, Guohong; Xu, Rui; Bremer, William G.; Camboni, Marybeth; Golden, Bethannie; Montgomery, Chrystal L.; Shontz, Kimberly; Heller, Kristin N.; Griffin, Danielle A.; Lewis, Sarah; Coley, Brian D.; Walker, Christopher M.; Clark, K. Reed; Sahenk, Zarife; Mendell, Jerry R.; Martin, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of GALGT2 in skeletal muscle can stimulate the glycosylation of α dystroglycan and the upregulation of normally synaptic dystroglycan-binding proteins, some of which are dystrophin and laminin α2 surrogates known to be therapeutic for several forms of muscular dystrophy. This article describes the vascular delivery of GALGT2 gene therapy in a large animal model, the rhesus macaque. Recombinant adeno-associated virus, rhesus serotype 74 (rAAVrh74), was used to deliver GALGT2 via the femoral artery to the gastrocnemius muscle using an isolated focal limb perfusion method. GALGT2 expression averaged 44 ± 4% of myofibers after treatment in macaques with low preexisting anti-rAAVrh74 serum antibodies, and expression was reduced to 9 ± 4% of myofibers in macaques with high preexisting rAAVrh74 immunity (P < 0.001; n = 12 per group). This was the case regardless of the addition of immunosuppressants, including prednisolone, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil. GALGT2-treated macaque muscles showed increased glycosylation of α dystroglycan and increased expression of dystrophin and laminin α2 surrogate proteins, including utrophin, plectin1, agrin, and laminin α5. These experiments demonstrate successful transduction of rhesus macaque muscle with rAAVrh74.MCK.GALGT2 after vascular delivery and induction of molecular changes thought to be therapeutic in several forms of muscular dystrophy. PMID:24145553

  7. Disruption of the splicing enhancer sequence within exon 27 of the dystrophin gene by a nonsense mutation induces partial skipping of the exon and is responsible for Becker muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Shiga, N; Takeshima, Y; Sakamoto, H; Inoue, K; Yokota, Y; Yokoyama, M; Matsuo, M

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of exon skipping induced by nonsense mutations has not been well elucidated. We now report results of in vitro splicing studies which disclosed that a particular example of exon skipping is due to disruption of a splicing enhancer sequence located within the exon. A nonsense mutation (E1211X) due to a G to T transversion at the 28th nucleotide of exon 27 (G3839T) was identified in the dystrophin gene of a Japanese Becker muscular dystrophy case. Partial skipping of the exon resulted in the production of truncated dystrophin mRNA, although the consensus sequences for splicing at both ends of exon 27 were unaltered. To determine how E1211X induced exon 27 skipping, the splicing enhancer activity of purine-rich region within exon 27 was examined in an in vitro splicing system using chimeric doublesex gene pre-mRNA. The mutant sequence containing G3839T abolished splicing enhancer activity of the wild-type purine-rich sequence for the upstream intron in this chimeric pre-mRNA. An artificial polypurine oligonucleotide mimicking the purine-rich sequence of exon 27 also showed enhancer activity that was suppressed by the introduction of a T nucleotide. Furthermore, the splicing enhancer activity was more markedly inhibited when a nonsense codon was created by the inserted T residue. This is the first evidence that partial skipping of an exon harboring a nonsense mutation is due to disruption of a splicing enhancer sequence. PMID:9410897

  8. [Hysteroscopic polypectomy, treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding].

    PubMed

    de Los Rios, P José F; López, R Claudia; Cifuentes, P Carolina; Angulo, C Mónica; Palacios-Barahona, Arlex U

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the hysteroscopic polypectomy in terms of the decrease of the abnormal uterine bleeding. A cross-sectional and analytical study was done with patients to whom a hysteroscopic polypectomy was done for treating the abnormal uterine bleeding, between January 2009 and December 2013. The response to the treatment was evaluated via a survey given to the patients about the behavior of the abnormal uterine bleeding after the procedure and about overall satisfaction. The results were obtained after a hysteroscopic polypectomy done to 128 patients and were as follows. The average time from the polypectomy applied until the survey was 30.5 months, with a standard deviation of 18 months. 67.2% of the patients reported decreased abnormal uterine bleeding and the 32.8% reported a persistence of symptoms. On average 82.8% of the. patients were satisfied with the treatment. Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed no association between the variables studied and no improvement of abnormal uterine bleeding after surgery (polypectomy). There were no complications. Hysteroscopic polypectomy is a safe surgical treatment, which decreases on two of three patients the abnormal uterine bleeding in the presence of endometrial polyps, with an acceptable level of satisfaction.

  9. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; García-Leiva, Jorge; Asensio-Lafuente, Enrique; Robles-Díaz, Guillermo; Vargas-Vorácková, Florencia

    2005-10-01

    Electrocardiographic abnormalities may be associated with acute pancreatitis (AP). To describe the electrocardiographic disturbances present in patients with AP and to assess differences in electrolyte and pancreatic enzyme levels among patients with and without these abnormalities. Fifty-one consecutive patients with AP and without preexisting heart disease underwent a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (EKG) and a serum electrolyte profile. EKG abnormalities were summarized in terms of frequencies, means, and standard deviations. Electrolyte and enzyme levels were summarized as medians. Differences were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Twenty-eight patients (55%) had an abnormal EKG. Nonspecific changes of repolarization (20%), sinus tachycardia (12%), and left anterior hemiblock (10%) were the most frequent disturbances. Patients with sinus tachycardia had lower levels of phosphorus (2.3 vs. 3.4 mEq/L, P < 0.004) and calcium (8.4 vs. 9.1 mg/dL, P < 0.02). A tendency to higher levels of potassium and lower levels of phosphorus was found in patients with sinus tachycardia and nonspecific changes of repolarization, respectively. No differences were found in amylase, pancreatic amylase, or lipase among patients with normal and abnormal EKG. More than 50% of the patients with AP had EKG abnormalities, and these changes could be related to electrolyte alterations.

  10. Chromosomal abnormalities in primary myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Anila; Khurshid, Mohammad; Shaikh, Usman; Adil, Salman

    2014-09-01

    To determine the frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities in patients diagnosed as primary myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) using conventional karyotyping. Case series. The Clinical Laboratory, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, between January 2006 - June 2012. Patients of all ages and either gender who fulfilled WHO criteria for MDS were included. Cytogenetic analysis was conducted at the time of diagnosis. Patients who had secondary MDS were excluded from analysis. Chromosome identification and karyotype description was done according to the International System for Chromosome Nomenclature (ISCN, 1995) and described as frequency percentage. Out of the 122 cases of MDS, 71 patients had their karyotype done at the time of diagnosis, including 42 males (59.2%) and 29 females (40.8%) with median age of 60 years. Forty one (57.7%) showed normal karyotype and 30 (42.3%) showed clonal karyotypic abnormalities at diagnosis. Out of which 14 (19.7%) had single, 11 (15.5%) had complex and 6 (8.5%) had double cytogenetic abnormalities. The common abnormalities found were: trisomy 8 in 7 cases (9.9%), -7/del (7q) in 3 cases (4.2%), -Y and complex 5q in 2 cases (2.8%) each, complex trisomy 8, del 11q , inversion 9, trisomy 19 and del 20q were found in 1 case (1.4%) each. Other abnormalities were found in 11 cases (15.5%). Trisomy 8 was the most common disorder/abnormality found in this study population followed by the complex cytogenetics.

  11. Immortalized skin fibroblasts expressing conditional MyoD as a renewable and reliable source of converted human muscle cells to assess therapeutic strategies for muscular dystrophies: validation of an exon-skipping approach to restore dystrophin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy cells.

    PubMed

    Chaouch, Soraya; Mouly, Vincent; Goyenvalle, Aurélie; Vulin, Adeline; Mamchaoui, Kamel; Negroni, Elisa; Di Santo, James; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Torrente, Yvan; Garcia, Luis; Furling, Denis

    2009-07-01

    Abstract Numerous strategies are under development for the correction of deleterious effects of mutations in muscular dystrophies, and these strategies must be validated in compelling models. Cellular models seem straightforward to set up; however, the proliferative capacity of muscle cells isolated from dystrophic patients is limited, and in addition it is difficult to envisage the use of large muscle biopsies from patients to obtain enough cells for ex vivo assessments. To overcome these problems, we have devised a strategy to obtain, from a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an inexhaustible source of myogenic progenitor cells with a deletion of exons 49 and 50 in the dystrophin gene. Starting material consisted of dermal fibroblasts isolated from a skin biopsy taken in a noninvasive way. These fibroblasts were first immortalized by telomerase gene transfer. Subsequent cell lines were converted into myogenic cells by means of a lentiviral vector encoding an inducible MyoD construct. Before myogenic induction, engineered DMD fibroblasts were able to proliferate infinitely. Under induction conditions, they were converted into myogenic cells, which differentiated into large multinucleated myotubes. We used these DMD fibroblast cell lines to assess dystrophin rescue by using engineered U7 small nuclear RNAs harboring antisense sequences required to restore an in-frame dystrophin mRNA by skipping exon 51. Further molecular analyses showed dystrophin rescue ex vivo as well as in vivo after engrafting of treated cells into regenerating muscles in immunodeficient mice.

  12. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  13. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than..., tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal findings, NIOSH...

  14. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings... shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant...

  15. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: β-thalassemia major, β-TI: β-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  17. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy.

  18. Visual perceptual abnormalities: hallucinations and illusions.

    PubMed

    Norton, J W; Corbett, J J

    2000-01-01

    Visual perceptual abnormalities may be caused by diverse etiologies which span the fields of psychiatry and neurology. This article reviews the differential diagnosis of visual perceptual abnormalities from both a neurological and a psychiatric perspective. Psychiatric etiologies include mania, depression, substance dependence, and schizophrenia. Common neurological causes include migraine, epilepsy, delirium, dementia, tumor, and stroke. The phenomena of palinopsia, oscillopsia, dysmetropsia, and polyopia among others are also reviewed. A systematic approach to the many causes of illusions and hallucinations may help to achieve an accurate diagnosis, and a more focused evaluation and treatment plan for patients who develop visual perceptual abnormalities. This article provides the practicing neurologist with a practical understanding and approach to patients with these clinical symptoms.

  19. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  20. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The